WorldWideScience

Sample records for exercise induced hif-1alpha

  1. Regular endurance training reduces the exercise induced HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha mRNA expression in human skeletal muscle in normoxic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, Carsten; Gassmann, Max; Pilegaard, Henriette

    2005-01-01

    and 2 (HIFs) are clearly related heterodimeric transcription factors that consist of an oxygen-depended alpha-subunit and a constitutive beta-subunit. With hypoxic exposure, HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha protein are stabilized. Upon heterodimerization, HIFs induce the transcription of a variety of genes...... legs exercised at the same absolute workload. In the untrained leg, the exercise bout induced an increase (Palpha fold and HIF-2alpha fold mRNA at 6 h of recovery. In contrast, HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha mRNA levels were not altered at any time point in the trained leg. Obviously, HIF-1...... including erythropoietin (EPO), transferrin and its receptor, as well as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor. Considering that several of these genes are also induced with exercise, we tested the hypothesis that the mRNA level of HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha subunits increases...

  2. Loss of skeletal muscle HIF-1alpha results in altered exercise endurance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven D Mason

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The physiological flux of oxygen is extreme in exercising skeletal muscle. Hypoxia is thus a critical parameter in muscle function, influencing production of ATP, utilization of energy-producing substrates, and manufacture of exhaustion-inducing metabolites. Glycolysis is the central source of anaerobic energy in animals, and this metabolic pathway is regulated under low-oxygen conditions by the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha (HIF-1alpha. To determine the role of HIF-1alpha in regulating skeletal muscle function, we tissue-specifically deleted the gene encoding the factor in skeletal muscle. Significant exercise-induced changes in expression of genes are decreased or absent in the skeletal-muscle HIF-1alpha knockout mice (HIF-1alpha KOs; changes in activities of glycolytic enzymes are seen as well. There is an increase in activity of rate-limiting enzymes of the mitochondria in the muscles of HIF-1alpha KOs, indicating that the citric acid cycle and increased fatty acid oxidation may be compensating for decreased flow through the glycolytic pathway. This is corroborated by a finding of no significant decreases in muscle ATP, but significantly decreased amounts of lactate in the serum of exercising HIF-1alpha KOs. This metabolic shift away from glycolysis and toward oxidation has the consequence of increasing exercise times in the HIF-1alpha KOs. However, repeated exercise trials give rise to extensive muscle damage in HIF-1alpha KOs, ultimately resulting in greatly reduced exercise times relative to wild-type animals. The muscle damage seen is similar to that detected in humans in diseases caused by deficiencies in skeletal muscle glycogenolysis and glycolysis. Thus, these results demonstrate an important role for the HIF-1 pathway in the metabolic control of muscle function.

  3. Molecular cloning and characterization of the Xenopus hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha (xHIF1alpha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beaucourt, Arnaud; Coumailleau, Pascal

    2007-12-15

    We report the molecular cloning and the characterization of the Xenopus homolog of mammalian hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha (HIF1alpha), a member of the bHLH/PAS transcription factor family. Searches in Xenopus genome sequences and phylogenetic analysis reveal the existence of HIF1alpha and HIF2alpha paralogs in the Xenopus laevis species. Sequence data analyses indicate that the organization of protein domains in Xenopus HIF1alpha (xHIF1alpha) is strongly conserved. We also show that xHIF1alpha heterodimerizes with the Xenopus Arnt1 protein (xArnt1) with the proteic complex being mediated by the HLH and PAS domains. Subcellular analysis in a Xenopus XTC cell line using chimeric GFP constructs show that over-expression of xHIF1alpha and xArnt1 allows us to detect the xHIF1alpha/xArnt1 complex in the nucleus, but only in the presence of both partners. Further analyses in XTC cell line show that over-producing xHIF1alpha and xArnt1 mediates trans-activation of the hypoxia response element (HRE) reporter. The trans-activation level can be increased in hypoxia conditions. Interestingly such trans-activation properties can be also observed when human Arnt1 is used together with the xHIF1alpha. Copyright (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Inhibition of HIF-1{alpha} activity by BP-1 ameliorates adjuvant induced arthritis in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shankar, J. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago (United States); Thippegowda, P.B., E-mail: btprabha@uic.edu [Department of Pharmacology, (M/C 868), College of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, 835 S. Wolcott Ave., Chicago, IL 60612 (United States); Kanum, S.A. [Department of Chemistry, Yuvaraj' s College, University of Mysore, Mysore (India)

    2009-09-18

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory, angiogenic disease. Inflamed synovitis is a hallmark of RA which is hypoxic in nature. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), one of the key regulators of angiogenesis, is overexpressed in the pathogenesis of RA. VEGF expression is regulated by hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}), a master regulator of homeostasis which plays a pivotal role in hypoxia-induced angiogenesis. In this study we show that synthetic benzophenone analogue, 2-benzoyl-phenoxy acetamide (BP-1) can act as a novel anti-arthritic agent in an experimental adjuvant induced arthritis (AIA) rat model by targeting VEGF and HIF-1{alpha}. BP-1 administered hypoxic endothelial cells and arthritic animals clearly showed down regulation of VEGF expression. Further, BP-1 inhibits nuclear translocation of HIF-1{alpha}, which in turn suppresses transcription of the VEGF gene. These results suggest a further possible clinical application of the BP-1 derivative as an anti-arthritic agent in association with conventional chemotherapeutic agents.

  5. FGF2 translationally induced by hypoxia is involved in negative and positive feedback loops with HIF-1alpha.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Conte

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2 is a major angiogenic factor involved in angiogenesis and arteriogenesis, however the regulation of its expression during these processes is poorly documented. FGF2 mRNA contains an internal ribosome entry site (IRES, a translational regulator expected to allow mRNA expression during cellular stress. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, we have developed a skin ischemia model in transgenic mice expressing a reporter transgene under the control of the FGF2 IRES. The results reveal that FGF2 is induced at the protein level during ischemia, concomitant with HIF-1alpha induction and a decrease in FGF2 mRNA. In addition, the FGF2 IRES is strongly activated under these ischemic conditions associated with hypoxia, whereas cap-dependent translation is repressed by 4E-BP hypophosphorylation. We also show that up-regulation of FGF2 protein expression in response to hypoxia correlates with the increase of FGF2 IRES activity in vitro, in human retinoblasts 911. The use of siRNAs targeting HIF or FGF2 indicates that FGF2 and HIF-1alpha reciprocally regulate their expression/accumulation, by a negative feedback loop in early hypoxia, followed by a positive feedback loop in late hypoxia. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: FGF2 expression is up-regulated in vivo and in vitro in response to hypoxia. Strikingly, this up-regulation is not transcriptional. It seems to occur by an IRES-dependent mechanism, revealing new mechanistic aspects of the hypoxic response. In addition, our data show that FGF2 interacts with HIF-1alpha in a unique crosstalk, with distinct stages in early and late hypoxia. These data reveal the physiological importance of IRES-dependent translation during hypoxic stress and underline the complexity of the cellular response to hypoxia, suggesting a novel role of FGF2 in the regulation of HIF-1alpha during the induction of angiogenesis.

  6. Reciprocal relationship between expression of hypoxia inducible factor 1alpha (HIF-1alpha) and the pro-apoptotic protein bid in ex vivo colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seenath, M M; Roberts, D; Cawthorne, C; Saunders, M P; Armstrong, G R; O'Dwyer, S T; Stratford, I J; Dive, C; Renehan, A G

    2008-08-05

    Hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) represses the transcription of pro-apoptotic bid in colorectal cancer cells in vitro. To assess the clinical relevance of this observation, HIF-1alpha and Bid were assessed in serial sections of 39 human colorectal adenocarcinomas by immunohistochemistry. In high HIF-1alpha nuclear-positive cell subpopulations, there was a significant reduction in Bid expression (ANOVA, P=0.04). Given the role of Bid in drug-induced apoptosis, these data add impetus to strategies targeting HIF-1 for therapeutic gain.

  7. Hypoxia-induced cytotoxic drug resistance in osteosarcoma is independent of HIF-1Alpha.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Adamski

    Full Text Available Survival rates from childhood cancer have improved dramatically in the last 40 years, such that over 80% of children are now cured. However in certain subgroups, including metastatic osteosarcoma, survival has remained stubbornly poor, despite dose intensive multi-agent chemotherapy regimens, and new therapeutic approaches are needed. Hypoxia is common in adult solid tumours and is associated with treatment resistance and poorer outcome. Hypoxia induces chemotherapy resistance in paediatric tumours including neuroblastoma, rhabdomyosarcoma and Ewing's sarcoma, in vitro, and this drug resistance is dependent on the oxygen-regulated transcription factor hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1. In this study the effects of hypoxia on the response of the osteosarcoma cell lines 791T, HOS and U2OS to the clinically relevant cytotoxics cisplatin, doxorubicin and etoposide were evaluated. Significant hypoxia-induced resistance to all three agents was seen in all three cell lines and hypoxia significantly reduced drug-induced apoptosis. Hypoxia also attenuated drug-induced activation of p53 in the p53 wild-type U2OS osteosarcoma cells. Drug resistance was not induced by HIF-1α stabilisation in normoxia by cobalt chloride nor reversed by the suppression of HIF-1α in hypoxia by shRNAi, siRNA, dominant negative HIF or inhibition with the small molecule NSC-134754, strongly suggesting that hypoxia-induced drug resistance in osteosarcoma cells is independent of HIF-1α. Inhibition of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K pathway using the inhibitor PI-103 did not reverse hypoxia-induced drug resistance, suggesting the hypoxic activation of Akt in osteosarcoma cells does not play a significant role in hypoxia-induced drug resistance. Targeting hypoxia is an exciting prospect to improve current anti-cancer therapy and combat drug resistance. Significant hypoxia-induced drug resistance in osteosarcoma cells highlights the potential importance of hypoxia as a target

  8. Partial deficiency of HIF-1 alpha stimulates pathological cardiac changes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bohuslavová, Romana; Kolář, František; Sedmera, David; Škvorová, Lada; Papoušek, František; Neckář, Jan; Pavlínková, Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 14, Feb 6 (2014) ISSN 1472-6823 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA301/09/0117; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Echocardiographic parameters * Hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha * Diabetic cardiomyopathy Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 1.710, year: 2014

  9. Castration Therapy of Prostate Cancer Results in Downregulation of HIF-1{alpha} Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Ubaidi, Firas L.T. [Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Toxicology, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Urology, Central Hospital, Vaesteras (Sweden); Schultz, Niklas [Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Toxicology, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Egevad, Lars [Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Granfors, Torvald [Department of Urology, Central Hospital, Vaesteras (Sweden); Helleday, Thomas, E-mail: helleday@gmt.su.se [Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Toxicology, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Gray Institute for Radiation Oncology and Biology, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Science for Life Laboratory, Stockholm University, Solna (Sweden)

    2012-03-01

    Background and Purpose: Neoadjuvant androgen deprivation in combination with radiotherapy of prostate cancer is used to improve radioresponsiveness and local tumor control. Currently, the underlying mechanism is not well understood. Because hypoxia causes resistance to radiotherapy, we wanted to test whether castration affects the degree of hypoxia in prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: In 14 patients with locally advanced prostate cancer, six to 12 prostatic needle core biopsy specimens were taken prior to castration therapy. Bilateral orchidectomy was performed in 7 patients, and 7 were treated with a GnRH-agonist (leuprorelin). After castrationm two to four prostatic core biopsy specimens were taken, and the level of hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}) in cancer was determined by immunofluorescence. Results: Among biopsy specimens taken before castration, strong HIF-1{alpha} expression (mean intensity above 30) was shown in 5 patients, weak expression (mean intensity 10-30) in 3 patients, and background levels of HIF-1{alpha} (mean intensity 0-10) in 6 patients. Downregulation of HIF-1{alpha} expression after castration was observed in all 5 patients with strong HIF-1{alpha} precastration expression. HIF-1{alpha} expression was also reduced in 2 of 3 patients with weak HIF-1{alpha} precastration expression. Conclusions: Our data suggest that neoadjuvant castration decreases tumor cell hypoxia in prostate cancer, which may explain increased radiosensitivity after castration.

  10. Thrombopoietin (TPO) regulates HIF-1alpha levels through generation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Kozue; Kirito, Keita; Yongzhen, Hu; Ozawa, Keiya; Kaushansky, Kenneth; Komatsu, Norio

    2008-07-01

    Hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1 is a master transcriptional regulator mediating the cellular adaptation to hypoxia. In addition, HIF-1 is also vital for the development of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). In a previous study we found that thrombopoietin (TPO), an important and non-redundant cytokine for HSC maintenance and expansion, induces HIF-1alpha expression in HSCs by enhancing the stability of HIF-1alpha under normoxic conditions. However, the molecular mechanisms of these effects are not yet fully understood. In this study, we explored the mechanisms and found that TPO-induced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) played a crucial role in stabilization of HIF-1. Both ROS scavengers and inhibitors of mitochondrial electron transport completely blocked HIF-1alpha induction by TPO in UT-7/TPO cells and in primary immature mouse bone marrow cells. We also found that TPO-induced HIF-1alpha induction was tightly coupled with glucose metabolism. Inhibition of glucose transporter or glycolytic enzyme blocked HIF-1alpha elevation of TPO. These results indicate that TPO induces HIF-1alpha expression in a manner very similar to that of hypoxia.

  11. p38alpha blockade inhibits colorectal cancer growth in vivo by inducing a switch from HIF1alpha- to FoxO-dependent transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiacchiera, F; Matrone, A; Ferrari, E; Ingravallo, G; Lo Sasso, G; Murzilli, S; Petruzzelli, M; Salvatore, L; Moschetta, A; Simone, C

    2009-09-01

    Colorectal cancer cell (CRC) fate is governed by an intricate network of signaling pathways, some of which are the direct target of DNA mutations, whereas others are functionally deregulated. As a consequence, cells acquire the ability to grow under nutrients and oxygen shortage conditions. We earlier reported that p38alpha activity is necessary for proliferation and survival of CRCs in a cell type-specific manner and regardless of their phenotype and genotype. Here, we show that p38alpha sustains the expression of HIF1alpha target genes encoding for glycolytic rate-limiting enzymes, and that its inhibition causes a drastic decrease in ATP intracellular levels in CRCs. Prolonged inactivation of p38alpha triggers AMPK-dependent nuclear localization of FoxO3A and subsequent activation of its target genes, leading to autophagy, cell cycle arrest and cell death. In vivo, pharmacological blockade of p38alpha inhibits CRC growth in xenografted nude mice and azoxymethane-treated Apc(Min) mice, achieving both a cytostatic and cytotoxic effect, associated with high nuclear expression of FoxO3A and increased expression of its target genes p21 and PTEN. Hence, inhibition of p38alpha affects the aerobic glycolytic metabolism specific of cancer cells and might be taken advantage of as a therapeutic strategy targeted against CRCs.

  12. Extended ischemia prevents HIF1alpha degradation at reoxygenation by impairing prolyl-hydroxylation: role of Krebs cycle metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra-Pérez, Anna; Planas, Anna M; Núñez-O'Mara, Analía; Berra, Edurne; García-Villoria, Judit; Ribes, Antònia; Santalucía, Tomàs

    2010-06-11

    Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is a heterodimeric transcription factor that activates the cellular response to hypoxia. The HIF1alpha subunit is constantly synthesized and degraded under normoxia, but degradation is rapidly inhibited when oxygen levels drop. Oxygen-dependent hydroxylation by prolyl-4-hydroxylases (PHD) mediates HIF1alpha proteasome degradation. Brain ischemia limits the availability not only of oxygen but also of glucose. We hypothesized that this circumstance could have a modulating effect on HIF. We assessed the separate involvement of oxygen and glucose in HIF1alpha regulation in differentiated neuroblastoma cells subjected to ischemia. We report higher transcriptional activity and HIF1alpha expression under oxygen deprivation in the presence of glucose (OD), than in its absence (oxygen and glucose deprivation, OGD). Unexpectedly, HIF1alpha was not degraded at reoxygenation after an episode of OGD. This was not due to impairment of proteasome function, but was associated with lower HIF1alpha hydroxylation. Krebs cycle metabolites fumarate and succinate are known inhibitors of PHD, while alpha-ketoglutarate is a co-substrate of the reaction. Lack of HIF1alpha degradation in the presence of oxygen was accompanied by a very low alpha-ketoglutarate/fumarate ratio. Furthermore, treatment with a fumarate analogue prevented HIF1alpha degradation under normoxia. In all, our data suggest that postischemic metabolic alterations in Krebs cycle metabolites impair HIF1alpha degradation in the presence of oxygen by decreasing its hydroxylation, and highlight the involvement of metabolic pathways in HIF1alpha regulation besides the well known effects of oxygen.

  13. P70S6K 1 regulation of angiogenesis through VEGF and HIF-1{alpha} expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bian, Chuan-Xiu; Shi, Zhumei [Department of Pathology, Cancer Center, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Meng, Qiao; Jiang, Yue; Liu, Ling-Zhi [Department of Pathology, Anatomy and Cell Biology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (United States); Jiang, Bing-Hua, E-mail: binghjiang@yahoo.com [Department of Pathology, Cancer Center, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Department of Pathology, Anatomy and Cell Biology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (United States)

    2010-07-30

    Research highlights: {yields} P70S6K1 regulates VEGF expression; {yields} P70S6K1 induces transcriptional activation through HIF-1{alpha} binding site; {yields} P70S6K1 regulates HIF-1{alpha}, but not HIF-1{beta} protein expression; {yields} P70S6K1 mediates tumor growth and angiogenesis through HIF-1{alpha} and VEGF expression. -- Abstract: The 70 kDa ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (p70S6K1), a downstream target of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), is an important regulator of cell cycle progression, and cell proliferation. Recent studies indicated an important role of p70S6K1 in PTEN-negative and AKT-overexpressing tumors. However, the mechanism of p70S6K1 in tumor angiogenesis remains to be elucidated. In this study, we specifically inhibited p70S6K1 activity in ovarian cancer cells using vector-based small interfering RNA (siRNA) against p70S6K1. We found that knockdown of p70S6K1 significantly decreased VEGF protein expression and VEGF transcriptional activation through the HIF-1{alpha} binding site at its enhancer region. The expression of p70S6K1 siRNA specifically inhibited HIF-1{alpha}, but not HIF-1{beta} protein expression. We also found that p70S6K1 down-regulation inhibited ovarian tumor growth and angiogenesis, and decreased cell proliferation and levels of VEGF and HIF-1{alpha} expression in tumor tissues. Our results suggest that p70S6K1 is required for tumor growth and angiogenesis through HIF-1{alpha} and VEGF expression, providing a molecular mechanism of human ovarian cancer mediated by p70S6K1 signaling.

  14. Genome-wide analysis reveals NRP1 as a direct HIF1 alpha-E2F7 target in the regulation of motorneuron guidance in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, Alain; Cornelissen, Peter W. A.; Kirchmaier, Bettina C.; Mokry, Michal; Iich, Elhadi; Nirmala, Ella; Liang, Kuo-Hsuan; Vegh, Anna M. D.; Scholman, Koen T.; Koerkamp, Marian J. Groot; Holstege, Frank C.; Cuppen, Edwin; Schulte-Merker, Stefan; Bakker, Walbert J.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we explored the existence of a transcriptional network co-regulated by E2F7 and HIF1 alpha, as we show that expression of E2F7, like HIF1 alpha, is induced in hypoxia, and because of the previously reported ability of E2F7 to interact with HIF1 alpha. Our genome-wide analysis uncovers

  15. Hypoxia Inducible Factor 1-Alpha (HIF-1 Alpha) Is Induced during Reperfusion after Renal Ischemia and Is Critical for Proximal Tubule Cell Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Sánchez, Ignacio; Sáenz-Morales, David; Aguado-Fraile, Elia; Ponte, Belén; Ramos, Edurne; Sáiz, Ana; Jiménez, Carlos; Ordoñez, Angel; López-Cabrera, Manuel; del Peso, Luis; de Landázuri, Manuel O.; Liaño, Fernando; Selgas, Rafael; Sanchez-Tomero, Jose Antonio; García-Bermejo, María Laura

    2012-01-01

    Acute tubular necrosis (ATN) caused by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) during renal transplantation delays allograft function. Identification of factors that mediate protection and/or epithelium recovery could help to improve graft outcome. We studied the expression, regulation and role of hypoxia inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1 α), using in vitro and in vivo experimental models of I/R as well as human post-transplant renal biopsies. We found that HIF-1 α is stabilized in proximal tubule cells during ischemia and unexpectedly in late reperfusion, when oxygen tension is normal. Both inductions lead to gene expression in vitro and in vivo. In vitro interference of HIF-1 α promoted cell death and in vivo interference exacerbated tissue damage and renal dysfunction. In pos-transplant human biopsies, HIF-1 α was expressed only in proximal tubules which exhibited normal renal structure with a significant negative correlation with ATN grade. In summary, using experimental models and human biopsies, we identified a novel HIF-1 α induction during reperfusion with a potential critical role in renal transplant. PMID:22432008

  16. Hypoxia inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1 alpha is induced during reperfusion after renal ischemia and is critical for proximal tubule cell survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Conde

    Full Text Available Acute tubular necrosis (ATN caused by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R during renal transplantation delays allograft function. Identification of factors that mediate protection and/or epithelium recovery could help to improve graft outcome. We studied the expression, regulation and role of hypoxia inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1 α, using in vitro and in vivo experimental models of I/R as well as human post-transplant renal biopsies. We found that HIF-1 α is stabilized in proximal tubule cells during ischemia and unexpectedly in late reperfusion, when oxygen tension is normal. Both inductions lead to gene expression in vitro and in vivo. In vitro interference of HIF-1 α promoted cell death and in vivo interference exacerbated tissue damage and renal dysfunction. In pos-transplant human biopsies, HIF-1 α was expressed only in proximal tubules which exhibited normal renal structure with a significant negative correlation with ATN grade. In summary, using experimental models and human biopsies, we identified a novel HIF-1 α induction during reperfusion with a potential critical role in renal transplant.

  17. Bcl-2 regulates HIF-1alpha protein stabilization in hypoxic melanoma cells via the molecular chaperone HSP90.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Trisciuoglio

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1 (HIF-1 is a transcription factor that is a critical mediator of the cellular response to hypoxia. Enhanced levels of HIF-1alpha, the oxygen-regulated subunit of HIF-1, is often associated with increased tumour angiogenesis, metastasis, therapeutic resistance and poor prognosis. It is in this context that we previously demonstrated that under hypoxia, bcl-2 protein promotes HIF-1/Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF-mediated tumour angiogenesis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By using human melanoma cell lines and their stable or transient derivative bcl-2 overexpressing cells, the current study identified HIF-1alpha protein stabilization as a key regulator for the induction of HIF-1 by bcl-2 under hypoxia. We also demonstrated that bcl-2-induced accumulation of HIF-1alpha protein during hypoxia was not due to an increased gene transcription or protein synthesis. In fact, it was related to a modulation of HIF-1alpha protein expression at a post-translational level, indeed its degradation rate was faster in the control lines than in bcl-2 transfectants. The bcl-2-induced HIF-1alpha stabilization in response to low oxygen tension conditions was achieved through the impairment of ubiquitin-dependent HIF-1alpha degradation involving the molecular chaperone HSP90, but it was not dependent on the prolyl hydroxylation of HIF-1alpha protein. We also showed that bcl-2, HIF-1alpha and HSP90 proteins form a tri-complex that may contribute to enhancing the stability of the HIF-1alpha protein in bcl-2 overexpressing clones under hypoxic conditions. Finally, by using genetic and pharmacological approaches we proved that HSP90 is involved in bcl-2-dependent stabilization of HIF-1alpha protein during hypoxia, and in particular the isoform HSP90beta is the main player in this phenomenon. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We identified the stabilization of HIF-1alpha protein as a mechanism through which bcl-2 induces the

  18. Folic acid attenuates cobalt chloride-induced PGE2 production in HUVECs via the NO/HIF-1alpha/COX-2 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yuming; Zhen, Xiaozhou; Wang, Kaiwen; Ma, Jing

    2017-08-19

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), an important lipid inflammatory mediator involved in the progression of vascular diseases, can be induced by hypoxia in many cell types. While folic acid has been shown to protect against inflammation in THP-1 cells during hypoxia and hypoxia-induced endothelial cell injury, whether it might do so by attenuating PGE2 production remains unclear. To investigate this we constructed a hypoxia-induced injury model by treating human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) with cobalt chloride (CoCl2), which mimics the effects of hypoxia. In CoCl2-treated HUVECs, folic acid significantly attenuated PGE2 production and increased vasoprotective nitric oxide (NO) content. Folic acid also decreased cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1α) expression and altered endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) signaling by increasing p-eNOS((Ser1177)) and decreasing p-eNOS((Thr495)) in a dose-dependent manner. Further investigation of the pathway demonstrated that treatment with 2-Methoxyestradiol (2-MeOE2) and celecoxib both decreased CoCl2-induced COX-2 expression but only 2-MeOE2 decreased HIF-1α expression. The ability of folic acid to down-regulate HIF-1α and COX-2 protein levels was dramatically abrogated by L-NAME treatment, which also decreased eNOS mRNA and NO production. The NO donor sodium nitroprusside also dose-dependently down-regulated HIF-1α and COX-2 protein levels. Overall, these findings suggest a novel application for folic acid in attenuating CoCl2-induced PGE2 production in HUVECs via regulation of the NO/HIF-1α/COX-2 pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Expression of HIF-1{alpha} in irradiated tissue is altered by topical negative-pressure therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimm, A.; Stange, S.; Labanaris, A.; Horch, R.E. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Dept. of Plastic and Hand Surgery; Dimmler, A. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Dept. of Pathology; Sauer, R.; Grabenbauer, G. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2007-03-15

    Background and Purpose: Despite the enormous therapeutic potential of modern radiotherapy, common side effects such as radiation-induced wound healing disorders remain a well-known clinical phenomenon. Topical negative pressure therapy (TNP) is a novel tool to alleviate intraoperative, percutaneous irradiation or brachytherapy. Since TNP has been shown to positively influence the perfusion of chronic, poorly vascularized wounds, the authors applied this therapeutic method to irradiated wounds and investigated the effect on tissue oxygenation in irradiated tissue in five patients. Material and Methods: With informed patients' consent, samples prior to and 4 and 8 days after continuous TNP with -125 mmHg were obtained during routine wound debridements. Granulation tissue was stained with hematoxylin-eosin, and additionally with CD31, HIF-1{alpha} (hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha}), and D2-40 to detect blood vessels, measure indirect signs of hypoxia, and lymph vessel distribution within the pre- and post-TNP samples. Results: In this first series of experiments, a positive influence of TNP onto tissue oxygenation in radiation-induced wounds could be demonstrated. TNP led to a significant decrease of 53% HIF-1{alpha}-positive cell nuclei. At the same time, a slight reduction of CD31-stained capillaries was seen in comparison to samples before TNP. Immunostaining with D2-40 revealed an increased number of lymphatic vessels with distended lumina and an alteration of the parallel orientation within the post-TNP samples. Conclusion: This study is, to the authors' knowledge, the first report on a novel previously not described histological marker to demonstrate the effects of TNP on HIF-1{alpha} expression as an indirect marker of tissue oxygenation in irradiated wounds, as demonstrated by a reduction of HIF-1{alpha} concentration after TNP. Since this observation may be of significant value to develop possible new strategies to treat radiation-induced tissue

  20. AEG-1 is associated with hypoxia-induced hepatocellular carcinoma chemoresistance via regulating PI3K/AKT/HIF-1alpha/MDR-1 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yong; Zhong, De-Wu

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia is a common characteristic of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) associated with reduced response to chemotherapy, thus increasing the probability of tumor recurrence. Astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1) has been involved in a wide array of cancer progression including proliferation, chemoresistance, angiogenesis and metastasis, but its effect on HCC chemoresistance induced by hypoxia is unclear. In this study, expression of AEG-1 and multiple drug resistance (MDR-1) were examined in HCC using immunohistochemical staining and RT-PCR. Furthermore, their expression levels were detected in HCC HepG2 cells in normoxia or hypoxia via RT-PCR and Western blot assays. Specific shRNAs were used to silence AEG-1 expression in HepG2 cells. Results showed AEG-1 and MDR-1 expression were higher in HCC tissues than in adjacent normal tissues. Incubation of HepG2 cells in hypoxia increased expression of AEG-1 and MDR-1, compared to incubation in normoxia. Exposure to hypoxia blunted sensitivity of HepG2 cells to Adriamycin, 5-fluorouracil and cis-platinum, as evidenced by modest alterations in cell viability and apoptosis rate, however the sensitivity was elevated with AEG-1 knockdown. PI3K/AKT/HIF-1/MDR-1 pathway was attenuated following AEG-1 knockdown in hypoxia. Based on these data, it was suggested that AEG-1 is associated with hypoxia-induced hepatocellular carcinoma chemoresistance via regulating PI3K/AKT/HIF-1/MDR-1 pathway. This study uncovered a novel potential target for development of an effective therapy against hypoxia-induced HCC chemoresistance.

  1. Small interfering RNA targeting HIF-1{alpha} reduces hypoxia-dependent transcription and radiosensitizes hypoxic HT 1080 human fibrosarcoma cells in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staab, Adrian [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Fleischer, Markus [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Medical Clinic II; Loeffler, Juergen; Einsele, Herrmann [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Medical Clinic II; Said, Harun M.; Katzer, Astrid; Flentje, Michael [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Plathow, Christian [Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Vordermark, Dirk [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Halle-Wittenberg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2011-04-15

    Background: Hypoxia inducible factor-1 has been identified as a potential target to overcome hypoxia-induced radioresistance The aim of the present study was to investigate whether selective HIF-1 inhibition via small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting hypoxia-inducible factor 1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}) affects hypoxia-induced radioresistance in HT 1080 human fibrosarcoma cells. Material and Methods: HIF-1{alpha} expression in HT 1080 human fibrosarcoma cells in vitro was silenced using HIF-1{alpha} siRNA sequence primers. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay was performed to quantify the mRNA expression of HIF-1{alpha}. HIF-1{alpha} protein levels were studied by Western blotting at 20% (air) or after 12 hours at 0.1% O{sub 2} (hypoxia). Cells were assayed for clonogenic survival after irradiation with 2, 5, or 10 Gy, under normoxic or hypoxic conditions in the presence of HIF-1{alpha}-targeted or control siRNA sequences. A modified oxygen enhancement ratio (OER') was calculated as the ratio of the doses to achieve the same survival at 0.1% O{sub 2} as at ambient oxygen tensions. OER' was obtained at cell survival levels of 50%, 37%, and 10%. Results: HIF-1{alpha}-targeted siRNA enhanced radiation treatment efficacy under severely hypoxic conditions compared to tumor cells treated with scrambled control siRNA. OER was reduced on all survival levels after treatment with HIF-1{alpha}-targeted siRNA, suggesting that inhibition of HIF-1 activation by using HIF-1{alpha}-targeted siRNA increases radiosensitivity of hypoxic tumor cells in vitro. Conclusion: Inhibition of HIF-1 activation by using HIF-1{alpha}-targeted siRNA clearly acts synergistically with radiotherapy and increase radiosensitivity of hypoxic cells in vitro. (orig.)

  2. HIF-1{alpha} is necessary to support gluconeogenesis during liver regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajima, Toshihide [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, Keio University, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Goda, Nobuhito, E-mail: goda@waseda.jp [Department of Life Science and Medical Bio-Science, School of Advanced Science and Engineering, Waseda University, TWIns 2-2 Wakamatsu-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8480 (Japan); Fujiki, Natsuko; Hishiki, Takako; Nishiyama, Yasumasa [Department of Biochemistry and Integrative Medical Biology, School of Medicine, Keio University, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Senoo-Matsuda, Nanami [Department of Life Science and Medical Bio-Science, School of Advanced Science and Engineering, Waseda University, TWIns 2-2 Wakamatsu-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8480 (Japan); Shimazu, Motohide [Department of Surgery, Tokyo Medical University Hachioji Medical Center, 1163 Tatemachi, Hachioji, Tokyo 193-0998 (Japan); Soga, Tomoyoshi [The Institute for Advanced Biosciences, Keio University, Tsuruoka City, Yamagata 997-0052 (Japan); Yoshimura, Yasunori [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, Keio University, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Johnson, Randall S. [Molecular Biology Section, Division of Biology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Suematsu, Makoto [Department of Biochemistry and Integrative Medical Biology, School of Medicine, Keio University, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan)

    2009-10-02

    Coordinated recovery of hepatic glucose metabolism is prerequisite for normal liver regeneration. To examine roles of hypoxia inducible factor-1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}) for hepatic glucose homeostasis during the reparative process, we inactivated the gene in hepatocytes in vivo. Following partial hepatectomy (PH), recovery of residual liver weight was initially retarded in the mutant mice by down-regulation of hepatocyte proliferation, but occurred comparably between the mutant and control mice at 72 h after PH. At this time point, the mutant mice showed lowered blood glucose levels with enhanced accumulation of glycogen in the liver. The mutant mice exhibited impairment of hepatic gluconeogenesis as assessed by alanine tolerance test. This appeared to result from reduced expression of PGK-1 and PEPCK since 3-PG, PEP and malate were accumulated to greater extents in the regenerated liver. In conclusion, these findings provide evidence for roles of HIF-1{alpha} in the regulation of gluconeogenesis under liver regeneration.

  3. Hypoxia favors myosin heavy chain beta gene expression in an Hif-1alpha-dependent manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binó, Lucia; Procházková, Jiřina; Radaszkiewicz, Katarzyna Anna; Kučera, Jan; Kudová, Jana; Pacherník, Jiří; Kubala, Lukáš

    2017-01-01

    The potentiation of the naturally limited regenerative capacity of the heart is dependent on an understanding of the mechanisms that are activated in response to pathological conditions such as hypoxia. Under these conditions, the expression of genes suggested to support cardiomyocyte survival and heart adaptation is triggered. Particularly important are changes in the expression of myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms. We propose here that alterations in the expression profiles of MHC genes are induced in response to hypoxia and are primarily mediated by hypoxia inducible factor (HIF). In in vitro models of mouse embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes, we showed that hypoxia (1% O2) or the pharmacological stabilization of HIFs significantly increased MHCbeta (Myh7) gene expression. The key role of HIF-1alpha is supported by the absence of these effects in HIF-1alpha-deficient cells, even in the presence of HIF-2alpha. Interestingly, ChIP analysis did not confirm the direct interaction of HIF-1alpha with putative HIF response elements predicted in the MHCalpha and beta encoding DNA region. Further analyses showed the significant effect of the mTOR signaling inhibitor rapamycin in inducing Myh7 expression and a hypoxia-triggered reduction in the levels of antisense RNA transcripts associated with the Myh7 gene locus. Overall, the recognized and important role of HIF in the regulation of heart regenerative processes could be highly significant for the development of novel therapeutic interventions in heart failure. PMID:29137374

  4. Cloning and characterization of the rat HIF-1 alpha prolyl-4-hydroxylase-1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Ronald R; McClary, John; Manzana, Warren; Finster, Silke; Larsen, Brent; Blasko, Eric; Pearson, Jennifer; Biancalana, Sara; Kauser, Katalin; Bringmann, Peter; Light, David R; Schirm, Sabine

    2005-08-01

    Prolyl-4-hydroxylase domain-containing enzymes (PHDs) mediate the oxygen-dependent regulation of the heterodimeric transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1). Under normoxic conditions, one of the subunits of HIF-1, HIF-1alpha, is hydroxylated on specific proline residues to target HIF-1alpha for degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Under hypoxic conditions, the hydroxylation by the PHDs is attenuated by lack of the oxygen substrate, allowing HIF-1 to accumulate, translocate to the nucleus, and mediate HIF-mediated gene transcription. In several mammalian species including humans, three PHDs have been identified. We report here the cloning of a full-length rat cDNA that is highly homologous to the human and murine PHD-1 enzymes and encodes a protein that is 416 amino acids long. Both cDNA and protein are widely expressed in rat tissues and cell types. We demonstrate that purified and crude baculovirus-expressed rat PHD-1 exhibits HIF-1alpha specific prolyl hydroxylase activity with similar substrate affinities and is comparable to human PHD-1 protein.

  5. HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha are differentially activated in distinct cell populations in retinal ischaemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freya M Mowat

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hypoxia plays a key role in ischaemic and neovascular disorders of the retina. Cellular responses to oxygen are mediated by hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs that are stabilised in hypoxia and induce the expression of a diverse range of genes. The purpose of this study was to define the cellular specificities of HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha in retinal ischaemia, and to determine their correlation with the pattern of retinal hypoxia and the expression profiles of induced molecular mediators. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the tissue distribution of retinal hypoxia during oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR in mice using the bio-reductive drug pimonidazole. We measured the levels of HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha proteins by Western blotting and determined their cellular distribution by immunohistochemistry during the development of OIR. We measured the temporal expression profiles of two downstream mediators, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and erythropoietin (Epo by ELISA. Pimonidazole labelling was evident specifically in the inner retina. Labelling peaked at 2 hours after the onset of hypoxia and gradually declined thereafter. Marked binding to Müller glia was evident during the early hypoxic stages of OIR. Both HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha protein levels were significantly increased during retinal hypoxia but were evident in distinct cellular distributions; HIF-1alpha stabilisation was evident in neuronal cells throughout the inner retinal layers whereas HIF-2alpha was restricted to Müller glia and astrocytes. Hypoxia and HIF-alpha stabilisation in the retina were closely followed by upregulated expression of the downstream mediators VEGF and EPO. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Both HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha are activated in close correlation with retinal hypoxia but have contrasting cell specificities, consistent with differential roles in retinal ischaemia. Our findings suggest that HIF-2alpha activation

  6. SU-C-303-02: Correlating Metabolic Response to Radiation Therapy with HIF-1alpha Expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, D [University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, WI (United States); Peeters, W [Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, GA (United States); Nickel, K [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Eliceiri, K; Kimple, R; Van Der Kogel, A; Kissick, M [University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To understand radiation induced alterations in cellular metabolism which could be used to assess treatment or normal tissue response to aid in patient-specific adaptive radiotherapy. This work aims to compare the metabolic response of two head and neck cell lines, one malignant (UM-SCC-22B) and one benign (Normal Oral Keratinocyte), to ionizing radiation. Responses are compared to alterations in HIF-1alpha expression. These dynamics can potentially serve as biomarkers in assessing treatment response allowing for patient-specific adaptive radiotherapy. Methods: Measurements of metabolism and HIF-1alpha expression were taken before and X minutes after a 10 Gy dose of radiation delivered via an orthovoltage x-ray source. In vitro changes in metabolic activity were measured via fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) to assess the mean lifetime of NADH autofluorescence following a dose of 10 Gy. HIF-1alpha expression was measured via immunohistochemical staining of in vitro treated cells and expression was quantified using the FIJI software package. Results: FLIM demonstrated a decrease in the mean fluorescence lifetime of NADH by 100 ps following 10 Gy indicating a shift towards glycolytic pathways for malignant cells; whereas this benign cell line showed little change in metabolic signature. Immunohistochemical analysis showed significant changes in HIF-1alpha expression in response to 10 Gy of radiation that correlate to metabolic profiles. Conclusion: Radiation induces significant changes in metabolic activity and HIF-1alpha expression. These alterations occur on time scales approximating the duration of common radiation treatments (approximately tens of minutes). Further understanding these dynamics has important implications with regard to improvement of therapy and biomarkers of treatment response.

  7. Implicaciones pronósticas de la expresión de HIF-1Alpha en carcinomas epidermoides de cabeza y cuello

    OpenAIRE

    Cabanillas Farpón, Rubén

    2006-01-01

    Introducción: El Factor Inducible por Hipoxia 1alpha (HIF-1alpha) es un factor de transcripción cuya actividad permite la adaptación celular a los cambios en las presiones parciales de oxígeno. HIF-1alpha se encuentra sobre-expresado en varios tumores humanos y en algunos de ellos su sobre-expresión se ha asociado con un peor pronóstico, sin embargo, su papel en los carcinomas epidermoides de cabeza y cuello (CECC) es controvertido.Material y Método:Análisis retrospectivo de 116 pacientes con...

  8. Low-dose radiation pretreatment improves survival of human ceiling culture-derived proliferative adipocytes (ccdPAs) under hypoxia via HIF-1 alpha and MMP-2 induction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, Naoki [Department of Plastic Surgery, Chiba University, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-city, Chiba, #260-8677 (Japan); Kubota, Yoshitaka, E-mail: kubota-cbu@umin.ac.jp [Department of Plastic Surgery, Chiba University, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-city, Chiba, #260-8677 (Japan); Kosaka, Kentarou; Akita, Shinsuke; Sasahara, Yoshitarou; Kira, Tomoe [Department of Plastic Surgery, Chiba University, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-city, Chiba, #260-8677 (Japan); Kuroda, Masayuki [Center for Advanced Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-city, Chiba, #260-8677 (Japan); Mitsukawa, Nobuyuki [Department of Plastic Surgery, Chiba University, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-city, Chiba, #260-8677 (Japan); Bujo, Hideaki [Department of Clinical-Laboratory and Experimental-Research Medicine, Toho University, Sakura Medical Center, 564-1 Shimoshizu, Sakura-shi, Chiba, #285-8741 (Japan); Satoh, Kaneshige [Department of Plastic Surgery, Chiba University, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-city, Chiba, #260-8677 (Japan)

    2015-08-07

    Poor survival is a major problem of adipocyte transplantation. We previously reported that VEGF and MMPs secreted from transplanted adipocytes are essential for angiogenesis and adipogenesis. Pretreatment with low-dose (5 Gy) radiation (LDR) increased VEGF, MMP-2, and HIF-1 alpha mRNA expression in human ceiling culture-derived proliferative adipocytes (hccdPAs). Gene expression after LDR differed between adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) and hccdPAs. Pretreatment with LDR improved the survival of hccdPAs under hypoxia, which is inevitable in the early stages after transplantation. Upregulation of VEGF and MMP-2 after LDR in hccdPAs is mediated by HIF-1 alpha expression. Our results suggest that pretreatment with LDR may improve adipocyte graft survival in a clinical setting through upregulation of VEGF and MMP-2 via HIF-1 alpha. - Highlights: • Ceiling culture-derived proliferative adipocytes (ccdPAs) react to radiation. • Low-dose radiation (LDR) pretreatment improves survival of ccdPAs under hypoxia. • Gene expression after LDR differs between ccdPAs and adipose-derived stem cells. • LDR-induced increase in MMP-2 and VEGF is dependent on HIF-1 alpha induction. • LDR pretreatment may improve the adipocyte graft survival rate in clinical settings.

  9. BOLD-MRI of breast invasive ductal carcinoma: correlation of R2* value and the expression of HIF-1{alpha}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Min; Guo, Xiaojuan; Wang, Shuangkun [Capital Medical University, Department of Radiology, Beijing Chao Yang Hospital, Beijing (China); Jin, Mulan; Wang, Ying [Capital Medical University Beijing, Department of Pathology, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Beijing (China); Li, Jie; Liu, Jun [Capital Medical University Beijing, Department of Breast Surgery, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Beijing (China)

    2013-12-15

    To explore the reliability and feasibility of blood oxygenation level-dependent-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-fMRI) to depict hypoxia in breast invasive ductal carcinoma. A total of 103 women with 104 invasive ductal carcinomas (IDCs) underwent breast BOLD-fMRI at 3.0 T. Histological specimens were analysed for tumour size, grade, axillary lymph nodes and expression of oestrogen receptors, progesterone receptors, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, p53, Ki-67 and hypoxia inducible factor 1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}). The distribution and reliability of R2* were analysed. Correlations of the R2* value with the prognostic factors and HIF-1{alpha} were respectively analysed. The R2* map of IDC demonstrated a relatively heterogeneous signal. The mean R2* value was (53.4 {+-} 18.2) Hz. The Shapiro-Wilk test (W = 0.971, P = 0.020) suggested that the sample did not follow a normal distribution. The inter-rater and intrarater correlation coefficient was 0.967 and 0.959, respectively. The R2* values of IDCs were significantly lower in patients without axillary lymph nodes metastasis. The R2* value had a weak correlation with Ki67 expression (r = 0.208, P = 0.038). The mean R2* value correlated moderately with the level of HIF-1{alpha} (r = 0.516, P = 0.000). BOLD-fMRI is a simple and non-invasive technique that yields hypoxia information on breast invasive ductal carcinomas. (orig.)

  10. HIF-1alpha is essential for myeloid cell-mediated inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cramer, Thorsten; Yamanishi, Yuji; Clausen, Björn E.; Förster, Irmgard; Pawlinski, Rafal; Mackman, Nigel; Haase, Volker H.; Jaenisch, Rudolf; Corr, Maripat; Nizet, Victor; Firestein, Gary S.; Gerber, Hans Peter; Ferrara, Napoleone; Johnson, Randall S.

    2003-01-01

    Granulocytes and monocytes/macrophages of the myeloid lineage are the chief cellular agents of innate immunity. Here, we have examined the inflammatory response in mice with conditional knockouts of the hypoxia responsive transcription factor HIF-1alpha, its negative regulator VHL, and a known

  11. ENMD-1198, a novel tubulin-binding agent reduces HIF-1alpha and STAT3 activity in human hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC) cells, and inhibits growth and vascularization in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Christian; Lang, Sven A; Mori, Akira; Hellerbrand, Claus; Schlitt, Hans J; Geissler, Edward K; Fogler, William E; Stoeltzing, Oliver

    2008-07-23

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents a highly vascularized tumor entity and the process of angiogenesis is essential for the growth of HCC. Importantly, the pro-angiogenic transcription factors HIF-1alpha and STAT3 have been implicated in HCC progression, thus representing interesting targets for molecular targeted therapy. We hypothesized that therapeutic inhibition of HIF-1alpha could be achieved by using a novel tubulin-binding agent (ENMD-1198). ENMD-1198 is an analog of 2-methoxyestradiol (2ME2) with antiproliferative and antiangiogenic activity. The human HCC cell lines HUH-7 and HepG2 were used for experiments. Effects of ENMD-1198 on constitutive and inducible (hypoxia, growth factors) activation of signaling cascades, including HIF-1alpha and STAT3, were investigated by Western blotting. Changes in VEGF expression were determined by real-time PCR. Effects of ENMD-1198 on cancer cell migration and invasion were evaluated in in vitro-assays. The growth-inhibitory effects of ENMD-1198 (200 mg/kg/day) were determined in a subcutaneous tumor model (HUH-7). ENMD-1198 inhibited the phosphorylation of MAPK/Erk, PI-3K/Akt and FAK. Moreover, activation of HIF-1alpha and STAT3 was dramatically reduced by ENMD-1198, which resulted in lower VEGF mRNA expression (P < 0.05). In addition, tumor cell migratory and invasive properties were significantly inhibited (P < 0.05, for both). In vivo, treatment with ENMD-1198 led to a significant reduction in tumor growth, tumor vascularization, and numbers of proliferating tumor cells (P < 0.05 for all). The novel microtubule destabilizing agent ENMD-1198 is suitable for inhibiting HIF-1alpha and STAT3 in human HCC cells and leads to reduced tumor growth and vascularization in vivo. Hence, inhibition of HIF-1alpha and STAT3 could prove valuable for therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  12. Tid-1 interacts with the von Hippel-Lindau protein and modulates angiogenesis by destabilization of HIF-1alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Moon-Kyoung; Jeong, Joo-Won; Kim, Se-Hee; Kim, Soo-Young; Kang, Hye Jin; Kim, Dong-Min; Bae, Soo-Kyung; Yun, Il; Trentin, Grace A; Rozakis-Adcock, Maria; Kim, Kyu-Won

    2005-04-01

    The von Hippel-Lindau protein (pVHL) is a major tumor suppressor protein and also associated with the inhibition of angiogenesis via HIF-1alpha ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. To further elucidate the biological activity of pVHL in angiogenesis, pVHL-interacting proteins were screened using the yeast two-hybrid system. We found that a mouse homologue of the long form of Drosophila tumor suppressor l(2)tid, Tid-1(L), directly interacts with pVHL in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, Tid-1(L) protein; enhanced the interaction between HIF-1alpha and pVHL, leading to the destabilization of HIF-1alpha protein; therefore, Tid-1(L) protein decreased vascular endothelial growth factor expression and inhibited angiogenesis in vivo and in vitro. These findings propose that Tid-1(L) may play a critical role in pVHL-mediated tumor suppression by modulating the pVHL-dependent HIF-1alpha stability.

  13. Prognostic significance of Ki67 proliferation index, HIF1 alpha index and microvascular density in patients with non-small cell lung cancer brain metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berghoff, A.S. [Medical University of Vienna, Institute of Neurology, Vienna (Austria); Medical University of Vienna, Comprehensive Cancer Center CNS Tumors Unit, Vienna (Austria); Medical University of Vienna, Department of Medicine I, Vienna (Austria); Ilhan-Mutlu, A.; Preusser, M. [Medical University of Vienna, Comprehensive Cancer Center CNS Tumors Unit, Vienna (Austria); Medical University of Vienna, Department of Medicine I, Vienna (Austria); Woehrer, A.; Hainfellner, J.A. [Medical University of Vienna, Institute of Neurology, Vienna (Austria); Medical University of Vienna, Comprehensive Cancer Center CNS Tumors Unit, Vienna (Austria); Hackl, M. [Austrian National Cancer Registry, Statistics Austria, Vienna (Austria); Widhalm, G. [Medical University of Vienna, Comprehensive Cancer Center CNS Tumors Unit, Vienna (Austria); Medical University of Vienna, Department of Neurosurgery, Vienna (Austria); Dieckmann, K. [Medical University of Vienna, Comprehensive Cancer Center CNS Tumors Unit, Vienna (Austria); Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiotherapy, Vienna (Austria); Melchardt, T. [Paracelsus Medical University Hospital Salzburg, Third Medical Department, Salzburg (Austria); Dome, B. [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Surgery, Vienna (Austria); Heinzl, H. [Medical University of Vienna, Comprehensive Cancer Center CNS Tumors Unit, Vienna (Austria); Medical University of Vienna, Center for Medical Statistics, Informatics, and Intelligent Systems, Vienna (Austria); Birner, P. [Medical University of Vienna, Comprehensive Cancer Center CNS Tumors Unit, Vienna (Austria); Medical University of Vienna, Institute of Clinical Pathology, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-07-15

    Survival upon diagnosis of brain metastases (BM) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is highly variable and established prognostic scores do not include tissue-based parameters. Patients who underwent neurosurgical resection as first-line therapy for newly diagnosed NSCLC BM were included. Microvascular density (MVD), Ki67 tumor cell proliferation index and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1 alpha) index were determined by immunohistochemistry. NSCLC BM specimens from 230 patients (151 male, 79 female; median age 56 years; 199 nonsquamous histology) and 53/230 (23.0 %) matched primary tumor samples were available. Adjuvant whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) was given to 153/230 (66.5 %) patients after neurosurgical resection. MVD and HIF-1 alpha indices were significantly higher in BM than in matched primary tumors. In patients treated with adjuvant WBRT, low BM HIF-1 alpha expression was associated with favorable overall survival (OS), while among patients not treated with adjuvant WBRT, BM HIF-1 alpha expression did not correlate with OS. Low diagnosis-specific graded prognostic assessment score (DS-GPA), low Ki67 index, high MVD, low HIF-1 alpha index and administration of adjuvant WBRT were independently associated with favorable OS. Incorporation of tissue-based parameters into the commonly used DS-GPA allowed refined discrimination of prognostic subgroups. Ki67 index, MVD and HIF-1 alpha index have promising prognostic value in BM and should be validated in further studies. (orig.) [German] Die Ueberlebensprognose von Patienten mit zerebralen Metastasen eines nicht-kleinzelligen Lungenkarzinoms (NSCLC) ist sehr variabel. Bisher werden gewebsbasierte Parameter nicht in die prognostische Beurteilung inkludiert. Neurochirurgische Resektate zerebraler NSCLC-Metastasen wurden in dieser Studie untersucht. Die Gefaessdichte (''microvascular density'', MVD), der Ki67-Proliferationsindex sowie der HIF-1α-Index wurden mittels

  14. Mitochondrial metabolism, redox signaling, and fusion: a mitochondria-ROS-HIF-1alpha-Kv1.5 O2-sensing pathway at the intersection of pulmonary hypertension and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Stephen L; Gomberg-Maitland, Mardi; Maitland, Michael L; Rich, Stuart; Garcia, Joe G N; Weir, E Kenneth

    2008-02-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a lethal syndrome characterized by vascular obstruction and right ventricular failure. Although the fundamental cause remains elusive, many predisposing and disease-modifying abnormalities occur, including endothelial injury/dysfunction, bone morphogenetic protein receptor-2 gene mutations, decreased expression of the O(2)-sensitive K(+) channel (Kv1.5), transcription factor activation [hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) and nuclear factor-activating T cells], de novo expression of survivin, and increased expression/activity of both serotonin transporters and platelet-derived growth factor receptors. Together, these abnormalities create a cancerlike, proliferative, apoptosis-resistant phenotype in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). A possible unifying mechanism for PAH comes from studies of fawn-hooded rats, which manifest spontaneous PAH and impaired O(2) sensing. PASMC mitochondria normally produce reactive O(2) species (ROS) in proportion to P(O2). Superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) converts intramitochondrial superoxide to diffusible H(2)O(2), which serves as a redox-signaling molecule, regulating pulmonary vascular tone and structure through effects on Kv1.5 and transcription factors. O(2) sensing is mediated by this mitochondria-ROS-HIF-1alpha-Kv1.5 pathway. In PAH and cancer, mitochondrial metabolism and redox signaling are reversibly disordered, creating a pseudohypoxic redox state characterized by normoxic decreases in ROS, a shift from oxidative to glycolytic metabolism and HIF-1alpha activation. Three newly recognized mitochondrial abnormalities disrupt the mitochondria-ROS-HIF-1alpha-Kv1.5 pathway: 1) mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase activation, 2) SOD2 deficiency, and 3) fragmentation and/or hyperpolarization of the mitochondrial reticulum. The pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase inhibitor, dichloroacetate, corrects the mitochondrial abnormalities in experimental models of PAH and human

  15. Mathematical Model of HIF-1 alpha Pathway, Oxygen Transport and Hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    normal aging. Other groups with increased WMH burden include high-altitude mountain climbers, in which WMH’s are attributed to a combination of hypoxia...Differential Function of the Prolyl Hydroxylases PHD1, PHD2, and PHD3 in the Regulation of Hypoxia-inducible Factor. The Journal of biological chemistry, 279...dynamic interactions at exercise onset in humans. Journal of Applied Physiology, 115, 743-755. Berne, R.M., Levy, M.N., Koeppen, B.M. and Stanton, B.A

  16. Oncogenic kinase NPM/ALK induces expression of HIF1 alpha mRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marzec, Michal Tomasz; Liu, Xiaoli; Wong, W

    2011-01-01

    The mechanisms of malignant cell transformation mediated by the oncogenic anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) tyrosine kinase remain only partially understood. In this study, we report that T-cell lymphoma (TCL) cells carrying the nucleophosmin (NPM)/ALK fusion protein (ALK+ TCL) strongly express...

  17. HIF1alpha synergizes with glucocorticoids to promote BFU-E progenitor self-renewal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flygare, Johan; Rayon Estrada, Violeta; Shin, Chanseok; Gupta, Sumeet; Lodish, Harvey F

    2011-03-24

    With the aim of finding small molecules that stimulate erythropoiesis earlier than erythropoietin and that enhance erythroid colony-forming unit (CFU-E) production, we studied the mechanism by which glucocorticoids increase CFU-E formation. Using erythroid burst-forming unit (BFU-E) and CFU-E progenitors purified by a new technique, we demonstrate that glucocorticoids stimulate the earliest (BFU-E) progenitors to undergo limited self-renewal, which increases formation of CFU-E cells > 20-fold. Interestingly, glucocorticoids induce expression of genes in BFU-E cells that contain promoter regions highly enriched for hypoxia-induced factor 1α (HIF1α) binding sites. This suggests activation of HIF1α may enhance or replace the effect of glucocorticoids on BFU-E self-renewal. Indeed, HIF1α activation by a prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor (PHI) synergizes with glucocorticoids and enhances production of CFU-Es 170-fold. Because PHIs are able to increase erythroblast production at very low concentrations of glucocorticoids, PHI-induced stimulation of BFU-E progenitors thus represents a conceptually new therapeutic window for treating erythropoietin-resistant anemia.

  18. HIF-1-alpha links mitochondrial perturbation to the dynamic acquisition of breast cancer tumorigenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Ching-Ying; Cheng, Chun-Ting; Hou, Peifeng; Lin, Yi-Pei; Ma, Huimin; Chung, Yiyin; Chi, Kevin; Chen, Yuan; Li, Wei; Kung, Hsing-Jien; Ann, David K

    2016-06-07

    Up-regulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), even in normoxia, is a common feature of solid malignancies. However, the mechanisms of increased HIF-1α abundance, and its role in regulating breast cancer plasticity are not fully understood. We have previously demonstrated that dimethyl-2-ketoglutarate (DKG), a widely used cell membrane-permeable α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) analogue, transiently stabilizes HIF-1α by inhibiting prolyl hydroxylase 2. Here, we report that breast cancer tumorigenicity can be acquired through prolonged treatment with DKG. Our results indicate that, in response to prolonged DKG treatment, mitochondrial respiration becomes uncoupled, leading to the accumulation of succinate and fumarate in breast cancer cells. Further, we found that an early increase in the oxygen flux rate was accompanied by a delayed enhancement of glycolysis. Together, our results indicate that these events trigger a dynamic enrichment for cells with pluripotent/stem-like cell markers and tumorsphere-forming capacity. Moreover, DKG-mediated metabolic reprogramming results in HIF-1α induction and reductive carboxylation pathway activation. Both HIF-1α accumulation and the tumor-promoting metabolic state are required for DKG-promoted tumor repopulation capacity in vivo. Our data suggest that mitochondrial adaptation to DKG elevates the ratio of succinate or fumarate to α-KG, which in turn stabilizes HIF-1α and reprograms breast cancer cells into a stem-like state. Therefore, our results demonstrate that metabolic regulation, with succinate and/or fumarate accumulation, governs the dynamic transition of breast cancer tumorigenic states and we suggest that HIF-1α is indispensable for breast cancer tumorigenicity.

  19. Induction of heme oxygenase-1, biliverdin reductase and H-ferritin in lung macrophage in smokers with primary spontaneous pneumothorax: role of HIF-1alpha.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Goven

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Few data concern the pathophysiology of primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP, which is associated with alveolar hypoxia/reoxygenation. This study tested the hypothesis that PSP is associated with oxidative stress in lung macrophages. We analysed expression of the oxidative stress marker 4-HNE; the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory proteins heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, biliverdin reductase (BVR and heavy chain of ferritin (H-ferritin; and the transcription factors controlling their expression Nrf2 and HIF-1alpha, in lung samples from smoker and nonsmoker patients with PSP (PSP-S and PSP-NS, cigarette smoke being a risk factor of recurrence of the disease.mRNA was assessed by RT-PCR and proteins by western blot, immunohistochemistry and confocal laser analysis. 4-HNE, HO-1, BVR and H-ferritin were increased in macrophages from PSP-S as compared to PSP-NS and controls (C. HO-1 increase was associated with increased expression of HIF-1alpha mRNA and protein in alveolar macrophages in PSP-S patients, whereas Nrf2 was not modified. To understand the regulation of HO-1, BVR and H-ferritin, THP-1 macrophages were exposed to conditions mimicking conditions in C, PSP-S and PSP-NS patients: cigarette smoke condensate (CS or air exposure followed or not by hypoxia/reoxygenation. Silencing RNA experiments confirmed that HIF-1alpha nuclear translocation was responsible for HO-1, BVR and H-ferritin induction mediated by CS and hypoxia/reoxygenation.PSP in smokers is associated with lung macrophage oxidative stress. The response to this condition involves HIF-1alpha-mediated induction of HO-1, BVR and H-ferritin.

  20. Altered expression of mRNA for HIF-1alpha and its target genes RTP801 and VEGF in patients with oral lichen planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, M; Xu, J Y; Fan, Y

    2010-04-01

    To explore a potential causal contribution of the transcription factor HIF-1alpha and its target gene, RTP801 and VEGF, to the development of oral lichen planus (OLP). Design relevant: Twenty-two adult OLP patients were enrolled in this study. All OLP diagnoses were verified by histopathological characteristics. Normal mucous specimens were collected from 12 controls after various oral surgeries. RNA was isolated from OLP and control specimens. Microarray was performed using BiostarH-40s gene chip. Expression of HIF-1alpha, VEGF and RTP801 was evaluated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Unpaired t-test and one-way ANOVA was used for statistical analysis. Microarray results showed that RTP801 expression was lower in OLP than in controls (779 vs 3090). qPCR further confirmed that expression of RTP801 was similarly lower in OLP than in controls (0.363 vs 1.473, P oral mucosa of OLP is hypoxic. Genes that are activated by hypoxia, such as RTP801 and VEGF, and their signal cascades may be novel potential therapeutic targets for OLP.

  1. Acute hypoxic stress: Effect on blood parameters, antioxidant enzymes, and expression of HIF-1alpha and GLUT-1 genes in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S; Yan, T; Wu, H; Xiao, Q; Fu, H M; Luo, J; Zhou, J; Zhao, L L; Wang, Y; Yang, S Y; Sun, J L; Ye, X; Li, S J

    2017-08-01

    Dissolved oxygen (DO) plays a crucial role in survival, growth, and normal physiological functions of aquatic organisms. Nevertheless, the mechanisms involved in hypoxic stress and adaptation have not been fully elucidated in Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). To reveal the effect of acute hypoxia on Largemouth bass, we simulated acute hypoxia (DO: 1.2 ± 0.2 mg/L) in the laboratory and analyzed physiological parameters (RBCs, Hb, SOD, CAT, NA + /K + -ATPase, GPx, and MDA) and gene expression (HIF-1alpha and GLUT-1) in Largemouth bass exposed to various durations of acute hypoxia (0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h). Our results indicated that acute hypoxic exposure significantly increased RBCs but decreased Hb. In addition, antioxidant enzyme activity was enhanced significantly in the liver and muscles at the initial stage of acute hypoxic exposure, but decreased significantly in gills during the entire process of hypoxic exposure. Furthermore, the expression levels of HIF-1alpha and GLUT-1 mRNA were significantly up-regulated in Largemouth bass under acute hypoxic exposure. In conclusion, our study provides a valuable basis for further elucidation of hypoxic adaptation and facilitates husbandry for an economically valuable species. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha in chronic gastrointestinal ischemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harki, J.; Sana, A.; Noord, D. van; Diest, P.J. van; Groep, P. van der; Kuipers, E.J.; Moons, L.M.; Biermann, K.; Tjwa, E.T.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic gastrointestinal ischemia (CGI) is the result of decreased mucosal perfusion. Typical histological characteristics are lacking which hamper its early diagnosis. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) is expressed under acute hypoxia. We investigated HIF-1alpha expression in chronic

  3. Increased susceptibility of HIF-1 alpha heterozygous-null mice to cardiovascular malformations associated with maternal diabetes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bohuslavová, Romana; Škvorová, Lada; Sedmera, David; Semenza, G.L.; Pavlínková, Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 60, Jul (2013), s. 129-141 ISSN 0022-2828 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA301/09/0117; GA ČR(CZ) GAP302/11/1308 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : Diabetic embryopathy * Heart defect * Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology; FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery (FGU-C) Impact factor: 5.218, year: 2013

  4. HIF-1 Alpha and Placental Growth Factor in Pregnancies Complicated With Preeclampsia: A Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Gayatri; Aggarwal, Ruby; Jawanjal, Poonam; Tripathi, Richa; Batra, Aruna

    2016-01-01

    The pathophysiology of preeclampsia is not clearly understood worldwide. Hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) is thought to be the preliminary factor for the hypoxic conditions prevailing in preeclampsia, which causes imbalance in the expression of angiogenic proteins. A proangiogenic protein, placental growth factor (PIGF), is reported to be dysregulated in preeclampsia. Therefore, this study focuses on the investigation of HIF-1α and PIGF in preeclamptic conditions and a possible molecular association between them. Placental tissue (n = 45 + 45) and serum samples (n = 80 + 80) of preeclamptic patients and healthy control were collected and processed for the analysis of HIF-1α and PIGF by immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In preeclamptic group, the significant nuclear and cytoplasmic expression of HIF-1α was noticed in syncytiotrophoblast (P = 0.0001) but in control placenta, it was localized to cytoplasm (P = 0.0001). The intensity of PIGF expression was lower in syncytiotrophoblast cytoplasm (P = 0.0001) in preeclamptic cases as compared with control. Also, the significant upregulated concentration of HIF-1α and downregulated PIGF was observed in serum samples of preeclamptic woman (P = 0.0001). Thus, there was a significant direct negative correlation between HIF-1α and PIGF both at tissue and serum level (P preeclampsia. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Hypoxia determines survival outcomes of bacterial infection through HIF-1alpha dependent re-programming of leukocyte metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, A A R; Dickinson, R S; Murphy, F; Thomson, J P; Marriott, H M; Tavares, A; Willson, J; Williams, L; Lewis, A; Mirchandani, A; Dos Santos Coelho, P; Doherty, C; Ryan, E; Watts, E; Morton, N M; Forbes, S; Stimson, R H; Hameed, A G; Arnold, N; Preston, J A; Lawrie, A; Finisguerra, V; Mazzone, M; Sadiku, P; Goveia, J; Taverna, F; Carmeliet, P; Foster, S J; Chilvers, E R; Cowburn, A S; Dockrell, D H; Johnson, R S; Meehan, R R; Whyte, M K B; Walmsley, S R

    2017-02-10

    Hypoxia and bacterial infection frequently co-exist, in both acute and chronic clinical settings, and typically result in adverse clinical outcomes. To ameliorate this morbidity, we investigated the interaction between hypoxia and the host response. In the context of acute hypoxia, both S. aureus and S. pneumoniae infections rapidly induced progressive neutrophil mediated morbidity and mortality, with associated hypothermia and cardiovascular compromise. Preconditioning animals through longer exposures to hypoxia, prior to infection, prevented these pathophysiological responses and profoundly dampened the transcriptome of circulating leukocytes. Specifically, perturbation of HIF pathway and glycolysis genes by hypoxic preconditioning was associated with reduced leukocyte glucose utilisation, resulting in systemic rescue from a global negative energy state and myocardial protection. Thus we demonstrate that hypoxia preconditions the innate immune response and determines survival outcomes following bacterial infection through suppression of HIF-1α and neutrophil metabolism. The therapeutic implications of this work are that in the context of systemic or tissue hypoxia therapies that target the host response could improve infection associated morbidity and mortality.

  6. Hypoxia determines survival outcomes of bacterial infection through HIF-1alpha dependent re-programming of leukocyte metabolism *

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, A.A.R.; Dickinson, R.S.; Murphy, F.; Thomson, J. P.; Marriott, H.M.; Tavares, A.; Willson, J.; Williams, L.; Lewis, A.; Mirchandani, A.; Dos Santos Coelho, P.; Doherty, C.; Ryan, E.; Watts, E.; Morton, N. M.; Forbes, S.; Stimson, R. H.; Hameed, A. G.; Arnold, N.; Preston, J.A.; Lawrie, A.; Finisguerra, V.; Mazzone, M.; Sadiku, P.; Goveia, J.; Taverna, F.; Carmeliet, P.; Foster, S.J.; Chilvers, E.R.; Cowburn, A.S.; Dockrell, D.H.; Johnson, R.S.; Meehan, R. R.; Whyte, M.K.B.; Walmsley, S.R.

    2017-01-01

    Hypoxia and bacterial infection frequently co-exist, in both acute and chronic clinical settings, and typically result in adverse clinical outcomes. To ameliorate this morbidity, we investigated the interaction between hypoxia and the host response. In the context of acute hypoxia, both S. aureus and S. pneumoniae infections rapidly induced progressive neutrophil mediated morbidity and mortality, with associated hypothermia and cardiovascular compromise. Preconditioning animals through longer exposures to hypoxia, prior to infection, prevented these pathophysiological responses and profoundly dampened the transcriptome of circulating leukocytes. Specifically, perturbation of HIF pathway and glycolysis genes by hypoxic preconditioning was associated with reduced leukocyte glucose utilisation, resulting in systemic rescue from a global negative energy state and myocardial protection. Thus we demonstrate that hypoxia preconditions the innate immune response and determines survival outcomes following bacterial infection through suppression of HIF-1α and neutrophil metabolism. The therapeutic implications of this work are that in the context of systemic or tissue hypoxia therapies that target the host response could improve infection associated morbidity and mortality. PMID:28386604

  7. HIF1-alpha overexpression indicates a good prognosis in early stage squamous cell carcinomas of the oral floor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joos Ulrich

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1 is a transcription factor, which plays a central role in biologic processes under hypoxic conditions, especially concerning tumour angiogenesis. HIF-1α is the relevant, oxygen-dependent subunit and its overexpression has been associated with a poor prognosis in a variety of malignant tumours. Therefore, HIF-1α expression in early stage oral carcinomas was evaluated in relation to established clinico-pathological features in order to determine its value as a prognostic marker. Methods 85 patients with histologically proven surgically treated T1/2 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC of the oral floor were eligible for the study. Tumor specimens were investigated by means of tissue micro arrays (TMAs and immunohistochemistry for the expression of HIF-1. Correlations between clinical features and the expression of HIF-1 were evaluated by Kaplan-Meier curves, log-rank tests and multivariate Cox regression analysis. Results HIF-1α was frequently overexpressed in a probably non-hypoxia related fashion. The expression of HIF-1α was related with a significantly improved 5-year survival rate (p Conclusion HIF-1α overexpression is an indicator of favourable prognosis in T1 and T2 SCC of the oral floor. Node negative patients lacking HIF-1α expression may therefore be considered for adjuvant radiotherapy.

