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Sample records for exercise blood pressure

  1. [Health and exercise: effects of exercise on high blood pressure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, M; Nanri, H; Himeno, E

    1993-09-01

    Many factors, such as genetic, psychological, environmental, and socioeconomical factors, influence the health of individuals. Recently behavioral risks which cause preventable chronic diseases or premature death have been increasing. These risk factors are mainly due to living habits, such as over-eating, less exercise and psychological stress. Physical activity or fitness is reported to be inversely associated with morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases diabetes mellitus, cancer and so on. Hypertension has also been reported to be associated with low physical fitness in cross-sectional studies. We have so far reported a significant blood pressure reduction in mild hypertensive patients who completed mild intensity exercise training in well controlled studies. Exercise seemed to modify the multiple factors that might participate in raising and maintaining high blood pressure. The mechanisms of lowering blood pressure by exercise training are mainly due to a depletion of blood volume or the reduction of both cardiac output and the sympathetic tone. They were supported by the evidence of increased levels of prostaglandin E, dopamine, taurine, and decreased levels of plasma norepinephrine and endogenous ouavain-like substance. In this article, we have reviewed the physiological and biochemical roles of exercise, the effects of exercise on high blood pressure, and the hypotensive mechanism of mild aerobic exercise hypertensive patients.

  2. [High blood pressure and physical exercise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosner, P; Gremeaux, V; Bosquet, L; Herpin, D

    2014-06-01

    High blood pressure is a frequent pathology with many cardiovascular complications. As highlighted in guidelines, the therapeutic management of hypertension relies on non-pharmacological measures, which are diet and regular physical activity, but both patients and physicians are reluctant to physical activity prescription. To acquire the conviction that physical activity is beneficial, necessary and possible, we can take into account some fundamental and clinical studies, as well as the feedback of our clinical practice. Physical inactivity is a major risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and hypertension contributes to increase this risk. Conversely, regular practice of physical activity decreases very significantly the risk by up to 60%. The acute blood pressure changes during exercise and post-exercise hypotension differs according to the dynamic component (endurance or aerobic and/or strength exercises), but the repetition of the sessions leads to the chronic hypotensive benefit of physical activity. Moreover, physical activity prescription must take into account the assessment of global cardiovascular risk, the control of the hypertension, and the opportunities and desires of the patient in order to promote good adherence and beneficial lifestyle change. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Automatic Blood Pressure Measurements During Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Charles S.

    1985-01-01

    Microprocessor circuits and a computer algorithm for automatically measuring blood pressure during ambulatory monitoring and exercise stress testing have been under development at SRI International. A system that records ECG, Korotkov sound, and arm cuff pressure for off-line calculation of blood pressure has been delivered to NASA, and an LSLE physiological monitoring system that performs the algorithm calculations in real-time is being constructed. The algorithm measures the time between the R-wave peaks and the corresponding Korotkov sound on-set (RK-interval). Since the curve of RK-interval versus cuff pressure during deflation is predictable and slowly varying, windows can be set around the curve to eliminate false Korotkov sound detections that result from noise. The slope of this curve, which will generally decrease during exercise, is the inverse of the systolic slope of the brachial artery pulse. In measurements taken during treadmill stress testing, the changes in slopes of subjects with coronary artery disease were markedly different from the changes in slopes of healthy subjects. Measurements of slope and O2 consumption were also made before and after ten days of bed rest during NASA/Ames Research Center bed rest studies. Typically, the maximum rate of O2 consumption during the post-bed rest test is less than the maximum rate during the pre-bed rest test. The post-bed rest slope changes differ from the pre-bed rest slope changes, and the differences are highly correlated with the drop in the maximum rate of O2 consumption. We speculate that the differences between pre- and post-bed rest slopes are due to a drop in heart contractility.

  4. Hypertension, and blood pressure response to graded exercise in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hypertension, and blood pressure response to graded exercise in young obese and non- athletic Nigerian university students. ... onset of hypertension and thus other cardiovascular diseases and less tolerant to physical exercises. Our results add to the evidence that hypertension is common among obese young adults.

  5. Potential benefits of exercise on blood pressure and vascular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Sebely; Radavelli-Bagatini, Simone; Ho, Suleen

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity seems to enhance cardiovascular fitness during the course of the lifecycle, improve blood pressure, and is associated with decreased prevalence of hypertension and coronary heart disease. It may also delay or prevent age-related increases in arterial stiffness. It is unclear if specific exercise types (aerobic, resistance, or combination) have a better effect on blood pressure and vascular function. This review was written based on previous original articles, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses indexed on PubMed from years 1975 to 2012 to identify studies on different types of exercise and the associations or effects on blood pressure and vascular function. In summary, aerobic exercise (30 to 40 minutes of training at 60% to 85% of predicted maximal heart rate, most days of the week) appears to significantly improve blood pressure and reduce augmentation index. Resistance training (three to four sets of eight to 12 repetitions at 10 repetition maximum, 3 days a week) appears to significantly improve blood pressure, whereas combination exercise training (15 minutes of aerobic and 15 minutes of resistance, 5 days a week) is beneficial to vascular function, but at a lower scale. Aerobic exercise seems to better benefit blood pressure and vascular function. Copyright © 2013 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Aortic and peripheral blood pressure during isometric and dynamic exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blum, V.; Carrière, E.G.J.; Kolsters, W.; Mosterd, W.L.; Schiereck, P.; Wesseling, K.H.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare aortic blood pressure (AOR) to peripheral measurements by the Riva-Rocci/Korotkov (RRK) and Finapres continuous finger pressure (FIN) methods during dynamic and static exercise. A tip manometer was introduced in the ascending aorta after coronary angiography

  7. Acute effect on ambulatory blood pressure from aerobic exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund Rasmussen, Charlotte; Nielsen, Line; Linander Henriksen, Marie

    2018-01-01

    session among female cleaners. METHODS: Twenty-two female cleaners were randomised to a cross-over study with a reference and an aerobic exercise session. Differences in 24-h, work hours, leisure time, and sleep ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) were evaluated using repeated measure 2 × 2 mixed...... of 1.5 mmHg (p = 0.03) were found after the aerobic exercise session. During leisure time, the systolic ABP was lowered by 1.7 mmHg (p = 0.04) and the diastolic ABP was unaltered. During sleep, the systolic and diastolic ABP was unaltered. CONCLUSION: A single aerobic exercise session lowered 24-h...

  8. Variable prognostic value of blood pressure response to exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yuko; Suzuki, Shinya; Uejima, Tokuhisa; Semba, Hiroaki; Yamashita, Takeshi

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of patient background including exercise capacity on the relationship between the blood pressure (BP) response to exercise and prognosis in patients visiting a cardiovascular hospital. A total of 2134 patients who were referred to our hospital underwent symptom-limited maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing, and were followed through medical records and mail. The BP response to exercise was defined as the difference between peak and rest systolic BP. The end point was set as cardiovascular events including cardiovascular death, acute coronary syndrome, hospitalization for heart failure, and cerebral infarction. During a median follow-up period of 3 years, 179 (8%) patients reached the end point (2.5%/year). Multivariate analysis showed that BP response was independently and negatively associated with the occurrence of the end point. This prognostic significance of BP response was consistent regardless of left ventricular ejection fraction, renal function, presence of heart failure symptoms, the presence of organic heart disease, and hypertension. However, peak VO 2 showed a significant interaction with the effects of BP response on the end point, suggesting that the prognostic value of BP response was limited in patients with preserved exercise capacity. The role of BP response to exercise as the predictor depends on exercise capacity of each patient. Copyright © 2017 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. One arm exercise induces significant interarm diastolic blood pressure difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Dezhi; Wang, Jiwei; Su, Hai; Xu, Jingsong; Liu, Yanna; Peng, Qiang; Wang, Lijuan

    2011-06-01

    This study is designed to investigate the inducing effect of one arm exercise on interarm difference (IAD) in the blood pressure (BP). Fifty healthy young participants were included in the study. Three-minute exercises of the right arm elbow flexion and extension were performed. The bilateral brachial BP was simultaneously measured with two automatic BP measurement devices before (basic) and immediately 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 min after exercise. The absolute difference in the systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) between the left and right BP of at least 10 mmHg was recognized as sIAD and dIAD. The baseline data of the SBP and DBP in left and right arms revealed no significant difference (SBP: 110 ± 10 vs. 111 ± 11 mmHg; DBP: 66 ± 8 vs. 66 ± 9 mmHg, both not significant). The prevalence of dIAD was 2% at the baseline. However, this prevalence increased to 80% at 0 min, as right arm exercise induced the right DBP decrease and left DBP increase, and then the prevalence decreased gradually within a 30-min recovery period. The prevalence of sIAD was zero at the baseline and the maximal prevalence was 8% during the 20-min postexercise period. One arm exercise can lead to a significant IAD in DBP. Any arm exercise should be avoided before BP measurement.

  10. Effects of parental smoking on exercise systolic blood pressure in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacke, Claudia; Weisser, Burkhard

    2015-05-11

    In adults, exercise blood pressure seems to be more closely related to cardiovascular risk than resting blood pressure; however, few data are available on the effects of familial risk factors, including smoking habits, on exercise blood pressure in adolescents. Blood pressure at rest and during exercise, parental smoking, and other familial risk factors were investigated in 532 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years (14.6±1.5 years) in the Kiel EX.PRESS. (EXercise PRESSure) Study. Exercise blood pressure was determined at 1.5 W/kg body weight using a standardized submaximal cycle ergometer test. Mean resting blood pressure was 113.1±12.8/57.2±7.1 mm Hg, and exercise blood pressure was 149.9±19.8/54.2±8.6 mm Hg. Parental smoking increased exercise systolic blood pressure (+4.0 mm Hg, 3.1 to 4.9; P=0.03) but not resting blood pressure of the subjects (adjusted for age, sex, height, body mass index percentile, fitness). Parental overweight and familial hypertension were related to both higher resting and exercise systolic blood pressure values, whereas associations with an inactive lifestyle and a low educational level of the parents were found only with adolescents' blood pressure during exercise. The cumulative effect of familial risk factors on exercise systolic blood pressure was more pronounced than on blood pressure at rest. Parental smoking might be a novel risk factor for higher blood pressure, especially during exercise. In addition, systolic blood pressure during a submaximal exercise test was more closely associated with familial risk factors than was resting blood pressure, even in adolescents. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  11. Acute effects of cycling exercise on post-exercise blood pressure in individuals with down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bezerra Maria Edilma Da Silva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Studies have shown that even a single session of physical exercise lowers blood pressure after its completion. This phenomenon is called post-exercise hypotension (PEH and has been considered as a non-pharmacological treatment to control blood pressure. However, there are no studies regarding the occurrence of PEH after acute exercise in individuals with Down syndrome (DS. This study aimed to analyse the occurrence of PEH in these subjects and the possible role of exercise intensity. Methods. Ten individuals with DS, of both genders, participated in the study (age, 29 ± 7 years; body mass, 60.7 ± 9 kg; height, 1.48 ± 0.11 m; BMI, 27.6 ± 2.4 kg/m2. The volunteers randomly underwent 2 sessions of exercise on a stationary bike for 20 minutes and 1 control session. Heart rate, systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP were measured after 15 minutes of resting, in the 20th minute of each exercise session or control, and in the 15th, 30th, and 45th minute of postexercise recovery. Results. Both moderate and intense exercise performed acutely increased SBP (p < 0.001, p < 0.01, respectively, with no effect on DBP in individuals with DS. Neither the moderate nor the intense exercise was enough to elicit PEH. Conclusions. The results indicated that individuals with DS may not present PEH for the intensities, duration, and exercise mode as applied in the present investigation. While additional studies with different exercise strategies are needed, our findings contribute to the body of literature regarding the PEH responses in adults with DS.

  12. Blood pressure dynamics during exercise rehabilitation in heart failure patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Idan; Arad, Michael; Freimark, Dov; Klempfner, Robert

    2017-05-01

    Background Patients suffering from heart failure (HF) may demonstrate an abnormal blood pressure response to exercise (ABPRE), which may revert to a normal one following medical treatment. It is assumed that this change correlates positively with prognosis and functional aspects. The aim of this study was to characterize patients with ABPRE and assess ABPRE normalization and the correlation with clinical and functional outcomes. Methods In the study, 651 patients with HF who underwent cardiac rehabilitation (CR) were examined. Patients who presented an ABPRE during stress testing were identified and divided into those who corrected their initial ABPRE following CR and those who did not. Results Pre-rehabilitation ABPRE was present in 27% of patients, 68% of whom normalized their ABPRE following CR. Two parameters were independently predictive of failure to normalize the blood pressure response: female gender (odds ratio (OR) 3.5; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4-9.0) and decreased systolic function (OR 3.2; 95% CI 1.0-9.4). Patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy demonstrated higher rates of ABPRE normalization than patients with other causes of HF (93% vs. 62%, respectively, P = 0.03). The research population exhibited an average improvement in exercise capacity (4.7 to 6.4 metabolic equivalents (METS), P failure to correct the ABPRE, while patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy demonstrated exceptionally high rates of normalization.

  13. Effects of aerobic exercise and drug therapy on blood pressure and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    Key words: Aerobic exercise, drug therapy, blood pressure, randomised controlled trial. African Health Sciences 2013; (1): .... body fat and displayed it on the screen of the meter. ... inelastible tape measure (Butterfly, China). Blood pressure ...

  14. Resistance exercise with different volumes: blood pressure response and forearm blood flow in the hypertensive elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brito AF

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aline de Freitas Brito,1 Caio Victor Coutinho de Oliveira,2 Maria do Socorro Brasileiro-Santos,1 Amilton da Cruz Santos1 1Physical Education Department, 2Research Laboratory for Physical Training Applied to Performance and Health, Federal University of Paraíba, João Pessoa, Brazil Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of two sessions of resistance exercise with different volumes on post-exercise hypotension, forearm blood flow, and forearm vascular resistance in hypertensive elderly subjects.Methods: The study was conducted with ten hypertensive elderly (65±3 years, 28.7±3 kg/m2 subjected to three experimental sessions, ie, a control session, exercise with a set (S1, and exercise with three sets (S3. For each session, the subjects were evaluated before and after intervention. In the pre-intervention period, blood pressure, forearm blood flow, and forearm vascular resistance were measured after 10 minutes of rest in the supine position. Thereafter, the subjects were taken to the gym to perform their exercise sessions or remained at rest during the same time period. Both S1 and S3 comprised a set of ten repetitions of ten exercises, with an interval of 90 seconds between exercises. Subsequently, the measurements were again performed at 10, 30, 50, 70, and 90 minutes of recovery (post-intervention in the supine position.Results: Post-exercise hypotension was greater in S3 than in S1 (systolic blood pressure, −26.5±4.2 mmHg versus −17.9±4.7 mmHg; diastolic blood pressure, −13.8±4.9 mmHg versus −7.7±5 mmHg, P<0.05. Similarly, forearm blood flow and forearm vascular resistance changed significantly in both sessions with an increase and decrease, respectively, that was more evident in S3 than in S1 (P<0.05.Conclusion: Resistance exercises with higher volume were more effective in causing post-exercise hypotension, being accompanied by an increase in forearm blood flow and a reduction of forearm vascular

  15. Multicomponent exercise decreases blood pressure, heart rate and double product in normotensive and hypertensive older patients with high blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho-Júnior, Hélio José; Asano, Ricardo Yukio; Gonçalvez, Ivan de Oliveira; Brietzke, Cayque; Pires, Flávio Oliveira; Aguiar, Samuel da Silva; Feriani, Daniele Jardim; Caperuto, Erico Chagas; Uchida, Marco Carlos; Rodrigues, Bruno

    2018-02-26

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of a 6-month multicomponent exercise program on blood pressure, heart rate, and double product of uncontrolled and controlled normotensive and hypertensive older patients. The study included 183 subjects, 97 normotensives, of which 53 were controlled normotensives (CNS), and 44 uncontrolled normotensives (UNS), as well as 86 hypertensives, of which 43 were controlled hypertensives (CHS), and 43 uncontrolled hypertensives (UHS). Volunteers were recruited and blood pressure and heart rate measurements were made before and after a 6-month multicomponent exercise program. The program of physical exercise was performed twice a week for 26 weeks. The physical exercises program was based on functional and walking exercises. Exercise sessions were performed at moderate intensity. The results indicated that UHS showed a marked decrease in systolic (-8.0mmHg), diastolic (-11.1mmHg), mean (-10.1mmHg), and pulse pressures, heart rate (-6.8bpm), and double product (-1640bpmmmHg), when compared to baseline. Similarly, diastolic (-5.5mmHg) and mean arterial (-4.8mmHg) pressures were significantly decreased in UNS. Concomitantly, significant changes could be observed in the body mass index (-0.9kg/m 2 ; -1.5kg/m 2 ) and waist circumference (-3.3cm; only UHS) of UNS and UHS, which may be associated with the changes observed in blood pressure. In conclusion, the data of the present study indicate that a 6-month multicomponent exercise program may lead to significant reductions in blood pressure, heart rate, and double product of normotensive and hypertensive patients with high blood pressure values. Copyright © 2018 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  16. Estimation of the Blood Pressure Response With Exercise Stress Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Benjamin T; Ballard, Emma L; Scalia, Gregory M

    2018-04-20

    The blood pressure response to exercise has been described as a significant increase in systolic BP (sBP) with a smaller change in diastolic BP (dBP). This has been documented in small numbers, in healthy young men or in ethnic populations. This study examines these changes in low to intermediate risk of myocardial ischaemia in men and women over a wide age range. Consecutive patients having stress echocardiography were analysed. Ischaemic tests were excluded. Manual BP was estimated before and during standard Bruce protocol treadmill testing. Patient age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and resting and peak exercise BP were recorded. 3200 patients (mean age 58±12years) were included with 1123 (35%) females, and 2077 males, age range 18 to 93 years. Systolic BP increased from 125±17mmHg to 176±23mmHg. The change in sBP (ΔsBP) was 51mmHg (95% CI 51,52). The ΔdBP was 1mmHg (95% CI 1, 1), from 77 to 78mmHg, p<0.001). The upper limit of normal peak exercise sBP (determined by the 90th percentile) was 210mmHg in males and 200mmHg in females. The upper limit of normal ΔsBP was 80mmHg in males and 70mmHg in females. The lower limit of normal ΔsBP was 30mmHg in males and 20mmHg in females. In this large cohort, sBP increased significantly with exercise. Males had on average higher values than females. Similar changes were seen with the ΔsBP. The upper limit of normal for peak exercise sBP and ΔsBP are reported by age and gender. Copyright © 2018 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). All rights reserved.

  17. Exercise: A Drug-Free Approach to Lowering High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your blood pressure low, you need to keep exercising on a regular basis. It takes about one to three months for regular exercise to have an impact on your blood pressure. The benefits last only as long as you continue to ...

  18. Skeletal muscle signaling and the heart rate and blood pressure response to exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Stefan P; Svendsen, Jesper H; Ersbøll, Mads

    2013-01-01

    Endurance training lowers heart rate and blood pressure responses to exercise, but the mechanisms and consequences remain unclear. To determine the role of skeletal muscle for the cardioventilatory response to exercise, 8 healthy young men were studied before and after 5 weeks of 1-legged knee-ex...... was ≈ 15 bpm lower during exercise with the trained leg (P...

  19. Postaerobic Exercise Blood Pressure Reduction in Very Old Persons With Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Joana; Mesquita-Bastos, José; Argel de Melo, Cristina; Ribeiro, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    A single bout of aerobic exercise acutely decreases blood pressure, even in older adults with hypertension. Nonetheless, blood pressure responses to aerobic exercise in very old adults with hypertension have not yet been documented. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the effect of a single session of aerobic exercise on postexercise blood pressure in very old adults with hypertension. Eighteen older adults with essential hypertension were randomized into exercise (N = 9, age: 83.4 ± 3.2 years old) or control (N = 9, age: 82.7 ± 2.5 years old) groups. The exercise group performed a session of aerobic exercise constituting 2 periods of 10 minutes of walking at an intensity of 40% to 60% of the heart rate reserve. The control group rested for the same period of time. Anthropometric variables and medication status were evaluated at baseline. Heart rate and systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured at baseline, after exercise, and at 20 and 40 minutes postexercise. Systolic blood pressure showed a significant interaction for group × time (F3,24 = 6.698; P = .002; ηp(2) = 0.153). In the exercise group, the systolic blood pressure at 20 (127.3 ± 20.9 mm Hg) and 40 minutes (123.7 ± 21.0 mm Hg) postexercise was significantly lower in comparison with baseline (135.6 ± 20.6 mm Hg). Diastolic blood pressure did not change. Heart rate was significantly higher after the exercise session. In the control group, no significant differences were observed. A single session of aerobic exercise acutely reduces blood pressure in very old adults with hypertension and may be considered an important nonpharmacological strategy to control hypertension in this age group.

  20. Exercise blood pressure and the risk for future hypertension among normotensive middle-aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Assaf; Grossman, Ehud; Katz, Moshe; Kivity, Shaye; Klempfner, Robert; Segev, Shlomo; Goldenberg, Ilan; Sidi, Yehezkel; Maor, Elad

    2015-04-22

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether exercise blood pressure can be used to predict the development of hypertension in normotensive middle-aged adults. We investigated 7082 normotensive subjects who were annually screened in a tertiary medical center and completed maximal treadmill exercise tests at each visit. After the initial 3 years, subjects were divided into approximate quartiles according to their average exercise systolic and diastolic blood pressure responses (≤158; 158 to 170; 170 to 183; ≥183 mm Hg for systolic blood pressure and ≤73; 73 to 77; 77 to 82; ≥82 mm Hg for diastolic blood pressure). Mean age of the study population was 48 ± 9 years and 73% were men. Average baseline resting blood pressure was 120/77 ± 12/7 mm Hg. During a follow-up of 5 ± 3 years, 1036 (14.6%) subjects developed hypertension. The cumulative probability of new-onset hypertension at 5 years was significantly increased with increasing quartiles of exercise systolic blood pressure (5%, 9%, 17%, and 35%, respectively; Pexercise either systolic or diastolic blood pressures were independently associated with respective 11% (Phypertension. In normotensive middle-aged individuals, blood pressure response to exercise is associated with future development of hypertension. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  1. Exercise Blood Pressure and the Risk for Future Hypertension Among Normotensive Middle‐Aged Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Assaf; Grossman, Ehud; Katz, Moshe; Kivity, Shaye; Klempfner, Robert; Segev, Shlomo; Goldenberg, Ilan; Sidi, Yehezkel; Maor, Elad

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to examine whether exercise blood pressure can be used to predict the development of hypertension in normotensive middle‐aged adults. Methods and Results We investigated 7082 normotensive subjects who were annually screened in a tertiary medical center and completed maximal treadmill exercise tests at each visit. After the initial 3 years, subjects were divided into approximate quartiles according to their average exercise systolic and diastolic blood pressure responses (≤158; 158 to 170; 170 to 183; ≥183 mm Hg for systolic blood pressure and ≤73; 73 to 77; 77 to 82; ≥82 mm Hg for diastolic blood pressure). Mean age of the study population was 48±9 years and 73% were men. Average baseline resting blood pressure was 120/77±12/7 mm Hg. During a follow‐up of 5±3 years, 1036 (14.6%) subjects developed hypertension. The cumulative probability of new‐onset hypertension at 5 years was significantly increased with increasing quartiles of exercise systolic blood pressure (5%, 9%, 17%, and 35%, respectively; Pexercise either systolic or diastolic blood pressures were independently associated with respective 11% (Phypertension. Conclusions In normotensive middle‐aged individuals, blood pressure response to exercise is associated with future development of hypertension. PMID:25904593

  2. Older Women with Controlled Isolated Systolic Hypertension: Exercise and Blood Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubolsakka-Jones, Chulee; Sangthong, Benjarat; Aueyingsak, Sahachat; Jones, David A

    2016-06-01

    Exercise is generally regarded as beneficial for health, but the consequent increases in blood pressure might pose a risk for hypertensive subjects. The purpose of this study was to determine blood pressure responses to dynamic exercise and sustained handgrip in patients with isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) who were stable on medication. Nineteen female ISH patients (66 ± 5 yr) and 19 age-matched normotensive (NT) female controls undertook a 5-min cycle exercise (60% heart rate reserve [HRR]) and a 2-min handgrip exercise (30% maximum voluntary contraction). Blood pressure responses were measured using an oscillometric cuff, together with heart rate and resting brachial pulse transit times. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) levels after cycle exercise were 194 ± 18 and 153 ± 19 mm Hg for ISH and NT, respectively, with the increase above resting being greater for ISH (P exercise, SBP rose to 168 ± 19 and 140 ± 8 mm Hg for ISH and NT, respectively. The increases above baseline were greater for ISH both during the exercise and postexercise circulatory occlusion (P = 0.017). The increase in DBP levels during exercise and postexercise occlusion were similar in ISH and NT, suggesting little difference in metaboreflex sensitivity. Pulse transit time was shorter for ISH compared with NT (166 ± 6 ms and 242 ± 24 ms, respectively, P exercises, which may constitute a risk for cardiovascular incidents.

  3. Effects of Metoprolol and Nebivolol on Exercise Blood Pressure in Patients with Mild Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Ugur Yazici

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. We planned to compare the impact of two beta blockers, metoprolol and nebivolol, on arterial blood pressure during exercise in patients with mild hypertension. Methods. A total of 60 patients (13 males, 47 females; mean age: years were enrolled in the present study. The patients were randomly selected to receive either nebivolol 5 mg/day ( or metoprolol 50 mg/day ( for 8 weeks. At the end of the 8th week, each of the patients received exercise stress test according to Bruce protocol and their blood pressures were remeasured after rest, exercise, and recovery. Results. Blood pressures were determined to be similar between metoprolol and nebivolol groups during rest, exercise, and recovery periods. Metoprolol and nebivolol achieved similar reductions in blood pressures during rest and exercise. However, five patients in nebivolol group and four patients in metoprolol group developed exaggerated BP response to exercise but the difference between metoprolol and nebivolol was not meaningful (. Conclusion. The results of the present study showed that metoprolol and nebivolol established comparable effects on the control of blood pressures during exercise in the patients with mild hypertensions.

  4. Exercise Blood Pressure and the Risk for Future Hypertension Among Normotensive Middle‐Aged Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Berger, Assaf; Grossman, Ehud; Katz, Moshe; Kivity, Shaye; Klempfner, Robert; Segev, Shlomo; Goldenberg, Ilan; Sidi, Yehezkel; Maor, Elad

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to examine whether exercise blood pressure can be used to predict the development of hypertension in normotensive middle‐aged adults. Methods and Results We investigated 7082 normotensive subjects who were annually screened in a tertiary medical center and completed maximal treadmill exercise tests at each visit. After the initial 3 years, subjects were divided into approximate quartiles according to their average exercise systolic and diastolic blo...

  5. Modulation of blood pressure response to exercise by physical activity and relationship with resting blood pressure during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisson, Michèle; Rhéaume, Caroline; Bujold, Emmanuel; Tremblay, Angelo; Marc, Isabelle

    2014-07-01

    To determine whether physical activity and blood pressure (BP) response to exercise in early pregnancy are related to resting BP at the end of pregnancy. Understanding physiological BP responses to exercise during pregnancy will help in improving BP profile and guiding exercise recommendations in pregnant women. Maternal physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak) and BP (systolic and diastolic) at rest and during exercise (submaximal and relative response) were assessed at 16 weeks of gestation in 61 normotensive pregnant women. BP at 36 weeks of gestation and obstetrical outcomes were collected from maternal charts. Related to resting DBP at 16 weeks (r =  -0.28, P = 0.028), total energy expenditure spend at any physical activity in early pregnancy was also associated with resting SBP at 36 weeks (r =  -0.27, P = 0.038). On the contrary, although related to VO2peak (r =  -0.57, P sports and exercise (r =  -0.29, P = 0.024), the relative SBP response to exercise at 16 weeks was not associated with resting BP at 36 weeks. Strongly associated with resting BP at 16 weeks and also with total energy expenditure, submaximal BP response to exercise at 16 weeks was related to resting SBP and DBP at 36 weeks (r = 0.41, P = 0.001 and r = 0.26, P = 0.051, respectively). In normotensive women, physical activity performed in early pregnancy appears to slightly modulate resting BP in early and late pregnancy. However, further investigations are needed to determine which physical activity-related parameter in response to exercise best predicts BP variations during pregnancy.

  6. Resistance exercise performed with repetitions until failure affects nocturnal blood pressure decreases in hypertensive women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilia de Almeida Correia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that resistance exercise reduces 24-hour blood pressure to levels below resting values, although this is not a universal finding. The number of repetitions has been shown to influence this response. Thus, the aim of the study was to analyze the effects of resistance exercise performed until failure (UF on 24-hour blood pressure in hypertensive women. Thirteen hypertensive women underwent three experimental sessions in random order: UF, resistance exercise with repetitions before concentric failure (BF and control (C. Prior to and up to 24 hours after the sessions, cardiovascular variables, as well as the nocturnal fall in blood pressure, the morning surge, and the presence or absence of a blood pressure dip pattern were established using an ambulatory blood pressure monitor. In both wakefulness and sleep there was no significant difference among the three groups. However, after UF and C fewer patients presented a dip in blood pressure (46% and 38%, respectively compared BF (77%, p=0.047. In conclusion, the UF attenuated blood pressure dips at night in hypertensive patients.

  7. Combined exercise circuit session acutely attenuates stress-induced blood pressure reactivity in healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio R. Moreira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the blood pressure (BP responses to cardiovascular stress test after a combined exercise circuit session at moderate intensity. Method: Twenty individuals (10 male/10 fem; 33.4± 6.9 years; 70.2± 15.8 kg; 170.4± 11.5 cm; 22.3± 6.8% body fat were randomized in a different days to control session with no exercise or exercise session consisting of 3 laps of the following circuit: knee extension, bench press, knee flexion, rowing in the prone position, squats, shoulder press, and 5 min of aerobic exercise at 75-85% of age-predicted maximum heart rate and/or 13 on the Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion [scale of 6 to 20]. The sets of resistance exercise consisted of 15 repetitions at ~50% of the estimated 1 repetition maximum test. Systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP were measured at rest and during 1h of recovery in both experimental sessions. After that, blood pressure reactivity (BPR was evaluated using the Cold Pressor Test. Results: During 1h of exercise recovery, there was a reduction in SBP (3-6 mmHg and DBP (2-5 mmHg in relation to pre-session rest (p<0.01, while this reduction was not observed in the control session. A decline in BPR (4-7 mmHg; p<0.01 was observed 1h post-exercise session, but not in the control session. Post-exercise reductions in SBP and DBP were significantly correlated with BPR reductions (r=0.50-0.45; p<0.05. Conclusion: A combined exercise circuit session at moderate intensity promoted subsequent post-exercise hypotension and acutely attenuated BPR in response to a cardiovascular stress test. In addition, the post-exercise BP reduction was correlated with BPR attenuation in healthy adults of both genders.

  8. Blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normal blood pressure is important for proper blood flow to the body's organs and tissues. The force of the blood on the walls of the arteries is called blood pressure. Blood pressure is measured both as the heart ...

  9. Exaggerated blood pressure response to exercise and late-onset hypertension in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yzaguirre, Ignasi; Grazioli, Gonzalo; Domenech, Mónica; Vinuesa, Antonio; Pi, Ramon; Gutierrez, Josep; Coca, Antonio; Brugada, Josep; Sitges, Marta

    2017-12-01

    Exaggerated blood pressure response (EBPR) during exercise has been associated with an increased risk of incidental systemic hypertension and cardiovascular morbidity; however, there is no consensus definition of EBPR. We aimed to determine which marker best defines EBPR during exercise and to predict the long-term development of hypertension in individuals younger than 50 years. We reviewed 107 exercise tests performed in 1992, applied several reported methods to define EBPR at moderate and maximum exercise, and contacted the patients by telephone 20 years after the test to verify hypertension status. Finally, we determined which definition best predicted incidental hypertension at 20-year follow-up. The mean age of the participants at the time of exercise testing was 25.7±11.1 years. Logistic regression showed a significant association of diastolic blood pressure of more than 95 mmHg at peak exercise and systolic pressure more than 180 mmHg at moderate exercise with new-onset hypertension at 20-year follow-up [odds ratio: 6.3 (2.09-18.9) and odds ratio: 7.09 (2.31-21.7), respectively]. If EBPR was present, as defined by at least one of these parameters, the probability of incidental later onset hypertension was 70%. In our population, diastolic blood pressure of more than 95 mmHg at maximum exercise or systolic blood pressure more than 180 mmHg at moderate-intensity exercise (100 W) were the best predictors of new-onset hypertension at long-term follow-up. Individuals with EBPR according to these criteria should be monitored closely to detect the early development of hypertension.

  10. Abnormal albuminuria and blood pressure rise in incipient diabetic nephropathy induced by exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Cramer

    1984-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of light to moderate dynamic work (450 kpm/min followed by 600 kpm/min during 20 min each) on the blood pressure and renal protein handling in insulin-dependent diabetic patients with incipient nephropathy (D3) (elevated baseline albumin excretion...... diastolic blood pressure was elevated [92.1 mm Hg +/- 6.0 (mean +/- SD)] compared to D2 (80.9 mm Hg +/- 4.8, 2P = 0.003%) and C (79.5 mm Hg +/- 12.4, 2P = 1.2%). Baseline systolic blood pressure was not significantly different in the three groups, but systolic blood pressure was more elevated at 600 kpm...... blood pressure and maximal exercise induced albumin excretion was demonstrable in D3.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)...

  11. Acute effect of resistance, aerobic and combined exercise circuits on blood pressure of hypertensive women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Carpio Rivera

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Carpio-Rivera, E. y Solera-Herrera, A. (2012. Acute effect of resistance, aerobic and combined exercise circuits on blood pressure of hypertensive women. Pensar en Movimiento: Revista de Ciencias del Ejercicio y la Salud, 10 (2, 1-12. The purpose of this study was to observe the acute effect of different exercises executed in circuit on the resting blood pressure of hypertensive women. Nine trained persons (aged 53.22 ± 4.67 years, hypertensive but medicated with enalapril, participated in four training treatments, each carried out on different days under a randomized repeated measures design: (1 A: aerobic training condition (steps training; (2 R: resistance training condition (machine training (3 AR: aerobic and resistance training condition (alternating aerobic and resistance training every 30 seconds (4 C: control condition (30 minutes resting. Exercise conditions were performed during 30 minutes at 70% of maximum heart rate and resting blood pressure was measured 5 minutes before and immediately after each condition. A two-way analysis of variance detected a significant interaction between conditions and measurements (p<0.05 on systolic blood pressure (sBP. Tukey Post-hoc analyses showed a significant increase of sBP following the three exercise conditions (A: +19 mmHg; R: +28 mmHg; AR: +22 mmHg, while the sBP remained unchanged during the control condition. In contrast, there was no significant effect of any type of exercise on diastolic blood pressure (dBP. In conclusion, the acute elevation in sBP following this type of resistance exercise was similar to the increase produced by aerobic exercise.

