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Sample records for exercise increases oligodendrogenesis

  1. Oligodendrogenesis after Cerebral Ischaemia and Traumatic Brain Injury

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    Zheng Gang Zhang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Stroke and traumatic brain injury (TBI damage white and grey matter. Loss of oligodendrocytes and their myelin, impairs axonal function. Remyelination involves oligodendrogenesis during which new myelinating oligodendrocytes are generated by differentiated oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs. This article briefly reviews the processes of oligodendrogenesis in adult rodent brains, and promising experimental therapies targeting the neurovascular unit that reduce oligodendrocyte damage and amplify endogenous oligodendrogenesis after stroke and TBI.

  2. Stimulation of adult oligodendrogenesis by myelin-specific T cells

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    Hvilsted Nielsen, Helle; Toft-Hansen, Henrik; Lambertsen, Kate Lykke

    2011-01-01

    of calretinergic associational/commissural fibers within the dentate gyrus. These results have implications for the perception of MS pathogenesis because they show that infiltrating myelin-specific T cells can stimulate oligodendrogenesis in the adult central nervous system....

  3. Modulation of subventricular zone oligodendrogenesis: a role for hemopressin?

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    Sara eXapelli

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Neural stem cells (NSCs from the subventricular zone (SVZ have been indicated as a source of new oligodendrocytes to use in regenerative medicine for myelin pathologies. Indeed, NSCs are multipotent cells that can self-renew and differentiate into all neural cell types of the central nervous system (CNS. In normal conditions, SVZ cells are poorly oligodendrogenic, nevertheless their oligodendrogenic potential is boosted following demyelination. Importantly, progressive restriction into the oligodendrocyte fate is specified by extrinsic and intrinsic factors, endocannabinoids being one of these factors. Although a role for endocannabinoids in oligodendrogenesis has already been foreseen, selective agonists and antagonists of cannabinoids receptors produce severe adverse side effects. Herein, we show that hemopressin, a modulator of CB1 receptors, increased oligodendroglial differentiation in SVZ neural stem/progenitor cell cultures derived from neonatal mice. The original results presented in this work suggest that hemopressin and derivatives may be of potential interest for the development of future strategies to treat demyelinating diseases.

  4. Erythropoietin promotes oligodendrogenesis and myelin repair following lysolecithin-induced injury in spinal cord slice culture

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    Cho, Yun Kyung; Kim, Gunha; Park, Serah; Sim, Ju Hee; Won, You Jin [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1 Pungnap-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Chang Ho [Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Ulsan University Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 290-3 Jeonha-dong, Dong-gu, Ulsan 682-714 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Jong Yoon, E-mail: jyyoo@amc.seoul.kr [Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1 Pungnap-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Hea Nam, E-mail: hnhong@amc.seoul.kr [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1 Pungnap-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lysolecithin-induced demyelination elevated EpoR expression in OPCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In association with elevated EpoR, EPO increased OPCs proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EPO enhanced the oligodendrogenesis via activation of JAK2 pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EPO promoted myelin repair following lysolecithin-induced demyelination. -- Abstract: Here, we sought to delineate the effect of EPO on the remyelination processes using an in vitro model of demyelination. We report that lysolecithin-induced demyelination elevated EPO receptor (EpoR) expression in oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs), facilitating the beneficial effect of EPO on the formation of oligodendrocytes (oligodendrogenesis). In the absence of EPO, the resultant remyelination was insufficient, possibly due to a limiting number of oligodendrocytes rather than their progenitors, which proliferate in response to lysolecithin-induced injury. By EPO treatment, lysolecithin-induced proliferation of OPCs was accelerated and the number of myelinating oligodendrocytes and myelin recovery was increased. EPO also enhanced the differentiation of neural progenitor cells expressing EpoR at high level toward the oligodendrocyte-lineage cells through activation of cyclin E and Janus kinase 2 pathways. Induction of myelin-forming oligodendrocytes by high dose of EPO implies that EPO might be the key factor influencing the final differentiation of OPCs. Taken together, our data suggest that EPO treatment could be an effective way to enhance remyelination by promoting oligodendrogenesis in association with elevated EpoR expression in spinal cord slice culture after lysolecithin-induced demyelination.

  5. Oligodendrogenesis and neurogenesis in remyelination in the cuprizone model of multiple sclerosis: correlation with the degree of lesion

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    Pishchelko, A.; Khodanovich, M.; Pan, E.; Glazacheva, V.; Akulov, A.; Yarnykh, V.

    2017-08-01

    In this research, a cuprizone model of multiple sclerosis (MS) was used to study oligodendrogenesis and neurogenesis in remyelination. It has been shown that, with the administration of cuprizone, the amount of myelin in a number of structures of white and gray matter and the level of neurogenesis decrease, while the level of oligodendrogenesis increases. The withdrawal of cuprizone leads to the restoration of myelin content, the reduction of the excessive production of oligodendrocytes and to the restoration of the number of neurons to control values. The negative correlation between the number of oligodendrocyte precursors (OPCs) and the degree of demyelination of the corpus callosum indicates migration of OLG precursors from the subventricular zone (SVZ) to the structure during demyelination.

  6. Exercising self-control increases approach motivation.

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    Schmeichel, Brandon J; Harmon-Jones, Cindy; Harmon-Jones, Eddie

    2010-07-01

    The present research tested the hypothesis that exercising self-control causes an increase in approach motivation. Study 1 found that exercising (vs. not exercising) self-control increases self-reported approach motivation. Study 2a identified a behavior--betting on low-stakes gambles--that is correlated with approach motivation but is relatively uncorrelated with self-control, and Study 2b observed that exercising self-control temporarily increases this behavior. Last, Study 3 found that exercising self-control facilitates the perception of a reward-relevant symbol (i.e., a dollar sign) but not a reward-irrelevant symbol (i.e., a percent sign). Altogether, these results support the hypothesis that exercising self-control temporarily increases approach motivation. Failures of self-control that follow from prior efforts at self-control (i.e., ego depletion) may be explained in part by increased approach motivation.

  7. Exercise increases circulating GDF15 in humans

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    Kleinert, Maximilian; Clemmensen, Christoffer; Sjøberg, Kim Anker

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) is a stress-sensitive circulating factor that regulates systemic energy balance. Since exercise is a transient physiological stress that has pleiotropic effects on whole-body energy metabolism, we herein explored the effect of exercise on a......) circulating GDF15 levels and b) GDF15 release from skeletal muscle in humans. METHODS: Seven healthy males either rested or exercised at 67% of their VO2max for 1 h and blood was sampled from the femoral artery and femoral vein before, during, and after exercise. Plasma GDF15 concentrations were determined...... in these samples. RESULTS: Plasma GDF15 levels increased 34% with exercise (p exercise. There was no difference between the arterial and venous GDF15 concentration before, during, and after exercise. During...

  8. Exercise increases circulating GDF15 in humans

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    Maximilian Kleinert

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15 is a stress-sensitive circulating factor that regulates systemic energy balance. Since exercise is a transient physiological stress that has pleiotropic effects on whole-body energy metabolism, we herein explored the effect of exercise on a circulating GDF15 levels and b GDF15 release from skeletal muscle in humans. Methods: Seven healthy males either rested or exercised at 67% of their VO2max for 1 h and blood was sampled from the femoral artery and femoral vein before, during, and after exercise. Plasma GDF15 concentrations were determined in these samples. Results: Plasma GDF15 levels increased 34% with exercise (p < 0.001 and further increased to 64% above resting values at 120 min (p < 0.001 after the cessation of exercise. There was no difference between the arterial and venous GDF15 concentration before, during, and after exercise. During a resting control trial, GDF15 levels measured in the same subjects were unaltered. Conclusions: Vigorous submaximal exercise increases circulating GDF15 levels in humans, but skeletal muscle tissue does not appear to be the source. Keywords: Skeletal muscle, Growth differentiation factor 15, Recovery, Physical activity

  9. Increased muscle glucose uptake after exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Erik; Ploug, Thorkil; Galbo, Henrik

    1985-01-01

    responsiveness of glucose uptake was noted only in controls. Analysis of intracellular glucose-6-phosphate, glucose, glycogen synthesis, and glucose transport suggested that the exercise effect on responsiveness might be due to enhancement of glucose disposal. After electrical stimulation of diabetic...... of glucose. At maximal insulin concentrations, the enhancing effect of exercise on glucose uptake may involve enhancement of glucose disposal, an effect that is probably less in muscle from diabetic rats.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)......It has recently been shown that insulin sensitivity of skeletal muscle glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis is increased after a single exercise session. The present study was designed to determine whether insulin is necessary during exercise for development of these changes found after exercise...

  10. Qigong exercise with concentration predicts increased health.

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    Jouper, John; Hassmén, Peter; Johansson, Mattias

    2006-01-01

    Regular physical activity has many positive health effects. Despite this, approximately 50% of all adults are not exercising enough to enjoy better health and may, therefore, need an alternative to vigorous physical exercise. Qigong offers a gentle way to exercise the body. A questionnaire sample of 253 participants was collected and correlations with the variable health-now were analyzed. Results showed that health-now was positively correlated with number of completed qigong courses (p exercise thereby seems to offer a viable alternative to other more vigorous physical activities when wellness is the primary goal. When interpreted using self-determination theory, qigong seems to satisfy needs related to autonomy, competence and relatedness, thereby, primarily attracting individuals who are intrinsically motivated.

  11. Local delivery of thyroid hormone enhances oligodendrogenesis and myelination after spinal cord injury

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    Shultz, Robert B.; Wang, Zhicheng; Nong, Jia; Zhang, Zhiling; Zhong, Yinghui

    2017-06-01

    Objective. Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) causes apoptosis of myelin-forming oligodendrocytes (OLs) and demyelination of surviving axons, resulting in conduction failure. Remyelination of surviving denuded axons provides a promising therapeutic target for spinal cord repair. While cell transplantation has demonstrated efficacy in promoting remyelination and functional recovery, the lack of ideal cell sources presents a major obstacle to clinical application. The adult spinal cord contains oligodendrocyte precursor cells and multipotent neural stem/progenitor cells that have the capacity to differentiate into mature, myelinating OLs. However, endogenous oligodendrogenesis and remyelination processes are limited by the upregulation of remyelination-inhibitory molecules in the post-injury microenvironment. Multiple growth factors/molecules have been shown to promote OL differentiation and myelination. Approach. In this study we screened these therapeutics and found that 3, 3‧, 5-triiodothyronine (T3) is the most effective in promoting oligodendrogenesis and OL maturation in vitro. However, systemic administration of T3 to achieve therapeutic doses in the injured spinal cord is likely to induce hyperthyroidism, resulting in serious side effects. Main results. In this study we developed a novel hydrogel-based drug delivery system for local delivery of T3 to the injury site without eliciting systemic toxicity. Significance. Using a clinically relevant cervical contusion injury model, we demonstrate that local delivery of T3 at doses comparable to safe human doses promoted new mature OL formation and myelination after SCI.

  12. Magnesium enhances exercise performance via increasing glucose availability in the blood, muscle, and brain during exercise.

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    Hsuan-Ying Chen

    Full Text Available Glucose mobilization and utilization in the periphery and central nervous system are important during exercise and are responsible for exercise efficacy. Magnesium (Mg is involved in energy production and plays a role in exercise performance. This study aimed to explore the effects of Mg on the dynamic changes in glucose and lactate levels in the muscle, blood and brain of exercising rats using a combination of auto-blood sampling and microdialysis. Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated with saline or magnesium sulfate (MgSO4, 90 mg/kg, i.p. 30 min before treadmill exercise (20 m/min for 60 min. Our results indicated that the muscle, blood, and brain glucose levels immediately increased during exercise, and then gradually decreased to near basal levels in the recovery periods of both groups. These glucose levels were significantly enhanced to approximately two-fold (P<0.05 in the Mg group. Lactate levels in the muscle, blood, and brain rapidly and significantly increased in both groups during exercise, and brain lactate levels in the Mg group further elevated (P<0.05 than those in the control group during exercise. Lactate levels significantly decreased after exercise in both groups. In conclusion, Mg enhanced glucose availability in the peripheral and central systems, and increased lactate clearance in the muscle during exercise.

  13. Exercise increases lactoferrin, but decreases lysozyme in salivary granulocytes.

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    Gillum, Trevor; Kuennen, Matthew; McKenna, Zachary; Castillo, Micaela; Jordan-Patterson, Alex; Bohnert, Caitlin

    2017-05-01

    Intracellular lactoferrin (Lac) and lysozyme (Lys) content play an important role in regulating inflammation and promoting host protection. While exercise has demonstrated an increase in Lac and Lys concentration in exocrine solutions, little is known regarding intracellular concentration changes in response to exercise. To quantify intracellular Lac and Lys concentration before and after exercise in salivary CD45 + CD15 + cells. 11 males (20.3 ± 0.8 years, 57.2 ± 7.6 mL/kg/min V̇O 2pk , 11.1 ± 3.9% body fat) ran for 45 min at 75% of VO 2pk . 12 mL of stimulated saliva were collected pre and immediately post exercise. Saliva was filtered through a 30-µm filter before analysis of leukocytes (CD45 + ) and granulocytes (CD45 + CD15 + ) using flow cytometry. Median fluorescent intensity (MFI) of Lac increased from pre (64,268 ± 46,036 MFI) to post (117,134 ± 88,115 MFI) exercise (p exercise (pre: 16,933 ± 8249; post: 11,616 ± 6875) (p exercise. Conversely, the exercise-associated decrease of intracellular Lys content could be the cause of increased Lys in exocrine solutions.

  14. Exercise increases endostatin in circulation of healthy volunteers

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    Makey Ian

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical inactivity increases the risk of atherosclerosis. However, the molecular mechanisms of this relation are poorly understood. A recent report indicates that endostatin, an endogenous angiostatic factor, inhibits the progression of atherosclerosis, and suggests that reducing intimal and atherosclerotic plaque tissue neovascularization can inhibit the progression atherosclerosis in animal models. We hypothesize that exercise can elevate the circulatory endostatin level. Hence, exercise can protect against one of the mechanisms of atherosclerosis. Results We examined treadmill exercise tests in healthy volunteers to determine the effect of exercise on plasma levels of endostatin and other angiogenic regulators. Oxygen consumption (VO2 was calculated. Plasma levels of endostatin, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF were determined using ELISA. The total peak VO2 (L in 7 male subjects was 29.5 ± 17.8 over a 4–10 minute interval of exercise. Basal plasma levels of endostatin (immediately before exercise were 20.3 ± 3.2 pg/ml, the plasma levels increased to 29.3 ± 4.2, 35.2 ± 1.8, and 27.1 ± 2.2 ng/ml, at 0.5, 2, and 6 h, respectively, after exercise. There was a strong linear correlation between increased plasma levels of endostatin (% and the total peak VO2 (L related to exercise (R2 = 0.9388; P Conclusions The results suggest that circulating endostatin can be significantly increased by exercise in proportion to the peak oxygen consumption under physiological conditions in healthy volunteers. These findings may provide new insights into the molecular links between physical inactivity and the risk of angiogenesis dependent diseases such as atherosclerosis.

  15. Increasing blood flow to exercising muscle attenuates systemic cardiovascular responses during dynamic exercise in humans.

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    Ichinose, Masashi; Ichinose-Kuwahara, Tomoko; Kondo, Narihiko; Nishiyasu, Takeshi

    2015-11-15

    Reducing blood flow to working muscles during dynamic exercise causes metabolites to accumulate within the active muscles and evokes systemic pressor responses. Whether a similar cardiovascular response is elicited with normal blood flow to exercising muscles during dynamic exercise remains unknown, however. To address that issue, we tested whether cardiovascular responses are affected by increases in blood flow to active muscles. Thirteen healthy subjects performed dynamic plantarflexion exercise for 12 min at 20%, 40%, and 60% of peak workload (EX20, EX40, and EX60) with their lower thigh enclosed in a negative pressure box. Under control conditions, the box pressure was the same as the ambient air pressure. Under negative pressure conditions, beginning 3 min after the start of the exercise, the box pressure was decreased by 20, 45, and then 70 mmHg in stepwise fashion with 3-min step durations. During EX20, the negative pressure had no effect on blood flow or the cardiovascular responses measured. However, application of negative pressure increased blood flow to the exercising leg during EX40 and EX60. This increase in blood flow had no significant effect on systemic cardiovascular responses during EX40, but it markedly attenuated the pressor responses otherwise seen during EX60. These results demonstrate that during mild exercise, normal blood flow to exercising muscle is not a factor eliciting cardiovascular responses, whereas it elicits an important pressor effect during moderate exercise. This suggests blood flow to exercising muscle is a major determinant of cardiovascular responses during dynamic exercise at higher than moderate intensity. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Exercise increases endostatin in circulation of healthy volunteers.

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    Gu, Jian-Wei; Gadonski, Giovani; Wang, Julie; Makey, Ian; Adair, Thomas H

    2004-01-16

    Physical inactivity increases the risk of atherosclerosis. However, the molecular mechanisms of this relation are poorly understood. A recent report indicates that endostatin, an endogenous angiostatic factor, inhibits the progression of atherosclerosis, and suggests that reducing intimal and atherosclerotic plaque tissue neovascularization can inhibit the progression atherosclerosis in animal models. We hypothesize that exercise can elevate the circulatory endostatin level. Hence, exercise can protect against one of the mechanisms of atherosclerosis. We examined treadmill exercise tests in healthy volunteers to determine the effect of exercise on plasma levels of endostatin and other angiogenic regulators. Oxygen consumption (VO2) was calculated. Plasma levels of endostatin, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) were determined using ELISA. The total peak VO2 (L) in 7 male subjects was 29.5 +/- 17.8 over a 4-10 minute interval of exercise. Basal plasma levels of endostatin (immediately before exercise) were 20.3 +/- 3.2 pg/ml, the plasma levels increased to 29.3 +/- 4.2, 35.2 +/- 1.8, and 27.1 +/- 2.2 ng/ml, at 0.5, 2, and 6 h, respectively, after exercise. There was a strong linear correlation between increased plasma levels of endostatin (%) and the total peak VO2 (L) related to exercise (R2 = 0.9388; P < 0.01). Concurrently, VEGF levels decreased to 28.3 +/- 6.4, 17.6 +/- 2.4, and 26.5 +/- 12.5 pg/ml, at 0.5, 2, and 6 h, respectively, after exercise. There were no significant changes in plasma bFGF levels in those subjects before and after exercise. The results suggest that circulating endostatin can be significantly increased by exercise in proportion to the peak oxygen consumption under physiological conditions in healthy volunteers. These findings may provide new insights into the molecular links between physical inactivity and the risk of angiogenesis dependent diseases such as atherosclerosis.

  17. Exercise Decreases and Smoking Increases Bladder Cancer Mortality.

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    Liss, Michael A; White, Martha; Natarajan, Loki; Parsons, J Kellogg

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate modifiable lifestyle factors of smoking, exercise, and obesity with bladder cancer mortality. We used mortality-linked data from the National Health Information Survey from 1998 through 2006. The primary outcome was bladder cancer-specific mortality. The primary exposures were self-reported smoking status (never- vs. former vs. current smoker), self-reported exercise (dichotomized as "did no exercise" vs. "light, moderate, or vigorous exercise in ≥ 10-minute bouts"), and body mass index. We utilized multivariable adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models, with delayed entry to account for age at survey interview. Complete data were available on 222,163 participants, of whom 96,715 (44%) were men and 146,014 (66%) were non-Hispanic whites, and among whom we identified 83 bladder cancer-specific deaths. In multivariate analyses, individuals who reported any exercise were 47% less likely (adjusted hazard ratio [HR adj ], 0.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.29-0.96; P = .038) to die of bladder cancer than "no exercise". Compared with never-smokers, current (HR adj , 4.24; 95% CI, 1.89-9.65; P = .001) and former (HR adj , 2.95; 95% CI, 1.50-5.79; P = .002) smokers were 4 and 3 times more likely, respectively, to die of bladder cancer. There were no significant associations of body mass index with bladder cancer mortality. Exercise decreases and current smoking increases the risk of bladder cancer-specific mortality. These data suggest that exercise and smoking cessation interventions may reduce bladder cancer death. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Exercising self-control increases relative left frontal cortical activation.

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    Schmeichel, Brandon J; Crowell, Adrienne; Harmon-Jones, Eddie

    2016-02-01

    Self-control refers to the capacity to override or alter a predominant response tendency. The current experiment tested the hypothesis that exercising self-control temporarily increases approach motivation, as revealed by patterns of electrical activity in the prefrontal cortex. Participants completed a writing task that did vs did not require them to exercise self-control. Then they viewed pictures known to evoke positive, negative or neutral affect. We assessed electroencephalographic (EEG) activity while participants viewed the pictures, and participants reported their trait levels of behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and behavioral activation system (BAS) sensitivity at the end of the study. We found that exercising (vs not exercising) self-control increased relative left frontal cortical activity during picture viewing, particularly among individuals with relatively higher BAS than BIS, and particularly during positive picture viewing. A similar but weaker pattern emerged during negative picture viewing. The results suggest that exercising self-control temporarily increases approach motivation, which may help to explain the aftereffects of self-control (i.e. ego depletion). © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Rapid determination of the hypoxanthine increase in ischemic exercise tests

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    Bolhuis, P. A.; Zwart, R.; Bär, P. R.; de Visser, M.; van der Helm, H. J.

    1988-01-01

    After ischemic exercise tests, performed to detect glycogenoses or myoadenylate deaminase (EC 3.5.4.6) deficiency, the increases in serum lactate and ammonia usually are measured. Determination of hypoxanthine instead of ammonia can also be used to show myoadenylate deaminase deficiency, but HPLC of

  20. Pregnancy Exercise Increase Enzymatic Antioxidant In Pregnant Women

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    Wagey Freddy Wagey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Pregnancy is a vulnerable condition to all kinds of "stress", resulting in changes of physiological and metabolic functions. This research aims to determine effect of exercise during pregnancy in increasing enzymatic antioxidant marked by increase of superoxide dismutase (SOD, gluthation peroxidase (GSHPx, and catalase (CAT levels. Methods: Randomized pre and posttest control group design was employed in this study. A number of 66 pregnant women were recruited in this study and grouped into two groups, i.e 30 of them as control group and the rest as treatment group. Pregnancy exercise was performed to all 36 pregnant women from 20 weeks gestation on treatment group. The exercise was performed in the morning for about 30 minutes, twice a weeks. On the other hand, daily activities was sugested for control group. Student’s t-test was then applied to determine the mean different of treatment and control group with 5 % of significant value. Results: This study reveals that there were significantly higher increase of (superoxide dismutase (SOD, gluthation peroxidase (GSHPx, and catalse (CAT levels of treatment group compare to control group. These enzymatic antioxidant increase among these two group were around 1.36 mg/gHb for SOD; 1.14 IU/gHb for GSHPx; and 0.97 IU/gHb for CAT, (p < 0.05.  Clinical outcomes, such as strengten of pelvic muscle and quality of life of treatment group were significantly better compared to control group (p < 0.05. Conclusions: This means that exercise during pregnancy ages of 20 weeks increase enzymatic antioxidant levels SOD, GSHPx, and CAT higher compare to control group without exercise.  

  1. Pregnancy Exercise Increase Enzymatic Antioxidant In Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagey Freddy Wagey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Pregnancy is a vulnerable condition to all kinds of "stress", resulting in changes of physiological and metabolic functions. This research aims to determine effect of exercise during pregnancy in increasing enzymatic antioxidant marked by increase of superoxide dismutase (SOD, gluthation peroxidase (GSHPx, and catalase (CAT levels. Methods: Randomized pre and posttest control group design was employed in this study. A number of 66 pregnant women were recruited in this study and grouped into two groups, i.e 30 of them as control group and the rest as treatment group. Pregnancy exercise was performed to all 36 pregnant women from 20 weeks gestation on treatment group. The exercise was performed in the morning for about 30 minutes, twice a weeks. On the other hand, daily activities was sugested for control group. Student’s t-test was then applied to determine the mean different of treatment and control group with 5 % of significant value. Results: This study reveals that there were significantly higher increase of (superoxide dismutase (SOD, gluthation peroxidase (GSHPx, and catalse (CAT levels of treatment group compare to control group. These enzymatic antioxidant increase among these two group were around 1.36 mg/gHb for SOD; 1.14 IU/gHb for GSHPx; and 0.97 IU/gHb for CAT, (p < 0.05. Clinical outcomes, such as strengten of pelvic muscle and quality of life of treatment group were significantly better compared to control group (p < 0.05. Conclusions: This means that exercise during pregnancy ages of 20 weeks increase enzymatic antioxidant levels SOD, GSHPx, and CAT higher compare to control group without exercise.

  2. BREATHING EXERCISE RELAXATION INCREASE PHSYCOLOGICAL RESPONSE PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

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    Yuni Sufyanti Arief

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Being hospitalize will be made the children become stress. Hospitalization response of the child particularly is afraid sense regard to painfull procedure and increase to attack the invasive procedure. The aimed of this study was to describe the influence of breathing exercise relaxation technique regarded to phsycological receiving responses in the preeliminary school chidren while they were receiving invasive procedure. Method: A quasy experimental purposive sampling design was used in this study. There were 20 respondents who met to the inclusion criteria. The independent variable was the breathing exercise relaxation technique and the dependent variable was phsycological receiving responses. Data for phsylogical response were collected by using observation form then analyzed by using Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test and Mann Whitney U Test with significance level α≤0.05. Result :  The result showed that breathing exercise relaxation technique had significance influence to phsycological response (p=0.000. Discussion: It,s can be concluded that breathing exercise relaxation technique has an effect to increase pshycological response in preeliminary school children who received invasive procedure.

  3. Endurance exercise training increases peripheral vascular response in human fingers.

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    Katayama, K; Shimoda, M; Maeda, J; Takemiya, T

    1998-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify whether peripheral vascular response to alteration of transmural pressure is changed by endurance exercise training. The healthy male subjects (training group; n = 6) performed endurance exercise training that consisted of cycle ergometer exercise 5 d.week-1 and 30 min.d-1 for a period of 8 weeks. Changes in the peripheral vascular response to alteration of transmural pressure in the human finger were measured by a differential digital photoplethysmogram (DeltaDPG) and blood pressure during passive movement of the arm to different vertical hand positions relative to heart level. Following 8 weeks of endurance training, percent changes in DeltaDPG from heart level in the training group increased significantly (mean +/- SD, -48.1 +/- 7. 3 to -58.7 +/- 9.3% at the lowered position, 46.1 +/- 13.4 to 84.6 +/- 8.8% at the elevated position, ppressure, also significantly changed in the training group over the 8 weeks (5.6 +/- 1.3 to 2.7 +/- 1.6 mV. V-1.s-1.mmHg-1 at the lowered position, 30.0 +/- 12.4 to 54.4 +/- 18. 9 mV.V-1.s-1.mmHg-1 at the elevated position ). Maximal oxygen uptake (V.O2 max) was significantly increased in the training group. On the other hand, the control group (n = 6) showed no significant changes in all parameters for 8 weeks. Therefore these results suggest that endurance exercise training induces an increase in peripheral vascular response to alteration of transmural pressure in the human finger.

  4. Increased fat oxidation and regulation of metabolic genes with ultraendurance exercise

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    Helge, Jørn Wulff; Rehrer, N J; Pilegaard, H

    2007-01-01

    AIM: Regular endurance exercise stimulates muscle metabolic capacity, but effects of very prolonged endurance exercise are largely unknown. This study examined muscle substrate availability and utilization during prolonged endurance exercise, and associated metabolic genes. METHODS: Data were...... exercise markedly increases plasma fatty acid availability and fat utilization during exercise. Exercise-induced regulation of genes encoding proteins involved in fatty acid recruitment and oxidation may contribute to these changes....

  5. Acute exercise increases adipose tissue interstitial adiponectin concentration in healthy overweight and lean subjects

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    Højbjerre, Lise; Rosenzweig, Mary; Dela, Flemming

    2007-01-01

    -) plasma concentration did not change during exercise in any of the groups, but SCAAT TNF- mRNA increased after exercise in both groups. Furthermore, exercise decreased SCAAT leptin mRNA with no change in resistin mRNA. CONCLUSIONS: Acute exercise increases adipose tissue interstitial adiponectin...

  6. Increasing Physical Activity in Mothers Using Video Exercise Groups and Exercise Mobile Apps: Randomized Controlled Trial.

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    Mascarenhas, Maya Nina; Chan, June Maylin; Vittinghoff, Eric; Van Blarigan, Erin Lynn; Hecht, Frederick

    2018-05-18

    Women significantly decrease their activity levels in the transition to motherhood. Digital health technologies are low cost, scalable, and can provide an effective delivery mechanism for behavior change. This is the first study that examines the use of videoconferencing and mobile apps to create exercise groups for mothers. The aim of the study was to test the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of an individually adaptive and socially supportive physical activity intervention incorporating videoconferencing and mobile apps for mothers. The Moms Online Video Exercise Study was an 8-week, 2-armed, Web-based randomized trial comparing the effectiveness of a group exercise intervention with a waitlist control. Healthy mothers with at least 1 child under the age of 12 years were recruited through Facebook and email listservs. Intervention participants joined exercise groups using videoconferencing (Google Hangouts) every morning on weekdays and exercised together in real time, guided by exercise mobile apps (eg, Nike+, Sworkit) of their choice. Waitlist control participants had access to recommended mobile apps and an invitation to join an exercise group after the 8-week study period. Main outcomes assessed included changes in self-reported moderate, vigorous, and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) minutes per week in aggregate and stratified by whether women met Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines for sufficient aerobic activity at baseline. Outcomes were measured through self-assessed Web-based questionnaires at baseline and 8 weeks. The intervention was effective at increasing exercise for inactive women and proved to be feasible and acceptable to all participants. A total of 64 women were randomized, 30 to intervention and 34 to control. Women attended 2.8 sessions per week. There was a strong, but not statistically significant, trend toward increasing moderate, vigorous, and MVPA minutes for all women. As hypothesized, in

  7. Fructose and Sucrose Intake Increase Exogenous Carbohydrate Oxidation during Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trommelen, Jorn; Fuchs, Cas J.; Beelen, Milou; Lenaerts, Kaatje; Jeukendrup, Asker E.; Cermak, Naomi M.; van Loon, Luc J. C.

    2017-01-01

    Peak exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates typically reach ~1 g·min−1 during exercise when ample glucose or glucose polymers are ingested. Fructose co-ingestion has been shown to further increase exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of fructose co-ingestion provided either as a monosaccharide or as part of the disaccharide sucrose on exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates during prolonged exercise in trained cyclists. Ten trained male cyclists (VO2peak: 65 ± 2 mL·kg−1·min−1) cycled on four different occasions for 180 min at 50% Wmax during which they consumed a carbohydrate solution providing 1.8 g·min−1 of glucose (GLU), 1.2 g·min−1 glucose + 0.6 g·min−1 fructose (GLU + FRU), 0.6 g·min−1 glucose + 1.2 g·min−1 sucrose (GLU + SUC), or water (WAT). Peak exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates did not differ between GLU + FRU and GLU + SUC (1.40 ± 0.06 vs. 1.29 ± 0.07 g·min−1, respectively, p = 0.999), but were 46% ± 8% higher when compared to GLU (0.96 ± 0.06 g·min−1: p exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates during the latter 120 min of exercise were 46% ± 8% higher in GLU + FRU or GLU + SUC compared with GLU (1.19 ± 0.12, 1.13 ± 0.21, and 0.82 ± 0.16 g·min−1, respectively, p exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates during prolonged exercise in trained cyclists. PMID:28230742

  8. Decreased muscle oxygenation and increased arterial blood flow in the non-exercising limb during leg exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiroishi, Kiyoshi; Kime, Ryotaro; Osada, Takuya; Murase, Norio; Shimomura, Kousuke; Katsumura, Toshihito

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated arterial blood flow, muscle tissue oxygenation and muscle metabolism in the non-exercising limb during leg cycling exercise. Ten healthy male volunteers performed a graded leg cycling exercise at 0, 40, 80, 120 and 160 watts (W) for 5 min each. Tissue oxygenation index (TOI) of the non-exercising left forearm muscle was measured using a near-infrared spatially resolved spectroscopy (NIR(SRS)), and non-exercising forearm blood flow ((NONEX)FBF) in the brachial artery was also evaluated by a Doppler ultrasound system. We also determined O(2) consumption of the non-exercising forearm muscle (NONEXV(O)(2mus)) by the rate of decrease in O(2)Hb during arterial occlusion at each work rate. TOI was significantly decreased at 160 W (p exercising muscle may be reduced, even though (NONEX)FBF increases at high work rates during leg cycling exercise.

  9. Exercise increases human skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity via coordinated increases in microvascular perfusion and molecular signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjøberg, Kim Anker; Frøsig, Christian; Kjøbsted, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    and increased similarly in both legs during the clamp and L-NMMA had no effect on these insulin-stimulated signaling pathways. Therefore, acute exercise increases insulin sensitivity of muscle by a coordinated increase in insulin-stimulated microvascular perfusion and molecular signaling at the level of TBC1D4...... and glycogen synthase in muscle. This secures improved glucose delivery on the one hand and increased ability to take up and dispose of the delivered glucose on the other hand....

  10. Chronic exercise increases insulin binding in muscles but not liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonen, A.; Clune, P.A.; Tan, M.H.

    1986-01-01

    It has been postulated that the improved glucose tolerance provoked by chronic exercise is primarily attributable to increased insulin binding in skeletal muscle. Therefore, the authors investigated the effects of progressively increased training (6 wk) on insulin binding by five hindlimb skeletal muscles and in liver. In the trained animals serum insulin levels at rest were lower either in a fed or fasted state and after an oral glucose tolerance test. Twenty-four hours after the last exercise bout sections of the liver, soleus (S), plantaris (P), extensor digitorum longus (EDL), and red (RG) and white gastrocnemius (WG) muscles were pooled from four to six rats. Insulin binding to plasma membranes increased in S, P, and EDL but not in WG or in liver. There were insulin binding differences among muscles. Comparison of rank orders of insulin binding data with published glucose transport data for the same muscles revealed that these parameters do not correspond well. In conclusion, insulin binding to muscle is shown to be heterogeneous and training can increase insulin binding to selected muscles but not liver

  11. Immediate increase in food intake following exercise messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarracin, Dolores; Wang, Wei; Leeper, Joshua

    2009-07-01

    Communications to stimulate weight loss include exercise-promotion messages that often produce unsatisfactory results due to compensatory behavioral and metabolic mechanisms triggered by physical activity. This research investigated potential automatic facilitation of eating immediately after exercise messages in the absence of actual exercise. Two controlled experiments demonstrated greater than control food intake following exposure to print messages typical of exercise campaigns as well as subliminal presentation of action words associated with exercise (e.g., "active"). These inadvertent effects may explain the limited efficacy of exercise-promotion programs for weight loss, particularly when systematic dietary guidelines are absent.

  12. Exercise Lowers Threshold and Increases Severity, but Wheat-Dependent, Exercise-Induced Anaphylaxis Can Be Elicited at Rest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Morten J.; Eller, Esben; Mortz, Charlotte G.

    2018-01-01

    of specific IgE (sIgE) were followed by an oral food challenge with gluten at rest and in combination with treadmill exercise. Results: A clinical reaction was elicited in 47 of 71 (66%), and in 26 of these (37%) the reaction could be elicited at rest. The median dose required at rest was 48 g (8-80 g...... with exercise. Conclusions: A challenge test with gluten at rest and combined exercise is a safe confirmatory test for WDEIA. A reaction can be elicited at rest (without exercise), but exercise is able to lower the threshold and increase the severity....

  13. Exercise Increases 24-h Fat Oxidation Only When It Is Performed Before Breakfast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaito Iwayama

    2015-12-01

    Interpretation: Under energy-balanced conditions, 24-h fat oxidation was increased by exercise only when performed before breakfast. Transient carbohydrate deficits, i.e., glycogen depletion, observed after morning exercise may have contributed to increased 24-h fat oxidation.

  14. Current understanding of increased insulin sensitivity after exercise - emerging candidates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maarbjerg, Stine Just; Sylow, Lykke; Richter, Erik

    2011-01-01

    signaling component in the insulin signaling pathway such as aPKC, Rac1, TBC1D4 and TBC1D1 have been described. These are all affected by both insulin and exercise which means that they are likely converging points in promoting GLUT4 translocation and therefore possible candidates for regulating insulin...... sensitivity after exercise. Whereas TBC1D1 does not appear to regulate insulin sensitivity after exercise, correlative evidence in contrast suggests TBC1D4 to be a relevant candidate. Little is known about aPKC and Rac1 in relation to insulin sensitivity after exercise. Besides mechanisms involved...

  15. Postprandial triacylglycerol uptake in the legs is increased during exercise and post-exercise recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, L H; Simonsen, L; Bülow, J

    2005-01-01

    plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) uptake and clearance in the exercising legs immediately and for at least 4 h post-exercise, while food intake per se did not change leg plasma TAG uptake or clearance for up to 6 h. It is hypothesized that the effect of exercise on leg plasma TAG metabolism is a result...

  16. Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... decreased bone density with an increased risk of fracture, and shallow, inefficient breathing. An exercise program needs ... and-Soul (Feb. 2013 issue) (.pdf) Download Document Rehabilitation: Recommendations for Persons with MS (.pdf) Download Brochure ...

  17. Effectivenes of Aerobic and Yoga Exercise to Increase Cardiorespiration Stamina in Carier Women

    OpenAIRE

    Yunitasari, Esti; Qur'aniati, Nuzul; Arunia, Ida

    2009-01-01

    Introduction : Cardiorespiratory endurance is one of the components of fitness. Cardiorespiratory endurance is considered to have relation with health because the low grade of fitness connected to high risk of immature death especially cardiovascular disease. Sport such as aerobic exercise and yoga exercise is one of efforts to increase cardiorespiratory endurance. This study was aimed to analyze the effectiveness aerobic exercise and yoga exercise to increase of cardiorespiratory endurance i...

  18. Maximal exercise increases mucosal associated invariant T cell frequency and number in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Erik D; Danson, Eli; Nguyen-Robertson, Catriona V; Fyfe, Jackson J; Stepto, Nigel K; Bartlett, David B; Sakkal, Samy

    2017-11-01

    Mucosal associated invariant T (MAIT) cells have properties of the innate and acquired immune systems. While the response to vigorous exercise has been established for most leukocytes, MAIT cells have not been investigated. Therefore, the purpose was to determine if MAIT cell lymphocytosis occurs with acute maximal aerobic exercise and if this response is influenced by exercise duration, cardiovascular fitness, or body composition. Twenty healthy young males with moderate fitness levels performed an extended graded exercise test until volitional fatigue. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from venous blood obtained prior and immediately after exercise and were labeled to identify specific T cell populations using flow cytometry. The percentage of MAIT cells relative to total T cells significantly increased from 3.0 to 3.8% and absolute MAIT cell counts increased by 2.2-fold following maximal exercise. MAIT cell subpopulation proportions were unchanged with exercise. Within cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), MAIT cells consisted of 8% of these cells and this remained constant after exercise. MAIT cell counts and changes with exercise were not affected by body composition, VO 2peak , or exercise duration. Maximal exercise doubled MAIT cell numbers and showed preferential mobilization within total T cells but the response was not influenced by fitness levels, exercise duration, or body composition. These results suggest that acute exercise could be used to offset MAIT cell deficiencies observed with certain pathologies. MAIT cells also make up a substantial proportion of CTLs, which may have implications for cytotoxicity assays using these cells.

  19. Evaluation of an intervention to increase self-efficacy for independent exercise in cardiac rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkley, Sherry A; Fahrenwald, Nancy L

    2013-01-01

    Adherence to independent exercise is an essential outcome of cardiac rehabilitation (CR), yet limited theory-based interventions to improve adherence exist. This study tested the effects of an intervention based on Bandura's conceptualization of self-efficacy. The self-efficacy coaching intervention (SCI), a supplement to standard care, was designed to increase self-efficacy for independent exercise and independent exercise behavior in CR. We examined whether the SCI vs. attention control (AC) resulted in improved exercise self-efficacy (ESE), barriers self-efficacy (BARSE), and minutes of independent exercise for CR participants (n = 65). While between-group differences did not reach significance (p > .10) for any of the outcome measures, significant within-group changes were noted in BARSE scores and independent exercise (p exercise for the AC group was also significant (p =. 006). Further study is needed to explore whether short-term changes translate into maintenance of independent exercise participation after program completion.

  20. An acute exercise session increases self-efficacy in sedentary endometrial cancer survivors and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Daniel; Baum, George; Jovanovic, Jennifer; Carmack, Cindy; Greisinger, Anthony; Basen-Engquist, Karen

    2010-11-01

    Self-efficacy can be affected by mastery experiences and somatic sensations. A novel exercise experience and associated sensations may impact self-efficacy and subsequent behaviors. We investigated the effect of a single exercise session on self-efficacy for sedentary endometrial cancer survivors compared with sedentary women of a similar age, but with no cancer history. Twenty survivors and 19 controls completed an exercise session performed as a submaximal cycle ergometry test. Sensations and efficacy were measured before and after exercise. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed. Regression models were used to determine predictors of self-efficacy and subsequent exercise. Self-efficacy increased for both survivors and controls, but survivors had a higher rate of increase, and the change predicted subsequent exercise. The association between exercise-related somatic sensations and self-efficacy differed between the 2 groups. A novel exercise experience had a larger effect on self-efficacy and subsequent exercise activity for endometrial cancer survivors than controls. Somatic sensations experienced during exercise may differ for survivors, which may be related to the experience of having cancer. Understanding factors affecting confidence in novel exercise experiences for populations with specific cancer histories is of the utmost importance in the adoption of exercise behaviors.

  1. EFFECTIVENES OF AEROBIC AND YOGA EXERCISE TO INCREASE CARDIORESPIRATION STAMINA IN CARIER WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esti Yunitasari

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Cardiorespiratory endurance is one of the components of fitness. Cardiorespiratory endurance is considered to have relation with health because the low grade of fitness connected to high risk of immature death especially cardiovascular disease. Sport such as aerobic exercise and yoga exercise is one of efforts to increase cardiorespiratory endurance. This study was aimed to analyze the effectiveness aerobic exercise and yoga exercise to increase of cardiorespiratory endurance in female employee. Method : The design of the study was Quasy Experimental by using non-probability sampling (purposive sampling. Total sample of this study were 21 respondents. Seven respondents as treatment aerobic exerciser, 7 respondents as treatment yoga exerciser and 7 respondents as control group. The independent variables were aerobic exercise and yoga exercise. The dependent variables were the increase cardiorespiratory endurance. The data were collected and analyzed by using paired t test and anova with significance level a < 0,05. Result : The result showed that there were no differences effectiveness aerobic exercise and yoga exercise to increase cardiorespiratory endurance for female employee which were indicated by pulse (p=0,388, blood pressure systole (p= 0,520, blood pressure diastole (p=0,131 and respiration (p=0,432. Analysis :  It can be concluded that both of gymnastic aerobic and yoga effective on increasing immunity of cardiovascular for the female. Discussion : Female employee can consider aerobic and yoga as an effort to increase cardiorespiratory endurance.

  2. New strategies in sport nutrition to increase exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Close, G L; Hamilton, D L; Philp, A; Burke, L M; Morton, J P

    2016-09-01

    Despite over 50 years of research, the field of sports nutrition continues to grow at a rapid rate. Whilst the traditional research focus was one that centred on strategies to maximise competition performance, emerging data in the last decade has demonstrated how both macronutrient and micronutrient availability can play a prominent role in regulating those cell signalling pathways that modulate skeletal muscle adaptations to endurance and resistance training. Nonetheless, in the context of exercise performance, it is clear that carbohydrate (but not fat) still remains king and that carefully chosen ergogenic aids (e.g. caffeine, creatine, sodium bicarbonate, beta-alanine, nitrates) can all promote performance in the correct exercise setting. In relation to exercise training, however, it is now thought that strategic periods of reduced carbohydrate and elevated dietary protein intake may enhance training adaptations whereas high carbohydrate availability and antioxidant supplementation may actually attenuate training adaptation. Emerging evidence also suggests that vitamin D may play a regulatory role in muscle regeneration and subsequent hypertrophy following damaging forms of exercise. Finally, novel compounds (albeit largely examined in rodent models) such as epicatechins, nicotinamide riboside, resveratrol, β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate, phosphatidic acid and ursolic acid may also promote or attenuate skeletal muscle adaptations to endurance and strength training. When taken together, it is clear that sports nutrition is very much at the heart of the Olympic motto, Citius, Altius, Fortius (faster, higher, stronger). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Exercise and exercise training-induced increase in autophagy markers in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Nina; Gunnarsson, Thomas Gunnar Petursson; Bangsbo, Jens

    2018-01-01

    Moderately trained male subjects (mean age 25 years; range 19-33 years) completed an 8-week exercise training intervention consisting of continuous moderate cycling at 157 ± 20 W for 60 min (MOD; n = 6) or continuous moderate cycling (157 ± 20 W) interspersed by 30-sec sprints (473 ± 79 W) every 10...... muscle AMPKThr172 and ULKSer317 phosphorylation was elevated immediately after exercise, whereas mTORSer2448 and ULKSer757 phosphorylation was unchanged. Two hours after exercise LC3I, LC3II and BNIP3 protein content was overall higher than before exercise with no change in p62 protein. In MOD, Beclin1...... protein content was higher immediately and 2 h after exercise than before exercise, while there were no differences within SPRINT. Oxphos complex I, LC3I, BNIP3 and Parkin protein content was higher after the training intervention than before in both groups, while there was no difference in LC3II and p62...

  4. Anxiety Sensitivity Uniquely Predicts Exercise Behaviors in Young Adults Seeking to Increase Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshier, Samantha J; Szuhany, Kristin L; Hearon, Bridget A; Smits, Jasper A J; Otto, Michael W

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with elevated levels of anxiety sensitivity (AS) may be motivated to avoid aversive emotional or physical states, and therefore may have greater difficulty achieving healthy behavioral change. This may be particularly true for exercise, which produces many of the somatic sensations within the domain of AS concerns. Cross-sectional studies show a negative association between AS and exercise. However, little is known about how AS may prospectively affect attempts at behavior change in individuals who are motivated to increase their exercise. We recruited 145 young adults who self-identified as having a desire to increase their exercise behavior. Participants completed a web survey assessing AS and additional variables identified as important for behavior change-impulsivity, grit, perceived behavioral control, and action planning-and set a specific goal for exercising in the next week. One week later, a second survey assessed participants' success in meeting their exercise goals. We hypothesized that individuals with higher AS would choose lower exercise goals and would complete less exercise at the second survey. AS was not significantly associated with exercise goal level, but significantly and negatively predicted exercise at Time 2 and was the only variable to offer significant prediction beyond consideration of baseline exercise levels. These results underscore the importance of considering AS in relation to health behavior intentions. This is particularly apt given the absence of prediction offered by other traditional predictors of behavior change. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Taurine supplementation attenuates delayed increase in exercise-induced arterial stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ra, Song-Gyu; Choi, Youngju; Akazawa, Nobuhiko; Ohmori, Hajime; Maeda, Seiji

    2016-06-01

    There is a delayed increase in arterial stiffness after eccentric exercise that is possibly mediated by the concurrent delayed increase in circulating oxidative stress. Taurine has anti-oxidant action, and taurine supplementation may be able to attenuate the increase in oxidative stress after exercise. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether taurine supplementation attenuates the delayed increase in arterial stiffness after eccentric exercise. In the present double-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled trial, we divided 29 young, healthy men into 2 groups. Subjects received either 2.0 g of placebo (n = 14) or taurine (n = 15) 3 times per day for 14 days prior to the exercise, on the day of exercise, and the following 3 days. The exercise consisted of 2 sets of 20 maximal-effort eccentric repetitions with the nondominant arm only. On the morning of exercise and for 4 days thereafter, we measured serum malondialdehyde (MDA) and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) as indices of oxidative stress and arterial stiffness, respectively. On the third and fourth days after exercise, both MDA and cfPWV significantly increased in the placebo group. However, these elevations were significantly attenuated in the taurine group. The increase in MDA was associated with an increase in cfPWV from before exercise to 4 days after exercise (r = 0.597, p taurine group. Our results suggest that delayed increase in arterial stiffness after eccentric exercise was probably affected by the exercise-induced oxidative stress and was attenuated by the taurine supplementation.

  6. Plasma Irisin Modestly Increases during Moderate and High-Intensity Afternoon Exercise in Obese Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winn, Nathan C.; Grunewald, Zachary I.; Liu, Ying; Heden, Timothy D.; Nyhoff, Lauren M.; Kanaley, Jill A.

    2017-01-01

    Background and Purpose Irisin is an exercise-responsive myokine that has been proposed to exert anti-obesity benefits; yet its response during exercise in obese women is not described. This study characterized plasma irisin levels during a single bout of afternoon isocaloric-exercise of different intensities (moderate- vs high-intensity) in obese females. Methods Eleven obese females participated in 3 randomized study days beginning at 1600h: 1) no exercise (NoEx), 2) moderate exercise (ModEx; 55%VO2max) and 3) high intensity interval exercise (IntEx; 4 min (80%VO2max)/3 min (50% VO2max). Frequent blood samples were analyzed for glucose and lactate (whole-blood), and insulin, c-peptide, glucagon, and irisin (plasma) throughout 190 min of testing. Results Plasma irisin increased above baseline during ModEx and IntEx (P0.05). Peak irisin levels during ModEx and IntEx exercise were 11.9± 3.4% and 12.3 ± 4.1% relative to baseline (Pexercise intensities (P>0.05). Irisin levels remained elevated above resting for 125 minutes post-exercise during ModEx, whereas levels returned to baseline within 15 minutes post-exercise during IntEx. Similarly, no associations were found between plasma irisin levels and circulating lactate, glucose, insulin, c-peptide, or glucagon among study days (P>0.05). However, there was an inverse association between basal irisin and lean mass (r = -0.70, P = 0.01). Conclusion A single bout of moderate and high intensity afternoon exercise induces modest increases in circulating irisin concentrations during exercise; however the regulation post-exercise appears to be dimorphic between exercise intensity in obese females. Future studies are needed to compare morning and afternoon exercise on irisin secretion. PMID:28125733

  7. Moderate exercise does not increase the severity of mitral regurgitation due to mitral valve prolapse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecini, Redi; Dalsgaard, Morten; Møller, Daniel Vega

    2010-01-01

    Mitral regurgitation (MR) secondary to ischemic heart disease (IHD) increases during exercise. We tested the hypothesis that the same is also true for MR due to mitral valve prolapse (MVP).......Mitral regurgitation (MR) secondary to ischemic heart disease (IHD) increases during exercise. We tested the hypothesis that the same is also true for MR due to mitral valve prolapse (MVP)....

  8. Acute Exercise Increases Plasma Total Antioxidant Status and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Untrained Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Berzosa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant defences are essential for cellular redox regulation. Since free-radical production may be enhanced by physical activity, herein, we evaluated the effect of acute exercise on total antioxidant status (TAS and the plasma activities of catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase and its possible relation to oxidative stress resulting from exercise. Healthy untrained male subjects (=34 performed three cycloergometric tests, including maximal and submaximal episodes. Venous blood samples were collected before and immediately after each different exercise. TAS and enzyme activities were assessed by spectrophotometry. An increase of the antioxidant enzyme activities in plasma was detected after both maximal and submaximal exercise periods. Moreover, under our experimental conditions, exercise also led to an augmentation of TAS levels. These findings are consistent with the idea that acute exercise may play a beneficial role because of its ability to increase antioxidant defense mechanisms through a redox sensitive pathway.

  9. Does 'altitude training' increase exercise performance in elite athletes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundby, Carsten; Robach, Paul

    2016-07-01

    What is the topic of this review? The aim is to evaluate the effectiveness of various altitude training strategies as investigated within the last few years. What advances does it highlight? Based on the available literature, the foundation to recommend altitude training to athletes is weak. Athletes may use one of the various altitude training strategies to improve exercise performance. The scientific support for such strategies is, however, not as sound as one would perhaps imagine. The question addressed in this review is whether altitude training should be recommended to elite athletes or not. © 2016 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2016 The Physiological Society.

  10. Association of a behaviorally based high school health education curriculum with increased exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesi, James J; Trinity, John; Mareno, Nicole; Walsh, Stephanie M

    2015-06-01

    Increasing exercise in children and adolescents through academic classes is an understudied area. Potential benefits include associated improvements in health, psychosocial, and quality-of-life factors. A sample of 98 students (M(age) = 14.3) from high school health education classes received six, 40-min lessons incorporating cognitive-behavioral methods to increase exercise over 6 weeks. Significant within-group improvements in exercise, mood, and body satisfaction were found, with slightly larger effect sizes identified for the boys. Increase in exercise was significantly associated with reduced mood distress (β = -.17, p goal setting and self-regulation within high school health education classes may foster increased exercise and associated improvements in mood and body satisfaction. For girls, the positive effects may reinforce one another. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Acute intraperitoneal injection of caffeine improves endurance exercise performance in association with increasing brain dopamine release during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xinyan; Takatsu, Satomi; Wang, Hongli; Hasegawa, Hiroshi

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine changes of thermoregulation, neurotransmitters in the preoptic area and anterior hypothalamus (PO/AH), which is the thermoregulatory center, and endurance exercise performance after the intraperitoneal injection of caffeine in rats. Core body temperature (Tcore), oxygen consumption (VO₂) and tail skin temperature (Ttail) were measured. A microdialysis probe was inserted in the PO/AH, and samples for the measurements of extracellular dopamine (DA), noradrenaline (NA) and serotonin (5-HT) levels were collected. During the rest experiment, 1 h after baseline collections in the chamber (23 °C), the rats were intraperitoneally injected with saline, or 3 mg kg(-1) or 10 mg kg(-1) caffeine. The duration of the test was 4 h. During the exercise experiment, baseline collections on the treadmill were obtained for 1 h. One hour before the start of exercise, rats were intraperitoneally injected with either 10 mg kg(-1) caffeine (CAF) or saline (SAL). Animals ran until fatigue at a speed of 18 m min(-1), at a 5% grade, on the treadmill in a normal environment (23 °C). At rest, 3 mg kg(-1) caffeine did not influence Tcore, Ttail, VO₂, extracellular DA, NA and 5-HT. 10 mg kg(-1) caffeine caused significant increases in Tcore, VO₂, Ttail and extracellular DA in the PO/AH. In addition, 10 mg kg(-1) caffeine increased the run time to fatigue (SAL: 104.4 ± 30.9 min, CAF: 134.0 ± 31.1 min, pcaffeine and exercise increased Tcore, VO₂, Ttail and extracellular DA in the PO/AH. NA increased during exercise, while neither caffeine nor exercise changed 5-HT. These results indicate that caffeine has ergogenic and hyperthermic effects, and these effects may be related to changes of DA release in the brain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessing cutoff values for increased exercise blood pressure to predict incident hypertension in a general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorbeer, Roberto; Ittermann, Till; Völzke, Henry; Gläser, Sven; Ewert, Ralf; Felix, Stephan B; Dörr, Marcus

    2015-07-01

    Cutoff values for increased exercise blood pressure (BP) are not established in hypertension guidelines. The aim of the study was to assess optimal cutoff values for increased exercise BP to predict incident hypertension. Data of 661 normotensive participants (386 women) aged 25-77 years from the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-1) with a 5-year follow-up were used. Exercise BP was measured at a submaximal level of 100 W and at maximum level of a symptom-limited cycle ergometry test. Cutoff values for increased exercise BP were defined at the maximum sum of sensitivity and specificity for the prediction of incident hypertension. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) and net reclassification index (NRI) were calculated to investigate whether increased exercise BP adds predictive value for incident hypertension beyond established cardiovascular risk factors. In men, values of 160  mmHg (100  W level; AUC = 0.7837; NRI = 0.534, P AUC = 0.7677; NRI = 0.340, P = 0.003) were detected as optimal cutoff values for the definition of increased exercise SBP. A value of 190  mmHg (AUC = 0.8347; NRI = 0.519, P < 0.001) showed relevance for the definition of increased exercise SBP in women at the maximum level. According to our analyses, 190 and 210  mmHg are clinically relevant cutoff values for increased exercise SBP at the maximum exercise level of cycle ergometry test for women and men, respectively. In addition, for men, our analyses provided a cutoff value of 160  mmHg for increased exercise SBP at the 100  W level.

  13. Can exercise increase fitness and reduce weight in patients with schizophrenia and depression?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Jesper; Speyer, Helene; Nørgaard, Hans Christian Brix

    2014-01-01

    in this patient group and low levels of physical activity is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and all-cause mortality. This study aimed to review trials allocating patients with either schizophrenia or depression to exercise interventions for effect on cardiovascular fitness......, strength, and weight. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase, and PsycINFO including randomized clinical trial allocating patients with either schizophrenia or depression to isolated exercise interventions. RESULTS: We identified five trials including patients with schizophrenia (n = 94) and found little...... evidence that exercise could increase cardiovascular fitness or decrease weight. Nine exercise trials for patients with depression (n = 892) were identified increasing cardiovascular fitness by 11-30% and strength by 33-37%. No evidence in favor of exercise for weight reduction was found. CONCLUSION: Based...

  14. Hypoxia increases exercise heart rate despite combined inhibition of β-adrenergic and muscarinic receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siebenmann, Christoph; Rasmussen, Peter; Sørensen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia increases the heart rate (HR) response to exercise but the mechanism(s) remain unclear. We tested the hypothesis that the tachycardic effect of hypoxia persists during separate but not combined inhibition of β-adrenergic and muscarinic receptors. Nine subjects performed incremental exercise...... combined β-adrenergic and muscarinic receptor inhibition....

  15. Fasting and prolonged exercise increase vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galbo, H; Hilsted, J; Fahrenkrug, J

    1979-01-01

    and maximal exercise. During 59 h of fasting, VIP increased from 3.6 (0.6--6.6) to 10.2 (6.6--13.8) pmol.1(-1) (p less than 0.05). The concentration of glucose in plasma decreased significantly during the prolonged exercise as well as during fasting. The known metabolic actions of VIP and the demonstrated...

  16. Exercise increases pressure pain tolerance but not pressure and heat pain thresholds in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaegter, H B; Hoeger Bement, M; Madsen, A B; Fridriksson, J; Dasa, M; Graven-Nielsen, T

    2017-01-01

    Exercise causes an acute decrease in the pain sensitivity known as exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH), but the specificity to certain pain modalities remains unknown. This study aimed to compare the effect of isometric exercise on the heat and pressure pain sensitivity. On three different days, 20 healthy young men performed two submaximal isometric knee extensions (30% maximal voluntary contraction in 3 min) and a control condition (quiet rest). Before and immediately after exercise and rest, the sensitivity to heat pain and pressure pain was assessed in randomized and counterbalanced order. Cuff pressure pain threshold (cPPT) and pain tolerance (cPTT) were assessed on the ipsilateral lower leg by computer-controlled cuff algometry. Heat pain threshold (HPT) was recorded on the ipsilateral foot by a computer-controlled thermal stimulator. Cuff pressure pain tolerance was significantly increased after exercise compared with baseline and rest (p  0.77) compared with HPT (intraclass correlation = 0.54). The results indicate that hypoalgesia after submaximal isometric exercise is primarily affecting tolerance of pressure pain compared with the pain threshold. These data contribute to the understanding of how isometric exercise influences pain perception, which is necessary to optimize the clinical utility of exercise in management of chronic pain. The effect of isometric exercise on pain tolerance may be relevant for patients in chronic musculoskeletal pain as a pain-coping strategy. WHAT DOES THIS STUDY ADD?: The results indicate that hypoalgesia after submaximal isometric exercise is primarily affecting tolerance of pressure pain compared with the heat and pressure pain threshold. These data contribute to the understanding of how isometric exercise influences pain perception, which is necessary to optimize the clinical utility of exercise in management of chronic pain. © 2016 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  17. Long-term aerobic exercise increases redox-active iron through nitric oxide in rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qian; Xiao, De-Sheng

    2014-01-30

    Adult hippocampus is highly vulnerable to iron-induced oxidative stress. Aerobic exercise has been proposed to reduce oxidative stress but the findings in the hippocampus are conflicting. This study aimed to observe the changes of redox-active iron and concomitant regulation of cellular iron homeostasis in the hippocampus by aerobic exercise, and possible regulatory effect of nitric oxide (NO). A randomized controlled study was designed in the rats with swimming exercise treatment (for 3 months) and/or an unselective inhibitor of NO synthase (NOS) (L-NAME) treatment. The results from the bleomycin-detectable iron assay showed additional redox-active iron in the hippocampus by exercise treatment. The results from nonheme iron content assay, combined with the redox-active iron content, showed increased storage iron content by exercise treatment. NOx (nitrate plus nitrite) assay showed increased NOx content by exercise treatment. The results from the Western blot assay showed decreased ferroportin expression, no changes of TfR1 and DMT1 expressions, increased IRP1 and IRP2 expression, increased expressions of eNOS and nNOS rather than iNOS. In these effects of exercise treatment, the increased redox-active iron content, storage iron content, IRP1 and IRP2 expressions were completely reversed by L-NAME treatment, and decreased ferroportin expression was in part reversed by L-NAME. L-NAME treatment completely inhibited increased NOx and both eNOS and nNOS expression in the hippocampus. Our findings suggest that aerobic exercise could increase the redox-active iron in the hippocampus, indicating an increase in the capacity to generate hydroxyl radicals through the Fenton reactions, and aerobic exercise-induced iron accumulation in the hippocampus might mainly result from the role of the endogenous NO. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Is pulmonary gas exchange during exercise in hypoxia impaired with the increase of cardiac output?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calbet, J.A.; Robach, P.; Lundby, C.

    2008-01-01

    During exercise in humans, the alveolar-arterial O(2) tension difference ((A-a)DO(2)) increases with exercise intensity and is an important factor determining the absolute level of oxygen binding to hemoglobin and therefore the level of systemic oxygen transport. During exercise in hypoxia, the (A......-a)DO(2) is accentuated. Using the multiple inert gas elimination technique it has been shown that during exercise in acute hypoxia the contribution of ventilation-perfusion inequality to (A-a)DO(2) is rather small and in the absence of pulmonary edema intrapulmonary shunts can be ruled out. This implies...... that the main mechanism limiting pulmonary gas exchange is diffusion limitation. It is presumed that an elevation of cardiac output during exercise in acute hypoxia should increase the (A-a)DO(2). However, no studies have examined how variations in cardiac output independently affect pulmonary diffusion...

  19. [Calcium and bone metabolism across women's life stages. Exercise and sport to increase bone strength in accordance with female lifecycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Jun

    Among females who require the strategies for preventing osteoporosis, appropriate exercise and sport through all their life are important to increase or maintain bone mass. However, the type of exercise and sport applied to females is different in accordance with the lifecycle. Jumping exercise increases bone mineral content(BMC)in prepubescent children(premenarcheal girls). Bone mineral density(BMD)is higher in adolescent athletes who are engaged in weight-bearing activities. Jumping exercise, muscle strengthening exercise, and weight-bearing plus muscle strengthening exercises increase BMD in young adults and premenopausal women. Walking, aerobic weight-bearing exercise, muscle strengthening exercise, and weight-bearing plus muscle strengthening exercises maintain or increase BMD in postmenopausal women. Thus, appropriate exercise and sport in accordance with the lifecycle are important strategies for preventing osteoporosis in females.

  20. Heat and exercise acclimation increases intracellular levels of Hsp72 and inhibits exercise-induced increase in intracellular and plasma Hsp72 in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Flávio de Castro; Amorim, Fabiano Trigueiro; Passos, Renata L Freitas; Fonseca, Michele Atalla; Oliveira, Kenya Paula Moreira; Lima, Milene Rodrigues Malheiros; Guimarães, Juliana Bohen; Ferreira-Júnior, João Batista; Martini, Angelo R P; Lima, Nilo R V; Soares, Danusa Dias; Oliveira, Edilamar Menezes; Rodrigues, Luiz Oswaldo Carneiro

    2010-11-01

    In order to verify the effects of heat and exercise acclimation (HA) on resting and exercise-induced expression of plasma and leukocyte heat shock protein 72 (Hsp72) in humans, nine healthy young male volunteers (25.0 ± 0.7 years; 80.5 ± 2.0 kg; 180 ± 2 cm, mean ± SE) exercised for 60 min in a hot, dry environment (40 ± 0°C and 45 ± 0% relative humidity) for 11 days. The protocol consisted of running on a treadmill using a controlled hyperthermia technique in which the work rate was adjusted to elevate the rectal temperature by 1°C in 30 min and maintain it elevated for another 30 min. Before and after the HA, the volunteers performed a heat stress test (HST) at 50% of their individual maximal power output for 90 min in the same environment. Blood was drawn before (REST), immediately after (POST) and 1 h after (1 h POST) HST, and plasma and leukocytes were separated and stored. Subjects showed expected adaptations to HA: reduced exercise rectal and mean skin temperatures and heart rate, and augmented sweat rate and exercise tolerance. In HST1, plasma Hsp72 increased from REST to POST and then returned to resting values 1 h POST (REST: 1.11 ± 0.07, POST: 1.48 ± 0.10, 1 h POST: 1.22 ± 0.11 ng mL(-1); p  0.05). HA increased resting levels of intracellular Hsp72 (HST1: 1 ± 0.02 and HST2: 4.2 ± 1.2 density units, p  0.05). Regression analysis showed that the lower the pre-exercise expression of intracellular Hsp72, the higher the exercise-induced increase (R = -0.85, p < 0.05). In conclusion, HA increased resting leukocyte Hsp72 levels and inhibited exercise-induced expression. This intracellular adaptation probably induces thermotolerance. In addition, the non-increase in plasma Hsp72 after HA may be related to lower stress at the cellular level in the acclimated individuals.

  1. Assessing Metabolic Syndrome Through Increased Heart Rate During Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Sadeghi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to assess changes in resting and maximum heart rates as primary indicators of cardiac autonomic function in metabolic syndrome (MetS patients and to determine their value for discriminating MetS from non-MetS. 468 participants were enrolled in this cross-sectional study and assessed according to the updated adult treatment panel III (ATP-III definition of MetS. Resting and maximum heart rates were recorded following the Bruce protocol during an exercise. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was used to identify the best cutoff point for discriminating MetS from the non-MetS state. 194 participants (41.5% were diagnosed as MetS. The mean resting heart rate (RHR was not statistically different between the two groups (P=0.078. However, the mean maximum heart (MHR rate was considerably higher in participants with MetS (142.37±14.84 beats per min compared to the non-MetS group (134.62±21.63 beats per min (P<0.001. In the MetS group, the MHR was positively correlated with the serum triglyceride level (β=0.185, P=0.033 and was inversely associated with age (β=-0.469, P<0.001. The MHR had a moderate value for discriminating MetS from the non-MetS state (c=0.580, P=0.004 with the optimal cutoff point of 140 beats per min. In MetS patients, the MHR was significantly greater compared to non-MetS subjects and was directly correlated with serum triglyceride levels and inversely with advanced age. Moreover, MHR can be used as a suspicious indicator for identifying MetS.

  2. Assessing Metabolic Syndrome Through Increased Heart Rate During Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Gharipour, Mojgan; Nezafati, Pouya; Shafie, Davood; Aghababaei, Esmaeil; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal

    2016-11-01

    The present study aimed to assess changes in resting and maximum heart rates as primary indicators of cardiac autonomic function in metabolic syndrome (MetS) patients and to determine their value for discriminating MetS from non-MetS. 468 participants were enrolled in this cross-sectional study and assessed according to the updated adult treatment panel III (ATP-III) definition of MetS. Resting and maximum heart rates were recorded following the Bruce protocol during an exercise. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to identify the best cutoff point for discriminating MetS from the non-MetS state. 194 participants (41.5%) were diagnosed as MetS. The mean resting heart rate (RHR) was not statistically different between the two groups (P=0.078). However, the mean maximum heart (MHR) rate was considerably higher in participants with MetS (142.37±14.84 beats per min) compared to the non-MetS group (134.62±21.63 beats per min) (P<0.001). In the MetS group, the MHR was positively correlated with the serum triglyceride level (β=0.185, P=0.033) and was inversely associated with age (β=-0.469, P<0.001). The MHR had a moderate value for discriminating MetS from the non-MetS state (c=0.580, P=0.004) with the optimal cutoff point of 140 beats per min. In MetS patients, the MHR was significantly greater compared to non-MetS subjects and was directly correlated with serum triglyceride levels and inversely with advanced age. Moreover, MHR can be used as a suspicious indicator for identifying MetS.