  8. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α polymorphisms and TSC1/2 mutations are complementary in head and neck cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikitakis Nikolaos G

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polymorphisms or mutations in hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1alpha that increases its activity and stability under normoxia have recently been identified. Likewise, disruption of the TSC1/TSC2 complex through loss of TSC1 or TSC2 has been shown to result in abnormal accumulation of HIF-1α. Here, we investigate the novel polymorphisms in exon 12, that approximate the oxygen-dependent degradation domain of HIF-1alpha in five cell lines and 28 patients with oral squamous carcinomas. Moreover, we assess for the presence of polymorphisms and mutations in TSC1 and TSC2, to ascertain if dysregulation of such might complement HIF-1alpha expression. Results Denaturing high pressure liquid chromatography (DHPLC analysis on PCR fragments in exon 12 of HIF-1alpha from 28 patients with OSCC revealed that 6 of 28 patients had mismatched heteroduplex patterns. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes and direct sequencing showed that in 5 of the six cases these changes represented polymorphisms while, one case was a somatic mutation. Analyses of TSC1 and TSC2 revealed heteroduplexes in exons: TSC1 exon 17; TSC2 exons 36,40, and 41. The relative levels of HIF-1alpha were significantly greater for tumors possessing a HIF-1alpha polymorphism or mutation within exon 12, whereas tumors possessing a deletion or polymorphism in TSC1/TSC2 displayed a trend for higher levels of HIF-1alpha. Western blot analyses for HIF-1alpha, TSC1 and TSC2 in five SCC cell lines revealed high levels of HIF-1alpha in SCC cells possessing TSC1 and/or TSC2 mutations. Wild-type TSC2 cells targeted with siRNA to TSC2 exhibited increased levels of HIF-1alpha. Transfection of a HIF-1alpha mutant produced higher levels of HIF-1alpha in TSC1/TSC2 mutant cell lines than in wild type cells. TSC1/TSC2 mutant cell lines administered Rapamycin blocked S6 phorphorylation and diminished the levels of HIF-1alpha to those observed in cell lines with wild

  9. Pneumococcal infection of respiratory cells exposed to welding fumes; Role of oxidative stress and HIF-1 alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigg, Jonathan; Miyashita, Lisa; Suri, Reetika

    2017-01-01

    Welders are more susceptible to pneumococcal pneumonia. The mechanisms are yet unclear. Pneumococci co-opt the platelet activating factor receptor (PAFR) to infect respiratory epithelial cells. We previously reported that exposure of respiratory cells to welding fumes (WF), upregulates PAFR-dependent pneumococcal infection. The signaling pathway for this response is unknown, however, in intestinal cells, hypoxia-inducible factor-1 α (HIF 1α) is reported to mediate PAFR-dependent infection. We sought to assess whether oxidative stress plays a role in susceptibility to pneumococcal infection via the platelet activating factor receptor. We also sought to evaluate the suitability of nasal epithelial PAFR expression in welders as a biomarker of susceptibility to infection. Finally, we investigated the generalisability of the effect of welding fumes on pneumococcal infection and growth using a variety of different welding fume samples. Nasal epithelial PAFR expression in welders and controls was analysed by flow cytometry. WF were collected using standard methodology. The effect of WF on respiratory cell reactive oxygen species production, HIF-1α expression, and pneumococcal infection was determined using flow cytometry, HIF-1α knockdown and overexpression, and pneumococcal infection assays. We found that nasal PAFR expression is significantly increased in welders compared with controls and that WF significantly increased reactive oxygen species production, HIF-1α and PAFR expression, and pneumococcal infection of respiratory cells. In unstimulated cells, HIF-1α knockdown decreased PAFR expression and HIF-1α overexpression increased PAFR expression. However, in knockdown cells pneumococcal infection was paradoxically increased and in overexpressing cells infection was unaffected. Nasal epithelial PAFR expression may be used as a biomarker of susceptibility to pneumococcal infection in order to target individuals, particularly those at high risk such as welders

  10. Nuclear expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha in clear cell renal cell carcinoma is involved in tumor progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cristofano, Claudio; Minervini, Andrea; Menicagli, Michele; Salinitri, Giuseppe; Bertacca, Gloria; Pefanis, Gerasimos; Masieri, Lorenzo; Lessi, Francesca; Collecchi, Paola; Minervini, Riccardo; Carini, Marco; Bevilacqua, Generoso; Cavazzana, Andrea

    2007-12-01

    The most frequent genomic abnormality in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (cc-RCC) is inactivation of Von Hippel-Lindau gene (VHL). pVHL19 is a ligase promoting proteosomal degradation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha); pVHL30 is associated with microtubules. VHL exert its oncogenetic action both directly and through HIF-1alpha activation. TNM classification is unable to define a correct prognostic evaluation of intracapsular cc-RCC. The nucleo-cytoplasmic trafficking in VHL/HIF-1alpha pathway could be relevant in understanding the molecular pathogenesis of renal carcinogenesis. This study analyzes VHL/HIF-1alpha proteins in a large series of intracapsular cc-RCCs, correlating their expression and cellular localization with prognosis. Two anti-pVHL (clones Ig32 and Ig33) and 1 anti-HIF-1alpha were used on tissue microarrays from 136 intracapsular cc-RCCs (mean follow-up: 74 mo). Clone 32 recognizes both pVHLs, whereas clone 33 only pVHL30. Results were matched with clinicopathologic variables and tumor-specific survival (TSS). A strong cytoplasmic positivity was found for all antibodies in the largest part of cases, associated to a strong nuclear localization in the case of HIF-1alpha. All pVHL-negative cases were associated with high HIF-1alpha expression. pVHL negativity and HIF-1alpha nuclear positivity significantly correlated with shorter TSS. In multivariate analysis both pVHL negativity and HIF-1alpha nuclear expression were independent predictors of TSS. The localization of the proteins well matches with their role and with the supposed tumor molecular pathways. The correlation with prognosis of VHL/HIF-1alpha alterations confirms the relevance of their molecular pathway and of the cellular trafficking of their products in the pathogenesis of renal cancer.

  11. Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions & Treatments ▸ Conditions Dictionary ▸ Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction Share | Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction (EIB) « Back to A to Z Listing Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction, (EIB), often known as exercise-induced ...

  12. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha determines gastric cancer chemosensitivity via modulation of p53 and NF-kappaB.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Rohwer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Reduced chemosensitivity of solid cancer cells represents a pivotal obstacle in clinical oncology. Hence, the molecular characterization of pathways regulating chemosensitivity is a central prerequisite to improve cancer therapy. The hypoxia-inducible factor HIF-1alpha has been linked to chemosensitivity while the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely elusive. Therefore, we comprehensively analysed HIF-1alpha's role in determining chemosensitivity focussing on responsible molecular pathways. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: RNA interference was applied to inactivate HIF-1alpha or p53 in the human gastric cancer cell lines AGS and MKN28. The chemotherapeutic agents 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin were used and chemosensitivity was assessed by cell proliferation assays as well as determination of cell cycle distribution and apoptosis. Expression of p53 and p53 target proteins was analyzed by western blot. NF-kappaB activity was characterized by means of electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Inactivation of HIF-1alpha in gastric cancer cells resulted in robust elevation of chemosensitivity. Accordingly, HIF-1alpha-competent cells displayed a significant reduction of chemotherapy-induced senescence and apoptosis. Remarkably, this phenotype was completely absent in p53 mutant cells while inactivation of p53 per se did not affect chemosensitivity. HIF-1alpha markedly suppressed chemotherapy-induced activation of p53 and p21 as well as the retinoblastoma protein, eventually resulting in cell cycle arrest. Reduced formation of reactive oxygen species in HIF-1alpha-competent cells was identified as the molecular mechanism of HIF-1alpha-mediated inhibition of p53. Furthermore, loss of HIF-1alpha abrogated, in a p53-dependent manner, chemotherapy-induced DNA-binding of NF-kappaB and expression of anti-apoptotic NF-kappaB target genes. Accordingly, reconstitution of the NF-kappaB subunit p65 reversed the increased chemosensitivity of

  13. [Effects of RNAi on hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha activity and proliferation of hypoxic pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells in rat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Cao, Yue; Zhang, Yu; Ma, Qi-Sheng; Ma, Lan; Ge, Ri-Li

    2006-02-25

    Pulmonary vascular remodeling is one of the major characteristics of hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension, mainly represented by over-proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). Hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) is a transcription factor which is produced by the cells exposed to hypoxia. HIF-1alpha up-regulates the expression of many hypoxia response genes (HRGs) for the body to adapt to hypoxia and maintain homeostasis. The expression of HIF-1alpha in the PASMCs is remarkably elevated under hypoxic condition and it stimulates the proliferation of PASMCs. In this experiment, we used gene clone technology to design and synthesize two siRNAs based on the sequence of HIF-1alpha mRNA. They were separately subcloned into the plasmid of pGenesil-1 containing U6 promoter. The pGenesil-1 vector of the RNA interference eukaryotic expression vector specific to HIF-1alpha gene was constructed. DNA sequencing of the plasmid verified the successful construction of the HIF-1alpha RNAi. We isolated and cultured the PASMCs of rat. The pGenesil-1 vector was transferred into the PASMCs with METAFECTENE in vitro. The positive cell clones transfected with pGenesil-1 were obtained after being screened with 400 mug/ml G418. These PASMCs were cultured in normoxia and hypoxia. After 48 h, the effects of RNAi on the expression of HIF-1alpha mRNA were detected by RT-PCR. The cellular growth activities were assayed by MTT colorimetry and flow cytometry in vitro. The results showed that for the PASMCs cultured in hypoxia for 48 h, the cell proliferation of blank group and control group were remarkably increased and the HIF-1alpha mRNA expressions were up-regulated, while the cell proliferation of the treatment groups did not increase and the HIF-1alpha mRNA expressions were not up-regulated. In conclusion, we successfully constructed the recombinant plasmid of RNAi and transfected them into the PASMCs in vitro. The RNAi inhibited the expression of HIF-1alpha m

  14. Suppression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha and its downstream genes reduces acute hyperglycemia-enhanced hemorrhagic transformation in a rat model of cerebral ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chunhua; Ostrowski, Robert P; Zhou, Changman; Tang, Jiping; Zhang, John H

    2010-07-01

    We evaluated a role of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) and its downstream genes in acute hyperglycemia-induced hemorrhagic transformation in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia. Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 280-300 g (n = 105) were divided into sham, 90 min middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), MCAO plus HIF-1alpha inhibitors, 2-methoxyestradiol (2ME2) or 3-(5'-hydroxymethyl-2'-furyl)-1-benzylindazole (YC-1), groups. Rats received an injection of 50% dextrose (6 ml/kg intraperitoneally) at 15 min before MCAO. HIF-1alpha inhibitors were administered at the onset of reperfusion. The animals were examined for neurological deficits and sacrificed at 6, 12, 24, and 72 hr following MCAO. The cerebral tissues were collected for histology, zymography, and Western blot analysis. The expression of HIF-1alpha was increased in ischemic brain tissues after MCAO and reduced by HIF-1alpha inhibitors. In addition, 2ME2 reduced the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the elevation of active matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 (MMP-2/MMP-9) in the ipsilateral hemisphere. Both 2ME2 and YC-1 reduced infarct volume and ameliorated neurological deficits. However, only 2ME2 attenuated hemorrhagic transformation in the ischemic territory. In conclusion, the inhibition of HIF-1alpha and its downstream genes attenuates hemorrhagic conversion of cerebral infarction and ameliorates neurological deficits after focal cerebral ischemia.

  15. Degradation of HIF-1alpha under hypoxia combined with induction of Hsp90 polyubiquitination in cancer cells by hypericin: a unique cancer therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilda Barliya

    Full Text Available The perihydroxylated perylene quinone hypericin has been reported to possess potent anti-metastatic and antiangiogenic activities, generated by targeting diverse crossroads of cancer-promoting processes via unique mechanisms. Hypericin is the only known exogenous reagent that can induce forced poly-ubiquitination and accelerated degradation of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90 in cancer cells. Hsp90 client proteins are thereby destabilized and rapidly degraded. Hsp70 client proteins may potentially be also affected via preventing formation of hsp90-hsp70 intermediate complexes. We show here that hypericin also induces enhanced degradation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α in two human tumor cell lines, U87-MG glioblastoma and RCC-C2VHL-/- renal cell carcinoma and in the non-malignant ARPE19 retinal pigment epithelial cell line. The hypericin-accelerated turnover of HIF-1α, the regulatory precursor of the HIF-1 transcription factor which promotes hypoxic stress and angiogenic responses, overcomes the physiologic HIF-1α protein stabilization which occurs in hypoxic cells. The hypericin effect also eliminates the high HIF-1α levels expressed constitutively in the von-Hippel Lindau protein (pVHL-deficient RCC-C2VHL-/- renal cell carcinoma cell line. Unlike the normal ubiquitin-proteasome pathway-dependent turnover of HIF-α proteins which occurs in normoxia, the hypericin-induced HIF-1α catabolism can occur independently of cellular oxygen levels or pVHL-promoted ubiquitin ligation of HIF-1α. It is mediated by lysosomal cathepsin-B enzymes with cathepsin-B activity being optimized in the cells through hypericin-mediated reduction in intracellular pH. Our findings suggest that hypericin may potentially be useful in preventing growth of tumors in which HIF-1α plays pivotal roles, and in pVHL ablated tumor cells such as renal cell carcinoma through elimination of elevated HIF-1α contents in these cells, scaling down the excessive angiogenesis

  16. Hypoxia in Tumor Angiogenesis and Metastasis: Evaluation of VEGF and MMP Over-expression and Down-Regulation of HIF-1alpha with RNAi in Hypoxic Tumor Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Shruti

    Background: As tumor mass grows beyond a few millimeters in diameter, the angiogenic "switch" is turned on leading to recruitment of blood vessels from surrounding artery and veins. However, the tumor mass is poorly perfused and there are pockets of hypoxia or lower oxygen concentrations relative to normal tissue. Hypoxia-inducing factor-1a (HIF-1a), a transcription factor, is activated when the oxygen concentration is low. Upon activation of HIF-1a, a number of other genes also turn on that allows the tumor to become more aggressive and resistant to therapy. Purpose: The main objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of hypoxia-induced HIF-1a followed by over-expression of angiogenic and metastatic markers in tumor cells and down-regulation of HIF-1a using nanoparticle-delivered RNA interference therapy. Methods: Human ovarian (SKOV3) and breast (MDA-MB-231) adenocarcinoma cells were incubated under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Following hypoxia treatment of the cells, HIF-1α, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), and MMP-9 expression was analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. For intracellular delivery of HIF-1a gene silencing small interfering RNA (siRNA), type B gelatin nanoparticles were fabricated using the solvent displacement method and the surface was modified with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG, Mol. wt. 2kDa). Cellular uptake and distribution of the nanoparticles was observed with Cy3-siRNA loaded, FITC-conjugated gelatin nanoparticles. Cytotoxicity of the nanoparticle formulations was evaluated in both the cell lines. siRNA was transfected in the gelatin nanoparticles under hypoxic conditions. Total cellular protein and RNA were extracted for analysis of HIF1a, VEGF, MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression. Results: MDA-MB-231 and SKOV3 cells show increased expression of HIF1a under hypoxic conditions compared to baseline levels at normoxic conditions. ELISA and western blots of VEGF, MMP-2 and MMP-9 appear to

  17. Inhibition of protein kinase C delta attenuates allergic airway inflammation through suppression of PI3K/Akt/mTOR/HIF-1 alpha/VEGF pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Ho Choi

    Full Text Available Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is supposed to contribute to the pathogenesis of allergic airway disease. VEGF expression is regulated by a variety of stimuli such as nitric oxide, growth factors, and hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α. Recently, inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR has been shown to alleviate cardinal asthmatic features, including airway hyperresponsiveness, eosinophilic inflammation, and increased vascular permeability in asthma models. Based on these observations, we have investigated whether mTOR is associated with HIF-1α-mediated VEGF expression in allergic asthma. In studies with the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin, we have elucidated the stimulatory role of a mTOR-HIF-1α-VEGF axis in allergic response. Next, the mechanisms by which mTOR is activated to modulate this response have been evaluated. mTOR is known to be regulated by phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K/Akt or protein kinase C-delta (PKC δ in various cell types. Consistent with these, our results have revealed that suppression of PKC δ by rottlerin leads to the inhibition of PI3K/Akt activity and the subsequent blockade of a mTOR-HIF-1α-VEGF module, thereby attenuating typical asthmatic attack in a murine model. Thus, the present data indicate that PKC δ is necessary for the modulation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling cascade, resulting in a tight regulation of HIF-1α activity and VEGF expression. In conclusion, PKC δ may represent a valuable target for innovative therapeutic treatment of allergic airway disease.

  18. Microtubular stability affects pVHL-mediated regulation of HIF-1alpha via the p38/MAPK pathway in hypoxic cardiomyocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Teng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Our previous research found that structural changes of the microtubule network influence glycolysis in cardiomyocytes by regulating the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1α during the early stages of hypoxia. However, little is known about the underlying regulatory mechanism of the changes of HIF-1α caused by microtubule network alternation. The von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor protein (pVHL, as a ubiquitin ligase, is best understood as a negative regulator of HIF-1α. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In primary rat cardiomyocytes and H9c2 cardiac cells, microtubule-stabilization was achieved by pretreating with paclitaxel or transfection of microtubule-associated protein 4 (MAP4 overexpression plasmids and microtubule-depolymerization was achieved by pretreating with colchicine or transfection of MAP4 siRNA before hypoxia treatment. Recombinant adenovirus vectors for overexpressing pVHL or silencing of pVHL expression were constructed and transfected in primary rat cardiomyocytes and H9c2 cells. With different microtubule-stabilizing and -depolymerizing treaments, we demonstrated that the protein levels of HIF-1α were down-regulated through overexpression of pVHL and were up-regulated through knockdown of pVHL in hypoxic cardiomyocytes. Importantly, microtubular structure breakdown activated p38/MAPK pathway, accompanied with the upregulation of pVHL. In coincidence, we found that SB203580, a p38/MAPK inhibitor decreased pVHL while MKK6 (Glu overexpression increased pVHL in the microtubule network altered-hypoxic cardiomyocytes and H9c2 cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study suggests that pVHL plays an important role in the regulation of HIF-1α caused by the changes of microtubular structure and the p38/MAPK pathway participates in the process of pVHL change following microtubule network alteration in hypoxic cardiomyocytes.

  19. Exercise-induced asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000036.htm Exercise-induced asthma To use the sharing features on this page, ... such as running, basketball, or soccer. Use Your Asthma Medicine Before you Exercise Take your short-acting, ...

  20. Expression of hypoxia-inducible transcription factors in developing human and rat kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, W M; Schmitt, R; Rosenberger, C; Münchenhagen, P M; Gröne, H-J; Frei, U; Warnecke, C; Bachmann, S; Wiesener, M S; Willam, C; Eckardt, K-U

    2006-01-01

    Early kidney development is associated with the coordinated branching of the renal tubular and vascular system and hypoxia has been proposed to be a major regulatory factor in this process. Under low oxygen levels, the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF) regulates the expression of genes involved in angiogenesis, erythropoiesis and glycolysis. To investigate the role of HIF in kidney development, we analyzed the temporal and spatial expression of the oxygen regulated HIF-1alpha and -2alpha subunits at different stages of rat and human kidney development. Using double-staining procedures, localization of the HIF target geneproducts vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and endoglin was studied in relation to HIFalpha. In both species, we found marked nuclear expression of HIF-1alpha in medullary and cortical collecting ducts and in glomerular cells. In contrast, HIF-2alpha was expressed in interstitial and peritubular cells podocytes of the more mature glomeruli. After completion of glomerulogenesis and nephrogenesis, HIF-1alpha and -2alpha were no longer detectable. The HIF-target gene VEGF colocalized with HIF-1alpha protein in glomeruli and medullary collecting ducts. HIF-2alpha colocalized with the endothelium-associated angiogenic factor, endoglin. Both HIFalpha isoforms are activated in the developing kidney in a cell-specific and temporally controlled manner, indicating a regulatory role of oxygen tension in nephrogenesis. HIF-1alpha seems to be primarily involved in tubulogenesis and HIF-2alpha in renal vasculogenesis. Both isoforms are found in glomerulogenesis, potentially having synergistic effects.

  1. Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 is an essential component of the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 signaling pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Ji-Hong; Choi, Yong-Joon; Cho, Chung-Hyun [Department of Pharmacology, Ischemic/Hypoxic Disease Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 103 Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jong-Wan, E-mail: parkjw@snu.ac.kr [Department of Pharmacology, Ischemic/Hypoxic Disease Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 103 Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HIF-1{alpha} is expressed PRMT5-dependently in hypoxic cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The HIF-1 regulation of hypoxia-induced genes is attenuated in PRMT5-knocked-down cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The de novo synthesis of HIF-1{alpha} depends on PRMT5. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PRMT5 is involved in the HIF-1{alpha} translation initiated by 5 Prime UTR of HIF-1{alpha} mRNA. -- Abstract: Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) is an enzyme that transfers one or two methyl groups to the arginine residues of histones or non-histone proteins, and that plays critical roles in cellular processes as diverse as receptor signaling and gene expression. Furthermore, PRMT5 is highly expressed in tumors, where it may be associated with tumor growth. Although much research has been conducted on PRMT5, little is known regarding its role in adaption to hypoxia. As hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a key player in hypoxic response, we examined the possible involvement of PRMT5 in the HIF-1 signaling pathway. Of the siRNAs targeting PRMT1-8, only PRMT5 siRNA attenuated the hypoxic induction of HIF-1{alpha} in A549 cells, and this result was reproducible in all three cancer cell lines examined. PRMT5 knock-down also repressed the promoter activities and the transcript levels of HIF-1-governed genes. Mechanistically, de novo synthesis of HIF-1{alpha} protein was reduced in PRMT5-knocked-down A549 cells, and this was rescued by PRMT5 restoration. In contrast, HIF-1{alpha} transcription, RNA processing, and protein stability were unaffected by PRMT5 knock-down. Furthermore, PRMT5 was found to be essential for the HIF-1{alpha} translation initiated by the 5 Prime UTR of HIF-1{alpha} mRNA. Given our results and previous reports, we believe that PRMT5 probably promotes tumor growth by stimulating cell proliferation and by participating in the construction of a tumor-favorable microenvironment via HIF-1 activation.

  2. Exercise-Induced Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... January 2014 More on this topic for: Parents Kids Teens Can Kids and Teens With Asthma Play Sports? Asthma Center When to Go to the ER if Your Child Has Asthma Kids and Exercise Asthma Triggers Word! Exercise-Induced Asthma ...

  3. Exercise-Induced Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood Institute. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-pro/resources/lung/naci/discover/action-plans.htm. Accessed Sept. 12, 2014. Mickleborough TD, et al. Exercise-induced asthma: Nutritional management. Current ...

  4. Muscle-specific expression of hypoxia-inducible factor in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mounier, Rémi; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund; Plomgaard, Peter

    2010-01-01

    fibres that possess unique patterns of protein and gene expression, producing different capillarization and energy metabolism systems. In this work, we analysed HIF-1alpha mRNA and protein expression related to the fibre-type composition in untrained human skeletal muscle by obtaining muscle biopsies......Skeletal muscle is well known to exhibit a high degree of plasticity depending on environmental changes, such as various oxygen concentrations. Studies of the oxygen-sensitive subunit alpha of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) are difficult owing to the large variety of functionally diverse muscle......alpha mRNA and protein owing to their higher oxidative capacity. We have shown, in normoxic conditions, a higher HIF-1alpha protein expression in predominantly oxidative muscles than in predominantly glycolytic muscles. However, the HIF-1alpha mRNA expression pattern was not in agreement with the HIF-1...

  5. [Exercise-induced anaphylaxis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylon, K; Hompes, S; Worm, M

    2013-02-01

    Exercise-induced anaphylaxis is a mast cell dependent reaction, which is induced by allergen exposure in combination with physical activity. Typically, the reaction occurs within 2 hours after allergen exposure followed by physical activity. Not only food allergens but all kinds of allergens including drugs can induce this form of anaphylaxis. The clinical symptoms of exercise-induced anaphylaxis are the same as in any other type of anaphylaxis. Thus not only the skin and mucosa but also other organ systems like the lungs, cardiovascular system and gastrointestinal tract can be affected. The diagnostic work up should cover a detailed clinical history including the assessment of symptoms and possible trigger factors including suspected allergens. Besides classical allergy diagnostics like skin prick tests and specific IgE determination, tryptase should be measured for the differential diagnosis to exclude mast cell dependent diseases. The diagnosis of exercise-induced anaphylaxis is made by the means of a double-blind placebo-controlled provocation test. Both, a sufficient amount of allergen and of physical activity must be achieved for a valid test. After the diagnosis is made, patients should be extensively counseled and provided with an emergency kit including an epinephrine auto injector.

  6. Central venous hypoxemia is a determinant of human atrial ATP-sensitive potassium channel expression: evidence for a novel hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha-Forkhead box class O signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeis, Véronique; Philip-Couderc, Pierre; Roatti, Angela; Habre, Walid; Sierra, Jorge; Kalangos, Afksendyios; Beghetti, Maurice; Baertschi, Alex J

    2010-05-01

    ATP-sensitive potassium channels couple cell excitability to energy metabolism, thereby providing life-saving protection of stressed cardiomyocytes. The signaling for ATP-sensitive potassium channel expression is still unknown. We tested involvement of biochemical and biophysical parameters and potential transcription factors Forkhead box (FOX) and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1alpha). Right atrial tissues were obtained during surgery from 28 children with heart disease. Expression of K(+)-inward-rectifier subunits Kir6.1/Kir6.2; sulfonyl urea receptors (SURs) SUR1A/B and SUR2A/B; and FOX class O (FOXO) 1, FOXO3, FOXF2, and HIF-1alpha were related to 31 parameters, including personal data, blood chemistry, and echocardiography. Venous hypoxemia (but not other ischemia indicators, such as venous hypercapnia or low glucose) predicts increased Kir6.1 (Phypoxemia (P<0.003). Electrophoretic mobility-shift assays suggest causal links among hypoxia, HIF-1alpha, FOXO1, and Kir6.1. To mimic mild ischemia encountered in some patients, cultured rat atrial myocytes were tested in hypoxia, hypercapnia, or low glucose, with normal conditions serving as the control. Mild hypoxia (24-hour) increases expression of HIF-1alpha, FOXO1, and SUR2A/B/Kir6.1 in culture (P<0.01), whereas hypercapnia and low glucose have no or opposite effects. Gene knockdown of HIF-1alpha or FOXO1 by small-interfering RNAs abolishes hypoxia-induced expression of FOXO1 and SUR2A/B/Kir6.1. These results suggest that low tissue oxygen determines increased expression of the atrial SUR2A/B/Kir6.1 gene via activation of HIF-1alpha-FOXO1. Because increased SUR2A/B/Kir6.1 has known survival benefits, this pathway offers novel therapeutic targets for children with heart disease.

  7. Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... use it again if I begin to have exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. True False True: Many people are concerned about the standard prescription: "2 puffs of albuterol before exercise and every ...

  8. Food related, exercise induced anaphylaxis.

    OpenAIRE

    Caffarelli, C.; TERZI V.; Perrone, F.; Cavagni, G.

    1996-01-01

    Four children under 12 years of age with food dependent, exercise induced anaphylaxis (EIAn) were investigated. These children and five controls performed exercise challenges when fasting and one hour after a meal without food suspected to predispose to the reaction. Patients then performed exercise tests after intake of each suspected food. Three out of 15 food-exercise combination challenges were positive, but no reactions were provoked after exercise without prior intake of suspected foods...

  9. Expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha and its downstream targets in fibroepithelial tumors of the breast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijper, Arno; Groep, P. van der; Wall, E. van der; Diest, P.J. van

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) alpha and its downstream targets carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are key factors in the survival of proliferating tumor cells in a hypoxic microenvironment. We studied the expression and prognostic relevance

  10. ENMD-1198, a novel tubulin-binding agent reduces HIF-1alpha and STAT3 activity in human hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC cells, and inhibits growth and vascularization in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlitt Hans J

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC represents a highly vascularized tumor entity and the process of angiogenesis is essential for the growth of HCC. Importantly, the pro-angiogenic transcription factors HIF-1α and STAT3 have been implicated in HCC progression, thus representing interesting targets for molecular targeted therapy. We hypothesized that therapeutic inhibition of HIF-1α could be achieved by using a novel tubulin-binding agent (ENMD-1198. ENMD-1198 is an analog of 2-methoxyestradiol (2ME2 with antiproliferative and antiangiogenic activity. Methods The human HCC cell lines HUH-7 and HepG2 were used for experiments. Effects of ENMD-1198 on constitutive and inducible (hypoxia, growth factors activation of signaling cascades, including HIF-1α and STAT3, were investigated by Western blotting. Changes in VEGF expression were determined by real-time PCR. Effects of ENMD-1198 on cancer cell migration and invasion were evaluated in in vitro-assays. The growth-inhibitory effects of ENMD-1198 (200 mg/kg/day were determined in a subcutaneous tumor model (HUH-7. Results ENMD-1198 inhibited the phosphorylation of MAPK/Erk, PI-3K/Akt and FAK. Moreover, activation of HIF-1α and STAT3 was dramatically reduced by ENMD-1198, which resulted in lower VEGF mRNA expression (P In vivo, treatment with ENMD-1198 led to a significant reduction in tumor growth, tumor vascularization, and numbers of proliferating tumor cells (P Conclusion The novel microtubule destabilizing agent ENMD-1198 is suitable for inhibiting HIF-1α and STAT3 in human HCC cells and leads to reduced tumor growth and vascularization in vivo. Hence, inhibition of HIF-1α and STAT3 could prove valuable for therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  11. Exercise induced rhabdomyolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ružič Maja

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Rhabdomyolysis is a potentially life threatening disease, characterized by the release of intracellular calcium from skeletal muscles and can result in acute renal failure. Case report. A nineteen year old boy was admitted to the Clinic for Infective Diseases of Clinical Center Novi Sad. The disease was developing gradually and the symptoms were dizziness, muscle pain and dark color of urine. Due to the pathological level of aminotransferase he was hospitalized on the fourth day of the disease beginning with a suspicious diagnosis of acute viral hepatitis. In the hospital course of the disease, a further elevation of serum aminotransferases, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase were registered. Additional serological analyses were done to exclude other possible causes of acute liver lesion. In the neurological status prolonged decontraction of quadriceps muscle was detected and the electromyography was suspicious on neuromyositis. Conclusion. Excessive muscular activity with the strenuous exercise is the leading, but very frequently overlooked, cause of rhabdomyolysis in healthy people. Excessive physical exercise may lead to elevation of the serum activity of aminotransferases and to suspicion of hepatitis.

  12. Adolescents and Exercise Induced Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Pamela; Bickanse, Shanna; Bogenreif, Mike; VanSickle, Kyle

    2008-01-01

    This article defines asthma and exercise induced asthma, and provides information on the triggers, signs, and symptoms of an attack. It also gives treatments for these conditions, along with prevention guidelines on how to handle an attack in the classroom or on the practice field. (Contains 2 tables and 1 figure.)

  13. Nedocromil sodium and exercise induced asthma.

    OpenAIRE

    Chudry, N; Correa, F; Silverman, M.

    1987-01-01

    Serial exercise tests were carried out by 12 children with asthma on two study days. After a control exercise test either nedocromil sodium 4 mg or placebo were given double blind by metered dose inhaler. Highly significant inhibition of exercise induced asthma occurred after nedocromil, lasting for over two hours.

  14. TCDD induces cell migration via NFATc1/ATX-signaling in MCF-7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Anja; Rau, Steffi; Küllertz, Gerhard; Fischer, Bernd; Santos, Anne Navarrete

    2009-01-10

    Breast cancer is characterized, among others, by the concurrence of lipophilic xenobiotica such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-para-dioxin (TCDD) with hypoxic tissue conditions. This condition activates the transcription factors hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) that are known to promote tumor progression. An interrelation between these transcription factors and nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) was implied by gene array analysis. In the present study, the interplay of the three transcription factors was studied and correlated with the migration of MCF-7 cells in response to TCDD and/or hypoxia. An AhR-activation by 10nM TCDD and HIF-1alpha activation by 5% oxygen induced activation of NFATc1. The effects were inhibited by cyclosporine A (CsA), suggesting that the activation of NFAT by AhR or HIF-1alpha signaling is calcineurin-dependent. The expression/activity of the NFAT target gene autotaxin (ATX) was increased. ATX is known to stimulate migration of tumor cells. The hydrolysis product of ATX, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), increased the migration of MCF-7 cells under normoxia but not under hypoxia. This effect correlated with increased migration observed after TCDD treatment. Hypoxia did not promote migration of MCF-7 cells, suggesting that ATX down-stream signaling was inhibited by hypoxia. In conclusion, the TCDD-mediated activation of NFATc1 is suggested to promote cell migration via ATX/LPA-signaling.

  15. MUC1, a new hypoxia inducible factor target gene, is an actor in clear renal cell carcinoma tumor progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, Sébastien; Fauquette, Valérie; Hémon, Brigitte; Lepoivre, Réjane; Briez, Nicolas; Bernard, David; Van Seuningen, Isabelle; Leroy, Xavier; Perrais, Michaël

    2009-07-15

    The hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) signaling pathway is known as the main renal carcinogenetic pathway. MUC1, an O-glycoprotein membrane-bound mucin, is overexpressed in clear renal cell carcinomas (cRCC) with correlation to two major prognostic factors: tumor-node-metastasis stage and nuclear Fürhman grade. We questioned whether there is a direct link between the HIF pathway and MUC1 overexpression in renal tumors. Interestingly, we observed concomitant increase of HIF-1alpha and MUC1 in metastatic cRCC group versus nonmetastatic cRCC group. Using different renal cell models and small interfering RNA assays targeting either HIF-1alpha or YC-1, a HIF-1 pharmacologic inhibitor, we showed induction of MUC1 expression under hypoxia by a HIF-dependent mechanism. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed a direct binding of HIF-1alpha at the MUC1 promoter. In addition, combined site-directed mutagenesis and gel shift assay allowed the identification of two functional putative hypoxia responsive elements at -1488/-1485 and at -1510/-1507 in the promoter. Using a rat kidney model of ischemia/reperfusion, we confirmed in vivo that clamping renal pedicle for 1 hour followed by 2 hours of reperfusion induced increased MUC1 expression. Furthermore, MUC1 knockdown induced significant reduction of invasive and migration properties of renal cancer cells under hypoxia. Altogether, these results show that MUC1 is directly regulated by HIF-1alpha and affects the invasive and migration properties of renal cancer cells. Thus, MUC1 could serve as a potential therapeutic target in cRCC.

  16. AMPKα in Exercise-Induced Substrate Metabolism and Exercise Training-Induced Metabolic and Mitochondrial Adaptations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fentz, Joachim

    could also regulate muscle metabolism during exercise and long-term adaptations to exercise training. However, responses to exercise and exercise training are largely normal in AMPK KO/KD mice. At first hand this could mean that AMPK is not important to exercise/exercise training metabolic regulation......-regulated metabolism and exercise training-induced adaptations are abnormal. This could be due to a more complete ablation of AMPK function and perhaps related to the catalytic properires of the α-subunits. In study 1 we show that deletion of both AMPKα subunits in skeletal muscle of mice decreases exerciseinduced......-subunit. It is proposed to be involved in acute exercise-induced regulation of substrate metabolism as well as the adaptations in muscle protein expression that arise from repeated bouts of exercise, i.e. exercise training. Exercise regulates a plethora of signaling pathways in muscle which includes the activation...

  17. Exercise-induced anaphylaxis and antileukotriene montelukast

    OpenAIRE

    Sapna Gajbhiye; Rajendra Prasad Agrawal; Shubham Atal; Vikalp Tiwari; Pradeep Phadnis

    2015-01-01

    We report a rare case of exercise-induced anaphylaxis (EIA), occurring exclusively with exercise, without any other associated trigger, detected in the prodromal phase, and prevented from additional anaphylaxis episodes by treatment with cetirizine and 10 mg daily of antileukotriene montelukast to date. EIA is a syndrome in which patients experience a spectrum of the symptoms of anaphylaxis ranging from mild cutaneous signs to severe systemic manifestations such as hypotension, syncope, and e...

  18. Exercise-induced endocrine pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, M P; Goodman, L R

    2003-09-01

    There has been a substantial increase in women practicing sports over the past 30 yr. While exercise provides many health benefits, there appears to be a unique set of risks associated with intense exercise for the female athlete. The female athlete triad encompasses these risks, including amenorrhea, osteoporosis and eating disorders. The incidence of menstrual irregularities including primary and secondary amenorrhea and shortened luteal phases is much higher among women partaking in athletics, specifically in sports requiring low body weight for performance and aesthetics. The hormone pattern seen in these amenorrheic athletes includes a decrease in GnRH pulses from the hypothalamus, which results in decreased pulsatile secretion of LH and FSH and shuts down stimulation of the ovary. The recently discovered hormone leptin may also play a large role as a significant mediator of reproductive function. The prevalence of eating disorders is high among female athletes who practice sports which emphasize leanness. Consequently, the cause of menstrual irregularities is not due to the exercise alone, but to chronic inadequate or restrictive caloric intake that does not compensate for the energy expenditure. The most dangerous risk associated with amenorrhea for the female athlete is the impact on the skeleton. Complications associated with amenorrhea include compromised bone density, failure to attain peak bone mass in adolescence and increased risk of stress fractures. The diagnosis of exercise-associated menstrual dysfunctions is one of exclusion. The most effective treatment is to decrease the intensity of the exercise and increase the nutritional intake. Hormone replacement has also been under investigation as a possible treatment.

  19. Molecular Mechanisms in Exercise-Induced Cardioprotection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Golbidi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical inactivity is increasingly recognized as modifiable behavioral risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. A partial list of proposed mechanisms for exercise-induced cardioprotection include induction of heat shock proteins, increase in cardiac antioxidant capacity, expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress proteins, anatomical and physiological changes in the coronary arteries, changes in nitric oxide production, adaptational changes in cardiac mitochondria, increased autophagy, and improved function of sarcolemmal and/or mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channels. It is currently unclear which of these protective mechanisms are essential for exercise-induced cardioprotection. However, most investigations focus on sarcolemmal KATP channels, NO production, and mitochondrial changes although it is very likely that other mechanisms may also exist. This paper discusses current information about these aforementioned topics and does not consider potentially important adaptations within blood or the autonomic nervous system. A better understanding of the molecular basis of exercise-induced cardioprotection will help to develop better therapeutic strategies.

  20. The effect of exercise modality on exercise-induced hypoxemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavin, T P; Stager, J M

    1999-05-03

    To investigate the effect of exercise mode on arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation (SaO2), 13 healthy, actively training men who displayed exercise-induced hypoxemia (EIH) performed two incremental maximal exercise tests: uphill treadmill running and cycle ergometry. At maximum, treadmill running resulted in a lower SaO2 (88.6+/-2% versus 92.6+/-2.0%) a lower ventilatory equivalent for carbon dioxide (VE/VCO2; 28.8+/-0.6 versus 31.2+/-0.9), and a higher maximal oxygen consumption (VO2, MAX; 4.83+/-0.11 l x min(-1) versus 4.61+/-0.14 l x min(-1) when compared to cycle ergometry. When data were combined from maximal running and cycling. SaO2 was correlated to VE/VCO2 (r = 0.54). However, there was no relationship between the differences in SaO2 and ventilation between exercise modes. This suggests that ventilation is important in the maintenance of SaO2, but that the difference observed in SaO2 between treadmill running and cycle ergometry cannot be explained by differences in ventilation and must be due to differences in diffusion limitation or ventilation-perfusion inequality.

  1. Use of post-exercise laryngoscopy to evaluate exercise induced dyspnea.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNally, P

    2010-10-01

    We present the case of a child with asthma who continued to have marked exercise induced dyspnea despite appropriate treatment, and in the face of adequate control of all other asthma symptoms. Spirometry showed a marked truncation of inspiratory flow, and laryngoscopy performed immediately after exercise showed laryngomalacia with dynamic, partial inspiratory obstruction. Exercise induced laryngomalacia (EIL) is a rare cause of exercise induced dyspnea which is diagnosed by post exercise flexible laryngoscopy and may require supraglottoplasty.

  2. [Exercise-induced coronary thrombosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sghaier, A; Milouchi, S; Ghannem, L; Ghannem, L; Ghannem, M

    2017-12-01

    Heavy exertion as a trigger of cardiac events has been known since antiquity as it was already described in 492 BC in the famous Athens Marathon. Myocardial infarction occurring after physical exertion accounts for about 4% of myocardial infarctions. It is more common in men and younger patients. It usually occurs during intense efforts and especially in inactive people with multiple risk factors. It would be more severe with more frequent Q waves of necrosis on the victims' electrocardiograms, with greater troponin release and a more raised GRACE score. Atherosclerotic plaque rupture is at the center of its pathophysiology, this event is responsible of a thrombus formation occluding the coronary artery. The hemodynamic stress imposed on the often-atheromatous coronary arteries during exercise, favor the plaque rupture and the occurrence of myocardial infarctions. To these hemodynamic constraints, are added biochemical and rheological modifications, which favor the formation of an intra-coronary thrombus. The occurrence of acute coronary events during heavy exertion in patients who are often untrained must not make us forget about the benefit of regular exercise on both the life quality and morbimortality levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Sport and exercise-induced migraines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadelson, Craig

    2006-02-01

    Sport and exercise-induced migraines are difficult to distinguish from benign exertional headaches and other headache syndromes. Exertion can be the sole cause, or may be among multiple triggers for an individual's headache. Because approximately 10% of these headaches have an organic origin, a careful history and physical examination is necessary. The hallmark of treatment for exercise-induced migraines tends to be proper warm-up before exercise, minimization of environmental risks, proper sleep hygiene, and good nutrition and hydration; however, in many cases, the pharmacologic solutions that are applied to other types of headaches may also be necessary. Because there is a lack of large trial studies on the athletic headache population, more research on the topic is needed in the future to help clarify the mechanisms, classification, and treatments of these headaches.

  4. Psychosocial Influences on Exercise-Induced Hypoalgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brellenthin, Angelique G; Crombie, Kevin M; Cook, Dane B; Sehgal, Nalini; Koltyn, Kelli F

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine psychosocial influences on exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH). Randomized controlled trial. Clinical research unit in a hospital. Fifty-eight healthy men and women (mean age = 21 ± 3 years) participated in this study. Participants were first asked to complete a series of baseline demographic and psychological questionnaires including the Pain Catastrophizing Scale, the Fear of Pain Questionnaire, and the Family Environment Scale. Following this, they were familiarized with both temporal summation of heat pain and pressure pain testing protocols. During their next session, participants completed the Profile of Mood States, rated the intensity of heat pulses, and indicated their pressure pain thresholds and ratings before and after three minutes of submaximal, isometric exercise. Situational catastrophizing was assessed at the end of the experimental session. Results indicated that experimental pain sensitivity was significantly reduced after exercise ( P   0.05). Positive family environments predicted attenuated pain sensitivity and greater EIH, whereas negative and chronic pain-present family environments predicted worse pain and EIH outcomes. Situational catastrophizing and negative mood state also predicted worse pain and EIH outcomes and were additionally associated with increased ratings of perceived exertion and muscle pain during exercise. This study provides preliminary evidence that psychosocial variables, such as the family environment and mood states, can affect both pain sensitivity and the ability to modulate pain through exercise-induced hypoalgesia.

  5. Imitators of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiss Pnina

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB is described by transient narrowing of the airways after exercise. It occurs in approximately 10% of the general population, while athletes may show a higher prevalence, especially in cold weather and ice rink athletes. Diagnosis of EIB is often made on the basis of self-reported symptoms without objective lung function tests, however, the presence of EIB can not be accurately determined on the basis of symptoms and may be under-, over-, or misdiagnosed. The goal of this review is to describe other clinical entities that mimic asthma or EIB symptoms and can be confused with EIB.

  6. Gastrodia elata Blume extract ameliorates exercise- induced fatigue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-09-06

    Sep 6, 2010 ... GEB extract ameliorates exercise-induced fatigue. Key words: Gastrodia elata Blume, exercise, fatigue. INTRODUCTION. Fatigue is a complex phenomenon that can be described as a time-dependent exercise-induced reduction in the maximal force generating capacity of a muscle (Gandevia,. 2001).

  7. Exercise-Induced Bronchospasm and Allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Caggiano

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sport is an essential part of childhood, with precious and acknowledged positive health effects but the impact of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB significantly reduces participation in physical activity. It is important to recognize EIB, differentiating EIB with or without asthma if the transient narrowing of the airways after exercise is associated with asthmatic symptoms or not, in the way to select the most appropriate treatment among the many treatment options available today. Therapy is prescribed based on symptoms severity but diagnosis of EIB is established by changes in lung function provoked by exercise evaluating by direct and indirect tests. Sometimes, in younger children it is difficult to obtain the registration of difference between the preexercise forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1 value and the lowest FEV1 value recorded within 30 min after exercise, defined as the gold standard, but interrupter resistance, in association with spirometry, has been showed to be a valid alternative in preschool age. Atopy is the main risk factor, as demonstrated by epidemiologic data showing that among the estimated pediatric population with EIB up to 40% of them have allergic rhinitis and 30% of these patients may develop adult asthma, according with atopic march. Adopting the right treatment and prevention, selecting sports with no marked hyperventilation and excessive cooling of the airways, children with EIB can be able to take part in physical activity like all others.

  8. Physical Exercise Can Induce Brain Plasticity and Regulate Mental Function

    OpenAIRE

    Ichiro, KITA; Graduate School of Human Health Science, Tokyo Metropolitan University

    2014-01-01

    Physical exercise can enhance learning and memory, and improve stress-related psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety. There is accumulating evidence that physical exercise can induce morphological and functional alterations in the brain via changes in molecular and cellular plasticity. Thus, it is suggested that the neuroplasticity produced by physical exercise underlies the exercise-induced changes in mental function, including learning and psychological health. Although the ne...

  9. Structural integration in hypoxia-inducible factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Dalei; Potluri, Nalini; Lu, Jingping; Kim, Youngchang; Rastinejad, Fraydoon

    2015-08-20

    The hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) coordinate cellular adaptations to low oxygen stress by regulating transcriptional programs in erythropoiesis, angiogenesis and metabolism. These programs promote the growth and progression of many tumours, making HIFs attractive anticancer targets. Transcriptionally active HIFs consist of HIF-alpha and ARNT (also called HIF-1 beta) subunits. Here we describe crystal structures for each of mouse HIF-2 alpha-ARNT and HIF-1 alpha-ARNT heterodimers in states that include bound small molecules and their hypoxia response element. A highly integrated quaternary architecture is shared by HIF-2 alpha-ARNT and HIF-1 alpha-ARNT, wherein ARNT spirals around the outside of each HIF-alpha subunit. Five distinct pockets are observed that permit small-molecule binding, including PAS domain encapsulated sites and an interfacial cavity formed through subunit heterodimerization. The DNA-reading head rotates, extends and cooperates with a distal PAS domain to bind hypoxia response elements. HIF-alpha mutations linked to human cancers map to sensitive sites that establish DNA binding and the stability of PAS domains and pockets.

  10. PGC-1alpha in exercise- and exercise training-induced metabolic adaptations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Stine Ringholm

    (PGC)-1α is required for exercise-, exercise training- and fasting-induced mRNA and protein responses, respectively, of metabolic, angiogenic and gluconeogenic proteins in liver and adipose tissue in mice, 3) PGC-1α is required for both exercise training and resveratrol mediated prevention of age...... and interferes with the exercise-induced adaptive response in human skeletal muscle. Study II demonstrates that mouse liver glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) mRNA content increased in recovery from acute exercise in both wildtype (WT) and PGC-1α knockout (KO) mice, while phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK......) and pyruvate carboxylase mRNA content did not change in either genotype. Exercise training increased PEPCK protein content in both WT and PGC-1α KO mice. In addition, the mRNA and protein content of cytochrome (Cyt) c and cytochrome c oxidase (COX) subunit I increased in response to acute exercise and exercise...

  11. The potential role of Brachyury in inducing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and HIF-1α expression in breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Chao [Department of Mammary Surgery, Zhongshan Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Zhongshan, 528403 (China); Zhang, Jingjing, E-mail: jingjingzhangzs@163.com [Department of Cancer Radiotherapy, Zhongshan Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Zhongshan, 528403 (China); Fu, Jianhua [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Cancer Center, Zhongshan Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Zhongshan, 528403 (China); Ling, Feihai, E-mail: feihailingfhl@163.com [Department of Mammary Surgery, Zhongshan Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Zhongshan, 528403 (China)

    2015-11-27

    One of transcription factors of the T-box family, Brachyury has been implicated in tumorigenesis of many types of cancers, regulating cancer cell proliferation, metastasis, invasion and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, the role of Brachyury in breast cancer cells has been scarcely reported. The present study aimed to investigate the expression and role of Brachyury in breast cancer. Brachyury expression was analyzed by qRT-PCR and Western blot. The correlations between Brachyury expression and clinicopathological factors of breast cancer were determined. Involvement of EMT stimulation and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) expression induction by Brachyury was also evaluated. Moreover, the effect of Brachyury on tumor growth and metastasis in vivo was examined in a breast tumor xenograft model. Brachyury expression was enhanced in primary breast cancer tissues and Brachyury expression was correlated with tumor stage and lymph node metastasis. Hypoxia enhanced Brachyury expression, the silencing of which blocked the modulation effect of hypoxia on E-cadherin and vimentin expression. Brachyury significantly augmented HIF-1alpha expression via PTEN/Akt signaling as well as accelerated cell proliferation and migration in vitro. Additionally, Brachyury accelerated breast tumor xenograft growth and increased lung metastasis in nude mice. In summary, our data confirmed that Brachyury might contribute to hypoxia-induced EMT of breast cancer and trigger HIF-1alpha expression via PTEN/Akt signaling. - Highlights: • Brachyury expression was correlated with tumor stage and lymph node metastasis. • Hypoxia enhanced Brachyury expression, which contributes to hypoxia-induced EMT. • Brachyury significantly augmented HIF-1alpha expression via PTEN/Akt signaling. • Brachyury accelerated tumor xenograft growth and increased lung metastasis.

  12. Exercise-induced oxidative stress: A tool for “hormesis” and “adaptive response”

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Koyama, Katsuhiro

    2014-01-01

    ... adaptation to physical exercise. It is becoming increasingly clear that exercise-related beneficial adaptations are strongly regulated by exercise-induced oxidative stress, consistent with hormesis theory...

  13. Exercise inducible laryngeal obstruction: diagnostics and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Røksund, Ola Drange; Heimdal, John-Helge; Clemm, Hege; Vollsæter, Maria; Halvorsen, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Obstruction of the central airways is an important cause of exercise-induced inspiratory symptoms (EIIS) in young and otherwise healthy individuals. This is a large, heterogeneous and vastly understudied group of patients. The symptoms are too often confused with those of asthma. Laryngoscopy performed as symptoms evolve during increasing exercise is pivotal, since the larynx plays an important role in symptomatology for the majority. Abnormalities vary between patients, and laryngoscopic findings are important for correct treatment and handling. The simplistic view that all EIIS is due to vocal cord dysfunction [VCD] still hampers science and patient management. Causal mechanisms are poorly understood. Most treatment options are based on weak evidence, but most patients seem to benefit from individualised information and guidance. The place of surgery has not been settled, but supraglottoplasty may cure well-defined severe cases. A systematic clinical approach, more and better research and randomised controlled treatment trials are of utmost importance in this field of respiratory medicine. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Intense and exhaustive exercise induce oxidative stress in skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Thirumalai

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the oxidative stress and antioxidant defense system in the skeletal muscle of male albino rats subjected to strenuous exercise programme. Methods: Wistar strain albino rats were subjected to exhaustive swimming exercise programme daily for a period of five days. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, conjugated dienes, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase were measured in the gastrocnemius muscle of the exercised animals. Results: The elevated levels of TBARS and conjugated dienes indicated the oxidative stress in the gastrocemius muscle of the exercised animals. The depleted activity levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase in the exercise animals indicated the increased oxidative stress and decreased antioxidative defense system in the muscle. Conclusions: The study suggests that prolonged strenuous exercise programme can induce oxidative stress and therefore an optimal level of exercise schedule should be advocated to obtain the maximum benefit of exercise programme.

  15. PERSONALITY DOES NOT INFLUENCE EXERCISE-INDUCED MOOD ENHANCEMENT AMONG FEMALE EXERCISERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. Lane

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the influence of personality on exercise-induced mood changes. It was hypothesised that (a exercise would be associated with significant mood enhancement across all personality types, (b extroversion would be associated with positive mood and neuroticism with negative mood both pre- and post-exercise, and (c personality measures would interact with exercise-induced mood changes. Participants were 90 female exercisers (M = 25.8 yr, SD = 9.0 yr who completed the Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI once and the Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS before and after a 60-minute exercise session. Median splits were used to group participants into four personality types: stable introverts (n = 25, stable extroverts (n = 20, neurotic introverts (n = 26, and neurotic extroverts (n = 19. Repeated measures MANOVA showed significant mood enhancement following exercise across all personality types. Neuroticism was associated with negative mood scores pre- and post-exercise but the effect of extroversion on reported mood was relatively weak. There was no significant interaction effect between exercise-induced mood enhancement and personality. In conclusion, findings lend support to the notion that exercise is associated with improved mood. However, findings show that personality did not influence this effect, although neuroticism was associated with negative mood

  16. HIF1-Alpha Expression Predicts Survival of Patients with Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Marcelo; Mercante, Ana Maria da Cunha; Louro, Iúri Drumond; Gonçalves, Antônio José; de Carvalho, Marcos Brasilino; da Silva, Eloiza Helena Tajara; da Silva, Adriana Madeira Álvares

    2012-01-01

    Background Oral squamous cell carcinoma is an important cause of death and morbidity wordwide and effective prognostic markers are still to be discovered. HIF1α protein is associated with hypoxia response and neovascularization, essential conditions for solid tumors survival. The relationship between HIF1α expression, tumor progression and treatment response in head and neck cancer is still poorly understood. Patients and Methods In this study, we investigated HIF1α expression by immunohistochemistry in tissue microarrays and its relationship with clinical findings, histopathological results and survival of 66 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the lower mouth. Results Our results demonstrated that high HIF1α expression is associated with local disease-free survival, independently from the choice of treatment. Furthermore, high expression of HIF1α in patients treated with postoperative radiotherapy was associated with survival, therefore being a novel prognostic marker in squamous cell carcinoma of the mouth. Additionally, our results showed that MVD was associated with HIF1α expression and local disease relapse. Conclusion These findings suggest that HIF1α expression can be used as a prognostic marker and predictor of postoperative radiotherapy response, helping the oncologist choose the best treatment for each patient. PMID:23028863

  17. Effect of a HIF-1 Alpha Polymorphism on the Incidence and Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    aggressiveness. MATERIALSANDMETHODS Study Population The Physicians’ Health Study (PHS) was a rando- mized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of...PTEN/AKT/ FRAP pathway in human prostate cancer cells: Implications for tumor angiogenesis and therapeutics. Cancer Res 2000;60(6): 1541–1545. 8. Du Z

  18. Effect of a HIF-1 Alpha Polymorphism on the Incidence and Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-01

    factor levels and risk of prostate cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2005;14(6):1557-1561. 34. Percy MJ, Mooney SM, McMullin MF, Flores A...vascular endothelial growth factor in pathological angiogenesis. Breast Cancer Research & Treatment 1995;36(2):127-137. 37. Jackson MW, Bentel JM, Tilley

  19. COMMD1 disrupts HIF-1 alpha/beta dimerization and inhibits human tumor cell invasion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Sluis, Bart; Mao, Xicheng; Zhai, Yali; Groot, Arjan J.; Vermeulen, Jeroen F.; van der Wall, Elsken; van Diest, Paul J.; Hofker, Marten H.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Klomp, Leo W.; Cho, Kathleen R.; Fearon, Eric R.; Vooijs, Marc; Burstein, Ezra

    The gene encoding COMM domain-containing 1 (COMMD1) is a prototypical member of the COMMD gene family that has been shown to inhibit both NF-kappa B- and HIF-mediated gene expression. NF-kappa B and HIF are transcription factors that have been shown to play a role in promoting tumor growth,

  20. Host - HIF- 1alpha Pathway And Hypoxia: In Vitro Studies And Mathematical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-30

    downstream molecular activities are the same when cells are exposed to CoCl2 rather than a low-O2 environment . It is also impossible to correlate...apoptosis. “The implication from these observations is that the brain naturally functions in a low, but controlled, oxygen environment . Acute imbalances...genetics and epigenetics . J. Physiol. 591(Pt 9), 2245–2257. Semenza, G. L. (2004). Hydroxylation of HIF-1: oxygen sensing at the molecular level

  1. HIF1-alpha expression predicts survival of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Marcelo; Mercante, Ana Maria da Cunha; Louro, Iúri Drumond; Gonçalves, Antônio José; de Carvalho, Marcos Brasilino; da Silva, Eloiza Helena Tajara; da Silva, Adriana Madeira Álvares

    2012-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma is an important cause of death and morbidity wordwide and effective prognostic markers are still to be discovered. HIF1α protein is associated with hypoxia response and neovascularization, essential conditions for solid tumors survival. The relationship between HIF1α expression, tumor progression and treatment response in head and neck cancer is still poorly understood. In this study, we investigated HIF1α expression by immunohistochemistry in tissue microarrays and its relationship with clinical findings, histopathological results and survival of 66 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the lower mouth. Our results demonstrated that high HIF1α expression is associated with local disease-free survival, independently from the choice of treatment. Furthermore, high expression of HIF1α in patients treated with postoperative radiotherapy was associated with survival, therefore being a novel prognostic marker in squamous cell carcinoma of the mouth. Additionally, our results showed that MVD was associated with HIF1α expression and local disease relapse. These findings suggest that HIF1α expression can be used as a prognostic marker and predictor of postoperative radiotherapy response, helping the oncologist choose the best treatment for each patient.

  2. Astragalus membranaceus Improves Exercise Performance and Ameliorates Exercise-Induced Fatigue in Trained Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Shao Yeh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Astragalus membranaceus (AM is a popular “Qi-tonifying” herb with a long history of use as a Traditional Chinese Medicine with multiple biological functions. However, evidence for the effects of AM on exercise performance and physical fatigue is limited. We evaluated the potential beneficial effects of AM on ergogenic and anti-fatigue functions following physiological challenge. Male ICR strain mice were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 10 per group for treatment: (1 sedentary control and vehicle treatment (vehicle control; (2 exercise training with vehicle treatment (exercise control; and (3 exercise training with AM treatment at 0.615 g/kg/day (Ex-AM1 or (4 3.075 g/kg/day (Ex-AM5. Both the vehicle and AM were orally administered for 6 weeks. Exercise performance and anti-fatigue function were evaluated by forelimb grip strength, exhaustive swimming time, and levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase after 15-min swimming exercise. Exercise training combined with AM supplementation increased endurance exercise capacity and increased hepatic and muscle glycogen content. AM reduced exercise-induced accumulation of the byproducts blood lactate and ammonia with acute exercise challenge. Moreover, we found no deleterious effects from AM treatment. Therefore, AM supplementation improved exercise performance and had anti-fatigue effects in mice. It may be an effective ergogenic aid in exercise training.

  3. PGC-1alpha in exercise- and exercise training-induced metabolic adaptations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Stine Ringholm

    The aim of the present thesis was to investigate the hypotheses that 1) bed rest reduces metabolic and angiogenic proteins and changes microRNA (miRNA) content as well as alters exercise-induced mRNA responses in human skeletal muscle, 2) Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator...... (PGC)-1α is required for exercise-, exercise training- and fasting-induced mRNA and protein responses, respectively, of metabolic, angiogenic and gluconeogenic proteins in liver and adipose tissue in mice, 3) PGC-1α is required for both exercise training and resveratrol mediated prevention of age....... Furthermore the physical inactivity abolished the exercise-induced mRNA response of PGC-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in skeletal muscle that was present before bed rest. This indicates that just 7 days of physical inactivity reduces the metabolic capacity of human skeletal muscle...

  4. Diversities in hepatic HIF-1, IGF-I/IGFBP-1, LDH/ICD, and their mRNA expressions induced by CoCl(2) in Qinghai-Tibetan plateau mammals and sea level mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xue-Qun; Wang, Shi-Jun; Du, Ji-Zeng; Chen, Xiao-Cheng

    2007-01-01

    Ochotona curzoniae and Microtus oeconomus are the native mammals living on the Qinghai-Tibetan-Plateau of China. The molecular mechanisms of their acclimatization to the Plateau-hypoxia remain unclear. Expressions of hepatic hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I)/IGF binding protein (BP)-1(IGFBP-1; including genes), and key metabolic enzymatic genes [lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)-A/isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICD)] are compared in Qinghai-Tibetan-Plateau mammals and sea-level mice after injection of CoCl(2) (20, 40, or 60 mg/kg) and normobaric hypoxia (16.0% O(2), 10.8% O(2), and 8.0% O(2)) for 6 h, tested by histochemistry, Western blot analysis, ELISA, and RT-PCR. Major results are CoCl(2) markedly increased 1) HIF-1alpha only in mice, 2) hepatic and circulatory IGF-I in M. oeconomus, 3) hepatic IGFBP-1 in mice and O. curzoniae, and 4) LDH-A but reduced ICD mRNA in mice (CoCl(2) 20 mg/kg) but were unchanged in the Tibetan mammals. Normobaric hypoxia markedly 1) increased HIF-1alpha and LDH-A mRNA in mice and M. oeconomus (8.0% O(2)) not in O. curzoniae, and 2) reduced ICD mRNA in mice and M. oeconomus (8.0% O(2)) not in O. curzoniae. Results suggest that 1) HIF-1alpha responsiveness to hypoxia is distinct in lowland mice and plateau mammals, reflecting a diverse tolerance of the three species to hypoxia; 2) CoCl(2) induces diversities in HIF-1, IGF-I/IGFBP-1 protein or genes in mice, M. oeconomus, and O. curzoniae. In contrast, HIF-1 mediates IGFBP-1 transcription only in mice and in M. oeconomus (subjected to severe hypoxia); 3) differences in IGF-I/IGFBP-1 expressions induced by CoCl(2) reflect significant diversities in hormone regulation and cell protection from damage; and 4) activation of anaerobic glycolysis and reduction of Krebs cycle represents strategies of lowland-animals vs. the stable metabolic homeostasis of plateau-acclimatized mammals.

  5. Update on Exercise-Induced Asthma. A Report of the Olympic Exercise Asthma Summit Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storms, William W.; Joyner, David M.

    1997-01-01

    Summarizes results from the Olympic Exercise Asthma Summit Conference, offering the latest on identifying and managing exercise-induced asthma (EIA). Concludes that effective pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatment is available, but EIA is underrecognized and underdiagnosed. Physicians should look for it in all patients, including school…

  6. Personality Does not Influence Exercise-Induced Mood Enhancement Among Female Exercisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Andrew M; Milton, Karen E; Terry, Peter C

    2005-09-01

    The present study investigated the influence of personality on exercise-induced mood changes. It was hypothesised that (a) exercise would be associated with significant mood enhancement across all personality types, (b) extroversion would be associated with positive mood and neuroticism with negative mood both pre- and post-exercise, and (c) personality measures would interact with exercise-induced mood changes. Participants were 90 female exercisers (M = 25.8 yr, SD = 9.0 yr) who completed the Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI) once and the Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS) before and after a 60-minute exercise session. Median splits were used to group participants into four personality types: stable introverts (n = 25), stable extroverts (n = 20), neurotic introverts (n = 26), and neurotic extroverts (n = 19). Repeated measures MANOVA showed significant mood enhancement following exercise across all personality types. Neuroticism was associated with negative mood scores pre- and post-exercise but the effect of extroversion on reported mood was relatively weak. There was no significant interaction effect between exercise-induced mood enhancement and personality. In conclusion, findings lend support to the notion that exercise is associated with improved mood. However, findings show that personality did not influence this effect, although neuroticism was associated with negative mood. Key PointsResearch in general psychology has found that stable personality trait are associated changes in mood states. Ninety females exercisers completed a personality test and mood scales before and after exercise. Results indicated mood changes were not associated with personality, although neuroticism was associated with negative mood.

  7. Exercise-Induced Bronchospasm among School Children in Gusau ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of these, the Exercise-Induced Bronchospasm (EIB) which is a reduction in post exercise Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR), is widely used to define childhood asthma in epidemiological studies. To determine the current prevalence of asthma in childhood in a Northwestern Nigerian town, pupils aged 5–14years were ...

  8. Identification of human exercise-induced myokines using secretome analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Catoire, M.; Mensink, M.; Kalkhoven, E.; Schrauwen, P.; Kersten, S.

    2014-01-01

    Endurance exercise is associated with significant improvements in cardio-metabolic risk parameters. A role for myokines has been hypothesized, yet limited information is available about myokines induced by acute endurance exercise in humans. Therefore, the aim of the study was to identify novel

  9. Anaerobic exercise - Induced changes in serum mineral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anaerobic exercise, a non 02 – dependent energy metabolism leads to transient metabolic changes, which are corrected gradually by homestatic mechanism. We investigated in eight male subjects, the effects of anaerobic exercise after a day sedentary activity on serum mineral concentration. There was significant ...

  10. Perception of exercise induced asthma by children and their parents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Panditi, S; Silverman, M

    2003-01-01

    Exercise induced asthma (EIA) plays an important role in clinical evaluation. There has been little previous work validating EIA as reported directly by children and indirectly by their parents. (1...

  11. Increased Releasability of Skin Mast Cells after Exercise in Patients with Exercise-induced Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Inseon S Choi; Koh, Youngil I.; Chung, Se-Woong; Lim, Ho

    2004-01-01

    The role of lung mast cells in exercise-induced asthma (EIA) is controversial. To investigate whether the skin mast cell releasability is increased after exercise in EIA, 49 young atopic men with or without asthma took part in a free-running test for 6 min and were given skin prick tests using morphine, a mast cell secretagogue, before and after the exercise. The mean diameters of the wheal induced by morphine in patients with EIA were not significantly different from those in patients withou...

  12. Effects of Uric Acid on Exercise-induced Oxidative Stress

    OpenAIRE

    平井, 富弘

    2001-01-01

    We studied effects of uric acid on exercise― induced oxidative stress in humans based on a hypothesis that uric acid acts as an antioxidant to prevent from exercise―induced oxidative stress. Relation between uric acid level in plasma and increase of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS)after the cycle ergometer exercise was examined. Thiobarbituricacid reactive substance in plasma increased after the ergometer exercise. High uric acid in plasma did not result in low increase of TBARS...

  13. Biochemistry of exercise-induced metabolic acidosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robert A. Robergs; Farzenah Ghiasvand; Daryl Parker

    2004-01-01

    The development of acidosis during intense exercise has traditionally been explained by the increased production of lactic acid, causing the release of a proton and the formation of the acid salt sodium lactate...

  14. Exercise-induced hypoalgesia - interval versus continuous mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodesh, Einat; Weissman-Fogel, Irit

    2014-07-01

    Aerobic exercise at approximately 70% of maximal aerobic capacity moderately reduces pain sensitivity and attenuates pain, even after a single session. If the analgesic effects depend on exercise intensity, then high-intensity interval exercise at 85% of maximal aerobic capacity should further reduce pain. The aim of this study was to explore the exercise-induced analgesic effects of high-intensity interval aerobic exercise and to compare them with the analgesic effects of moderate continuous aerobic exercise. Twenty-nine young untrained healthy males were randomly assigned to aerobic-continuous (70% heart rate reserve (HRR)) and interval (4 × 4 min at 85% HRR and 2 min at 60% HRR between cycles) exercise modes, each lasting 30 min. Psychophysical pain tests, pressure and heat pain thresholds (HPT), and tonic heat pain (THP) were conducted before and after exercise sessions. Repeated measures ANOVA was used for data analysis. HPT increased (p = 0.056) and THP decreased (p = 0.013) following exercise unrelated to exercise type. However, the main time effect (pre-/postexercise) was a trend of increased HPT (45.6 ± 1.9 °C to 46.2 ± 1.8 °C; p = 0.082) and a significant reduction in THP (from 50.7 ± 25 to 45.9 ± 25.4 numeric pain scale; p = 0.043) following interval exercise. No significant change was found for the pressure pain threshold following either exercise type. In conclusion, interval exercise (85% HRR) has analgesic effects on experimental pain perception. This, in addition to its cardiovascular, muscular, and metabolic advantages may promote its inclusion in pain management programs.