  12. Aging attenuates the interarm diastolic blood pressure difference induced by one-arm exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei-tong; Li, Ju-xiang; Wang, Ji-wei; Xu, Jin-song; Yang, Qing; Geng, Yong-Jian; Su, Hai; Cheng, Xiao-shu

    2013-04-01

    It is known that one-arm exercise increases the interarm diastolic blood pressure difference (dIAD) in young individuals, but no research has been carried out in middle-aged and more senior populations. This study aimed to determine whether aging impacts the exercise-induced dIAD in healthy individuals. Normotensive adults (n=120) were recruited and divided into the young (22.5±1.5 years), middle-aged (42.8±4.6 years), and senior (61.0±7.0 years) groups. The right arm exercise involved performing cycling movements at 60 times/min for 3 min. Bilateral brachial blood pressures (BPs) were simultaneously measured using two automatic BP measurement devices before (baseline), immediately (0), 5, 10, and 15 min after the exercise. The difference in bilateral diastolic BPs was calculated as BP l-r and its absolute value of at least 10 mmHg was considered as IAD. At baseline, the systolic blood pressure (SBP) l-r and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) l-r were similar in three age groups. One-arm exercise induced a marked decrease in DBP in the exercised arm, and then increased the prevalence of DBP l-r and dIAD in the three age groups in an age-dependent manner. The prevalence of dIAD increased from the baseline of zero to 85% at 0 min in young, 37% in middle-aged, and 30% in senior groups. One-arm exercise did not significantly alter the prevalence of SBP l-r and systolic IAD in the three groups. A reverse correlation was found between the DBP l-r 0 and ages (r=-0.359, Parm exercise in healthy adults.

  13. Changes in extracellular muscle volume affect heart rate and blood pressure responses to static exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, K.; Essfeld, D.; Stegemann, J.

    To investigate the effect of μg-induced peripheral extracellular fluid reductions on heart rate and blood pressure during isometric exercise, six healthy male subjects performed three calf ergometer test with different extracellular volumes of working muscles. In all tests, body positions during exercise were identical (supine with the knee joint flexed to 900). After a pre-exercise period of 25 min, during which calf volumes were manipulated, subjects had to counteract an external force of 180 N for 5 min. During the pre-exercise period three different protocols were applied. Test A: Subjects rested in the exercise position; test B: Body position was the same as in A but calf volume was increased by venous congestion (cuffs inflated to 80 mm Hg); test C: Calf volumes were decreased by a negative hydrostatic pressure (calves about 40 cm above heart level with the subjects supine). To clamp the changed calf volumes in tests B and C, cuffs were inflated to 300 mm Hg 5 min before the onset of exercise. This occlusion was maintained until termination of exercise. Compared to tests A and B, the reduced volume of test C led to significant increases in heart rate and blood pressure during exercise. Oxygen uptake did not exceed resting levels in B and C until cuffs were deflated, indicating that exclusively calf muscles contributed to the neurogenic peripheral drive. It is concluded that changes in extracellular muscle volume have to be taken into account when comparing heart rate and blood pressure during lg- and μg- exercise.

  14. Dietary Flavanols: A Review of Select Effects on Vascular Function, Blood Pressure, and Exercise Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dashti, Yousef A; Holt, Roberta R; Stebbins, Charles L; Keen, Carl L; Hackman, Robert M

    2018-05-02

    An individual's diet affects numerous physiological functions and can play an important role in reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease. Epidemiological and clinical studies suggest that dietary flavanols can be an important modulator of vascular risk. Diets and plant extracts rich in flavanols have been reported to lower blood pressure, especially in prehypertensive and hypertensive individuals. Flavanols may act in part through signaling pathways that affect vascular function, nitric oxide availability, and the release of endothelial-derived relaxing and constricting factors. During exercise, flavanols have been reported to modulate metabolism and respiration (e.g., maximal oxygen uptake, O 2 cost of exercise, and energy expenditure), and reduce oxidative stress and inflammation, resulting in increased skeletal muscle efficiency and endurance capacity. Flavanol-induced reductions in blood pressure during exercise may decrease the work of the heart. Collectively, these effects suggest that flavanols can act as an ergogenic aid to help delay the onset of fatigue. More research is needed to better clarify the effects of flavanols on vascular function, blood pressure regulation, and exercise performance and establish safe and effective levels of intake. Flavanol-rich foods and food products can be useful components of a healthy diet and lifestyle program for those seeking to better control their blood pressure or to enhance their physical activity. Key teaching points • Epidemiological and clinical studies indicate that dietary flavanols can reduce the risk of vascular disease. • Diets and plant extracts rich in flavanols have been reported to lower blood pressure and improve exercise performance in humans. • Mechanisms by which flavanols may reduce blood pressure function include alterations in signaling pathways that affect vascular function, nitric oxide availability, and the release of endothelial-derived relaxation and constriction factors.

  15. Mean Blood Pressure Assessment during Post-Exercise: Result from Two Different Methods of Calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianmarco Sainas, Raffaele Milia, Girolamo Palazzolo, Gianfranco Ibba, Elisabetta Marongiu, Silvana Roberto, Virginia Pinna, Giovanna Ghiani, Filippo Tocco, Antonio Crisafulli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available At rest the proportion between systolic and diastolic periods of the cardiac cycle is about 1/3 and 2/3 respectively. Therefore, mean blood pressure (MBP is usually calculated with a standard formula (SF as follows: MBP = diastolic blood pressure (DBP + 1/3 [systolic blood pressure (SBP – DBP]. However, during exercise this proportion is lost because of tachycardia, which shortens diastole more than systole. We analysed the difference in MBP calculation between the SF and a corrected formula (CF which takes into account changes in the diastolic and systolic periods caused by exercise-induced tachycardia. Our hypothesis was that the SF potentially induce a systematic error in MBP assessment during recovery after exercise. Ten healthy males underwent two exercise-recovery tests on a cycle-ergometer at mild-moderate and moderate-heavy workloads. Hemodynamics and MBP were monitored for 30 minutes after exercise bouts. The main result was that the SF on average underestimated MBP by –4.1 mmHg with respect to the CF. Moreover, in the period immediately after exercise, when sustained tachycardia occurred, the difference between SF and CF was large (in the order of -20-30 mmHg. Likewise, a systematic error in systemic vascular resistance assessment was present. It was concluded that the SF introduces a substantial error in MBP estimation in the period immediately following effort. This equation should not be used in this situation.

  16. Differential Post-Exercise Blood Pressure Responses between Blacks and Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Huimin; Behun, Michael A; Cook, Marc D; Ranadive, Sushant M; Lane-Cordova, Abbi D; Kappus, Rebecca M; Woods, Jeffrey A; Wilund, Kenneth R; Baynard, Tracy; Halliwill, John R; Fernhall, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Post-exercise hypotension (PEH) is widely observed in Caucasians (CA) and is associated with histamine receptors 1- and 2- (H1R and H2R) mediated post-exercise vasodilation. However, it appears that blacks (BL) may not exhibit PEH following aerobic exercise. Hence, this study sought to determine the extent to which BL develop PEH, and the contribution of histamine receptors to PEH (or lack thereof) in this population. Forty-nine (22 BL, 27 CA) young and healthy subjects completed the study. Subjects were randomly assigned to take either a combined H1R and H2R antagonist (fexofenadine and ranitidine) or a control placebo. Supine blood pressure (BP), cardiac output and peripheral vascular resistance measurements were obtained at baseline, as well as at 30 min, 60 min and 90 min after 45 min of treadmill exercise at 70% heart rate reserve. Exercise increased diastolic BP in young BL but not in CA. Post-exercise diastolic BP was also elevated in BL after exercise with histamine receptor blockade. Moreover, H1R and H2R blockade elicited differential responses in stroke volume between BL and CA at rest, and the difference remained following exercise. Our findings show differential BP responses following exercise in BL and CA, and a potential role of histamine receptors in mediating basal and post-exercise stroke volume in BL. The heightened BP and vascular responses to exercise stimulus is consistent with the greater CVD risk in BL.

  17. Systolic blood pressure reactivity during submaximal exercise and acute psychological stress in youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Studies in youth show an association between systolic blood-pressure (SBP) reactivity to acute psychological stress and carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT). However, it has not yet been determined whether SBP reactivity during submaximal exercise is also associated with CIMT i...

  18. Systolic blood pressure estimation using PPG and ECG during physical exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, S.; Bezemer, R.; Long, X.; Muehlsteff, J.; Aarts, R.M.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a model to estimate systolic blood pressure (SBP) using photoplethysmography (PPG) and electrocardiography (ECG) is proposed. Data from 19 subjects doing a 40 min exercise was analyzed. Reference SBP was measured at the finger based on the volume-clamp principle. PPG signals were

  19. Effects of heated water-based exercise on blood pressure: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awassi Yuphiwa Ngomane

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Systemic arterial hypertension is one of the main cardiovascular risk factors affecting several population. In this context, heated water-based exercise has emerged as a potential alternative to land- based physical exercise to reduce blood pressure (BP in hypertensive patients. Objective: To systematically synthesize evidence for the lowering effects of heated water-based exercise on BP in a non-specific population. Methods: Scielo, Pubmed and Scopus electronic databases were searched for studies from 2005 to 2016, with the following descriptors in English: “blood pressure, exercise, immersion, blood pressure and hydrotherapy”. A total of 10,461 articles were found and, after applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 13 articles were selected and included in the final analysis. All included articles evaluated individuals from different populations and age groups, submitted to a heated water-based exercise session and/or program. Results: The results suggest that both an acute single session and chronic training period (12 to 24 weeks of heated water-based exercise may reduce BP in different populations (normotensive, hypertensive, postmenopausal women, and heart transplant populations. The magnitude and duration of acute and chronic hypotensive effect of exercise ranged substantially, which was probably due to the variety of exercise frequency, duration and intensity, as well as due to the studied population. Conclusion: These results suggest that heated water-based exercise may promote acute and chronic hypotensive effects in different populations. However, there is no homogeneity in the protocols used, which may have led to the heterogeneity in magnitude and duration of BP reductions.

  20. Oscillatory blood pressure response to the onset of cycling exercise in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbosa, Thales C; Fernandes, Igor A; Magalhães-Jr, Nisval

    2015-01-01

    to this pattern is unclear. What is the main finding and its importance? We demonstrate that attenuation of group III/IV muscle afferent feedback by spinal fentanyl impairs the pressor response after 10 s of moderate leg cycling exercise, but this afferent feedback does not appear to be necessary for induction...... of the oscillatory pattern of blood pressure at the onset of exercise. We investigated whether attenuation of the central projections of group III/IV skeletal muscle afferents via lumbar intrathecal administration of the μ-opioid receptor agonist fentanyl affects the oscillatory blood pressure (BP) response...... to the onset of dynamic exercise. Eight healthy, recreationally active men (28 ± 3 years old) performed 40 s of cycling at 80 W (60 r.p.m.) before (control) and after fentanyl administration, while heart rate, stroke volume, cardiac output, systolic, mean and diastolic BP and total vascular conductance were...

  1. Comparison of exercise blood pressure measured by technician and an automated system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Gregory, J A; Jackson, A S; Studeville, J; Squires, W G; Owen, C A

    1984-05-01

    We evaluated the automated system Blood Pressure Measuring System (BPMS) developed by NASA on 277 adult males who elected to have a treadmill test as part of their annual physical. The BPMS uses acoustic transduction with a computer-assisted ECG gating to detect nonsynchronous noise. The BPMS readings were compared to pressures simultaneously measured by trained technicians. For all stages of work, BPMS readings were higher for systolic and lower for diastolic than technician readings. At peak stages of work, BPMS systolic pressures were about 20 mmHg higher than technician readings. Within each 3-min workstage, BPMS readings were found to be more inconsistent than technician readings. The standard errors of measurement for BPMS were from two to three times higher than technician values. These data showed automated blood pressure readings were significantly different than technician values and subject to more random fluctuations. These findings demonstrate the need to view exercise blood pressure measured by automated systems with caution.

  2. Resistance Exercise Restores Endothelial Function and Reduces Blood Pressure in Type 1 Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Mendonça Mota

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Resistance exercise effects on cardiovascular parameters are not consistent. Objectives: The effects of resistance exercise on changes in blood glucose, blood pressure and vascular reactivity were evaluated in diabetic rats. Methods: Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control group (n = 8; sedentary diabetic (n = 8; and trained diabetic (n = 8. Resistance exercise was carried out in a squat device for rats and consisted of three sets of ten repetitions with an intensity of 50%, three times per week, for eight weeks. Changes in vascular reactivity were evaluated in superior mesenteric artery rings. Results: A significant reduction in the maximum response of acetylcholine-induced relaxation was observed in the sedentary diabetic group (78.1 ± 2% and an increase in the trained diabetic group (95 ± 3% without changing potency. In the presence of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, the acetylcholine-induced relaxation was significantly reduced in the control and trained diabetic groups, but not in the sedentary diabetic group. Furthermore, a significant increase (p < 0.05 in mean arterial blood pressure was observed in the sedentary diabetic group (104.9 ± 5 to 126.7 ± 5 mmHg as compared to that in the control group. However, the trained diabetic group showed a significant decrease (p < 0.05 in the mean arterial blood pressure levels (126.7 ± 5 to 105.1 ± 4 mmHg as compared to the sedentary diabetic group. Conclusions: Resistance exercise could restore endothelial function and prevent an increase in arterial blood pressure in type 1 diabetic rats.

  3. Resistance Exercise Restores Endothelial Function and Reduces Blood Pressure in Type 1 Diabetic Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mota, Marcelo Mendonça; Silva, Tharciano Luiz Teixeira Braga da; Fontes, Milene Tavares; Barreto, André Sales; Araújo, João Eliakim dos Santos [Departamento de Fisiologia - Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Oliveira, Antônio Cesar Cabral de; Wichi, Rogério Brandão [Departamento de Educação Física - UFS, São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Santos, Márcio Roberto Viana, E-mail: marciorvsantos@bol.com.br [Departamento de Fisiologia - Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil)

    2014-07-15

    Resistance exercise effects on cardiovascular parameters are not consistent. The effects of resistance exercise on changes in blood glucose, blood pressure and vascular reactivity were evaluated in diabetic rats. Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control group (n = 8); sedentary diabetic (n = 8); and trained diabetic (n = 8). Resistance exercise was carried out in a squat device for rats and consisted of three sets of ten repetitions with an intensity of 50%, three times per week, for eight weeks. Changes in vascular reactivity were evaluated in superior mesenteric artery rings. A significant reduction in the maximum response of acetylcholine-induced relaxation was observed in the sedentary diabetic group (78.1 ± 2%) and an increase in the trained diabetic group (95 ± 3%) without changing potency. In the presence of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, the acetylcholine-induced relaxation was significantly reduced in the control and trained diabetic groups, but not in the sedentary diabetic group. Furthermore, a significant increase (p < 0.05) in mean arterial blood pressure was observed in the sedentary diabetic group (104.9 ± 5 to 126.7 ± 5 mmHg) as compared to that in the control group. However, the trained diabetic group showed a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in the mean arterial blood pressure levels (126.7 ± 5 to 105.1 ± 4 mmHg) as compared to the sedentary diabetic group. Resistance exercise could restore endothelial function and prevent an increase in arterial blood pressure in type 1 diabetic rats.

  4. Resistance Exercise Restores Endothelial Function and Reduces Blood Pressure in Type 1 Diabetic Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mota, Marcelo Mendonça; Silva, Tharciano Luiz Teixeira Braga da; Fontes, Milene Tavares; Barreto, André Sales; Araújo, João Eliakim dos Santos; Oliveira, Antônio Cesar Cabral de; Wichi, Rogério Brandão; Santos, Márcio Roberto Viana

    2014-01-01

    Resistance exercise effects on cardiovascular parameters are not consistent. The effects of resistance exercise on changes in blood glucose, blood pressure and vascular reactivity were evaluated in diabetic rats. Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control group (n = 8); sedentary diabetic (n = 8); and trained diabetic (n = 8). Resistance exercise was carried out in a squat device for rats and consisted of three sets of ten repetitions with an intensity of 50%, three times per week, for eight weeks. Changes in vascular reactivity were evaluated in superior mesenteric artery rings. A significant reduction in the maximum response of acetylcholine-induced relaxation was observed in the sedentary diabetic group (78.1 ± 2%) and an increase in the trained diabetic group (95 ± 3%) without changing potency. In the presence of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, the acetylcholine-induced relaxation was significantly reduced in the control and trained diabetic groups, but not in the sedentary diabetic group. Furthermore, a significant increase (p < 0.05) in mean arterial blood pressure was observed in the sedentary diabetic group (104.9 ± 5 to 126.7 ± 5 mmHg) as compared to that in the control group. However, the trained diabetic group showed a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in the mean arterial blood pressure levels (126.7 ± 5 to 105.1 ± 4 mmHg) as compared to the sedentary diabetic group. Resistance exercise could restore endothelial function and prevent an increase in arterial blood pressure in type 1 diabetic rats

  5. The Effect of Rast Exercise on Plasma Levels of Apelin and Blood Pressure in Elite Women Runner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaibani Sh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Intense exercise increases heart susceptibility to the disorder in this physiological factor.The purpose of this study is to study the effect of sprint interval training on plasma levels of apelin, blood pressure and heart rate in elite female runner. Methods: Plasma levels of apelin, Heart rate (HR & blood pressure (BP, analyzed before, after and 24 hours after exercise. 15 elite female runner, whom were playing in Shiraz track & field league, selected for this study. They all were homogenized according to any kind of disease.Results: Rast exercise made plasma level of Apelin decrease after exercise compared with plasma level before exercise and this decrease was significant (p=0.001. Also, plasma level of apelin increased significantly 24 hrs after finishing exercise (p=0.001, but there were no significant differences before exercise (p=0.375. Systolic blood pressure and heart rate increased immediately after exercise and decreased significantly after 24 hrs (p=0.001. However, significant difference was not observed in diastolic pressure before and after exercise (p=0.338.Conclusion: The finding of this study shows that sprint interval training decreases plasma levels of apelin, so we can say that apelin and blood pressure must be in balance in natural position. With knowing the role of apelin, changes in this peptide during exercise can be an alarm to cardiovascular risk factor, during or after exercise in elite athletes.

  6. Acute post-exercise change in blood pressure and exercise training response in patients with coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antti M Kiviniemi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We tested the hypothesis that acute post-exercise change in blood pressure (BP may predict exercise training responses in BP in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD. Patients with CAD (n=116, age 62±5 years, 85 men underwent BP assessments at rest and during 10-min recovery following a symptom-limited exercise test before and after the 6-month training intervention (one strength and 3-4 aerobic moderate-intensity exercises weekly. Post-exercise change in systolic BP (SBP was calculated by subtracting resting SBP from lowest post-exercise SBP. The training-induced change in resting SBP was -2±13 mmHg (p=0.064, ranging from -42 to 35 mmHg. Larger post-exercise decrease in SBP and baseline resting SBP predicted a larger training-induced decrement in SBP (β=0.46 and β=-0.44, respectively, p<0.001 for both. Acute post-exercise decrease in SBP provided additive value to baseline resting SBP in the prediction of training-induced change in resting SBP (R squared from 0.20 to 0.26, p=0.002. After further adjustments for other potential confounders (sex, age, baseline body mass index, realized training load, post-exercise decrease in SBP still predicted the training response in resting SBP (β=0.26, p=0.015. Acute post-exercise change in SBP was associated with training-induced change in resting SBP in patients with CAD, providing significant predictive information beyond baseline resting SBP.

  7. Effect of Aerobic Exercise Training on Blood Pressure in Indians: Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Punia, Sonu; Kulandaivelan, Sivachidambaram; Singh, Varun; Punia, Vandana

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. High blood pressure (BP) is one of the most important modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, which accounts for one in every eight deaths worldwide. It has been predicted that, by 2020, there would be 111% increase in cardiovascular deaths in India. Aerobic exercise in the form of brisk walking, jogging, running, and cycling would result in reduction in BP. Many meta-analytical studies from western world confirm this. However, there is no such review from Indian su...

  8. Exercise Training for Blood Pressure: A Systematic Review and Meta?analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Cornelissen, Veronique A.; Smart, Neil A.

    2013-01-01

    Background We conducted meta?analyses examining the effects of endurance, dynamic resistance, combined endurance and resistance training, and isometric resistance training on resting blood pressure (BP) in adults. The aims were to quantify and compare BP changes for each training modality and identify patient subgroups exhibiting the largest BP changes. Methods and Results Randomized controlled trials lasting ?4 weeks investigating the effects of exercise on BP in healthy adults (age ?18 year...

  9. Acute blood pressure response in hypertensive elderly women immediately after water aerobics exercise: A crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Raphael Martins; Vilaça-Alves, José; Noleto, Marcelo Vasconcelos; Silva, Juliana Sá; Costa, Andressa Moura; Silva, Christoffer Novais Farias; Póvoa, Thaís Inácio Rolim; Lehnen, Alexandre Machado

    2017-01-01

    Water aerobics exercise is widely recommended for elderly people. However, little is known about the acute effects on hemodynamic variables. Thus, we assessed the effects of a water aerobic session on blood pressure in hypertensive elderly women. Fifty hypertensive elderly women aged 67.8 ± 4.1 years, 1.5 ± 0.6 m high and BMI 28.6 ± 3.9 kg/m 2 , participated in a crossover clinical trial. The experiment consisted of a 45-minute water aerobics session (70%-75% HRmax adjusted for the aquatic environment) (ES) and a control session (no exercise for 45 minutes) (CS). Heart rate was monitored using a heart rate monitor and systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) measurements were taken using a semi-automatic monitor before and immediately after the sessions, and at 10, 20 and 30 minutes thereafter. It was using a generalized estimating equation (GEE) with Bonferroni's post-hoc test (p exercise, BP declined in ES by a greater magnitude than in CS (SBP 7.5 mmHg, 6.2%, p = 0.005 and DBP 3.8 mmHg, 5.5%, p = 0.013). At 20 minutes after exercise and thereafter, SBP and DBP were similar in both ES and CS. In conclusion, BP returned to control levels within 10-20 minutes remaining unchanged until 30 minutes after exercise, and post-exercise hypotension was not observed. Besides, BP changed after exercise was a safe rise of small magnitude for hypertensive people.

  10. Effects of exercise timing on sleep architecture and nocturnal blood pressure in prehypertensives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fairbrother K

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Kimberly Fairbrother,1 Ben Cartner,1 Jessica R Alley,1 Chelsea D Curry,1, David L Dickinson,2 David M Morris,1 Scott R Collier1 1Vascular Biology and Autonomic Studies Laboratory, Department of Health and Exercise Science, 2Department of Economics, Appalachian State University, Boone, NC, USA Background: During nocturnal sleep, blood pressure (BP “dips” compared to diurnal BP, reducing stress on the cardiovascular system. Both the hypotensive response elicited by acute aerobic exercise and sleep quality can impact this dipping response. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of aerobic exercise timing on circadian BP changes and sleep architecture. Materials and methods: Twenty prehypertensive subjects completed the study. During four test sessions, participants first completed a graded exercise test to exhaustion and then performed 30 minutes of treadmill exercise at 7 am (7A, 1 pm (1P, and 7 pm (7P in a random, counterbalanced order at 65% of the heart rate obtained at peak oxygen uptake. An ambulatory cuff was used to monitor BP responses during 24 hours following exercise, and an ambulatory sleep-monitoring headband was worn during sleep following each session. Results: Aerobic exercise at 7A invoked a greater dip in nocturnal systolic BP than exercise at 1P or 7P, although the greatest dip in nocturnal diastolic BP occurred following 7P. Compared to 1P, 7A also invoked greater time spent in deep sleep. Conclusion: These data indicate that early morning may be the most beneficial time to engage in aerobic exercise to enhance nocturnal BP changes and quality of sleep. Keywords: nocturnal dipping, prehypertension, aerobic exercise

  11. Assessing cutoff values for increased exercise blood pressure to predict incident hypertension in a general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorbeer, Roberto; Ittermann, Till; Völzke, Henry; Gläser, Sven; Ewert, Ralf; Felix, Stephan B; Dörr, Marcus

    2015-07-01

    Cutoff values for increased exercise blood pressure (BP) are not established in hypertension guidelines. The aim of the study was to assess optimal cutoff values for increased exercise BP to predict incident hypertension. Data of 661 normotensive participants (386 women) aged 25-77 years from the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-1) with a 5-year follow-up were used. Exercise BP was measured at a submaximal level of 100 W and at maximum level of a symptom-limited cycle ergometry test. Cutoff values for increased exercise BP were defined at the maximum sum of sensitivity and specificity for the prediction of incident hypertension. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) and net reclassification index (NRI) were calculated to investigate whether increased exercise BP adds predictive value for incident hypertension beyond established cardiovascular risk factors. In men, values of 160  mmHg (100  W level; AUC = 0.7837; NRI = 0.534, P AUC = 0.7677; NRI = 0.340, P = 0.003) were detected as optimal cutoff values for the definition of increased exercise SBP. A value of 190  mmHg (AUC = 0.8347; NRI = 0.519, P < 0.001) showed relevance for the definition of increased exercise SBP in women at the maximum level. According to our analyses, 190 and 210  mmHg are clinically relevant cutoff values for increased exercise SBP at the maximum exercise level of cycle ergometry test for women and men, respectively. In addition, for men, our analyses provided a cutoff value of 160  mmHg for increased exercise SBP at the 100  W level.

  12. Effect of Aerobic Exercise Training on Blood Pressure in Indians: Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonu Punia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. High blood pressure (BP is one of the most important modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, which accounts for one in every eight deaths worldwide. It has been predicted that, by 2020, there would be 111% increase in cardiovascular deaths in India. Aerobic exercise in the form of brisk walking, jogging, running, and cycling would result in reduction in BP. Many meta-analytical studies from western world confirm this. However, there is no such review from Indian subcontinent. Objective. Our objective is to systematically review and report the articles from India in aerobic exercise on blood pressure. Methodology. Study was done in March 2016 in Google Scholar using search terms “Aerobic exercise” AND “Training” AND “Blood pressure” AND “India.” This search produced 3210 titles. Results. 24 articles were identified for this review based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Total of 1107 subjects participated with median of 25 subjects. Studies vary in duration from +3 weeks to 12 months with each session lasting 15–60 minutes and frequency varies from 3 to 8 times/week. The results suggest that there was mean reduction of −05.00 mmHg in SBP and −03.09 mmHg in DBP after aerobic training. Conclusion. Aerobic training reduces the blood pressure in Indians.

  13. Exaggerated exercise blood pressure response in middle-aged men as a predictor of future blood pressure: a 10-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Katsuyuki; Iwane, Masataka; Miyai, Nobuyuki; Uchikawa, Yukiko; Mugitani, Koichi; Mohara, Osamu; Shiba, Mitsuru; Arita, Mikio

    The prognostic value of an exaggerated exercise systolic blood pressure response (EESBPR) remains controversial. This study was designed to assess whether an EESBPR is associated with the predictor of future blood pressure. From an initial population of 1,534 male-subjects with normal BP or no medication who underwent ergometric exercise, 733 subjects (mean age: 41 years old) at baseline to follow-up BP after an average of 10 years were selected. A 12-min exercise tolerance test with three phases of estimated load from predictive maximum oxygen intake was performed at baseline, and exercise BP was measured. Exercise BP response was classified by three group: Low group (G) (exercise SBP exercise BP:180-199 mmHg), High G (exercise BP:200 mmHg ≦). BP after 10 years in Low G was 123 ± 12/79 ± 7 mmHg, in Middle G:127 ± 13/81 ± 8 mmHg, in High G :134 ± 15/84 ± 10 mmHg. Compared with in Low G, BP after 10 years in High G significantly increased (p exercise SBP at baseline to BP after 10 years. In multivariate-adjusted models, the relationship of SBP at follow-up was stronger to exercise SBP (β = 0.271, P aged men, exercise SBP would be a stronger predictor of future SBP, DBP rather than BP at rest. In optimal of classification of BP (SBP exercise BP response was clearly associated with BP after 10 years.

  14. Cardiac Autonomic and Blood Pressure Responses to an Acute Bout of Kettlebell Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Alexei; Nordvall, Michael; Walters-Edwards, Michelle; Lastova, Kevin; Francavillo, Gwendolyn; Summerfield, Liane; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Marcos

    2017-10-07

    Kettlebell (KB) training has become an extremely popular exercise program for improving both muscle strength and aerobic fitness. However, the cardiac autonomic modulation and blood pressure (BP) responses induced by an acute KB exercise session are currently unknown. Understanding the impact of this exercise modality on the post-exercise autonomic modulation and BP would facilitate appropriate exercise prescription in susceptible populations. The present study evaluated the effects of an acute session of KB exercise on heart rate variability (HRV) and BP responses in healthy individuals. Seventeen (M=10, F=7) healthy subjects completed either a KB or non-exercise control trial in randomized order. HRV and BP measurements were collected at baseline, 3, 10 and 30 min after each trial. There were significant increases (P < 0.01) in heart rate, markers of sympathetic activity (nLF) and sympathovagal balance (nLF/nHF) for 30 min after the trial KB trial, while no changes from baseline were observed after the control trial. There were also significant decreases (P < 0.01) in markers of vagal tone (RMMSD, nHF) for 30 min as well as (P < 0.01) systolic BP and diastolic BP at 10 and 30 min after the trial KB trial while no changes from baseline were observed after the control trial. Our findings indicate that KB exercise increases sympathovagal balance for 30 min post-intervention which is concurrent with an important hypotensive effect. Further research is warranted to evaluate the potential clinical application of KB training in populations that might benefit from post-exercise hypotension, such as hypertensives.

  15. Combined exercise reduces arterial stiffness, blood pressure, and blood markers for cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal women with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Won-Mok; Sung, Ki-Dong; Cho, Jae-Min; Park, Song-Young

    2017-03-01

    Postmenopausal women exhibit elevated brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), an indicator of arterial stiffness, which is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events and mortality. The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of combined resistance and aerobic exercise training on baPWV, blood pressure (BP), and cardiovascular fitness in postmenopausal women with stage 1 hypertension. Twenty postmenopausal women (age, 75 ± 2 y; systolic BP, 152 ± 2 mm Hg, diastolic BP, 95 ± 3 mm Hg) were randomly assigned to a "no-exercise" (CON, n = 10) or combined exercise (EX, n = 10) group. The EX group performed resistance and aerobic exercise for 12 weeks, 3 times per week. Exercise intensity was increased gradually, from 40% to 70% of heart rate reserve, every 4 weeks. BaPWV, BP, blood nitrite/nitrate, endothelin-1 (ET-1), cardiovascular fitness, and body composition were measured before and after the 12-week intervention. BP, baPWV (-1.2 ± 0.4 m/s), ET-1 (-2.7 ± 0.3 μmol/mL), nitrite/nitrate (+4.5 ± 0.5 μM), functional capacity, and body composition were significantly improved (P exercise training improves arterial stiffness, BP, ET-1, blood nitrite/nitrate, functional capacity, and body composition in postmenopausal women with stage 1 hypertension. Thus, this study provides evidence that combined exercise training is a useful therapeutic method to improve cardiovascular health which can reduce cardiovascular disease risk in postmenopausal women with hypertension.

  16. Exercise-induced albuminuria vs circadian variations in blood pressure in type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadida Meli, Isabelle Hota; Tankeu, Aurel T; Dehayem, Mesmin Y; Chelo, David; Noubiap, Jean Jacques N; Sobngwi, Eugene

    2017-02-15

    To investigated the relationship between exercise-induced ambulatory blood pressure measurement (ABPM) abnormalities in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) adolescents. We conducted a case-control at the National Obesity Center of the Yaoundé Central Hospital, Cameroon. We compared 24 h ABPM and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) at rest and after a standardized treadmill exercise between 20 Cameroonian T1DM patients and 20 matched controls. T1DM adolescents were aged 12-18 years, with diabetes for at least one year, without proteinuria, with normal office blood pressure (BP) and renal function according to the general reference population. Non-diabetic controls were adolescents of general population matched for sex, age and BMI. Mean duration of diabetes was 4.2 ± 2.8 years. The mean 24 h systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were respectively 116 ± 9 mmHg in the diabetic group vs 111 ± 8 mmHg in the non-diabetic ( P = 0.06), and 69 ± 7 mm Hg vs 66 ± 5 mm Hg ( P = 0.19). There was no difference in the diurnal pattern of BP in diabetes patients and non-diabetic controls (SBP: 118 ± 10 mmHg vs 114 ± 10 mmHg, P = 0.11; DBP: 71 ± 7 mmHg vs 68 ± 6 mmHg, P = 0.22). Nighttime BP was higher in the diabetic group with respect to SBP (112 ± 11 mmHg vs 106 ± 7 mmHg, P = 0.06) and to the mean arterial pressure (MAP) (89 ± 9 mmHg vs 81 ± 6 mmHg, P = 0.06). ACR at rest was similar in both groups (5.5 mg/g vs 5.5 mg/g, P = 0.74), but significantly higher in diabetes patients after exercise (10.5 mg/g vs 5.5 mg/g, P = 0.03). SBP was higher in patients having exercise-induced albuminuria (116 ± 10 mmHg vs 108 ± 10 mmHg, P = 0.09). Exercise-induced albuminuria could be useful for early diagnosis of kidney damage in adolescents with T1DM.

  17. The beneficial effect of regular endurance exercise training on blood pressure and quality of life in patients with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jen-Chen; Yang, Hung-Yu; Wang, Wei-Hsin; Hsieh, Ming-Hsiung; Chen, Pei-Ti; Kao, Ching-Chiu; Kao, Pai-Feng; Wang, Chia-Hui; Chan, Paul

    2004-04-01

    Regular aerobic exercise can reduce blood pressure and is recommended as part of the lifestyle modification to reduce high blood pressure and cardiovascular risk. Hypertension itself, or/and pharmacological treatment for hypertension is associated with adverse effects on some aspects of quality of life. This study was performed to evaluate the effects of regular endurance exercise training on quality of life and blood pressure. Patients with mild to moderate hypertension (systolic blood pressure 140-180 or diastolic blood pressure 90-110 mm Hg) were randomized to a moderate-intensity aerobic exercise group training for 3 sessions/week over 10 weeks or to a non-exercising control group. Health-related quality of life was assessed with the Short Form 36-item Health Survey (SF-36) at baseline and after 6 and 10 weeks. In the 102 subjects (47 male, mean age 47 years) who completed the study, reductions in blood pressure in the exercise group at 10 weeks (-13.1/-6.3 mm Hg) were significant (P endurance training improves both blood pressure and quality of life in hypertensive patients and should be encouraged more widely.

  18. Blood pressure and plasma catecholamine responses to various challenges during exercise-recovery in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péronnet, F; Massicotte, D; Paquet, J E; Brisson, G; de Champlain, J

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of a 2 h cycle exercise (50% VO2max) on heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP), and on plasma epinephrine (E) and norepinephrine (NE) concentrations, during the recovery period in seven normotensive subjects. Measurements were made at rest in supine (20 min) and standing (10 min) positions, during isometric exercise (hand-grip, 3 min, 25% maximal voluntary, contraction), in response to a mild psychosocial challenge (Stroop conflicting color word task) and during a 5-min period of light exercise (42 +/- 3% VO2max). Data were compared to measurements taken on another occasion under similar experimental conditions, without a previous exercise bout (control). The results showed HR to be slightly elevated in all conditions following the exercise bout. However, diastolic and systolic BP during the recovery period following exercise were not significantly different from the values observed in the control situation. Plasma NE concentrations in supine position and in response to the various physiological and/or psychosocial challenges were similar in the control situation and during the recovery period following exercise. On the other hand plasma E (nmol.1-1) was about 50% lower at rest (0.11 +/- 0.03 vs 0.23 +/- 0.04) as well as in response to hand-grip (0.21 +/- 0.04 vs 0.41 +/- 0.20) and the Stroop-test (0.21 +/- 0.05 vs 0.41 +/- 0.15) following the exercise bout.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Reference data for distal blood pressure in healthy elderly and middle-aged individuals measured with the strain gauge technique. Part II: Distal blood pressure after exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arveschoug, Anne Kirstine; Vammen, Birthe; Yoshinaka, Emmy

    2008-01-01

    collected in the early 1970s from healthy individuals in the age range 21-26 years. Our aims were to collect new reference data for DBP at ankle level after exercise based on older populations, and to compare between reference data for different age groups to find out whether the normal values are dependent......Objective. Distal blood pressure (DBP) determination after an exercise test is used on suspicion of arterial peripheral vascular disease (apvd). In our department. the average age of these patients is about 60 years. The usual reference values for pressures after exercise were based on data...... on age. Material and methods. DBP after exercise was measured using the strain-gauge technique on individuals in two groups: group I comprising 25 healthy persons aged between 61 and 82 years, and group II 14 healthy persons aged between 45 and 58 years. Strict rules of inclusion were followed. Results...