  3. Increase in interstitial interleukin-6 of human skeletal muscle with repetitive low-force exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendal, Lars; Søgaard, Karen; Kjaer, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-6, which is released from muscle tissue during intense exercise, possesses important metabolic and probably anti-inflammatory properties. To evaluate the IL-6 response to low-intensity exercise, we conducted two studies: 1) a control study with insertion of microdialysis catheters...... in muscle and determination of interstitial muscle IL-6 response over 2 h of rest and 2) an exercise study to investigate the IL-6 response to 20 min of repetitive low-force exercise. In both studies, a microdialysis catheter (cutoff: 3,000 kDa) was inserted into the upper trapezius muscle of six male...... subjects, and the catheters were perfused with Ringer-acetate at 5 microl/min. Venous plasma samples were taken in the exercise study. The insertion of microdialysis catheters into muscle resulted in an increase in IL-6 from 8 +/- 0 to 359 +/- 171 and 484 +/- 202 pg/ml after 65 and 110 min, respectively (P...

  4. Transient increase in homocysteine but not hyperhomocysteinemia during acute exercise at different intensities in sedentary individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Iglesias-Gutiérrez

    Full Text Available Considering that hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the purpose of this study was to determine the kinetics of serum homocysteine (tHcy and the vitamins involved in its metabolism (folates, B(12, and B(6 in response to acute exercise at different intensities. Eight sedentary males (18-27 yr took part in the study. Subjects were required to complete two isocaloric (400 kcal acute exercise trials on separate occasions at 40% (low intensity, LI and 80% VO(2peak (high intensity, HI. Blood samples were drawn at different points before (pre4 and pre0 h, during (exer10, exer20, exer30, exer45, and exer60 min, and after exercise (post0, post3, and post19 h. Dietary, genetic, and lifestyle factors were controlled. Maximum tHcy occurred during exercise, both at LI (8.6 (8.0-10.1 µmol/L, 9.3% increase from pre0 and HI (9.4 (8.2-10.6 µmol/L, 25.7% increase from pre0, coinciding with an accumulated energy expenditure independent of the exercise intensity. From this point onwards tHcy declined until the cessation of exercise and continued descending. At post19, tHcy was not different from pre-exercise values. No values of hyperhomocysteinemia were observed at any sampling point and intensity. In conclusion, acute exercise in sedentary individuals, even at HI, shows no negative effect on tHcy when at least 400 kcal are spent during exercise and the nutritional status for folate, B(12, and B(6 is adequate, since no hyperhomocysteinemia has been observed and basal concentrations were recovered in less than 24 h. This could be relevant for further informing healthy exercise recommendations.

  5. Low Fat Loss Response after Medium-Term Supervised Exercise in Obese Is Associated with Exercise-Induced Increase in Food Reward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Finlayson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine exercise-induced changes in the reward value of food during medium-term supervised exercise in obese individuals. Subjects/Methods. The study was a 12-week supervised exercise intervention prescribed to expend 500 kcal/day, 5 d/week. 34 sedentary obese males and females were identified as responders (R or non-responders (NR to the intervention according to changes in body composition relative to measured energy expended during exercise. Food reward (ratings of liking and wanting, and relative preference by forced choice pairs for an array of food images was assessed before and after an acute exercise bout. Results. 20 responders and 14 non-responders were identified. R lost 5.2 kg ± 2.4 of total fat mass and NR lost 1.7 kg ± 1.4. After acute exercise, liking for all foods increased in NR compared to no change in R. Furthermore, NR showed an increase in wanting and relative preference for high-fat sweet foods. These differences were independent of 12-weeks regular exercise and weight loss. Conclusion. Individuals who showed an immediate post-exercise increase in liking and increased wanting and preference for high-fat sweet foods displayed a smaller reduction in fat mass with exercise. For some individuals, exercise increases the reward value of food and diminishes the impact of exercise on fat loss.

  6. Increasing physical activity and exercise in lung cancer: reviewing safety, benefits, and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bade, Brett C; Thomas, D David; Scott, JoAnn B; Silvestri, Gerard A

    2015-06-01

    Lung cancer continues to be a difficult disease frequently diagnosed in late stages with a high mortality and symptom burden. In part because of frequent lung comorbidity, even lung cancer survivors often remain symptomatic and functionally limited. Though targeted therapy continues to increase treatment options for advanced-stage disease, symptom burden remains high with few therapeutic options. In the last several decades, exercise and physical activity have arisen as therapeutic options for obstructive lung disease and lung cancer. To date, exercise has been shown to reduce symptoms, increase exercise tolerance, improve quality of life, and potentially reduce length of stay and postoperative complications. Multiple small trials have been performed in perioperative non-small-cell lung cancer patients, although fewer studies are available for patients with advanced-stage disease. Despite the increased interest in this subject over the last few years, a validated exercise regimen has not been established for perioperative or advanced-stage disease. Clinicians underutilize exercise and pulmonary rehabilitation as a therapy, in part because of the lack of evidence-based consensus as to how and when to implement increasing physical activity. This review summarizes the existing evidence on exercise in lung cancer patients.

  7. Relative workload determines exercise-induced increases in PGC-1alpha mRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup; Lundby, Carsten; Leick, Lotte

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION:: The hypothesis that brief intermittent exercise induced increases in human skeletal muscle metabolic mRNA is dependent on relative workload was investigated. METHODS:: Trained (n=10) and untrained (n=8) subjects performed exhaustive intermittent cycling exercise (4x4 min @ 85% of VO2...... peak, interspersed by 3 min). Trained subjects also performed the intermittent exercise at the same absolute workload as untrained, corresponding to 70% of VO2 peak (n=6). RESULTS:: Exercise at 85% of VO2 peak elevated (P... and untrained, respectively. PGC-1alpha mRNA expression was increased (Pelevated (3.1+/-0.7 mM) and PGC-1alpha mRNA content was less (P

  8. Case Series of a Knowledge Translation Intervention to Increase Upper Limb Exercise in Stroke Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Louise A; McMahon, Naoimh E; Tyson, Sarah F; Watkins, Caroline L; Eng, Janice J

    2016-12-01

    Current approaches to upper limb rehabilitation are not sufficient to drive neural reorganization and maximize recovery after stroke. To address this evidence-practice gap, a knowledge translation intervention using the Behaviour Change Wheel was developed. The intervention involves collaboratively working with stroke therapy teams to change their practice and increase therapy intensity by therapists prescribing supplementary self-directed arm exercise. The purposes of this case series are: (1) to provide an illustrative example of how a research-informed process changed clinical practice and (2) to report on staff members' and patients' perceptions of the utility of the developed intervention. A participatory action research approach was used in 3 stroke rehabilitation units in the United Kingdom. The intervention aimed to change 4 therapist-level behaviors: (1) screening patients for suitability for supplementary self-directed arm exercise, (2) provision of exercises, (3) involving family and caregivers in assisting with exercises, and (4) monitoring and progressing exercises. Data on changes in practice were collected by therapy teams using a bespoke audit tool. Utility of the intervention was explored in qualitative interviews with patients and staff. Components of the intervention were successfully embedded in 2 of the 3 stroke units. At these sites, almost all admitted patients were screened for suitability for supplementary self-directed exercise. Exercises were provided to 77%, 70%, and 88% of suitable patients across the 3 sites. Involving family and caregivers and monitoring and progressing exercises were not performed consistently. This case series is an example of how a rigorous research-informed knowledge translation process resulted in practice change. Research is needed to demonstrate that these changes can translate into increased intensity of upper limb exercise and affect patient outcomes. © 2016 American Physical Therapy Association.

  9. Can exercise increase fitness and reduce weight in patients with schizophrenia and depression?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper eKrogh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPsychiatric patients have a reduced life expectancy of 15 to 20 years compared to the general population. Most years of lost life are due to excess mortality from somatic diseases. Sedentary lifestyle and medication is partly responsible for the high frequency of metabolic syndrome in this patient group and low levels of physical activity is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes and all-cause mortality. This study aimed to review trials allocating patients with either schizophrenia or depression to exercise interventions for effect on cardiovascular fitness, strength and weight.MethodsWe searched Pubmed, Embase, and Psycinfo including randomized clinical trial allocating patients with either schizophrenia or depression to isolated exercise interventions.ResultsWe identified five trials including patients with schizophrenia and found little evidence that exercise could increase cardiovascular fitness or decrease weight. Nine exercise trials for patients with depression were identified increasing cardiovascular fitness by 11-30% and strength by 33-37%. No evidence in favor of exercise for weight reduction was found.ConclusionBased on the current evidence isolated exercise interventions are unlikely to improve cardiovascular fitness or induce weight loss in patients with schizophrenia. In patients with depression exercise interventions are likely to induce clinically relevant short term effects, however, due to lack of reporting little is known about the effect on cardiovascular fitness beyond the intervention and weight reduction. Future exercise trials regarding patients with mental illness should preferably measure changes in cardiovascular strength, repetition maximum and anthropometric outcomes. Ideally participants should be assessed beyond the intervention

  10. Exercise Ameliorates High Fat Diet Induced Cardiac Dysfunction by Increasing Interleukin 10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun eKesherwani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that a sedentary lifestyle and a high fat diet (HFD leads to cardiomyopathy. Moderate exercise ameliorates cardiac dysfunction, however underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Increased inflammation due to induction of pro-inflammatory cytokine such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α and attenuation of anti-inflammatory cytokine such as interleukin10 (IL-10 contributes to cardiac dysfunction in obese and diabetics. We hypothesized that exercise training ameliorates HFD- induced cardiac dysfunction by mitigating obesity and inflammation through upregulation of IL-10 and downregulation of TNF-α. To test this hypothesis, eight week old, female C57BL/6J mice were fed with HFD and exercised (swimming 1hr/day for 5 days/week for eight weeks. The four treatment groups: normal diet (ND, HFD, HFD + exercise (HFD + Ex and ND + Ex were analyzed for mean body weight, blood glucose level, TNF-α, IL-10, cardiac fibrosis by Masson Trichrome, and cardiac dysfunction by echocardiography. Mean body weights were increased in HFD but comparatively less in HFD + Ex. The level of TNF-α was elevated and IL-10 was downregulated in HFD but ameliorated in HFD + Ex. Cardiac fibrosis increased in HFD and was attenuated by exercise in the HFD + Ex group. The percentage ejection fraction and fractional shortening were decreased in HFD but comparatively increased in HFD + Ex. There was no difference between ND and ND + Ex for the above parameters except an increase in IL-10 level following exercise. Based on these results, we conclude that exercise mitigates HFD- induced cardiomyopathy by decreasing obesity, inducing IL-10, and reducing TNF-α in mice.

  11. Exercise in claudicants increase or decrease walking ability and the response relates to mitochondrial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schaardenburgh, Michel; Wohlwend, Martin; Rognmo, Øivind; Mattsson, Erney J R

    2017-06-07

    Exercise of patients with intermittent claudication improves walking performance. Exercise does not usually increase blood flow, but seems to increase muscle mitochondrial enzyme activities. Although exercise is beneficial in most patients, it might be harmful in some. The mitochondrial response to exercise might therefore differ between patients. Our hypothesis was that changes in walking performance relate to changes in mitochondrial function after 8 weeks of exercise. At a subgroup level, negative responders decrease and positive responders increase mitochondrial capacity. Two types of exercise were studied, calf raising and walking (n = 28). We wanted to see whether there were negative and positive responders, independent of type of exercise. Measurements of walking performance, peripheral hemodynamics, mitochondrial respiration and content (citrate synthase activity) were obtained on each patient before and after the intervention period. Multiple linear regression was used to test whether changes in peak walking time relate to mitochondrial function. Subgroups of negative (n = 8) and positive responders (n = 8) were defined as those that either decreased or increased peak walking time following exercise. Paired t test and analysis of covariance was used to test changes within and between subgroups. Changes in peak walking time were related to changes in mitochondrial respiration supported by electron transferring flavoprotein (ETF + CI) P (p = 0.004), complex I (CI + ETF) P (p = 0.003), complex I + complex II (CI + CII + ETF) P (p = 0.037) and OXPHOS coupling efficiency (p = 0.046) in the whole group. Negative responders had more advanced peripheral arterial disease. Mitochondrial respiration supported by electron transferring flavoprotein (ETF + CI) P (p = 0.0013), complex I (CI + ETF) P (p = 0.0005), complex I + complex II (CI + CII + ETF) P (p = 0.011) and electron transfer system capacity (CI + CII + ETF) E (p

  12. Prolonged submaximal eccentric exercise is associated with increased levels of plasma IL-6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Thomas; MacLean, D A; Richter, Erik

    1997-01-01

    To study the relationship between exercise-related muscle proteolysis and the cytokine response, a prolonged eccentric exercise model of one leg was used. Subjects performed two trials [a branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation and a control trial]. The release of amino acids from muscle...... during and after the eccentric exercise was decreased in the BCAA trial, suggesting a suppression of net muscle protein degradation. The plasma concentrations of interleukin (IL)-6 increased from 0.75 +/- 0.19 (preexercise) to 5.02 +/- 0.96 pg/ml (2 h postexercise) in the control trial and in the BCAA...... supplementation trial from 1.07 +/- 0.41 to 4.15 +/- 1.21 pg/ml. Eccentric exercise had no effect on the concentrations of neutrophils, lymphocytes, CD16+/CD56+, CD4+, CD8+, CD14+/CD38+, lymphocyte proliferative response, or cytotoxic activities. BCAA supplementation reduced the concentration of CD14+/CD38+ cells...

  13. Increased steady-state VO2 and larger O2 deficit with CO2 inhalation during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lars; Kjær, Kirsten; Jensen, Kurt

    2012-01-01

    respiratory acidosis with increases in PCO2 and decreases in capillary blood pH (P ... with hypercapnia in heavy exercise (2.24 ± 0.51 L vs. 1.91 ± 0.45 L; P respiratory acidosis increase steady-state in both light and heavy exercise and enlarges O2 deficit in heavy exercise....

  14. Muscle Volume Increases Following 16 Weeks of Resistive Exercise Training with the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) and Free Weights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, R. E.; Loehr, J. A.; Lee, S. M. C.; English, K. L.; Evans, H.; Smith, S. A.; Hagan, R. D.

    2009-01-01

    Space flight-induced muscle atrophy, particularly in the postural and locomotorymuscles, may impair task performance during long-duration space missions and planetary exploration. High intensity free weight (FW) resistive exercise training has been shown to prevent atrophy during bed rest, a space flight analog. NASA developed the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) to simulate the characteristics of FW exercise (i.e. constant mass, inertial force) and to be used as a countermeasure during International Space Station (ISS) missions. PURPOSE: To compare the efficacy of ARED and FW training to induce hypertrophy in specific muscle groups in ambulatory subjects prior to deploying ARED on the ISS. METHODS: Twenty untrained subjects were assigned to either the ARED (8 males, 3 females) or FW (6 males, 3 females) group and participated in a periodizedtraining protocol consisting of squat (SQ), heel raise (HR), and deadlift(DL) exercises 3 d wk-1 for 16 wks. SQ, HR, and DL muscle strength (1RM) was measured before, after 8 wks, and after 16 wks of training to prescribe exercise and measure strength changes. Muscle volume of the vastigroup (V), hamstring group (H), hip adductor group (ADD), medial gastrocnemius(MG), lateral gastrocnemius(LG), and deep posterior muscles including soleus(DP) was measured using MRI pre-and post-training. Consecutive cross-sectional images (8 mm slices with a 2 mm gap) were analyzed and summed. Anatomical references insured that the same muscle sections were analyzed pre-and post-training. Two-way repeated measures ANOVAs (ptraining devices. RESULTS: SQ, HR, and DL 1RM increased in both FW (SQ: 49+/-6%, HR: 12+/-2%, DL: 23+/-4%) and ARED (SQ: 31+/-4%, HR: 18+/-2%, DL: 23+/-3%) groups. Both groups increased muscle volume in the V (FW: 13+/-2%, ARED: 10+/-2%), H (FW: 3+/-1%, ARED: 3+/-1 %), ADD (FW: 15=/-2%, ARED: 10+/-1%), LG (FW: 7+/-2%, ARED: 4+/-1%), MG (FW: 7+/-2%, ARED: 5+/-2%), and DP (FW: 2+/-1%; ARED: 2+/-1%) after training. There

  15. Glycopyrrolate abolishes the exercise-induced increase in cerebral perfusion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seifert, Thomas; Fisher, James P; Young, Colin N

    2010-01-01

    Brain blood vessels contain muscarinic receptors that are important for cerebral blood flow (CBF) regulation, but whether a cholinergic receptor mechanism is involved in the exercise-induced increase in cerebral perfusion or affects cerebral metabolism remains unknown. We evaluated CBF and cerebral......(mean) during ergometer cycling (n = 8). Separate, randomized and counterbalanced trials were performed in control (no drug) conditions and following muscarinic cholinergic receptor blockade by glycopyrrolate. Glycopyrrolate increased resting heart rate from approximately 60 to approximately 110 beats min(-1...... abolished by glycopyrrolate (P important for the exercise-induced increase in cerebral perfusion without affecting the cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen....

  16. Calcium- and Phosphorus-Supplemented Diet Increases Bone Mass after Short-Term Exercise and Increases Bone Mass and Structural Strength after Long-Term Exercise in Adult Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Michael A.; Bailey, Alyssa M.; Rondon, Matthew J.; McNerny, Erin M.; Sahar, Nadder D.; Kohn, David H.

    2016-01-01

    Exercise has long-lasting benefits to bone health that may help prevent fractures by increasing bone mass, bone strength, and tissue quality. Long-term exercise of 6–12 weeks in rodents increases bone mass and bone strength. However, in growing mice, a short-term exercise program of 3 weeks can limit increases in bone mass and structural strength, compared to non-exercised controls. Short-term exercise can, however, increase tissue strength, suggesting that exercise may create competition for minerals that favors initially improving tissue-level properties over structural-level properties. It was therefore hypothesized that adding calcium and phosphorus supplements to the diet may prevent decreases in bone mass and structural strength during a short-term exercise program, while leading to greater bone mass and structural strength than exercise alone after a long-term exercise program. A short-term exercise experiment was done for 3 weeks, and a long-term exercise experiment was done for 8 weeks. For each experiment, male 16-week old C57BL/6 mice were assigned to 4 weight-matched groups–exercise and non-exercise groups fed a control or mineral-supplemented diet. Exercise consisted of treadmill running at 12 m/min, 30 min/day for 7 days/week. After 3 weeks, exercised mice fed the supplemented diet had significantly increased tibial tissue mineral content (TMC) and cross-sectional area over exercised mice fed the control diet. After 8 weeks, tibial TMC, cross-sectional area, yield force, and ultimate force were greater from the combined treatments than from either exercise or supplemented diet alone. Serum markers of bone formation (PINP) and resorption (CTX) were both decreased by exercise on day 2. In exercised mice, day 2 PINP was significantly positively correlated with day 2 serum Ca, a correlation that was weaker and negative in non-exercised mice. Increasing dietary mineral consumption during an exercise program increases bone mass after 3 weeks and

  17. Calcium- and Phosphorus-Supplemented Diet Increases Bone Mass after Short-Term Exercise and Increases Bone Mass and Structural Strength after Long-Term Exercise in Adult Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Michael A; Bailey, Alyssa M; Rondon, Matthew J; McNerny, Erin M; Sahar, Nadder D; Kohn, David H

    2016-01-01

    Exercise has long-lasting benefits to bone health that may help prevent fractures by increasing bone mass, bone strength, and tissue quality. Long-term exercise of 6-12 weeks in rodents increases bone mass and bone strength. However, in growing mice, a short-term exercise program of 3 weeks can limit increases in bone mass and structural strength, compared to non-exercised controls. Short-term exercise can, however, increase tissue strength, suggesting that exercise may create competition for minerals that favors initially improving tissue-level properties over structural-level properties. It was therefore hypothesized that adding calcium and phosphorus supplements to the diet may prevent decreases in bone mass and structural strength during a short-term exercise program, while leading to greater bone mass and structural strength than exercise alone after a long-term exercise program. A short-term exercise experiment was done for 3 weeks, and a long-term exercise experiment was done for 8 weeks. For each experiment, male 16-week old C57BL/6 mice were assigned to 4 weight-matched groups-exercise and non-exercise groups fed a control or mineral-supplemented diet. Exercise consisted of treadmill running at 12 m/min, 30 min/day for 7 days/week. After 3 weeks, exercised mice fed the supplemented diet had significantly increased tibial tissue mineral content (TMC) and cross-sectional area over exercised mice fed the control diet. After 8 weeks, tibial TMC, cross-sectional area, yield force, and ultimate force were greater from the combined treatments than from either exercise or supplemented diet alone. Serum markers of bone formation (PINP) and resorption (CTX) were both decreased by exercise on day 2. In exercised mice, day 2 PINP was significantly positively correlated with day 2 serum Ca, a correlation that was weaker and negative in non-exercised mice. Increasing dietary mineral consumption during an exercise program increases bone mass after 3 weeks and increases

  18. Mobile Exercise Apps and Increased Leisure Time Exercise Activity: A Moderated Mediation Analysis of the Role of Self-Efficacy and Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Zohn; Spierer, David; Weinberger-Litman, Sarah; Goldschein, Akiva; Robinson, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Background There are currently over 1000 exercise apps for mobile devices on the market. These apps employ a range of features, from tracking exercise activity to providing motivational messages. However, virtually nothing is known about whether exercise apps improve exercise levels and health outcomes and, if so, the mechanisms of these effects. Objective Our aim was to examine whether the use of exercise apps is associated with increased levels of exercise and improved health outcomes. We also develop a framework within which to understand how exercise apps may affect health and test multiple models of possible mechanisms of action and boundary conditions of these relationships. Within this framework, app use may increase physical activity by influencing variables such as self-efficacy and may help to overcome exercise barriers, leading to improved health outcomes such as lower body mass index (BMI). Methods In this study, 726 participants with one of three backgrounds were surveyed about their use of exercise apps and health: (1) those who never used exercise apps, (2) those who used exercise apps but discontinued use, and (3) those who are currently using exercise apps. Participants were asked about their long-term levels of exercise and about their levels of exercise during the previous week with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Results Nearly three-quarters of current app users reported being more active compared to under half of non-users and past users. The IPAQ showed that current users had higher total leisure time metabolic equivalent of task (MET) expenditures (1169 METs), including walking and vigorous exercise, compared to those who stopped using their apps (612 METs) or who never used apps (577 METs). Importantly, physical activity levels in domains other than leisure time activity were similar across the groups. The results also showed that current users had lower BMI (25.16) than past users (26.8) and non-users (26.9) and

  19. Mobile Exercise Apps and Increased Leisure Time Exercise Activity: A Moderated Mediation Analysis of the Role of Self-Efficacy and Barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litman, Leib; Rosen, Zohn; Spierer, David; Weinberger-Litman, Sarah; Goldschein, Akiva; Robinson, Jonathan

    2015-08-14

    There are currently over 1000 exercise apps for mobile devices on the market. These apps employ a range of features, from tracking exercise activity to providing motivational messages. However, virtually nothing is known about whether exercise apps improve exercise levels and health outcomes and, if so, the mechanisms of these effects. Our aim was to examine whether the use of exercise apps is associated with increased levels of exercise and improved health outcomes. We also develop a framework within which to understand how exercise apps may affect health and test multiple models of possible mechanisms of action and boundary conditions of these relationships. Within this framework, app use may increase physical activity by influencing variables such as self-efficacy and may help to overcome exercise barriers, leading to improved health outcomes such as lower body mass index (BMI). In this study, 726 participants with one of three backgrounds were surveyed about their use of exercise apps and health: (1) those who never used exercise apps, (2) those who used exercise apps but discontinued use, and (3) those who are currently using exercise apps. Participants were asked about their long-term levels of exercise and about their levels of exercise during the previous week with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Nearly three-quarters of current app users reported being more active compared to under half of non-users and past users. The IPAQ showed that current users had higher total leisure time metabolic equivalent of task (MET) expenditures (1169 METs), including walking and vigorous exercise, compared to those who stopped using their apps (612 METs) or who never used apps (577 METs). Importantly, physical activity levels in domains other than leisure time activity were similar across the groups. The results also showed that current users had lower BMI (25.16) than past users (26.8) and non-users (26.9) and that this association was mediated by

  20. Voluntary exercise and increased food intake after mild chronic stress improve social avoidance behavior in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Airi; Shiuchi, Tetsuya; Chikahisa, Sachiko; Shimizu, Noriyuki; Séi, Hiroyoshi

    2015-11-01

    It is well-established that exercise can influence psychological conditions, cognitive function, and energy metabolism in peripheral tissues including the skeletal muscle. However, it is not clear whether exercise can influence social interaction with others and alleviate defeat stress. This study investigated the effect of voluntary wheel running on impaired social interaction induced by chronic social defeat stress (SDS) using the resident-intruder social defeat model. Mice were divided into three groups: control, stress alone, and stress+exercise. SDS was performed by exposing C57BL/6 mice to retired ICR mice for 2.5 min. The C57BL/6 mice were continuously defeated by these resident (aggressor) mice and, following 5 days of SDS, experienced 2 days of rest with no SDS. Mice in the stress+exercise group were allowed to voluntarily run on a wheel for 2h after every SDS exposure. Two weeks later, compared to the control group, the stress group showed a higher ratio of time spent in the corner zone of a social interaction paradigm even though SDS did not elicit depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors. We also observed that voluntary exercise, which did not affect muscle weight and gene expression, decreased social avoidance behavior of stressed mice without clear changes in brain monoamine levels. Interestingly, food intake in the stress+exercise group was the greatest among the three groups. To test the effect of the exercise-induced increase in food intake on social behavior, we set up a pair-fed group where food intake was restricted. We then compared these mice to mice in the stress alone group. We found that the ratio of time spent in the corner zone of the social interaction test was not different between ad libitum- and pair-fed groups, although pair-fed mice spent more time in the corner zone when an aggressor mouse was present than when it was absent. In addition, pair-feeding did not show exercise-induced reductions of adrenal gland weight and enhanced the

  1. Exercise increases the lung clearance of inhaled Tc-99m DTPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meignan, M.; Rosso, J.; Cinotti, L.; Galle, P.

    1985-01-01

    It has been suggested that blood flow have little effect on the lung clearance of Tc-99m DTPA which depends on the alveolar distension. However an increase of pulmonary blood flow, induces a recruitment of new vascular areas which can enhance this clearance. To assess this hypothesis the pulmonary apical and basal clearances of a sumicronic aerosol of Tc-99m DTPA were studied at rest and at exercise in seven non smoking volunteers in upright posture. As a matter of fact exercising upright is known to increase primarily the apical blood flow. After inhalation the subjects were seated on a bicycle their back against a gamma camera which was linked to a computer. The lung radioactivity was registered successively during a resting and an exercising period. At rest there was a gradient of clearance from the apex to the base of the lung, the apical clearance being significantly higher. At exercise (50 Watts, 60 c. min /sup -1/, 7 min.) this regional gradient was enhanced by a large and significant increase of the apical clearances (0.0340 min /sup -1/ +-0.0063 SD versus 0.00183 min /sup -1/ +- 0.074 SD at rest, n = 7, p < 0.01). By contrast the changes of the basal clearances were slight and unsignificant (0.0146 min /sup -1/ +- 0.0062 SD versus 0.0140 min /sup -1/ +- 0.0082 SD). Since exercise induces little distension of the apical alveoli but drastically enhances the apical blood flow, the observed increase of the apical lung clearance could be primarily attributed to the recruitment of new capillaries induced by exercise in the apices. This led to an increase of the surface area permeability product

  2. THE EFFECTS OF BREATHING EXERCISES TO INCREASE IMMUNITY IN ELDERLY HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siswantoyo Siswantoyo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: this study aimed to demonstrate influence of breathing exercise to increase immunity in elderly. It was an experimental study with Randomized Group Pre-Posttest design. The intervension was given in 21 meetings. Methods: The populations were elder participants of Satria Nusantara breathing exercise. Samples were 15 men aged over 45 years. each group. The unit of analysis was blood taken from cubital vein. Glucometer was to determine blood sugar levels. whereas beta-endorphin and lgG used ELISA (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, by indirect sandwitch. Data were read by Elisa Reader with a sensitivity of 95%. Data were analyzed descriptives and inferential statistics by SPSS software and further analysis using t-tests. Results showed that, lgG significantly increased, p = 0013. The mean increase of lgG was 33.266 ng/mL. For beta-endorphin. Results t-tests showed the significance of 0.000. The mean increase of endorphine was 3.922ng/mL, and blood sugar levels showed a decrease after the breathing exercise. The decrease of blood sugar was significant of 0.000. The mean decrease in blood sugar levels was 28.9 mg/100ml. Conclusion: It can be concluded that regular targeted and programmed breathiing exercise over 21 meetings increased the production of lgG and beta endorphins, as well as decreasing blood sugar levels. Breathing exercise was alternative sports to improve immunity. Key words: breathing exercise, immunity, elderly of health

  3. Physiological mechanisms of dyspnea during exercise with external thoracic restriction: Role of increased neural respiratory drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonca, Cassandra T.; Schaeffer, Michele R.; Riley, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that neuromechanical uncoupling of the respiratory system forms the mechanistic basis of dyspnea during exercise in the setting of “abnormal” restrictive constraints on ventilation (VE). To this end, we examined the effect of chest wall strapping (CWS) sufficient to mimic a “mild” restrictive lung deficit on the interrelationships between VE, breathing pattern, dynamic operating lung volumes, esophageal electrode-balloon catheter-derived measures of the diaphragm electromyogram (EMGdi) and the transdiaphragmatic pressure time product (PTPdi), and sensory intensity and unpleasantness ratings of dyspnea during exercise. Twenty healthy men aged 25.7 ± 1.1 years (means ± SE) completed symptom-limited incremental cycle exercise tests under two randomized conditions: unrestricted control and CWS to reduce vital capacity (VC) by 21.6 ± 0.5%. Compared with control, exercise with CWS was associated with 1) an exaggerated EMGdi and PTPdi response; 2) no change in the relationship between EMGdi and each of tidal volume (expressed as a percentage of VC), inspiratory reserve volume, and PTPdi, thus indicating relative preservation of neuromechanical coupling; 3) increased sensory intensity and unpleasantness ratings of dyspnea; and 4) no change in the relationship between increasing EMGdi and each of the intensity and unpleasantness of dyspnea. In conclusion, the increased intensity and unpleasantness of dyspnea during exercise with CWS could not be readily explained by increased neuromechanical uncoupling but likely reflected the awareness of increased neural respiratory drive (EMGdi) needed to achieve any given VE during exercise in the setting of “abnormal” restrictive constraints on tidal volume expansion. PMID:24356524

  4. Aerobic exercise increases hippocampal volume and improves memory in multiple sclerosis: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, V M; Cirnigliaro, C; Cohen, A; Farag, A; Brooks, M; Wecht, J M; Wylie, G R; Chiaravalloti, N D; DeLuca, J; Sumowski, J F

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis leads to prominent hippocampal atrophy, which is linked to memory deficits. Indeed, 50% of multiple sclerosis patients suffer memory impairment, with negative consequences for quality of life. There are currently no effective memory treatments for multiple sclerosis either pharmacological or behavioral. Aerobic exercise improves memory and promotes hippocampal neurogenesis in nonhuman animals. Here, we investigate the benefits of aerobic exercise in memory-impaired multiple sclerosis patients. Pilot data were collected from two ambulatory, memory-impaired multiple sclerosis participants randomized to non-aerobic (stretching) and aerobic (stationary cycling) conditions. The following baseline/follow-up measurements were taken: high-resolution MRI (neuroanatomical volumes), fMRI (functional connectivity), and memory assessment. Intervention was 30-minute sessions 3 times per week for 3 months. Aerobic exercise resulted in 16.5% increase in hippocampal volume and 53.7% increase in memory, as well as increased hippocampal resting-state functional connectivity. Improvements were specific, with no comparable changes in overall cerebral gray matter (+2.4%), non-hippocampal deep gray matter structures (thalamus, caudate: -4.0%), or in non-memory cognitive functioning (executive functions, processing speed, working memory: changes ranged from -11% to +4%). Non-aerobic exercise resulted in relatively no change in hippocampal volume (2.8%) or memory (0.0%), and no changes in hippocampal functional connectivity. This is the first evidence for aerobic exercise to increase hippocampal volume and connectivity and improve memory in multiple sclerosis. Aerobic exercise represents a cost-effective, widely available, natural, and self-administered treatment with no adverse side effects that may be the first effective memory treatment for multiple sclerosis patients.

  5. An increase in the number of admitted patients with exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalborg, Christian; Rød-Larsen, Cecilie; Leiro, Ingjerd; Aasebø, Willy

    2016-10-01

    Rhabdomyolysis may lead to serious complications, and treatment is both time-consuming and costly. The condition can be caused by many factors, including intense exercise. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the number of hospitalisations due to exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis has changed in recent years. We describe the disease course in hospitalised patients, and compare disease course in individuals with exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis and rhabdomyolysis due to other causes. The study is a systematic review of medical records from Akershus University Hospital for the years 2008 and 2011 – 14. All hospitalised patients with diagnostic codes M62.8, M62.9 and T79.6 and creatine kinase levels > 5 000 IU/l were included. The cause of the rhabdomyolysis was recorded in addition to patient characteristics and the results of various laboratory tests. Of 161 patients who were hospitalised with rhabdomyolysis during the study period, 44 cases (27  %) were classified as exercise-induced. In 2008 there were no admissions due to exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis; in 2011 and 2012 there were six and four admissions respectively, while in 2014 there were 22. This gives an estimated incidence of 0.8/100 000 in 2012 and 4.6/100 000 in 2014. Strength-training was the cause of hospitalisation in 35 patients (80  % of the exercise-induced cases). Three patients (7  % of the exercise-induced cases) had transient stage 1 kidney injury, but there were no cases with stage 2 or stage 3 injury. By comparison, 52  % of patients with rhabdomyolysis due to another cause had kidney injury, of which 28  % was stage 2 or 3. The number of persons hospitalised with exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis has increased four-fold from 2011 to 2014, possibly due to changes in exercise habits in the population. None of the patients with exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis had serological signs of kidney injury upon hospital discharge.

  6. Acute exercise induces biphasic increase in respiratory mRNA in skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Shin-ichi; Kizaki, Takako; Haga, Shukoh; Ohno, Hideki; Takemasa, Tohru

    2008-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) promotes the expression of oxidative enzymes in skeletal muscle. We hypothesized that activation of the p38 MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) in response to exercise was associated with exercise-induced PGC-1α and respiratory enzymes expression and aimed to demonstrate this under the physiological level. We subjected mice to a single bout of treadmill running and found that the exercise induced a biphasic increase in the expression of respiratory enzymes mRNA. The second phase of the increase was accompanied by an increase in PGC-1α protein, but the other was not. Administration of SB203580 (SB), an inhibitor of p38 MAPK, suppressed the increase in PGC-1α expression and respiratory enzymes mRNA in both phases. These data suggest that p38 MAPK is associated with the exercise-induced expression of PGC-1α and biphasic increase in respiratory enzyme mRNAs in mouse skeletal muscle under physiological conditions

  7. Probiotic Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 reduces exercise-induced muscle damage and increases recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Jäger

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Probiotics have been reported to support healthy digestive and immune function, aid in protein absorption, and decrease inflammation. Further, a trend to increase vertical jump power has been observed following co-administration of protein and probiotics in resistance-trained subjects. However, to date the potential beneficial effect of probiotics on recovery from high intensity resistance exercise have yet to be explored. Therefore, this study examined the effect of co-administration of protein and probiotics on muscle damage, recovery and performance following a damaging exercise bout. Design. Twenty nine (n = 29 recreationally-trained males (mean ± SD; 21.5 ± 2.8 years; 89.7 ± 28.2 kg; 177.4 ± 8.0 cm were assigned to consume either 20 g of casein (PRO or 20 g of casein plus probiotic (1 billion CFU Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086, PROBC in a crossover, diet-controlled design. After two weeks of supplementation, perceptional measures, athletic performance, and muscle damage were analyzed following a damaging exercise bout. Results. The damaging exercise bout significantly increased muscle soreness, and reduced perceived recovery; however, PROBC significantly increased recovery at 24 and 72 h, and decreased soreness at 72 h post exercise in comparison to PRO. Perceptual measures were confirmed by increases in CK (PRO: +266.8%, p = 0.0002; PROBC: +137.7%, p = 0.01, with PROBC showing a trend towards reduced muscle damage (p = 0.08. The muscle-damaging exercise resulted in significantly increased muscle swelling and Blood Urea Nitrogen levels in both conditions with no difference between groups. The strenuous exercise significantly reduced athletic performance in PRO (Wingate Peak Power; PRO: (−39.8 watts, −5.3%, p = 0.03, whereas PROBC maintained performance (+10.1 watts, +1.7%. Conclusions. The results provide evidence that probiotic supplementation in combination with protein tended to reduce indices of muscle damage

  8. Probiotic Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 reduces exercise-induced muscle damage and increases recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Ralf; Shields, Kevin A.; Lowery, Ryan P.; De Souza, Eduardo O.; Partl, Jeremy M.; Hollmer, Chase; Purpura, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Probiotics have been reported to support healthy digestive and immune function, aid in protein absorption, and decrease inflammation. Further, a trend to increase vertical jump power has been observed following co-administration of protein and probiotics in resistance-trained subjects. However, to date the potential beneficial effect of probiotics on recovery from high intensity resistance exercise have yet to be explored. Therefore, this study examined the effect of co-administration of protein and probiotics on muscle damage, recovery and performance following a damaging exercise bout. Design. Twenty nine (n = 29) recreationally-trained males (mean ± SD; 21.5 ± 2.8 years; 89.7 ± 28.2 kg; 177.4 ± 8.0 cm) were assigned to consume either 20 g of casein (PRO) or 20 g of casein plus probiotic (1 billion CFU Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086, PROBC) in a crossover, diet-controlled design. After two weeks of supplementation, perceptional measures, athletic performance, and muscle damage were analyzed following a damaging exercise bout. Results. The damaging exercise bout significantly increased muscle soreness, and reduced perceived recovery; however, PROBC significantly increased recovery at 24 and 72 h, and decreased soreness at 72 h post exercise in comparison to PRO. Perceptual measures were confirmed by increases in CK (PRO: +266.8%, p = 0.0002; PROBC: +137.7%, p = 0.01), with PROBC showing a trend towards reduced muscle damage (p = 0.08). The muscle-damaging exercise resulted in significantly increased muscle swelling and Blood Urea Nitrogen levels in both conditions with no difference between groups. The strenuous exercise significantly reduced athletic performance in PRO (Wingate Peak Power; PRO: (−39.8 watts, −5.3%, p = 0.03)), whereas PROBC maintained performance (+10.1 watts, +1.7%). Conclusions. The results provide evidence that probiotic supplementation in combination with protein tended to reduce indices of muscle damage, improves recovery

  9. Luteal phase of the menstrual cycle increases sweating rate during exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia A.M.C.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated whether the luteal phase elevation of body temperature would be offset during exercise by increased sweating, when women are normally hydrated. Eleven women performed 60 min of cycling exercise at 60% of their maximal work load at 32ºC and 80% relative air humidity. Each subject participated in two identical experimental sessions: one during the follicular phase (between days 5 and 8 and the other during the luteal phase (between days 22 and 25. Women with serum progesterone >3 ng/mL, in the luteal phase were classified as group 1 (N = 4, whereas the others were classified as group 2 (N = 7. Post-exercise urine volume (213 ± 80 vs 309 ± 113 mL and specific urine gravity (1.008 ± 0.003 vs 1.006 ± 0.002 changed (P < 0.05 during the luteal phase compared to the follicular phase in group 1. No menstrual cycle dependence was observed for these parameters in group 2. Sweat rate was higher (P < 0.05 in the luteal (3.10 ± 0.81 g m-2 min-1 than in the follicular phase (2.80 ± 0.64 g m-2 min-1 only in group 1. During exercise, no differences related to menstrual cycle phases were seen in rectal temperature, heart rate, rate of perceived exertion, mean skin temperature, and pre- and post-exercise body weight. Women exercising in a warm and humid environment with water intake seem to be able to adapt to the luteal phase increase of basal body temperature through reduced urinary volume and increased sweating rate.

  10. Association of a Behaviorally Based High School Health Education Curriculum with Increased Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesi, James J.; Trinity, John; Mareno, Nicole; Walsh, Stephanie M.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing exercise in children and adolescents through academic classes is an understudied area. Potential benefits include associated improvements in health, psychosocial, and quality-of-life factors. A sample of 98 students (M[subscript age] = 14.3) from high school health education classes received six, 40-min lessons incorporating…

  11. Exercise induced hypercoagulability, increased von Willebrand factor and decreased thyroid hormone concentrations in sled dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Anne Kirstine Havnsøe; Legind, Pernille; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads

    2014-01-01

    Sled dogs performing endurance races have been reported to have a high incidence of gastric erosions or ulcerations and an increased risk of gastro intestinal bleeding leading to death in some cases. In addition, these dogs also become hypothyroid during training and exercise. Canine hypothyroidi...

  12. High-fat feeding inhibits exercise-induced increase in mitochondrial respiratory flux in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbro, Mette; Boushel, Robert Christopher; Hansen, Christina Neigaard

    2011-01-01

    ) and intramyocellular triacylglycerol content did not change with the intervention in either group. Indexes of mitochondrial density were similar across the groups and intervention. Mitochondrial respiratory rates, measured in permeabilized muscle fibers, showed a 31 ± 11 and 26 ± 9% exercise-induced increase (P

  13. Which Exercise Is Better for Increasing Serum Testosterone Levels in Patients with Erectile Dysfunction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Kyun Yeo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We investigated the correlations of serum total testosterone (TT levels with body composition and physical fitness parameters in patients with erectile dysfunction (ED to know the best exercise for testosterone deficiency. Materials and Methods: Eighty-seven ED patients underwent serum TT assessment as well as body composition and basic exercise testing. The bioelectrical impedance analysis was used to assess body composition. Seven types of basic exercise tests were used to determine physical fitness. Correlations between serum TT levels and body composition/physical function parameters were evaluated using partial correlation analyses. A serum TT cut-off value was obtained for the parameters significantly correlated with serum TT levels. Results: The subjects had a mean serum TT level of 342.1 ng/dL. Among the body composition parameters, body and abdominal fat percentages showed statistically significant negative correlations with serum TT levels. Among the basic exercise test parameters, only the cycle ergometer test for cardiorespiratory fitness showed a statistically significant positive correlation with serum TT levels. Conclusions: Serum TT levels in patients with ED, may be increased by reducing fat percentage and improving cardiorespiratory fitness via aerobic exercise.

  14. Using Behavioral Analytics to Increase Exercise: A Randomized N-of-1 Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sunmoo; Schwartz, Joseph E; Burg, Matthew M; Kronish, Ian M; Alcantara, Carmela; Julian, Jacob; Parsons, Faith; Davidson, Karina W; Diaz, Keith M

    2018-04-01

    This intervention study used mobile technologies to investigate whether those randomized to receive a personalized "activity fingerprint" (i.e., a one-time tailored message about personal predictors of exercise developed from 6 months of observational data) increased their physical activity levels relative to those not receiving the fingerprint. A 12-month randomized intervention study. From 2014 to 2015, 79 intermittent exercisers had their daily physical activity assessed by accelerometry (Fitbit Flex) and daily stress experience, a potential predictor of exercise behavior, was assessed by smartphone. Data collected during the first 6 months of observation were used to develop a person-specific "activity fingerprint" (i.e., N-of-1) that was subsequently sent via email on a single occasion to randomized participants. Pre-post changes in the percentage of days exercised were analyzed within and between control and intervention groups. The control group significantly decreased their proportion of days exercised (10.5% decrease, purban adults. Copyright © 2018 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Exercise increases TBC1D1 phosphorylation in human skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessen, Niels; An, Ding; Lihn, Aina S.; Nygren, Jonas; Hirshman, Michael F.; Thorell, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Exercise and weight loss are cornerstones in the treatment and prevention of type 2 diabetes, and both interventions function to increase insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake into skeletal muscle. Studies in rodents demonstrate that the underlying mechanism for glucose uptake in muscle involves site-specific phosphorylation of the Rab-GTPase-activating proteins AS160 (TBC1D4) and TBC1D1. Multiple kinases, including Akt and AMPK, phosphorylate TBC1D1 and AS160 on distinct residues, regulating their activity and allowing for GLUT4 translocation. In contrast to extensive rodent-based studies, the regulation of AS160 and TBC1D1 in human skeletal muscle is not well understood. In this study, we determined the effects of dietary intervention and a single bout of exercise on TBC1D1 and AS160 site-specific phosphorylation in human skeletal muscle. Ten obese (BMI 33.4 ± 2.4, M-value 4.3 ± 0.5) subjects were studied at baseline and after a 2-wk dietary intervention. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the subjects in the resting (basal) state and immediately following a 30-min exercise bout (70% V̇o2 max). Muscle lysates were analyzed for AMPK activity and Akt phosphorylation and for TBC1D1 and AS160 phosphorylation on known or putative AMPK and Akt sites as follows: AS160 Ser711 (AMPK), TBC1D1 Ser231 (AMPK), TBC1D1 Ser660 (AMPK), TBC1D1 Ser700 (AMPK), and TBC1D1 Thr590 (Akt). The diet intervention that consisted of a major shift in the macronutrient composition resulted in a 4.2 ± 0.4 kg weight loss (P < 0.001) and a significant increase in insulin sensitivity (M value 5.6 ± 0.6), but surprisingly, there was no effect on expression or phosphorylation of any of the muscle-signaling proteins. Exercise increased muscle AMPKα2 activity but did not increase Akt phosphorylation. Exercise increased phosphorylation on AS160 Ser711, TBC1D1 Ser231, and TBC1D1 Ser660 but had no effect on TBC1D1 Ser700. Exercise did not increase TBC1D1 Thr590 phosphorylation or TBC1D1/AS160 PAS

  16. Increasing discomfort tolerance predicts incentive senitization of exercise reinforcement: Preliminary results from a randomized controlled intervention to increase the reinforcing value of exercise in overweight to obese adu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: The reinforcing (motivating) value of exercise/physical activity (RRVex) predicts usual exercise behavior and meeting of physical activity guidelines. Recent cross-sectional evidence suggests, for the first time, that greater tolerance for the discomfort experienced during exercise is ass...

  17. Combination of aerobic exercise and Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. increased nitric oxide in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna Adriani Kusumadewi Muhammad

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Hypertension and myocardial infarction account for the high rate of mortality globally. Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS Linn. is rich in antioxidants and previous studies have demonstrated its anti-hypertensive effects. Several studies show that regular physical activity is an important component to reduce cardiovascular mortality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a combination of aerobic exercise and HS extract on nitric oxide (NO and endothelin-1 (ET-1 in rats.   Methods An experimental study was conducted on 36 male Wistar rats, aged 4 weeks and 60-70 g in weight. The interventions were aerobic exercises and HS at 400 mg/kg BW/day administered for 4, 8 and 12 weeks. The rats were randomized into 12 groups: 3 control groups (C4, C8, C12, 3 aerobic exercise groups (A4, A8, A12, 3 HS groups (H4, H8, H12, and 3 combination groups [aerobic exercise and HS] (HA4, HA8, HA12. After 4, 8, and 12 weeks, the rats were sacrificed and their abdominal aorta was collected for determination of nitric oxide and ET-1 concentrations. One way ANOVA was used to analyze the data.   Results There was a significant difference in NO levels between all groups, with the 4-week aerobic exercise group (A4 showing the highest NO levels compared to the other eleven groups (p<0.05. In contrast, the ET-1 levels were not significantly different between all groups.   Conclusions This study demonstrated that the combination of HS supplementation and aerobic exercise increases NO in rats, and provided further evidence to the traditional use of the plant as an antioxidants agent.

  18. Exercise increases the frequency of circulating hematopoietic progenitor cells, but reduces hematopoietic colony-forming capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroepfl, Julia Maria; Pekovits, Karin; Stelzer, Ingeborg; Fuchs, Robert; Zelzer, Sieglinde; Hofmann, Peter; Sedlmayr, Peter; Dohr, Gottfried; Wallner-Liebmann, Sandra; Domej, Wolfgang; Mueller, Wolfram

    2012-11-01

    Circulating hematopoietic progenitor cells (CPCs) may be triggered by physical exercise and/or normobaric hypoxia from the bone marrow. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of physical exercise and normobaric hypoxia on CPC number and functionality in the peripheral blood as well as the involvement of oxidative stress parameters as possibly active agents. Ten healthy male subjects (25.3±4.4 years) underwent a standardized cycle incremental exercise test protocol (40 W+20 W/min) under either normoxic (FiO2 ∼0.21) or hypoxic conditions (FiO2exercise. The number of CPCs in the peripheral blood was analyzed by flow cytometry (CD34/CD45-positive cells). The functionality of cells present was addressed by secondary colony-forming unit-granulocyte macrophage (CFU-GM) assays. To determine a possible correlation between the mobilization of CPCs and reactive oxygen species, parameters for oxidative stress such as malondialdehyde (MDA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were obtained. Data showed a significant increase of CPC release under normoxic as well as hypoxic conditions after 10 min of recovery (Pexercise (Pexercise, possibly due to the influence of increased oxidative stress levels.

  19. Increased respiratory neural drive and work of breathing in exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsted, Emil S; Faisal, Azmy; Jolley, Caroline J; Swanton, Laura L; Pavitt, Matthew J; Luo, Yuan-Ming; Backer, Vibeke; Polkey, Michael I; Hull, James H

    2018-02-01

    Exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO), a phenomenon in which the larynx closes inappropriately during physical activity, is a prevalent cause of exertional dyspnea in young individuals. The physiological ventilatory impact of EILO and its relationship to dyspnea are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to evaluate exercise-related changes in laryngeal aperture on ventilation, pulmonary mechanics, and respiratory neural drive. We prospectively evaluated 12 subjects (6 with EILO and 6 healthy age- and gender-matched controls). Subjects underwent baseline spirometry and a symptom-limited incremental exercise test with simultaneous and synchronized recording of endoscopic video and gastric, esophageal, and transdiaphragmatic pressures, diaphragm electromyography, and respiratory airflow. The EILO and control groups had similar peak work rates and minute ventilation (V̇e) (work rate: 227 ± 35 vs. 237 ± 35 W; V̇e: 103 ± 20 vs. 98 ± 23 l/min; P > 0.05). At submaximal work rates (140-240 W), subjects with EILO demonstrated increased work of breathing ( P respiratory neural drive ( P respiratory mechanics and diaphragm electromyography with endoscopic video, we demonstrate, for the first time, increased work of breathing and respiratory neural drive in association with the development of EILO. Future detailed investigations are now needed to understand the role of upper airway closure in causing exertional dyspnea and exercise limitation. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction is a prevalent cause of exertional dyspnea in young individuals; yet, how laryngeal closure affects breathing is unknown. In this study we synchronized endoscopic video with respiratory physiological measurements, thus providing the first detailed commensurate assessment of respiratory mechanics and neural drive in relation to laryngeal closure. Laryngeal closure was associated with increased work of breathing and respiratory neural drive preceded by an

  20. Exercise Training-Induced Adaptations Associated with Increases in Skeletal Muscle Glycogen Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manabe, Yasuko; Gollisch, Katja S.C.; Holton, Laura; Kim, Young–Bum; Brandauer, Josef; Fujii, Nobuharu L.; Hirshman, Michael F.; Goodyear, Laurie J.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic exercise training results in numerous skeletal muscle adaptations, including increases in insulin sensitivity and glycogen content. To understand the mechanism for increased muscle glycogen, we studied the effects of exercise training on glycogen regulatory proteins in rat skeletal muscle. Female Sprague Dawley rats performed voluntary wheel running for 1, 4, or 7 weeks. After 7 weeks of training, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake was increased in epitrochlearis muscle. Compared to sedentary control rats, muscle glycogen did not change after 1 week of training, but increased significantly after 4 and 7 weeks. The increases in muscle glycogen were accompanied by elevated glycogen synthase activity and protein expression. To assess the regulation of glycogen synthase, we examined its major activator, protein phosphatase 1 (PP1), and its major deactivator, glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3). Consistent with glycogen synthase activity, PP1 activity was unchanged after 1 week of training but significantly increased after 4 and 7 weeks of training. Protein expression of RGL(GM), another regulatory PP1 subunit, significantly decreased after 4 and 7 weeks of training. Unlike PP1, GSK3 phosphorylation did not follow the pattern of glycogen synthase activity. The ~40% decrease in GSK-3α phosphorylation after 1 week of exercise training persisted until 7 weeks and may function as a negative feedback to elevated glycogen. Our findings suggest that exercise training-induced increases in muscle glycogen content could be regulated by multiple mechanisms including enhanced insulin sensitivity, glycogen synthase expression, allosteric activation of glycogen synthase and PP1activity. PMID:23206309

  1. Increased vertebral bone mineral in response to reduced exercise in amenorrheic runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, J S; Powell, M R; Hunt, M M; Ducey, D E; Wade, C E

    1987-01-01

    Seven female runners found to have exercise-induced amenorrhea and decreased bone mineral were reevaluated after 15 months. During the 15-month period, four runners took supplemental calcium and reduced their weekly running distance by 43%, resulting in an average 5% increase in body weight, increased estradiol levels and eumenorrhea. Bone mineral content increased from 1.003+/-0.097 to 1.070+/-0.089 grams per cm.(2) Three runners continued to have amenorrhea, with no change in running distance or body weight. Estradiol levels remained abnormally low and there was no significant change in the bone mineral content, although all three took supplemental calcium. We found that early osteopenia associated with exercise-induced menstrual dysfunction improved when runners reduced their running distance, gained weight and became eumenorrheic.

  2. A combination of exercise and capsinoid supplementation additively suppresses diet-induced obesity by increasing energy expenditure in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohyama, Kana; Nogusa, Yoshihito; Suzuki, Katsuya; Shinoda, Kosaku; Kajimura, Shingo; Bannai, Makoto

    2015-02-15

    Exercise effectively prevents the development of obesity and obesity-related diseases such as type 2 diabetes. Capsinoids (CSNs) are capsaicin analogs found in a nonpungent pepper that increase whole body energy expenditure. Although both exercise and CSNs have antiobesity functions, the effectiveness of exercise with CSN supplementation has not yet been investigated. Here, we examined whether the beneficial effects of exercise could be further enhanced by CSN supplementation in mice. Mice were randomly assigned to four groups: 1) high-fat diet (HFD, Control), 2) HFD containing 0.3% CSNs, 3) HFD with voluntary running wheel exercise (Exercise), and 4) HFD containing 0.3% CSNs with voluntary running wheel exercise (Exercise + CSN). After 8 wk of ingestion, blood and tissues were collected and analyzed. Although CSNs significantly suppressed body weight gain under the HFD, CSN supplementation with exercise additively decreased body weight gain and fat accumulation and increased whole body energy expenditure compared with exercise alone. Exercise together with CSN supplementation robustly improved metabolic profiles, including the plasma cholesterol level. Furthermore, this combination significantly prevented diet-induced liver steatosis and decreased the size of adipocyte cells in white adipose tissue. Exercise and CSNs significantly increased cAMP levels and PKA activity in brown adipose tissue (BAT), indicating an increase of lipolysis. Moreover, they significantly activated both the oxidative phosphorylation gene program and fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle. These results indicate that CSNs efficiently promote the antiobesity effect of exercise, in part by increasing energy expenditure via the activation of fat oxidation in skeletal muscle and lipolysis in BAT. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Integrative exercise and lifestyle intervention increases leisure-time activity in breast cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casla, Soraya; Hojman, Pernille; Cubedo, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Physical activity has been demonstrated to increase survival in breast cancer patients, but few breast cancer patients meet the general recommendations for physical activity. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate if a supervised integrated counseling and group-based exercise...... program could increase leisure-time activity in women with breast cancer. METHODS: This pilot project, designed as a single-arm study with pre-post testing, consisted of 24 classes of combined aerobic and strength exercise training as well as classes on dietary and health behavior. A total of 48 women...... with breast cancer who were undergoing or had recently completed anticancer treatment completed the study. Leisure-time physical activity, grip strength, functional capacity, quality of life (QoL), and depression were assessed at baseline, after intervention, and at the 12-week follow-up after intervention...

  4. Antifatigue and increasing exercise performance of Actinidia arguta crude alkaloids in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangyang Liu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Actinidia arguta (Siebold et Zucc. Planch. ex. Miq. is one of the most recently domesticated fruit species with increasing commercial production worldwide. It is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine and is used to reduce blood glucose and treat atopic dermatitis. In addition, it possesses antioxidant, anticancer, and antiallergic properties. In this study, we investigated the physical antifatigue and exercise performance effects of A. arguta crude alkaloids (AACA extracted with 70% ethanol. Four groups of male Kunming mice (n = 16 were orally administered AACA at doses of 0 mg/kg/d (vehicle, 50 mg/kg/d (AACA-50, 100 mg/kg/d (AACA-100, or 200 mg/kg/d (AACA-200 for 28 days. The effect of AACA treatment on exercise performance was studied using the forelimb grip strength experiment and by the measurement of the weight-loaded swimming time. The antifatigue effect is evaluated based on fatigue-associated biochemical parameters, hepatic and muscular glycogen levels, and changes in the morphology of transverse and longitudinal sections of skeletal muscle. The results showed that AACA could elevate the endurance and grip strength in mice. The exhaustive swimming time of the AACA-50, AACA-100, and AACA-200 groups was significantly (p < 0.05 increased compared with the vehicle. The swimming time of the AACA-100 group was the longest among all groups studied. Mice in the AACA-treated groups had decreased levels of lactate, ammonia, and creatine kinase after a physical challenge compared with the vehicle group. The tissue glycogen, an important energy source during exercise, significantly increased with AACA. The morphology of transverse and longitudinal sections of skeletal muscle did not change in the vehicle group. Overall, these findings suggest that AACA possesses antifatigue effects and increases exercise performance in mice. Therefore, A. arguta may be developed as an antifatigue dietary supplement in the category of functional foods.

  5. Probiotic Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 reduces exercise-induced muscle damage and increases recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Ralf Jäger; Kevin A. Shields; Ryan P. Lowery; Eduardo O. De Souza; Jeremy M. Partl; Chase Hollmer; Martin Purpura; Jacob M. Wilson

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Probiotics have been reported to support healthy digestive and immune function, aid in protein absorption, and decrease inflammation. Further, a trend to increase vertical jump power has been observed following co-administration of protein and probiotics in resistance-trained subjects. However, to date the potential beneficial effect of probiotics on recovery from high intensity resistance exercise have yet to be explored. Therefore, this study examined the effect of co-administrat...

  6. Increased self-efficacy: the experience of high-intensity exercise of nursing home residents with dementia - a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Cecilie Fromholt; Telenius, Elisabeth Wiken; Engedal, Knut; Bergland, Astrid

    2015-09-14

    There has been increasing interest in the use of non-pharmacological interventions, such as physical exercise, to improve the well-being of nursing home residents with dementia. For reasons regarding disease symptoms, persons with dementia might find it difficult to participate in exercise programs. Therefore, it is important to find ways to successfully promote regular exercise for patients in residential care. Several quantitative studies have established the positive effects of exercise on biopsychosocial factors, such as self-efficacy in older people; however, little is known regarding the qualitative aspects of participating in an exercise program among older people with dementia. From the perspective of residents, we explored the experiences of participating in a high-intensity functional exercise program among nursing home residents with dementia. The participants were eight elderly people with mild-to-moderate dementia. We conducted semi-structured interviews one week after they had finished a 10-week supervised high-intensity exercise program. We analyzed the data using an inductive content analysis. Five overreaching and interrelated themes emerged from the interviews: "Pushing the limits," "Being invested in," "Relationships facilitate exercise participation," "Exercise revives the body, increases independence and improves self-esteem" and "Physical activity is a basic human necessity--use it or lose it!" The results were interpreted in light of Bandura's self-efficacy theory. The exercise program seemed to improve self-efficacy through several mechanisms. By being involved, "being invested in" and having something expected of them, the participants gained a sense of empowerment in their everyday lives. The importance of social influences related to the exercise instructor and the exercise group was accentuated by the participants. The nursing home residents had, for the most part, positive experiences with regard to participating in the exercise program

  7. Increased active hamstring stiffness after exercise in women with a history of low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedard, Rebecca J; Kim, Kyung-Min; Grindstaff, Terry L; Hart, Joseph M

    2013-02-01

    To compare active hamstring stiffness in female subjects with and without a history of low back pain (LBP) after a standardized 20-min aerobic-exercise session. Case control. Laboratory. 12 women with a history of recurrent episodes of LBP (age = 22.4 ± 2.1 y, mass = 67.1 ± 11.8 kg, height = 167.9 ± 8 cm) and 12 matched healthy women (age = 21.7 ± 1.7 y, mass = 61.4 ± 8.8 kg, height = 165.6 ± 7.3 cm). LBP subjects reported an average 6.5 ± 4.7 on the Oswestry Disability Index. Participants walked at a self-selected speed (minimum 3.0 miles/h) for 20 min. The treadmill incline was raised 1% grade per minute for the first 15 min. During the last 5 min, participants adjusted the incline of the treadmill so they would maintain a moderate level of perceived exertion through the end of the exercise protocol. During session 1, active hamstring stiffness, hamstring and quadriceps isometric strength, and concurrently collected electromyographic activity were recorded before and immediately after the exercise protocol. For session 2, subjects returned 48-72 h after exercise for repeat measure of active hamstring stiffness. Hamstring active stiffness (Nm/rad) taken immediately postexercise was not significantly different between groups. However, individuals with a history of recurrent LBP episodes presented significantly increased hamstring stiffness 48-72 h postexercise compared with controls. For other outcomes, there was no group difference. Women with a history of recurrent LBP episodes presented greater active hamstring stiffness 48-72 h after aerobic exercise.

  8. Voluntary aerobic exercise increases arterial resilience and mitochondrial health with aging in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioscia-Ryan, Rachel A.; Battson, Micah L.; Cuevas, Lauren M.; Zigler, Melanie C.; Sindler, Amy L.; Seals, Douglas R.

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysregulation and associated excessive reactive oxygen species (mtROS) production is a key source of oxidative stress in aging arteries that reduces baseline function and may influence resilience (ability to withstand stress). We hypothesized that voluntary aerobic exercise would increase arterial resilience in old mice. An acute mitochondrial stressor (rotenone) caused greater (further) impairment in peak carotid EDD in old (~27 mo., OC, n=12;−32.5±-10.5%) versus young (~7 mo., YC n=11;−5.4±- 3.7%) control male mice, whereas arteries from young and old exercising (YVR n=10 and OVR n=11, 10-wk voluntary running;−0.8±-2.1% and −8.0±4.9%, respectively) mice were protected. Ex-vivo simulated Western diet (WD, high glucose and palmitate) caused greater impairment in EDD in OC (-28.5±8.6%) versus YC (-16.9±5.2%) and YVR (-15.3±2.3%), whereas OVR (-8.9±3.9%) were more resilient (not different versus YC). Simultaneous ex-vivo treatment with mitochondria-specific antioxidant MitoQ attenuated WD-induced impairments in YC and OC, but not YVR or OVR, suggesting that exercise improved resilience to mtROS-mediated stress. Exercise normalized age-related alterations in aortic mitochondrial protein markers PGC-1α, SIRT-3 and Fis1 and augmented cellular antioxidant and stress response proteins. Our results indicate that arterial aging is accompanied by reduced resilience and mitochondrial health, which are restored by voluntary aerobic exercise. PMID:27875805

  9. Voluntary aerobic exercise increases arterial resilience and mitochondrial health with aging in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioscia-Ryan, Rachel A; Battson, Micah L; Cuevas, Lauren M; Zigler, Melanie C; Sindler, Amy L; Seals, Douglas R

    2016-11-22

    Mitochondrial dysregulation and associated excessive reactive oxygen species (mtROS) production is a key source of oxidative stress in aging arteries that reduces baseline function and may influence resilience (ability to withstand stress). We hypothesized that voluntary aerobic exercise would increase arterial resilience in old mice. An acute mitochondrial stressor (rotenone) caused greater (further) impairment in peak carotid EDD in old (~27 mo., OC, n=12; -32.5±-10.5%) versus young (~7 mo., YC n=11; -5.4±- 3.7%) control male mice, whereas arteries from young and old exercising (YVR n=10 and OVR n=11, 10-wk voluntary running; -0.8±-2.1% and -8.0±4.9%, respectively) mice were protected. Ex-vivo simulated Western diet (WD, high glucose and palmitate) caused greater impairment in EDD in OC (-28.5±8.6%) versus YC (-16.9±5.2%) and YVR (-15.3±2.3%), whereas OVR (-8.9±3.9%) were more resilient (not different versus YC). Simultaneous ex-vivo treatment with mitochondria-specific antioxidant MitoQ attenuated WD-induced impairments in YC and OC, but not YVR or OVR, suggesting that exercise improved resilience to mtROS-mediated stress. Exercise normalized age-related alterations in aortic mitochondrial protein markers PGC-1α, SIRT-3 and Fis1 and augmented cellular antioxidant and stress response proteins. Our results indicate that arterial aging is accompanied by reduced resilience and mitochondrial health, which are restored by voluntary aerobic exercise.

  10. Motivational "spill-over" during weight control: increased self-determination and exercise intrinsic motivation predict eating self-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Jutta; Silva, Marlene N; Vieira, Paulo N; Carraça, Eliana V; Andrade, Ana M; Coutinho, Sílvia R; Sardinha, Luis B; Teixeira, Pedro J

    2009-11-01

    Successful weight management relies on at least two health behaviors, eating and exercise. However, little is known about their interaction on a motivational and behavioral level. Based on the Hierarchical Model of Motivation the authors examined whether exercise-specific motivation can transfer to eating regulation during a lifestyle weight control program. The authors further investigated whether general, treatment-related, and exercise motivation underlie the relation between increased exercise and improved eating regulation. Overweight/obese women participated in a 1-year randomized controlled trial (N = 239). The intervention focused on promoting physical activity and internal motivation for exercise and weight loss, following Self-Determination Theory. The control group received general health education. General and exercise specific self-determination, eating self-regulation variables, and physical activity behavior. General self-determination and more autonomous exercise motivation predicted eating self-regulation over 12 months. Additionally, general and exercise self-determination fully mediated the relation between physical activity and eating self-regulation. Increased general self-determination and exercise motivation seem to facilitate improvements in eating self-regulation during weight control in women. These motivational mechanisms also underlie the relationship between improvements in exercise behavior and eating regulation. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Increased Vertebral Bone Mineral in Response to Reduced Exercise in Amenorrheic Runners

    OpenAIRE

    Lindberg, Jill S.; Hunt, Marjorie M.; Wade, Charles E.; Powell, Malcolm R.; Ducey, Diane E.

    1987-01-01

    Seven female runners found to have exercise-induced amenorrhea and decreased bone mineral were reevaluated after 15 months. During the 15-month period, four runners took supplemental calcium and reduced their weekly running distance by 43%, resulting in an average 5% increase in body weight, increased estradiol levels and eumenorrhea. Bone mineral content increased from 1.003±0.097 to 1.070±0.089 grams per cm.2 Three runners continued to have amenorrhea, with no change in running distance or ...

  12. Exhaustive physical exercise increases the number of colonic preneoplastic lesions in untrained rats treated with a chemical carcinogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarzo, Marcelo Marcos Piva; Garcia, Sérgio Britto

    2004-12-08

    Aberrant crypt foci (ACF) have been used for early detection of factors that influence colorectal carcinogenesis in rats. It has been observed that exhaustive exercise increases free radical DNA oxidative damage and depresses immune function, events also related to the increased risk for cancer development. Fifteen days after a single exhaustive swimming bout in untrained rats treated with a colon carcinogen, we observed a statistically significant increased number of ACF when compared to the non-exercised group. Thus, we concluded that exhaustive exercise increased the susceptibility for colon cancer in rats. From our finding and literature data, we hypothesize that, similarly to the suggested relationship between exercise and infections, exercise could be protective against cancer or it could increase the risk for this disease depending on its type, dose and duration.