  15. Eucapnic voluntary hyperventilation in diagnosing exercise-induced laryngeal obstructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Pernille M; Rasmussen, Niels

    2013-11-01

    Exercise-induced laryngeal obstructions (EILOs) cause exercise-related respiratory symptoms (ERRS) and are important differential diagnoses to exercise-induced asthma. The diagnostic method for EILOs includes provocation to induce the obstruction followed by a verification of the obstruction and the degree thereof. The objective of the present study was to examine if a eucapnic voluntary hyperventilation (EVH) test could induce laryngeal obstructions laryngoscopically identical in subtypes and development as seen during an exercise test. EVH and exercise testing with continuous laryngoscopy were performed during a screening of two national athletic teams (n = 67). The laryngoscopic recordings were examined for usability, abnormalities and maximal supraglottic and glottic obstruction using two currently available methods (Eilomea and CLE-score). The participants were asked questions on ERRS, and whether the symptoms experienced during each provocation matched those experienced during regular training. A total of 39 completed both tests. There were no significant differences in subtypes and development thereof, the experience of symptoms, and specificity and sensitivity between the methods. Significantly more recordings obtained during the exercise test were usable for evaluation primarily due to resilient mucus on the tip of the fiber-laryngoscope in the EVH test. Only recordings of six athletes from both provocation methods were usable for evaluation using the Eilomea method (high-quality demand). Amongst these, a linear correlation was found for the glottic obstruction. EVH tests can induce EILOs. However, the present test protocol needs adjustments to secure better visualisation of the larynx during provocation.

  16. Age affects exercise-induced improvements in heart rate response to exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciolac, E G; Roberts, C K; da Silva, J M Rodrigues; Guimarães, G V

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the effects of age on cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), muscle strength and heart rate (HR) response to exercise adaptation in women in response to a long-term twice-weekly combined aerobic and resistance exercise program. 85 sedentary women, divided into young (YG; n=22, 30.3 ± 6.2 years), early middle-aged (EMG; n=28, 44.1 ± 2.5 years), late middle-aged (LMG; n=20, 56.7 ± 3.5 years) and older (OG; n=15, 71.4 ± 6.9 years) groups, had their CRF, muscle strength (1-repetition maximum test) and HR response to exercise (graded exercise test) measured before and after 12 months of combined exercise training. Exercise training improved CRF and muscle strength in all age groups (Pdifferences were observed between groups. Exercise training also improved resting HR and recovery HR in YG and EMG (Pgroup. Combined aerobic and resistance training at a frequency of 2 days/week improves CRF and muscle strength throughout the lifespan. However, exercise-induced improvements in the HR recovery response to exercise may be impaired in late middle-aged and older women. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress Responses in the Pediatric Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Avloniti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adults demonstrate an upregulation of their pro- and anti-oxidant mechanisms in response to acute exercise while systematic exercise training enhances their antioxidant capacity, thereby leading to a reduced generation of free radicals both at rest and in response to exercise stress. However, less information exists regarding oxidative stress responses and the underlying mechanisms in the pediatric population. Evidence suggests that exercise-induced redox perturbations may be valuable in order to monitor exercise-induced inflammatory responses and as such training overload in children and adolescents as well as monitor optimal growth and development. The purpose of this review was to provide an update on oxidative stress responses to acute and chronic exercise in youth. It has been documented that acute exercise induces age-specific transient alterations in both oxidant and antioxidant markers in children and adolescents. However, these responses seem to be affected by factors such as training phase, training load, fitness level, mode of exercise etc. In relation to chronic adaptation, the role of training on oxidative stress adaptation has not been adequately investigated. The two studies performed so far indicate that children and adolescents exhibit positive adaptations of their antioxidant system, as adults do. More studies are needed in order to shed light on oxidative stress and antioxidant responses, following acute exercise and training adaptations in youth. Available evidence suggests that small amounts of oxidative stress may be necessary for growth whereas the transition to adolescence from childhood may promote maturation of pro- and anti-oxidant mechanisms. Available evidence also suggests that obesity may negatively affect basal and exercise-related antioxidant responses in the peripubertal period during pre- and early-puberty.

  18. Treadmill Exercise Induces Hippocampal Astroglial Alterations in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caren Bernardi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical exercise effects on brain health and cognitive performance have been described. Synaptic remodeling in hippocampus induced by physical exercise has been described in animal models, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Changes in astrocytes, the glial cells involved in synaptic remodeling, need more characterization. We investigated the effect of moderate treadmill exercise (20 min/day for 4 weeks on some parameters of astrocytic activity in rat hippocampal slices, namely, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, glutamate uptake and glutamine synthetase (GS activities, glutathione content, and S100B protein content and secretion, as well as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF levels and glucose uptake activity in this tissue. Results show that moderate treadmill exercise was able to induce a decrease in GFAP content (evaluated by ELISA and immunohistochemistry and an increase in GS activity. These changes could be mediated by corticosterone, whose levels were elevated in serum. BDNF, another putative mediator, was not altered in hippocampal tissue. Moreover, treadmill exercise caused a decrease in NO content. Our data indicate specific changes in astrocyte markers induced by physical exercise, the importance of studying astrocytes for understanding brain plasticity, as well as reinforce the relevance of physical exercise as a neuroprotective strategy.

  19. Systemic adaptation to oxidative challenge induced by regular exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radak, Zsolt; Chung, Hae Young; Goto, Sataro

    2008-01-15

    Exercise is associated with increased ATP need and an enhanced aerobic and/or anaerobic metabolism, which results in an increased formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Regular exercise seems to decrease the incidence of a wide range of ROS-associated diseases, including heart disease, type II diabetes, rheumatic arthritis, Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases, and certain cancers. The preventive effect of regular exercise, at least in part, is due to oxidative stress-induced adaptation. The oxidative challenge-related adaptive process of exercise is probably not just dependent upon the generated level of ROS but primarily on the increase in antioxidant and housekeeping enzyme activities, which involves the oxidative damage repair enzymes. Therefore, the effects of exercise resemble the characteristics of hormesis. In addition, it seems that the oxidative challenge-related effects of exercise are systemic. Skeletal muscle, liver, and brain have very different metabolic rates and functions during exercise, but the adaptive response is very similar: increased antioxidant/damage repair enzyme activity, lower oxidative damage, and increased resistance to oxidative stress, due to the changes in redox homeostasis. Hence, it is highly possible that the well-known beneficial effects of exercise are due to the capability of exercise to produce increased levels of ROS. Or in other words, it seems that the vulnerability of the body to oxidative stress and diseases is significantly enhanced in a sedentary compared to a physically active lifestyle.

  20. Exercise-related respiratory symptoms and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in industrial bakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minov, Jordan B; Karadzinska-Bislimovska, Jovanka D; Vasilevska, Kristin V; Stoleski, Saso B; Mijakoski, Dragan G

    2013-01-01

    In order to assess prevalence and characteristics of exercise-related respiratory symptoms (ERRS) and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) in industrial bakery, the authors performed a cross-sectional study including 57 bakers and an equal number of office workers studied as a control. Evaluation of examined subjects included completion of a questionnaire, skin prick tests to common inhalant and occupational allergens, spirometry, and exercise and histamine challenge. The authors found a similar prevalence of ERRS and EIB in both bakers and controls. EIB was significantly associated with atopy, asthma, family history of asthma, and positive histamine challenge in either group, whereas in bakers it was closely related to sensitization to occupational allergens (p = .032). Bronchial reaction to exercise was significantly higher in bakers with EIB (25.7% vs 19.2%; p = .021). These findings suggest that occupational exposure in industrial bakery may accentuate bronchoconstrictive response to exercise.

  1. Exercise-induced respiratory symptoms not due to asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Chetan A; Batterby, Eugenie; Van Asperen, Peter; Cooper, Peter; Selvadurai, Hiran; Fitzgerald, Dominic A

    2014-10-01

    This manuscript describes two interesting patients who had exercise-induced symptoms that unmasked an alternative underlying diagnosis. The first is an 8-year-old boy who was treated for asthma all his life but really had exercise-induced stridor (labelled as wheeze) causing significant exercise limitation, which was due to a double aortic arch with the right arch compressing the trachea. The second case describes the diagnosis of vocal cord dysfunction in a 13-year-old anxious high achiever. He also initially had exercise-induced symptoms treated as exercise-induced wheeze but again had a stridor due to vocal cord dysfunction. Both these cases demonstrate the importance of detailed history including during exercise, which can unmask alternative diagnosis. Another important message is that if there is no response to bronchodilator treatment with absence of typical signs and symptoms of asthma, alternative diagnosis should be considered. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2011 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  2. Exercise-induced metallothionein expression in human skeletal muscle fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penkowa, Milena; Keller, Pernille; Keller, Charlotte

    2005-01-01

    in response to 3 h of bicycle exercise performed by healthy men and in resting controls. Both MT-I + II proteins and MT-II mRNA expression increased significantly in both type I and II muscle fibres after exercise. Moreover, 24 h after exercise the levels of MT-II mRNA and MT-I + II proteins were still highly...... in both type I and II muscle fibres. This is the first report demonstrating that MT-I + II are significantly induced in human skeletal muscle fibres following exercise. As MT-I + II are antioxidant factors that protect various tissues during pathological conditions, the MT-I + II increases post exercise...... may represent a mechanism whereby contracting muscle fibres are protected against cellular stress and injury....

  3. Augmentation of leptin and hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha mRNAs in the pre-eclamptic placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwagaki, S; Yokoyama, Y; Tang, L; Takahashi, Y; Nakagawa, Y; Tamaya, T

    2004-05-01

    The placenta is a major source of leptin in the fetomaternal circulation, although its physiological role remains to be clarified. Leptin in the fetomaternal circulation is proposed to be a marker of acute stress in the fetus, and the fetus suffering from pre-eclampsia would be under chronic stress. In 16 pre-eclamptic placentas, the expressions of leptin, hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha (HIF1alpha) and leptin receptor mRNAs were analyzed by semi-quantitative reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and compared with clinical data. The co-expressions of leptin and the isoforms of the leptin receptor were observed in all the pre-eclamptic placentas. Leptin mRNA was significantly augmented in the pre-eclamptic placentas, although the level in fetal plasma was not high. The level of the expression of leptin mRNA was correlated with the placental HIF1alpha mRNA level and fetal body weight, but not with the levels of the leptin receptor isoforms in the pre-eclamptic placentas. This observation may suggest that autocrine/paracrine regulation of leptin exists in the human placenta and is upregulated in the pre-eclamptic placenta.

  4. Exercise-Induced Acute Bilateral Upper-Arm Compartment Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian C. Traub

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a rare case of acute exercise-induced bilateral upper-arm compartment syndrome in a patient who, after a year-long hiatus from exercise, subjected his upper-extremities to the stress of over 100 pushups. The patient presented with severe pain of the bilateral biceps and triceps and complaints of dark urine. Decompressive fasciotomy was performed followed by an intensive care unit (ICU stay for associated myoglobinuria secondary to rhabdomyolysis. The patient suffered no long-term sequelae as a result of his conditions and recovered full function of the bilateral upper-extremities. Albeit rare, acute exercise-induced compartment syndrome should be considered as a diagnosis following unaccustomed bouts of exercise.

  5. Exercise-induced phospho-proteins in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deshmukh, A S; Hawley, J A; Zierath, J R

    2008-01-01

    Efforts to identify exercise-induced signaling events in skeletal muscle have been influenced by ground-breaking discoveries in the insulin action field. Initial discoveries demonstrating that exercise enhances insulin sensitivity raised the possibility that contraction directly modulates insulin...... receptor signaling events. Although the acute effects of exercise on glucose metabolism are clearly insulin-independent, the canonical insulin signaling cascade has been used as a framework by investigators in an attempt to resolve the mechanisms by which muscle contraction governs glucose metabolism....... This review focuses on recent advances in our understanding of exercise-induced signaling pathways governing glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle. Particular emphasis will be placed on the characterization of AS160, a novel Akt substrate that plays a role in the regulation of glucose transport....

  6. Exercise-induced inspiratory symptoms in school children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchvald, Frederik; Phillipsen, Lue Drasbaek; Hjuler, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Exercise-induced inspiratory symptoms (EIIS) have multiple causes, one of which is exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO). There is limited knowledge regarding EIIS in children, both in primary care practices and in pediatric asthma clinics. The aim of this study...... was to describe the feasibility of a diagnostic methodology and its results in a cohort of children with EIIS referred to our tertiary pediatric pulmonary center. METHODS: This study analyzed consecutively collected data in children from East Denmark and Greater Copenhagen referred during a 3½ years period....... The continuous laryngoscopy exercise (CLE) test directly visualizes the larynx using a flexible laryngoscope during a maximal exercise test. A post-test questionnaire evaluated the subjective impact of the examination. RESULTS: The study included 60 children (37 girls/23 boys) with a mean age of 14 years (range...

  7. Ischemic Preconditioning Blunts Muscle Damage Responses Induced by Eccentric Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Alexander; Behringer, Michael; Harmsen, Jan-Frieder; Mayer, Constantin; Krauspe, Rüdiger; Zilkens, Christoph; Schumann, Moritz

    2017-08-22

    Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) is known to reduce muscle damage induced by ischemia and reperfusion-injury (I/R-Injury) during surgery. Due to similarities between the pathophysiological formation of I/R-injury and eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD), as characterized by an intracellular accumulation of Ca, an increased production of reactive oxygen species and increased pro-inflammatory signaling, the purpose of the present study was to investigate whether IPC performed prior to eccentric exercise may also protect against EIMD. Nineteen healthy men were matched to an eccentric only (ECC) (n=9) or eccentric proceeded by IPC group (IPC+ECC) (n=10). The exercise protocol consisted of bilateral biceps curls (3x10 repetitions at 80% of the concentric 1RM). In IPC+ECC, IPC was applied bilaterally at the upper arms by a tourniquet (200 mmHg) immediately prior to the exercise (3x5 minutes of occlusion, separated by 5 minutes of reperfusion). Creatine Kinase (CK), arm circumference, subjective pain (VAS score) and radial displacement (Tensiomyography, Dm) were assessed before IPC, pre-exercise, post-exercise, 20 minutes-, 2 hours-, 24 hours-, 48 hours- and 72 hours post-exercise. CK differed from baseline only in ECC at 48h (pIPC+ECC (between groups: 24h: p=0.004, 48h: pIPC+ECC (between groups: all pIPC+ECC (between-groups pIPC performed prior to a bout of eccentric exercise of the elbow flexors blunts EIMD and exercise-induced pain, while maintaining the contractile properties of the muscle.

  8. Increased releasability of skin mast cells after exercise in patients with exercise-induced asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Inseon S; Koh, Youngil I; Chung, Se-Woong; Lim, Ho

    2004-10-01

    The role of lung mast cells in exercise-induced asthma (EIA) is controversial. To investigate whether the skin mast cell releasability is increased after exercise in EIA, 49 young atopic men with or without asthma took part in a free-running test for 6 min and were given skin prick tests using morphine, a mast cell secretagogue, before and after the exercise. The mean diameters of the wheal induced by morphine in patients with EIA were not significantly different from those in patients without EIA before exercise, although the baseline lung function was significantly lower and the airway hyperresponsiveness, the peripheral blood eosinophil count, and the size of the wheal in response to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus were significantly higher in patients with EIA. However, the differences of the morphine-induced wheal diameter between patients with EIA and those without EIA became significant at 120 min after exercise (presponses to histamine were not significantly different. These results suggest that exercise increases the releasability of skin mast cells in EIA patients whose asthma/allergy are relatively severe.

  9. Treatment of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backer, Vibeke; Sverrild, Asger; Porsbjerg, Celeste

    2013-01-01

    impairment of performance to severe bronchospasm and a large reduction in FEV1. Treatment of EIB varies from daily to less frequent therapy, depending on the level of activity. In this article, the authors evaluate the treatment possibilities before, during, and after exercise. They also review medications...

  10. Exercise-induced hyperkalemia in hypothyroid dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, IA; van Emst, MG; Verkleij, CB; Peeters, ME; Boer, P; Rijnberk, A; Everts, ME

    We investigated the effect of hypothyroidism in dogs on (1) the Na+-, K+-ATPase concentration in skeletal muscle, and (2) potassium (K+) homeostasis at rest and during exercise. Prior to and I year after induction of hypothyroidism by surgery and subsequent radiothyroidectomy, the Na+-, K+-ATPase

  11. Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage and Running Economy in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio de Oliveira Assumpção

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Running economy (RE, defined as the energy demand for a given velocity of submaximal running, has been identified as a critical factor of overall distance running performance. Plyometric and resistance trainings, performed during a relatively short period of time (~15–30 days, have been successfully used to improve RE in trained athletes. However, these exercise types, particularly when they are unaccustomed activities for the individuals, may cause delayed onset muscle soreness, swelling, and reduced muscle strength. Some studies have demonstrated that exercise-induced muscle damage has a negative impact on endurance running performance. Specifically, the muscular damage induced by an acute bout of downhill running has been shown to reduce RE during subsequent moderate and high-intensity exercise (>65% VO2max. However, strength exercise (i.e., jumps, isoinertial and isokinetic eccentric exercises seems to impair RE only for subsequent high-intensity exercise (~90% VO2max. Finally, a single session of resistance exercise or downhill running (i.e., repeated bout effect attenuates changes in indirect markers of muscle damage and blunts changes in RE.

  12. Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage and Running Economy in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assumpção, Cláudio de Oliveira; Lima, Leonardo Coelho Rabello; Oliveira, Felipe Bruno Dias; Greco, Camila Coelho; Denadai, Benedito Sérgio

    2013-01-01

    Running economy (RE), defined as the energy demand for a given velocity of submaximal running, has been identified as a critical factor of overall distance running performance. Plyometric and resistance trainings, performed during a relatively short period of time (~15–30 days), have been successfully used to improve RE in trained athletes. However, these exercise types, particularly when they are unaccustomed activities for the individuals, may cause delayed onset muscle soreness, swelling, and reduced muscle strength. Some studies have demonstrated that exercise-induced muscle damage has a negative impact on endurance running performance. Specifically, the muscular damage induced by an acute bout of downhill running has been shown to reduce RE during subsequent moderate and high-intensity exercise (>65% VO2max). However, strength exercise (i.e., jumps, isoinertial and isokinetic eccentric exercises) seems to impair RE only for subsequent high-intensity exercise (~90% VO2max). Finally, a single session of resistance exercise or downhill running (i.e., repeated bout effect) attenuates changes in indirect markers of muscle damage and blunts changes in RE. PMID:23431253

  13. Exercise-Induced Syncope in a Sedentary Woman

    OpenAIRE

    Elashery, Ahmad Ramy; Rickard, John W.; Zakaria, Sammy

    2014-01-01

    Vasovagal (neurocardiogenic) syncope, a subtype of reflex syncope, has many well-known triggers. However, we found no previous report of vasovagal exercise-induced syncope in a sedentary person. We present the case of a 35-year-old sedentary woman who experienced vasovagal syncope as she underwent an exercise stress test. Results of evaluations, including resting and stress electrocardiography and echocardiography, were normal. Her presentation is highly unusual: syncope has typically not bee...

  14. Food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis to flaxseed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Gall

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reports on a 26-year-old atopic patient suffering from seasonal rhinoconjunctivitis and flexural eczemas. On two occasions, he experienced nausea, generalized urticaria and dyspnea within 2 h after consumption of a wholemeal roll and subsequent exercise (football training or walking. In each case, the episode necessitated intravenous emergency therapy with an antihistamine and a corticosteroid. In order to elucidate the two exercise-induced anaphylactic events we performed prick tests and the radioallergosorbent test (RAST with the ingredients of the wholemeal roll. Only flaxseed gave positive results. In addition, we performed an exercise test on a bicycle ergometer (15 min at 150 W and an oral challenge test with foods, using a double-blind and placebo-controlled study. Only oral challenge with a teaspoon of flaxseed with additional exercise on the bicycle ergometer elicited itching, urticaria, nausea, coughing and dyspnea. The oral challenge with flaxseed followed by exercise induced immediate-type reactions and, thus, led to the diagnosis of food-dependent exercise- induced anaphylaxis to flaxseed.

  15. ACUTE EXERCISE-INDUCED MUSCLE INJURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J McKune

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available While much research has recently been focussing on the chronic effects of overtraining, the acute damaging effects of individual eccentric exercise bouts on muscle remain of interest and underlie long-term training effects. Systemic markers of muscle damage are limited in terms of sensitivity and reliability. A clearer insight into the extent of the damage and mechanisms involved are being obtained from ultrastructural, functional and molecular examination of the muscle. There are currently indications that while the initial muscle damage may appear to have negative consequences in the short term, intense eccentric exercise appears to initiate a remodelling process and promote favourable adaptation of muscle following training, which has applications for promoting health, rehabilitation and sports performance.

  16. Exercise-induced bronchospasm among athletes in Lower Silesia Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolanczyk-Medrala, Anna; Dor, Anna; Szczepaniak, Wioletta; Tomkowicz, Tomasz; Liebhart, Jerzy; Panaszek, Bernard; Medrala, Wojciech

    2008-11-01

    A few studies have reported data on the prevalence of exercise-induced bronchospasm in high school and university athletes. Recently published data suggest that exercise-induced bronchospasm may affect up to 39% of American university athletes. To date, no data describing this pathology in athletes from Central Europe have been published. The aim of the present study was to establish the prevalence of exercise-induced bronchospasm in pupils attending sports mastership classes in secondary school as well as students of the University of Physical Education in Wroclaw. The participants were 77 athletes (30 women and 47 men) aged 16-27 years (mean 17.3 years). Only one athlete (1.29%) diagnosed with atopic asthma before testing experienced a fall in forced expiratory volume in one second (12.9% FEV(1)) compared with baseline, which showed that the exercise test result was positive. From a clinical point of view, the ventilation disturbance was asymptomatic. In the other participants, there were slight but statistically significant rises in FEV(1) (P exercise-induced bronchospasm in the population of athletes examined.

  17. ACUTE EXERCISE-INDUCED MUSCLE INJURY

    OpenAIRE

    Mckune, Andrew J; Stuart J Semple; Edith M Peters-Futre

    2012-01-01

    While much research has recently been focussing on the chronic effects of overtraining, the acute damaging effects of individual eccentric exercise bouts on muscle remain of interest and underlie long-term training effects. Systemic markers of muscle damage are limited in terms of sensitivity and reliability. A clearer insight into the extent of the damage and mechanisms involved are being obtained from ultrastructural, functional and molecular examination of the muscle. There are currently i...

  18. Exercise induced fatigue: unfit or unwell?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moore, D M

    2011-05-01

    This case report outlines the diagnoses of a rare myophosphorylase deficiency (McArdle Syndrome) in a unique way. A set of characteristic values from a Cardiopulmonary Exercise Test (CPET) combined with a typical patient history pointed to a failure of the glycolytic pathway in the skeletal muscle. McArdle Syndrome was confirmed with a skeletal muscle biopsy. There is no evidence of such a diagnostic method in the literature.

  19. Massive insulin secretion in response to anaerobic exercise in exercise-induced hyperinsulinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, T; Friedmann, B; Okun, J G; Schwab, M A; Otonkoski, T; Bauer, T; Bärtsch, P; Mayatepek, E

    2005-11-01

    Exercise-induced hyperinsulinism (EIHI) is a recently described entity characterised by recurrent episodes of hypoglycaemia induced by physical exercise. The index patient for this disorder and a matched control were subjected to aerobic and anaerobic exercise tests on a cycle ergometer. Aerobic exercise was performed at an intensity of 60% of the respective 4 mmol/l lactate threshold (40 min). Anaerobic exercise with an intensity corresponding to 130% VO2max lead to exertion within 2-3 min and elicited comparable maximal lactate levels in both subjects (10-11 mmol/l). The patient experienced a massive increase in insulin from 34 to 649 mU/l after the anaerobic test, and a lower increase in insulin from 27 to 79 mU/l during the aerobic test. Insulin concentration remained unchanged during both tests in the control. Epinephrine increased in the EIHI patient, which was probably a counterregulatory response to hypoglycaemia. The activity of lactate dehydrogenase of the index patient in isolated leukocytes as well as the response to inhibition of oxamate was normal. The hypothesis of abnormal transport or metabolism of lactate/pyruvate in the beta-cells of patients with EIHI was further supported by the parallel increase of lactate and insulin in this study elicited in particular by anaerobic exercise.

  20. A novel thiol compound, N-acetylcysteine amide, attenuates allergic airway disease by regulating activation of NF-kappaB and hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Sun; Kim, So Ri; Park, Hee Sun; Park, Seoung Ju; Min, Kyung Hoon; Lee, Ka Young; Choe, Yeong Hun; Hong, Sang Hyun; Han, Hyo Jin; Lee, Young Rae; Kim, Jong Suk; Atlas, Daphne; Lee, Yong Chul

    2007-12-31

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in the pathogenesis of airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness. Recent studies have demonstrated that antioxidants are able to reduce airway inflammation and hyperreactivity in animal models of allergic airway disease. A newly developed antioxidant, small molecular weight thiol compound, N-acetylcysteine amide (AD4) has been shown to increase cellular levels of glutathione and to attenuate oxidative stress related disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and multiple sclerosis. However, the effects of AD4 on allergic airway disease such as asthma are unknown. We used ovalbumin (OVA)-inhaled mice to evaluate the role of AD4 in allergic airway disease. In this study with OVA-inhaled mice, the increased ROS generation, the increased levels of Th2 cytokines and VEGF, the increased vascular permeability, the increased mucus production, and the increased airway resistance in the lungs were significantly reduced by the administration of AD4. We also found that the administration of AD4 decreased the increases of the NF-kappaB and hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) levels in nuclear protein extracts of lung tissues after OVA inhalation. These results suggest that AD4 attenuates airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness by regulating activation of NF-kappaB and HIF-1alpha as well as reducing ROS generation in allergic airway disease.

  1. The influence of exercise-induced fatigue on cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Robert D; Romine, Mathew W; O'connor, Patrick J; Tomporowski, Phillip D

    2012-05-01

    Although anecdotal reports suggest that information processing and decision making is impaired immediately following prolonged periods of physical activity, results obtained from laboratory studies of exercise-induced fatigue have been inconsistent. Fatigue effects may be task specific and related to the time of post-exercise testing. The present study examined the effects on adults' performance of two cognitive tasks that differed in processing demands over an 80-min period of fatigue. Thirty young adult men and women were randomly assigned to either an exercise group and completed a 60-min bout of cycle ergometry at 90% ventilatory threshold or a control group and rested for 60 min. Following interventions, each participant completed a simple and complex version of a visual perceptual discrimination test, a 40-min memory-based vigilance test and a repetition of the visual perceptual discrimination tests. Those who exercised evidenced significant decrements in performance on complex perceptual-discrimination tasks compared to participants who rested. The response time of exercisers during a memory-demanding vigilance test were significantly slower than those of participants who rested; however, detection performance did not differ between groups neither was there a decrease in target detection across the vigil. The effects of exercise-induced fatigue may be task specific, with greater effects on perceptual tasks, which involve relatively automatic processing, compared to effortful memory-based tasks.

  2. Regulation of PGC-1α and exercise training-induced metabolic adaptations in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Nina

    -induced improvements in skeletal muscle metabolic capacity, but may contribute to the exercise training-induced maintenance of skeletal muscle mass. In addition, the results indicate an exercise intensity dependent regulation of autophagy in skeletal muscle and suggest that PGC-1 α regulates both acute and exercise...... and intracellular signalling in human skeletal muscle depend on adrenaline levels or metabolic stress. 2) PGC-1α mediated exercise and exercise training-induced adaptive metabolic responses in mouse skeletal muscle depend on exercise intensity. 3) β-adrenergic signalling contributes to exercise training......-induced metabolic adaptations in mouse skeletal muscle through PGC-1α . Paper I demonstrated that di erences in plasma adrenaline and muscle metabolic stress during exercise do not reinforce exercise-induced PGC-1 α mRNA response in human skeletal muscle. In addition, di erences in exercise-induced AMPK and p38...

  3. Exercise-induced syncope in a sedentary woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elashery, Ahmad Ramy; Rickard, John W; Zakaria, Sammy

    2014-12-01

    Vasovagal (neurocardiogenic) syncope, a subtype of reflex syncope, has many well-known triggers. However, we found no previous report of vasovagal exercise-induced syncope in a sedentary person. We present the case of a 35-year-old sedentary woman who experienced vasovagal syncope as she underwent an exercise stress test. Results of evaluations, including resting and stress electrocardiography and echocardiography, were normal. Her presentation is highly unusual: syncope has typically not been associated with exercise except in young athletes, people with structural heart abnormalities, or people with a prolonged QT syndrome. To our knowledge, this is the first report of vasovagal syncope associated with exercise in a sedentary patient who had normal cardiac and electrophysiologic function. We suggest possible physiologic mechanisms and diagnostic strategies.

  4. Neuromuscular fatigue induced by whole-body vibration exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Saugy, Jonas; Cardinale, Marco; Micallef, Jean-Paul; Place, Nicolas

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the magnitude and the origin of neuromuscular fatigue induced by half-squat static whole-body vibration (WBV) exercise, and to compare it to a non-WBV condition. Nine healthy volunteers completed two fatiguing protocols (WBV and non-WBV, randomly presented) consisting of five 1-min bouts of static half-squat exercise with a load corresponding to 50 % of their individual body mass. Neuromuscular fatigue of knee and ankle muscles was investigated before and immediately after each fatiguing protocol. The main outcomes were maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) torque, voluntary activation, and doublet peak torque. Knee extensor MVC torque decreased significantly (P fatiguing protocols. Doublet peak torque decreased significantly and to a similar extent following WBV and non-WBV exercise, for both knee extensors (-25 %; P fatigue and did not change its causative factors compared to non-WBV half-squat resistive exercise in recreationally active subjects.

  5. Exercise and obesity-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo-Bum Kwak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The skeletal muscle in our body is a major site for bioenergetics and metabolism during exercise. Carbohydrates and fats are the primary nutrients that provide the necessary energy required to maintain cellular activities during exercise. The metabolic responses to exercise in glucose and lipid regulation depend on the intensity and duration of exercise. Because of the increasing prevalence of obesity, recent studies have focused on the cellular and molecular mechanisms of obesity-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. Accumulation of intramyocellular lipid may lead to insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. In addition, lipid intermediates (e.g., fatty acyl-coenzyme A, diacylglycerol, and ceramide impair insulin signaling in skeletal muscle. Recently, emerging evidence linking obesity-induced insulin resistance to excessive lipid oxidation, mitochondrial overload, and mitochondrial oxidative stress have been provided with mitochondrial function. This review will provide a brief comprehensive summary on exercise and skeletal muscle metabolism, and discuss the potential mechanisms of obesity-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle.

  6. cyclooxygenase inhibitors and the exercise-induced stress response

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pain, trauma and exercise, stimulate prostaglandin synthesis. The mechanisms underlying this stimulation usually ... sor-induced prostaglandin synthesis, in turn, initiates and modulates many aspects of the stress .... known.9 The best known is aspirin, synthesised from salicylic acid, which inhibits the activity of COX-1 by ...

  7. WEST AFRICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Exercise-Induced

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-04-02

    Apr 2, 2017 ... of the bronchi of asthmatic children to various challenge tests differentiate them from ... determine the current prevalence of asthma in childhood in a ... Abbreviations: EIB, Exercise-Induced Bronchospasm; ISAAC, International Study on Asthma and Allergy in Childhood; PEFR, Peak Expiratory. Flow Rate.

  8. The prevalence of exercise-induced asthma among school children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exercise-induced asthma (EIA) is one of the major factors that affect optimal performance in sport. The prevalence of EIA is reported to be on the increase among school children worldwide. The aim of this study was to indicate EIA prevalence among primary-school children in South Africa. A field study determined the ...

  9. Impact of a 12weeks supervised exercise training program on pulmonary functions of patients with exercise induced asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Heba, Helmy A.; Ashraf, Kotb A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Exercise induced bronchoconstriction typically develops within 5–15 min after completing exercise. Patients develop typical asthma symptoms or sometimes troublesome cough, which usually resolve spontaneously within 30–45 min. Previous studies tried to find the best way for these subjects aiming to improve exercise performance, respiratory symptoms and quality of life without provoking this type of asthma. Objective: To investigate the effect of supervised exercise training on s...

  10. Hemoconcentration induced by exercise: Revisiting the Dill and Costill equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alis, R; Sanchis-Gomar, F; Primo-Carrau, C; Lozano-Calve, S; Dipalo, M; Aloe, R; Blesa, J R; Romagnoli, M; Lippi, G

    2015-12-01

    The Dill and Costill equation is used to estimate the exercise-induced hemoconcentration. However, this calculation requires drawing an extra whole-blood sample, which cannot be frozen and has to be analyzed with dedicate instrumentation in a relative short time. The aim of the present study was to explore the usefulness of some serum biochemical parameters to estimate hemoconcentration induced by exhaustive exercise. Fourteen healthy male subjects (19-34 years) performed a15-min running test at 110% of anaerobic threshold speed. Hemoglobin, hematocrit, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), creatinine, gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), total-proteins, albumin, total calcium (Ca), K(+), Na(+), and Cl(-) were determined in blood samples taken before, after exercise, and after a 30-min recovery period. Plasma volume loss (ΔPV) was calculated by Dill and Costill equation. At post-exercise and after recovery, the percentage increments of total-proteins, albumin, GGT and Ca correlated significantly with ΔPV. Bland-Altman analyses showed that correcting BNP, creatinine, and K(+) concentration by Ca percentage increments yield biases and limits of agreement that are acceptable when compared with Dill and Costill equation correction. Ca concentration may be used as a hemoconcentration biomarker in high-intensity exercise, which would allow scientists and physicians avoid extra costs, facilitate in-field research, and delayed estimation of hemoconcentration using stored serum samples. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The prevention and treatment of exercise-induced muscle damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howatson, Glyn; van Someren, Ken A

    2008-01-01

    Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) can be caused by novel or unaccustomed exercise and results in a temporary decrease in muscle force production, a rise in passive tension, increased muscle soreness and swelling, and an increase in intramuscular proteins in blood. Consequently, EIMD can have a profound effect on the ability to perform subsequent bouts of exercise and therefore adhere to an exercise training programme. A variety of interventions have been used prophylactically and/or therapeutically in an attempt to reduce the negative effects associated with EIMD. This article focuses on some of the most commonly used strategies, including nutritional and pharmacological strategies, electrical and manual therapies and exercise. Long-term supplementation with antioxidants or beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate appears to provide a prophylactic effect in reducing EIMD, as does the ingestion of protein before and following exercise. Although the administration of high-dose NSAIDs may reduce EIMD and muscle soreness, it also attenuates the adaptive processes and should therefore not be prescribed for long-term treatment of EIMD. Whilst there is some evidence that stretching and massage may reduce muscle soreness, there is little evidence indicating any performance benefits. Electrical therapies and cryotherapy offer limited effect in the treatment of EIMD; however, inconsistencies in the dose and frequency of these and other interventions may account for the lack of consensus regarding their efficacy. Both as a cause and a consequence of this, there are very few evidence-based guidelines for the application of many of these interventions. Conversely, there is unequivocal evidence that prior bouts of eccentric exercise provide a protective effect against subsequent bouts of potentially damaging exercise. Further research is warranted to elucidate the most appropriate dose and frequency of interventions to attenuate EIMD and if these interventions attenuate the

  12. The effects of pre-exercise vibration stimulation on the exercise-induced muscle damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Yun; Kang, Da-Haeng; Lee, Joon-Hee; O, Se-Min; Jeon, Jae-Keun

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the effects of pre-induced muscle damage vibration stimulation on the pressure-pain threshold and muscle-fatigue-related metabolites of exercise-induced muscle damage. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty healthy, adult male subjects were randomly assigned to the pre-induced muscle damage vibration stimulation group, post-induced muscle damage vibration stimulation group, or control group (n=10 per group). To investigate the effects of pre-induced muscle damage vibration stimulation, changes in the pressure-pain threshold (lb), creatine kinase level (U/L), and lactate dehydrogenase level (U/L) were measured and analyzed at baseline and at 24 hours, 48 hours, and 72 hours after exercise. [Results] The pressure-pain thresholds and concentrations of creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase varied significantly in each group and during each measurement period. There were interactions between the measurement periods and groups, and results of the post-hoc test showed that the pre-induced muscle damage vibration stimulation group had the highest efficacy among the groups. [Conclusion] Pre-induced muscle damage vibration stimulation is more effective than post-induced muscle damage vibration stimulation for preventing muscle damage.

  13. Exercise-induced muscle damage following dance and sprint-specific exercise in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Meghan A; Howatson, Glyn; Keane, Karen; Stevenson, Emma J

    2016-11-01

    There is a paucity of studies investigating exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) in females and only one in response to dance-type exercise. This study sought to firstly elucidate the physiological profile of EIMD following a dance-specific protocol, and second to compare the magnitude of damage to that experienced following a sport-specific protocol in physically active females. Twenty-nine female recreational dancers (19±1 years) were recruited. Participants completed either a dance-specific protocol (DPFT; N.=15) or sport-specific repeated sprint protocol (SSRS; N.=14). Muscle soreness, limb girths, creatine kinase (CK), countermovement jump height (CMJ), reactive strength index (RSI), maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and 30 m sprint time were recorded pre, 0-, 24-, 48-, and 72 h post exercise. The DPFT induced muscle damage, with significant time effects for all variables except RSI. However the response was acute, and muscle function returned to near-baseline levels by 48 h. Although no group differences existed, there were significant interaction effects; notably in CMJ (P=0.038) where the decline at 0 h (-6.9%) was smaller and recovery was greater at 72 h (which exceeded pre-exercise levels by 3.7%) post DPFT compared to post SSRS. The results offer new information showing that dance-specific activity results in EIMD in females. In addition, the magnitude of damage was similar to repeated sprint exercise and demonstrated that, in this population, recovery from these strenuous activities takes several days. These data have important implications for understanding the consequences of dance activity and other strenuous exercise in females.

  14. Prevalence of Exercise-Induced Bronchospasm by laboratory exercise challenge among Ragunan Sport School athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignatio Rika

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB is a common condition among adolescent athletes. There has been no study examining the prevalence of EIB among adolescent athletes in Indonesia. This study aimed to get the prevalence of EIB among Ragunan Sport School athletes by laboratory exercise challenge. Subjects performed static cycle ergometer exercise (Monark, Sweden to reach minimal workload of 90% maximal heart rate. Force expiratory ventilation (FEV₁ was examined by spirometry (Minato AS-PAL, Japan at minute 0, 5, 10 and 20 post exercise. The EIB was defined as a decline of FEV₁ as much as 10% or more from baseline value. Room temperature and humidity were 28°C-31°C and 74%-82% respectively. There were 168 athletes from 12 sport types who participated in this study. Among them, 23 athletes (13.7% were EIB positive. The highest percentage of EIB was in taekwondo (54.5%. Sixteen athletes with EIB (70% were from less asthmogenic sports. Athletes with EIB consisted of 17 (17.5% females and 6 (8.4% males. In conclusion, the prevalence of EIB among adolescent athletes was moderately high, and was more prevalent in female. More over, laboratory exercise challenge could elicit EIB in less asthmogenic sport. (Med J Indones 2008; 17: 33-6Keywords: adolescent athlete, asthmogenic sports

  15. Dietary strategies to recover from exercise-induced muscle damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Mónica; Teixeira, Vítor H; Soares, José

    2014-03-01

    Exhaustive or unaccustomed intense exercise can cause exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) and its undesirable consequences may decrease the ability to exercise and to adhere to a training programme. This review briefly summarises the muscle damage process, focusing predominantly on oxidative stress and inflammation as contributing factors, and describes how nutrition may be positively used to recover from EIMD. The combined intake of carbohydrates and proteins and the use of antioxidants and/or anti-inflammatory nutrients within physiological ranges are interventions that may assist the recovery process. Although the works studying food instead of nutritional supplements are very scarce, their results seem to indicate that food might be a favourable option as a recovery strategy. To date, the only tested foods were milk, cherries, blueberries and pomegranate with promising results. Other potential solutions are foods rich in protein, carbohydrates, antioxidants and/or anti-inflammatory nutrients.

  16. Oral biomarkers in exercise-induced neuroplasticity in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mougeot, J-Lc; Hirsch, M A; Stevens, C B; Mougeot, Fkb

    2016-11-01

    In this article, we review candidate biomarkers for Parkinson's disease (PD) in oral cavity, potential of oral biomarkers as markers of neuroplasticity, and literature on the effects of exercise on oral cavity biomarkers in PD. We first describe how pathophysiological pathways of PD may be transduced from brain stem and ganglia to oral cavity through the autonomic nervous system or transduced by a reverse path. Next we describe the effects of exercise in PD and potential impact on oral cavity. We propose that biomarkers in oral cavity may be useful targets for describing exercise-induced brain neuroplasticity in PD. Nevertheless, much research remains to be carried out before applying these biomarkers for the determination of disease state and therapeutic response to develop strategies to mitigate motor or non-motor symptoms in PD. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Supraglottoplasty as treatment of exercise induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlum, Camilla Slot; Walsted, Emil Schwarz; Godballe, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Breathing difficulties during exertion may be caused by exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO). The diagnosis depends on visualization of the larynx during exercise, i.e. by continuous laryngoscopic exercise (CLE) test. In case of severe supraglottic collapse and pronounced symptoms during...... or on very few patients. This study is the second larger-scale study that documents the positive effect of supraglottoplasty as treatment of EILO in terms of reduced respiratory symptoms and decreased laryngeal obstruction assessed by post-operative CLE test. We suggest that surgery is a well...... strenuous exertion, surgical treatment (supraglottoplasty) has been suggested. The aims of this study were to evaluate outcome and patient satisfaction after supraglottoplasty for EILO and to compare our results with previously reported data. During the period December 2010 to October 2013, 17 patients...

  18. Exercise-induced muscle cramp. Proposed mechanisms and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, S

    1996-06-01

    Muscle cramp is a common, painful, physiological disturbance of skeletal muscle. Many athletes are regularly frustrated by exercise-induced muscle cramp yet the pathogenesis remains speculative with little scientific research on the subject. This has resulted in a perpetuation of myths as to the cause and treatment of it. There is a need for scientifically based protocols for the management of athletes who suffer exercise-related muscle cramp. This article reviews the literature and neurophysiology of muscle cramp occurring during exercise. Disturbances at various levels of the central and peripheral nervous system and skeletal muscle are likely to be involved in the mechanism of cramp and may explain the diverse range of conditions in which cramp occurs. The activity of the motor neuron is subject to a multitude of influences including peripheral receptor sensory input, spinal reflexes, inhibitory interneurons in the spinal cord, synaptic and neurotransmitter modulation and descending CNS input. The muscle spindle and golgi tendon organ proprioceptors are fundamental to the control of muscle length and tone and the maintenance of posture. Disturbance in the activity of these receptors may occur through faulty posture, shortened muscle length, intense exercise and exercise to fatigue, resulting in increased motor neuron activity and motor unit recruitment. The relaxation phase of muscle contraction is prolonged in a fatigued muscle, raising the likelihood of fused summation of action potentials if motor neuron activity delivers a sustained high firing frequency. Treatment of cramp is directed at reducing muscle spindle and motor neuron activity by reflex inhibition and afferent stimulation. There are no proven strategies for the prevention of exercise-induced muscle cramp but regular muscle stretching using post-isometric relaxation techniques, correction of muscle balance and posture, adequate conditioning for the activity, mental preparation for competition and

  19. Exercise training and beta-alanine-induced muscle carnosine loading.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tine eBex

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Beta-alanine (BA supplementation has been shown to augment muscle carnosine concentration, thereby promoting high-intensity exercise performance. Trained muscles of athletes have a higher increase in carnosine concentration after BA supplementation compared to untrained muscles, but it remains to be determined whether this is due to an accumulation of acute exercise effects or to chronic adaptations from prior training. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether high-volume (HV and/or high-intensity (HI exercise can improve BA-induced carnosine loading in untrained subjects.Methods. All participants (n=28 were supplemented with 6.4 g/day of BA for 23 days. The subjects were allocated to a control group, HV or HI training group. During the BA supplementation period, the training groups performed 9 exercise sessions consisting of either 75–90 min continuous cycling at 35–45% Wmax (HV or 3 to 5 repeats of 30s cycling at 165% Wmax with 4 min recovery (HI. Carnosine content was measured in soleus and gastrocnemius medialis by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy.Results. There was no difference in absolute increase in carnosine content between the groups in soleus and gastrocnemius muscle. For the average muscle carnosine content, a higher absolute increase was found in HV (+ 2.95 mM; P = 0.046 and HI (+ 3.26 mM; P = 0.028 group compared to the control group (+ 1.91 mM. However, there was no additional difference between the HV and HI training group.Conclusions. HV and HI exercise training showed no significant difference on BA-induced muscle carnosine loading in soleus and gastrocnemius muscle. It can be suggested that there can be a small cumulative effect of exercise on BA supplementation efficiency, although differences did not reach significance on individual muscle level.

  20. Air quality and temperature effects on exercise-induced bronchoconstriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundell, Kenneth W; Anderson, Sandra D; Sue-Chu, Malcolm; Bougault, Valerie; Boulet, Louis-Philippe

    2015-04-01

    Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) is exaggerated constriction of the airways usually soon after cessation of exercise. This is most often a response to airway dehydration in the presence of airway inflammation in a person with a responsive bronchial smooth muscle. Severity is related to water content of inspired air and level of ventilation achieved and sustained. Repetitive hyperpnea of dry air during training is associated with airway inflammatory changes and remodeling. A response during exercise that is related to pollution or allergen is considered EIB. Ozone and particulate matter are the most widespread pollutants of concern for the exercising population; chronic exposure can lead to new-onset asthma and EIB. Freshly generated emissions particulate matter less than 100 nm is most harmful. Evidence for acute and long-term effects from exercise while inhaling high levels of ozone and/or particulate matter exists. Much evidence supports a relationship between development of airway disorders and exercise in the chlorinated pool. Swimmers typically do not respond in the pool; however, a large percentage responds to a dry air exercise challenge. Studies support oxidative stress mediated pathology for pollutants and a more severe acute response occurs in the asthmatic. Winter sport athletes and swimmers have a higher prevalence of EIB, asthma and airway remodeling than other athletes and the general population. Because of fossil fuel powered ice resurfacers in ice rinks, ice rink athletes have shown high rates of EIB and asthma. For the athlete training in the urban environment, training during low traffic hours and in low traffic areas is suggested. © 2015 American Physiological Society.

  1. Cold exposure increases exercise-induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martarelli, D; Cocchioni, M; Scuri, S; Spataro, A; Pompei, P

    2011-06-01

    We determined the combined effects of cold and exercise on oxidative stress during submaximal exercise. Sixteen amateur male cyclists pedaled at a constant speed corresponding to 85% of maximal HR as determined in normal conditions. Eight athletes pedaled indoors at 23 °C while 8 athletes pedaled outdoors at a temperature of 4-6 °C. We then evaluated the levels of reactive oxygen metabolites and plasma levels of antioxidants after exercise. Performing a physical task in cold conditions increased the free radical production, as demonstrated by the augmented levels of reactive oxygen metabolites and the concomitant decrease of plasma levels of antioxidants in outdoors cyclists as compared to indoors cyclists. The overall ANOVA and the post-hoc comparisons revealed a significant exercise and temperature effect. The mean level of reactive oxygen metabolites in athletes who exercised indoors was significantly lower than that of the outdoor athletes. Moreover, the outdoors group presented plasma levels of antioxidants significantly lower than those of the indoors group. Since several sports are performed outdoors during the winter season, the increased risk of oxidative stress in cold conditions must be considered in these disciplines. Cyclists, football and rugby players, and runners are all affected by the elevation in oxygen radicals induced by cold and should take appropriate precautions, such as specific antioxidant integration.

  2. Exercise-Induced Pulmonary Edema in a Triathlon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotomo Yamanashi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Family physicians have more opportunities to attend athletic competitions as medical staff at first-aid centers because of the increasing popularity of endurance sports. Case. A 38-year-old man who participated in a triathlon race experienced difficulty in breathing after swimming and was moved to a first-aid center. His initial oxygen saturation was 82% and a thoracic computed tomography scan showed bilateral ground glass opacity in the peripheral lungs. His diagnosis was noncardiogenic pulmonary edema associated with exercise or swimming: exercise-induced pulmonary edema (EIPE or swimming-induced pulmonary edema (SIPE. Treatment with furosemide and corticosteroid relieved his symptoms of pulmonary edema. Discussion. Noncardiogenic pulmonary edema associated with endurance sports is not common, but knowledge about EIPE/SIPE or neurogenic pulmonary edema associated with hyponatremia, which is called Ayus-Arieff syndrome, is crucial. Knowledge and caution for possible risk factors, such as exposure to cold water or overhydration, are essential for both medical staff and endurance athletes. Conclusion. To determine the presence of pulmonary edema associated with strenuous exercise, oxygen saturation should be used as a screening tool at a first-aid center. To avoid risks for EIPE/SIPE, knowledge about these diseases is essential for medical staff and for athletes who perform extreme exercise.

  3. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation reduces exercise-induced perceived pain and improves endurance exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astokorki, Ali H Y; Mauger, Alexis R

    2017-03-01

    Muscle pain is a natural consequence of intense and prolonged exercise and has been suggested to be a limiter of performance. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and interferential current (IFC) have been shown to reduce both chronic and acute pain in a variety of conditions. This study sought to ascertain whether TENS and IFC could reduce exercise-induced pain (EIP) and whether this would affect exercise performance. It was hypothesised that TENS and IFC would reduce EIP and result in an improved exercise performance. In two parts, 18 (Part I) and 22 (Part II) healthy male and female participants completed an isometric contraction of the dominant bicep until exhaustion (Part I) and a 16.1 km cycling time trial as quickly as they could (Part II) whilst receiving TENS, IFC, and a SHAM placebo in a repeated measures, randomised cross-over, and placebo-controlled design. Perceived EIP was recorded in both tasks using a validated subjective scale. In Part I, TENS significantly reduced perceived EIP (mean reduction of 12%) during the isometric contraction (P = 0.006) and significantly improved participants' time to exhaustion by a mean of 38% (P = 0.02). In Part II, TENS significantly improved (P = 0.003) participants' time trial completion time (~2% improvement) through an increased mean power output. These findings demonstrate that TENS can attenuate perceived EIP in a healthy population and that doing so significantly improves endurance performance in both submaximal isometric single limb exercise and whole-body dynamic exercise.

  4. AMPKα is essential for acute exercise-induced gene responses but not for exercise training-induced adaptations in mouse skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fentz, Joachim; Kjøbsted, Rasmus; Maag Kristensen, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    . Maximal running speed was lower in AMPKα mdKO than WT mice, but increased similarly in both genotypes with exercise training. Exercise training increased quadriceps protein content of ubiquinol-cytochrome-C reductase core protein 1 (UQCRC1), cytochrome C, hexokinase II, plasma membrane fatty acid binding......Exercise training increases skeletal muscle expression of metabolic proteins improving the oxidative capacity. Adaptations in skeletal muscle by pharmacologically induced activation of 5'AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) are dependent on the AMPKα2 subunit. We hypothesized that exercise training......-induced increases in exercise capacity and expression of metabolic proteins as well as acute exercise-induced gene regulation would be compromised in AMPKα1 and -α2 muscle-specific double knockout (mdKO) mice. An acute bout of exercise increased skeletal muscle mRNA content of cytochrome C oxidase subunit I...

  5. Beneficial effects of neuropeptide galanin on reinstatement of exercise-induced somatic and psychological trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Biao; Fang, Penghua; Guo, Lili; Shi, Mingyi; Zhu, Yan; Xu, Bo; Bo, Ping; Zhang, Zhenwen

    2017-04-01

    Galanin is a versatile neuropeptide that is distinctly upregulated by exercise in exercise-related tissues. Although benefits from exercise-induced upregulation of this peptide have been identified, many issues require additional exploration. This Review summarizes the information currently available on the relationship between galanin and exercise-induced physical and psychological damage. On the one hand, body movement, exercise damage, and exercise-induced stress and pain significantly increase local and circulatory galanin levels. On the other hand, galanin plays an exercise-protective role to inhibit the flexor reflex and prevent excessive movement of skeletal muscles through enhancing response threshold and reducing acetylcholine release. Additionally, elevated galanin levels can boost repair of the exercise-induced damage in exercise-related tissues, including peripheral nerve, skeletal muscle, blood vessel, skin, bone, articulation, and ligament. Moreover, elevated galanin levels may serve as effective signals to buffer sport-induced stress and pain via inhibiting nociceptive signal transmission and enhancing pain threshold. This Review deepens our understanding of the profitable roles of galanin in exercise protection, exercise injury repair, and exercise-induced stress and pain. Galanin and its agonists may be used to develop a novel preventive and therapeutic strategy to prevent and treat exercise-induced somatic and psychological trauma. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Ibuprofen intake increases exercise time to exhaustion: A possible role for preventing exercise-induced fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, F D; Stamm, D N; Della Pace, I D; Ribeiro, L R; Rambo, L M; Bresciani, G; Ferreira, J; Rossato, M F; Silva, M A; Pereira, M E; Ineu, R P; Santos, A R; Bobinski, F; Fighera, M R; Royes, L F F

    2016-10-01

    Although the intake of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) intake by athletes prevents soreness, little is known concerning their role in exercise performance. This study assessed the effects of ibuprofen intake on an exhaustive protocol test after 6 weeks of swimming training in rats. Animals were divided into sedentary and training groups. After training, animals were subdivided into two subsets: saline or ibuprofen. Afterwards, three repeated swimming bouts were performed by the groups. Ibuprofen (15 mg/kg) was administered once a day. Pain measurements were performed and inflammatory and oxidative stress parameters were assayed in cerebral cortex and gastrocnemius muscle. Training, ibuprofen administration, or both combined (P exercise time to exhaustion. Training decreased the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity (P Fatigue elicited by this exhaustive protocol may involve disturbances of the central nervous system. Additive anti-inflammatory effects of exercise and ibuprofen intake support the hypothesis that this combination may constitute a more effective approach. In addition, ergogenic aids may be a useful means to prevent exercise-induced fatigue. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. AMPKα in Exercise-Induced Substrate Metabolism and Exercise Training-Induced Metabolic and Mitochondrial Adaptations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fentz, Joachim

    of AMPK. A highly specific activation of AMPK can be attained with the pharmacological compound AICAR. Similar to exercise, an acute dose of AICAR increases muscle glucose uptake and repeated stimulation with AICAR increases the metabolic capacity of rodent muscle. However, in genetically mutated mice...

  8. Exploring the Relationship between Exercise-Induced Arousal and Cognition Using Fractionated Response Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Kai; Etnier, Jennifer L.; Barella, Lisa A.

    2009-01-01

    Although a generally positive effect of acute exercise on cognitive performance has been demonstrated, the specific nature of the relationship between exercise-induced arousal and cognitive performance remains unclear. This study was designed to identify the relationship between exercise-induced arousal and cognitive performance for the central…

  9. Increased pain sensitivity but normal function of exercise induced analgesia in hip and knee osteoarthritis - treatment effects of neuromuscular exercise and total joint replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosek, E; Roos, Ewa M.; Ageberg, E

    2013-01-01

    To assess exercise induced analgesia (EIA) and pain sensitivity in hip and knee osteoarthritis (OA) and to study the effects of neuromuscular exercise and surgery on these parameters.......To assess exercise induced analgesia (EIA) and pain sensitivity in hip and knee osteoarthritis (OA) and to study the effects of neuromuscular exercise and surgery on these parameters....

  10. Resistance exercise, but not endurance exercise, induces IKKβ phosphorylation in human skeletal muscle of training-accustomed individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Andreas Buch; Vendelbo, Mikkel Holm; Rahbek, Stine Klejs

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is considered an important role in the muscular adaptations to exercise. It has been proposed that exercise-induced signaling to mTORC1 do not require classic growth factor PI3K/Akt signaling. Activation of IKKβ and the mitogen-activated protein......), TSC1, MAPK, and upstream Akt activators, along with gene expression of selected cytokines, in skeletal muscles from these subjects. Biopsies were sampled prior to, immediately after, and in the recovery period following resistance exercise, endurance exercise, and control interventions. The major...... other groups immediately after the intervention. Resistance and endurance exercise increased IL6, IL8, and TNFα gene expression immediately after exercise. The non-exercise control group demonstrated that cytokine gene expression is also sensitive to repeated biopsy sampling, whereas no effect...

  11. Thyroid Hormone and Estrogen Regulate Exercise-Induced Growth Hormone Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignacio, Daniele Leão; da S. Silvestre, Diego H.; Cavalcanti-de-Albuquerque, João Paulo Albuquerque; Louzada, Ruy Andrade

    2015-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) regulates whole body metabolism, and physical exercise is the most potent stimulus to induce its secretion in humans. The mechanisms underlying GH secretion after exercise remain to be defined. The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of estrogen and pituitary type 1 deiodinase (D1) activation on exercise-induced GH secretion. Ten days after bilateral ovariectomy, animals were submitted to 20 min of treadmill exercise at 75% of maximum aerobic capacity and tissues were harvested immediately or 30 min after exercise. Non-exercised animals were used as controls. A significant increase in D1 activity occurred immediately after exercise (~60%) in sham-operated animals and GH was higher (~6-fold) 30 min after exercise. Estrogen deficient rats exhibited basal levels of GH and D1 activity comparable to those found in control rats. However, after exercise both D1 activity and serum GH levels were blunted compared to sedentary rats. To understand the potential cause-effect of D1 activation in exercise-induced GH release, we pharmacologically blocked D1 activity by propylthiouracil (PTU) injection into intact rats and submitted them to the acute exercise session. D1 inhibition blocked exercise-induced GH secretion, although basal levels were unaltered. In conclusion, estrogen deficiency impairs the induction of thyroid hormone activating enzyme D1 in the pituitary, and GH release by acute exercise. Also, acute D1 activation is essential for exercise-induced GH response. PMID:25874614

  12. Incidence of exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia in prepubescent females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Paul B; Tsang, Garry C K; Smith, Gareth J; van Velzen, Min V; Ignatova, B B; Sprules, Erica B; Chu, Kelly S; Coutts, Kenneth D; McKenzie, Donald C

    2002-07-01

    Due to the recent discovery of exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia (EIAH) in healthy active women with normal levels of peak oxygen uptake (V'(O(2)peak), this study examined the incidence of EIAH in prepubescent females. Nineteen healthy, active, prepubescent females (X +/- SD: age = 11.1 +/- 1.6 years; height = 145.8 +/- 9.1 cm; weight = 35.6 +/- 7.0 kg) performed a progressive maximal exercise test on an electronically braked cycle ergometer starting at 0 W and increasing power by 15 W. min(-1). During this test, expired gases, heart rate (HR), and percent arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation (%SaO(2)) were measured. Results for physiological variables at maximal exercise were as follows: V'(O(2)peak) = 43.7 +/- 7.0 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1); HR(max) = 199 +/- 5 beats x min(-1); %SaO(2) = 96.6 +/- 1.2%. For nearly all subjects, the %SaO(2) at maximal exercise was above levels that would reduce V'(O(2)peak). Therefore, in comparison to previous reports of EIAH in adult women with similar V'(O(2)peak), EIAH does not appear to occur in the prepubescent female population. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Diaphragmatic Breathing Reduces Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Martarelli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Diaphragmatic breathing is relaxing and therapeutic, reduces stress, and is a fundamental procedure of Pranayama Yoga, Zen, transcendental meditation and other meditation practices. Analysis of oxidative stress levels in people who meditate indicated that meditation correlates with lower oxidative stress levels, lower cortisol levels and higher melatonin levels. It is known that cortisol inhibits enzymes responsible for the antioxidant activity of cells and that melatonin is a strong antioxidant; therefore, in this study, we investigated the effects of diaphragmatic breathing on exercise-induced oxidative stress and the putative role of cortisol and melatonin hormones in this stress pathway. We monitored 16 athletes during an exhaustive training session. After the exercise, athletes were divided in two equivalent groups of eight subjects. Subjects of the studied group spent 1 h relaxing performing diaphragmatic breathing and concentrating on their breath in a quiet place. The other eight subjects, representing the control group, spent the same time sitting in an equivalent quite place. Results demonstrate that relaxation induced by diaphragmatic breathing increases the antioxidant defense status in athletes after exhaustive exercise. These effects correlate with the concomitant decrease in cortisol and the increase in melatonin. The consequence is a lower level of oxidative stress, which suggests that an appropriate diaphragmatic breathing could protect athletes from long-term adverse effects of free radicals.

  14. Irradiation-induced angiosarcoma and anti-angiogenic therapy: A therapeutic hope?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azzariti, Amalia, E-mail: a.azzariti@oncologico.bari.it [Clinical and Preclinical Pharmacology Laboratory, National Cancer Research Centre, Istituto Tumori Giovanni Paolo II, Viale O. Flacco, 65, 70124 Bari (Italy); Porcelli, Letizia [Clinical and Preclinical Pharmacology Laboratory, National Cancer Research Centre, Istituto Tumori Giovanni Paolo II, Viale O. Flacco, 65, 70124 Bari (Italy); Mangia, Anita; Saponaro, Concetta [Functional Biomorphology Laboratory, National Cancer Research Centre, Istituto Tumori Giovanni Paolo II, Viale O. Flacco, 65, 70124 Bari (Italy); Quatrale, Anna E. [Clinical and Preclinical Pharmacology Laboratory, National Cancer Research Centre, Istituto Tumori Giovanni Paolo II, Viale O. Flacco, 65, 70124 Bari (Italy); Popescu, Ondina S. [Department of Pathology, National Cancer Research Centre, Istituto Tumori Giovanni Paolo II, Viale O. Flacco, 65, 70124 Bari (Italy); Strippoli, Sabino [Medical Oncology Unit, National Cancer Research Centre, Istituto Tumori Giovanni Paolo II, Viale O. Flacco, 65, 70124 Bari (Italy); Simone, Gianni [Department of Pathology, National Cancer Research Centre, Istituto Tumori Giovanni Paolo II, Viale O. Flacco, 65, 70124 Bari (Italy); Paradiso, Angelo [Experimental Medical Oncology, National Cancer Research Centre, Istituto Tumori Giovanni Paolo II, Viale O. Flacco, 65, 70124 Bari (Italy); Guida, Michele [Medical Oncology Unit, National Cancer Research Centre, Istituto Tumori Giovanni Paolo II, Viale O. Flacco, 65, 70124 Bari (Italy)

    2014-02-15

    Angiosarcomas are rare soft-tissue sarcomas of endothelial cell origin. They can be sporadic or caused by therapeutic radiation, hence secondary breast angiosarcomas are an important subgroup of patients. Assessing the molecular biology of angiosarcomas and identify specific targets for treatment is challenging. There is currently great interest in the role of angiogenesis and of angiogenic factors associated with tumor pathogenesis and as targets for treatment of angiosarcomas. A primary cell line derived from a skin fragment of a irradiation-induced angiosarcoma patient was obtained and utilized to evaluate cell biomarkers CD31, CD34, HIF-1alpha and VEGFRs expression by immunocytochemistry and immunofluorescence, drugs cytotoxicity by cell counting and VEGF release by ELISA immunoassay. In addition to previous biomarkers, FVIII and VEGF were also evaluated on tumor specimens by immunohistochemistry to further confirm the diagnosis. We targeted the VEGF–VEGFR-2 axis of tumor angiogenesis with two different class of vascular targeted drugs; caprelsa, the VEGFR-2/EGFR/RET inhibitor and bevacizumab the anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody. We found the same biomarkers expression either in tumor specimens and in the cell line derived from tumor. In vitro experiments demonstrated that angiogenesis plays a pivotal role in the progression of this tumor as cells displayed high level of VEGFR-2, HIF-1 alpha strongly accumulated into the nucleus and the pro-angiogenic factor VEGF was released by cells in culture medium. The evaluation of caprelsa and bevacizumab cytotoxicity demonstrated that both drugs were effective in inhibiting tumor proliferation. Due to these results, we started to treat the patient with pazopanib, which was the unique tyrosine kinase inhibitor available in Italy through a compassionate supply program, obtaining a long lasting partial response. Our data suggest that the study of the primary cell line could help physicians in choosing a therapeutic approach

  15. Assessment of Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction in Adolescents and Young Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Janneke C.; Driessen, Jean M. M.; Kersten, Elin T. G.; Thio, Bernard J.

    Recent research shows important differences in exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) between children and adults, suggesting a different pathophysiology of EIB in children. Although exercise can trigger classic symptoms of asthma, in children symptoms can be subtle and nonspecific; parents,

  16. Exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis mechanisms and prevention: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jooyoung Kim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis (exRML, a pathophysiological condition of skeletal muscle cell damage that may cause acute renal failure and in some cases death. Increased Ca2+ level in cells along with functional degradation of cell signaling system and cell matrix have been suggested as the major pathological mechanisms associated with exRML. The onset of exRML may be exhibited in athletes as well as in general population. Previous studies have reported that possible causes of exRML were associated with excessive eccentric contractions in high temperature, abnormal electrolytes balance, and nutritional deficiencies possible genetic defects. However, the underlying mechanisms of exRML have not been clearly established among health professionals or sports medicine personnel. Therefore, we reviewed the possible mechanisms and correlated prevention of exRML, while providing useful and practical information for the athlete and general exercising population.

  17. Exercise-induced bronchospasm, asthma control, and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrom, Nancy K; Parsons, Jonathan P; Eid, Nemr S; Craig, Timothy J; Stoloff, Stuart; Hayden, Mary Lou; Colice, Gene L

    2013-01-01

    Exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB) commonly affects patients with asthma. However, the relationship between EIB and asthma control remains unclear. Exercise limitation due to asthma might lead to reduced physical activity, but little information is available regarding obesity and EIB in asthma. A recent survey evaluated the frequency of EIB and exercise-related respiratory symptoms in a large number of patients with asthma. The survey results were reanalyzed to address any relationship between EIB and asthma control and obesity. A nationwide random sample of children aged 4-12 years (n = 250), adolescents aged 13-17 years (n = 266), and adults aged ≥18 years (n = 1001) with asthma were interviewed by telephone. Questions in the survey addressed asthma symptoms in general, medication use, and height and weight. Asthma control was categorized using established methods in the Expert Panel Report 3. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated using standard nomograms and obesity was defined as a BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2). Most children (77.6%), adolescents (71.1%), and adults (83.1%) had either "not well" or "very poorly" controlled asthma. Children with "not well" controlled asthma reported a history of EIB significantly more often than those with "well" controlled" asthma. Asthma patients of all ages who had "not well" and "very poorly" controlled asthma described multiple (four or more) exercise-related respiratory symptoms significantly more often than those with "well-controlled" asthma. Obesity was significantly more common in adolescents with "not well" and "very poorly" controlled asthma and adults with "very poorly" controlled asthma. Children, adolescents, and adults with asthma infrequently have well-controlled disease. A history of EIB and exercise-related respiratory symptoms occur more commonly in patients with not well and very poorly controlled asthma. Obesity was found more often in adolescents and adults, but not children, with asthma, which was not well and

  18. Exercise-induced Bronchoconstriction with Firefighting Contained Breathing Apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seccombe, Leigh M; Buddle, Lachlan; Brannan, John D; Peters, Matthew J; Farah, Claude S

    2017-09-12

    Protective self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) used for firefighting delivers decompressed (cold), dehumidified air that may enhance the severity of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) in those susceptible. We investigated the effect of SCBA during exercise on airway caliber in people with asthma and healthy controls. Two exercise challenges (EC) designed to elicit EIB were performed on separate days within one week. The initial challenge was breathing room air (ECRA) with workload titrated to elicit >60% estimated maximum voluntary ventilation. The exercise intensity was repeated for the second challenge using SCBA (ECSCBA). Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) was measured before and up to 20min after exercise. Bronchial hyperresponsivenss (BHR) to the hyperosmolar mannitol test was measured in the subjects with asthma. Twenty subjects with current asthma (mean[SD] age 27[6] years) and 10 healthy controls (31[5] years, p=0.1) were studied. The % fall in FEV1 following ECSCBA was greater in the mannitol positive asthma subjects (14.4 [15.1]%) compared to mannitol negative asthmatic subjects (1.6 [1.7]%, p=0.02) and controls (2.3 [2.3]%, p=0.04). The FEV1 response was not different between ECRA and ECSCBA (0.49 [5.57] %, p=0.6). No BHR to mannitol (n=7) was highly sensitive for identifying a negative response to ECSCBA (negative predictive value 100%). SCBA does not increase the propensity or severity for EIB in subjects with BHR. Those subjects with asthma but no BHR to inhaled mannitol did not exhibit EIB. BHR to a hyperosmolar stimulus maybe considered a useful screening tool for potential recruits with a history of asthma.

  19. Morning-to-evening variation in exercise-induced bronchospasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianna, Elcio O; Boaventura, Luiz C; Terra-Filho, João; Nakama, Gilberto Y; Martinez, José A B; Martin, Richard J

    2002-08-01

    Exercise is one of the most common triggers of asthmatic symptoms. Many factors, including hyperventilation, determine the prevalence and severity of exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB). However, the influence of time of day has not been adequately described. We sought to compare morning and evening EIB and minute ventilation during exercise (VE). Twenty-two patients with stable asthma and 12 control subjects underwent exercise challenge at 7 am and 6 pm. The time of the first challenge was randomly assigned; the second challenge was performed within 1 week of the first. The primary outcomes were EIB intensity (maximum fall in FEV(1)) and VE. The asthma group exhibited lower EIB values in the morning: 14.8% +/- 3.7% at 7 am vs 21.4% +/- 4.2% at 6 pm (P =.004)-ie, 0.37 +/- 0.09 L vs 0.53 +/- 0.10 L, respectively (P =.002). VE was higher at 7 am (55.4 +/- 4.7 L/min) than at 6 pm (52.4 +/- 4.3 L/min; P =.03). Baseline FEV(1) increased from 2.33 +/- 0.13 L (morning) to 2.49 +/- 0.15 L (evening; P =.04), and a significant correlation between baseline FEV(1) and EIB was found in the evening (r = +0.5; P =.049) but not in the morning. Post-exercise FEV(1) was similar at 7 am (1.96 +/- 0.13 L) and 6 pm (1.97 +/- 0.14 L). For the control group, no changes were detected in FEV(1) fall or VE. Baseline airway caliber contributes to the mechanisms of the morning-to-evening EIB enhancement.