  20. Exercise lowers blood pressure in university professors during subsequent teaching and sleeping hours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro F

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Fabiana Ribeiro1, Carmen S Grubert Campbell1, Gisele Mendes1, Gisela Arsa1,3, Sérgio R Moreira2, Francisco M da Silva1, Jonato Prestes1, Rafael da Costa Sotero1, Herbert Gustavo Simões1 1Graduate Program on Physical Education and Health, Catholic University of Brasilia, Brasilia; 2Federal University of Vale do São Francisco, Petrolina, 3Graduate Program on Physical Education, Nine of July University, São Paulo SP, Brazil Background: University professors are subjected to psychological stress that contributes to blood pressure (BP reactivity and development of hypertension. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of exercise on BP in university professors during teaching and sleeping hours. Methods: Twelve normotensive professors (42.2 ± 10.8 years, 74.2 ± 11.2 kg, 172.8 ± 10.4 cm, 20.1% ± 6.7% body fat randomly underwent control (CONT and exercise (EX30 sessions before initiating their daily activities. EX30 consisted of 30 minutes of cycling at 80%–85% of heart rate reserve. Ambulatory BP was monitored for 24 hours following both sessions. Results: BP increased in comparison with pre-session resting values during teaching after CONT (P < 0.05 but not after EX30. Systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial BP showed a more pronounced nocturnal dip following EX30 (approximately -14.7, -12.7, and -9.6 mmHg, respectively when compared with CONT (approximately -6, -5 and -3 mmHg. Conclusion: Exercise induced a BP reduction in university professors, with the main effects being observed during subsequent teaching and sleeping hours. Keywords: post-exercise blood pressure, aerobic exercise, activities of daily living

  1. Upward Shift and Steepening of the Blood Pressure Response to Exercise in Hypertensive Subjects at High Altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravita, Sergio; Faini, Andrea; Baratto, Claudia; Bilo, Grzegorz; Macarlupu, Josè Luis; Lang, Morin; Revera, Miriam; Lombardi, Carolina; Villafuerte, Francisco C; Agostoni, Piergiuseppe; Parati, Gianfranco

    2018-06-09

    Acute exposure to high-altitude hypobaric hypoxia induces a blood pressure rise in hypertensive humans, both at rest and during exercise. It is unclear whether this phenomenon reflects specific blood pressure hyperreactivity or rather an upward shift of blood pressure levels. We aimed at evaluating the extent and rate of blood pressure rise during exercise in hypertensive subjects acutely exposed to high altitude, and how these alterations can be counterbalanced by antihypertensive treatment. Fifty-five subjects with mild hypertension, double-blindly randomized to placebo or to a fixed-dose combination of an angiotensin-receptor blocker (telmisartan 80 mg) and a calcium-channel blocker (nifedipine slow release 30 mg), performed a cardiopulmonary exercise test at sea level and after the first night's stay at 3260 m altitude. High-altitude exposure caused both an 8 mm Hg upward shift ( P blood pressure/oxygen consumption relationship during exercise, independent of treatment. Telmisartan/nifedipine did not modify blood pressure reactivity to exercise (blood pressure/oxygen consumption slope), but downward shifted ( P blood pressure and oxygen consumption by 26 mm Hg, both at sea level and at altitude. Muscle oxygen delivery was not influenced by altitude exposure but was higher on telmisartan/nifedipine than on placebo ( P blood pressure response to exercise. The effect of the combination of telmisartan/nifedipine slow release outweighed these changes and was associated with better muscle oxygen delivery. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01830530. © 2018 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  2. Impaired Muscle Oxygenation and Elevated Exercise Blood Pressure in Hypertensive Patients: Links With Vascular Stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipla, Konstantina; Triantafyllou, Areti; Koletsos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Stavros; Sachpekidis, Vasileios; Vrabas, Ioannis S; Gkaliagkousi, Eugenia; Zafeiridis, Andreas; Douma, Stella

    2017-08-01

    This study examined in vivo (1) skeletal muscle oxygenation and microvascular function, at rest and during handgrip exercise, and (2) their association with macrovascular function and exercise blood pressure (BP), in newly diagnosed, never-treated patients with hypertension and normotensive individuals. Ninety-one individuals (51 hypertensives and 40 normotensives) underwent office and 24-hour ambulatory BP, arterial stiffness, and central aortic BP assessment, followed by a 5-minute arterial occlusion and a 3-minute submaximal handgrip exercise. Changes in muscle oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin and tissue oxygen saturation were continuously monitored by near-infrared spectroscopy and beat-by-beat BP by Finapres. Hypertensives had higher ( P age and body mass index (BMI) adjusted). When exercising at the same submaximal intensity, hypertensives required a significantly greater ( P hypertension exhibit prominent reductions in in vivo indices of skeletal muscle oxidative capacity, suggestive of mitochondrial dysfunction, and blunted muscle microvascular reactivity. These dysfunctions were associated with higher aortic systolic BP and arterial stiffness. Dysregulations in muscle oxygen delivery/utilization and microvascular stiffness, in hypertensive patients, partially contribute to their exaggerated BP during exercise. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Determinants of abnormal blood pressure response to exercise in coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakki, A.H.; Munley, B.M.; Hadjimiltiades, S.; Meissner, M.D.; Iskandrian, A.S.

    1986-01-01

    This study assessed the determinants of exercise-induced abnormal systolic blood pressure (BP) response in 127 patients with documented coronary artery disease (CAD) who underwent exercise thallium-201 scintigraphy. Three types of systolic BP response to exercise were identified: an increase by more than 20 mm Hg (group I, n = 74); an increase by 20 mm Hg or less (group II, n = 36); and a decrease of at least 10 mm Hg (group III, n = 17). The 3 groups were not significantly different in age, gender or medications. The number of segments with perfusion defects was significantly higher in groups II and III than group I (group III, 2.9 +/- 1.5; group II, 2.9 +/- 2.1; and group I, 1.8 +/- 1.4, p = 0.009). Prior myocardial infarction, abnormal left ventricular ejection fraction, and multivessel CAD were more common in group III than in groups I and II. Stepwise discriminant analysis of 15 relevant clinical, angiographic and exercise scintigraphic descriptors showed that the number of thallium perfusion defects, abnormal LV ejection fraction at rest and multivessel CAD to be important predictors of hypotensive BP response. Multivariate analysis, however, showed that the number of thallium perfusion defects was the only important predictor of the hypotensive response. Thus, it is the functional significance of CAD assessed by the extent of thallium perfusion abnormalities rather than the extent of CAD or left ventricular dysfunction at rest that determines the systolic BP response to exercise

  4. Blood pressure and calf muscle oxygen extraction during plantar flexion exercise in peripheral artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luck, J Carter; Miller, Amanda J; Aziz, Faisal; Radtka, John F; Proctor, David N; Leuenberger, Urs A; Sinoway, Lawrence I; Muller, Matthew D

    2017-07-01

    Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is an atherosclerotic vascular disease that affects 200 million people worldwide. Although PAD primarily affects large arteries, it is also associated with microvascular dysfunction, an exaggerated blood pressure (BP) response to exercise, and high cardiovascular mortality. We hypothesized that fatiguing plantar flexion exercise that evokes claudication elicits a greater reduction in skeletal muscle oxygenation (SmO 2 ) and a higher rise in BP in PAD compared with age-matched healthy subjects, but low-intensity steady-state plantar flexion elicits similar responses between groups. In the first experiment, eight patients with PAD and eight healthy controls performed fatiguing plantar flexion exercise (from 0.5 to 7 kg for up to 14 min). In the second experiment, seven patients with PAD and seven healthy controls performed low-intensity plantar flexion exercise (2.0 kg for 14 min). BP, heart rate (HR), and SmO 2 were measured continuously using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). SmO 2 is the ratio of oxygenated hemoglobin to total hemoglobin, expressed as a percent. At fatigue, patients with PAD had a greater increase in mean arterial BP (18 ± 2 vs. vs. 10 ± 2 mmHg, P = 0.029) and HR (14 ± 2 vs. 6 ± 2 beats/min, P = 0.033) and a greater reduction in SmO 2 (-54 ± 10 vs. -12 ± 4%, P = 0.001). However, both groups had similar physiological responses to low-intensity, nonpainful plantar flexion exercise. These data suggest that patients with PAD have altered oxygen uptake and/or utilization during fatiguing exercise coincident with an augmented BP response. NEW & NOTEWORTHY In this laboratory study, patients with peripheral artery disease performed plantar flexion exercise in the supine posture until symptoms of claudication occurred. Relative to age- and sex-matched healthy subjects we found that patients had a higher blood pressure response, a higher heart rate response, and a greater reduction in skeletal muscle oxygenation as

  5. Exaggerated blood pressure response to early stages of exercise stress testing and presence of hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Martin G; Picone, Dean S; Nikolic, Sonja B; Williams, Andrew D; Sharman, James E

    2016-12-01

    Exaggerated exercise blood pressure (EEBP) recorded during exercise testing at moderate-intensity is independently associated with cardiovascular mortality. It is hypothesized that EEBP may be indicative of underlying hypertension unnoticed by standard clinic (resting) BP measures (thus explaining increased mortality risk), but this has never been confirmed by association with hypertension defined using ambulatory BP monitoring, which was the aim of this study. Cross-sectional study. 100 consecutive patients free from coronary artery disease (aged 56±9 years, 72% male) underwent clinically indicated exercise stress testing. Exercise BP was recorded at each stage of the Bruce protocol. Presence of hypertension was defined as 24-hour systolic BP ≥130mmHg or daytime systolic BP ≥135mmHg. Exercise systolic BP at stage 1 and 2 of the test was significantly associated with the presence of hypertension (P130mmHg (AUC=0.752, 95% CI's 0.649-0.846, P150mmHg predicting hypertension independently of age, sex and in-clinic hypertension status (OR=4.83, 95% CI's 1.62-14.39, P=0.005). Irrespective of resting BP, systolic BP ≥150mmHg during early stages of the Bruce exercise stress test is associated with presence of hypertension. EEBP should be a warning signal to health/exercise professionals on the presence of hypertension and the need to provide follow up care to reduce cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Homocysteine, visceral adiposity-related novel cardiometabolic risk factors, and exaggerated blood pressure response to the exercise treadmill test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türker Duyuler, Pinar; Duyuler, Serkan; Demir, Mevlüt; Uçar Elalmiş, Özgül; Güray, Ümit; İleri, Mehmet

    2017-12-01

    Exaggerated blood pressure response to exercise is a risk factor for the development of future hypertension. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association between homocysteine, epicardial fat thickness, nonalcoholic hepatic steatosis, and exaggerated blood pressure response to exercise. We included 44 normotensive and 40 patients with exaggerated blood pressure response to exercise who have normal resting blood pressure and without a previous diagnosis of hypertension. All patients underwent treadmill exercise test and clinical, ultrasonographic, and echocardiographic evaluation. Exaggerated blood pressure response to exercise is defined as peak exercise systolic blood pressure of at least 210 mmHg in men and at least 190 mmHg in women. Homocysteine and other biochemical parameters were determined with standardized automated laboratory tests. Mean age of all participants is 47.9±8.5 years, and 36 of 84 participants were female. The frequency of diabetes mellitus in both groups was similar (P=0.250). Homeostasis model assessment index-insulin resistance had a statistically insignificant trend to be higher in a patient with exercise hypertension (P=0.058). The nonalcoholic fatty liver was more frequent in patients with exercise hypertension (13.6 vs. 47.5%, P=0.002). Epicardial fat thickness was increased in patients with exercise hypertension (5.5±1.5 vs. 7.3±1.1 mm; P=0.001). However, homocysteine levels did not significantly differ between normotensive and exercise hypertensive patients [12.3 μmol/l (5.7-16.9 μmol/l) vs. 13 μmol/l (5.9-28.3 μmol/l); P=0.883]. In our study, homocysteine levels were not associated with exaggerated blood pressure response to exercise; however, fatty liver and epicardial fat thickness as visceral adiposity-related cardiometabolic risk factors were significantly related with exaggerated blood pressure response to exercise in patients without a previous diagnosis of hypertension.

  7. Endurance exercise beneficially affects ambulatory blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, Véronique A; Buys, Roselien; Smart, Neil A

    2013-04-01

    Exercise is widely recommended as one of the key preventive lifestyle changes to reduce the risk of hypertension and to manage high blood pressure (BP), but individual studies investigating the effect of exercise on ambulatory BP have remained inconclusive. Therefore, the primary purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine the effect of aerobic endurance training on daytime and night-time BP in healthy adults. A systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed and Cochrane Controlled Clinical trial registry from their inception to May 2012. Randomized controlled trials of at least 4 weeks investigating the effects of aerobic endurance training on ambulatory BP in healthy adults were included. Inverse weighted random effects models were used for analyses, with data reported as weighted means and 95% confidence limits. We included 15 randomized controlled trials, involving 17 study groups and 633 participants (394 exercise participants and 239 control participants). Overall, endurance training induced a significant reduction in daytime SBP [-3.2 mmHg, 95% confidence interval (CI), -5.0 to-1.3] and daytime DBP (-2.7 mmHg, 95% CI, -3.9 to -1.5). No effect was observed on night-time BP. The findings from this meta-analysis suggest that aerobic endurance exercise significantly decreases daytime, but not night-time, ambulatory BP.

  8. Effects of Strength Training Sessions Performed with Different Exercise Orders and Intervals on Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Sandro; Figueiredo, Tiago; Marques, Silvio; Leite, Thalita; Cardozo, Diogo; Willardson, Jeffrey M; Simão, Roberto

    2018-01-01

    This study compared the effect of a strength training session performed at different exercise orders and rest intervals on blood pressure and heart rate variability (HRV). Fifteen trained men performed different upper body exercise sequences [large to small muscle mass (SEQA) and small to large muscle mass (SEQB)] in randomized order with rest intervals between sets and exercises of 40 or 90 seconds. Fifteen repetition maximum loads were tested to control the training intensity and the total volume load. The results showed, significant reductions for systolic blood pressure (SBP) for all sequences compared to baseline and, post-exercise: SEQA90 at 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 minutes; SEQA40 and SEQB40 at 20 minutes and SEQB90 at 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 minutes. For diastolic blood pressure (DBP), significant reductions were found for three sequences compared to baseline and, post-exercise: SEQA90 and SEQA40 at 50 and 60 minutes; SEQB40 at 10, 30 and 60 minutes. For HRV, there were significant differences in frequency domain for all sequences compared to baseline. In conclusion, when performing upper body strength training sessions, it is suggested that 90 second rest intervals between sets and exercises promotes a post-exercise hypotensive response in SBP. The 40 second rest interval between sets and exercises was associated with greater cardiac stress, and might be contraindicated when working with individuals that exhibit symptoms of cardiovascular disease.

  9. Health benefits of Tai Chi exercise: improved balance and blood pressure in middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Everard W; Sykes, Kevin S; Tang, Wai K

    2004-03-01

    Tai Chi has been widely practiced as a Chinese martial art that focuses on slow sequential movements, providing a smooth, continuous and low intensity activity. It has been promoted to improve balance and strength and to reduce falls in the elderly, especially those 'at risk'. The potential benefits in healthy younger age cohorts and for wider aspects of health have received less attention. The present study documented prospective changes in balance and vascular responses for a community sample of middle-aged women. Seventeen relatively sedentary but healthy normotensive women aged 33-55 years were recruited into a three times per week, 12-week Tai Chi exercise programme. A further 17 sedentary subjects matched for age and body size were recruited as a control group. Dynamic balance measured by the Functional Reach Test was significantly improved following Tai Chi, with significant decreases in both mean systolic (9.71 mmHg) and diastolic (7.53 mmHg) blood pressure. The data confirm that Tai Chi exercise can be a good choice of exercise for middle-aged adults, with potential benefits for ageing as well as the aged.

  10. Diet and exercise training reduce blood pressure and improve autonomic modulation in women with prehypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Allan R K; Silva, Bruno M; Neves, Fabricia J; Rocha, Natália G; Medeiros, Renata F; Castro, Renata R T; Nóbrega, Antonio C L

    2012-09-01

    Despite mortality from heart disease has been decreasing, the decline in death in women remains lower than in men. Hypertension (HT) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Therefore, approaches to prevent or delay the onset of HT would be valuable in women. Given this background, we investigated the effect of diet and exercise training on blood pressure (BP) and autonomic modulation in women with prehypertension (PHT). Ten women with PHT (39 ± 6 years, mean ± standard deviation) and ten with normotension (NT) (35 ± 11 years) underwent diet and exercise training for 12 weeks. Autonomic modulation was assessed through heart rate (HR) and systolic BP (SBP) variability, using time and frequency domain analyses. At preintervention, women with PHT had higher SBP (PHT: 128 ± 7 vs. NT: 111 ± 6 mmHg, p 0.05). Moreover, reduction in SBP was associated with augmentation in SDNN (r = -0.46, p diet and exercise training reduced SBP in women with PHT, and this was associated with augmentation in parasympathetic and probably reduction in sympathetic cardiac modulation.

  11. Exercise training improves ambulatory blood pressure but not arterial stiffness in heart transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoalino, Lucas Nóbilo; Ciolac, Emmanuel Gomes; Tavares, Aline Cristina; Castro, Rafael Ertner; Ayub-Ferreira, Silvia Moreira; Bacal, Fernando; Issa, Victor Sarli; Bocchi, Edimar Alcides; Guimarães, Guilherme Veiga

    2015-05-01

    Hypertension is the most prevalent comorbidity after heart transplantation (HT). Exercise training (ET) is widely recommended as a key non-pharmacologic intervention for the prevention and management of hypertension, but its effects on ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) and some mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of hypertension have not been studied in this population. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of ET on ABP and arterial stiffness of HT recipients. 40 HT patients, randomized to ET (n = 31) or a control group (n = 9) underwent a maximal graded exercise test, 24-hour ABP monitoring, and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) assessment before the intervention and at a 12-week follow-up assessment. The ET program was performed thrice-weekly and consisted primarily of endurance exercise (40 minutes) at ~70% of maximum oxygen uptake (Vo2MAX). The ET group had reduced 24-hour (4.0 ± 1.4 mm Hg, p endurance ET may be a tool to counteract hypertension in this high-risk population. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Acute effect on ambulatory blood pressure from aerobic exercise: a randomised cross-over study among female cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund Rasmussen, Charlotte; Nielsen, Line; Linander Henriksen, Marie; Søgaard, Karen; Krustrup, Peter; Holtermann, Andreas; Korshøj, Mette

    2018-02-01

    High occupational physical activity (OPA) is shown to increase the risk for elevated blood pressure, cardiovascular diseases and mortality. Conversely, aerobic exercise acutely lowers the blood pressure up to 25 h post exercise. However, it is unknown if this beneficial effect also apply for workers exposed to high levels of OPA. Cleaners constitute a relevant occupational group for this investigation because of a high prevalence of OPA and cardiovascular disease. Accordingly, the objective was to investigate the acute effects on ambulatory blood pressure from a single aerobic exercise session among female cleaners. Twenty-two female cleaners were randomised to a cross-over study with a reference and an aerobic exercise session. Differences in 24-h, work hours, leisure time, and sleep ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) were evaluated using repeated measure 2 × 2 mixed-models. After the aerobic exercise session, the 24-h systolic ambulatory blood pressure was significantly lowered by 2.4 mmHg (p ABP was unaltered. During work hours, a lowered systolic ABP of 2.2 mmHg (p = 0.02) and a higher diastolic ABP of 1.5 mmHg (p = 0.03) were found after the aerobic exercise session. During leisure time, the systolic ABP was lowered by 1.7 mmHg (p = 0.04) and the diastolic ABP was unaltered. During sleep, the systolic and diastolic ABP was unaltered. A single aerobic exercise session lowered 24-h systolic ABP of 2.4 mmHg. Thus, an aerobic exercise session seems to be beneficial for lowering the risk of hypertension among cleaners.

  13. Blood pressure reactivity to mental stress is attenuated following resistance exercise in older hypertensive women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauche, Rafael; Lima, Ricardo M; Myers, Jonathan; Gadelha, André B; Neri, Silvia Gr; Forjaz, Claudia Lm; Vianna, Lauro C

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of resistance exercise (RE) on autonomic control and blood pressure (BP) reactivity during mental stress (MS) in treated older hypertensive women. Ten older hypertensive women (age =71.1±5.5 years; body mass index =24.2±3.9; mean BP [MBP] =85.4±3.5) underwent a protocol consisting of BP and heart rate variability (HRV) output assessments at baseline and during MS, and these measurements were taken before and 60 minutes after two bouts of RE (traditional and circuit). MS was induced through a computerized 3-minute Stroop color-word test before and 1 hour after each exercise session; BP was measured every minute during MS, and HRV was monitored as a measure of cardiac autonomic control. A significant effect of time on systolic BP (Δpre =17.4±12.8 versus Δpost =12.5±9.6; P =0.01), diastolic BP (Δpre =13.7±7.1 versus Δpost =8.8±4.5; P =0.01), and MBP (Δpre =14.0±7.7 versus Δpost =9.3±5.4; P <0.01) after RE was observed, with no differences between the two sessions. In addition, a significant effect of time on log-normalized low-frequency component of HRV (ms2; 5.3±0.8 pre-exercise MS versus 4.8±1.0 baseline value; P =0.023) was also observed, showing a significant change from baseline to MS before RE, but not after RE sessions. These results may be related to a lessened RE-mediated cardiac sympathetic activity during MS. RE is an effective tool to reduce BP reactivity to MS, which could therefore be associated with an acute reduction in cardiovascular risk. This result presents relevant clinical implications, combining previous evidence that recommends this exercise modality as an important component of an exercise program designed for the older and hypertensive subjects.

  14. Blood pressure regulation X: what happens when the muscle pump is lost? Post-exercise hypotension and syncope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliwill, John R; Sieck, Dylan C; Romero, Steven A; Buck, Tahisha M; Ely, Matthew R

    2014-03-01

    Syncope which occurs suddenly in the setting of recovery from exercise, known as post-exercise syncope, represents a failure of integrative physiology during recovery from exercise. We estimate that between 50 and 80% of healthy individuals will develop pre-syncopal signs and symptoms if subjected to a 15-min head-up tilt following exercise. Post-exercise syncope is most often neurally mediated syncope during recovery from exercise, with a combination of factors associated with post-exercise hypotension and loss of the muscle pump contributing to the onset of the event. One can consider the initiating reduction in blood pressure as the tip of the proverbial iceberg. What is needed is a clear model of what lies under the surface; a model that puts the observational variations in context and provides a rational framework for developing strategic physical or pharmacological countermeasures to ultimately protect cerebral perfusion and avert loss of consciousness. This review summarizes the current mechanistic understanding of post-exercise syncope and attempts to categorize the variation of the physiological processes that arise in multiple exercise settings. Newer investigations into the basic integrative physiology of recovery from exercise provide insight into the mechanisms and potential interventions that could be developed as countermeasures against post-exercise syncope. While physical counter maneuvers designed to engage the muscle pump and augment venous return are often found to be beneficial in preventing a significant drop in blood pressure after exercise, countermeasures that target the respiratory pump and pharmacological countermeasures based on the involvement of histamine receptors show promise.

  15. Acute and chronic effects of aerobic exercise on blood pressure in resistant hypertension: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, L S; Santos, A C; Lucena, Jms; Silva, Lgo; Almeida, Aem; Brasileiro-Santos, M S

    2017-06-02

    Resistant hypertension is a specific condition that affects approximately 10% of subjects with hypertension, and is characterized by persistently high blood pressure levels even using therapy of three or more antihypertensive agents or with blood pressure control using therapy with four or more antihypertensive agents. Changes in lifestyle, such as physical exercise, are indicated for controlling blood pressure. However, investigating studies about this therapy in individuals with resistant hypertension are few. This is a randomized controlled clinical trial. Forty-eight patients with resistant hypertension will be submitted to perform four short-term interventions: aerobic exercise sessions (mild-, moderate- and high-intensity) and control session, in random order and on separate days. After the short-term sessions, the patients will be randomly allocated into four groups for 8 weeks of follow-up: mild-, moderate- and high-intensity aerobic exercise, and a control group. The primary outcome is the occurrence of blood pressure reduction (office and ambulatory analysis, and acute and chronic effects). Secondary outcomes are autonomic and hemodynamic mechanisms: cardiac and vasomotor autonomic modulation, spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity, forearm blood flow and vascular resistance. The importance of exercise for hypertension has been known for decades, but little is known about the effects on patients with resistant hypertension. This study will help to understand whether different aerobic exercise intensities can induce different responses, as well as by what mechanisms adjustments in blood pressure levels may occur. ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT02670681 . Registered on 28 January 2016 (first version); Brazilian Registry Platform Clinical Trials: protocol RBR-5q24zh . Registered on 24 June 2015.

  16. Exercise capacity in young adults with hypertension and systolic blood pressure difference between right arm and leg after repair of coarctation of the aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Instebø, Arne; Norgård, Gunnar; Helgheim, Vegard; Røksund, Ola Drange; Segadal, Leidulf; Greve, Gottfried

    2004-10-01

    Coarctation of the aorta represents 5-7% of congenital heart defects. Symptoms and prognosis depend on the degree of stenosis, age at surgery, surgical method and the presence of other heart defects. Postoperative complications are hypertension, restenosis and an abnormal blood pressure response during exercise. This study includes 41 patients, 15-40 years old, operated in the period 1975-1996. All were exercised on a treadmill until maximal oxygen consumption was achieved. Blood pressure was measured in the right arm and leg before and immediately after exercise, and in the right arm during exercise. Oxygen consumption was monitored and we defined an aerobic phase, an isocapnic buffering phase and a hypocapnic hyperventilation phase. The resting systolic blood pressure correlates with the resting systolic blood pressure difference between right arm and leg. A resting systolic blood pressure difference between the right arm and leg of 0.13 kPa (1 mmHg) to 2.67 kPa (20 mmHg) corresponds with a slight increase in resting systolic blood pressure. This rise in blood pressure increases the aerobic phase of the exercise test, helping the patients to achieve higher maximal oxygen consumption. A resting systolic blood pressure difference of more than 2.67 kPa (20 mmHg) corresponds with severe hypertension and causes reduction in the aerobic phase and maximal oxygen consumption. Resting systolic blood pressure and resting systolic blood pressure difference between the right arm and leg are not indicators for blood pressure response during exercise. Exercise testing is important to reveal exercise-induced hypertension and to monitor changes in transition from aerobic to anaerobic exercise and limitation to exercise capacity.

  17. The Impact of Exercising During Haemodialysis on Blood Pressure, Markers of Cardiac Injury and Systemic Inflammation - Preliminary Results of a Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice Dungey

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Patients requiring haemodialysis have cardiovascular and immune dysfunction. Little is known about the acute effects of exercise during haemodialysis. Exercise has numerous health benefits but in other populations has a profound impact upon blood pressure, inflammation and immune function; therefore having the potential to exacerbate cardiovascular and immune dysfunction in this vulnerable population. Methods: Fifteen patients took part in a randomised-crossover study investigating the effect of a 30-min bout of exercise during haemodialysis compared to resting haemodialysis. We assessed blood pressure, plasma markers of cardiac injury and systemic inflammation and neutrophil degranulation. Results: Exercise increased blood pressure immediately post-exercise; however, 1 hour after exercise blood pressure was lower than resting levels (106±22 vs. 117±25 mm Hg. No differences in h-FABP, cTnI, myoglobin or CKMB were observed between trial arms. Exercise did not alter circulating concentrations of IL-6, TNF-α or IL-1ra nor clearly suppress neutrophil function. Conclusions: This study demonstrates fluctuations in blood pressure during haemodialysis in response to exercise. However, since the fall in blood pressure occurred without evidence of cardiac injury, we regard it as a normal response to exercise superimposed onto the haemodynamic response to haemodialysis. Importantly, exercise did not exacerbate systemic inflammation or immune dysfunction; intradialytic exercise was well tolerated.

  18. Effects of aerobic training intensity on resting, exercise and post-exercise blood pressure, heart rate and heart-rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, V A; Verheyden, B; Aubert, A E; Fagard, R H

    2010-03-01

    We aimed to investigate the effects of endurance training intensity (1) on systolic blood pressure (SBP) and heart rate (HR) at rest before exercise, and during and after a maximal exercise test; and (2) on measures of HR variability at rest before exercise and during recovery from the exercise test, in at least 55-year-old healthy sedentary men and women. A randomized crossover study comprising three 10-week periods was performed. In the first and third period, participants exercised at lower or higher intensity (33% or 66% of HR reserve) in random order, with a sedentary period in between. Training programmes were identical except for intensity, and were performed under supervision thrice for 1 h per week. The results show that in the three conditions, that is, at rest before exercise, during exercise and during recovery, we found endurance training at lower and higher intensity to reduce SBP significantly (Pendurance training did not affect the response of SBP after an acute bout of exercise. The effect of training on HR at rest, during exercise and recovery was more pronounced (Pendurance training had no significant effect on sympathovagal balance. In conclusion, in participants at higher age, both training programmes exert similar effects on SBP at rest, during exercise and during post-exercise recovery, whereas the effects on HR are more pronounced after higher intensity training.

  19. Does Aerobic Exercise Increase 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure Among Workers With High Occupational Physical Activity? - A RCT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj, Mette; Krause, Niklas; Clays, Els

    2017-01-01

    .9–3.8). Cleaners with high aerobic workload exhibited particularly high 24-hour ABP increases: systolic 6.0 mm Hg (95% CI 2.4–9.6), and diastolic 3.8 mm Hg (95% CI 1.3–6.4). CONCLUSION Aerobic exercise increased 24-hour ABP among cleaners. This adverse effect raises questions about the safety and intended benefits......OBJECTIVE High occupational physical activity (OPA) increases cardiovascular risk and aerobic exercise has been recommended for reducing this risk. This paper investigates the effects of an aerobic exercise intervention on 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) among cleaners with high OPA....... METHODS Hundred and sixteen cleaners between 18 and 65 years were randomized. During the 4-month intervention period, the aerobic exercise group (AE) (n = 57) performed worksite aerobic exercise (2 × 30 minutes/week), while the reference group (REF) (n = 59) attended lectures. Between-group differences...

  20. Does aerobic exercise increase 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure among workers with high occupational physical activity? - A RCT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj, Mette; Krause, Niklas; Clays, Els

    2017-01-01

    .9–3.8). Cleaners with high aerobic workload exhibited particularly high 24-hour ABP increases: systolic 6.0 mm Hg (95% CI 2.4–9.6), and diastolic 3.8 mm Hg (95% CI 1.3–6.4). CONCLUSION Aerobic exercise increased 24-hour ABP among cleaners. This adverse effect raises questions about the safety and intended benefits......OBJECTIVE High occupational physical activity (OPA) increases cardiovascular risk and aerobic exercise has been recommended for reducing this risk. This paper investigates the effects of an aerobic exercise intervention on 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) among cleaners with high OPA....... METHODS Hundred and sixteen cleaners between 18 and 65 years were randomized. During the 4-month intervention period, the aerobic exercise group (AE) (n = 57) performed worksite aerobic exercise (2 × 30 minutes/week), while the reference group (REF) (n = 59) attended lectures. Between-group differences...