  13. Skeletal muscle-specific expression of PGC-1α-b, an exercise-responsive isoform, increases exercise capacity and peak oxygen uptake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miki Tadaishi

    Full Text Available Maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max predicts mortality and is associated with endurance performance. Trained subjects have a high VO(2max due to a high cardiac output and high metabolic capacity of skeletal muscles. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α, a nuclear receptor coactivator, promotes mitochondrial biogenesis, a fiber-type switch to oxidative fibers, and angiogenesis in skeletal muscle. Because exercise training increases PGC-1α in skeletal muscle, PGC-1α-mediated changes may contribute to the improvement of exercise capacity and VO(2max. There are three isoforms of PGC-1α mRNA. PGC-1α-b protein, whose amino terminus is different from PGC-1α-a protein, is a predominant PGC-1α isoform in response to exercise. We investigated whether alterations of skeletal muscle metabolism by overexpression of PGC-1α-b in skeletal muscle, but not heart, would increase VO(2max and exercise capacity.Transgenic mice showed overexpression of PGC-1α-b protein in skeletal muscle but not in heart. Overexpression of PGC-1α-b promoted mitochondrial biogenesis 4-fold, increased the expression of fatty acid transporters, enhanced angiogenesis in skeletal muscle 1.4 to 2.7-fold, and promoted exercise capacity (expressed by maximum speed by 35% and peak oxygen uptake by 20%. Across a broad range of either the absolute exercise intensity, or the same relative exercise intensities, lipid oxidation was always higher in the transgenic mice than wild-type littermates, suggesting that lipid is the predominant fuel source for exercise in the transgenic mice. However, muscle glycogen usage during exercise was absent in the transgenic mice.Increased mitochondrial biogenesis, capillaries, and fatty acid transporters in skeletal muscles may contribute to improved exercise capacity via an increase in fatty acid utilization. Increases in PGC-1α-b protein or function might be a useful strategy for sedentary subjects to perform exercise

  14. INCREASES IN CORE TEMPERATURE COUNTERBALANCE EFFECTS OF HEMOCONCENTRATION ON BLOOD VISCOSITY DURING PROLONGED EXERCISE IN THE HEAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buono, Michael J.; Krippes, Taylor; Kolkhorst, Fred W.; Williams, Alexander T.; Cabrales, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that blood viscosity is significantly increased following exercise. However, these studies measured both pre- and post-exercise blood viscosity at 37 °C even though core and blood temperatures would be expected to have increased during the exercise. Consequently, the effect of exercise-induced hyperthermia on mitigating change in blood viscosity may have been missed. The purpose of this study was to isolate the effects of exercise-induced hemoconcentration and hyperthermia, as well as determine their combined effects, on blood viscosity. Nine subjects performed 2 h of moderate-intensity exercise in the heat (37 °C, 40% rH), which resulted in significant increases from pre-exercise values for rectal temperature (37.11 ± 0.35 °C to 38.76 ± 0.13 °C), hemoconcentration (hematocrit = 43.6 ± 3.6% to 45.6 ± 3.5%), and dehydration (Δbody weight = −3.6 ± 0.7%). Exercise-induced hemoconcentration significantly (P viscosity by 9% (3.97 to 4.30 cP at 300 s−1) while exercise-induced hyperthermia significantly decreased blood viscosity by 7% (3.97 to 3.70 cP at 300 s−1). However, when both factors were considered together, there was no overall change in blood viscosity (3.97 to 4.03 cP at 300 s−1). The effects of exercise-induced hemoconcentration, increased plasma viscosity, and increased red blood cell aggregation, all of which increased blood viscosity, were counterbalanced by increased RBC deformability (e.g., RBC membrane shear elastic modulus and elongation index) caused by the hyperthermia. Thus, blood viscosity remained unchanged following prolonged moderate-intensity exercise in the heat. PMID:26682653

  15. Reduced efficiency, but increased fat oxidation, in mitochondria from human skeletal muscle after 24-h ultraendurance exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernström, Maria; Bakkman, Linda; Tonkonogi, Michail

    2007-01-01

    The hypothesis that ultraendurance exercise influences muscle mitochondrial function has been investigated. Athletes in ultraendurance performance performed running, kayaking, and cycling at 60% of their peak O(2) consumption for 24 h. Muscle biopsies were taken preexercise (Pre-Ex), postexercise...... exercise (+13%). The increased mitochondrial capacity for PC oxidation indicates plasticity in substrate oxidation at the mitochondrial level, which may be of advantage during prolonged exercise....

  16. Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idorn, Manja; thor Straten, Eivind Per

    2016-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that voluntary exercise leads to an influx of immune cells in tumors and a greater than 60% reduction in tumor incidence and growth across several mouse models. Improved immunological control of tumor progression may have important clinical implications in the prevention...

  17. Increases in core temperature counterbalance effects of haemoconcentration on blood viscosity during prolonged exercise in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buono, Michael J; Krippes, Taylor; Kolkhorst, Fred W; Williams, Alexander T; Cabrales, Pedro

    2016-02-01

    What is the central question of this study? The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of exercise-induced haemoconcentration and hyperthermia on blood viscosity. What is the main finding and its importance? Exercise-induced haemoconcentration, increased plasma viscosity and increased blood aggregation, all of which increased blood viscosity, were counterbalanced by increased red blood cell (RBC) deformability (e.g. RBC membrane shear elastic modulus and elongation index) caused by the hyperthermia. Thus, blood viscosity remained unchanged following prolonged moderate-intensity exercise in the heat. Previous studies have reported that blood viscosity is significantly increased following exercise. However, these studies measured both pre- and postexercise blood viscosity at 37 °C even though core and blood temperatures would be expected to have increased during the exercise. Consequently, the effect of exercise-induced hyperthermia on mitigating change in blood viscosity may have been missed. The purpose of this study was to isolate the effects of exercise-induced haemoconcentration and hyperthermia and to determine their combined effects on blood viscosity. Nine subjects performed 2 h of moderate-intensity exercise in the heat (37 °C, 40% relative humidity), which resulted in significant increases from pre-exercise values for rectal temperature (from 37.11 ± 0.35 to 38.76 ± 0.13 °C), haemoconcentration (haematocrit increased from 43.6 ± 3.6 to 45.6 ± 3.5%) and dehydration (change in body weight = -3.6 ± 0.7%). Exercise-induced haemoconcentration significantly (P blood viscosity by 9% (from 3.97 to 4.33 cP at 300 s(-1)), whereas exercise-induced hyperthermia significantly decreased blood viscosity by 7% (from 3.97 to 3.69 cP at 300 s(-1)). When both factors were considered together, there was no overall change in blood viscosity (from 3.97 to 4.03 cP at 300 s(-1)). The effects of exercise-induced haemoconcentration, increased plasma

  18. Impact exercise increases BMC during growth: an 8-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, Katherine; Baxter-Jones, Adam Dg; Mirwald, Robert L; Almstedt, Hawley; Fuchs, Robyn K; Durski, Shantel; Snow, Christine

    2008-07-01

    Our aim was to assess BMC of the hip over 8 yr in prepubertal children who participated in a 7-mo jumping intervention compared with controls who participated in a stretching program of equal duration. We hypothesized that jumpers would gain more BMC than control subjects. The data reported come from two cohorts of children who participated in separate, but identical, randomized, controlled, school-based impact exercise interventions and reflect those subjects who agreed to long-term follow-up (N = 57; jumpers = 33, controls = 24; 47% of the original participants). BMC was assessed by DXA at baseline, 7 and 19 mo after intervention, and annually thereafter for 5 yr (eight visits over 8 yr). Multilevel random effects models were constructed and used to predict change in BMC from baseline at each measurement occasion. After 7 mo, those children that completed high-impact jumping exercises had 3.6% more BMC at the hip than control subjects whom completed nonimpact stretching activities (p BMC at the hip after nearly 8 yr (BMC adjusted for change in age, height, weight, and physical activity; p BMC from short-term high-impact exercise undertaken in early childhood. If the benefits are sustained into young adulthood, effectively increasing peak bone mass, fracture risk in the later years could be reduced.

  19. Aerobic Exercise Training Adaptations Are Increased by Postexercise Carbohydrate-Protein Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Ferguson-Stegall

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbohydrate-protein supplementation has been found to increase the rate of training adaptation when provided postresistance exercise. The present study compared the effects of a carbohydrate and protein supplement in the form of chocolate milk (CM, isocaloric carbohydrate (CHO, and placebo on training adaptations occurring over 4.5 weeks of aerobic exercise training. Thirty-two untrained subjects cycled 60 min/d, 5 d/wk for 4.5 wks at 75–80% of maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max. Supplements were ingested immediately and 1 h after each exercise session. VO2 max and body composition were assessed before the start and end of training. VO2 max improvements were significantly greater in CM than CHO and placebo. Greater improvements in body composition, represented by a calculated lean and fat mass differential for whole body and trunk, were found in the CM group compared to CHO. We conclude supplementing with CM postexercise improves aerobic power and body composition more effectively than CHO alone.

  20. Does Aerobic Exercise Increase 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure Among Workers With High Occupational Physical Activity? - A RCT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj, Mette; Krause, Niklas; Clays, Els

    2017-01-01

    .9–3.8). Cleaners with high aerobic workload exhibited particularly high 24-hour ABP increases: systolic 6.0 mm Hg (95% CI 2.4–9.6), and diastolic 3.8 mm Hg (95% CI 1.3–6.4). CONCLUSION Aerobic exercise increased 24-hour ABP among cleaners. This adverse effect raises questions about the safety and intended benefits......OBJECTIVE High occupational physical activity (OPA) increases cardiovascular risk and aerobic exercise has been recommended for reducing this risk. This paper investigates the effects of an aerobic exercise intervention on 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) among cleaners with high OPA....... METHODS Hundred and sixteen cleaners between 18 and 65 years were randomized. During the 4-month intervention period, the aerobic exercise group (AE) (n = 57) performed worksite aerobic exercise (2 × 30 minutes/week), while the reference group (REF) (n = 59) attended lectures. Between-group differences...

  1. Does aerobic exercise increase 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure among workers with high occupational physical activity? - A RCT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj, Mette; Krause, Niklas; Clays, Els

    2017-01-01

    .9–3.8). Cleaners with high aerobic workload exhibited particularly high 24-hour ABP increases: systolic 6.0 mm Hg (95% CI 2.4–9.6), and diastolic 3.8 mm Hg (95% CI 1.3–6.4). CONCLUSION Aerobic exercise increased 24-hour ABP among cleaners. This adverse effect raises questions about the safety and intended benefits......OBJECTIVE High occupational physical activity (OPA) increases cardiovascular risk and aerobic exercise has been recommended for reducing this risk. This paper investigates the effects of an aerobic exercise intervention on 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) among cleaners with high OPA....... METHODS Hundred and sixteen cleaners between 18 and 65 years were randomized. During the 4-month intervention period, the aerobic exercise group (AE) (n = 57) performed worksite aerobic exercise (2 × 30 minutes/week), while the reference group (REF) (n = 59) attended lectures. Between-group differences...

  2. The effects of two self-regulation interventions to increase self-efficacy and group exercise behavior in fitness clubs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelkamp, P.J.C.; Rooijen, M. van; Wolfhagen, P.; Steenbergen, B.

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the adoption and maintenance of group exercise behavior are scarce. The objective of this study is to test two self-efficacy based interventions to increase barrier self-efficacy and group exercise behavior. In total 122 participants (Mage 42.02 yr.; SD 12.29; 67% females) were recruited

  3. The Effects of Two Self-Regulation Interventions to Increase Self-Efficacy and Group Exercise Behavior in Fitness Clubs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelkamp, J.; van Rooijen, M.; Wolfhagen, P.; Steenbergen, B.

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the adoption and maintenance of group exercise behavior are scarce. The objective of this study is to test two self-efficacy based interventions to increase barrier self-efficacy and group exercise behavior. In total 122 participants (Mage 42.02 yr.; SD 12.29; 67% females) were recruited

  4. Exercise-mediated wall shear stress increases mitochondrial biogenesis in vascular endothelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boa Kim

    Full Text Available Enhancing structural and functional integrity of mitochondria is an emerging therapeutic option against endothelial dysfunction. In this study, we sought to investigate the effect of fluid shear stress on mitochondrial biogenesis and mitochondrial respiratory function in endothelial cells (ECs using in vitro and in vivo complementary studies.Human aortic- or umbilical vein-derived ECs were exposed to laminar shear stress (20 dyne/cm2 for various durations using a cone-and-plate shear apparatus. We observed significant increases in the expression of key genes related to mitochondrial biogenesis and mitochondrial quality control as well as mtDNA content and mitochondrial mass under the shear stress conditions. Mitochondrial respiratory function was enhanced when cells were intermittently exposed to laminar shear stress for 72 hrs. Also, shear-exposed cells showed diminished glycolysis and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm. Likewise, in in vivo experiments, mice that were subjected to a voluntary wheel running exercise for 5 weeks showed significantly higher mitochondrial content determined by en face staining in the conduit (greater and lesser curvature of the aortic arch and thoracic aorta and muscle feed (femoral artery arteries compared to the sedentary control mice. Interestingly, however, the mitochondrial biogenesis was not observed in the mesenteric artery. This region-specific adaptation is likely due to the differential blood flow redistribution during exercise in the different vessel beds.Taken together, our findings suggest that exercise enhances mitochondrial biogenesis in vascular endothelium through a shear stress-dependent mechanism. Our findings may suggest a novel mitochondrial pathway by which a chronic exercise may be beneficial for vascular function.

  5. Exercise Increases Insulin Content and Basal Secretion in Pancreatic Islets in Type 1 Diabetic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Hung Huang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Exercise appears to improve glycemic control for people with type 1 diabetes (T1D. However, the mechanism responsible for this improvement is unknown. We hypothesized that exercise has a direct effect on the insulin-producing islets. Eight-week-old mice were divided into four groups: sedentary diabetic, exercised diabetic, sedentary control, and exercised control. The exercised groups participated in voluntary wheel running for 6 weeks. When compared to the control groups, the islet density, islet diameter, and β-cell proportion per islet were significantly lower in both sedentary and exercised diabetic groups and these alterations were not improved with exercise. The total insulin content and insulin secretion were significantly lower in sedentary diabetics compared to controls. Exercise significantly improved insulin content and insulin secretion in islets in basal conditions. Thus, some improvements in exercise-induced glycemic control in T1D mice may be due to enhancement of insulin content and secretion in islets.

  6. The combination of exercise training and Zataria multiflora supplementation increase serum irisin levels in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbass Ghanbari-Niaki

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: We examined the effect of antioxidant supplementation and exercise on irisin within postmenopausal women. Methods: Forty-eight participants (age: 55.7 ± 4.9 years; weight: 68.0 ± 6.3 kg; BMI 27.0 ± 2.7; mean ± SD were randomized into four groups for the eight week intervention: control group (CG; n = 12, resistance training group (RTG; n = 12, supplementation with Zataria multiflora group (ZG; n = 12, or supplementation with Z. multiflora and resistance training group (ZRTG; n = 12. RTG and ZRTG performed circuit resistance training, and both ZG and ZRTG consumed 500 mg of Z. multiflora every day during the intervention. Blood samples were taken 48 hours before and after the intervention. Results: There was a significant difference in irisin at post-training, with greater levels in ZRTG compared to CG. A significant increase was noted for irisin at post-training compared to pre-training for ZG, RTG, and ZRTG. Moreover, we identified a significant decrease in malondialdehyde in the RTG and ZRTG groups and increase in glutathione in the ZG, RTG, and ZRTG groups when compared to CG. Conclusion: These findings showed that exercise, Z. multiflora supplementation or their combination led to an increase in irisin. Keywords: Antioxidants, Circuit resistance training, Myokine, Postmenopausal women, Zataria multiflora

  7. Relative Humidity of 40% Inhibiting the Increase of Pulse Rate, Body Temperature, and Blood Lactic Acid During Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nengah Sandi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Excessive sweating of the body is a reaction to decrease the heat caused by prolonged exercise at high relative humidity (RH. This situation may cause an increase in pulse rate (PR, body temperature (BT, and blood lactic acid (BLA workout. Objective: This study aimed to prove that a RH of 40% better than a RH of 50% and 60% RH in inhibiting the increase of PR, BT, and BLA during exercise. Methods: The study was conducted on 54 samples randomly selected from the IKIP PGRI Bali students. The samples were divided into three groups, and each group was given cycling exercise with a load of 80 Watt for 2 x 30 minutes with rest between sets for five minutes. Group-1 of cycling at 40% of RH, Group-2 at a RH of 50%, and the Group-3 at a RH of 60%. Data PR, BT, and BLA taken before and during exercise. The mean difference between groups before and during exercise were analyzed by One-way Anova and a further test used Least Significant Difference (LSD. Significance used was α = 0.05. Results: The mean of PR during exercise was significantly different between groups with p = 0.045, the mean of BT during exercises was significantly different between groups with p = 0.006, and the mean of BLA during exercises was significantly different between groups with p = 0.005 (p <0.05. Also found that PR, BT, and BLA during exercise at 40% RH was lower than 50% RH and 60% RH (p <0.05. Conclusion: Thus, the RH of 40% was better than RH of 50% and 60 % in inhibiting the increase of PR, BT, and BLA during exercise. Therefore, when practiced in a closed room is expected at 40% relative humidity.

  8. Aerobic Exercise Increases Peripheral and Hepatic Insulin Sensitivity in Sedentary Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, Gert-Jan; Toffolo, Gianna; Manesso, Erica; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Sunehag, Agneta L.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Data are limited on the effects of controlled aerobic exercise programs (without weight loss) on insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism in children and adolescents. Objective: To determine whether a controlled aerobic exercise program (without weight loss) improves peripheral and

  9. Exercise-induced increase in glucose transport, GLUT-4, and VAMP-2 in plasma membrane from human muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, S; Hargreaves, Mark; Richter, Erik

    1996-01-01

    contractions may induce trafficking of GLUT-4-containing vesicles via a mechanism similar to neurotransmitter release. Our results demonstrate for the first time exercise-induced translocation of GLUT-4 and VAMP-2 to the plasma membrane of human muscle and increased sarcolemmal glucose transport.......A major effect of muscle contractions is an increase in sarcolemmal glucose transport. We have used a recently developed technique to produce sarcolemmal giant vesicles from human muscle biopsy samples obtained before and after exercise. Six men exercised for 10 min at 50% maximal O2 uptake (Vo2max...

  10. RANGE OF MOTION EXERCISE OF ARMS INCREASES THE MUCLE STRENGTH FOR POST STROKE PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judi Nurbaeni

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Someone attached by stroke can’t do their activity fluently because stroke can cause the weakness of motor and sensor function. This condition cause physical defect and give effect in social and economic too, because someone who suffered stroke usually still in productive age. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of arm range of motion in the muscle strength of post stroke patient. Method: Pre experimental pre–post test design was used in this study. Population of this study was post stroke patient in Wijayakusuma ward dr. Soedono Hospital and total samples were 11 respondents. Independent variable was arm range of motion exercise, dependent variable was strength of arm muscle. Data were collected by observation with manual muscle testing of Lovelt, Naniel and Worthinghom and then analyzed using wilcoxon signed rank test with signi fi cant level of α ≤ 0.05. Result: The result showed that 11 respondents had increased their strength of muscle (p = 0.04. Discussion: It can be concluded that the strength of muscle increased after get arm range of motion exercise. When range of motion had been done Ca+ will be activated by cell so that happen integrity of muscle protein. If Ca+ and troponin had been activated, actin and myosin would have been defensed, so that can moved the skeletal and followed by muscle contraction, expand, outgrow and had a tonus. This condition can showed the strength of muscle.

  11. Increasing patient engagement in rehabilitation exercises using computer-based citizen science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laut, Jeffrey; Cappa, Francesco; Nov, Oded; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Patient motivation is an important factor to consider when developing rehabilitation programs. Here, we explore the effectiveness of active participation in web-based citizen science activities as a means of increasing participant engagement in rehabilitation exercises, through the use of a low-cost haptic joystick interfaced with a laptop computer. Using the joystick, patients navigate a virtual environment representing the site of a citizen science project situated in a polluted canal. Participants are tasked with following a path on a laptop screen representing the canal. The experiment consists of two conditions: in one condition, a citizen science component where participants classify images from the canal is included; and in the other, the citizen science component is absent. Both conditions are tested on a group of young patients undergoing rehabilitation treatments and a group of healthy subjects. A survey administered at the end of both tasks reveals that participants prefer performing the scientific task, and are more likely to choose to repeat it, even at the cost of increasing the time of their rehabilitation exercise. Furthermore, performance indices based on data collected from the joystick indicate significant differences in the trajectories created by patients and healthy subjects, suggesting that the low-cost device can be used in a rehabilitation setting for gauging patient recovery.

  12. Aerobic Exercise Combined with Techniques Programe Can Be Increased Groundstroke Skill of Tennis Athlet

    OpenAIRE

    Nasrulloh, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Professional tennis athletes should be able to master all the basic techniques of playing tennis and having physical fitness. Therefore, it is necessary to get an exercise that can give meaning to the skills and physical fitness. One of the proper exercises is with aerobic exercise combined with the technique.Aerobic exercise program combined with techniques is: (1) a number of players consisting of six to seven people with backward sequential formation techniques performing forehand and back...

  13. Increased pain sensitivity but normal function of exercise induced analgesia in hip and knee osteoarthritis--treatment effects of neuromuscular exercise and total joint replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosek, E; Roos, E M; Ageberg, E; Nilsdotter, A

    2013-09-01

    To assess exercise induced analgesia (EIA) and pain sensitivity in hip and knee osteoarthritis (OA) and to study the effects of neuromuscular exercise and surgery on these parameters. The dataset consisted of knee (n = 66) and hip (n = 47) OA patients assigned for total joint replacement at Lund University Hospital undergoing pre-operative neuromuscular exercise and 43 matched controls. Sensitivity to pressure pain was assessed by pressure algometry at 10 sites. Subjects were then instructed to perform a standardized static knee extension. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were assessed at the contracting quadriceps muscle (Q) and at the resting deltoid muscle (D) before and during contraction. The relative increase in PPTs during contraction was taken as a measure of localized (Q) or generalized (D) EIA. Patients were assessed at baseline, following on average 12 weeks of neuromuscular exercise and 3 months following surgery. We found a normal function of EIA in OA patients at baseline. Previous studies have reported beneficial effects of physical exercise on pain modulation in healthy subjects. However, no treatment effects on EIA were seen in OA patients despite the increase in muscle strength following neuromuscular exercise and reduced pain following surgery. Compared to controls, OA patients had increased pain sensitivity and no beneficial effects on pain sensitivity were seen following treatment. To our knowledge, this is the first study of EIA in OA patients. Despite increased pain sensitivity, OA patients had a normal function of EIA. Copyright © 2013 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The heart rate increase at the onset of high-work intensity exercise is accelerated by central blood volume loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Tadayoshi; Oshima, Yoshitake; Ikuta, Komei; Kinoshita, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    Using a water immersion (WI) method, the combined effect of central blood volume (CBV) loading and work intensity on the time course of heart rate (HR) at the onset of upright dynamic exercise was investigated. Seven males cranked a cycle ergometer for 12 min using their un-immersed arms at low-, moderate- and high-work intensities, followed by a 12-min rest. For WI, the pre-exercise resting cardiac output increased by 36%, while HR decreased by 22% [from 76.8 (10.4) to 59.6 (9.8) beats/min]. WI also increased the high-frequency (HF, 0.15-0.40 Hz) component of the HR variability, suggesting an increased vagal activity. During the initial 2 min of the exercise period at low-work intensity, HR increased by 34.9 and 25.8% in the WI and control conditions, respectively. These were 117 and 73% at high-work intensity, indicating more accelerated HR with WI than the control. The plasma norepinephrine concentration increased less during high-work intensity exercise during WI, as compared to exercise during control conditions. In conclusion, the HR increase at the onset of high-work intensity exercise is accelerated by CBV loading but not at low intensity, possibly reflecting vago-sympathetic interaction and reduced baroreflex sensitivity.

  15. Normobaric hypoxia increases the growth hormone response to maximal resistance exercise in trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filopoulos, Dean; Cormack, Stuart J; Whyte, Douglas G

    2017-08-01

    This study examined the effect of hypoxia on growth hormone (GH) release during an acute bout of high-intensity, low-volume resistance exercise. Using a single-blinded, randomised crossover design, 16 resistance-trained males completed two resistance exercise sessions in normobaric hypoxia (HYP; inspiratory oxygen fraction, (FiO 2 ) 0.12, arterial oxygen saturation (SpO 2 ) 82 ± 2%) and normoxia (NOR; FiO 2 0.21, SpO 2 98 ± 0%). Each session consisted of five sets of three repetitions of 45° leg press and bench press at 85% of one repetition maximum. Heart rate, SpO 2 , and electromyographic activity (EMG) of the vastus lateralis muscle were measured throughout the protocol. Serum lactate and GH levels were determined pre-exposure, and at 5, 15, 30 and 60 min post-exercise. Differences in mean and integrated EMG between HYP and NOR treatments were unclear. However, there was an important increase in the peak levels and area under the curve of both lactate (HYP 5.8 ± 1.8 v NOR 3.9 ± 1.1 mmol.L -1 and HYP 138.7 ± 33.1 v NOR 105.8 ± 20.8 min.mmol.L -1 ) and GH (HYP 4.4 ± 3.1 v NOR 2.1 ± 2.5 ng.mL -1 and HYP 117.7 ± 86.9 v NOR 72.9 ± 85.3 min.ng.mL -1 ) in response to HYP. These results suggest that performing high-intensity resistance exercise in a hypoxic environment may provide a beneficial endocrine response without compromising the neuromuscular activation required for maximal strength development.

  16. Oral prednisolone for 4 days does not increase exercise tolerance in men with COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, S L; Backer, V; Godtfredsen, Nina Skavlan

    2018-01-01

    One of the primary objectives in management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is preventing decrease in lung function and reducing the annual number of acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD). An oral course of systemic corticosteroids is a commonly used treatment in AECOPD. We...... hypothesize that this treatment also increases exercise performance and decreases muscle fatigue. In a randomized double-blinded, parallel, placebo-controlled trial, we investigated 14 men (8 on prednisolone 37.5 mg vs. 6 on placebo) with severe and very severe COPD. For 5 consecutive days, the patients...... out after 40 minutes of cycling at 40% of maximal effort. No differences between groups were found for TTE, lung function or maximal inspiratory or expiratory pressure, however, patients on prednisolone showed significant increased MVC: median 5.15 [3.35; 9.15] against placebo: -2 [-5.57; 3.95] ( p...

  17. AMP-activated protein kinase controls exercise training- and AICAR-induced increases in SIRT3 and MnSOD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandauer, Josef; Andersen, Marianne A; Kellezi, Holti

    2015-01-01

    , the acetylation status of SIRT3 target lysine residues on MnSOD (K122) or oligomycin-sensitivity conferring protein (OSCP; K139) was not altered in either mouse or human skeletal muscle in response to acute exercise. We propose an important role for AMPK in regulating mitochondrial function and ROS handling......The mitochondrial protein deacetylase sirtuin (SIRT) 3 may mediate exercise training-induced increases in mitochondrial biogenesis and improvements in reactive oxygen species (ROS) handling. We determined the requirement of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) for exercise training-induced increases...... in skeletal muscle abundance of SIRT3 and other mitochondrial proteins. Exercise training for 6.5 weeks increased SIRT3 (p

  18. Light-load resistance exercise increases muscle protein synthesis and hypertrophy signaling in elderly men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agergaard, Jakob; Bülow, Jacob; Jensen, Jacob K

    2017-01-01

    to 13 h of supine rest. After 2.5 h of rest, unilateral LL-RE, consisting of leg extensions (10 sets, 36 repetitions) at 16% of 1 repetition maximum (RM), was conducted. Subsequently, the subjects were randomized to oral intake of 4 g of whey protein per hour (PULSE, n = 10), 28 g of whey protein at 0 h...... and 12 g of whey protein at 7 h postexercise (BOLUS, n = 10), or 4 g of maltodextrin per hour (placebo, n = 10). Quadriceps muscle biopsies were taken at 0, 3, 7, and 10 h postexercise from the resting and the exercised leg of each subject. Myofibrillar FSR and activity of select targets from...... persisted in the placebo group only. Levels of phosphorylated (T37/46) eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 increased throughout the postexercise period in the exercised leg in the placebo and BOLUS groups and peaked at 7 h. In all three groups, phosphorylated (T56) eukaryotic...

  19. Feedback-Mediated Upper Extremities Exercise: Increasing Patient Motivation in Poststroke Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maša D. Popović

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This proof-of-concept study investigated whether feedback-mediated exercise (FME of the affected arm of hemiplegic patients increases patient motivation and promotes greater improvement of motor function, compared to no-feedback exercise (NFE. Method. We developed a feedback-mediated treatment that uses gaming scenarios and allows online and offline monitoring of both temporal and spatial characteristics of planar movements. Twenty poststroke hemiplegic inpatients, randomly assigned to the FME and NFE group, received therapy five days a week for three weeks. The outcome measures were evaluated from the following: (1 the modified drawing test (mDT, (2 received therapy time—RTT, and (3 intrinsic motivation inventory—IMI. Results. The FME group patients showed significantly higher improvement in the speed metric (P<0.01, and smoothness metric (P<0.01, as well as higher RTT (P<0.01. Significantly higher patient motivation is observed in the FME group (interest/enjoyment subscale (P<0.01 and perceived competence subscale (P<0.01. Conclusion. Prolonged endurance in training and greater improvement in certain areas of motor function, as well as very high patient motivation and strong positive impressions about the treatment, suggest the positive effects of feedback-mediated treatment and its high level of acceptance by patients.

  20. Repairing the brain with physical exercise: Cortical thickness and brain volume increases in long-term pediatric brain tumor survivors in response to a structured exercise intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila U. Szulc-Lerch

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence that exercise induced experience dependent plasticity may foster structural and functional recovery following brain injury. We examined the efficacy of exercise training for neural and cognitive recovery in long-term pediatric brain tumor survivors treated with radiation.We conducted a controlled clinical trial with crossover of exercise training (vs. no training in a volunteer sample of 28 children treated with cranial radiation for brain tumors (mean age = 11.5 yrs.; mean time since diagnosis = 5.7 yrs. The endpoints were anatomical T1 MRI data and multiple behavioral outcomes presenting a broader analysis of structural MRI data across the entire brain. This included an analysis of changes in cortical thickness and brain volume using automated, user unbiased approaches. A series of general linear mixed effects models evaluating the effects of exercise training on cortical thickness were performed in a voxel and vertex-wise manner, as well as for specific regions of interest. In exploratory analyses, we evaluated the relationship between changes in cortical thickness after exercise with multiple behavioral outcomes, as well as the relation of these measures at baseline.Exercise was associated with increases in cortical thickness within the right pre and postcentral gyri. Other notable areas of increased thickness related to training were present in the left pre and postcentral gyri, left temporal pole, left superior temporal gyrus, and left parahippocampal gyrus. Further, we observed that compared to a separate cohort of healthy children, participants displayed multiple areas with a significantly thinner cortex prior to training and fewer differences following training, indicating amelioration of anatomical deficits. Partial least squares analysis (PLS revealed specific patterns of relations between cortical thickness and various behavioral outcomes both after training and at baseline.Overall, our results

  1. Exercise reduces diet-induced cognitive decline and increases hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor in CA3 neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Emily E; Mavanji, Vijayakumar; Little, Morgan R; Billington, Charles J; Kotz, Catherine M; Wang, ChuanFeng

    2014-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that a western diet impairs, whereas physical exercise enhances hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. Both diet and exercise influence expression of hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which is associated with improved cognition. We hypothesized that exercise reverses diet-induced cognitive decline while increasing hippocampal BDNF. To test the effects of exercise on hippocampal-dependent memory, we compared cognitive scores of Sprague-Dawley rats exercised by voluntary running wheel (RW) access or forced treadmill (TM) to sedentary (Sed) animals. Memory was tested by two-way active avoidance test (TWAA), in which animals are exposed to a brief shock in a specific chamber area. When an animal avoids, escapes or has reduced latency to do either, this is considered a measure of memory. In a second experiment, rats were fed either a high-fat diet or control diet for 16 weeks, then randomly assigned to running wheel access or sedentary condition, and TWAA memory was tested once a week for 7 weeks of exercise intervention. Both groups of exercised animals had improved memory as indicated by reduced latency to avoid and escape shock, and increased avoid and escape episodes (pdiet resulted in poor performance during both the acquisition and retrieval phases of the memory test as compared to controls. Exercise reversed high-fat diet-induced memory impairment, and increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in neurons of the hippocampal CA3 region. These data suggest that exercise improves memory retrieval, particularly with respect to avoiding aversive stimuli, and may be beneficial in protecting against diet induced cognitive decline, likely via elevated BDNF in neurons of the CA3 region. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Aerobic exercise increases resistance to oxidative stress in sedentary older middle-aged adults. A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Done, Aaron J; Traustadóttir, Tinna

    2016-12-01

    Older individuals who exercise regularly exhibit greater resistance to oxidative stress than their sedentary peers, suggesting that exercise can modify age-associated loss of resistance to oxidative stress. However, we recently demonstrated that a single bout of exercise confers protection against a subsequent oxidative challenge in young, but not older adults. We therefore hypothesized that repeated bouts of exercise would be needed to increase resistance to an oxidative challenge in sedentary older middle-aged adults. Sedentary older middle-aged men and women (50-63 years, n = 11) participated in an 8-week exercise intervention. Maximal oxygen consumption was measured before and after the intervention. The exercise intervention consisted of three sessions per week, for 45 min at an intensity corresponding to 70-85 % maximal heart rate (HR max ). Resistance to oxidative stress was measured by F 2 -isoprostane response to a forearm ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) trial. Each participant underwent the I/R trial before and after the exercise intervention. The intervention elicited a significant increase in maximal oxygen consumption (VO 2max ) (P exercise intervention (time-by-trial interaction, P = 0.043). Individual improvements in aerobic fitness were associated with greater improvements in the F 2 -isoprostane response (r = -0.761, P = 0.011), further supporting the role of aerobic fitness in resistance to oxidative stress. These data demonstrate that regular exercise with improved fitness leads to increased resistance to oxidative stress in older middle-aged adults and that this measure is modifiable in previously sedentary individuals.

  3. Intensive training and reduced volume increases muscle FXYD1 expression and phosphorylation at rest and during exercise in athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Martin; Gunnarsson, Thomas Gunnar Petursson; Christensen, Peter Møller

    2016-01-01

    and phosphorylation were determined by western blotting. Expression of FXYD1 (30%), actin (40%), mTOR (12%), PLN (16%) and CaMKII γ/δ (25%) was higher (P... and during exercise, mainly achieved by an increased FXYD1 ser68 phosphorylation, compared to before the intervention. CaMKII thr287 and eEF2 thr56 phosphorylation at rest and during exercise, overall PKCα/β thr638/641 and mTOR ser2448 phosphorylation during repeated intense exercise as well as resting PLN...

  4. Variable-Intensity Simulated Team-Sport Exercise Increases Daily Protein Requirements in Active Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packer, Jeffrey E; Wooding, Denise J; Kato, Hiroyuki; Courtney-Martin, Glenda; Pencharz, Paul B; Moore, Daniel R

    2017-01-01

    Protein requirements are generally increased in strength and endurance trained athletes relative to their sedentary peers. However, less is known about the daily requirement for this important macronutrient in individuals performing variable intensity, stop-and-go type exercise that is typical for team sport athletes. The objective of the present study was to determine protein requirements in active, trained adult males performing a simulated soccer match using the minimally invasive indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) method. After 2 days of controlled diet (1.2 g⋅kg -1 ⋅day -1 protein), seven trained males (23 ± 1 years; 177.5 ± 6.7 cm; 82.3 ± 6.1 kg; 13.5% ± 4.7% body fat; 52.3 ± 5.9 ml O 2 ⋅kg -1 ⋅min -1 ; mean ± SD) performed an acute bout of variable intensity exercise in the form of a modified Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (4 × 15 min of exercise over 75 min). Immediately after exercise, hourly meals were consumed providing a variable amount of protein (0.2-2.6 g⋅kg -1 ⋅day -1 ) and sufficient energy and carbohydrate (6 g⋅kg -1 ⋅day -1 ). Protein was provided as a crystalline amino acids modeled after egg protein with the exception of phenylalanine and tyrosine, which were provided in excess to ensure the metabolic partitioning of the indicator amino acid (i.e., [1- 13 C]phenylalanine included within the phenylalanine intake) was directed toward oxidation when protein intake was limiting. Whole body phenylalanine flux and 13 CO 2 excretion (F 13 CO 2 ) were determined at metabolic and isotopic steady state from urine and breath samples, respectively. Biphasic linear regression analysis was performed on F 13 CO 2 to determine the estimated average requirement (EAR) for protein with a safe intake defined as the upper 95% confidence interval. Phenylalanine flux was not impacted by protein intake ( P  = 0.45). Bi-phase linear regression ( R 2  = 0.64) of F 13 CO 2 resulted

  5. Variable-Intensity Simulated Team-Sport Exercise Increases Daily Protein Requirements in Active Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey E. Packer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Protein requirements are generally increased in strength and endurance trained athletes relative to their sedentary peers. However, less is known about the daily requirement for this important macronutrient in individuals performing variable intensity, stop-and-go type exercise that is typical for team sport athletes. The objective of the present study was to determine protein requirements in active, trained adult males performing a simulated soccer match using the minimally invasive indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO method. After 2 days of controlled diet (1.2 g⋅kg−1⋅day−1 protein, seven trained males (23 ± 1 years; 177.5 ± 6.7 cm; 82.3 ± 6.1 kg; 13.5% ± 4.7% body fat; 52.3 ± 5.9 ml O2⋅kg−1⋅min-1; mean ± SD performed an acute bout of variable intensity exercise in the form of a modified Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (4 × 15 min of exercise over 75 min. Immediately after exercise, hourly meals were consumed providing a variable amount of protein (0.2–2.6 g⋅kg−1⋅day−1 and sufficient energy and carbohydrate (6 g⋅kg−1⋅day−1. Protein was provided as a crystalline amino acids modeled after egg protein with the exception of phenylalanine and tyrosine, which were provided in excess to ensure the metabolic partitioning of the indicator amino acid (i.e., [1-13C]phenylalanine included within the phenylalanine intake was directed toward oxidation when protein intake was limiting. Whole body phenylalanine flux and 13CO2 excretion (F13CO2 were determined at metabolic and isotopic steady state from urine and breath samples, respectively. Biphasic linear regression analysis was performed on F13CO2 to determine the estimated average requirement (EAR for protein with a safe intake defined as the upper 95% confidence interval. Phenylalanine flux was not impacted by protein intake (P = 0.45. Bi-phase linear regression (R2 = 0.64 of F13CO2 resulted in an EAR

  6. The Acute Effect of Local Vibration As a Recovery Modality from Exercise-Induced Increased Muscle Stiffness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervé Pournot, Jérémy Tindel, Rodolphe Testa, Laure Mathevon, Thomas Lapole

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Exercise involving eccentric muscle contractions is known to decrease range of motion and increase passive muscle stiffness. This study aimed at using ultrasound shear wave elastography to investigate acute changes in biceps brachii passive stiffness following intense barbell curl exercise involving both concentric and eccentric contractions. The effect of local vibration (LV as a recovery modality from exercise-induced increased stiffness was further investigated. Eleven subjects performed 4 bouts of 10 bilateral barbell curl movements at 70% of the one-rep maximal flexion force. An arm-to-arm comparison model was then used with one arm randomly assigned to the passive recovery condition and the other arm assigned to the LV recovery condition (10 min of 55-Hz vibration frequency and 0.9-mm amplitude. Biceps brachii shear elastic modulus measurements were performed prior to exercise (PRE, immediately after exercise (POST-EX and 5 min after the recovery period (POST-REC. Biceps brachii shear elastic modulus was significantly increased at POST-EX (+53 ± 48%; p < 0.001 and POST-REC (+31 ± 46%; p = 0.025 when compared to PRE. No differences were found between passive and LV recovery (p = 0.210. LV as a recovery strategy from exercise-induced increased muscle stiffness was not beneficial, probably due to an insufficient mechanical action of vibrations.

  7. Mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel-running behavior conserve more fat despite increased exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramatsu, Layla; Garland, Theodore

    2018-04-20

    Physical activity is an important component of energy expenditure, and acute changes in activity can lead to energy imbalances that affect body composition, even under ad libitum food availability. One example of acute increases in physical activity is four replicate, selectively-bred High Runner (HR) lines of mice that voluntarily run ~3-fold more wheel revolutions per day over 6-day trials and are leaner, as compared with four non-selected control (C) lines. We expected that voluntary exercise would increase food consumption, build lean mass, and reduce fat mass, but that these effects would likely differ between HR and C lines or between the sexes. We compared wheel running, cage activity, food consumption, and body composition between HR and C lines for young adults of both sexes, and examined interrelationships of those traits across 6 days of wheel access. Before wheel testing, HR mice weighed less than C, primarily due to reduced lean mass, and females were lighter than males, entirely due to lower lean mass. Over 6 days of wheel access, all groups tended to gain small amounts of lean mass, but lose fat mass. HR mice lost less fat than C mice, in spite of much higher activity levels, resulting in convergence to a fat mass of ~1.7 g for all 4 groups. HR mice consumed more food than C mice (with body mass as a covariate), even accounting for their higher activity levels. No significant sex-by-linetype interactions were observed for any of the foregoing traits. Structural equation models showed that the four sex-by-linetype groups differed considerably in the complex phenotypic architecture of these traits. Interrelationships among traits differed by genetic background and sex, lending support to the idea that recommendations regarding weight management, diet, and exercise may need to be tailored to the individual level. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Exercise Training Increases Parietal Lobe Cerebral Blood Flow in Chronic Stroke: An Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D. Robertson

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Exercise is increasingly recommended as an essential component of stroke rehabilitation, yet uncertainty remains with respect to its direct effect on the cerebral vasculature. The current study first demonstrated the repeatability of pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (ASL magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in older adults with stroke, and then investigated the change in cerebrovascular function following a 6-month cardiovascular rehabilitation program. In the repeatability study, 12 participants at least 3 months post-stroke underwent two ASL imaging scans 1 month apart. In the prospective observational study, eight individuals underwent ASL imaging and aerobic fitness testing before and after a 6-month cardiovascular rehabilitation program. Cerebral blood flow (CBF and the spatial coefficient of variation of CBF (sCoV were quantified to characterize tissue-level perfusion and large cerebral artery transit time properties, respectively. In repeat scanning, intraclass correlation (ICC indicated moderate test-retest reliability for global gray matter CBF (ICC = 0.73 and excellent reliability for sCoV (ICC = 0.94. In the observational study, gray matter CBF increased after training (baseline: 40 ± 13 vs. 6-month: 46 ± 12 ml·100 g−1·min−1, P = 0.036. The greatest change occurred in the parietal lobe (+18 ± 12%. Gray matter sCoV, however, did not change following training (P = 0.31. This study provides preliminary evidence that exercise-based rehabilitation in chronic stroke enhances tissue-level perfusion, without changing the relative hemodynamic properties of the large cerebral arteries.

  9. Exercise Training Increases Parietal Lobe Cerebral Blood Flow in Chronic Stroke: An Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Andrew D.; Marzolini, Susan; Middleton, Laura E.; Basile, Vincenzo S.; Oh, Paul I.; MacIntosh, Bradley J.

    2017-01-01

    Exercise is increasingly recommended as an essential component of stroke rehabilitation, yet uncertainty remains with respect to its direct effect on the cerebral vasculature. The current study first demonstrated the repeatability of pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (ASL) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in older adults with stroke, and then investigated the change in cerebrovascular function following a 6-month cardiovascular rehabilitation program. In the repeatability study, 12 participants at least 3 months post-stroke underwent two ASL imaging scans 1 month apart. In the prospective observational study, eight individuals underwent ASL imaging and aerobic fitness testing before and after a 6-month cardiovascular rehabilitation program. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) and the spatial coefficient of variation of CBF (sCoV) were quantified to characterize tissue-level perfusion and large cerebral artery transit time properties, respectively. In repeat scanning, intraclass correlation (ICC) indicated moderate test-retest reliability for global gray matter CBF (ICC = 0.73) and excellent reliability for sCoV (ICC = 0.94). In the observational study, gray matter CBF increased after training (baseline: 40 ± 13 vs. 6-month: 46 ± 12 ml·100 g−1·min−1, P = 0.036). The greatest change occurred in the parietal lobe (+18 ± 12%). Gray matter sCoV, however, did not change following training (P = 0.31). This study provides preliminary evidence that exercise-based rehabilitation in chronic stroke enhances tissue-level perfusion, without changing the relative hemodynamic properties of the large cerebral arteries. PMID:29033829

  10. Exercise increases pressure pain tolerance but not pressure and heat pain thresholds in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaegter, H. B.; Bement, M. Hoeger; Madsen, A. B.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exercise causes an acute decrease in the pain sensitivity known as exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH), but the specificity to certain pain modalities remains unknown. This study aimed to compare the effect of isometric exercise on the heat and pressure pain sensitivity. METHODS...... and counterbalanced order. Cuff pressure pain threshold (cPPT) and pain tolerance (cPTT) were assessed on the ipsilateral lower leg by computer-controlled cuff algometry. Heat pain threshold (HPT) was recorded on the ipsilateral foot by a computer-controlled thermal stimulator. RESULTS: Cuff pressure pain tolerance...... to the understanding of how isometric exercise influences pain perception, which is necessary to optimize the clinical utility of exercise in management of chronic pain. SIGNIFICANCE: The effect of isometric exercise on pain tolerance may be relevant for patients in chronic musculoskeletal pain as a pain...

  11. Repairing the brain with physical exercise: Cortical thickness and brain volume increases in long-term pediatric brain tumor survivors in response to a structured exercise intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szulc-Lerch, Kamila U; Timmons, Brian W; Bouffet, Eric; Laughlin, Suzanne; de Medeiros, Cynthia B; Skocic, Jovanka; Lerch, Jason P; Mabbott, Donald J

    2018-01-01

    There is growing evidence that exercise induced experience dependent plasticity may foster structural and functional recovery following brain injury. We examined the efficacy of exercise training for neural and cognitive recovery in long-term pediatric brain tumor survivors treated with radiation. We conducted a controlled clinical trial with crossover of exercise training (vs. no training) in a volunteer sample of 28 children treated with cranial radiation for brain tumors (mean age = 11.5 yrs.; mean time since diagnosis = 5.7 yrs). The endpoints were anatomical T1 MRI data and multiple behavioral outcomes presenting a broader analysis of structural MRI data across the entire brain. This included an analysis of changes in cortical thickness and brain volume using automated, user unbiased approaches. A series of general linear mixed effects models evaluating the effects of exercise training on cortical thickness were performed in a voxel and vertex-wise manner, as well as for specific regions of interest. In exploratory analyses, we evaluated the relationship between changes in cortical thickness after exercise with multiple behavioral outcomes, as well as the relation of these measures at baseline. Exercise was associated with increases in cortical thickness within the right pre and postcentral gyri. Other notable areas of increased thickness related to training were present in the left pre and postcentral gyri, left temporal pole, left superior temporal gyrus, and left parahippocampal gyrus. Further, we observed that compared to a separate cohort of healthy children, participants displayed multiple areas with a significantly thinner cortex prior to training and fewer differences following training, indicating amelioration of anatomical deficits. Partial least squares analysis (PLS) revealed specific patterns of relations between cortical thickness and various behavioral outcomes both after training and at baseline. Overall, our results indicate that

  12. Voluntary exercise increases resilience to social defeat stress in Syrian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, Rody C; Smith, Michael; Lacey, Tiara; Edwards, Malcolm; Best, Janae N; Markham, Chris M

    2018-05-01

    Exposure to social stressors can cause profound changes in an individual's well-being and can be an underlying factor in the etiology of a variety of psychopathologies, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In Syrian hamsters, a single social defeat experience results in behavioral changes collectively known as conditioned defeat (CD), and includes an abolishment of territorial aggression and the emergence of high levels of defensive behaviors. In contrast, voluntary exercise has been shown to promote stress resilience and can also have anxiolytic-like effects. Although several studies have investigated the resilience-inducing effects of voluntary exercise after exposure to physical stressors, such as restraint and electric shock, few studies have examined whether exercise can impart resilience in response to ethologically-based stressors, such as social defeat. In Experiment 1, we tested the hypothesis that voluntary exercise can have anxiolytic-like effects in socially defeated hamsters. In the elevated plus maze, the exercise group exhibited a significant reduction in risk assessment, a commonly used index of anxiety, compared to the no-exercise group. In the open-field test, animals in the exercise group exhibited a significant reduction in locomotor behavior and rearing, also an indication of an anxiolytic-like effect of exercise. In Experiment 2, we examined whether exercise can reverse the defeat-induced potentiation of defensive behaviors using the CD model. Socially defeated hamsters in the exercise group exhibited significantly lower levels of defensive/submissive behaviors compared to the no-exercise group upon exposure to the resident aggressor. Taken together, these results are among the first to suggest that voluntary exercise may promote resilience to social defeat stress in Syrian hamsters. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Acute Sodium Ingestion Before Exercise Increases Voluntary Water Consumption Resulting In Preexercise Hyperhydration and Improvement in Exercise Performance in the Heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, David M; Huot, Joshua R; Jetton, Adam M; Collier, Scott R; Utter, Alan C

    2015-10-01

    Dehydration has been shown to hinder performance of sustained exercise in the heat. Consuming fluids before exercise can result in hyperhydration, delay the onset of dehydration during exercise and improve exercise performance. However, humans normally drink only in response to thirst, which does not result in hyperhydration. Thirst and voluntary fluid consumption have been shown to increase following oral ingestion or infusion of sodium into the bloodstream. We measured the effects of acute sodium ingestion on voluntary water consumption and retention during a 2-hr hydration period before exercise. Subjects then performed a 60-min submaximal dehydration ride (DR) followed immediately by a 200 kJ performance time trial (PTT) in a warm (30 °C) environment. Water consumption and retention during the hydration period was greater following sodium ingestion (1380 ± 580 mL consumed, 821 ± 367 ml retained) compared with placebo (815 ± 483 ml consumed, 244 ± 402 mL retained) and no treatment (782 ± 454 ml consumed, 148 ± 289 mL retained). Dehydration levels following the DR were significantly less after sodium ingestion (0.7 ± 0.6%) compared with placebo (1.3 ± 0.7%) and no treatment (1.6 ± 0.4%). Time to complete the PTT was significantly less following sodium consumption (773 ± 158 s) compared with placebo (851 ± 156 s) and no treatment (872 ± 190 s). These results suggest that voluntary hyperhydration can be induced by acute consumption of sodium and has a favorable effect on hydration status and performance during subsequent exercise in the heat.

  14. Acute supramaximal exercise increases the brain oxygenation in relation to cognitive workload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Seref Bediz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Single bout of exercise can improve the performance on cognitive tasks. However, cognitive responses may be controversial due to different type, intensity, and duration of exercise. In addition, the mechanism of the effect of acute exercise on brain is still unclear. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of supramaximal exercise on cognitive tasks by means of brain oxygenation monitoring. The brain oxygenation of Prefrontal cortex (PFC was measured on 35 healthy male volunteers via functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS system. Subjects performed 2-Back test before and after the supramaximal exercise (Wingate Anaerobic Test lasting 30-s on cycle ergometer. The PFC oxygenation change evaluation revealed that PFC oxygenation rise during post-exercise 2-Back task was considerably higher than those in pre-exercise 2-Back task. In order to describe the relationship between oxygenation change and exercise performance, subjects were divided into two groups as high performers (HP and low performers (LP according to their peak power values (PP obtained from the supramaximal test. The oxy-hemoglobin (oxy-Hb values were compared between pre- and post-exercise conditions within subjects and also between subjects according to peak power. When performers were compared, in the HP group, the oxy-Hb values in post-exercise 2-Back test were significantly higher than those in pre-exercise 2-Back test. HP had significantly higher post-exercise oxy-Hb change (Δ than those of LP. In addition, peak power values of the total group were significantly correlated with Δoxy-Hb. The key findings of the present study revealed that acute supramaximal exercise has an impact on the brain oxygenation during a cognitive task. Also, the higher the anaerobic PP describes the larger the oxy-Hb response in post-exercise cognitive task. The current study also demonstrated a significant correlation between peak power (exercise load and post-exercise hemodynamic

  15. The Effects of Two Self-Regulation Interventions to Increase Self-Efficacy and Group Exercise Behavior in Fitness Clubs

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    Jan Middelkamp, Maaike van Rooijen, Peter Wolfhagen, Bert Steenbergen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the adoption and maintenance of group exercise behavior are scarce. The objective of this study is to test two self-efficacy based interventions to increase barrier self-efficacy and group exercise behavior. In total 122 participants (Mage 42.02 yr.; SD 12.29; 67% females were recruited and randomly assigned to one control and two experimental groups. The control group was limited to participate in one virtual group exercise program only (group 1. The first experimental group was able to self-set their activities and participate in multiple group exercise programs (group 2. The second experimental group received an additional monthly coaching protocol to manage self-set goals (group 3. A validated scale for barrier self-efficacy was used, group exercise sessions were measured and drop-out rates were registered. An ANOVA indicated that mean amount of sessions of group 1 and 3, and 2 and 3 differed significantly (p < 0.05 in 12 weeks. Descriptive statistics demonstrate mean group exercise sessions over the total of 12 weeks of 2.74 (SD 4.65 in the control group; 4.75 (SD 6.08 in the first experimental group, and 12.25 (SD 9.07 for the second experimental group. Regression analysis indicated that self-efficacy at 8-weeks explained the highest variance in overall group exercise sessions (R2 = 0.18; p < 0.05. Overall drop-out rates were 88% in group 1, 78% in group 2 and 48% in group 3. The results showed that group exercise behavior can significantly be improved by a coaching protocol on self-set goals. Future research should address the effectiveness of self-set activities and self-set goals for a longer period of time and in other types of exercise programs.

  16. Forced treadmill exercise can induce stress and increase neuronal damage in a mouse model of global cerebral ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Svensson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Physical exercise is known to be a beneficial factor by increasing the cellular stress tolerance. In ischemic stroke, physical exercise is suggested to both limit the brain injury and facilitate behavioral recovery. In this study we investigated the effect of physical exercise on brain damage following global cerebral ischemia in mice. We aimed to study the effects of 4.5 weeks of forced treadmill running prior to ischemia on neuronal damage, neuroinflammation and its effect on general stress by measuring corticosterone in feces. We subjected C57bl/6 mice (n = 63 to either treadmill running or a sedentary program prior to induction of global ischemia. Anxious, depressive, and cognitive behaviors were analyzed. Stress levels were analyzed using a corticosterone ELISA. Inflammatory and neurological outcomes were analyzed using immunohistochemistry, multiplex electrochemoluminescence ELISA and Western blot. To our surprise, we found that forced treadmill running induced a stress response, with increased anxiety in the Open Field test and increased levels of corticosterone. In accordance, mice subjected to forced exercise prior to ischemia developed larger neuronal damage in the hippocampus and showed higher cytokine levels in the brain and blood compared to non-exercised mice. The extent of neuronal damage correlated with increased corticosterone levels. To compare forced treadmill with voluntary wheel running, we used a different set of mice that exercised freely on running wheels. These mice did not show any anxiety or increased corticosterone levels. Altogether, our results indicate that exercise pre-conditioning may not be beneficial if the animals are forced to run as it can induce a detrimental stress response.

  17. Standardized intermittent static exercise increases peritendinous blood flow in human leg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langberg, Henning; Bülow, J; Kjaer, M

    1999-01-01

    . The radioactive isotope xenon-133 was injected just ventrally to the Achilles tendon 5 cm proximal to the tendon's insertion on the calcaneous. The disappearance of 133Xe was used to determine blood flow during intermittent static exercise of the calf muscle (1.5 s exercise/1.5 s rest) for 30 min at a workload...

  18. A 7-d exercise program increases high-molecular weight adiponectin in obese adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelly, Karen R; Blaszczak, Alecia; Haus, Jacob M

    2012-01-01

    High-molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin is the biologically active form of adiponectin and is related to enhanced insulin sensitivity and metabolic function. Previously, we found that 7 d of exercise improves insulin sensitivity in obese subjects; however, whether short-term exercise training...

  19. Exercise increases blood flow to locomotor, vestibular, cardiorespiratory and visual regions of the brain in miniature swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delp, M. D.; Armstrong, R. B.; Godfrey, D. A.; Laughlin, M. H.; Ross, C. D.; Wilkerson, M. K.

    2001-01-01

    1. The purpose of these experiments was to use radiolabelled microspheres to measure blood flow distribution within the brain, and in particular to areas associated with motor function, maintenance of equilibrium, cardiorespiratory control, vision, hearing and smell, at rest and during exercise in miniature swine. Exercise consisted of steady-state treadmill running at intensities eliciting 70 and 100 % maximal oxygen consumption (V(O(2),max)). 2. Mean arterial pressure was elevated by 17 and 26 % above that at rest during exercise at 70 and 100 % V(O(2),max), respectively. 3. Mean brain blood flow increased 24 and 25 % at 70 and 100 % V(O(2),max), respectively. Blood flow was not locally elevated to cortical regions associated with motor and somatosensory functions during exercise, but was increased to several subcortical areas that are involved in the control of locomotion. 4. Exercise elevated perfusion and diminished vascular resistance in several regions of the brain related to the maintenance of equilibrium (vestibular nuclear area, cerebellar ventral vermis and floccular lobe), cardiorespiratory control (medulla and pons), and vision (dorsal occipital cortex, superior colliculi and lateral geniculate body). Conversely, blood flow to regions related to hearing (cochlear nuclei, inferior colliculi and temporal cortex) and smell (olfactory bulbs and rhinencephalon) were unaltered by exercise and associated with increases in vascular resistance. 5. The data indicate that blood flow increases as a function of exercise intensity to several areas of the brain associated with integrating sensory input and motor output (anterior and dorsal cerebellar vermis) and the maintenance of equilibrium (vestibular nuclei). Additionally, there was an intensity-dependent decrease of vascular resistance in the dorsal cerebellar vermis.

  20. Video-game-assisted physiotherapeutic scoliosis-specific exercises for idiopathic scoliosis: case series and introduction of a new tool to increase motivation and precision of exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibmer, Christine; Groebl, Petra; Nischelwitzer, Alexander; Salchinger, Beate; Sperl, Matthias; Wegmann, Helmut; Holzer, Hans-Peter; Saraph, Vinay

    2016-01-01

    It is important to monitor how patients with juvenile and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis comply with their physiotherapeutic scoliosis-specific exercises (PSSE). Physiogame, a newly developed video game using the Game-Trak 3D interactive game controller, combines correct PSSE performance with gaming. It tracks the position of the working limb in 3D space during the exercises as participants aim to hit certain targets and avoid others, and gives direct feedback by stopping the game if the working limb leaves the target 3D space, which is chosen to secure the corrective position according to the Schroth method. Physiogame records the quality and frequency of the exercises performed. We aimed to investigate the influence of this tool on motivation to perform regularly and, correctly, and with self-assessment of performance quality. This case series included 8 consecutive patients with idiopathic scoliosis (thoracolumbar 7, lumbar 1), ages 7-13 years, all female and treated according to SOSORT guidelines; the COBB angle of primary curve at the start of brace therapy was 22-34°. In addition to Full Time Rigid Bracing (FTRB, Cheneau) and PSSE (Schroth), the participants were to perform two standardized Schroth exercises (muscle cylinder in standing position, mainly addressing the thoracic curve, and in side-lying position, mainly addressing the lumbar curve) with video game assistance every day for 6 months. The development (first to last month) of the following parameters was analyzed with descriptive methods: the actual training time to assess motivation, the ratio of the actual playing time versus total playing time to assess exercise improvement, and self-assessment of quality of performance. The average number of sessions with Physiogame was 217 per study participant (range 24 to 572, the study protocol targeted at least 180); actual training time decreased from 79 to 52 min (first to last month). Actual playing time increased from 73% of the total playing time

  1. Endurance training increases exercise-induced prostacyclin release in young, healthy men--relationship with VO2max.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, Jerzy A; Majerczak, Joanna; Duda, Krzysztof; Chłopicki, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the effect of 5 weeks of moderate-intensity endurance training on the basal and exercise-induced systemic release of prostacyclin (PGI(2)), as assessed by plasma 6-keto-PGF(1 alpha) concentration. Twelve physically active young men with the following characteristics participated in this study (the mean +/- SD): age, 22.7 +/- 2.0 years; body mass, 76.8 +/- 8.9 kg; BMI, 23.48 +/- 2.17 kg x m(-2); and maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2 max)), 46.1 +/- 4.0 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1). Plasma 6-keto-PGF(1 alpha) concentrations were measured in venous blood samples taken prior to the exercise and at exhaustion (at VO(2 max)) before and after completing the training protocol. On average, the training resulted in a significant increase in VO(2 max) (p = 0.03), power output at VO(2 max) (p = 0.001) and a significant increase (p = 0.05) in the net-exercise-induced increase in plasma 6-keto-PGF(1 alpha) concentration (Delta 6-keto-PGF(1 alpha) i.e., the difference between the end-exercise and pre-exercise 6-keto-PGF(1 alpha) concentrations). No effect of training on the basal PGI(2) concentration was found. Interestingly, within the study sample (n = 12), two subgroups could be defined with a differential pattern of response with respect to Delta 6-keto-PGF(1 alpha) concentrations. In one subgroup (n = 7), a significant increase in Delta 6-keto-PGF(1 alpha) concentration after training was found (p < 0.02) (responders). This enhancement in the exercise-induced PGI(2) release was accompanied by a significant (p < 0.05) increase in VO(2 max) after training. In contrast, in another subgroup (n = 5), there was no observed effect of training on the Delta 6-keto-PGF(1 alpha) concentration and the VO(2 max) after training (non-responders). In both of these subgroups, training did not influence the basal PGI(2) concentration. In conclusion, the endurance training resulted in the adaptive augmentation of the systemic release of PGI(2) in response to exercise

  2. Using Electromyography to Detect the Weightings of the Local Muscle Factors to the Increase of Perceived Exertion During Stepping Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao-Ju Hsu

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Rate of perceived exertion (RPE is a clinically convenient indicator for monitoring exercise intensity in cardiopulmonary rehabilitation. It might not be sensitive enough for clinicians to determine the patients’ physiological status because its association with the cardiovascular system and local muscle factors is unknown. This study used the electromyographic sensor to detect the local muscle fatigue and stabilization of patella, and analyzed the relationship between various local muscle and cardiovascular factors and the increase of RPE during stepping exercise, a common exercise program provided in cardiopulmonary rehabilitation. Ten healthy adults (4 males and 6 females participated in this study. Each subject used their right bare foot to step up onto a 23-cm-high step at a constant speed until the RPE score reached 20. The RPE, heart rate (HR, and surface EMG of the rectus femoris (RF, vastus medialis, and vastus lateralis were recorded at 1-minute intervals during the stepping exercise. The generalized estimating equations (GEE analysis indicated that the increase in RPE significantly correlated with the increase in HR, and decrease in median frequency (MF of the EMG power spectrum of the RF. Experimental results suggest that the increase in RPE during stepping exercise was influenced by the cardiovascular status, localized muscle fatigue in the lower extremities. The weighting of the local muscle factors was more than half of the weighting of the cardiovascular factor.

  3. Exercise Increases Cystathionine-γ-lyase Expression and Decreases the Status of Oxidative Stress in Myocardium of Ovariectomized Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhiping; Wang, Yujun; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Ni, Xin; Lu, Jianqiang

    2016-01-01

    Exercise could be a therapeutic approach for cardiovascular dysfunction induced by estrogen deficiency. Our previous study has shown that estrogen maintains cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) expression and inhibits oxidative stress in the myocardium of female rats. In the present study, we investigated whether exercise improves CSE expression and oxidative stress status and ameliorates isoproterenol (ISO)-induced cardiac damage in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. The results showed that treadmill training restored the ovariectomy-induced reduction of CSE and estrogen receptor (ER)α and decrease of total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and increase of malondialdehyde (MDA). The level of CSE was positively correlated to T-AOC and ERα while inversely correlated to MDA. OVX rats showed increases in the serum levels of creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and the percentage of TUNEL staining in myocardium upon ISO insult compared to sham rats. Exercise training significantly reduced the serum levels of LDH and CK and the percentage of TUNEL staining in myocardium upon ISO insult in OVX rats. In cultured cardiomyocytes, ISO treatment decreased cell viability and increased LDH release, while overexpression of CSE increased cell viability and decreased LDH release in the cells upon ISO insult. The results suggest that exercise training improves the oxidative stress status and ameliorates the cardiac damage induced by oxidative stress in OVX rats. The improvement of oxidative stress status by exercise might be at least partially due to upregulation of CSE/H2S signaling.

  4. Effects of Messages Delivered by Mobile Phone on Increasing Compliance With Shoulder Exercises Among Patients With a Frozen Shoulder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui-Chun; Chuang, Tai-Yuan; Lin, Pi-Chu; Lin, Yen-Kuang; Chuang, Yeu-Hui

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of reminders, encouragement, and educational messages delivered by mobile phone on shoulder exercise compliance and improvements in shoulder function among patients with a frozen shoulder. A randomized controlled trial design was used. A convenience sample of patients with a frozen shoulder in an orthopedic outpatient clinic was recruited. All participants were instructed on how to do shoulder exercises and were provided with a printed pamphlet about shoulder exercises. Then, the intervention group received reminders, encouragement, and educational messages by mobile phone daily for the next 2 weeks, while the comparison group did not. The intervention group had higher compliance with shoulder exercises than did the comparison group (t = 2.263, p = .03) and had significant improvements in shoulder forward flexion (F = 12.067, p = .001), external rotation (F = 13.61, p = .001), and internal rotation (F = 5.903, p = .018) compared to those in the comparison group after the 2-week intervention. The text messages significantly increased patient compliance with shoulder exercises and thus improved patients' shoulder range of motion. Hospital or clinics can send appropriate messages to patients via text message platforms in order to remind and encourage them to do shoulder exercises. © 2017 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  5. Regional gray matter volume increases following 7days of voluntary wheel running exercise: a longitudinal VBM study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumiyoshi, Akira; Taki, Yasuyuki; Nonaka, Hiroi; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2014-09-01

    The effects of physical exercise on brain morphology in rodents have been well documented in histological studies. However, to further understand when and where morphological changes occur in the whole brain, a noninvasive neuroimaging method allowing an unbiased, comprehensive, and longitudinal investigation of brain morphology should be used. In this study, we investigated the effects of 7days of voluntary wheel running exercise on regional gray matter volume (rGMV) using longitudinal voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in rats. Eighteen pairs of adult male naïve Wistar rats were randomized to the exercise or control condition (one rat for each condition from each pair). Each rat was scanned in a 7.0-T MRI scanner at three time points: before exercise, after 7days of exercise, and after 7days of follow-up. The T2-weighted MRI images were segmented using the rat brain tissue priors that were recently published by our laboratory, and the intra- and inter-subject template creation steps were followed. Longitudinal VBM analysis revealed significant increases in rGMV in the motor, somatosensory, association, and visual cortices in the exercise group. Among these brain regions, rGMV changes in the motor cortex were positively correlated with the total distance that was run during the 7days of exercise. In addition, the effects of 7days of exercise on rGMV persisted after 7days of follow-up. These results support the utility of a longitudinal VBM study in rats and provide new insights into experience-dependent structural brain plasticity in naïve adult animals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. PRE-EXERCISE ARGININE SUPPLEMENTATION INCREASES TIME TO EXHAUSTION IN ELITE MALE WRESTLERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.U. Yavuz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Dietary supplements containing arginine are among the most popular ergogenics intended to enhance strength, power and muscle recovery associated with both anaerobic and aerobic exercise. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible effect of pre-exercise acute intake of arginine on performance and exercise metabolism during incremental exhaustive exercise in elite male wrestlers. Nine volunteer elite male wrestlers (24.7±3.8 years participated in this study. The test-retest protocol was used on the same subjects. The study was conducted using a cross-over design. A single dose of arginine (1.5 g · 10 kg-1 body weight or placebo was given to the subjects after 12 hours fasting (during the night for both test and retest. Subjects were allowed to drink water but not allowed to eat anything between arginine or placebo ingestion and the exercise protocol. An incremental exercise protocol was applied and oxygen consumption was measured during the exercise. Heart rate and plasma lactate levels were measured during the exercise and recovery. Results showed that in the same working loads there was no significant difference for the mean lactate levels and no difference in maximum oxygen consumption (arginine 52.47±4.01 mL · kg-1 · min-1, placebo 52.07±5.21 mL · kg-1 · min-1 or in maximum heart rates (arginine 181.09±13.57 bpm, placebo 185.89±7.38 bpm between arginine and placebo trials. Time to exhaustion was longer with arginine supplementation (1386.8±69.8 s compared to placebo (1313±90.8 s (p<0.05. These results suggest that L-arginine supplementation can have beneficial effects on exercise performance in elite male wrestlers but cannot explain the metabolic pathways which are responsible from these effects.