  20. Exercise-induced anaphylaxis: improvement after removal of amalgam in dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsunuma, T; Iikura, Y; Nagakura, T; Saitoh, H; Akimoto, K; Akasawa, A; Kindaichi, S

    1990-05-01

    We present a case of exercise-induced anaphylaxis with improvement following the removal of dental amalgam. Although her symptoms were unresponsive to various kinds of therapy until removal of the amalgam, her symptoms related to exercise improved remarkably after the removal. The increase in plasma histamine levels for exercise provocation test also improved. This suggests that sensitivity to metals might cause exercise-induced asthma in some patients.

  1. Vitamin C for asthma and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan, Stephen J; Hart, Anna; Wilkinson, Mark

    2013-10-23

    Dietary antioxidants, such as vitamin C, in the epithelial lining and lining fluids of the lung may be beneficial in the reduction of oxidative damage (Arab 2002). They may therefore be of benefit in reducing symptoms of inflammatory airway conditions such as asthma, and may also be beneficial in reducing exercise-induced bronchoconstriction, which is a well-recognised feature of asthma and is considered a marker of airways inflammation. However, the association between dietary antioxidants and asthma severity or exercise-induced bronchoconstriction is not fully understood. To examine the effects of vitamin C supplementation on exacerbations and health-related quality of life (HRQL) in adults and children with asthma or exercise-induced bronchoconstriction compared to placebo or no vitamin C. We identified trials from the Cochrane Airways Group's Specialised Register (CAGR). The Register contains trial reports identified through systematic searches of a number of bibliographic databases, and handsearching of journals and meeting abstracts. We also searched trial registry websites. The searches were conducted in December 2012. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs). We included both adults and children with a diagnosis of asthma. In separate analyses we considered trials with a diagnosis of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (or exercise-induced asthma). We included trials comparing vitamin C supplementation with placebo, or vitamin C supplementation with no supplementation. We included trials where the asthma management of both treatment and control groups provided similar background therapy. The primary focus of the review is on daily vitamin C supplementation to prevent exacerbations and improve HRQL. The short-term use of vitamin C at the time of exacerbations or for cold symptoms in people with asthma are outside the scope of this review. Two review authors independently screened the titles and abstracts of potential studies, and subsequently

  2. Effect of birth weight and 12 weeks of exercise training on exercise-induced AMPK signaling in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Brynjulf; Hingst, Janne Rasmuss; Frederiksen, Nicklas

    2013-01-01

    Subjects with a low birth weight (LBW) display increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D). We hypothesized that this is associated with defects in muscle adaptations following acute and regular physical activity, evident by impairments in the exercise-induced activation of AMPK signaling....... We investigated 21 LBW and 21 normal birth weight (NBW) subjects during 1 hour of acute exercise performed at the same relative workload before and after 12 weeks of exercise training. Multiple skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained before and after exercise. Protein levels and phosphorylation status...

  3. Explicit Education About Exercise-Induced Hypoalgesia Influences Pain Responses to Acute Exercise in Healthy Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Matthew D; Valenzuela, Trinidad; Booth, John; Taylor, Janet L; Barry, Benjamin K

    2017-11-01

    The mechanisms through which acute exercise reduces pain (ie, exercise-induced hypoalgesia [EIH]) are poorly understood. This study aimed to determine if education about EIH affected pain responses after acute exercise in healthy adults. Participants received 15 minutes of education either about EIH (intervention, n = 20) or more general education about exercise and pain (control, n = 20). After this, the participants' knowledge and beliefs about exercise and pain were assessed. Pressure pain thresholds were then measured before and after 20 minutes of cycle ergometer exercise. Compared with the control group, the intervention group believed more strongly that pain could be reduced by a single session of exercise (P = .005) and that the information they had just received had changed what they thought about the effect of exercise on pain (P = .045). After exercise, pressure pain threshold increased in both groups, but the median increase was greater in the intervention group compared with the control group (intervention = .78 kg/cm 2 , control = .24 kg/cm 2 , P = .002, effect size [r] of difference = .49). These results suggest that cognitive processes in the appraisal of pain can be manipulated to influence EIH in healthy adults. This study shows that preceding a bout of exercise with pain education can alter pain responses after exercise. This finding has potential clinical implications for exercise prescription for people with chronic pain whereby pain education before exercise could be used to improve pain responses to that exercise. Copyright © 2017 American Pain Society. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of simulated weightlessness on exercise-induced anaerobic threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convertino, V. A.; Karst, G. M.; Kirby, C. R.; Goldwater, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of simulated weightlessness, induced by ten days of continuous bedrest (BR) in the -6 deg head-down position, on the exercise-induced anaerobic threshold (AT) was determined by comparing specific ventilatory and gas-exchange measurements during an incremental ergometer test performed before and after BR. The primary index for determining the exercise-induced AT values of each subject was visual identification of the workrate or oxygen uptake (VO2) at which the ratio of the expired minute ventilation volume (VE) to VO2 exhibited a systematic increase without a concomitant increase in the VE/VCO2 value. Following BR, the mean VO2max of the subjects decreased by 7.0 percent, and the AT decreased from a mean of 1.26 L/min VO2 before BR to 0.95 L/min VO2 after BR. The decrease in AT was manifested by a decrease in both absolute and relative workrates. The change in AT correlated significantly with the change in plasma volume but not with the change in VO2max. The results suggest that the reduction in AT cannot be completely explained by the reduction in VO2, and that the AT decrease is associated with the reduction in intravascular fluid volume.

  5. Effects of pentoxifylline on hemorheologic alterations induced by incremental treadmill exercise in thoroughbreds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, D J; Geor, R J; Burger, K

    1996-09-01

    To determine whether pentoxifylline treatment altered hematologic, rheologic, electrolyte, or blood gas test results of Thoroughbreds during submaximal treadmill exercise. 5 healthy Thoroughbreds that had raced within the past year and had no history of exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage. Mixed venous blood samples were obtained before exercise, at treadmill speeds of 9 and 13 m/s, and 20 minutes after exercise; hematologic, rheologic, electrolyte, and blood gas test results were determined. Pentoxifylline treatment resulted in a 45% reduction in RBC filtration pressures for horses at rest. The improved RBC filterability persisted during treadmill exercise. Horses treated with pentoxifylline had a greater decrease in Po2 values and a lesser increase in plasma lactate concentration during treadmill exercise. Administration of pentoxifylline improved RBC deformability of horses at rest and during treadmill exercise. Improved RBC deformability resulting from pentoxifylline treatment may reduce exercise-associated shear stress in pulmonary capillaries, thereby attenuating exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage.

  6. Influence of pre-exercise muscle glycogen content on exercise-induced transcriptional regulation of metabolic genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Henriette; Keller, Charlotte; Steensberg, Adam

    2002-01-01

    Transcription of metabolic genes is transiently induced during recovery from exercise in skeletal muscle of humans. To determine whether pre-exercise muscle glycogen content influences the magnitude and/or duration of this adaptive response, six male subjects performed one-legged cycling exercise...... and UCP3 mRNA in response to exercise was also significantly higher in the low glycogen (11.4- and 3.5-fold, respectively) than in the control (5.0- and 1.7-fold, respectively) trial. These data indicate that low muscle glycogen content enhances the transcriptional activation of some metabolic genes...... to lower muscle glycogen content in one leg and then, the following day, completed 2.5 h low intensity two-legged cycling exercise. Nuclei and mRNA were isolated from biopsies obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle of the control and reduced glycogen (pre-exercise glycogen = 609 +/- 47 and 337 +/- 33...

  7. Prevalence of Exercise Induced Asthma in Female School Students

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid Marefati; Helimeh Nikbine; Mohammad Hossein Boskabady

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of exercise induced asthma (EIA) in Iran is not known. In the present study the  prevalence of  EIA  among female students  of  guidance school  in the  city of Mashhad was evaluated.A total of 1690 female students aged 12-14 years in ten randomly selected schools in north east of Iran (Mashhad) completed an asthma symptoms- specific questionnaire. One hundred forty four randomly selected students including 49 symptomatic and 95 asymptomatic cases participated in a 6 minutes fr...

  8. Extreme sports: extreme physiology. Exercise-induced pulmonary oedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Joyce Lok Gee; Dutch, Martin John

    2013-08-01

    We report five patients who presented to an on-site medical team with concurrent haemoptysis and shortness of breath at a recent triathlon event. After initial management in the field, three of the five patients were transported to hospital via ambulance for further management, resulting in patients with haemoptysis and dyspnoea being 17 times more likely to require hospital transport. It is important to consider the differential diagnoses for this presentation, particularly exercise-induced pulmonary oedema. © 2013 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  9. Beta₂-agonists for exercise-induced asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonini, Matteo; Di Mambro, Corrado; Calderon, Moises A; Compalati, Enrico; Schünemann, Holger; Durham, Stephen; Canonica, Giorgio W

    2013-10-02

    It is well known that physical exercise can trigger asthma symptoms and can induce bronchial obstruction in people without clinical asthma. International guidelines on asthma management recommend the use of beta2-agonists at any stage of the disease. At present, however, no consensus has been reached about the efficacy and safety of beta2-agonists in the pretreatment of exercise-induced asthma and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. For the purpose of the present review, both of these conditions are referred to by the acronymous EIA, independently from the presence of an underlying chronic clinical disease. To assess the effects of inhaled short- and long-acting beta2-agonists, compared with placebo, in the pretreatment of children and adults with exercise-induced asthma (or exercise-induced bronchoconstriction). Trials were identified by electronic searching of the Cochrane Airways Group Specialised Register of Trials and by handsearching of respiratory journals and meetings. Searches are current as of August 2013. We included randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of any study design, published in full text, that assessed the effects of inhaled beta2-agonists on EIA in adults and children. We excluded studies that did not clearly state diagnostic criteria for EIA. We used standard methodological procedures as expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. We included 53 trials consisting of 1139 participants. Forty-eight studies used a cross-over design, and five were performed in accordance with a parallel-group design. Forty-five studies addressed the effect of a single beta2-agonist administration, and eight focused on long-term treatment. We addressed these two different intervention regimens as different comparisons.Among primary outcomes for short-term administration, data on maximum fall in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) showed a significant protective effect for both short-acting beta-agonists (SABA) and long-acting beta

  10. Expression and function of hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha in human melanoma under non-hypoxic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi Sandeep S

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α protein is rapidly degraded under normoxic conditions. When oxygen tensions fall HIF-1α protein stabilizes and transactivates genes involved in adaptation to hypoxic conditions. We have examined the normoxic expression of HIF-1α RNA and protein in normal human melanocytes and a series of human melanoma cell lines isolated from radial growth phase (RGP, vertical growth phase (VGP and metastatic (MET melanomas. Results HIF-1α mRNA and protein was increased in RGP vs melanocytes, VGP vs RGP and MET vs VGP melanoma cell lines. We also detected expression of a HIF-1α mRNA splice variant that lacks part of the oxygen-dependent regulation domain in WM1366 and WM9 melanoma cells. Over-expression of HIF-1α and its splice variant in the RGP cell line SbCl2 resulted in a small increase in soft agar colony formation and a large increase in matrigel invasion relative to control transfected cells. Knockdown of HIF-1α expression by siRNA in the MET WM9 melanoma cell line resulted in a large decrease in both soft agar colony formation and matrigel invasion relative to cells treated with non-specific siRNA. There is a high level of ERK1/2 phosphorylation in WM9 cells, indicating an activated Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK1/2 MAPK pathway. Treatment of WM9 cells with 30 μM U0126 MEK inhibitor, decreased ERK1/2 phosphorylation and resulted in a decrease in HIF-1α expression. However, a 24 h treatment with 10 μM U0126 totally eliminated Erk1/2 phosphorylation, but did not change HIF-1alpha levels. Furthermore, siRNA knockdown of MEK siRNA did not change HIF-1alpha levels. Conclusion We speculate that metabolic products of U0126 decrease HIF-1alpha expression through "off target" effects. Overall our data suggest that increased HIF-1α expression under normoxic conditions contributes to some of the malignant phenotypes exhibited by human melanoma cells. The expanded role of HIF-1α in melanoma biology increases

  11. The impact of exercise-induced core body temperature elevations on coagulation responses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltmeijer, M.T.W.; Eijsvogels, T.M.H.; Barteling, W.; Verbeek-Knobbe, K.; Heerde, W.L. van; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Exercise induces changes in haemostatic parameters and core body temperature (CBT). We aimed to assess whether exercise-induced elevations in CBT induce pro-thrombotic changes in a dose-dependent manner. DESIGN: Observational study. METHODS: CBT and haemostatic responses were measured in

  12. Exercise-induced albuminuria is related to metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Sharon; Shenhar-Tsarfaty, Shani; Rogowski, Ori; Shapira, Itzhak; Zeltser, David; Weinstein, Talia; Lahav, Dror; Vered, Jaffa; Tovia-Brodie, Oholi; Arbel, Yaron; Berliner, Shlomo; Milwidsky, Assi

    2016-06-01

    Microalbuminuria (MA) is a known marker for endothelial dysfunction and future cardiovascular events. Exercise-induced albuminuria (EiA) may precede the appearance of MA. Associations between EiA and metabolic syndrome (MS) have not been assessed so far. Our aim was to investigate this association in a large sample of apparently healthy individuals with no baseline albuminuria. This was a cross-sectional study of 2,027 adults with no overt cardiovascular diseases who took part in a health survey program and had no baseline MA. Diagnosis of MS was based on harmonized criteria. All patients underwent an exercise test (Bruce protocol), and urinary albumin was measured before and after the examination. Urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) values before and after exercise were 0.40 (0.21-0.89) and 1.06 (0.43-2.69) mg/g for median (interquartile range) respectively. A total of 394 (20%) subjects had EiA; ACR rose from normal rest values (0.79 mg/g) to 52.28 mg/g after exercise (P < 0.001); this effect was not shown for the rest of the study population. EiA was related to higher prevalence of MS (13.8% vs. 27.1%, P < 0.001), higher metabolic equivalents (P < 0.001), higher baseline blood pressure (P < 0.001), and higher levels of fasting plasma glucose, triglycerides, and body mass index (P < 0.001). Multivariate binary logistic regression model showed that subjects with MS were 98% more likely to have EiA (95% confidence interval: 1.13-3.46, P = 0.016). In conclusion, EiA in the absence of baseline MA is independently related to MS. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Fatty acid-inducible ANGPTL4 governs lipid metabolic response to exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catoire, Milène; Alex, Sheril; Paraskevopulos, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Physical activity increases energy metabolism in exercising muscle. Whether acute exercise elicits metabolic changes in nonexercising muscles remains unclear. We show that one of the few genes that is more highly induced in nonexercising muscle than in exercising human muscle during acute exercis...

  14. mTOR- and HIF-1 alpha-mediated aerobic glycolysis as metabolic basis for trained immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, Shih-Chin; Quintin, Jessica; Cramer, Robert A.; Shepardson, Kelly M.; Saeed, Sadia; Kumar, Vinod; Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Evangelos J.; Martens, Joost H. A.; Rao, Nagesha Appukudige; Aghajanirefah, Ali; Manjeri, Ganesh R.; Li, Yang; Ifrim, Daniela C.; Arts, Rob J. W.; van der Meer, Brian M. J. W.; Deen, Peter M. T.; Logie, Colin; O'Neill, Luke A.; Willems, Peter; van de Veerdonk, Frank L.; van der Meer, Jos W. M.; Ng, Aylwin; Joosten, Leo A. B.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G.; Xavier, Ramnik J.; Netea, Mihai G.

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetic reprogramming of myeloid cells, also known as trained immunity, confers nonspecific protection from secondary infections. Using histone modification profiles of human monocytes trained with the Candida albicans cell wall constituent beta-glucan, together with a genome-wide transcriptome,

  15. Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... exercising. Count out loud as you do the exercises. View Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Home Techniques to ... Intimacy Importance of Being Together Body Changes with Age Communicating with Your Partner Exercise and Sexual Activity Less Strenuous Positions for Sexual ...

  16. Tumor growth and hypoxia: it's all about location, location and location

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blouw, B.

    2007-01-01

    In response to hypoxia during tumor growth, a number of genetic changes are induced that allow the cancer cells to survive. These changes are orchestrated by the Hypoxia Inducible Factors (HIFs), respectively HIF-1alpha, HIF-2alpha and HIF-3alpha. HIF-1alpha is the main regulator of this response

  17. Cyclooxygenase inhibitors and the exercise-induced stress response

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mean post-exercise cortisol values were significantly higher than pre-exercise values with the subjects on placebo (p = 0.0365) and rofecoxib (p = 0.0208), but not on naproxen (p = 0.0732). Post-exercise oral temperatures were significantly higher than pre-exercise temperature values on placebo (p = 0.0153) and rofecoxib ...

  18. Characterizing exercise-induced feelings after one bout of exercise among adolescents with and without bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniapillai, Mehala; Goldstein, Benjamin I; MacIntosh, Bradley J; Korczak, Daphne J; Ou, Xiao; Scavone, Antonette; Arbour-Nicitopoulos, Kelly; Faulkner, Guy

    2016-01-15

    Exercise may be a practical, non-pharmacological strategy for symptom and health management for adolescents with bipolar disorder (BD). The purpose of this study was to determine if adolescents with BD experience changes in exercise-induced feelings from one bout of exercise similar to their otherwise healthy peers. Thirty-two adolescents with BD (Age (SD)=16.91 (1.4)) and 31 healthy adolescents (Age (SD)=15.68 (1.76)) completed the Exercise-Induced Feeling Inventory (EFI) before and after a 20-min bout of moderate intensity exercise (heart rate goal of 60-80% of the age estimated maximum [220 - 0.7*age]) on a cycle ergometer. Repeated-Measures ANCOVA was conducted on the four EFI subscales, controlling for age and BMI. There were no significant between-group differences on any subscales. An increase in Physical Exhaustion was of negligible effect size in both groups (BD: d=0.05; d=0.16). There was an improvement in Revitalization (BD: d=0.49; d=0.61) and a reduction in Tranquility (BD: d=-0.33; d=-0.29) post-exercise of moderate and small effect size, respectively. The control group reported an increase in Positive Engagement that was of small-to-medium effect size, (d=0.41) with negligible change in the BD group (d=0.17). Healthy adolescents reported a significantly greater tolerance for high intensity exercise than adolescents with BD. Emotions were only assessed at two time points. Adolescents with BD experience similar exercise-induced emotional benefits as their healthy peers. Experimental research is needed to examine the role of exercise as a strategy to regulate mood-related symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Exercise protects against diet-induced insulin resistance through downregulation of protein kinase Cβ in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoquan Rao

    Full Text Available Physical exercise is an important and effective therapy for diabetes. However, its underlying mechanism is not fully understood. Protein kinase Cβ (PKCβ has been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of obesity and insulin resistance, but the role of PKCβ in exercise-induced improvements in insulin resistance is completely unknown. In this study, we evaluated the involvement of PKCβ in exercise-attenuated insulin resistance in high-fat diet (HFD-fed mice. PKCβ(-/- and wild-type mice were fed a HFD with or without exercise training. PKC protein expression, body and tissue weight change, glucose and insulin tolerance, metabolic rate, mitochondria size and number, adipose inflammation, and AKT activation were determined to evaluate insulin sensitivity and metabolic changes after intervention. PKCβ expression decreased in both skeletal muscle and liver tissue after exercise. Exercise and PKCβ deficiency can alleviate HFD-induced insulin resistance, as evidenced by improved insulin tolerance. In addition, fat accumulation and mitochondrial dysfunction induced by HFD were also ameliorated by both exercise and PKCβ deficiency. On the other hand, exercise had little effect on PKCβ(-/- mice. Further, our data indicated improved activation of AKT, the downstream signal molecule of insulin, in skeletal muscle and liver of exercised mice, whereas PKCβ deficiency blunted the difference between sedentary and exercised mice. These results suggest that downregulation of PKCβ contributes to exercise-induced improvement of insulin resistance in HFD-fed mice.

  20. Skeletal muscle volume following dehydration induced by exercise in heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackney, Kyle J; Cook, Summer B; Fairchild, Timothy J; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L

    2012-09-04

    Intracellular skeletal muscle water is redistributed into the extracellular compartment during periods of dehydration, suggesting an associated decline in muscle volume. The purpose of this study was to evaluate skeletal muscle volume in active (knee extensors (KE)) and less active (biceps/triceps brachii, deltoid) musculature following dehydration induced by exercise in heat. Twelve participants (seven men, five women) cycled in the heat under two conditions: (1) dehydration (DHYD) resulting in 3% and 5% losses of estimated total body water (ETBW), which was assessed by changes in body mass, and (2) fluid replacement (FR) where 3% and 5% losses of ETBW were counteracted by intermittent (20 to 30 min) fluid ingestion via a carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage. During both conditions, serum osmolality and skeletal muscle volume (assessed by magnetic resonance imaging) were measured at baseline and at the 3% and 5% ETBW loss measurement points. In DHYD, serum osmolality increased at 3% (p = 0.005) and 5% (p FR decreased serum osmolality at the 5% loss of ETBW time point (p = 0.009). In DHYD, KE muscle volume declined from 1,464 ± 446 ml to 1,406 ± 425 ml (3.9%, p FR prevented the loss of KE muscle volume at 3% (1,430 ± 435 ml, p = 0.074) and 5% (1,431 ± 439 ml, p = 0.156) ETBW loss time points compared to baseline (1,445 ± 436 ml). Following exercise in the heat, the actively contracting muscles lost volume, while replacing lost fluids intermittently during exercise in heat prevented this decline. These results support the use of muscle volume as a marker of water loss.

  1. Exercise-induced hypoalgesia: Pain tolerance, preference and tolerance for exercise intensity, and physiological correlates following dynamic circuit resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiamonte, Brandon A; Kraemer, Robert R; Chabreck, Chelsea N; Reynolds, Matthew L; McCaleb, Kayla M; Shaheen, Georgia L; Hollander, Daniel B

    2017-09-01

    Previous research has demonstrated significant decreases in pain perception in healthy individuals following both aerobic and upper body resistance exercise, but research on circuit training has been limited. The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of a strenuous bout of dynamic circuit resistance exercise on pain threshold and pain tolerance in conjunction with changes in blood lactate levels, heart rate (HR), and perceived exertion. A sample of 24 college-age students participated in 2 sessions: (1) a maximal strength testing session and (2) a circuit training bout of exercise that consisted of 3 sets of 12 repetitions with a 1:1 work to rest ratio at 60% one-repetition maximum (1-RM) predicted from a three-repetition maximum (3-RM) for 9 exercises. Participants exhibited increases in pain tolerance, blood lactate levels, HR and perceived exertion following resistance exercise. Preference for exercise intensity was positively correlated with lactate post exercise and tolerance for exercise intensity was positively correlated with pain tolerance and lactate post exercise. In conclusion, this is the first study to demonstrate increases in pain tolerance following a dynamic circuit resistance exercise protocol and disposition for exercise intensity may influence lactate and pain responses to circuit resistance exercise.

  2. EXERCISE-INDUCED ASTHMA: FRESH INSIGHTS AND AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KHAJOTIA R

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Exercise-induced asthma (EIA is a common condition affecting 12-15% of the population. Ninety percent of asthmatic individuals and 35-45% of patients with allergic rhinitis are afflicted by EIA, while 3-10% of the general population is also believed to suffer from this condition. EIA is a condition which is more prevalent in strenuous outdoor, cold weather and winter sports. The pathophysiology of EIA continues to intrigue medical physiologists. However, the water-loss hypothesis and the post-exertional airway-rewarming hypothesis are as yet the best accepted theories. EIA is best diagnosed by a good medical history and a free-run challenge test. A post-exertion decrease by 15% in FEV1 and PEFR is diagnostic of EIA. Sensitivity of exercise testing ranges from 55% to 80% while specificity is as high as 93%. EIA is a disorder that can be successfully treated by combining both non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatment options. Prompt diagnosis and treatment of this condition is vital if we hope to provide our patients with better overall health, better social life and a better self-image.

  3. BDNF Expression in Perirhinal Cortex is Associated with Exercise-Induced Improvement in Object Recognition Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Hopkins, Michael E.; Bucci, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Physical exercise induces widespread neurobiological adaptations and improves learning and memory. Most research in this field has focused on hippocampus-based spatial tasks and changes in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) as a putative substrate underlying exercise-induced cognitive improvements. Chronic exercise can also be anxiolytic and causes adaptive changes in stress reactivity. The present study employed a perirhinal cortex-dependent object recognition task as well as the eleva...

  4. Familial Paroxysmal Exercise-Induced Dystonia: Atypical Presentation of Autosomal Dominant GTP-Cyclohydrolase 1 Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Russell C.; Melchers, Anna; Fung, Victor S. C.; Grattan-Smith, Padraic; Houlden, Henry; Earl, John

    2010-01-01

    Paroxysmal exercise-induced dystonia (PED) is one of the rarer forms of paroxysmal dyskinesia, and can occur in sporadic or familial forms. We report a family (male index case, mother and maternal grandfather) with autosomal dominant inheritance of paroxysmal exercise-induced dystonia. The dystonia began in childhood and was only ever induced…

  5. Determinants of exercise-induced increase of mitral regurgitation in patients with acute coronary syndromes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecini, Redi; Hammer-Hansen, Sophia; Dalsgaard, Morten

    2010-01-01

    Mechanisms behind exercise-induced increase of mitral regurgitation (MR) in patients with chronic ischemic heart disease have been described earlier. We describe the determinants of exercise-induced changes in MR in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTACS)....

  6. Aerobic Interval Exercise Training Induces Greater Reduction in Cardiac Workload in the Recovery Period in Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Juliana Pereira, E-mail: julipborges@gmail.com; Masson, Gustavo Santos; Tibiriçá, Eduardo; Lessa, Marcos Adriano [Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-01-15

    Aerobic interval exercise training has greater benefits on cardiovascular function as compared with aerobic continuous exercise training. The present study aimed at analyzing the effects of both exercise modalities on acute and subacute hemodynamic responses of healthy rats. Thirty male rats were randomly assigned into three groups as follows: continuous exercise (CE, n = 10); interval exercise (IE, n = 10); and control (C, n = 10). Both IE and CE groups performed a 30-minute exercise session. The IE group session consisted of three successive 4-minute periods at 60% of maximal velocity (Max Vel), with 4-minute recovery intervals at 40% of Max Vel. The CE group ran continuously at 50% of Max Vel. Heart rate (HR), blood pressure(BP), and rate pressure product (RPP) were measured before, during and after the exercise session. The CE and IE groups showed an increase in systolic BP and RPP during exercise as compared with the baseline values. After the end of exercise, the CE group showed a lower response of systolic BP and RPP as compared with the baseline values, while the IE group showed lower systolic BP and mean BP values. However, only the IE group had a lower response of HR and RPP during recovery. In healthy rats, one interval exercise session, as compared with continuous exercise, induced similar hemodynamic responses during exercise. However, during recovery, the interval exercise caused greater reductions in cardiac workload than the continuous exercise.

  7. Caffeine stimulates ventilation in athletes with exercise-induced hypoxemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Robert F; Stager, Joel M

    2008-06-01

    Many athletes with exercise-induced hypoxemia (EIH) show an insufficient ventilatory response to exercise and low resting ventilatory responsiveness. The purpose of this project was to determine whether a moderate dosage of caffeine, a common ventilatory stimulant, could augment resting ventilatory responsiveness, exercise ventilation (V E), end-tidal O2 partial pressure (PetO2), and arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation (HbSaO2) in athletes with EIH. Eight highly trained males (V[spacing dot above]O2max, 69.2 +/- 4.0 mL.[kg.min]) who demonstrated EIH at V[spacing dot above]O2max (HbSaO2, 88.0 +/- 1.7%), ingested in a randomized design a placebo or caffeine (CAF, 8 mg.kg body wt) 1 h before testing. Ventilatory responsiveness at rest was assessed via the isocapnic hypoxic and hyperoxic hypercapnic ventilatory responses (HVR and HCVR, respectively). Dependent measures of metabolic variables, ventilation, and saturation were determined during progressive treadmill exercise to exhaustion. V E was higher at 75%, 80%, and 100% of V[spacing dot above]O2max with CAF (P < 0.05). V E/V O2, PetO2, and HbSaO2 were increased at 75%, 80%, and 90% of [formula: see text] with CAF but were not different at V[spacing dot above]O2max despite an increase in V e. No change in V[spacing dot above]O2max was observed between treatments. HVR and HCVR were not different between the two conditions, indicating that the increased V E likely came from central stimulation or secondary effects of CAF. The failure of HbSaO2 to increase at [formula: see text] despite an increase in V E suggests that mechanisms influencing HbSaO2 other than an inadequate hyperventilatory response may operate to different degrees across individuals as V[spacing dot above]O2max is approached.

  8. [Exercise-induced shear stress: Physiological basis and clinical impact].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Núñez, Iván; Romero, Fernando; Saavedra, María Javiera

    2016-01-01

    The physiological regulation of vascular function is essential for cardiovascular health and depends on adequate control of molecular mechanisms triggered by endothelial cells in response to mechanical and chemical stimuli induced by blood flow. Endothelial dysfunction is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease, where an imbalance between synthesis of vasodilator and vasoconstrictor molecules is one of its main mechanisms. In this context, the shear stress is one of the most important mechanical stimuli to improve vascular function, due to endothelial mechanotransduction, triggered by stimulation of various endothelial mechanosensors, induce signaling pathways culminating in increased bioavailability of vasodilators molecules such as nitric oxide, that finally trigger the angiogenic mechanisms. These mechanisms allow providing the physiological basis for the effects of exercise on vascular health. In this review it is discussed the molecular mechanisms involved in the vascular response induced by shear stress and its impact in reversing vascular injury associated with the most prevalent cardiovascular disease in our population. Copyright © 2016 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of different antiasthmatic treatments on exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in children with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelmach, Iwona; Grzelewski, Tomasz; Majak, Pawel; Jerzynska, Joanna; Stelmach, Wlodzimierz; Kuna, Piotr

    2008-02-01

    Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction occurs in a large proportion of children with asthma, limiting everyday activities important for their physical and social development. The purpose of this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to compare the ability of different patterns of antiasthmatic treatment, recommended in childhood asthma, to protect patients from exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Children 6 to 18 years of age with atopic asthma were randomized to a 4-week, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Patients were randomly allocated to receive daily 200 microg budesonide (twice daily, 100 microg per dose) + 9 microg formoterol (twice daily, 4.5 microg per dose; n = 20); 200 microg budesonide + 5 or 10 mg montelukast (once daily at bedtime; n = 20); 5 or 10 mg montelukast (n = 20); 200 microg budesonide (n = 20); or placebo (n = 20). A standardized treadmill exercise challenge was performed before and after treatment. Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction, reflected by area under the curve for the FEV1 values from exercise over the 20-minute period and by maximum percent fall in FEV1 after exercise, was significantly diminished after 4 weeks in all active treatment groups, and compared with placebo. Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction protection improved more significantly in the budesonide + montelukast and montelukast groups compared with other therapeutic options. These data indicate differences in effects on exercise-induced bronchoconstriction between therapeutic options recommended in childhood asthma. Control of childhood asthma with exercise-induced bronchoconstriction can be obtained by using regular controller treatment.

  10. Food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis with negative allergy testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiman, Jacob; Ben-Shoshan, Moshe

    2014-02-06

    Food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIA) is a disorder where exercise following allergen ingestion triggers anaphylaxis although exercise and allergen exposure are independently tolerated. The diagnosis of FDEIA is based on a characteristic clinical history. The culprit allergen is usually confirmed through the use of skin prick testing (SPT) serum-specific IgE levels and a food-exercise challenge. We present a case of FDEIA suggested by clinical history and open food-exercise challenge with negative specific IgE levels and SPT that highlights the challenges involved in diagnosing and managing this rare disorder.

  11. IL-6 regulates exercise and training-induced adaptations in subcutaneous adipose tissue in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Claus; Jakobsen, Anne Hviid; Hassing, Helle Adser

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that IL-6 regulates exercise-induced gene responses in subcutaneous adipose tissue in mice. Methods: Four months old male IL-6 whole body knockout (KO) mice and C57B wild-type (WT) mice performed 1h of treadmill exercise, where subcutaneous...... adipose tissue (AT) was removed either immediately after, 4h or 10h after exercise as well as from mice not running acutely. Moreover, AT was sampled at resting conditions after 5 weeks of exercise training. Results: AT leptin mRNA decreased immediately after a single running exercise bout in both...

  12. Transient left ventricular apical ballooning and exercise induced hypertension during treadmill exercise testing: is there a common hypersympathetic mechanism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh Jae K

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To describe two cases of Takotsubo like myocardial contractile pattern during exercise stress test secondary to hypertensive response. Background Treadmill exercise testing is known to cause sympathetic stimulation, leading to increased levels of catecholamine, resulting in alteration in vascular tone. Hypertensive response during exercise testing can cause abnormal consequences, resulting in false positive results. Cases We present the cases of two patients experiencing apical and basal akinesis during exercise stress echocardiography, in whom normal wall motion response was observed on subsequent pharmacologic stress testing. The first patient developed transient left ventricular (LV apical akinesis during exercise stress echocardiography. Due to high suspicion that this abnormality might be secondary to hypertensive response, pharmacologic stress testing was performed after three days, which was completely normal and showed no such wall motion abnormality. Qualitative assessment of myocardial perfusion using contrast was also performed, which showed good myocardial blood flow, indicating low probability for significant obstructive coronary artery disease. The second patient developed LV basal akinesis as a result of hypertensive response during exercise testing. Coronary angiogram was not performed in either patient due to low suspicion for coronary artery disease, and subsequently negative stress studies. Results Transient stress induced cardiomyopathy can develop secondary to hypertensive response during exercise stress testing. Conclusion These cases provide supporting evidence to the hyper-sympathetic theory of left ventricular ballooning syndrome.

  13. Restoration of MPTP-induced deficits by exercise and Milmed® co-treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor Archer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP induces permanent neurochemical and functional deficits. Following the administration of either two or four injections of the dopamine neurotoxin, MPTP, at a dose of 40 mg/kg, C57/BL6 mice were given access to running-wheels (30-min sessions, four times/week, Monday–Thursday and treatment with the treated yeast, Milmed® (four times/week, Monday–Thursday, or simply running-wheel exercise by itself, over ten weeks. It was observed that the combination of physical exercise and Milmed® treatment, the MPTP + Exercise + Yeast (MC group [MPTP + Exercise + Milmed® (MC], restored spontaneous motor activity markedly by test day 10, restored completely subthreshold L-Dopa-induced activity, and dopamine concentration to 76% of control values, in the condition wherein two administrations of MPTP (2 × 40 mg/kg were given prior to initiation of exercise and/or Milmed® treatment. Physical exercise by itself, MPTP + Exercise (MC group, attenuated these deficits only partially. Administration of MPTP four times (i.e., 40 mg/kg, s.c., once weekly over four weeks for a total of 160 mg/kg, MPTP + Exercise + Yeast (MC group [MPTP + Exercise + Milmed® (SC] and MPTP + Exercise (SC, induced a lesioning effect that was far too severe for either exercise alone or the exercise + Milmed® combination to ameliorate. Nevertheless, these findings indicate a powerful effect of physical exercise reinforced by Milmed® treatment in restoring MPTP-induced deficits of motor function and dopamine neurochemistry in mice.

  14. Exercise Protects against PCB-Induced Inflammation and Associated Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Margaret O.; Petriello, Michael C.; Han, Sung Gu; Sunkara, Manjula; Morris, Andrew J; Esser, Karyn; Hennig, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent environmental pollutants that contribute to the initiation of cardiovascular disease. Exercise has been shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease; however, whether exercise can modulate PCB-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction and associated cardiovascular risk factors is unknown. We examined the effects of exercise on coplanar PCB- induced cardiovascular risk factors including oxidative stress, inflammation, impaired glucose tolerance, hypercholesteremia, and endothelium-dependent relaxation. Male ApoE−/− mice were divided into sedentary and exercise groups (voluntary wheel running) over a 12 week period. Half of each group was exposed to vehicle or PCB 77 at weeks 1, 2, 9, and 10. For ex vivo studies, male C57BL/6 mice exercised via voluntary wheel training for 5 weeks and then were administered with vehicle or PCB 77 24 hours before vascular reactivity studies were performed. Exposure to coplanar PCB increased risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease, including oxidative stress and systemic inflammation, glucose intolerance, and hypercholesteremia. The 12 week exercise intervention significantly reduced these pro-atherogenic parameters. Exercise also upregulated antioxidant enzymes including phase II detoxification enzymes. Sedentary animals exposed to PCB 77 exhibited endothelial dysfunction as demonstrated by significant impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxation, which was prevented by exercise. Lifestyle modifications such as aerobic exercise could be utilized as a therapeutic approach for the prevention of adverse cardiovascular health effects induced by environmental pollutants such as PCBs. Keywords: exercise, polychlorinated biphenyl, endothelial function, antioxidant response, cardiovascular disease, inflammation, oxidative stress PMID:25586614

  15. Evidence of a Redox-Dependent Regulation of Immune Responses to Exercise-Induced Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Sakelliou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We used thiol-based antioxidant supplementation (n-acetylcysteine, NAC to determine whether immune mobilisation following skeletal muscle microtrauma induced by exercise is redox-sensitive in healthy humans. According to a two-trial, double-blind, crossover, repeated measures design, 10 young men received either placebo or NAC (20 mg/kg/day immediately after a muscle-damaging exercise protocol (300 eccentric contractions and for eight consecutive days. Blood sampling and performance assessments were performed before exercise, after exercise, and daily throughout recovery. NAC reduced the decline of reduced glutathione in erythrocytes and the increase of plasma protein carbonyls, serum TAC and erythrocyte oxidized glutathione, and TBARS and catalase activity during recovery thereby altering postexercise redox status. The rise of muscle damage and inflammatory markers (muscle strength, creatine kinase activity, CRP, proinflammatory cytokines, and adhesion molecules was less pronounced in NAC during the first phase of recovery. The rise of leukocyte and neutrophil count was decreased by NAC after exercise. Results on immune cell subpopulations obtained by flow cytometry indicated that NAC ingestion reduced the exercise-induced rise of total macrophages, HLA+ macrophages, and 11B+ macrophages and abolished the exercise-induced upregulation of B lymphocytes. Natural killer cells declined only in PLA immediately after exercise. These results indicate that thiol-based antioxidant supplementation blunts immune cell mobilisation in response to exercise-induced inflammation suggesting that leukocyte mobilization may be under redox-dependent regulation.

  16. Prior exercise and standing as strategies to circumvent sitting-induced leg endothelial dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Morishima, Takuma; Restaino, Robert M.; Walsh, Lauren K.; Kanaley, Jill A.; Padilla, Jaume

    2017-01-01

    We have previously shown that local heating or leg fidgeting can prevent prolonged sitting-induced leg endothelial dysfunction. However, whether physical activity prevents subsequent sitting-induced leg endothelial dysfunction remains unknown. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that sitting-induced leg endothelial dysfunction would be prevented by prior exercise. We also examined if, in the absence of exercise, standing is an effective alternative strategy to sitting for conserving leg endothel...

  17. Different protocols of treadmill exercise induce distinct neuroplastic effects in rat brain motor areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Real, Caroline C; Garcia, Priscila C; Britto, Luiz R G; Pires, Raquel S

    2015-10-22

    A variety of exercise protocols have been used to promote experimental neuroplasticity. However, the plastic brain responses generated by several aspects of training (types, frequency, regimens, duration) remain undetermined. The aim of this study was to compare the plastic changes in the glutamatergic system and synaptic proteins in motor cortex, striatum and cerebellum promoted by two different treadmill exercise regimens. The present study analyzed by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting the expression of the subunits of AMPA receptors (GluA1 and GluA2/3) and synaptic proteins (synapsin I and synaptophysin) in adult male Wistar rat brains. The animals were divided into animals subjected to two different frequencies of aerobic exercise groups and sedentary animals. The exercise groups were: intermittent treadmill exercise (ITE) - animals that exercised 3 times a week (every other day) during four weeks, and continuous treadmill exercise (CTE) - animals that exercised every day during four weeks. Our results reveal that different protocols of treadmill exercise were able to promote distinct synaptic reorganization processes among the exercised groups. In general, the intermittent exercise regimen induced a higher expression of presynaptic proteins, whereas the continuous exercise regimen increased postsynaptic GluA1 and GluA2/3 receptors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Exercise does not protect against MPTP-induced neurotoxicity in BDNF haploinsufficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim M Gerecke

    Full Text Available Exercise has been demonstrated to potently protect substantia nigra pars compacta (SN dopaminergic neurons from 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP-induced neurotoxicity. One mechanism proposed to account for this neuroprotection is the upregulation of neurotrophic factors. Several neurotrophic factors, including Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF, have been shown to upregulate in response to exercise. In order to determine if exercise-induced neuroprotection is dependent upon BDNF, we compared the neuroprotective effects of voluntary exercise in mice heterozygous for the BDNF gene (BDNF+/- with strain-matched wild-type (WT mice. Stereological estimates of SNpc DA neurons from WT mice allowed 90 days exercise via unrestricted running demonstrated complete protection against the MPTP-induced neurotoxicity. However, BDNF+/- mice allowed 90 days of unrestricted exercise were not protected from MPTP-induced SNpc DA neuron loss. Proteomic analysis comparing SN and striatum from 90 day exercised WT and BDNF+/- mice showed differential expression of proteins related to energy regulation, intracellular signaling and trafficking. These results suggest that a full genetic complement of BDNF is critical for the exercise-induced neuroprotection of SNpc DA neurons.

  19. Exercise-Induced Cardiac Remodeling: Lessons from Humans, Horses, and Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Shave

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity is dependent upon the cardiovascular system adequately delivering blood to meet the metabolic and thermoregulatory demands of exercise. Animals who regularly exercise therefore require a well-adapted heart to support this delivery. The purpose of this review is to examine cardiac structure, and the potential for exercise-induced cardiac remodeling, in animals that regularly engage in strenuous activity. Specifically, we draw upon the literature that has studied the “athlete’s heart” in humans, horses, and dogs, to enable the reader to compare and contrast cardiac remodeling in these three athletic species. The available literature provides compelling evidence for exercise-induced cardiac remodeling in all three species. However, more work is required to understand the influence of species/breed specific genetics and exercise-related hemodynamics, in order to fully understand the impact of exercise on cardiac structure.

  20. Exercise during pregnancy decreases doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxic effects on neonatal hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Verônica B; Nascimento, Leopoldo V M; Nunes, Ramiro B; Moura, Dinara J; Lago, Pedro Dal; Saffi, Jenifer

    2016-08-10

    Cancer treatment with Doxorubicin (DOX) is limited due its dose-dependent cardiotoxicity, mainly related to the oxidative stress production. In experimental models of DOX treatment exercise can be used as a beneficial adjuvant therapy. This work aimed to investigate the effects of exercise during pregnancy on DOX-induced cardiotoxicity in cardiomyocytes of progeny, examining the possible intergenerational cardioprotective effects of maternal exercise. For this purpose pregnant rats were divided in control and exercise groups and pre-treated during gestational days. Hearts of newborns were used to obtain a culture of cardiomyocytes to be treated with DOX for analyses of cell viability, apoptosis and necrosis; ROS production; DNA damage; SOD and CAT activities; and Sirt6 protein expression. The results showed that exercise during pregnancy induced an increase in the viability of neonatal cardiomyocytes and a decrease in DOX-induced apoptotic and necrotic death which were correlated to the decrease in ROS production and an increase in antioxidant defenses. Exercise also protected neonatal cardiomyocytes from DOX-induced DNA damage, demonstrating a reduction in the oxidative DNA breaks. Likewise, exercise induced an increase in expression of Sirt6 in neonatal cardiomyocytes. Therefore, these results demonstrate for the first time that exercise performed by mothers protects the neonatal heart against DOX-induced toxicity. Our data demonstrate the intergenerational effect of exercise in cardiomyocytes of progeny, where the modulation of oxidative stress through antioxidant enzymes, and DNA integrity via Sirt6, were induced due to exercise in mothers, increasing the resistance of the neonatal heart against DOX toxicity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Approach to the diagnosis and management of suspected exercise-induced bronchoconstriction by primary care physicians

    OpenAIRE

    Hull, James H; Hull, Peter J; Parsons, Jonathan P; Dickinson, John W; Ansley, Les

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Exercise-related respiratory symptoms in the diagnosis of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) have poor predictive value. The aim of this study was to evaluate how athletes presenting with these symptoms are diagnosed and managed in primary care. Methods An electronic survey was distributed to a random selection of family practitioners in England. The survey was designed to assess the frequency with which family practitioners encounter adults with exercise-related r...

  2. The Role of Exercise-Induced Cardiovascular Adaptation in Brain Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarumi, Takashi; Zhang, Rong

    2015-10-01

    Regular aerobic exercise improves brain health; however, a potential dose-response relationship and the underling physiological mechanisms remain unclear. Existing data support the following hypotheses: 1) exercise-induced cardiovascular adaptation plays an important role in improving brain perfusion, structure, and function, and 2) a hormetic relation seems to exist between the intensity of exercise and brain health, which needs to be further elucidated.

  3. Sample size estimation in studies monitoring exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in asthmatic children

    OpenAIRE

    Hofstra, W. B.; Sont, J. K.; Sterk, P. J.; Neijens, H J; Kuethe, M. C.; Duiverman, E. J.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The repeatability of the response to standardised treadmill exercise testing using dry air and monitoring of heart rate in asthmatic children suffering from exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) has not been well established. METHODS: Twenty seven asthmatic children with known EIB performed standardised exercise testing twice within a period of three weeks. The tests were performed on a treadmill while breathing dry air. During both tests heart rate had to reach 90% of ...

  4. Exercise-induced neuroplasticity in human Parkinson's disease: What is the evidence telling us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Mark A; Iyer, Sanjay S; Sanjak, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    While animal models of exercise and PD have pushed the field forward, few studies have addressed exercise-induced neuroplasticity in human PD. As a first step toward promoting greater international collaboration on exercise-induced neuroplasticity in human PD, we present data on 8 human PD studies (published between 2008 and 2015) with 144 adults with PD of varying disease severity (Hoehn and Yahr stage 1 to stage 3), using various experimental (e.g., randomized controlled trial) and quasi-experimental designs on the effects of cognitive and physical activity on brain structure or function in PD. We focus on plasticity mechanisms of intervention-induced increases in maximal corticomotor excitability, exercise-induced changes in voxel-based gray matter volume changes and increases in exercise-induced serum levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Finally, we provide a future perspective for promoting international, collaborative research on exercise-induced neuroplasticity in human PD. An emerging body of evidence suggests exercise triggers several plasticity related events in the human PD brain including corticomotor excitation, increases and decreases in gray matter volume and changes in BDNF levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Exercise-Induced Fatigue Impairs Bidirectional Corticostriatal Synaptic Plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jing; Chen, Huimin; Liu, Xiaoli; Zhang, Lingtao; Qiao, Decai

    2018-01-01

    Exercise-induced fatigue (EF) is a ubiquitous phenomenon in sports competition and training. It can impair athletes' motor skill execution and cognition. Corticostriatal synaptic plasticity is considered to be the cellular mechanism of movement control and motor learning. However, the effect of EF on corticostriatal synaptic plasticity remains elusive. In the present study, using field excitatory postsynaptic potential recording, we found that the corticostriatal long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) were both impaired in EF mice. To further investigate the cellular mechanisms underlying the impaired synaptic plasticity in corticostriatal pathway, whole-cell patch clamp recordings were carried out on striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs). MSNs in EF mice exhibited increased spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic current (sEPSC) frequency and decreased paired-pulse ratio (PPR), while with normal basic electrophysiological properties and normal sEPSC amplitude. Furthermore, the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)/α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA) ratio of MSNs was reduced in EF mice. These results suggest that the enhanced presynaptic glutamate (Glu) release and downregulated postsynaptic NMDA receptor function lead to the impaired corticostriatal plasticity in EF mice. Taken together, our findings for the first time show that the bidirectional corticostriatal synaptic plasticity is impaired after EF, and suggest that the aberrant corticostriatal synaptic plasticity may be involved in the production and/or maintenance of EF.

  6. Exercise training-induced regulation of mitochondrial quality

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yan, Zhen; Lira, Vitor A; Greene, Nicholas P

    2012-01-01

    .... The mitochondrial life cycle spans biogenesis, maintenance, and clearance. Exercise training may promote each of these processes, conferring positive impacts on skeletal muscle contractile and metabolic functions...

  7. Identification of the human exercise-induced myokines using secretome analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Catoire, M.; Mensink, M.R.; Kalkhoven, E.; Schrauwen, P.; Kersten, A.H.

    2014-01-01

    Endurance exercise is associated with significant improvements in cardio-metabolic risk parameters. A role for myokines has been hypothesized, yet limited information is available about myokines induced by acute endurance exercise in humans. Therefore, the aim of the study was to identify novel

  8. Adaptation of exercise-induced stress in well-trained healthy young men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen Duijghuijsen, L.M.; Keijer, J.; Mensink, M.R.; Lenaerts, Kaatje; Ridder, L.O.; Nierkens, Stefan; Kartaram, Shirley; Verschuren, Martie C.M.; Pieters, Raymond; Bas, Richard; Witkamp, R.F.; Wichers, H.J.; Norren, van K.

    2017-01-01

    Strenuous exercise induces different stress-related physiological changes, potentially including changes in intestinal barrier function. In the Protégé Study (ISRCTN14236739; www.isrctn.com) we determined the test-retest repeatability in responses to exercise in well-trained individuals.
    Eleven

  9. Adaptation of exercise-induced stress in well-trained healthy young men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JanssenDuijghuijsen, Lonneke M; Keijer, Jaap; Mensink, Marco; Lenaerts, Kaatje; Ridder, Lars; Nierkens, Stefan; Kartaram, Shirley W; Verschuren, Martie C M; Pieters, Raymond H H; Bas, Richard; Witkamp, Renger F; Wichers, Harry J; van Norren, Klaske

    2017-01-01

    Strenuous exercise induces different stress-related physiological changes, potentially including changes in intestinal barrier function. In the Protégé Study (ISRCTN14236739; www.isrctn.com) we determined the test-retest repeatability in responses to exercise in well-trained individuals. Eleven

  10. Effects of exercise on brain and peripheral inflammatory biomarkers induced by total sleep deprivation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chennaoui, M; Gomez-Merino, D; Drogou, C; Geoffroy, H; Dispersyn, G; Langrume, C; Ciret, S; Gallopin, T; Sauvet, F

    2015-01-01

    Physical exercise induces neuroprotection through anti-inflammatory effects and total sleep deprivation is reported an inflammatory process. We examined whether 7 weeks of exercise training attenuates markers of inflammation during total sleep deprivation (24-h wakefulness) in the rat brain and periphery. Four groups of 10 rats were investigated: Sedentary control, Sedentary sleep-deprived, Exercised control, and Exercised sleep-deprived. Sleep deprivation and exercise training were induced using slowly rotating wheels and a motorized treadmill. We examined mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory (IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6) cytokine-related genes using real-time PCR, and protein levels in the hippocampus and frontal cortex, as well as circulating concentrations. Compared to Sedentary control rats, hippocampal and cortical IL-1β mRNA expressions in Sedentary sleep-deprived rats were up-regulated (p rats (p rats compared to Sedentary control (p Exercise training reduced the sleep deprivation-induced hippocampal IL-1β increases (mRNA expression and protein content) (p exercise reduced sleep deprivation-induced increase of IL-6 concentration (p effect on TNF-α and norepinephrine. We demonstrate that a 7-week exercise training program before acute total sleep deprivation prevents pro-inflammatory responses in the rat hippocampus, particularly the IL-1β cytokine at the gene expression level and protein content.

  11. Test-retest reliabilty of exercise-induced hypoalgesia after aerobic exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaegter, Henrik Bjarke; Dørge, Daniel Bandholtz; Schmidt, Kristian Sonne

    2018-01-01

    on PPTs after an incremental bicycling exercise compared with quiet rest and to investigate the relative and absolute test-retest reliability of the test stimulus (PPT) and the absolute and relative EIH response in exercising and nonexercising muscles. Setting: Laboratory. Methods: In two sessions, PPTs...... in the quadriceps and trapezius muscles were assessed before and after 15 minutes of quiet rest and 15 minutes of bicycling in 34 healthy subjects. Habitual physical activity was assessed by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Results: Bicycling increased PPTs in exercising and nonexercising...... score and PPTs were found (quadriceps: r = 0.44, P = 0.009; trapezius: r = 0.31, P = 0.07) before exercise. No significant association was found between IPAQ and EIH. Conclusions: Incremental bicycling exercise increased PPTs with fair relative and absolute reliability of the EIH response. These data...

  12. Hyperthermia, dehydration, and osmotic stress: unconventional sources of exercise-induced reactive oxygen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Michelle A; Clanton, Thomas L; Laitano, Orlando

    2016-01-15

    Evidence of increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production is observed in the circulation during exercise in humans. This is exacerbated at elevated body temperatures and attenuated when normal exercise-induced body temperature elevations are suppressed. Why ROS production during exercise is temperature dependent is entirely unknown. This review covers the human exercise studies to date that provide evidence that oxidant and antioxidant changes observed in the blood during exercise are dependent on temperature and fluid balance. We then address possible mechanisms linking exercise with these variables that include shear stress, effects of hemoconcentration, and signaling pathways involving muscle osmoregulation. Since pathways of muscle osmoregulation are rarely discussed in this context, we provide a brief review of what is currently known and unknown about muscle osmoregulation and how it may be linked to oxidant production in exercise and hyperthermia. Both the circulation and the exercising muscle fibers become concentrated with osmolytes during exercise in the heat, resulting in a competition for available water across the muscle sarcolemma and other tissues. We conclude that though multiple mechanisms may be responsible for the changes in oxidant/antioxidant balance in the blood during exercise, a strong case can be made that a significant component of ROS produced during some forms of exercise reflect requirements of adapting to osmotic challenges, hyperthermia challenges, and loss of circulating fluid volume. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Heredity of supraglottic exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walsted, Emil Schwarz; Hvedstrup, Jeppe; Eiberg, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Respiratory symptoms on exertion, such as shortness of breath and wheezing, are commonly associated with asthma, but might also arise from the larynx [1–3]. In recent years, the emergence of exercise laryngoscopy [4] has led to a better understanding of laryngeal movement during exercise, and ins...

  14. Islet transplantation in diabetic rats normalizes basal and exercise-induced energy metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwing, Harmina; Benthem, L.; Suylichem, P.T.R. van; Leest, J. van der; Strubbe, J.H.; Steffens, A.B.

    Transplantation of islets of Langerhans in diabetic rats normalizes resting glucose and insulin levels, but it remains unclear whether islet transplantation restores resting and exercise-induced energy metabolism. Therefore, we compared energy metabolism in islet transplanted rats with energy

  15. Cold- and Exercise-Induced Peak Metabolic Rates in Tropical Birds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Popko Wiersma; Mark A. Chappell; Joseph B. Williams

    2007-01-01

    ...." To test predictions from this hypothesis, we measured exercise-induced peak metabolic rates in 45 species of tropical lowland forest birds and compared these data with for three temperate species...

  16. Deconditioning-induced exercise responses as influenced by heat acclimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvartz, E.; Bhattacharya, A.; Sperinde, S. J.; Brock, P. J.; Sciaraffa, D.; Haines, R. F.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1979-01-01

    A study to determine the effect of heat acclimation and physical training in temperate conditions on changes in exercise tolerance following water-immersion deconditioning is presented. Five young men were tested on a bicycle ergometer before and after heat acclimation and after water immersion. The subjects and the experimental procedure, heat acclimation and exercise training, water immersion, and exercise tolerance are discussed. Heat acclimation resulted in the usual decreases in exercise heart rate and rectal temperature and an increase in sweat rate. Water immersion resulted in substantial diuresis despite water consumed. The results show that heat acclimation provides an effective method of preventing the adverse effects of water-immersion deconditioning on exercise tolerance.

  17. Mechanisms and management of exercise-induced asthma in elite athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Zarqa; Norsk, Peter; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2012-01-01

    Asthma is often reported by elite athletes, especially endurance athletes. The aim of this article is to review current knowledge of mechanisms and management of exercise-induced asthma (EIA) in adult elite athletes.......Asthma is often reported by elite athletes, especially endurance athletes. The aim of this article is to review current knowledge of mechanisms and management of exercise-induced asthma (EIA) in adult elite athletes....

  18. Similarities between exercise-induced hypoalgesia and conditioned pain modulation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaegter, Henrik Bjarke; Handberg, Gitte; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Pain inhibitory mechanisms are often assessed by paradigms of exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH) and conditioned pain modulation (CPM). In this study it was hypothesized that the spatial and temporal manifestations of EIH and CPM were comparable. The participants were 80 healthy subjects (40 females), between 18 and 65 years of age in this randomized, repeated-measures cross-over trial that involved data collection on 2 different days. CPM was assessed by 2 different cold pressor tests (hand and foot). EIH was assessed by 2 intensities of aerobic bicycling exercises and 2 intensities of isometric muscle contraction exercises (arm and leg). Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were recorded before, during, after, and 15 minutes after conditioning/exercise at sites local to and remote from the extremity used for cold pressor stimulation and exercise. PPTs increased at local as well as at remote sites during both cold pressor tests and after all of the exercise conditions except low-intensity bicycling. EIH after bicycling was higher in women than in men. CPM and the EIH responses after isometric exercises were comparable in men and women and were not affected by age. The EIH response was larger in the exercising body part compared with nonexercising body parts for all exercise conditions. High-intensity exercise produced greater EIH responses than did low-intensity exercise. The change in PPTs during cold pressor tests and the change in PPTs after exercises were not correlated. The CPM response was not dominated by local manifestations, and the effect was seen only during the stimulation, whereas exercise had larger local manifestations, and the effects were also found after exercise. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Anabolic steroids impair the exercise-induced growth of the cardiac capillary bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagarakis, C V; Bloch, W; Hartmann, G; Hollmann, W; Addicks, K

    2000-08-01

    Concomitant application of anabolic-androgenic steroids and physical exercise can induce cardiac hypertrophy. These experiments investigate the still unknown response of the cardiac myocytes and capillaries to the combined influence of various anabolic steroids and muscular exercise. Female SPF-NMRI mice were divided into the following groups: a) sedentary control, b) exercise (treadmill running); c) sedentary receiving Dianabol; d) exercise + Dianabol; e) exercise + Oral-Turinabol. After 3 and 6 weeks the left ventricular papillary muscles were studied morphometrically. Evaluated variables: minimal myocyte diameter, number of capillaries around a single myocyte, capillary density and intercapillary distance. Only the anabolic steroids + exercise groups showed a mild myocyte hypertrophy. In contrast, only exercise alone caused a significant increase of the capillary density after both experimental periods; e.g. capillary density after 6 weeks (capillaries/mm2, mean values +/- standard deviation, p Anabolic steroids combined with exercise: 1) induce mild hypertrophy of the cardiac myocytes, 2) impair the cardiac microvascular adaptation to physical conditioning. The microvascular impairment may cause a detrimental alteration of the myocardial oxygen supply, especially during muscular exercise.

  20. Physical exercise reverses spatial memory deficit and induces hippocampal astrocyte plasticity in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Senna, Priscylla Nunes; Bagatini, Pamela Brambilla; Galland, Fabiana; Bobermin, Larissa; do Nascimento, Patrícia Severo; Nardin, Patrícia; Tramontina, Ana Carolina; Gonçalves, Carlos Alberto; Achaval, Matilde; Xavier, Léder Leal

    2017-01-15

    Physical exercise can induce brain plasticity and reduce the cognitive decline observed in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). We investigated the effects of physical exercise to prevent or reverse spatial memory deficits produced by diabetes and some biochemical and immunohistochemical changes in hippocampal astrocytes of T1DM model. In this study, 56 male Wistar rats were divided in four groups: trained control (TC), non-trained control (NTC), trained diabetic (TD) and non-trained diabetic (NTD). 27 days after streptozotocin-induced (STZ) diabetes, the exercise groups were submitted to 5 weeks of aerobic exercise. All groups were assessed in place recognition (PR) test before and after training. The glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) positive astrocytes were evaluated using planar morphology, optical densitometry and Sholl's concentric circles method. Glucose and glutamate uptake, reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutamine synthetase (GS) levels were measured using biochemical assays. Our main results are: 1-Exercise reverses spatial memory impairments generated by T1DM; 2-Exercise increases GSH and GS in TC but not in TD rats; 3-Exercise increases density of GFAP positive astrocytes in the TC and TD groups and increases astrocytic ramification in TD animals. Our findings indicate that physical exercise reverses the cognitive deficits present in T1DM and induces important biochemical and immunohistochemical astrocytic changes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. [Silent myocardial ischemia and exercise-induced arrhythmia detected by the exercise test in the total health promotion plan (THP)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwane, M; Shibe, Y; Itoh, K; Kinoshita, F; Kanagawa, Y; Kobayashi, M; Mugitani, K; Ohta, M; Ohata, H; Yoshikawa, A; Ikuta, Z; Nakamura, Y; Mohara, O

    2001-03-01

    We investigated the prevalence and characteristics of ischemic heart disease especially silent myocardial ischemia (SMI) and arrhythmia in need of careful observation in the exercise stress tests in the Total Health Promotion Plan (THP), which was conducted between 1994-96 for the purpose of measuring cardiopulmonary function. All workers (n = 4,918, 4,426 males) aged 18-60 yr old in an occupational field were studied. Exercise tests with an ergometer were performed by the LOPS protocol, in which the maximal workload was set up as a presumed 70-80% maximal oxygen intake, or STEP (original multistage protocol). ECG changes were evaluated with a CC5 lead. Two hundred and fifteen people refused the study because of a common cold, lumbago and so on. Of 4,703 subjects, 17 with abnormal rest ECG and 19 with probable anginal pain were excluded from the exercise tests. Of 4,667 who underwent the exercise test, 37 (0.79%) had ischemic ECG change, and 155 (3.32%) had striking arrhythmia. These 228 subjects then did a treadmill exercise test with Bruce protocol. Twenty-two (0.47% of 4,703) showed positive ECG change, 9 (0.19%) of 22 had abnormal findings on a 201Tl scan. 8 (0.17%) were diagnosed as SMI (Cohn I), in which the prevalence of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, smoker and positive familial history of ischemic heart disease was greater than that of all subjects. In a 15-30 month follow up, none has developed cardiac accidents. Exercise-induced arrhythmia was detected in 11 (0.23%) subjects. Four were non-sustained ventricular tachycardia without any organic disease, 4 were ventricular arrhythmia based on cardiomyopathy detected by echocardiography, 2 were atrial fibrillation and another was WPW syndrome. It is therefore likely that the ergometer exercise test in THP was effective in preventing sudden death caused by ischemic heart disease or striking arrhythmia.

  2. The exercise-induced stress response of skeletal muscle, with specific emphasis on humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, James P; Kayani, Anna C; McArdle, Anne; Drust, Barry

    2009-01-01

    Skeletal muscle adapts to the stress of contractile activity via changes in gene expression to yield an increased content of a family of highly conserved cytoprotective proteins known as heat shock proteins (HSPs). These proteins function to maintain homeostasis, facilitate repair from injury and provide protection against future insults. The study of the exercise-induced production of HSPs in skeletal muscle is important for the exercise scientist as it may provide a valuable insight into the molecular mechanisms by which regular exercise can provide increased protection against related and non-related stressors. As molecular chaperones, HSPs are also fundamental in facilitating the cellular remodelling processes inherent to the training response. Whilst the exercise-induced stress response of rodent skeletal muscle is relatively well characterized, data from humans are more infrequent and less insightful. Data indicate that acute endurance- and resistance-type exercise protocols increase the muscle content of ubiquitin, alphaB-crystallin, HSP27, HSP60, HSC70 and HSP70. Although increased HSP transcription occurs during exercise, immediately post-exercise or several hours following exercise, time-course studies using western blotting techniques have typically demonstrated a significant increase in protein content is only detectable within 1-2 days following the exercise stress. However, comparison amongst studies is complicated by variations in exercise protocol (mode, intensity, duration, damaging, non-damaging), muscle group examined, predominant HSP measured and, perhaps most importantly, differences in subject characteristics both within and between studies (training status, recent activity levels, nutritional status, age, sex, etc.). Following 'non-damaging' endurance-type activities (exercise that induces no overt structural and functional damage to the muscle), the stress response is thought to be mediated by redox signalling (transient and reversible

  3. Exercise induces transient transcriptional activation of the PGC-1a gene in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Henriette; Saltin, Bengt; Neufer, P. Darrell

    2003-01-01

    Endurance exercise training induces mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle. The peroxisome proliferator activated receptor co-activator 1a (PGC-1a) has recently been identified as a nuclear factor critical for coordinating the activation of genes required for mitochondrial biogenesis in cell...... culture and rodent skeletal muscle. To determine whether PGC-1a transcription is regulated by acute exercise and exercise training in human skeletal muscle, seven male subjects performed 4 weeks of one-legged knee extensor exercise training. At the end of training, subjects completed 3 h of two......-fold; P trained leg. The present data demonstrate that exercise induces a dramatic transient increase in PGC-1a transcription and mRNA content in human skeletal muscle. Consistent with its role as a transcriptional coactivator...

  4. Recurrent childhood wheezing and exercise induced asthma in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenhagen, A; Vogt, L; Thiel, C; Bernhörster, M; Banzer, W

    2012-12-01

    Exercise induced asthma (EIA) common in endurance and other athletes limits physical activity. Although a correlation between recurrent childhood bronchitis and the development of asthma has been reported, its relation to EIA in adult athletes has not been assessed. The study evaluates the EIA risk after recurrent childhood wheezing (RCW) and its aggravating influence on the known risk factors outdoor and professional sports. To evaluate the effect of RCW on EIA, 570 multiple choice questionnaires were evaluated, assessing the history of RCW and the EIA occurrence. The latter was defined either according to physician-derived diagnosis, by typical symptoms or by decrease of the 1-second forced expiratory volume after a 6-minute running test. Contingency tables and a logistic regression model were worked out to describe referring parameters of EIA incidence. Almost one quarter of the athletes with RCW were attributed positive for EIA. Contingency calculations revealed a 2.6 times higher chance of symptoms of EIA after RCW which further increased in outdoor sports on a professional level. The duration of sports participation, cold environment and self-limiting of symptoms are predicting factors of a higher risk of EIA, being responsible for 53% of the prevalence variance. The results point towards a facilitating effect of recurrent affections of the respiratory tract in young age in addition to generally accepted factors of EIA in adults. For safe sports participation, the athlete, as well as involved caregivers (parents, coach) should have an adequate knowledge of EIA and prevention/intervention strategies like warming up or the use of inhalers.

  5. Prevalence of exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Jennifer C; McKenzie, Donald C; Warburton, Darren E R; Road, Jeremy D; Sheel, A William

    2004-09-01

    Exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia (EIAH) is reported to occur in approximately 50% of highly trained male endurance athletes. Few studies have examined EIAH in women and the prevalence remains unclear. It has been reported that some female subjects who develop EIAH possess maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) values that are within 15% of their predicted value. This is unique to women, where EIAH has generally been reported in men who have a high VO2max. The primary objective of this investigation was to determine the prevalence of EIAH in a large female population with a wide range of VO2max values. It was hypothesized that EIAH would occur with a greater prevalence and at relatively lower predicted VO2max than that previously reported in males. Young women (N = 52; 26.5 +/- 4.9 yr) performed a cycle test to exhaustion to determine VO2max, and oxyhemoglobin saturation (SaO2) was monitored via pulse oximetry. All subjects were tested during the early follicular phase of their menstrual cycle. A >/= 4% drop in SaO2 represented EIAH. Values for VO2max were variable (VO2max range: 28.0-61.3 mL x kg(-1) x min(-1)). EIAH was present in 67% of the women with N = 19 displaying mild EIAH (92-94%SaO2) and N = 16 displaying moderate EIAH (87-91%SaO2). It appears that the prevalence of EIAH in women is slightly greater than the 50% prevalence value that is typically reported for highly fit men.