  1. ISOMETRIC EXERCISE AND ITS EFFECT ON BLOOD PRESSURE AND HEART RATE, BEFORE AND AFTER TRAINING IN YOUNG HEALTHY MALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Isometric exercise is a normal part of everyday activities and many occupational tasks. Preventive services are important as they give physicians an opportunity and responsibility to promote regular physical activity, reduc e high blood pressure, and help in weight control. Physical inactivity is recognized as a risk factor for coronary artery disease. Regular aerobic physical activity increases exercise capacity and plays a role in both primary and secondary prevention of ca rdiovascular disease. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of isometric handgrip training on Blood pressure and Heart rate in healthy young males in the age group of 18 - 22 years. MATERIALS AND METHOD : Study subjects consisted of 30 healthy adult males in the age group of 18 - 22 yrs. Age and sex matched adults who were not active in sports or in physical activities constituted the control group (n=30. Blood pressure and heart rate were recorded and eval uated after a defined protocol of handgrip sustained static (isometric contractions performed with the handgrip dynamometer at Rest and Post Exercise. BP and HR were recorded with the help of automated blood pressure monitor and power lab 8/30 series inst rument available in the Department of Physiology , Navodaya Medical college, Raichur. RESULTS: There was no change in Resting Blood pressure and Heart rate between the subject and control group before the training sessions. There was significant decrease in resting Blood pressure and Heart rate in trained subject group when compared to untrained control group after 5 weeks of training sessions. CONCLUSION : Isometric hand grip training is effective in lowering arterial pressure in normotensive subjects. Isome tric training may be an effective intervention in the prevention and treatment of hypertension

  2. Double product response and diastolic blood pressure in treadmill, stationary bicycle and muscular circuit exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmiro Santos Resende

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the various causes for cardiovascular problems affecting the world population nowadays, the most relevant risk factors is sedentary lifestyle. Many studies have been carried out to analyse and elucidate main adaptations on the cardiovascular system stimulated by different sorts of exercises.In this way, this study had aimed at comparing the acute response of double product (DP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP after treadmill (TRM, stationary bicycle (BIC or muscle circuit training (MCT exercises. Nine individuals (6 women and 3 men exercised at 60% of heart rate reserve (HRR on the TRM and BIC and at 60% of one repetition maximum (1RM in MCT. The results showed that pre- and post-effort DP were significantly difference in all three exercises. However, DP did not differ among exercise types. The hypotensive DBP pos-effort response was greater in MCT. According to the results, it was concluded that there is no difference on the heart work demand rate estimated by DP among the three exercises and MCT at 60% 1RM provokes a greater hypotensive DBP post-effort response. RESUMO Entre as diversas causas de problemas cardiovasculares que afetam a população mundial, na atualidade, o sedentarismo é apontado como um dos fatores de risco mais relevantes. Vários estudos têm se preocupado em analisar e esclarecer as principais adaptações provocadas pelos diferentes tipos de exercícios sobre o sistema cardiovascular. Seguindo esta linha o presente trabalho teve como objetivo analisar e comparar a resposta aguda do duplo produto (DP e a pressão arterial diastólica (PAD em exercício de esteira, bicicleta estacionária e circuito na musculação. Foram avaliados nove indivíduos sendo seis mulheres e três homens, na esteira, a 60% da freqüência cardíaca de reserva (FCR, na bicicleta estacionária, a 60% FCR e circuito de musculação a 60% de 1 repetição máxima (1RM. Os resultados encontrados apresentaram diferença significativa do DP pr

  3. Double product response and diastolic blood pressure in treadmill, stationary bicycle and muscular circuit exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Teixeira Paranhos Lopes

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Among the various causes for cardiovascular problems affecting the world population nowadays, the most relevant risk factors is sedentary lifestyle. Many studies have been carried out to analyse and elucidate main adaptations on the cardiovascular system stimulated by different sorts of exercises.In this way, this study had aimed at comparing the acute response of double product (DP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP after treadmill (TRM, stationary bicycle (BIC or muscle circuit training (MCT exercises. Nine individuals (6 women and 3 men exercised at 60% of heart rate reserve (HRR on the TRM and BIC and at 60% of one repetition maximum (1RM in MCT. The results showed that pre- and post-effort DP were significantly difference in all three exercises. However, DP did not differ among exercise types. The hypotensive DBP pos-effort response was greater in MCT. According to the results, it was concluded that there is no difference on the heart work demand rate estimated by DP among the three exercises and MCT at 60% 1RM provokes a greater hypotensive DBP post-effort response. . Resumo Entre as diversas causas de problemas cardiovasculares que afetam a população mundial, na atualidade, o sedentarismo é apontado como um dos fatores de risco mais relevantes. Vários estudos têm se preocupado em analisar e esclarecer as principais adaptações provocadas pelos diferentes tipos de exercícios sobre o sistema cardiovascular. Seguindo esta linha o presente trabalho teve como objetivo analisar e comparar a resposta aguda do duplo produto (DP e a pressão arterial diastólica (PAD em exercício de esteira, bicicleta estacionária e circuito na musculação. Foram avaliados nove indivíduos sendo seis mulheres e três homens, na esteira, a 60% da freqüência cardíaca de reserva (FCR, na bicicleta estacionária, a 60% FCR e circuito de musculação a 60% de 1 repetição máxima (1RM. Os resultados encontrados apresentaram diferença significativa do DP

  4. The effect of aerobic exercise and barley β-glucan on blood glucose, body composition and blood pressure of diabetic women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Mokhtari

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of type 2 diabetes increases with aging, unhealthy diets, obesity and sedentary lifestyles. The aim of this study was to investigate the combinational effect of a 12-week aerobic exercise and barley β-glucan (BBG on blood glucose, body composition and blood pressure in women with type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods: In this semi-experimental study, 24 women with the mean age of 49 years and a blood glucose level of 110-280 mg/dl were purposefully selected and randomly divided into three groups: a group of aerobic exercise with diet (n=8, b diet group (n=8 c control group (n=8. The diet group consumed one barley bread, containing 4 g of β glucan, each day for 12 weeks. The group of aerobic exercise, who was on diet, participated in a progressive walking program with the intensity of %60-70% of maximal heart rate in addition to diet program (barley bread. Blood glucose, weight, fat percentage, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels were measured in pre-and post-training. Results: Results showed a significant decrease in the blood glucose level in the experimental groups compared to the control group, while no major changes were observed in body composition and blood pressure. Conclusion: It seems that the combined program (aerobic training with diet or consumption of β-glucan alone can decrease blood glucose in patients with diabetes.

  5. The significance of abnormal systolic blood pressure response during supine ergometer exercise and postexercise in ischemic heart disease, studied by exercise radionuclide ventriculography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajisaka, Ryuichi; Watanabe, Shigeyuki; Masuoka, Takeshi

    1989-01-01

    Abnormal response to blood pressure (BP) during exercise and postexercise was examined in 169 patients with ischemic heart disease. The patients underwent supine ergometer exercise gated equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography and coronary arteriography. When BP during exercise did not increase by at least 11 mmHg or initially increased but later decreased by more than 10 mmHg, the BP response was defined as abnormal during exercise. A postexercise BP increase of more than 10 mmHg above the peak exercise BP was defined as abnormal during postexercise. Fifteen-one patients (30%) were classified as abnormal (group 1) and the other 118 as normal (group 2). Abnormal BP response fell into three types: (1a) exercise hypotension (n=11), (1b) postexercise hypertension (n=30), and (1c) exercise hypotension with postexercise hypertension (n=10). Both average exercise duration and peak heart rate were significantly lower in groups 1a, 1b, and 1c than group 2. Exercise ST-segment depression was more noticeable in groups 1b and 1c than group 2. However, there was no significant difference in the severitiy of exercise ST-segment depression between groups 1a and 2. A decline in ejection fraction occurred more frequently in groups 1b and 1c than group 2. Patients in groups 1a, 1b, and 1c had more extensive coronary artery disease than did patients in group 2. Medically managed patients having an abnormal BP response had a poorer prognosis than those with a normal BP response. An abnormal BP response during both supine exercise and postexercise was infrequent. The abnormal BP during exercise may be usually associated with impaired exercise tolerance and severe coronary artery disease; and that during postexercise may be closely associated with myocardial ischemia and global left ventricular dysfunction. Postexercise hypertension may be of the same value as exercise hypotension in predicting poor prognosis. (Namekawa, K)

  6. Blood pressure reactivity to mental stress is attenuated following resistance exercise in older hypertensive women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauche R

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Rafael Gauche,1 Ricardo M Lima,1,2 Jonathan Myers,2 André B Gadelha,1 Silvia GR Neri,1 Claudia LM Forjaz,3 Lauro C Vianna1 1Faculty of Physical Education, University of Brasília, Brasília, Brazil; 2Cardiology Division, Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System and Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, USA; 3School of Physical Education and Sport, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the effects of resistance exercise (RE on autonomic control and blood pressure (BP reactivity during mental stress (MS in treated older hypertensive women. Methods: Ten older hypertensive women (age =71.1±5.5 years; body mass index =24.2±3.9; mean BP [MBP] =85.4±3.5 underwent a protocol consisting of BP and heart rate variability (HRV output assessments at baseline and during MS, and these measurements were taken before and 60 minutes after two bouts of RE (traditional and circuit. MS was induced through a computerized 3-minute Stroop color–word test before and 1 hour after each exercise session; BP was measured every minute during MS, and HRV was monitored as a measure of cardiac autonomic control. Results: A significant effect of time on systolic BP (∆pre =17.4±12.8 versus ∆post =12.5±9.6; P=0.01, diastolic BP (∆pre =13.7±7.1 versus ∆post =8.8±4.5; P=0.01, and MBP (∆pre =14.0±7.7 versus ∆post =9.3±5.4; P<0.01 after RE was observed, with no differences between the two sessions. In addition, a significant effect of time on log-normalized low-frequency component of HRV (ms2; 5.3±0.8 pre-exercise MS versus 4.8±1.0 baseline value; P=0.023 was also observed, showing a significant change from baseline to MS before RE, but not after RE sessions. These results may be related to a lessened RE-mediated cardiac sympathetic activity during MS. Conclusion: RE is an effective tool to reduce BP reactivity to MS, which could therefore be associated with an acute reduction in cardiovascular risk. This

  7. Exercise is good for your blood pressure: effects of endurance training and resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagard, R H

    2006-09-01

    1. Although several epidemiological studies have not observed significant independent relationships between physical activity or fitness and blood pressure, others have concluded that blood pressure is lower in individuals who are more fit or active. However, longitudinal intervention studies are more appropriate for assessing the effects of physical activity on blood pressure. 2. Previously, we have performed meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials involving dynamic aerobic endurance training or resistance training. Inclusion criteria were: random allocation to intervention and control; physical training as the sole intervention; inclusion of healthy sedentary normotensive and/or hypertensive adults; intervention duration of at least 4 weeks; availability of systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure; and publication in a peer-reviewed journal up to December 2003. 3. The meta-analysis on endurance training involved 72 trials and 105 study groups. After weighting for the number of trained participants, training induced significant net reductions of resting and day time ambulatory blood pressure of 3.0/2.4 mmHg (P hypertensive study groups (-6.9/-4.9) than in the others (-1.9/-1.6; P training has been less well studied. A meta-analysis of nine randomized controlled trials (12 study groups) on mostly dynamic resistance training revealed a weighted net reduction of diastolic blood pressure of 3.5 mmHg (P endurance training decreases blood pressure through a reduction of systemic vascular resistance, in which the sympathetic nervous system and the renin-angiotensin system appear to be involved, and favourably affects concomitant cardiovascular risk factors. In addition, the few available data suggest that resistance training is able to reduce blood pressure.

  8. Exercise training for blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, Veronique A; Smart, Neil A

    2013-02-01

    We conducted meta-analyses examining the effects of endurance, dynamic resistance, combined endurance and resistance training, and isometric resistance training on resting blood pressure (BP) in adults. The aims were to quantify and compare BP changes for each training modality and identify patient subgroups exhibiting the largest BP changes. Randomized controlled trials lasting ≥4 weeks investigating the effects of exercise on BP in healthy adults (age ≥18 years) and published in a peer-reviewed journal up to February 2012 were included. Random effects models were used for analyses, with data reported as weighted means and 95% confidence interval. We included 93 trials, involving 105 endurance, 29 dynamic resistance, 14 combined, and 5 isometric resistance groups, totaling 5223 participants (3401 exercise and 1822 control). Systolic BP (SBP) was reduced after endurance (-3.5 mm Hg [confidence limits -4.6 to -2.3]), dynamic resistance (-1.8 mm Hg [-3.7 to -0.011]), and isometric resistance (-10.9 mm Hg [-14.5 to -7.4]) but not after combined training. Reductions in diastolic BP (DBP) were observed after endurance (-2.5 mm Hg [-3.2 to -1.7]), dynamic resistance (-3.2 mm Hg [-4.5 to -2.0]), isometric resistance (-6.2 mm Hg [-10.3 to -2.0]), and combined (-2.2 mm Hg [-3.9 to -0.48]) training. BP reductions after endurance training were greater (Phypertensive subjects (-8.3 [-10.7 to -6.0]/-5.2 [-6.8 to -3.4] mm Hg) than in 50 groups of prehypertensive subjects (-2.1 [-3.3 to -0.83]/-1.7 [-2.7 to -0.68]) and 29 groups of subjects with normal BP levels (-0.75 [-2.2 to +0.69]/-1.1 [-2.2 to -0.068]). BP reductions after dynamic resistance training were largest for prehypertensive participants (-4.0 [-7.4 to -0.5]/-3.8 [-5.7 to -1.9] mm Hg) compared with patients with hypertension or normal BP. Endurance, dynamic resistance, and isometric resistance training lower SBP and DBP, whereas combined training lowers only DBP. Data from a small number of isometric resistance

  9. Blood Pressure Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pressure monitors may have some limitations. Tracking your blood pressure readings It can be helpful in diagnosing or ... more Stage 2 high blood pressure (hypertension) Elevated blood pressure and stages 1 and 2 high blood pressure ( ...

  10. Low Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a problem. Sometimes blood pressure that is too low can also cause problems. Blood pressure is the ... reading is 90/60 or lower, you have low blood pressure. Some people have low blood pressure ...

  11. Low Blood Pressure (Hypotension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lowest at night and rises sharply on waking. Blood pressure: How low can you go? What's considered low ... low blood pressure. Medications that can cause low blood pressure Some medications can cause low blood pressure, including: ...

  12. Abnormal albuminuria and blood pressure rise in incipient diabetic nephropathy induced by exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Cramer

    1984-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of light to moderate dynamic work (450 kpm/min followed by 600 kpm/min during 20 min each) on the blood pressure and renal protein handling in insulin-dependent diabetic patients with incipient nephropathy (D3) (elevated baseline albumin excretion...

  13. Exercise Training for Blood Pressure: A Systematic Review and Meta‐analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, Veronique A.; Smart, Neil A.

    2013-01-01

    Background We conducted meta‐analyses examining the effects of endurance, dynamic resistance, combined endurance and resistance training, and isometric resistance training on resting blood pressure (BP) in adults. The aims were to quantify and compare BP changes for each training modality and identify patient subgroups exhibiting the largest BP changes. Methods and Results Randomized controlled trials lasting ≥4 weeks investigating the effects of exercise on BP in healthy adults (age ≥18 years) and published in a peer‐reviewed journal up to February 2012 were included. Random effects models were used for analyses, with data reported as weighted means and 95% confidence interval. We included 93 trials, involving 105 endurance, 29 dynamic resistance, 14 combined, and 5 isometric resistance groups, totaling 5223 participants (3401 exercise and 1822 control). Systolic BP (SBP) was reduced after endurance (−3.5 mm Hg [confidence limits −4.6 to −2.3]), dynamic resistance (−1.8 mm Hg [−3.7 to −0.011]), and isometric resistance (−10.9 mm Hg [−14.5 to −7.4]) but not after combined training. Reductions in diastolic BP (DBP) were observed after endurance (−2.5 mm Hg [−3.2 to −1.7]), dynamic resistance (−3.2 mm Hg [−4.5 to −2.0]), isometric resistance (−6.2 mm Hg [−10.3 to −2.0]), and combined (−2.2 mm Hg [−3.9 to −0.48]) training. BP reductions after endurance training were greater (Phypertensive subjects (−8.3 [−10.7 to −6.0]/−5.2 [−6.8 to −3.4] mm Hg) than in 50 groups of prehypertensive subjects (−2.1 [−3.3 to −0.83]/−1.7 [−2.7 to −0.68]) and 29 groups of subjects with normal BP levels (−0.75 [−2.2 to +0.69]/−1.1 [−2.2 to −0.068]). BP reductions after dynamic resistance training were largest for prehypertensive participants (−4.0 [−7.4 to −0.5]/−3.8 [−5.7 to −1.9] mm Hg) compared with patients with hypertension or normal BP. Conclusion Endurance, dynamic resistance, and

  14. Effect of altered arterial perfusion pressure on vascular conductance and muscle blood flow dynamic response during exercise in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, Rodrigo; Hughson, Richard L

    2013-03-01

    Changes in vascular conductance (VC) are required to counter changes in muscle perfusion pressure (MPP) to maintain muscle blood flow (MBF) during exercise. We investigated the recruitment of VC as a function of peak VC measured in three body positions at two different work rates to test the hypothesis that adaptations in VC compensated changes in MPP at low-power output (LPO), but not at high-power output (HPO). Eleven healthy volunteers exercised at LPO and HPO (repeated plantar flexion contractions at 20-30% maximal voluntary contraction, respectively) in horizontal (HOR), 35° head-down tilt (HDT), and 45° head-up tilt (HUT). Muscle blood flow velocity and popliteal diameter were measured by ultrasound to determine MBF, and VC was estimated by dividing MBF flow by MPP. Peak VC was unaffected by body position. The rates of increase in MBF and VC were significantly faster in HUT and slower in HDT than HOR, and rates were faster in LPO than HPO. During LPO exercise, the increase in, and steady-state values of, MBF were less for HUT and HDT than HOR; the increase in VC was less in HUT than HOR and HDT. During HPO exercise, MBF in the HDT was reduced compared with HOR and HUT, even though VC reached 92% VC peak, which was greater than HOR, which was, in turn, greater than HUT. Reduced MBF during HPO HDT exercise had the functional consequence of a significant increase in muscle electromyographic index, revealing the effects of MPP on O2 delivery during exercise.

  15. Combined resistance and endurance exercise training improves arterial stiffness, blood pressure, and muscle strength in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Arturo; Park, Song Y; Seo, Dae Y; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Marcos A; Baek, Yeong H

    2011-09-01

    Menopause is associated with increased arterial stiffness and reduced muscle strength. Combined resistance (RE) and endurance (EE) exercise training can decrease brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), an index of arterial stiffness, in young men. We tested the hypothesis that combined circuit RE and EE training would improve baPWV, blood pressure (BP), and muscle strength in postmenopausal women. Twenty-four postmenopausal women (age 47-68 y) were randomly assigned to a "no exercise" control (n = 12) or to combined exercise training (EX; n = 12) group. The EX group performed concurrent circuit RE training followed by EE training at 60% of the predicted maximal heart rate (HR) 3 days per week. Brachial systolic BP, diastolic BP, mean arterial pressure, baPWV, HR, and dynamic and isometric muscle strength were measured before and after the 12-week study. Mean ± SE baPWV (-0.8 ± 0.2 meters/s), systolic BP (-6.0 ± 1.9 mm Hg), diastolic BP (-4.8 ± 1.7 mm Hg), HR (-4.0 ± 1.0 beats/min), and mean arterial pressure (-5.1 ± 1.6 mm Hg) decreased (P hypertension and frailty in postmenopausal women.

  16. The Effects of a 10-Week Water Aerobic Exercise on the Resting Blood Pressure in Patients with Essential Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Farahani, Ali Vasheghani; Mansournia, Mohammad-Ali; Asheri, Hossein; Fotouhi, Akbar; Yunesian, Masud; Jamali, Mohsen; Ziaee, Vahid

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effects of a 10-week water aerobic exercise on the resting blood pressure in patients with stage 1 or 2 hypertension referring to Tehran University Clinics. Methods Forty men with stage 1 or 2 essential hypertension were assigned to two groups of intervention [n = 12; aged 48.33±10.74 years (mean±SD)] and control [n = 28; aged 46.96±11.58 years (mean±SD)]. Subjects in the intervention group participated ...

  17. Hemodynamic mechanisms of the attenuated blood pressure response to mental stress after a single bout of maximal dynamic exercise in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.J. Neves

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available To determine the hemodynamic mechanisms responsible for the attenuated blood pressure response to mental stress after exercise, 26 healthy sedentary individuals (age 29 ± 8 years underwent the Stroop color-word test before and 60 min after a bout of maximal dynamic exercise on a treadmill. A subgroup (N = 11 underwent a time-control experiment without exercise. Blood pressure was continuously and noninvasively recorded by infrared finger photoplethysmography. Stroke volume was derived from pressure signals, and cardiac output and peripheral vascular resistance were calculated. Perceived mental stress scores were comparable between mental stress tests both in the exercise (P = 0.96 and control (P = 0.24 experiments. After exercise, the blood pressure response to mental stress was attenuated (pre: 10 ± 13 vs post: 6 ± 7 mmHg; P 0.05. In conclusion, a single bout of maximal dynamic exercise attenuates the blood pressure response to mental stress in healthy subjects, along with lower stroke volume and cardiac output, denoting an acute modulatory action of exercise on the central hemodynamic response to mental stress.

  18. Hemodynamic variables during exercise in childhood and resting systolic blood pressure levels 6 years later in adolescence: the European Youth Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Anders; Andresen, Brage Storstein; Møller, N C

    2011-01-01

    of Danish children followed longitudinally for 6 years. The study comprised 226 children randomly sampled at age 9, who had their blood pressure and HR measured during ergometer exercise to exhaustion and was reassessed in adolescence. SBP and RPP during exercise in stage two of the test were positively......The aim of this study was to analyze whether systolic blood pressure (SBP), heart rate (HR) and rate pressure product (RPP) during exercise in childhood can predict resting SBP levels in adolescence independent of resting SBP and conventional cardiovascular risk factors. We studied this in a sample...... remained significant (P=0.059 and P=0.012, respectively). No significant independent associations were observed for HR during exercise, but associations were in the same direction. Our results supports that measuring SBP and RPP, during a standard acute ergometer exercise test in children, improves...

  19. Absence of resting cardiovascular dysfunction in middle-aged endurance-trained athletes with exaggerated exercise blood pressure responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Katharine D; Sless, Ryan T; Notarius, Catherine F; Thomas, Scott G; Goodman, Jack M

    2017-08-01

    Untrained individuals with exaggerated blood pressure (EBP) responses to graded exercise testing are characterized as having resting dysfunction of the sympathetic and cardiovascular systems. The purpose of this study was to determine the resting cardiovascular state of endurance-trained individuals with EBP through a comparison of normotensive athletes with and without EBP. EBP was defined as a maximal systolic blood pressure (SBP) at least 190 mmHg and at least 210 mmHg for women and men respectively, in response to a graded exercise test. Twenty-two life-long endurance-trained athletes (56 ± 5 years, 16 men) with EBP (EBP+) and 11 age and sex-matched athletes (55 ± 5 years, eight men) without EBP (EBP-) participated in the study. Sympathetic reactivity was assessed using BP responses to a cold pressor test, isometric handgrip exercise, and postexercise muscle ischemia. Resting left ventricular structure and function was assessed using two-dimensional echocardiography, whereas central arterial stiffness was assessed using carotid-to-femoral pulse wave velocity. Calf vascular conductance was measured at rest and peak postexercise using strain-gauge plethysmography. All sympathetic reactivity, left ventricular, and arterial stiffness indices were similar between groups. There was no between-group difference in resting vascular conductance, whereas peak vascular conductance was higher in EBP+ relative to EBP- (1.81 ± 0.65 vs. 1.45 ± 0.32 ml/100 ml/min/mmHg, P < 0.05). Findings from this study suggest that athletes with EBP do not display the resting cardiovascular state typically observed in untrained individuals with EBP. This response in athletes, therefore, is likely a compensatory mechanism to satisfy peripheral blood-flow demands rather than indicative of latent dysfunction.

  20. Acute sodium bicarbonate loading has negligible effects on resting and exercise blood pressure but causes gastrointestinal distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahle, Laura E; Kelly, Patrick V; Eliot, Kathrin A; Weiss, Edward P

    2013-06-01

    Oral ingestion of sodium bicarbonate (bicarbonate loading) has acute ergogenic effects on short-duration, high-intensity exercise. Because sodium bicarbonate is 27% sodium, ergogenic doses (ie, 300 mg∙kg⁻¹) result in sodium intakes well above the Dietary Reference Intakes upper limit of 2300 mg/day. Therefore, it is conceivable that bicarbonate loading could have hypertensive effects. Therefore, we performed a double-blind crossover trial to evaluate the hypothesis that bicarbonate loading increases resting and exercise blood pressure (BP). A secondary hypothesis was that bicarbonate loading causes gastrointestinal distress. Eleven endurance-trained men and women (exercise frequency, 4.6 ± 0.4 sessions/wk; duration, 65 ± 6 min/session) underwent testing on two occasions in random sequence: once after bicarbonate loading (300 mg∙kg⁻¹) and once after placebo ingestion. BP and heart rate were measured before bicarbonate or placebo consumption, 30 minutes after consumption, during 20 min of steady state submaximal cycling exercise, and during recovery. Bicarbonate loading did not affect systolic BP during rest, exercise, or recovery (P = .38 for main treatment effect). However, it resulted in modestly higher diastolic BP (main treatment effect, +3.3 ± 1.1 mmHg, P = .01) and higher heart rate (main treatment effect, +10.1 ± 2.4 beats per minute, P = .002). Global ratings of gastrointestinal distress severity (0-10 scale) were greater after bicarbonate ingestion (5.1 ± 0.5 vs 0.5 ± 0.2, P bicarbonate loading. In conclusion, although a single, ergogenic dose of sodium bicarbonate does not appear to have acute, clinically important effects on resting or exercise BP, it does cause substantial gastrointestinal distress. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Dietary calcium intake and Renin Angiotensin System polymorphisms alter the blood pressure response to aerobic exercise: a randomized control design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsongalis Gregory J

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary calcium intake and the renin angiotensin system (RAS regulate blood pressure (BP by modulating calcium homeostasis. Despite similar BP regulatory effects, the influence of dietary calcium intake alone and combined with RAS polymorphisms on the BP response following acute aerobic exercise (i.e., postexercise hypotension has not been studied. Thus, we examined the effect of dietary calcium intake and selected RAS polymorphisms on postexercise hypotension. Methods Subjects were men (n = 50, 43.8 ± 1.3 yr with high BP (145.3 ± 1.5/85.9 ± 1.1 mm Hg. They completed three experiments: non-exercise control and two cycle bouts at 40% and 60% of maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max. Subjects provided 3 d food records on five protocol-specific occasions. Dietary calcium intake was averaged and categorized as low (1R A/C were analyzed with molecular methods. Genotypes were reduced from three to two: ACE II/ID and ACE DD; or AT1R AA and AT1R CC/AC. Repeated measure ANCOVA tested if BP differed among experiments, dietary calcium intake level and RAS polymorphisms. Results Systolic BP (SBP decreased 6 mm Hg after 40% and 60% VO2max compared to non-exercise control for 10 h with LowCa (p 2max versus non-exercise control for 10 h among ACE II/ID (6 mm Hg and AT1R AA (8 mm Hg; and by 8 mm Hg after 40% VO2max among ACE DD and AT1R CC/CA (p 2max compared to non-exercise control for 10 h (p 2max (p ≥ 0.05. Conclusion SBP decreased after exercise compared to non-exercise control among men with low but not high dietary calcium intake. Dietary calcium intake interacted with the ACE I/D and AT1R A/C polymorphisms to further modulate postexercise hypotension. Interactions among dietary calcium intake, exercise intensity and RAS polymorphisms account for some of the variability in the BP response to exercise.

  2. High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... normal blood pressure 140/90 or higher is high blood pressure Between 120 and 139 for the top number, ... prehypertension. Prehypertension means you may end up with high blood pressure, unless you take steps to prevent it. High ...

  3. High Blood Pressure Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stroke Heart Disease Cholesterol Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN High Blood Pressure Facts Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... Top of Page CDC Fact Sheets Related to High Blood Pressure High Blood Pressure Pulmonary Hypertension Heart Disease Signs ...

  4. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Nearly 1 in 3 American adults has ... weight. How Will I Know if I Have High Blood Pressure? High blood pressure is a silent problem — you ...

  5. Caffeine: How Does It Affect Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... naturally increase your blood pressure, such as exercise, weightlifting or hard physical labor. To see if caffeine ... blood pressure and stress indices in healthy individuals. Nutrition Journal. 2016;15:26. Cano-Marquina A, et ...

  6. Exaggerated Exercise Blood Pressure Response During Treadmill Testing as a Predictor of Future Hypertension in Men: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jae, Sae Young; Franklin, Barry A; Choo, Jina; Choi, Yoon-Ho; Fernhall, Bo

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate receiver operating characteristic curves to identify optimal cutoff values of exercise systolic blood pressure (SBP) using both peak SBP and relative SBP (peak SBP minus resting SBP) as predictors of future hypertension (HTN). Participants were 3,742 healthy normotensive men who underwent symptom-limited treadmill testing at baseline. Incident HTN was defined as SBP/diastolic blood pressure greater than 140/90 mm Hg and/or diagnosed HTN by a physician. During an average 5-year follow-up, 364 (9.7%) new cases of HTN were observed. The most discriminatory cutoff values for peak SBP and relative SBP for predicting incident HTN were 181 mm Hg (areas under the curve (AUC) = 0.644, sensitivity = 54%, and specificity = 69%) and 52 mm Hg (AUC = 0.549, sensitivity = 64.3%, and specificity = 44.6%), respectively. Participants with peak SBP greater than 181 mm Hg and relative SBP greater than 52 mm Hg had 1.54-fold (95% CI: 1.23-1.93) and 1.44-fold (95% CI: 1.16-1.80) risks of developing HTN after adjusting for potential confounding variables. When these 2 variables were entered simultaneously into the Cox proportional hazards regression model with adjustment for potential confounding variables, only peak SBP (relative risk: 1.39, 95% CI: 1.02-1.89) was a predictor of the development of HTN. The most accurate discriminators for peak and relative SBP during treadmill exercise testing to predict incident HTN were greater than 181 and 52 mm Hg, respectively, in normotensive men. A peak SBP greater than 181 mm Hg during treadmill exercise testing may provide a useful predictor for the development of HTN in clinical practice. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2015. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Effects of exercise during the holiday season on changes in body weight, body composition and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, J L; Krishnan, S; Stoner, M A; Goktas, Z; Cooper, J A

    2013-09-01

    Identifying critical periods of greater weight gain could provide useful information to combat the obesity epidemic. We tested whether body weight (BW), body fat percentage (BF%) and blood pressure (BP) changed during the holiday season (thanksgiving to new year's day) and the impact of regular exercise on these parameters. A total of 48 males and 100 females (age 18-65 years) with a mean body mass index of 25.1±0.5 kg/m(2) were evaluated in mid-November (visit 1) and early January (visit 2; across 57±0.5 days). Anthropometric data, BF%, BP and self-reported exercise were recorded. Participants showed significant increases in BW (0.78±0.1 kg, Pholiday weight gain and was not a significant predictor for changes in BW or BF%. Data are reported as means±s.e. Our participants gained an average of 0.78 kg, which indicates the majority of average annual weight gain (1 kg/y) reported by others may occur during the holiday season. Obese participants are most at risk as they showed the greatest increases in BF%. Initial BW, not exercise, significantly predicted BF% and BW gain.

  8. [Associations of the work duration, sleep duration and number of holidays with an exaggerated blood pressure response during an exercise stress test among workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michishita, Ryoma; Ohta, Masanori; Ikeda, Masaharu; Jiang, Ying; Yamato, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    It has been reported that an exaggerated systolic blood pressure (ESBP) response during exercise, even if resting blood pressure is normal, is associated with an increased risk of future hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study was designed to investigate the relationships of work duration, sleep duration and number of holidays with blood pressure response during an exercise stress test among normotensive workers. The subjects were 362 normotensive workers (79 males and 283 females; age, 49.1 years). A multi-stage graded submaximal exercise stress test was performed on each subject using an electric bicycle ergometer. The workload was increased every 3 minutes, and blood pressure was measured at rest and during the last 1 minute of each stage. In this study, an ESBP response during exercise was defined according to the criteria of the Framingham Study (peak systolic blood pressure ≥210 mmHg in males, or ≥190 mmHg in females). Working environments, work duration, sleep duration, number of holidays, and physical activity during commuting and work, and leisure time exercise duration were evaluated using a questionnaire. An ESBP response during exercise was observed in 94 (26.0%) workers. The adjusted odds ratio for the prevalence of an ESBP response during exercise was found to be significantly higher with an increase in work duration, decreases in sleep duration and number of holidays (pwork duration with lowest sleep duration and number of holidays groups had significantly higher adjusted odds ratio for the prevalence of an ESBP response during exercise than the lowest work duration with highest sleep duration and number of holidays groups (pwork duration, short sleep duration and small number of holidays.

  9. Weightlifting: Bad for Your Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... individuals. American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology. 2016;311:H1024. Carlson DJ, et al. Isometric exercise training for blood pressure management: A systematic review ...

  10. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) KidsHealth / For Teens / Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) What's ... rest temperature diet emotions posture medicines Why Is High Blood Pressure Bad? High blood pressure means a person's heart ...

  11. Effects of supervised exercise on lipid profiles and blood pressure control in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashino, Yasuaki; Jackson, Jeffrey L; Fukumori, Norio; Nakamura, Fumiaki; Fukuhara, Shunichi

    2012-12-01

    Our study's purpose was to perform a systematic review to assess the effect of supervised exercise interventions on lipid profiles and blood pressure control. We searched electronic databases and selected studies that evaluated the effect of supervised exercise intervention on cardiovascular risk factors in adult people with type 2 diabetes. We used random effect models to derive weighted mean differences of exercise on lipid profiles and blood pressure control. Forty-two RCTs (2808 subjects) met inclusion criteria and are included in our meta-analysis. Structured exercise was associated with a change in systolic blood pressure (SBP) of -2.42 mmHg (95% CI, -4.39 to -0.45 mmHg), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of -2.23 mmHg (95% CI, -3.21 to -1.25 mmHg), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) of 0.04 mmol/L (95% CI, 0.02-0.07 mmol/L), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) of -0.16 mmol/L (95% CI, -0.30 to -0.01 mmol/L). Heterogeneity was partially explained by age, dietary co-intervention and the duration and intensity of the exercise. Supervised exercise is effective in improving blood pressure control, lowering LDL-C, and elevating HDL-C levels in people with diabetes. Physicians should recommend exercise for their adult patients with diabetes who can safely do so. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Blood pressure changes following aerobic exercise in Caucasian and Chinese descendants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, P; Yan, H; Ranadive, S M; Lane, A D; Kappus, R M; Bunsawat, K; Baynard, T; Li, S; Fernhall, B

    2015-03-01

    Acute aerobic exercise produces post-exercise hypotension (PEH). Chinese populations have lower prevalence of cardiovascular disease compared to Caucasians. PEH may be associated cardiovascular disease through its influence on hypertension. The purpose of this study was to compare PEH between Caucasian and Chinese subjects following acute aerobic exercise. 62 (30 Caucasian and 32 Chinese, 50% male) subjects underwent measurement of peripheral and central hemodynamics as well as arterial and cardiac evaluations, 30 min and 60 min after 45 min of treadmill exercise. Caucasians exhibited significantly higher baseline BP than the Chinese. While the reduction in brachial artery systolic BP was greater in Caucasian than in the Chinese, there was no difference in changes in carotid systolic BP between the groups. The increase in cardiac output and heart rate was greater in the Chinese than Caucasians, but total peripheral resistance and leg pulse wave velocity decreased by a similar magnitude in the Chinese and Caucasian subjects. We conclude that acute aerobic exercise produces a greater magnitude of PEH in peripheral systolic BP in Caucasian compared to Chinese subjects. The different magnitude in PEH was caused by the greater increase in cardiac output mediated by heart rate, with no change in stroke volume. It is possible that initial BP differences between races influenced the findings. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Genomewide linkage scan of resting blood pressure: HERITAGE Family Study. Health, Risk Factors, Exercise Training, and Genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Treva; Rankinen, Tuomo; Chagnon, Yvon C; Province, Michael A; Pérusse, Louis; Leon, Arthur S; Skinner, James S; Wilmore, Jack H; Bouchard, Claude; Rao, Dabeeru C

    2002-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to search for genomic regions influencing resting systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure (BP) in sedentary families (baseline), and for resting BP responses (changes) resulting from a 20-week exercise training intervention (post-training-baseline) in the Health, Risk Factors, Exercise Training, and Genetics (HERITAGE) Family Study. A genome-wide scan was conducted on 317 black individuals from 114 families and 519 white individuals from 99 families using a multipoint variance-components linkage model and a panel of 509 markers. Promising results were primarily, but not exclusively, found in the black families. Linkage evidence (PHERITAGE data, in conjunction with results from previous genomewide scans, provide a basis for planning future investigations. The major areas warranting further study involve fine mapping to narrow down 3 regions on 2q, 3p, and 12q that may contain "novel" hypertension genes, additional typing of some biological candidate genes to determine whether they are the sources of these and other signals, multilocus investigations to understand how and to what extent some of these candidates may interact, and multivariate studies to characterize any pleiotropy.

  14. Diurnal blood pressure changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asayama, Kei; Satoh, Michihiro; Kikuya, Masahiro

    2018-05-23

    The definition of diurnal blood pressure changes varies widely, which can be confusing. Short-term blood pressure variability during a 24-h period and the dipping status of diurnal blood pressure can be captured by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, and these metrics are reported to have prognostic significance for cardiovascular complications. Morning blood pressure surge also indicates this risk, but its effect may be limited to populations with specific conditions. Meanwhile, the combined use of conventional office blood pressure and out-of-office blood pressure allows us to identify people with white-coat and masked hypertension. Current home devices can measure nocturnal blood pressure during sleep more conveniently than ambulatory monitoring; however, we should pay attention to blood pressure measurement conditions regardless of whether they are in a home, ambulatory, or office setting. The relatively poor reproducibility of diurnal blood pressure changes, including the nocturnal fall of blood pressure, is another underestimated issue to be addressed. Although information on diurnal blood pressure changes is expected to be used more effectively in the future, we should also keep in mind that blood pressure levels have remained central to the primary and secondary prevention of blood pressure-related cardiovascular diseases in clinical practice.