  7. Acute resistance exercise reduces increased gene expression in muscle atrophy of ovariectomised arthritic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Furlanetto Jr

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We studied the effect of resistance exercise (RE on mRNA levels of atrogin-1, MuRF-1, and myostatin in the gastrocnemius muscle of arthritic rats after loss of ovarian function (LOF. Material and methods : Thirty female Wistar rats (nine weeks old, 195.3 ±17.4 grams were randomly allocated into five groups: control group (CT-Sham; n = 6; group with rheumatoid arthritis (RA; n = 6; group with rheumatoid arthritis subjected to RE (RAEX; n = 6; ovariectomy group with rheumatoid arthritis (RAOV; n = 6; and an ovariectomy group with rheumatoid arthritis subjected to RE (RAOVEX; n = 6. After 15 days of intra-articular injections with Met-BSA the animals were subjected to RE and six hours after workout were euthanised. Results : The rheumatoid arthritis provoked reduction in the cross-sectional area (CSA of muscle fibres, but the CSA was lower in the RAOV when compared to the RA groups. Skeletal muscle atrogin-1 mRNA level was increased in arthritic rats (RA and RAOV, but the atrogin-1 level was higher in RAOV group when compared to other arthritic groups. The Muscle MuRF-1 mRNA level was also increased in the RAOV group. The increased atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 mRNA levels were lower in the RAOVEX group than in the RAOV group. The myostatin mRNA level was similar in all groups, except for the RAOVEX group, in which it was lower than the other groups. Conclusions : LOF results in increased loss of skeletal muscle-related ubiquitin ligases (atrogin-1 and MuRF-1. However, the RE reduces the atrogin-1, MuRF-1, and myostatin mRNA levels in muscle of arthritic rats affected by LOF.

  8. Voluntary exercise increases cholesterol efflux but not macrophage reverse cholesterol transport in vivo in mice

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    Kuipers Folkert

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Physical exercise beneficially impacts on the plasma lipoprotein profile as well as on the incidence of cardiovascular events and is therefore recommended in primary and secondary prevention strategies against atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. However, the underlying mechanisms of the protective effect of exercise remain largely unknown. Therefore, the present study tested the hypothesis that voluntary exercise in mice impacts on cholesterol efflux and in vivo reverse cholesterol transport (RCT. After two weeks of voluntary wheel running (average 10.1 ± 1.4 km/day plasma triglycerides were lower (p

  9. Abnormal shortened diastolic time length at increasing heart rates in patients with abnormal exercise-induced increase in pulmonary artery pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bombardini Tonino

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The degree of pulmonary hypertension is not independently related to the severity of left ventricular systolic dysfunction but is frequently associated with diastolic filling abnormalities. The aim of this study was to assess diastolic times at increasing heart rates in normal and in patients with and without abnormal exercise-induced increase in pulmonary artery pressure (PASP. Methods. We enrolled 109 patients (78 males, age 62 ± 13 years referred for exercise stress echocardiography and 16 controls. The PASP was derived from the tricuspid Doppler tracing. A cut-off value of PASP ≥ 50 mmHg at peak stress was considered as indicative of abnormal increase in PASP. Diastolic times and the diastolic/systolic time ratio were recorded by a precordial cutaneous force sensor based on a linear accelerometer. Results At baseline, PASP was 30 ± 5 mmHg in patients and 25 ± 4 in controls. At peak stress the PASP was normal in 95 patients (Group 1; 14 patients (Group 2 showed an abnormal increase in PASP (from 35 ± 4 to 62 ± 12 mmHg; P Conclusion The first and second heart sound vibrations non-invasively monitored by a force sensor are useful for continuously assessing diastolic time during exercise. Exercise-induced abnormal PASP was associated with reduced diastolic time at heart rates beyond 100 beats per minute.

  10. Fluvoxamine stimulates oligodendrogenesis of cultured neural stem cells and attenuates inflammation and demyelination in an animal model of multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghareghani, Majid; Zibara, Kazem; Sadeghi, Heibatollah; Dokoohaki, Shima; Sadeghi, Hossein; Aryanpour, Roya; Ghanbari, Amir

    2017-07-07

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) require medications controlling severity of the pathology and depression, affecting more than half of the patients. In this study, the effect of antidepressant drug fluvoxamine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, was investigated in vitro and in vivo. Nanomolar concentrations of fluvoxamine significantly increased cell viability and proliferation of neural stem cells (NSCs) through increasing mRNA expression of Notch1, Hes1 and Ki-67, and protein levels of NICD. Also, physiological concentrations of fluvoxamine were optimal for NSC differentiation toward oligodendrocytes, astrocytes and neurons. In addition, fluvoxamine attenuated experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) severity, a rat MS model, by significantly decreasing its clinical scores. Moreover, fluvoxamine treated EAE rats showed a decrease in IFN-γ serum levels and an increase in IL-4, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines respectively, compared to untreated EAE rats. Furthermore, immune cell infiltration and demyelination plaque significantly decreased in spinal cords of fluvoxamine-treated rats, which was accompanied by an increase in protein expression of MBP and GFAP positive cells and a decrease in lactate serum levels, a new biomarker of MS progression. In summary, besides its antidepressant activity, fluvoxamine stimulates proliferation and differentiation of NSCs particularly toward oligodendrocytes, a producer of CNS myelin.

  11. [Does transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation or therapeutic ultrasound increase the effectiveness of exercise for knee osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyigör, Sibel; Karapolat, Hale; Ibisoğlu, Uğur; Durmaz, Berrin

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) or therapeutic ultrasound (US) increase the effectiveness of exercise on pain, function, muscle strength and quality of life for knee osteoarthritis (OA). Forty-five patients with primary knee OA diagnosis according to American College Rheumatology criteria were sequentially divided into 3 random groups. The patients in group 1 received TENS (with superficial heat and exercise), group 2 received US (with superficial heat and exercise), and group 3 acted as controls (superficial heat and exercise). Outcome measures were included as visual analog scale (VAS), a 20-meter walking test, Lequesne index, WOMAC scores, isokinetic muscle testing, and the Short Form 36 (SF 36). All treatment groups, physical modalities were carried out for a total fifteen sessions. All of the patients were subjected to six weeks of exercise program. All of the treatment groups had significant improvement on activity VAS, 20 meter walking test, Lequesne index, WOMAC scores, and most of the sub-scores of SF36 when compared with their initial status (p0.05). All of the treatment groups were effective on pain, function, muscle strength and quality of life in patients with knee OA. Statistically significant differences could not be found between the treatment groups. The exercise program, as it is cheaper, more easily performed and efficient, may be preferable for the treatment of knee OA. It is difficult to say, TENS or US could increase the effectiveness of isokinetic exercise for pain, function, muscle strength and quality of life of knee OA in this study.

  12. Voluntary exercise increases cholesterol efflux but not macrophage reverse cholesterol transport in vivo in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meissner, Maxi; Nijstad, Niels; Kuipers, Folkert; Tietge, Uwe J. F.

    2010-01-01

    Physical exercise beneficially impacts on the plasma lipoprotein profile as well as on the incidence of cardiovascular events and is therefore recommended in primary and secondary prevention strategies against atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. However, the underlying mechanisms of the

  13. Increased respiratory neural drive and work of breathing in exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walsted, Emil Schwarz; Faisal, Azmy; Jolley, Caroline J

    2017-01-01

    Rationale: Exercise induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO), a phenomenon in which the larynx closes inappropriately during physical activity, is a prevalent cause of exertional dyspnea in young individuals. The physiological ventilatory impact of EILO and its relationship to dyspnea are poorly...

  14. Exercise-induced increase in interstitial bradykinin and adenosine concentrations in skeletal muscle and peritendinous tissue in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langberg, H; Bjørn, C; Boushel, Robert Christopher

    2002-01-01

    been established. Microdialysis (molecular mass cut-off 5 kDa) was performed simultaneously in calf muscle and peritendinous Achilles tissue at rest and during 10 min periods of incremental (0.75 W, 2 W, 3.5 W and 4.75 W) dynamic plantar flexion exercise in 10 healthy individuals (mean age 27 years...... increased both in muscle (from 0.48 +/- 0.07 micromol l(-1) to 1.59 +/- 0.35 micromol l(-1); P increases the interstitial concentrations......Bradykinin is known to cause vasodilatation in resistance vessels and may, together with adenosine, be an important regulator of tissue blood flow during exercise. Whether tissue concentrations of bradykinin change with exercise in skeletal muscle and tendon-related connective tissue has not yet...

  15. Increased extracellular dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine levels contribute to enhanced subthalamic nucleus neural activity during exhausting exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Hu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to explore the mechanism underlying the enhanced subthalamic nucleus (STN neural activity during exhausting exercise from the perspective of monoamine neurotransmitters and changes of their corresponding receptors. Rats were randomly divided into microdialysis and immunohistochemistry study groups. For microdialysis study, extracellular fluid of the STN was continuously collected with a microdialysis probe before, during and 90 min after one bout of exhausting exercise. Dopamine (DA and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT levels were subsequently detected with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. For immunohistochemistry study, the expression of DRD 2 and HT 2C receptors in the STN, before, immediately after and 90 min after exhaustion was detected through immunohistochemistry technique. Microdialysis study results showed that the extracellular DA and 5-HT neurotransmitters increased significantly throughout the procedure of exhausting exercise and the recovery period (P0.05. Our results suggest that the increased extracellular DA and 5-HT in the STN might be one important factor leading to the enhanced STN neural activity and the development of fatigue during exhausting exercise. This study may essentially offer useful evidence for better understanding of the mechanism of the central type of exercise-induced fatigue.

  16. Regulation of increased blood flow (hyperemia) to muscles during exercise: a hierarchy of competing physiological needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner, Michael J; Casey, Darren P

    2015-04-01

    This review focuses on how blood flow to contracting skeletal muscles is regulated during exercise in humans. The idea is that blood flow to the contracting muscles links oxygen in the atmosphere with the contracting muscles where it is consumed. In this context, we take a top down approach and review the basics of oxygen consumption at rest and during exercise in humans, how these values change with training, and the systemic hemodynamic adaptations that support them. We highlight the very high muscle blood flow responses to exercise discovered in the 1980s. We also discuss the vasodilating factors in the contracting muscles responsible for these very high flows. Finally, the competition between demand for blood flow by contracting muscles and maximum systemic cardiac output is discussed as a potential challenge to blood pressure regulation during heavy large muscle mass or whole body exercise in humans. At this time, no one dominant dilator mechanism accounts for exercise hyperemia. Additionally, complex interactions between the sympathetic nervous system and the microcirculation facilitate high levels of systemic oxygen extraction and permit just enough sympathetic control of blood flow to contracting muscles to regulate blood pressure during large muscle mass exercise in humans. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Endurance Exercise Increases Intestinal Uptake of the Peanut Allergen Ara h 6 after Peanut Consumption in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lonneke M. JanssenDuijghuijsen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlled studies on the effect of exercise on intestinal uptake of protein are scarce and underlying mechanisms largely unclear. We studied the uptake of the major allergen Ara h 6 following peanut consumption in an exercise model and compared this with changes in markers of intestinal permeability and integrity. Ten overnight-fasted healthy non-allergic men (n = 4 and women (n = 6 (23 ± 4 years ingested 100 g of peanuts together with a lactulose/rhamnose (L/R solution, followed by rest or by 60 min cycling at 70% of their maximal workload. Significantly higher, though variable, levels of Ara h 6 in serum were found during exercise compared to rest (Peak p = 0.03; area under the curve p = 0.006, with individual fold changes ranging from no increase to an increase of over 150-fold in the uptake of Ara h 6. Similarly, uptake of lactulose (2–18 fold change, p = 0.0009 and L/R ratios (0.4–7.9 fold change, p = 0.04 were significantly increased which indicates an increase in intestinal permeability. Intestinal permeability and uptake of Ara h 6 were strongly correlated (r = 0.77, p < 0.0001 for lactulose and Ara h 6. Endurance exercise after consumption may lead to increased paracellular intestinal uptake of food proteins.

  18. Increased supraspinatus tendon thickness following fatigue loading in rotator cuff tendinopathy: potential implications for exercise therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreesh, Karen M; Purtill, Helen; Donnelly, Alan E; Lewis, Jeremy S

    2017-01-01

    Exercise imparts a load on tendon tissue that leads to changes in tendon properties. Studies suggest that loading immediately reduces tendon thickness, with a loss of this response in symptomatic tendinopathy. No studies investigating the response of tendon dimensions to load for the rotator cuff tendons exist. This study aimed to examine the short-term effect of loading on the thickness of the supraspinatus tendon and acromiohumeral distance those with and without rotator cuff tendinopathy. Participants were 20 painfree controls, and 23 people with painful rotator cuff tendinopathy. Supraspinatus tendon thickness and acromiohumeral distance were measured using ultrasound scans before, and at three time points after loading (1, 6 and 24 hours). Loading involved isokinetic eccentric and concentric external rotation and abduction. There was a significant increase in supraspinatus tendon thickness in the pain group at 1 (7%, ∆=0.38, 95% CI 0.19 to 0.57) and 6 hours (11%, ∆=0.53, 95% CI 0.34 to 0.71), although only the 6 hours difference exceeded minimal detectable difference. In contrast, there was a small non-significant reduction in thickness in controls. The acromiohumeral distance reduced significantly in both groups at 1 hour (controls: ∆=0.64, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.90; pain: ∆=1.1, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.33), with a larger change from baseline in the pain group. Those diagnosed with painful supraspinatus tendinopathy demonstrated increased thickening with delayed return to baseline following loading. Rehabilitation professionals may need to take into account the impact of loading to fatigue when planning rehabilitation programmes.

  19. Increased resistance during jump exercise does not enhance cortical bone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreaux, Ramon D; Swift, Joshua M; Gasier, Heath G; Wiggs, Michael P; Hogan, Harry A; Fluckey, James D; Bloomfield, Susan A

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to elucidate the effects of a low- and high-load jump resistance exercise (RE) training protocol on cortical bone of the tibia and femur mid-diaphyses. Sprague-Dawley rats (male, 6 months old) were randomly assigned to high-load RE (HRE; n = 16), low-load RE (LRE; n = 15), or cage control (CC; n = 11) groups. Animals in the HRE and LRE groups performed 15 sessions of jump RE for 5 wk. Load in the HRE group was progressively increased from 80 g added to a weighted vest (50 repetitions) to 410 g (16 repetitions). The LRE rats completed the same protocol as the HRE group (same number of repetitions), with only a 30-g vest applied. Low- and high-load jump RE resulted in 6%-11% higher cortical bone mineral content and cortical bone area compared with controls, as determined by in vivo peripheral quantitative computed tomography measurements. In the femur, however, only LRE demonstrated improvements in cortical volumetric bone mineral density (+11%) and cross-sectional moment of inertia (+20%) versus the CC group. The three-point bending to failure revealed a marked increase in tibial maximum force (25%-29%), stiffness (19%-22%), and energy to maximum force (35%-55%) and a reduction in elastic modulus (-11% to 14%) in both LRE and HRE compared with controls. Dynamic histomorphometry assessed at the tibia mid-diaphysis determined that both LRE and HRE resulted in 20%-30% higher periosteal mineralizing surface versus the CC group. Mineral apposition rate and bone formation rate were significantly greater in animals in the LRE group (27%, 39%) than those in the HRE group. These data demonstrate that jump training with minimal loading is equally, and sometimes more, effective at augmenting cortical bone integrity compared with overload training in skeletally mature rats.

  20. Time-Dependent Changes in Increased Levels of Plasma Irisin and Muscle PGC-1α and FNDC5 after Exercise in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Minhui; Yang, Jianwei; Rao, Jiaming; Wang, Haiqing; Zhang, Jiayi; Wang, Shengyong; Chen, Xiongfei; Dong, Xiaomei

    2018-02-01

    Exercise induces the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1-α (PGC-1α) in skeletal muscle, which promotes the cleavage of fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5) to irisin. To explore the relationship between irisin and its regulators, we analyzed the plasma irisin levels and the muscle levels of FNDC5 and PGC-1α after exercise. Male C57BL/6J mice underwent a treadmill exercise (60% of VO 2max ) for 30 min or one hour (h), and blood and gastrocnemius samples were collected before exercise (pre-exercise), immediately after exercise, and during 24-h recovery after 1-h exercise. We found that plasma irisin levels were significantly increased during exercise (P < 0.05), while FNDC5 protein levels were not significantly increased. Moreover, PGC-1α mRNA and protein levels were significantly increased during 30-min exercise, but were decreased during 1-h exercise. After 1-h exercise, the irisin levels peaked at 6 h (20.71 ± 0.25 ng/ml) and decreased to pre-exercise levels by 24 h (15.45 ± 0.27 ng/ml). Likewise, PGC-1α mRNA and protein levels were increased at 1 h and maintained at elevated levels for 6 h; thereafter, the expression levels of PGC1-α protein were decreased to pre-exercise levels at 12 h. Thus, the restoration of PGC-1α expression to the pre-exercise levels was followed by the decrease in plasma irisin levels. By contrast, during 24-h recovery, the expression levels of FNDC5 mRNA and protein were maintained at elevated levels. These results suggest that the coordinated expression of FNDC5 and PGC-1α may contribute to the increased levels of plasma irisin after exercise.

  1. Changes in self-efficacy for exercise and improved nutrition fostered by increased self-regulation among adults with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesi, James J; Johnson, Ping H; McEwen, Kristin L

    2015-10-01

    Behavioral theory suggests that treatments that increase participants' use of self-regulatory skills and/or their feelings of ability (self-efficacy) will improve exercise and nutrition behaviors. In addition, psychosocial factors associated with increased exercise may carry over to improved eating. Self-regulation might enhance self-efficacy through feelings of ability to manage barriers to maintaining weight-loss behaviors. Sedentary adults with severe or morbid obesity (M age = 43 years; M BMI = 40.1 kg/m(2)) participated in a 6-month study within a community-based YMCA center. We randomly assigned participants to one of the two groups that incorporated the same cognitive-behavioral support of exercise paired with methods for controlled, healthy eating emphasizing either (a) self-efficacy (n = 138), or (b) self-regulation (n = 136) methods. Mixed model repeated measures ANOVAs indicated significant improvements in exercise- and eating-related self-regulation over 3 months, and exercise- and eating-related self-efficacy over 6 months. The Self-Regulation Treatment Group demonstrated greater improvements in self-regulation for eating and fruit and vegetable intake than the Self-Efficacy Group. Regression analyses indicated that for both exercise and eating, self-regulation change significantly predicted self-efficacy change. In separate equations, changes in exercise and fruit and vegetable intake mediated those relationships, and change in self-efficacy and the corresponding behavioral changes demonstrated reciprocal, mutually reinforcing, relationships. There was evidence of carry-over, or generalization, of both self-regulation and self-efficacy changes from an exercise context to an eating context. We discussed findings in terms of leveraging self-regulation to improve self-efficacy, and provide a rationale for why exercise is the strongest predictor of success with weight loss. Results may be used to inform future behavioral weight

  2. Increased pain sensitivity but normal function of exercise induced analgesia in hip and knee osteoarthritis - treatment effects of neuromuscular exercise and total joint replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosek, E; Roos, Ewa M.; Ageberg, E

    2013-01-01

    To assess exercise induced analgesia (EIA) and pain sensitivity in hip and knee osteoarthritis (OA) and to study the effects of neuromuscular exercise and surgery on these parameters.......To assess exercise induced analgesia (EIA) and pain sensitivity in hip and knee osteoarthritis (OA) and to study the effects of neuromuscular exercise and surgery on these parameters....

  3. Exercise increases the plasma membrane content of the Na+ -K+ pump and its mRNA in rat skeletal muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsakiridis, T; Wong, P P; Liu, Z; Rodgers, C D; Vranic, M; Klip, A

    1996-02-01

    Muscle fibers adapt to ionic challenges of exercise by increasing the plasma membrane Na+-K+ pump activity. Chronic exercise training has been shown to increase the total amount of Na+-K+ pumps present in skeletal muscle. However, the mechanism of adaptation of the Na+-K+ pump to an acute bout of exercise has not been determined, and it is not known whether it involves alterations in the content of plasma membrane pump subunits. Here we examine the effect of 1 h of treadmill running (20 m/min, 10% grade) on the subcellular distribution and expression of Na+-K+ pump subunits in rat skeletal muscles. Red type I and IIa (red-I/IIa) and white type IIa and IIb (white-IIa/IIb) hindlimb muscles from resting and exercised female Sprague-Dawley rats were removed for subcellular fractionation. By homogenization and gradient centrifugation, crude membranes and purified plasma membranes were isolated and subjected to gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting by using pump subunit-specific antibodies. Furthermore, mRNA was isolated from specific red type I (red-I) and white type IIb (white-IIb) muscles and subjected to Northern blotting by using subunit-specific probes. In both red-I/IIa and white-IIa/IIb muscles, exercise significantly raised the plasma membrane content of the alpha1-subunit of the pump by 64 +/- 24 and 55 +/- 22%, respectively (P < 0.05), and elevated the alpha2-polypeptide by 43 +/- 22 and 94 +/- 39%, respectively (P < 0.05). No significant effect of exercise could be detected on the amount of these subunits in an internal membrane fraction or in total membranes. In addition, exercise significantly increased the alpha1-subunit mRNA in red-I muscle (by 50 +/- 7%; P < 0.05) and the beta2-subunit mRNA in white-IIb muscles (by 64 +/- 19%; P < 0.01), but the alpha2- and beta1-mRNA levels were unaffected in this time period. We conclude that increased presence of alpha1- and alpha2-polypeptides at the plasma membrane and subsequent elevation of the alpha1- and beta2

  4. A 21-Week Bone Deposition Promoting Exercise Programme Increases Bone Mass in Young People with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Aguero, Alejandro; Vicente-Rodriguez, German; Gomez-Cabello, Alba; Ara, Ignacio; Moreno, Luis A.; Casajus, Jose A.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To determine whether the bone mass of young people with Down syndrome may increase, following a 21-week conditioning training programme including plyometric jumps. Method: Twenty-eight participants with Down syndrome (13 females, 15 males) aged 10 to 19 years were divided into exercise (DS-E; n = 14; eight females, six males mean age 13y 8mo,…

  5. Is the relationship between increased knee muscle strength and improved physical function following exercise dependent on baseline physical function status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Michelle; Hinman, Rana S; van der Esch, Martin; van der Leeden, Marike; Kasza, Jessica; Wrigley, Tim V; Metcalf, Ben R; Dobson, Fiona; Bennell, Kim L

    2017-12-08

    Clinical guidelines recommend knee muscle strengthening exercises to improve physical function. However, the amount of knee muscle strength increase needed for clinically relevant improvements in physical function is unclear. Understanding how much increase in knee muscle strength is associated with improved physical function could assist clinicians in providing appropriate strength gain targets for their patients in order to optimise outcomes from exercise. The aim of this study was to investigate whether an increase in knee muscle strength is associated with improved self-reported physical function following exercise; and whether the relationship differs according to physical function status at baseline. Data from 100 participants with medial knee osteoarthritis enrolled in a 12-week randomised controlled trial comparing neuromuscular exercise to quadriceps strengthening exercise were pooled. Participants were categorised as having mild, moderate or severe physical dysfunction at baseline using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC). Associations between 12-week changes in physical function (dependent variable) and peak isometric knee extensor and flexor strength (independent variables) were evaluated with and without accounting for baseline physical function status and covariates using linear regression models. In covariate-adjusted models without accounting for baseline physical function, every 1-unit (Nm/kg) increase in knee extensor strength was associated with physical function improvement of 17 WOMAC units (95% confidence interval (CI) -29 to -5). When accounting for baseline severity of physical function, every 1-unit increase in knee extensor strength was associated with physical function improvement of 24 WOMAC units (95% CI -42 to -7) in participants with severe physical dysfunction. There were no associations between change in strength and change in physical function in participants with mild or moderate physical

  6. Increased cellular proliferation in rat skeletal muscle and tendon in response to exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Dorthe; Bayer, Monika L; Mackey, Abigail

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to investigate exercise-induced cellular proliferation in rat skeletal muscle/tendon with the use of 3'-[F-18]fluoro-3'deoxythymidine (FLT) and to quantitatively study concomitant changes in the proliferation-associated factor, Ki67. PROCEDURES: Wistar rats (...... = 13) performed 3 days of treadmill running. Cellular proliferation was investigated 3 days before and 48 h after the running exercise with the use of FLT and positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). Results were compared to a sedentary control group (n = 10). Image......-derived results were supported by a correlation in calf muscle to Ki67 (protein and mRNA level), while this coherence was not found in tendon. CONCLUSION: FLT-PET seems to be a promising tool for imaging of exercise-induced cellular proliferation in musculo-tendinous tissue....

  7. Hypoxia and exercise increase the transpulmonary passage of 99mTc-labeled albumin particles in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa L Bates

    Full Text Available Intrapulmonary arteriovenous anastomoses (IPAVs are large diameter connections that allow blood to bypass the lung capillaries and may provide a route for right-to-left embolus transmission. These anastomoses are recruited by exercise and catecholamines and hypoxia. Yet, whether IPAVs are recruited via direct, oxygen sensitive regulatory mechanisms or indirect effects secondary to redistribution pulmonary blood flow is unknown. Here, we hypothesized that the addition of exercise to hypoxic gas breathing, which increases cardiac output, would augment IPAVs recruitment in healthy humans. To test this hypothesis, we measured the transpulmonary passage of 99mTc-macroaggregated albumin particles (99mTc-MAA in seven healthy volunteers, at rest and with exercise at 85% of volitional max, with normoxic (FIO2 = 0.21 and hypoxic (FIO2 = 0.10 gas breathing. We found increased 99mTc-MAA passage in both exercise conditions and resting hypoxia. However, contrary to our hypothesis, we found the greatest 99mTc-MAA passage with resting hypoxia. As an additional, secondary endpoint, we also noted that the transpulmonary passage of 99mTc-MAA was well-correlated with the alveolar-arterial oxygen difference (A-aDO2 during exercise. While increased cardiac output has been proposed as an important modulator of IPAVs recruitment, we provide evidence that the modulation of blood flow through these pathways is more complex and that increasing cardiac output does not necessarily increase IPAVs recruitment. As we discuss, our data suggest that the resistance downstream of IPAVs is an important determinant of their perfusion.

  8. Short term exercise induces PGC-1α, ameliorates inflammation and increases mitochondrial membrane proteins but fails to increase respiratory enzymes in aging diabetic hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botta, Amy; Laher, Ismail; Beam, Julianne; Decoffe, Daniella; Brown, Kirsty; Halder, Swagata; Devlin, Angela; Gibson, Deanna L; Ghosh, Sanjoy

    2013-01-01

    PGC-1α, a transcriptional coactivator, controls inflammation and mitochondrial gene expression in insulin-sensitive tissues following exercise intervention. However, attributing such effects to PGC-1α is counfounded by exercise-induced fluctuations in blood glucose, insulin or bodyweight in diabetic patients. The goal of this study was to investigate the role of PGC-1α on inflammation and mitochondrial protein expressions in aging db/db mice hearts, independent of changes in glycemic parameters. In 8-month-old db/db mice hearts with diabetes lasting over 22 weeks, short-term, moderate-intensity exercise upregulated PGC-1α without altering body weight or glycemic parameters. Nonetheless, such a regimen lowered both cardiac (macrophage infiltration, iNOS and TNFα) and systemic (circulating chemokines and cytokines) inflammation. Curiously, such an anti-inflammatory effect was also linked to attenuated expression of downstream transcription factors of PGC-1α such as NRF-1 and several respiratory genes. Such mismatch between PGC-1α and its downstream targets was associated with elevated mitochondrial membrane proteins like Tom70 but a concurrent reduction in oxidative phosphorylation protein expressions in exercised db/db hearts. As mitochondrial oxidative stress was predominant in these hearts, in support of our in vivo data, increasing concentrations of H2O2 dose-dependently increased PGC-1α expression while inhibiting expression of inflammatory genes and downstream transcription factors in H9c2 cardiomyocytes in vitro. We conclude that short-term exercise-induced oxidative stress may be key in attenuating cardiac inflammatory genes and impairing PGC-1α mediated gene transcription of downstream transcription factors in type 2 diabetic hearts at an advanced age.

  9. Fasting and exercise increase plasma cannabinoid levels in THC pre-treated rats: an examination of behavioural consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Alexander; Keats, Kirily; Rooney, Kieron; Hicks, Callum; Allsop, David J; Arnold, Jonathon C; McGregor, Iain S

    2014-10-01

    Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive constituent of cannabis, accumulates in fat tissue where it can remain for prolonged periods. Under conditions of increased fat utilisation, blood cannabinoid concentrations can increase. However, it is unclear whether this has behavioural consequences. Here, we examined whether rats pre-treated with multiple or single doses of THC followed by a washout would show elevated plasma cannabinoids and altered behaviour following fasting or exercise manipulations designed to increase fat utilisation. Behavioural impairment was measured as an inhibition of spontaneous locomotor activity or a failure to successfully complete a treadmill exercise session. Fat utilisation was indexed by plasma free fatty acid (FFA) levels with plasma concentrations of THC and its terminal metabolite (-)-11-nor-9-carboxy-∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH) also measured. Rats given daily THC (10 mg/kg) for 5 days followed by a 4-day washout showed elevated plasma THC-COOH when fasted for 24 h relative to non-fasted controls. Fasted rats showed lower locomotor activity than controls suggesting a behavioural effect of fat-released THC. However, rats fasted for 20 h after a single 5-mg/kg THC injection did not show locomotor suppression, despite modestly elevated plasma THC-COOH. Rats pre-treated with THC (5 mg/kg) and exercised 20 h later also showed elevated plasma THC-COOH but did not differ from controls in their likelihood of completing 30 min of treadmill exercise. These results confirm that fasting and exercise can increase plasma cannabinoid levels. Behavioural consequences are more clearly observed with pre-treatment regimes involving repeated rather than single THC dosing.

  10. Video-game-assisted physiotherapeutic scoliosis-specific exercises for idiopathic scoliosis: case series and introduction of a new tool to increase motivation and precision of exercise performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Wibmer

    2016-11-01

    time increased from 73% of the total playing time to 83% (first to last month, and positive hits per second from 0.33 to 0.56. Self-assessment increased from “good” to “very good”. The curve angles (°Cobb were maintained over the study period (upper thoracic mean -1.3°, median -1°; lower thoracic mean 3°, median 2°; lumbar mean 0.5, median 0. Conclusions The improvement we saw in exercise performance, is thought to result primarily from the direct given feedback during the game, as the exercises themselves were already familiar to the patients. The synchronous recording of actual training time allows evaluation of Schroth therapy for idiopathic scoliosis, since both prescribed training time and actual training time are captured. No comparable tool was found in literature.

  11. Increased voluntary exercise in mice deficient for tumour necrosis factor-alpha and lymphotoxin-alpha.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Netea, M.G.; Kullberg, B.J.; Vonk, A.G.; Verschueren, I.; Joosten, L.A.B.; Meer, J.W.M. van der

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The endogenous mediators playing a role in the sensing of fatigue and cessation of exercise are yet to be characterized. We hypothesized that proinflammatory cytokines, in particular tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) and lymphotoxin-alpha (LT) transmit signals leading to fatigue.

  12. Interleukin 37 reverses the metabolic cost of inflammation, increases oxidative respiration, and improves exercise tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cavalli, G.; Justice, J.N.; Boyle, K.E.; d'Alessandro, A.; Eisenmesser, E.Z.; Herrera, J.J.; Hansen, K.C.; Nemkov, T.; Stienstra, R.; Garlanda, C.; Mantovani, A.; Seals, D.R.; Dagna, L.; Joosten, L.A.B.; Ballak, D.B.; Dinarello, C.A.

    2017-01-01

    IL-1 family member interleukin 37 (IL-37) has broad antiinflammatory properties and functions as a natural suppressor of innate inflammation. In this study, we demonstrate that treatment with recombinant human IL-37 reverses the decrease in exercise performance observed during systemic inflammation.

  13. Anxiety sensitivity uniquely predicts exercise behaviors in young adults seeking to increase physical activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moshier, S.J.; Szuhany, K.L.; Hearon, B.A.; Smits, J.A.J.; Otto, M.W.

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with elevated levels of anxiety sensitivity (AS) may be motivated to avoid aversive emotional or physical states, and therefore may have greater difficulty achieving healthy behavioral change. This may be particularly true for exercise, which produces many of the somatic sensations

  14. Six weeks of aerobic dance exercise improves blood oxidative stress status and increases interleukin-2 in previously sedentary women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leelarungrayub, Donrawee; Saidee, Kunteera; Pothongsunun, Prapas; Pratanaphon, Sainetee; YanKai, Araya; Bloomer, Richard J

    2011-07-01

    This study evaluated the change in blood oxidative stress, blood interleukin-2, and physical performance following 6 weeks of moderate intensity and duration aerobic dance exercise in 24 sedentary women. Blood samples were collected at rest twice before (baseline) and after the 6-week intervention for analysis of protein hydroperoxide (PrOOH), malondialdehyde (MDA), total anti-oxidant capacity (TAC), and interleukin-2 (IL-2) levels. Maximal treadmill run time (Time(max)) and maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2max)) were also measured. All variables were statistically analyzed with a repeated measurement ANOVA and Tukey post hoc. No differences were noted in any variable during the baseline period (p > 0.05). After aerobic dance exercise, VO(2max), Time(max), TAC and IL-2 were significantly increased, whereas MDA levels were decreased significantly (p exercise. It can be concluded that aerobic dance exercise at a moderate intensity and duration can improve physical fitness, decrease MDA, and increase TAC and IL-2 in previously sedentary women. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Prior exercise speeds pulmonary oxygen uptake kinetics and increases critical power during supine but not upright cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulding, Richie P; Roche, Denise M; Marwood, Simon

    2017-09-01

    What is the central question of this study? Critical power (CP) represents the highest work rate for which a metabolic steady state is attainable. The physiological determinants of CP are unclear, but research suggests that CP might be related to the time constant of phase II oxygen uptake kinetics (τV̇O2). What is the main finding and its importance? We provide the first evidence that τV̇O2 is mechanistically related to CP. A reduction of τV̇O2 in the supine position was observed alongside a concomitant increase in CP. This effect may be contingent on measures of oxygen availability derived from near-infrared spectroscopy. Critical power (CP) is a fundamental parameter defining high-intensity exercise tolerance and is related to the time constant of phase II pulmonary oxygen uptake kinetics (τV̇O2). To test the hypothesis that this relationship is causal, we determined the impact of prior exercise ('priming') on CP and τV̇O2 in the upright and supine positions. Seventeen healthy men were assigned to either upright or supine exercise groups, whereby CP, τV̇O2 and muscle deoxyhaemoglobin kinetics (τ [HHb] ) were determined via constant-power tests to exhaustion at four work rates with (primed) and without (control) priming exercise at ∼31%Δ. During supine exercise, priming reduced τV̇O2 (control 54 ± 18 s versus primed 39 ± 11 s; P exercise had no effect on τV̇O2 (control 37 ± 12 s versus primed 35 ± 8 s; P = 0.82), τ [HHb] (control 10 ± 5 s versus primed 14 ± 10 s; P = 0.10) or CP (control 235 ± 42 W versus primed 232 ± 35 W; P = 0.57) during upright exercise. The concomitant reduction of τV̇O2 and increased CP following priming in the supine group, effects that were absent in the upright group, provide the first experimental evidence that τV̇O2 is mechanistically related to critical power. The increased τ [HHb+Mb] suggests that this effect was mediated, at least in part, by improved oxygen

  16. THE VALUE OF REMOVING DAILY OBSTACLES VIA EVERYDAY PROBLEM SOLVING THEORY: DEVELOPING AN APPLIED NOVEL PROCEDURE TO INCREASE SELF-EFFICACY FOR EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele eArtistico

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to develop a novel procedure to increase self-efficacy for exercise. Gains in one’s ability to resolve day-to-day obstacles for entering an exercise routine were expected to cause an increase in self-efficacy for exercise. Fifty-five sedentary participants (did not exercise regularly for at least 4 months prior to the study who expressed an intention to exercise in the near future were selected for the study. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: 1 an Experimental Group in which they received a problem-solving training session to learn new strategies for solving day-to-day obstacles that interfere with exercise, 2 a Control Group with Problem Solving Training which received a problem solving training session focused on a typical day-to-day problem unrelated to exercise, or 3 a Control Group which did not receive any problem-solving training. Assessment of obstacles to exercise and perceived self-efficacy for exercise were conducted at baseline; perceived self-efficacy for exercise was reassessed post-intervention (one week later. No differences in perceived challenges posed by obstacles to exercise or self-efficacy for exercise were observed across groups at baseline. The Experimental Group reported greater improvement in self-efficacy for exercise compared to the Control Group with Training (p < 0.01 and the Control Group (p < 0.01. Results of this study suggest that a novel procedure that focuses on removing obstacles to intended planned fitness activities is effective in increasing self-efficacy to engage in exercise among sedentary adults. Implications of these findings for use in applied settings and treatment studies are discussed.

  17. The Value of Removing Daily Obstacles via Everyday Problem-Solving Theory: Developing an Applied Novel Procedure to Increase Self-Efficacy for Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artistico, Daniele; Pinto, Angela Marinilli; Douek, Jill; Black, Justin; Pezzuti, Lina

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to develop a novel procedure to increase self-efficacy for exercise. Gains in one's ability to resolve day-to-day obstacles for entering an exercise routine were expected to cause an increase in self-efficacy for exercise. Fifty-five sedentary participants (did not exercise regularly for at least 4 months prior to the study) who expressed an intention to exercise in the near future were selected for the study. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: (1) an Experimental Group in which they received a problem-solving training session to learn new strategies for solving day-to-day obstacles that interfere with exercise, (2) a Control Group with Problem-Solving Training which received a problem-solving training session focused on a typical day-to-day problem unrelated to exercise, or (3) a Control Group which did not receive any problem-solving training. Assessment of obstacles to exercise and perceived self-efficacy for exercise were conducted at baseline; perceived self-efficacy for exercise was reassessed post-intervention (1 week later). No differences in perceived challenges posed by obstacles to exercise or self-efficacy for exercise were observed across groups at baseline. The Experimental Group reported greater improvement in self-efficacy for exercise compared to the Control Group with Training and the Control Group. Results of this study suggest that a novel procedure that focuses on removing obstacles to intended planned fitness activities is effective in increasing self-efficacy to engage in exercise among sedentary adults. Implications of these findings for use in applied settings and treatment studies are discussed.

  18. AMP-activated protein kinase controls exercise training- and AICAR-induced increases in SIRT3 and MnSOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef eBrandauer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The mitochondrial protein deacetylase sirtuin (SIRT 3 may mediate exercise training-induced increases in mitochondrial biogenesis and improvements in reactive oxygen species (ROS handling. We determined the requirement of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK for exercise training-induced increases in skeletal muscle abundance of SIRT3 and other mitochondrial proteins. Exercise training for 6.5 weeks increased SIRT3 (p<0.01 and superoxide dismutase 2 (MnSOD; p<0.05 protein abundance in quadriceps muscle of wild-type (WT; n=13-15, but not AMPK α2 kinase dead (KD; n=12-13 mice. We also observed a strong trend for increased MnSOD abundance in exercise-trained skeletal muscle of healthy humans (p=0.051; n=6. To further elucidate a role for AMPK in mediating these effects, we treated WT (n=7-8 and AMPK α2 KD (n=7-9 mice with 5-amino-1-β-D-ribofuranosyl-imidazole-4-carboxamide (AICAR. Four weeks of daily AICAR injections (500 mg/kg resulted in AMPK-dependent increases in SIRT3 (p<0.05 and MnSOD (p<0.01 in WT, but not AMPK α2 KD mice. We also tested the effect of repeated AICAR treatment on mitochondrial protein levels in mice lacking the transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ-coactivator 1α (PGC-1α KO; n=9-10. Skeletal muscle SIRT3 and MnSOD protein abundance was reduced in sedentary PGC-1α KO mice (p<0.01 and AICAR-induced increases in SIRT3 and MnSOD protein abundance was only observed in WT mice (p<0.05. Finally, the acetylation status of SIRT3 target lysine residues on MnSOD (K122 or oligomycin-sensitivity conferring protein (OSCP; K139 was not altered in either mouse or human skeletal muscle in response to acute exercise. We propose an important role for AMPK in regulating mitochondrial function and ROS handling in skeletal muscle in response to exercise training.

  19. Tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates accumulate at the onset of intense exercise in man but are not essential for the increase in muscle oxygen uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsbo, Jens; Gibala, Martin J.; Howarth, Krista R.

    2006-01-01

    dichloroacetate (DCA) in an attempt to alter the level of TCAI. Five men performed strenuous leg kicking exercise (64+/-8 W) under noninfused control (CON) and DCA-supplemented conditions; biopsies (vastus lateralis) were obtained at rest and after 5, 15, and 180 s of exercise. In CON, the total concentration...... seconds of exercise; however, this increase is not essential for the contraction-induced increase in mitochondrial respiration....

  20. Treadmill Exercise with Increased Body Loading Enhances Post Flight Functional Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Batson, C. D.; Buxton, R. E.; Feiveson, A. H.; Kofman, I. S.; Laurie, S.; Lee, S. M. C.; Miller, C. A.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The goals of the Functional Task Test (FTT) study were to determine the effects of space flight on functional tests that are representative of high priority exploration mission tasks and to identify the key underlying physiological factors that contribute to decrements in performance. Ultimately this information will be used to assess performance risks and inform the design of countermeasures for exploration class missions. We have previously shown that for Shuttle, ISS and bed rest subjects functional tasks requiring a greater demand for dynamic control of postural equilibrium (i.e. fall recovery, seat egress/obstacle avoidance during walking, object translation, jump down) showed the greatest decrement in performance. Functional tests with reduced requirements for postural stability (i.e. hatch opening, ladder climb, manual manipulation of objects and tool use) showed little reduction in performance. These changes in functional performance were paralleled by similar decrements in sensorimotor tests designed to specifically assess postural equilibrium and dynamic gait control. The bed rest analog allows us to investigate the impact of axial body unloading in isolation on both functional tasks and on the underlying physiological factors that lead to decrements in performance and then compare them with the results obtained in our space flight study. These results indicate that body support unloading experienced during space flight plays a central role in postflight alteration of functional task performance. Given the importance of body-support loading we set out to determine if there is a relationship between the load experienced during inflight treadmill exercise (produced by a harness and bungee system) and postflight functional performance. ISS crewmembers (n=13) were tested using the FTT protocol before and after 6 months in space. Crewmembers were tested three times before flight, and on 1, 6, and 30 days after landing. To determine how differences in body

  1. More pronounced effect of acute exercise-induced increase in circulating inflammatory markers in obese compared to lean subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Tore; Paulsen, Søren Kildeberg; Bruun, Jens Meldgaard

    2010-01-01

    in circulation, and on gene expression on these infammatory marker in skeletal muscle (SM) and adipose tissue (AT) biopsies. Material and Methods: 15 lean males and females (BMI 22.4±2 kg/m2) and 16 obese males and females (BMI 31.6±3 kg/m2) exercised for 120 minutes by ergometer bicycling at moderate intensity......Objective: Exercise modulates the immune system and in young males acute exercise has been found associated with increased systemic level of infam-matory markers such as IL-6 and IL-8. In this study we investigated the impact of obesity on the exercise induced release of infammatory markers...... (55-60% of maximal heart rate). Blood samples were obtained at baseline (T0), after 60 minutes of bicycling (T=60), after 120 minutes of bicycling (T=120), whereas biopsies from AT and SM were obtained at T0 and T120. Results: Divided into weight-status, plasma levels of IL-8 and TNFα were at T=120...

  2. Physical Exercise Keeps the Brain Connected: Biking Increases White Matter Integrity in Patients With Schizophrenia and Healthy Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svatkova, Alena; Mandl, René C W; Scheewe, Thomas W; Cahn, Wiepke; Kahn, René S; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E

    2015-07-01

    It has been shown that learning a new skill leads to structural changes in the brain. However, it is unclear whether it is the acquisition or continuous practicing of the skill that causes this effect and whether brain connectivity of patients with schizophrenia can benefit from such practice. We examined the effect of 6 months exercise on a stationary bicycle on the brain in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. Biking is an endemic skill in the Netherlands and thus offers an ideal situation to disentangle the effects of learning vs practice. The 33 participating patients with schizophrenia and 48 healthy individuals were assigned to either one of two conditions, ie, physical exercise or life-as-usual, balanced for diagnosis. Diffusion tensor imaging brain scans were made prior to and after intervention. We demonstrate that irrespective of diagnosis regular physical exercise of an overlearned skill, such as bicycling, significantly increases the integrity, especially of motor functioning related, white matter fiber tracts whereas life-as-usual leads to a decrease in fiber integrity. Our findings imply that exercise of an overlearned physical skill improves brain connectivity in patients and healthy individuals. This has important implications for understanding the effect of fitness programs on the brain in both healthy subjects and patients with schizophrenia. Moreover, the outcome may even apply to the nonphysical realm. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Treadmill exercise induced functional recovery after peripheral nerve repair is associated with increased levels of neurotrophic factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Sung Park

    Full Text Available Benefits of exercise on nerve regeneration and functional recovery have been reported in both central and peripheral nervous system disease models. However, underlying molecular mechanisms of enhanced regeneration and improved functional outcomes are less understood. We used a peripheral nerve regeneration model that has a good correlation between functional outcomes and number of motor axons that regenerate to evaluate the impact of treadmill exercise. In this model, the median nerve was transected and repaired while the ulnar nerve was transected and prevented from regeneration. Daily treadmill exercise resulted in faster recovery of the forelimb grip function as evaluated by grip power and inverted holding test. Daily exercise also resulted in better regeneration as evaluated by recovery of compound motor action potentials, higher number of axons in the median nerve and larger myofiber size in target muscles. Furthermore, these observations correlated with higher levels of neurotrophic factors, glial derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1, in serum, nerve and muscle suggesting that increase in muscle derived neurotrophic factors may be responsible for improved regeneration.

  4. Increased supraspinatus tendon thickness following fatigue loading in rotator cuff tendinopathy: potential implications for exercise therapy

    OpenAIRE

    McCreesh, Karen M; Purtill, Helen; Donnelly, Alan E; Lewis, Jeremy S

    2017-01-01

    Background/aim Exercise imparts a load on tendon tissue that leads to changes in tendon properties. Studies suggest that loading immediately reduces tendon thickness, with a loss of this response in symptomatic tendinopathy. No studies investigating the response of tendon dimensions to load for the rotator cuff tendons exist. This study aimed to examine the short-term effect of loading on the thickness of the supraspinatus tendon and acromiohumeral distance those with and without rotator cuff...

  5. Does exercise deprivation increase the tendency towards morphine dependence in rats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhaee, Mohammad Reza; Sheibani, Vahid; Ghahraman Tabrizi, Kourosh; Marefati, Hamid; Bahreinifar, Sareh; Nakhaee, Nouzar

    2010-01-01

    Exercise deprivation has been concluded to have some negative effectson psychological well-being. This study was conducted to find outwhether exercise deprivation may lead to morphine dependence in rats. Forty male Wistar rats weighing 162 ± 9 g were housed in clear plasticcages in groups of two under standard laboratory conditions. The studyhad two phases. In phase I, the animals were randomly divided intoexercised (E) and unexercised (UE) groups (n = 20 each) and treadmillrunning was performed based on a standard protocol for three weeks. Atthe end of the training period, plasma β-endorphin levels weredetermined in four rats from each group. In phase II, the animals wereprovided with two bottles, one containing tap water and the other 25mg/l morphine sulfate in tap water for a total of 12 weeks. At the end ofthis phase naloxone was injected intraperitoneally to precipitatemorphine withdrawal. THERE WAS NO SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCE BETWEEN UE AND E GROUPS INMORPHINE CONSUMPTION (MG/KG/WK) [ F(1,14) = 0.2, P = 0.690; time:F(11,154) =18.72, P exercise does not increasethe tendency of morphine dependence in rats.

  6. Intense resistance exercise induces early and transient increases in ryanodine receptor 1 phosphorylation in human skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Gehlert

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While ryanodine receptor 1 (RyR1 critically contributes to skeletal muscle contraction abilities by mediating Ca²⁺ion oscillation between sarcoplasmatic and myofibrillar compartments, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK senses contraction-induced energetic stress by phosphorylation at Thr¹⁷². Phosphorylation of RyR1 at serine²⁸⁴³ (pRyR1Ser²⁸⁴³ results in leaky RyR1 channels and impaired Ca²⁺homeostasis. Because acute resistance exercise exerts decreased contraction performance in skeletal muscle, preceded by high rates of Ca²⁺-oscillation and energetic stress, intense myofiber contractions may induce increased RyR1 and AMPK phosphorylation. However, no data are available regarding the time-course and magnitude of early RyR1 and AMPK phosphorylation in human myofibers in response to acute resistance exercise. PURPOSE: Determine the effects and early time-course of resistance exercise on pRyR1Ser²⁸⁴³ and pAMPKThr¹⁷² in type I and II myofibers. METHODS: 7 male subjects (age 23±2 years, height: 185±7 cm, weight: 82±5 kg performed 3 sets of 8 repetitions of maximum eccentric knee extensions. Muscle biopsies were taken at rest, 15, 30 and 60 min post exercise. pRyR1Ser²⁸⁴³ and pAMPKThr¹⁷² levels were determined by western blot and semi-quantitative immunohistochemistry techniques. RESULTS: While total RyR1 and total AMPK levels remained unchanged, RyR1 was significantly more abundant in type II than type I myofibers. pRyR1Ser²⁸⁴³ increased 15 min and peaked 30 min (p<0.01 post exercise in both myofiber types. Type I fibers showed relatively higher increases in pRyR1Ser²⁸⁴³ levels than type II myofibers and remained elevated up to 60 min post resistance exercise (p<0.05. pAMPKThr¹⁷² also increased 15 to 30 min post exercise (p<0.01 in type I and II myofibers and in whole skeletal muscle. CONCLUSION: Resistance exercise induces acutely increased pRyR1Ser²⁸⁴³ and

  7. Increased Protein Requirements in Female Athletes after Variable-Intensity Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooding, Denise J; Packer, Jeff E; Kato, Hiroyuki; West, Daniel W D; Courtney-Martin, Glenda; Pencharz, Paul B; Moore, Daniel R

    2017-11-01

    Protein requirements are primarily studied in the context of resistance or endurance exercise with little research devoted to variable-intensity intermittent exercise characteristic of many team sports. Further, female populations are underrepresented in dietary sports science studies. We aimed to determine a dietary protein requirement in active females performing variable-intensity intermittent exercise using the indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) method. We hypothesized that these requirements would be greater than current IAAO-derived estimates in nonactive adult males. Six females (21.2 ± 0.8 yr, 68.8 ± 4.1 kg, 47.1 ± 1.2 mL O2·kg·min; mean ± SE) completed five to seven metabolic trials during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Participants performed a modified Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test before consuming eight hourly mixed meals providing the test protein intake (0.2-2.66 g·kg·d), 6 g·kg·d CHO and sufficient energy for resting and exercise-induced energy expenditure. Protein was provided as crystalline amino acid modeling egg protein with [C]phenylalanine as the indicator amino acid. Phenylalanine turnover (Q) was determined from urinary [C]phenylalanine enrichment. Breath CO2 excretion (FCO2) was analyzed using mixed effects biphase linear regression with the breakpoint and upper 95% confidence interval approximating the estimated average requirement and recommended dietary allowance, respectively. Protein intake had no effect on Q (68.7 ± 7.3 μmol·kg·h; mean ± SE). FCO2 displayed a robust biphase response (R = 0.66) with an estimated average requirement of 1.41 g·kg·d and recommended dietary allowance of 1.71 g·kg·d. The protein requirement estimate of 1.41 and 1.71 g·kg·d for females performing variable-intensity intermittent exercise is greater than the IAAO-derived estimates of adult males (0.93 and 1.2 g·kg·d) and at the upper range of the American College of Sports Medicine athlete recommendations (1.2-2.0 g·kg·d).

  8. Effects of Increased Respiratory Resistance on Maximal O2 Uptake and Anaerobic Threshold during Incremental Exercise Tests

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZÇELİK, Oğuz

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess whether maximal O2 uptake (VO2max) can be used as an index of measuring aerobic capacity under the condition of increased respiratory resistance. Seven male subjects performed two incremental exercise tests on a cycle ergometer on different days: one control (C) and one breathing through an 8 mm bore diameter respiratory resistance (R). Ventilatory and gas exchange responses were measured with a turbine volume transducer and mass spectrometry, and processed...

  9. Energy intake over 2 days is unaffected by acute sprint interval exercise despite increased appetite and energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Kristine; Olver, T Dylan; Abbott, Kolten C; Lemon, Peter W R

    2015-01-01

    A cumulative effect of reduced energy intake, increased oxygen consumption, and/or increased lipid oxidation could explain the fat loss associated with sprint interval exercise training (SIT). This study assessed the effects of acute sprint interval exercise (SIE) on energy intake, subjective appetite, appetite-related peptides, oxygen consumption, and respiratory exchange ratio over 2 days. Eight men (25 ± 3 years, 79.6 ± 9.7 kg, body fat 13% ± 6%; mean ± SD) completed 2 experimental treatments: SIE and recovery (SIEx) and nonexercise control. Each 34-h treatment consisted of 2 consecutive 10-h test days. Between 0800-1800 h, participants remained in the laboratory for 8 breath-by-breath gas collections, 3 buffet-type meals, 14 appetite ratings, and 4 blood samples for appetite-related peptides. Treatment comparisons were made using 2-way repeated measures ANOVA or t tests. An immediate, albeit short-lived (SIEx (P SIEx (P = 0.04), elicited by the 1491-kJ (22%) greater energy expenditure over the first 24 h (P = 0.01). Despite its effects on oxygen consumption, appetite, and PYY, acute SIE did not affect energy intake. Consequently, if these dietary responses to SIE are sustained with regular SIT, augmentations in oxygen consumption and/or a substrate shift toward increased fat use postexercise are most likely responsible for the observed body fat loss with this type of exercise training.

  10. Basic Training of Student’s Outdoor Club Increases Muscle Mass after Five Weeks of Exercise in Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novie Salsabila

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aerobic and anaerobic exercises, may lead to increase muscle mass. The aim of this study was to determine the change in muscle mass during basic training of students’ outdoor club. Methods: This was an observational analytic study to college students who joined basic training of students’ outdoor club for 19 weeks. Subjects consisted of 17 male and 15 female students, measured five times consecutively by using Body Fat/Hydration monitor scale, with Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis principle. Data collection was performed five times, from February to July 2012 in Bandung. Statistical analysis was processed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA. Results: The result in males showed the mean 43.35±3.15 on the initial measurement. The muscle mass further increased significantly after five, ten, fifteen, and nineteen weeks of exercise (43.73±3.18 (p0.05; 38.08±1.67 (p>0.05 ; 38.23±1.52 (p>0.05 ; 38.61±1.52 (p<0.05 vs 37.77±2.00 respectively. Conclusion: Basic training of student’s outdoor club increases muscle mass significantly after five weeks of exercise in males, but not in females

  11. Protein O-GlcNAc Modification Increases in White Blood Cells After a Single Bout of Physical Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Tamás; Kátai, Emese; Fisi, Viktória; Takács, Tamás Tibor; Stréda, Antal; Wittmann, István; Miseta, Attila

    2018-01-01

    Protein O-linked N -acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is a dynamic posttranslational modification influencing the function of many intracellular proteins. Recently it was revealed that O-GlcNAc regulation is modified under various stress states, including ischemia and oxidative stress. Aside from a few contradictory studies based on animal models, the effect of exercise on O-GlcNAc is unexplored. To evaluate O-GlcNAc levels in white blood cells (WBC) of human volunteers following physical exercise. Young (age 30 ± 5.2), healthy male volunteers ( n  = 6) were enlisted for the study. Blood parameters including metabolites, ions, "necro"-enzymes, and cell counts were measured before and after a single bout of exercise (2-mile run). From WBC samples, we performed western blots to detect O-GlcNAc modified proteins. The distribution of O-GlcNAc in WBC subpopulations was assessed by flow cytometry. Elevation of serum lactic acid (increased from 1.3 ± 0.4 to 6.9 ± 1.7 mM), creatinine (from 77.5 ± 6.3 U/L to 102.2 ± 7.0 μM), and lactate dehydrogenase (from 318.5 ± 26.2 to 380.5 ± 33.2 U/L) confirmed the effect of exercise. WBC count also significantly increased (from 6.6 ± 1.0 to 8.4 ± 1.4 G/L). The level of O-GlcNAc modified proteins in WBCs showed significant elevation after exercise (85 ± 51%, p  O-GlcNAc status of WBCs. O-GlcNAc modification could be a natural process by which physical activity modulates the immune system. Further research could elucidate the role of O-GlcNAc during exercise and validate O-GlcNAc as a biomarker for fitness assessment.

  12. SPILANTHES ACMELLA AND PHYSICAL EXERCISE INCREASED TESTOSTERONE LEVELS AND OSTEOBLAST CELLS IN GLUCOCORTICOID-INDUCED OSTEOPOROSIS MALE MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hening Laswati

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis is leading cause of secondary osteoporosis by decreasing formation activity and increasing resorption activity. Spilanthes acmella, is one of Indonesia medicinal plants that contain of polyphenol and flavonoids. Previously in vitro study showed that buthanol and water fraction from this plant have increased alkaline phosphatase that known as marker of bone formation. The objective of this study to analyze the effect of Spilanthes acmella  and physical exercise in increasing testosterone and  osteoblast cells of femoral’s trabecular glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis male mice. Method: This study using a posttest control group design, 36 male healthy mice (5 months old  were randomizely devided into 6 groups, there are : 1.Healthy control group (without induction dexamethaxone, 2.Osteoporosis groups (induction with dexamethaxone without treatment, 3.Positive control receive suspension alendronat, 4.70% Ethanol extract of Spilanthes acmella group, 5.Combination group of 70% extract ethanol of Spilanthes acmella and exercise, and 6.Exercise group  (walking using mice treadmill 10m/minute, 5-12 minutes 3 times a week. All of the intervention were given for 4 weeks. The serum levels of testosterone were determined using  immunoserology (ELISA and osteoblast cells were determined histomorphometry by light microscopy.  All statistical test were carried out using SPSS 23 and statistical significance was  set at p<0.05 for all analysis. The testosterone levels  between group were compared using Mann-Whitney test and osteoblast cells between group were compared with multiple comparison. Results: It showed that the alendronate group, combination group and the exercise group increasing testosterone level (p<0.05 from that osteoporotic group. There were also increasing osteoblast cells (p<0.05 in the alendronate group and combination group. There was no correlation between testosterone level and

  13. Tocotrienols and Whey Protein Isolates Substantially Increase Exercise Endurance Capacity in Diet -Induced Obese Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguila, Jay; McConell, Glenn K.; McAinch, Andrew J.; Mathai, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Obesity and impairments in metabolic health are associated with reductions in exercise capacity. Both whey protein isolates (WPIs) and vitamin E tocotrienols (TCTs) exert favorable effects on obesity-related metabolic parameters. This research sought to determine whether these supplements improved exercise capacity and increased glucose tolerance in diet-induced obese rats. Methods Six week old male rats (n = 35) weighing 187 ± 32g were allocated to either: Control (n = 9), TCT (n = 9), WPI (n = 8) or TCT + WPI (n = 9) and placed on a high-fat diet (40% of energy from fat) for 10 weeks. Animals received 50mg/kg body weight and 8% of total energy intake per day of TCTs and/or WPIs respectively. Food intake, body composition, glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, exercise capacity, skeletal muscle glycogen content and oxidative enzyme activity were determined. Results Both TCT and WPI groups ran >50% longer (2271 ± 185m and 2195 ± 265m respectively) than the Control group (1428 ± 139m) during the run to exhaustion test (Pexercise endurance (2068 ± 104m). WPIs increased the maximum in vitro activity of beta-hydroxyacyl-CoA in the soleus muscle (Pexercise endurance by 50% in sedentary, diet-induced obese rats. These positive effects of TCTs and WPIs were independent of body weight, adiposity or glucose tolerance. PMID:27058737

  14. Resistance exercise-induced increases in putative anabolic hormones do not enhance muscle protein synthesis or intracellular signalling in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Daniel W D; Kujbida, Gregory W; Moore, Daniel R; Atherton, Philip; Burd, Nicholas A; Padzik, Jan P; De Lisio, Michael; Tang, Jason E; Parise, Gianni; Rennie, Michael J; Baker, Steven K; Phillips, Stuart M

    2009-11-01

    We aimed to determine whether exercise-induced elevations in systemic concentration of testosterone, growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) enhanced post-exercise myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS) and phosphorylation of signalling proteins important in regulating mRNA translation. Eight young men (20 +/- 1.1 years, BMI = 26 +/- 3.5 kg m(-2)) completed two exercise protocols designed to maintain basal hormone concentrations (low hormone, LH) or elicit increases in endogenous hormones (high hormone, HH). In the LH protocol, participants performed a bout of unilateral resistance exercise with the elbow flexors. The HH protocol consisted of the same elbow flexor exercise with the contralateral arm followed immediately by high-volume leg resistance exercise. Participants consumed 25 g of protein after arm exercise to maximize MPS. Muscle biopsies and blood samples were taken as appropriate. There were no changes in serum testosterone, GH or IGF-1 after the LH protocol, whereas there were marked elevations after HH (testosterone, P anabolic hormones do not enhance fed-state anabolic signalling or MPS following resistance exercise. Local mechanisms are likely to be of predominant importance for the post-exercise increase in MPS.

  15. Exercise training favors increased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle in contrast to adipose tissue: a randomized study using FDG PET imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reichkendler, M. H.; Auerbach, P.; Rosenkilde, M.

    2013-01-01

    abdominal SAT compared with CON but not in either intra- or retroperitoneal VAT. Total adipose tissue mass decreased in both exercise groups, and the decrease was distributed equally among subcutaneous and intra-abdominal depots. In conclusion, aerobic exercise training increases insulin-stimulated glucose...

  16. Exercise increases sphingoid base-1-phosphate levels in human blood and skeletal muscle in a time- and intensity-dependent manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baranowski, Marcin; Błachnio-Zabielska, Agnieszka U; Charmas, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) regulates cardiovascular function and plays an important role in muscle biology. We have previously reported that cycling exercise increased plasma S1P. Here, we investigated the effect of exercise duration and intensity on plasma and skeletal muscle S1P lev...

  17. Effect of increased exercise in school children on physical fitness and endothelial progenitor cells: a prospective randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Claudia; Gaede, Luise; Adams, Volker; Gelbrich, Götz; Leichtle, Alexander; Erbs, Sandra; Sonnabend, Melanie; Fikenzer, Kati; Körner, Antje; Kiess, Wieland; Bruegel, Mathias; Thiery, Joachim; Schuler, Gerhard

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this prospective, randomized study was to examine whether additional school exercise lessons would result in improved peak oxygen uptake (primary end point) and body mass index-standard deviation score, motor and coordinative abilities, circulating progenitor cells, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (major secondary end points). Seven sixth-grade classes (182 children, aged 11.1+/-0.7 years) were randomized to an intervention group (4 classes with 109 students) with daily school exercise lessons for 1 year and a control group (3 classes with 73 students) with regular school sports twice weekly. The significant effects of intervention estimated from ANCOVA adjusted for intraclass correlation were the following: increase of peak o(2) (3.7 mL/kg per minute; 95% confidence interval, 0.3 to 7.2) and increase of circulating progenitor cells evaluated by flow cytometry (97 cells per 1 x 10(6) leukocytes; 95% confidence interval, 13 to 181). No significant difference was seen for body mass index-standard deviation score (-0.08; 95% confidence interval, -0.28 to 0.13); however, there was a trend to reduction of the prevalence of overweight and obese children in the intervention group (from 12.8% to 7.3%). No treatment effect was seen for motor and coordinative abilities (4; 95% confidence interval, -1 to 8) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (0.03 mmol/L; 95% confidence interval, -0.08 to 0.14). Regular physical activity by means of daily school exercise lessons has a significant positive effect on physical fitness (o(2)max). Furthermore, the number of circulating progenitor cells can be increased, and there is a positive trend in body mass index-standard deviation score reduction and motor ability improvement. Therefore, we conclude that primary prevention by means of increasing physical activity should start in childhood. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Identifier: NCT00176371.

  18. Nordic Walking May Safely Increase the Intensity of Exercise Training in Healthy Subjects and in Patients with Chronic Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejczak, Andrzej; Josiak, Krystian; Węgrzynowska-Teodorczyk, Kinga; Rudzińska, Eliza; Jankowska, Ewa A; Banasiak, Waldemar; Piepoli, Massimo F; Woźniewski, Marek; Ponikowski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity in patients with chronic heart failure (HF) improves the exercise capacity and quality of life, and may also reduce mortality and hospitalizations. The greatest benefits are achieved through high-intensity aerobic exercises resulting in a stronger cardiorespiratory response. Nordic walking (NW), a walking technique using two poles and mimicking the movements performed while cross-country skiing, is associated with the involvement of more muscle groups than in the case of classic walking, and should therefore make it possible to increase exercise intensity, resulting in more effective training for patients with HF. The aim of the study was to assess the feasibility and safety of the NW technique, and to compare the effort intensity while walking with and without the NW technique in both healthy subjects and in patients with chronic HF. The study involved 12 healthy individuals (aged 30 ± 10 years, 5 men) and 12 men with stable chronic systolic HF (aged 63 ± 11 years, all categorized in New York Heart Association class II, median LVEF 30%, median peak VO(2) 18.25 mL/kg/min). All the participants completed two randomly assigned submaximal walking tests (one with NW poles and one without) conducted on a level treadmill for 6 min at a constant speed of 5 km/h. Walking with the NW technique was feasible, safe and well tolerated in all subjects. In both the control group and the chronic HF group, walking with the NW technique increased peak VO(2), RER, VE, PET CO(2), HR and SBP over walking without the poles; and the fatigue grade according to the abridged Borg scale was higher. Dyspnea did not increase significantly with the NW technique. The NW technique can increase the intensity of aerobic training in a safe and well-tolerated way in both healthy individuals and in patients with chronic HF.