  6. EXERCISE-INDUCED ARTERIAL ADAPTATIONS IN ELITE JUDO ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Karagounis

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine exercise-induced arterial adaptations in elite Judo male and female athletes. 27 male Judo athletes (age 24.06 ± 2 years, 11 female Judoka (age 24.27 ± 1 years, 27 sedentary healthy men (age 24.01 ± 2 years and 11 women (age 24.21 ± 1 years participated in the current study. The examined vessels included brachial, radial, ulnar, popliteal, anterior and posterior tibial arteries. The experimental parameters were recorded with the use of Duplex ultrasound at rest. Diastolic diameter and blood mean flow velocity of the examined arteries in Judo athletes were found to be both significantly increased (p < 0.05 compared to the findings of the control groups. In male Judo athletes the brachial (p < 0.001, radial (p < 0.001, and anterior tibial artery (p < 0.001 presented the highest difference on the diastolic diameter, compared with the control male group. In female Judo athletes, ulnar (p < 0.001, radial (p < 0.001, and brachial (p < 0.001 arteries illustrated the highest diastolic diameter. The highest blood mean flow velocity was recorded in ulnar (p < 0.001 and popliteal arteries (p < 0.001 of the Judo athletes groups. Recording differences between the two genders, male participants presented larger arteries than females. Conclusively, Judo has been found to be a highly demanding physical sport, involving upper and lower limbs leading to significant arterial adaptations. Obtaining vascular parameters provide a useful tool to the medical team, not only in the direction of enhancement of the efficacy of physical training, but in unknown so far parameters that may influence athletic performance of both male and female elite Judokas

  7. Control of exercise-induced muscular glycogenolysis by adrenal medullary hormones in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Erik; Galbo, H; Christensen, N J

    1981-01-01

    We have previously shown that adrenodemedullation combined with chemical sympathectomy decreases the exercise-induced muscular glycogen breakdown in rats. Now we have elucidated to what extent the effect of combined adrenodemedullation and sympathectomy can be ascribed to the lack of either...... or continued swimming to exhaustion. The exercise-induced muscular glycogenolysis was markedly impeded by adrenodemedullation but not by sympathectomy. During the first 75 min of exercise, hepatic glycogenolysis was decreased in adrenodemedullated rats compared with sham-operated rats, and blood glucose only...... muscular glycogenolysis, glucagon secretion, and the early hepatic glycogenolysis but inhibit insulin secretion....

  8. High-fat feeding inhibits exercise-induced increase in mitochondrial respiratory flux in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbro, Mette; Boushel, Robert Christopher; Hansen, Christina Neigaard

    2011-01-01

    ) and intramyocellular triacylglycerol content did not change with the intervention in either group. Indexes of mitochondrial density were similar across the groups and intervention. Mitochondrial respiratory rates, measured in permeabilized muscle fibers, showed a 31 ± 11 and 26 ± 9% exercise-induced increase (P ... and in exercise-induced mitochondrial substrate oxidation rates, with the effects being present hours after the exercise. The effect of HFD is present even without effects on insulin sensitivity and intramyocellular lipid accumulation. An isocaloric high-fat diet does not cause insulin resistance....

  9. Treadmill exercise alleviates nigrostriatal dopaminergic loss of neurons and fibers in rotenone-induced Parkinson rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Mal-Soon; Kim, Tae-Woon; Lee, Jae-Min; Ji, Eun-Sang; Lim, Baek-Vin

    2017-02-01

    Parkinson disease is one of the common brain diseases caused by dopaminergic neuronal loss in the substantia nigra and dopaminergic fiber loss in the striatum. In the present study, the effects of treadmill exercise on motor performance, dopaminergic loss of neurons and fibers, and α-synuclein expression in the nigrostriatum were evaluated using rotenone-induced Parkinson rats. For the induction of Parkinson rats, 3-mg/kg rotenone was injected, once a day for 14 consecutive days. Treadmill running was conducted for 30 min once a day during 14 consecutive days. Rota-rod test for motor balance and coordination and immunohistochemistry for tyrosine hydroxylase and α-synuclein in the nigrostriatum were performed. In the present study, motor balance and coordination was disturbed by induction of rotenone-induced Parkinson disease, in contrast, treadmill exercise alleviated motor dysfunction in the rotenone-induced Parkinson rats. Nigrostriatal dopaminergic loss of neurons and fibers was occurred by induction of rotenone-induced Parkinson disease, in contrast, treadmill exercise alleviated nigrostriatal dopaminergic loss of neurons and fibers in the rotenone-induced Parkinson rats. α-Synuclein expression in the nigrostriatum was enhanced by induction of rotenone-induced Parkinson disease, in contrast, treadmill exercise suppressed α-synuclein expression in the rotenone-induced Parkinson rats. Treadmill exercise improved motor function through preservation of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons and fibers and suppression of nigrostriatal formation of Lewy bodies in rotenone-induced Parkinson rats.

  10. The Impaired Function of Macrophages Induced by Strenuous Exercise Could Not Be Ameliorated by BCAA Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Xiao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of strenuous exercise on the functions of peritoneal macrophages in rats and to test the hypothesis that branched-chain amino acid (BCAA supplementation will be beneficial to the macrophages of rats from strenuous exercise. Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: (C Control, E Exercise, (E1 Exercise with one week to recover, (ES Exercise + Supplementation and (ES1 Exercise + Supplementation with 1 week to recover. All rats except those of the sedentary control were subjected to four weeks of strenuous exercise. Blood hemoglobin, serum testosterone and BCAA levels were tested. Peritoneal macrophages functions were also determined at the same time. The data showed that hemoglobin, testosterone, BCAA levels, and body weight in group E decreased significantly as compared with that of group C. Meanwhile, phagocytosis capacity (decreased by 17.07%, p = 0.031, reactive oxygen species (ROS production (decreased by 26%, p = 0.003 and MHC II mRNA (decreased by 22%, p = 0.041 of macrophages decreased in the strenuous exercise group as compared with group C. However, the chemotaxis of macrophages did not change significantly. In addition, BCAA supplementation could slightly increase the serum BCAA levels of rats from strenuous exercise (increased by 6.70%, p > 0.05. Moreover, the body weight, the blood hemoglobin, the serum testosterone and the function of peritoneal macrophages in group ES did not change significantly as compared with group E. These results suggest that long-term intensive exercise impairs the function of macrophages, which is essential for microbicidal capability. This may represent a novel mechanism of immunosuppression induced by strenuous exercise. Moreover, the impaired function of macrophage induced by strenuous exercise could not be ameliorated by BCAA supplementation in the dosing and timing used for this study.

  11. The Impaired Function of Macrophages Induced by Strenuous Exercise Could Not Be Ameliorated by BCAA Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Weihua; Chen, Peijie; Liu, Xiaoguang; Zhao, Linlin

    2015-10-21

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of strenuous exercise on the functions of peritoneal macrophages in rats and to test the hypothesis that branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation will be beneficial to the macrophages of rats from strenuous exercise. Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: (C) Control, E) Exercise, (E1) Exercise with one week to recover, (ES) Exercise + Supplementation and (ES1) Exercise + Supplementation with 1 week to recover. All rats except those of the sedentary control were subjected to four weeks of strenuous exercise. Blood hemoglobin, serum testosterone and BCAA levels were tested. Peritoneal macrophages functions were also determined at the same time. The data showed that hemoglobin, testosterone, BCAA levels, and body weight in group E decreased significantly as compared with that of group C. Meanwhile, phagocytosis capacity (decreased by 17.07%, p = 0.031), reactive oxygen species (ROS) production (decreased by 26%, p = 0.003) and MHC II mRNA (decreased by 22%, p = 0.041) of macrophages decreased in the strenuous exercise group as compared with group C. However, the chemotaxis of macrophages did not change significantly. In addition, BCAA supplementation could slightly increase the serum BCAA levels of rats from strenuous exercise (increased by 6.70%, p > 0.05). Moreover, the body weight, the blood hemoglobin, the serum testosterone and the function of peritoneal macrophages in group ES did not change significantly as compared with group E. These results suggest that long-term intensive exercise impairs the function of macrophages, which is essential for microbicidal capability. This may represent a novel mechanism of immunosuppression induced by strenuous exercise. Moreover, the impaired function of macrophage induced by strenuous exercise could not be ameliorated by BCAA supplementation in the dosing and timing used for this study.

  12. Flavanol-rich cocoa consumption enhances exercise-induced executive function improvements in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Hayato; Suga, Tadashi; Ishibashi, Aya; Takenaka, Saki; Tanaka, Daichi; Hirano, Yoshitaka; Hamaoka, Takafumi; Goto, Kazushige; Ebi, Kumiko; Isaka, Tadao; Hashimoto, Takeshi

    2018-02-01

    Aerobic exercise is known to acutely improve cognitive functions, such as executive function (EF) and memory function (MF). Additionally, consumption of flavanol-rich cocoa has been reported to acutely improve cognitive function. The aim of this study was to determine whether high cocoa flavanol (CF; HCF) consumption would enhance exercise-induced improvement in cognitive function. To test this hypothesis, we examined the combined effects of HCF consumption and moderate-intensity exercise on EF and MF during postexercise recovery. Ten healthy young men received either an HCF (563 mg of CF) or energy-matched low CF (LCF; 38 mg of CF) beverage 70 min before exercise in a single-blind counterbalanced manner. The men then performed moderate-intensity cycling exercise at 60% of peak oxygen uptake for 30 min. The participants performed a color-word Stroop task and face-name matching task to evaluate EF and MF, respectively, during six time periods throughout the experimental session. EF significantly improved immediately after exercise compared with before exercise in both conditions. However, EF was higher after HCF consumption than after LCF consumption during all time periods because HCF consumption improved EF before exercise. In contrast, HCF consumption and moderate-intensity exercise did not improve MF throughout the experiment. The present findings demonstrated that HCF consumption before moderate-intensity exercise could enhance exercise-induced improvement in EF, but not in MF. Therefore, we suggest that the combination of HCF consumption and aerobic exercise may be beneficial for improving EF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Exercise-Induced Neuroprotection of the Nigrostriatal Dopamine System in Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Lijuan; Chen, Wei; Liu, Xiaoli; Qiao, Decai; Zhou, Fu-Ming

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that physical activity and exercise may reduce the risk of developing Parkinson's disease (PD), and clinical observations suggest that physical exercise can reduce the motor symptoms in PD patients. In experimental animals, a profound observation is that exercise of appropriate timing, duration, and intensity can reduce toxin-induced lesion of the nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) system in animal PD models, although negative results have also been reported, potentially due to inappropriate timing and intensity of the exercise regimen. Exercise may also minimize DA denervation-induced medium spiny neuron (MSN) dendritic atrophy and other abnormalities such as enlarged corticostriatal synapse and abnormal MSN excitability and spiking activity. Taken together, epidemiological studies, clinical observations, and animal research indicate that appropriately dosed physical activity and exercise may not only reduce the risk of developing PD in vulnerable populations but also benefit PD patients by potentially protecting the residual DA neurons or directly restoring the dysfunctional cortico-basal ganglia motor control circuit, and these benefits may be mediated by exercise-triggered production of endogenous neuroprotective molecules such as neurotrophic factors. Thus, exercise is a universally available, side effect-free medicine that should be prescribed to vulnerable populations as a preventive measure and to PD patients as a component of treatment. Future research needs to establish standardized exercise protocols that can reliably induce DA neuron protection, enabling the delineation of the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms that in turn can maximize exercise-induced neuroprotection and neurorestoration in animal PD models and eventually in PD patients. PMID:29163139

  14. Exercise-Induced Neuroprotection of the Nigrostriatal Dopamine System in Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Hou

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies indicate that physical activity and exercise may reduce the risk of developing Parkinson's disease (PD, and clinical observations suggest that physical exercise can reduce the motor symptoms in PD patients. In experimental animals, a profound observation is that exercise of appropriate timing, duration, and intensity can reduce toxin-induced lesion of the nigrostriatal dopamine (DA system in animal PD models, although negative results have also been reported, potentially due to inappropriate timing and intensity of the exercise regimen. Exercise may also minimize DA denervation-induced medium spiny neuron (MSN dendritic atrophy and other abnormalities such as enlarged corticostriatal synapse and abnormal MSN excitability and spiking activity. Taken together, epidemiological studies, clinical observations, and animal research indicate that appropriately dosed physical activity and exercise may not only reduce the risk of developing PD in vulnerable populations but also benefit PD patients by potentially protecting the residual DA neurons or directly restoring the dysfunctional cortico-basal ganglia motor control circuit, and these benefits may be mediated by exercise-triggered production of endogenous neuroprotective molecules such as neurotrophic factors. Thus, exercise is a universally available, side effect-free medicine that should be prescribed to vulnerable populations as a preventive measure and to PD patients as a component of treatment. Future research needs to establish standardized exercise protocols that can reliably induce DA neuron protection, enabling the delineation of the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms that in turn can maximize exercise-induced neuroprotection and neurorestoration in animal PD models and eventually in PD patients.

  15. Losartan prevents heart fibrosis induced by long-term intensive exercise in an animal model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Gay-Jordi

    Full Text Available RATIONALE: Recently it has been shown that long-term intensive exercise practice is able to induce myocardial fibrosis in an animal model. Angiotensin II is a profibrotic hormone that could be involved in the cardiac remodeling resulting from endurance exercise. OBJECTIVE: This study examined the antifibrotic effect of losartan, an angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist, in an animal model of heart fibrosis induced by long-term intense exercise. METHODS AND RESULTS: Male Wistar rats were randomly distributed into 4 experimental groups: Exercise, Exercise plus losartan, Sedentary and Sedentary plus losartan. Exercise groups were conditioned to run vigorously for 16 weeks. Losartan was orally administered daily before each training session (50 mg/kg/day. Time-matched sedentary rats served as controls. After euthanasia, heart hypertrophy was evaluated by histological studies; ventricular collagen deposition was quantified by histological and biochemical studies; and messenger RNA and protein expression of transforming growth factor-β1, fibronectin-1, matrix metalloproteinase-2, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1, procollagen-I and procollagen-III was evaluated in all 4 cardiac chambers. Daily intensive exercise caused hypertrophy in the left ventricular heart wall and originated collagen deposition in the right ventricle. Additionally long-term intensive exercise induced a significant increase in messenger RNA expression and protein synthesis of the major fibrotic markers in both atria and in the right ventricle. Losartan treatment was able to reduce all increases in messenger RNA expression and protein levels caused by exercise, although it could not completely reverse the heart hypertrophy. CONCLUSIONS: Losartan treatment prevents the heart fibrosis induced by endurance exercise in training animals.

  16. Prior exercise and standing as strategies to circumvent sitting-induced leg endothelial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishima, Takuma; Restaino, Robert M; Walsh, Lauren K; Kanaley, Jill A; Padilla, Jaume

    2017-06-01

    We have previously shown that local heating or leg fidgeting can prevent prolonged sitting-induced leg endothelial dysfunction. However, whether physical activity prevents subsequent sitting-induced leg endothelial dysfunction remains unknown. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that sitting-induced leg endothelial dysfunction would be prevented by prior exercise. We also examined if, in the absence of exercise, standing is an effective alternative strategy to sitting for conserving leg endothelial function. Fifteen young healthy subjects completed three randomized experimental trials: (1) sitting without prior exercise; (2) sitting with prior exercise; and (3) standing without prior exercise. Following baseline popliteal artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) measurements, subjects maintained a supine position for 45 min in the sitting and standing trials, without prior exercise, or performed 45 min of leg cycling before sitting (i.e. sitting with prior exercise trial). Thereafter, subjects were positioned into a seated or standing position, according to the trial, for 3 h. Popliteal artery FMD measures were then repeated. Three hours of sitting without prior exercise caused a significant impairment in popliteal artery FMD (baseline: 3.8±0.5%, post-sitting: 1.5±0.5%, Pexercise (baseline: 3.8±0.5%, post-sitting: 3.6±0.7%, P>0.05). Three hours of standing did not significantly alter popliteal artery FMD (baseline: 4.1±0.4%, post-standing: 4.3±0.4%, P>0.05). In conclusion, prolonged sitting-induced leg endothelial dysfunction can be prevented by prior aerobic exercise. In addition, in the absence of exercise, standing represents an effective substitute to sitting for preserving leg conduit artery endothelial function. © 2017 The Author(s). published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  17. Exercise-induced leucocytosis in some healthy adult Nigerians ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    0.001) leucocytosis occurred immediately after the exercise with the predominant increase being lymphocytes. There was significant (p<0.01) eosinopenia and neutropenia in females. Basophilopenia was however significant (p<0.01) in the males ...

  18. Leukaemia inhibitory factor--an exercise-induced myokine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broholm, Christa; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2010-01-01

    During and following exercise skeletal muscle synthesises and releases a number of myokines that exert their effects either systemically or locally within the muscle. Several of these myokines influence metabolism, regeneration and/or hypertrophy and are therefore considered to be important...... to oscillations in intracellular Ca2+ concentrations. However, circulating levels of LIF are not increased with exercise suggesting that LIF exerts its effect locally. LIF stimulates muscle satellite cell proliferation and is involved in muscle hypertrophy and regeneration. Thus, LIF may be produced by skeletal...... contributing factors in muscle homeostasis and muscle adaptation to exercise training. Leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF) is produced and released from muscle cells in vitro and from intact skeletal muscle in vivo. During exercise, skeletal muscle potently up-regulates LIF mRNA expression, likely due...

  19. Exercise Induced Left Bundle Branch Block Treated with Cardiac Rehabilitation: A Case Report and a Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Nathan S.; Ramirez, Alexies; Slim, Ahmad; Malik, Jamil

    2014-01-01

    Exercise induced bundle branch block is a rare observation in exercise testing, accounting for 0.5 percent of exercise tests. The best treatment of this condition and its association with coronary disease remain unclear. We describe a case associated with normal coronary arteries which was successfully treated with exercise training. While this treatment has been used previously, our case has a longer followup than previously reported and demonstrates that the treatment is not durable in the absence of continued exercise. PMID:24716091

  20. Cooling System to Treat Exercise-Induced Hyperthermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    output necessary to meet the combined demands of skin blood flow for thermoregulation and blood flow for the metabolic requirements of exercising...water would be provided at room temperature to limit the theoretical impact of cold water ingestion on the CorTemp® sensor readings. Subjects were...competition. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2007;39(3):556-572. 3. Lim CL, Byrne C, Lee JK. Human thermoregulation and measurement of body temperature in exercise

  1. NOX2 inhibition impairs early muscle gene expression induced by a single exercise bout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henríquez-Olguín

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS participate as signaling molecules in response to exercise in skeletal muscle. However, the source of ROS and the molecular mechanisms involved in these phenomena are still not completely understood. The aim of this work was to study the role of skeletal muscle NADPH oxidase isoform 2 (NOX2 in the molecular response to physical exercise in skeletal muscle. BALB/c mice, pre-treated with a NOX2 inhibitor, apocynin, (3 mg/kg or vehicle for 3 days, were swim-exercised for 60 min. Phospho-p47phox levels were significantly upregulated by exercise in flexor digitorum brevis (FDB. Moreover, exercise significantly increased NOX2 complex assembly (p47phox-gp91phox interaction demonstrated by both proximity ligation assay and co-immunoprecipitation. Exercise-induced NOX2 activation was completely inhibited by apocynin treatment. As expected, exercise increased the mRNA levels of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, citrate synthase (CS, mitochondrial transcription factor A (tfam and interleukin-6 (IL-6 in FDB muscles. Moreover, the apocynin treatment was associated to a reduced activation of p38 MAP kinase, ERK 1/2, and NF-κB signaling pathways after a single bout of exercise. Additionally, the increase in plasma IL-6 elicited by exercise was decreased in apocynin-treated mice compared with the exercised vehicle-group (p<0.001. These results were corroborated using gp91-dstat in an in-vitro exercise model. In conclusion, NOX2 inhibition by both apocynin and gp91dstat, alters the intracellular signaling to exercise and electrical stimuli in skeletal muscle, suggesting that NOX2 plays a critical role in molecular response to an acute exercise.

  2. Two cases of wheat-dependent anaphylaxis induced by aspirin administration but not by exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsukura, S; Aihara, M; Sugawara, M; Kunimi, Y; Matsuki, M; Inoue, Y; Kambara, T; Ikezawa, Z

    2010-04-01

    Aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been reported to enhance the symptoms of wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (WDEIA). In contrast to many reports on WDEIA, there have been only a few reports of wheat-dependent aspirin-induced anaphylaxis not induced by the combination of wheat and exercise. Two patients with wheat-dependent anaphylaxis underwent provocation tests to clarify the cause of their symptoms. Skin-prick testing (SPT) was also performed with and without administration of aspirin. Specific IgE antibody to wheat, gluten, and omega-5 gliadin were examined. In the provocation tests, anaphylactic reactions were not induced by wheat or aspirin alone or by the combination of wheat and exercise, but were induced by the combination of wheat and aspirin. An increase in the blood histamine level was detected after provocation in both patients. Pretreatment with aspirin enhanced the SPT reactions to wheat and gluten in both patients. Specific IgE antibodies to wheat and gluten were expressed in the serum of both patients, and specific omega-5 gliadin IgE antibody was detected in the serum of one patient. We present two cases of specific wheat-dependent anaphylaxis induced by aspirin but not by exercise. We suggest that pretreatment with aspirin under controlled conditions is useful to confirm the diagnosis of food allergy when a challenge test with food alone or with food and exercise fails to induce positive reactions.

  3. Long-term leucine supplementation aggravates prolonged strenuous exercise-induced cardiovascular changes in trained rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Gustavo Barbosa; de Oliveira, André Gustavo; Ramos, Luiz Alberto Ferreira; Gomes-Marcondes, Maria Cristina Cintra; Areas, Miguel Arcanjo

    2016-07-01

    What is the central question of this study? Can long-term leucine supplementation prevent prolonged strenuous endurance exercise induced cardiac injury? What is the main finding and its importance? Prolonged endurance exercise does not seem to exceed cardiac energetic capacity, hence it does not represent an energy threat to this organ, at least in trained subjects. However, it may induce, in susceptible individuals, a state of cardiac electrical instability, which has been associated with ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. This situation might be worsened when combined with leucine supplementation, which leads to increased blood pressure and cardiac injury. Leucine supplementation failed to prevent cardiac fatigue symptoms and may aggravate prolonged strenuous exercise-induced cardiovascular disturbances in trained rats. Observational studies have raised concerns that prolonged strenuous exercise training may be associated with increased risk of cardiac arrhythmia and even primary cardiac arrest or sudden death. It has been demonstrated that leucine can reduce prolonged exercise-induced muscle damage and accelerate the recovery process. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of prolonged strenuous endurance exercise on cardiovascular parameters and biomarkers of cardiac injury in trained adult male rats and assess the use of leucine as an auxiliary substance to prevent the likely cardiac adverse effects caused by strenuous exercise. Twenty-four male Wistar rats were randomly allocated to receive a balanced control diet (18% protein) or a leucine-rich diet (15% protein plus 3% leucine) for 6 weeks. The rats were submitted to 1 h of exercise, 5 days per week for 6 weeks. Three days after the training period, the rats were submitted to swimming exercise until exhaustion, and cardiac parameters were assessed. Exercising until exhaustion significantly increased cardiac biomarker levels, cytokines and glycogen content inhibited protein

  4. Exercise-induced changes in EEG alpha power depend on frequency band definition mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutmann, Boris; Hülsdünker, Thorben; Mierau, Julia; Strüder, Heiko K; Mierau, Andreas

    2017-10-18

    In the majority of studies investigating cortical alpha oscillations the alpha frequency is defined as a fixed band thus, neglecting recommendations in the EEG literature to adjust the alpha band according to the individual alpha peak frequency (iAPF). Based on our previous findings indicating exhaustive exercise induces an increase of the post-exercise iAPF, we scrutinized the influence of exercise on post-exercise alpha power by comparing fixed and iAPF-adjusted alpha frequency bands. Resting EEG was recorded from 13 scalp locations in nine subjects before, immediately after as well as ten minutes following an exhaustive exercise protocol on a cycle ergometer. Lower and upper band alpha power was calculated for fixed and iAPF-adjusted frequency bands. Post-exercise lower alpha power increased in both fixed and individually defined bands while a higher upper alpha power was only observed in the fixed frequency band condition. Further, the increase in iAPF was positively related to the changes in fixed-band upper alpha power. It is concluded that lower alpha power is significantly increased following exhaustive exercise whereas the results for upper alpha power are substantially influenced by the method of frequency band definition. Therefore, caution is indicated when analyzing and interpreting exercise-induced changes in alpha power. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Exercise-induced brachial artery blood flow and vascular function is impaired in systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machin, Daniel R; Clifton, Heather L; Garten, Ryan S; Gifford, Jayson R; Richardson, Russell S; Wray, D Walter; Frech, Tracy M; Donato, Anthony J

    2016-12-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a rare autoimmune disease characterized by debilitating fibrosis and vascular dysfunction; however, little is known about the circulatory response to exercise in this population. Therefore, we examined the peripheral hemodynamic and vasodilatory responses to handgrip exercise in 10 patients with SSc (61 ± 4 yr) and 15 age-matched healthy controls (56 ± 5 yr). Brachial artery diameter, blood flow, and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were determined at rest and during progressive static-intermittent handgrip exercise. Patients with SSc and controls were similar in body stature, handgrip strength, and MAP; however, brachial artery blood flow at rest was nearly twofold lower in patients with SSc compared with controls (22 ± 4 vs. 42 ± 5 ml/min, respectively; P exercise, there were no differences in MAP between the groups, exercise-induced hyperemia and therefore vascular conductance were ∼35% lower at all exercise workloads in patients with SSc (P exercise-induced brachial artery blood flow and conduit arterial vasodilatory dysfunction during handgrip exercise in SSc and suggest that elevated oxidative stress may play a role.

  6. Treadmill exercise induces age and protocol-dependent epigenetic changes in prefrontal cortex of Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cechinel, Laura Reck; Basso, Carla Giovana; Bertoldi, Karine; Schallenberger, Bruna; de Meireles, Louisiana Carolina Ferreira; Siqueira, Ionara Rodrigues

    2016-10-15

    Some studies have linked age-related beneficial effects of exercise and epigenetic mechanisms. Although, the impact of treadmill exercise on histone acetylation, histone and DNA methylation marks in aged cortices yet remains poorly understood. Considering the role of frontal cortex on brain functions, we investigated the potential of different exercise protocols, single session and daily exercise, to modulate epigenetic marks, namely global H4 acetylation, histone methyltransferase activity (HMT H3K27) and levels of DNA methytransferase (DNMT1 and DNMT3b) in prefrontal cortices from 3 and 21-months aged Wistar rats. The animals were submitted to two treadmill exercise protocols, single session (20min) or daily moderate (20min/day during 14days). The daily exercise protocol induced an increased in histone H4 acetylation levels in prefrontal cortices of 21-months-old rats, without any effects in young adult group. DNMT3b levels were increased in aged cortices of animals submitted to single session of exercise. These results indicate that prefrontal cortex is susceptible to epigenetic changes in a protocol dependent-manner and that H4 acetylation levels and DNMT3b content changes might be linked at least in part to exercise-induced effects on brain functions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Aerobic exercise attenuates inhibitory avoidance memory deficit induced by paradoxical sleep deprivation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Jansen; Baliego, Luiz Guilherme Zaccaro; Peixinho-Pena, Luiz Fernando; de Almeida, Alexandre Aparecido; Venancio, Daniel Paulino; Scorza, Fulvio Alexandre; de Mello, Marco Tulio; Arida, Ricardo Mario

    2013-09-05

    The deleterious effects of paradoxical sleep deprivation (SD) on memory processes are well documented. Physical exercise improves many aspects of brain functions and induces neuroprotection. In the present study, we investigated the influence of 4 weeks of treadmill aerobic exercise on both long-term memory and the expression of synaptic proteins (GAP-43, synapsin I, synaptophysin, and PSD-95) in normal and sleep-deprived rats. Adult Wistar rats were subjected to 4 weeks of treadmill exercise training for 35 min, five times per week. Twenty-four hours after the last exercise session, the rats were sleep-deprived for 96 h using the modified multiple platform method. To assess memory after SD, all animals underwent training for the inhibitory avoidance task and were tested 24h later. The aerobic exercise attenuated the long-term memory deficit induced by 96 h of paradoxical SD. Western blot analysis of the hippocampus revealed increased levels of GAP-43 in exercised rats. However, the expression of synapsin I, synaptophysin, and PSD-95 was not modified by either exercise or SD. Our results suggest that an aerobic exercise program can attenuate the deleterious effects of SD on long-term memory and that this effect is not directly related to changes in the expression of the pre- and post-synaptic proteins analyzed in the study. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. BDNF expression in perirhinal cortex is associated with exercise-induced improvement in object recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Michael E; Bucci, David J

    2010-09-01

    Physical exercise induces widespread neurobiological adaptations and improves learning and memory. Most research in this field has focused on hippocampus-based spatial tasks and changes in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) as a putative substrate underlying exercise-induced cognitive improvements. Chronic exercise can also be anxiolytic and causes adaptive changes in stress-reactivity. The present study employed a perirhinal cortex-dependent object recognition task as well as the elevated plus maze to directly test for interactions between the cognitive and anxiolytic effects of exercise in male Long Evans rats. Hippocampal and perirhinal cortex tissue was collected to determine whether the relationship between BDNF and cognitive performance extends to this non-spatial and non-hippocampal-dependent task. We also examined whether the cognitive improvements persisted once the exercise regimen was terminated. Our data indicate that 4weeks of voluntary exercise every-other-day improved object recognition memory. Importantly, BDNF expression in the perirhinal cortex of exercising rats was strongly correlated with object recognition memory. Exercise also decreased anxiety-like behavior, however there was no evidence to support a relationship between anxiety-like behavior and performance on the novel object recognition task. There was a trend for a negative relationship between anxiety-like behavior and hippocampal BDNF. Neither the cognitive improvements nor the relationship between cognitive function and perirhinal BDNF levels persisted after 2weeks of inactivity. These are the first data demonstrating that region-specific changes in BDNF protein levels are correlated with exercise-induced improvements in non-spatial memory, mediated by structures outside the hippocampus and are consistent with the theory that, with regard to object recognition, the anxiolytic and cognitive effects of exercise may be mediated through separable mechanisms. Copyright 2010 Elsevier

  9. Effects of montelukast and salmeterol on physical performance and exercise economy in adult asthmatics with exercise-induced bronchoconstriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinshamn, Sigurd; Sandsund, Mariann; Sue-Chu, Malcolm; Bjermer, Leif

    2004-10-01

    To compare the effect of montelukast and the long-acting beta(2)-agonist salmeterol on cardiopulmonary exercise economy and physical performance in adult patients with asthma during exercise. Asthmatic patients (n = 18), aged 18 to 35 years with exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB), using a double-blind, double-dummy cross-over design. Montelukast, 10 mg/d, was compared to inhaled salmeterol, 50 microg bid. The study medication was administered for at least 5 days prior to testing, with a washout period of at least 5 days. Treadmill exercise tests (5.3% inclination, -15 degrees C ambient temperature) were performed at work loads of 80% of maximal oxygen uptake (Vo(2)max) [6 min], rest (4 min), 60% of Vo(2)max (6 min), and finally step increments until exhaustion. We investigated parameters of gas exchange, physical performance, and lung function. After montelukast, the oxygen pulse was higher than after salmeterol, at 80% of Vo(2)max (p = 0.035), and 6 min at 60% of Vo(2)max (p = 0.011). Lung function during exercise, running time to exhaustion, Borg score, lactate levels, Vo(2)max, carbon dioxide elimination, minute ventilation, ventilatory equivalents, respiratory exchange ratio, and heart rate were not significantly different between the two treatments. The maximal postexercise fall in FEV(1) from baseline occurred 2 min after run to exhaustion, and was greater after salmeterol than after montelukast: mean, 16.2% (SD, 11.0) vs 10.0% (SD, 12.2) [p effect on the oxygen pulse, thus suggesting improved gas exchange during exercise.

  10. Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it can lead to weakness of muscles, decreased bone density with an increased risk of fracture, and shallow, inefficient breathing. An exercise program needs to fit the capabilities and limitations ...

  11. Effect of underwater treadmill exercise on postural sway in horses with experimentally induced carpal joint osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Melissa R; Haussler, Kevin K; Kawcak, Christopher E; McIlwraith, C Wayne; Reiser Ii, Raoul F

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate the effect of underwater treadmill exercise on static postural sway in horses with experimentally induced carpal joint osteoarthritis under various stance conditions. 16 horses. On day 0, osteoarthritis was induced arthroscopically in 1 randomly selected middle carpal joint of each horse. Beginning on day 15, horses were assigned to either underwater or overground (without water) treadmill exercise at the same speed, frequency, and duration. Two serial force platforms were used to collect postural sway data from each horse on study days -7, 14, 42, and 70. Horses were made to stand stationary on the force platforms under 3 stance conditions: normal square stance, base-narrow placement of the thoracic limbs, and removal of visual cues (blindfolded) during a normal square stance. The mean of 3 consecutive, 10-second trials in each condition was calculated and used for analysis. Displacement of the center of pressure differed significantly depending on the stance condition. Among horses exercised on the underwater treadmill, postural stability in both the base-narrow and blindfolded stance conditions improved, compared with findings for horses exercised on the overground treadmill. Horses exercised on the overground treadmill were only successful at maintaining a stable center of pressure during the normal square stance position. Variations in stance position had profound effects on the mechanics of standing balance in horses with experimentally induced carpal joint osteoarthritis. Underwater treadmill exercise significantly improved the horses' postural stability, which is fundamental in providing evidence-based support for equine aquatic exercise.

  12. Exercise-induced asthma: critical analysis of the protective role of montelukast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terrence W Carver Jr

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Terrence W Carver JrThe Children’s Mercy Hospital and Clinics, Kansas City, MO, USAAbstract: Exercise-induced asthma/exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIA/EIB is a prevalent and clinically important disease affecting young children through older adulthood. These terms are often used interchangeably and the differences are not clearly defined in the literature. The pathogenesis of EIA/EIB may be different in those with persistent asthma compared to those with exercise-induced symptoms only. The natural history of EIA is unclear and may be different for elite athletes. Leukotriene biology has helped the understanding of EIB. The type and intensity of exercise are important factors for EIB. Exercise participation is necessary for proper development and control of EIA is recommended. Symptoms of EIB should be confirmed by proper testing. Biologic markers may also be helpful in diagnosis. Not all exercise symptoms are from EIB. Many medication and nonpharmacologic treatments are available. Asthma education is an important component of managing EIA. Many medications have been tested and the comparisons are complicated. Montelukast is a US Food and Drug Administration-approved asthma and EIB controller and has a number of potential advantages to other asthma medications including short onset of action, ease of use, and lack of tolerance. Not all patients improve with montelukast and rescue medication should be available.Keywords: exercise, asthma, montelukast, Singulair, bronchospasm, leukotrienes

  13. Contribution of β-adrenergic receptors to exercise-induced bronchodilatation in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonelli, Andrea; Torchio, Roberto; Bertolaccini, Luca; Terzi, Alberto; Rolfo, Fabrizio; Agostoni, Piergiuseppe; Gulotta, Carlo; Brusasco, Vito; Pellegrino, Riccardo

    2012-10-15

    Exercise in healthy subjects is usually associated with progressive bronchodilatation. Though the decrease in vagal tone is deemed to be the main underlying mechanism, activation of bronchial β(2)-receptors may constitute an additional cause. To examine the contribution of β(2)-adrenergic receptors to bronchodilatation during exercise in healthy humans, we studied 15 healthy male volunteers during maximum exercise test at control conditions and after a non-selective β-adrenergic blocker (carvedilol 12.5mg twice a day until heart rate decreased at least by 10beats/min) and inhaled β(2)-agonist (albuterol 400μg). Airway caliber was estimated from the partial flow at 40% of control forced vital capacity (V˙(part40)) and its changes during exercise from the slope of linear regression analysis of V˙(part40) values against the corresponding minute ventilation during maximal exercise until exhaustion. At control, V˙(part40) increased progressively and significantly with exercise. After albuterol, resting V˙(part40) was significantly larger than at control increased but did not further increase during exercise. After carvedilol, V˙(part40) was similar to control but its increase with exercise was significantly attenuated. These findings suggest that β(2)-adrenergic system plays a major role in exercise-induced bronchodilation in healthy subjects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. An exploration of exercise-induced cognitive enhancement and transfer effects to dietary self-control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Cassandra J; Kolev, Dimitar; Hall, Peter A

    2016-12-01

    The primary objective of this study was to examine the effects of aerobic exercise on executive function, specifically inhibitory control, and the transfer to self-control in the dietary domain. It was hypothesized that exercise would enhance inhibitory control, and that this enhancement would facilitate self-control in a laboratory taste test paradigm. Using a crossover design, 51 participants completed counterbalanced sessions of both moderate exercise (experimental condition) and minimal effort walking (control condition) using a treadmill; the intersession interval was 7days. Prior to each exercise bout participants completed a Stroop task. Following each bout participants completed a second Stoop task, as well as a bogus taste test involving three appetitive calorie dense snack foods and two control foods; the amount of each food type consumed during the taste test was covertly measured. Results revealed that moderate exercise significantly improved performance on the Stroop task, and also reduced food consumption during the taste test for appetitive calorie dense snack foods; there was no exercise effect on control food consumption. Exercise-induced gains in Stroop performance mediated the effects of moderate exercise on appetitive snack food consumption. Together these findings provide evidence that a bout of a moderate aerobic exercise can enhance inhibitory control, and support for cross-domain transfer effects to dietary self-control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage: where are we now?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poole DC

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available David C Poole,1,2 Howard H Erickson1 1Department of Anatomy and Physiology, 2Department of Kinesiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, USA Abstract: As the Thoroughbreds race for the final stretch, 44 hooves flash and thunder creating a cacophony of tortured air and turf. Orchestrated by selective breeding for physiology and biomechanics, expressed as speed, the millennia-old symphony of man and beast reaches its climax. At nearly 73 kilometers per hour (45 mph over half a ton of flesh and bone dwarfs its limpet-like jockey as, eyes wild and nostrils flaring, their necks stretch for glory. Beneath each resplendent livery-adorned, latherin-splattered coat hides a monstrous heart trilling at 4 beats per second, and each minute, driving over 400 L (105 gallons of oxygen-rich blood from lungs to muscles. Matching breath to stride frequency, those lungs will inhale 16 L (4 gallons of air each stride moving >1,000 L/min in and out of each nostril – and yet failing. Engorged with blood and stretched to breaking point, those lungs can no longer redden the arterial blood but leave it dusky and cyanotic. Their exquisitely thin blood–gas barrier, a mere 10.5 μm thick (1/50,000 of an inch, ruptures, and red cells invade the lungs. After the race is won and lost, long after the frenetic crowd has quieted and gone, that blood will clog and inflame the airways. For a few horses, those who bleed extensively, it will overflow their lungs and spray from their nostrils incarnadining the walls of their stall: a horrifically poignant canvas that strikes at horse racing’s very core. That exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage (EIPH occurs is a medical and physiological reality. That every reasonable exigency is not taken to reduce/prevent it would be a travesty. This review is not intended to provide an exhaustive coverage of EIPH for which the reader is referred to recent reviews, rather, after a brief reminder of its

  16. The Effect of Estrogen Usage on Eccentric Exercise-Induced Damage in Rat Testes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Serpil; Selli, Jale; Buyuk, Basak; Aydin, Sergulen; Kocaaslan, Ramazan; Guvendi, Gulname Findik

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recent years, lots of scientific studies are focused on the possible mechanism of inflammatory response and oxidative stress which are the mechanism related with tissue damage and exercise fatigue. It is well-known that free oxygen radicals may be induced under invitro conditions as well as oxidative stress by exhaustive physical exercise. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of anabolic steroids in conjunction with exercise in the process of spermatogenesis in the testes, using histological and stereological methods. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six male Sprague Dawley rats were divided to six groups, including the control group, the eccentric exercise administered group, the estrogen applied group, the estrogen applied and dissected one hour after eccentric exercise group, the no estrogen applied and dissected 48 hours after eccentric exercise group and the estrogen applied and dissected 48 hours after eccentric exercise group. Eccentric exercise was performed on a motorized rodent treadmill and the estrogen applied groups received daily physiological doses by subcutaneous injections. Testicular tissues were examined using specific histopathological, immunohistochemical and stereological methods. Sections of the testes tissue were stained using the TUNEL method to identify apoptotic cells. Apoptosis was calculated as the percentage of positive cells, using stereological analysis. A statistical analysis of the data was carried out with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) for the data obtained from stereological analysis. Results: Conventional light microscopic results revealed that testes tissues of the eccentric exercise administered group and the estrogen supplemented group exhibited slight impairment. In groups that were both eccentrically exercised and estrogen supplemented, more deterioration was detected in testes tissues. Likewise, immunohistochemistry findings were also more prominent in the eccentrically exercised

  17. Exercise Combined with Rhodiola sacra Supplementation Improves Exercise Capacity and Ameliorates Exhaustive Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage through Enhancement of Mitochondrial Quality Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaoshan Dun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mounting evidence has firmly established that increased exercise capacity (EC is associated with considerable improvements in the survival of patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD and that antistress capacity is a prognostic predictor of adverse cardiovascular events in patients with CVD. Previous studies have indicated that aerobic exercise (AE and supplementation with Rhodiola sacra (RS, a natural plant pharmaceutical, improve EC and enable resistance to stress; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. This study explored the ability of AE and RS, alone or combined, to improve EC and ameliorate exhaustive exercise- (EE- induced stress and elucidate the mechanism involved. We found that AE and RS significantly increased EC in mice and ameliorated EE-induced stress damage in skeletal and cardiac muscles (SCM; furthermore, a synergistic effect was detected for the first time. To our knowledge, the present work is the first to report that AE and RS activate mitophagy, mitochondrial dynamics, and biogenesis in SCM, both in the resting state and after EE. These data indicate that AE and RS synergistically improve EC in mice and protect SCM from EE-induced stress by enhancing mitochondrial quality control, including the activation of mitophagy, mitochondrial dynamics, and biogenesis, both at rest and after EE.

  18. Treadmill exercise alleviates depressive symptoms in rotenone-induced Parkinson disease rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Mal-Soon; Kim, Tae-Woon; Lee, Jae-Min; Sung, Yun-Hee; Lim, Baek-Vin

    2017-04-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is characterized by selective loss of the dopaminergic neurons. The symptoms of depression following PD are closely associated with reduced activity of the serotonergic system in the dorsal raphe. We explored the antidepressive effect of exercise and its possible mechanism using the rotenone-induced PD rats. PD rats were induced by subcutaneously injection with rotenone for 14 days. The rats in the exercise groups were made to run on a treadmill for 30 min once a day during 14 consecutive days. Forced swimming test, immunohistochemistry for serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH), and western blot for serotonin 1A (5-HT1A) receptor were conducted. Injection of rotenone induced PD rats. PD rats showed depressive state and treadmill exercise ameliorated this depressive state. 5-HT, TPH, and 5-HT1A receptor expressions in the dorsal raphe were suppressed by rotenone injection and treadmill exercise increased the expressions of 5-HT, TPH, and 5-HT1A receptor in the rotenone-injected rats. The present results show that treadmill exercise ameliorated depressive symptoms in the rotenone-induced PD rats. The antidepressive effect of treadmill exercise might be ascribed to the enhancement of serotonergic function through upregulation of 5-HT1A expression in the dorsal raphe.

  19. SHORT AND LONGER-TERM EFFECTS OF CREATINE SUPPLEMENTATION ON EXERCISE INDUCED MUSCLE DAMAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Rosene

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this investigation was to determine if creatine supplementation assisted with reducing the amount of exercise induced muscle damage and if creatine supplementation aided in recovery from exercise induced muscle damage. Two groups of subjects (group 1 = creatine; group 2 = placebo participated in an eccentric exercise protocol following 7 and 30 days of creatine or placebo supplementation (20 g.d-1 for 7 d followed by 6g.d-1 for 23 d = 30 d. Prior to the supplementation period, measurements were obtained for maximal dynamic strength, maximal isometric force, knee range of motion, muscle soreness, and serum levels of creatine kinase (CK and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH. Following 7 days of creatine supplementation, on day 8, subjects began consuming 6 g.d-1 of creatine for 23 days. Additionally on days 8 and 31, subjects performed an eccentric exercise protocol using the knee extensors to induce muscle damage. Indirect markers of muscle damage, including maximal isometric force, knee range of motion, muscle soreness, and serum levels of CK and LDH, were collected at 12, 24, and 48 hours following each exercise bout. The results indicated that acute bouts of creatine have no effect on indirect markers of muscle damage for the acute (7 days bout. However, maximal isometric force was greater for the creatine group versus placebo for the chronic (30 days bout. This suggests that the ergogenic effect of creatine following 30 days of supplementation may have a positive impact on exercise induced muscle damage

  20. Exercise-induced enhancement of immune function in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, J C; Harris, T J; Higgins, J; Maisel, A S

    1994-07-01

    There have been many anecdotal reports that regular, moderate exercise confers some protective immunity against infection. There has been little scientific evidence to support this. It is also unclear whether training alters lymphocyte trafficking from the spleen to the periphery after a bout of exhaustive exercise. To determine the effect of moderate training on in vivo antibody production, using rats as an animal model, we gradually trained 18 rats using a swimming protocol for a 4-week period after injection and booster with Keyhole limpet hemocyanin antigen. There were 9 age-matched controls. At the conclusion of training, both groups underwent a short-term exhaustive swim. The trained group showed marked enhancement of IgM and IgG production. After short-term exercise, both groups had acute lymphocytosis, mainly T(suppressor)/cytolytic and natural killer cells with decreases in T(helper) (trained), B cells, and the Th-to-Ts ratio. The changes in the splenocyte subsets were the opposite of the changes in the peripheral blood. With respect to function, after exhaustive exercise, there was a slight increase in mitogenesis and interleukin-2 receptor expression to concanavalin A (untrained more than trained) compared with controls. Regular, moderate training enhances antibody production to specific de novo antigen both early and late. In addition, short-term exercise leads to selective release of immune cells from the spleen and results in slightly enhanced function of splenocytes. Direct stimulation by the sympathetic nervous system and catecholamines is the proposed mechanism for the changes seen after short-term exercise and possibly antibody production during training.

  1. PGC-1alpha in exercise- and exercise training-induced metabolic adaptations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Stine Ringholm

    ) and pyruvate carboxylase mRNA content did not change in either genotype. Exercise training increased PEPCK protein content in both WT and PGC-1α KO mice. In addition, the mRNA and protein content of cytochrome (Cyt) c and cytochrome c oxidase (COX) subunit I increased in response to acute exercise and exercise......-associated decreases in oxidative and angiogenic proteins in mouse skeletal muscle. Study I demonstrates that only 7 days of bed rest reduced leg muscle mass, mitochondrial enzyme activities, mitochondrial (mt)DNA/nuclear (n)DNA content, protein content of oxidative proteins and miRNA content in human skeletal muscle...... that citrate synthase (CS) activity and mtDNA/nDNA content decreased with age in skeletal muscle of WT mice. CS activity, mtDNA/nDNA content, pyruvate dehydrogenase-E1α and VEGF protein content increased with lifelong exercise training in WT mice but not in PGC-1α KO mice. In contrast, lifelong resveratrol...

  2. Exercise- and Hypoxia-Induced Anaerobic Metabolism and Recovery: A Student Laboratory Exercise Using Teleost Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, B. B.; Boily, P.; Williamson, L. A. C.

    2009-01-01

    Anaerobic metabolism is recruited in vertebrates under conditions of intense exercise or lowered environmental oxygen availability (hypoxia), typically resulting in the accumulation of lactate in blood and tissues. Lactate will be cleared over time after the reoxygenation of tissues, eventually returning to control levels. Here, we present a…

  3. Relative workload determines exercise-induced increases in PGC-1alpha mRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup; Lundby, Carsten; Leick, Lotte

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION:: The hypothesis that brief intermittent exercise induced increases in human skeletal muscle metabolic mRNA is dependent on relative workload was investigated. METHODS:: Trained (n=10) and untrained (n=8) subjects performed exhaustive intermittent cycling exercise (4x4 min @ 85% of VO2...... peak, interspersed by 3 min). Trained subjects also performed the intermittent exercise at the same absolute workload as untrained, corresponding to 70% of VO2 peak (n=6). RESULTS:: Exercise at 85% of VO2 peak elevated (Ptrained...... after exercise at 85% of VO2 peak. Likewise, PDK4 and HKII mRNA expression were only increased (Ptrained subjects. HIF2alpha mRNA only increased (Ptrained, with no difference between the 70% and 85% of VO2 peak...

  4. Global Proteome Changes in the Rat Diaphragm Induced by Endurance Exercise Training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt J Sollanek

    Full Text Available Mechanical ventilation (MV is a life-saving intervention for many critically ill patients. Unfortunately, prolonged MV results in the rapid development of diaphragmatic atrophy and weakness. Importantly, endurance exercise training results in a diaphragmatic phenotype that is protected against ventilator-induced diaphragmatic atrophy and weakness. The mechanisms responsible for this exercise-induced protection against ventilator-induced diaphragmatic atrophy remain unknown. Therefore, to investigate exercise-induced changes in diaphragm muscle proteins, we compared the diaphragmatic proteome from sedentary and exercise-trained rats. Specifically, using label-free liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we performed a proteomics analysis of both soluble proteins and mitochondrial proteins isolated from diaphragm muscle. The total number of diaphragm proteins profiled in the soluble protein fraction and mitochondrial protein fraction were 813 and 732, respectively. Endurance exercise training significantly (P<0.05, FDR <10% altered the abundance of 70 proteins in the soluble diaphragm proteome and 25 proteins of the mitochondrial proteome. In particular, key cytoprotective proteins that increased in relative abundance following exercise training included mitochondrial fission process 1 (Mtfp1; MTP18, 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3MPST, microsomal glutathione S-transferase 3 (Mgst3; GST-III, and heat shock protein 70 kDa protein 1A/1B (HSP70. While these proteins are known to be cytoprotective in several cell types, the cyto-protective roles of these proteins have yet to be fully elucidated in diaphragm muscle fibers. Based upon these important findings, future experiments can now determine which of these diaphragmatic proteins are sufficient and/or required to promote exercise-induced protection against inactivity-induced muscle atrophy.

  5. Exercise training with ageing protects against ethanol induced myocardial glutathione homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakarla, Pushpalatha; Kesireddy, Sathyavelureddy; Christiaan, Leeuwenburgh

    2008-05-01

    Glutathione plays a central role in the maintenance of cellular antioxidant defense. The alterations in the glutathione and associated recyclic enzymes caused by both exercise training and ethanol are well documented; however, their interactive effects with age are not well understood. Therefore, the influence of ageing and the interactive effects of exercise training and ethanol on the myocardial glutathione system in 3 months and 18 months old rats were examined. The results showed a significant (pEthanol consumption significantly (pethanol consumption significantly (pethanol significantly (pethanol treated rats in both age groups, indicating the suppression of ethanol-induced oxidative stress by exercise training. In conclusion, there was a compensatory myocardial response lessening ethanol-induced oxidative stress by exercise training, which seemed to result from the higher activity of glutathione recycling and utilizing enzymes, which may be critical for preventing chronic oxidative damage to the myocardium during ageing and even due to ethanol consumption.

  6. The impact of metabolic syndrome and endothelial dysfunction on exercise-induced cardiovascular changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Amanda M; Davies, Elaine; Lavoie, Kim L; Arsenault, André; Gordon, Jennifer L; Meloche, Bernard; Bacon, Simon L

    2013-01-01

    There is limited information regarding the synergistic or additive effects of metabolic syndrome (MS) and endothelial dysfunction (ED) on cardiovascular disease (CVD). Altered cardiovascular responses to exercise have been shown to predict future cardiovascular events as well as assess autonomic function. The present study evaluated the impact of MS and brachial artery reactivity (a proxy of ED) on peak exercise-induced cardiovascular changes. Individuals (n = 303) undergoing a standard nuclear medicine exercise stress test were assessed for MS. Participants underwent a Forearm Hyperaemic Reactivity test and were considered to have dysfunctional reactivity if their rate of uptake ratio (RUR) was exercise-induced cardiovascular changes, indicates that these patients may have some degree of parasympathetic dysregulation. Further longitudinal studies are needed to understand the long-term implications of MS and endothelial abnormalities in this context. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  7. Exercise induces cerebral VEGF and angiogenesis via the lactate receptor HCAR1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morland, Cecilie; Andersson, Krister A.; Haugen, Oyvind P.

    2017-01-01

    Physical exercise can improve brain function and delay neurodegeneration; however, the initial signal from muscle to brain is unknown. Here we show that the lactate receptor (HCAR1) is highly enriched in pial fibroblast-like cells that line the vessels supplying blood to the brain, and in pericyte...... levels similar to exercise, increases brain VEGFA protein and capillary density in wild-type mice, but not in knockout mice lacking HCAR1. In contrast, skeletal muscle shows no vascular HCAR1 expression and no HCAR1-dependent change in vascularization induced by exercise or lactate. Thus, we demonstrate...... that a substance released by exercising skeletal muscle induces supportive effects in brain through an identified receptor....

  8. Exercise-Induced Skeletal Muscle Remodeling and Metabolic Adaptation: Redox Signaling and Role of Autophagy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giammarioli, Anna Maria; Chiandotto, Sergio; Spoletini, Ilaria

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Skeletal muscle is a highly plastic tissue. Exercise evokes signaling pathways that strongly modify myofiber metabolism and physiological and contractile properties of skeletal muscle. Regular physical activity is beneficial for health and is highly recommended for the prevention of several chronic conditions. In this review, we have focused our attention on the pathways that are known to mediate physical training-induced plasticity. Recent Advances: An important role for redox signaling has recently been proposed in exercise-mediated muscle remodeling and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) activation. Still more currently, autophagy has also been found to be involved in metabolic adaptation to exercise. Critical Issues: Both redox signaling and autophagy are processes with ambivalent effects; they can be detrimental and beneficial, depending on their delicate balance. As such, understanding their role in the chain of events induced by exercise and leading to skeletal muscle remodeling is a very complicated matter. Moreover, the study of the signaling induced by exercise is made even more difficult by the fact that exercise can be performed with several different modalities, with this having different repercussions on adaptation. Future Directions: Unraveling the complexity of the molecular signaling triggered by exercise on skeletal muscle is crucial in order to define the therapeutic potentiality of physical training and to identify new pharmacological compounds that are able to reproduce some beneficial effects of exercise. In evaluating the effect of new “exercise mimetics,” it will also be necessary to take into account the involvement of reactive oxygen species, reactive nitrogen species, and autophagy and their controversial effects. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 154–176. PMID:24450966

  9. Carbohydrate-Dependent, Exercise-Induced Gastrointestinal Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Erick Prado; Burini, Roberto C.

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) problems are a common concern of athletes during intense exercise. Ultimately, these symptoms can impair performance and possibly prevent athletes from winning or even finishing a race. The main causes of GI problems during exercise are mechanical, ischemic and nutritional factors. Among the nutritional factors, a high intake of carbohydrate and hyperosmolar solutions increases GI problems. A number of nutritional manipulations have been proposed to minimize gastrointestinal symptoms, including the use of multiple transportable carbohydrates. This type of CHO intake increases the oxidation rates and can prevent the accumulation of carbohydrate in the intestine. Glucose (6%) or glucose plus fructose (8%–10%) beverages are recommended in order to increase CHO intake while avoiding the gastric emptying delay. Training the gut with high intake of CHO may increase absorption capacity and probably prevent GI distress. CHO mouth rinse may be a good strategy to enhance performance without using GI tract in exercises lasting less than an hour. Future strategies should be investigated comparing different CHO types, doses, and concentration in exercises with the same characteristics. PMID:25314645

  10. Exercise Prevents Diet-Induced Cellular Senescence in Adipose Tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schafer, M.J.; White, T.A.; Evans, G.; Tonne, J.M.; Verzosa, G.C.; Stout, M.B.; Mazula, D.L.; Palmer, A.K.; Baker, D.J.; Jensen, M.D.; Torbenson, M.S.; Miller, J.D.; Ikeda, Y.; Tchkonia, T.; Deursen, J.M.A. van; Kirkland, J.L.; LeBrasseur, N.K.

    2016-01-01

    Considerable evidence implicates cellular senescence in the biology of aging and chronic disease. Diet and exercise are determinants of healthy aging; however, the extent to which they affect the behavior and accretion of senescent cells within distinct tissues is not clear. Here we tested the

  11. Exercise Induced Adipokine Changes and the Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Golbidi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The lack of adequate physical activity and obesity created a worldwide pandemic. Obesity is characterized by the deposition of adipose tissue in various parts of the body; it is now evident that adipose tissue also acts as an endocrine organ capable of secreting many cytokines that are though to be involved in the pathophysiology of obesity, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome. Adipokines, or adipose tissue-derived proteins, play a pivotal role in this scenario. Increased secretion of proinflammatory adipokines leads to a chronic inflammatory state that is accompanied by insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. Lifestyle change in terms of increased physical activity and exercise is the best nonpharmacological treatment for obesity since these can reduce insulin resistance, counteract the inflammatory state, and improve the lipid profile. There is growing evidence that exercise exerts its beneficial effects partly through alterations in the adipokine profile; that is, exercise increases secretion of anti-inflammatory adipokines and reduces proinflammatory cytokines. In this paper we briefly describe the pathophysiologic role of four important adipokines (adiponectin, leptin, TNF-α, and IL-6 in the metabolic syndrome and review some of the clinical trials that monitored these adipokines as a clinical outcome before and after exercise.

  12. The prevalence of exercise-induced asthma among school children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-11-13

    Nov 13, 2008 ... problems can lead to exercise-avoidance behaviour, which could have a detrimental effect on health. There is evidence that physical activity results in some health benefits for children and adolescents. Regular physical activity improves aerobic endurance and muscular strength. Among healthy young ...

  13. Exercise-induced myokines and their role in chronic diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bente K

    2011-01-01

    Physical inactivity has recently been identified as a major and independent risk factor for the development of dementia and cognitive decline. In addition to the effect of exercise with regard to protection against neurodegenerative diseases, it is well-established that physical inactivity increa...

  14. The impact of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction on athletic performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Price, Oliver J; Hull, James H; Backer, Vibeke

    2014-01-01

    of this review is to provide a systematic appraisal of the current status of knowledge regarding EIB and exercise performance and to highlight potential mechanisms by which performance may be compromised by EIB. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SELECTION: PubMed/Medline and EBSCO databases were searched up to May 2014...

  15. Carbohydrate-Dependent, Exercise-Induced Gastrointestinal Distress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Prado de Oliveira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal (GI problems are a common concern of athletes during intense exercise. Ultimately, these symptoms can impair performance and possibly prevent athletes from winning or even finishing a race. The main causes of GI problems during exercise are mechanical, ischemic and nutritional factors. Among the nutritional factors, a high intake of carbohydrate and hyperosmolar solutions increases GI problems. A number of nutritional manipulations have been proposed to minimize gastrointestinal symptoms, including the use of multiple transportable carbohydrates. This type of CHO intake increases the oxidation rates and can prevent the accumulation of carbohydrate in the intestine. Glucose (6% or glucose plus fructose (8%–10% beverages are recommended in order to increase CHO intake while avoiding the gastric emptying delay. Training the gut with high intake of CHO may increase absorption capacity and probably prevent GI distress. CHO mouth rinse may be a good strategy to enhance performance without using GI tract in exercises lasting less than an hour. Future strategies should be investigated comparing different CHO types, doses, and concentration in exercises with the same characteristics.

  16. Effects of Exercise on Oxidative Stress in Rats Induced by Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Campos, Catalina; Lara-Padilla, Eleazar; Bobadilla-Lugo, Rosa Amalia; Kross, Robert David; Villanueva, Cleva

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) induced by acute exercise is reduced by chronic exercise. Ozone (O3) exposure produces OS. The aim of this study was to determine if aerobic exercise (AE) reduced OS produced by O3. A pilot experiment was performed with male Wistar rats submitted to AE (trained to swim 90 min/day). Adaptation to exercise was demonstrated three weeks after training by means of changes in reduced nitrates (NOx) in plasma. Therefore, two-week training was chosen for the following experiments. Six of twelve trained rats were exposed to O3 (0.5 ppm, 4 h/day, one hour before exercise). Two groups of sedentary animals (n = 6 each) were used as controls, one of which was exposed to O3. At the end of the experiments NOx, 8-isoprostane (8-IP), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and carbonyls (CBs) were measured in plasma. CBs did not change in any group. O3-induced OS was manifested by reduced NOx and SOD activity, as well as increased 8-IP and MDA. Exercise significantly blocked O3 effects although SOD was also decreased by exercise (a greater drop occurring in the O3 group). It is concluded that AE protects against OS produced by O3 and the effect is independent of SOD. PMID:22619585

  17. Moderate Exercise Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation and Associated Maternal and Fetal Morbidities in Pregnant Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina T Kasawara

    Full Text Available Fetal growth restriction (FGR and coagulopathies are often associated with aberrant maternal inflammation. Moderate-intensity exercise during pregnancy has been shown to increase utero-placental blood flow and to enhance fetal nutrition as well as fetal and placental growth. Furthermore, exercise is known to reduce inflammation. To evaluate the effect of moderate-intensity exercise on inflammation associated with the development of maternal coagulopathies and FGR, Wistar rats were subjected to an exercise regime before and during pregnancy. To model inflammation-induced FGR, pregnant rats were administered daily intraperitoneal injections of E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS on gestational days (GD 13.5-16.5 and sacrificed at GD 17.5. Control rats were injected with saline. Maternal hemostasis was assessed by thromboelastography. Moderate-intensity exercise prevented LPS-mediated increases in white blood cell counts measured on GD 17.5 and improved maternal hemostasis profiles. Importantly, our data reveal that exercise prevented LPS-induced FGR. Moderate-intensity exercise initiated before and maintained during pregnancy may decrease the severity of maternal and perinatal complications associated with abnormal maternal inflammation.

  18. Endothelial dysfunction induced by postprandial lipemia: Complete protection afforded by high intensity aerobic interval exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyldum, Gjertrud Aunet; Schjerve, Inga Ekeberg; Tjønna, Arnt Erik; Kirkeby-Garstad, Idar; Stølen, Tomas O.; Richardson, Russell S.; Wisløff, Ulrik

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To study the effect of exercise and a high fat meal (HFM) on endothelial function. Background Postprandial lipemia and exercise oppose each other in terms of cardiovascular risk, however the mechanism of their interaction is not well understood. Methods Endothelial function was assessed by brachial artery flow mediated dilation (FMD), in eight healthy men before and after a HFM preceded (16–18 hrs) by rest, a single bout of continuous moderate intensity exercise (CME), and high intensity interval exercise (HIIE). Results Before the HFM, initial brachial artery diameters were similar in all trials (0.43±0.04 cm), but after the HFM basal diameter decreased only in the control (0.39±0.03) and CME (0.38±0.04) trials. Prior to the HFM, FMD/shear was improved by a single bout of CME (+20%, plipemia. Although, there were no correlations between vascular function and food-induced markers of cardiovascular risk, antioxidant status was strongly correlated with FMD (r=0.9, p<0.001). Conclusion These findings reveal a clinically relevant protective effect of acute exercise upon the vasculature that is clearly exercise intensity dependent and tightly related to exercise-induced antioxidant capacity. PMID:19130989

  19. Exercise-induced muscle glucose uptake in mice with graded, muscle-specific GLUT-4 deletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlett, Kirsten F; Andrikopoulos, Sofianos; Proietto, Joseph; Hargreaves, Mark

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the importance of the glucose transporter GLUT-4 for muscle glucose uptake during exercise, transgenic mice with skeletal muscle GLUT-4 expression approximately 30–60% of normal (CON) and approximately 5–10% of normal (KO) were generated using the Cre/Lox system and compared with wild-type (WT) mice during approximately 40 min of treadmill running (KO: 37.7 ± 1.3 min; WT: 40 min; CON: 40 min, P = 0.18). In WT and CON animals, exercise resulted in an overall increase in muscle glucose uptake. More specifically, glucose uptake was increased in red gastrocnemius of WT mice and in the soleus and red gastrocnemius of CON mice. In contrast, the exercise-induced increase in muscle glucose uptake in all muscles was completely abolished in KO mice. Muscle glucose uptake increased during exercise in both red and white quadriceps of WT mice, while the small increases in CON mice were not statistically significant. In KO mice, there was no change at all in quadriceps muscle glucose uptake. No differences in muscle glycogen use during exercise were observed between any of the groups. However, there was a significant increase in plasma glucose levels after exercise in KO mice. The results of this study demonstrated that a reduction in skeletal muscle GLUT-4 expression to approximately 10% of normal levels completely abolished the exercise-induced increase in muscle glucose uptake. PMID:24303141

  20. Exercise-induced cognitive plasticity, implications for mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip P. Foster

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Lifestyle factors such as intellectual stimulation, cognitive and social engagement, nutrition, and various types of exercise appear to reduce the risk for common age-associated disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD and vascular dementia. In fact, many studies have suggested that promoting physical activity can have a protective effect against cognitive deterioration later in life. Slowing or a deterioration of walking speed is associated with a poor performance in tests assessing psychomotor speed and verbal fluency in elderly individuals. Fitness training influences a wide range of cognitive processes, and the largest positive impact observed is for executive (a.k.a. frontal lobe functions. Studies show that exercise improves additional cognitive functions such as tasks mediated by the hippocampus, and result in major changes in plasticity in the hippocampus. Interestingly, this exercise-induced plasticity is also pronounced in APOE ε4 carriers who express a risk factor for late-onset AD that may modulate the effect of treatments. Based on AD staging by Braak et al., we propose that the effects of exercise occur in two temporo-spatial continua of events. The inward continuum from isocortex (neocortex to entorhinal cortex/hippocampus for amyloidosis and a reciprocal outward continuum for neurofibrillary alterations. The exercise-induced hypertrophy of the hippocampus at the core of these continua is evaluated in terms of potential for prevention to stave off neuronal degeneration. Exercise-induced production of growth factors such as the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF has been shown to enhance neurogenesis and to play a key role in positive cognitive effects. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1 may mediate the exercise-induced response to exercise on BDNF, neurogenesis and cognitive performance. It is also postulated to regulate brain amyloid β (Aβ levels by increased clearance via the choroid plexus. Growth factors

  1. Acute exercise induced oxidative stress is prevented in erythrocytes of male long distance athletes

    OpenAIRE

    A Gunal; F Akcay; Gul, M.; S Taysi; Dane, S.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the redox status in blood of long distance running athletes if it is favourably affected, and help to prevent acute exercise-induced oxidative stress. Nineteen sedentary males and 20 male long distance runners, volunteered to participate in this study. Acute exercise was applied as treadmill run, which was continued until the heart rate of the subject has reached 80-90% of the maximum and stopped after 5 min. Acute exercise increased the hematocrit per...

  2. Haemodynamic changes induced by submaximal exercise before a dive and its consequences on bubble formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatteau, Jean‐Eric; Boussuges, Alain; Gempp, Emmanuel; Pontier, Jean‐Michel; Castagna, Olivier; Robinet, Claude; Galland, Francois‐Michel; Bourdon, Lionel

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the effects of a submaximal exercise performed 2 h before a simulated dive on bubble formation and to observe the haemodynamic changes and their influence on bubble formation. Participants and methods 16 trained divers were compressed in a hyperbaric chamber to 400 kPa for 30 min and decompressed at a rate of 100 kPa/min with a 9 min stop at 130 kPa (French Navy MN90 procedure). Each diver performed two dives 3 days apart, one without exercise and one with exercise before the dive. All participants performed a 40 min constant‐load submaximal and calibrated exercise, which consisted of outdoor running 2 h before the dive. Circulating bubbles were detected with a precordial Doppler at 30, 60 and 90 min after surfacing. Haemodynamic changes were evaluated with Doppler echocardiography. Results A single bout of strenuous exercise 2 h before a simulated dive significantly reduced circulating bubbles. Post‐exercise hypotension (PEH) was observed after exercise with reductions in diastolic and mean blood pressure (DBP and MBP), but total peripheral resistance was unchanged. Stroke volume was reduced, whereas cardiac output was unchanged. Simulated diving caused a similar reduction in cardiac output independent of pre‐dive exercise, suggesting that pre‐dive exercise only changed DBP and MBP caused by reduced stroke volume. Conclusion A single bout of strenuous exercise 2 h before a dive significantly reduced the number of bubbles in the right heart of divers and protected them from decompression sickness. Declining stroke volume and moderate dehydration induced by a pre‐dive exercise might influence inert gas load and bubble formation. PMID:17138641

  3. Mechanism of exercise-induced hypotension in coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskandrian, A S; Kegel, J G; Lemlek, J; Heo, J; Cave, V; Iskandrian, B

    1992-06-15

    Hypotension during exercise testing has been considered a marker of extensive coronary artery disease (CAD) and poor prognosis. The mechanism of hypotension was examined in 25 CAD patients who developed hypotension during treadmill exercise testing (mean decrease in systolic blood pressure [BP] 33 +/- 13 mm Hg) (group 1) and was compared with the results of 25 CAD patients who had a normal systolic BP response to exercise (mean increase 53 +/- 15 mm Hg) (group 2). The 2 groups were comparable in age, sex, extent of CAD, previous myocardial infarction, left ventricular ejection fraction, history of hypertension and cardiac medications. Exercise heart rate (121 +/- 23 vs 133 +/- 25 beats/min; p = not significant [NS]) and duration (6 +/- 2 vs 7 +/- 3 minutes; p = NS) were comparable. ST-segment depression occurred in 44% of patients in group 1 and in 52% in group 2 (p = NS), and angina during exercise occurred in 60% of both groups. Single-photon emission computed tomographic thallium images were abnormal in 24 patients (96%) in group 1 and in 20 patients (80%) in group 2 (p = NS). Percent thallium abnormality was 19 +/- 12% in group 1, and 18 +/- 14% in group 2 (p = NS), and the severity of thallium abnormality was 710 +/- 510 in group 1, and 510 +/- 500 in group 2 (p = NS). Ischemia involving the inferior/posterior segments was seen in 68% of patients in group 1 and in 60% in group 2 (p = NS). Increased lung thallium uptake was seen in 48% of both groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Neurobiological alterations induced by exercise and their impact on depressive disorders [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmich, Ingo; Latini, Alexandra; Sigwalt, Andre; Carta, Mauro Giovanni; Machado, Sergio; Velasques, Bruna; Ribeiro, Pedro; Budde, Henning

    2010-11-30

    The impact of physical activity on brain metabolic functions has been investigated in different studies and there is growing evidence that exercise can be used as a preventive and rehabilitative intervention in the treatment of depressive disorders. However, the exact neuronal mechanisms underlying the latter phenomenon have not been clearly elucidated. The present article summarises key results derived from studies that focussed on the neurobiological impact of exercise on brain metabolic functions associated with depressive disorders. Since major depressive disorder (MDD) is a life threatening disease it is of great significance to find reliable strategies to prevent or to cure this illness. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to review (1) the physiological relationship between physical activity and depressive disorders and (2) the potential neurobiological alterations induced by exercise that might lead to the relief of mental disorders like depression. We searched electronic databases for literature concerning the relationship between exercise and depression from 1963 until 2009. The data suggests an association between physical inactivity and higher levels of depressive symptoms. Properly designed studies could show that exercise training can be as effective as antidepressive medications. The exact mechanisms how exercise affects the brain are not fully understood and the literature lacks of well designed studies concerning the effects of exercise training on depressive disorders. But the observed antidepressant actions of exercise are strong enough that it already can be used as an alternative to current medications in the treatment of depressive disorders.