  15. Syncope during exercise, documented with continuous blood pressure monitoring during ergometer testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krediet, C. T. Paul; Wilde, Arthur A. M.; Halliwill, John R.; Wieling, Wouter

    2005-01-01

    A 27-year old female had one episode of transient loss of consciousness and several of nearunconsciousness during strenuous exercise and sexual activity. Episodes started with abdominal discomfort or nausea and light headedness. Unconsciousness never exceeded one minute. When trying to stand up, she

  16. Effects of Aerobic Exercise Training and Irbesartan on Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Variability in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Marquis

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The present pilot study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of an aerobic exercise training (AET program alone or combined with an antihypertensive agent (irbesartan to reduce blood pressure (BP and enhance heart rate variability (HRV in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients.

  17. Blood Pressure Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    High blood pressure, also called hypertension, usually has no symptoms. But it can cause serious problems such as stroke, heart ... kidney failure. If you cannot control your high blood pressure through lifestyle changes such as losing weight and ...

  18. High blood pressure - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007696.htm High blood pressure - children To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. High blood pressure (hypertension) is an increase in the force of ...

  19. Preventing High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Heart Disease Cholesterol Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Preventing High Blood Pressure: Healthy Living Habits Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... meal and snack options can help you avoid high blood pressure and its complications. Be sure to eat plenty ...

  20. High blood pressure - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007329.htm High blood pressure - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. High blood pressure (hypertension) is an increase in the force of ...

  1. High blood pressure medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007484.htm High blood pressure medicines To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Treating high blood pressure will help prevent problems such as heart disease, ...

  2. Evaluation of aortic elastic properties in patients with exaggerated systolic blood pressure response to exercise testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilicaslan, Baris; Eren, Nihan Kahya; Nazlı, Cem

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the aortic elastic properties in subjects with hypertensive response to exercise stress test (HRE). Sixty-six patients were divided into two groups (33 patients in HRE group and 33 patients in normotensive group). Baseline demographic characteristics were similar. The mean aortic stiffness index (ASI) was significantly higher (p=0.001) whereas aortic distensibility (AD) was significantly lower (p=0.029) in patients suggesting HRE. The C-reactive protein levels of patients with HRE was higher in the HRE group (p=0.03). AD was significantly correlated with age (r=-0.406, pHRE.

  3. Polymorphisms in ACE and ACTN3 Genes and Blood Pressure Response to Acute Exercise in Elite Male Athletes from Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durmic, Tijana S; Zdravkovic, Marija D; Djelic, Marina N; Gavrilovic, Tamara D; Djordjevic Saranovic, Slavica A; Plavsic, Jadranka N; Mirkovic, Sanja V; Batinic, Djordje V; Antic, Milena N; Mihailovic, Zoran R; Atanasijevic, Nikola G; Mileusnic, Milan J; Stojkovic, Oliver V

    2017-12-01

    Physiological adaptations to various types of prolonged and intensive physical activity, as seen in elite athletes from different sports, include changes in blood pressure (BP) response to acute exercise. Also, functional polymorphisms of the angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) and alfa-actinin-3 (ACTN3) genes are shown to be associated with BP parameters changes, both in athletes and sedentary population. In this study, an Alu insertion (I)/deletion (D) polymorphism in ACE gene, as well as nonsense mutation in the gene encoding ACTN3 have been scored in 107 elite Serbian athletes classified according to their sporting discipline to power/sprint (short distance runners/swimmers), endurance (rowers, footballers, middle-distance swimmers) or mixed sports (water polo, handball, volleyball players). Presence of nonfunctional allele in ACTN3 is associated with significantly increased maximal systolic BP (SBPmax, p = 0.04). Athletes with Alu insertion in ACE had significantly (p = 0.006) larger decline of systolic BP after 3 minutes of recovery (SBPR3), calculated as the percentage of maximal SBP response during exercise stress testing. Concomitant presence of non-functional variant in ACTN3 gene decreased this beneficiary effect of ACE mutation on SBPR3. Long term enrollment in power/sprint sports significantly increased resting diastolic BP (DBPrest: 74 mmHg) and SBPmax (197 mmHg) and improved SBPR3 (74.8%) compared to enrolment in endurance (72 mmHg; 178 mmHg; 81.1%) and mixed sports (69 mmHg; 185 mmHg; 80.0%). Lack of the effect of genotype by sport interaction on BP parameters suggests that the long-term effects of different disciplines on BP are not mediated by these two genes.

  4. Cardiac index and pulmonary arterial blood pressure during exercise in cases of suspected latent heart failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agapov, A.A.; Berzak, N.V.; Vladimirov, S.S.

    1987-01-01

    The results studying hemodynamics during maximum physical load (veloeriometry when sitting) for 24 patients examined to avoid heart failure are presented. 19 patients were subjected to coronaroangiography and contrast ventriculography, and 12 patients - to myocardium scintigraphy with 99m Tc-pyrophosphate. It is shown that registration of diaslotic pressure in a pulmonary artery and in a cardiac index permits to diagnose failure in the miocardic function of patients with different heart diseases

  5. Blood pressure and cardiac autonomic modulation at rest, during exercise and recovery time in the young overweight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Alves de Araújo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to assess the blood pressure (BP, cardiac autonomic modulation at rest, in physical exercise and in the recovery in untrained eutrophic (E and overweight (O youth. The body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, systolic BP-SBP (E: 109.80 ± 10.05; O: 121.85 ± 6.98 mmHg and diastolic BP - DBP (E: 65.90 ± 7.28; O: 73.14 ± 12.22 mmHg were higher in overweight and the heart rate recovery (%HRR was lower as compared with E volunteers. The BMI was associated with SBP (r= 0.54, DBP (r= 0.65, load on the heart rate variability threshold - HRVT (r= -0.46, %HRR 2' (r= -0.48 and %HRR 5' (r= -0.48, and WC was associated with SBP (r= 0.54, DBP (r= 0.64 and HRR 2' (r= -0.49. The %HRR was associated to SBP, DBP and HRVT. In summary, the anthropometric variables, BP and cardiac autonomic modulation in the recovery are altered in overweight youth.

  6. Exercise training program based on minimum weekly frequencies: effects on blood pressure and physical fitness in elderly hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Wilson M De; Souza, Pamella R M; Pinheiro, Mônica H N P; Irigoyen, Maria C; Medeiros, Alessandra; Koike, Marcia K

    2012-04-01

    Exercise training (ET) can reduce blood pressure (BP) and prevent functional disability. However, the effects of low volumes of training have been poorly studied, especially in elderly hypertensive patients. To investigate the effects of a multi-component ET program (aerobic training, strength, flexibility, and balance) on BP, physical fitness, and functional ability of elderly hypertensive patients. Thirty-six elderly hypertensive patients with optimal clinical treatment underwent a multi-component ET program: two 60-minute sessions a week for 12 weeks at a Basic Health Unit. Compared to pre-training values, systolic and diastolic BP were reduced by 3.6% and 1.2%, respectively (ptest and elbow flexor test; ptest (unipedal stance test; ptest; ptest). Moreover, there was a reduction in the time required to perform two functional ability tests: "put on sock" and "sit down, stand up, and move around the house" (p<0.001). Lower volumes of ET improved BP, metabolic parameters, and physical fitness and reflected in the functional ability of elderly hypertensive patients. Trial Registration RBR-2xgjh3.

  7. Effects of short-term heated water-based exercise training on systemic blood pressure in patients with resistant hypertension: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Guilherme V; Cruz, Lais G B; Tavares, Aline C; Dorea, Egidio L; Fernandes-Silva, Miguel M; Bocchi, Edimar A

    2013-12-01

    High blood pressure (BP) increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases, and its control is a clinical challenge. Regular exercise lowers BP in patients with mild-to-moderate hypertension. No data are available on the effects of heated water-based exercise in hypertensive patients. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of heated water-based exercise on BP in patients with resistant hypertension. We tested the effects of 60-min heated water-based exercise training three times per week in 16 patients with resistant hypertension (age 55±6 years). The protocol included walking and callisthenic exercises. All patients underwent 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) before and after a 2-week exercise program in a heated pool. Systolic office BP was reduced from 162 to 144 mmHg (Pexercise training during 24-h ABPM, systolic BP decreased from 135 to 123 mmHg (P=0.02), diastolic BP decreased from 83 to 74 mmHg (P=0.001), daytime systolic BP decreased from 141 to 125 mmHg (P=0.02), diastolic BP decreased from 87 to 77 mmHg (P=0.009), night-time systolic BP decreased from 128 to 118 mmHg (P=0.06), and diastolic BP decreased from 77 to 69 mmHg (P=0.01). In addition, BP cardiovascular load was reduced significantly during the 24-h daytime and night-time period after the heated water-based exercise. Heated water-based exercise reduced office BP and 24-h daytime and night-time ABPM levels. These effects suggest that heated water-based exercise may have a potential as a new therapeutic approach to resistant hypertensive patients.

  8. Understanding Blood Pressure Readings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Understanding Blood Pressure Readings Updated:Jun 1,2018 What do your blood ... and Live Our Interactive Cardiovascular Library has detailed animations and illustrations to help you learn about conditions, ...

  9. High blood pressure - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pressure is found. This is called essential hypertension. High blood pressure that is caused by another medical condition or medicine you are taking is called secondary hypertension. Secondary hypertension may be due to: Chronic ...

  10. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other risk factors, like diabetes, you may need treatment. How does high blood pressure affect pregnant women? A few women will get ... HIV, Birth Control Heart Health for Women Pregnancy Menopause More Women's Health ... High Blood Pressure--Medicines to Help You Women and Diabetes Heart ...

  11. Blood pressure regulation in diabetic autonomic neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J

    1985-01-01

    Defective blood pressure responses to standing, exercise and epinephrine infusions have been demonstrated in diabetic patients with autonomic neuropathy. The circulatory mechanisms underlying blood pressure responses to exercise and standing up in these patients are well characterized: In both...... which may contribute to exercise hypotension in these patients. During hypoglycemia, blood pressure regulation seems intact in patients with autonomic neuropathy. This is probably due to release of substantial amounts of catecholamines during these experiments. During epinephrine infusions a substantial...... blood pressure fall ensues in patients with autonomic neuropathy, probably due to excessive muscular vasodilation. It is unresolved why blood pressure regulation is intact during hypoglycemia and severely impaired--at similar catecholamine concentrations--during epinephrine infusions....

  12. Evidence of major genes for exercise heart rate and blood pressure at baseline and in response to 20 weeks of endurance training: the HERITAGE family study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, P; Borecki, I B; Rankinen, T; Pérusse, L; Leon, A S; Skinner, J S; Wilmore, J H; Bouchard, C; Rao, D C

    2003-10-01

    Major gene effects on exercise heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) measured at 50 W and 80 % maximal oxygen uptake (VO (2)max) were assessed in 99 White families in the HERITAGE Family Study. Exercise HR and BP were measured both before and after 20 weeks of endurance training. The baseline phenotypes were adjusted for the effects of age and BMI, whereas the training responses (post-training minus baseline) were adjusted for the effects of age, BMI and the corresponding baseline values, within four sex-by-generation groups. Baseline exercise HR at 50 W was under the influence of a major recessive gene and a multifactorial component, which accounted for 30 % and 27 % of the variance, respectively. The training response was found to be under the influence of a major dominant gene, which accounted for 27 % of the variance. These significant major gene effects were independent of the effects of cigarette smoking, baseline VO (2)max, and the resting HR levels. No significant interactions were found between genotype and age, sex, or BMI. No major gene effect was found for exercise BP. Instead, we found the baseline exercise BP at 50 W and 80 % VO (2)max and the training response at 50 W were solely influenced by multifactorial effects, which accounted for about 50 %, 40 % and 20 % of the variance, respectively. No familial resemblance was found for training responses in exercise HR or BP at 80 % VO (2)max. Segregation analysis also was carried out for exercise HR in Whites pooled with a small sample of Blacks in HERITAGE. Similar major effects were found, but the transmission from parents to offspring did not follow Mendelian expectations, suggesting sample heterogeneity. In conclusion, submaximal exercise HR at baseline and in response to endurance training was influenced by putative major genes, with no evidence of interactions with sex, age or BMI, in contrast to a multifactorial etiology for exercise BP.

  13. Aerobic exercise interventions reduce blood pressure in patients after stroke or transient ischaemic attack: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Redgrave, Jessica; Shafizadeh, Mohsen; Majid, Arshad; Kilner, Karen; Ali, Ali N

    2018-05-09

    Secondary vascular risk reduction is critical to preventing recurrent stroke. We aimed to evaluate the effect of exercise interventions on vascular risk factors and recurrent ischaemic events after stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA). Intervention systematic review and meta-analysis. OVID MEDLINE, PubMed, The Cochrane Library, Web of Science, The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, TRIP Database, CINAHL, PsycINFO, SCOPUS, UK Clinical Trials Gateway and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure were searched from 1966 to October 2017. Randomised controlled trials evaluating aerobic or resistance exercise interventions on vascular risk factors and recurrent ischaemic events among patients with stroke or TIA, compared with control. Twenty studies (n=1031) were included. Exercise interventions resulted in significant reductions in systolic blood pressure (SBP) -4.30 mm Hg (95% CI -6.77 to -1.83) and diastolic blood pressure -2.58 mm Hg (95% CI -4.7 to -0.46) compared with control. Reduction in SBP was most pronounced among studies initiating exercise within 6 months of stroke or TIA (-8.46 mm Hg, 95% CI -12.18 to -4.75 vs -2.33 mm Hg, 95% CI -3.94 to -0.72), and in those incorporating an educational component (-7.81 mm Hg, 95% CI -14.34 to -1.28 vs -2.78 mm Hg, 95% CI -4.33 to -1.23). Exercise was also associated with reductions in total cholesterol (-0.27 mmol/L, 95% CI -0.54 to 0.00), but not fasting glucose or body mass index. One trial reported reductions in secondary vascular events with exercise, but was insufficiently powered. Exercise interventions can result in clinically meaningful blood pressure reductions, particularly if initiated early and alongside education. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Impaired baroreflex sensitivity, carotid stiffness, and exaggerated exercise blood pressure: a community-based analysis from the Paris Prospective Study III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharman, James E; Boutouyrie, Pierre; Perier, Marie-Cécile; Thomas, Frédérique; Guibout, Catherine; Khettab, Hakim; Pannier, Bruno; Laurent, Stéphane; Jouven, Xavier; Empana, Jean-Philippe

    2018-02-14

    People with exaggerated exercise blood pressure (BP) have adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Mechanisms are unknown but could be explained through impaired neural baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) and/or large artery stiffness. This study aimed to determine the associations of carotid BRS and carotid stiffness with exaggerated exercise BP. Blood pressure was recorded at rest and following an exercise step-test among 8976 adults aged 50 to 75 years from the Paris Prospective Study III. Resting carotid BRS (low frequency gain, from carotid distension rate, and heart rate) and stiffness were measured by high-precision echotracking. A systolic BP threshold of ≥ 150 mmHg defined exaggerated exercise BP and ≥140/90 mmHg defined resting hypertension (±antihypertensive treatment). Participants with exaggerated exercise BP had significantly lower BRS [median (Q1; Q3) 0.10 (0.06; 0.16) vs. 0.12 (0.08; 0.19) (ms2/mm) 2×108; P < 0.001] but higher stiffness [mean ± standard deviation (SD); 7.34 ± 1.37 vs. 6.76 ± 1.25 m/s; P < 0.001) compared to those with non-exaggerated exercise BP. However, only lower BRS (per 1SD decrement) was associated with exaggerated exercise BP among people without hypertension at rest {specifically among those with optimal BP; odds ratio (OR) 1.16 [95% confidence intervals (95% CI) 1.01; 1.33], P = 0.04 and high-normal BP; OR, 1.19 (95% CI 1.07; 1.32), P = 0.001} after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, smoking, alcohol, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, resting heart rate, and antihypertensive medications. Impaired BRS, but not carotid stiffness, is independently associated with exaggerated exercise BP even among those with well controlled resting BP. This indicates a potential pathway from depressed neural baroreflex function to abnormal exercise BP and clinical outcomes. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For

  15. High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... kidney disease, diabetes, or metabolic syndrome Read less Unhealthy lifestyle habits Unhealthy lifestyle habits can increase the risk of high blood pressure. These habits include: Unhealthy eating patterns, such as eating too much sodium ...

  16. High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors Diabetes High blood pressure Family history Obesity Race/ethnicity Full list of causes and risk factors ... give Give monthly Memorials and tributes Donate a car Donate gently used items Stock donation Workplace giving ...

  17. Cycling above rather than below lactate threshold is more effective for nitric oxide release and post-exercise blood pressure reduction in individuals with type-2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Yukio Asano

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study were to analyze and compare the effects of exercise performed in different intensities, above and below lactate threshold (LT on post-exercise blood pressure (BP and nitric oxide (NO responses in individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D. For this, 11 T2D underwent the following sessions: 1 control session; 2 20-min of moderate cycling (80% LT; and 3 20-min of high intensity cycling (120%LT on a cycle ergometer. Plasma NO and BP measurements were carried out at rest and at 15 and 45 min of post-sessions. When compared to rest, only the exercise session performed at 120%LT elicited an increase of NO (from 7.2 to 9.5 µM, p<0.05, as well as a decrease in systolic BP (from 126.6±7.9 to 118.7±3.9 mmHg, p<0.05 during the post-exercise period. In conclusion, the results suggest that NO release and post-exercise BP decrease are intensity-dependent for individuals with T2D.

  18. Continuous Blood Pressure Monitoring in Daily Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Guillaume; Shuzo, Masaki; Ushida, Hiroyuki; Hidaka, Keita; Yanagimoto, Shintaro; Imai, Yasushi; Kosaka, Akio; Delaunay, Jean-Jacques; Yamada, Ichiro

    Continuous monitoring of blood pressure in daily life could improve early detection of cardiovascular disorders, as well as promoting healthcare. Conventional ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) equipment can measure blood pressure at regular intervals for 24 hours, but is limited by long measuring time, low sampling rate, and constrained measuring posture. In this paper, we demonstrate a new method for continuous real-time measurement of blood pressure during daily activities. Our method is based on blood pressure estimation from pulse wave velocity (PWV) calculation, which formula we improved to take into account changes in the inner diameter of blood vessels. Blood pressure estimation results using our new method showed a greater precision of measured data during exercise, and a better accuracy than the conventional PWV method.

  19. The Effect of 4-week Isometric Handgrip Exercise on Changes of Flow Mediated Dilation and Blood Pressure in Females Suffering from Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mohazzab

    2015-10-01

    t-test (pretest-posttest design at significance level of p=0.05. Results: According to the study results, significant changes were observed in regard with FMD, systolic, and diastolic blood pressure (p= 0.001, p=0.006, and p= 0.001 respectively in the experimented group. Conclusion: The findings of the present study demonstrated that isometric handgrip exercise, producing a positive effect on the endothelial function, can potentially reverse the endothelial dysfunction in females suffering from hypertension.  

  20. Muscle Weakness Is Associated With an Increase of Left Ventricular Mass Through Excessive Blood Pressure Elevation During Exercise in Patients With Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamada, Yumi; Masuda, Takashi; Tanaka, Shinya; Akiyama, Ayako; Nakamura, Takeshi; Hamazaki, Nobuaki; Okubo, Michihito; Kobayashi, Naoyuki; Ako, Junya

    2017-08-03

    Autonomic imbalance in hypertension induces excessive blood pressure (BP) elevation during exercise, thereby increasing left ventricular mass (LVM). Although muscle weakness enhances autonomic imbalance by stimulating muscle sympathetic activity during exercise, it is unclear whether muscle weakness is associated with an increase of LVM in patients with hypertension. This study aimed to investigate the relationships between muscle weakness, BP elevation during exercise, and LVM in these patients. Eighty-six hypertensive patients aged 69 ± 8 years with controlled resting BP (ie, exercise test performed at moderate intensity (ΔNORA and ΔPWV, respectively). A difference between baseline and peak systolic BP during the exercise test was defined as BP elevation during exercise (ΔSBP). Relationships between muscle strength, ΔNORA, ΔPWV, ΔSBP, BNP, and LVMI were analyzed, and significant factors increasing LVM were identified using univariate and multivariate regression analyses. Muscle strength was negatively correlated with ΔNORA (r = -0.202, P = 0.048), ΔPWV (r = -0.328, P = 0.002), ΔSBP (r = -0.230, P = 0.033), BNP (r = -0.265, P = 0.014), and LVMI (r = -0.233, P = 0.031). LVMI was positively correlated with ΔPWV (r = 0.246, P = 0.023) and ΔSBP (r = 0.307, P = 0.004). Muscle strength was a significant independent factor associated with LVMI (β = -0.331, P = 0.010). Our findings suggest that muscle weakness is associated with an increase of LVM through excessive BP elevation during exercise in patients with hypertension.

  1. Pequi fruit (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.) pulp oil reduces exercise-induced inflammatory markers and blood pressure of male and female runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-Vilela, Ana L; Pereira, Luiz C S; Gonçalves, Carlos A; Grisolia, Cesar K

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory properties of pequi (Caryocar brasiliense) fruit oil and its effects on the postprandial lipidemia and arterial blood pressure of male and female athletes. These athletes were evaluated after races in the same environment and under the same type, intensity, and length of weekly training conditions, both before and after ingestion of 400 mg pequi oil capsules for 14 days. Pequi fruit contains several antioxidants, and its oil has been associated with anti-inflammatory properties in other pequi species. Because the oil of pequi is mostly composed of oleic and palmitic fatty acids, the oil may alter the ratio of triglyceride to cholesterol in postprandial lipidemia. Epidemiologic studies suggest that an increased intake of monounsaturated fatty acids (such as oleic acid) is inversely related to blood pressure. Thus, we hypothesize that pequi oil could reduce exercise-induced inflammation and blood pressure, and modulate postprandial lipidemia in runners. To test this hypothesis, arterial blood pressures were checked before races; blood samples were taken after the races and submitted for analysis of leukocytes and platelets analysis, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein values, and postprandial lipids. Pequi oil resulted in anti-inflammatory effects and reduced the total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein in the age group older than 45 years, mainly for men. The results showed a general trend for reduced arterial pressure, suggesting that pequi oil may have a hypotensive effect. However, this finding needs additional investigation. Thus, pequi oil, besides possessing many nutritional properties, may be a good candidate supplement for athletes.

  2. Effects of Tai Chi exercise on blood pressure and plasma levels of nitric oxide, carbon monoxide and hydrogen sulfide in real-world patients with essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiaogui; Zhang, Yi; Tao, Sai

    2015-01-01

    Objective was to investigate the effects of Tai Chi exercise on nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) levels, and blood pressure (BP) in patients with essential hypertension (EH). EH patients were assigned to the Tai Chi exercise group (HTC, n = 24), and hypertension group (HP, n = 16) by patients' willingness. Healthy volunteers matched for age and gender were recruited as control (NP, n = 16). HTC group performed Tai Chi (60 min/d, 6 d/week) for 12 weeks. Measurements (blood glucose, cholesterol, NO, CO, H2S and BP) were obtained at week 0, 6, and 12. SBP, MAP, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels decreased, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels increased by week 12 in the HTC group (all p exercise seems to have beneficial effects on BP and gaseous signaling molecules in EH patients. However, further investigation is required to understand the exact mechanisms underlying these observations, and to confirm these results in a larger cohort.

  3. Slow loaded breathing training improves blood pressure, lung capacity and arm exercise endurance for older people with treated and stable isolated systolic hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ublosakka-Jones, Chulee; Tongdee, Phailin; Pachirat, Orathai; Jones, David A

    2018-03-28

    Hypertension and reduced lung function are important features of aging. Slow loaded breathing training reduces resting blood pressure and the question is whether this can also improve lung function. Thirty-two people (67 ± 5 years, 16 male) with controlled isolated systolic hypertension undertook an eight weeks randomised controlled training trial with an inspiratory load of 25% maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP) at 6 breaths per minute (slow loaded breathing; SLB) or deep breathing control (CON). Outcome measures were resting blood pressure (BP) and heart rate; MIP; lung capacity; chest and abdominal expansion; arm cranking exercise endurance at 50% heart rate reserve. Home based measurement of resting systolic BP decreased by 20 mm Hg (15 to 25) (Mean and 95%CI) for SLB and by 5 mm Hg (1 to 7) for CON. Heart rate and diastolic BP also decreased significantly for SLB but not CON. MIP increased by 15.8 cm H 2 O (11.8 to 19.8) and slow vital capacity by 0.21 L (0.15 to 0.27) for SLB but not for CON. Chest and abdominal expansion increased by 2.3 cm (2.05 to 2.55) and 2.5 cm (2.15 to 2.85), respectively for SLB and by 0.5 cm (0.26 to 0.74) and 1.7 cm (1.32 to 2.08) for CON. Arm exercise time increased by 4.9 min (3.65 to 5.15) for SLB with no significant change for CON. Slow inspiratory muscle training is not only effective in reducing resting BP, even in older people with well controlled isolated systolic hypertension but also increases inspiratory muscle strength, lung capacity and arm exercise duration. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Monitorização ambulatorial da pressão arterial em indivíduos com resposta exagerada dos níveis pressóricos em esforço. Influência do condicionamento físico Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in individuals with exaggerated blood pressure response to exercise, influence of exercise training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliudem Galvão Lima

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar em indivíduos hiper-reatores ao teste ergométrico (TE, a influência de um programa regular de exercícios sobre os parâmetros ergométricos e da MAPA. MÉTODOS: Estudaram-se 22 indivíduos (44±1 anos, sedentários, assintomáticos, normotensos e que apresentavam elevação exagerada da pressão sistólica (PAS >220mmHg durante o TE, divididos, através de amostragem casual simples, em dois grupos: grupo hiper-reator sedentário (GHS e grupo hiper-reator condicionado (GHC. Os indivíduos do GHS foram orientados a não realizar qualquer tipo de exercício físico regular durante o período de 4 meses e o GHC composto de 10 indivíduos submetidos a programa de condicionamento físico aeróbico durante o mesmo período. RESULTADOS: Um programa de exercícios aeróbicos de moderada intensidade não promove redução significativa dos níveis pressóricos durante a monitorização (P>0,05; mas, durante a realização do TE nesses indivíduos, verificamos redução (pPURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of exercise training on ergometric test and Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring (ABPM in normotensive individuals with exaggerated blood pressure response to exercise. METHODS: We studied 22 sedentary and normotensive subjects (mean 44±1 years old showing an exaggerated systolic blood pressure response (SBP>220mmHg during a cycloergometric test. These individuals were divided in two groups: sedentary hyperreactive group (SHG and trained hyperreactive group (THG. The THG was submitted to a 4 month aerobic exercise training program. RESULTS: A program of moderate aerobic exercise did not reduce (P>0.05 ABPM blood pressure levels. However, in the submaximal loads of dynamic exercise we observed a significant fall in the SBP and heart rate (P<0.05. CONCLUSION: Normotensive individuals with exaggerated blood pressure response to dynamical exercise submitted to physical training presented a reduction in their systolic blood pressure and

  5. The period of the day affects the twenty-four hour blood pressure response to an acute combined exercise session in Brazilian jiu jitsu athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaello Pinheiro Mazzoccante

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe purpose of this study was to compare the effect of a combined exercise session performed at different periods of the day on the 24h blood pressure (BP response. Anaerobic threshold (AT and 12 repetition maximum (12RM tests were evaluated in nine Brazilian jiu-jitsu athletes (male (22±3.7 y; 176±5.0 cm; 73.4±9.7 kg; 6.8±2.1 % body fat. Four experimental sessions were performed: resistance exercise followed by aerobic exercise [Morning (MornS and Afternoon (AfternS] and Control (C [Morning and Afternoon]. The morning sessions were conducted at 09:00 a.m. and the afternoon sessions were conducted at 3:00 p.m. The resistance exercise consisted of three sets at 90% of a 12RM for six resistance exercises. The aerobic exercise consisted of 15min at 90% of the AT. Blood pressure (BP was measured before, during and 1h (Microlife(r BP3A1C after the performance of exercises in laboratory, and then during daily activities for the succeeding 23h by ambulatory BP monitoring (Dyna-MAPA(r. Analysis of the area under the curve (AUC indicated significant reductions in blood pressure parameters at various time points during the 24h monitoring period. For systolic BP (SBP, significantly lower values were shown following the morning session versus the control (MornS: 1756.2±100.8 vs. C: 1818.2±84.3 mmHg*15h; p < .05 and total-24h (MornS: 2695.8±143.3 vs. C: 2784.1±143.2 mmHg*24h; p < .05. The total-24h mean BP (MAP was also significantly lower following the morning session versus the control (MornS: 2015.7±121.2 vs. C: 2087.3±153.8 mmHg*24h; p < .05. There were significant differences in the sleeping AUC of SBP (AfternS: 883.6±27.0 vs. C: 965.2±67.9 mmHg*9h; p< .05, diastolic BP (DBP (AfternS: 481.4±30.9 vs. MornS: 552.9±34.2 and C: 562.1±52.3 mmHg*9h; p < .01 and MBP (AfternS: 651.9±22.4 vs. MornS: 708.7±43.1 and C: 726.9±64.7 mmHg*9h; p < .01. The combined exercise performed at different periods of the day contributed distinctly to

  6. Physical exercise, fitness and dietary pattern and their relationship with circadian blood pressure pattern, augmentation index and endothelial dysfunction biological markers: EVIDENT study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Eguskiñe

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthy lifestyles may help to delay arterial aging. The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship of physical activity and dietary pattern to the circadian pattern of blood pressure, central and peripheral blood pressure, pulse wave velocity, carotid intima-media thickness and biological markers of endothelial dysfunction in active and sedentary individuals without arteriosclerotic disease. Methods/Design Design: A cross-sectional multicenter study with six research groups. Subjects: From subjects of the PEPAF project cohort, in which 1,163 who were sedentary became active, 1,942 were sedentary and 2,346 were active. By stratified random sampling, 1,500 subjects will be included, 250 in each group. Primary measurements: We will evaluate height, weight, abdominal circumference, clinical and ambulatory blood pressure with the Radial Pulse Wave Acquisition Device (BPro, central blood pressure and augmentation index with Pulse Wave Application Software (A-Pulse and SphymgoCor System Px (Pulse Wave Analysis, pulse wave velocity (PWV with SphymgoCor System Px (Pulse Wave Velocity, nutritional pattern with a food intake frequency questionnaire, physical activity with the 7-day PAR questionnaire and accelerometer (Actigraph GT3X, physical fitness with the cycle ergometer (PWC-170, carotid intima-media thickness by ultrasound (Micromax, and endothelial dysfunction biological markers (endoglin and osteoprotegerin. Discussion Determining that sustained physical activity and the change from sedentary to active as well as a healthy diet improve circadian pattern, arterial elasticity and carotid intima-media thickness may help to propose lifestyle intervention programs. These interventions could improve the cardiovascular risk profile in some parameters not routinely assessed with traditional risk scales. From the results of this study, interventional approaches could be obtained to delay vascular aging that combine physical

  7. Smart blood pressure holter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İlhan, İlhan

    2018-03-01

    In this study, a wireless blood pressure holter that can be used with smart mobile devices was developed. The developed blood pressure holter consists of two parts, which are a smart mobile device and a cuff. The smart mobile device is used as a recording, control and display device through a developed interface, while the cuff was designed to take measurements from the arm. Resistor-Capacitor (RC) and digital filters were used on the cuff that communicates with the smart mobile device via Bluetooth. The blood pressure was estimated using the Simple Hill Climbing Algorithm (HCA). It is possible to measure instantaneous or programmable blood pressure and heart rate values at certain intervals using this holter. The test was conducted with 30 individuals at different ages with the guidance of a specialist health personnel. The results showed that an accuracy at 93.89% and 91.95% rates could be obtained for systolic and diastolic pressure values, respectively, when compared with those obtained using a traditional sphygmomanometer. The accuracy level for the heart rate was measured as 97.66%. Furthermore, this device was tested day and night in the holter mode in terms of working time, the continuity of the Bluetooth connection and the reliability of the measurement results. The test results were evaluated separately in terms of measurement accuracy, working time, the continuity of the Bluetooth connection and the reliability of the measurement results. The measurement accuracy for systolic, diastolic blood pressure and heart rate values was obtained as 93.89%, 91.95% and 97.66%, respectively. The maximum number of measurements which can be conducted with four 1000 mA alkaline batteries at 20 min intervals was found approximately 79 (little more than 24 h). In addition, it was determined that the continuity of the Bluetooth connection and the reliability of the measurement results were automatically achieved through the features in the interface developed for the

  8. Effects of aerobic exercise on the blood pressure, oxidative stress and eNOS gene polymorphism in pre-hypertensive older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, Anderson Saranz; Park, Joon-Young; Fenty-Stewart, Nicola; Silveira, Leonardo Reis; Kokubun, Eduardo; Brown, Michael D

    2010-11-01

    The polymorphisms of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) are associated with reduced eNOS activity. Aerobic exercise training (AEX) may influence resting nitric oxide (NO) production, oxidative stress and blood pressure. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of AEX on the relationship among blood pressure, eNOS gene polymorphism and oxidative stress in pre-hypertensive older people. 118 pre-hypertensive subjects (59 ± 6 years) had blood samples collected after a 12 h overnight fast for assessing plasma NO metabolites (NOx) assays, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (T-BARS) and superoxide dismutase activity (ecSOD). eNOS polymorphism (T-786C and G-894T) was done by standard PCR methods. All people were divided according to the genotype results (G1: TT/GG, G2: TT/GT + TT, G3: TC + CC/GG, G4: TC + CC/GT + TT). All parameters were measured before and after 6 months of AEX (70% of VO(2 max)). At baseline, no difference was found in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, ecSOD and T-BARS activity. Plasma NOx levels were significantly different between G1 (19 ± 1 μM) and G4 (14.2 ± 0.6 μM) and between G2 (20.1 ± 1.7 μM) and G4 (14.2 ± 0.6 μM). Therefore, reduced NOx concentration in G4 group occurred only when the polymorphisms were associated, suggesting that these results are more related to genetic factors than NO-scavenging effect. After AEX, the G4 increased NOx values (17.2 ± 1.2 μM) and decreased blood pressure. G1, G3 and G4 decreased T-BARS levels. These results suggest the AEX can modulate the NOx concentration, eNOS activity and the relationship among eNOS gene polymorphism, oxidative stress and blood pressure especially in C (T-786C) and T (G-894T) allele carriers.