  19. Range of motion exercise of temporo-mandibular joint with hot pack increases occlusal force in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, S; Kawai, M; Shimoyama, R; Futamura, N; Matsumura, T; Adachi, K; Kikuchi, Y

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether the range of motion exercise of the temporo-mandibular joint (jaw ROM exercise) with a hot pack and massage of the masseter muscle improve biting disorder in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). The subjects were 18 DMD patients (21.3+/- 4.1 years old). The jaw ROM exercise consisted of therapist-assisted training (2 times a week) and self-training (before each meal every day). The therapist-assisted training consisted of the application of a hot pack on the cheek of the masseter muscle region (15 minutes), the massage of the masseter (10 minutes), and jaw ROM exercise (5 minutes). The self-training involved jaw ROM exercise by opening the mouth to the maximum degree, ten times. These trainings continued for six months. Outcomes were evaluated by measuring the greatest occlusal force and the distance at the maximum degree of mouth opening between an incisor of the top and that of the bottom. Six months later, the greatest occlusal force had increased significantly compared with that at the start of jaw ROM exercise (intermediate values: from 73.8N to 97.3N) (p = 0.005) as determined by the Friedman test and Scheffi's nonparametric test. The patients' satisfaction with meals increased. However, the maximum degree of mouth opening did not change after six months of jaw ROM exercise. Jaw ROM exercise in DMD is effective for increasing the greatest occlusal force.

  20. Training-induced increase in nitric oxide metabolites in chronic heart failure and coronary artery disease: an extra benefit of water-based exercises?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Mourot; Daline, Teffaha; Malika, Bouhaddi; Fawzi, Ounissi; Philippe, Vernochet; Benoit, Dugue; Catherine, Monpère; Jacques, Regnard

    2009-04-01

    Rehabilitation programs involving immersed exercises are more and more frequently used, with severe cardiac patients as well. This study investigated whether a rehabilitation program including water-based exercises has additional effects on the cardiovascular system compared with a traditional land-based training in heart disease patients. Twenty-four male stable chronic heart failure patients and 24 male coronary artery disease patients with preserved left ventricular function participated in the study. Patients took part in the rehabilitation program performing cycle endurance exercises on land. They also performed gymnastic exercises either on land (first half of the participants) or in water (second half). Resting plasma concentration of nitric oxide metabolites (nitrate and nitrite) and catecholamine were evaluated, and a symptom-limited exercise test on a cycle ergometer was performed before and after the rehabilitation program. In the groups performing water-based exercises, the plasma concentration of nitrates was significantly increased (P = 0.035 for chronic heart failure and P = 0.042 for coronary artery disease), whereas it did not significantly change in the groups performing gymnastic exercise on land. No changes in plasma catecholamine concentration occurred. In every group, the cardiorespiratory capacity of patients was significantly increased after rehabilitation. The water-based exercises seemed to effectively increase the basal level of plasma nitrates. Such changes may be related to an enhancement of endothelial function and may be of importance for the health of the patients.

  1. Increased objectively assessed vigorous-intensity exercise is associated with reduced stress, increased mental health and good objective and subjective sleep in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Markus; Brand, Serge; Herrmann, Christian; Colledge, Flora; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Pühse, Uwe

    2014-08-01

    The role of physical activity as a factor that protects against stress-related mental disorders is well documented. Nevertheless, there is still a dearth of research using objective measures of physical activity. The present study examines whether objectively assessed vigorous physical activity (VPA) is associated with mental health benefits beyond moderate physical activity (MPA). Particularly, this study examines whether young adults who accomplish the American College of Sports Medicine's (ACSM) vigorous-intensity exercise recommendations differ from peers below these standards with regard to their level of perceived stress, depressive symptoms, perceived pain, and subjective and objective sleep. A total of 42 undergraduate students (22 women, 20 men; M=21.24years, SD=2.20) volunteered to take part in the study. Stress, pain, depressive symptoms, and subjective sleep were assessed via questionnaire, objective sleep via sleep-EEG assessment, and VPA via actigraphy. Meeting VPA recommendations had mental health benefits beyond MPA. VPA was associated with less stress, pain, subjective sleep complaints and depressive symptoms. Moreover, vigorous exercisers had more favorable objective sleep pattern. Especially, they had increased total sleep time, more stage 4 and REM sleep, more slow wave sleep and a lower percentage of light sleep. Vigorous exercisers also reported fewer mental health problems if exposed to high stress. This study provides evidence that meeting the VPA standards of the ACSM is associated with improved mental health and more successful coping among young people, even compared to those who are meeting or exceeding the requirements for MPA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Diet-induced increases in chemerin are attenuated by exercise and mediate the effect of diet on insulin and HOMA-IR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Jesse W.; Zerfass, Kristy M.; Heckstall, Ebony M.; Evans, Kristin A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Chemerin concentrations are elevated in obesity and associated with inflammation and insulin resistance. Exercise improves insulin sensitivity, which may be facilitated by changes in chemerin. We explored the effects of chronic exercise on chemerin levels in diet-induced obese mice. Methods: We divided 40 mice into 4 groups: high-fat diet/exercise, high-fat diet/sedentary, normal diet/exercise, and normal diet/sedentary. A 9-week dietary intervention was followed by a 12-week exercise intervention (treadmill run: 11 m/min for 30 min, 3×/week). We analyzed blood samples before and after the exercise intervention. We used t-tests and linear regression to examine changes in chemerin, insulin resistance, and inflammatory markers, and associations between changes in chemerin and all other biomarkers. Results: Chemerin increased significantly across all mice over the 12-week intervention (mean ± SD = 40.7 ± 77.8%, p = 0.01), and this increase was smaller in the exercise versus sedentary mice (27.2 ± 83.9% versus 54.9 ± 70.5%, p = 0.29). The increase among the high-fat diet/exercise mice was ~44% lower than the increase among the high-fat diet/sedentary mice (55.7 ± 54.9% versus 99.8 ± 57.7%, p = 0.12). The high-fat diet mice showed significant increases in insulin (773.5 ± 1286.6%, p diet-induced increases in insulin and HOMA-IR. Conclusion: Chronic exercise may attenuate diet-driven increases in circulating chemerin, and the insulin resistance associated with a high-fat diet may be mediated by diet-induced increases in chemerin. PMID:26445641

  3. Clinical implications of increased lung uptake of 201Tl during exercise scintigraphy 2 weeks after myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, R.S.; Watson, D.D.; Carabello, B.A.; Holt, N.D.; Beller, G.A.

    1982-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and clinical significance of increased lung 201 Tl uptake during submaximal exercise myocardial scintigraphy performed 2 weeks after acute myocardial infarction, 61 patients underwent submaximal exercise testing (target heart rate, 120 beats/min), multigated blood pool imaging at rest and coronary angiography before hospital discharge. Thallium lung uptake on the initial anterior projection image was graded qualitatively by comparing the intensity of 201 Tl activity in the lungs with that in the mediastinum. In 39 patients (64 percent), it was normal (equal to mediastinal activity) and in 22 (36 percent), it was increased (greater than mediastinal activity). Compared with patients with normal lung uptake, those with increased uptake had a greater prevalence of prior infarction (13 versus 36 percent, probability [p] less than 0.05), less global cardiac reserve as assessed by the four level New York Heart Association classification (p less than 0.05), more advanced Killip class in the coronary care unit (p less than 0.05), a higher Norris coronary prognostic index (2.6 +/- 1.9 versus 4.6 +/- 2.3 [mean +/- standard deviation], p less than 0.01), failure to achieve the target heart rate because of dyspnea, fatigue or angina (36 versus 86 percent, p less than 0.01), a greater prevalence of exercise-induced S-T segment depression (18 versus 45 percent, p less than 0.05), a greater number of anterior 201 Tl myocardial defects (p less than 0.05); a lower radionuclide ejection fraction at rest (50.4 +/- 6.1 versus 39.6 +/- 9.3 percent, p less than 0.01) and a greater number of asynergic left ventricular segments (p less than 0.05). Thus, the occurrence of increased lung 201 Tl uptake during submaximal exercise scintigraphy in the early postinfarction period is frequent and appears to be a marker of severe and functionally more important coronary artery disease associated with left ventricular dysfunction

  4. Regular voluntary exercise cures stress-induced impairment of cognitive function and cell proliferation accompanied by increases in cerebral IGF-1 and GST activity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Sanae; Ohsawa, Ikuroh; Ohta, Shigeo; Ohno, Makoto; Mikami, Toshio

    2010-08-25

    Chronic stress impairs cognitive function and hippocampal neurogenesis. This impairment is attributed to increases in oxidative stress, which result in the accumulation of lipid peroxide. On the other hand, voluntary exercise enhances cognitive function, hippocampal neurogenesis, and antioxidant capacity in normal animals. However, the effects of voluntary exercise on cognitive function, neurogenesis, and antioxidants in stressed mice are unclear. This study was designed to investigate whether voluntary exercise cures stress-induced impairment of cognitive function accompanied by improvement of hippocampal neurogenesis and increases in antioxidant capacity. Stressed mice were exposed to chronic restraint stress (CRS), which consisted of 12h immobilization daily and feeding in a small cage, for 8 weeks. Exercised mice were allowed free access to a running wheel during their exposure to CRS. At the 6th week, cognitive function was examined using the Morris water maze (MWM) test. Daily voluntary exercise restored stress-induced impairment of cognitive function and the hippocampal cell proliferation of newborn cells but not cell survival. Voluntary exercise increased insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) protein and mRNA expression in the cerebral cortex and liver, respectively. In addition, CRS resulted in a significant increase in the number of 4-hydrosynonenal (4-HNE)-positive cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus; whereas, voluntary exercise inhibited it and enhanced glutathione s-transferases (GST) activity in the brain. These findings suggest that voluntary exercise attenuated the stress-induced impairment of cognitive function accompanied by improvement of cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus. This exercise-induced improvement was attributed to exercise-induced enhancement of IGF-1 protein and GST activity in the brain. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Diet-induced increases in chemerin are attenuated by exercise and mediate the effect of diet on insulin and HOMA-IR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Jesse W; Zerfass, Kristy M; Heckstall, Ebony M; Evans, Kristin A

    2015-10-01

    Chemerin concentrations are elevated in obesity and associated with inflammation and insulin resistance. Exercise improves insulin sensitivity, which may be facilitated by changes in chemerin. We explored the effects of chronic exercise on chemerin levels in diet-induced obese mice. We divided 40 mice into 4 groups: high-fat diet/exercise, high-fat diet/sedentary, normal diet/exercise, and normal diet/sedentary. A 9-week dietary intervention was followed by a 12-week exercise intervention (treadmill run: 11 m/min for 30 min, 3×/week). We analyzed blood samples before and after the exercise intervention. We used t-tests and linear regression to examine changes in chemerin, insulin resistance, and inflammatory markers, and associations between changes in chemerin and all other biomarkers. Chemerin increased significantly across all mice over the 12-week intervention (mean ± SD = 40.7 ± 77.8%, p = 0.01), and this increase was smaller in the exercise versus sedentary mice (27.2 ± 83.9% versus 54.9 ± 70.5%, p = 0.29). The increase among the high-fat diet/exercise mice was ~44% lower than the increase among the high-fat diet/sedentary mice (55.7 ± 54.9% versus 99.8 ± 57.7%, p = 0.12). The high-fat diet mice showed significant increases in insulin (773.5 ± 1286.6%, p HOMA-IR; 846.5 ± 1723.3%, p HOMA-IR. Chronic exercise may attenuate diet-driven increases in circulating chemerin, and the insulin resistance associated with a high-fat diet may be mediated by diet-induced increases in chemerin.

  6. Physical exercise in aging human skeletal muscle increases mitochondrial calcium uniporter expression levels and affects mitochondria dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampieri, Sandra; Mammucari, Cristina; Romanello, Vanina; Barberi, Laura; Pietrangelo, Laura; Fusella, Aurora; Mosole, Simone; Gherardi, Gaia; Höfer, Christian; Löfler, Stefan; Sarabon, Nejc; Cvecka, Jan; Krenn, Matthias; Carraro, Ugo; Kern, Helmut; Protasi, Feliciano; Musarò, Antonio; Sandri, Marco; Rizzuto, Rosario

    2016-12-01

    Age-related sarcopenia is characterized by a progressive loss of muscle mass with decline in specific force, having dramatic consequences on mobility and quality of life in seniors. The etiology of sarcopenia is multifactorial and underlying mechanisms are currently not fully elucidated. Physical exercise is known to have beneficial effects on muscle trophism and force production. Alterations of mitochondrial Ca 2+ homeostasis regulated by mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) have been recently shown to affect muscle trophism in vivo in mice. To understand the relevance of MCU-dependent mitochondrial Ca 2+ uptake in aging and to investigate the effect of physical exercise on MCU expression and mitochondria dynamics, we analyzed skeletal muscle biopsies from 70-year-old subjects 9 weeks trained with either neuromuscular electrical stimulation (ES) or leg press. Here, we demonstrate that improved muscle function and structure induced by both trainings are linked to increased protein levels of MCU Ultrastructural analyses by electron microscopy showed remodeling of mitochondrial apparatus in ES-trained muscles that is consistent with an adaptation to physical exercise, a response likely mediated by an increased expression of mitochondrial fusion protein OPA1. Altogether these results indicate that the ES-dependent physiological effects on skeletal muscle size and force are associated with changes in mitochondrial-related proteins involved in Ca 2+ homeostasis and mitochondrial shape. These original findings in aging human skeletal muscle confirm the data obtained in mice and propose MCU and mitochondria-related proteins as potential pharmacological targets to counteract age-related muscle loss. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  7. Baker's yeast beta glucan supplementation increases salivary IgA and decreases cold/flu symptomatic days after intense exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlin, Brian K; Carpenter, Katie C; Davidson, Tiffany; McFarlin, Meredith A

    2013-09-01

    Strenuous exercise, such as running a marathon, is known to suppress mucosal immunity for up to 24 hr, which can increase the risk of developing an upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) and reduced performance capacity (Allgrove JE, Geneen L, Latif S, Gleeson M. Influence of a fed or fasted state on the s-IgA response to prolonged cycling in active men and women. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2009;19(3):209-221; Barrett B, Locken K, Maberry R, Schwamman J, Brown R, Bobula J, Stauffacher EA. The Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey (WURSS): a new research instrument for assessing the common cold. J Fam Pract. 2002;51(3):265; Carpenter KC, Breslin WL, Davidson T, Adams A, McFarlin BK. Baker's yeast beta glucan supplementation increases monocytes and cytokines post-exercise: implications for infection risk? Br J Nutr. 2012;1-9). While many dietary interventions have been used to combat postexercise immune suppression, most have been ineffective. The key purpose of this study was to determine if baker's yeast β-glucan (BG) could positively affect the immune system of individuals undergoing intense exercise stress using two experiments. In the first (E1; N = 182 men and women), BG was compared to placebo supplementation for the incidence of URTI symptoms for 28 days postmarathon. In the second (E2; N = 60 men and women) changes in salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA) were evaluated after 50-min of strenuous cycling when participants had been supplemented for 10 days with either BG (250 mg/day) or placebo (rice flour). For E1, subjects reported URTI symptoms using a daily health log. For E2, saliva was collected prior to, immediately, and 2-hr postexercise using a salivette. Data for E1 and E2 were analyzed using separate analyses of variance (ANOVAs) with repeated measures (p flu symptom days postmarathon compared to placebo (p = .026). In E2, BG was associated with a 32% increase in salivary IgA (p = .048) at 2 hr after exercise compared to placebo. In summary

  8. Supervised Exercise Therapy for Intermittent Claudication Is Increasingly Endorsed by Dutch Vascular Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hageman, David; Lauret, Gert-Jan; Gommans, Lindy N M; Koelemay, Mark J W; van Sambeek, Marc R H M; Scheltinga, Marc R M; Teijink, Joep A W

    2018-02-01

    Although supervised exercise therapy (SET) is generally accepted as an effective noninvasive treatment for intermittent claudication (IC), Dutch vascular surgeons were initially somewhat hesitant as reported by a 2011 questionnaire study. Later on, a nationwide multidisciplinary network for SET was introduced in the Netherlands. The aim of this questionnaire study was to determine possible trends in conceptions among Dutch vascular surgeons regarding the prescription of SET. In the year of 2015, Dutch vascular surgeons, fellows, and senior residents were asked to complete a 26-item questionnaire including issues that were considered relevant for prescribing SET such as patient selection criteria and comorbidity. Outcome was compared to the 2011 survey. Data of 124 respondents (82% males; mean age 46 years; 64% response rate) were analyzed. SET referral rate of new IC patients was not different over time (2015: 81% vs. 2011: 75%; P = 0.295). However, respondents were more willing to prescribe SET in IC patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (2015: 86% vs. 2011: 69%; P = 0.002). Nevertheless, a smaller portion of respondents found that SET was also indicated for aortoiliac disease (2015: 63% vs. 2011: 76%; P = 0.049). Insufficient health insurance coverage and/or personal financial resources were the most important presumed barriers preventing patients from initiating SET (80% of respondents). Moreover, 94% of respondents judged that SET should be fully reimbursed by all Dutch basic health insurances. The concept of SET for IC is nowadays generally embraced by the vast majority of Dutch vascular surgeons. SET may have gained in popularity in IC patients with cardiopulmonary comorbidity. However, SET remains underutilized for aortoiliac disease. Reimbursement is considered crucial for a successful SET implementation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Balanced Physical Exercise Increase Physical Fitness, Optimize Endorphin Levels, and Decrease Malondialdehyde Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Adams Pangkahila

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical fitness determines the level of human health. A good physical fitness can be achieved if conducted with a balance and active physical fitness. The aims of this study was to elucidate the effect of balanced physical exercise on physical fitness, endorphin levels, and malondialdehyde (MDA levels. Methods: This study was a true experimental with pretest-posttest control group design using 24 students of IKIP PGRI Denpasar. Selected samples divided into two groups: the control group given conventional physical training (P0 and the treatment group given balanced physical training (P1. Physical fitness tests was performed using Cooper method and blood sampling was done to evaluate the level of endorphins and MDA before (pre test and after (post test treatment of 8 weeks. The data of endorphin and MDA levels were analyzed using independent T test. Whereas, the physical fitness was analyzed using Mann-Whitney U test. Results: Physical fitness of the group given a balanced physical training was significantly higher compare to the group given a conventional physical training (p < 0.05. Balanced physical training was proven to enhance physical fitness as measured by the Cooper method better than conventional physical training. In contrast, the levels of endorphins of the balanced physical training group did not different with the conventional physical training group (p > 0.05. Levels of MDA of balanced physical training group also did not different with the conventional physical training group (p > 0.05. Conclusions: balanced physical training can maintain physical fitness of people and improve the health and quality of life. 

  10. Restoration of Muscle Mitochondrial Function and Metabolic Flexibility in Type 2 Diabetes by Exercise Training Is Paralleled by Increased Myocellular Fat Storage and Improved Insulin Sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meex, R.C.R.; Schrauwen-Hinderling, V.B.; Moonen-Kornips, E.; Schaart, G.; Mensink, M.R.; Phielix, E.; Weijer, van de T.; Sels, J.P.; Schrauwen, P.; Hesselink, M.K.C.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE-Mitochondrial dysfunction and fat accumulation in skeletal muscle (increased intramyocellular lipid [IMCL]) have been linked to development of type 2 diabetes. We examined whether exercise training could restore mitochondrial function and insulin sensitivity in patients with type 2

  11. Effects of long-term moderate exercise and increase in number of daily steps on serum lipids in women: randomised controlled trial [ISRCTN21921919

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirbod Seyed

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was designed to evaluate the effects of a 24-month period of moderate exercise on serum lipids in menopausal women. Methods The subjects (40–60 y were randomly divided into an exercise group (n = 14 and a control group (n = 13. The women in the exercise group were asked to participate in a 90-minute physical education class once a week and to record their daily steps as measured by a pedometer for 24 months. Results Mean of daily steps was significantly higher in the exercise group from about 6,800 to over 8,500 steps (P P Conclusions These results suggest that daily exercise as well as increasing the number of daily steps can improve the profile of serum lipids.

  12. Pancreatic beta cell function increases in a linear dose-response manner following exercise training in adults with prediabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malin, Steven K; Solomon, Thomas; Blaszczak, Alecia

    2013-01-01

    While some studies suggest that a linear dose-response relationship exists between exercise and insulin sensitivity, the exercise dose required to enhance pancreatic beta-cell function is unknown. Thirty-five older, obese adults with prediabetes underwent a progressive 12-week supervised exercise...

  13. High-intensity exercise training increases the diversity and metabolic capacity of the mouse distal gut microbiota during diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denou, Emmanuel; Marcinko, Katarina; Surette, Michael G; Steinberg, Gregory R; Schertzer, Jonathan D

    2016-06-01

    Diet and exercise underpin the risk of obesity-related metabolic disease. Diet alters the gut microbiota, which contributes to aspects of metabolic disease during obesity. Repeated exercise provides metabolic benefits during obesity. We assessed whether exercise could oppose changes in the taxonomic and predicted metagenomic characteristics of the gut microbiota during diet-induced obesity. We hypothesized that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) would counteract high-fat diet (HFD)-induced changes in the microbiota without altering obesity in mice. Compared with chow-fed mice, an obesity-causing HFD decreased the Bacteroidetes-to-Firmicutes ratio and decreased the genetic capacity in the fecal microbiota for metabolic pathways such as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. After HFD-induced obesity was established, a subset of mice were HIIT for 6 wk, which increased host aerobic capacity but did not alter body or adipose tissue mass. The effects of exercise training on the microbiota were gut segment dependent and more extensive in the distal gut. HIIT increased the alpha diversity and Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio of the distal gut and fecal microbiota during diet-induced obesity. Exercise training increased the predicted genetic capacity related to the TCA cycle among other aspects of metabolism. Strikingly, the same microbial metabolism indexes that were increased by exercise were all decreased in HFD-fed vs. chow diet-fed mice. Therefore, exercise training directly opposed some of the obesity-related changes in gut microbiota, including lower metagenomic indexes of metabolism. Some host and microbial pathways appeared similarly affected by exercise. These exercise- and diet-induced microbiota interactions can be captured in feces. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Exercise restriction is not associated with increasing body mass index over time in patients with anomalous aortic origin of the coronary arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza, James M; Elias, Matthew D; Wilder, Travis J; O'Brien, James E; Kim, Richard W; Mavroudis, Constantine; Williams, William G; Brothers, Julie; Cohen, Meryl S; McCrindle, Brian W

    2017-10-01

    Anomalous aortic origin of the coronary arteries is associated with exercise-induced ischaemia, leading some physicians to restrict exercise in patients with this condition. We sought to determine whether exercise restriction was associated with increasing body mass index over time. From 1998 to 2015, 440 patients ⩽30 years old were enrolled into an inception cohort. Exercise-restriction status was documented in 143 patients. Using linear mixed model repeated-measures regression, factors associated with increasing body mass index z-score over time, including exercise restriction and surgical intervention as time-varying covariates, were investigated. The 143 patients attended 558 clinic visits for which exercise-restriction status was recorded. The mean number of clinic visits per patient was 4, and the median duration of follow-up was 1.7 years (interquartile range (IQR) 0.5-4.4). The median age at first clinic visit was 10.3 years (IQR 7.1-13.9), and 71% (101/143) were males. All patients were alive at their most recent follow-up. At the first clinic visit, 54% (78/143) were exercise restricted, and restriction status changed in 34% (48/143) during follow-up. The median baseline body mass index z-score was 0.2 (IQR 0.3-0.9). In repeated-measures analysis, neither time-related exercise restriction nor its interaction with time was associated with increasing body mass index z-score. Surgical intervention and its interaction with time were associated with decreasing body mass index z-score. Although exercise restriction was not associated with increasing body mass index over time, surgical intervention was associated with decreasing body mass index z-score over time in patients with anomalous aortic origin of the coronary arteries.

  15. Exercise training effects on hypoxic and hypercapnic ventilatory responses in mice selected for increased voluntary wheel running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Scott A; Rezende, Enrico L; Chappell, Mark A; Gomes, Fernando R; Kolb, Erik M; Malisch, Jessica L; Rhodes, Justin S; Mitchell, Gordon S; Garland, Theodore

    2014-02-01

    What is the central question of this study? We used experimental evolution to determine how selective breeding for high voluntary wheel running and exercise training (7-11 weeks) affect ventilatory chemoreflexes of laboratory mice at rest. What is the main finding and its importance? Selective breeding, although significantly affecting some traits, did not systematically alter ventilation across gas concentrations. As with most human studies, our findings support the idea that endurance training attenuates resting ventilation. However, little evidence was found for a correlation between ventilatory chemoreflexes and the amount of individual voluntary wheel running. We conclude that exercise 'training' alters respiratory behaviours, but these changes may not be necessary to achieve high levels of wheel running. Ventilatory control is affected by genetics, the environment and gene-environment and gene-gene interactions. Here, we used an experimental evolution approach to test whether 37 generations of selective breeding for high voluntary wheel running (genetic effects) and/or long-term (7-11 weeks) wheel access (training effects) alter acute respiratory behaviour of mice resting in normoxic, hypoxic and hypercapnic conditions. As the four replicate high-runner (HR) lines run much more than the four non-selected control (C) lines, we also examined whether the amount of exercise among individual mice was a quantitative predictor of ventilatory chemoreflexes at rest. Selective breeding and/or wheel access significantly affected several traits. In normoxia, HR mice tended to have lower mass-adjusted rates of oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production. Chronic wheel access increased oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production in both HR and C mice during hypercapnia. Breathing frequency and minute ventilation were significantly reduced by chronic wheel access in both HR and C mice during hypoxia. Selection history, while significantly affecting some traits

  16. Growth hormone transgenic tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) compensate for increased metabolic rate to preserve exercise performance and hypoxia tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKenzie, D.J.; Martínez, R.; Morales, A.

    2001-01-01

    Transgenic tilapia hybrids (Oreochromis mossambicus × O. hornorum) carrying a single copy of a homologous cDNA growth hormone exhibit higher growth rates than their wild-type conspecifics (Martinez et al. 1999). Swimming respirometry was employed to determine whether the increased growth rate...... higher in transgenics, such that aerobic scope was similar in both groups, and there was no difference in maximum sustainable U (5.2 ± 0.5 vs. 4.5 ± 0.7 bl s-1 in transgenics vs. wild-types, respectively). Following 2 h recovery from exercise, tilapia were exposed to progressive hypoxia (stepwise......Pa, respectively). The results indicate that stimulation of growth consequent to ectopic expression of growth hormone in transgenic tilapia (Martinez et al. 1999) is linked to increased rates of maintenance metabolism. The swimming and hypoxia experiments indicate, however, that the transgenics were able...

  17. Glycopyrrolate abolishes the exercise-induced increase in cerebral perfusion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seifert, Thomas; Fisher, James P; Young, Colin N

    2010-01-01

    (mean) during ergometer cycling (n = 8). Separate, randomized and counterbalanced trials were performed in control (no drug) conditions and following muscarinic cholinergic receptor blockade by glycopyrrolate. Glycopyrrolate increased resting heart rate from approximately 60 to approximately 110 beats min(-1...

  18. Aerobic Exercise Training Increases Muscle Water Content in Obese Middle-Age Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mora-Rodríguez, Ricardo; Sanchez-Roncero, Alicia; Fernández-Elías, Valentin Emilio

    2016-01-01

    . Body composition was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and cardiometabolic fitness was measured during an incremental cycling test. RESULTS: Body weight and fat mass were reduced -1.9% and -5.4%, respectively (P mass increased with training (1.8%, P = 0.......011), whereas muscle protein concentration decreased 11% (145 ± 15 to 129 ± 13 g·kg⁻¹ ww, P = 0.007). Citrate synthase activity (proxy for mitochondrial density) increased by 31% (17 ± 5 to 22 ± 5 mmol·min⁻¹·kg⁻¹ ww, P = 0.024). Muscle glycogen concentration increased by 14% (22 ± 7 to 25 ± 7 g·kg⁻¹ ww......) although without reaching statistical significance when expressed as per kilogram of wet weight (P = 0.15). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that aerobic cycling training increases quadriceps muscle water although reduces muscle protein concentration in obese metabolic syndrome men. Reduced protein...

  19. Increased body mass index in ankylosing spondylitis is associated with greater burden of symptoms and poor perceptions of the benefits of exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durcan, Laura; Wilson, Fiona; Conway, Richard; Cunnane, Gaye; O'Shea, Finbar D

    2012-12-01

    Increased body mass index (BMI) in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is associated with a greater burden of symptoms and poor perceptions of the benefits of exercise. In AS, the effect of obesity on disease characteristics and exercise perceptions is unknown. We evaluated the prevalence of obesity in AS, to assess the attitudes of patients toward exercise and to evaluate the effect of obesity on symptoms and disease activity. Demographic data and disease characteristics were collected from 46 patients with AS. Disease activity, symptomatology, and functional disability were examined using standard AS questionnaires. BMI was calculated. Comorbidity was analyzed using the Charlson Comorbidity Index. Patients' attitudes toward exercise were assessed using the Exercise Benefits and Barriers Scale (EBBS). We compared the disease characteristics, perceptions regarding exercise, and functional limitations in those who were overweight to those who had a normal BMI. The mean BMI in the group was 27.4; 67.5% of subjects were overweight or obese. There was a statistically significant difference between those who were overweight and those with a normal BMI regarding their perceptions of exercise (EBBS 124.7 vs 136.6, respectively), functional limitation (Bath AS Functional Index 4.7 vs 2.5, Health Assessment Questionnaire 0.88 vs 0.26), and disease activity (Bath AS Disease Activity Index 4.8 vs 2.9). There was no difference between the groups in terms of their comorbid conditions or other demographic variables. The majority of patients in this AS cohort were overweight. They had a greater burden of symptoms, worse perceptions regarding the benefits of exercise, and enhanced awareness of their barriers to exercising. This is of particular concern in a disease where exercise plays a crucial role.

  20. Oral Consumption of Vitamin K2 for 8 Weeks Associated With Increased Maximal Cardiac Output During Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlin, Brian K; Henning, Andrea L; Venable, Adam S

    2017-07-01

    Background • Vitamin K1 and K2 are not typically common in a Western diet because they are found in a variety of fermented foods. Vitamin K2 in particular has been demonstrated to restore mitochondrial function and has a key role in production of mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate. Thus, it is reasonable to speculate that dietary supplementation with vitamin K2 could increase the function of muscle with high mitochondrial content (ie, skeletal and cardiac muscle). Objective • The purpose of this study was to determine if 8 wk of dietary supplementation with Vitamin K2 could alter cardiovascular responses to a graded cycle ergometer test. Design • The study was a randomized controlled trial. Setting • The study took place in the Applied Physiology Laboratory of the Department of Biological Sciences at the University of North Texas (Denton, TX, USA). Participants • Participants were aerobically trained males and female athletes (N = 26). Intervention • Participants were randomly assigned either to a control group that received a rice flour placebo or to an intervention group that received vitamin K2. For weeks 1 to 4, participants received 300 mg/d; for weeks 5 to 8, they received 150 mg/d. Subjects assigned to the control group received similar doses to mirror the intervention group. Subjects consumed the supplements during an 8-wk period while they maintained their typical exercise habits. Outcome Measures • At baseline and postintervention, participants completed a standard, graded exercise test on an electronically braked cycle ergometer. Before the test, participants were fitted with a mouth piece, and their oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, respiratory rate, and respiratory exchange ratio were measured. In addition, participants were fitted with skin-mounted electrodes that measured noninvasive cardiac output, stroke volume, and heart rate. To assess the cumulative exercise change, an area-under-the-curve (AUC) value was calculated

  1. Does Increased Exercise or Physical Activity Alter Ad-Libitum Daily Energy Intake or Macronutrient Composition in Healthy Adults? A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Joseph E.; Herrmann, Stephen D.; Lambourne, Kate; Szabo, Amanda N.; Honas, Jeffery J.; Washburn, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The magnitude of the negative energy balance induced by exercise may be reduced due to compensatory increases in energy intake. Objective To address the question: Does increased exercise or physical activity alter ad-libitum daily energy intake or macronutrient composition in healthy adults? Data Sources PubMed and Embase were searched (January 1990–January 2013) for studies that presented data on energy and/or macronutrient intake by level of exercise, physical activity or change in response to exercise. Ninety-nine articles (103 studies) were included. Study Eligibility Criteria Primary source articles published in English in peer-reviewed journals. Articles that presented data on energy and/or macronutrient intake by level of exercise or physical activity or changes in energy or macronutrient intake in response to acute exercise or exercise training in healthy (non-athlete) adults (mean age 18–64 years). Study Appraisal and Synthesis Methods Articles were grouped by study design: cross-sectional, acute/short term, non-randomized, and randomized trials. Considerable heterogeneity existed within study groups for several important study parameters, therefore a meta-analysis was considered inappropriate. Results were synthesized and presented by study design. Results No effect of physical activity, exercise or exercise training on energy intake was shown in 59% of cross-sectional studies (n = 17), 69% of acute (n = 40), 50% of short-term (n = 10), 92% of non-randomized (n = 12) and 75% of randomized trials (n = 24). Ninety-four percent of acute, 57% of short-term, 100% of non-randomized and 74% of randomized trials found no effect of exercise on macronutrient intake. Forty-six percent of cross-sectional trials found lower fat intake with increased physical activity. Limitations The literature is limited by the lack of adequately powered trials of sufficient duration, which have prescribed and measured exercise energy expenditure

  2. Does recombinant human Epo increase exercise capacity by means other than augmenting oxygen transport?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, C; Robach, P; Boushel, R

    2008-01-01

    This study was performed to test the hypothesis that administration of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo) in humans increases maximal oxygen consumption by augmenting the maximal oxygen carrying capacity of blood. Systemic and leg oxygen delivery and oxygen uptake were studied during...... before rHuEpo treatment). Blood buffer capacity remained unaffected by rHuEpo treatment and hemodilution. The augmented hematocrit did not compromise peak cardiac output. In summary, in healthy humans, rHuEpo increases maximal oxygen consumption due to augmented systemic and muscular peak oxygen delivery....

  3. Exercise Increases Insulin Sensitivity and Skeletal Muscle AMPK Expression in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana B. Benatti

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE patients may show increased insulin resistance (IR when compared with their healthy peers. Exercise training has been shown to improve insulin sensitivity in other insulin-resistant populations, but it has never been tested in SLE. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the efficacy of a moderate-intensity exercise training program on insulin sensitivity and potential underlying mechanisms in SLE patients with mild/inactive disease. A 12-week, randomized controlled trial was conducted. Nineteen SLE patients were randomly assigned into two groups: trained (SLE-TR, n = 9 and non-trained (SLE-NT, n = 10. Before and after 12 weeks of the exercise training program, patients underwent a meal test (MT, from which surrogates of insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function were determined. Muscle biopsies were performed after the MT for the assessment of total and membrane GLUT4 and proteins related to insulin signaling [Akt and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK]. SLE-TR showed, when compared with SLE-NT, significant decreases in fasting insulin [−39 vs. +14%, p = 0.009, effect size (ES = −1.0] and in the insulin response to MT (−23 vs. +21%, p = 0.007, ES = −1.1, homeostasis model assessment IR (−30 vs. +15%, p = 0.005, ES = −1.1, a tendency toward decreased proinsulin response to MT (−19 vs. +6%, p = 0.07, ES = −0.9 and increased glucagon response to MT (+3 vs. −3%, p = 0.09, ES = 0.6, and significant increases in the Matsuda index (+66 vs. −31%, p = 0.004, ES = 0.9 and fasting glucagon (+4 vs. −8%, p = 0.03, ES = 0.7. No significant differences between SLT-TR and SLT-NT were observed in fasting glucose, glucose response to MT, and insulinogenic index (all p > 0.05. SLE-TR showed a significant increase in AMPK Thr 172 phosphorylation when compared to SLE-NT (+73 vs. −12%, p = 0.014, ES = 1.3, whereas no

  4. Endurance Exercise Mobilizes Developmentally Early Stem Cells into Peripheral Blood and Increases Their Number in Bone Marrow: Implications for Tissue Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Marycz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Endurance exercise has been reported to increase the number of circulating hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs in peripheral blood (PB as well as in bone marrow (BM. We therefore became interested in whether endurance exercise has the same effect on very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs, which have been described as a population of developmentally early stem cells residing in BM. Mice were run daily for 1 hour on a treadmill for periods of 5 days or 5 weeks. Human volunteers had trained in long-distance running for one year, six times per week. FACS-based analyses and RT-PCR of murine and human VSELs and HSPCs from collected bone marrow and peripheral blood were performed. We observed that endurance exercise increased the number of VSELs circulating in PB and residing in BM. In parallel, we observed an increase in the number of HSPCs. These observations were subsequently confirmed in young athletes, who showed an increase in circulating VSELs and HSPCs after intensive running exercise. We provide for the first time evidence that endurance exercise may have beneficial effects on the expansion of developmentally early stem cells. We hypothesize that these circulating stem cells are involved in repairing minor exercise-related tissue and organ injuries.

  5. Combined whole-body vibration, resistance exercise, and sustained vascular occlusion increases PGC-1α and VEGF mRNA abundances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Item, Flurin; Nocito, Antonio; Thöny, Sandra; Bächler, Thomas; Boutellier, Urs; Wenger, Roland H; Toigo, Marco

    2013-04-01

    We previously reported that high load resistance exercise with superimposed whole-body vibration and sustained vascular occlusion (vibroX) markedly improves cycling endurance capacity, increases capillary-to-fibre ratio and skeletal muscle oxidative enzyme activity in untrained young women. These findings are intriguing, since increases in oxidative muscle phenotype and endurance capacity are typically induced by endurance but not heavy resistance exercise. Here, we tested the hypothesis that vibroX activates genes associated with mitochondrial biogenesis and angiogenesis. Eight healthy, recreationally resistance-trained young men performed either vibroX or resistance exercise (RES) in a randomised, cross-over design. Needle biopsies (M. vastus lateralis) were obtained at rest and 3 h post-exercise. Changes in relative gene expression levels were assessed by real-time quantitative PCR. After vibroX, vascular endothelial growth factor and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α mRNA abundances increased to 2- and 4.4-fold, respectively, but did not significantly change above resting values after RES. Other genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis were not affected by either exercise modality. While vibroX increased the expression of hexokinase II, xanthine dehydrogenase, and manganese superoxide dismutase mRNA, there were no changes in these transcripts after RES. This study demonstrates that high load resistance exercise with superimposed whole-body vibration and sustained vascular occlusion activates metabolic and angiogenic gene programs, which are usually activated after endurance but not resistance exercise. Thus, targeted modification of high load resistance exercise by vibration and vascular occlusion might represent a novel strategy to induce endurance-type muscle adaptations.

  6. Exercise training prevents increased intraocular pressure and sympathetic vascular modulation in an experimental model of metabolic syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, E.F.S.; Mostarda, C.T.; Rodrigues, B.; Moraes-Silva, I.C.; Feriani, D.J.; De Angelis, K.; Irigoyen, M.C.

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to study the effects of exercise training (ET) performed by rats on a 10-week high-fructose diet on metabolic, hemodynamic, and autonomic changes, as well as intraocular pressure (IOP). Male Wistar rats receiving fructose overload in drinking water (100 g/L) were concomitantly trained on a treadmill for 10 weeks (FT group) or kept sedentary (F group), and a control group (C) was kept in normal laboratory conditions. The metabolic evaluation comprised the Lee index, glycemia, and insulin tolerance test (KITT). Arterial pressure (AP) was measured directly, and systolic AP variability was performed to determine peripheral autonomic modulation. ET attenuated impaired metabolic parameters, AP, IOP, and ocular perfusion pressure (OPP) induced by fructose overload (FT vs F). The increase in peripheral sympathetic modulation in F rats, demonstrated by systolic AP variance and low frequency (LF) band (F: 37±2, 6.6±0.3 vs C: 26±3, 3.6±0.5 mmHg 2 ), was prevented by ET (FT: 29±3, 3.4±0.7 mmHg 2 ). Positive correlations were found between the LF band and right IOP (r=0.57, P=0.01) and left IOP (r=0.64, P=0.003). Negative correlations were noted between KITT values and right IOP (r=-0.55, P=0.01) and left IOP (r=-0.62, P=0.005). ET in rats effectively prevented metabolic abnormalities and AP and IOP increases promoted by a high-fructose diet. In addition, ocular benefits triggered by exercise training were associated with peripheral autonomic improvement

  7. Exercise training prevents increased intraocular pressure and sympathetic vascular modulation in an experimental model of metabolic syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, E.F.S. [Unidade de Hipertensão, Instituto do Coração, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Mostarda, C.T. [Universidade Federal do Maranhão, São Luís, MA (Brazil); Rodrigues, B. [Laboratório do Movimento Humano, Universidade São Judas Tadeu, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Moraes-Silva, I.C. [Unidade de Hipertensão, Instituto do Coração, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Feriani, D.J. [Laboratório do Movimento Humano, Universidade São Judas Tadeu, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); De Angelis, K. [Laboratório de Fisiologia Translacional, Universidade Nove de Julho, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Irigoyen, M.C. [Unidade de Hipertensão, Instituto do Coração, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-02-13

    The present study aimed to study the effects of exercise training (ET) performed by rats on a 10-week high-fructose diet on metabolic, hemodynamic, and autonomic changes, as well as intraocular pressure (IOP). Male Wistar rats receiving fructose overload in drinking water (100 g/L) were concomitantly trained on a treadmill for 10 weeks (FT group) or kept sedentary (F group), and a control group (C) was kept in normal laboratory conditions. The metabolic evaluation comprised the Lee index, glycemia, and insulin tolerance test (KITT). Arterial pressure (AP) was measured directly, and systolic AP variability was performed to determine peripheral autonomic modulation. ET attenuated impaired metabolic parameters, AP, IOP, and ocular perfusion pressure (OPP) induced by fructose overload (FT vs F). The increase in peripheral sympathetic modulation in F rats, demonstrated by systolic AP variance and low frequency (LF) band (F: 37±2, 6.6±0.3 vs C: 26±3, 3.6±0.5 mmHg{sup 2}), was prevented by ET (FT: 29±3, 3.4±0.7 mmHg{sup 2}). Positive correlations were found between the LF band and right IOP (r=0.57, P=0.01) and left IOP (r=0.64, P=0.003). Negative correlations were noted between KITT values and right IOP (r=-0.55, P=0.01) and left IOP (r=-0.62, P=0.005). ET in rats effectively prevented metabolic abnormalities and AP and IOP increases promoted by a high-fructose diet. In addition, ocular benefits triggered by exercise training were associated with peripheral autonomic improvement.

  8. Delayed and transient increase of adult hippocampal neurogenesis by physical exercise in DBA/2 mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupert W Overall

    Full Text Available This study builds on the findings that physical activity, such as wheel running in mice, enhances cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus of the common mouse strain C57BL/6, and that the baseline level of neurogenesis varies by strain, being considerably lower in DBA/2. Because C57BL/6 and DBA/2 are important as the parental strains of the BXD recombinant inbred cross which allows the detection of genetic loci regulating phenotypes such as adult neurogenesis, we performed the current study to investigate the gene x environment interactions regulating neurogenesis. At equal distances and times run DBA/2J mice lacked the acute increase in precursor cell proliferation known from C57BL/6. In DBA/2J proliferation even negatively correlated with the distance run. This was neither due to a stress response (to running itself or single housing nor differences in estrous cycle. DBA/2 animals exhibited a delayed and weaker pro-neurogenic response with a significant increase in numbers of proliferating cells first detectable after more than a week of wheel running. The proliferative response to running was transient in both strains, the effect being undetectable by 6 weeks. There was also a small transient increase in the production of new neurons in DBA/2J, although these extra cells did not survive. These findings indicate that the comparison between C57BL/6 and DBA/2, and by extension the BXD genetic reference population derived from these strains, should provide a powerful tool for uncovering the complex network of modifier genes affecting the activity-dependent regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. More generally, our findings also describe how the external physical environment interacts with the internal genetic environment to produce different responses to the same behavioral stimuli.

  9. INCREASED LIFE EXPECTANCY OF WORKING WOMEN THROUGH PARTICIPATION IN REGULAR PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES/ YOGIC EXERCISE

    OpenAIRE

    Jahanavee Ichchhaporia

    2017-01-01

    In today’s fast and globalized life style Women hold a key position in the shaping of the next generation, plays such an important part in the life of the family. Their value is beyond measure. The changing life style demands more financial steadiness, that’s why the percentage of women in the active work population has increased rapidly in many countries around the world, including ours. As a consequence, we have seen the proliferation of dual-income families where role expectations toward m...

  10. Eccentric rehabilitation exercise increases peritendinous type I collagen synthesis in humans with Achilles tendinosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langberg, H; Ellingsgaard, H; Madsen, T; Jansson, J; Magnusson, S P; Aagaard, P; Kjaer, M

    2007-02-01

    It has been shown that 12 weeks of eccentric heavy resistance training can reduce pain in runners suffering from chronic Achilles tendinosis, but the mechanism behind the effectiveness of this treatment is unknown. The present study investigates the local effect of an eccentric training regime on elite soccer players suffering from chronic Achilles tendinosis on the turnover of the peritendinous connective tissue. Twelve elite male soccer players, of whom six suffered from unilateral tendinosis and six were healthy controls, participated in this study. All participants performed 12 weeks of heavy-resistance eccentric training apart from their regular training and soccer activity. Before and after the training period the tissue concentration of indicators of collagen turnover was measured by the use of the microdialysis technique. After training, collagen synthesis was increased in the initially injured tendon (n=6; carboxyterminal propeptide of type I collagen (PICP): pre 3.9+/-2.5 microg/L to post 19.7+/-5.4 microg/L, Ptendons in response to training (n=6; PICP: pre 8.3+/-5.2 microg/L to post 11.5+/-5.0 microg/L, P>0.05). Collagen degradation, measured as carboxyterminal telopeptide region of type I collagen (ICTP), was not affected by training neither in the injured nor in the healthy tendons. The clinical effect of the 12 weeks of eccentric training was determined by using a standardized loading procedure of the Achilles tendons showing a decrease in pain in all the chronic injured tendons (VAS before 44+/-9, after 13+/-9; Peccentric training regime. The present study demonstrates that chronically injured Achilles tendons respond to 12 weeks of eccentric training by increasing collagen synthesis rate. In contrast, the collagen metabolism in healthy control tendons seems not to be affected by eccentric training. These findings could indicate a relation between collagen metabolism and recovery from injury in human tendons.

  11. Physiological exercise loading suppresses post-traumatic osteoarthritis progression via an increase in bone morphogenetic proteins expression in an experimental rat knee model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, H; Ito, A; Nagai, M; Tajino, J; Yamaguchi, S; Kiyan, W; Nakahata, A; Zhang, J; Wang, T; Aoyama, T; Nishitani, K; Kuroki, H

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the dose-response relationship of exercise loading in the cartilage-subchondral bone (SB) unit in surgically-induced post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) of the knee. Destabilized medial meniscus (DMM) surgery was performed on the right knee of 12-week-old male Wistar rats, and sham surgery was performed on the contralateral knee. Four weeks after the surgery, the animals were subjected to moderate (12 m/min) or intense (21 m/min) treadmill exercises for 30 min/day, 5 days/week for 4 weeks. PTOA development in articular cartilage and SB was examined using histological and immunohistochemical analyses, micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) analysis, and biomechanical testing at 8 weeks after surgery. Gremlin-1 was injected to determine the role of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling on PTOA development following moderate exercise. Moderate exercise increased BMP-2, BMP-4, BMP-6, BMP receptor 2, pSmad-5, and inhibitor of DNA binding protein-1 expression in the superficial zone chondrocytes and suppressed cartilage degeneration, osteophyte growth, SB damage, and osteoclast-mediated SB resorption. However, intense exercise had little effect on BMP expression and even caused progression of these osteoarthritis (OA) changes. Gremlin-1 injection following moderate exercise caused progression of the PTOA development down to the level of the non-exercise DMM-operated knee. Exercise regulated cartilage-SB PTOA development in DMM-operated knees in a dose-dependent manner. Our findings shed light on the important role of BMP expression in superficial zone chondrocytes in attenuation of PTOA development following physiological exercise loading. Further studies to support a mechanism by which BMPs would be beneficial in preventing PTOA progression are warranted. Copyright © 2016 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Eccentric rehabilitation exercise increases peritendinous type I collagen synthesis in humans with Achilles tendinosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langberg, Henning; Ellingsgaard, Helga; Madsen, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    It has been shown that 12 weeks of eccentric heavy resistance training can reduce pain in runners suffering from chronic Achilles tendinosis, but the mechanism behind the effectiveness of this treatment is unknown. The present study investigates the local effect of an eccentric training regime on...... in the healthy tendons. The clinical effect of the 12 weeks of eccentric training was determined by using a standardized loading procedure of the Achilles tendons showing a decrease in pain in all the chronic injured tendons (VAS before 44+/-9, after 13+/-9; P......It has been shown that 12 weeks of eccentric heavy resistance training can reduce pain in runners suffering from chronic Achilles tendinosis, but the mechanism behind the effectiveness of this treatment is unknown. The present study investigates the local effect of an eccentric training regime...... of heavy-resistance eccentric training apart from their regular training and soccer activity. Before and after the training period the tissue concentration of indicators of collagen turnover was measured by the use of the microdialysis technique. After training, collagen synthesis was increased...

  13. A Paleolithic Diet with and without Combined Aerobic and Resistance Exercise Increases Functional Brain Responses and Hippocampal Volume in Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stomby, Andreas; Otten, Julia; Ryberg, Mats

    2017-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is associated with impaired episodic memory functions and increased risk of different dementing disorders. Diet and exercise may potentially reverse these impairments. In this study, sedentary individuals with type 2 diabetes treated by lifestyle ± metformin were randomized...... to a Paleolithic diet (PD, n = 12) with and without high intensity exercise (PDEX, n = 12) for 12 weeks. Episodic memory function, associated functional brain responses and hippocampal gray matter volume was measured by magnetic resonance imaging. A matched, but not randomized, non-interventional group...... was included as a reference (n = 6). The PD included a high intake of unsaturated fatty acids and protein, and excluded the intake of dairy products, grains, refined sugar and salt. The exercise intervention consisted of 180 min of supervised aerobic and resistance exercise per week. Both interventions induced...

  14. Afferent thermosensory function in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis following exercise-induced increases in body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filingeri, Davide; Chaseling, Georgia; Hoang, Phu; Barnett, Michael; Davis, Scott L; Jay, Ollie

    2017-08-01

    What is the central question of this study? Between 60 and 80% of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients experience transient worsening of symptoms with increased body temperature (heat sensitivity). As sensory abnormalities are common in MS, we asked whether afferent thermosensory function is altered in MS following exercise-induced increases in body temperature. What is the main finding and its importance? Increases in body temperature of as little as ∼0.4°C were sufficient to decrease cold, but not warm, skin thermosensitivity (∼10%) in MS, across a wider temperature range than in age-matched healthy individuals. These findings provide new evidence on the impact of heat sensitivity on afferent function in MS, which could be useful for clinical evaluation of this neurological disease. In multiple sclerosis (MS), increases in body temperature result in transient worsening of clinical symptoms (heat sensitivity or Uhthoff's phenomenon). Although the impact of heat sensitivity on efferent physiological function has been investigated, the effects of heat stress on afferent sensory function in MS are unknown. Hence, we quantified afferent thermosensory function in MS following exercise-induced increases in body temperature with a new quantitative sensory test. Eight relapsing-remitting MS patients (three men and five women; 51.4 ± 9.1 years of age; Expanded Disability Status Scale score 2.8 ± 1.1) and eight age-matched control (CTR) subjects (five men and three women; 47.4 ± 9.1 years of age) rated the perceived magnitude of two cold (26 and 22°C) and two warm stimuli (34 and 38°C) applied to the dorsum of the hand before and after 30 min cycling in the heat (30°C air; 30% relative humidity). Exercise produced similar increases in mean body temperature in MS [+0.39°C (95% CI: +0.21, +0.53) P = 0.001] and CTR subjects [+0.41°C (95% CI: +0.25, +0.58) P = 0.001]. These changes were sufficient to decrease thermosensitivity significantly to all cold [26

  15. A prospective 2-site parallel intervention trial of a research-based film to increase exercise amongst older hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontos, Pia; Alibhai, Shabbir M H; Miller, Karen-Lee; Brooks, Dina; Colobong, Romeo; Parsons, Trisha; Jassal, Sarbjit Vanita; Thomas, Alison; Binns, Malcolm; Naglie, Gary

    2017-01-26

    Evidence suggests that exercise training for hemodialysis patients positively improves morbidity and mortality outcomes, yet exercise programs remain rare and are not systematically incorporated into care. We developed a research-based film, Fit for Dialysis, designed to introduce, motivate, and sustain exercise for wellness amongst older hemodialysis patients, and exercise counseling and support by nephrologists, nurses, and family caregivers. The objective of this clinical trial is to determine whether and in what ways Fit for Dialysis improves outcomes and influences knowledge/attitudes regarding the importance of exercise for wellness in the context of end-stage renal disease. This 2-site parallel intervention trial will recruit 60 older hemodialysis patients from two urban hospitals. The trial will compare the film + a 16-week exercise program in one hospital, with a 16-week exercise-only program in another hospital. Physical fitness and activity measures will be performed at baseline, 8 and 16 weeks, and 12 weeks after the end of the program. These include the 2-min Walk Test, Grip Strength, Duke Activity Status Index, and the Timed Up-and-Go Test, as well as wearing a pedometer for one week. Throughout the 16-week exercise program, and at 12 weeks after, we will record patients' exercise using the Godin Leisure-time Exercise Questionnaire. Patients will also keep a diary of the exercise that they do at home on non-dialysis days. Qualitative interviews, conducted at baseline, 8, and 16 weeks, will explore the impact of Fit for Dialysis on the knowledge/attitudes of patients, family caregivers, and nephrology staff regarding exercise for wellness, and in what ways the film is effective in educating, motivating, or sustaining patient exercise during dialysis, at home, and in the community. This research will determine for whom Fit for Dialysis is effective, why, and under what conditions. If Fit for Dialysis is proven beneficial to patients, nephrology

  16. Maternal Exercise during Pregnancy Increases BDNF Levels and Cell Numbers in the Hippocampal Formation but Not in the Cerebral Cortex of Adult Rat Offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Gomes da Silva

    Full Text Available Clinical evidence has shown that physical exercise during pregnancy may alter brain development and improve cognitive function of offspring. However, the mechanisms through which maternal exercise might promote such effects are not well understood. The present study examined levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and absolute cell numbers in the hippocampal formation and cerebral cortex of rat pups born from mothers exercised during pregnancy. Additionally, we evaluated the cognitive abilities of adult offspring in different behavioral paradigms (exploratory activity and habituation in open field tests, spatial memory in a water maze test, and aversive memory in a step-down inhibitory avoidance task. Results showed that maternal exercise during pregnancy increased BDNF levels and absolute numbers of neuronal and non-neuronal cells in the hippocampal formation of offspring. No differences in BDNF levels or cell numbers were detected in the cerebral cortex. It was also observed that offspring from exercised mothers exhibited better cognitive performance in nonassociative (habituation and associative (spatial learning mnemonic tasks than did offspring from sedentary mothers. Our findings indicate that maternal exercise during pregnancy enhances offspring cognitive function (habituation behavior and spatial learning and increases BDNF levels and cell numbers in the hippocampal formation of offspring.

  17. Maternal Aerobic Exercise during Pregnancy Can Increase Spatial Learning by Affecting Leptin Expression on Offspring's Early and Late Period in Life Depending on Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayfer Dayi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Maternal exercise during pregnancy has been suggested to exert beneficial effects on brain functions of the offspring. Leptin is an adipocytokine which is secreted from adipose tissues and has positive effects on learning, memory, and synaptic plasticity. In this study, pregnant rats were moderately exercised and we observed the effects of this aerobic exercise on their prepubertal and adult offsprings' spatial learning, hippocampal neurogenesis, and expression of leptin. All the pups whose mothers exercised during pregnancy learned the platform earlier and spent longer time in the target quadrant. Their thigmotaxis times were shorter than those measured in the control group. It is shown that hippocampal CA1, CA3 neuron numbers increased in both prepubertal and adult pups, in addition that GD neuron numbers increased in adult pups. Leptin receptor expression significantly increased in the prepubertal male, adult male, and adult female pups. In our study, maternal running during pregnancy resulted in significant increase in the expression of leptin receptor but not in prepubertal female pups, enhanced hippocampal cell survival, and improved learning memory capability in prepubertal and adult rat pups, as compared to the control group. In conclusion, maternal exercise during pregnancy may regulate spatial plasticity in the hippocampus of the offspring by increasing the expression of leptin.

  18. Short-term acetaminophen consumption enhances the exercise-induced increase in Achilles peritendinous IL-6 in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gump, Brian S; McMullan, David R; Cauthon, David J

    2013-01-01

    Through an unknown mechanism the cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor acetaminophen (APAP) alters tendon mechanical properties in humans when consumed during exercise. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is produced by tendon during exercise and is a potent stimulator of collagen synthesis. In non-tendon tissue, IL-6...... is upregulated in presence of COX-inhibitors and may contribute to alterations in extracellular matrix turnover, possibly due to inhibition of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). We evaluated the effects of APAP on IL-6 and PGE2 in human Achilles peritendinous tissue after 1-hour of treadmill exercise. Subjects were...... randomly assigned to a placebo (n=8, 26±1 y) or APAP (n=8, 25±1 y) group. Each subject completed a non-exercise and exercise experiment consisting of 6-hours of microdialysis. Drug (APAP, 1000 mg) or placebo was administered in a double-blind manner during both experiments. PGE2 and IL-6 were determined...

  19. Muscle Weakness Is Associated With an Increase of Left Ventricular Mass Through Excessive Blood Pressure Elevation During Exercise in Patients With Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamada, Yumi; Masuda, Takashi; Tanaka, Shinya; Akiyama, Ayako; Nakamura, Takeshi; Hamazaki, Nobuaki; Okubo, Michihito; Kobayashi, Naoyuki; Ako, Junya

    2017-08-03

    Autonomic imbalance in hypertension induces excessive blood pressure (BP) elevation during exercise, thereby increasing left ventricular mass (LVM). Although muscle weakness enhances autonomic imbalance by stimulating muscle sympathetic activity during exercise, it is unclear whether muscle weakness is associated with an increase of LVM in patients with hypertension. This study aimed to investigate the relationships between muscle weakness, BP elevation during exercise, and LVM in these patients. Eighty-six hypertensive patients aged 69 ± 8 years with controlled resting BP (ie, exercise test performed at moderate intensity (ΔNORA and ΔPWV, respectively). A difference between baseline and peak systolic BP during the exercise test was defined as BP elevation during exercise (ΔSBP). Relationships between muscle strength, ΔNORA, ΔPWV, ΔSBP, BNP, and LVMI were analyzed, and significant factors increasing LVM were identified using univariate and multivariate regression analyses. Muscle strength was negatively correlated with ΔNORA (r = -0.202, P = 0.048), ΔPWV (r = -0.328, P = 0.002), ΔSBP (r = -0.230, P = 0.033), BNP (r = -0.265, P = 0.014), and LVMI (r = -0.233, P = 0.031). LVMI was positively correlated with ΔPWV (r = 0.246, P = 0.023) and ΔSBP (r = 0.307, P = 0.004). Muscle strength was a significant independent factor associated with LVMI (β = -0.331, P = 0.010). Our findings suggest that muscle weakness is associated with an increase of LVM through excessive BP elevation during exercise in patients with hypertension.

  20. THE EFFECTS OF SINGLE LEG HOP PROGRESSION AND DOUBLE LEGS HOP PROGRESSION EXERCISE TO INCREASE SPEED AND EXPLOSIVE POWER OF LEG MUSCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nining W. Kusnanik

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to determine the effect of single leg hop progression and double legs hop progression exercise to increase speed and explosive power of leg muscles. Plyometric is one of the training methods that can increase explosive power. There are many models of plyometric training including single leg hop progression and double leg hop progression. This research was experimental using match subject design techniques. The subjects of this study were 39 students who joined basketball school club. There were 3 groups in this study: Group 1 were 13 students who given sin¬gle leg hop progression exercise, Group 2 were 13 students who given double legs hop progression exercise, Group 3 were 13 students who given conventional exercise. The data was collected during pre test and post test by testing 30m speed running and vertical jump. The data was analyzed using Analysis of Varians (Anova. It was found that there were significantly increased on speed and explosive power of leg muscles of Group 1 and Group 2. It can be stated that single leg hop progression exercise was more effective than double leg hop progression exercise. The recent findings supported the hypothesis that single leg hop progression and double legs hop progression exercise can increase speed and explosive power of leg muscles. These finding were supported by some previous studies (Singh, et al, 2011; Shallaby, H.K., 2010. The single leg hop progression is more effective than double legs hop progression. This finding was consistent with some previous evidences (McCurdy, et al, 2005; Makaruk et al, 2011.

  1. Lower dipeptidyl peptidase-4 following exercise training plus weight loss is related to increased insulin sensitivity in adults with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Steven K; Huang, Hazel; Mulya, Anny; Kashyap, Sangeeta R; Kirwan, John P

    2013-09-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) is a circulating glycoprotein that impairs insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and is linked to obesity and metabolic syndrome. However, the effect of exercise on plasma DPP-4 in adults with metabolic syndrome is unknown. Therefore, we determined the effect of exercise on DPP-4 and its role in explaining exercise-induced improvements in insulin sensitivity. Fourteen obese adults (67.9±1.2 years, BMI: 34.2±1.1kg/m(2)) with metabolic syndrome (ATP III criteria) underwent a 12-week supervised exercise intervention (60min/day for 5 days/week at ∼85% HRmax). Plasma DPP-4 was analyzed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Insulin sensitivity was measured using the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp (40mU/m(2)/min) and estimated by HOMA-IR. Visceral fat (computerized tomography), 2-h glucose levels (75g oral glucose tolerance), and basal fat oxidation as well as aerobic fitness (indirect calorimetry) were also determined before and after exercise. The intervention reduced visceral fat, lowered blood pressure, glucose and lipids, and increased aerobic fitness (PExercise improved clamp-derived insulin sensitivity by 75% (PExercise training reduces plasma DPP-4, which may be linked to elevated insulin sensitivity and fat oxidation. Maintaining low plasma DPP-4 concentrations is a potential mechanism whereby exercise plus weight loss prevents/delays the onset of type 2 diabetes in adults with metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Increased plasma levels of soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (sFlt-1) in women by moderate exercise and increased plasma levels of vascular endothelial growth factor in overweight/obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makey, Kristina L; Patterson, Sharla G; Robinson, James; Loftin, Mark; Waddell, Dwight E; Miele, Lucio; Chinchar, Edmund; Huang, Min; Smith, Andrew D; Weber, Mark; Gu, Jian-Wei

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of breast cancer is increasing worldwide, and this seems to be related to an increase in lifestyle risk factors, including physical inactivity and overweight/obesity. We have reported previously that exercise induced a circulating angiostatic phenotype characterized by increased soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) and endostatin and decreased unbound vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in men. However, there are no data on women. The present study determines the following: (a) whether moderate exercise increased sFlt-1 and endostatin and decreased unbound VEGF in the circulation of adult female volunteers and (b) whether overweight/obese women have a higher plasma level of unbound VEGF than lean women. A total of 72 African American and White adult women volunteers ranging in age from 18 to 44 years were enrolled in the exercise study. All the participants walked on a treadmill for 30 min at a moderate intensity (55-59% heart rate reserve), and oxygen consumption (VO(2)) was quantified utilizing a metabolic cart. We obtained blood samples before and immediately after exercise from 63 participants. ELISA assays showed that the plasma levels of sFlt-1 were 67.8±3.7 pg/ml immediately after exercise (30 min), significantly higher than the basal levels, 54.5±3.3 pg/ml, before exercise (P<0.01; n=63). There was no significant difference in the % increase in the sFlt-1 levels after exercise between African American and White (P=0.533) women or between lean and overweight/obese women (P=0.892). There was no significant difference in the plasma levels of unbound VEGF (35.28±5.47 vs. 35.23±4.96 pg/ml; P=0.99) or endostatin (111.12±5.48 vs. 115.45±7.15 ng/ml; P=0.63) before and after exercise. The basal plasma levels of unbound VEGF in overweight/obese women were 52.26±9.6 pg/ml, significantly higher than the basal levels of unbound VEGF in lean women, 27.34±4.99 pg/ml (P<0.05). The results support our hypothesis that exercise

  3. Increased plasma levels of soluble vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor 1 (sFlt-1) in women by moderate exercise and increased plasma levels of VEGF in overweight/obese women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makey, Kristina L.; Patterson, Sharla G.; Robinson, James; Loftin, Mark; Waddell, Dwight E.; Miele, Lucio; Chinchar, Edmund; Huang, Min; Smith, Andrew D.; Weber, Mark; Gu, Jian-Wei

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of breast cancer is increasing worldwide, and this seems to be related to an increase in lifestyle risk factors, including physical inactivity, and overweight/obesity. We previously reported that exercise induced a circulating angiostatic phenotype characterized by increased sFlt-1 and endostatin and decreased unbound-VEGF in men. However, there is no data on women. The present study determines the following: 1) whether moderate exercise increased sFlt-1 and endostatin and decreased unbound-VEGF in the circulation of adult female volunteers; 2) whether overweight/obese women have a higher plasma level of unbound-VEGF than lean women. 72 African American and Caucasian adult women volunteers aged from 18–44 were enrolled into the exercise study. All the participants walked on a treadmill for 30 minutes at a moderate intensity (55–59% heart rate reserve), and oxygen consumption (VO2) was quantified by utilizing a metabolic cart. We had the blood samples before and immediately after exercise from 63 participants. ELISA assays (R&D Systems) showed that plasma levels of sFlt-1 were 67.8±3.7 pg/ml immediately after exercise (30 minutes), significantly higher than basal levels, 54.5±3.3 pg/ml, before exercise (P < 0.01; n=63). There was no significant difference in the % increase of sFlt-1 levels after exercise between African American and Caucasian (P=0.533) or between lean and overweight/obese women (P=0.892). There was no significant difference in plasma levels of unbound VEGF (35.28±5.47 vs. 35.23±4.96 pg/ml; P=0.99) or endostatin (111.12±5.48 vs. 115.45±7.15 ng/ml; P=0.63) before and after exercise. Basal plasma levels of unbound-VEGF in overweight/obese women were 52.26±9.6 pg/ml, significantly higher than basal levels of unbound-VEGF in lean women, 27.34±4.99 pg/ml (P < 0.05). The results support our hypothesis that exercise-induced plasma levels of sFlt-1 could be an important clinical biomarker to explore the mechanisms of exercise

  4. A 12-month exercise intervention decreased stress symptoms and increased mental resources among working adults – Results perceived after a 12-month follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oili Kettunen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This study evaluated the effect of a 12-month physical exercise intervention accompanied by a 12-month followup evaluating stress symptoms (SS, mental resources (MR and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF in healthy, working adults. We hypothesized that the stress symptoms would decrease and mental resources would increase during the intervention and that these results are associated with changes in CRF. Material and methods The study group included healthy adults (N = 371. Three hundred thirty eight participants (212 women, 126 men were allocated in the exercise group and 33 in the control group (17 women and 16 men. For the analysis, the exercise group was divided into subgroups according to the baseline SS and MR. Stress symptoms and MR were measured using the Occupational Stress Questionnaire. Results During the 12-month exercise intervention, SS decreased by 16% (p < 0.0001, MR increased by 8% (p < 0.0001 and CRF increased by 7% (p < 0.0001 in the exercise group, while no changes occurred in the control group (ANCOVA, p < 0.01. In the exercise group, the results (SS, MR, and CRF remained improved during the follow-up. There was a positive correlation between the change in SS and the change in CRF (r = 0.19, p < 0.01. In the subgroup having the highest SS at baseline, SS during the intervention decreased most (26% (ANCOVA, p < 0.0001. Conclusions One year physical exercise intervention improved mental well-being among working adults and this was associated with an improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness. The positive changes remained after the 12-month follow-up.