  5. Neurobiological Alterations Induced by Exercise and Their Impact on Depressive Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmich, Ingo; Latini, Alexandra; Sigwalt, Andre; Carta, Mauro Giovanni; Machado, Sergio; Velasques, Bruna; Ribeiro, Pedro; Budde, Henning

    2010-01-01

    Background: The impact of physical activity on brain metabolic functions has been investigated in different studies and there is growing evidence that exercise can be used as a preventive and rehabilitative intervention in the treatment of depressive disorders. However, the exact neuronal mechanisms underlying the latter phenomenon have not been clearly elucidated. The present article summarises key results derived from studies that focussed on the neurobiological impact of exercise on brain metabolic functions associated with depressive disorders. Since major depressive disorder (MDD) is a life threatening disease it is of great significance to find reliable strategies to prevent or to cure this illness. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to review (1) the physiological relationship between physical activity and depressive disorders and (2) the potential neurobiological alterations induced by exercise that might lead to the relief of mental disorders like depression. Methods: We searched electronic databases for literature concerning the relationship between exercise and depression from 1963 until 2009. Results: The data suggests an association between physical inactivity and higher levels of depressive symptoms. Properly designed studies could show that exercise training can be as effective as antidepressive medications. Conclusion: The exact mechanisms how exercise affects the brain are not fully understood and the literature lacks of well designed studies concerning the effects of exercise training on depressive disorders. But the observed antidepressant actions of exercise are strong enough that it already can be used as an alternative to current medications in the treatment of depressive disorders. PMID:21283646

  6. MRI-detectable changes in mouse brain structure induced by voluntary exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Lindsay S; Steadman, Patrick E; Jones, Carly E; Laliberté, Christine L; Dazai, Jun; Lerch, Jason P; Stefanovic, Bojana; Sled, John G

    2015-06-01

    Physical exercise, besides improving cognitive and mental health, is known to cause structural changes in the brain. Understanding the structural changes that occur with exercise as well as the neuroanatomical correlates of a predisposition for exercise is important for understanding human health. This study used high-resolution 3D MR imaging, in combination with deformation-based morphometry, to investigate the macroscopic changes in brain structure that occur in healthy adult mice following four weeks of voluntary exercise. We found that exercise induced changes in multiple brain structures that are involved in motor function and learning and memory including the hippocampus, dentate gyrus, stratum granulosum of the dentate gyrus, cingulate cortex, olivary complex, inferior cerebellar peduncle and regions of the cerebellum. In addition, a number of brain structures, including the hippocampus, striatum and pons, when measured on MRI prior to the start of exercise were highly predictive of subsequent exercise activity. Exercise tended to normalize these pre-existing differences between mice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A Comparison of Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage Following Maximal Eccentric Contractions in Men and Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deli, Chariklia K; Fatouros, Ioannis G; Paschalis, Vassilis; Georgakouli, Kalliopi; Zalavras, Athanasios; Avloniti, Alexandra; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z

    2017-08-01

    Research regarding exercise-induced muscle-damage mainly focuses on adults. The present study examined exercise-induced muscle-damage responses in adults compared with children. Eleven healthy boys (10-12 y) and 15 healthy men (18-45 y) performed 5 sets of 15 maximal eccentric contractions of the knee extensors. Range of motion (ROM), delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) during squat and walking, and peak isometric, concentric and eccentric torque were assessed before, post, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hr postexercise. Creatine kinase (CK) activity was assessed before and 72 hr postexercise. Eccentric exercise resulted in DOMS during squat that persisted for up to 96h in men, and 48 hr in boys (p < .05), and DOMS during walking that persisted for up to 72 hr in men, and 48 hr in boys (p < .01). The ROM was lower in both age groups 48 hr postexercise (p < .001). Isometric (p < .001), concentric (p < .01) and eccentric (p < .01) force decreased post, and up to 48 hr postexercise in men. Except for a reduction in isometric force immediately after exercise, no other changes occurred in boys' isokinetic force. CK activity increased in men at 72 hr postexercise compared with pre exercise levels (p = .05). Our data provide further confirmation that children are less susceptible to exercise-induced muscle damage compared with adults.

  8. Exercise effects stress-induced analgesia and spatial learning in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blustein, Joshua E; McLaughlin, Michael; Hoffman, John R

    2006-11-30

    Previous studies indicated that intensity level may be a determining factor in the beneficial or detrimental effects of exercise on spatial memory, as chronic low-intensity level exercise appears to enhance learning and memory which stressful situations may impair. This study examines the effects of different intensity levels of acute exercise (treadmill running) on spatial memory in rats. Using the Morris water maze, spatial learning was measured in animals exposed to treadmill running at low- (20-22 m/min for 25 min daily) and high-intensity (25 m/min for 25 min daily) levels of exercise. A stress control using an electric foot shock was used to examine if the high-intensity exercise was sufficient to serve as a stressor. Stress level was estimated by examining tail flick latencies as a measure of stress-induced analgesia. The results indicate that high-intensity exercise at a level that may not induce an analgesic state is sufficient to impair early acquisition of spatial learning. However, with additional trials, all animals are capable of learning the task. Acute exposure to the electric foot shock impaired learning in the Morris water maze. Surprisingly, across all studies, there was a significantly higher analgesic state post-swim as compared to pre-swim. The results indicate that irrespective of stress level prior to water maze testing, swimming in the Morris water maze repeatedly for short durations of time is enough to induce an analgesic state.

  9. Colostrum supplementation protects against exercise - induced oxidative stress in skeletal muscle in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Appukutty Mahenderan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examined the effects of bovine colostrum on exerciseinduced modulation of antioxidant parameters in skeletal muscle in mice. Adult male BALB/c mice were randomly divided into four groups (control, colostrum alone, exercise and exercise with colostrum and each group had three subgroups (day 0, 21 and 42. Colostrum groups of mice were given a daily oral supplement of 50 mg/kg body weight of bovine colostrum and the exercise group of mice were made to exercise on the treadmill for 30 minutes per day. Total antioxidants, lipid hydroperoxides, xanthine oxidase and super oxide dismutase level was assayed from the homogenate of hind limb skeletal muscle. Results Exercise—induced a significant oxidative stress in skeletal muscles as evidenced by the elevated lipid hydroperoxides and xanthine oxidase levels. There was a significant decrease in skeletal muscle total antioxidants and superoxide dismutase levels. Daily colostrum supplement significantly reduced the lipid hydroperoxides and xanthine oxidase enzyme level and increased the total antioxidant levels in the leg muscle. Conclusion Thus, the findings of this study showed that daily bovine colostrum supplementation was beneficial to skeletal muscle to reduce the oxidant-induced damage during muscular exercise.

  10. Low Fat Loss Response after Medium-Term Supervised Exercise in Obese Is Associated with Exercise-Induced Increase in Food Reward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Finlayson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine exercise-induced changes in the reward value of food during medium-term supervised exercise in obese individuals. Subjects/Methods. The study was a 12-week supervised exercise intervention prescribed to expend 500 kcal/day, 5 d/week. 34 sedentary obese males and females were identified as responders (R or non-responders (NR to the intervention according to changes in body composition relative to measured energy expended during exercise. Food reward (ratings of liking and wanting, and relative preference by forced choice pairs for an array of food images was assessed before and after an acute exercise bout. Results. 20 responders and 14 non-responders were identified. R lost 5.2 kg ± 2.4 of total fat mass and NR lost 1.7 kg ± 1.4. After acute exercise, liking for all foods increased in NR compared to no change in R. Furthermore, NR showed an increase in wanting and relative preference for high-fat sweet foods. These differences were independent of 12-weeks regular exercise and weight loss. Conclusion. Individuals who showed an immediate post-exercise increase in liking and increased wanting and preference for high-fat sweet foods displayed a smaller reduction in fat mass with exercise. For some individuals, exercise increases the reward value of food and diminishes the impact of exercise on fat loss.

  11. Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idorn, Manja; thor Straten, Eivind Per

    2016-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that voluntary exercise leads to an influx of immune cells in tumors and a greater than 60% reduction in tumor incidence and growth across several mouse models. Improved immunological control of tumor progression may have important clinical implications in the prevention...... and treatment of cancer in humans....

  12. Resistance exercise-induced fluid shifts: change in active muscle size and plasma volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.; Convertino, V. A.; Dudley, G. A.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the reduction in plasma volume (PV) induced by resistance exercise reflects fluid loss to the extravascular space and subsequently selective increase in cross-sectional area (CSA) of active but not inactive skeletal muscle. We compared changes in active and inactive muscle CSA and PV after barbell squat exercise. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to quantify muscle involvement in exercise and to determine CSA of muscle groups or individual muscles [vasti (VS), adductor (Add), hamstring (Ham), and rectus femoris (RF)]. Muscle involvement in exercise was determined using exercise-induced contrast shift in spin-spin relaxation time (T2)-weighted MR images immediately postexercise. Alterations in muscle size were based on the mean CSA of individual slices. Hematocrit, hemoglobin, and Evans blue dye were used to estimate changes in PV. Muscle CSA and PV data were obtained preexercise and immediately postexercise and 15 and 45 min thereafter. A hierarchy of muscle involvement in exercise was found such that VS > Add > Ham > RF, with the Ham and RF showing essentially no involvement. CSA of the VS and Add muscle groups were increased 10 and 5%, respectively, immediately after exercise in each thigh with no changes in Ham and RF CSA. PV was decreased 22% immediately following exercise. The absolute loss of PV was correlated (r2 = 0.75) with absolute increase in muscle CSA immediately postexercise, supporting the notion that increased muscle size after resistance exercise reflects primarily fluid movement from the vascular space into active but not inactive muscle.

  13. Regulation of exercise-induced lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordy, Andreas Børsting; Kiens, Bente

    2014-01-01

    Exercise increases the utilization of lipids in muscle. The sources of lipids are long-chain fatty acids taken up from the plasma and fatty acids released from stores of intramuscular triacylglycerol by the action of intramuscular lipases. In the present review, we focus on the role of fatty acid....../muscle contractions. This occurs independently of AMP-activated protein kinase, and data suggest that Ca(2+)-related signalling is responsible. The FAT/CD36 has an important role; long-chain fatty acid uptake is markedly decreased in FAT/CD36 knockout mice during contractions/exercise compared with wild-type control...... mice. In skeletal muscle, 98% of the lipase activity is accounted for by adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase. Give that inhibition or knockout of hormone-sensitive lipase does not impair lipolysis in muscle during contraction, the data point to an important role of adipose...

  14. Age-dependent effect of treadmill exercise on hemorrhage-induced neuronal cell death in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jin-Hwan; Lee, Hee-Hyuk; Yi, Eun-Surk; Baek, Soon Gi

    2013-01-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a major cause of death and disability in the elderly. In the present study, we examined the age-dependence of the effect of treadmill exercise on the intrastriatal hemorrhage-induced neuronal cell death in rats. Young (8 weeks old) and old (64 weeks old) Sprague-Dawley male rats were used in the present study. Intrastriatal hemorrhage was induced by injection of 0.2 U collagenase (1 μL volume) into the striatum using a stereotaxic instrument. The rats in the exercise groups were forced to run on a treadmill for 30 min daily for 7 days. Lesion size was determined by Nissl staining. Apoptosis was assessed by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. In the present results, induction of hemorrhage increased lesion size and enhanced apoptosis. Treadmill exercise decreased the lesion size with suppressing apoptosis. However, the size of lesion induced by hemorrhage and the number of apoptotic cells were not different between young and old rats. Treadmill exercise significantly reduced the ICH-induced lesion size and the number of apoptotic cells irrespective of age. The data suggest that treadmill exercise may provide therapeutic value against ICH by suppressing neuronal apoptosis regardless of age.

  15. Chronic Exercise-Induced Leg Pain in Active People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schon, L C; Baxter, D E; Clanton, T O; Sammarco, G J

    1992-01-01

    In brief "Shin splints" is a catchall term for any kind persistent exercise-related lower leg pain with no obvious cause. Such pain can originate from a number of conditions, such as medial tibial stress syndrome, stress fracture, compartment syndrome, vascular pathology, nerve entrapment, and others. A methodical work-up designed to detect problems in all anatomic structures from bone to skin will narrow the possibilities and lay the basis for appropriate treatment.

  16. Physiological and Mood Changes Induced by Exercise Withdrawal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Frazier, J. (2004). Moderators of the relationship between exercise and mood changes: gender, exertion level, and workout duration. Psycology and Health...Department of Defense (military) facility (hospital or clinic). Emergency treatment will be provided even if you are not eligible to receive such care ...at a military facility. Care will be continued until the medical doctor treating you decides that you are out of immediate danger. If you are not

  17. Endurance exercise training induces fat depot-specific differences in basal autophagic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Goki; Kato, Hisashi; Izawa, Tetsuya, E-mail: tizawa@mail.doshisha.ac.jp

    2015-10-23

    autophagosome associated LC3-II in WAT. • Exercise-induced changes in p62 and ATG7 were WAT-type specific. • Exercise-induced basal autophagic activity shows fat depot-specific differences.

  18. Mechanisms Involved in Exercise-Induced Cardioprotection: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Pereira Borges

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute myocardial infarction is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Furthermore, research has shown that exercise, in addition to reducing cardiovascular risk factors, can also protect the heart against injury due to ischemia and reperfusion through a direct effect on the myocardium. However, the specific mechanism involved in exerciseinduced cardiac preconditioning is still under debate. Objective: To perform a systematic review of the studies that have addressed the mechanisms by which aerobic exercise promotes direct cardioprotection against ischemia and reperfusion injury. Methods: A search was conducted using MEDLINE, Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe de Informação em Ciências da Saúde, and Scientific Electronic Library Online databases. Data were extracted in a standardized manner by two independent researchers, who were responsible for assessing the methodological quality of the studies. Results: The search retrieved 78 studies; after evaluating the abstracts, 30 studies were excluded. The manuscripts of the remaining 48 studies were completely read and, of these, 20 were excluded. Finally, 28 studies were included in this systematic review. Conclusion: On the basis of the selected studies, the following are potentially involved in the cardioprotective response to exercise: increased heat shock protein production, nitric oxide pathway involvement, increased cardiac antioxidant capacity, improvement in ATP-dependent potassium channel function, and opioid system activation. Despite all the previous investigations, further research is still necessary to obtain more consistent conclusions.

  19. Exercise attenuates pulmonary injury in mice with bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prata, Luana O; Oliveira, Fabrício M S; Ribeiro, Tatiana M S; Almeida, Pedro W M; Cardoso, Jefferson A; Rodrigues-Machado, Maria da Glória; Caliari, Marcelo V

    2012-08-01

    Human idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a disease with unknown etiology and poor prognosis in which patients present a decrease in functional exercise tolerance and quality of life. At present, no treatment which can improve the prognosis of this disease is available. Many biomarkers of pulmonary fibrosis have been studied, and surfactant protein A (SP-A) expression is considered a specific marker of lung disease. This study aimed to investigate the influence of exercise training on exercise endurance capacity and murine-lung lesions induced by bleomycin (BLM). Thirty-four male Balb/c mice were subdivided into four groups: control sedentary (C-SED), bleomycin-treated sedentary (BLM-SED), control exercised (C-EXE) and bleomycin-treated exercised (BLM-EXE). Mice received 6.25 U/kg of BLM or saline via intratracheal instillation. After adaptation in a swimming pool, the animals started training one hour per day, with 60% of maximum load obtained in exercise endurance capacity assessment, five days/week for four weeks. The lungs were collected 48 h after the second endurance capacity assessment, fixed in buffered formalin and embedded in paraffin. Sections were analyzed using histochemical and immunohistochemical reactions for digital morphometry of pulmonary fibrosis, type I collagen, SP-A and type II pneumocytes (PII). The exercise endurance capacity of groups C-EXE (9.20 ± 0.81 min) and BLM-EXE (8.40 ± 0.82 min) increased significantly when compared with groups C-SED (5.84 ± 0.4 min) and BLM-SED (5.67 ± 0.60 min). The amounts of connective tissue, type I collagen, PII and SP-A increased significantly in the BLM-SED group. Exercise training significantly attenuated this response as observed in the BLM-EXE group. The present study shows that exercise training can prevent the decline of exercise endurance capacity and attenuate the progression of IPF.

  20. Hepatoprotective Effects of Swimming Exercise against D-Galactose-Induced Senescence Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Chang Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates whether a 12-week swimming exercise training can prevent liver damage or senescence associated biomarkers in an experimental aging model in rats. Twenty-three male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: vehicle treatment with sedentary control (C, , aging induction with sedentary (A, , vehicle treatment with swimming exercise (SW, , and aging induction with swimming exercise (A + SW, . Rats in groups A and AS received intraperitoneal D-galactose injections (150 mg/kg/day for 12 weeks to induce aging. Rats in groups SW and A + SW were subjected to swimming exercise training for 12 weeks. Body weight, liver weight, epididymal fat mass, blood biochemistry, and liver pathology were performed at the end of the experiment. Hepatic senescence protein markers such as β-galactosidase, p53, and p21, as well as the inflammatory mediator, IL-6, were examined. The D-galactose-treated rats exhibited increases in AST and γ-GT plasma levels and β-galactosidase protein expression compared to the control group. Swimming exercise significantly reduced BW, epididymal fat mass, γ-GT activity, and p53, p21, and IL-6 protein levels compared to the aging group. These results suggest that a 12-week swimming exercise program suppresses senescence markers and downregulates inflammatory mediator in the liver tissues of D-galactose-induced aging rats.

  1. Role of ghrelin in exhaustive exercise- induced oxidative stress in rat Brain and liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shereen Samir

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Strenuous exercise increases oxygen consumption and causes disturbance of intracellular pro-oxidant–antioxidant homeostasis. Ghrelin has been reported to possess free radical scavenging and antioxidant effect. in this study we aim to evaluate the beneficial effect of ghrelin on the oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme systems in brain cortex and liver of rats after exhaustive swimming exercise. Sprague- Dawley rats (50 were subdivided into 3 main groups: control, exercise, exercise and ghrelin (50,100,200 ng group. Animals in the two exercise groups swam for 5 days/week for 4 weeks. stress induced a decrease in the level of GSH and the activities of SOD, GST and catalase, while the levels of TBARS were found elevated. Ghrelin groups’ animals, especially G3 subgroup, have higher SOD, CAT, GSH and GST activity which reflect higher antioxidant enzyme activity and can be attributed to lower rates of oxidative stress which can be proved by reduced level of TBARS. The results of the study provides evidence that ghrelin pretreatment even in low dose reduces the level of lipid peroxidation and enhances the antioxidant defense against exercise-induced stress oxidative injury in rats’ vital organs like brain and liver.

  2. PGC-1α is dispensable for exercise-induced mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn C Rowe

    Full Text Available Exercise confers numerous health benefits, many of which are thought to stem from exercise-induced mitochondrial biogenesis (EIMB in skeletal muscle. The transcriptional coactivator PGC-1α, a potent regulator of metabolism in numerous tissues, is widely believed to be required for EIMB. We show here that this is not the case. Mice engineered to lack PGC-1α specifically in skeletal muscle (Myo-PGC-1αKO mice retained intact EIMB. The exercise capacity of these mice was comparable to littermate controls. Induction of metabolic genes after 2 weeks of in-cage voluntary wheel running was intact. Electron microscopy revealed no gross abnormalities in mitochondria, and the mitochondrial biogenic response to endurance exercise was as robust in Myo-PGC-1αKO mice as in wildtype mice. The induction of enzymatic activity of the electron transport chain by exercise was likewise unperturbed in Myo-PGC-1αKO mice. These data demonstrate that PGC-1α is dispensable for exercise-induced mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle, in sharp contrast to the prevalent assumption in the field.

  3. Exercise-induced bronchospasm: implications for patients with or without asthma in primary care practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayden ML

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Stuart W Stoloff1, Gene L Colice2, Mary Lou Hayden3, Timothy J Craig4, Nancy K Ostrom5, Nemr S Eid6, Jonathan P Parsons71University of Nevada School of Medicine, Reno, NV, 2Washington Hospital Center, Washington, DC, 3University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, 4Pennsylvania State University, Hershey, PA, 5Allergy and Asthma Medical Group and Research Center, San Diego, CA, 6University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, 7Ohio State University Asthma Center, Columbus, OH, USAAbstract: Exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB can represent a substantial barrier to physical activity. We present the cases of two patients with EIB, one with asthma, and one without asthma, who were evaluated at our primary care practice. The first case was a 44-year-old man with a history of seasonal allergic rhinitis but no asthma, who reported difficulty breathing when playing tennis. The second case was a 45-year-old woman who presented with persistent, generally well-controlled asthma, who was now experiencing bouts of coughing and wheezing during exercise. In both cases, an exercise challenge was used to diagnose EIB, and patients were prescribed a short-acting beta agonist to be used immediately before initiating exercise. EIB is a frequently encountered problem among patients presenting to primary care specialists. Affected patients should be made aware of the importance of proactive treatment with a short-acting beta agonist before initiating any exercise.Keywords: asthma, compliance, exercise-induced bronchospasm

  4. Duration-controlled swimming exercise training induces cardiac hypertrophy in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, F S; Brum, P C; Krieger, J E

    2003-12-01

    Exercise training associated with robust conditioning can be useful for the study of molecular mechanisms underlying exercise-induced cardiac hypertrophy. A swimming apparatus is described to control training regimens in terms of duration, load, and frequency of exercise. Mice were submitted to 60- vs 90-min session/day, once vs twice a day, with 2 or 4% of the weight of the mouse or no workload attached to the tail, for 4 vs 6 weeks of exercise training. Blood pressure was unchanged in all groups while resting heart rate decreased in the trained groups (8-18%). Skeletal muscle citrate synthase activity, measured spectrophotometrically, increased (45-58%) only as a result of duration and frequency-controlled exercise training, indicating that endurance conditioning was obtained. In groups which received duration and endurance conditioning, cardiac weight (14-25%) and myocyte dimension (13-20%) increased. The best conditioning protocol to promote physiological hypertrophy, our primary goal in the present study, was 90 min, twice a day, 5 days a week for 4 weeks with no overload attached to the body. Thus, duration- and frequency-controlled exercise training in mice induces a significant conditioning response qualitatively similar to that observed in humans.

  5. Duration-controlled swimming exercise training induces cardiac hypertrophy in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.S. Evangelista

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Exercise training associated with robust conditioning can be useful for the study of molecular mechanisms underlying exercise-induced cardiac hypertrophy. A swimming apparatus is described to control training regimens in terms of duration, load, and frequency of exercise. Mice were submitted to 60- vs 90-min session/day, once vs twice a day, with 2 or 4% of the weight of the mouse or no workload attached to the tail, for 4 vs 6 weeks of exercise training. Blood pressure was unchanged in all groups while resting heart rate decreased in the trained groups (8-18%. Skeletal muscle citrate synthase activity, measured spectrophotometrically, increased (45-58% only as a result of duration and frequency-controlled exercise training, indicating that endurance conditioning was obtained. In groups which received duration and endurance conditioning, cardiac weight (14-25% and myocyte dimension (13-20% increased. The best conditioning protocol to promote physiological hypertrophy, our primary goal in the present study, was 90 min, twice a day, 5 days a week for 4 weeks with no overload attached to the body. Thus, duration- and frequency-controlled exercise training in mice induces a significant conditioning response qualitatively similar to that observed in humans.

  6. Ginseng administration protects skeletal muscle from oxidative stress induced by acute exercise in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Voces

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic activity was analyzed in the soleus, gastrocnemius (red and white and plantaris muscles of acutely exercised rats after long-term administration of Panax ginseng extract in order to evaluate the protective role of ginseng against skeletal muscle oxidation. Ginseng extract (3, 10, 100, or 500 mg/kg was administered orally for three months to male Wistar rats weighing 200 ± 50 g before exercise and to non-exercised rats (N = 8/group. The results showed a membrane stabilizing capacity of the extract since mitochondrial function measured on the basis of citrate synthase and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activities was reduced, on average, by 20% (P < 0.05 after exercise but the activities remained unchanged in animals treated with a ginseng dose of 100 mg/kg. Glutathione status did not show significant changes after exercise or treatment. Lipid peroxidation, measured on the basis of malondialdehyde levels, was significantly higher in all muscles after exercise, and again was reduced by about 74% (P < 0.05 by the use of ginseng extract. The administration of ginseng extract was able to protect muscle from exercise-induced oxidative stress irrespective of fiber type.

  7. Ammonium Chloride Ingestion Attenuates Exercise-Induced mRNA Levels in Human Muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann Edge

    Full Text Available Minimizing the decrease in intracellular pH during high-intensity exercise training promotes greater improvements in mitochondrial respiration. This raises the intriguing hypothesis that pH may affect the exercise-induced transcription of genes that regulate mitochondrial biogenesis. Eight males performed 10x2-min cycle intervals at 80% VO2speak intensity on two occasions separated by ~2 weeks. Participants ingested either ammonium chloride (ACID or calcium carbonate (PLA the day before and on the day of the exercise trial in a randomized, counterbalanced order, using a crossover design. Biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis muscle before and after exercise. The mRNA level of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor co-activator 1α (PGC-1α, citrate synthase, cytochome c and FOXO1 was elevated at rest following ACID (P0.05; the difference in PGC-1α mRNA content 2 h post-exercise between ACID and PLA was not significant (P = 0.08. Thus, metabolic acidosis abolished the early post-exercise increase of PGC-1α mRNA and the mRNA of downstream mitochondrial and glucose-regulating proteins. These findings indicate that metabolic acidosis may affect mitochondrial biogenesis, with divergent responses in resting and post-exercise skeletal muscle.

  8. The relationship between exercise-induced oxidative stress and the menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Mi Hyun; Maehata, Eisuke; Adachi, Tetsuo; Ishida, Akiko; Murai, Fumie; Mesaki, Noboru

    2004-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between exercise-induced oxidative stress and the menstrual cycle in healthy sedentary woman. Eighteen women with regular menstrual cycles participated in this research. The subjects monitored their basal body temperature (BBT) and carried out a urinary ovulation test (twice) for 2 months prior to the study to determine their menstrual cycle. The subjects performed bicycle ergometer exercise (for 30 min at 60% V(.)>O(2max)) in each phase (menses, follicular and luteal phases) of the menstrual cycle. Serum estradiol and progesterone concentrations were determined from blood that was collected at rest. Serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) and extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) were determined as markers of oxidative stress in blood samples collected at rest and after exercise. TBARS was significantly lower after exercise [2.4 (0.5) nmol/ml] in the follicular phase, and T-SOD was significantly lower after exercise [3.2 (1.2) U/ml] in the luteal phase. EC-SOD did not show a significant change after exercise during each phase of the menstrual cycle. Furthermore, there was a negative correlation between estradiol and DeltaT-SOD ( r=-0.46, Pmenstrual cycle, free radicals produced as a consequence of exercise may be easily eliminated by sedentary women with normal menstrual cycles.

  9. Aerobic training improves exercise-induced lipolysis in SCAT and lipid utilization in overweight men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Glisezinski, I; Moro, C; Pillard, F; Marion-Latard, F; Harant, I; Meste, M; Berlan, M; Crampes, F; Rivière, D

    2003-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether endurance training improves lipid mobilization and oxidation in overweight subjects. Eleven young men (25.6 +/- 1.4 yr and body mass index 27.7 +/- 0.2) performed a 4-mo training program consisting of practicing aerobic exercise 5 days/wk. Before and after the training period, lipid oxidation was explored during a 60-min exercise at 50% of peak O2 consumption by use of indirect calorimetry. Lipid mobilization and antilipolytic alpha2-adrenoceptor effect were also studied using the microdialysis method in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT). After training, plasma nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) levels, at rest and during exercise, were significantly lower than before (P < 0.001). Lipolysis in SCAT was significantly higher after than before training. An antilipolytic alpha2-adrenoceptor effect in SCAT was underlined during exercise before training and disappeared after. The respiratory exchange ratio was lower after training, i.e., the percentage of lipid oxidation was higher only at rest. The amount of lipid oxidized was higher after training, at rest, and during exercise. Although exercise power was higher after training, the relative intensity was equivalent, as suggested by a similar increase in plasma catecholamine concentrations before and after training. In conclusion, 4-mo training in overweight men improved lipid mobilization through a decrease of antilipolytic alpha2-adrenoceptor effect in SCAT and lipid oxidation during moderate exercise. Training induced a decrease of blood NEFA, predicting better prevention of obesity.

  10. Low and moderate, rather than high intensity strength exercise induces benefit regarding plasma lipid profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lira Fabio S

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of chronic aerobic exercise upon lipid profile has been previously demonstrated, but few studies showed this effect under resistance exercise conditions. Objective The aim of this study was to examine the effects of different resistance exercise loads on blood lipids. Methods Thirty healthy, untrained male volunteers were allocated randomly into four groups based at different percentages of one repetition maximum (1 RM; 50%-1 RM, 75%-1 RM, 90%-1 RM, and 110%-1 RM. The total volume (sets × reps × load of the exercise was equalized. The lipid profile (Triglycerides [TG], HDL-cholesterol [HDL-c], LDL-cholesterol, and Total cholesterol was determined at rest and after 1, 24, 48 and 72 h of resistance exercise. Results The 75%-1 RM group demonstrated greater TG reduction when compared to other groups (p Conclusion These results indicate that the acute resistance exercise may induce changes in lipid profile in a specific-intensity manner. Overall, low and moderate exercise intensities appear to be promoting more benefits on lipid profile than high intensity. Long term studies should confirm these findings.

  11. Conventional and novel body temperature measurement during rest and exercise induced hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towey, Colin; Easton, Chris; Simpson, Robert; Pedlar, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Despite technological advances in thermal sensory equipment, few core temperature (TCORE) measurement techniques have met the established validity criteria in exercise science. Additionally, there is debate as to what method serves as the most practically viable, yet upholds the proposed measurement accuracy. This study assessed the accuracy of current and novel TCORE measurement techniques in comparison to rectal temperature (TREC) as a reference standard. Fifteen well-trained subjects (11 male, 4 female) completed 60min of exercise at an intensity equating to the lactate threshold; measured via a discontinuous exercise test. TREC was significantly elevated from resting values (37.2±0.3°C) at the end of moderate intensity exercise (39.6±0.04°C; P=0.001). Intestinal telemetric pill (TPILL) temperature and temporal artery temperature (TTEM) did not differ significantly from TREC at rest or during exercise (P>0.05). However, aural canal temperature (TAUR) and thermal imaging temperature (TIMA) were both significantly lower than TREC (P0.27°C). Against TREC, these results support the use of TPILL over all other techniques as a valid measure of TCORE at rest and during exercise induced hyperthermia. Novel findings illustrate that TIMA (when measured at the inner eye canthus) shows poor agreement to TREC during rest and exercise, which is similar to other 'surface' measures. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Treadmill exercise induces selective changes in hippocampal histone acetylation during the aging process in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Meireles, Louisiana Carolina Ferreira; Bertoldi, Karine; Cechinel, Laura Reck; Schallenberger, Bruna Luisa; da Silva, Vanessa Kappel; Schröder, Nadja; Siqueira, Ionara Rodrigues

    2016-11-10

    Physical exercise and the aging process have been shown to induce opposite effects on epigenetic marks, such as histone acetylation. The impact of exercise on hippocampal histone acetylation on specific lysine residues, especially during the aging process, is rarely studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of treadmill exercise (20min/day during 2 weeks) on H3K9, H4K5 and H4K12 acetylation levels in hippocampi of young adult and aged rats. Male Wistar rats aged 3 or 20-21 months were assigned to sedentary and exercise groups. Single-trial step-down inhibitory avoidance conditioning was employed as an aversive memory paradigm. Hippocampal H3K9, H4K5 and H4K12 acetylation was determined by Western blotting. The daily moderate exercise protocol improved the aversive memory performance and increased hipocampal H4K12 acetylation levels in both tested ages. Exercise was also able to increase H3K9 acetylation levels in aged rats. An age-related decline in memory performance was observed, without any effect of the aging process on histone acetylation state. Our data suggest that treadmill exercise can impact hippocampal the histone acetylation profile in an age- and lysine-dependent manner. In addition, higher hippocampal H4K12 acetylation levels at both ages may be related to improvement of aversive memory performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Pain trajectory and exercise-induced pain flares during 8 weeks of neuromuscular exercise in individuals with knee and hip pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandal, L F; Roos, E M; Bøgesvang, S J

    2016-01-01

    with acute exercise-induced pain flares in persons with knee or hip pain. DESIGN: Individuals above 35 years self-reporting persistent knee or hip pain for the past 3 months were offered 8 weeks of supervised NEMEX, performed in groups twice weekly. The program consisted of 11 exercises focusing on joint......OBJECTIVE: Patients considering or engaged in exercise as treatment may expect or experience transient increases in joint pain, causing fear of exercise and influencing compliance. This study investigated the pain trajectory during an 8-week neuromuscular exercise (NEMEX) program together...... stability and neuromuscular control. Participants self-reported joint pain on a 0-10 numerical rating scale (NRS) at baseline and 8-weeks follow-up. NRS pain ratings were also collected before and immediately after every attended exercise session. RESULTS: Joint pain was reduced from baseline (NRS 3.6; 95...

  14. Single swim sessions in C. elegans induce key features of mammalian exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laranjeiro, Ricardo; Harinath, Girish; Burke, Daniel; Braeckman, Bart P; Driscoll, Monica

    2017-04-10

    Exercise exerts remarkably powerful effects on metabolism and health, with anti-disease and anti-aging outcomes. Pharmacological manipulation of exercise benefit circuits might improve the health of the sedentary and the aging populations. Still, how exercised muscle signals to induce system-wide health improvement remains poorly understood. With a long-term interest in interventions that promote animal-wide health improvement, we sought to define exercise options for Caenorhabditis elegans. Here, we report on the impact of single swim sessions on C. elegans physiology. We used microcalorimetry to show that C. elegans swimming has a greater energy cost than crawling. Animals that swam continuously for 90 min specifically consumed muscle fat supplies and exhibited post-swim locomotory fatigue, with both muscle fat depletion and fatigue indicators recovering within 1 hour of exercise cessation. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) transcript analyses also suggested an increase in fat metabolism during the swim, followed by the downregulation of specific carbohydrate metabolism transcripts in the hours post-exercise. During a 90 min swim, muscle mitochondria matrix environments became more oxidized, as visualized by a localized mitochondrial reduction-oxidation-sensitive green fluorescent protein reporter. qPCR data supported specific transcriptional changes in oxidative stress defense genes during and immediately after a swim. Consistent with potential antioxidant defense induction, we found that a single swim session sufficed to confer protection against juglone-induced oxidative stress inflicted 4 hours post-exercise. In addition to showing that even a single swim exercise bout confers physiological changes that increase robustness, our data reveal that acute swimming-induced changes share common features with some acute exercise responses reported in humans. Overall, our data validate an easily implemented swim experience as C. elegans exercise

  15. Curcumin and Piperine Supplementation and Recovery Following Exercise Induced Muscle Damage: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delecroix, Barthélémy; Abaïdia, Abd Elbasset; Leduc, Cédric; Dawson, Brian; Dupont, Grégory

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of oral consumption of curcumin and piperine in combination on the recovery kinetics after exercise-induced muscle damage. Forty-eight hours before and following exercise-induced muscle damage, ten elite rugby players consumed curcumin and piperine (experimental condition) or placebo. A randomized cross-over design was performed. Concentric and isometric peak torque for the knee extensors, one leg 6 seconds sprint performance on a non-motorized treadmill, counter movement jump performance, blood creatine kinase concentration and muscle soreness were assessed immediately after exercise, then at 24h, 48h and 72h post-exercise. There were moderate to large effects of the exercise on the concentric peak torque for the knee extensors (Effect size (ES) = -1.12; Confidence interval at 90% (CI90%): -2.17 to -0.06), the one leg 6 seconds sprint performance (ES=-1.65; CI90% = -2.51to -0.80) and the counter movement jump performance (ES = -0.56; CI90% = -0.81 to -0.32) in the 48h following the exercise. There was also a large effect of the exercise on the creatine kinase level 72h after the exercise in the control group (ES = 3.61; CI90%: 0.24 to 6.98). This decrease in muscle function and this elevation in creatine kinase indicate that the exercise implemented was efficient to induce muscle damage. Twenty four hours post-exercise, the reduction (from baseline) in sprint mean power output was moderately lower in the experimental condition (-1.77 ± 7.25%; 1277 ± 153W) in comparison with the placebo condition (-13.6 ± 13.0%; 1130 ± 241W) (Effect Size = -1.12; Confidence Interval 90%=-1.86 to -0.86). However, no other effect was found between the two conditions. Curcumin and piperine supplementation before and after exercise can attenuate some, but not all, aspects of muscle damage.

  16. Curcumin and Piperine Supplementation and Recovery Following Exercise Induced Muscle Damage: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barthélémy Delecroix, Abd Elbasset Abaïdia, Cédric Leduc, Brian Dawson, Grégory Dupont

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of oral consumption of curcumin and piperine in combination on the recovery kinetics after exercise-induced muscle damage. Forty-eight hours before and following exercise-induced muscle damage, ten elite rugby players consumed curcumin and piperine (experimental condition or placebo. A randomized cross-over design was performed. Concentric and isometric peak torque for the knee extensors, one leg 6 seconds sprint performance on a non-motorized treadmill, counter movement jump performance, blood creatine kinase concentration and muscle soreness were assessed immediately after exercise, then at 24h, 48h and 72h post-exercise. There were moderate to large effects of the exercise on the concentric peak torque for the knee extensors (Effect size (ES = -1.12; Confidence interval at 90% (CI90%: -2.17 to -0.06, the one leg 6 seconds sprint performance (ES=-1.65; CI90% = -2.51to -0.80 and the counter movement jump performance (ES = -0.56; CI90% = -0.81 to -0.32 in the 48h following the exercise. There was also a large effect of the exercise on the creatine kinase level 72h after the exercise in the control group (ES = 3.61; CI90%: 0.24 to 6.98. This decrease in muscle function and this elevation in creatine kinase indicate that the exercise implemented was efficient to induce muscle damage. Twenty four hours post-exercise, the reduction (from baseline in sprint mean power output was moderately lower in the experimental condition (-1.77 ± 7.25%; 1277 ± 153W in comparison with the placebo condition (-13.6 ± 13.0%; 1130 ± 241W (Effect Size = -1.12; Confidence Interval 90%=-1.86 to -0.86. However, no other effect was found between the two conditions. Curcumin and piperine supplementation before and after exercise can attenuate some, but not all, aspects of muscle damage.

  17. The L-Z complexity of exercise-induced muscle fatigue based on acoustic myographye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yijian, Min; Xinyuan, Liu; Tingting, Wang

    2014-01-01

    The mechanism of exercise fatigue was investigated during exercise using L-Z complexity of non-linear analysis. Muscle fatigue was induced in the sitting position by lifting the heel under a load. An acoustic myogram of the gastrocnemius was obtained until exhaustion. The different modes of the speed responses were calculated using the L-Z complexity method, which analyzes muscle fibers participation, while the exercise is in progress. The L-Z complexity decreased incrementally with decreases in muscle strength, reaching a minimum value when the muscle was exhausted. Our data indicate that the L-Z complexity method is easy to use and effective at revealing the dynamic characteristics and variations of exercise fatigue. This method could be used to monitor sports training.

  18. The effect of sports specialization on musculus quadriceps function after exercise-induced muscle damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skurvydas, Albertas; Brazaitis, Marius; Venckūnas, Tomas; Kamandulis, Sigitas; Stanislovaitis, Aleksas; Zuoza, Aurelijus

    2011-12-01

    The primary aim of the present study was to examine the effect of eccentric exercise-induced (100 submaximal eccentric contractions at an angular velocity of 60° s⁻¹, with 20-s rest intervals) muscle damage on peripheral and central fatigue of quadriceps muscle in well-trained long-distance runners, sprint runners, volleyball players, and untrained subjects. We found that (i) indirect symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage (prolonged decrease in maximal voluntary contraction, isokinetic concentric torque, and electrically induced (20 Hz) torque) were most evident in untrained subjects, while there were no significant differences in changes of muscle soreness and plasma creatine kinase 48 h after eccentric exercise between athletes and untrained subjects; (ii) low-frequency fatigue was greater in untrained subjects and volleyball players than in sprint runners and long-distance runners; (iii) in all subjects, electrically induced (100 Hz) torque decreased significantly by about 20%, while central activation ratio decreased significantly by about 8% in untrained subjects and sprint runners, and by about 3%-5% in long-distance runners and volleyball players. Thus, trained subjects showed greater resistance to exercise-induced muscle damage for most markers, and long-distance runners had no advantage over sprint runners or volleyball players.

  19. Exercise-Induced Ventricular Fibrillation: Seven Years Follow-Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökmen Gemici

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a 7-year follow-up of a 55-year-old male who experienced ventricular fibrillation during the recovery period of exercise testing and refused implantation of an ICD. Normal left ventricular systolic function was found on echocardiographic examination, and coronary angiography revealed only a side branch disease with a vessel diameter of less than 2 millimeters. The patient was discharged on metoprolol and ASA in addition to his previous treatment with lisinopril and simvastatin. Outpatient cardiac evaluation by repeated 24-hour ECG monitorizations (Holter revealed normal findings. On follow up visits every six months for the past seven years, the patient was found to be asymptomatic.

  20. Exercise-induced myokines and their role in chronic diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bente K

    2011-01-01

    Physical inactivity has recently been identified as a major and independent risk factor for the development of dementia and cognitive decline. In addition to the effect of exercise with regard to protection against neurodegenerative diseases, it is well-established that physical inactivity...... increases the risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases (CVD), colon cancer and postmenopausal breast cancer. These diseases constitute a network of related diseases, also called "the diseasome of physical inactivity". In this review, physical inactivity is given the central role as an independent...

  1. The endocannabinoid system mediates aerobic exercise-induced antinociception in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdino, Giovane; Romero, Thiago R L; Silva, José Felipe P; Aguiar, Daniele C; de Paula, Ana Maria; Cruz, Jader S; Parrella, Cosimo; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Duarte, Igor D; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Perez, Andrea C

    2014-02-01

    Exercise-induced antinociception is widely described in the literature, but the mechanisms involved in this phenomenon are poorly understood. Systemic (s.c.) and central (i.t., i.c.v.) pretreatment with CB₁ and CB₂ cannabinoid receptor antagonists (AM251 and AM630) blocked the antinociception induced by an aerobic exercise (AE) protocol in both mechanical and thermal nociceptive tests. Western blot analysis revealed an increase and activation of CB₁ receptors in the rat brain, and immunofluorescence analysis demonstrated an increase of activation and expression of CB₁ receptors in neurons of the periaqueductal gray matter (PAG) after exercise. Additionally, pretreatment (s.c., i.t. and i.c.v.) with endocannabinoid metabolizing enzyme inhibitors (MAFP and JZL184) and an anandamide reuptake inhibitor (VDM11) prolonged and intensified this antinociceptive effect. These results indicate that exercise could activate the endocannabinoid system, producing antinociception. Supporting this hypothesis, liquid-chromatography/mass-spectrometry measurements demonstrated that plasma levels of endocannabinoids (anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol) and of anandamide-related mediators (palmitoylethanolamide and oleoylethanolamide) were increased after AE. Therefore, these results suggest that the endocannabinoid system mediates aerobic exercise-induced antinociception at peripheral and central levels. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of sleep deprivation on anaerobic exercise-induced changes in auditory brainstem evoked potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztürk, Levent; Bulut, Erdoğan; Vardar, Selma Arzu; Uzun, Cem

    2007-09-01

    The present study was designed to assess how anaerobic exercise affects auditory brainstem response (ABR) parameters, and whether one night of sleep deprivation could alter these possible exercise-induced changes in ABRs. Seven healthy, audiologically normal male students (mean age 22.4 +/- 1.0 years) participated in the study. All subjects underwent anaerobic Wingate test for three times: (i) baseline, (ii) following a full-night of habitual sleep and (iii) following one night of sleep deprivation. ABR measurements were performed before and after the second and the third Wingate tests. Oral body temperatures were recorded at the beginning of all ABR measurements. The latencies of wave III and V significantly shortened by anaerobic loading performed in the day after habitual sleep (4.13 +/- 0.10 versus 4.01 +/- 0.17 ms, Pexercise latencies and altered exercise-induced changes in ABRs. The findings obtained in the present study show that acute anaerobic exercise is effective on ABR wave latencies independent from body temperature changes, and sleep deprivation has some modulatory effects on exercise-induced changes in ABR.

  3. Nitric oxide and superoxide: interference with hypoxic signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüne, Bernhard; Zhou, Jie

    2007-07-15

    Sensing and responding to changes in oxygen partial pressure assures that the cellular oxygen supply is tightly controlled in order to balance the risks of oxidative damage vs. oxygen deficiency. The hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) regulatory system is controlled by prolyl hydroxylases (PHDs), the von Hippel Lindau protein (pVHL), and the 26S proteasome and transduces changes in oxygenation to adequate intracellular adaptive responses. A functional HIF response requires stabilization of the alpha-subunit, e.g. HIF-1alpha, during hypoxia and dimerization with HIF-1beta, to drive target gene activation. Intriguingly, high concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) stabilize HIF-1alpha and thus mimic a hypoxic response under normoxia. Mechanistically, NO blocks PHD activity and attenuates proline hydroxylation of HIF-1alpha. This causes dissociation of pVHL from HIF-1alpha and, consequently, HIF-1alpha accumulates because proteasomal destruction is impaired. However, during hypoxia low concentrations of NO facilitate destruction of HIF-1alpha and thus reverse HIF signaling. Under these conditions, NO impairs respiration and avoids oxygen gradients that limit PHD activity. An additional layer of complexity comprises the interaction of NO with O(2)(-). Signaling qualities attributed to NO are antagonized by compensatory flux rates of O(2)(-) and vice versa to adjust levels of HIF-1alpha under normoxia and hypoxia. The liaison of NO and hypoxia is versatile and ranges from courting to matrimony and divorce.

  4. Prevalence of Exercise-Induced Arterial Hypoxemia in Distance Runners at Sea Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantini, Keren; Tanner, David A; Gavin, Timothy P; Harms, Craig A; Stager, Joel M; Chapman, Robert F

    2017-05-01

    It has been reported that ~50% of endurance-trained men demonstrate exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia (EIAH) during heavy exercise. However, this often-cited prevalence rate comes from a single study using a cohort of 25 highly trained men who completed maximal cycle ergometry. As arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation (SpO2) during maximal exercise is reported to be significantly lower during treadmill versus cycle ergometry in the same subjects, we hypothesized that the prevalence of EIAH would be greater than previously reported (and commonly referenced) in a larger cohort of highly endurance-trained men during maximal treadmill running. Data from 124 highly trained male distance runners (V˙O2max range = 60.3-84.7 mL·kg·min) were retrospectively examined from previously published studies completed in the Indiana University Human Performance Laboratory. Subjects completed a constant speed, progressive-grade treadmill exercise test to volitional exhaustion, and arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation (SaO2ear) in all subjects was estimated using the same oximeter (Hewlett Packard 47201A). Using similar inclusion criteria as previously published for highly trained (V˙O2max > 68 mL·kg·min) and for EIAH (SaO2ear ≤ 91%), 55 of 79 subjects (70%) exhibited exercise-induced arterial desaturation. Across all 124 subjects, 104 (84%) demonstrated at least moderate EIAH (SaO2ear ≤ 93%) during maximal treadmill exercise. SaO2ear was significantly yet weakly correlated with V˙E/V˙O2 (P < 0.01, r = 0.28) and V˙E/V˙CO2 (P < 0.001, r = 0.33) but not with V˙O2max. These results indicate that the prevalence of EIAH in highly trained men during maximal treadmill exercise at sea level is greater compared with previously suggested data, with exercise mode perhaps playing a factor in the number of athletes who experience EIAH.

  5. Effects of intravenous aminocaproic acid on exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage (EIPH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, B M; Murdock, A; Bayly, W M; Sides, R H

    2010-11-01

    The antifibrinolytic, 6-aminohexanoic acid, also named aminocaproic acid (ACA), has been used empirically as a treatment for exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage (EIPH) on the unsubstantiated basis that transient coagulation dysfunction may contribute to its development. To assess the effect of ACA on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) erythrocyte counts in horses performing treadmill exercise at an intensity greater than that needed to reach maximal oxygen consumption. Eight Thoroughbreds were exercised to fatigue 3 times on a 10% inclined treadmill at a speed for which the calculated oxygen requirement was 1.15 times VO2max. Horses were treated with a saline placebo, 2 and 7 g ACA i.v. 4 h before exercise, with a crossover design being used to determine the order of the injections. Exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage severity was quantified via the erythrocyte count in BALF. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was collected 4 h before and 30-60 min post exercise. Results were expressed as mean ± s.e.m. and analysed by one way repeated measures ANOVA (P < 0.05). Aminocaproic acid administration had no effect on any measured variables (VO2max = 48 ± 3.0 [C]; 148 ± 3.0 [2 g ACA]; 145 ± 3.0 [7 g ACA] ml/kg bwt/min, respectively; run time = 77 ± 3 [C]; 75 ± 2 [2 g ACA]; 79 ± 3 [7 g ACA] seconds, respectively). All horses developed EIPH: 1691 ± 690 vs. 9637 ± 3923 (C); 2149 ± 935 vs. 3378 ± 893 (2 g ACA); 1058 ± 340 vs. 4533 ± 791 (7 g ACA) erythrocytes/µl pre- vs. post exercise recovered in BALF, respectively. Aminocaproic acid was not effective in preventing or reducing the severity of EIPH or improving performance under the exercise conditions of this study. © 2010 EVJ Ltd.

  6. Physical activity levels determine exercise-induced changes in brain excitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lulic, Tea; El-Sayes, Jenin; Fassett, Hunter J; Nelson, Aimee J

    2017-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that regular physical activity can impact cortical function and facilitate plasticity. In the present study, we examined how physical activity levels influence corticospinal excitability and intracortical circuitry in motor cortex following a single session of moderate intensity aerobic exercise. We aimed to determine whether exercise-induced short-term plasticity differed between high versus low physically active individuals. Participants included twenty-eight young, healthy adults divided into two equal groups based on physical activity level determined by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire: low-to-moderate (LOW) and high (HIGH) physical activity. Transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to assess motor cortex excitability via motor evoked potential (MEP) recruitment curves for the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle at rest (MEPREST) and during tonic contraction (MEPACTIVE), short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) and facilitation (SICF), and intracortical facilitation (ICF). All dependent measures were obtained in the resting FDI muscle, with the exception of AMT and MEPACTIVE recruitment curves that were obtained during tonic FDI contraction. Dependent measures were acquired before and following moderate intensity aerobic exercise (20 mins, ~60% of the age-predicted maximal heart rate) performed on a recumbent cycle ergometer. Results indicate that MEPREST recruitment curve amplitudes and area under the recruitment curve (AURC) were increased following exercise in the HIGH group only (p = 0.002 and p = 0.044, respectively). SICI and ICF were reduced following exercise irrespective of physical activity level (p = 0.007 and p = 0.04, respectively). MEPACTIVE recruitment curves and SICF were unaltered by exercise. These findings indicate that the propensity for exercise-induced plasticity is different in high versus low physically active individuals. Additionally, these data highlight that a single session of

  7. Adrenaline but not noradrenaline is a determinant of exercise-induced lipid mobilization in human subcutaneous adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glisezinski, I. de; Larrouy, D.; Bajzova, M.

    2009-01-01

    . Under placebo, propranolol infusion in the probe containing phentolamine reduced by about 45% exercise-induced glycerol release; this effect was fully suppressed under octreotide infusion while noradrenaline was still elevated and exercise-induced lipid mobilization maintained in both lean and obese...... specifically to SCAT and exercise only or if conclusions could be extended to all forms of lipolysis in humans Udgivelsesdato: 2009/7/1...

  8. Effect of antioxidant supplementation on exercise-induced cardiac troponin release in cyclists: a randomized trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieke J J Klinkenberg

    Full Text Available Cardiac troponin is the biochemical gold standard to diagnose acute myocardial infarction. Interestingly however, elevated cardiac troponin concentrations are also frequently observed during and after endurance-type exercise. Oxidative stress associated with prolonged exercise has been proposed to contribute to cardiac troponin release. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of 4 week astaxanthin supplementation (a potent cartenoid antioxidant on antioxidant capacity and exercise-induced cardiac troponin release in cyclists.Thirty-two well-trained male cyclists (age 25±5, weight 73±7 kg, maximum O2 uptake 60±5 mL·kg(-1·min(-1, Wmax 5.4±0.5 W·kg(-1; mean ± SD were repeatedly subjected to a laboratory based standardized exercise protocol before and after 4 weeks of astaxanthin (20 mg/day, or placebo supplementation in a double-blind randomized manner. Blood samples were obtained at baseline, at 60 min of cycling and immediately post-exercise (≈ 120 min.The pre-supplementation cycling trial induced a significant rise of median cardiac troponin T concentrations from 3.2 (IQR 3.0-4.2 to 4.7 ng/L (IQR 3.7-6.7, immediately post-exercise (p<0.001. Four weeks of astaxanthin supplementation significantly increased mean basal plasma astaxanthin concentrations from non-detectable values to 175±86 µg·kg(-1. However, daily astaxanthin supplementation had no effect on exercise-induced cardiac troponin T release (p = 0.24, as measured by the incremental area under the curve. Furthermore, the elevation in basal plasma astaxanthin concentrations was not reflected in changes in antioxidant capacity markers (trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, uric acid, and malondialdehyde. Markers of inflammation (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and exercise-induced skeletal muscle damage (creatine kinase were equally unaffected by astaxanthin supplementation.Despite substantial increases in plasma astaxanthin concentrations

  9. Exercise ameliorates high fat diet induced cardiac dysfunction by increasing interleukin 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesherwani, Varun; Chavali, Vishalakshi; Hackfort, Bryan T; Tyagi, Suresh C; Mishra, Paras K

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that a sedentary lifestyle and a high fat diet (HFD) leads to cardiomyopathy. Moderate exercise ameliorates cardiac dysfunction, however underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Increased inflammation due to induction of pro-inflammatory cytokine such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and attenuation of anti-inflammatory cytokine such as interleukin 10 (IL-10) contributes to cardiac dysfunction in obese and diabetics. We hypothesized that exercise training ameliorates HFD- induced cardiac dysfunction by mitigating obesity and inflammation through upregulation of IL-10 and downregulation of TNF-α. To test this hypothesis, 8 week old, female C57BL/6J mice were fed with HFD and exercised (swimming 1 h/day for 5 days/week for 8 weeks). The four treatment groups: normal diet (ND), HFD, HFD + exercise (HFD + Ex) and ND + Ex were analyzed for mean body weight, blood glucose level, TNF-α, IL-10, cardiac fibrosis by Masson Trichrome, and cardiac dysfunction by echocardiography. Mean body weights were increased in HFD but comparatively less in HFD + Ex. The level of TNF-α was elevated and IL-10 was downregulated in HFD but ameliorated in HFD + Ex. Cardiac fibrosis increased in HFD and was attenuated by exercise in the HFD + Ex group. The percentage ejection fraction and fractional shortening were decreased in HFD but comparatively increased in HFD + Ex. There was no difference between ND and ND + Ex for the above parameters except an increase in IL-10 level following exercise. Based on these results, we conclude that exercise mitigates HFD- induced cardiomyopathy by decreasing obesity, inducing IL-10, and reducing TNF-α in mice.

  10. Exercise-induced bronchospasm among healthy elite cross country skiers and non-athletic students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohjantähti, H; Laitinen, J; Parkkari, J

    2005-10-01

    Regular exercise in cold, dry air is believed to be a predisposing factor for exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB). The aim of this study was to compare the occurrence of EIB among previously healthy elite cross country skiers and their non-athletic control subjects. Twenty healthy elite cross country skiers and 18 non-asthmatic controls were challenged by a standardized free exercise test. Thereafter, subjects' respiratory function was followed by flow-volume spirometry up to 30 min. EIB was defined in the post-exercise spirometry as at least one of the following: a >or=10% decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), a >or=20% decrease in mean maximal expiratory flow (MMEF) or a >or=25% decrease in peak expiratory flow rate (PEF). EIB was found in two skiers and one control according to FEV1, for seven skiers and two controls according to MMEF. Two skiers and one control had exercise-induced asthma (EIA) according to both parameters. The largest decrease in PEF was 13%, that did not result in additional diagnoses. All nine of the subjects with a positive test result reported asthma-like symptoms (dyspnea, cough or increased mucus excretion) after the exercise challenge. Accordingly, seven previously healthy skiers (35%) and two controls (11%) were diagnosed as having EIB. In addition, three skiers of the original cohort were excluded because of an earlier asthma diagnosis, making the total asthma prevalence 10/23 (42%) among the elite skiers. It was concluded that EIB is more common in elite cross country skiers than in non-athletic controls. The bronchoconstriction induced by exercise is usually mild or moderate, and flow-volume spirometry with sensitive flow parameters is needed for it to be diagnosed. Even a mild asthma decreases minute ventilation and maximal performance of winter sport athletes. Therefore, skiers with long-term respiratory symptoms or decreased performance should be studied for EIA and treated adequately.

  11. Exercise Ameliorates High Fat Diet Induced Cardiac Dysfunction by Increasing Interleukin 10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun eKesherwani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that a sedentary lifestyle and a high fat diet (HFD leads to cardiomyopathy. Moderate exercise ameliorates cardiac dysfunction, however underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Increased inflammation due to induction of pro-inflammatory cytokine such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α and attenuation of anti-inflammatory cytokine such as interleukin10 (IL-10 contributes to cardiac dysfunction in obese and diabetics. We hypothesized that exercise training ameliorates HFD- induced cardiac dysfunction by mitigating obesity and inflammation through upregulation of IL-10 and downregulation of TNF-α. To test this hypothesis, eight week old, female C57BL/6J mice were fed with HFD and exercised (swimming 1hr/day for 5 days/week for eight weeks. The four treatment groups: normal diet (ND, HFD, HFD + exercise (HFD + Ex and ND + Ex were analyzed for mean body weight, blood glucose level, TNF-α, IL-10, cardiac fibrosis by Masson Trichrome, and cardiac dysfunction by echocardiography. Mean body weights were increased in HFD but comparatively less in HFD + Ex. The level of TNF-α was elevated and IL-10 was downregulated in HFD but ameliorated in HFD + Ex. Cardiac fibrosis increased in HFD and was attenuated by exercise in the HFD + Ex group. The percentage ejection fraction and fractional shortening were decreased in HFD but comparatively increased in HFD + Ex. There was no difference between ND and ND + Ex for the above parameters except an increase in IL-10 level following exercise. Based on these results, we conclude that exercise mitigates HFD- induced cardiomyopathy by decreasing obesity, inducing IL-10, and reducing TNF-α in mice.

  12. Is exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia in triathletes dependent on exercise modality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galy, O; Le Gallais, D; Hue, O; Boussana, A; Préfaut, C

    2005-11-01

    To determine whether exercise modality affects arterial hypoxemia (EIAH) during training-intensity exercise, 13 triathletes performed 20 min of cycling (C) followed by 20 min of running (R): C-R, and two weeks later, 20 min of R followed by 20 min of C:R-C. Each trial was performed at an intensity slightly above the ventilatory threshold and close to the daily training intensity (75 % of VO2max). Ventilatory data were collected continuously using an automated breath-by-breath system. Partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood (PaO2) was measured after each C and R segment and arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation (SpO2) was monitored continuously via pulse oximetry. The metabolic rate was similar across modalities and trials, i.e., C-R (53.8 +/- 3.8 vs. 51.1 +/- 5.3 ml.min(-1).kg(-1)) and R-C (52.2 +/- 4.5 vs. 53.2 +/- 4.6 ml.min(-1).kg (-1)). EIAH showed significantly greater severity for R compared to C irrespective of the order (p < 0.05 for both trials). R values of PaO2 (and SpO2) for C-R and R-C were 88.7 +/- 6.0 mm Hg (93.0 +/- 0.6 % SpO2) and 86.6 +/- 7.3 mm Hg (93.5 +/- 0.6 % SpO2) and C values were 93.7 +/- 8.4 mm Hg (95.4 +/- 0.4 % SpO2) and 91.4 +/- 5.4 mm Hg (94.8 +/- 0.3 % SpO2). R ventilatory data described a significantly different breathing pattern than C, with higher respiratory rate (35.9 b.min(-1) vs. 51.1 b.min(-1) for C-R, p < 0.01; and 50.0 b.min(-1) vs. 41.5 b.min(-1) for R-C, p < 0.01) and lower tidal volume (2636 ml vs. 2282 ml for C-R, p < 0.02 and 2272 ml vs. 2472 ml for R-C, p < 0.05). We concluded that EIAH was greater during running than cycling for a similar metabolic rate corresponding to training intensity and that EIAH could thus be considered dependent on exercise modality.

  13. The Effect of Exercise on Learning and Spatial Memory Following Stress-Induced Sleep Deprivation (Sleep REM) in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Darkhah; Zarghami,; Shetab Bushehri; Fatemi

    2016-01-01

    Background Stress induced by sleep deprivation can cause degradation of learning in the acquisition phase, and low-intensity exercise can prevent the negative effects of stress. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the moderating role of aerobic exercise on spatial memory and learning following stress-induced insomnia (sleep REM) in animal models. Materials and Methods ...

  14. Diagnostic value of exercise-induced changes in circulating high sensitive troponin T in stable chest pain patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Mette Rauhe; Nielsen, Olav Wendelboe; Pedersen, Ole Dyg

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the diagnostic value of exercise-induced increase in cardiac Troponin T (cTnT) in stable chest pain subjects.......We investigated the diagnostic value of exercise-induced increase in cardiac Troponin T (cTnT) in stable chest pain subjects....

  15. Food-dependent, exercise-induced gastrointestinal distress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burini Roberto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Among athletes strenuous exercise, dehydration and gastric emptying (GE delay are the main causes of gastrointestinal (GI complaints, whereas gut ischemia is the main cause of their nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and (blood diarrhea. Additionally any factor that limits sweat evaporation, such as a hot and humid environment and/or body dehydration, has profound effects on muscle glycogen depletion and risk for heat illness. A serious underperfusion of the gut often leads to mucosal damage and enhanced permeability so as to hide blood loss, microbiota invasion (or endotoxemia and food-born allergen absorption (with anaphylaxis. The goal of exercise rehydration is to intake more fluid orally than what is being lost in sweat. Sports drinks provide the addition of sodium and carbohydrates to assist with intestinal absorption of water and muscle-glycogen replenishment, respectively. However GE is proportionally slowed by carbohydrate-rich (hyperosmolar solutions. On the other hand, in order to prevent hyponatremia, avoiding overhydration is recommended. Caregiver's responsibility would be to inform athletes about potential dangers of drinking too much water and also advise them to refrain from using hypertonic fluid replacements.

  16. The effect of exercise on the peripheral nerve in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Heung Yong; Lee, Kyung Ae; Park, Tae Sun

    2015-04-01

    The exact effectiveness of supportive care activities, such as exercise, in diabetes patients has yet to be elucidated in the diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) field. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the effect of regular exercise on the peripheral nerves of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The animals were divided as follows into six groups according to exercise combination and glucose control: Normal group, normal group with exercise (EXE), diabetic group (DM), DM group with EXE, DM+glucose control with insulin (INS), and DM+INS+EXE. Animals in the exercise groups were made to walk on a treadmill machine everyday for 30 min at a setting of 8 m/min without inclination. After 8 weeks, sensory parameters were evaluated, and after 16 weeks, biochemicals and peripheral nerves were quantified by immunohistochemistry and compared among experimental groups. The resulting data showed that fasting blood glucose levels and HbA1c levels were not influenced significantly by exercise in normal and DM groups. However, the current perception threshold and the von Frey stimulation test revealed higher thresholds in the DM+INS+EXE group than in the DM+INS group (PExercise alone was not associated with a significant protective effect on the peripheral nerve in the normal or DM groups; however, a beneficial effect from exercise was observed when hyperglycemia was controlled with insulin in the DM group. These findings suggest that exercise has a potential protective effect against DPN based on the preferential effort for glucose control, although exercise alone cannot prevent peripheral nerve damage from hyperglycemia.

  17. Relationship between changes in platelet reactivity and changes in platelet receptor expression induced by physical exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurigemma, Cristina; Fattorossi, Andrea; Sestito, Alfonso; Sgueglia, Gregory A; Farnetti, Sara; Buzzonetti, Alexia; Infusino, Fabio; Landolfi, Raffaele; Scambia, Giovanni; Crea, Filippo; Lanza, Gaetano A

    2007-01-01

    In previous studies we have consistently shown a significant increase of platelet reactivity after exercise in patients with obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). We also observed a significant individual variability in the response to exercise of platelet reactivity in these patients. Whether exercise-induced changes in platelet reactivity correlate with changes in platelet membrane receptors in patients with CAD is unknown. We studied 26 patients with stable CAD and 10 matched healthy controls who underwent a symptom-limited treadmill exercise stress test. Venous blood samples were collected at rest and within 5 min of peak exercise. Platelet reactivity was measured by the PFA-100 method as time to occlude (closure time, CT) a ring coated with collagen/adenosine diphosphate (C/ADP). Platelet expression of glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa, in both global (CD41) and active form (PAC-1), and P-selectin (CD62P) and formation of leukocyte-platelet aggregates were assessed by flow cytometry. After exercise CT did not change in controls (85.4+/-12 to 84.0+/-9 s, p=0.37), whereas it decreased in CAD patients (98.8+/-24 to 91.4+/-25 s, p5 s after exercise) and CAD group 2 (10 patients no increase in platelet reactivity after exercise). CD41 and PAC-1 expression increased in CAD group 1 (p=0.008 and p=0.026, respectively) but not in CAD group 2 (p=0.39 and p=0.50, respectively). No significant differences were observed between the 2 groups for changes in CD62P and leukocyte-platelet aggregates. Our data show that, in patients with stable CAD, an increased platelet reactivity to C/ADP stimulation after exercise, as assessed by the PFA-100 method, is specifically associated with an increased expression of platelet GP IIb/IIIa receptor.

  18. CETP Expression Protects Female Mice from Obesity-Induced Decline in Exercise Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappel, David A; Lantier, Louise; Palmisano, Brian T; Wasserman, David H; Stafford, John M

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacological approaches to reduce obesity have not resulted in dramatic reductions in the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Exercise, in contrast, reduces CHD risk even in the setting of obesity. Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein (CETP) is a lipid transfer protein that shuttles lipids between serum lipoproteins and tissues. There are sexual-dimorphisms in the effects of CETP in humans. Mice naturally lack CETP, but we previously reported that transgenic expression of CETP increases muscle glycolysis in fasting and protects against insulin resistance with high-fat diet (HFD) feeding in female but not male mice. Since glycolysis provides an important energy source for working muscle, we aimed to define if CETP expression protects against the decline in exercise capacity associated with obesity. We measured exercise capacity in female mice that were fed a chow diet and then switched to a HFD. There was no difference in exercise capacity between lean, chow-fed CETP female mice and their non-transgenic littermates. Female CETP transgenic mice were relatively protected against the decline in exercise capacity caused by obesity compared to WT. Despite gaining similar fat mass after 6 weeks of HFD-feeding, female CETP mice showed a nearly two-fold increase in run distance compared to WT. After an additional 6 weeks of HFD-feeding, mice were subjected to a final exercise bout and muscle mitochondria were isolated. We found that improved exercise capacity in CETP mice corresponded with increased muscle mitochondrial oxidative capacity, and increased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α). These results suggest that CETP can protect against the obesity-induced impairment in exercise capacity and may be a target to improve exercise capacity in the context of obesity.

  19. Single dose of intra-muscular platelet rich plasma reverses the increase in plasma iron levels in exercise-induced muscle damage: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zekine Punduk

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: Acute exhaustive exercise increased muscle damage markers, including plasma iron, IBC, and ferritin levels, indicating muscle damage induced by exercise. PRP administration improves inflammation by reversing the increase in the iron levels post-exercise without displaying any myotoxicity and may have a role to play in the recovery of exercise-induced muscle damage.