  9. Increasing blood flow to exercising muscle attenuates systemic cardiovascular responses during dynamic exercise in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichinose, Masashi; Ichinose-Kuwahara, Tomoko; Kondo, Narihiko; Nishiyasu, Takeshi

    2015-11-15

    Reducing blood flow to working muscles during dynamic exercise causes metabolites to accumulate within the active muscles and evokes systemic pressor responses. Whether a similar cardiovascular response is elicited with normal blood flow to exercising muscles during dynamic exercise remains unknown, however. To address that issue, we tested whether cardiovascular responses are affected by increases in blood flow to active muscles. Thirteen healthy subjects performed dynamic plantarflexion exercise for 12 min at 20%, 40%, and 60% of peak workload (EX20, EX40, and EX60) with their lower thigh enclosed in a negative pressure box. Under control conditions, the box pressure was the same as the ambient air pressure. Under negative pressure conditions, beginning 3 min after the start of the exercise, the box pressure was decreased by 20, 45, and then 70 mmHg in stepwise fashion with 3-min step durations. During EX20, the negative pressure had no effect on blood flow or the cardiovascular responses measured. However, application of negative pressure increased blood flow to the exercising leg during EX40 and EX60. This increase in blood flow had no significant effect on systemic cardiovascular responses during EX40, but it markedly attenuated the pressor responses otherwise seen during EX60. These results demonstrate that during mild exercise, normal blood flow to exercising muscle is not a factor eliciting cardiovascular responses, whereas it elicits an important pressor effect during moderate exercise. This suggests blood flow to exercising muscle is a major determinant of cardiovascular responses during dynamic exercise at higher than moderate intensity. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Limiting the blood pressure response in young males during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies have shown that resistance exercises are beneficial in the lowering of blood pressure. This is of great significance to hypertensive patients. Unfortunately the acute effect that resistance exercises have on blood pressure can be harmful. The seated single leg press was used in this study due to the availability of ...

  11. Impact of intermittent hypoxia and exercise on blood pressure and metabolic features from obese subjects suffering sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Muniesa, P; Lopez-Pascual, A; de Andrés, J; Lasa, A; Portillo, M P; Arós, F; Durán, J; Egea, C J; Martinez, J A

    2015-09-01

    Strategies designed to reduce adiposity and cardiovascular-accompanying manifestations have been based on nutritional interventions conjointly with physical activity programs. The aim of this 13-week study was to investigate the putative benefits associated to hypoxia plus exercise on weight loss and relevant metabolic and cardiorespiratory variables, when prescribed to obese subjects with sleep apnea syndrome following dietary advice. The participants were randomly distributed in the following three groups: control, normoxia, and hypoxia. All the subjects received dietary advice while, additionally, normoxia group was trained under normal oxygen concentration and Hypoxia group under hypoxic conditions. There was a statistically significant decrease in fat-free mass (Kg) and water (%) on the control compared to normoxia group (p hypoxia compared to control group (p hypoxia group showed some specific benefits concerning appetite and cardiometabolic-related measurements as exertion time and diastolic blood pressure, with a therapeutical potential.

  12. Blood pressure monitors for home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007482.htm Blood pressure monitors for home To use the sharing features ... may ask you to keep track of your blood pressure at home. To do this, you will need ...

  13. Common High Blood Pressure Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Common High Blood Pressure Myths Updated:May 4,2018 Knowing the facts ... This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP Introduction What ...

  14. Blood Pressure vs. Heart Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Blood Pressure vs. Heart Rate (Pulse) Updated:Nov 13,2017 ... This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP Introduction What ...

  15. High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the baby. Controlling your blood pressure during pregnancy and getting regular prenatal care are important for ... your baby. Treatments for high blood pressure in pregnancy may include close monitoring of the baby, lifestyle ...

  16. Medications for High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Medications for High Blood Pressure Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... age and you cannot tell if you have high blood pressure by the way you feel, so have your ...

  17. High blood pressure and diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007483.htm High blood pressure and diet To use the sharing features on ... diet is a proven way to help control high blood pressure . These changes can also help you lose weight ...

  18. Types of Blood Pressure Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Types of Blood Pressure Medications Updated:Nov 6,2017 Prescription blood pressure ... This content was last reviewed October 2017. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  19. Controlling your high blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000101.htm Controlling your high blood pressure To use the sharing features on this page, ... JavaScript. Hypertension is another term used to describe high blood pressure. High blood pressure can lead to: Stroke Heart ...

  20. Serial blood pressure measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.R. Koehler

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present investigation was to study the effects of a 60-s interval of venous congestion between two noninvasive measurements of arterial blood pressure (ABP on the fluctuation of ABP, assessed by the standard deviation of the differences between two readings. ABP was measured in 345 successive patients, at rest, four times each. For 269 participants, one pair of readings was obtained with a 60-s interval and the other pair without an interval. For 76 patients, the first pair was read at the same interval, and the second pair had venous congestion interposed and there was no waiting interval. There was no increased ABP oscillation, either when there was no interval between ABP readings, or when venous congestion was interposed compared to pairs of ABP measurements performed with a 60-s interval. There was no increase in ABP oscillations when successive ABP readings were taken without an interval or even with venous congestion interposed. Contrary to the present belief, there seems to be no loss of reliability when blood pressure recordings are taken immediately one after another, in the clinical setting.

  1. ORANGE JUICE AND BLOOD PRESSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. VALIM

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Blood pressure is the force of blood against artery walls. It is measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg and recorded as two numbers: systolic pressure (as the heart contracts over diastolic pressure (as the heart relaxes between beats. High blood pressure (hypertension is defined as chronically elevated high blood pressure, with systolic blood pressure (SBP of 140 mm Hg or greater, and diastolic blood pressure (DBP of 90 mm Hg or greater. High blood pressure (HBP, smoking, abnormal blood lipid levels, obesity and diabetes are risk factors for coronary heart disease, the leading cause of death in the US. Lifestyle modifications such as engaging in regular physical activity, quitting smoking and eating a healthy diet (limiting intake of saturated fat and sodium and increasing consumption of fiber, fruits and vegetables are advocated for the prevention, treatment, and control of HBP. As multiple factors influence blood pressure, the effects of each factor are typically modest, particularly in normotensive subjects, yet the combined effects can be substantial. Nutrition plays an important role in influencing blood pressure. Orange juice should be included as part of any low sodium diet and/or any blood pressure reducing eating plan, as it is sodium free, fat-free and can help meet recommended levels of potassium intake that may contribute to lower BP.

  2. Clinical study on influences of enteric coated aspirin on blood pressure and blood pressure variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, A-L; Chen, W-W; Huang, W-J

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the effects of oral administration of enteric coated aspirin (ASA) on blood pressure and blood pressure variability of hypertension patients before sleep. We observed 150 hypertension cases, classified as Grade 1-2, from September 2006 to March 2008. They are divided into a control group with 30 cases, ASA I group with 60 cases and ASA II group with 60 cases randomly. Subjects in the control group had proper diets, were losing weight, exercising and maintaining a healthy mentality and were taking 30 mg Adalat orally once a day. Based on the treatment of control group, patients in ASA I group were administered 0.1 g Bayaspirin (produced by Bayer Company) at drought in the morning. Also, based on the treatment of control group, patients in ASA II group were administered 0.1 g Bayaspirin at draught before sleep. The course of treatment is 3 months and then after the treatment, decreasing blood pressure and blood pressure variability conditions in three groups will be compared. Through the comparison of ASA II group with the control group, they have differences in terms of systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), decreasing range of blood pressure and blood pressure variability (p sleep has synergistic effects on decreasing blood pressure of hypertension patients and improving blood pressure variability.

  3. Influence of aerobic exercise training on post-exercise responses of aortic pulse pressure and augmentation pressure in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuhiko eAkazawa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Central arterial blood pressure (BP is more predictive of future cardiovascular events than is brachial BP because it reflects the BP load imposed on the left ventricle with greater accuracy. However, little is known about the effects of exercise training on central hemodynamic response to acute exercise. The purpose of the present study was to determine the influence of an aerobic exercise regimen on the response of aortic BP after a single aerobic exercise in postmenopausal women. Nine healthy postmenopausal women (age: 61 ± 2 years participated in a 12-week aerobic exercise training regimen. Before and after the training, each subjects performed a single bout of cycling at ventilatory thresholds for 30 min. We evaluated the post-exercise aortic BP response, which was estimated via the general transfer function from applanation tonometry. After the initial pre-training aerobic exercise session, aortic BP did not change significantly: however, aortic pulse pressure and augmentation pressure were significantly attenuated after the single aerobic exercise session following the 12-week training regimen. The present study demonstrated that a regular aerobic exercise training regimen induced the post-exercise reduction of aortic pulse pressure and augmentation pressure. Regular aerobic exercise training may enhance post-exercise reduction in aortic BP.

  4. Supine exercise during lower body negative pressure effectively simulates upright exercise in normal gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, G.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Ballard, R. E.; Hargens, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    Exercise within a lower body negative pressure (LBNP) chamber in supine posture was compared with similar exercise against Earth's gravity (without LBNP) in upright posture in nine healthy male volunteers. We measured footward force with a force plate, pressure in soleus and tibialis anterior muscles of the leg with transducer-tipped catheters, calf volume by strain gauge plethysmography, heart rate, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures during two conditions: 1) exercise in supine posture within an LBNP chamber during 100-mmHg LBNP (exercise-LBNP) and 2) exercise in upright posture against Earth's gravity without LBNP (exercise-1 G). Subjects exercised their ankle joints (dorsi- and plantarflexions) for 5 min during exercise-LBNP and for 5 min during exercise-1 G. Mean footward force produced during exercise-LBNP (743 +/- 37 N) was similar to that produced during exercise-1 G (701 +/- 24 N). Peak contraction pressure in the antigravity soleus muscle during exercise-LBNP (115 +/- 10 mmHg) was also similar to that during exercise-1 G (103 +/- 13 mmHg). Calf volume increased significantly by 3.3 +/- 0.5% during exercise-LBNP compared with baseline values. Calf volume did not increase significantly during exercise-1 G. Heart rate was significantly higher during exercise-LBNP (99 +/- 5 beats/min) than during exercise-1 G (81 +/- 3 beats/min). These results indicate that exercise in supine posture within an LBNP chamber can produce similar musculoskeletal stress in the legs and greater systemic cardiovascular stress than exercise in the upright posture against Earth's gravity.

  5. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) KidsHealth / For Parents / Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) What's ... High Blood Pressure) Treated? Print What Is Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)? Blood pressure is the pressure of blood against ...

  6. Cardiovascular disease risk factors and blood pressure response during exercise in healthy children and adolescents: The European Youth Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Niels C; Grøntved, Anders; Wedderkopp, Niels

    2010-01-01

    aerobic fitness test. Examined CVD risk factors were high-density lipoprotein (HDL)- and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, triglyceride, homeostasis model of assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) score, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and aerobic fitness. A random effect model...... was used to test the hypotheses. In boys, HOMA-IR score and BMI were positively related to SBP response during exercise (β = 1.03, P = 0.001, and β = 0.58, P = 0.017, respectively). The effects sizes of HOMA-IR score and BMI and the significance levels only changed slightly (β = 0.91, P = 0.004, and β = 0.......43, P = 0.08, respectively) when the two variables were added in the same model. A significant positive association was observed between aerobic fitness and SBP response in girls (β = 3.13 and P = 0.002). HOMA-IR score and BMI were found to be positively related to the SBP response in male children...

  7. Serotonin and Blood Pressure Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Shaun F.; Davis, Robert Patrick; Barman, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin) was discovered more than 60 years ago as a substance isolated from blood. The neural effects of 5-HT have been well investigated and understood, thanks in part to the pharmacological tools available to dissect the serotonergic system and the development of the frequently prescribed selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors. By contrast, our understanding of the role of 5-HT in the control and modification of blood pressure pales in comparison. Here we focus on the role of 5-HT in systemic blood pressure control. This review provides an in-depth study of the function and pharmacology of 5-HT in those tissues that can modify blood pressure (blood, vasculature, heart, adrenal gland, kidney, brain), with a focus on the autonomic nervous system that includes mechanisms of action and pharmacology of 5-HT within each system. We compare the change in blood pressure produced in different species by short- and long-term administration of 5-HT or selective serotonin receptor agonists. To further our understanding of the mechanisms through which 5-HT modifies blood pressure, we also describe the blood pressure effects of commonly used drugs that modify the actions of 5-HT. The pharmacology and physiological actions of 5-HT in modifying blood pressure are important, given its involvement in circulatory shock, orthostatic hypotension, serotonin syndrome and hypertension. PMID:22407614

  8. Diabetes and blood pressure (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    People with diabetes have a higher risk for heart attacks and strokes. Your doctor or nurse should check your blood pressure ... People with diabetes have a higher risk for heart attacks and strokes. Your doctor or nurse should check your blood pressure ...

  9. Blood Pressure Drugs and AMD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Stories Español Eye Health / News Research News: Blood Pressure Drugs and AMD Leer en Español: Noticias de ... also found an association between AMD and high blood pressure, but this has been inconsistent. To help clarify ...

  10. High Blood Pressure - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Being 8 - High Blood Pressure - Amarɨñña / አማርኛ (Amharic) MP3 Siloam Family Health Center Arabic (العربية) Expand Section ... Being 8 - High Blood Pressure - myanma bhasa (Burmese) MP3 Siloam Family Health Center Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect) ( ...

  11. What Is High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More What is High Blood Pressure? Updated:Feb 27,2018 First, let’s define high ... resources . This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP Introduction What ...

  12. Blood Pressure Home Monitoring in Hypertensive Patients Attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood Pressure Home Monitoring in Hypertensive Patients Attending a Tertiary ... Sixty percent of the patients were aged 50 - 69 years. ... Patients with high BP readings reported that they exercise more and reduced their daily salt intake.

  13. Non-hemodynamic predictors of blood pressure in recreational sport ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Currently, there are evidences that regular physical activity is an efficient means to control high blood pressure. This cross-sectional study aims at identifying in subjects who exercise in non-institutional structures at Cotonou, the main factors that account for the inter-individual variations of the blood pressure. Four adiposity ...

  14. Reliability of blood pressure measurement and cardiovascular risk prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hoeven, N.V.

    2016-01-01

    High blood pressure is one of the leading risk factors for cardiovascular disease, but difficult to reliably assess because there are many factors which can influence blood pressure including stress, exercise or illness. The first part of this thesis focuses on possible ways to improve the

  15. Monitorização ambulatorial da pressão arterial em indivíduos normotensos submetidos a duas sessões únicas de exercícios: resistido e aeróbio Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in normotensive individuals undergoing two single exercise sessions: resistive exercise training and aerobic exercise training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambrosina Maria Lignani de Miranda Bermudes

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar a influência de duas sessões únicas de exercício resistido (circuito com pesos e aeróbio sobre as alterações pressóricas, em indivíduos sedentários e normotensos. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados pela monitorização numa situação controle, sem realização de exercícios (MAPA 1 25 indivíduos, após exercício resistido (MAPA 2 e após exercício aeróbio (MAPA 3. Os exercícios resistidos foram realizados sob forma de circuito com pesos, com intensidade de 40% da força máxima individual e os exercícios aeróbicos em cicloergômetro, com intensidade entre 60% e 70% da freqüência cardíaca (FC máxima alcançada no teste ergométrico. RESULTADOS: A pressão arterial sistólica (PAS de 24h e sub-períodos vigília e sono não apresentaram variações estatisticamente significantes quando comparada à MAPA2 e MAPA3 e MAPA2 e MAPA3 entre si. A pressão arterial diastólica (PAD de 24h e diurna apresentaram reduções significantes (POBJECTIVE: To assess the influence of 2 single exercise sessions on blood pressure in sedentary normotensive individuals: one of resistive exercise training (circuit weight training and the other of aerobic exercise training. METHODS: Using ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, this study assessed 25 individuals as follows: in a controlled situation at rest (ABPM 1; after resistive exercise training (ABPM 2; and after aerobic exercise training (ABPM 3. Resistive exercise training was performed as circuit weight training with an intensity of 40% of each individual's maximum strength. The aerobic exercise training was performed on a cycloergometer with intensity between 60% and 70% of the maximum heart rate (HR reached during previous exercise testing. RESULTS: Systolic blood pressure (SBP values during 24 hours and during subperiods of wakefulness and sleep showed no statistically significant variations when the results obtained at rest were compared with those of ABPM2 and ABPM3, and when

  16. Diet, blood pressure, and multicollinearity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, D; McGee, D; Yano, K; Hankin, J

    1985-01-01

    Recent reports of an inverse association between dietary calcium intake and hypertension stimulated this analysis of the relationship of blood pressure to more than 20 dietary factors among a group of 8000 Japanese men in Hawaii. Reported intakes of potassium, calcium, protein, and milk were all inversely associated with blood pressure levels when examined one at a time while controlling for other risk factors. Alcohol intake was directly associated with blood pressure, and was treated as a confounding variable in the analysis. The association of potassium intake with blood pressure was relatively stronger than the associations for other nutrients, but the intake of potassium was so highly correlated with intakes of calcium, milk, and protein that it was not statistically possible to identify the independent association of potassium and blood pressure. Calcium intake was strongly correlated with milk and potassium intakes, and only calcium from dairy sources was associated with blood pressure. These data thus indicate that several dietary factors are inversely related to blood pressure levels independently of other risk factors such as age, body mass, and alcohol intake. The high degree of intercorrelation (multicollinearity) among these dietary factors, however, indicates that the independent role of any specific nutrient cannot be conclusively separated from the possible effects of other nutrients in this type of study.

  17. The effects of hypoxemia on myocardial blood flow during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paridon, S M; Bricker, J T; Dreyer, W J; Reardon, M; Smith, E O; Porter, C B; Michael, L; Fisher, D J

    1989-03-01

    We evaluated the adequacy of regional and transmural blood flow during exercise and rapid pacing after 1 wk of hypoxemia. Seven mature mongrel dogs were made hypoxemic (mean O2 saturation = 72.4%) by anastomosis of left pulmonary artery to left atrial appendage. Catheters were placed in the left atrium, right atrium, pulmonary artery, and aorta. Atrial and ventricular pacing wires were placed. An aortic flow probe was placed to measure cardiac output. Ten nonshunted dogs, similarly instrumented, served as controls. Recovery time was approximately 1 wk. Cardiac output, mean aortic pressure, and oxygen saturation were measured at rest, with ventricular pacing, atrial pacing, and with treadmill exercise. Ventricular and atrial pace and exercise were at a heart rate of 200. Right ventricular free wall, left ventricular free wall, and septal blood flow were measured with radionuclide-labeled microspheres. Cardiac output, left atrial blood pressure, and aortic blood pressure were similar between the two groups of dogs in all testing states. Myocardial blood flow was significantly higher in the right and left ventricular free wall in the hypoxemic animals during resting and exercise testing states. Myocardial oxygen delivery was similar between the two groups of animals. Pacing resulted in an increase in myocardial blood flow in the control animals but not the hypoxemic animals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Association of von Willebrand factor blood levels with exercise hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolic, Sonja B; Adams, Murray J; Otahal, Petr; Edwards, Lindsay M; Sharman, James E

    2015-05-01

    A hypertensive response to moderate intensity exercise (HRE) is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. The mechanisms of an HRE are unclear, although previous studies suggest this may be due to haemostatic and/or haemodynamic factors. We investigated the relationships between an HRE with haemostatic and hemodynamic indices. Sixty-four participants (57 ± 10 years, 71 % male) with indication for exercise stress testing underwent cardiovascular assessment at rest and during moderate intensity exercise, from which 20 participants developed an HRE (defined as moderate exercise systolic BP ≥ 170 mmHg/men and ≥ 160 mmHg/women). Rest, exercise and post-exercise blood samples were analysed for haemostatic markers, including von Willebrand factor (vWf), and haemodynamic measures of brachial and central blood pressure (BP), aortic stiffness and systemic vascular resistance index (SVRi). HRE participants had higher rest vWf compared with normotensive response to exercise (NRE) participants (1,927 mU/mL, 95 % CI 1,240-2,615, vs. 1,129 mU/mL, 95 % CI 871-1,386; p = 0.016). vWf levels significantly decreased from rest to post-exercise in HRE participants (p = 0.005), whereas vWf levels significantly increased from rest to exercise in NRE participants (p = 0.030). HRE participants also had increased triglycerides, rest BP, aortic stiffness and exercise SVRi (p HRE at moderate intensity.

  19. High Blood Pressure and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is known as gestational hypertension, a form of secondary hypertension caused by the pregnancy that usually disappears after delivery. If the mother is not treated, high blood pressure can be dangerous to both the mother ...

  20. The influence of external compression on muscle blood flow during exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Styf, J.

    1990-01-01

    Intramuscular pressures and muscle blood flow were measured in the anterior tibial muscle during dynamic concentric exercise in 14 subjects. Pressures were recorded by the microcapillary infusion method and muscle blood flow by the 133-Xenon clearance technique. Muscle blood flow during constant exercise decreased from 34.5 (SD = 10.3) to 10.6 (SD = 4.9) ml/100 g/min (P less than 0.001) when muscle relaxation pressure was increased from 13.5 (SD = 2.7) to 39.9 (SD = 9.0) mm Hg by external compression. Muscle relaxation pressure during exercise is the intramuscular pressure between contractions. External compression of the lower limb during exercise impedes muscle blood flow by increasing muscle relaxation pressure. The experimental model seems suitable to study the influence of external compression by knee braces on intramuscular pressure during exercise

  1. Psoriasis and high blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihbegovic, Eldina Malkic; Hadzigrahic, Nermina; Suljagic, Edin; Kurtalic, Nermina; Sadic, Sena; Zejcirovic, Alema; Mujacic, Almina

    2015-02-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic skin ailment which can be connected with an increased occurrence of other illnesses, including high blood pressure. A prospective study has been conducted which included 70 patients affected by psoriasis, both genders, older than 18 years. Average age being 47,14 (SD= ±15,41) years, from that there were 36 men or 51,43 and 34 women or 48,57%. Average duration of psoriasis was 15,52 (SD=±12,54) years. Frequency of high blood pressure in those affected by psoriasis was 54,28%. Average age of the patients with psoriasis and high blood pressure was 53,79 year (SD=±14,15) and average duration of psoriasis was 17,19 years (SD=±13,51). Average values of PASI score were 16,65. Increase in values of PASI score and high blood pressure were statistically highly related (r=0,36, p=0,0001). Psoriasis was related to high blood pressure and there was a correlation between the severity of psoriasis and high blood pressure.

  2. A PILOT STUDY ON THE EFFECTS OF MAGNESIUM SUPPLEMENTATION WITH HIGH AND LOW HABITUAL DIETARY MAGNESIUM INTAKE ON RESTING AND RECOVERY FROM AEROBIC AND RESISTANCE EXERCISE AND SYSTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsy S. Kass

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of magnesium supplementation on blood pressure (BP have been studied for over 25 years and results have been inconsistent. Blood pressure reductions in randomized studies have varied from 12 mmHg reductions to no reduction. The objective of this pilot intervention was to investigate the effect of magnesium supplementation on systolic blood pressure whilst resting and during recovery from aerobic and resistance exercise and on performance. A further objective was to see whether the effect of a high vs low habitual dietary magnesium intake affected these results. Sixteen male volunteers were randomly assigned to either a 300 mg·d-1 magnesium oxide supplementation (MO or a control group (CG for 14 days. Resting blood pressure (BP and heart rate (HR were measured before subjects performed a maximal 30 minute cycle, immediately followed by three x 5 second isometric bench press, both at baseline and after the intervention. Blood pressure and heart rate were recorded immediately post exercise and after five minutes recovery. A 3 day food diary was recorded for all subjects to measure dietary magnesium intake. At the end of the intervention, the supplemented group, had a reduction in mean resting systolic BP by 8.9 mmHg (115.125 ± 9.46 mmHg, p = 0.01 and post exercise by 13 mmHg (122.625 ± 9. 88 mmHg, p = 0.01. Recovery BP was 11.9 mmHg lower in the intervention group compared to control (p = 0.006 and HR decreased by 7 beats per minute in the experimental group (69.0 ± 11.6 bpm, p = 0. 02. Performance indicators did not change within and between the groups. Habitual dietary magnesium intake affected both resting and post exercise systolic BP and the subsequent effect of the magnesium supplementation. These results have an implication in a health setting and for health and exercise but not performance.

  3. Alcohol: Does It Affect Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol: Does it affect blood pressure? Does drinking alcohol affect your blood pressure? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Drinking too much alcohol can raise blood pressure to unhealthy levels. Having ...

  4. Polynomial analysis of ambulatory blood pressure measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwinderman, A. H.; Cleophas, T. A.; Cleophas, T. J.; van der Wall, E. E.

    2001-01-01

    In normotensive subjects blood pressures follow a circadian rhythm. A circadian rhythm in hypertensive patients is less well established, and may be clinically important, particularly with rigorous treatments of daytime blood pressures. Polynomial analysis of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring

  5. Anxiety: A Cause of High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of high blood pressure? Can anxiety cause high blood pressure? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Anxiety doesn't cause long-term high blood pressure (hypertension). But episodes of anxiety can cause dramatic, ...

  6. African Americans and High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ANSWERS by heart Lifestyle + Risk Reduction High Blood Pressure What About African Americans and High Blood Pressure? African Americans in the U.S. have a higher prevalence of high blood pressure (HBP) than ...

  7. High Blood Pressure: Medicines to Help You

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women High Blood Pressure--Medicines to Help You Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... Click here for the Color Version (PDF 533KB) High blood pressure is a serious illness. High blood pressure is ...

  8. Effect of device-guided breathing exercises on blood pressure in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus : A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Logtenberg, Susan J.; Kleefstra, Nanne; Houweling, Sebastlaan T.; Groenier, Klaas H.; Bilo, Henk J.

    Objective In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2), it is hard to reach treatment objectives for blood pressure (BP) with classical treatment options. Recently, reducing breathing frequency has been advocated as a method to reduce BP. We examined if an electronic device such as Resperate, by

  9. Endurance training in mild hypertension - effects on ambulatory blood pressure and neural circulatory control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narkiewicz; Somers

    1997-10-01

    This review examines the effects of a single bout of exercise and of endurance training on blood pressure in patients with hypertension. Possible autonomic mechanisms that mediate these changes in blood pressure are reviewed briefly. Blood pressure rises during exercise. During the second half hour after exercise blood pressure is lower. This p;ost-exercise reduction in blood pressure is associated with a decrease in muscle sympathetic nerve activity, an increase in baroreflex gain and a reduction in the level of blood pressure (set point) at which baroreflex activation occurs. The post-exercise fall in blood pressure appears to be limited to several hours and is not likely to explain any chronic reduction in blood pressure from endurance training. Endurance training elicits modest (approximately 4-5 mmHg) reductions in blood pressure. Because of the intrinsic variability of blood pressure, the decreases in blood pressure after endurance training is evident, especially when multiple measurements of blood pressure are obtained. Studies using 24 h blood pressure measurements suggest that, although endurance training lowers daytime blood pressure, blood pressure during sleep remains unchanged. The mechanism underlying the reduction in blood pressure in endurance training is not known. Although physical fitness is known to attenuate the sympathetic response to acute exercise, whether resting sympathetic drive is decreased with endurance training remains controversial. The slowing of heart rate that accompanies endurance training is also associated with an increase in variability of heart rate. The slower heart rate, increased variability of heart rate and lower blood pressure after endurance training are accompanied by an increase in baroreflex sensitivity. Even though the antihypertensive effect of endurance training is modest, the favourable effects of physical fitness on other risk factors for cardiovascular disease make exercise training an important approach in

  10. Exercise excess pressure and exercise-induced albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climie, Rachel E D; Srikanth, Velandai; Keith, Laura J; Davies, Justin E; Sharman, James E

    2015-05-01

    Exercise-induced albuminuria is common in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in response to maximal exercise, but the response to light-moderate exercise is unclear. Patients with T2DM have abnormal central hemodynamics and greater propensity for exercise hypertension. This study sought to determine the relationship between light-moderate exercise central hemodynamics (including aortic reservoir and excess pressure) and exercise-induced albuminuria. Thirty-nine T2DM (62 ± 9 yr; 49% male) and 39 nondiabetic controls (53 ± 9 yr; 51% male) were examined at rest and during 20 min of light-moderate cycle exercise (30 W; 50 revolutions/min). Albuminuria was assessed by the albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) at rest and 30 min postexercise. Hemodynamics recorded included brachial and central blood pressure (BP), aortic stiffness, augmented pressure (AP), aortic reservoir pressure, and excess pressure integral (Pexcess). There was no difference in ACR between groups before exercise (P > 0.05). Exercise induced a significant rise in ACR in T2DM but not controls (1.73 ± 1.43 vs. 0.53 ± 1.0 mg/mol, P = 0.002). All central hemodynamic variables were significantly higher during exercise in T2DM (i.e., Pexcess, systolic BP and AP; P exercise Pexcess was associated with postexercise ACR (r = 0.51, P = 0.002), and this relationship was independent of age, sex, body mass index, heart rate, aortic stiffness, antihypertensive medication, and ambulatory daytime systolic BP (β = 0.003, P = 0.003). Light-moderate exercise induced a significant rise in ACR in T2DM, and this was independently associated with Pexcess, a potential marker of vascular dysfunction. These novel findings suggest that Pexcess could be important for appropriate renal function in T2DM. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Distinctive Steady-State Heart Rate and Blood Pressure Responses to Passive Robotic Leg Exercise and Functional Electrical Stimulation during Head-Up Tilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarabadani Tafreshi, Amirehsan; Riener, Robert; Klamroth-Marganska, Verena

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Tilt tables enable early mobilization of patients by providing verticalization. But there is a high risk of orthostatic hypotension provoked by verticalization, especially after neurological diseases such as spinal cord injury. Robot-assisted tilt tables might be an alternative as they add passive robotic leg exercise (PE) that can be enhanced with functional electrical stimulation (FES) to the verticalization, thus reducing the risk of orthostatic hypotension. We hypothesized that the influence of PE on the cardiovascular system during verticalization (i.e., head-up tilt) depends on the verticalization angle, and FES strengthens the PE influence. To test our hypotheses, we investigated the PE effects on the cardiovascular parameters heart rate (HR), and systolic and diastolic blood pressures (sBP, dBP) at different angles of verticalization in a healthy population. Methods: Ten healthy subjects on a robot-assisted tilt table underwent four different study protocols while HR, sBP, and dBP were measured: (1) head-up tilt to 60° and 71° without PE; (2) PE at 20°, 40°, and 60° of head-up tilt; (3) PE while constant FES intensity was applied to the leg muscles, at 20°, 40°, and 60° of head-up tilt; (4) PE with variation of the applied FES intensity at 0°, 20°, 40°, and 60° of head-up tilt. Linear mixed models were used to model changes in HR, sBP, and dBP responses. Results: The models show that: (1) head-up tilt alone resulted in statistically significant increases in HR and dBP, but no change in sBP. (2) PE during head-up tilt resulted in statistically significant changes in HR, sBP, and dBP, but not at each angle and not always in the same direction (i.e., increase or decrease of cardiovascular parameters). Neither adding (3) FES at constant intensity to PE nor (4) variation of FES intensity during PE had any statistically significant effects on the cardiovascular parameters. Conclusion: The effect of PE on the cardiovascular system during

  12. Distinctive Steady-State Heart Rate and Blood Pressure Responses to Passive Robotic Leg Exercise and Functional Electrical Stimulation During Head-up Tilt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirehsan Sarabadani Tafreshi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tilt tables enable early mobilization of patients by providing verticalization. But there is a high risk of orthostatic hypotension provoked by verticalization, especially after neurological diseases such as spinal cord injury. Robot-assisted tilt tables might be an alternative as they add passive robotic leg exercise (PE that can be enhanced with functional electrical stimulation (FES to the verticalization, thus reducing the risk of orthostatic hypotension. We hypothesized that the influence of PE on the cardiovascular system during verticalization depends on the verticalization angle, and FES strengthens the PE influence. To test our hypotheses, we investigated the PE effects on the cardiovascular parameters heart rate (HR, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures (sBP, dBP at different angles of verticalization in a healthy population. Ten healthy subjects on a robot-assisted tilt table underwent four different study protocols while HR, sBP and dBP were measured: (1 head-up tilt to 60° and 71° without PE; (2 PE at 20°, 40°, and 60° of head-up tilt; (3 PE while constant FES intensity was applied to the leg muscles, at 20°, 40°, and 60° of head-up tilt; (4 PE with variation of the applied FES intensity at 0°, 20°, 40°, and 60° of head-up tilt. Linear mixed models were used to model changes in HR, sBP, and dBP responses. The models show that: (1 head-up tilt alone resulted in statistically significant increases in HR and dBP, but no change in sBP. (2 PE during head-up tilt resulted in statistically significant changes in HR, sBP, and dBP, but not at each angle and not always in the same direction (i.e., increase or decrease of cardiovascular parameters. Neither adding (3 FES at constant intensity to PE nor (4 variation of FES intensity during PE had any statistically significant effects on the cardiovascular parameters.The effect of PE on the cardiovascular system during head-up tilt is strongly dependent on the verticalization

  13. The effects of endurance and resistance training on blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, R S; Hirth, V A

    1995-10-01

    There now exists substantial clinical data supporting a blood pressure lowering effect of endurance training. Though the effect is modest (5-10 mmHg), epidemiologic studies indicate the possibility of protection against the development of hypertension and also indicate significantly reduced cardiovascular mortality and increased longevity associated with chronic endurance exercise. The data for blood pressure lowering effects of resistive training are much less compelling, and this area requires additional investigation. However, it appears that resistance training is not associated with chronic elevations in blood pressure. Future studies need to focus on: 1) the relative efficacy of low-, moderate- and high-intensity training on lowering blood pressure; 2) the effect of training on ambulatory blood pressure; 3) targeting of at risk and high responding populations; and 4) the importance of insulinemia, SNS tone and central adiposity in the mechanism of any blood pressure lowering effect of training.

  14. Interarm difference in blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, Jesper; Wiinberg, Niels

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed at examining the interarm difference in blood pressure and its use as an indicator of peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Data were included from consecutive patients referred from their general practitioner to our vascular laboratory for possible PAD aged 50 years or older...... without known cardiac disease, renal disease, or diabetes mellitus. 824 patients (453 women) with mean age of 72 years (range: 50-101) were included. 491 patients had a diagnosis of hypertension and peripheral arterial disease (PAD) was present in 386 patients. Systolic blood pressure was 143 ± 24 mm......Hg and 142 ± 24 mmHg on the right and left arm, respectively (P = 0.015). The interarm difference was greater in patients with hypertension (P = 0.002) and PAD (P blood pressure was reproducible...

  15. Dynamic Leg Exercise Improves Tolerance to Lower Body Negative Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watenpaugh, D. E.; Ballard, R. E.; Stout, M. S.; Murthy, G.; Whalen, R. T.; Hargens, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    These results clearly demonstrate that dynamic leg exercise against the footward force produced by LBNP substantially improves tolerance to LBNP, and that even cyclic ankle flexion without load bearing also increases tolerance. This exercise-induced increase of tolerance was actually an underestimate, because subjects who completed the tolerance test while exercising could have continued for longer periods. Exercise probably increases LBNP tolerance by multiple mechanisms. Tolerance was increased in part by skeletal muscle pumping venous blood from the legs. Rosenhamer and Linnarsson and Rosenhamer also deduced this for subjects cycling during centrifugation, although no measurements of leg volume were made in those studies: they found that male subjects cycling at 98 W could endure 3 Gz centrifugation longer than when they remained relaxed during centrifugation. Skeletal muscle pumping helps maintain cardiac filling pressure by opposing gravity-, centrifugation-, or LBNP-induced accumulation of blood and extravascular fluid in the legs.

  16. DASH diet to lower high blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... patientinstructions/000770.htm DASH diet to lower high blood pressure To use the sharing features on this page, ... Hypertension. The DASH diet can help lower high blood pressure and cholesterol and other fats in your blood. ...

  17. High blood pressure and eye disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000999.htm High blood pressure and eye disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. High blood pressure can damage blood vessels in the retina . The ...