  5. Physical exercise: does it help in relieving pain and increasing mobility among older adults with chronic pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Mimi M Y; Wan, Vanessa T C; Ho, Suki S K

    2011-03-01

    To provide a physical exercise programme for older adults living in nursing homes. Pain is common among older persons and for those already in long-term care and having difficulty in coping with pain will be at risk of further reducing their optimal independent function. A quasi-experimental single group pretest-posttest design. Older persons from a nursing home were invited to join an eight-week physical exercise programme. Each session lasted an hour and sessions were conducted once a week by physiotherapist and nurses. Physical exercise programme consisted of stretching, strengthening, balancing, towel dancing and self-administered massage to various acupressure points. On completion of each session, older persons were given a pamphlet with pictures to illustrate the exercise of the day and they were encouraged to practise these exercises by themselves. Outcome measures including pain intensity, range of movement, activities of daily living and mobility were collected before and after the physical exercise programme. There were 75 older adult participants (57 female and 18 male, mean age 85.14 SD 5.30). Seventy-three percent (n = 55) of them had pain in the previous three months and were referred as pain group, while 25% (n = 20) were no pain group. Pain scores of 4.89 (on a 10-point scale) indicated medium pain intensity before the intervention for the pain group; the location of pain was mainly in the knee, back and shoulder. On completion of the physical exercise programme, there was a significant decrease in pain intensity to 2.89 (SD 2.14) (p daily living remained unchanged. The present study demonstrated the effectiveness of a physical exercise programme in relieving pain and enhancing functional mobility for older persons. Relevance to clinical practice.  It is important to educate older persons, especially those living in nursing homes, on the importance of engaging in regular physical exercise and maintaining mobility. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Combined supplementation of carbohydrate, alanine, and proline is effective in maintaining blood glucose and increasing endurance performance during long-term exercise in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogusa, Yoshihito; Mizugaki, Ami; Hirabayashi-Osada, Yuri; Furuta, Chie; Ohyama, Kana; Suzuki, Katsuya; Kobayashi, Hisamine

    2014-01-01

    Carbohydrate supplementation is extremely important during prolonged exercise because it maintains blood glucose levels during later stages of exercise. In this study, we examined whether maintaining blood glucose levels by carbohydrate supplementation could be enhanced during long-term exercise by combining this supplementation with alanine and proline, which are gluconeogenic amino acids, and whether such a combination would affect exercise endurance performance. Male C57BL/6J mice were orally administered either maltodextrin (1.25 g/kg) or maltodextrin (1.0 g/kg) with alanine (0.225 g/kg) and proline (0.025 g/kg) 15 min before running for 170 min. Combined supplementation of maltodextrin, alanine, and proline induced higher blood glucose levels than isocaloric maltodextrin alone during the late exercise phase (100-170 min). The hepatic glycogen content of mice administered maltodextrin, alanine, and proline was higher than that of mice ingesting maltodextrin alone 60 min after beginning exercise, but the glycogen content of the gastrocnemius muscle showed no difference. We conducted a treadmill running test to determine the effect of alanine and proline on endurance performance. The test showed that running time to exhaustion of mice that were supplemented with maltodextrin (2.0 g/kg) was longer than that of mice that were supplemented with water alone. Maltodextrin supplementation (1.0 g/kg) with alanine (0.9 g/kg) and proline (0.1 g/kg) further increased running time to exhaustion compared to maltodextrin alone (2.0 g/kg). These results indicate that combined supplementation of carbohydrate, alanine, and proline is effective for maintaining blood glucose and hepatic glycogen levels and increasing endurance performance during long-term exercise in mice.

  7. Engaging Fathers to Increase Physical Activity in Girls: The "Dads And Daughters Exercising and Empowered" (DADEE) Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Philip J; Young, Myles D; Barnes, Alyce T; Eather, Narelle; Pollock, Emma R; Lubans, David R

    2018-04-10

    Existing strategies to increase girls' physical activity levels have seen limited success. Fathers may influence their children's physical activity, but often spend more time with their sons and rarely participate in family-based programs. To test a novel program designed to increase the physical activity levels of fathers and their daughters. In a two-arm RCT, 115 fathers (29-53 years) and 153 daughters (4-12 years) were randomized to (i) the "Dads And Daughters Exercising and Empowered" (DADEE) program, or (ii) a wait-list control. The 8-week program included weekly educational and practical sessions plus home tasks. Assessments were at baseline, 2 months (postintervention), and 9 months. The primary outcomes were father-daughter physical activity levels (pedometry). Secondary outcomes included screen-time, daughters' fundamental movement skill proficiency (FMS: perceived and objective), and fathers' physical activity parenting practices. Primary outcome data were obtained from 88% of daughters and 90% of fathers at 9 months. Intention-to-treat analyses revealed favorable group-by-time effects for physical activity in daughters (p = .02, d = 0.4) and fathers (p competence (objective: d = 1.1-1.2; perceived: d = 0.4-0.6), a range of fathers' physical activity parenting practices (d = 0.3-0.8), and screen-time for daughters (d = 0.5-0.8) and fathers (d = 0.4-0.6, postintervention only). Program satisfaction and attendance were very high. This study provided the first experimental evidence that efforts to increase physical activity behavior in preadolescent girls would benefit from a meaningful engagement of fathers. Clinical Trial information: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12615000022561.

  8. Short term aerobic exercise training increases postprandial pancreatic polypeptide but not peptide YY concentrations in obese individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Kanaley, Jill A.; Heden, Timothy D.; Liu, Ying; Whaley-Connell, Adam T.; Chockalingam, Anand; Dellsperger, Kevin C.; Fairchild, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Short-term exercise training improves glycemic control, but the effect of short-term training on postprandial satiety peptide responses or perceived satiety remains unknown. We tested the hypothesis that short-term aerobic exercise training (15 days) would alter postprandial pancreatic and gut peptide [pancreatic polypeptide (PP) and peptide YY (PYY)] responses and perceived appetite and satiety in obese individuals. Subjects Thirteen healthy obese men and women (age: 42±2 y; BMI: 3...

  9. Regular multi-component exercise increases physical fitness and muscle protein anabolism in frail, obese, older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Villareal, Dennis T.; Smith, Gordon I.; Sinacore, David R.; Shah, Krupa; Mittendorfer, Bettina

    2010-01-01

    Aging is associated with a decline in strength, endurance, balance, and mobility. Obesity worsens the age-related impairment in physical function and often leads to frailty. The American College of Sports Medicine recommends a multi-component (strength, endurance, flexibility, and balance) exercise program to maintain physical fitness. However, the effect of such an exercise program on physical fitness in frail, obese older adults is not known. We therefore determined the effect of a 3 month-...

  10. Swimming exercise increases serum irisin level and reduces body fat mass in high-fat-diet fed Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yun; Li, Hongwei; Shen, Shi-Wei; Shen, Zhen-Hai; Xu, Ming; Yang, Cheng-Jian; Li, Feng; Feng, Yin-Bo; Yun, Jing-Ting; Wang, Ling; Qi, Hua-Jin

    2016-05-13

    It has been shown that irisin levels are reduced in skeletal muscle and plasma of obese rats; however, the effect of exercise training on irisin level remains controversial. We aim to evaluate the association of swimming exercise with serum irisin level and other obesity-associated parameters. Forty healthy male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups: a normal diet and sedentary group (ND group), normal diet and exercise group (NDE group), high-fat diet and sedentary group (HFD group), and high-fat diet and exercise group (HFDE group. After 8 consecutive weeks of swimming exercise, fat mass and serum irisin level was determined. Higher serum irisin levels were detected in the HFDE group (1.15 ± 0.28 μg/L) and NDE group (1.76 ± 0.17 μg/L) than in the HFD group (0.84 ± 0.23 μg/L) or the ND group (1.24 ± 0.29 μg/L), respectively (HFDE group vs. HFD group, P mass (r = -0.68, P mass (r = -0.576, P mass (r = -0.439, P mass, visceral fat mass and percentage fat mass were lower in the HFDE group than the HFD group (all P values mass in high-fat-fed Wistar rats, which may be attributable to elevated irisin levels induced by swimming exercise.

  11. Prevention of postpartum stress incontinence in primigravidae with increased bladder neck mobility: a randomised controlled trial of antenatal pelvic floor exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, E T C; Freeman, R M; Waterfield, M R; Waterfield, A E; Steggles, P; Pedlar, F

    2014-12-01

    To test whether supervised pelvic floor exercises antenatally will reduce the incidence of postpartum stress incontinence in at-risk primigravidae with bladder neck mobility, ultrasonically proven. Single blind, randomised controlled trial. Antenatal clinic in a UK NHS Trust Hospital. Two hundred and sixty-eight primigravidae attending an antenatal clinic at approximately 20 weeks of gestation with bladder neck mobility, on standardised valsalva, of 5 mm or more linear movement. The median age was 28, ranging from 16 to 47 years. Patients randomised to supervised pelvic floor exercises (n = 139) attended a physiotherapist at monthly intervals from 20 weeks until delivery. The exercises comprised three repetitions of eight contractions each held for six seconds, with two minutes rest between repetitions. These were repeated twice daily. At 34 weeks of gestation the number of contractions per repetition was increased to 12. Both the untreated control group and the study group received verbal advice on pelvic floor exercises from their midwives antenatally. Subjective reporting of stress incontinence at three months postpartum. Pelvic floor strength, using perineometry, and bladder neck mobility measured by perineal ultrasound. Of the 268 women enrolled, information on the main outcome variable was available for 110 in the control group and 120 in the study group. Fewer women in the supervised pelvic floor exercise group reported postpartum stress incontinence, 19.2% compared with 32.7% in the control group (RR 0.59 [0.37-0.92]). There was no change in bladder neck mobility and no difference in pelvic floor strength between groups after exercise, although all those developing postpartum stress incontinence had significantly poorer perineometry scores than those who were continent. The findings suggest that antenatal supervised pelvic floor exercises are effective in reducing the risk of postpartum stress incontinence in primigravidae with bladder neck mobility.

  12. Does a 20-week aerobic exercise training programme increase our capabilities to buffer real-life stressors? A randomized, controlled trial using ambulatory assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Haaren, Birte; Ottenbacher, Joerg; Muenz, Julia; Neumann, Rainer; Boes, Klaus; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich

    2016-02-01

    The cross-stressor adaptation hypothesis suggests that regular exercise leads to adaptations in the stress response systems that induce decreased physiological responses to psychological stressors. Even though an exercise intervention to buffer the detrimental effects of psychological stressors on health might be of utmost importance, empirical evidence is mixed. This may be explained by the use of cross-sectional designs and non-personally relevant stressors. Using a randomized controlled trial, we hypothesized that a 20-week aerobic exercise training does reduce physiological stress responses to psychological real-life stressors in sedentary students. Sixty-one students were randomized to either a control group or an exercise training group. The academic examination period (end of the semester) served as a real-life stressor. We used ambulatory assessment methods to assess physiological stress reactivity of the autonomic nervous system (heart rate variability: LF/HF, RMSSD), physical activity and perceived stress during 2 days of everyday life and multilevel models for data analyses. Aerobic capacity (VO2max) was assessed pre- and post-intervention via cardiopulmonary exercise testing to analyze the effectiveness of the intervention. During real-life stressors, the exercise training group showed significantly reduced LF/HF (β = -0.15, t = -2.59, p = .01) and increased RMSSD (β = 0.15, t = 2.34, p = .02) compared to the control group. Using a randomized controlled trial and a real-life stressor, we could show that exercise appears to be a useful preventive strategy to buffer the effects of stress on the autonomic nervous system, which might result into detrimental health outcomes.

  13. Improvements in exercise performance with high-intensity interval training coincide with an increase in skeletal muscle mitochondrial content and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobs, Robert Acton; Flueck, Daniela; Bonne, Thomas Christian

    2013-01-01

    sessions of HIT to determine the mechanisms explaining improvements in exercise performance. Sixteen untrained (43 +/- 6 ml.kg(-1).min(-1)) subjects completed six sessions of repeated (8-12) 60 s intervals of high-intensity cycling (100% peak power output elicited during incremental maximal exercise test...... (similar to 20 P = 0.026), as assessed by cytochrome c oxidase activity. Skeletal muscle deoxygenation also increased while maximal cardiac output, total hemoglobin, plasma volume, total blood volume, and relative measures of peripheral fatigue resistance were all unaltered with training. These results...

  14. Central and peripheral blood flow during exercise with a continuous-flow left ventricular assist device: constant versus increasing pump speed: a pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brassard, Patrice; Jensen, Annette S; Nordsborg, Nikolai

    2011-01-01

    with work rate would increase organ blood flow. Methods and Results- Invasively determined CO and leg blood flow and Doppler-determined cerebral perfusion were measured during 2 incremental cycle exercise tests on the same day in 8 patients provided with a HeartMate II LVAD. In random order, patients...

  15. A Paleolithic Diet with and without Combined Aerobic and Resistance Exercise Increases Functional Brain Responses and Hippocampal Volume in Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Stomby

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes is associated with impaired episodic memory functions and increased risk of different dementing disorders. Diet and exercise may potentially reverse these impairments. In this study, sedentary individuals with type 2 diabetes treated by lifestyle ± metformin were randomized to a Paleolithic diet (PD, n = 12 with and without high intensity exercise (PDEX, n = 12 for 12 weeks. Episodic memory function, associated functional brain responses and hippocampal gray matter volume was measured by magnetic resonance imaging. A matched, but not randomized, non-interventional group was included as a reference (n = 6. The PD included a high intake of unsaturated fatty acids and protein, and excluded the intake of dairy products, grains, refined sugar and salt. The exercise intervention consisted of 180 min of supervised aerobic and resistance exercise per week. Both interventions induced a significant weight loss, improved insulin sensitivity and increased peak oxygen uptake without any significant group differences. Furthermore, both interventions were associated with increased functional brain responses within the right anterior hippocampus, right inferior occipital gyrus and increased volume of the right posterior hippocampus. There were no changes in memory performance. We conclude that life-style modification may improve neuronal plasticity in brain areas linked to cognitive function in type 2 diabetes. Putative long-term effects on cognitive functions including decreased risk of dementing disorders await further studies. Clinical trials registration number: Clinicaltrials. gov NCT01513798.

  16. Value of Implementation of Strategies to Increase the Adherence of Health Professionals and Cancer Survivors to Guideline-Based Physical Exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mewes, Janne C.; Steuten, Lotte M.G.; IJsbrandy, Charlotte; IJzerman, Maarten J.; van Harten, Willem H.

    2017-01-01

    Background: To increase the adherence of health professionals and cancer survivors to evidence-based physical exercise, effective implementation strategies (ISTs) are required. Objectives: To examine to what extent these ISTs provide value for money and which IST has the highest expected value.

  17. Prevention of overuse injuries by a concurrent exercise program in subjects exposed to an increase in training load - A randomized controlled trial of 1020 army recruits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brushoj, C.; Larsen, K.; Albrecht-Beste, E.

    2008-01-01

    Background: It is unknown whether an exercise program can prevent overuse injuries in the lower extremity. An often encountered and important risk factor for the development of lower extremity overuse injuries is an abrupt increase in activity level. Hypothesis: A preventive training program base...

  18. Increased Interstitial Concentrations of Glutamate and Pyruvate in Vastus Lateralis of Women with Fibromyalgia Syndrome Are Normalized after an Exercise Intervention - A Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Gerdle

    Full Text Available Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS is associated with central alterations, but controversies exist regarding the presence and role of peripheral factors. Microdialysis (MD can be used in vivo to study muscle alterations in FMS. Furthermore for chronic pain conditions such as FMS, the mechanisms for the positive effects of exercise are unclear. This study investigates the interstitial concentrations of algesics and metabolites in the vastus lateralis muscle of 29 women with FMS and 28 healthy women before and after an exercise intervention.All the participants went through a clinical examination and completed a questionnaire. In addition, their pressure pain thresholds (PPTs in their upper and lower extremities were determined. For both groups, MD was conducted in the vastus lateralis muscle before and after a 15-week exercise intervention of mainly resistance training of the lower limbs. Muscle blood flow and interstitial muscle concentrations of lactate, pyruvate, glutamate, glucose, and glycerol were determined.FMS was associated with significantly increased interstitial concentrations of glutamate, pyruvate, and lactate. After the exercise intervention, the FMS group exhibited significant decreases in pain intensity and in mean interstitial concentrations of glutamate, pyruvate, and glucose. The decrease in pain intensity in FMS correlated significantly with the decreases in pyruvate and glucose. In addition, the FMS group increased their strength and endurance.This study supports the suggestion that peripheral metabolic and algesic muscle alterations are present in FMS patients and that these alterations contribute to pain. After an exercise intervention, alterations normalized, pain intensity decreased (but not abolished, and strength and endurance improved, all findings that suggest the effects of exercise are partially peripheral.

  19. Absolute hypoxic exercise training enhances in vitro thrombin generation by increasing procoagulant platelet-derived microparticles under high shear stress in sedentary men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Wen; Chen, Yi-Ching; Wang, Jong-Shyan

    2013-05-01

    HS (high shear) stress associated with artery stenosis facilitates TG (thrombin generation) by increasing the release of procoagulant PDMPs (platelet-derived microparticles). Physical exercise and hypoxia may paradoxically modulate vascular thrombotic risks. The aim of the present study was to investigate how exercise training with/without hypoxia affected TG mediated by PDMPs under physio-pathological shear flows. A total of 75 sedentary males were randomly divided into five groups (n=15 in each group): 21% O2 [NC (normoxic control)] or 15% O2 [HC (hypoxic control)] at rest or were trained at 50% of peak work rate under 21% O2 [NT (normoxic training)] or 15% O2 [HAT (hypoxic-absolute training)], or 50% of HR (heart rate) reserve under 15% O2 [HRT (hypoxic-relative training)] for 30 min/day, 5 days/week for 4 weeks. The PDMP characteristics and dynamic TG were measured by flow cytometry and thrombinography respectively. Before the intervention, strenuous exercise markedly increased the PDMP count (14.8%) and TG rate (19.5%) in PDMP-rich plasma at 100 dynes/cm2 of shear stress (Pexercise. Conversely, HAT notably promoted the PDMP count (37.3%) and TG rate (38.9%) induced by HS (Pexercise. We conclude that both HRT and NT depress similarly HS-mediated TG during exercise, but HAT accelerates the prothrombotic response to vigorous exercise. These findings provide new insights into how exercise training under a hypoxic condition influences the risk of thrombosis associated with stenotic arteries.

  20. Ingestion of a cold temperature/menthol beverage increases outdoor exercise performance in a hot, humid environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran Trong, Than; Riera, Florence; Rinaldi, Kévin; Briki, Walid; Hue, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    A recent laboratory study demonstrated that the ingestion of a cold/menthol beverage improved exercise performance in a hot and humid environment during 20 km of all-out cycling. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether the ingestion of cold water/ice-slurry with menthol would improve performance in hot and humid outdoor conditions. Ten trained males completed three trials of five blocks consisting of 4-km cycling and 1.5-km running. During warm-up, every block and recovery, the athletes drank 190 ml of aromatized (i.e., with 0.05 mL of menthol) beverage at three temperatures: Neutral (ambient temperature) (28.7°C±0. 5°C), Cold (3.1°C±0.6°C) or Ice-slurry (0.17°C±0.07°C). Trial time, core temperature (Tco), heart rate (HR), rate of perceived exertion (RPE), thermal sensation (TS) and thermal comfort (TC) were assessed. Ice-slurry/menthol increased performance by 6.2% and 3.3% compared with neutral water/menthol and cold water/menthol, respectively. No between-trial differences were noted for Tco, HR, RPE, TC and TS was lower with ice-slurry/menthol and cold water/menthol compared with neutral water/menthol. A low drink temperature combined with menthol lessens the performance decline in hot/humid outdoor conditions (i.e., compared with cold water alone). Performances were better with no difference in psycho-physiological stress (Tco, HR and RPE) between trials. The changes in perceptual parameters caused by absorbing a cold/menthol beverage reflect the psychological impact. The mechanism leading to these results seems to involve brain integration of signals from physiological and psychological sources.

  1. Ingestion of a cold temperature/menthol beverage increases outdoor exercise performance in a hot, humid environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Than Tran Trong

    Full Text Available A recent laboratory study demonstrated that the ingestion of a cold/menthol beverage improved exercise performance in a hot and humid environment during 20 km of all-out cycling. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether the ingestion of cold water/ice-slurry with menthol would improve performance in hot and humid outdoor conditions.Ten trained males completed three trials of five blocks consisting of 4-km cycling and 1.5-km running. During warm-up, every block and recovery, the athletes drank 190 ml of aromatized (i.e., with 0.05 mL of menthol beverage at three temperatures: Neutral (ambient temperature (28.7°C±0. 5°C, Cold (3.1°C±0.6°C or Ice-slurry (0.17°C±0.07°C. Trial time, core temperature (Tco, heart rate (HR, rate of perceived exertion (RPE, thermal sensation (TS and thermal comfort (TC were assessed.Ice-slurry/menthol increased performance by 6.2% and 3.3% compared with neutral water/menthol and cold water/menthol, respectively. No between-trial differences were noted for Tco, HR, RPE, TC and TS was lower with ice-slurry/menthol and cold water/menthol compared with neutral water/menthol.A low drink temperature combined with menthol lessens the performance decline in hot/humid outdoor conditions (i.e., compared with cold water alone. Performances were better with no difference in psycho-physiological stress (Tco, HR and RPE between trials. The changes in perceptual parameters caused by absorbing a cold/menthol beverage reflect the psychological impact. The mechanism leading to these results seems to involve brain integration of signals from physiological and psychological sources.

  2. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... following suggested exercises increases your back pain after five repetitions, or causes acute pain, you should stop ... 10 seconds working towards 30 seconds. Repeat 1-5 times or to fatigue... Prone Bridge/Plank Prop ...

  3. Immobilization increases interleukin-6, but not tumour necrosis factor-a, release from the leg during exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reihmane, Dace; Hansen, Andreas Vigelsø; Jensen, Martin Gram

    2013-01-01

    have now studied the temporal relationship of leg IL-6 and TNF-a release before and during isolated two-legged exercise after 14 days of one-leg immobilization (IM) while the other leg served as the control (CON) leg. Fifteen healthy male subjects (mean ± SEM age, 23 ± 1 years; body mass index, 23.......6 ± 0.7 kg m; and maximal oxygen uptake, 46.8 ± 1.4 ml kg min) performed 45 min of two-legged dynamic knee-extensor exercise at 19.6 ± 0.8 W. Arterial and femoral venous blood samples from the CON and the IM leg were collected every 15 min during exercise, and leg blood flow was measured with Doppler...

  4. Two weeks of muscle immobilization impairs functional sympatholysis but increases exercise hyperemia and the vasodilatory responsiveness to infused ATP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Stefan P; Mørkeberg, Jakob S; Thaning, Pia

    2012-01-01

    During exercise, contracting muscles can override sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity (functional sympatholysis). ATP and adenosine have been proposed to play a role in skeletal muscle blood flow regulation. However, little is known about the role of muscle training status on functional sympatho......During exercise, contracting muscles can override sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity (functional sympatholysis). ATP and adenosine have been proposed to play a role in skeletal muscle blood flow regulation. However, little is known about the role of muscle training status on functional....../min; P higher in the immobilized leg (2.9 ± 0.2 l/min; P .... Mean arterial pressure was lower during exercise with the trained leg compared with the immobilized leg (P higher after immobilization (3.9 ± 0.3 and 4.5 ± 0.6 l/min in the control and immobilized leg...

  5. Kegel Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... exercised my pelvic muscles ____ times. I spent ____ minutes exercising. At each exercise session, I squeezed my pelvic ... exercised my pelvic muscles ____ times. I spent ____ minutes exercising. At each exercise session, I squeezed my pelvic ...

  6. A Group-Based Mobile Application to Increase Adherence in Exercise and Nutrition Programs: A Factorial Design Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatakrishnan, Anusha; Youngblood, Gregory Michael; Ram, Ashwin; Pirolli, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background Novel methods of promoting self-monitoring and social support are needed to ensure long-term maintenance of behavior change. In this paper, we directly investigate the effects of group support in an exercise and nutrition program delivered by an mHealth application called Fittle. Objective Our first specific study aim was to explore whether social support improved adherence in wellness programs. Our second specific study aim was to assess whether media types (ePaper vs mobile) were associated with different levels of compliance and adherence to wellness programs. The third aim was to assess whether the use of an mHealth application led to positive changes to participants’ eating behavior, physical activity, and stress level, compared to traditional paper-based programs. Methods A 2 × 2 (eg, Media: Mobile vs ePaper × Group Type: Team vs Solo) factorial design feasibility study was conducted. A sample of 124 volunteers who were interested in improving eating behavior, increasing physical activity, or reducing stress participated in this study. The study duration was 8 weeks. All groups were self-directed with no ongoing human input from the research team. Results Participants in ePaper conditions had higher attrition rates compared to participants in Mobile conditions, χ3 2=9.96, P=.02 (N=124). Participants in Mobile conditions reported their compliance with a much higher frequency closer to the time of challenge activity completion (2-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test comparing distributions was highly significant—KS=0.33, PMobile conditions—χ1 2=25.25, Pmobile app allowed a more accurate method to report and track health behaviors over a longer period than traditional ePaper-based diaries or log books. There was a significant difference in the overall compliance score for Mobile-Solo (Mean [SD] 0.30 [0.39]) and Mobile-Team (Mean [SD] 0.49 [0.35]) conditions (t 50.82=1.94, P=.05). This suggests that working in a team increased participants

  7. Enhancement of daily physical activity increases physical fitness of outclinic COPD patients : Results of an exercise counseling program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hospes, Gieneke; Bossenbroek, Linda; ten Hacken, Nick H. T.; van Hengel, Peter; de Greef, Mathieu H. G.

    Objective: To investigate whether a 12-week pedometer-based exercise counseling strategy is feasible and effectively enhances daily physical activity in outclinic Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) patients who do not participate in a rehabilitation program in a controlled way. Methods: 35

  8. A model to increase rehabilitation adherence to home exercise programmes in patients with varying levels of self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picha, Kelsey J; Howell, Dana M

    2018-03-01

    Patient adherence to rehabilitation programmes is frequently low - particularly adherence to home exercise programmes. Home exercise programmes have been identified as complementary to clinic-based physical therapy in an orthopaedic setting. Barriers to patient adherence have previously been identified within the literature. Low self-efficacy is a barrier to adherence that clinicians have the ability to have an impact on and improve. The theory of self-efficacy is defined as a person's confidence in their ability to perform a task. This theory examines the ability of a person to change through exerting control over inner processes of goal setting, self-monitoring, feedback, problem solving and self-evaluation. If clinicians are able to identify patients with low self-efficacy prior to the prescription of a home exercise programme, adjustments to individualized care can be implemented. Individualized care based on improving self-efficacy for home exercise programmes may improve patient adherence to these programmes. The purpose of this article was to use the theory of self-efficacy to direct clinicians in providing individualized programmes to patients with varying levels of self-efficacy. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Exercise induces a marked increase in plasma follistatin: evidence that follistatin is a contraction-induced hepatokine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob; Brandt, Claus; Nielsen, Anders Rinnov

    2011-01-01

    Follistatin is a member of the TGF-ß super family and inhibits the action of myostatin to regulate skeletal muscle growth. The regulation of follistatin during physical exercise is unclear but may be important because physical activity is a major intervention to prevent age-related sarcopenia...

  10. A Laboratory Exercise to Illustrate Increased Salivary Cortisol in Response to Three Stressful Conditions Using Competitive ELISA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haussmann, Mark F.; Vleck, Carol M; Farrar, Eugenia S.

    2007-01-01

    Perceived stress activates the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, resulting in the release of glucocorticoids into the systemic circulation. Glucocorticoids cause the elevation of blood glucose, providing the necessary energy for the organism to cope with stress. Here, we outline a laboratory exercise that uses a competitive ELISA kit to…

  11. Hybrid Lecture-Online Format Increases Student Grades in an Undergraduate Exercise Physiology Course at a Large Urban University

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlin, Brian K.

    2008-01-01

    Hybrid courses allow students additional exposure to course content that is not possible in a traditional classroom environment. This exposure may lead to an improvement in academic performance. In this report, I describe the transition of a large undergraduate exercise physiology course from a traditional lecture format to a hybrid…

  12. Production of interleukin-6 in contracting human skeletal muscles can account for the exercise-induced increase in plasma interleukin-6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensberg, A; Van Hall, Gerrit; Osada, T

    2000-01-01

    1. Plasma interleukin (IL)-6 concentration is increased with exercise and it has been demonstrated that contracting muscles can produce IL-The question addressed in the present study was whether the IL-6 production by contracting skeletal muscle is of such a magnitude that it can account for the IL...... and every hour during the exercise. Leg blood flow was measured in parallel by the ultrasound Doppler technique. IL-6 was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). 3. Arterial plasma concentrations for IL-6 increased 19-fold compared to rest. The a-fv difference for IL-6 over the exercising leg...... followed the same pattern as did the net IL-6 release. Over the resting leg, there was no significant a-fv difference or net IL-6 release. The work was produced by 2.5 kg of active muscle, which means that during the last 2 h of exercise, the median IL-6 production was 6.8 ng min-1 (kg active muscle)-1...

  13. Increased oxidative stress and anaerobic energy release, but blunted Thr172-AMPKα phosphorylation, in response to sprint exercise in severe acute hypoxia in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Alamo, David; Ponce-González, Jesús Gustavo; Guadalupe-Grau, Amelia; Rodríguez-García, Lorena; Santana, Alfredo; Cusso, Maria Roser; Guerrero, Mario; Guerra, Borja; Dorado, Cecilia; Calbet, José A L

    2012-09-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a major mediator of the exercise response and a molecular target to improve insulin sensitivity. To determine if the anaerobic component of the exercise response, which is exaggerated when sprint is performed in severe acute hypoxia, influences sprint exercise-elicited Thr(172)-AMPKα phosphorylation, 10 volunteers performed a single 30-s sprint (Wingate test) in normoxia and in severe acute hypoxia (inspired Po(2): 75 mmHg). Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were obtained before and immediately after 30 and 120 min postsprint. Mean power output and O(2) consumption were 6% and 37%, respectively, lower in hypoxia than in normoxia. O(2) deficit and muscle lactate accumulation were greater in hypoxia than in normoxia. Carbonylated skeletal muscle and plasma proteins were increased after the sprint in hypoxia. Thr(172)-AMPKα phosphorylation was increased by 3.1-fold 30 min after the sprint in normoxia. This effect was prevented by hypoxia. The NAD(+)-to-NADH.H(+) ratio was reduced (by 24-fold) after the sprints, with a greater reduction in hypoxia than in normoxia (P exercise in human skeletal muscle is altered in severe acute hypoxia, which abrogated Thr(172)-AMPKα phosphorylation, likely due to lower LKB1 activation by SIRT1.

  14. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic Exercise Cervical Exercise Strength Training for the Elderly ... Committee Exercise Committee Core Strengthening Many popular forms of exercise focus on ...

  15. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation for 12 Weeks Increases Resting and Exercise Metabolic Rate in Healthy Community-Dwelling Older Females.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha L Logan

    Full Text Available Critical among the changes that occur with aging are decreases in muscle mass and metabolic rate and an increase in fat mass. These changes may predispose older adults to chronic disease and functional impairment; ultimately resulting in a decrease in the quality of life. Research has suggested that long chain omega-3 fatty acids, found predominantly in fatty fish, may assist in reducing these changes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of fish oil (FO supplementation in a cohort of healthy, community-dwelling older females on 1 metabolic rate and substrate oxidation at rest and during exercise; 2 resting blood pressure and resting and exercise heart rates; 3 body composition; 4 strength and physical function, and; 5 blood measures of insulin, glucose, c-reactive protein, and triglycerides. Twenty-four females (66 ± 1 yr were recruited and randomly assigned to receive either 3g/d of EPA and DHA or a placebo (PL, olive oil for 12 wk. Exercise measurements were taken before and after 12 wk of supplementation and resting metabolic measures were made before and at 6 and 12 wk of supplementation. The results demonstrated that FO supplementation significantly increased resting metabolic rate by 14%, energy expenditure during exercise by 10%, and the rate of fat oxidation during rest by 19% and during exercise by 27%. In addition, FO consumption lowered triglyceride levels by 29% and increased lean mass by 4% and functional capacity by 7%, while no changes occurred in the PL group. In conclusion, FO may be a strategy to improve age-related physical and metabolic changes in healthy older females. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01734538.

  16. Crew Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafalik, Kerrie K.

    2017-01-01

    Johnson Space Center (JSC) provides research, engineering, development, integration, and testing of hardware and software technologies for exercise systems applications in support of human spaceflight. This includes sustaining the current suite of on-orbit exercise devices by reducing maintenance, addressing obsolescence, and increasing reliability through creative engineering solutions. Advanced exercise systems technology development efforts focus on the sustainment of crew's physical condition beyond Low Earth Orbit for extended mission durations with significantly reduced mass, volume, and power consumption when compared to the ISS.

  17. L-Citrulline Supplementation-Increased Skeletal Muscle PGC-1α Expression is Associated With Exercise Performance and Increased Skeletal Muscle Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villareal, Myra O; Matsukawa, Toshiya; Isoda, Hiroko

    2018-05-24

    L-citrulline has recently been reported as a more effective supplement for promoting intracellular NO production compared to L-arginine. Here, the effect of L-citrulline on skeletal muscle and its influence on exercise performance were investigated. The underlying mechanism of its effect, specifically on the expression of skeletal muscle peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), was also elucidated. Six-week-old ICR mice were orally supplemented with L-citrulline (250 mg kg -1 ) daily, and their performance in weight-loaded swimming exercise every other day for 15 days, was evaluated. In addition, mice muscles were weighed and evaluated for the expression of PGC-1α and PGC-1α-regulated genes. Mice orally supplemented with L-citrulline had significantly higher gastrocnemius and biceps femoris muscle mass. Although not statistically significant, L-citrulline prolonged the swimming time to exhaustion. PGC-1α upregulation was associated with vascular endothelial growth factor α (VEGFα) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) upregulation. VEGFα and IGF1 are important for angiogenesis and muscle growth, respectively, and are regulated by PGC-1α. Treatment with L-NAME, a nitric oxide synthesis inhibitor, suppressed the L-citrulline-induced PGC-1α upregulation in-vitro. Supplementation with L-citrulline upregulates skeletal muscle PGC-1α levels resulting to higher skeletal muscle weight that improves time to exhaustion during exercise. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Are gender differences in upper-body power generated by elite cross-country skiers augmented by increasing the intensity of exercise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegge, Ann Magdalen; Myhre, Kenneth; Welde, Boye; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Sandbakk, Øyvind

    2015-01-01

    In the current study, we evaluated the impact of exercise intensity on gender differences in upper-body poling among cross-country skiers, as well as the associated differences in aerobic capacity, maximal strength, body composition, technique and extent of training. Eight male and eight female elite skiers, gender-matched for level of performance by FIS points, carried out a 4-min submaximal, and a 3-min and 30-sec maximal all-out test of isolated upper-body double poling on a Concept2 ski ergometer. Maximal upper-body power and strength (1RM) were determined with a pull-down exercise. In addition, body composition was assessed with a DXA scan and training during the previous six months quantified from diaries. Relative to the corresponding female values (defined as 100%), the power output produced by the men was 88%, 95% and 108% higher during the submaximal, 3-min and 30-sec tests, respectively, and peak power in the pull-down strength exercise was 118% higher (all Pgender differences in upper-body power among cross-country skiers augmented as the intensity of exercise increased. The gender differences observed here are greater than those reported previously for both lower- and whole-body sports and coincided with greater peak aerobic capacity and maximal upper-body strength, relatively more muscle mass in the upper-body, and more extensive training of upper-body strength and endurance among the male skiers.

  19. Isometric exercise (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isometric exercise works muscles and strengthens bone. Increased muscle mass elevates metabolism, which in turn burns fat. Strength training is also called anaerobic exercise, as opposed to aerobic, because increased oxygen production is not ...

  20. Exercise increases hyper-acetylation of histones on the Cis-element of NRF-1 binding to the Mef2a promoter: Implications on type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Jitcy S; Ayeleso, Ademola O; Mukwevho, Emmanuel

    2017-04-22

    Exercise brings changes on the chromatin ensuing the upregulation of many genes that confer protection from type 2 diabetes. In type-2 diabetes, critical genes are down-regulated such as those involved in glucose transport (GLUT4, MEF2A) and also oxidative phosphorylation (NRF-1 and its target genes). Recent reports have shown that NRF-1 not only regulate mitochondrial oxidative genes but also controls MEF2A, the main transcription factor for glucose transporter, GLUT4. Such dual control of the two pathways by NRF-1 place it as critical gene in the design of therapeutic modalities much needed to cure or better manage type 2 diabetes. Although it is known that NRF-1 controls these dual pathways (glucose transport and oxidative phosphorylation), the actual molecular mechanisms involved surrounding this regulation remains elusive. NRF-1 itself is regulated through posttranslational modifications (acetylation, methylation and phosphorylation) resulting in enhanced binding to its target genes. This study is therefore aimed at assessing whether CaMKII, a kinase activated by exercise brings about hyper-acetylation of histones in the vicinity of NRF-1 target gene, Mef2a. Five to six weeks old male Wistar rats were used in this study. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay was used to investigate the extent through which NRF-1 is bound to the Mef2a gene and if this was associated with hyper-acetylation of histones in the region of NRF-1 binding site of the Mef2a gene. Quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) was used to determine the gene expression of MEF2A and NRF-1. Results from this study indicated that exercise-induced CaMKII activation increased hyper-acetylation of histones in the region of NRF-1 binding site on vicinity of Mef2a gene and this was associated with the increased binding of NRF-1 to Mef2a gene. Exercise also increased the expression of NRF-1 and MEF2A genes. Administration of CaMKII inhibitor (KN93) prior to exercise attenuated the observed exercise

  1. Unlike physical exercise, modified environment increases the lifespan of SOD1G93A mice however both conditions induce cellular changes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick N Gerber

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is characterized by a gradual muscular paralysis resulting from progressive motoneurons death. ALS etiology remains unknown although it has been demonstrated to be a multifactorial disease involving several cellular partners. There is currently no effective treatment. Even if the effect of exercise is under investigation for many years, whether physical exercise is beneficial or harmful is still under debate.We investigated the effect of three different intensities of running exercises on the survival of SOD1(G93A mice. At the early-symptomatic stage (P60, males were isolated and randomly assigned to 5 conditions: 2 sedentary groups ("sedentary" and "sedentary treadmill" placed on the inert treadmill, and 3 different training intensity groups (5 cm/s, 10 cm/s and 21 cm/s; 15 min/day, 5days/week. We first demonstrated that an appropriate "control" of the environment is of the utmost importance since comparison of the two sedentary groups evidenced an 11.6% increase in survival in the "sedentary treadmill" group. Moreover, we showed by immunohistochemistry that this increased lifespan is accompanied with motoneurons survival and increased glial reactivity in the spinal cord. In a second step, we showed that when compared with the proper control, all three running-based training did not modify lifespan of the animals, but result in motoneurons preservation and changes in glial cells activation.We demonstrate that increase in survival induced by a slight daily modification of the environment is associated with motoneurons preservation and strong glial modifications in the lumbar spinal cord of SOD1(G93A. Using the appropriate control, we then demonstrate that all running intensities have no effect on the survival of ALS mice but induce cellular modifications. Our results highlight the critical importance of the control of the environment in ALS studies and may explain discrepancy in the literature regarding the

  2. Breast cancer pulmonary metastasis is increased in mice undertaking spontaneous physical training in the running wheel; a call for revising beneficial effects of exercise on cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeda, Marta; Przyborowski, Kamil; Proniewski, Bartosz; Zakrzewska, Agnieszka; Kaczor, Dawid; Stojak, Marta; Buczek, Elzbieta; Nieckarz, Zenon; Zoladz, Jerzy A; Wietrzyk, Joanna; Chlopicki, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    It has been repeatedly shown that regular aerobic exercise exerts beneficial effects on incidence and progression of cancer. However, the data regarding effects of exercise on metastatic dissemination remain conflicting. Therefore, in the present study the possible preventive effects of voluntary wheel running on primary tumor growth and metastases formation in the model of spontaneous pulmonary metastasis were analyzed after orthotopic injection of 4T1 breast cancer cells into mammary fat pads of female Balb/C mice. This study identified that in the mice injected with 4T1 breast cancer cells and running on the wheels (4T1 ex) the volume and size of the primary tumor were not affected, but the number of secondary nodules formed in the lungs was significantly increased compared to their sedentary counterparts (4T1 sed). This effect was associated with decreased NO production in the isolated aorta of exercising mice (4T1 ex), suggesting deterioration of endothelial function that was associated with lower platelet count without their overactivation. This was evidenced by comparable selectin P, active GPIIb/IIIa expression, fibrinogen and vWF binding on the platelet surface. In conclusion, voluntary wheel running appeared to impair, rather than improve endothelial function, and to promote, but not decrease metastasis in the murine orthotopic model of metastatic breast cancer. These results call for revising the notion of the persistent beneficial effects of voluntary exercise on breast cancer progression, though further studies are needed to elucidate mechanisms involved in pro-metastatic effects of voluntary exercise.

  3. Increased pulmonary artery pressures during exercise are related to persistent tricuspid regurgitation after atrial septal defect closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Meester, Pieter; Van De Bruaene, Alexander; Herijgers, Paul; Voigt, Jens-Uwe; Vanhees, Luc; Budts, Werner

    2013-08-01

    Although closure of an atrial septal defect type secundum often normalizes right heart dimensions and pressures, mild tricuspid insufficiency might persist. This study aimed at (1) identification of determinants explaining the persistence of tricuspid insufficiency after atrial septal defect closure, and (2) evaluation of functional capacity of patients with persistent mild tricuspid insufficiency. Twenty-five consecutive patients (age 42+17 y) were included from the outpatient clinic of congenital heart disease at the University Hospitals of Leuven. All underwent transthoracic echocardiography, semi-supine bicycle stress echocardiography and cardio-pulmonary exercise testing. Six patients (24%) had mild tricuspid insufficiency (2/4) compared to 19 patients (76%) with no or minimal tricuspid insufficiency ( 1/4) as assessed by semi-quantitative colour Doppler echocardiography. Mann-Whitney U and Fisher's exact tests were performed where applicable. Patients with persistent mild tricuspid insufficiency were significantly older than those with no or minimal tricuspid insufficiency (P = 0.042). At rest, no differences in right heart configuration, mean pulmonary artery pressure or right ventricular function were found. At peak exercise, mean pulmonary artery pressure was significantly higher in patients with mild persistent tricuspid insufficiency (P = 0.026). Peak oxygen uptake was significantly lower in patients with mild persistent tricuspid insufficiency (P = 0.019). Mild tricuspid insufficiency after atrial septal defect repair occurs more frequently in older patients and in patients with higher mean pulmonary artery pressure at peak exercise. In patients with mild tricuspid insufficiency, functional capacity was more reduced. Mild tricuspid insufficiency could be a marker of subclinical persistent pressure load on the right ventricle.

  4. Plasma and adipose tissue level of angiopoietin-like 7 (ANGPTL7) are increased in obesity and reduced after physical exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Farha, Mohamed; Cherian, Preethi; Al-Khairi, Irina; Madhu, Dhanya; Tiss, Ali; Warsam, Samia; Alhubail, Asma; Sriraman, Devarajan; Al-Refaei, Faisal; Abubaker, Jehad

    2017-01-01

    ANGPTL7 is a member of the Angiopoietin-like (ANGPTL) protein family that is composed of eight proteins (1-8). Increasing evidence is associating ANGPTL proteins to obesity and insulin resistance. The biological role of ANGPTL7 is yet to be understood except for a recently proposed role in the pathophysiology of glaucoma. This study was designed to shed light on the function of ANGPTL7 in obesity and its modulation by physical exercise as well as its potential association with lipid profile. A total of 144 subjects were enrolled in this study and finished three months of physical exercise. The participants were classified based on their BMI, 82 subjects were non-obese and 62 obese. ANGPTL7 levels in plasma and adipose tissue were measured by ELISA, RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. In this study, we showed that ANGPTL7 level was increased in the plasma of obese subjects (1249.05± 130.39 pg/mL) as compared to non-obese (930.34 ± 87.27 pg/mL) (p-Value = 0.032). ANGPTL7 Gene and protein expression levels in adipose tissue also showed over two fold increase. Physical exercise reduced circulating level of ANGPTL7 in the obese subjects to 740.98± 127.18 pg/mL, (p-Value = 0.007). ANGPTL7 expression in adipose tissue was also reduced after exercise. Finally, ANGPTL7 circulating level showed significant association with TG level in the obese subjects (R2 = 0.183, p-Value = 0.03). In conclusion, our data shows for the first time that obesity increases the level of ANGPTL7 in both plasma and adipose tissue. Increased expression of ANGPTL7 might play a minor role in the regulation of TG level in obese subjects either directly or through interaction with other ANGPTL protein members. Physical exercise reduced the level of ANGPTL7 highlighting the potential for targeting this protein as a therapeutic target for regulating dyslipidemia.

  5. Fructose and Sucrose Intake Increase Exogenous  Carbohydrate Oxidation during Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorn Trommelen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Peak exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates typically reach ~1 g∙min−1 during exercise when ample glucose or glucose polymers are ingested. Fructose co‐ingestion has been shown to further increase exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of fructose co‐ingestion provided either as a monosaccharide or as part of the disaccharide sucrose on exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates during prolonged exercise in trained cyclists. Ten trained male cyclists (VO2peak: 65 ± 2 mL∙kg−1∙min−1 cycled on four different occasions for 180 min at 50% Wmax during which they consumed a carbohydrate solution providing 1.8 g∙min−1 of glucose (GLU, 1.2 g∙min−1 glucose + 0.6 g∙min−1 fructose (GLU + FRU, 0.6 g∙min−1 glucose + 1.2 g∙min−1 sucrose (GLU + SUC, or water (WAT. Peak exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates did not differ between GLU + FRU and GLU + SUC (1.40 ± 0.06 vs. 1.29 ± 0.07 g∙min−1, respectively, p = 0.999, but were 46% ± 8% higher when compared to GLU (0.96 ± 0.06 g∙min−1: p < 0.05. In line, exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates during the latter 120 min of exercise were 46% ± 8% higher in GLU + FRU or GLU + SUC compared with GLU (1.19 ± 0.12, 1.13 ± 0.21, and 0.82 ± 0.16 g∙min−1, respectively, p < 0.05. We conclude that fructose co‐ingestion (0.6 g∙min−1 with glucose (1.2 g∙min−1 provided either as a monosaccharide or as sucrose strongly increases exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates during prolonged exercise in trained cyclists.

  6. Muscle glycogenolysis during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Erik; Ruderman, N B; Gavras, H

    1982-01-01

    glycogenolysis during exercise: contractions principally stimulate glycogenolysis early in exercise, and a direct effect of epinephrine on muscle is needed for continued glycogenolysis. In addition, epinephrine increased oxygen consumption and glucose uptake in both resting and electrically stimulated...

  7. The effect of climbing Mount Everest on spleen contraction and increase in hemoglobin concentration during breath holding and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engan, Harald K; Lodin-Sundström, Angelica; Schagatay, Fanny; Schagatay, Erika

    2014-04-01

    Release of stored red blood cells resulting from spleen contraction improves human performance in various hypoxic situations. This study determined spleen volume resulting from two contraction-evoking stimuli: breath holding and exercise before and after altitude acclimatization during a Mount Everest ascent (8848 m). Eight climbers performed the following protocol before and after the climb: 5 min ambient air respiration at 1370 m during rest, 20 min oxygen respiration, 20 min ambient air respiration at 1370 m, three maximal-effort breath holds spaced by 2 min, 10 min ambient air respiration, 5 min of cycling at 100 W, and finally 10 min ambient air respiration. We measured spleen volume by ultrasound and capillary hemoglobin (HB) concentration after each exposure, and heart rate (HR) and arterial oxygen saturation (Sao2) continuously. Mean (SD) baseline spleen volume was unchanged at 213 (101) mL before and 206 (52) mL after the climb. Before the climb, spleen volume was reduced to 184 (83) mL after three breath holds, and after the climb three breath holds resulted in a spleen volume of 132 (26) mL (p=0.032). After exercise, the preclimb spleen volume was 186 (89) mL vs. 112 (389) mL) after the climb (p=0.003). Breath hold duration and cardiovascular responses were unchanged after the climb. We concluded that spleen contraction may be enhanced by altitude acclimatization, probably reflecting both the acclimatization to chronic hypoxic exposure and acute hypoxia during physical work.

  8. Fructose and Sucrose Intake Increase Exogenous  Carbohydrate Oxidation during Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trommelen, Jorn; Fuchs, Cas J; Beelen, Milou; Lenaerts, Kaatje; Jeukendrup, Asker E; Cermak, Naomi M; van Loon, Luc J C

    2017-02-20

    Peak exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates typically reach ~1 g∙min-1 during exercise when ample glucose or glucose polymers are ingested. Fructose co-ingestion has been shown to further increase exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of fructose co-ingestion provided either as a monosaccharide or as part of the disaccharide sucrose on exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates during prolonged exercise in trained cyclists. Ten trained male cyclists (VO2peak: 65 ± 2 mL∙kg-1∙min-1) cycled on four different occasions for 180 min at 50% Wmax during which they consumed a carbohydrate solution providing 1.8 g∙min-1 of glucose (GLU), 1.2 g∙min-1 glucose + 0.6 g∙min-1 fructose (GLU + FRU), 0.6 g∙min-1 glucose + 1.2 g∙min-1 sucrose (GLU + SUC), or water (WAT). Peak exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates did not differ between GLU + FRU and GLU + SUC (1.40 ± 0.06 vs. 1.29 ± 0.07 g∙min-1, respectively, p = 0.999), but were 46% ± 8% higher when compared to GLU (0.96 ± 0.06 g∙min-1: p exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates during the latter 120 min of exercise were 46% ± 8% higher in GLU + FRU or GLU + SUC compared with GLU (1.19 ± 0.12, 1.13 ± 0.21, and 0.82 ± 0.16 g∙min-1, respectively, p exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates during prolonged exercise in trained cyclists.

  9. Lifelong exercise, but not short-term high-intensity interval training, increases GDF11, a marker of successful aging: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Bradley T; Herbert, Peter; Sculthorpe, Nicholas; Grace, Fergal M; Stratton, Daniel; Hayes, Lawrence D

    2017-07-01

    Lifelong exercise is associated with regulation of skeletal mass and function, reductions in frailty, and successful aging. Yet, the influence of exercise on myostatin and myostatin-interacting factors is relatively under examined in older males. Therefore, we investigated whether serum total myostatin, free myostatin, follistatin, and growth and differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) were altered following high-intensity interval training (HIIT) in a group of 13 lifelong sedentary (SED; 64 [6] years) and 11 lifelong exercising (LEX; 62 [6] years) older males. SED follistatin was moderately greater than LEX pre-HIIT (Cohen's d  = 0.66), and was largely greater post-HIIT (Cohen's d  = 1.22). The HIIT-induced increase in follistatin was large in SED (Cohen's d  = 0.82) and absent in LEX (Cohen's d  = 0.03). GDF11 was higher in LEX pre-HIIT (Cohen's d  = 0.49) and post-HIIT (Cohen's d  = 0.63) compared to SED HIIT resulted in no change to GDF11 in LEX or SED (Cohen's d  = 0.00-0.03). Peak power output and GDF11 were correlated ( r  = 0.603), independent of grouping. Differences in GDF11 with lifelong exercise training, paired with the correlation between GDF11 and peak power output, suggested that GDF11 may be a relevant myostatin-interacting peptide to successful aging in humans, and strategies to maintain this need to be further explored. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  10. Heat training increases exercise capacity in hot but not in temperate conditions: a mechanistic counter-balanced cross-over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiser, Stefanie; Flück, Daniela; Hüppin, Fabienne; Stravs, Alexander; Hilty, Matthias P; Lundby, Carsten

    2015-09-01

    The aim was to determine the mechanisms facilitating exercise performance in hot conditions following heat training. In a counter-balanced order, seven males (V̇o2max 61.2 ± 4.4 ml·min(-1)·kg(-1)) were assigned to either 10 days of 90-min exercise training in 18 or 38°C ambient temperature (30% relative humidity) applying a cross-over design. Participants were tested for V̇o2max and 30-min time trial performance in 18 (T18) and 38°C (T38) before and after training. Blood volume parameters, sweat output, cardiac output (Q̇), cerebral perfusion (i.e., middle cerebral artery velocity [MCAvmean]), and other variables were determined. Before one set of exercise tests in T38, blood volume was acutely expanded by 538 ± 16 ml with an albumin solution (T38A) to determine the role of acclimatization induced hypervolemia on exercise performance. We furthermore hypothesized that heat training would restore MCAvmean and thereby limit centrally mediated fatigue. V̇o2max and time trial performance were equally reduced in T38 and T38A (7.2 ± 1.6 and 9.3 ± 2.5% for V̇o2max; 12.8 ± 2.8 and 12.9 ± 2.8% for time trial). Following heat training both were increased in T38 (9.6 ± 2.1 and 10.4 ± 3.1%, respectively), whereas both V̇o2max and time trial performance remained unchanged in T18. As expected, heat training augmented plasma volume (6 ± 2%) and mean sweat output (26 ± 6%), whereas sweat [Na(+)] became reduced by 19 ± 7%. In T38 Q̇max remained unchanged before (21.3 ± 0.6 l/min) to after (21.7 ± 0.5 l/min) training, whereas MCAvmean was increased by 13 ± 10%. However, none of the observed adaptations correlated with the concomitant observed changes in exercise performance. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Restoration of muscle mitochondrial function and metabolic flexibility in type 2 diabetes by exercise training is paralleled by increased myocellular fat storage and improved insulin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meex, Ruth C R; Schrauwen-Hinderling, Vera B; Moonen-Kornips, Esther; Schaart, Gert; Mensink, Marco; Phielix, Esther; van de Weijer, Tineke; Sels, Jean-Pierre; Schrauwen, Patrick; Hesselink, Matthijs K C

    2010-03-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction and fat accumulation in skeletal muscle (increased intramyocellular lipid [IMCL]) have been linked to development of type 2 diabetes. We examined whether exercise training could restore mitochondrial function and insulin sensitivity in patients with type 2 diabetes. Eighteen male type 2 diabetic and 20 healthy male control subjects of comparable body weight, BMI, age, and VO2max participated in a 12-week combined progressive training program (three times per week and 45 min per session). In vivo mitochondrial function (assessed via magnetic resonance spectroscopy), insulin sensitivity (clamp), metabolic flexibility (indirect calorimetry), and IMCL content (histochemically) were measured before and after training. Mitochondrial function was lower in type 2 diabetic compared with control subjects (P = 0.03), improved by training in control subjects (28% increase; P = 0.02), and restored to control values in type 2 diabetic subjects (48% increase; P type 2 diabetic subjects (delta Rd 63% increase; P type 2 diabetic subjects was restored (delta respiratory exchange ratio 63% increase; P = 0.01) but was unchanged in control subjects (delta respiratory exchange ratio 7% increase; P = 0.22). Starting with comparable pretraining IMCL levels, training tended to increase IMCL content in type 2 diabetic subjects (27% increase; P = 0.10), especially in type 2 muscle fibers. Exercise training restored in vivo mitochondrial function in type 2 diabetic subjects. Insulin-mediated glucose disposal and metabolic flexibility improved in type 2 diabetic subjects in the face of near-significantly increased IMCL content. This indicates that increased capacity to store IMCL and restoration of improved mitochondrial function contribute to improved muscle insulin sensitivity.

  12. A hip abduction exercise prior to prolonged standing increased movement while reducing cocontraction and low back pain perception in those initially reporting low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viggiani, Daniel; Callaghan, Jack P

    2016-12-01

    Persons who develop low back pain from prolonged standing exhibit increased muscle cocontraction, decreased movement and increased spine extension. However, it is unclear how these factors relate to pain development. The purpose of this study was to use hip abductor fatigue to manipulate muscle activity patterns and determine its effects on standing behaviours and pain development. Forty participants stood for two hours twice, once following a hip abductor fatigue exercise (fatigue), and once without exercise beforehand (control). Trunk and gluteal muscle activity were measured to determine cocontraction. Lumbo-pelvic angles and force plates were used to assess posture and movement strategies. Visual analog scales differentiated pain (PDs) and non-pain developers (NPDs). PDs reported less low back pain during the fatigue session, with females having earlier reductions of similar scale than males. The fatigue session reduced gluteal and trunk cocontraction and increased centre of pressure movement; male and female PDs had opposing spine posture compensations. Muscle fatigue prior to standing reduced cocontraction, increased movement during standing and reduced the low back pain developed by PDs; the timing of pain reductions depended on spine postures adopted during standing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Auditory driving of the autonomic nervous system: Listening to theta-frequency binaural beats post-exercise increases parasympathetic activation and sympathetic withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Patrick A; Froeliger, Brett; Garland, Eric L; Ives, Jeffrey C; Sforzo, Gary A

    2014-01-01

    Binaural beats are an auditory illusion perceived when two or more pure tones of similar frequencies are presented dichotically through stereo headphones. Although this phenomenon is thought to facilitate state changes (e.g., relaxation), few empirical studies have reported on whether binaural beats produce changes in autonomic arousal. Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of binaural beating on autonomic dynamics [heart rate variability (HRV)] during post-exercise relaxation. Subjects (n = 21; 18-29 years old) participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study during which binaural beats and placebo were administered over two randomized and counterbalanced sessions (within-subjects repeated-measures design). At the onset of each visit, subjects exercised for 20-min; post-exercise, subjects listened to either binaural beats ('wide-band' theta-frequency binaural beats) or placebo (carrier tones) for 20-min while relaxing alone in a quiet, low-light environment. Dependent variables consisted of high-frequency (HF, reflecting parasympathetic activity), low-frequency (LF, reflecting sympathetic and parasympathetic activity), and LF/HF normalized powers, as well as self-reported relaxation. As compared to the placebo visit, the binaural-beat visit resulted in greater self-reported relaxation, increased parasympathetic activation and increased sympathetic withdrawal. By the end of the 20-min relaxation period there were no observable differences in HRV between binaural-beat and placebo visits, although binaural-beat associated HRV significantly predicted subsequent reported relaxation. Findings suggest that listening to binaural beats may exert an acute influence on both LF and HF components of HRV and may increase subjective feelings of relaxation.

  14. Exercise in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Vanessa H; Ferguson, James E

    2017-10-01

    Routine exercise should be recommended to healthy pregnant women after consultation with an obstetric provider. Even pregnant women who have not been exercising regularly can gradually increase their exercise during pregnancy. Regular exercise during pregnancy promotes overall wellness and helps maintain appropriate gestational weight gain and appropriate fetal weight gain. Exercise in pregnancy may also reduce hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and gestational diabetes, and may be associated with shorter first stage of labor and decreased risk for cesarean section. Exercise in pregnancy is safe for pregnant women and their fetuses and can have multiple health benefits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Myostatin dysfunction impairs force generation in extensor digitorum longus muscle and increases exercise-induced protein efflux from extensor digitorum longus and soleus muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltusnikas, Juozas; Kilikevicius, Audrius; Venckunas, Tomas; Fokin, Andrej; Bünger, Lutz; Lionikas, Arimantas; Ratkevicius, Aivaras

    2015-08-01

    Myostatin dysfunction promotes muscle hypertrophy, which can complicate assessment of muscle properties. We examined force generating capacity and creatine kinase (CK) efflux from skeletal muscles of young mice before they reach adult body and muscle size. Isolated soleus (SOL) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles of Berlin high (BEH) mice with dysfunctional myostatin, i.e., homozygous for inactivating myostatin mutation, and with a wild-type myostatin (BEH+/+) were studied. The muscles of BEH mice showed faster (P myostatin dysfunction leads to impairment in muscle force generating capacity in EDL and increases susceptibility of SOL and EDL to protein loss after exercise.

  16. Mechanisms of stress-induced cellular HSP72 release: implications for exercise-induced increases in extracellular HSP72.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Graeme I; Febbraio, Mark A

    2005-01-01

    The heat shock proteins are a family of highly conserved proteins with critical roles in maintaining cellular homeostasis and in protecting the cell from stressful conditions. While the critical intracellular roles of heat shock proteins are undisputed, evidence suggests that the cell possess the necessary machinery to actively secrete specific heat shock proteins in response to cellular stress. In this review, we firstly discuss the evidence that physical exercise induces the release of heat shock protein 72 from specific tissues in humans. Importantly, it appears as though this release is the result of an active secretory process, as opposed to non-specific processes such as cell lysis. Next we discuss recent in vitro evidence that has identified a mechanistic basis for the observation that cellular stress induces the release of a specific subset of heat shock proteins. Importantly, while the classical protein secretory pathway does not seem to be involved in the stress-induced release of HSP72, we discuss the evidence that lipid-rafts and exosomes are important mediators of the stress-induced release of HSP72.

  17. Is There Evidence That Active Videogames Increase Energy Expenditure and Exercise Intensity for People Poststroke and with Cerebral Palsy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Judith E; Guarrera-Bowlby, Phyllis; Myslinski, Mary Jane; Kafri, Michal

    2015-02-01

    This article asked and answered the question of whether there was evidence to support the use of videogames for promotion of wellness and fitness for people poststroke and those with cerebral palsy (CP). A literature search of PubMed, CINAHL, and PEDro using a population, intervention, and outcome (PIO) approach and the key words "stroke (or CP) AND video games (and synonyms) AND energy expenditure (EE) (and synonyms)" was conducted. It yielded two relevant references for people poststroke and five references for people with CP. The literature extraction and synthesis by the categories of the PIO indicated that most studies used only the population of interest, except two that compared the EE with that of healthy controls. The main finding is that both people poststroke (moderate severity) and people with CP (mild severity) can achieve moderate EE playing Wii(™) (Nintendo, Kyoto, Japan), PlayStation(®) (Sony, Tokyo, Japan), and Kinect(™) (Microsoft, Redmond, WA) games. Adults with CP of mild severity played the videogames at vigorous levels, whereas those with severe CP played them at low levels. There appears to be an interaction between development and severity that influences the exercise intensity measured by EE. The findings suggests that videogames are a gateway for wellness promotion.

  18. Increased muscle blood supply and transendothelial nutrient and insulin transport induced by food intake and exercise: effect of obesity and ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenmakers, Anton J M; Strauss, Juliette A; Shepherd, Sam O; Keske, Michelle A; Cocks, Matthew

    2016-04-15

    This review concludes that a sedentary lifestyle, obesity and ageing impair the vasodilator response of the muscle microvasculature to insulin, exercise and VEGF-A and reduce microvascular density. Both impairments contribute to the development of insulin resistance, obesity and chronic age-related diseases. A physically active lifestyle keeps both the vasodilator response and microvascular density high. Intravital microscopy has shown that microvascular units (MVUs) are the smallest functional elements to adjust blood flow in response to physiological signals and metabolic demands on muscle fibres. The luminal diameter of a common terminal arteriole (TA) controls blood flow through up to 20 capillaries belonging to a single MVU. Increases in plasma insulin and exercise/muscle contraction lead to recruitment of additional MVUs. Insulin also increases arteriolar vasomotion. Both mechanisms increase the endothelial surface area and therefore transendothelial transport of glucose, fatty acids (FAs) and insulin by specific transporters, present in high concentrations in the capillary endothelium. Future studies should quantify transporter concentration differences between healthy and at risk populations as they may limit nutrient supply and oxidation in muscle and impair glucose and lipid homeostasis. An important recent discovery is that VEGF-B produced by skeletal muscle controls the expression of FA transporter proteins in the capillary endothelium and thus links endothelial FA uptake to the oxidative capacity of skeletal muscle, potentially preventing lipotoxic FA accumulation, the dominant cause of insulin resistance in muscle fibres. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.

  19. Antioxidant responses to an acute ultra-endurance exercise: impact on DNA stability and indications for an increased need for nutritive antioxidants in the early recovery phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Oliver; Reichhold, Stefanie; Nics, Lukas; Hoelzl, Christine; Valentini, Judit; Stadlmayr, Barbara; Knasmüller, Siegfried; Wagner, Karl-Heinz

    2010-10-01

    Antioxidant requirements have neither been defined for endurance nor been defined for ultra-endurance athletes. To verify whether an acute bout of ultra-endurance exercise modifies the need for nutritive antioxidants, we aimed (1) to investigate the changes of endogenous and exogenous antioxidants in response to an Ironman triathlon; (2) to particularise the relevance of antioxidant responses to the indices of oxidatively damaged blood lipids, blood cell compounds and lymphocyte DNA and (3) to examine whether potential time-points of increased susceptibility to oxidative damage are associated with alterations in the antioxidant status. Blood that was collected from forty-two well-trained male athletes 2 d pre-race, immediately post-race, and 1, 5 and 19 d later was sampled. The key findings of the present study are as follows: (1) Immediately post-race, vitamin C, α-tocopherol, and levels of the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, the ferric reducing ability of plasma and the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays increased significantly. Exercise-induced changes in the plasma antioxidant capacity were associated with changes in uric acid, bilirubin and vitamin C. (2) Significant inverse correlations between ORAC levels and indices of oxidatively damaged DNA immediately and 1 d post-race suggest a protective role of the acute antioxidant responses in DNA stability. (3) Significant decreases in carotenoids and γ-tocopherol 1 d post-race indicate that the antioxidant intake during the first 24 h of recovery following an acute ultra-endurance exercise requires specific attention. Furthermore, the present study illustrates the importance of a diversified and well-balanced diet to maintain a physiological antioxidant status in ultra-endurance athletes in reference to recommendations.

  20. Auditory driving of the autonomic nervous system: Listening to theta-frequency binaural beats post-exercise increases parasympathetic activation and sympathetic withdrawal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick eMcConnell

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Binaural beats are an auditory illusion perceived when two or more pure tones of similar frequencies are presented dichotically through stereo headphones. Although this phenomenon is thought to facilitate state changes (e.g., relaxation, few empirical studies have reported on whether binaural beats produce changes in autonomic arousal. Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of binaural beating on autonomic dynamics (heart-rate variability (HRV during post-exercise relaxation. Subjects (n = 21; 18-29 years old participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study during which binaural beats and placebo were administered over two randomized and counterbalanced sessions (within-subjects repeated-measures design. At the onset of each visit, subjects exercised for 20-min; post-exercise, subjects listened to either binaural beats (‘wide-band’ theta-frequency binaural beats or placebo (carrier tone for 20-min while relaxing alone in a quiet, low-light environment. Dependent variables consisted of high frequency (HF, reflecting parasympathetic activity, low frequency (LF, reflecting sympathetic and parasympathetic activity and LF/HF normalized powers, as well as self-reported relaxation. As compared to the placebo visit, the binaural beat visit resulted in greater self-reported relaxation, as well as increased parasympathetic activation and sympathetic withdrawal. By the end of the 20-min relaxation period there were no observable differences in HRV between binaural beat and placebo visits, although binaural-beat associated HRV significantly predicted subsequent reported relaxation. Findings suggest that listening to binaural beats may exert an acute influence on both LF and HF components of HRV and may increase subjective feelings of relaxation.

  1. Why Exercise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... strength, boosts energy, and can help you reduce stress. It can also help you maintain a healthy body weight and curb ... well-being and help treat depression. Help relieve stress and anxiety. Increase ... Can anyone exercise? Everyone can benefit from physical activity. ...

  2. Prevention of overuse injuries by a concurrent exercise program in subjects exposed to an increase in training load: a randomized controlled trial of 1020 army recruits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brushøj, Christoffer; Larsen, Klaus; Albrecht-Beste, Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    on a literature review of intrinsic risk factors, and performed concurrent with an increase in physical activity, can reduce the incidence of overuse knee injuries and medial tibial stress syndrome, as well as increase running distance. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. METHODS...... no significant differences in incidence of injury between the prevention group and the placebo group (incidence, 0.22 vs 0.19; P = .162; relative risk = 1.05 [range, 0.98-1.11]). The soldiers in the prevention group had the greater improvement in running distance in 12-minute run tests (82 vs 43 m; P = .037......BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether an exercise program can prevent overuse injuries in the lower extremity. An often encountered and important risk factor for the development of lower extremity overuse injuries is an abrupt increase in activity level. HYPOTHESIS: A preventive training program based...