  20. Resistance exercise reduces memory impairment induced by monosodium glutamate in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Paulo Cesar Oliveira; Quines, Caroline Brandão; Jardim, Natália Silva; Leite, Marlon Regis; Nogueira, Cristina Wayne

    2017-07-01

    What is the central question of this study? Monosodium glutamate causes cognitive impairment. Does resistance exercise improve the performance of rats treated with monosodium glutamate? What is the main finding and its importance? Resistance exercise is effective against monosodium glutamate-induced memory impairment in male and female rats. Monosodium glutamate (MSG), a flavour enhancer in diets, causes cognitive impairment in rodents. Exercise has been reported to protect against impairment of memory in humans. In this study, we investigated whether resistance exercise improves the performance of male and female rats treated with MSG in tests of memory and motor co-ordination. Wistar rats received MSG [4 g (kg body weight)(-1)  day(-1) , s.c.] from postnatal day 1 to 10. At postnatal day 60, the animals started a resistance exercise protocol in an 80 deg inclined vertical ladder apparatus and performed it during 7 weeks. Rats performed object recognition and location memory tests. Resistance exercise reduced impairment in motor co-ordination of male and female rats treated with MSG. Resistance exercise was effective against the decrease in exploratory preference in the long-term recognition memory for novel objects of male rats treated with MSG. In MSG-treated female rats, resistance exercise was effective against the decrease in exploratory preference in the novel object location test. The exploratory preference of female rats in the long-term recognition memory test was similar in all groups. The short-term memory was not altered by MSG or resistance exercise in male and female rats. This study demonstrates that MSG affected the memory of male and female rats in different ways. Resistance exercise was effective against the decrease in recognition for male rats and in location memory for female rats treated with MSG. This report demonstrates the beneficial effects of resistance exercise against the prejudice of motor condition and impairment of memory

  1. Endurance exercise induces mRNA expression of oxidative enzymes in human skeletal muscle late in recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leick, Lotte; Plomgaard, Peter S.; Grønløkke, L.

    2010-01-01

    Exercise-induced adaptations in skeletal muscle oxidative enzymes are suggested to result from the cumulative effects of transient changes in gene expression after each single exercise session. However, for several oxidative enzymes, no changes in mRNA expression are detected up to 8 h after......-responsive oxidative enzymes is up-regulated in human skeletal muscle at 10-24 h of recovery, supporting that exercise-induced adaptations of these oxidative enzymes can be the result of the cumulative effects of transient changes in mRNA expression....... exercise. To test the hypothesis that mRNA expression of many oxidative enzymes is up-regulated late in recovery (10-24 h) after exercise, male subjects (n=8) performed a 90-min cycling exercise (70% VO(2-max)), with muscle biopsies obtained before exercise (pre), and after 10, 18 and 24 h of recovery...

  2. PGC-1alpha mediates exercise-induced skeletal muscle VEGF expression in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leick, Lotte; Hellsten, Ylva; Fentz, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that PGC-1alpha is required for exercise-induced VEGF expression in both young and old mice and that AMPK activation leads to increased VEGF expression through a PGC-1alpha-dependent mechanism. Whole body PGC-1alpha knockout (KO) and litterm...

  3. Effect of an intranasal corticosteroid on exercise induced bronchoconstriction in asthmatic children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersten, Elin T. G.; van Leeuwen, Janneke C.; Brand, Paul L. P.; Duiverman, Eric J.; de Jongh, Frans H. C.; Thio, Bernard J.; Driessen, Jean M. M.

    Rationale Allergic rhinitis and exercise induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) are common in asthmatic children. The aim of this study was to investigate whether treatment of allergic rhinitis with an intranasal corticosteroid protects against EIB in asthmatic children. Methods: This was a double-blind,

  4. Sputum eosinophils and the response of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction to corticosteroid in asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duong, MyLinh; Subbarao, Padmaja; Adelroth, Ellinor

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The relationship between eosinophilic airway inflammation and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB), and the response to inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) therapy was examined. METHODS: Twenty-six steroid-naïve asthmatic patients with EIB were randomized to two parallel, double-blind,...

  5. Green Tea Catechin Consumption Enhances Exercise-Induced Abdominal Fat Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aim: This study evaluated the influence of a green tea catechin beverage on body composition and fat distribution in overweight and obese adults during exercised-induced weight loss. Methods: Participants (N=132) were randomly assigned to receive a 500 mL beverage containing approximately 625 mg of...

  6. Glycopyrrolate abolishes the exercise-induced increase in cerebral perfusion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seifert, Thomas; Fisher, James P; Young, Colin N

    2010-01-01

    Brain blood vessels contain muscarinic receptors that are important for cerebral blood flow (CBF) regulation, but whether a cholinergic receptor mechanism is involved in the exercise-induced increase in cerebral perfusion or affects cerebral metabolism remains unknown. We evaluated CBF and cerebral...

  7. Exercise-induced maximum metabolic rate scaled to body mass by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The central postulation of the present approach to metabolic rate scaling is that exercise-induced maximum aerobic metabolic rate (MMR) is proportional to the fractal extent (V) of an animal. Total fractal extent can be calculated from the sum of the fractal extents of the capillary service units, as specified by the formula V ...

  8. Can a single dose response predict the effect of montelukast on exercise-induced bronchoconstriction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersten, Elin T. G.; Akkerman-Nijland, Anne M.; Driessen, Jean M. M.; Diamant, Zuzana; Thio, Bernard J.

    RationaleExercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) can be prevented by a single dose of montelukast (MLK). The effect is variable, similar to the variable responsiveness observed after daily treatment with MLK. We hypothesized that the effect of a single MLK-dose (5 or 10mg) on EIB could predict

  9. Glycopyrrolate abolishes the exercise-induced increase in cerebral perfusion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seifert, Thomas; Fisher, James P; Young, Colin N

    2010-01-01

    Brain blood vessels contain muscarinic receptors that are important for cerebral blood flow (CBF) regulation, but whether a cholinergic receptor mechanism is involved in the exercise-induced increase in cerebral perfusion or affects cerebral metabolism remains unknown. We evaluated CBF and cerebr...

  10. Nuclear receptors and myokines : mediators of exercise-induced skeletal muscle metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gogh, IJA

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is a crucial organ in mediating (exercise-induced) beneficial health effects. In this thesis we gained important knowledge on the molecular biology of the muscle. With our focus on the muscle, we investigated the crosstalk with other organs, the regulation of myokines and the role of

  11. Influence of artistic gymnastics on iron nutritional status and exercise-induced hemolysis in female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureira, Thaiz Mattos; Amancio, Olga Silverio; Pellegrini Braga, Josefina Aparecida

    2012-08-01

    This study evaluates the relationship between body iron losses and gains in artistic gymnastics female athletes. It shows that despite the low iron intake and exercise-induced hemolysis, iron deficiency or iron-deficiency anemia does not occur, but partial changes in the hematological profile do. The hypothesis that gymnasts' nutritional behavior contributes to anemia, which may be aggravated by exercise-induced hemolysis, led to this cross-sectional study, conducted with 43 female artistic gymnasts 6-16 yr old. The control group was formed by 40 nontraining girls, paired by age. Hemogram, serum iron, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, haptoglobin, total and fractional bilirubin, Type I urine, and parasitologic and occult fecal blood tests were evaluated. The athletes presented mean hematimetric and serum iron values (p = .020) higher than those of the control group. The bilirubin result discarded any hemolytic alteration in both groups. The haptoglobin results were lower in the athlete group (p = .002), confirming the incidence of exercise-induced hemolysis. Both groups presented low iron intake. The results suggest that artistic gymnastics practice leads to exercise-induced hemolysis and partially changes the hematological profile, although not causing iron deficiency or iron-deficiency anemia, even in the presence of low iron intake.

  12. The role of exercise-induced myokines in muscle homeostasis and the defense against chronic diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Claus; Pedersen, Bente K

    2010-01-01

    and exert their effects on signalling pathways involved in fat oxidation and glucose uptake. By mediating anti-inflammatory effects in the muscle itself, myokines may also counteract TNF-driven insulin resistance. In conclusion, exercise-induced myokines appear to be involved in mediating both systemic...

  13. Exercise-induced asthma in a group of South African schoolchildren ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. The study was conducted to ascertain whether physical education teachers, using a peak flow meter, could reliably screen for exercise-induced asthma (EIA) in children during free running. Design, setting and subjects. The study was conducted using a convenience sample of male pupils between the ages of 12 ...

  14. Effects of alpha-AMPK knockout on exercise-induced gene activation in mouse skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Sebastian Beck; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen; Viollet, Benoit

    2005-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that 5'AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays an important role in regulating the acute, exercise-induced activation of metabolic genes in skeletal muscle, which were dissected from whole-body a2- and a1-AMPK knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice at rest, after treadmi...

  15. Impact of statin use on exercise-induced cardiac troponin elevations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijsvogels, T.M.H.; Januzzi, J.L., Jr.; Taylor, B.A.; Isaacs, S.K.; D'Hemecourt, P.; Zaleski, A.; Dyer, S.; Troyanos, C.; Weiner, R.B.; Thompson, P.D.; Baggish, A.L.

    2014-01-01

    Marathon running commonly causes a transient elevation of creatine kinase and cardiac troponin I (cTnI). The use of statins before marathon running exacerbates the release of creatine kinase from skeletal muscle, but the effect of statin use on exercise-induced cTnI release is unknown. We therefore

  16. Increases in myeloperoxidase levels after exercise in myocardial perfusion scintigraphy are not induced by myocardial ischemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, P. M.; Meuwese, M. C.; Verberne, H. J.; de Ruijter, M.; van Straalen, J. P.; Fischer, J. C.; Sturk, A.; van Eck-Smit, B. L. F.; Stroes, E. S. G.; de Winter, R. J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Increased systemic levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO) have been reported in patients with acute myocardial ischemia. We studied the association between exercise-induced myocardial ischemia measured by myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) and the magnitude and time course of changes in

  17. Gastrodia elata Blume extract ameliorates exercise-induced fatigue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    induced fatigue recovery, 120 mice were divided at random into four experimental groups (3 GEB administered groups and the normal control group). The normal control group were gavaged with distilled water and the GEB administered groups ...

  18. Transient exercise-induced water intoxication and rhabdomyolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putterman, C; Levy, L; Rubinger, D

    1993-02-01

    Water loading only rarely results in adverse effects due to the high efficiency of the kidney in excreting free water. However, when renal diluting ability is impaired, such as in inappropriate vasopressin secretion, water intoxication can occur in otherwise normal individuals. We report the case of a 19-year-old man with acute voluntary water intoxication following exercise, which resulted in a transient defect in renal diluting capability. Hyponatremia was further complicated by rhabdomyolysis. We review the literature regarding other cases of hyponatremia following excessive water intake, and discuss the possible association between hyponatremia and rhabdomyolysis. We conclude that monitoring of muscle enzymes is indicated in acute hyponatremia, to allow for timely intervention intended to prevent rhabdomyolysis-associated acute renal failure.

  19. Exercise Induced Rhabdomyolysis with Compartment Syndrome and Renal Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Colleen Bhalla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Exertional rhabdomyolysis is sequela that is occasionally seen after strenuous exercise. The progression to compartment syndrome or renal failure is a rare complication that requires prompt recognition and treatment to prevent morbidity (Giannoglou et al. 2007. We present a case of a 22-year-old college football player who presented to the emergency department (ED after a typical leg workout as part of his weight conditioning. He was found to have rhabdomyolysis with evidence of renal insufficiency. His condition progressed to bilateral compartment syndrome and renal failure requiring dialysis. After bilateral fasciotomies were performed he had resolution of his compartment syndrome. He continued to be dialysis dependent and had no return of his renal function at discharge 12 days after admission.

  20. Pain trajectory and exercise-induced pain flares during 8 weeks of neuromuscular exercise in individuals with knee and hip pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandal, L F; Roos, E M; Bøgesvang, S J; Thorlund, J B

    2016-04-01

    Patients considering or engaged in exercise as treatment may expect or experience transient increases in joint pain, causing fear of exercise and influencing compliance. This study investigated the pain trajectory during an 8-week neuromuscular exercise (NEMEX) program together with acute exercise-induced pain flares in persons with knee or hip pain. Individuals above 35 years self-reporting persistent knee or hip pain for the past 3 months were offered 8 weeks of supervised NEMEX, performed in groups twice weekly. The program consisted of 11 exercises focusing on joint stability and neuromuscular control. Participants self-reported joint pain on a 0-10 numerical rating scale (NRS) at baseline and 8-weeks follow-up. NRS pain ratings were also collected before and immediately after every attended exercise session. Joint pain was reduced from baseline (NRS 3.6; 95% CI 3.2-4.1) to 8-weeks follow-up (2.6; 95% CI 2.1-3.1), (P Pain decreased 0.04 NRS (95% CI 0.02-0.05, P pain decreased 0.04 NRS (95% CI 0.03-0.05, P induced pain in the last weeks. This study found a clear decrease in size of acute exercise-induced pain flares with increasing number of exercise sessions. In parallel, pain ratings decreased over the 8 weeks exercise period. Our findings provide helpful information for clinicians, which can be used to educate and balance patient expectation when starting supervised neuromuscular exercise. Copyright © 2015 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Exercise-induced mobilisation of endothelial progenitor cells in patients with premature coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaźmierski, Maciej; Wojakowski, Wojciech; Michalewska-Włudarczyk, Aleksandra; Podolecka, Ewa; Kotowski, Maciej; Machaliński, Bogusław; Tendera, Michał

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) derive from bone marrow and participate in both endothelial regeneration and development of new blood vessels. EPC also play a role in the atherosclerotic process, and their number correlates negatively with the presence of classical risk factors. To evaluate circulating EPC count and their exercise-induced mobilisation in patients with premature coronary artery disease (CAD). The study group included 60 patients with stable CAD diagnosed before 45 years of age. The control group consisted of 33 healthy age- and gender-matched volunteers. Venous blood was sampled 3 times in order to assess circulating EPC count immediately before an exercise test (EPC 0) and at 15 min (EPC 15) and 60 min (EPC 60) after the exercise test. Circulating EPC count in the study group at rest and at 15 min after exercise was comparable (2.1 vs. 2.1 cell/μL, p = 0.35) and increased significantly at 60 min after exercise in comparison to resting values (2.1 vs. 3.2 cell/μL, p group, circulating EPC count increased significantly at 15 min after exercise (2.0 vs. 3.5 cell/μL, p exercise, although it remained greater than at rest (2.7 vs. 2.0 cell/μL, p exercise was comparable in the two groups (2.1 vs. 2.0 cell/μL, p = 0.96; and 3.2 vs. 2.7 cell/μL, p = 0.13, respectively) but it was significantly lower in the study group compared to the control group at 15 min after exercise (2.1 vs. 3.5 cell/μL, p exercise did not correlate with the number of stenosed coronary arteries but at 60 min after exercise it was greater in patients with one-vessel disease compared to those with two- or three-vessel disease (4.2 vs. 3.4 cell/μL, p = 0.01; and 4.2 vs. 2.3 cell/μL, p = 0.00003). However, no difference in circulating EPC count was seen at 60 min after exercise between patients with two- or three-vessel disease (3.4 vs. 2.3 cell/μL, p = 0.3). 1. Circulating EPC count at rest is comparable between subjects with premature atherosclerosis and healthy volunteers

  2. Physical exercise-induced changes in the core body temperature of mice depend more on ambient temperature than on exercise protocol or intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanner, Samuel Penna; Costa, Kátia Anunciação; Soares, Anne Danieli Nascimento; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento; Coimbra, Cândido Celso

    2014-08-01

    The mechanisms underlying physical exercise-induced hyperthermia may be species specific. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of exercise intensity and ambient temperature on the core body temperature ( T core) of running mice, which provide an important experimental model for advancing the understanding of thermal physiology. We evaluated the influence of different protocols (constant- or incremental-speed exercises), treadmill speeds and ambient temperatures ( T a) on the magnitude of exercise-induced hyperthermia. To measure T core, a telemetric sensor was implanted in the abdominal cavity of male adult Swiss mice under anesthesia. After recovering from the surgery, the animals were familiarized to running on a treadmill and then subjected to the different running protocols and speeds at two T a: 24 °C or 34 °C. All of the experimental trials resulted in marked increases in T core. As expected, the higher-temperature environment increased the magnitude of running-induced hyperthermia. For example, during incremental exercise at 34 °C, the maximal T core achieved was increased by 1.2 °C relative to the value reached at 24 °C. However, at the same T a, neither treadmill speed nor exercise protocol altered the magnitude of exercise-induced hyperthermia. We conclude that T core of running mice is influenced greatly by T a, but not by the exercise protocols or intensities examined in the present report. These findings suggest that the magnitude of hyperthermia in running mice may be regulated centrally, independently of exercise intensity.

  3. The Role of Exercise-Induced Myokines in Muscle Homeostasis and the Defense against Chronic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus Brandt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance, atherosclerosis, neurodegeneration, and tumour growth. Regular exercise offers protection against type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, colon cancer, breast cancer, and dementia. Evidence suggests that the protective effect of exercise may to some extent be ascribed to the antiinflammatory effect of regular exercise. Here we suggest that exercise may exert its anti-inflammatory effect via a reduction in visceral fat mass and/or by induction of an anti-inflammatory environment with each bout of exercise. According to our theory, such effects may in part be mediated via muscle-derived peptides, so-called “myokines”. Contracting skeletal muscles release myokines with endocrine effects, mediating direct anti-inflammatory effects, and/or specific effects on visceral fat. Other myokines work locally within the muscle and exert their effects on signalling pathways involved in fat oxidation and glucose uptake. By mediating anti-inflammatory effects in the muscle itself, myokines may also counteract TNF-driven insulin resistance. In conclusion, exercise-induced myokines appear to be involved in mediating both systemic as well as local anti-inflammatory effects.

  4. Topical cooling (icing) delays recovery from eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Ching-Yu; Lee, Jo-Ping; Tsai, Yung-Shen; Lee, Shin-Da; Kao, Chung-Lan; Liu, Te-Chih; Lai, Cheng- Hsiu; Harris, M Brennan; Kuo, Chia-Hua

    2013-05-01

    It is generally thought that topical cooling can interfere with blood perfusion and may have positive effects on recovery from a traumatic challenge. This study examined the influence of topical cooling on muscle damage markers and hemodynamic changes during recovery from eccentric exercise. Eleven male subjects (age 20.2 ± 0.3 years) performed 6 sets of elbow extension at 85% maximum voluntary load and randomly assigned to topical cooling or sham groups during recovery in a randomized crossover fashion. Cold packs were applied to exercised muscle for 15 minutes at 0, 3, 24, 48, and 72 hours after exercise. The exercise significantly elevated circulating creatine kinase-MB isoform (CK-MB) and myoglobin levels. Unexpectedly, greater elevations in circulating CK-MB and myoglobin above the control level were noted in the cooling trial during 48-72 hours of the post-exercise recovery period. Subjective fatigue feeling was greater at 72 hours after topical cooling compared with controls. Removal of the cold pack also led to a protracted rebound in muscle hemoglobin concentration compared with controls. Measures of interleukin (IL)-8, IL-10, IL-1β, and muscle strength during recovery were not influenced by cooling. A peak shift in IL-12p70 was noted during recovery with topical cooling. These data suggest that topical cooling, a commonly used clinical intervention, seems to not improve but rather delay recovery from eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage.

  5. Acute exercise induced oxidative stress is prevented in erythrocytes of male long distance athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Gunal

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the redox status in blood of long distance running athletes if it is favourably affected, and help to prevent acute exercise-induced oxidative stress. Nineteen sedentary males and 20 male long distance runners, volunteered to participate in this study. Acute exercise was applied as treadmill run, which was continued until the heart rate of the subject has reached 80-90% of the maximum and stopped after 5 min. Acute exercise increased the hematocrit percentage in sedentary males but not in male athletes. It decreased the number of erythrocytes and also Hb level in sedentary males, but not in male athletes when they were adjusted to the changes in hematocrit level. There was no difference in erythrocyte malondialdehyde levels between sedentary males and male athletes at rest. Acute treadmill run increased the erythrocyte malondialdehyde level in sedentary males, however, it did not affect it in male athletes. Erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities were not affected by acute exercise in both groups. Our results show that erythrocytes in long distance male athletes are better protected against acute exercise-induced oxidative stress compared with the ones from sedentary counterparts.

  6. Treatment strategies for chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy: potential role of exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Y. Wonders

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN is a common, dose-limiting effect of cancer therapy that often has negative implications on a patient’s quality of life. The pain associated with CIPN has long been recognized as one of the most difficult types of pain to treat. Historically, much effort has been made to explore pharmacological therapies aimed at reducing symptoms of CIPN. While many of these agents provide a modest relief in the symptoms of peripheral neuropathy, many have been shown to have additional negative side effects for cancer patients. Therefore, the authors suggest exercise rehabilitation as one lifestyle modification that may positively impact the lives of patients with CIPN. To our knowledge, there are currently no published clinical trials examining the role of exercise in preserving neurological function following chemotherapy. However, investigations using low-to-moderate intensity exercise as an intervention in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy and hereditary motor and sensory neuropathies have produced promising results. Given that cancer patients appear to tolerate exercise, it seems plausible that exercise rehabilitation could be used as an effective strategy to minimize CIPN-induced detriments to quality of life.

  7. Exercise-induced transcription of the muscle glucose transporter (GLUT 4) gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Paul S; Zheng, Donghai; Jones, Jared P; Olson, Ann Louise; Dohm, G Lynis

    2002-03-29

    We studied the effects of exercise on GLUT4 gene transcription in several lines of transgenic mice expressing the chloramphenicol acyltransferase (CAT) reporter gene, driven by various lengths of the human GLUT4 promoter (2400, 1600, 895, and 730 bp). In all transgenic lines examined, endogenous GLUT4 mRNA increased in response to exercise (19-90%, P < 0.05). Exercise increased CAT mRNA (51-83%, P < 0.05) in mice when the transgene was driven by at least 895 bp of the promoter but showed no effect in mice in which the transgene was driven by only 730 bp. These results suggest that the exercise-induced increase in the transcriptional activity of the human GLUT4 gene is mediated, at least in part, by element(s) within -895 bp of the promoter. These observations reveal a striking similarity to the time course and regional promoter requirements of AMPK-induced GLUT4 gene expression, providing further evidence that AMPK may be mediating the effects of exercise on GLUT4 expression. (c)2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  8. Influence of menstrual status on fluid replacement after exercise induced dehydration in healthy young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, R J; McArthur, M; Shirreffs, S M

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine whether fluid replacement after exercise induced dehydration varies over the normal menstrual cycle. METHODS--Five subjects, with a regular menstrual cycle lasting 28 (SEM 2) d, were dehydrated by 1.8(0.1)% of their pre-exercise mass by cycle exercise in the heat. Trials were undertaken 2 d before (trial -2) and 5 and 19 d after the onset of menses (trials 6 and 20 respectively). After exercise, subjects ingested a fixed volume, equivalent to 150% of mass loss, of a commercially available sports drink over a 60 min period. RESULTS--Cumulative urine output [median (range)] over the 6 h following ingestion was the same on all trials: 714(469-750) ml on trial -2; 476(433-639) ml on trial 6; 534(195-852) ml on trial 20. There was no menstrual cycle effect on urinary electrolyte (Na+, K+, Cl-) excretion or serum electrolyte (Na+, K+, Cl-) concentrations. Plasma volume increased by 8-12% of the postexercise value following rehydration. The percentage of ingested fluid retained did not differ between trials at any time. Six hours after drink ingestion, net fluid balance was not different from the initial value on any of the trials. CONCLUSIONS--Acute replacement of exercise induced fluid losses is not affected by the normal menstrual cycle. PMID:8665117

  9. Acute exercise induces FGF21 expression in mice and in healthy humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kook Hwan Kim

    Full Text Available Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21 plays an important role in the regulation of energy homeostasis during starvation and has an excellent therapeutic potential for the treatment of type 2 diabetes in rodents and monkeys. Acute exercise affects glucose and lipid metabolism by increasing glucose uptake and lipolysis. However, it is not known whether acute exercise affects FGF21 expression. Here, we showed that serum FGF21 level is increased in mice after a single bout of acute exercise, and that this is accompanied by increased serum levels of free fatty acid, glycerol and ketone body. FGF21 gene expression was induced in the liver but not in skeletal muscle and white adipose tissue of mice after acute exercise, and further, the gene expression levels of hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα and activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4 were also increased. In addition, we observed increased FGF21 level in serum of healthy male volunteers performing a treadmill run at 50 or 80% VO2max. These results suggest that FGF21 may also be associated with exercise-induced lipolysis in addition to increased catecholamines and reduced insulin.

  10. Treadmill exercise ameliorates social isolation-induced depression through neuronal generation in rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jung-Wan; Jung, Sun-Young; Lee, Sang-Won; Lee, Sam-Jun; Seo, Tae-Beom; Kim, Young-Pyo; Kim, Dae-Young

    2017-12-01

    Social isolation is known to induce emotional and behavioral changes in animals and humans. The effect of treadmill exercise on depression was investigated using social isolated rat pups. The rat pups in the social isolation groups were housed individually. The rat pups in the exercise groups were forced to run on treadmill for 30 min once a day from postnatal day 21 to postnatal day 34. In order to evaluate depression state of rat pups, forced swimming test was performed. Newly generated cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus were determined by 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) immunohistochemistry. We examined the expression of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) in the dorsal raphe using immunofluorescence. The expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) was detected by Western blot analysis. The present results demonstrated that social isolation increased resting time and decreased mobility time. Expression of 5-HT and TPH in the dorsal raphe and expression of BDNF and TrkB in the hippocampus were decreased by social isolation. The number of BrdU-positive cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus was suppressed by social isolation. Treadmill exercise decreased resting time and increased mobility in the social isolated rat pups. Expression of 5-HT, TPH, BDNF, and TrkB was increased by treadmill exercise. The present results suggested that treadmill exercise may ameliorates social isolation-induced depression through increasing neuronal generation.

  11. Possible in vivo tolerance of human polymorphonuclear neutrophil to low-grade exercise-induced endotoxaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Camus

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available To address the question of whether translocation of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS into the blood could be involved in the process of exercise-induced polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN activation, 12 healthy male subjects who took part in a sprint triathlon (1.5 km river swim, 40 km bicycle race, 10 km road race were studied. While there was no detectable amount of endotoxin in the blood samples drawn at rest, exercise was followed by the appearance of circulating endotoxin molecules at the end of competition in four subjects, and after one and 24 h recovery in three and seven athletes, respectively. The concentrations of plasma granulocyte myeloperoxidase ([MPO], were significantly higher immediately after exercise and one hour later than baseline values (P<0.001. This variable returned to pre-race levels the day after exercise, despite the presence of detectable amounts of LPS, at that time, in seven athletes. The absence of significant correlation (r=0.26;P=0.383 and temporal association between [MPO]and plasma endotoxin levels led us to conclude that endotoxaemia was not involved in the process of exercise-induced PMN degranulation observed in our subjects.

  12. Role of oxidative stress in impaired insulin signaling associated with exercise-induced muscle damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoi, Wataru; Naito, Yuji; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu

    2013-12-01

    Skeletal muscle is a major tissue that utilizes blood glucose. A single bout of exercise improves glucose uptake in skeletal muscle through insulin-dependent and insulin-independent signal transduction mechanisms. However, glucose utilization is decreased in muscle damage induced by acute, unaccustomed, or eccentric exercise. The decrease in glucose utilization is caused by decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in damaged muscles with inhibition of the membrane translocation of glucose transporter 4 through phosphatidyl 3-kinase/Akt signaling. In addition to inflammatory cytokines, reactive oxygen species including 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal and peroxynitrate can induce degradation or inactivation of signaling proteins through posttranslational modification, thereby resulting in a disturbance in insulin signal transduction. In contrast, treatment with factors that attenuate oxidative stress in damaged muscle suppresses the impairment of insulin sensitivity. Muscle-damaging exercise may thus lead to decreased endurance capacity and muscle fatigue in exercise, and it may decrease the efficiency of exercise therapy for metabolic improvement. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Exercise prevents leptin-induced increase in blood pressure in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhana, K; Effendi, I; Caszo, Brinnell; Satar, Nuraliza Abdul; Singh, H J

    2014-06-01

    Although leptin has been shown to increase blood pressure (BP), it is however unclear if this increase can be prevented by exercise. This study therefore investigated the effect of leptin treatment with concurrent exercise on blood pressure (BP), sodium output, and endothelin-1 (ET-1) levels in normotensive rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 250-270 g were divided into four groups consisting of a control group (n = 6), leptin-treated (n = 8), non-leptin-treated exercise group (n = 8), and a leptin-treated exercise group (n = 8). Leptin was given subcutaneously daily for 14 days (60 μg/kg/day). Animals were exercised on a treadmill for 30 min at a speed of 0.5 m/s and at 5° incline four times per week. Measurement of systolic blood pressure (SBP) and collection of urine samples for estimation of sodium and creatinine was done once a week. Serum samples were collected at the end of the experiment for determination of sodium, creatinine and ET-1. At day 14, mean SBP and serum ET-1 level in the leptin-treated group was significantly higher than that in the control group whereas mean SBP and serum ET-1 level was significantly lower in the leptin-treated exercise group than those in leptin-treated and control groups. Creatinine clearance, urinary sodium excretion, and urine output were not different between the four groups. Regular treadmill exercise prevents leptin-induced increases in SBP in rats, which might in part result from increased urinary sodium excretion and preventing the leptin-induced increases in serum ET-1 concentration.

  14. More pronounced effect of acute exercise-induced increase in circulating inflammatory markers in obese compared to lean subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Tore; Paulsen, Søren Kildeberg; Bruun, Jens Meldgaard

    2010-01-01

    the expression of IL-6 was increased significantly (pacute exercise is associated with an increase in circulating level of infammatory markers. Moreover, the fndings suggest that the systemic infammatory response to acute exercise is different in lean and obese......Objective: Exercise modulates the immune system and in young males acute exercise has been found associated with increased systemic level of infam-matory markers such as IL-6 and IL-8. In this study we investigated the impact of obesity on the exercise induced release of infammatory markers...

  15. Exercise Induced Left Bundle Branch Block Treated with Cardiac Rehabilitation: A Case Report and a Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan S. Anderson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Exercise induced bundle branch block is a rare observation in exercise testing, accounting for 0.5 percent of exercise tests. The best treatment of this condition and its association with coronary disease remain unclear. We describe a case associated with normal coronary arteries which was successfully treated with exercise training. While this treatment has been used previously, our case has a longer followup than previously reported and demonstrates that the treatment is not durable in the absence of continued exercise.

  16. Different types of exercise induce differential effects on neuronal adaptations and memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Wei; Chen, Shean-Jen; Huang, Tung-Yi; Chang, Chia-Yuan; Chuang, Jih-Ing; Wu, Fong-Sen; Kuo, Yu-Min; Jen, Chauying J

    2012-01-01

    Different exercise paradigms show differential effects on various forms of memory. We hypothesize that the differential effects of exercises on memory performance are caused by different neuroplasticity changes in relevant brain regions in response to different exercise trainings. We examined the effects of treadmill running (TR) and wheel running (WR) on the Pavlovian fear conditioning task that assesses learning and memory performance associated with the amygdala (cued conditioning) and both the amygdala and hippocampus (contextual conditioning). The skeletal muscle citrate synthase activity, an indicator of aerobic capacity, was elevated in rats received 4 w of TR, but not WR. While both TR and WR elevated the contextual conditional response, only TR facilitated the cued conditional response. Using a single-neuron labeling technique, we found that while both TR and MR enlarged the dendritic field and increased the spine density in hippocampal CA3 neurons, only TR showed these effects in basolateral amygdalar neurons. Moreover, both types of exercise upregulated synaptic proteins (i.e., TrkB and SNAP-25) in the hippocampus; however only TR showed similar effects in the amygdala. Injection of K252a, a TrkB kinase inhibitor, in the dorsal hippocampus or basolateral amygdala abolished the exercise-facilitated contextual or cued fear learning and memory performance, respectively, regardless of the types of exercise. In summary, our results supported that different types of exercise affect the performance of learning and memory via BDNF-TrkB signaling and neuroplasticity in specific brain regions. The brain region-specific neuronal adaptations are possibly induced by various levels of intensity/stress elicited by different types of exercise. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Exercise-induced neuronal plasticity in central autonomic networks: role in cardiovascular control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelini, Lisete C; Stern, Javier E

    2009-09-01

    more comprehensive studies aimed at understanding cellular and molecular mechanisms within CNS neuronal networks that contribute to exercise-induced neuroplasticity and cardiovascular adjustments.

  18. The effects of physical exercise on the cigarette smoke-induced pulmonary oxidative response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menegali, Bruno T; Nesi, Renata T; Souza, Priscila S; Silva, Luciano A; Silveira, Paulo C L; Valença, Samuel S; Pinho, Ricardo A

    2009-12-01

    Studies have shown that the oxidative power of cigarettes is related to the pathogenesis of several pulmonary diseases and that regular physical exercise contributes significantly to reducing the deleterious effects of cigarettes. The objective of the present study was to investigate the therapeutic effects of physical exercise on histological and oxidative stress markers in animals exposed to cigarette smoke. Thirty-six male, eight-week-old C57BL-6 mice were divided into four groups (n = 9 for each group): control, exercise, cigarette smoke, and cigarette smoke plus exercise. The cigarette smoke (CS) groups were exposed to cigarette smoke 3 times/day (4 cigarettes/session) for 60 consecutive days. The exercise groups were submitted to swimming physical training 5 days/week for eight weeks. Forty-eight hours after the last exercise and cigarette exposure, the animals were sacrificed using cervical traction. The right lung was removed, processed, and stored for future analysis. In addition to the analysis of collagen content (hydroxyproline), oxidant production (anion superoxide), antioxidant enzyme activity (SOD and CAT), and lipid and protein oxidative damage (TBARS and Carbonylation), histological and morphological studies were performed. The results revealed that the animals exposed to cigarette smoke showed enlargement and destruction of the alveolar septum and increases in the numbers of macrophages and neutrophils, as well as in the amount of collagen. Our results also showed a decrease in the volume density of elastic fibers and an increase in the volume density of airspaces. However, physical exercise partially improved these markers. Additionally, physical exercise decreased oxidant production and increased the activity of the enzymatic antioxidant defense system, but did not reverse lipid and protein oxidative damage induced by cigarette smoke. These results suggest that physical training partially improves histological and oxidative stress parameters in

  19. The impact of early aerobic exercise on brain microvascular alterations induced by cerebral hypoperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leardini-Tristão, Marina; Borges, Juliana Pereira; Freitas, Felipe; Rangel, Raquel; Daliry, Anissa; Tibiriçá, Eduardo; Estato, Vanessa

    2017-02-15

    The therapeutic potential of early exercise training following cerebral hypoperfusion was investigated on brain perfusion and inflammation in rats with permanent bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries (2VO). Wistar rats were subjected to 2VO or sham surgery and each group was then subdivided randomly into sedentary or exercise groups. Early exercise training was initiated after three days of 2VO or sham surgery and consisted of seven days of treadmill training (30min/day at ∼60% of maximal exercise test), composing four groups: 1) Sham sedentary (Sham-Sed), 2) Sham exercised (Sham-Ex), 3) 2VO sedentary (2VO-Sed) and 4) 2VO exercised (2VO-Ex). Microvascular cerebral blood flow (MCBF) and NADPH oxidase and eNOS gene expression were evaluated by laser speckle contrast imaging and RT-PCR, respectively, and brain functional capillary density and endothelial-leukocyte interactions were evaluated by fluorescence intravital video-microscopy. The 2VO-Sed group presented a decrease in MCBF (Sham-Sed: 230.9±12.2 vs. 2VO-Sed: 183.6±10.6 arbitrary perfusion units, Pphysical exercise was able to prevent the cerebral microvascular inflammation by decreasing endothelial-leukocyte interactions (2VO-Ex: 0.9±0.3 vs. 2VO-Sed: 5±0.6cells/min/100μm, Pbrain NADPH oxidase gene expression (2VO-Ex: 1.7±0.1 arbitrary units, Pphysical exercise may represent a means of preventing the microvascular alterations induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Protective effects of forced exercise against methylphenidate-induced anxiety, depression and cognition impairment in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motaghinejad, Majid; Motevalian, Manijeh; Larijani, Setare Farokhi; Khajehamedi, Zohreh

    2015-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH), a neural stimulant, can cause damages to brain; the chronic neurochemical and behavioral effects of MPH remain unclear. Exercise lowers stress and anxiety and can act as non-pharmacologic neuroprotective agent. In this study protective effects of exercise in MPH-induced anxiety, depression and cognition impairment were investigated. Seventy adult male rats were divided randomly into five groups. Group 1 served as negative control, received normal saline (0.2 ml/rat) for 21 days, group 2 and 3 (as positive controls) received MPH (10 and 20 mg/kg) for 21 days. Groups 4 and 5 concurrently were treated with MPH (10 and 20 mg/kg) and forced exercise for 21 days. On day 21, Elevated Plus Maze (EPM), Open Field Test (OFT), Forced Swim Test (FST) and Tail Suspension Test (TST) were used to investigate the level of anxiety and depression in animals. In addition between 17(th) and 21(th) days, Morris Water Maze (MWM) was applied to evaluate the effect of MPH on spatial learning and memory. MPH-treated animals indicated a reflective depression and anxiety in a dose-dependent manner in FST, EPM and TST which were significantly different from the control group and also can significantly attenuate the motor activity and anxiety in OFT. Forced exercise by treadmill can attenuate MPH-induced anxiety, depression and motor activity alteration in OFT. MPH also can disturb learning and memory in MWM and forced exercise can neutralize this effect of MPH. We conclude that forced exercise can be protective in brain against MPH-induced anxiety, depression and cognition alteration.

  1. Protective effects of physical exercise on MDMA-induced cognitive and mitochondrial impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghizadeh, Ghorban; Pourahmad, Jalal; Mehdizadeh, Hajar; Foroumadi, Alireza; Torkaman-Boutorabi, Anahita; Hassani, Shokoufeh; Naserzadeh, Parvaneh; Shariatmadari, Reyhaneh; Gholami, Mahdi; Rouini, Mohammad Reza; Sharifzadeh, Mohammad

    2016-10-01

    Debate continues about the effect of 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) on cognitive and mitochondrial function through the CNS. It has been shown that physical exercise has an important protective effect on cellular damage and death. Therefore, we investigated the effect of physical exercise on MDMA-induced impairments of spatial learning and memory as well as MDMA effects on brain mitochondrial function in rats. Male wistar rats underwent short-term (2 weeks) or long-term (4 weeks) treadmill exercise. After completion of exercise duration, acquisition and retention of spatial memory were evaluated by Morris water maze (MWM) test. Rats were intraperitoneally (I.P) injected with MDMA (5, 10, and 15mg/kg) 30min before the first training trial in 4 training days of MWM. Different parameters of brain mitochondrial function were measured including the level of ROS production, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), mitochondrial swelling, mitochondrial outermembrane damage, the amount of cytochrome c release from the mitochondria, and ADP/ATP ratio. MDMA damaged the spatial learning and memory in a dose-dependent manner. Brain mitochondria isolated from the rats treated with MDMA showed significant increase in ROS formation, collapse of MMP, mitochondrial swelling, and outer membrane damage, cytochrome c release from the mitochondria, and finally increased ADP/ATP ratio. This study also found that physical exercise significantly decreased the MDMA-induced impairments of spatial learning and memory and also mitochondrial dysfunction. The results indicated that MDMA-induced neurotoxicity leads to brain mitochondrial dysfunction and subsequent oxidative stress is followed by cognitive impairments. However, physical exercise could reduce these deleterious effects of MDMA through protective effects on brain mitochondrial function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Dysfunctional breathing and reaching one's physiological limit as causes of exercise-induced dyspnoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depiazzi, Julie; Everard, Mark L

    2016-06-01

    Excessive exercise-induced shortness of breath is a common complaint. For some, exercise-induced bronchoconstriction is the primary cause and for a small minority there may be an alternative organic pathology. However for many, the cause will be simply reaching their physiological limit or be due to a functional form of dysfunctional breathing, neither of which require drug therapy.The physiological limit category includes deconditioned individuals, such as those who have been through intensive care and require rehabilitation, as well as the unfit and the fit competitive athlete who has reached their limit with both of these latter groups requiring explanation and advice.Dysfunctional breathing is an umbrella term for an alteration in the normal biomechanical patterns of breathing that result in intermittent or chronic symptoms, which may be respiratory and/or nonrespiratory. This alteration may be due to structural causes or, much more commonly, be functional as exemplified by thoracic pattern disordered breathing (PDB) and extrathoracic paradoxical vocal fold motion disorder (pVFMD).Careful history and examination together with spirometry may identify those likely to have PDB and/or pVFMD. Where there is doubt about aetiology, cardiopulmonary exercise testing may be required to identify the deconditioned, unfit or fit individual reaching their physiological limit and PDB, while continuous laryngoscopy during exercise is increasingly becoming the benchmark for assessing extrathoracic causes.Accurate assessment and diagnosis can prevent excessive use of drug therapy and result in effective management of the cause of the individual's complaint through cost-effective approaches such as reassurance, advice, breathing retraining and vocal exercises. This review provides an overview of the spectrum of conditions that can present as exercise--induced breathlessness experienced by young subjects participating in sport and aims to promote understanding of the need for

  3. Exercise-Induced Secretion of FGF21 and Follistatin Are Blocked by Pancreatic Clamp and Impaired in Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Schiøler; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund; Xu, Guowang

    2016-01-01

    of the study was to investigate the regulatory roles of glucagon to insulin ratio and T2D on exercise-induced FGF21 and follistatin secretion. Design /Interventions: Young healthy males performed a 2-hour bicycle exercise bout followed by 5 hours of rest in supine position with and without a pancreatic clamp...... blocking the increase in the glucagon to insulin ratio. In addition, we evaluated exercise-induced plasma FGF21 and follistatin in patients with T2D compared with healthy controls in response to 1 hour of bicycle exercise followed by a 3-hour recovery period. RESULTS: In healthy individuals, we observed...

  4. [Measurement of cytokines in patients with exercise-induced asthma treated with anti-leukotrienes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores Sandoval, Graciela; Orea Solano, Modesto; Cortés Padilla, V; Santos Argumedo, L

    2002-01-01

    Exercise-induced asthma is defined as the transient broncho-spasm, that occurs after 3 to 8 minutes of continuous exercise; one of two mechanisms are implicated: the first is given by a hyper-osmolar environment interchange with the warm respiratory air and the water loss, the second due to reactive hyperemia or bronchial blood vessels edema. To determine the effectiveness and safety of Zafirlukast treatment in exercise induce asthma, and in mild and moderated persistent bronchial asthma. Evaluate the security with laboratory test IL-2, IL-4, INFg, and CD69, to determinate TH1 and Th2 cells, laboratory and thorax x-ray determinations before and after zafirlukast treatment in exercise induce asthma, plus the functional respiratory test, and assert the clinical and adverse reaction with Zafirlukast. A open, prospective, longitudinal study. Challenge test on a treadmill for 8 minutes. Twenty patients from the Allergy Service at Lic. Adolfo López Mateos Hospital, ISSSTE, in México City, fifteen female and five males. Aged 15 to 35 years. There was a control group of ten healthy subjects with similar age and sex. The drug Zafirlukast was administered 20 mg twice a day for eight weeks, with patient's informed and signed consent. Laboratory test: Blood Cell count, transaminases, bilirubins A, G, M and E immunoglobulins thorax X-ray, electrocardiogram, functional respiratory test before and after treatment. Zafirlukast blocked exercise induced asthma in the early and late phases. There was a statistically significant improvement of a VEF-1 after exercise with a p > 0.001; furthermore, there was significant improvement in the mid-spiratory speed before the exercise with a p > 0.05. The mid-spiratory speed after the exercise, improved (p > 0.01). There were no collateral reactions, such as Churg-Strauss, only transitory headache in six and nauseas in two. There were no statistically significant changes in the cytokines assessment. There were no statistically significant

  5. Expression profiling reveals differences in metabolic gene expression between exercise-induced cardiac effects and maladaptive cardiac hypertrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm, Claes C; Aplin, Mark; Ploug, Thorkil

    2005-01-01

    While cardiac hypertrophy elicited by pathological stimuli eventually leads to cardiac dysfunction, exercise-induced hypertrophy does not. This suggests that a beneficial hypertrophic phenotype exists. In search of an underlying molecular substrate we used microarray technology to identify cardiac...... by quantitative PCR. The exercise program resulted in cardiac hypertrophy without impaired cardiac function. Principal component analysis identified an exercise-induced change in gene expression that was distinct from the program observed in maladaptive hypertrophy. Statistical analysis identified 267 upregulated...... translocase (CD36). DNA microarray analysis of gene expression changes in exercise-induced cardiac hypertrophy suggests that a set of genes involved in fatty acid and glucose metabolism could be fundamental to the beneficial phenotype of exercise-induced hypertrophy, as these changes are absent or reversed...

  6. Protective effect of erythropoietin on renal injury induced in rats by four weeks of exhaustive exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xixiu; Jiang, Chonghe; Luo, Ziqiang; Qu, Shulin

    2013-06-24

    The protective effect of Erythropoietin (EPO) analogue rHuEPO on acute renal injury induced by exhaustive exercise had been reported. The purpose of this study is to probe into the protective effect of EPO on chronic renal injury induced by repeated exhaustive exercise for four weeks. Eighty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this experiment. The animals were randomly allocated to one of four groups: control (C), exhaustive exercise test (ET), ET plus EPO pre-treatement (ET+EPO) and ET+EPO plus LY294002 pretreatment (ET+EPO+LY). Compared with the rats in control group, there was considerable damage in kidney cells in rats of ET group as revealed by histological and ultrastructural examinations. However, treatment with EPO during the training, the exhaustive running distance was significant increased (P protective effect of EPO on chronic renal injury induced by repeated exhaustive exercise was demonstrated in the present study. We proposed that the effect could be due to inhibiting the cell apoptosis and blocking the formation of interstitial fibrosis via activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway, thus plays role in the endogenous protection of the kidney injury.

  7. Food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis due to wheat in a young woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahanchian, Hamid; Farid, Reza; Ansari, Elham; Kianifar, Hamid Reza; Jabbari Azad, Farahzad; Jafari, Seyed Ali; Purreza, Reza; Noorizadeh, Shadi

    2013-03-01

    Food Dependent Exercise-Induced Allergy is a rare condition. However, the occurrence of anaphylaxis is increasing especially in young people. The diagnosis of anaphylaxis is based on clinical criteria and can be supported by laboratory tests such as serum tryptase and positive skin test results for specific IgE to potential triggering allergens. Anaphylaxis prevention needs strict avoidance of confirmed relevant allergen. Food-exercise challenge test may be an acceptable method for diagnosis of Food Dependent Exercise-Induced Allergy and dietary elimination of food is recommended to manage it. In this study, a 32 year-old woman visited the allergy clinic with a history of several episodes of hives since 11 years ago and 3 life-threatening attacks of anaphylaxis during the previous 6 months. The onsets of majority of these attacks were due to physical activity after breakfast. On Blood RAST test, the panel of common food Allergens was used and she had positive test only to wheat flour. On skin prick tests for common food allergens she showed a 6 millimeter wheal with 14 mm flare to Wheat Extract. The rest of allergens were negative.The patient was diagnosed as wheat-dependent exercise-induced, and all foods containing wheat were omitted from her diet. In this report we emphasized on the importance of careful history taking in anaphylaxis diagnosis.

  8. Use of Saliva Biomarkers to Monitor Efficacy of Vitamin C in Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levi W. Evans

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Saliva is easily obtainable for medical research and requires little effort or training for collection. Because saliva contains a variety of biological compounds, including vitamin C, malondialdehyde, amylase, and proteomes, it has been successfully used as a biospecimen for the reflection of health status. A popular topic of discussion in medical research is the potential association between oxidative stress and negative outcomes. Systemic biomarkers that represent oxidative stress can be found in saliva. It is unclear, however, if saliva is an accurate biospecimen as is blood and/or plasma. Exercise can induce oxidative stress, resulting in a trend of antioxidant supplementation to combat its assumed detriments. Vitamin C is a popular antioxidant supplement in the realm of sports and exercise. One potential avenue for evaluating exercise induced oxidative stress is through assessment of biomarkers like vitamin C and malondialdehyde in saliva. At present, limited research has been done in this area. The current state of research involving exercise-induced oxidative stress, salivary biomarkers, and vitamin C supplementation is reviewed in this article.

  9. Attenuation of eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage conferred by maximal isometric contractions: a mini review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Coelho Rabello Lima

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Although beneficial in determined contexts, eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD might be unwanted during training regimens, competitions and daily activities. There are a vast number of studies investigating strategies to attenuate EIMD response after damaging exercise bouts. Many of them consist of performing exercises that induce EIMD, consuming supplements or using equipment that are not accessible for most people. It appears that performing maximal isometric contractions (ISOs 2-4 days prior to damaging bouts promotes significant attenuation of EIMD symptoms that are not related to muscle function. It has been shown that the volume of ISOs, muscle length in which they are performed, and interval between them and the damaging bout influence the magnitude of this protection. Additionally, it appears that this protection is not long-lived, lasting no longer than 4 days. Although no particular mechanisms for these adaptations were identified, professionals should consider applying this non-damaging stimulus before submitting their patients to unaccustomed exercised. However, it seems not to be the best option for athletes or relatively trained individuals. Future studies should focus on establishing if ISOs protect other populations (i.e., trained individuals or muscle groups (i.e., knee extensors against EIMD, as well as investigate different mechanisms for ISO-induced protection.

  10. The effectiveness of the treatment of severe exercise-induced asthma in schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.N. Garas

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Bronchial asthma is one of the most common chronic multifactorial diseases of the lungs. At least 10–12 % of patients with bronchial asthma are suffering from a severe form of the disease. One aspect of inadequate severe asthma control is its phenotypic heterogeneity, interest of experts increases to the problem of exercise-induced asthma. The purpose of the study was to increase efficiency of treatment for severe exercise-induced asthma in schoolchildren based on the analysis of the attack dynamics and to achieve disease control according to main inflammatometric and spirometric indices. Materials and methods. We examined 46 children with severe persistent bronchial asthma, in particular, 15 schoolchildren suffering from severe exercise-induced asthma, the second clinical group (comparison one consisted of 31 children suffering from severe type of the disease, with no signs of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Basic therapy effectiveness was determined prospectively by assessing the disease control using AST-test with an interval of 3 months. The severity of bronchial obstruction syndrome in patients on admission to hospital during exacerbation was assessed by score scale. Airway hyperresponsiveness was evaluated according to the results of bronchoprovocation with histamine. Results. Children of I clinical group had more significant manifestations of bronchial obstruction during the week of inpatient treatment than the comparison group of patients, including significantly more severe manifestations of bronchial obstruction were verified on 1st and 7th day of hospitalization. Due to the analysis of basic therapy effectiveness, only a quarter of I clinical group patients and a larger part of schoolchildren in comparison group achieved the partial control after a 3-month course of anti-inflammatory treatment. Eosinophilic inflammation was observed in most children with severe exercise-induced asthma (60.1 % and in 47.2 % of

  11. On the value of certain genotypic properties for forming exercise-induced bronchial asthma in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Лорина Алімівна Іванова

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Exercise-induced bronchial asthma is a separate phenotype of bronchial asthma (BA that defines an exercise-associated transitory obstruction of bronchial tubes, especially decrease of the forced expiration volume for 1 sec. (FEV1 by 10 % and more of an output quantity after the relevant bronchial provocation test. At the same time there is not sufficient elucidation of the role of genetic component especially GSTT1 і GSTM1 gene deletions and\\or mutational polymorphism of еNOS gene in development of exercise-induced bronchial asthma in children.Aim. To study the value of deletion (GSTT1 and GSTM1 genes and mutational (еNOS gene polymorphism in formation of bronchial tubes lability in children with exercise-induced bronchial asthma to optimize individual medioprophylactic recommendations.Materials and methods. During the study there were examined 102 school-aged children with BA in pulmo-allergology department of RSCH in Chernovtsy. To verify the exercise-induced bronchial asthma (EIBA there was studied an exercise tolerance of patients and their bronchial tubes lability in the response to the dosed run and bronchomotor test with inhalation with 200 mkg of salbutamol. And the received results were represented as a bronchial tubes lability indicator (BTLI, % and its components – bronchospasm index (BSI, % and bronchodilation index (BDI, %. 2 clinical groups were formed in examination of children. The first (I, main included 50 schoolchildren with EIBA and the comparative one (II group – 52 children with BA without the signs of exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIBS. Results of research. There was established that the “null” genotype of aforesaid genes is three times more often (10,0 % against 3,85 %, P<0,05in children with exercise-induced bronchial asthma and mutations of еNOS gene ( GT, ТТ genotype take place in every second children. There was detected that the highest bronchospasm indicators are in patients with GSTT1

  12. Mouth rinsing with a carbohydrate solution attenuates exercise-induced decline in executive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Kana; Kimura, Tetsuya; Yuhaku, Atsushi; Kurihara, Toshiyuki; Fujimoto, Masahiro; Hamaoka, Takafumi; Sanada, Kiyoshi

    2017-01-01

    A decline in executive function could have a negative influence on the control of actions in dynamic situations, such as sports activities. Mouth rinsing with a carbohydrate solution could serve as an effective treatment for preserving the executive function in exercise. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of mouth rinsing with a carbohydrate solution on executive function after sustained moderately high-intensity exercise. Eight young healthy participants completed 65 min of running at 75% V̇O2max with two mouth-rinsing conditions: with a carbohydrate solution (CHO) or with water (CON). Executive function was assessed before and after exercise by using the incongruent task of the Stroop Color and Word Test. The levels of blood glucose; and plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), epinephrine, and norepinephrine (NE) were evaluated. A two-way repeated-measures ANOVA, with condition (CHO and CON) and time (pre-exercise and post-exercise) as factors, was used to examine the main and interaction effects on the outcome measures. The reaction time in the incongruent condition of the Stroop test significantly increased after exercise in CON (pre-exercise 529 ± 45 ms vs. post-exercise 547 ± 60 ms, P = 0.029) but not in CHO (pre-exercise 531 ± 54 ms vs. post-exercise 522 ± 80 ms), which resulted in a significant interaction (condition × time) on the reaction time (P = 0.028). The increased reaction time in CON indicates a decline in the executive function, which was attenuated in CHO. Increases in plasma epinephrine and NE levels demonstrated a trend toward attenuation accompanying CHO (P mouth rinsing with a carbohydrate solution attenuated the decline in executive function induced by sustained moderately high-intensity exercise, and that such attenuation seems to be unrelated to carbohydrate metabolic pathway but rather attributed, in part, to the inhibition of the excessive release of stress hormones.

  13. Syndecan-4 Signaling Is Required for Exercise-Induced Cardiac Hypertrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jun; He, Guixin; Chen, Qinhua; Sun, Jiayin; Dai, Qin; Lu, Jianrong; Li, Guannan; Wu, Han; Li, Ran; Chen, Jianzhou; Xu, Wei; Xu, Biao

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy can be broadly classified as either physiological or pathological. Physiological stimuli such as exercise cause adaptive cardiac hypertrophy and normal heart function. Pathological stimuli including hypertension and aortic valvular stenosis cause maladaptive cardiac remodeling and ultimately heart failure. Syndecan-4 (synd4) is a transmembrane proteoglycan identified as being involved in cardiac adaptation after injury, but whether it takes part in physiological cardiac hypertrophy is unclear. We observed upregulation of synd4 in exercise-induced hypertrophic myocardium. To evaluate the role of synd4 in the physiological form of cardiac hypertrophy, mice lacking synd4 (synd4–/–) were exercised by swimming for 4 wks. Ultrasonic cardiogram (UCG) and histological analysis revealed that swimming induced the hypertrophic phenotype but was blunted in synd4–/– compared with wild-type (WT) mice. The swimming-induced activation of Akt, a key molecule in physiological hypertrophy was also more decreased than in WT controls. In cultured cardiomyocytes, synd4 overexpression could induce cell enlargement, protein synthesis and distinct physiological molecular alternation. Akt activation also was observed in synd4-overexpressed cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC) prevented the synd4-induced hypertrophic phenotype and Akt phosphorylation. This study identified an essential role of synd4 in mediation of physiological cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:26835698

  14. Central and peripheral cardiovascular responses to electrically induced and voluntary leg exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltin, B.; Strange, S.; Bangsbo, J.; Kim, C. K.; Duvoisin, M.; Hargens, A.; Gollnick, P. D.

    1990-01-01

    With long missions in space countermeasures have to be used to secure safe operations in space and a safe return to Earth. Exercises of various forms have been used, but the question has arisen whether electrically induced contractions of muscle especially sensitive to weightlessness and crucial for man's performance would aid in maintaining their optimal function. The physiological responses both to short term and prolonged dynamic exercise performed either voluntarily or induced by electrical stimulation were considered. The local and systemic circulatory responses were similar for the voluntary and electrically induced contractions. The metabolic response was slightly more pronounced with electrical stimulation. This could be a reflection of not only slow twitch (type 1) but also fast twitch (type 2) fibers being recruited when the contractions were induced electrically. Intramuscular pressure recordings indicated that the dominant fraction of the muscle group was engaged regardless of mode of activation. Some 70 percent of the short term peak voluntary exercise capacity could be attained with electrical stimulation. Thus, electrically induced contractions of specific muscle groups should indeed be considered as an efficient countermeasure.

  15. Voluntary exercise does not ameliorate spatial learning and memory deficits induced by chronic administration of nandrolone decanoate in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanehkar, Fatemeh; Rashidy-Pour, Ali; Vafaei, Abbas Ali; Sameni, Hamid Reza; Haghighi, Saeed; Miladi-Gorji, Hossien; Motamedi, Fereshteh; Akhavan, Maziar Mohammad; Bavarsad, Kowsar

    2013-01-01

    Chronic exposure to the anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) nandrolone decanoate (ND) in supra-physiological doses is associated with learning and memory impairments. Given the well-known beneficial effects of voluntary exercise on cognitive functions, we examined whether voluntary exercise would improve the cognitive deficits induced by chronic administration of ND. We also investigated the effects of ND and voluntary exercise on hippocampal BDNF levels. The rats were randomly distributed into 4 experimental groups: the vehicle-sedentary group, the ND-sedentary group, the vehicle-exercise group, and the ND-exercise group. The vehicle-exercise and the ND-exercise groups were allowed to freely exercise in a running wheel for 15 days. The vehicle-sedentary and the ND-sedentary groups were kept sedentary for the same period. Vehicle or ND injections were started 14 days prior to the voluntary exercise and continued throughout the 15 days of voluntary exercise. After the 15-day period, the rats were trained and tested on a water maze spatial task using four trials per day for 5 consecutive days followed by a probe trial two days later. Exercise significantly improved performance during both the training and retention of the water maze task, and enhanced hippocampal BDNF. ND impaired spatial learning and memory, and this effect was not rescued by exercise. ND also potentiated the exercise-induced increase in hippocampal BDNF levels. These results seem to indicate that voluntary exercise is unable to improve the disruption of cognitive functions by chronic ND. Moreover, increased levels of BDNF may play a role in ND-induced impairments in learning and memory. The harmful effects of ND and other AAS on learning and memory should be taken into account when athletes decide to use AAS for performance or body image improvement. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of exercise-induced neurogenesis on cognitive function deficit in a rat model of vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Dong-Hee; Lee, Kyoung-Hee; Lee, Jongmin

    2016-04-01

    Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) is strongly correlated with progressive cognitive decline in neurological diseases, such as vascular dementia (VaD) and Alzheimer's disease. Exercise can enhance learning and memory, and delay age-related cognitive decline. However, exercise-induced hippocampal neurogenesis in experimental animals submitted to CCH has not been investigated. The present study aimed to investigate whether hippocampal neurogenesis induced by exercise can improve cognitive deficit in a rat model of VaD. Male Wistar rats (age, 8 weeks; weight, 292±3.05 g; n=12-13/group) were subjected to bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (2VO) or sham‑surgery and each group was then subdivided randomly into no exercise and treadmill exercise groups. Exercise groups performed treadmill exercise daily at 15 m/min for 30 min for 4 weeks from the third to the seventh week after 2VO. It was demonstrated that the number of neural progenitor cells and mature neurons in the subgranular zone of 2VO rats was increased by exercise, and cognitive impairment in 2VO rats was attenuated by treadmill exercise. In addition, mature brain‑derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in the hippocampus were increased in the exercise groups. Thus the present study suggests that exercise delays cognitive decline by the enhancing neurogenesis and increasing BDNF expression in the context of VaD.

  17. Effect of exercise-induced neurogenesis on cognitive function deficit in a rat model of vascular dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHOI, DONG-HEE; LEE, KYOUNG-HEE; LEE, JONGMIN

    2016-01-01

    Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) is strongly correlated with progressive cognitive decline in neurological diseases, such as vascular dementia (VaD) and Alzheimer's disease. Exercise can enhance learning and memory, and delay age-related cognitive decline. However, exercise-induced hippocampal neurogenesis in experimental animals submitted to CCH has not been investigated. The present study aimed to investigate whether hippocampal neurogenesis induced by exercise can improve cognitive deficit in a rat model of VaD. Male Wistar rats (age, 8 weeks; weight, 292±3.05 g; n=12–13/group) were subjected to bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (2VO) or sham-surgery and each group was then subdivided randomly into no exercise and treadmill exercise groups. Exercise groups performed treadmill exercise daily at 15 m/min for 30 min for 4 weeks from the third to the seventh week after 2VO. It was demonstrated that the number of neural progenitor cells and mature neurons in the subgranular zone of 2VO rats was increased by exercise, and cognitive impairment in 2VO rats was attenuated by treadmill exercise. In addition, mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in the hippocampus were increased in the exercise groups. Thus the present study suggests that exercise delays cognitive decline by the enhancing neurogenesis and increasing BDNF expression in the context of VaD. PMID:26934837

  18. EFFECT OF EXERCISE TRAINING OF DIFFERENT INTENSITIES ON ANTI-INFLAMMATORY REACTION IN STREPTOZOTOCIN-INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.–S. Kim

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the effect of high- and low-intensity exercise training on inflammatory reaction of blood and skeletal muscle in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic male Sprague-Dawley rats (243 ± 7 g, 8 weeks. The rats completed treadmill running in either high-intensity exercise (6 weeks of exercise training, acute bouts of exercise or low-intensity exercise (6 weeks of exercise training. Non-running, sedentary rats served as controls. To induce diabetes mellitus, rats received a peritoneal injection of STZ (50 mg · kg-1. Rats were sacrificed immediately after an acute bout of exercise and 6 weeks of exercise training. Inflammatory factors were analyzed by ELISA and by immune blotting from the soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles. In the serum, inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-4 and reactive oxygen species (ROS (nitric oxide and malondialdehyde increased in diabetic rats. However, all exercise training groups displayed reduced inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species. In skeletal muscles, low-intensity exercise training, but not high intensity exercise, reduced the levels of COX-2, iNOS, and MMP-2, which were otherwise markedly elevated in the presence of STZ. Moreover, the levels of GLUT-4 and MyoD were effectively increased by different exercise intensity and exercise duration. Low-intensity exercise training appeared most effective to reduce diabetes-related inflammation. However, high-intensity training also reduced inflammatory factors in tissue-specific muscles. The data implicate regular exercise in protecting against chronic inflammatory diseases, such as diabetes.

  19. Characteristic findings of exercise ECG test, perfusion SPECT and coronary angiography in patients with exercise induced myocardial stunning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Byeong Cheol; Seo, Ji Hyoung; Bae, Jin Ho; Jeong, Shin Young; Park, Hun Sik; Lee, Jae Tae; Chae, Shung Chull; Lee, Kyu Bo [School of Medicine, Kyungpook National Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-06-01

    Transient wall motion abnormality and contractile dysfunction of the left ventricle (LV) can be observed in patients with coronary artery disease due to post-stress myocardial stunning. To understand clinical characteristics of stress induced LV dysfunction, we have compared the findings of exercise stress test, myocardial perfusion SPECT and coronary angiography between subjects with and without post-stress LV dysfunction. Among subjects who underwent exercise stress test, myocardial perfusion SPECT and coronary angiography within a month of interval, we enrolled 36 patients with post-stress LV ejection fraction (LVEF) was {>=}5% lower than rest (stunning group) and 16 patients with difference of post-stress and rest LVEF was lesser than 1% (non-stunning group) for this study. Treadmill exercise stress gated myocardial perfusion SPECT was performed with dual head SPECT camera using 740 MBq Tc-99m MIBI and coronary angiography was also performed by conventional Judkins method. Stunning group had a significantly higher incidence of hypercholesterolemia than non-stunning group(45.5 vs 7.1%, p=0.01). Stunning group also had higher incidence of diabetes mellitus and lower incidence of hypertension, but these were not statistically significant. Stunning group had larger and more severe perfusion defect in stress perfusion myocardial SPECT than non-stunning group(extent 18.2 vs 9.2%, p=0.029; severity 13.5 vs 6.9, p=0.040). Stunning group also had higher degree of reversibility of perfusion defect, higher incidence of positive exercise stress test and higher incidence of having severe stenosis(80{approx}99%) in coronary angiography than non-stunning group, but these were not statistically significant. In stunning group, all of 4 patients without perfusion defect had significant coronary artery stenosis and had received revascularization treatment. Patients with post-stress LV dysfunction had larger and more severe perfusion defect and severe coronary artery stenosis than

  20. Basal and exercise-induced neuroendocrine activation in patients with heart failure and in normal subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Andreas; Appel, Jon; Hildebrandt, Per

    2004-01-01

    : Twenty-three newly-diagnosed CHF patients and 18 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects were exercised at two workloads, which were calculated to correspond to 50 and 75% of each individual's heart rate response. RESULTS: In CHF patients, baseline levels of ANP, BNP, AVP, PRA and ET-1 were elevated...... compared to healthy subjects. Exercise induced an increase in ANP, A and NA in both CHF patients and in normal subjects, however BNP was only increased in CHF patients and not in normal subjects. CONCLUSION: When CHF patients exercise at the same relative and submaximal level as age-matched healthy...... subjects, the relative increases in ANP, A and NA were similar, however, BNP levels only increased in the CHF group....

  1. Acute exercise does not induce an acute phase response (APR) in Standardbred trotters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Lena; Buhl, Rikke; Nostell, Katarina

    2014-01-01

    ), and iron], muscle enzymes [creatinine kinase (CK) and aspartate transaminase (AST)], and hemoglobin were assessed in 58 Standardbred trotters before and after racing. Hemoglobin levels increased and iron levels decreased 12 to 14 h after racing and haptoglobin concentrations, white blood cell counts......, and iron levels were decreased 2 and/or 7 d after racing. Concentrations of CK, AST, SAA, and fibrinogen were unaltered in response to racing. Acute strenuous exercise did not elicit an acute phase reaction. The observed acute increase in hemoglobin levels and decreases in haptoglobin and iron levels may...... have been caused by exercise-induced hemolysis, which indicates that horses might experience a condition similar to athlete’s anemia in humans. The pathogenesis and clinical implications of the hematological and blood-biochemical changes elicited by acute exercise in Standardbred trotters...

  2. Prevention of exercised induced cardiomyopathy following Pip-PMO treatment in dystrophic mdx mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Corinne A; Saleh, Amer F; Carr, Carolyn A; Hammond, Suzan M; Coenen-Stass, Anna M L; Godfrey, Caroline; McClorey, Graham; Varela, Miguel A; Roberts, Thomas C; Clarke, Kieran; Gait, Michael J; Wood, Matthew J A

    2015-03-11

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal neuromuscular disorder caused by mutations in the Dmd gene. In addition to skeletal muscle wasting, DMD patients develop cardiomyopathy, which significantly contributes to mortality. Antisense oligonucleotides (AOs) are a promising DMD therapy, restoring functional dystrophin protein by exon skipping. However, a major limitation with current AOs is the absence of dystrophin correction in heart. Pip peptide-AOs demonstrate high activity in cardiac muscle. To determine their therapeutic value, dystrophic mdx mice were subject to forced exercise to model the DMD cardiac phenotype. Repeated peptide-AO treatments resulted in high levels of cardiac dystrophin protein, which prevented the exercised induced progression of cardiomyopathy, normalising heart size as well as stabilising other cardiac parameters. Treated mice also exhibited significantly reduced cardiac fibrosis and improved sarcolemmal integrity. This work demonstrates that high levels of cardiac dystrophin restored by Pip peptide-AOs prevents further deterioration of cardiomyopathy and pathology following exercise in dystrophic DMD mice.