  18. Vital Signs - High Blood Pressure

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-10-02

    In the U.S., nearly one third of the adult population have high blood pressure, the leading risk factor for heart disease and stroke - two of the nation's leading causes of death.  Created: 10/2/2012 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/17/2012.

  19. High Blood Pressure: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z High Blood Pressure Hypertension Unique to Older Adults This section provides ... Pressure Targets are Different for Very Old Adults High blood pressure (also called hypertension) increases your chance of having ...

  20. Distinctive Steady-State Heart Rate and Blood Pressure Responses to Passive Robotic Leg Exercise during Head-Up Tilt: A Pilot Study in Neurological Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirehsan Sarabadani Tafreshi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Robot-assisted tilt table therapy was proposed for early rehabilitation and mobilization of patients after diseases such as stroke. A robot-assisted tilt table with integrated passive robotic leg exercise (PE mechanism has the potential to prevent orthostatic hypotension usually provoked by verticalization. In a previous study with rather young healthy subjects [average age: 25.1 ± 2.6 years (standard deviation], we found that PE effect on the cardiovascular system depends on the verticalization angle of the robot-assisted tilt table. In the current study, we investigated in an older population of neurological patients (a whether they show the same PE effects as younger healthy population on the cardiovascular system at different tilt angles, (b whether changing the PE frequency (i.e., stepping speed influences the PE effect on the cardiovascular system, (c whether PE could prevent orthostatic hypotension, and finally, (d whether PE effect is consistent from day to day.Methods: Heart rate (HR, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures (sBP, dBP in response to PE at two different tilt angles (α = 20°, 60° with three different PE frequencies (i.e., 0, 24, and 48 steps per minute of 10 neurological patients [average age: 68.4 ± 13.5 years (standard deviation] were measured on 2 consecutive days. Linear mixed models were used to develop statistical models and analyze the repeated measurements.Results: The models show that: PE significantly increased sBP and dBP but had no significant effect on HR. (a Similar to healthy subjects the effect of PE on sBP was dependent on the tilt angle with higher tilt angles resulting in a higher increase. Head-up tilting alone significantly increased HR and dBP but resulted in a non-significant drop in sBP. PE, in general, had a more additive effect on increasing BP. (b The effect of PE was not influenced by its speed. (c Neither during head-up tilt alone nor in combination with PE did

  1. Distinctive Steady-State Heart Rate and Blood Pressure Responses to Passive Robotic Leg Exercise during Head-Up Tilt: A Pilot Study in Neurological Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarabadani Tafreshi, Amirehsan; Riener, Robert; Klamroth-Marganska, Verena

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Robot-assisted tilt table therapy was proposed for early rehabilitation and mobilization of patients after diseases such as stroke. A robot-assisted tilt table with integrated passive robotic leg exercise (PE) mechanism has the potential to prevent orthostatic hypotension usually provoked by verticalization. In a previous study with rather young healthy subjects [average age: 25.1 ± 2.6 years (standard deviation)], we found that PE effect on the cardiovascular system depends on the verticalization angle of the robot-assisted tilt table. In the current study, we investigated in an older population of neurological patients (a) whether they show the same PE effects as younger healthy population on the cardiovascular system at different tilt angles, (b) whether changing the PE frequency (i.e., stepping speed) influences the PE effect on the cardiovascular system, (c) whether PE could prevent orthostatic hypotension, and finally, (d) whether PE effect is consistent from day to day. Methods: Heart rate (HR), and systolic and diastolic blood pressures (sBP, dBP) in response to PE at two different tilt angles (α = 20°, 60°) with three different PE frequencies (i.e., 0, 24, and 48 steps per minute) of 10 neurological patients [average age: 68.4 ± 13.5 years (standard deviation)] were measured on 2 consecutive days. Linear mixed models were used to develop statistical models and analyze the repeated measurements. Results: The models show that: PE significantly increased sBP and dBP but had no significant effect on HR. (a) Similar to healthy subjects the effect of PE on sBP was dependent on the tilt angle with higher tilt angles resulting in a higher increase. Head-up tilting alone significantly increased HR and dBP but resulted in a non-significant drop in sBP. PE, in general, had a more additive effect on increasing BP. (b) The effect of PE was not influenced by its speed. (c) Neither during head-up tilt alone nor in combination with PE did participants

  2. Pulse pressure and diurnal blood pressure variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Søren Tang; Poulsen, Per Løgstrup; Hansen, Klavs Würgler

    2002-01-01

    retinopathy, nephropathy, macrovascular disease, PP, and diurnal BP variation in a group of type 2 diabetic patients. METHODS: In 80 type 2 diabetic patients we performed 24-h ambulatory BP (AMBP) and fundus photographs. Urinary albumin excretion was evaluated by urinary albumin/creatinine ratio. Presence...... or absence of macrovascular disease was assessed by an independent physician. RESULTS: Forty-nine patients had no detectable retinal changes (grade 1), 13 had grade 2 retinopathy, and 18 had more advanced retinopathy (grades 3-6). Compared to patients without retinopathy (grade 1), patients with grades 2......BACKGROUND: In nondiabetic subjects pulse pressure (PP) is an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease and microalbuminuria. Reduced circadian blood pressure (BP) variation is a potential risk factor for the development of diabetic complications. We investigated the association between...

  3. Effects of curative treatment emphasizing endurance training on the performance and blood pressure of hypertensive and normotensives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worms, F.

    1981-01-01

    The problem of normal values of blood pressure after exercise taking into account the blood pressure at the end of the exercise test is discussed. Hypertensives showed a lower working capacity than normotensives. In normotensives, however, systolic blood pressure at the end of an exercise correlated well with the working capacity. After the endurance cure submaximal blood pressure was markedly lower in hypertensives with a striking dependence on the level of initial values. Systolic blood pressure at the end of an exercise test was not changed significantly. Most probably it is not possible to overcome this malregulation in hypertensives by endurance training alone.

  4. The hidden magnitude of raised blood pressure and elevated blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusions: The prevalence of undiagnosed raised blood pressure and elevated blood sugar was high in Ethiopia and only very small percentage of people had been aware of their high blood pressure and elevated blood sugar. Policy makers in the health sector including other health development partners need to ...

  5. What Is High Blood Pressure Medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a medicine calendar. • Set a reminder on your smartphone. What types of medicine may be prescribed? One ... High Blood Pressure Medicine? What are their side effects? For many people, high blood pressure medicine can ...

  6. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring - comparison with office ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ambulatory blood pressure recordings in private practice ... position according to established guidelines. ... white-coat effect was defined as a difference of at least 20 .... patients with hypertension: Importance of blood pressure response to ...

  7. High blood pressure - medicine-related

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drug-induced hypertension is high blood pressure caused by using a chemical substance or medicine. ... of the arteries There are several types of high blood pressure : Essential hypertension has no cause that can be ...

  8. HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE: DOES THIS CONCERN ME?

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    To find out, the Medical Service's nurses are organising A HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE SCREENING AND PREVENTION CAMPAIGN from Monday, 26th to Thursday, 29th March 2007 at the Infirmary - Building 57 - ground floor A blood pressure test, advice, information and, if necessary, referral for specialist medical treatment will be offered to any person working on the CERN site. High blood pressure is a silent threat to health. So come and get your blood pressure checked.

  9. HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE: DOES THIS CONCERN ME?

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    To find out, the Medical Service's nurses are organising A HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE SCREENING AND PREVENTION CAMPAIGN from Monday, 26th to Thursday, 29th March 2007 at the Infirmary - Building 57 - ground floor A blood pressure test, advice, information and, if necessary, referral for specialist medical treatment will be offered to any person working on the CERN site. High blood pressure is a stealth threat to health. So come and get your blood pressure checked.

  10. Combining remote ischemic preconditioning and aerobic exercise: a novel adaptation of blood flow restriction exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprick, Justin D; Rickards, Caroline A

    2017-11-01

    Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) can attenuate tissue damage sustained by ischemia-reperfusion injury. Blood flow restriction exercise (BFRE) restricts blood flow to exercising muscles. We implemented a novel approach to BFRE with cyclical bouts of blood flow restriction-reperfusion, reflecting the RIPC model. A concern about BFRE, however, is potential amplification of the exercise pressor reflex, which could be unsafe in at-risk populations. We hypothesized that cyclical BFRE would elicit greater increases in sympathetic outflow and arterial pressure than conventional exercise (CE) when performed at the same relative intensity. We also assessed the cerebrovascular responses due to potential implementation of BFRE in stroke rehabilitation. Fourteen subjects performed treadmill exercise at 65-70% maximal heart rate with and without intermittent BFR (4 × 5-min intervals of bilateral thigh-cuff pressure followed by 5-min reperfusion periods). Mean arterial pressure (MAP), plasma norepinephrine (NE), and middle and posterior cerebral artery velocities (MCAv and PCAv) were compared between trials. As expected, BFRE elicited higher concentration NE compared with CE (1249 ± 170 vs. 962 ± 114 pg/ml; P = 0.06). Unexpectedly, however, there were no differences in MAP between conditions (overall P = 0.33), and MAP was 4-5 mmHg lower with BFRE versus CE during the reperfusion periods ( P ≤ 0.05 for reperfusion periods 3 and 4 ). There were no differences in MCAv or PCAv between trials ( P ≥ 0.22), suggesting equivalent cerebrometabolic demand. The exaggerated sympathoexcitatory response with BFRE was not accompanied by higher MAP, likely because of the cyclical reperfusions. This cyclical BFRE paradigm could be adapted to cardiac or stroke rehabilitation, where exercising patients could benefit from the cardio and cerebro protection associated with RIPC. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Muscle blood flow at onset of dynamic exercise in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rådegran, G; Saltin, B

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate the temporal relationship between blood flow, blood pressure, and muscle contractions, we continuously measured femoral arterial inflow with ultrasound Doppler at onset of passive exercise and voluntary, one-legged, dynamic knee-extensor exercise in humans. Blood velocity and inflow increased (P dicrotic and diastolic blood pressure notches, respectively. Mechanical hindrance occurred (P dicrotic notch. The increase in blood flow (Q) was characterized by a one-component (approximately 15% of peak power output), two-component (approximately 40-70% of peak power output), or three-component exponential model (> or = 75% of peak power output), where Q(t) = Qpassive + delta Q1.[1 - e-(t - TD1/tau 1)]+ delta Q2.[1 - e-(t - TD2/tau 2)]+ delta Q3.[1 - e-(t - TD3/tau 3)]; Qpassive, the blood flow during passive leg movement, equals 1.17 +/- 0.11 l/min; TD is the onset latency; tau is the time constant; delta Q is the magnitude of blood flow rise; and subscripts 1-3 refer to the first, second, and third components of the exponential model, respectively. The time to reach 50% of the difference between passive and voluntary asymptotic blood flow was approximately 2.2-8.9 s. The blood flow leveled off after approximately 10-150 s, related to the power outputs. It is concluded that the elevation in blood flow with the first duty cycle(s) is due to muscle mechanical factors, but vasodilators initiate a more potent amplification within the second to fourth contraction.

  12. Blood pressure and anthropometric measurements in healthy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods. We measured the blood pressures of 650 healthy, randomly ... In addition, blood pressure measurement should be a part of the routine clinical examination of children. ... familial risk factors.2 ... common cause of elevated blood pressure in children.4 They ... sphygmomanometer (Accoson, hospital model BS 274,.

  13. A Nutrition Curriculum for Families with High Blood Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Rosanne P.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    A nutrition curriculum for elementary and secondary school students with high blood pressure was implemented as part of a Dietary/Exercise Alteration Program trial. Reduced sodium and energy intake and increased potassium intake were promoted. Materials and methods of the program are described. (Author/DF)

  14. Remote Blood Pressure Waveform Sensing Method and Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-02

    test the effects of drugs, exercise, or other stimuli, whereby an increase or decrease in the ratio may indicate an improvement or worsening of systolic...even though high blood pressure in animals can be symptomatic of a variety of diseases including chronic renal failure, hyperthyroidism , Cushing’s

  15. Automated Office Blood Pressure Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Martin G

    2018-04-01

    Manual blood pressure (BP) recorded in routine clinical practice is relatively inaccurate and associated with higher readings compared to BP measured in research studies in accordance with standardized measurement guidelines. The increase in routine office BP is the result of several factors, especially the presence of office staff, which tends to make patients nervous and also allows for conversation to occur. With the disappearance of the mercury sphygmomanometer because of environmental concerns, there is greater use of oscillometric BP recorders, both in the office setting and elsewhere. Although oscillometric devices may reduce some aspects of observer BP measurement error in the clinical setting, they are still associated with higher BP readings, known as white coat hypertension (for diagnosis) or white coat effect (with treated hypertension). Now that fully automated sphygmomanometers are available which are capable of recording several readings with the patient resting quietly, there is no longer any need to have office staff present when BP is being recorded. Such readings are called automated office blood pressure (AOBP) and they are both more accurate than conventional manual office BP and not associated with the white coat phenomena. AOBP readings are also similar to the awake ambulatory BP and home BP, both of which are relatively good predictors of cardiovascular risk. The available evidence suggests that AOBP should now replace manual or electronic office BP readings when screening patients for hypertension and also after antihypertensive drug therapy is initiated. Copyright © 2018. The Korean Society of Cardiology.

  16. Central blood pressure and chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Yoichi; Kanno, Yoshihiko; Takenaka, Tsuneo

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we focused on the relationship between central blood pressure and chronic kidney diseases (CKD). Wave reflection is a major mechanism that determines central blood pressure in patients with CKD. Recent medical technology advances have enabled non-invasive central blood pressure measurements. Clinical trials have demonstrated that compared with brachial blood pressure, central blood pressure is a stronger risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) and renal diseases. CKD is characterized by a diminished renal autoregulatory ability, an augmented direct transmission of systemic blood pressure to glomeruli, and an increase in proteinuria. Any elevation in central blood pressure accelerates CKD progression. In the kidney, interstitial inflammation induces oxidative stress to handle proteinuria. Oxidative stress facilitates atherogenesis, increases arterial stiffness and central blood pressure, and worsens the CV prognosis in patients with CKD. A vicious cycle exists between CKD and central blood pressure. To stop this cycle, vasodilator antihypertensive drugs and statins can reduce central blood pressure and oxidative stress. Even in early-stage CKD, mineral and bone disorders (MBD) may develop. MBD promotes oxidative stress, arteriosclerosis, and elevated central blood pressure in patients with CKD. Early intervention or prevention seems necessary to maintain vascular health in patients with CKD. PMID:26788468

  17. Social Stress Induced Pressure Breathing and Consequent Blood Pressure Oscillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkema, Dirk S.; Koolhaas, Jaap M.; Meulen, Jan van der; Schoemaker, Regien

    1986-01-01

    A large amplitude blood pressure oscillation occurs during social defeat in a territorial fight between male rats, and during the application of a psychosocial stimulus associated with this defeat. Synchronous recording of blood pressure, intrathoracic pressure and diaphragm activity shows that the

  18. Blood Pressure Matters: Keep Hypertension in Check

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2016 Print this issue Blood Pressure Matters Keep Hypertension in Check En español Send us your comments ... 1 in 3 adults in the U.S. has high blood pressure, but many don’t realize it. High blood ...

  19. Impact of age on pulmonary artery systolic pressures at rest and with exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garvan C Kane

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: It is not well known if advancing age influences normal rest or exercise pulmonary artery pressures. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the association of increasing age with measurements of pulmonary artery systolic pressure at rest and with exercise. Subjects and methods: A total of 467 adults without cardiopulmonary disease and normal exercise capacity (age range: 18–85 years underwent symptom-limited treadmill exercise testing with Doppler measurement of rest and exercise pulmonary artery systolic pressure. Results: There was a progressive increase in rest and exercise pulmonary artery pressures with increasing age. Pulmonary artery systolic pressures at rest and with exercise were 25 ± 5 mmHg and 33 ± 9 mmHg, respectively, in those <40 years, and 30 ± 5 mmHg and 41 ± 12 mmHg, respectively, in those ≥70 years. While elevated left-sided cardiac filling pressures were excluded by protocol design, markers of arterial stiffness associated with the age-dependent effects on pulmonary pressures. Conclusion: These data demonstrate that in echocardiographically normal adults, pulmonary artery systolic pressure increases with advancing age. This increase is seen at rest and with exercise. These increases in pulmonary pressure occur in association with decreasing transpulmonary flow and increases in systemic pulse pressure, suggesting that age-associated blood vessel stiffening may contribute to these differences in pulmonary artery systolic pressure.

  20. Complex segregation analysis of blood pressure and heart rate measured before and after a 20-week endurance exercise training program: the HERITAGE Family Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, P; Rice, T; Pérusse, L; Borecki, I B; Gagnon, J; Leon, A S; Skinner, J S; Wilmore, J H; Bouchard, C; Rao, D C

    2000-05-01

    Complex segregation analysis of baseline resting blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) and their responses to training (post-training minus baseline) were performed in a sample of 482 individuals from 99 white families who participated in the HERITAGE Family Study. Resting BP and HR were measured at baseline and after a 20-week training program. Baseline resting BP and HR were age-adjusted and age-BMI-adjusted, and the responses to training were age-adjusted and age-baseline-adjusted, within four gender-by-generation groups. This study also analyzed the responses to training in two subsets of families: (1) the so-called "high" subsample, 45 families (216 individuals) with at least one member whose baseline resting BP is in the high end of the normal BP range (the upper 95th percentile: systolic BP [SBP] > or = 135 or diastolic BP [DBP] > or = 80 mm Hg); and (2) the so-called "nonhigh" subsample, the 54 remaining families (266 individuals). Baseline resting SBP was influenced by a multifactorial component (23%), which was independent of body mass index (BMI). Baseline resting DBP was influenced by a putative recessive locus, which accounted for 31% of the variance. In addition to the major gene effect, which may impact BMI as well, baseline resting DBP was also influenced by a multifactorial component (29%). Baseline resting HR was influenced by a putative dominant locus independent of BMI, which accounted for 31% of the variance. For the responses to training, no familiality was found in the whole sample or in the nonhigh subsample. However, in the high subsample, resting SBP response to training was influenced by a putative recessive locus, which accounted for 44% of the variance. No familiality was found for resting DBP response to training. Resting HR response to training was influenced by a major effect (accounting for 35% of the variance), with an ambiguous transmission from parents to offspring.

  1. Blood pressure documentation in the emergency department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Ana Carolina Queiroz Godoy; Machado, Juliana Pereira; Veiga, Eugenia Velludo

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To analyze the frequency of blood pressure documentation performed by nursing professionals in an emergency department. Methods This is a cross-sectional, observational, descriptive, and analytical study, which included medical records of adult patients admitted to the observation ward of an emergency department, between March and May 2014. Data were obtained through a collection instrument divided into three parts: patient identification, triage data, and blood pressure documentation. For statistical analysis, Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used, with a significance level of α<0.05. Results One hundred fifty-seven records and 430 blood pressure measurements were analyzed with an average of three measurements per patient. Of these measures, 46.5% were abnormal. The mean time from admission to documentation of the first blood pressure measurement was 2.5 minutes, with 42 minutes between subsequent measures. There is no correlation between the systolic blood pressure values and the mean time interval between blood pressure documentations: 0.173 (p=0.031). Conclusion The present study found no correlation between frequency of blood pressure documentation and blood pressure values. The frequency of blood pressure documentation increased according to the severity of the patient and decreased during the length of stay in the emergency department. PMID:28444085

  2. Fall in blood pressure during radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, L.E.; Lindahl, J.; Unsgaard, B.

    1976-01-01

    Blood pressure and heart rate at rest in the supine and standing positions were followed before, during and after irradiation for malignant tumours in 114 patients. A statistically significant gradual reduction in blood pressure during the treatment period was established. This was more marked in older patients and in patients with higher initial blood pressure but was not related to the region irradiated or the type of tumour treated. Particularly if the patient experiences vertigo and nausea on change of position, it seems advisable to check the blood pressure during treatment. (author)

  3. Effects of hormone therapy on blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Zeinab; Seely, Ellen W; Rahme, Maya; El-Hajj Fuleihan, Ghada

    2015-04-01

    Although hormone therapy remains the most efficacious option for the management of vasomotor symptoms of menopause, its effects on blood pressure remain unclear. This review scrutinizes evidence of the mechanisms of action of hormone therapy on signaling pathways affecting blood pressure and evidence from clinical studies. Comprehensive Ovid MEDLINE searches were conducted for the terms "hypertension" and either of the following "hormone therapy and menopause" or "selective estrogen receptor modulator" from year 2000 to November 2013. In vitro and physiologic studies did not reveal a clear deleterious effect of hormone therapy on blood pressure. The effect of oral therapy was essentially neutral in large trials conducted in normotensive women with blood pressure as primary outcome. Results from all other trials had several limitations. Oral therapy had a neutral effect on blood pressure in hypertensive women. Transdermal estrogen and micronized progesterone had a beneficial effect on blood pressure in normotensive women and, at most, a neutral effect on hypertensive women. In general, tibolone and raloxifene had a neutral effect on blood pressure in both hypertensive and normotensive women. Large randomized trials are needed to assess the effect of oral hormone therapy on blood pressure as a primary outcome in hypertensive women and the effect of transdermal preparations on both normotensive and hypertensive women. Transdermal preparations would be the preferred mode of therapy for hypertensive women, in view of their favorable physiologic and clinical profiles. The decision regarding the use of hormone therapy should be individualized, and blood pressure should be monitored during the course of treatment.

  4. Nutraceuticals for blood pressure control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirtori, Cesare R; Arnoldi, Anna; Cicero, Arrigo F G

    2015-01-01

    Significant effects on blood pressure (BP) have been reported from large nutritional interventions, particularly the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) and the Mediterranean diet. In more recent years, numerous studies have investigated the possible BP-lowering effect of different nutraceuticals; these range from specific foods to minerals, lipids, whole proteins, peptides, amino acids, probiotics, and vitamins. While a very large body of evidence supports the use of potassium, L-arginine, vitamins C and D, cocoa flavonoids, beetroot juice, some probiotics, coenzyme Q10, controlled-release melatonin, aged garlic extract, and coffee, the use of other nutraceuticals, such as green tea, flaxseed, and resveratrol, has not as yet been supported by adequate evidence. In some cases, e.g. proteins/peptides, the responsible component needs also to be fully uncovered. Finally, while for most of the products only short-term studies are available, with no specific end-points, an ongoing very large prospective study on chocolate flavanols will answer the question whether this may reduce cardiovascular risk. Thus, in addition to data on long-term safety, further clinical research is advisable in order to identify, among active nutraceuticals, those with the best cost-effectiveness and risk-benefit ratio for a wide use in the general population with a raised cardiovascular risk consequent to uncomplicated hypertension.

  5. Effects of exercise on central aortic pressure before and after treatment with renin-angiotensin system blockade in patients with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Peter S; Brunel, Patrick; Baschiera, Fabio; Botha, Jaco; Williams, Bryan

    2015-12-01

    Brachial blood pressure increases with exercise and an excessive rise predicts increased cardiovascular risk. Measurement of brachial blood pressure alone may exaggerate the true blood pressure elevation due to exercise-induced change to pressure amplification. Whether blood pressure-lowering treatment modulates pressure amplification during exercise is unknown. Thirty-two participants with stage 1-2 hypertension (mean age 59.2 years) received eight weeks' blood pressure lowering with either aliskiren (300mg, n=16) or valsartan (320mg, n=16). Brachial and central aortic pressure (CASP) were measured non-invasively during treadmill exercise (Bruce protocol) at baseline, after eight weeks' treatment and 48 hours following treatment withdrawal. The rise in brachial blood pressure with exercise exceeded the rise in CASP, indicative of enhanced pressure amplification. Eight weeks' treatment elicited similar reductions in brachial blood pressure and CASP which did not differ between rest and peak exercise (p>0.05). The exercise-induced increase in systolic pressure amplification did not differ between baseline and following eight weeks' treatment (p>0.05). These effects remained unchanged following treatment withdrawal. Blood pressure lowering does not directly influence the relationship between aortic and brachial pressure either at rest or during exercise in patients with hypertension, other than through proportionate lowering of both pressures. These effects remained unchanged 48 hours after a simulated missed medication dose. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Ambulatory blood pressure profiles in familial dysautonomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Lior; Bar-Aluma, Bat-El; Krauthammer, Alex; Efrati, Ori; Sharabi, Yehonatan

    2018-02-12

    Familial dysautonomia (FD) is a rare genetic disease that involves extreme blood pressure fluctuations secondary to afferent baroreflex failure. The diurnal blood pressure profile, including the average, variability, and day-night difference, may have implications for long-term end organ damage. The purpose of this study was to describe the circadian pattern of blood pressure in the FD population and relationships with renal and pulmonary function, use of medications, and overall disability. We analyzed 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring recordings in 22 patients with FD. Information about medications, disease severity, renal function (estimated glomerular filtration, eGFR), pulmonary function (forced expiratory volume in 1 s, FEV1) and an index of blood pressure variability (standard deviation of systolic pressure) were analyzed. The mean (± SEM) 24-h blood pressure was 115 ± 5.6/72 ± 2.0 mmHg. The diurnal blood pressure variability was high (daytime systolic pressure standard deviation 22.4 ± 1.5 mmHg, nighttime 17.2 ± 1.6), with a high frequency of a non-dipping pattern (16 patients, 73%). eGFR, use of medications, FEV1, and disability scores were unrelated to the degree of blood pressure variability or to dipping status. This FD cohort had normal average 24-h blood pressure, fluctuating blood pressure, and a high frequency of non-dippers. Although there was evidence of renal dysfunction based on eGFR and proteinuria, the ABPM profile was unrelated to the measures of end organ dysfunction or to reported disability.

  7. Distinctive Steady-State Heart Rate and Blood Pressure Responses to Passive Robotic Leg Exercise and Functional Electrical Stimulation During Head-up Tilt

    OpenAIRE

    Amirehsan Sarabadani Tafreshi; Amirehsan Sarabadani Tafreshi; Robert Riener; Robert Riener; Verena Klamroth-Marganska; Verena Klamroth-Marganska

    2016-01-01

    Tilt tables enable early mobilization of patients by providing verticalization. But there is a high risk of orthostatic hypotension provoked by verticalization, especially after neurological diseases such as spinal cord injury. Robot-assisted tilt tables might be an alternative as they add passive robotic leg exercise (PE) that can be enhanced with functional electrical stimulation (FES) to the verticalization, thus reducing the risk of orthostatic hypotension. We hypothesized that the influe...

  8. Side effects of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, M.S. van der; Lenders, J.W.M.; Thien, Th.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the experiences and complaints of patients who underwent 24 h blood pressure monitoring. METHODS: Two groups of hypertensive patients of a tertiary outpatient clinic were asked to fill in a nine-item questionnaire about the side effects of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring

  9. Managing Stress to Control High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Aortic Aneurysm More Managing Stress to Control High Blood Pressure Updated:Jan 29,2018 The importance of stress ... This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  10. Palpatory method of measuring diastolic blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Sahu

    2010-01-01

    Conclusion: The palpatory method would be very useful where frequent blood pressure measurement are being done manually like in wards, in busy OPD, patient on treadmill and also whenever stethoscope is not available. The blood pressure can be measured in noisy environment too.

  11. Sodium-blood pressure interrelationship in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franx, A; Steegers, E A; de Boo, T; Thien, T; Merkus, J M

    1999-03-01

    In non-pregnant individuals, a strong positive association of sodium intake with blood pressure has been established, but the relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure in human pregnancy remains obscure up to date. The aim of this prospective observational cohort study was to assess the relationship between urinary sodium excretion (as a measure for intake) and blood pressure from the early second trimester onwards throughout pregnancy. The study group consisted of 667 low-risk women with singleton pregnancies, of whom 350 were nulliparous and 317 parous. Blood pressure was measured in a standardised fashion at predetermined intervals from the first antenatal visit prior to 16 weeks gestation until delivery. Urinary sodium excretion was measured in 24-h urine collections on at least four occasions between 16 and 38 weeks gestation. Main outcome measures were the coefficients of correlation between changes in urinary sodium output and changes in blood pressure during six different gestational epochs. No significant correlations were found between changes in urinary sodium output and changes in blood pressure. Correlation coefficients were alike for nulliparous and parous women and for different gestational intervals. Prior to 32 weeks gestation, no differences were observed in sodium excretion between women who remained normotensive and those who developed gestational hypertension. These results suggest that changes in sodium intake are not associated with blood pressure changes in low-risk pregnant women. Blood pressure increases as observed in the second half of normotensive and hypertensive pregnancies are unlikely to be caused by changes in renal sodium handling.

  12. Dietary protein and blood pressure : epidemiological studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altorf-van der Kuil, W.

    2012-01-01


    Background
    Elevated blood pressure is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Diet and lifestyle have a substantial impact on blood pressure, but the role of protein intake is not yet clear. This thesis focuses on total dietary protein, types of protein (i.e. plant and

  13. Blood pressure in ICSI-conceived adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belva, F.; Roelants, M.; de Schepper, J.; Roseboom, T. J.; Bonduelle, M.; Devroey, P.; Painter, R. C.

    2012-01-01

    Do young adolescents conceived by ICSI display a higher blood pressure than spontaneously conceived (SC) adolescents? In our study, 14-year-old male and female ICSI teenagers were not found to have increased blood pressure at rest. Only limited data are available regarding the cardiovascular risk of

  14. Regulation of increased blood flow (hyperemia) to muscles during exercise: a hierarchy of competing physiological needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner, Michael J; Casey, Darren P

    2015-04-01

    This review focuses on how blood flow to contracting skeletal muscles is regulated during exercise in humans. The idea is that blood flow to the contracting muscles links oxygen in the atmosphere with the contracting muscles where it is consumed. In this context, we take a top down approach and review the basics of oxygen consumption at rest and during exercise in humans, how these values change with training, and the systemic hemodynamic adaptations that support them. We highlight the very high muscle blood flow responses to exercise discovered in the 1980s. We also discuss the vasodilating factors in the contracting muscles responsible for these very high flows. Finally, the competition between demand for blood flow by contracting muscles and maximum systemic cardiac output is discussed as a potential challenge to blood pressure regulation during heavy large muscle mass or whole body exercise in humans. At this time, no one dominant dilator mechanism accounts for exercise hyperemia. Additionally, complex interactions between the sympathetic nervous system and the microcirculation facilitate high levels of systemic oxygen extraction and permit just enough sympathetic control of blood flow to contracting muscles to regulate blood pressure during large muscle mass exercise in humans. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Title: variations and sensitivities of some blood pressure monitors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood pressure is the pressure exerted by circulating blood upon the walls of blood vessels. Accuracy in blood pressure meters is of essence to health, especially in blood pressure monitoring and treatment. The aim of this research was to compare the readings and the sensitivities of some blood pressure monitors in use ...

  16. Blood temperature and perfusion to exercising and non-exercising human limbs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    González-Alonso, José; Calbet, José Al; Boushel, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Temperature-sensitive mechanisms may contribute to blood flow regulation, but the influence of temperature on perfusion to exercising and non-exercising human limbs is not established. Blood temperature (TB ), blood flow and oxygen uptake (VO2 ) in the legs and arms were measured in 16 healthy...... humans during 90 min of leg and arm exercise and during exhaustive incremental leg or arm exercise. During prolonged exercise, leg blood flow (LBF) was 4-fold higher than arm blood flow (ABF) in association with higher TB and limb VO2 . Leg and arm vascular conductance during exercise compared to rest...... was related closely to TB (R(2) = 0.91; P exercise, LBF increased in association with elevations in TB and limb VO2 whereas ABF, arm TB and VO2 remained largely unchanged. During...

  17. Exercício físico e o controle da pressão arterial Ejercício físico y el control de la presion arterial Physical exercise and blood pressure control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Monteiro

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O exercício físico provoca uma série de respostas fisiológicas, resultantes de adaptações autonômicas e hemodinâmicas que vão influenciar o sistema cardiovascular. Diversos estudos demonstraram o seu efeito benéfico sobre a pressão arterial. Sendo a hipertensão arterial sistêmica uma entidade de alta prevalência e elevada morbimortalidade na população, o exercício físico tem importante papel como elemento não medicamentoso para o seu controle ou como adjuvante ao tratamento farmacológico.El ejercicio físico provoca una serie de respuesta fisiológicas, resultantes de adaptaciones autonómicas y hemodinámicas que van a influenciar en el sistema cardiovascular. Diversos estudios demonstraron el efecto benéfico sobre la presión arterial. Siendo así, la hipertensión arterial sistémica una entidad de alta prevalencia y elevada morbi-mortalidad en la población, el ejercicio físico tiene un papel muy importante como elemento no medicamentoso para su control y como adyuvante al tratamiento farmacológico tambien.Physical exercise causes a series of physiological responses resulting from autonomic and hemodynamic adaptation that affect the cardiovascular system. Many studies have demonstrated its beneficial effect on blood pressure. Bearing in mind that hypertension is a very prevalent condition causing high morbidity and mortality rate, the physical exercise plays an important role as a non-drug measure for its control or as an adjuvant to drug treatment.

  18. Office blood pressure or ambulatory blood pressure for the prediction of cardiovascular events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Rikke Nørmark; Gerds, Thomas Alexander; Jeppesen, Jørgen Lykke

    2017-01-01

    Aims: To determine the added value of (i) 24-h ambulatory blood pressure relative to office blood pressure and (ii) night-time ambulatory blood pressure relative to daytime ambulatory blood pressure for 10-year person-specific absolute risks of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular events. Methods...... and results: A total of 7927 participants were included from the International Database on Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in relation to Cardiovascular Outcomes. We used cause-specific Cox regression to predict 10-year person-specific absolute risks of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular events....... Discrimination of 10-year outcomes was assessed by time-dependent area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). No differences in predicted risks were observed when comparing office blood pressure and ambulatory blood pressure. The median difference in 10-year risks (1st; 3rd quartile) was -0...

  19. The relationship between blood viscosity and blood pressure in a random sample of the population aged 55 to 74 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowkes, F G; Lowe, G D; Rumley, A; Lennie, S E; Smith, F B; Donnan, P T

    1993-05-01

    Blood viscosity is elevated in hypertensive subjects, but the association of viscosity with arterial blood pressure in the general population, and the influence of social, lifestyle and disease characteristics on this association, are not established. In the Edinburgh Artery Study, 1592 men and women aged 55-74 years selected randomly from the general population attended a university clinic. A fasting blood sample was taken for the measurement of blood viscosity and its major determinants (haematocrit, plasma viscosity and fibrinogen). Systolic pressure was related univariately to blood viscosity (P viscosity (P index. Diastolic pressure was related univariately to blood viscosity (P viscosity (P viscosity and systolic pressure was confined to males. Blood viscosity was associated equally with systolic and diastolic pressures in males, and remained independently related on multivariate analysis adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, social class, smoking, alcohol intake, exercise, angina, HDL and non-HDL cholesterol, diabetes mellitus, plasma viscosity, fibrinogen, and haematocrit.

  20. Segmental blood pressure after total hip replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebuhr, Peter Henrik; Soelberg, M; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1992-01-01

    Twenty-nine patients due to have a total hip replacement had their systemic systolic and segmental blood pressures measured prior to operation and 1 and 6 weeks postoperatively. No patients had signs of ischemia. The segmental blood pressure was measured at the ankle and at the toes. A significant...... drop was found in all pressures 1 week postoperatively. The decrease followed the systemic pressure and was restored to normal after 6 weeks. In a group of six patients with preoperatively decreased ankle pressure, a significant transient further decrease in the ankle-toe gradient pressure was found...... on the operated side. None of the patients had symptoms from the lowered pressure. We conclude that in patients without signs of ischemia, the postoperative segmental pressure decrease is reversible and therefore not dangerous....