  3. Exercise restores decreased physical activity levels and increases markers of autophagy and oxidative capacity in myostatin/activin-blocked mdx mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulmi, Juha J; Oliveira, Bernardo M; Silvennoinen, Mika; Hoogaars, Willem M H; Pasternack, Arja; Kainulainen, Heikki; Ritvos, Olli

    2013-07-15

    The importance of adequate levels of muscle size and function and physical activity is widely recognized. Myostatin/activin blocking increases skeletal muscle mass but may decrease muscle oxidative capacity and can thus be hypothesized to affect voluntary physical activity. Soluble activin receptor IIB (sActRIIB-Fc) was produced to block myostatin/activins. Modestly dystrophic mdx mice were injected with sActRIIB-Fc or PBS with or without voluntary wheel running exercise for 7 wk. Healthy mice served as controls. Running for 7 wk attenuated the sActRIIB-Fc-induced increase in body mass by decreasing fat mass. Running also enhanced/restored the markers of muscle oxidative capacity and autophagy in mdx mice to or above the levels of healthy mice. Voluntary running activity was decreased by sActRIIB-Fc during the first 3-4 wk correlating with increased body mass. Home cage physical activity of mice, quantified from the force plate signal, was decreased by sActRIIB-Fc the whole 7-wk treatment in sedentary mice. To understand what happens during the first weeks after sActRIIB-Fc administration, when mice are less active, healthy mice were injected with sActRIIB-Fc or PBS for 2 wk. During the sActRIIB-Fc-induced rapid 2-wk muscle growth period, oxidative capacity and autophagy were reduced, which may possibly explain the decreased running activity. These results show that increased muscle size and decreased markers of oxidative capacity and autophagy during the first weeks of myostatin/activin blocking are associated with decreased voluntary activity levels. Voluntary exercise in dystrophic mice enhances the markers of oxidative capacity and autophagy to or above the levels of healthy mice.

  4. Relationship between increase in flexibility and improvement in the execution of daily actions by adults participating in supervised exercise program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Gil Soares de Araújo

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to relate flexibility improvements from a supervised exercise program (SEP attendance, to possible improvements in the execution of daily actions by adults. The sample consisted of 20 subjects, the majority of them cardiac patients, with an average age of 58 ± 9 years, actively participating in an SEP, selected intentionally. The Flexitest, was used to determine flexibility. In addition, the subjects answered an 11-question questionnaire, aiming to assess relative difficulty in daily actions. The questionnaire was completed between three and 18 months after beginning the program and assessed the subjects’ opinion on their improvements in daily actions since starting on the SEP. After the SEP, improvements were observed in the execution of 11 daily actions, global flexibility, and six individual movements on the Flexitest (p RESUMO Este estudo objetivou relacionar ganhos de flexibilidade decorrentes da participa��ão em programa de exercício supervisionado (PES com eventuais facilitações na execução de ações cotidianas em adultos. Vinte indivíduos, a maioria coronariopatas, com idade de 58 ± 9 anos, que estavam freqüentando um PES, foram selecionados intencionalmente. Para a avaliação da flexibilidade utilizou-se o Flexiteste. Em adendo, os indivíduos responderam um questionário com 11 perguntas para avaliar subjetivamente, a facilidade e/ou dificuldade de realizar ações cotidianas, no início do PES e no momento em que estavam respondendo o questionário. Após o PES, houve ganhos na facilidade de execução das 11 ações, na flexibilidade global passiva e em seis movimentos individuais do Flexiteste (p<0,05. Há correlação significativa entre as diferenças das respostas ao questionário e as variações na flexibilidade global (r=0,45; p<0,04. Existe relação inversa entre as variações de peso e de flexibilidade (r=-0,66; p<0,05. Concluiu-se que a facilitação na realização de a

  5. Repeated oral administration of a cathepsin K inhibitor significantly suppresses bone resorption in exercising horses with evidence of increased bone formation and maintained bone turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, H; Dulin, J; Smanik, L; Drost, W T; Russell, D; Wellman, M; Bertone, A

    2017-08-01

    Our investigations evaluated the effect of VEL-0230, a highly specific irreversible inhibitor of cathepsin K (CatK). The objectives of our study were to determine whether repeated dosing of a CatK inhibitor (CatKI) produced a desired inhibition of the bone resorption biomarker (CTX-1), and document the effect of repeated dosing on bone homeostasis, structure, and dynamics of bone resorption and formation in horses. Twelve young exercising horses were randomized in a prospective, controlled clinical trial and received 4 weekly doses of a CatKI or vehicle. Baseline and poststudy nuclear scintigraphy, blood sampling and analysis of plasma bone biomarkers (CTX-1 and osteocalcin), poststudy bone fluorescent labeling, and bone biopsy were performed. Bone specimens were further processed for microcomputed tomography and bone histomorphometry. Each dose of this CatKI transiently inhibited plasma CTX-1 (reflecting inhibition of bone collagen resorption) and increased bone plasma osteocalcin concentrations, with no detectable adverse effect on normal bone turnover in the face of exercise. Bone morphology, density, and formation rate were not different between control and treated group. Further investigation of CatK inhibition in abnormal bone turnover is required in animals with bone diseases. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Exercise Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Martin G; Sharman, James E

    2014-05-01

    Irrespective of apparent 'normal' resting blood pressure (BP), some individuals may experience an excessive elevation in BP with exercise (i.e. systolic BP ≥210 mm Hg in men or ≥190 mm Hg in women or diastolic BP ≥110 mm Hg in men or women), a condition termed exercise hypertension or a 'hypertensive response to exercise' (HRE). An HRE is a relatively common condition that is identified during standard exercise stress testing; however, due to a lack of information with respect to the clinical ramifications of an HRE, little value is usually placed on such a finding. In this review, we discuss both the clinical importance and underlying physiological contributors of exercise hypertension. Indeed, an HRE is associated with an increased propensity for target organ damage and also predicts the future development of hypertension, cardiovascular events and mortality, independent of resting BP. Moreover, recent work has highlighted that some of the elevated cardiovascular risks associated with an HRE may be related to high-normal resting BP (pre-hypertension) or ambulatory 'masked' hypertension and that an HRE may be an early warning signal of abnormal BP control that is otherwise undetected with clinic BP. Whilst an HRE may be amenable to treatment via pharmacological and lifestyle interventions, the exact physiological mechanism of an HRE remains elusive, but it is likely a manifestation of multiple factors including large artery stiffness, increased peripheral resistance, neural circulatory control and metabolic irregularity. Future research focus may be directed towards determining threshold values to denote the increased risk associated with an HRE and further resolution of the underlying physiological factors involved in the pathogenesis of an HRE.

  7. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and aerobic exercise training (AET) increased plasma BDNF and ameliorated depressive symptoms in patients suffering from major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Iraj; Hosseini, Seyed Mohammad; Haghighi, Mohammad; Jahangard, Leila; Bajoghli, Hafez; Gerber, Markus; Pühse, Uwe; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2016-05-01

    To treat patients suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD), research has focused on electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and aerobic exercise training (AET). Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) seems to be key in MDD. The aims of the present study were therefore two-fold, to investigate in a three-arm interventional study the differential effects of ECT, ECT plus AET, and AET alone in patients suffering from TR-MDD on 1. depressive symptoms and 2. plasma BDNF (pBDNF). 60 patients with MDD (mean age: 31 years; 31.6% female patients) were randomly assigned either to the ECT, ECT + AET, or AET condition. The AET condition consisted of treadmill exercise for 45 min, three times a week. Both depression severity and pBDNF levels were assessed at baseline and 4 weeks later. All patients were further treated with an SSRI standard medication. pBDNF levels increased over time in all three study conditions, though, highest increase was observed in the ECT + EAT condition, and lowest increase was observed in the AET condition. Depressive symptoms decreased in all three conditions over time, though, strongest decrease was observed in the ECT + AET condition. The combination of ECT + AET led to significantly greater remission rates than in either the ECT or AET alone conditions. BDNF levels were not associated with symptoms of depression. The pattern of results suggests that ECT, AET and particularly their combination are promising directions for the treatment of patients suffering from MDD, and that it remains unclear to what extent pBDNF is key and a reliable biomarker for MDD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. On the possible high +Gz tolerance increase by multimodal brain imaging controlled respiratory AFTE biofeedback training exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smietanowski, Maciej; Achimowicz, Jerzy; Lorenc, Kamil; Nowicki, Grzegorz; Zalewska, Ewa; Truszczynski, Olaf

    The experimental data related to Valsalva manouvers and short term voluntary apnea, available in the literature, suggest that the cerebral blood flow increase and reduction of the peripheral one may be expected if the specific AFTE based respiratory training is performed. The authors had verified this hypothesis by studying the relations between EEG measured subject relaxation combined with voluntary apnea by multimodal brain imaging technique (EEG mapping, Neuroscan and fMRI) in a group of healthy volunteers. The SPM analysis of respiratory related changes in cortical and subcortical BOLD signal has partially confirmed the hypothesis. The mechanism of this effect is probably based on the simultaneous blood pressure increase and total peripheral resistance increase. However the question is still open for further experimental verification if AFTE can be treated as the tool which can increase pilot/astronaut situation awareness in the extreme environment typical for aerospace operations where highly variable accelerations due to liftoff, rapid maneuvers, and vibrations can be expected in the critical phases of the mission.

  9. Diabetes, insulin and exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Erik; Galbo, H

    1986-01-01

    The metabolic and hormonal adaptations to single exercise sessions and to exercise training in normal man and in patients with insulin-dependent as well as non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus are reviewed. In insulin-dependent (type I) diabetes good metabolic control is best obtained...... by a regular pattern of life which will lead to a fairly constant demand for insulin from day to day. Exercise is by nature a perturbation that makes treatment of diabetes difficult: Muscle contractions per se tend to decrease the plasma glucose concentration whereas the exercise-induced response of the so......-called counter-regulatory hormones tend to increase plasma glucose by increasing hepatic glucose production and adipose tissue lipolysis. If the pre-exercise plasma insulin level is high, hypoglycaemia may develop during exercise whereas hyperglycaemia and ketosis may develop if pre-exercise plasma insulin...

  10. Changes in Indirect Markers of Muscle Damage and Tendons After Daily Drop Jumping Exercise with Rapid Load Increase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidas Paleckis, Mantas Mickevičius, Audrius Snieckus, Vytautas Streckis, Mati Pääsuke, Saulius Rutkauskas, Rasa Steponavičiūtė, Albertas Skurvydas, Sigitas Kamandulis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess changes in indirect markers of muscle damage and type I collagen degradation, as well as, patellar and Achilles tendon morphological differences during nine daily drop-jumps sessions with constant load alternated with rapid increases in load to test the hypothesis that frequent drop-jump training results in negative muscular and tendon adaptation. Young men (n = 9 performed daily drop jump workouts with progression every 3 days in terms of number of jumps, platform height and squat amplitude. Voluntary and electrically evoked knee extensor torque, muscle soreness, blood plasma creatine kinase (CK activity and carboxyterminal cross-linked telopeptide (ICTP, patellar and Achilles tendon thickness and cross-sectional area (CSA were assessed at different time points during the training period and again on days 1, 3, 10 and 17 after the training. The findings were as follows: (1 steady decline in maximal muscle strength with major recovery within 24 hours after the first six daily training sessions; (2 larger decline in electrically induced muscle torque and prolonged recovery during last three training sessions; (3 increase in patellar and Achilles tendons CSA without change in thickness towards the end of training period; (4 increase in jump height but not in muscle strength after whole training period. Our findings suggest that frequent drop-jump sessions with constant load alternated with rapid increases in load do not induce severe muscle damage or major changes in tendons, nonetheless, this type of loading is not advisable for muscle strength improvement.

  11. Diabetes and Technology for Increased Activity (DaTA Study: The effects of exercise and technology on heart rate variability and metabolic syndrome risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie I Stuckey

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study tested the hypothesis that an eight-week exercise intervention supported by mobile health (mHealth technology would improve metabolic syndrome (MetS risk factors and heart rate variability (HRV in a population with MetS risk factors. Participants (n=12; 3 male; aged 56.9±7.0y reported to the laboratory for assessment of MetS risk factors and fitness (VO2max at baseline (V0 and after eight-weeks (V2 of intervention. Participants received an individualized exercise prescription and a mHealth technology kit for remote monitoring of blood pressure (BP, blood glucose, physical activity and body weight via smartphone. Participants underwent 24-h ambulatory monitoring of R-R intervals following V0 and V2. Low and high frequency powers of HRV were assessed from the recording and the ratio of low-to-high frequency powers and low and high frequency power in normalized units were calculated. One-way repeated measures analysis of variance showed that waist circumference (V0: 113.1±11.0cm, V2: 108.1±14.7cm; p=0.004 and diastolic BP (V0: 81±6mmHg, V2: 76±11mmHg; p=0.04 were reduced and VO2max increased (V0: 31.3ml/kg/min, V2: 34.8ml/kg/min; p=0.02 with no changes in other MetS risk factors. Low and high frequency powers in normalized units were reduced (V0: 75.5±12.0, V2: 72.0±12.1; p=0.03 and increased (V0: 24.5±12.0, V2: 28.0±12.1; p=0.03, respectively, with no other changes in HRV. Over the intervention period, changes in systolic BP were correlated negatively with the changes in R-R interval (r=-0.600; p=0.04 and positively with the changes in heart rate (r=0.611; p=0.03, with no other associations between MetS risk factors and HRV parameters. Thus, this eight-week mHealth supported exercise intervention improved MetS risk factors and HRV parameters, but only changes in systolic BP were associated with improved autonomic function.

  12. Passive smoking reduces and vitamin C increases exercise-induced oxidative stress: does this make passive smoking an anti-oxidant and vitamin C a pro-oxidant stimulus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodorou, Anastasios A; Paschalis, Vassilis; Kyparos, Antonios; Panayiotou, George; Nikolaidis, Michalis G

    2014-11-07

    The current interpretative framework states that, for a certain experimental treatment (usually a chemical substance) to be classified as "anti-oxidant", it must possess the property of reducing (or even nullifying) exercise-induced oxidative stress. The aim of the study was to compare side by side, in the same experimental setup, redox biomarkers responses to an identical acute eccentric exercise session, before and after chronic passive smoking (considered a pro-oxidant stimulus) or vitamin C supplementation (considered an anti-oxidant stimulus). Twenty men were randomly assigned into either passive smoking or vitamin C group. All participants performed two acute eccentric exercise sessions, one before and one after either exposure to passive smoking or vitamin C supplementation for 12 days. Vitamin C, oxidant biomarkers (F2-isoprostanes and protein carbonyls) and the non-enzymatic antioxidant (glutathione) were measured, before and after passive smoking, vitamin C supplementation or exercise. It was found that chronic exposure to passive smoking increased the level of F2-isoprostanes and decreased the level of glutathione at rest, resulting in minimal increase or absence of oxidative stress after exercise. Conversely, chronic supplementation with vitamin C decreased the level of F2-isoprostanes and increased the level of glutathione at rest, resulting in marked exercise-induced oxidative stress. Contrary to the current scientific consensus, our results show that, when a pro-oxidant stimulus is chronically delivered, it is more likely that oxidative stress induced by subsequent exercise is decreased and not increased. Reversely, it is more likely to find greater exercise-induced oxidative stress after previous exposure to an anti-oxidant stimulus. We believe that the proposed framework will be a useful tool to reach more pragmatic explanations of redox biology phenomena. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Increased technetium uptake is not equivalent to muscle necrosis: scintigraphic, morphological and intramuscular pressure analyses of sore muscles after exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crenshaw, A. G.; Friden, J.; Hargens, A. R.; Lang, G. H.; Thornell, L. E.

    1993-01-01

    A scintigraphic technique employing technetium pyrophosphate uptake was used to identify the area of skeletal muscle damage in the lower leg of four runners 24 h after an ultramarathon footrace (160 km). Most of the race had been run downhill which incorporated an extensive amount of eccentric work. Soreness was diffuse throughout the posterior region of the lower leg. In order to interpret what increased technetium uptake reflects and to express extreme endurance related damages, a biopsy was taken from the 3-D position of abnormal uptake. In addition, intramuscular pressures were determined in the deep posterior compartment. Scintigraphs revealed increased technetium pyrophosphate uptake in the medial portion of the gastrocnemius muscle. For 3698 fibres analysed, 33 fibres (1%) were necrotic, while a few other fibres were either atrophic or irregular shaped. A cluster of necrotic fibres occurred at the fascicular periphery for one subject and fibre type grouping occurred for another. Ultrastructural analysis revealed Z-line streaming near many capillaries and variously altered subsarcolemmal mitochondria including some with paracrystalline inclusions. The majority of the capillaries included thickened and irregular shaped endothelial cells. Intramuscular pressures of the deep posterior compartment were slightly elevated (12-15 mmHg) for three of the four subjects. Increased technetium uptake following extreme endurance running does not just reflect muscle necrosis but also subtle fibre abnormalities. Collectively, these pathological findings are attributed to relative ischaemia occurring during the race and during pre-race training, whereas, intramuscular pressure elevations associated with muscle soreness are attributed to mechanical stress caused by extensive eccentric work during the race.

  14. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A SPECIALIST Prevention Strengthening Exercise Committee Exercise Committee Core Strengthening Many popular forms of exercise focus on ... acute pain, you should stop doing it. Transverse Core Strengthening This strengthens the muscles that cross from ...

  15. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic Exercise Cervical Exercise Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy ...

  16. Every exercise bout matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dethlefsen, Christine; Pedersen, Katrine Seide; Hojman, Pernille

    2017-01-01

    Cumulative epidemiological evidence shows that regular exercise lowers the risk of developing breast cancer and decreases the risk of disease recurrence. The causality underlying this relation has not been fully established, and the exercise recommendations for breast cancer patients follow...... the general physical activity guidelines, prescribing 150 min of exercise per week. Thus, elucidations of the causal mechanisms are important to prescribe and implement the most optimal training regimen in breast cancer prevention and treatment. The prevailing hypothesis on the positive association within...... exercise oncology has focused on lowering of the basal systemic levels of cancer risk factors with exercise training. However, another rather overlooked systemic exercise response is the marked acute increases in several potential anti-cancer components during each acute exercise bout. Here, we review...

  17. Reduced body weight or increased muscle quality: Which is more important for improving physical function following exercise and weight loss in overweight and obese older women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straight, Chad R; Berg, Alison C; Reed, Rachelle A; Johnson, Mary Ann; Evans, Ellen M

    2018-04-19

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relative contributions of changes in muscle quality and body composition to changes in lower-extremity physical function (LEPF) following a 6-month exercise and weight loss intervention in overweight and obese older women. Thirty-eight overweight and obese (BMI = 30.0 ± 4.4 kg/m 2 ) older (age = 69.3 ± 4.1 y) women completed 6 months of multicomponent exercise (cardiorespiratory, resistance, balance and flexibility training) and weight loss (hypocaloric diet that reduced energy intake by ~500 kcal/d). Body composition was measured via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and muscle quality (N-m/kg) was defined as maximal concentric isokinetic knee torque divided by upper-leg lean mass. The standardized scores of four objective measures of physical function were summed to yield a composite LEPF Z-score. At 6 months, there were significant reductions in body weight (-9.6 ± 3.5%, p quality (+1.6 ± 1.8 N-m/kg, p quality was the strongest independent predictor of an improvement in LEPF Z-score (standardized β = 0.64, p quality. In conclusion, muscle quality can be increased in the presence of clinically meaningful weight loss, and is the primary determinant of improved physical function in overweight/obese older women. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Value of Implementation of Strategies to Increase the Adherence of Health Professionals and Cancer Survivors to Guideline-Based Physical Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mewes, Janne C; Steuten, Lotte M G; IJsbrandy, Charlotte; IJzerman, Maarten J; van Harten, Wim H

    2017-12-01

    To increase the adherence of health professionals and cancer survivors to evidence-based physical exercise, effective implementation strategies (ISTs) are required. To examine to what extent these ISTs provide value for money and which IST has the highest expected value. The net benefit framework of health economic evaluations is used to conduct a value-of-implementation analysis of nine ISTs. Seven are directed to health professionals and two to cancer survivors. The analysis consists of four steps: 1) analyzing the expected value of perfect implementation (EVPIM); 2) assessing the estimated costs of the various ISTs; 3) comparing the ISTs' costs with the EVPIM; and 4) assessing the total net benefit (TNB) of the ISTs. These steps are followed to identify which strategy has the greatest value. The EVPIM for physical exercise in the Netherlands is €293 million. The total costs for the ISTs range from €34,000 for printed educational materials for professionals to €120 million for financial incentives for patients, and thus all are cost-effective. The TNB of the ISTs that are directed to professionals ranges from €5.7 million for printed educational materials to €30.9 million for reminder systems. Of the strategies that are directed to patients, only the motivational program had a positive net benefit of €100.4 million. All the ISTs for cancer survivors, except for financial incentives, had a positive TNB. The largest improvements in adherence were created by a motivational program for patients, followed by a reminder system for professionals. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Effect of Increasing Volume of Exercise on Activation Pattern of Vastus Medialis and Lateralis and its Correlation With Anterior Knee Pain in Karate Elites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safar Cherati, Afsaneh; Lotfian, Sara; Jamshidi, Aliashraf; Sanjari, Mohammad Ali; Razi, Mohammad

    2016-09-01

    The effects of exercise volume on the pattern of muscle activity is one of the most important factors in training management and injury risk reduction. In the lower limb, the quadriceps muscle which plays a determining role in performing the stance and other karate techniques could be injured in intensive exercise and may induce anterior knee pain in athletes. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between training volume and muscle activity of vastus medialis and vastus lateralis and its association with anterior knee pain in karate elites. Male and female athletes from national junior and cadet karate team (14 to 18 years) were invited to participate in the study at the beginning and the end of the training camps. Studies involved measurement of electromyographic muscle activity of vastus medialis and vastus lateralis in both lower extremities with surface electromyography device and assessment of movement by electrogoniometery. Muscle activity was recorded in three tests of dachi, walking up and walking down stairs. Simultaneously, anterior knee pain was evaluated using visual analogue scale and anterior knee pain scale questionnaire. Eight athletes of a total number of 23 reported increased ratings of pain in their right knees. No differences in muscle activity were observed in tests of Dachi and stairs between the groups with and without pain. Comparing Dachi task pattern at the beginning and end of training camps, there was no significant difference in pattern of biomechanical movement; however, reducing the amount of muscle activity in early and late phases of tasks was observed in electromyographic assessment. The results showed that performing the same task after a six-week training period, less muscle activity was required in all phases in two groups of tasks, including karate-specific movement (dachi) and activities of daily living (up or down stairs).

  20. Maternal Exercise during Pregnancy Increases BDNF Levels and Cell Numbers in the Hippocampal Formation but Not in the Cerebral Cortex of Adult Rat Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes da Silva, Sérgio; de Almeida, Alexandre Aparecido; Fernandes, Jansen; Lopim, Glauber Menezes; Cabral, Francisco Romero; Scerni, Débora Amado; de Oliveira-Pinto, Ana Virgínia; Lent, Roberto; Arida, Ricardo Mario

    2016-01-01

    Clinical evidence has shown that physical exercise during pregnancy may alter brain development and improve cognitive function of offspring. However, the mechanisms through which maternal exercise might promote such effects are not well understood. The present study examined levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and absolute cell…

  1. Comparison of yoga and walking-exercise on cardiac time intervals as a measure of cardiac function in elderly with increased pulse pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Satish Gurunathrao; Patil, Shankargouda S; Aithala, Manjunatha R; Das, Kusal Kanti

    Arterial aging along with increased blood pressure(BP) has become the major cardiovascular(CV) risk in elderly. The aim of the study was to compare the effects of yoga program and walking-exercise on cardiac function in elderly with increased pulse pressure (PP). An open label, parallel-group randomized controlled study design was adopted. Elderly individuals aged ≥60 years with PP≥60mmHg were recruited for the study. Yoga (study) group (n=30) was assigned for yoga training and walking (exercise) group (n=30) for walking with loosening practices for one hour in the morning for 6days in a week for 3 months. The outcome measures were cardiac time intervals derived from pulse wave analysis and ECG: resting heart rate (RHR), diastolic time(DT), ventricular ejection time(LVET), upstroke time(UT), ejection duration index (ED%), pre-ejection period (PEP), rate pressure product (RPP) and percentage of mean arterial pressure (%MAP). The mean within-yoga group change in RHR(bpm) was 4.41 (p=0.031), PD(ms): -50.29 (p=0.042), DT(ms): -49.04 (p=0.017), ED%: 2.107 (p=0.001), ES(mmHg/ms): 14.62 (p=0.118), ET(ms): -0.66 (p=0.903), UT(ms): -2.54 (p=0.676), PEP(ms): -1.25 (p=0.11) and %MAP: 2.08 (p=0.04). The mean within-control group change in HR (bpm) was 0.35 (p=0.887), PD (ms): 11.15(p=0.717), DT (ms): 11.3 (p=0.706), ED%: -0.101 (p=0.936), ES (mmHg/ms): 0.75 (p=0.926), ET(ms): 2.2 (p=0.721), UT(ms):4.7(p=455), PEP (ms): 2.1(p=0.11), %MAP: 0.65 (p=0.451). A significant difference between-group was found in RHR (p=0.036), PD (p=0.02), ED% (p=0.049), LVET (p=0.048), DT (p=0.02) and RPP (p=0.001). Yoga practice for 3 months showed a significant improvement in diastolic function with a minimal change in systolic function. Yoga is more effective than walking in improving cardiac function in elderly with high PP. Copyright © 2017 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Exercise for midlife women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shangold, M M; Sherman, C

    1998-12-01

    Exercise is good for everyone, but it's more important than ever when you reach midlife. While regular exercise may not eliminate symptoms like hot flushes, it can improve your general well-being and increase your strength and stamina in daily life. If you want to lose fat or maintain a healthy weight, exercise is far more effective than diet alone. A physically active lifestyle, along with good nutrition and estrogen therapy, will also help protect you against heart disease, overweight, and osteoporosis.

  3. The invisible benefits of exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruby, Matthew B; Dunn, Elizabeth W; Perrino, Andrea; Gillis, Randall; Viel, Sasha

    2011-01-01

    To examine whether--and why--people underestimate how much they enjoy exercise. Across four studies, 279 adults predicted how much they would enjoy exercising, or reported their actual feelings after exercising. Main outcome measures were predicted and actual enjoyment ratings of exercise routines, as well as intention to exercise. Participants significantly underestimated how much they would enjoy exercising; this affective forecasting bias emerged consistently for group and individual exercise, and moderate and challenging workouts spanning a wide range of forms, from yoga and Pilates to aerobic exercise and weight training (Studies 1 and 2). We argue that this bias stems largely from forecasting myopia, whereby people place disproportionate weight on the beginning of a workout, which is typically unpleasant. We demonstrate that forecasting myopia can be harnessed (Study 3) or overcome (Study 4), thereby increasing expected enjoyment of exercise. Finally, Study 4 provides evidence for a mediational model, in which improving people's expected enjoyment of exercise leads to increased intention to exercise. People underestimate how much they enjoy exercise because of a myopic focus on the unpleasant beginning of exercise, but this tendency can be harnessed or overcome, potentially increasing intention to exercise. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Increased left ventricular myocardial extracellular volume is associated with longer cardiopulmonary bypass times, biventricular enlargement and reduced exercise tolerance in children after repair of Tetralogy of Fallot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesenkampff, Eugénie; Luining, Wietske; Seed, Mike; Chungsomprasong, Paweena; Manlhiot, Cedric; Elders, Bernadette; McCrindle, Brian W; Yoo, Shi-Joon; Grosse-Wortmann, Lars

    2016-10-26

    Unfavorable left ventricular (LV) remodelling may be associated with adverse outcomes after Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) repair. We sought to assess T1 cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) markers of diffuse LV myocardial fibrosis in children after TOF repair, and associated factors. In this prospective, cross-sectional study, native (=non-contrast) T1 times and extracellular volume fraction (ECV) were quantified in the LV myocardium using CMR. Results were related to ventricular volumes and function, degree of pulmonary regurgitation, as well as surgical characteristics, and exercise capacity. There was no difference in native T1 times or ECV between 31 TOF patients (age at CMR 13.9 ± 2.4 years, 19 male) and 15 controls (age at CMR 13.4 ± 2.6 years, 7 male). Female TOF patients had higher ECVs than males (25.2 ± 2.9 % versus 22.7 ± 3.3 %, p < 0.05). In the patient group, higher native T1 and ECV correlated with higher Z-Scores of right and left ventricular end-diastolic volumes, but not with reduced left and right ventricular ejection fraction or higher pulmonary regurgitation fraction. Longer cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross clamp times at surgery correlated with increased native T1 times and ECVs (r = 0.48, p < 0.05 and r = 0.65, p < 0.01, respectively). Maximum workload (percent of predicted for normal) correlated inversely with ECV (r = -0.62, p < 0.05). Higher native T1 times correlated with worse LV longitudinal (r = 0.50, p < 0.05) and mid short axis circumferential strain (r = 0.38, p < 0.05). As compared to controls, TOF patients did not express higher markers of diffuse fibrosis. Longer cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross clamp times at surgery as well as biventricular enlargement and reduced exercise tolerance are associated with markers of diffuse myocardial fibrosis after TOF repair. Female patients have higher markers of diffuse myocardial fibrosis than males.

  5. The dynamics of somatic indicators of basketball players under the influence of the special exercises which are directed to the increase of stability of the vestibular analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevhen Kharchenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine stability of the vestibular analyzer of basketball players of the team of KhSAPC by indicators of somatic displacements after the standard vestibular irritations on the Barany chair, after the introduction of the special exercises in the educational – training process, which are directed on the increase of stability of the vestibular sensor-based system. Material & Methods: the analysis of references, methods of definition of a functional condition of the vestibular analyzer on indicators of somatic displacements before and after the irritation on the Barany chair, methods of mathematical statistics. 12 boys – basketball players of the men's national team of KhSAPC took part in the researches. Results: somatic indicators of a functional condition of the vestibular analyzer of students – basketball players of the team of KhSAPC, and, their changes under the influence of rotary loadings before the pedagogical experiment are given in the article. Conclusions: the analysis of the results which were received after the experiment showed the considerable improvement of indicators, according to the testing of the motive test (4x9 m (s, hand dynamometry of 100% of a maximum and 50% of a maximum of the right and left hands (р0,05.

  6. Soy-dairy protein blend and whey protein ingestion after resistance exercise increases amino acid transport and transporter expression in human skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidy, P. T.; Walker, D. K.; Dickinson, J. M.; Gundermann, D. M.; Drummond, M. J.; Timmerman, K. L.; Cope, M. B.; Mukherjea, R.; Jennings, K.; Volpi, E.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing amino acid availability (via infusion or ingestion) at rest or postexercise enhances amino acid transport into human skeletal muscle. It is unknown whether alterations in amino acid availability, from ingesting different dietary proteins, can enhance amino acid transport rates and amino acid transporter (AAT) mRNA expression. We hypothesized that the prolonged hyperaminoacidemia from ingesting a blend of proteins with different digestion rates postexercise would enhance amino acid transport into muscle and AAT expression compared with the ingestion of a rapidly digested protein. In a double-blind, randomized clinical trial, we studied 16 young adults at rest and after acute resistance exercise coupled with postexercise (1 h) ingestion of either a (soy-dairy) protein blend or whey protein. Phenylalanine net balance and transport rate into skeletal muscle were measured using stable isotopic methods in combination with femoral arteriovenous blood sampling and muscle biopsies obtained at rest and 3 and 5 h postexercise. Phenylalanine transport into muscle and mRNA expression of select AATs [system L amino acid transporter 1/solute-linked carrier (SLC) 7A5, CD98/SLC3A2, system A amino acid transporter 2/SLC38A2, proton-assisted amino acid transporter 1/SLC36A1, cationic amino acid transporter 1/SLC7A1] increased to a similar extent in both groups (P protein blend resulted in a prolonged and positive net phenylalanine balance during postexercise recovery compared with whey protein (P protein synthesis increased similarly between groups. We conclude that, while both protein sources enhanced postexercise AAT expression, transport into muscle, and myofibrillar protein synthesis, postexercise ingestion of a protein blend results in a slightly prolonged net amino acid balance across the leg compared with whey protein. PMID:24699854

  7. l-glutamine and l-alanine supplementation increase glutamine-glutathione axis and muscle HSP-27 in rats trained using a progressive high-intensity resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Jaqueline Santos Moreira; Raizel, Raquel; Hypólito, Thaís Menezes; Rosa, Thiago Dos Santos; Cruzat, Vinicius Fernandes; Tirapegui, Julio

    2016-08-01

    In this study we investigated the chronic effects of oral l-glutamine and l-alanine supplementation, either in their free or dipeptide form, on glutamine-glutathione (GLN-GSH) axis and cytoprotection mediated by HSP-27 in rats submitted to resistance exercise (RE). Forty Wistar rats were distributed into 5 groups: sedentary; trained (CTRL); and trained supplemented with l-alanyl-l-glutamine, l-glutamine and l-alanine in their free form (GLN+ALA), or free l-alanine (ALA). All trained animals were submitted to a 6-week ladder-climbing protocol. Supplementations were offered in a 4% drinking water solution for 21 days prior to euthanasia. Plasma glutamine, creatine kinase (CK), myoglobin (MYO), and erythrocyte concentration of reduced GSH and glutathione disulfide (GSSG) were measured. In tibialis anterior skeletal muscle, GLN-GSH axis, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and the expression of heat shock factor 1 (HSF-1), 27-kDa heat shock protein (HSP-27), and glutamine synthetase were determined. In CRTL animals, high-intensity RE reduced muscle glutamine levels and increased GSSG/GSH rate and TBARS, as well as augmented plasma CK and MYO levels. Conversely, l-glutamine-supplemented animals showed an increase in plasma and muscle levels of glutamine, with a reduction in GSSG/GSH rate, TBARS, and CK. Free l-alanine administration increased plasma glutamine concentration and lowered muscle TBARS. HSF-1 and HSP-27 were high in all supplemented groups when compared with CTRL (p alanine, in both a free or dipeptide form, improve the GLN-GSH axis and promote cytoprotective effects in rats submitted to high-intensity RE training.

  8. Fish oil supplementation suppresses resistance exercise and feeding-induced increases in anabolic signaling without affecting myofibrillar protein synthesis in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlory, Chris; Wardle, Sophie L; Macnaughton, Lindsay S; Witard, Oliver C; Scott, Fraser; Dick, James; Bell, J Gordon; Phillips, Stuart M; Galloway, Stuart D R; Hamilton, D Lee; Tipton, Kevin D

    2016-03-01

    Fish oil (FO) supplementation potentiates muscle protein synthesis (MPS) in response to a hyperaminoacidemic-hyperinsulinemic infusion. Whether FO supplementation potentiates MPS in response to protein ingestion or when protein ingestion is combined with resistance exercise (RE) remains unknown. In a randomized, parallel group design, 20 healthy males were randomized to receive 5 g/day of either FO or coconut oil control (CO) for 8 weeks. After supplementation, participants performed a bout of unilateral RE followed by ingestion of 30 g of whey protein. Skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained before and after supplementation for assessment of muscle lipid composition and relevant protein kinase activities. Infusion of L-[ring-(13)C6] phenylalanine was used to measure basal myofibrillar MP Sat rest (REST), in a nonexercised leg following protein ingestion (FED) and following RE and protein ingestion (FEDEX).MPS was significantly elevated above REST during FEDEX in both the FO and CO groups, but there was no effect of supplementation. There was a significant increase in MPS in both groups above REST during FED but no effect of supplementation. Supplementation significantly decreased pan PKB activity at RESTin the FO group but not the CO group. There was a significant increase from REST at post-RE for PKB and AMPKα2 activity in the CO group but not in the FO group. In FEDEX, there was a significant increase in p70S6K1 activity from REST at 3 h in the CO group only. These data highlight that 8 weeks of FO supplementation alters kinase signaling activity in response to RE plus protein ingestion without influencing MPS. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  9. Exercise, lifestyle, and your bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... they are good for your heart, swimming and biking DO NOT increase bone density. Other Lifestyle Changes ... A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Benefits of Exercise Exercise and Physical Fitness ...

  10. Automatic activation of exercise and sedentary stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Tanya; Spence, John C

    2009-09-01

    We examined the automatic activation of "sedentary" and "exerciser" stereotypes using a social prime Stroop task. Results showed significantly slower response times between the exercise words and the exercise control words and between the sedentary words and the exercise control words when preceded by an attractive exerciser prime. Words preceded by a normal-weight exerciser prime showed significantly slower response times for sedentary words over sedentary control words and exercise words. An overweight sedentary prime resulted in significantly slower response times for sedentary words over exercise words and exercise control words. These results highlight the need for increased awareness of how active and sedentary lifestyles are portrayed in the media.

  11. Dietary antioxidants and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Scott K; DeRuisseau, Keith C; Quindry, John; Hamilton, Karyn L

    2004-01-01

    Muscular exercise promotes the production of radicals and other reactive oxygen species in the working muscle. Growing evidence indicates that reactive oxygen species are responsible for exercise-induced protein oxidation and contribute to muscle fatigue. To protect against exercise-induced oxidative injury, muscle cells contain complex endogenous cellular defence mechanisms (enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants) to eliminate reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, exogenous dietary antioxidants interact with endogenous antioxidants to form a cooperative network of cellular antioxidants. Knowledge that exercise-induced oxidant formation can contribute to muscle fatigue has resulted in numerous investigations examining the effects of antioxidant supplementation on human exercise performance. To date, there is limited evidence that dietary supplementation with antioxidants will improve human performance. Furthermore, it is currently unclear whether regular vigorous exercise increases the need for dietary intake of antioxidants. Clearly, additional research that analyses the antioxidant requirements of individual athletes is needed.

  12. Reinnervation of Vastus lateralis is increased significantly in seniors (70-years old with a lifelong history of high-level exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Mosole

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It has long been recognized that histological changes observed in aging muscle suggest that denervation contributes to muscle deterioration and that disuse accelerates the process while running activity, sustained for decades, protects against age-related loss of motor units. Here we show at the histological level that lifelong increased physical activity promotes reinnervation of muscle fibers. In muscle biopsies from 70-year old men with a lifelong history of high-level physical activity, we observed a considerable increase in fiber-type groupings (almost exclusively of the slow type in comparison to sedentary seniors, revealing a large population of reinnervated muscle fibers in the sportsmen. Slow-type transformation by reinnervation in senior sportsmen seems to be a clinically relevant mechanism: the muscle biopsies fluctuate from those with scarce fiber-type transformation and groupings to almost fully transformed muscle, going through a process in which isolated fibers co-expressing fast and slow MHCs seems to fill the gaps. Taken together, our results suggest that, beyond the direct effects of aging on the muscle fibers, changes occurring in skeletal muscle tissue appear to be largely, although not solely, a result of sparse denervation. Our data suggest that lifelong exercise allows the body to adapt to the consequences of the age-related denervation and to preserve muscle structure and function by saving otherwise lost muscle fibers through recruitment to different, mainly slow, motor units. These beneficial effects on motoneurons and, subsequently on muscle fibers, serve to maintain size, structure and function of muscle fibers, delaying the functional decline and loss of independence that are commonly seen in late aging.

  13. Exercise through Menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuhr, Robyn M.

    2002-01-01

    Menopause is associated with many different health effects and symptoms. This paper explains that regular exercise can play a critical role in protecting health and battling the increased risk of cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, pelvic floor atrophy, and joint stiffness associated with menopause. Exercise programs for menopausal women should…

  14. Reciprocal effects of treatment-induced increases in exercise and improved eating, and their psychosocial correlates, in obese adults seeking weight loss: a field-based trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background A better understanding of interrelations of exercise and improved eating, and their psychosocial correlates of self-efficacy, mood, and self-regulation, may be useful for the architecture of improved weight loss treatments. Theory-based research within field settings, with samples possessing high probabilities of health risks, might enable rapid application of useful findings. Methods Adult volunteers with severe obesity (body mass index [BMI] 35–50 kg/m2; age = 43.0 ± 9.5 y; 83% female) were randomly assigned to six monthly cognitive-behavioral exercise support sessions paired with either group-based nutrition education (n = 145) or cognitive behavioral methods applied to improved eating (n = 149). After specification of mediation models using a bias-corrected bootstrapping procedure, a series of reciprocal effects analyses assessed: a) the reciprocal effects of changes in exercise and fruit and vegetable intake, resulting from the treatments, b) the reciprocal effects of changes in the three psychosocial variables tested (i.e. self-efficacy, mood, and self-regulation) and fruit and vegetable change, resulting from change in exercise volume, and c) the reciprocal effects of changes in the three psychosocial variables and exercise change, resulting from change in fruit and vegetable intake. Results Mediation analyses suggested a reciprocal effect between changes in exercise volume and fruit and vegetable intake. After inclusion of psychosocial variables, also found were reciprocal effects between change in fruit and vegetable intake and change in mood, self-efficacy for controlled eating, and self-regulation for eating; and change in exercise volume and change in mood and exercise-related self-regulation. Conclusion Findings had implications for behavioral weight-loss theory and treatment. Specifically, results suggested that treatments should focus upon, and leverage, the transfer effects from each of the primary weight

  15. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... body. Pilates, yoga and martial arts all provide well-rounded core strengthening programs. Simple exercises can be done at home as well. Some specific core strengthening exercises are described below. ...

  16. Compulsive Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... negative thinking and low self-esteem. Why Is Exercising Too Much a Bad Thing? We all know ... spent with friends. Warning Signs Someone may be exercising compulsively if he or she: won't skip ...

  17. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... prescribe an exercise program that matches your abilities. Neck Press This is an isometric exercise to strengthen your neck. Press your palm against your forehead, then use ...

  18. Exercise Headaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... headaches may require emergency medical attention. Symptoms Primary exercise headaches These headaches: Are usually described as throbbing ... sides of the head in most cases Secondary exercise headaches These headaches may cause: The same symptoms ...

  19. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... programs. Simple exercises can be done at home as well. Some specific core strengthening exercises are described ... times... Abdominal Crunch Draw abdominal wall inward, exhale as you lift chest area. This can be done ...

  20. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... provide well-rounded core strengthening programs. Simple exercises can be done at home as well. Some specific ... benefit from this exercise... Sagittal Core Strengthening You can stretch and strengthen the low back muscles that ...

  1. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disc Replacement (ADR) Bone Graft Alternatives Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMP) Cervical Disc Replacement Cervical Laminoplasty Lumbar (Open) ... Flexibility Aerobic Exercise Cervical Exercise Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy and Back ...

  2. Sodium bicarbonate ingestion augments the increase in PGC-1α mRNA expression during recovery from intense interval exercise in human skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percival, Michael E; Martin, Brian J; Gillen, Jenna B; Skelly, Lauren E; MacInnis, Martin J; Green, Alex E; Tarnopolsky, Mark A; Gibala, Martin J

    2015-12-01

    We tested the hypothesis that ingestion of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) prior to an acute session of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) would augment signaling cascades and gene expression linked to mitochondrial biogenesis in human skeletal muscle. On two occasions separated by ∼1 wk, nine men (mean ± SD: age 22 ± 2 yr, weight 78 ± 13 kg, V̇O(2 peak) 48 ± 8 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) performed 10 × 60-s cycling efforts at an intensity eliciting ∼90% of maximal heart rate (263 ± 40 W), interspersed with 60 s of recovery. In a double-blind, crossover manner, subjects ingested a total of 0.4 g/kg body weight NaHCO3 before exercise (BICARB) or an equimolar amount of a placebo, sodium chloride (PLAC). Venous blood bicarbonate and pH were elevated at all time points after ingestion (P 0.05). However, the increase in PGC-1α mRNA expression after 3 h of recovery was higher in BICARB vs. PLAC (approximately sevenfold vs. fivefold compared with rest, P < 0.05). We conclude that NaHCO3 before HIIT alters the mRNA expression of this key regulatory protein associated with mitochondrial biogenesis. The elevated PGC-1α mRNA response provides a putative mechanism to explain the enhanced mitochondrial adaptation observed after chronic HIIT supplemented with NaHCO3 in rats. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Exercise Habit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chunks of time. Exercise has so many health benefits that any amount is better than none. Try exercising for 10 minutes at a time throughout your ... second hand. Most people will get the greatest benefit and lower their risks if ... rate when exercising. To figure out your maximum heart rate, subtract ...

  4. Protein supplementation increases muscle mass gain during prolonged resistance-type exercise training in frail elderly people: a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieland, C.A.B.; Dirks, M.L.; Zwaluw, van der N.L.; Verdijk, L.; Rest, van de O.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Loon, van L.C.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Protein supplementation has been proposed as an effective dietary strategy to augment the skeletal muscle adaptive response to prolonged resistance-type exercise training in elderly people. Our objective was to assess the impact of protein supplementation on muscle mass, strength, and

  5. Intramyocellular lipid content and insulin sensitivity are increased following a short-term low-glycemic index diet and exercise intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haus, Jacob M; Solomon, Thomas; Lu, Lan

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between intramyocellular (IMCL) and extramyocellular lipid (EMCL) accumulation and skeletal muscle insulin resistance is complex and dynamic. We examined the effect of a short-term (7-day) low-glycemic index (LGI) diet and aerobic exercise training intervention (EX) on IMCL and i...

  6. Exercise addiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lichtenstein, Mia Beck; Christiansen, Erik; Elklit, Ask

    2014-01-01

    Exercise addiction is characterized by excessive exercise patterns with potential negative consequences such as overuse injuries. The aim of this study was to compare eating disorder symptoms, quality of life, personality traits and attachments styles in exercisers with and without indications...... of exercise addiction. A case-control study with 121 exercisers was conducted. The exercisers were categorized into an addiction group (n=41) or a control group (n=80) on the basis of their responses to the Exercise Addiction Inventory. The participants completed the Eating Disorder Inventory 2, the Short......-Form 36, the NEO Personality Inventory Revised and the Adult Attachment Scale. The addiction group scored higher on eating disorder symptoms, especially on perfectionism but not as high as eating disorder populations. The characteristic personality traits in the addiction group were high levels...

  7. Lipolysis in human adipose tissue during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Kai Henrik Wiborg; Lorentsen, Jeanne; Isaksson, Fredrik

    2002-01-01

    exercise), as well as during non-steady-state (onset of exercise and early exercise) experimental settings. Fourteen healthy women [age: 74 +/- 1 (SE) yr] were studied at rest and during 60-min continuous bicycling at 60% of peak O(2) uptake. Calculated and measured subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue...... venous glycerol concentrations increased substantially from rest to exercise but were similar both at rest and during later stages of exercise. In contrast, during the initial approximately 40 min of exercise, calculated glycerol concentration was significantly lower (approximately 40%) than measured...... and continuous prolonged exercise. However, during shorter periods of exercise (

  8. Exercise addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landolfi, Emilio

    2013-02-01

    This article examines the nature of exercise addiction. It presents a broad, congruent and discerning narrative literature review with the aim of providing a deeper understanding of the condition 'exercise addiction', including symptoms and options for treatment. In addition, guidelines are provided with respect to 'healthy' levels of exercise. Criteria used for determining the eligibility of studies evaluated in the review included the provision of relevant information in studies identified using pertinent search terms. The review highlights some of the key distinctions between healthy levels of exercise and exercise addiction. The findings suggest that an individual who is addicted to exercise will continue exercising regardless of physical injury, personal inconvenience or disruption to other areas of life including marital strain, interference with work and lack of time for other activities. 'Addicted' exercisers are more likely to exercise for intrinsic rewards and experience disturbing deprivation sensations when unable to exercise. In contrast, 'committed' exercisers engage in physical activity for extrinsic rewards and do not suffer severe withdrawal symptoms when they cannot exercise. Exercisers must acquire a sense of life-balance while embracing an attitude conducive to sustainable long-term physical, psychological and social health outcomes. Implementation of recommendations by the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology, which states that all apparently healthy adults between 18 and 64 years of age should accumulate at least 150 minutes of moderate (5 or 6 on a scale of 0-10) to vigorous (7 or 8 on a scale of 0-10) intensity aerobic physical activity per week in bouts of 10 minutes or more, also expressed as 30 minutes per day distributed over 5 days per week, would be a good start.

  9. Heart-Healthy Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... also important to perform stretches, resistance training, and balance exercises on a regular basis; these will help to improve flexibility, increase strength, and reduce fall risk ( Table ). View this table: View inline View popup ...

  10. Fat utilization during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Wulff; Watt, Peter W.; Richter, Erik

    2001-01-01

    1. This study was carried out to test the hypothesis that the greater fat oxidation observed during exercise after adaptation to a high-fat diet is due to an increased uptake of fat originating from the bloodstream. 2. Of 13 male untrained subjects, seven consumed a fat-rich diet (62 % fat, 21...... % carbohydrate) and six consumed a carbohydrate-rich diet (20 % fat, 65 % carbohydrate). After 7 weeks of training and diet, 60 min of bicycle exercise was performed at 68 +/- 1 % of maximum oxygen uptake. During exercise [1-(13)C]palmitate was infused, arterial and venous femoral blood samples were collected......, and blood flow was determined by the thermodilution technique. Muscle biopsy samples were taken from the vastus lateralis muscle before and after exercise. 3. During exercise, the respiratory exchange ratio was significantly lower in subjects consuming the fat-rich diet (0.86 +/- 0.01, mean +/- S.E.M.) than...

  11. Exercise and reproductive dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, E C; Brzyski, R G

    1999-01-01

    To provide an overview of our current understanding of exercise-induced reproductive dysfunction and an approach to its evaluation and management. A MEDLINE search was performed to review all articles with title words related to menstrual dysfunction, amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, exercise, and athletic activities from 1966 to 1998. The pathophysiology, proposed mechanisms, clinical manifestations, evaluation, and management of exercise-associated reproductive dysfunction were compiled. Exercise-induced menstrual irregularity appears to be multifactorial in origin and remains a diagnosis of exclusion. The underlying mechanisms are mainly speculative. Clinical manifestations range from luteal phase deficiency to anovulation, amenorrhea, and even delayed menarche. Evaluation should include a thorough history and a complete physical plus pelvic examination. Most cases are reversible with dietary and exercise modifications. Hormonal replacement in cases of a prolonged hypoestrogenic state with evidence of increased bone loss is recommended, although the long-term consequences of prolonged hormonal deficiency are ill-defined.

  12. Voluntary resistance wheel exercise from mid-life prevents sarcopenia and increases markers of mitochondrial function and autophagy in muscles of old male and female C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Zoe; Terrill, Jessica; White, Robert B; McMahon, Christopher; Sheard, Phillip; Grounds, Miranda D; Shavlakadze, Tea

    2016-12-13

    There is much interest in the capacity of resistance exercise to prevent the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function, known as sarcopenia. This study investigates the molecular basis underlying the benefits of resistance exercise in aging C57BL/6J mice of both sexes. This study is the first to demonstrate that long-term (34 weeks) voluntary resistance wheel exercise (RWE) initiated at middle age, from 15 months, prevents sarcopenia in selected hindlimb muscles and causes hypertrophy in soleus, by 23 months of age in both male and female C57BL/6J mice. Compared with 23-month-old sedentary (SED) controls, RWE (0-6 g of resistance) increased intramuscular mitochondrial density and oxidative capacity (measured by citrate synthase and NADH-TR) and increased LC3II/I ratios (a marker of autophagy) in exercised mice of both sexes. RWE also reduced mRNA expression of Gadd45α (males only) and Runx1 (females only) but had no effect on other markers of denervation including Chrng, Chrnd, Musk, and Myog. RWE increased heart mass in all mice, with a more pronounced increase in females. Significant sex differences were also noted among SED mice, with Murf1 mRNA levels increasing in male, but decreasing in old female mice between 15 and 23 months. Overall, long-term RWE initiated from 15 month of age significantly improved some markers of the mitochondrial and autophagosomal pathways and prevented age-related muscle wasting.

  13. Increase in IL-6, TNF-a, and MMP-9, but not sICAM-1, concentrations depends on exercise duration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reihmane, Dace; Jurka, Antra; Tretjakovs, Peteris

    2013-01-01

    ), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), soluble form of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) was studied in 22 half-marathon (HM) and 18 marathon (M) male amateur runners who completed their exercise task in 1.8 ± 0.2 (mean ± standard deviation) and 3.6 ± 0.4 h...

  14. Auditory driving of the autonomic nervous system: Listening to theta-frequency binaural beats post-exercise increases parasympathetic activation and sympathetic withdrawal

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick eMcConnell; Patrick eMcConnell; Brett eFroeliger; Eric L. Garland; Jeffrey C. Ives; Gary A. Sforzo

    2014-01-01

    Binaural beats are an auditory illusion perceived when two or more pure tones of similar frequencies are presented dichotically through stereo headphones. Although this phenomenon is thought to facilitate state changes (e.g., relaxation), few empirical studies have reported on whether binaural beats produce changes in autonomic arousal. Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of binaural beating on autonomic dynamics (heart-rate variability (HRV)) during post-exercise relaxation...

  15. Auditory driving of the autonomic nervous system: Listening to theta-frequency binaural beats post-exercise increases parasympathetic activation and sympathetic withdrawal

    OpenAIRE

    McConnell, Patrick A.; Froeliger, Brett; Garland, Eric L.; Ives, Jeffrey C.; Sforzo, Gary A.

    2014-01-01

    Binaural beats are an auditory illusion perceived when two or more pure tones of similar frequencies are presented dichotically through stereo headphones. Although this phenomenon is thought to facilitate state changes (e.g., relaxation), few empirical studies have reported on whether binaural beats produce changes in autonomic arousal. Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of binaural beating on autonomic dynamics [heart rate variability (HRV)] during post-exercise relaxation...

  16. Sustained exercise-trained juvenile black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus at a moderate water velocity exhibit improved aerobic swimming performance and increased postprandial metabolic responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuming Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to examine whether sustained exercise training at four water velocities, i.e. nearly still water (control, 1 body length (BL s−1, 2 BL s−1 and 4 BL s−1, has effects on swimming performance and digestive metabolism in juvenile black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus. The results demonstrated that fish subjected to sustained training at 2 and 4 BL s−1 showed significantly higher critical swimming speed (Ucrit and maximum metabolic rate (MMR over the control group. Fish subjected to sustained training at 1 and 2 BL s−1 showed a significantly (30 and 54% prolonged duration, 14 and 17% higher postprandial ṀO2 increment (i.e. ṀO2peak, and 62 and 92% more energy expended on specific dynamic action (SDA, respectively, after consuming a similar meal over fish kept in nearly still water. These results suggest that (1 sustained exercise training at a higher speed (2 or 4 BL s−1 had a positive influence on the aerobic swimming performance of juvenile M. piceus, which may be associated with improved aerobic metabolism; and (2 sustained exercise training at a lower speed (1 or 2 BL s−1 resulted in elevated postprandial metabolic responses in juvenile M. piceus.

  17. Exercise Dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal Vardar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Exercise dependence define a condition in which a person performs excessive exercise resulting in deterioration of his or her physical and mental health wellness. Despite many clinical research studies on exercise dependence, exact diagnostic criteria has not been developed yet. Clinical evidences concerning etiology, epidemiology, underlying mechanisms and treatment of exercise dependence are still not sufficient. Moreover, evaluation of this clinical disorder within dependency perspective is a fairly new concept. Recent studies have shown that exercise dependence has similar features like chemical substance dependence with regards to withdrawal and tolerance symptoms. The aim of this review was to briefly evaluate diagnostic and clinical features of exercise dependence. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2012; 21(3.000: 163-173

  18. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Steroid Injections Lumbar Zygapophysical (Facet) Joint Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle Choices 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen ...

  19. Does Motivation for Exercise Influence Post-Exercise Snacking Behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimmock, James A.; Guelfi, Kym J.; West, Jessica S.; Masih, Tasmiah; Jackson, Ben

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that regular exercise plays an important role in achieving a number of health and wellbeing outcomes. However, certain post-exercise behaviors, including the consumption of unhealthy high-calorie foods, can counteract some of the benefits of physical activity. There are at least three overlapping pathways through which exercise may increase the likelihood of consuming pleasurable but unhealthy foods: through impulsive cognitive processes, reflective cognitive processes, and/or physiological responses. It is argued in this paper that motivation toward exercise can influence each of these pathways. Drawing from literature from various domains, we postulate that controlled exercise motivation, as opposed to autonomous exercise motivation, is more likely to influence each of these pathways in a manner that leaves individuals susceptible to the post-exercise consumption of pleasurable but unhealthy foods. PMID:26083114

  20. Does Motivation for Exercise Influence Post-Exercise Snacking Behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimmock, James A; Guelfi, Kym J; West, Jessica S; Masih, Tasmiah; Jackson, Ben

    2015-06-15

    It is well established that regular exercise plays an important role in achieving a number of health and wellbeing outcomes. However, certain post-exercise behaviors, including the consumption of unhealthy high-calorie foods, can counteract some of the benefits of physical activity. There are at least three overlapping pathways through which exercise may increase the likelihood of consuming pleasurable but unhealthy foods: through impulsive cognitive processes, reflective cognitive processes, and/or physiological responses. It is argued in this paper that motivation toward exercise can influence each of these pathways. Drawing from literature from various domains, we postulate that controlled exercise motivation, as opposed to autonomous exercise motivation, is more likely to influence each of these pathways in a manner that leaves individuals susceptible to the post-exercise consumption of pleasurable but unhealthy foods.

  1. Does Motivation for Exercise Influence Post-Exercise Snacking Behavior?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Dimmock

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that regular exercise plays an important role in achieving a number of health and wellbeing outcomes. However, certain post-exercise behaviors, including the consumption of unhealthy high-calorie foods, can counteract some of the benefits of physical activity. There are at least three overlapping pathways through which exercise may increase the likelihood of consuming pleasurable but unhealthy foods: through impulsive cognitive processes, reflective cognitive processes, and/or physiological responses. It is argued in this paper that motivation toward exercise can influence each of these pathways. Drawing from literature from various domains, we postulate that controlled exercise motivation, as opposed to autonomous exercise motivation, is more likely to influence each of these pathways in a manner that leaves individuals susceptible to the post-exercise consumption of pleasurable but unhealthy foods.

  2. Analysis of motivation to employments by physical exercises and its use for the increase of efficiency of employments on physical education with students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilichenko E.A.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The most meaningful reasons are certain to employments by physical exercises of girls. In research took part 81 student of a 1 course. It is conducted a questionnaire questioning of students of technical specialities. Rating of reasons is made. It is set that aspiring to harmony of build occupies the first place in this rating. The state of circumference sizes of body and state of physical preparedness of students is appraised. Permanent interactive communication is marked between a teacher and students during all experiment

  3. Troponin and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresslien, T; Agewall, S

    2016-10-15

    Cardiac troponins are the preferred biomarkers in diagnostic of myocardial infarction, but these markers also can rise in response to exercise. Multiple studies have assessed troponins post-exercise, but the results have varied and there have been disagreements about the mechanism of troponin release. The aim of this paper was to review the literature, and to consider factors and mechanisms regarding exercise-induced increase of troponin. 145 studies were found after a search in pubmed and inclusion of additional articles found in the reference list of the first articles. Results showed that troponin rises in 0-100% of subjects after prolonged heavy exercise like marathon, but also after short-term and intermittent exercise like 30min of running and basketball. The variation can be due to factors like intensity, age, training experience, variation in sample size, blood sample timing and troponin assay. The pattern of troponin level post-exercise corresponds to release from the cytosolic compartment of cardiomyocytes. Increased membrane permeability might be caused by production of reactive oxygen species or alterations in calcium, pH, glucose/fat metabolism or in communication between integrins. Other suggested mechanisms are increased cardiovascular stress, inflammation, vasculitis, release of troponin degradation products in "blebs", dehydration, impaired renal clearance and expression of cardiac troponin in skeletal muscle. It can be concluded that both heavy and light exercise may cause elevated troponin, which have to be considered when patient are suspected to have a myocardial infarction. Several factors probably influence post-exercise levels of troponin, but the mechanism of release is most likely physiologic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Exercise-induced amenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, B R

    1989-02-01

    Strenuous exercise may cause menstrual abnormalities, including amenorrhea. The hypoestrogenemia that accompanies amenorrhea has been associated with a low bone mineral content and an increased incidence of stress fractures. With the resumption of menses, which usually occurs soon after female athletes decrease the intensity of their training or increase their body weight, bone mineral content increases and the incidence of stress fractures decreases.

  5. Can exercise prevent cognitive decline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrman, Sophie; Ebmeier, Klaus P

    2014-01-01

    As the tolerability of pharmacological agents decreases with age, exercise may be particularly helpful as a possible treatment or stabiliser of mood and cognitive function in older age. Exercise has been most commonly evaluated for the treatment of depression. Exercise interventions designed primarily for treatment of physical conditions in the elderly do appear to confer psychological benefits as well, with reduction in depressive symptoms over the course of treatment. The effects of exercise on reducing depressive symptoms are not dissimilar to the effects of antidepressant drugs and cognitive behaviour therapy. Exercise may be a useful low-tech intervention for people with mild to moderate depression. In particular, exercise may be helpful in the elderly and in patients who have had insufficient response to, or are intolerant of, pharmacotherapy. Mastery of a new skill and positive feedback from others may increase feelings of self-esteem and improve mood. Exercise may distract participants from persistent negative thoughts. Exercise has been shown to improve executive function acutely in adults of all ages. It is possible that dance routines or other exercise regimens requiring some cognitive input may confer additional benefit to cognitive function. Exercise has a moderate effect on the ability of people with dementia to perform activities of daily living and may improve cognitive function. Midlife exercise may also have an impact on later cognitive function.

  6. Endorphins, Exercise, and Addictions: A Review of Exercise Dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Leuenberger

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Endorphins are endogenous opioids released from the pituitary gland that are believed to mediate analgesia, induce euphoria, and play a role in the reward system in the brain. It has been suggested that endorphins are responsible for creating the relaxed psychological state known as runners high. Studies examining the relationship between vigorous exercise and blood plasma endorphin levels have produced conflicting results. Some indicate a significant increase of endorphins during or after exercise while others do not. Inconsistent methods and experimental techniques have made it difficult to determine a relationship between exercise and endorphin elevations. Research has shown that opioidergic activity plays a role in addictions by mediating the development of reinforcing qualities of certain activities and substances. A newly-established condition known as exercise dependence defines exercise as an addiction, characterized by a compulsion to exercise excessively even when the consequences are harmful to an individuals health, family relationships, and personal wealth (Griffiths, 1997; Hausenblas and Downs, 2002; Loumidis and Wells, 1998. Various surveys and questionnaires have been validated for determining the level of an individuals dependence on and need for exercise. As researchers define a clear relationship between vigorous exercise and increased endorphin levels, causes of exercise dependence can be more concretely determined. Exercise dependence is not currently recognized by the DSM-IV, but its presence in certain human behaviors (similar to those of alcoholics and drug addicts indicate that it should be precisely defined.

  7. [Exercise in arterial hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predel, Hans-Georg; Schramm, Thomas

    2006-09-01

    Regular endurance training has established itself as a major therapeutic principle in the specter of nonpharmacological measures in arterial hypertension. An initial medical check as well as an adequate technique, dosage and intensity of the prescribed exercise training are mandatory. With respect to the concomitant pharmacological treatment, it should be considered that the beneficial effects of lifestyle modification will not be counteracted by the chosen antihypertensive drug but, ideally, synergistically supported. Based on the individual clinical situation, principally all antihypertensive drugs recommended by the current European guidelines, may be prescribed as mono- or combination therapy.beta-receptor blockers are especially capable of controlling excessive exercise-induced blood pressure increase; however, they have metabolic and exercise physiological limitations. The neutrality concerning metabolic and exercise physiological parameters as well as the positive profile of side effects favor ACE inhibitors, long-acting calcium channel blockers and especially AT(1) antagonists in physically active hypertensive patients with concomitant metabolic syndrome.

  8. [Lumbar stabilization exercises].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez-Ríos, Jorge Rodrigo; Nava-Bringas, Tania Inés

    2014-01-01

    Exercise is the intervention with the highest level of evidence on efficacy for treatment of chronic low back pain, with a higher benefit in terms of pain and function compared to any other intervention. A wide variety of exercises programs have been designed; however, "lumbar stabilization exercises" have become increasingly popular among clinicians who are in contact with spine diseases. However, there is controversy regarding the adequate prescription and there are multiple protocols. The aim of this literature review is to analyze the information about these exercises to promote better decision-making among clinicians and design the best program for each patient. We found the program an essential tool in the treatment of low back pain in both therapeutic and preventive phases.

  9. Exercise and Posture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Spondylitis › Treatment Information › Exercise & Posture Print Page Exercise Exercise is an integral part of any spondylitis ... For First Responders For Chiropractors Research Article Archive Exercise Guidelines Having an exercise program that accomplishes your ...

  10. Exercise KATRINE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clahane, Darren; Burgoyne, William

    1995-01-01

    Based on a hypothetical incident at the Scottish Nuclear Ltd Torness AGR nuclear power station, Exercise KATRINE was the 1994 national civil nuclear exercise and the biggest simulation of a nuclear accident to take place in Britain last year. The exercise, held on 17 and 18 November, was based on a series of postulated faults which resulted in an uncontrolled release of radioactivity. It commenced at 07.00 on Thursday and continued for about 33 hours, until around 15.30 on Friday. Activity focused on the Torness Off-site Centre (TOSC), in Cockenzie near Edinburgh, and the brand new Torness Media Briefing Centre (TMBC) located nearby. (author)

  11. Gastroenteropancreatic hormonal changes during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Galbo, H; Sonne, B

    1980-01-01

    Peripheral plasma concentrations of gastroenteropancreatic peptides were measured during a 3-h period of bicycle exercise at 40% of maximal oxygen uptake in six normal men. Marked increases (P......Peripheral plasma concentrations of gastroenteropancreatic peptides were measured during a 3-h period of bicycle exercise at 40% of maximal oxygen uptake in six normal men. Marked increases (P...

  12. Does Motivation for Exercise Influence Post-Exercise Snacking Behavior?

    OpenAIRE

    James A. Dimmock; Kym J. Guelfi; Jessica S. West; Tasmiah Masih; Ben Jackson

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that regular exercise plays an important role in achieving a number of health and wellbeing outcomes. However, certain post-exercise behaviors, including the consumption of unhealthy high-calorie foods, can counteract some of the benefits of physical activity. There are at least three overlapping pathways through which exercise may increase the likelihood of consuming pleasurable but unhealthy foods: through impulsive cognitive processes, reflective cognitive processes...

  13. Does exercise pulmonary hypertension exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Edmund M; Chemla, Denis; Whyte, Kenneth; Kovacs, Gabor; Olschewski, Horst; Herve, Philippe

    2016-09-01

    The exercise definition of pulmonary hypertension using a mean pulmonary artery pressure threshold of greater than 30 mmHg was abandoned following the 4th World Pulmonary Hypertension Symposium in 2008, as this definition was not supported by evidence and healthy individuals frequently exceed this threshold. Meanwhile, the clinical value of exercise pulmonary hemodynamic testing has also been questioned. Recent data support the notion that an abnormal pulmonary hemodynamic response during exercise (or exercise pulmonary hypertension) is associated with symptoms and exercise limitation. Pathophysiologic mechanisms accounting for the development of exercise pulmonary hypertension include increased vascular resistance, excessive elevation in left atrial pressure and/or increased volume of trapped air during exercise, resulting in a steep rise in pulmonary artery pressure relative to cardiac output. Recent evidence suggests that exercise pulmonary hypertension may be defined by a mean pulmonary artery pressure surpassing 30 mmHg together with a simultaneous total pulmonary resistance exceeding 3 WU. Exercise pulmonary hypertension is a clinically relevant entity and an improved definition has been suggested based on new evidence. Exercise pulmonary hemodynamics may help unmask early or latent disease, particularly in populations that are at high risk for the development of pulmonary hypertension.