  3. Resveratrol Enhances Exercise-Induced Cellular and Functional Adaptations of Skeletal Muscle in Older Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alway, Stephen E; McCrory, Jean L; Kearcher, Kalen; Vickers, Austen; Frear, Benjamin; Gilleland, Diana L; Bonner, Daniel E; Thomas, James M; Donley, David A; Lively, Mathew W; Mohamed, Junaith S

    2017-11-09

    Older men (n = 12) and women (n = 18) 65-80 years of age completed 12 weeks of exercise and took either a placebo or resveratrol (RSV) (500 mg/d) to test the hypothesis that RSV treatment combined with exercise would increase mitochondrial density, muscle fatigue resistance, and cardiovascular function more than exercise alone. Contrary to our hypothesis, aerobic and resistance exercise coupled with RSV treatment did not reduce cardiovascular risk further than exercise alone. However, exercise added to RSV treatment improved the indices of mitochondrial density, and muscle fatigue resistance more than placebo and exercise treatments. In addition, subjects that were treated with RSV had an increase in knee extensor muscle peak torque (8%), average peak torque (14%), and power (14%) after training, whereas exercise did not increase these parameters in the placebo-treated older subjects. Furthermore, exercise combined with RSV significantly improved mean fiber area and total myonuclei by 45.3% and 20%, respectively, in muscle fibers from the vastus lateralis of older subjects. Together, these data indicate a novel anabolic role of RSV in exercise-induced adaptations of older persons and this suggests that RSV combined with exercise might provide a better approach for reversing sarcopenia than exercise alone. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Cyclin D2 is a critical mediator of exercise-induced cardiac hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckey, Stephen W; Haines, Chris D; Konhilas, John P; Luczak, Elizabeth D; Messmer-Kratzsch, Antke; Leinwand, Leslie A

    2017-12-01

    A number of signaling pathways underlying pathological cardiac hypertrophy have been identified. However, few studies have probed the functional significance of these signaling pathways in the context of exercise or physiological pathways. Exercise studies were performed on females from six different genetic mouse models that have been shown to exhibit alterations in pathological cardiac adaptation and hypertrophy. These include mice expressing constitutively active glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3βS9A), an inhibitor of CaMK II (AC3-I), both GSK-3βS9A and AC3-I (GSK-3βS9A/AC3-I), constitutively active Akt (myrAkt), mice deficient in MAPK/ERK kinase kinase-1 (MEKK1 -/- ), and mice deficient in cyclin D2 (cyclin D2 -/- ). Voluntary wheel running performance was similar to NTG littermates for five of the mouse lines. Exercise induced significant cardiac growth in all mouse models except the cyclin D2 -/- mice. Cardiac function was not impacted in the cyclin D2 -/- mice and studies using a phospho-antibody array identified six proteins with increased phosphorylation (greater than 150%) and nine proteins with decreased phosphorylation (greater than 33% decrease) in the hearts of exercised cyclin D2 -/- mice compared to exercised NTG littermate controls. Our results demonstrate that unlike the other hypertrophic signaling molecules tested here, cyclin D2 is an important regulator of both pathologic and physiological hypertrophy. Impact statement This research is relevant as the hypertrophic signaling pathways tested here have only been characterized for their role in pathological hypertrophy, and not in the context of exercise or physiological hypertrophy. By using the same transgenic mouse lines utilized in previous studies, our findings provide a novel and important understanding for the role of these signaling pathways in physiological hypertrophy. We found that alterations in the signaling pathways tested here had no impact on exercise performance. Exercise

  5. Exercise in knee osteoarthritis--preliminary findings: Exercise-induced pain and health status differs between drop-outs and retainers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckwée, David; Bautmans, Ivan; Scheerlinck, Thierry; Vaes, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Exercise effectiveness is related to adherence, compliance and drop-out. The aim of this study is to investigate if exercise-induced pain and health status are related to these outcomes during two exercise programs in knee osteoarthritis patients. Symptomatic knee osteoarthritis patients were randomly allocated to a walking or strengthening program (N=19/group). At baseline, patients were categorized according to their health status. Exercise adherence and compliance were calculated and drop-out rate was registered. For exercise-induced pain, patients rated their pain on an 11-point numeric rating scale (NRS) before and after each training session. Before each session the maximal perceived pain of the last 24h (NRSmax24) was assessed. Patients rated their global self-perceived effect (GPE) on a 7-point ordinal scale after the intervention period. 53% of the participants felt they improved after the program, 6 patients dropped out. The mean adherence and compliance rates were higher than .83 in both groups. Worse health and higher exercise-induced pain were seen in drop-outs. NRSmax24 during the first 3 weeks did not significantly increase compared to baseline, but correlated negatively with adherence during the home sessions (-.56, ppain scores (ρ=-.35, pinduced pain levels compared to patients that retained the program. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Vitamin D2 Supplementation Amplifies Eccentric Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage in NASCAR Pit Crew Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. Nieman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study determined if 6-weeks vitamin D2 supplementation (vitD2, 3800 IU/day had an influence on muscle function, eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD, and delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS in National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR NASCAR pit crew athletes. Subjects were randomized to vitD2 (n = 13 and placebo (n = 15, and ingested supplements (double-blind for six weeks. Blood samples were collected and muscle function tests conducted pre- and post-study (leg-back and hand grip dynamometer strength tests, body weight bench press to exhaustion, vertical jump, 30-s Wingate test. Post-study, subjects engaged in 90 min eccentric-based exercise, with blood samples and DOMS ratings obtained immediately after and 1- and 2-days post-exercise. Six weeks vitD2 increased serum 25(OHD2 456% and decreased 25(OHD3 21% versus placebo (p < 0.001, p = 0.036, respectively, with no influence on muscle function test scores. The post-study eccentric exercise bout induced EIMD and DOMS, with higher muscle damage biomarkers measured in vitD2 compared to placebo (myoglobin 252%, 122% increase, respectively, p = 0.001; creatine phosphokinase 24 h post-exercise, 169%, 32%, p < 0.001, with no differences for DOMS. In summary, 6-weeks vitD2 (3800 IU/day significantly increased 25(OHD2 and decreased 25(OHD3, had no effect on muscle function tests, and amplified muscle damage markers in NASCAR pit crew athletes following eccentric exercise.

  7. Exercise-induced release of cytokines in patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallberg, Ludvig; Janelidze, Shorena; Engstrom, Gunnar; Wisén, Anita G M; Westrin, Asa; Brundin, Lena

    2010-10-01

    Patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) may display elevated plasma levels of pro-inflammatory substances. Although the underlying mechanisms are unknown, inflammation has been proposed to play a direct role in the generation of depressive symptoms. Skeletal muscle is a potent producer of cytokines, and physical exercise has been suggested to alleviate symptoms of depression. In this study we therefore addressed the question of whether MDD patients display altered levels of pro-, anti-inflammatory and regulatory factors in the blood in response to acute exercise. Eighteen MDD patients and 18 healthy controls performed a maximal-workload exercise challenge. Blood samples were taken before the test, at sub-maximal and maximal workload, as well as 30 and 60 min after testing. The plasma levels of SAA, TNF-alpha, S-VCAM, S-ICAM, CRP, IFN-gamma, IL-1beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12 and IL-13 were assayed using multiplex sandwich ELISA. Exercise-induced significant changes in the plasma levels of inflammatory substances in both MDD patients and controls. IL-8, IL-6 and TNF-alpha increased, and IL-4 decreased during the challenge in both groups. In addition, IFN-gamma decreased in the controls. There was a significant difference in IL-6 reactivity between the groups at the sub-max timepoint. Group sizes are comparably limited. Exercise induces changes in the blood levels of cytokines in unmedicated MDD patients. Whether these changes affect symptoms of depression should be evaluated in long-term studies of the anti-depressive effects of exercise. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Exercise-training-induced changes in metabolic capacity with age: the role of central cardiovascular plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Eivind; Næss, Morten Svendsen; Hoff, Jan; Albert, Tobias Lie; Pham, Quan; Richardson, Russell S; Helgerud, Jan

    2014-04-01

    Although aging is typically associated with a decline in maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), young and old subjects, of similar initial muscle metabolic capacity, increased quadriceps VO2max equally when this small muscle mass was trained in isolation. As it is unclear if this preserved exercise-induced plasticity with age is still evident with centrally challenging whole body exercise, we assessed maximal exercise responses in 13 young (24 ± 2 years) and 13 old (60 ± 3 years) males, matched for cycling VO2max (3.82 ± 0.66 and 3.69 ± 0.30 L min(-1), respectively), both before and after 8 weeks of high aerobic intensity cycle exercise training. As a consequence of the training both young and old significantly improved VO2max (13 ± 6 vs. 6 ± 7 %) and maximal power output (20 ± 6 vs. 10 ± 6 %, respectively) from baseline, however, the young exhibited a significantly larger increase than the old. Similarly, independently assessed maximal cardiac output (Q max) tended to increase more in the young (16 ± 14 %) than in the old (11 ± 12 %), with no change in a-vO2 difference in either group. Further examination of the components of Q max provided additional evidence of reduced exercise-induced plasticity in both maximal heart rate (young -3 %, old 0 %) and stroke volume (young 19 ± 15, old 11 ± 11 %) in the old. In combination, these findings imply that limited central cardiovascular plasticity may be responsible, at least in part, for the attenuated response to whole body exercise training with increasing age.

  9. Beneficial effects of previous exercise training on renal changes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic female rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Liliany S de Brito; Silva, Fernanda A; Correia, Vicente B; Andrade, Clara EF; Dutra, Bárbara A; Oliveira, Márcio V; de Magalhães, Amélia CM; Volpini, Rildo A; Seguro, Antonio C; Coimbra, Terezila M

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of aerobic exercise performed both previously and after the induction of diabetes mellitus on changes of renal function and structure in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Female wistar rats were divided into five groups: sedentary control (C + Se); trained control (C + Ex); sedentary diabetic (D + Se); trained diabetic (D + Ex) and previously trained diabetic (D + PEx). The previous exercise consisted of treadmill running for four weeks before the induction of diabetes mellitus. After induction of diabetes mellitus with streptozotocin, the D + PEx, D + Ex and C + Ex groups were submitted to eight weeks of aerobic exercise. At the end of the training protocol, we evaluate the serum glucose, insulin and 17β-estradiol levels, renal function and structure, proteinuria, and fibronectin, collagen IV and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) renal expressions. Induction of diabetes mellitus reduced the insulin and did not alter 17β-estradiol levels, and exercise did not affect any of these parameters. Previous exercise training attenuated the loss of body weight, the blood glucose, the increase of glomerular filtration rate and prevented the proteinuria in the D + PEx group compared to D + Se group. Previous exercise also reduced glomerular hypertrophy, tubular and glomerular injury, as well as the expressions of fibronectin and collagen IV. These expressions were associated with reduced expression of TGF-β1. In conclusion, our study shows that regular aerobic exercise especially performed previously to induction of diabetes mellitus improved metabolic control and has renoprotective action on the diabetic kidney. PMID:26490345

  10. Effect of exercise on chemically-induced colitis in adiponectin deficient mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saxena Arpit

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammatory bowel diseases are associated with increased adiponectin (APN levels, which may exert pro-inflammatory effects in these individuals. Since habitual exercise may increase APN, the aim of this study was to determine how exercise training affects mice with acute colitis. Methods Male adiponectin knock out (APNKO and wild type (WT mice (C57BL/6 were randomly assigned to 4 different groups: 1 Sedentary (SED; 2 Exercise trained (ET; 3 Sedentary with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS treatment (SED + DSS; and 4 Exercise trained with DSS (ET + DSS. Exercise-trained mice ran at 18 m/min for 60 min, 5d/wk for 4 weeks. Subsequently, the ET + DSS and the SED + DSS mice received 2% DSS in their drinking water for 5 days (d, followed by 5d of regular water. Results The clinical symptoms of acute colitis (diarrhea, stool haemoccult, and weight loss were unaffected by exercise and there was no difference between the APNKO and WT mice (p > 0.05 except on day 39. However, the clinical symptoms of the DSS-treated APNKO mice were worse than WT mice treated with DSS and had increased susceptibility to intestinal inflammation due to increased local STAT3 activation, higher IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-10 levels, and as a result had increased intestinal epithelial cell proliferation (p  Conclusions Exercise training may contribute in alleviating the symptoms of acute colitis and APN deficiency may exacerbate the intestinal inflammation in DSS-induced colitis.

  11. Asthma symptoms, mannitol reactivity and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in adolescent swimmers versus tennis players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romberg, Kerstin; Tufvesson, Ellen; Bjermer, Leif

    2017-01-01

    Strenuous physical activity at an elite level is associated with an increased risk for asthma and, in some sports, also prevalence of allergies. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of asthma and allergy among elite swimmers and tennis players and compare airway hyperreactivity to mannitol and exercise. One hundred and one adolescent swimmers and 86 tennis players answered a questionnaire about respiratory symptoms and allergy and performed mannitol challenge and sport-specific exercise challenge. Atopy was assessed and fractional exhaled nitric oxide was measured. Mannitol positivity was defined as drop in FEV1 ≥15% (ordinary criteria) and/or β2-reversibility (≥15%) after provocation (extended criteria). A positive exercise test was defined as a drop in FEV1 ≥10% (ordinary criteria) and/or β2-reversibility (≥15%) after provocation (extended criteria). Club cell protein (CC16) was measured in urine before and after the challenges. Asthma symptoms were common in both groups. More swimmers had exercise-induced symptoms (77% versus 50%) and current asthma symptoms (56% versus 38%), compared to the tennis players. More swimmers also had a positive mannitol challenge test both using ordinary (26% versus 6%) and extended criteria (43% versus 17%), while the number of positive exercise tests did not differ. After exercise (but not mannitol) challenge, CC16 level was increased in both groups, but to a higher extent in tennis players. There were no differences in atopy, rhinitis or fractional exhaled nitric oxide. We found a high prevalence of asthma among elite swimmers and tennis players and a higher frequency of current asthma and positive mannitol challenge tests among the swimmers. This indicates an unfavorable exercise environment.

  12. Exercise-induced left septal fascicular block: an expression of severe myocardial ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Hiroshi Uchida

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The electrocardiogram (ECG criteria for the left septal fascicular block (LSFB are not universally accepted and many other denominations can be seen in literature: focal septal block, septal focal block, left septal fascicular block, left anterior septal block, septal fascicular conduction disorder of the left branch, left septal Purkinje network block, left septal subdivision block of the left bundle branch, anterior conduction delay, left median hemiblock, left medial subdivision block of the left bundle branch, middle fascicle block, block of the anteromedial division of the left bundle branch of His, and anteromedial divisional block. During exercise stress test, fascicular blocks (left anterior and posterior seem to indicate severe coronary artery narrowing of left main coronary or proximal left anterior descending artery disease1 and transient exercise-induced left septal fascicular block has been reported a few times2,3. 54-year-old male, with a history of essential arterial systemic hypertension, primary hyperlipidemia and six-month typical chest pain during exercise (Class II – Canadian Cardiovascular Society underwent an exercise stress test. During the exercise stress test, ECG demonstrated abrupt prominent anterior forces, an increase in R wave amplitude from V1 to V4, extreme left axis deviation and minor ST segment depression in DII, DIII and aVF (Figure 1. The post-exercise period showed progressive return of the QRS axis in both frontal and horizontal planes and the ST depression worsened by 1 mm. Coronary angiogram (Figure 2A showed a critical proximal left anterior descending artery lesion. An exercise stress test done three months after coronary artery bypass surgery grafting was normal (Figure 2B.

  13. Exercise training reverses age-induced diastolic dysfunction and restores coronary microvascular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Kazuki; Chen, Bei; Behnke, Bradley J; Ghosh, Payal; Stabley, John N; Bramy, Jeremy A; Sepulveda, Jaime L; Delp, Michael D; Muller-Delp, Judy M

    2017-06-15

    In a rat model of ageing that is free of atherosclerosis or hypertension, E/A, a diagnostic measure of diastolic filling, decreases, and isovolumic relaxation time increases, indicating that both active and passive ventricular relaxation are impaired with advancing age. Resting coronary blood flow and coronary functional hyperaemia are reduced with age, and endothelium-dependent vasodilatation declines with age in coronary resistance arterioles. Exercise training reverses age-induced declines in diastolic and coronary microvascular function. Thus, microvascular dysfunction and inadequate coronary perfusion are likely mechanisms of diastolic dysfunction in aged rats. Exercise training, initiated at an advanced age, reverses age-related diastolic and microvascular dysfunction; these data suggest that late-life exercise training can be implemented to improve coronary perfusion and diastolic function in the elderly. The risk for diastolic dysfunction increases with advancing age. Regular exercise training ameliorates age-related diastolic dysfunction; however, the underlying mechanisms have not been identified. We investigated whether (1) microvascular dysfunction contributes to the development of age-related diastolic dysfunction, and (2) initiation of late-life exercise training reverses age-related diastolic and microvascular dysfunction. Young and old rats underwent 10 weeks of exercise training or remained as sedentary, cage-controls. Isovolumic relaxation time (IVRT), early diastolic filling (E/A), myocardial performance index (MPI) and aortic stiffness (pulse wave velocity; PWV) were evaluated before and after exercise training or cage confinement. Coronary blood flow and vasodilatory responses of coronary arterioles were evaluated in all groups at the end of training. In aged sedentary rats, compared to young sedentary rats, a 42% increase in IVRT, a 64% decrease in E/A, and increased aortic stiffness (PWV: 6.36 ± 0.47 vs.4.89 ± 0.41, OSED vs. YSED, P

  14. Cognitive Performance Enhancement Induced by Caffeine, Carbohydrate and Guarana Mouth Rinsing during Submaximal Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Pomportes

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of serial mouth rinsing (MR with nutritional supplements on cognitive performance (i.e., cognitive control and time perception during a 40-min submaximal exercise. Twenty-four participants completed 4 counterbalanced experimental sessions, during which they performed MR with either placebo (PL, carbohydrate (CHO: 1.6 g/25 mL, guarana complex (GUAc: 0.4 g/25 mL or caffeine (CAF: 67 mg/25 mL before and twice during exercise. The present study provided some important new insights regarding the specific changes in cognitive performance induced by nutritional supplements. The main results were: (1 CHO, CAF and GUA MR likely led participants to improve temporal performance; (2 CAF MR likely improved cognitive control; and (3 CHO MR led to a likely decrease in subjective perception of effort at the end of the exercise compared to PL, GUA and CAF. Moreover, results have shown that performing 40-min submaximal exercise enhances information processing in terms of both speed and accuracy, improves temporal performance and does not alter cognitive control. The present study opens up new perspectives regarding the use of MR to optimize cognitive performance during physical exercise.

  15. Hyperpolarized Helium-3 MRI of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction during challenge and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Stanley J; Niles, David J; Dardzinski, Bernard; Harman, Amy; Jarjour, Nizar N; Ruddy, Marcella; Nagle, Scott K; Francois, Christopher J; Sorkness, Ronald L; Burton, Ryan M; Munoz del Rio, Alejandro; Fain, Sean B

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the utility of hyperpolarized He-3 MRI for detecting regional lung ventilated volume (VV) changes in response to exercise challenge and leukotriene inhibitor montelukast, human subjects with exercise induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) were recruited. This condition is described by airway constriction following exercise leading to reduced forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) coinciding with ventilation defects on hyperpolarized He-3 MRI. Thirteen EIB subjects underwent spirometry and He-3 MRI at baseline, postexercise, and postrecovery at multiple visits. On one visit montelukast was given and on two visits placebo was given. Regional VV was calculated in the apical/basilar dimension, in the anterior/posterior dimension, and for the entire lung volume. The whole lung VV was used as an end-point and compared with spirometry. Postchallenge FEV1 dropped with placebo but not with treatment, while postchallenge VV dropped more with placebo than treatment. Sources of variability for VV included region (anterior/posterior), scan, and treatment. VV correlated with FEV1/ forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory flow between 25 and 75% of FVC and showed gravitational dependence after exercise challenge. A paradigm testing the response of ventilation to montelukast revealed both a whole-lung and regional response to exercise challenge and therapy in EIB subjects. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Detection of titin fragments in urine in response to exercise-induced muscle damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazue Kanda

    Full Text Available Many studies have attempted to determine the associations between blood biomarkers and exercise-induced muscle damage. However, poor correlations between the changes in biomarker levels and the magnitude of muscle symptoms have been reported. Recent advances in proteomic tools offer a strategy for the comprehensive analysis of protein expression, which can be used to identify biomarkers. Here, we used a proteomic analysis to identify urinary proteins that appear in response to a calf-raise exercise, including repetitive eccentric muscle contractions, and found that a titin (also known as connectin N-terminal fragment molecule appears in the urine after eccentric exercise. We measured the titin fragment in urine samples from nine individuals before and after eccentric exercise using a newly-established enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and found that the titin fragment excretion rate increased 96 h after the exercise (5.1 to 77.6 pg/min, p <0.01. The changes in the titin fragment excretion rate were correlated strongly with blood markers of muscle damage and with muscle symptoms. These findings suggest that the urinary titin fragment is potentially a noninvasive biomarker of muscle damage.

  17. The impact of exercise-induced core body temperature elevations on coagulation responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltmeijer, Matthijs T W; Eijsvogels, Thijs M H; Barteling, Wideke; Verbeek-Knobbe, Kitty; van Heerde, Waander L; Hopman, Maria T E

    2017-02-01

    Exercise induces changes in haemostatic parameters and core body temperature (CBT). We aimed to assess whether exercise-induced elevations in CBT induce pro-thrombotic changes in a dose-dependent manner. Observational study. CBT and haemostatic responses were measured in 62 participants of a 15-km road race at baseline and immediately after finishing. As haemostasis assays are routinely performed at 37°C, we corrected the assay temperature for the individual's actual CBT at baseline and finish in a subgroup of n=25. All subjects (44±11 years, 69% male) completed the race at a speed of 12.1±1.8km/h. CBT increased significantly from 37.6±0.4°C to 39.4±0.8°C (ptemperature to the subjects' actual CBT resulted in additional differences and stronger acceleration of thrombin generation parameters. This study demonstrates that exercise induces a prothrombotic state, which might be partially dependent on the magnitude of the exercise-induced CBT rise. Synchronizing the assay temperature to approximate the subject's CBT is essential to obtain more accurate insight in the haemostatic balance during thermoregulatory challenging situations. Finally, this study shows that short-lasting exposure to a CBT of 41.2°C does not result in clinical symptoms of severe coagulation. We therefore hypothesize that prolonged exposure to a high CBT or an individual-specific CBT threshold needs to be exceeded before derailment of the haemostatic balance occurs. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Protective effects of forced exercise against nicotine-induced anxiety, depression and cognition impairment in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motaghinejad, Majid; Fatima, Sulail; Karimian, Morteza; Ganji, Saeid

    2016-01-01

    Nicotine is one of the psychostimulant agents displaying parasympathomimetic activity; the chronic neurochemical and behavioral effects of nicotine remain unclear. Exercise lowers stress and anxiety and can act as a non-pharmacologic neuroprotective agent. In this study, the protective effects of exercise in nicotine withdrawal syndrome-induced anxiety, depression, and cognition impairment were investigated. Seventy adult male rats were divided randomly into five groups. Group 1 served as negative control and received normal saline (0.2 mL/rat, i.p.) for 30 days, whereas group 2 (as positive control) received nicotine (6 mg/kg/day, s.c.) for the first 15 days. Groups 4, 5, and 6 were treated with nicotine (6 mg/kg/day, s.c.) for the first 15 days and then were treated with forced exercise, bupropion (20 mg/kg/day, i.p.), or a combination of the two for the following 15 days. Between day 25 and day 30, Morris water maze was used to evaluate spatial learning and memory. From days 31 to 35, the elevated plus maze (EPM), open field test (OFT), forced swim test (FST), and tail suspension test (TST) were used to investigate the level of anxiety and depression in the subjects. Nicotine-dependent animals indicated a reflective depression and anxiety in a dose-dependent manner in FST, EPM, and TST, which were significantly different from the control group and also can significantly attenuate the motor activity and anxiety in OFT. Forced exercise, bupropion, or their combination can attenuate nicotine cessation-induced anxiety, depression, and motor activity in the mentioned behavioral assay. We conclude that forced exercise can protect the brain against nicotine withdrawal-induced anxiety, depression, and cognitive alteration.

  19. Effects of Massage on Muscular Strength and Proprioception After Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Mal-Soon; Sung, Yun-Hee

    2015-08-01

    Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD), which is commonly associated with eccentric exercise, unaccustomed exercise, and resistance training, may lead to delayed onset muscle soreness, swelling, decreased muscle strength, and range of motion. Many researchers have evaluated various interventions to treat the signs and symptoms of EIMD. However, the effects of massage after EIMD are unclear. Here, we investigated the effect of massage on muscle strength and proprioception after EIMD. All subjects randomly were divided into an EIMD-treated control group (n = 10) and a massage-treated after EIMD experimental group (n = 11). Exercise-induced muscle damage was induced by repeated exercise. Massage treatment was provided by physiotherapist for 15 minutes. It consists of light stroking, milking, friction, and skin rolling. Lactate was evaluated by Lactate Pro analyzer in pre- and postexercise. Surface electromyography (muscle activity) and sonography (muscle thickness) were used to confirm the muscular characteristics. Proprioception was investigated by dual inclinometer. As a result, massage treatment on the gastrocnemius after EIMD increased activation of the medial gastrocnemius during contraction (p ≤ 0.05). In the lateral and medial gastrocnemius, the θs, which is the angle between muscle fibers and superficial aponeurosis, showed a significant change (p ≤ 0.05). However, there are no differences in the θd, which is the angle between muscle fibers and deep aponeurosis. We also found that proprioceptive acuity in the ankle joint was significantly greater in the massage-treated experimental group compared with that in the control group (p ≤ 0.05). These findings suggest that massage of the gastrocnemius after EIMD can improve muscle strength and proprioception by influencing the superficial layer of the gastrocnemius.

  20. Exercise attenuates PCB-induced changes in the mouse gut microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeong June; Eum, Sung Yong; Rampersaud, Evadnie; Daunert, Sylvia; Abreu, Maria T; Toborek, Michal

    2013-06-01

    The gut microbiome, a dynamic bacterial community that interacts with the host, is integral to human health because it regulates energy metabolism and immune functions. The gut microbiome may also play a role in risks from environmental toxicants. We investigated the effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and exercise on the composition and structure of the gut microbiome in mice. After mice exercised voluntarily for 5 weeks, they were treated by oral gavage with a mixture of environmentally relevant PCB congeners (PCB153, PCB138, and PCB180; total PCB dose, 150 µmol/kg) for 2 days. We then assessed the microbiome by determination of 16S rRNA using microarray analysis. Oral exposure to PCBs significantly altered the abundance of the gut microbiome in mice primarily by decreasing the levels of Proteobacteria. The activity level of the mice correlated with a substantial shift in abundance, biodiversity, and composition of the microbiome. Importantly, exercise attenuated PCB-induced changes in the gut microbiome. Our results show that oral exposure to PCBs can induce substantial changes in the gut microbiome, which may then influence their systemic toxicity. These changes can be attenuated by behavioral factors, such as voluntary exercise.

  1. Exercise in vivo marks human myotubes in vitro: Training-induced increase in lipid metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Lund

    Full Text Available Physical activity has preventive as well as therapeutic benefits for overweight subjects. In this study we aimed to examine effects of in vivo exercise on in vitro metabolic adaptations by studying energy metabolism in cultured myotubes isolated from biopsies taken before and after 12 weeks of extensive endurance and strength training, from healthy sedentary normal weight and overweight men.Healthy sedentary men, aged 40-62 years, with normal weight (body mass index (BMI < 25 kg/m2 or overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 were included. Fatty acid and glucose metabolism were studied in myotubes using [14C]oleic acid and [14C]glucose, respectively. Gene and protein expressions, as well as DNA methylation were measured for selected genes.The 12-week training intervention improved endurance, strength and insulin sensitivity in vivo, and reduced the participants' body weight. Biopsy-derived cultured human myotubes after exercise showed increased total cellular oleic acid uptake (30%, oxidation (46% and lipid accumulation (34%, as well as increased fractional glucose oxidation (14% compared to cultures established prior to exercise. Most of these exercise-induced increases were significant in the overweight group, whereas the normal weight group showed no change in oleic acid or glucose metabolism.12 weeks of combined endurance and strength training promoted increased lipid and glucose metabolism in biopsy-derived cultured human myotubes, showing that training in vivo are able to induce changes in human myotubes that are discernible in vitro.

  2. Montelukast administered in the morning or evening to prevent exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajaron-Fernandez, Manuel; Garcia-Rubia, Servando; Sanchez-Solis, Manuel; Garcia-Marcos, Luis

    2006-03-01

    Montelukast is recommended to be taken in the evening. The effectiveness of this drug to prevent exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) in children was already evaluated. However, there is no information to determine if this effectiveness could vary depending on dosage time. Children (n = 24) with a documented history of EIB performed an exercise challenge test before starting montelukast treatment. Twelve children were randomly allocated to receive the drug in the morning for 2 weeks, and another 12 to receive it in the evening. After this treatment period and after a week of washout, the children were crossed over. An exercise test was repeated after the first and second periods of treatment. Values obtained after morning or evening dosage were compared with pretreatment values for the whole group of children. There was a significant effect of montelukast for protecting against EIB, measured both as percent of maximum fall in forced expired volume in 1 sec (FEV1) (18.9 +/- 9.7, morning, 18.7 +/- 11.3, evening, vs. 27.5 +/- 9.8, pretreatment; P evening, vs. 294.3 +/- 156.5, pretreatment; P evening. In conclusion, montelukast, taken for 2 weeks, is equally effective in exercise-induced bronchoconstriction when dosing either in the morning or in the evening. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Exercise in vivo marks human myotubes in vitro: Training-induced increase in lipid metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Jenny; Mudry, Jonathan M.; Langleite, Torgrim M.; Feng, Yuan Z.; Stensrud, Camilla; Brubak, Mari G.; Drevon, Christian A.; Birkeland, Kåre I.; Kolnes, Kristoffer J.; Johansen, Egil I.; Tangen, Daniel S.; Stadheim, Hans K.; Gulseth, Hanne L.; Krook, Anna; Kase, Eili T.; Jensen, Jørgen; Thoresen, G. Hege

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims Physical activity has preventive as well as therapeutic benefits for overweight subjects. In this study we aimed to examine effects of in vivo exercise on in vitro metabolic adaptations by studying energy metabolism in cultured myotubes isolated from biopsies taken before and after 12 weeks of extensive endurance and strength training, from healthy sedentary normal weight and overweight men. Methods Healthy sedentary men, aged 40–62 years, with normal weight (body mass index (BMI) exercise showed increased total cellular oleic acid uptake (30%), oxidation (46%) and lipid accumulation (34%), as well as increased fractional glucose oxidation (14%) compared to cultures established prior to exercise. Most of these exercise-induced increases were significant in the overweight group, whereas the normal weight group showed no change in oleic acid or glucose metabolism. Conclusions 12 weeks of combined endurance and strength training promoted increased lipid and glucose metabolism in biopsy-derived cultured human myotubes, showing that training in vivo are able to induce changes in human myotubes that are discernible in vitro. PMID:28403174

  4. Changes in Athlete’s Redox State Induced by Habitual and Unaccustomed Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusica Z. Djordjevic

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of sport-specific and nonspecific bouts of exercise on athletes’ redox state. Blood samples were collected from 14 handball players immediately before and after graded exercise test on the cycle ergometer and handball training. Levels of superoxide anion radical (O2-, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, nitrites (NO2- as markers of nitric oxide, index of lipid peroxidation (TBARs, glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase (CAT activity were determined. Exercise intensity was assessed by a system for heart rate (HR monitoring. Average athletes’ HR was not significantly different between protocols, but protocols differed in total time and time and percentage of time that athletes spent in every HR zone. The laboratory exercise test induced a significant increase of H2O2 and TBARs as well as the decrease of the SOD and CAT activity, while after specific handball training, levels of NO2- were increased and SOD activity decreased. It seems that unaccustomed short intensive physical activity may induce oxidative stress in trained athletes, while sport-specific activity of longer duration and proper warm-up period may not. Further research should show whether the change of protocol testing and the implementation of various supplementations and manual methods can affect the redox equilibrium.

  5. Concentrically trained cyclists are not more susceptible to eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage than are stretch-shortening exercise-trained runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snieckus, Audrius; Kamandulis, Sigitas; Venckūnas, Tomas; Brazaitis, Marius; Volungevičius, Gintautas; Skurvydas, Albertas

    2013-03-01

    Here, we test the hypothesis that continuous concentric exercise training renders skeletal muscles more susceptible to damage in response to eccentric exercise. Elite road cyclists (CYC; n = 10, training experience 8.1 ± 2.0 years, age 22.9 ± 3.7 years), long-distance runners (LDR; n = 10, 9.9 ± 2.3 years, 24.4 ± 2.5 years), and healthy untrained (UT) men (n = 10; 22.4 ± 1.7 years) performed 100 submaximal eccentric contractions at constant angular velocity of 60° s(-1). Concentric isokinetic peak torque, isometric maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), and electrically induced knee extension torque were measured at baseline and immediately and 48 h after an eccentric exercise bout. Muscle soreness was assessed and plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity was measured at baseline and 48 h after exercise. Voluntary and electrically stimulated knee extension torque reduction were significantly greater (p < 0.05) in UT than in LDR and CYC. Immediately and 48 h after exercise, MVC decreased by 32 % and 20 % in UT, 20 % and 5 % in LDR, and 25 % and 6 % in CYC. Electrically induced 20 Hz torque decreased at the same times by 61 and 29 % in UT, 40 and 17 % in LDR, and 26 and 14 % in CYC. Muscle soreness and plasma CK activity 48 h after exercise did not differ significantly between athletes and UT subjects. In conclusion, even though elite endurance athletes are more resistant to eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage than are UT people, stretch-shortening exercise-trained LDR have no advantage over concentrically trained CYC.

  6. Treadmill exercise induces neutrophil recruitment into muscle tissue in a reactive oxygen species-dependent manner. An intravital microscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes-Silva, Albená; Bernardes, Priscila T T; Rezende, Bárbara M; Lopes, Fernando; Gomes, Elisa C; Marques, Pedro E; Lima, Paulo M A; Coimbra, Cândido C; Menezes, Gustavo B; Teixeira, Mauro M; Pinho, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Intense exercise is a physiological stress capable of inducing the interaction of neutrophils with muscle endothelial cells and their transmigration into tissue. Mechanisms driving this physiological inflammatory response are not known. Here, we investigate whether production of reactive oxygen species is relevant for neutrophil interaction with endothelial cells and recruitment into the quadriceps muscle in mice subjected to the treadmill fatiguing exercise protocol. Mice exercised until fatigue by running for 56.3±6.8 min on an electric treadmill. Skeletal muscle was evaluated by intravital microscopy at different time points after exercise, and then removed to assess local oxidative stress and histopathological analysis. We observed an increase in plasma lactate and creatine kinase (CK) concentrations after exercise. The numbers of monocytes, neutrophils, and lymphocytes in blood increased 12 and 24 hours after the exercise. Numbers of rolling and adherent leukocytes increased 3, 6, 12, and 24 hours post-exercise, as assessed by intravital microscopy. Using LysM-eGFP mice and confocal intravital microscopy technology, we show that the number of transmigrating neutrophils increased 12 hours post-exercise. Mutant gp91phox-/- (non-functional NADPH oxidase) mice and mice treated with apocynin showed diminished neutrophil recruitment. SOD treatment promoted further adhesion and transmigration of leukocytes 12 hours after the exercise. These findings confirm our hypothesis that treadmill exercise increases the recruitment of leukocytes to the postcapillary venules, and NADPH oxidase-induced ROS plays an important role in this process.

  7. Treadmill exercise induces neutrophil recruitment into muscle tissue in a reactive oxygen species-dependent manner. An intravital microscopy study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albená Nunes-Silva

    Full Text Available Intense exercise is a physiological stress capable of inducing the interaction of neutrophils with muscle endothelial cells and their transmigration into tissue. Mechanisms driving this physiological inflammatory response are not known. Here, we investigate whether production of reactive oxygen species is relevant for neutrophil interaction with endothelial cells and recruitment into the quadriceps muscle in mice subjected to the treadmill fatiguing exercise protocol. Mice exercised until fatigue by running for 56.3±6.8 min on an electric treadmill. Skeletal muscle was evaluated by intravital microscopy at different time points after exercise, and then removed to assess local oxidative stress and histopathological analysis. We observed an increase in plasma lactate and creatine kinase (CK concentrations after exercise. The numbers of monocytes, neutrophils, and lymphocytes in blood increased 12 and 24 hours after the exercise. Numbers of rolling and adherent leukocytes increased 3, 6, 12, and 24 hours post-exercise, as assessed by intravital microscopy. Using LysM-eGFP mice and confocal intravital microscopy technology, we show that the number of transmigrating neutrophils increased 12 hours post-exercise. Mutant gp91phox-/- (non-functional NADPH oxidase mice and mice treated with apocynin showed diminished neutrophil recruitment. SOD treatment promoted further adhesion and transmigration of leukocytes 12 hours after the exercise. These findings confirm our hypothesis that treadmill exercise increases the recruitment of leukocytes to the postcapillary venules, and NADPH oxidase-induced ROS plays an important role in this process.

  8. Effects of exercise on endothelium and endothelium/smooth muscle cross talk: role of exercise-induced hemodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newcomer, S.C.; Thijssen, D.H.J.; Green, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    Physical activity, exercise training, and fitness are associated with decreased cardiovascular risk. In the context that a risk factor "gap" exists in the explanation for the beneficial effects of exercise on cardiovascular disease, it has recently been proposed that exercise generates hemodynamic

  9. Exercise-induced rib stress fractures: influence of reduced bone mineral density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Anders; Kanstrup, Inge-Lis; Christiansen, Erik

    2005-01-01

    Exercise-induced rib stress fractures have been reported frequently in elite rowers during the past decade. The etiology of rib stress fractures is unclear, but low bone mineral density (BMD) has been suggested to be a potential risk factor for stress fractures in weight-bearing bones. The present...... density may be a potential risk factor for the development of exercise-induced rib stress fractures in elite rowers....... a DEXA scanner. The RSF subjects showed significantly lower L2-L4 BMD: RSF: 1.22+/-0.05 g cm(-2) (mean+/-SEM) (median 1.19 g cm(-2), range 1.02-1.37 g cm(-2)) compared to C: 140+/-0.04 g cm(-2) (median 1.41 g cm(-2), range 1.27-1.57 g cm(-2)) (P=0.028). The present results suggest that low bone mineral...

  10. Exercise-induced changes in circulating levels of transforming growth factor-beta-1 in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinemeier, Katja; Langberg, Henning; Kjaer, Michael

    2003-01-01

    eight healthy resting subjects. Plasma was sampled from each subject on five successive days according to a procedure designed to minimize activation of platelets, as platelet alpha-granules contain large amounts of transforming growth factor-beta-1. The mean plasma level was relatively low [1155 (30......Mechanical loading of cells induces the expression of transforming growth factor-beta-1, and acute exercise, which involves mechanical loading of several tissues, could thus increase its circulating level in humans. However, no consensus exists regarding the plasma concentration of this cytokine...... in resting subjects (reported values range from 500 to 18,300 pg ml(-1)) and also the extent of intra-individual variation is unknown. As a basis for detecting exercise-induced changes in transforming growth factor-beta-1, we measured its concentration, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, in plasma from...

  11. The Impact of Central and Peripheral Cyclooxygenase Enzyme Inhibition on Exercise-Induced Elevations in Core Body Temperature.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltmeijer, M.T.W.; Veeneman, D.; Bongers, C.C.W.G.; Netea, M.G.; Meer, J.W.M. van der; Eijsvogels, T.M.H.; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Exercise increases core body temperature (TC) due to metabolic heat production. However, the exercise-induced release of inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-6 (IL-6) may also contribute to the rise in TC by increasing the hypothalamic temperature set point. This study investigated

  12. The effects of anxiety and exercise-induced fatigue on shooting accuracy and cognitive performance in infantry soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nibbeling, Nicky; Oudejans, Raôul R D; Ubink, Emiel M; Daanen, Hein A M

    2014-01-01

    Operational performance in military settings involves physical and mental skills that are generally investigated separately in lab settings, leading to reduced ecological validity. Therefore, we investigated the effects of anxiety and exercise-induced fatigue, separately and in combination, on cognitive and shooting performance of 22 soldiers in a real-world setting. Findings indicated that soldiers' shooting accuracy and decision-making and mathematical skills decreased significantly under anxiety. Whether exercise-induced fatigue was beneficial or detrimental to task performance depended on the task at hand. The increased arousal levels through exercise prevented shooting accuracy from deteriorating in the decision task. In contrast, cognitive performance suffered from the increased arousal: participants more often failed to shoot when being fired at by an opponent and also math performance seemed to decrease. We conclude that anxiety can deteriorate soldier performance and that exercise-induced fatigue may improve or deteriorate performance in combination with anxiety depending on the nature of the task. Soldiers encounter anxiety and exercise-induced fatigue. We investigated to what degree these factors influence soldiers' shooting and cognitive performance. Experimental manipulation of anxiety and exercise during a representative field course indicated decreased performance under anxiety. Exercise prevented shooting accuracy from deteriorating under anxiety, although cognitive performance was negatively affected after exercise.

  13. The effects of exercise-induced weight loss on appetite-related peptides and motivation to eat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Cecilia; Kulseng, B; King, N A

    2010-01-01

    The magnitude of exercise-induced weight loss depends on the extent of compensatory responses. An increase in energy intake is likely to result from changes in the appetite control system toward an orexigenic environment; however, few studies have measured how exercise impacts on both orexigenic...

  14. The TreadWheel: A Novel Apparatus to Measure Genetic Variation in Response to Gently Induced Exercise for Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Mendez

    Full Text Available Obesity is one of the dramatic health issues affecting developed and developing nations, and exercise is a well-established intervention strategy. While exercise-by-genotype interactions have been shown in humans, overall little is known. Using the natural negative geotaxis of Drosophila melanogaster, an important model organism for the study of genetic interactions, a novel exercise machine, the TreadWheel, can be used to shed light on this interaction. The mechanism for inducing exercise with the TreadWheel is inherently gentle, thus minimizing possible confounding effects of other stressors. Using this machine, we were able to assess large cohorts of adult flies from eight genetic lines for their response to exercise after one week of training. We measured their triglyceride, glycerol, protein, glycogen, glucose content, and body weight, as well as their climbing ability and feeding behavior in response to exercise. Exercised flies showed decreased stored triglycerides, glycogen, and body weight, and increased stored protein and climbing ability. In addition to demonstrating an overall effect of TreadWheel exercise on flies, we found significant interactions of exercise with genotype, sex, or genotype-by-sex effects for most of the measured phenotypes. We also observed interaction effects between exercise, genotype, and tissue (abdomen or thorax for metabolite profiles, and those differences can be partially linked to innate differences in the flies' persistence in maintaining activity during exercise bouts. In addition, we assessed gene expression levels for a panel of 13 genes known to be associated with respiratory fitness and found that many responded to exercise. With this study, we have established the TreadWheel as a useful tool to study the effect of exercise in flies, shown significant genotype-specific and sex-specific impacts of exercise, and have laid the ground work for more extensive studies of how genetics, sex, environment

  15. The effect of exercise-induced hypoxemia on blood redox status in well-trained rowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyparos, Antonios; Riganas, Christos; Nikolaidis, Michalis G; Sampanis, Michalis; Koskolou, Maria D; Grivas, Gerasimos V; Kouretas, Dimitrios; Vrabas, Ioannis S

    2012-06-01

    Exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia (EIAH), characterized by decline in arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation (SaO(2)), is a common phenomenon in endurance athletes. Acute intensive exercise is associated with the generation of reactive species that may result in redox status disturbances and oxidation of cell macromolecules. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether EIAH augments oxidative stress as determined in blood plasma and erythrocytes in well-trained male rowers after a 2,000-m rowing ergometer race. Initially, athletes were assigned into either the normoxemic (n = 9, SaO(2) >92%, [Formula: see text]: 62.0 ± 1.9 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) or hypoxemic (n = 12, SaO(2) <92%, [Formula: see text]: 60.5 ± 2.2 ml kg(-1 )min(-1), mean ± SEM) group, following an incremental [Formula: see text] test on a wind resistance braked rowing ergometer. On a separate day the rowers performed a 2,000-m all-out effort on the same rowing ergometer. Following an overnight fast, blood samples were drawn from an antecubital vein before and immediately after the termination of the 2,000-m all-out effort and analyzed for selective oxidative stress markers. In both the normoxemic (SaO(2): 94.1 ± 0.9%) and hypoxemic (SaO(2): 88.6 ± 2.4%) rowers similar and significant exercise increase in serum thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, protein carbonyls, catalase and total antioxidant capacity concentration were observed post-2,000 m all-out effort. Exercise significantly increased the oxidized glutathione concentration and decreased the ratio of reduced (GSH)-to-oxidized (GSSG) glutathione in the normoxemic group only, whereas the reduced form of glutathione remained unaffected in either groups. The increased oxidation of GSH to GSSG in erythrocytes of normoxemic individuals suggest that erythrocyte redox status may be affected by the oxygen saturation degree of hemoglobin. Our findings indicate that exercise-induced hypoxemia did not further affect the increased blood

  16. Restoration of plasma volume after 16 days of head-down tilt induced by a single bout of maximal exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convertino, V. A.; Engelke, K. A.; Ludwig, D. A.; Doerr, D. F.

    1996-01-01

    Seven healthy men performed maximal exercise 24 h before the end of 16 days exposure to 6 degrees head-down tilt (HDT) to test the hypothesis that such an exercise technique could restore plasma volume (PV) at the end of a simulated space mission. Exercise consisted of supine cycling with graded work rates increasing by 16 W/min to volitional fatigue and required an average of 16 min. The experimental protocol was a standard cross-over design in which the order of treatment (exercise or control) was counterbalanced across all seven subjects. PV, fluid intake (ad libitum), urine output, renal function, and hormones associated with fluid homeostasis were measured before HDT, 24 h before the end of HDT just prior to exercise, and at the end of HDT 24 h after exercise. HDT reduced PV by 16% in both control and exercise conditions. Maximal exercise completely restored plasma volume within 24 h to 3.9 +/- 3.2% of pre-HDT levels despite continued HDT. Compared with control, exercise induced a 660-ml larger positive fluid balance because of greater fluid intake and reduced urine volume during the 24 h after exercise. These results suggest that one bout of maximal leg exercise before return from 16 days of spaceflight may be completely effective in stimulating thirst and restoring plasma volume to preflight levels.

  17. Effect of New Zealand blueberry consumption on recovery from eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage

    OpenAIRE

    McLeay, Yanita; Barnes, Matthew J; Mundel, Toby; Hurst, Suzanne M; Hurst, Roger D; Stannard, Stephen R

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) is accompanied by localized oxidative stress / inflammation which, in the short-term at least, is associated with impaired muscular performance. Dietary antioxidants have been shown to reduce excessive oxidative stress; however, their effectiveness in facilitating recovery following EIMD is not clear. Blueberries demonstrate antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. In this study we examine the effect of New Zealand blueberries on ...

  18. Probiotic Cheese Attenuates Exercise-induced Immune Suppression In Wistar Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Lollo P.C.B.; Cruz A.G.; Morato P.N.; Moura C.S.; Carvalho-Silva L.B.; Oliveira C.A.F.; Faria J.A.F.; Amaya-Farfan J.

    2012-01-01

    Intense physical activity results in a substantial volume of stress and hence a significant probability of immunosuppression in athletes, with milk proteins being, perhaps, the most recommended protein supplements. Consumption of a probiotic cheese can attenuate immune suppression induced by exhausting exercise in rats. A popular Brazilian fresh cheese (Minas Frescal cheese) containing Lactobacillus acidophilus LA14 and Bifidobacterium longum BL05 was fed for 2 wk to adult Wistar rats, which ...

  19. Paroxysmal Exercise-induced Dyskinesias Caused by GLUT1 Deficiency Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Mongin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome is due to de novo mutations in the SLC2A1 gene encoding the glucose transporter type 1. Phenomenology Shown: Paroxysmal motor manifestations induced by exercise or fasting may be the main manifestations of glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome. Educational Value: Proper identification of the paroxysmal events and early diagnosis is important since the disease is potentially treatable.

  20. Dysfunctional breathing and reaching one’s physiological limit as causes of exercise-induced dyspnoea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Depiazzi

    2016-06-01

    This review provides an overview of the spectrum of conditions that can present as exercise-­induced breathlessness experienced by young subjects participating in sport and aims to promote understanding of the need for accurate assessment of an individual’s symptoms. We will highlight the high incidence of nonasthmatic causes, which simply require reassurance or simple interventions from respiratory physiotherapists or speech pathologists.

  1. Allergies and Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction in a Youth Academy and Reserve Professional Soccer Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougault, Valérie; Drouard, François; Legall, Franck; Dupont, Grégory; Wallaert, Benoit

    2017-09-01

    A high prevalence of respiratory allergies and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) has been reported among endurance athletes. This study was designed to analyze the frequency of sensitization to respiratory allergens and EIB in young soccer players. Prospective cohort design. Youth academy and reserve professional soccer team during the seasons 2012 to 2013 and 2013 to 2014. Eighty-five soccer players (mean age: 20 ± 4 years) participated. Players underwent skin prick tests (SPTs) during the seasons 2012 to 2013 and 2013 to 2014. Spirometry and a eucapnic voluntary hyperpnea test were performed on soccer players during the first season 2012 to 2013 (n = 51) to detect EIB. Two self-administered questionnaires on respiratory history and allergic symptoms (European Community Respiratory Health Survey and Allergy Questionnaire for Athletes) were also distributed during both seasons (n = 59). The number of positive SPTs, exercise-induced respiratory symptoms, presence of asthma, airway obstruction, and EIB. Forty-nine percent of players were sensitized to at least one respiratory allergen, 33% reported an allergic disease, 1 player presented airway obstruction at rest, and 16% presented EIB. Factors predictive of EIB were self-reported exercise-induced symptoms and sensitization to at least 5 allergens. Questioning players about exercise-induced respiratory symptoms and allergies as well as spirometry at the time of the inclusion medical checkup would improve management of respiratory health of soccer players and would constitute inexpensive preliminary screening to select players requiring indirect bronchial provocation test or SPTs. This study showed that despite low frequencies, EIB and allergies are underdiagnosed and undertreated in young soccer players.

  2. The effects of caffeine ingestion on exercise-induced hypoalgesia: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Christopher D; Gonglach, Alexander R; Renfroe, Jessica B; Hight, Robert E

    2016-07-01

    Exercise acutely reduces pain sensitivity, termed exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH). The mechanisms underlying EIH remain unclear. Caffeine, a non-specific adenosine receptor antagonist has been shown to attenuate EIH in animals-suggesting the involvement of the adenosinergic system. This pilot study investigated the effects of caffeine on pain sensitivity following cycling exercise in college-aged men. Pressure pain threshold (PPT) and thermal pain threshold (TPT) were assessed in thirteen low caffeine consuming men prior to ingestion of a counter-balanced 5mg·kg(-1) dose of caffeine or a placebo (Pre), 60min following ingestion (Post-In), and then following a 15min bout of cycling exercise (Post-Ex) at an intensity eliciting a quadriceps muscle pain rating of 3 out of 10. Nine of the men completed follow-up testing which was identical except that the exercise consisted of 10min of cycling eliciting a pain rating of 5 out of 10. Caffeine had no effect compared to placebo on PPT (p≥0.15) or TPT (p≥0.41) 60min following ingestion and following exercise. PPT increased from 599±176kPa to 648±202kPa (p=0.009) and from 578±217kPa to 666±278kPa (p=0.01) following 15 and 10min of cycling, respectively. TPT increased from 46.2±2.9°C to 46.8±2.6°C (p=0.008) following the 15min exercise bout, but did not change (46.4±3.6°C vs. 46.8±3.3°C; p=0.24) following the shorter, higher intensity exercise bout. The results from this study indicate cycling exercise reduces pain sensitivity, especially to pressure stimuli. Caffeine ingestion did not alter the EIH response-suggesting adenosine may not play a prominent role in the EIH response in humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Changes in cold-induced vasodilation during Arctic exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, S D

    1976-03-01

    The effect of exposure to cold on cold-induced vasodilation (CIVD) was examined in military personnel who had experienced a 2-wk stay in the Artic. During this time, the daily regimen consisted of long marches over difficult terrain and sleep in unheated tents with diurnal temperatures ranging from -10 to -40 degrees C. In tests conducted before and after the 2-wk period, CIVD was measured in the left middle finger of each subject by its immersion in ice water. After the 2-wk period, the value of mean finger temperature during the test had decreased relative to that observed before the test, the time required before the first vasodilative temperature increase occurred had become greater, and the finger temperature value at which the vasodilative increase was initiated has been lowered. These changes manifest a deleterious effect of cold exposure on the CIVD, contrary to expectations, and suggest that the effect of short-term cold exposure is to produce a general rather than peripheral acclimation in these subjects.

  4. Update on the Mechanisms of Pulmonary Inflammation and Oxidative Imbalance Induced by Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. F. Araneda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms involved in the generation of oxidative damage and lung inflammation induced by physical exercise are described. Changes in lung function induced by exercise involve cooling of the airways, fluid evaporation of the epithelial surface, increased contact with polluting substances, and activation of the local and systemic inflammatory response. The present work includes evidence obtained from the different types of exercise in terms of duration and intensity, the effect of both acute performance and chronic performance, and the influence of special conditions such as cold weather, high altitude, and polluted environments. Levels of prooxidants, antioxidants, oxidative damage to biomolecules, and cellularity, as well as levels of soluble mediators of the inflammatory response and its effects on tissues, are described in samples of lung origin. These samples include tissue homogenates, induced sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, biopsies, and exhaled breath condensate obtained in experimental protocols conducted on animal and human models. Finally, the need to simultaneously explore the oxidative/inflammatory parameters to establish the interrelation between them is highlighted.

  5. Exercise-induced lipid mobilization in subcutaneous adipose tissue is mainly related to natriuretic peptides in overweight men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Cedric; Pillard, Fabien; de Glisezinski, Isabelle; Klimcakova, Eva; Crampes, Francois; Thalamas, Claire; Harant, Isabelle; Marques, Marie-Adeline; Lafontan, Max; Berlan, Michel

    2008-08-01

    Involvement of sympathetic nervous system and natriuretic peptides in the control of exercise-induced lipid mobilization was compared in overweight and lean men. Lipid mobilization was determined using local microdialysis during exercise. Subjects performed 35-min exercise bouts at 60% of their maximal oxygen consumption under placebo or after oral tertatolol [a beta-adrenergic receptor (AR) antagonist]. Under placebo, exercise increased dialysate glycerol concentration (DGC) in both groups. Phentolamine (alpha-AR antagonist) potentiated exercise-induced lipolysis in overweight but not in lean subjects; the alpha(2)-antilipolytic effect was only functional in overweight men. After tertatolol administration, the DGC increased similarly during exercise no matter which was used probe in both groups. Compared with the control probe under placebo, lipolysis was reduced in lean but not in overweight men treated with the beta-AR blocker. Tertatolol reduced plasma nonesterified fatty acids and insulin concentration in both groups at rest. Under placebo or tertatolol, the exercise-induced changes in plasma nonesterified fatty acids, glycerol, and insulin concentrations were similar in both groups. Exercise promoted a higher increase in catecholamine and ANP plasma levels after tertatolol administration. In conclusion, the major finding of our study is that in overweight men, in addition to an increased alpha(2)-antilipolytic effect, the lipid mobilization in subcutaneous adipose tissue that persists during exercise under beta-blockade is not dependent on catecholamine action. On the basis of correlation findings, it seems to be related to a concomitant exercise-induced rise in plasma ANP when exercise is performed under tertatolol intake and a decrease in plasma insulin.

  6. The walking-induced transient hack concept is valid & relies on a transient early-exercise hypoxemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Bruneau

    Full Text Available Decreased arterial oxygen pressure obtained at peak exercise is strong evidence of walking-induced hypoxemia, assuming that the lower pressure occurs just before exercise is stopped. Using empirical predefined models and transcutaneous oximetry, we have shown that some patients reporting exercise intolerance show a minimal value at the onset of walking and a post-exercise overshoot. These changes are referred to as transcutaneous "walking-induced transient hacks".In 245 patients, walking-induced transcutaneous oxygen pressure changes in the chest were analyzed using observer-independent clustering techniques. Clustering classes were compared to the profile types previously proposed with the cross-correlation technique. The classifications of patients according to both approaches were compared using kappa statistics. In 10 patients showing a hack on transcutaneous oximetry, we analyzed the results of direct iterative arterial sampling recorded during a new walking treadmill test.Clustering analysis resulted in 4 classes that closely fit the 4 most frequently proposed empirical models (cross-correlation coefficients: 0.93 to 0.97. The kappa between the two classifications was 0.865. In 10 patients showing transcutaneous hacks, the minimal direct arterial oxygen pressure value occurred at exercise onset, and these patients exhibited a recovery overshoot reaching a maximum at two minutes of recovery, confirming the walking-induced transient hypoxemia.In patients reporting exercise intolerance, transcutaneous oximetry could help to detect walking-induced transient hypoxemia, while peak-exercise arterial oximetry might be normal.

  7. The walking-induced transient hack concept is valid & relies on a transient early-exercise hypoxemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruneau, Antoine; Feuilloy, Mathieu; Dussaussoy, Corinne; Gagnadoux, Frédéric; Leftheriotis, Georges; Abraham, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Decreased arterial oxygen pressure obtained at peak exercise is strong evidence of walking-induced hypoxemia, assuming that the lower pressure occurs just before exercise is stopped. Using empirical predefined models and transcutaneous oximetry, we have shown that some patients reporting exercise intolerance show a minimal value at the onset of walking and a post-exercise overshoot. These changes are referred to as transcutaneous "walking-induced transient hacks". In 245 patients, walking-induced transcutaneous oxygen pressure changes in the chest were analyzed using observer-independent clustering techniques. Clustering classes were compared to the profile types previously proposed with the cross-correlation technique. The classifications of patients according to both approaches were compared using kappa statistics. In 10 patients showing a hack on transcutaneous oximetry, we analyzed the results of direct iterative arterial sampling recorded during a new walking treadmill test. Clustering analysis resulted in 4 classes that closely fit the 4 most frequently proposed empirical models (cross-correlation coefficients: 0.93 to 0.97). The kappa between the two classifications was 0.865. In 10 patients showing transcutaneous hacks, the minimal direct arterial oxygen pressure value occurred at exercise onset, and these patients exhibited a recovery overshoot reaching a maximum at two minutes of recovery, confirming the walking-induced transient hypoxemia. In patients reporting exercise intolerance, transcutaneous oximetry could help to detect walking-induced transient hypoxemia, while peak-exercise arterial oximetry might be normal.

  8. Irradiation-induced angiosarcoma and anti-angiogenic therapy: a therapeutic hope?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzariti, Amalia; Porcelli, Letizia; Mangia, Anita; Saponaro, Concetta; Quatrale, Anna E; Popescu, Ondina S; Strippoli, Sabino; Simone, Gianni; Paradiso, Angelo; Guida, Michele

    2014-02-15

    Angiosarcomas are rare soft-tissue sarcomas of endothelial cell origin. They can be sporadic or caused by therapeutic radiation, hence secondary breast angiosarcomas are an important subgroup of patients. Assessing the molecular biology of angiosarcomas and identify specific targets for treatment is challenging. There is currently great interest in the role of angiogenesis and of angiogenic factors associated with tumor pathogenesis and as targets for treatment of angiosarcomas. A primary cell line derived from a skin fragment of a irradiation-induced angiosarcoma patient was obtained and utilized to evaluate cell biomarkers CD31, CD34, HIF-1 alpha and VEGFRs expression by immunocytochemistry and immunofluorescence, drugs cytotoxicity by cell counting and VEGF release by ELISA immunoassay. In addition to previous biomarkers, FVIII and VEGF were also evaluated on tumor specimens by immunohistochemistry to further confirm the diagnosis. We targeted the VEGF-VEGFR-2 axis of tumor angiogenesis with two different class of vascular targeted drugs; caprelsa, the VEGFR-2/EGFR/RET inhibitor and bevacizumab the anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody. We found the same biomarkers expression either in tumor specimens and in the cell line derived from tumor. In vitro experiments demonstrated that angiogenesis plays a pivotal role in the progression of this tumor as cells displayed high level of VEGFR-2, HIF-1 alpha strongly accumulated into the nucleus and the pro-angiogenic factor VEGF was released by cells in culture medium. The evaluation of caprelsa and bevacizumab cytotoxicity demonstrated that both drugs were effective in inhibiting tumor proliferation. Due to these results, we started to treat the patient with pazopanib, which was the unique tyrosine kinase inhibitor available in Italy through a compassionate supply program, obtaining a long lasting partial response. Our data suggest that the study of the primary cell line could help physicians in choosing a therapeutic approach

  9. The Effect of Taurine on the Recovery from Eccentric Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage in Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanita McLeay

    2017-10-01

    daily for 72 h following eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage may help improve eccentric performance recovery of the biceps brachii.

  10. Effects of Exercise Induced Low Back Pain on Intrinsic Trunk Stiffness and Paraspinal Muscle Reflexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Emily M.; Bazrgari, Babak; Nussbaum, Maury A.; Madigan, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to 1) compare trunk neuromuscular behavior between individuals with no history of low back pain (LBP) and individuals who experience exercise-induced LBP (eiLBP) when pain free, and 2) investigate changes in trunk neuromuscular behavior with eiLBP. Seventeen young adult males participated including eight reporting recurrent, acute eiLBP and nine control participants reporting no history of LBP. Intrinsic trunk stiffness and paraspinal muscle reflex delay were determined in both groups using sudden trunk flexion position perturbations 1-2 days following exercise when the eiLBP participants were experiencing an episode of LBP (termed post-exercise) and 4-5 days following exercise when eiLBP had subsided (termed post-recovery). Post-recovery, when the eiLBP group was experiencing minimal LBP, trunk stiffness was 26% higher in the eiLBP group compared to the control group (p=0.033) and reflex delay was not different (p=0.969) between groups. Trunk stiffness did not change (p=0.826) within the eiLBP group from post-exercise to post-recovery, but decreased 22% within the control group (p=0.002). Reflex delay decreased 11% within the eiLBP group from post-exercise to post-recovery (p=0.013), and increased 15% within the control group (p=0.006). Although the neuromuscular mechanisms associated with eiLBP and chronic LBP may differ, these results suggest that previously-reported differences in trunk neuromuscular behavior between individuals with chronic LBP and healthy controls reflect a combination of inherent differences in neuromuscular behavior between these individuals as well as changes in neuromuscular behavior elicited by pain. PMID:23182221

  11. A sport-specific protocol for diagnosing exercise-induced asthma in cross-country skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogston, Jena; Butcher, Janus D

    2002-09-01

    This study evaluates a sport-specific protocol to evaluate cross-country skiers for exercise-induced asthma (EIA). Participants completed an asthma symptom questionnaire prior to participation. They were then tested by portable digital spirometer with measurements prior to exercise and at 5-minute increments following a 15-minute cross-country skiing exercise session on a groomed ski trail. All spirometry measurements were collected indoors at Nordic ski areas in the Duluth, Minnesota, area. Each ski area was groomed for both skating and classical technique. 99 high school skiers, 55 female and 44 male, of various skill levels were tested. All were members of their respective high school cross-country ski team. Testing was open to all ski team members. Skiers from seven different high schools participated. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness to exercise measured by the change in forced expiratory volume at 1 s (FEV1) following exercise. A result was considered positive if the decrement in FEV1 was greater than 10% in any two of the postexercise test increments in comparison with the preexercise baseline. 28 of 99 (28%) skiers met the criteria for EIA. No significant differences were found with regards to gender, age, or previous experience. Several individual items on the Asthma Symptom Questionnaire were associated with a positive spirometry test. Using a simple protocol of pre- and postexercise spirometry with a defined exercise challenge, a large number of athletes were screened objectively for this condition. Both the equipment and protocol worked well in the field environment and could easily be adapted to most any sports environment.

  12. Recovery From Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage: Cold-Water Immersion Versus Whole-Body Cryotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaïdia, Abd-Elbasset; Lamblin, Julien; Delecroix, Barthélémy; Leduc, Cédric; McCall, Alan; Nédélec, Mathieu; Dawson, Brian; Baquet, Georges; Dupont, Grégory

    2017-03-01

    To compare the effects of cold-water immersion (CWI) and whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) on recovery kinetics after exercise-induced muscle damage. Ten physically active men performed single-leg hamstring eccentric exercise comprising 5 sets of 15 repetitions. Immediately postexercise, subjects were exposed in a randomized crossover design to CWI (10 min at 10°C) or WBC (3 min at -110°C) recovery. Creatine kinase concentrations, knee-flexor eccentric (60°/s) and posterior lower-limb isometric (60°) strength, single-leg and 2-leg countermovement jumps, muscle soreness, and perception of recovery were measured. The tests were performed before and immediately, 24, 48, and 72 h after exercise. Results showed a very likely moderate effect in favor of CWI for single-leg (effect size [ES] = 0.63; 90% confidence interval [CI] = -0.13 to 1.38) and 2-leg countermovement jump (ES = 0.68; 90% CI = -0.08 to 1.43) 72 h after exercise. Soreness was moderately lower 48 h after exercise after CWI (ES = -0.68; 90% CI = -1.44 to 0.07). Perception of recovery was moderately enhanced 24 h after exercise for CWI (ES = -0.62; 90% CI = -1.38 to 0.13). Trivial and small effects of condition were found for the other outcomes. CWI was more effective than WBC in accelerating recovery kinetics for countermovement-jump performance at 72 h postexercise. CWI also demonstrated lower soreness and higher perceived recovery levels across 24-48 h postexercise.

  13. The Effect of Taurine on the Recovery from Eccentric Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage in Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeay, Yanita; Stannard, Stephen; Barnes, Matthew

    2017-10-17

    Eccentric exercise is known to bring about microstructural damage to muscle, initiating an inflammatory cascade involving various reactive oxygen species. This, in turn, can significantly impair physical performance over subsequent days. Taurine, a powerful endogenous antioxidant, has previously been shown to have a beneficial effect on muscle damage markers and recovery when taken for a few days to several weeks prior to eccentric exercise. However, to date no studies have looked at the effects of supplementing over the days following eccentric exercise on performance recovery. Thus, this study aimed to determine whether supplementing with taurine over three days following eccentric exercise attenuated the rise in serum creatine kinase and improved performance recovery in males. In a blinded, randomized, crossover design, ten recreationally-fit male participants completed 60 eccentric contractions of the biceps brachii muscle at maximal effort. Following this, participants were supplemented with 0.1 g∙kg-1 body weight∙day-1 of either taurine or rice flour in capsules. Over the next three mornings participants underwent blood tests for the analysis of the muscle damage marker creatine kinase and carried out performance measures on the isokinetic dynamometer. They also continued to consume the capsules in the morning and evening. The entire protocol was repeated two weeks later on the alternate arm and supplement. Significant decreases were seen in all performance measures from pre- to 24-h post-eccentric exercise (p time × treatment effects were observed (all p > 0.05). Serum creatine kinase levels did not significantly differ over time for either treatments, nor between treatments (p > 0.05). These findings suggest that taurine supplementation taken twice daily for 72 h following eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage may help improve eccentric performance recovery of the biceps brachii.

  14. Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound Reveals Exercise-Induced Perfusion Deficits in Claudicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundi, Rishi; Prior, Steven J; Addison, Odessa; Lu, Michael; Ryan, Alice S; Lal, Brajesh K

    2017-01-01

    Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography (CEUS) is an imaging modality allowing perfusion quantification in targeted regions of interest of the lower extremity that has not been possible with color-flow imaging or with measurement of ankle brachial indices. We developed a protocol to quantify lower extremity muscle perfusion impairment in PAD patients in response to exercise. Thirteen patients with Rutherford Class I-III Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD) and no prior revascularization procedures were recruited from the Baltimore Veterans Affairs Medical Center and compared with eight control patients without PAD. CEUS interrogation of the index limb gastrocnemius muscle was performed using an intravenous bolus of lipid-stabilized microsphere contrast before and after a standardized treadmill protocol. Peak perfusion (PEAK) and time to peak perfusion (TTP) were measured before and after exercise. Between and within group differences were assessed. Control subjects demonstrated a more rapid TTP (p<0.01) and an increase in peak perfusion (PEAK, p=0.02) after exercise, when compared to their baseline measures. Patients with PAD demonstrated TTP and PEAK measures equivalent to controls at baseline (p=0.39, p=0.71, respectively). However, they exhibited no significant exercise-induced changes in perfusion (TTP p=0.49 and PEAK 0.67, respectively compared to baseline). After exercise, normal subjects had significantly shorter TTP (p=0.04) and greater PEAK (p=0.02) than PAD patients. Consistent with their lack of ischemic symptoms at rest, class I to III claudicant PAD patients showed similar perfusion measures (TTP and PEAK) at rest. PAD patients, however, were unable to increase perfusion in response to exercise, whereas controls increased perfusion significantly. This corresponds with claudication and limited walking capacity observed in PAD. CEUS with bolus injection offers a convenient, objective, quantitative and visual physiologic assessment of perfusion limitation in

  15. Combined exercise ameliorates ovariectomy-induced cognitive impairment by enhancing cell proliferation and suppressing apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Woon; Kim, Chang-Sun; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Chang-Ju; Seo, Jin-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Estrogen plays an important role in cognitive function, including attention, learning, and memory, and affects the structure and function of brain areas. We investigated the effects of combined exercise on memory deficits induced by ovariectomy (OVX) in relation to cell proliferation and apoptosis in the hippocampus. Rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham, sham and exercise, OVX, and OVX and exercise. Rats in combined exercise groups were subjected to 3 days of resistance training and 3 days of running (for a total of 6 d/wk) for eight consecutive weeks. Rats were tested in step-down avoidance task and Morris water maze task to verify the effects of OVX on short-term and spatial working memory. In the present study, the number of BrdU-positive and doublecortin-positive cells and expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, TrkB, and Bcl-2 decreased; expression of Bax and the number of caspase-3-positive and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling-positive cells increased; and short-term and spatial working memory decreased in the OVX group compared with the sham group. Conversely, when the combined exercise group was compared with the OVX group, the number of BrdU-positive and doublecortin-positive cells and expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, TrkB, and Bcl-2 increased; expression of Bax and the number of caspase-3-positive and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling-positive cells decreased; and short-term and spatial working memory increased. Combined exercise increases cell proliferation and inhibits apoptosis in the hippocampus and improves cognitive function despite estrogen deficiency.

  16. The Guardian of the Genome p53 Regulates