  14. Exercise-induced muscle modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerviler, E. de; Willig, A.L.; Jehenson, P.; Duboc, D.; Syrota, A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper compares changes in muscle proton T2 after exercise in normal subjects and in patients with muscular glycogenoses. Four patients suffering from muscular glycogenosis and eight normal volunteers were studied. Muscle T2s were measured in forearm muscles at rest and after exercise, with a 0.5-T imager. The exercise was performed with handgrips and was evaluated by P-31 spectroscopy (end-exercise decrease in pH and phosphocreatine) performed with a 2-T magnet. In normal subjects, a relative T2 increase, ranging from 14% to 44%, was observed in the exercised muscles. In the patients, who cannot produce lactate during exercise, weak pH variation occurred, and only a slight T2 increase (7% - 9%) was observed

  15. Oscillation of tissue oxygen index in non-exercising muscle during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, T; Afroundeh, R; Shirakawa, K; Lian, C-S; Shibata, K; Xiao, Z; Yunoki, T

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine how oscillation of tissue oxygen index (TOI) in non-exercising exercise is affected during high-intensity and low-intensity exercises. Three exercises were performed with exercise intensities of 30% and 70% peak oxygen uptake (Vo(2)peak) for 12 min and with exercise intensity of 70% Vo(2)peak for 30 s. TOI in non-exercising muscle (biceps brachii) during the exercises for 12 min was determined by nearinfrared spectroscopy. TOI in the non-exercising muscle during the exercises was analyzed by fast Fourier transform (FFT) to obtain power spectra density (PSD). The frequency at which maximal PSD appeared (Fmax) during the exercise with 70% Vo(2)peak for 12 min (0.00477 ± 0.00172 Hz) was significantly lower than that during the exercise with 30% Vo2peak for 12 min (0.00781 ± 0.00338 Hz). There were significant differences in blood pH and blood lactate between the exercise with 70% Vo(2)peak and the exercise with 30% Vo(2)peak. It is concluded that TOI in nonexercising muscle oscillates during low-intensity exercise as well as during high-intensity exercise and that the difference in Fmax between the two exercises is associated with the difference in increase in blood lactate derived from the exercise.

  16. Test-retest reliabilty of exercise-induced hypoalgesia after aerobic exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaegter, Henrik Bjarke; Dørge, Daniel Bandholtz; Schmidt, Kristian Sonne

    2018-01-01

    Objective: Exercise increases pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) in exercising and nonexercising muscles, known as exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH). No studies have investigated the test-retest reliability of change in PPTs after aerobic exercise. Primary objectives were to compare the effect...

  17. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... support for your body. Pilates, yoga and martial arts all provide well-rounded core strengthening programs. Simple ... use progressively heavier balls, you will experience more benefit from this exercise... Sagittal Core Strengthening You can ...

  18. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic ... Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy and Back Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain ...

  19. Intercomparison exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arunachalam, J.

    2007-01-01

    Intercomparison exercises are vital to many a national programmes. These are only tools available with the laboratories to prove their competence to an international audience and also for the accrediting agencies to assess a laboratory

  20. Compulsive exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lichtenstein, Mia Beck; Hinze, Cecilie Juul; Emborg Jannsen, Bolette

    2017-01-01

    found that compulsive exercise is associated with eating disorder pathology, perfectionism, neuroticism, narcissism, and obsessive compulsive traits. The most prominent negative consequences were injuries, social impairment, and depression, but more research is needed to uncover the potential......Compulsive exercise is a condition described since 1970s. It is characterized by a craving for physical training, resulting in uncontrollable excessive exercise behavior with harmful consequences, such as injuries and impaired social relations. It has not been accepted as a mental disorder...... dysfunction resulting from compulsive exercise. As the condition is not recognized as a psychiatric disorder, studies on treatment interventions are sparse. Problems with compliance have been reported; therefore, motivational interviewing has been proposed as a treatment approach, in combination...

  1. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physical Therapy Postural Training Traction Watchful Waiting and Education Injection Treatments for ... Core Strengthening Many popular forms of exercise focus on core strengthening, or building the muscles that provide ...

  2. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Lifestyle Choices 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! ... in a straight line. Hold for 10 seconds working towards 30 seconds. Repeat 1-5 times or ...

  3. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Chronic Low Back Pain SI Joint Pain Other Scoliosis Back Pain and Emotional Distress Muscle Spasms Pinched ... DC Directional Exercises Electrothermal Modalities Ergonomic Changes Hydrotherapy Manual Therapy Physical Therapy Postural Training Traction Watchful Waiting and ...

  4. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... weights (hand-held or training machines) or using isometric techniques. Common household items (like small canned goods) ... matches your abilities. Neck Press This is an isometric exercise to strengthen your neck. Press your palm ...

  5. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility ... Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain Basics Book RESOURCES Patient Information Feature Articles Patient Q&A Success Stories ...

  6. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... slow full movements. Repeat 10-15 times, to fatigue... Abdominal Exercise Lay on your back with both ... Return leg and extend other leg. Repeat to fatigue, about 10-15 repetitions at a slow and ...

  7. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 15 repetitions at a slow and controlled pace... Resistance Training Resistance training is exercise done against something providing resistance. It can be done with weights (hand-held ...

  8. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... legs to touch the wall, keeping hips and knees bent. Use your hips to push your body ... Abdominal Exercise Lay on your back with both knees bent. Draw abdominal wall in. Maintaining abdominal wall ...

  9. Human investigations into the exercise pressor reflex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, Niels H; Amann, Markus

    2012-01-01

    During exercise, neural input from skeletal muscles reflexly maintains or elevates blood pressure (BP) despite a maybe fivefold increase in vascular conductance. This exercise pressor reflex is illustrated by similar heart rate (HR) and BP responses to electrically induced and voluntary exercise....... The importance of the exercise pressor reflex for tight cardiovascular regulation during dynamic exercise is supported by studies using pharmacological blockade of lower limb muscle afferent nerves. These experiments show attenuation of the increase in BP and cardiac output when exercise is performed...... with attenuated neural feedback. Additionally, there is no BP response to electrically induced exercise with paralysing epidural anaesthesia or when similar exercise is evoked in paraplegic patients. Furthermore, BP decreases when electrically induced exercise is carried out in tetraplegic patients. The lack...

  10. Postpartum Exercise among Nigerian Women: Issues Relating to Exercise Performance and Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeniyi, A. F.; Ogwumike, O. O.; Bamikefa, T. R.

    2013-01-01

    Physical exercise during postpartum period is beneficial to mothers, and the health gains are abundantly reported. This study characterises the postpartum exercise profile of a group of Nigerian women and reports how their exercise self-efficacies are influenced by sociodemographic characteristics. Participants were women attending the two largest postnatal clinics in Ibadan, south-western Nigeria. A self-developed questionnaire assessed the socio-demographic and exercise profile of participants, while the Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale assessed their exercise self-efficacy. About two-third (61.0%) of the participants were not aware that they could undertake physical exercise to enhance postpartum health, and 109 (47.8%) were not engaged in any exercise. Those who exercised did so for less than three days/week, and 89% of the women did not belong to any exercise support group. Exercise self-efficacy was significantly (P exercise programme, age, employment, work hours/week, monthly income, and number of pregnancies. Most of the women were not aware they could engage in postpartum exercise, and about half were not undertaking it. More women with high compared to moderate exercise self-efficacy undertook the exercise. Efforts at increasing awareness, improving exercise self-efficacy and adoption of postpartum exercise are desirable among the Nigerian women. PMID:23844290

  11. Nordic Walking Can Be Incorporated in the Exercise Prescription to Increase Aerobic Capacity, Strength, and Quality of Life for Elderly: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullo, Valentina; Gobbo, Stefano; Vendramin, Barbara; Duregon, Federica; Cugusi, Lucia; Di Blasio, Andrea; Bocalini, Danilo Sales; Zaccaria, Marco; Bergamin, Marco; Ermolao, Andrea

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to summarize and analyze the effects of Nordic Walking on physical fitness, body composition, and quality of life in the elderly. Keyword "Nordic Walking" associated with "elderly" AND/OR "aging" AND/OR "old subjects" AND/OR "aged" AND/OR "older adults" were used in the online database MEDLINE, Embase, PubMed, Scopus, PsycINFO, and SPORTDiscus. Only studies written in English language and published in peer-reviewed journals were considered. A meta-analysis was performed and effect sizes calculated. Fifteen studies were identified; age of participants ranged from 60 to 92 years old. Comparing with a sedentary group, effect sizes showed that Nordic Walking was able to improve dynamic balance (0.30), functional balance (0.62), muscle strength of upper (0.66) and lower limbs (0.43), aerobic capacity (0.92), cardiovascular outcomes (0.23), body composition (0.30), and lipid profile (0.67). It seemed that Nordic Walking had a negative effect on static balance (-0.72). Comparing with a walking (alone) training, effect sizes showed that Nordic Walking improved the dynamic balance (0.30), flexibility of the lower body (0.47), and quality of life (0.53). Walking training was more effective in improving aerobic capacity (-0.21). Comparing Nordic Walking with resistance training, effect sizes showed that Nordic Walking improved dynamic balance (0.33), muscle strength of the lower body (0.39), aerobic capacity (0.75), flexibility of the upper body (0.41), and the quality of life (0.93). Nordic Walking can be considered as a safe and accessible form of aerobic exercise for the elderly population, able to improve cardiovascular outcomes, muscle strength, balance ability, and quality of life.

  12. Exercise and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gremeaux, Vincent; Gayda, Mathieu; Lepers, Romuald; Sosner, Philippe; Juneau, Martin; Nigam, Anil

    2012-12-01

    Aging is a natural and complex physiological process influenced by many factors, some of which are modifiable. As the number of older individuals continues to increase, it is important to develop interventions that can be easily implemented and contribute to "successful aging". In addition to a healthy diet and psychosocial well-being, the benefits of regular exercise on mortality, and the prevention and control of chronic disease affecting both life expectancy and quality of life are well established. We summarize the benefits of regular exercise on longevity, present the current knowledge regarding potential mechanisms, and outline the main recommendations. Exercise can partially reverse the effects of the aging process on physiological functions and preserve functional reserve in the elderly. Numerous studies have shown that maintaining a minimum quantity and quality of exercise decreases the risk of death, prevents the development of certain cancers, lowers the risk of osteoporosis and increases longevity. Training programs should include exercises aimed at improving cardiorespiratory fitness and muscle function, as well as flexibility and balance. Though the benefits of physical activity appear to be directly linked to the notion of training volume and intensity, further research is required in the elderly, in order to develop more precise recommendations, bearing in mind that the main aim is to foster long-term adherence to physical activity in this growing population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Individual Differences in Diurnal Preference and Time-of-Exercise Interact to Predict Exercise Frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisler, Garrett C; Phillips, Alison L; Krizan, Zlatan

    2017-06-01

    Diurnal preference (and chronotype more generally) has been implicated in exercise behavior, but this relation has not been examined using objective exercise measurements nor have potential psychosocial mediators been examined. Furthermore, time-of-day often moderates diurnal preference's influence on outcomes, and it is unknown whether time-of-exercise may influence the relation between chronotype and exercise frequency. The current study examined whether individual differences in diurnal preference ("morningness-eveningness") predict unique variance in exercise frequency and if commonly studied psychosocial variables mediate this relation (i.e., behavioral intentions, internal exercise control, external exercise control, and conscientiousness). Moreover, the study sought to test whether individuals' typical time-of-exercise moderated the impact of diurnal preference on exercise frequency. One hundred twelve healthy adults (mean age = 25.4; SD = 11.6 years) completed baseline demographics and then wore Fitbit Zips® for 4 weeks to objectively measure exercise frequency and typical time-of-exercise. At the end of the study, participants also self-reported recent exercise. Diurnal preference predicted both self-reported exercise and Fitbit-recorded exercise frequency. When evaluating mediators, only conscientiousness emerged as a partial mediator of the relation between diurnal preference and self-reported exercise. In addition, time-of-exercise moderated diurnal preference's relation to both self-reported exercise and Fitbit-recorded exercise frequency such that diurnal preference predicted higher exercise frequency when exercise occurred at a time that was congruent with one's diurnal preference. Based on these findings, diurnal preference is valuable, above and beyond other psychological constructs, in predicting exercise frequency and represents an important variable to incorporate into interventions seeking to increase exercise.

  14. Postpartum Exercise among Nigerian Women: Issues Relating to Exercise Performance and Self-Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeniyi, A F; Ogwumike, O O; Bamikefa, T R

    2013-01-01

    Physical exercise during postpartum period is beneficial to mothers, and the health gains are abundantly reported. This study characterises the postpartum exercise profile of a group of Nigerian women and reports how their exercise self-efficacies are influenced by sociodemographic characteristics. Participants were women attending the two largest postnatal clinics in Ibadan, south-western Nigeria. A self-developed questionnaire assessed the socio-demographic and exercise profile of participants, while the Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale assessed their exercise self-efficacy. About two-third (61.0%) of the participants were not aware that they could undertake physical exercise to enhance postpartum health, and 109 (47.8%) were not engaged in any exercise. Those who exercised did so for less than three days/week, and 89% of the women did not belong to any exercise support group. Exercise self-efficacy was significantly (P work hours/week, monthly income, and number of pregnancies. Most of the women were not aware they could engage in postpartum exercise, and about half were not undertaking it. More women with high compared to moderate exercise self-efficacy undertook the exercise. Efforts at increasing awareness, improving exercise self-efficacy and adoption of postpartum exercise are desirable among the Nigerian women.

  15. Exercise at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Insights Exercise & Weight Exercise at Home Exercise at Home Make an Appointment Ask a Question ... with the movement and contact your provider. Posture Exercises Better posture means better breathing and movement. Axial ...

  16. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... abdominal wall inward, exhale as you lift chest area. This can be done with quick short movements, or slow full movements. Repeat 10-15 times, to fatigue... Abdominal Exercise Lay on your back with both knees ... © 2018 North ...

  17. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic ... Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy and Back ... Patient Information Feature Articles Patient Q&A Success Stories ...

  18. Evacuation exercise

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2094367

    2017-01-01

    In the event of an emergency, it is important that staff and visitors are evacuated safely and efficiently. Hence CERN organises regularly emergency response and evacuation exercise (also known as an ‘evacuation drill’) in different buildings across the sites.

  19. Compulsive Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... compulsive habit when it is done for the wrong reasons. Some people start exercising with weight loss as their main ... developing normally. This is especially true if the person also has an eating disorder. Girls who overexercise and restrict their eating ...

  20. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Information Feature Articles Patient Q&A Success Stories Definitions Anatomy of the Spine Definitions A-Z Spine Specialists Videos 9 for Spine Epidural Steroid Injections Exercise: The Backbone of Spine Treatment Spondylolisthesis BLOG FIND A SPECIALIST Prevention ...

  1. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Feature Articles Patient Q&A Success Stories Definitions Anatomy of the Spine Definitions A-Z Spine ... Strengthening Many popular forms of exercise focus on core strengthening, or building the muscles that provide support for your body. Pilates, yoga ...

  2. Cardiovascular benefits of exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal SK

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Shashi K AgarwalMedical Director, Agarwal Health Center, NJ, USAAbstract: Regular physical activity during leisure time has been shown to be associated with better health outcomes. The American Heart Association, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Sports Medicine all recommend regular physical activity of moderate intensity for the prevention and complementary treatment of several diseases. The therapeutic role of exercise in maintaining good health and treating diseases is not new. The benefits of physical activity date back to Susruta, a 600 BC physician in India, who prescribed exercise to patients. Hippocrates (460–377 BC wrote “in order to remain healthy, the entire day should be devoted exclusively to ways and means of increasing one's strength and staying healthy, and the best way to do so is through physical exercise.” Plato (427–347 BC referred to medicine as a sister art to physical exercise while the noted ancient Greek physician Galen (129–217 AD penned several essays on aerobic fitness and strengthening muscles. This article briefly reviews the beneficial effects of physical activity on cardiovascular diseases.Keywords: exercise, cardiovascular disease, lifestyle changes, physical activity, good health

  3. Exercise at 65 and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batt, Mark E; Tanji, Jeffrey; Börjesson, Mats

    2013-07-01

    Aging is characterized by increasing muscle loss, physical inactivity and frailty. Physical inactivity is known to be associated with increased incidence of obesity and many life-threatening chronic conditions. We know that exercise, through many factors including antiinflammatory effects and enhanced fitness, can help prevent and treat many chronic diseases as well as help maintain independent living. We set out to demonstrate the utility of regular exercise in this potentially vulnerable age group in both the treatment and prevention of chronic diseases. The benefits, risks and recommendations for physical activity are discussed with an emphasis on practical advice for safe exercise in the context of established international guidelines. These guidelines typically state that 150 min per week of moderate aerobic intensity exercise should be achieved with some additional whole-body strength training and balance work. Individual risk assessment should be undertaken in a way to enable safe exercise participation to achieve maximum benefit with minimum risk. The risk assessment, subsequent advice and prescription for exercise should be personalized to reflect individual fitness and functional levels as well as patient safety. Newer and potentially exciting benefits of exercise are discussed in the areas of neuroscience and inflammation where data are suggesting positive effects of exercise in maintaining memory and cognition as well as having beneficial antiinflammatory effects.

  4. Central and peripheral hemodynamics in exercising humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calbet, J A L; González-Alonso, J; Helge, J W

    2015-01-01

    In humans, arm exercise is known to elicit larger increases in arterial blood pressure (BP) than leg exercise. However, the precise regulation of regional vascular conductances (VC) for the distribution of cardiac output with exercise intensity remains unknown. Hemodynamic responses were assessed...... perfusion pressure to increase O2 delivery, allowing a similar peak VO2 per kg of muscle mass in both extremities. In summary, despite a lower Qpeak during arm cranking the cardiovascular strain is much higher than during leg pedalling. The adjustments of regional conductances during incremental exercise...... to exhaustion depend mostly on the relative intensity of exercise and are limb-specific....

  5. Supine exercise during lower body negative pressure effectively simulates upright exercise in normal gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, G.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Ballard, R. E.; Hargens, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    Exercise within a lower body negative pressure (LBNP) chamber in supine posture was compared with similar exercise against Earth's gravity (without LBNP) in upright posture in nine healthy male volunteers. We measured footward force with a force plate, pressure in soleus and tibialis anterior muscles of the leg with transducer-tipped catheters, calf volume by strain gauge plethysmography, heart rate, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures during two conditions: 1) exercise in supine posture within an LBNP chamber during 100-mmHg LBNP (exercise-LBNP) and 2) exercise in upright posture against Earth's gravity without LBNP (exercise-1 G). Subjects exercised their ankle joints (dorsi- and plantarflexions) for 5 min during exercise-LBNP and for 5 min during exercise-1 G. Mean footward force produced during exercise-LBNP (743 +/- 37 N) was similar to that produced during exercise-1 G (701 +/- 24 N). Peak contraction pressure in the antigravity soleus muscle during exercise-LBNP (115 +/- 10 mmHg) was also similar to that during exercise-1 G (103 +/- 13 mmHg). Calf volume increased significantly by 3.3 +/- 0.5% during exercise-LBNP compared with baseline values. Calf volume did not increase significantly during exercise-1 G. Heart rate was significantly higher during exercise-LBNP (99 +/- 5 beats/min) than during exercise-1 G (81 +/- 3 beats/min). These results indicate that exercise in supine posture within an LBNP chamber can produce similar musculoskeletal stress in the legs and greater systemic cardiovascular stress than exercise in the upright posture against Earth's gravity.

  6. Psychological determinants of exercise behavior of nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Joanne Chung-Yan

    2014-01-01

    Though expected to be role models in health promotion, research has shown that nursing students often have suboptimal exercise behavior. This study explored the psychological factors associated with the exercise behavior of nursing students. A total of 195 first-year undergraduate nursing students completed a cross-sectional quantitative survey questionnaire, which included measures of their exercise behavior, the Physical Exercise Self-efficacy Scale, and the Exercise Barriers/Benefits Scale. The results showed that male students spent more time exercising and had higher exercise self-efficacy compared with female students, but there were no gender differences in the perceived barriers to or benefits of exercise. Fatigue brought on by exercising was the greatest perceived barrier to exercise, whereas increasing physical fitness and mental health were the greatest perceived benefits of exercise. Multiple linear regression showed that gender, exercise self-efficacy, perceived barriers to exercise, and perceived benefits of exercise were independent predictors of exercise behavior. Nurse educators can endeavor to promote exercise behavior among nursing students by highlighting the specific benefits of exercise, empowering students to overcome their perceived barriers to exercise, and enhancing students' exercise self-efficacy.

  7. Beta2-adrenergic stimulation increases energy expenditure at rest, but not during submaximal exercise in active overweight men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Onslev, Johan; Jacobson, Glenn A; Narkowicz, Christian K

    2017-01-01

    was related to plasma ln-rac-formoterol concentrations (r = 0.75, P = 0.005). CONCLUSION: Selective β2-adrenoceptor agonism effectively increases metabolic rate and fat oxidation in overweight individuals. The potential for weight loss induced by β2-agonists may be greater for R-enantiopure formulations.......PURPOSE: β2-Agonists have been proposed as weight-loss treatment, because they elevate energy expenditure. However, it is unknown what effect β2-agonists have on energy expenditure in overweight individuals. Furthermore, the influence of β2-agonist R- and S-enantiomer ratio for the increased energy...... expenditure is insufficiently explored. METHODS: Nineteen males were included in the study of which 14 completed. Subjects were 31.6 (±3.5) years [mean (±95% CI)] and had a fat percentage of 22.7 (±2.1)%. On separate days, subjects received either placebo or inhaled racemic (rac-) formoterol (2 × 27 µg...

  8. Eccentric exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Michael; Heinemeier, Katja Maria

    2014-01-01

    to differences in type and/or amount of mechanical stimulus with regard to expression of collagen, regulatory factors for collagen, and cross-link regulators. In overused (tendinopathic) human tendon, eccentric exercise training has a beneficial effect, but the mechanism by which this is elicited is unknown......Eccentric exercise can influence tendon mechanical properties and matrix protein synthesis. mRNA for collagen and regulatory factors thereof are upregulated in animal tendons, independent of muscular contraction type, supporting the view that tendon, compared with skeletal muscle, is less sensitive......, and slow concentric loading appears to have similar beneficial effects. It may be that tendinopathic regions, as long as they are subjected to a certain magnitude of load at a slow speed, independent of whether this is eccentric or concentric in nature, can reestablish their normal tendon fibril alignment...

  9. Caffeine prevents high-intensity exercise-induced increase in enzymatic antioxidant and Na+-K+-ATPase activities and reduction of anxiolytic like-behaviour in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Juliano M; Carvalho, Fabiano B; Gutierres, Jessié M; Soares, Mayara S P; Oliveira, Pathise S; Rubin, Maribel A; Morsch, Vera M; Schetinger, Maria Rosa; Spanevello, Roselia M

    2017-11-01

    Here we investigated the impact of chronic high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and caffeine consumption on the activities of Na + -K + -ATPase and enzymes of the antioxidant system, as well as anxiolytic-like behaviour in the rat brain. Animals were divided into groups: control, caffeine (4 mg/kg), caffeine (8 mg/kg), HIIT, HIIT plus caffeine (4 mg/kg) and HIIT plus caffeine (8 mg/kg). Rats were trained three times per week for 6 weeks, and caffeine was administered 30 minutes before training. We assessed the anxiolytic-like behaviour, Na + -K + -ATPase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in the brain. HIIT-induced anxiolytic-like behaviour increased Na + -K + -ATPase and GPx activities and TBARS levels, altered the activities of SOD and CAT in different brain regions, and decreased GSH levels. Caffeine, however, elicited anxiogenic-like behaviour and blocked HIIT effects. The combination of caffeine and HIIT prevented the increase in SOD activity in the cerebral cortex and GPx activity in three brain regions. Our results show that caffeine promoted anxiogenic behaviour and prevented HIIT-induced changes in the antioxidant system and Na + -K + -ATPase activities.

  10. Antioxidant capacity and physical exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Marciniak

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is a presentation of current knowledge regarding the changes of plasma antioxidant capacity observed in response to physical exercise. Human body created the enzymatic and non-enzymatic systems, which play a protective role in the harmful impact of free radicals. Those two systems constitute what is known as the plasma total antioxidant capacity. The amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS and reactive nitrogen species (NOS in combination with oxidation processes increases in some tissues during physiological response to physical exercise. These changes are observed after single bout of exercise as well as after regular training. The response of human body to physical exercise can be analysed using various models of exercise test. Application of repeated type of exhaustion allows for characterizing the ability of human body to adjust to the increased energy loss and increased oxygen consumption. This article presents the characteristics of components of plasma antioxidant capacity, the mechanisms of free radicals production and their role in human body. It discusses also the currently used methods of detecting changes in total antioxidant capacity and its individual elements in response to single bout of exercise and regular training. It presents the review of literature about research performed in groups of both regularly training and low exercise activity individuals as well as in group of healthy subjects and patients with circulation diseases.

  11. Daughters and mothers exercising together (DAMET): a 12-week pilot project designed to improve physical self-perception and increase recreational physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransdell, L B; Dratt, J; Kennedy, C; O'Neill, S; DeVoe, D

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a 12-week single-sex, family-based physical activity intervention grounded in Social Cognitive Theory. Mother/daughter pairs and triads (n = 20) attended physical activity and classroom sessions twice weekly. Physiological data (VO2peak, height, and weight), psychological data (physical self-perception profile subscale scores), information about physical activity participation (PAP, d x wk(-1)) and qualitative impressions (QI) of the program were collected pre- and post-intervention. PAP and QI were also collected 6-months after completing the intervention. Although no significant increases in physical activity were reported, significant improvements in perceived sport competence, physical condition, and strength and muscularity were reported over time. The social cognitive theory, as used to plan this physical activity intervention, offered a promising theoretical perspective for facilitating improved physical self-perception in adolescent girls and their mothers.

  12. Coordinated increase in skeletal muscle fiber area and expression of IGF-I with resistance exercise in elderly post-operative patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suetta, Charlotte; Clemmensen, Christoffer; Andersen, Jesper L

    2010-01-01

    Hypertrophy of developing skeletal muscle involves stimulation by insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), however, the role of IGF-I in adult muscle is less clarified. In the present study, the mRNA splice variants of IGF-I (IGF-IEa and MGF) and the changes in muscle fiber cross sectional area after...... and in addition induces marked increases in the expression of IGF-I splice variants, supporting the idea that IGF-I is involved in regulating muscle hypertrophy.......-operated-side served as a within subject control. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis of both limbs at +2d post-operative (baseline), at 5weeks and 12weeks post-surgery to analyze for changes in type 1 and type 2 muscle fiber area. Changes in expression levels of IGF-I mRNA isoforms were determined...

  13. [Health and exercise: effects of exercise on high blood pressure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, M; Nanri, H; Himeno, E

    1993-09-01

    Many factors, such as genetic, psychological, environmental, and socioeconomical factors, influence the health of individuals. Recently behavioral risks which cause preventable chronic diseases or premature death have been increasing. These risk factors are mainly due to living habits, such as over-eating, less exercise and psychological stress. Physical activity or fitness is reported to be inversely associated with morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases diabetes mellitus, cancer and so on. Hypertension has also been reported to be associated with low physical fitness in cross-sectional studies. We have so far reported a significant blood pressure reduction in mild hypertensive patients who completed mild intensity exercise training in well controlled studies. Exercise seemed to modify the multiple factors that might participate in raising and maintaining high blood pressure. The mechanisms of lowering blood pressure by exercise training are mainly due to a depletion of blood volume or the reduction of both cardiac output and the sympathetic tone. They were supported by the evidence of increased levels of prostaglandin E, dopamine, taurine, and decreased levels of plasma norepinephrine and endogenous ouavain-like substance. In this article, we have reviewed the physiological and biochemical roles of exercise, the effects of exercise on high blood pressure, and the hypotensive mechanism of mild aerobic exercise hypertensive patients.

  14. Social facilitation in virtual reality-enhanced exercise: competitiveness moderates exercise effort of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Hanley, Cay; Snyder, Amanda L; Nimon, Joseph P; Arciero, Paul J

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effect of virtual social facilitation and competitiveness on exercise effort in exergaming older adults. Fourteen exergaming older adults participated. Competitiveness was assessed prior to the start of exercise. Participants were trained to ride a "cybercycle;" a virtual reality-enhanced stationary bike with interactive competition. After establishing a cybercycling baseline, competitive avatars were introduced. Pedaling effort (watts) was assessed. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed a significant group (high vs low competitiveness) × time (pre- to post-avatar) interaction (F[1,12] = 13.1, P = 0.003). Virtual social facilitation increased exercise effort among more competitive exercisers. Exercise programs that match competitiveness may maximize exercise effort.

  15. Depression, diet and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacka, Felice N; Berk, Michael

    2013-09-16

    Unhealthy lifestyle behaviour is driving an increase in the burden of chronic non-communicable diseases worldwide. Recent evidence suggests that poor diet and a lack of exercise contribute to the genesis and course of depression. While studies examining dietary improvement as a treatment strategy in depression are lacking, epidemiological evidence clearly points to diet quality being of importance to the risk of depression. Exercise has been shown to be an effective treatment strategy for depression, but this is not reflected in treatment guidelines, and increased physical activity is not routinely encouraged when managing depression in clinical practice. Recommendations regarding dietary improvement, increases in physical activity and smoking cessation should be routinely given to patients with depression. Specialised and detailed advice may not be necessary. Recommendations should focus on following national guidelines for healthy eating and physical activity.

  16. Communication style and exercise compliance in physiotherapy (CONNECT): a cluster randomized controlled trial to test a theory-based intervention to increase chronic low back pain patients' adherence to physiotherapists' recommendations: study rationale, design, and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdale, Chris; Hall, Amanda M; Williams, Geoffrey C; McDonough, Suzanne M; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Murray, Aileen; Hurley, Deirdre A

    2012-06-15

    Physical activity and exercise therapy are among the accepted clinical rehabilitation guidelines and are recommended self-management strategies for chronic low back pain. However, many back pain sufferers do not adhere to their physiotherapist's recommendations. Poor patient adherence may decrease the effectiveness of advice and home-based rehabilitation exercises. According to self-determination theory, support from health care practitioners can promote patients' autonomous motivation and greater long-term behavioral persistence (e.g., adherence to physiotherapists' recommendations). The aim of this trial is to assess the effect of an intervention designed to increase physiotherapists' autonomy-supportive communication on low back pain patients' adherence to physical activity and exercise therapy recommendations. This study will be a single-blinded cluster randomized controlled trial. Outpatient physiotherapy centers (N =12) in Dublin, Ireland (population = 1.25 million) will be randomly assigned using a computer-generated algorithm to either the experimental or control arm. Physiotherapists in the experimental arm (two hospitals and four primary care clinics) will attend eight hours of communication skills training. Training will include handouts, workbooks, video examples, role-play, and discussion designed to teach physiotherapists how to communicate in a manner that promotes autonomous patient motivation. Physiotherapists in the waitlist control arm (two hospitals and four primary care clinics) will not receive this training. Participants (N = 292) with chronic low back pain will complete assessments at baseline, as well as 1 week, 4 weeks, 12 weeks, and 24 weeks after their first physiotherapy appointment. Primary outcomes will include adherence to physiotherapy recommendations, as well as low back pain, function, and well-being. Participants will be blinded to treatment allocation, as they will not be told if their physiotherapist has

  17. Communication style and exercise compliance in physiotherapy (CONNECT. A cluster randomized controlled trial to test a theory-based intervention to increase chronic low back pain patients’ adherence to physiotherapists’ recommendations: study rationale, design, and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lonsdale Chris

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity and exercise therapy are among the accepted clinical rehabilitation guidelines and are recommended self-management strategies for chronic low back pain. However, many back pain sufferers do not adhere to their physiotherapist’s recommendations. Poor patient adherence may decrease the effectiveness of advice and home-based rehabilitation exercises. According to self-determination theory, support from health care practitioners can promote patients’ autonomous motivation and greater long-term behavioral persistence (e.g., adherence to physiotherapists’ recommendations. The aim of this trial is to assess the effect of an intervention designed to increase physiotherapists’ autonomy-supportive communication on low back pain patients’ adherence to physical activity and exercise therapy recommendations. Methods/Design This study will be a single-blinded cluster randomized controlled trial. Outpatient physiotherapy centers (N =12 in Dublin, Ireland (population = 1.25 million will be randomly assigned using a computer-generated algorithm to either the experimental or control arm. Physiotherapists in the experimental arm (two hospitals and four primary care clinics will attend eight hours of communication skills training. Training will include handouts, workbooks, video examples, role-play, and discussion designed to teach physiotherapists how to communicate in a manner that promotes autonomous patient motivation. Physiotherapists in the waitlist control arm (two hospitals and four primary care clinics will not receive this training. Participants (N = 292 with chronic low back pain will complete assessments at baseline, as well as 1 week, 4 weeks, 12 weeks, and 24 weeks after their first physiotherapy appointment. Primary outcomes will include adherence to physiotherapy recommendations, as well as low back pain, function, and well-being. Participants will be blinded to treatment allocation, as

  18. PGC-1alpha in exercise- and exercise training-induced metabolic adaptations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Stine Ringholm

    and interferes with the exercise-induced adaptive response in human skeletal muscle. Study II demonstrates that mouse liver glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) mRNA content increased in recovery from acute exercise in both wildtype (WT) and PGC-1α knockout (KO) mice, while phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK......) and pyruvate carboxylase mRNA content did not change in either genotype. Exercise training increased PEPCK protein content in both WT and PGC-1α KO mice. In addition, the mRNA and protein content of cytochrome (Cyt) c and cytochrome c oxidase (COX) subunit I increased in response to acute exercise and exercise...

  19. Bronchial or Laryngeal Obstruction Induced by Exercise?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayoub Bey

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A child suspected of exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction and asthma is examined by laryngoscopy and respiratory resistance (Rrs after exercise challenge. Immediately at exercise cessation, the visualized adduction of the larynx in inspiration is reflected in a paroxystic increase in Rrs. While normal breathing has apparently resumed later on during recovery from exercise, the pattern of Rrs in inspiration is observed to reoccur following a deep breath or swallowing. The procedure may thus help diagnosing the site of exercise-induced obstruction when laryngoscopy is not available and identify re-inducers of laryngeal dysfunction.

  20. [Psychophysiology of sports addiction (exercises addiction)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivoshchekov, S G; Lushnikov, O N

    2011-01-01

    Addiction is a prevalent and growing concern in all aspects of our modern society. There are considerable concerns for the growing frequency of addictions to drugs, alcohol, gambling, eating, and even sex. Though exercise is generally accepted as a positive behaviour that has many benefits associated with enhanced physical and psychological wellbeing, there is an increasing awareness that exercise addiction is becoming a common phenomenon. Theories regarding how exercise can become addictive, and studies of withdrawal from exercise are reviewed. Several physiological mechanisms, including endogenous opioids, catecholamines, functional asymmetry of brain activity and thermoregulation have been implicated in exercise dependence.

  1. Acute exercise improves motor memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, Kasper Christen; Roig, Marc; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    We have recently shown that a single bout of acute cardiovascular exercise improves motor skill learning through an optimization of long-term motor memory. Here we expand this previous finding, to explore potential exercise-related biomarkers and their association with measures of motor memory...... practice whereas lactate correlated with better retention 1 hour as well as 24 hours and 7 days after practice. Thus, improvements in motor skill acquisition and retention induced by acute cardiovascular exercise are associated with increased concentrations of biomarkers involved in memory and learning...... processes. More mechanistic studies are required to elucidate the specific role of each biomarker in the formation of motor memory....

  2. Dialysis Exercise Team: The Way to Sustain Exercise Programs in Hemodialysis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Capitanini

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Patients affected by end-stage renal disease (ESRD show quite lower physical activity and exercise capacity when compared to healthy individuals. In addition, a sedentary lifestyle is favoured by lack of a specific counseling on exercise implementation in the nephrology care setting. Increasing physical activity level should represent a goal for every dialysis patient care management. Three crucial elements of clinical care may contribute to sustain a hemodialysis exercise program: a involvement of exercise professionals, b real commitment of nephrologists and dialysis professionals, c individual patient adaptation of the exercise program. Dialysis staff have a crucial role to encourage and assist patients during intra-dialysis exercise, but other professionals should be included in the ideal “exercise team” for dialysis patients. Evaluation of general condition, comorbidities (especially cardiovascular, nutritional status and physical exercise capacity are mandatory to propose an exercise program, in either extra-dialysis or intra-dialysis setting. To this aim, nephrologist should lead a team of specialists and professionals including cardiologist, physiotherapist, exercise physiologist, renal dietician and nurse. In this scenario, dialysis nurses play a pivotal role since they guarantee a constant and direct approach. Unfortunately dialysis staff may often lack of information and formation about exercise management while they take care patients during the dialysis session. Building an effective exercise team, promoting the culture of exercise and increasing physical activity levels lead to a more complete and modern clinical care management of ESRD patients.

  3. Exercise Training During +Gz Acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Chou, J. L.; Simonson, S. R.; Jackson, C. G. R.; Barnes, P. R.

    1999-01-01

    The overall purpose is to study the effect of passive (without exercise) and active (with exercise) +Gz (head-to-foot) acceleration training, using a short-arm (1.9m radius) centrifuge, on post- training maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max, work capacity) and 70 deg head-up tilt (orthostatic) tolerance in ambulatory subjects to test the hypothesis that (a) both passive and active acceleration training will improve post-training tilt-tolerance, and (b) there will be no difference in tilt-tolerance between passive and active exercise acceleration training because increased hydrostatic and blood pressures, rather than increased muscular metabolism, will provide the major adaptive stimulus. The purpose of the pilot study was to test the hypothesis that there would be no significant difference in the metabolic responses (oxygen uptake, heart rate, pulmonary ventilation, or respiratory exchange ratio) during supine exercise with moderate +Gz acceleration.

  4. Extreme exercise and oxidative DNA modification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, H E; Loft, S; Vistisen, K

    1996-01-01

    Extreme exercise increases oxygen uptake with a potential for increased formation of reactive oxygen species. Damage to biomolecules may occur if such an increase exceeds the protective capacity of antioxidant defence mechanisms. Vigorous exercise amounting to approximately 10 h a day for 30 days...

  5. Changes in Exercise Data Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxton, R. E.; Kalogera, K. L.; Hanson, A. M.

    2018-01-01

    The suite of exercise hardware aboard the International Space Station (ISS) generates an immense amount of data. The data collected from the treadmill, cycle ergometer, and resistance strength training hardware are basic exercise parameters (time, heart rate, speed, load, etc.). The raw data are post processed in the laboratory and more detailed parameters are calculated from each exercise data file. Updates have recently been made to how this valuable data are stored, adding an additional level of data security, increasing data accessibility, and resulting in overall increased efficiency of medical report delivery. Questions regarding exercise performance or how exercise may influence other variables of crew health frequently arise within the crew health care community. Inquiries over the health of the exercise hardware often need quick analysis and response to ensure the exercise system is operable on a continuous basis. Consolidating all of the exercise system data in a single repository enables a quick response to both the medical and engineering communities. A SQL server database is currently in use, and provides a secure location for all of the exercise data starting at ISS Expedition 1 - current day. The database has been structured to update derived metrics automatically, making analysis and reporting available within minutes of dropping the inflight data it into the database. Commercial tools were evaluated to help aggregate and visualize data from the SQL database. The Tableau software provides manageable interface, which has improved the laboratory's output time of crew reports by 67%. Expansion of the SQL database to be inclusive of additional medical requirement metrics, addition of 'app-like' tools for mobile visualization, and collaborative use (e.g. operational support teams, research groups, and International Partners) of the data system is currently being explored.

  6. Exercise and immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007165.htm Exercise and immunity To use the sharing features on ... take a daily walk or follow a simple exercise routine a few times a week. Exercise helps ...

  7. When exercise causes exertional rhabdomyolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, Janet

    2015-04-01

    Exertional rhabdomyolysis is a clinical condition caused by intense, repetitive exercise or a sudden increase in exercise in an untrained person, although rhabdomyolysis can occur in trained athletes. In many cases, the presentation of early, uncomplicated rhabdomyolysis is subtle, but serious complications such as renal failure, compartment syndrome, and dysrhythmias may arise if severe exertional rhabdomyolysis is undiagnosed or untreated. Management is further complicated by the lack of concrete management guidelines for treating rhabdomyolysis and returning patients to activity.

  8. Sustaining exercise participation through group cohesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estabrooks, P A

    2000-04-01

    The general hypothesis to be examined by this article is that increased group cohesion leads to an increase in adherence to an exercise program over time. Although preliminary research is promising, there is a need for further research aimed at examining the model of group development in exercise classes, the impact of group cohesion on both group and individual exercise behavior, and the measurement of group cohesion.

  9. Exercise Equipment: Neutral Buoyancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackelford, Linda; Valle, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Load Bearing Equipment for Neutral Buoyancy (LBE-NB) is an exercise frame that holds two exercising subjects in position as they apply counter forces to each other for lower extremity and spine loading resistance exercises. Resistance exercise prevents bone loss on ISS, but the ISS equipment is too massive for use in exploration craft. Integrating the human into the load directing, load generating, and motion control functions of the exercise equipment generates safe exercise loads with less equipment mass and volume.

  10. Exercise in muscle glycogen storage diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preisler, Nicolai Rasmus; Haller, Ronald G; Vissing, John

    2015-01-01

    exercise program has the potential to improve general health and fitness and improve quality of life, if executed properly. In this review, we describe skeletal muscle substrate use during exercise in GSDs, and how blocks in metabolic pathways affect exercise tolerance in GSDs. We review the studies...... that have examined the effect of regular exercise training in different types of GSD. Finally, we consider how oral substrate supplementation can improve exercise tolerance and we discuss the precautions that apply to persons with GSD that engage in exercise.......Glycogen storage diseases (GSD) are inborn errors of glycogen or glucose metabolism. In the GSDs that affect muscle, the consequence of a block in skeletal muscle glycogen breakdown or glucose use, is an impairment of muscular performance and exercise intolerance, owing to 1) an increase...

  11. Near infrared spectroscopy and exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angus, Caroline

    2002-01-01

    Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) provides a non-invasive method for the continuous monitoring of changes in tissue oxygenation and blood volume during aerobic exercise. During incremental exercise in adult subjects there was a positive correlation between lactate threshold (measured by blood sampling) and changes in the rate of muscle deoxygenation (measured by NIRS). However, the 7% failure rate for the NIRS test mitigated against the general use of this method. NIRS did not provide a valid method for LT determination in an adolescent population. NIRS was then used to examine whether haemodynamic changes could be a contributing factor to the mechanism underlying the cross-transfer effect. During a one-legged incremental aerobic exercise test the muscle was more deoxygenated in the exercising leg than in the non-exercising leg, consistent with oxygen consumption outstripping blood flow to the exercising limb. However, muscle blood volume increased equally in both legs. This suggests that blood flow may be raised to similar levels in both the legs; although local factors may signal an increase in blood volume, this effect is expressed in both legs. Muscle blood flow and changes in muscle blood volume were then measured directly by NIRS during an incremental one-arm aerobic exercise test. There was no significant difference in either blood volume or blood flow in the two arms at the end of the test. In the non-exercising arm changes in blood flow and blood volume were measured throughout the protocol. At higher exercise intensities, blood volume continued to rise as muscle blood flow plateaued, indicating that blood volume changes become independent of changes in blood flow. Finally, the effect of different training regimes on changes in muscle blood volume was examined. Subjects were assigned to a training group; two-arm training, one-arm training or a control group. Training did not affect blood volume changes during two-arm exercise. However, during one

  12. Effect of exercise training on leucine oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrix, M.K.; Layman, D.K.

    1986-01-01

    Oxidation of the BCAA leucine is increased during a bout of exhaustive exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of exercise training on leu oxidation during aerobic exercise. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a commercial diet ad lib and divided into sedentary and two trained groups. Animals were trained to run on a treadmill with a 10 0 incline at 28 m/min for 5 wks for either 50 or 120 min/day. There were no differences in food intake or body weight. After a 12 hr fast, animals were run for 50 or 120 min and changes in leu catabolism determined by measurement of in vivo leu oxidation and activity of branched chain keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKAD). For measurement of leu oxidation, rats were injected IP with 4 μCi 1- 14 C-leu during the last 15 min of exercise, placed in glass metabolic chambers, and 14 CO 2 collected in 1 N NaOH for 30 min periods. Leu oxidation was increased by 40% after 50 min of exercise and by 79% after 120 min of exercise. Five weeks of training reduced the rate of leu oxidation during an exercise bout. The activity of the BCKAD was not increased in the trained animals after either 50 or 120 min of exercise. These data indicate that the rate of leu oxidation during exercises is dependent on the duration of the exercise and that training will reduce the magnitude of this effect

  13. Can exercise mimetics substitute for exercise?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Erik; Kiens, Bente; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen

    2008-01-01

    Exercise leads to changes in muscle phenotype with important implications for exercise performance and health. A recent paper in Cell by Narkar et al. (2008) shows that many of the adaptations in muscle phenotype elicited by exercise can be mimicked by genetic manipulation and drug treatment...

  14. Predictors of exercise frequency in breast cancer survivors in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hsin-Tien; Dodd, Marylin J; Guo, Su-Er; Lee, Kathryn A; Hwang, Shiow-Li; Lai, Yu-Hung

    2011-07-01

    To apply social cognitive theory to elucidate factors that motivate change in exercise frequency in breast cancer survivors during the six months after completing cancer treatment. Exercise is now a well-recognised quality-of-life intervention in breast cancer survivors. However, only regular exercise yields long-term benefits. Motivations for exercise have not been analysed in Taiwan patients with cancer. A prospective, longitudinal and repeated measures design was used. A convenience sample of 196 breast cancer survivors was recruited from hospitals in metropolitan areas of north and south Taiwan. Study participants were allowed to select their preferred exercised activities. Exercise behaviour and other factors were then recorded using various standardised instruments. Medical charts were also reviewed. Data were analysed by a linear mixed model and by hierarchical multiple regression equations. Exercise frequency significantly changed over time. Explained variance in exercise frequency change was modest. Baseline exercise frequency was the best significant predictor of exercise frequency during the six-month study. The study also identified possible age-related differences in the effect of social support on exercise. The effect of social support for exercise on exercise frequency was apparently larger in older subjects, especially those over 40 years old, than in younger subjects. Mental health, exercise barriers and exercise outcome expectancy significantly contributed to change in exercise frequency during the six-month study. The analytical results revealed several ways to increase exercise frequency in breast cancer survivors: (1) encourage exercise as early as possible; (2) improve health status and provide social support for exercise, especially in women aged 40 years or older; (3) reduce exercise barriers and promote mental health; (4) reinforce self-efficacy and positive expectations of exercise outcomes and (5) provide strategies for minimising fatigue

  15. Exercise guidelines for gestational diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padayachee, Cliantha; Coombes, Jeff S

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is increasing worldwide. This disease has many detrimental consequences for the woman, the unborn foetus and child. The management of GDM aims to mediate the effects of hyperglycaemia by controlling blood glucose levels. Along with pharmacology and dietary interventions, exercise has a powerful potential to assist with blood glucose control. Due to the uncertainty of risks and benefits of exercise during pregnancy, women tend to avoid exercise. However, under adequate supervision exercise is both safe and beneficial in the treatment of GDM. Therefore it is vital that exercise is incorporated into the continuum of care for women with GDM. Medical doctors should be able to refer to competently informed exercise professionals to aid in GDM treatment. It is important that exercise treatment is informed by research. Hence, the development of evidence-based guidelines is important to inform practice. Currently there are no guidelines for exercise in GDM. This review aims to assess the efficacy of exercise for the management of GDM in order to establish an exercise prescription guideline specific to the condition. It is recommended that women with GDM should do both aerobic and resistance exercise at a moderate intensity, a minimum of three times a week for 30-60 min each time. PMID:26240700

  16. Astragalus membranaceus Improves Exercise Performance and Ameliorates Exercise-Induced Fatigue in Trained Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Shao Yeh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Astragalus membranaceus (AM is a popular “Qi-tonifying” herb with a long history of use as a Traditional Chinese Medicine with multiple biological functions. However, evidence for the effects of AM on exercise performance and physical fatigue is limited. We evaluated the potential beneficial effects of AM on ergogenic and anti-fatigue functions following physiological challenge. Male ICR strain mice were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 10 per group for treatment: (1 sedentary control and vehicle treatment (vehicle control; (2 exercise training with vehicle treatment (exercise control; and (3 exercise training with AM treatment at 0.615 g/kg/day (Ex-AM1 or (4 3.075 g/kg/day (Ex-AM5. Both the vehicle and AM were orally administered for 6 weeks. Exercise performance and anti-fatigue function were evaluated by forelimb grip strength, exhaustive swimming time, and levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase after 15-min swimming exercise. Exercise training combined with AM supplementation increased endurance exercise capacity and increased hepatic and muscle glycogen content. AM reduced exercise-induced accumulation of the byproducts blood lactate and ammonia with acute exercise challenge. Moreover, we found no deleterious effects from AM treatment. Therefore, AM supplementation improved exercise performance and had anti-fatigue effects in mice. It may be an effective ergogenic aid in exercise training.

  17. Media-Augmented Exercise Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, T.

    2002-01-01

    Cardio-vascular exercise has been used to mitigate the muscle and cardiac atrophy associated with adaptation to micro-gravity environments. Several hours per day may be required. In confined spaces and long duration missions this kind of exercise is inevitably repetitive and rapidly becomes uninteresting. At the same time, there are pressures to accomplish as much as possible given the cost- per-hour for humans occupying orbiting or interplanetary. Media augmentation provides a the means to overlap activities in time by supplementing the exercise with social, recreational, training or collaborative activities and thereby reducing time pressures. In addition, the machine functions as an interface to a wide range of digital environments allowing for spatial variety in an otherwise confined environment. We hypothesize that the adoption of media augmented exercise machines will have a positive effect on psycho-social well-being on long duration missions. By organizing and supplementing exercise machines, data acquisition hardware, computers and displays into an interacting system this proposal increases functionality with limited additional mass. This paper reviews preliminary work on a project to augment exercise equipment in a manner that addresses these issues and at the same time opens possibilities for additional benefits. A testbed augmented exercise machine uses a specialty built cycle trainer as both input to a virtual environment and as an output device from it using spatialized sound, and visual displays, vibration transducers and variable resistance. The resulting interactivity increases a sense of engagement in the exercise, provides a rich experience of the digital environments. Activities in the virtual environment and accompanying physiological and psychological indicators may be correlated to track and evaluate the health of the crew.

  18. The health effects of exercising in air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Luisa V; Koehle, Michael S

    2014-02-01

    The health benefits of exercise are well known. Many of the most accessible forms of exercise, such as walking, cycling, and running often occur outdoors. This means that exercising outdoors may increase exposure to urban air pollution. Regular exercise plays a key role in improving some of the physiologic mechanisms and health outcomes that air pollution exposure may exacerbate. This problem presents an interesting challenge of balancing the beneficial effects of exercise along with the detrimental effects of air pollution upon health. This article summarizes the pulmonary, cardiovascular, cognitive, and systemic health effects of exposure to particulate matter, ozone, and carbon monoxide during exercise. It also summarizes how air pollution exposure affects maximal oxygen consumption and exercise performance. This article highlights ways in which exercisers could mitigate the adverse health effects of air pollution exposure during exercise and draws attention to the potential importance of land use planning in selecting exercise facilities.

  19. Matrix metalloproteinases in exercise and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaoude, Jonathan; Koh, Yunsuk

    2016-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are zinc- and calcium-dependent endoproteinases that have the ability to break down extracellular matrix. The large range of MMPs' functions widens their spectrum of potential role as activators or inhibitors in tissue remodeling, cardiovascular diseases, and obesity. In particular, MMP-1, -2, and -9 may be associated with exercise and obesity. Thus, the current study reviewed the effects of different types of exercise (resistance and aerobic) on MMP-1, -2, and -9. Previous studies report that the response of MMP-2 and -9 to resistance exercise is dependent upon the length of exercise training, since long-term resistance exercise training increased both MMP-2 and -9, whereas acute bout of resistance exercise decreased these MMPs. Aerobic exercise produces an inconsistent result on MMPs, although some studies showed a decrease in MMP-1. Obesity is related to a relatively lower level of MMP-9, indicating that an exercise-induced increase in MMP-9 may positively influence obesity. A comprehensive understanding of the relationship between exercise, obesity, and MMPs does not exist yet. Future studies examining the acute and chronic responses of these MMPs using different subject models may provide a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that are associated with exercise, obesity, and cardiovascular disease.

  20. Effect of exercise intensity on exercise and post exercise energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine if exercise and post exercise energy expenditure are affected by the intensity of exercise during a set distance of 4km walking and/or jogging. Subjects for this study were 12 moderately obese females with mean fat percentage of 31.7±6.3% and mean age of 38.2±4.6 years. For the low ...

  1. Emergency exercise scenario tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeblom, K.

    1998-03-01

    Nuclear power plant emergency exercises require a realistically presented accident situation which includes various aspects: plant process, radioactivity, radiation, weather and people. Experiences from nuclear power plant emergency exercises show that preparing accident scenarios even for relatively short exercises is tedious. In the future modern computer technology and past experience could be used for making exercise planning more effective. (au)

  2. Exercise and Fatigue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ament, Wim; Verkerke, Gijsbertus J.

    2009-01-01

    Physical exercise affects the equilibrium of the internal environment. During exercise the contracting muscles generate force or power and heat. So physical exercise is in fact a form of mechanical energy. This generated energy will deplete the energy stocks within the body. During exercise,

  3. Exercise-Induced Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Exercise-Induced Asthma KidsHealth / For Parents / Exercise-Induced Asthma What's in ... Exercise-Induced Asthma Print What Is Exercise-Induced Asthma? Most kids and teens with asthma have symptoms ...

  4. The impact of exercise performance dissatisfaction and physical exercise on symptoms of depression among college students: a gender comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edman, Jeanne L; Lynch, Wesley C; Yates, Alayne

    2014-01-01

    Depression is a common psychological problem and females have been found to be at greater risk for this disorder than males. Although numerous studies have found that physical exercise is negatively associated with risk of depression, some studies suggest that negative exercise attitudes may increase the risk of depression. The present study used the survey method to examine the relationship between depressive symptoms, exercise performance dissatisfaction, body dissatisfaction, and physical exercise among a sample of 895 undergraduate university students. Females reported higher depression and exercise performance dissatisfaction scores than males; however, there were no gender differences in body dissatisfaction. Exercise performance dissatisfaction was positively associated with depression among both males and females. Physical exercise was negatively associated with depression among males, but not among females. The possibility of screening participants enrolled in exercise programs for performance dissatisfaction is discussed as negative exercise attitudes may diminish the positive impact of exercise on depressed mood.

  5. Six weeks of structured exercise training and hypocaloric diet increases the probability of ovulation after clomiphene citrate in overweight and obese patients with polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomba, S; Falbo, A; Giallauria, F; Russo, T; Rocca, M; Tolino, A; Zullo, F; Orio, F

    2010-11-01

    Clomiphene citrate (CC) is the first-line therapy for the induction of ovulation in infertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), but ∼20% of patients are unresponsive. The aim of the current study was to test the hypothesis that a 6-week intervention that consisted of structured exercise training (SET) and hypocaloric diet increases the probability of ovulation after CC in overweight and obese CC-resistant PCOS patients. A cohort of 96 overweight and obese CC-resistant PCOS patients was enrolled consecutively in a three-arm randomized, parallel, controlled, assessor-blinded clinical trial. The three interventions were: SET plus hypocaloric diet for 6 weeks (Group A); 2 weeks of observation followed by one cycle of CC therapy (Group B); and SET plus hypocaloric diet for 6 weeks, with one cycle of CC after the first 2 weeks (Group C). The primary end-point was the ovulation rate. Other reproductive data, as well as anthropometric, hormonal and metabolic data, were also collected and considered as secondary end points. After 6 weeks of SET plus hypocaloric diet, the ovulation rate was significantly (P =0.008) higher in Group C [12/32 (37.5%)] than in Groups A [4/32 (12.5%)] and B [3/32 (9.4%)] with relative risks of 3.9 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-8.3; P = 0.035] and 4.0 (95% CI 1.2-12.8; P = 0.020) compared with Groups A and B, respectively. Compared with baseline, in Groups A and C, a significant improvement in clinical and biochemical androgen and insulin sensitivity indexes was observed. In the same two groups, the insulin sensitivity index was significantly (P hypocaloric diet was effective in increasing the probability of ovulation under CC treatment. The study was registered at Clinicaltrials.gov:NCT0100468.

  6. Cardiac output during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siebenmann, C; Rasmussen, P.; Sørensen, H.

    2015-01-01

    Several techniques assessing cardiac output (Q) during exercise are available. The extent to which the measurements obtained from each respective technique compares to one another, however, is unclear. We quantified Q simultaneously using four methods: the Fick method with blood obtained from...... the right atrium (Q(Fick-M)), Innocor (inert gas rebreathing; Q(Inn)), Physioflow (impedance cardiography; Q(Phys)), and Nexfin (pulse contour analysis; Q(Pulse)) in 12 male subjects during incremental cycling exercise to exhaustion in normoxia and hypoxia (FiO2  = 12%). While all four methods reported...... a progressive increase in Q with exercise intensity, the slopes of the Q/oxygen uptake (VO2) relationship differed by up to 50% between methods in both normoxia [4.9 ± 0.3, 3.9 ± 0.2, 6.0 ± 0.4, 4.8 ± 0.2 L/min per L/min (mean ± SE) for Q(Fick-M), Q(Inn), QP hys and Q(Pulse), respectively; P = 0...

  7. Exercise Prevents Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnomo, K. I.; Doewes, M.; Giri, M. K. W.; Setiawan, K. H.; Wibowo, I. P. A.

    2017-03-01

    Multiple current studies show that neuroinflammation may contribute to mental illness such as depression, anxiety, and mood disorder. Chronic inflammation in peripheral tissues is indicated by the increase of inflammatory marker like cytokine IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β. Pro-inflammatory cytokine in peripheral tissues can reach brain tissues and activate microglia and it causes neuroinflammation. Psychological stress may led peripheral and central inflammation. Activated microglia will produce pro-inflammatory cytokine, ROS, RNS, and tryptophan catabolizes. This neuroinflammation can promote metabolism changes of any neurotransmitter, such as serotonin, dopamine, and glutamate that will influence neurocircuit in the brain including basal ganglia and anterior cingulated cortex. It leads to mental illness. Exercise give contribution to reduce tissue inflammation. When muscle is contracting in an exercise, muscle will produce the secretion of cytokine like IL-6, IL-1ra, and IL-10. It will react as anti-inflammation and influence macrophage, T cell, monosit, protein Toll-Like Receptor (TLR), and then reduce neuroinflammation, characterised by the decrease of pro-inflammatory cytokine and prevent the activation of microglia in the brain. The objective of the present study is to review scientific articles in the literature related to the contribution of exercise to prevent and ease mental illness.

  8. Exercise Responses after Inactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convertino, Victor A.

    1986-01-01

    The exercise response after bed rest inactivity is a reduction in the physical work capacity and is manifested by significant decreases in oxygen uptake. The magnitude of decrease in maximal oxygen intake V(dot)O2max is related to the duration of confinement and the pre-bed-rest level of aerobic fitness; these relationships are relatively independent of age and gender. The reduced exercise performance and V(dot)O2max following bed rest are associated with various physiological adaptations including reductions in blood volume, submaximal and maximal stroke volume, maximal cardiac output, sceletal muscle tone and strength, and aerobic enzyme capacities, as well as increases in venous compliance and submaximal and maximal heart rate. This reduction in physiological capacity can be partially restored by specific countermeasures that provide regular muscular activity or orhtostatic stress or both during the bed rest exposure. The understanding of these physiological and physical responses to exercise following bed rest inactivity has important implications for the solution to safety and health problems that arise in clinical medicine, aerospace medicine, sedentary living, and aging.

  9. Glycogen availability and skeletal muscle adaptations with endurance and resistance exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knuiman, Pim; Hopman, Maria T.E.; Mensink, Marco

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that glycogen depletion affects endurance exercise performance negatively. Moreover, numerous studies have demonstrated that post-exercise carbohydrate ingestion improves exercise recovery by increasing glycogen resynthesis. However, recent research into the effects of

  10. Obesity, growth hormone and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Gwendolyn A; Kraemer, William J; Comstock, Brett A; Dunn-Lewis, Courtenay; Maresh, Carl M; Volek, Jeff S

    2013-09-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is regulated, suppressed and stimulated by numerous physiological stimuli. However, it is believed that obesity disrupts the physiological and pathological factors that regulate, suppress or stimulate GH release. Pulsatile GH has been potently stimulated in healthy subjects by both aerobic and resistance exercise of the right intensity and duration. GH modulates fuel metabolism, reduces total fat mass and abdominal fat mass, and could be a potent stimulus of lipolysis when administered to obese individuals exogenously. Only pulsatile GH has been shown to augment adipose tissue lipolysis and, therefore, increasing pulsatile GH response may be a therapeutic target. This review discusses the factors that cause secretion of GH, how obesity may alter GH secretion and how both aerobic and resistance exercise stimulates GH, as well as how exercise of a specific intensity may be used as a stimulus for GH release in individuals who are obese. Only five prior studies have investigated exercise as a stimulus of endogenous GH in individuals who are obese. Based on prior literature, resistance exercise may provide a therapeutic target for releasing endogenous GH in individuals who are obese if specific exercise programme variables are utilized. Biological activity of GH indicates that this may be an important precursor to beneficial changes in body fat and lean tissue mass in obese individuals. However, additional research is needed including what molecular GH variants are acutely released and involved at target tissues as a result of different exercise stimuli and what specific exercise programme variables may serve to stimulate GH in individuals who are obese.

  11. Exercise in muscle glycogen storage diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preisler, Nicolai; Haller, Ronald G; Vissing, John

    2015-05-01

    Glycogen storage diseases (GSD) are inborn errors of glycogen or glucose metabolism. In the GSDs that affect muscle, the consequence of a block in skeletal muscle glycogen breakdown or glucose use, is an impairment of muscular performance and exercise intolerance, owing to 1) an increase in glycogen storage that disrupts contractile function and/or 2) a reduced substrate turnover below the block, which inhibits skeletal muscle ATP production. Immobility is associated with metabolic alterations in muscle leading to an increased dependence on glycogen use and a reduced capacity for fatty acid oxidation. Such changes may be detrimental for persons with GSD from a metabolic perspective. However, exercise may alter skeletal muscle substrate metabolism in ways that are beneficial for patients with GSD, such as improving exercise tolerance and increasing fatty acid oxidation. In addition, a regular exercise program has the potential to improve general health and fitness and improve quality of life, if executed properly. In this review, we describe skeletal muscle substrate use during exercise in GSDs, and how blocks in metabolic pathways affect exercise tolerance in GSDs. We review the studies that have examined the effect of regular exercise training in different types of GSD. Finally, we consider how oral substrate supplementation can improve exercise tolerance and we discuss the precautions that apply to persons with GSD that engage in exercise.

  12. Comparison of whole-body vibration exercise and plyometric exercise to improve isokinetic muscular strength, jumping performance and balance of female volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Youn; Park, Si-Eun

    2016-11-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of whole-body vibration exercise and plyometric exercise on female volleyball players. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were randomly allocated to two exercise groups (whole-body vibration exercise group and plyometric exercise group). The exercise was conducted three times each week for 8 weeks. Isokinetic muscular strength, jumping performance, and balance were measured before starting the exercise and after finishing the 8 weeks of exercise. [Results] Measurements of isokinetic muscular strength revealed that the whole-body vibration exercise group showed significant increase after the exercise. However, the plyometric exercise group had no significant increase in lumbar flexion, extension, and knee flexion. Measurements of vertical jumping revealed that, the whole-body vibration exercise group had no significant increase after the exercise. However, the plyometric exercise group showed significant increase. Measurements of balance revealed that, the whole-body vibration exercise group showed significant increase. However, the plyometric exercise group showed no significant increase. [Conclusion] Although both whole-body vibration and plyometric exercises are effective intervention methods, the two methods have different effects on the improvement of isokinetic muscular strength, jumping performance, and balance of female volleyball players.

  13. Exercise for Adolescents with Depressive Disorders: A Feasibility Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard R. Dopp

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Adolescence is associated with increased depressive symptoms and decreased aerobic exercise, yet the relationship between exercise and clinical depression among adolescents requires further examination. This study assessed the feasibility of a 12-week intervention designed to increase exercise for adolescents with depressive disorders: Will a teenager with depression exercise? Methods. Participants were 13 adolescents with depression reporting low levels of aerobic exercise. They completed a 12-week intervention (15 supervised exercise sessions and 21 independent sessions. Exercise was measured through the aerobic exercise Questionnaire, actigraphy, and heart-rate monitoring. Depression was measured with the Children’s Depression Rating Scale, Revised, and Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology, Self-Report. Results. All participants who started the intervention completed the protocol, attending all supervised exercise sessions. Actigraphy verified 81% adherence to the protocol’s independent sessions. Analysis of secondary outcomes showed a significant increase in exercise levels and a significant decrease in depression severity. Initially, ten participants were overweight or obese, and three were healthy weight. After 12 weeks of exercise, the number of participants in the healthy-weight category doubled. Conclusions. Adolescents suffering from depression can complete a rigorous protocol requiring structured increases in aerobic exercise. Participants showed significant increases in exercise, and significant decreases in depressive symptoms.

  14. Importance of exercise immunology in health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, J C Rosa; Lira, F S; de Mello, M T; Santos, Ronaldo Vagner T

    2011-11-01

    Chronic physical exercise with adequate intensity and volume associated with sufficient recovery promotes adaptations in several physiological systems. While intense and exhaustive exercise is considered an important immunosuppressor agent and increases the incidence of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI), moderate regular exercise has been associated with significant disease protection and is a complementary treatment of many chronic diseases. The effects of chronic exercise occur because physical training can induce several physiological, biochemical and psychological adaptations. More recently, the effect of acute exercise and training on the immunological system has been discussed, and many studies suggest the importance of the immune system in prevention and partial recovery in pathophysiological situations. Currently, there are two important hypotheses that may explain the effects of exercise and training on the immune system. These hypotheses including (1) the effect of exercise upon hormones and cytokines (2) because exercise can modulate glutamine concentration. In this review, we discuss the hypothesis that exercise may modulate immune functions and the importance of exercise immunology in respect to chronic illnesses, chronic heart failure, malnutrition and inflammation.

  15. Dietary Antioxidants as Modifiers of Physiologic Adaptations to Exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.T. Mankowski (Robert T.); S.D. Anton (Stephen D.); T.W. Buford (Thomas W.); C. Leeuwenburgh (Christiaan)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction Adaptive responses to exercise training (ET) are crucial in maintaining physiologic homeostasis and health span. Exercise-induced aerobic bioenergetic reactions in the mitochondria and cytosol increase production of reactive oxygen species, where excess of reactive oxygen

  16. Sarcopenic obesity and dyslipidemia response to selective exercise ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Aerobic and resisted exercise has a positive effect in treatment of sarcopenic obesity and dyslipidemia (reducing fat mass, cholesterol and triglycerides levels while increasing muscle mass) post liver transplantation. KEYWORDS: Liver transplantation; Sarcopenic obesity; Dyslipidemia; Aerobic exercise; ...

  17. Mail-Based Intervention for Sarcopenia Prevention Increased Anabolic Hormone and Skeletal Muscle Mass in Community-Dwelling Japanese Older Adults: The INE (Intervention by Nutrition and Exercise) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Minoru; Nishiguchi, Shu; Fukutani, Naoto; Aoyama, Tomoki; Arai, Hidenori

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the Intervention by Nutrition and Exercise (INE) study was to investigate the effects of a mail-based intervention for sarcopenia prevention on muscle mass and anabolic hormones in community-dwelling older adults. A cluster-randomized controlled trial. This trial recruited community-dwelling adults aged 65 years and older in Japan. The 227 participants were cluster randomized into a walking and nutrition (W/N) group (n = 79), a walking (W) group (n = 71), and a control (C) group (n = 77). We analyzed the physical and biochemical measurements in this substudy. Six months of mail-based intervention (a pedometer-based walking program and nutritional supplementation). The skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) using the bioelectrical impedance data acquisition system, biochemical measurements, such as those of insulinlike growth factor (IGF-1), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), and 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25[OH]D), as well as frailty, were assessed by the Cardiovascular Health Study criteria. Participants in the W/N and W groups had significantly greater improvements in SMI, IGF-1, and 25(OH)D (P < .05) than those in the C group. Participants in the W/N group had significantly greater improvements in DHEA-S (P < .05) than in the other groups. These effects were more pronounced in frail, older adults. These results suggest that the mail-based walking intervention of the remote monitoring type for sarcopenia prevention can increase