  1. Influência da cafeína na resposta pressórica ao exercício aeróbio em sujeitos hipertensos Caffeine influence on blood pressure response to aerobic exercise in hypertensive subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Freire Cazé

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A redução da pressão arterial (PA promovida pelo exercício físico é evidente segundo a literatura atual. Mecanismos neuro-humorais explicam essa resposta hipotensora, em que a diminuição da atividade simpática apresenta-se como um dos principais mecanismos. Porém, a ingestão de alimentos ricos em cafeína (CA pode suprimir esta atenuação simpática. O objetivo desse estudo foi elucidar o impacto da ingestão de CA na resposta pressórica ao exercício em pessoas hipertensas. Sete hipertensos (52,3 ± 3,3 anos, sendo cinco mulheres, realizaram duas sessões de caminhada com 40 minutos de duração, em dois dias de treinamento, tendo previamente ingerido CA (4mg/kg de peso corporal ou placebo (PL. A PA e a frequência cardíaca foram verificadas anteriormente a ingestão, após 15, 30, 45, 60 minutos da ingestão em estado de repouso e com 10, 20 e 30 minutos após o exercício. Os dados foram tratados por meio de estatística descritiva, e pelo teste não paramétrico de Wilcoxon (p Blood pressure reduction (BP promoted by physical exercise is evident according to the current literature. Neurohumoral mechanisms explain this hypotensive response, in which decrease of the sympathetic activity appears as one of its main mechanisms. However, the ingestion of caffeine-rich food (CA can suppress this sympathetic attenuation. The objective of this study was to elucidate the impact of CA ingestion in BP after exercise, in hypertensive individuals. Seven hypertensive subjects (52.3 +/-3.3 years, being 5 women, accomplished two walk sessions with 40 minutes of duration, in two days of training, having previously ingested CA (4 mg/kg of body weight or placebo (PL. BP and heart rate were verified previously to the ingestion, after 15, 30, 45, 60 minutes of the ingestion, at rest and with 10, 20 and 30 minutes after exercise. Data were treated through descriptive statistics and by the non-parametric Wilcoxon test (p<0.05. BP mean increased from

  2. Association Between Exercise and Blood Glucose Levels In Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eryna Laili Putri

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes Mellitus (DM is a chronic disease with high prevalence, associated with various debilitating complications and can decreases the quality of life in people with it. It is important for people with DM to doing exercise to control the stability of their blood glucose levels. The purpose of this study was to finding out the association between frequency, duration, and intensity of exercise with average blood glucose levels in people with DM. This was an observational study that used case control design. Data obtained from interview with 20 samples from case group and 20 samples from control group, that had been chosen with systematic random sampling technique. Dependent variable of this study was the average blood glucose levels and independents variables were frequency, duration, intensity, and the kind of exercise. This study used Chi Square test 3 × 2 contingency tables to finding out the association and risk of dependent variable with independent variables,. The results showed that exercise factors that associated to average blood glucose levels were duration of exercise (p = 0.022 and intensity of exercise (p = 0.021. The frequency of exercise does not associated to average blood glucose levels (p = 0.340. Diabetic patients who did not do any exercise have the risk of having uncontrolled blood glucose levels. The conclusion was duration and intensity of exercise related significantly to blood glucose levels. By doing exercise three times a week for 30 minutes or more can decreases the risk of uncontrolled blood glucose levels in people with DM. Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, exercise, average blood glucose levels

  3. Cyclical blood flow restriction resistance exercise: a potential parallel to remote ischemic preconditioning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprick, Justin D; Rickards, Caroline A

    2017-11-01

    Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) is characterized by the cyclical application of limb blood flow restriction and reperfusion and has been shown to protect vital organs during a subsequent ischemic insult. Blood flow restriction exercise (BFRE) similarly combines bouts of blood flow restriction with low-intensity exercise and thus could potentially emulate the protection demonstrated by RIPC. One concern with BFRE, however, is the potential for an augmented rise in sympathetic outflow due to greater activation of the exercise pressor reflex. Because of the use of lower workloads, however, we hypothesized that BFRE would elicit an attenuated increase in sympathetic outflow [assessed via plasma norepinephrine (NE) and mean arterial pressure (MAP)] and middle cerebral artery velocity (MCAv) when compared with conventional exercise (CE). Fifteen subjects underwent two leg press exercise interventions: 1 ) BFRE-220 mmHg bilateral thigh occlusion at 20% 1 rep-max (1RM), and 2 ) CE-65% 1RM without occlusion. Each condition consisted of 4 × 5-min cycles of exercise, with 3 × 10-reps in each cycle. Five minutes of rest and reperfusion (for BFRE) followed each cycle. MAP increased with exercise ( P exercise ( P exercise only ( P = 0.07). Plasma NE concentration increased with CE only ( P exercise ( P ≤ 0.02). The attenuated sympathetic response, combined with similar cerebrovascular responses, suggest that cyclical BFRE could be explored as an alternative to CE in the clinical setting. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Blood flow patterns during incremental and steady-state aerobic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coovert, Daniel; Evans, LeVisa D; Jarrett, Steven; Lima, Carla; Lima, Natalia; Gurovich, Alvaro N

    2017-05-30

    Endothelial shear stress (ESS) is a physiological stimulus for vascular homeostasis, highly dependent on blood flow patterns. Exercise-induced ESS might be beneficial on vascular health. However, it is unclear what type of ESS aerobic exercise (AX) produces. The aims of this study are to characterize exercise-induced blood flow patterns during incremental and steady-state AX. We expect blood flow pattern during exercise will be intensity-dependent and bidirectional. Six college-aged students (2 males and 4 females) were recruited to perform 2 exercise tests on cycleergometer. First, an 8-12-min incremental test (Test 1) where oxygen uptake (VO2), heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), and blood lactate (La) were measured at rest and after each 2-min step. Then, at least 48-hr. after the first test, a 3-step steady state exercise test (Test 2) was performed measuring VO2, HR, BP, and La. The three steps were performed at the following exercise intensities according to La: 0-2 mmol/L, 2-4 mmol/L, and 4-6 mmol/L. During both tests, blood flow patterns were determined by high-definition ultrasound and Doppler on the brachial artery. These measurements allowed to determine blood flow velocities and directions during exercise. On Test 1 VO2, HR, BP, La, and antegrade blood flow velocity significantly increased in an intensity-dependent manner (repeated measures ANOVA, pflow velocity did not significantly change during Test 1. On Test 2 all the previous variables significantly increased in an intensity-dependent manner (repeated measures ANOVA, pflow patterns during incremental and steady-state exercises include both antegrade and retrograde blood flows.

  5. THE EFFECT OF CORE EXERCISES ON TRANSDIAPHRAGMATIC PRESSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M. Strongoli

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal exercises, such as sit ups and leg lifts, are used to enhance strength of the core muscles. An overlooked aspect of abdominal exercises is the compression the abdomen, leading to increased diaphragmatic work. We hypothesized that core exercises would produce a variety of transdiaphragmatic pressures. We also sought to determine if some of the easy exercises would produce pressures sufficient for a training stimulus to the diaphragm. We evaluated the effect of 13 different abdominal exercises, ranging in difficulty, on transdiaphragmatic pressure (Pdi, an index of diaphragmatic activity. Six healthy subjects, aged 22 to 53, participated. Each subject was instrumented with two balloon-tipped catheters to obtain gastric and esophageal pressures, from which Pdi was calculated. Prior to initiating the exercises, each subject performed a maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP maneuver. Resting Pdi was also measured. The exercises were performed from least to most difficult, with five repetitions each. There was a significant difference between the exercises and the MIP Pdi, as well as between the exercises and resting Pdi (p 50% of the Pdi during the MIP maneuver, which may provide a training stimulus to the diaphragm if used as a regular exercise. The Pdi measurements also provide insight into diaphragm recruitment during different core exercises, and may aid in the design of exercises to improve diaphragm strength and endurance

  6. Comparison of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and office blood pressure measurements in obese children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renda, Rahime

    2018-04-01

    Obesity in adults has been related to hypertension and abnormal nocturnal dipping of blood pressure, which are associated with poor cardiovascular and renal outcomes. Here, we aimed to resolve the relationship between the degree of obesity, the severity of hypertension and dipping status on ambulatory blood pressure in obese children. A total 72 patients with primary obesity aged 7 to 18 years (mean: 13.48 ± 3.25) were selected. Patients were divided into three groups based on body mass index (BMİ) Z-score. Diagnosis and staging of ambulatory hypertension based on 24-h blood pressure measurements, obtained from ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Based on our ambulatory blood pressure data, 35 patients (48.6%) had hypertension, 7 (20%) had ambulatory prehypertension, 21 (60%) had hypertension, and 7 patients (20%) had severe ambulatory hypertension. There was a significant relationship between severity of hypertension and the degree of obesity (p lood pressure results and loads were similar between groups. Diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure levels during the night, diastolic blood pressure loads, and heart rate during the day were significantly higher in Group 3 (p lood pressure at night, mean arterial pressure at night, diastolic blood pressure loads and heart rate at day. Increase in BMI Z-score does not a significant impact on daytime blood pressure and nocturnal dipping status.

  7. Comparison of Blood Lipids, Blood Pressures and Left Ventricular Cavity Dimension between Soccer Players and Non-Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhan, Ismail; Kurkcu, Recep; Cekin, Resul

    2013-01-01

    In this study, it was aimed to compare the investigate the effects of regular exercise on blood lipids, blood pressure and left ventricular cavity dimensions function between soccer players and non-athletes in football players. This study consisted included a total of 30 subjects, including an experimental group including 18 soccer players…

  8. Reducing maternal mortality: Systolic blood pressure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-03-21

    Mar 21, 2006 ... While deaths due to fluid overload have ... of better fluid balance management, we have made .... systolic blood pressure plays a significant role in the .... one looks at the work of Martin et al.5 ... Promoting Healthy Life.

  9. Dietary fiber and blood pressure control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleixandre, A; Miguel, M

    2016-04-01

    In the past few years, new strategies to control blood pressure levels are emerging by developing new bioactive components of foods. Fiber has been linked to the prevention of a number of cardiovascular diseases and disorders. β-Glucan, the main soluble fiber component in oat grains, was initially linked to a reduction in plasma cholesterol. Several studies have shown afterward that dietary fiber may also improve glycaemia, insulin resistance and weight loss. The effect of dietary fiber on arterial blood pressure has been the subject of far fewer studies than its effect on the above-mentioned variables, but research has already shown that fiber intake can decrease arterial blood pressure in hypertensive rats. Moreover, certain fibers can improve arterial blood pressure when administered to hypertensive and pre-hypertensive subjects. The present review summarizes all those studies which attempt to establish the antihypertensive effects of dietary fiber, as well as its effect on other cardiovascular risk factors.

  10. Preeclampsia and High Blood Pressure During Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gynecologists f AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ034 PREGNANCY Preeclampsia and High Blood Pressure During Pregnancy • What is ... is chronic hypertension during pregnancy managed? • What is preeclampsia? • When does preeclampsia occur? • What causes preeclampsia? • What ...

  11. Teaming Up Against High Blood Pressure

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is based on the September 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. A team-based approach by patients, health care systems, and health care providers is one of the best ways to treat uncontrolled high blood pressure.

  12. Crisis exercises with simulated media pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchot, E.; Robin, M.

    2016-01-01

    Communication in a nuclear crisis presents always a certain degree of psychic tension due to collective stress, a multiplicity of the actors, the complexity of the situation, and a lot of requests from media, NGO or local elected officials. A bad communication in a crisis situation can jeopardize the trust in the authorities and discourage population to follow sanitary recommendations and the efficiency of the protective measures can then be threatened. So training in crisis communication has become a necessity and is now fully integrated in crisis exercises. Simulated media pressure (SMP) is wielded by a specialized agency that will test the clarity, consistency and the relevancy of the pieces of information released by the communication cells through interviews, press statements, official releases or messages to social networks. A feedback analysis is always made to point out the weaknesses. (A.C.)

  13. Influence of short-term blood pressure variability on blood pressure determinations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, W. J.; van Goudoever, J.; van Montfrans, G. A.; Wesseling, K. H.

    1992-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of blood pressure variability on Riva Rocci Korotkoff blood pressure determinations, we studied the intra-arterial pressure during Riva Rocci Korotkoff determinations in 25 patients. In 50 measurements with a cuff deflation rate of 2.5 mm Hg/sec, the systolic intra-arterial

  14. Influence of cold-water immersion on limb blood flow after resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawhinney, Chris; Jones, Helen; Low, David A; Green, Daniel J; Howatson, Glyn; Gregson, Warren

    2017-06-01

    This study determined the influence of cold (8°C) and cool (22°C) water immersion on lower limb and cutaneous blood flow following resistance exercise. Twelve males completed 4 sets of 10-repetition maximum squat exercise and were then immersed, semi-reclined, into 8°C or 22°C water for 10-min, or rested in a seated position (control) in a randomized order on different days. Rectal and thigh skin temperature, muscle temperature, thigh and calf skin blood flow and superficial femoral artery blood flow were measured before and after immersion. Indices of vascular conductance were calculated (flux and blood flow/mean arterial pressure). The colder water reduced thigh skin temperature and deep muscle temperature to the greatest extent (P lower (55%) than the control post-immersion (P water similarly reduce femoral artery and cutaneous blood flow responses but not muscle temperature following resistance exercise.

  15. Cocoa, blood pressure, and cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Claudio; Desideri, Giovambattista; Ferri, Livia; Proietti, Ilenia; Di Agostino, Stefania; Martella, Letizia; Mai, Francesca; Di Giosia, Paolo; Grassi, Davide

    2015-11-18

    High blood pressure is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular events worldwide. Clinical and epidemiological studies suggest that cocoa-rich products reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. According to this, cocoa has a high content in polyphenols, especially flavanols. Flavanols have been described to exert favorable effects on endothelium-derived vasodilation via the stimulation of nitric oxide-synthase, the increased availability of l-arginine, and the decreased degradation of NO. Cocoa may also have a beneficial effect by protecting against oxidative stress alterations and via decreased platelet aggregation, decreased lipid oxidation, and insulin resistance. These effects are associated with a decrease of blood pressure and a favorable trend toward a reduction in cardiovascular events and strokes. Previous meta-analyses have shown that cocoa-rich foods may reduce blood pressure. Long-term trials investigating the effect of cocoa products are needed to determine whether or not blood pressure is reduced on a chronic basis by daily ingestion of cocoa. Furthermore, long-term trials investigating the effect of cocoa on clinical outcomes are also needed to assess whether cocoa has an effect on cardiovascular events. A 3 mmHg systolic blood pressure reduction has been estimated to decrease the risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. This paper summarizes new findings concerning cocoa effects on blood pressure and cardiovascular health, focusing on putative mechanisms of action and "nutraceutical " viewpoints.

  16. Blood Pressure Quiz | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: High Blood Pressure Blood Pressure Quiz Past Issues / Fall 2011 Table of Contents Blood pressure changes throughout the day. It… is highest while ...

  17. Calcium Supplements: Do They Interfere with Blood Pressure Drugs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with blood pressure drugs? Is it true that calcium supplements may interact with blood pressure medications? Answers ... G. Sheps, M.D. Yes. In large amounts, calcium supplements may interact with some blood pressure medications. ...

  18. Respiratory ammonia output and blood ammonia concentration during incremental exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ament, W; Huizenga, [No Value; Kort, E; van der Mark, TW; Grevink, RG; Verkerke, GJ

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the increase of ammonia concentration and lactate concentration in blood was accompanied by an increased expiration of ammonia during graded exercise. Eleven healthy subjects performed an incremental cycle ergometer test. Blood ammonia, blood lactate

  19. Assessing pharmacy students' ability to accurately measure blood pressure using a blood pressure simulator arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottenberg, Michelle M; Bryant, Ginelle A; Haack, Sally L; North, Andrew M

    2013-06-12

    To compare student accuracy in measuring normal and high blood pressures using a simulator arm. In this prospective, single-blind, study involving third-year pharmacy students, simulator arms were programmed with prespecified normal and high blood pressures. Students measured preset normal and high diastolic and systolic blood pressure using a crossover design. One hundred sixteen students completed both blood pressure measurements. There was a significant difference between the accuracy of high systolic blood pressure (HSBP) measurement and normal systolic blood pressure (NSBP) measurement (mean HSBP difference 8.4 ± 10.9 mmHg vs NSBP 3.6 ± 6.4 mmHg; pdifference between the accuracy of high diastolic blood pressure (HDBP) measurement and normal diastolic blood pressure (NDBP) measurement (mean HDBP difference 6.8 ± 9.6 mmHg vs. mean NDBP difference 4.6 ± 4.5 mmHg; p=0.089). Pharmacy students may need additional instruction and experience with taking high blood pressure measurements to ensure they are able to accurately assess this important vital sign.

  20. Assessing Pharmacy Students’ Ability to Accurately Measure Blood Pressure Using a Blood Pressure Simulator Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Ginelle A.; Haack, Sally L.; North, Andrew M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To compare student accuracy in measuring normal and high blood pressures using a simulator arm. Methods. In this prospective, single-blind, study involving third-year pharmacy students, simulator arms were programmed with prespecified normal and high blood pressures. Students measured preset normal and high diastolic and systolic blood pressure using a crossover design. Results. One hundred sixteen students completed both blood pressure measurements. There was a significant difference between the accuracy of high systolic blood pressure (HSBP) measurement and normal systolic blood pressure (NSBP) measurement (mean HSBP difference 8.4 ± 10.9 mmHg vs NSBP 3.6 ± 6.4 mmHg; pdifference between the accuracy of high diastolic blood pressure (HDBP) measurement and normal diastolic blood pressure (NDBP) measurement (mean HDBP difference 6.8 ± 9.6 mmHg vs. mean NDBP difference 4.6 ± 4.5 mmHg; p=0.089). Conclusions. Pharmacy students may need additional instruction and experience with taking high blood pressure measurements to ensure they are able to accurately assess this important vital sign. PMID:23788809

  1. Beat-to-Beat Blood Pressure Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Jin

    2012-01-01

    This device provides non-invasive beat-to-beat blood pressure measurements and can be worn over the upper arm for prolonged durations. Phase and waveform analyses are performed on filtered proximal and distal photoplethysmographic (PPG) waveforms obtained from the brachial artery. The phase analysis is used primarily for the computation of the mean arterial pressure, while the waveform analysis is used primarily to obtain the pulse pressure. Real-time compliance estimate is used to refine both the mean arterial and pulse pressures to provide the beat-to-beat blood pressure measurement. This wearable physiological monitor can be used to continuously observe the beat-to-beat blood pressure (B3P). It can be used to monitor the effect of prolonged exposures to reduced gravitational environments and the effectiveness of various countermeasures. A number of researchers have used pulse wave velocity (PWV) of blood in the arteries to infer the beat-to-beat blood pressure. There has been documentation of relative success, but a device that is able to provide the required accuracy and repeatability has not yet been developed. It has been demonstrated that an accurate and repeatable blood pressure measurement can be obtained by measuring the phase change (e.g., phase velocity), amplitude change, and distortion of the PPG waveforms along the brachial artery. The approach is based on comparing the full PPG waveform between two points along the artery rather than measuring the time-of-flight. Minimizing the measurement separation and confining the measurement area to a single, well-defined artery allows the waveform to retain the general shape between the two measurement points. This allows signal processing of waveforms to determine the phase and amplitude changes.

  2. Effect of cocoa on blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ried, Karin; Fakler, Peter; Stocks, Nigel P

    2017-04-25

    High blood pressure is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, contributing to about 50% of cardiovascular events worldwide and 37% of cardiovascular-related deaths in Western populations. Epidemiological studies suggest that cocoa-rich products reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Flavanols found in cocoa have been shown to increase the formation of endothelial nitric oxide which promotes vasodilation and therefore blood pressure reduction. Here we update previous meta-analyses on the effect of cocoa on blood pressure. To assess the effects on blood pressure of chocolate or cocoa products versus low-flavanol products or placebo in adults with or without hypertension when consumed for two weeks or longer. This is an updated version of the review initially published in 2012. In this updated version, we searched the following electronic databases from inception to November 2016: Cochrane Hypertension Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE and Embase. We also searched international trial registries, and the reference lists of review articles and included trials. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the effects of chocolate or cocoa products on systolic and diastolic blood pressure in adults for a minimum of two weeks duration. Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the risks of bias in each trial. We conducted random-effects meta-analyses on the included studies using Review Manager 5. We explored heterogeneity with subgroup analyses by baseline blood pressure, flavanol content of control group, blinding, age and duration. Sensitivity analyses explored the influence of unusual study design. Thirty-five trials (including 40 treatment comparisons) met the inclusion criteria. Of these, we added 17 trials (20 treatment comparisons) to the 18 trials (20 treatment comparisons) in the previous version of this updated review.Trials provided participants with 30 to 1218 mg of flavanols (mean = 670 mg) in 1.4 to 105

  3. Blood Pressure Percentiles for School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Özanli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The prevalence of hypertension in childhood and adolescence is gradually increasing. We aimed to in­vestigate the blood pressure (BP values of children aged 7-18 years. Methods: This study was conducted in a total of 3375 (1777 females, 1598 males children from 27 schools. Blood pressures of children were measured using sphyg­momanometer appropriate to arm circumference. Results: A positive relationship was found between sys­tolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP and the body weight, height, age and body mass index (BMI in male and female children. SBP was high­er in males than females after the age of 13. DBP was higher in males than the females after the age of 14. The mean annual increase of SBP was 2.06 mmHg in males and 1.54 mmHg in females. The mean annual increase of DBP was 1.52 mmHg in males and 1.38 mmHg in fe­males. Conclusion: In this study, we identified the threshold val­ues for blood pressure in children between the age of 7 and 18 years in Erzurum province. It is necessary to com­bine and evaluate data obtained from various regions for the identification of BP percentiles according to the age, gender and height percentiles of Turkish children.

  4. Insight of Human Stroke from blood flow and blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.; Hu, Kun; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2003-03-01

    Stroke is is one of the leading cause of death and disability in the world. It is well believed that stroke is caused by the disturbance of cerebrovascular autoregulation. We investigate the blood flow on the left and right middle cerebral artery and beat-to-beat blood pressure simultaneously measured from the finger, for both subjects with stroke and healthy subjects. Synchronization technique is used to distinguish the difference between these two groups.

  5. Magnesium enhances exercise performance via increasing glucose availability in the blood, muscle, and brain during exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsuan-Ying Chen

    Full Text Available Glucose mobilization and utilization in the periphery and central nervous system are important during exercise and are responsible for exercise efficacy. Magnesium (Mg is involved in energy production and plays a role in exercise performance. This study aimed to explore the effects of Mg on the dynamic changes in glucose and lactate levels in the muscle, blood and brain of exercising rats using a combination of auto-blood sampling and microdialysis. Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated with saline or magnesium sulfate (MgSO4, 90 mg/kg, i.p. 30 min before treadmill exercise (20 m/min for 60 min. Our results indicated that the muscle, blood, and brain glucose levels immediately increased during exercise, and then gradually decreased to near basal levels in the recovery periods of both groups. These glucose levels were significantly enhanced to approximately two-fold (P<0.05 in the Mg group. Lactate levels in the muscle, blood, and brain rapidly and significantly increased in both groups during exercise, and brain lactate levels in the Mg group further elevated (P<0.05 than those in the control group during exercise. Lactate levels significantly decreased after exercise in both groups. In conclusion, Mg enhanced glucose availability in the peripheral and central systems, and increased lactate clearance in the muscle during exercise.

  6. [Central blood pressure and vascular damage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Lahiguera, Francisco; Rodilla, Enrique; Costa, José Antonio; Pascual, José María

    2015-07-20

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between central blood pressure and vascular damage. This cross-sectional study involved 393 never treated hypertensive patients (166 women). Clinical blood pressure (BP), 24h blood pressure (BP24h) and central blood pressure (CBP) were measured. Vascular organ damage (VOD) was assessed by calculating the albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR), wave pulse pressure velocity and echocardiographic left ventricular mass index (LVMI). Patients with VOD had higher values of BP, BP24h, and CBP than patients without ACR. When comparing several systolic BP, systolic BP24h had a higher linear correlation with CBP (Z Steiger test: 2.26; P=.02) and LVMI (Z Steiger test: 3.23; P=.01) than PAC. In a multiple regression analysis corrected by age, sex and metabolic syndrome, all pressures were related with VOD but systolic BP24h showed the highest correlation. In a logistic regression analysis, having the highest tercile of systolic BP24h was the stronger predictor of VOD (multivariate odds ratio: 3.4; CI 95%: 2.5-5.5, P=.001). CBP does not have more correlation with VOD than other measurements of peripheral BP. Systolic BP24h is the BP measurement that best predicts VOD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of Triphasic Exercise on Blood Rheology and Pathophysiology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this work is to study the relevance of physiology and pathophysiology in blood rheology as effects of triphasic exercise. Regular exercise which has been established as life prolonging has led to decrease in both peripheral vascular and coronary morbidity that has been associated with certain improvements in ...

  8. Cutaneous blood flow rate in areas with and without arteriovenous anastomoses during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midttun, M.; Sejrsen, Per

    1998-01-01

    Arteriovenous anastomoses, capillaries, cutaneous bllod flow rate, exercise, finger blood flow, skin blood flow......Arteriovenous anastomoses, capillaries, cutaneous bllod flow rate, exercise, finger blood flow, skin blood flow...

  9. Acute resistance exercise with blood flow restriction in elderly hypertensive women: haemodynamic, rating of perceived exertion and blood lactate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Roberta R; Karabulut, Murat; Poton, Roberto; Polito, Marcos D

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to compare haemodynamic, rating of perceived exertion and blood lactate responses during resistance exercise with blood flow restriction (BFR) compared with traditional high-intensity resistance exercise in hypertensive older women. Eighteen hypertensive women (age = 67·0 ± 1·7 years.) undertook three random sessions: (i) three sets; 10 repetitions; 20% of one repetition maximum (1RM) with BFR; (ii) three sets; 10 repetitions; 65% of 1RM; without BFR; and (iii) no-exercise with BFR. The exercise sessions were performed on knee extension equipment. Systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR), stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (CO) were significantly higher (P<0·05) in all sets of exercise sessions than the control. No statistically significant differences were detected between exercise sessions. However, SBP, DBP and systemic vascular resistance were higher (P<0·05) and SV and CO were lower (P<0·05) during the rest intervals in the session with BFR. The perceived exertion was significantly higher (P<0·01) in the 1st (4·8 ± 0·4 versus 3·1 ± 0·3), 2nd (7·3 ± 0·4 versus 5·7 ± 0·4) and 3rd sets (8·6 ± 0·5 versus 7·5 ± 0·4) of the traditional high-intensity resistance exercise compared with the exercise with BFR. Blood lactate was higher (P<0·05) in the traditional high-intensity resistance exercise (6·2 ± 0·7 mmol) than in the exercise with BFR (4·5 ± 0·4 mmol). In comparison with high-intensity resistance exercise, low-intensity resistance exercise with BFR can elicit: (i) same haemodynamic values during exercise; (ii) lower rating of perceived exertion; (iii) lower blood lactate; (iv) higher haemodynamic demand during the rest intervals. © 2016 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Letter to editor: Blood pressure, hypertension and lead exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen-Yi; Staessen, Jan A

    2018-02-19

    A significant association of office diastolic blood pressure with low-level blood lead exposure was reported in a Brazilian adult population. However, caution should be taken to interpret these results. The multivariable-adjusted association with blood pressure was positive for diastolic blood pressure, but inverse for systolic blood pressure. The association sizes were infinitesimal without clinical relevance. The outcome measures, i.e. blood pressure and the prevalence of hypertension were analysed across categories of the blood lead distribution - not in relation to blood lead as continuous variable. Blood pressure was the average of two oscillometric office readings, whereas ambulatory monitoring is the state-of-the-art.

  11. Blood temperature and perfusion to exercising and non-exercising human limbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Alonso, José; Calbet, José A L; Boushel, Robert; Helge, Jørn W; Søndergaard, Hans; Munch-Andersen, Thor; van Hall, Gerrit; Mortensen, Stefan P; Secher, Niels H

    2015-10-01

    What is the central question of this study? Temperature-sensitive mechanisms are thought to contribute to blood-flow regulation, but the relationship between exercising and non-exercising limb perfusion and blood temperature is not established. What is the main finding and its importance? The close coupling among perfusion, blood temperature and aerobic metabolism in exercising and non-exercising extremities across different exercise modalities and activity levels and the tight association between limb vasodilatation and increases in plasma ATP suggest that both temperature- and metabolism-sensitive mechanisms are important for the control of human limb perfusion, possibly by activating ATP release from the erythrocytes. Temperature-sensitive mechanisms may contribute to blood-flow regulation, but the influence of temperature on perfusion to exercising and non-exercising human limbs is not established. Blood temperature (TB ), blood flow and oxygen uptake (V̇O2) in the legs and arms were measured in 16 healthy humans during 90 min of leg and arm exercise and during exhaustive incremental leg or arm exercise. During prolonged exercise, leg blood flow (LBF) was fourfold higher than arm blood flow (ABF) in association with higher TB and limb V̇O2. Leg and arm vascular conductance during exercise compared with rest was related closely to TB (r(2) = 0.91; P exercise, LBF increased in association with elevations in TB and limb V̇O2, whereas ABF, arm TB and V̇O2 remained largely unchanged. During incremental arm exercise, both ABF and LBF increased in relationship to similar increases in V̇O2. In 12 trained males, increases in femoral TB and LBF during incremental leg exercise were mirrored by similar pulmonary artery TB and cardiac output dynamics, suggesting that processes in active limbs dominate central temperature and perfusion responses. The present data reveal a close coupling among perfusion, TB and aerobic metabolism in exercising and non-exercising

  12. Blood pressure in childhood : epidemiological probes into the aetiology of high blood pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Hofman (Albert)

    1983-01-01

    textabstractHigh arterial blood pressure takes a heavy toll in western populations (1 ). Its causes are still largely unknown, but its sequelae, a variety of cardiovascular and renal diseases, have been referred to as "a modern scourge" (2). High blood pressure of unknown cause, or

  13. The optimal scheme of self blood pressure measurement as determined from ambulatory blood pressure recordings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verberk, Willem J.; Kroon, Abraham A.; Kessels, Alfons G. H.; Lenders, Jacques W. M.; Thien, Theo; van Montfrans, Gert A.; Smit, Andries J.; de Leeuw, Peter W.

    Objective To determine how many self-measurements of blood pressure (BP) should be taken at home in order to obtain a reliable estimate of a patient's BP. Design Participants performed self blood pressure measurement (SBPM) for 7 days (triplicate morning and evening readings). In all of them, office

  14. Prevalence of sedentary lifestyle in individuals with high blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Nirla Gomes; Lopes, Marcos Venícios de Oliveira; Moreira, Rafaella Pessoa; Cavalcante, Tahissa Frota; de Araujo, Thelma Leite

    2010-01-01

    To identify the prevalence of a sedentary lifestyle in individuals with high blood pressure. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 310 individuals with high blood pressure. The prevalence of the diagnosis of sedentary lifestyle was 60%. The more common defining characteristics were "lack of physical conditioning" and "lack of practice for physical exercises." The nursing diagnosis was associated with age and presence of diabetes. Individuals who presented with a sedentary lifestyle related to lack of motivation were significantly younger. This study showed a high prevalence of "sedentary lifestyle" and its associations with age and the presence of diabetes. IMPLICATIONS TO NURSING PRACTICE: The acknowledgement of "sedentary lifestyle" contributes to the choice for nursing interventions that promote physical activity centered on the subject and the surroundings.

  15. [Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) in elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palade, D; Iliescu, D; Cotârleţ, Laura; Pandele, G I

    2010-01-01

    Comparison of blood pressure values measured by two methods. 94 hypertensive patients (66 women and 28 men in relation to 2.36/1) were assessed classically and also by ABPM. For statistic evaluation we have used t - Student test, chi2 test, Pearson correlation coefficient and variation coefficient (cv%). It shows significant differences between mean values of systolic and diastolic blood pressure obtained by the 2 methods. ABPM measured values are more accurate compared to clinic, bringing also information on pattern hypertensive therapy.

  16. Predictive role of the nighttime blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tine W; Li, Yan; Boggia, José

    2011-01-01

    Numerous studies addressed the predictive value of the nighttime blood pressure (BP) as captured by ambulatory monitoring. However, arbitrary cutoff limits in dichotomized analyses of continuous variables, data dredging across selected subgroups, extrapolation of cross-sectional studies...... of conclusive evidence proving that nondipping is a reversible risk factor, the option whether or not to restore the diurnal blood pressure profile to a normal pattern should be left to the clinical judgment of doctors and should be individualized for each patient. Current guidelines on the interpretation...

  17. [Blood pressure and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiałka, Marta; Milewicz, Tomasz; Klocek, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder occurring in women of childbearing age. The literature describes the relationship between PCOS and high blood pressure levels and increased risk of arterial hypertension development, which is an important and strong risk factor for adverse cardiovascular events in the future. Among the main causes of hypertension in PCOS women insulin resistance, hyperandrogenism, greater sympathetic nerve activity and concomitance of obesity are stressed. Because PCOS may contribute to earlier development of hypertension, as well as pre-hypertension, therefore it is advisable to monitor blood pressure systematically, to control known risk factors, and to initiate the treatment of hypertension when the disease occur.

  18. Effect of fenofibrate on blood pressure reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A K Lipatenkova

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Реферат по материалам статей 1. Gilbert K, Nian H, Yu C, Luther JM, Brown NJ. Fenofibrate lowers blood pressure in salt-sensitive but not salt-resistant hypertension. J Hypertens. 2013 Apr;31(4:820-9. doi: 10.1097/HJH.0b013e32835e8227. 2. Kwang K. K. Does Fenofibrate Lower Blood Pressure? Hypertension. 2013 Mar;61(3:e27. doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.111.00792.

  19. A novel approach to office blood pressure measurement: 30-minute office blood pressure vs daytime ambulatory blood pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wel, M.C. van der; Buunk, I.E.; Weel, C. van; Thien, Th.; Bakx, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: Current office blood pressure measurement (OBPM) is often not executed according to guidelines and cannot prevent the white-coat effect. Serial, automated, oscillometric OBPM has the potential to overcome both these problems. We therefore developed a 30-minute OBPM method that we compared

  20. Radioisotope method for assessing skin blood pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarkowska, A.; Misiunia, P.; Woytowicz, A.; Olewinski, T.

    1979-01-01

    A method of measuring the skin blood pressure (SBP) evolved by Holstein and Lassen is described. The method is based on determination of the force of pressure causing blockade of Na 131 I clearance from the site of its intradermal injection. Using this method it was found that in the lower extremities in healthy subjects the SBP approached the diastolic pressure measured by the conventional method in the brachial artery. On the other hand in patients with obliterative arteriosclerosis and in Buerger's disease the SBP was considerably lower than the diastolic arterial pressure. The authors think that the method gives a good insight into the state of blood supply to the extremities in healthy subjects and in peripheral vascular failure. (author)

  1. Blood pressure regulation III: what happens when one system must serve two masters: temperature and pressure regulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, W Larry; Stanhewicz, Anna E; Bruning, Rebecca S; Alexander, Lacy M

    2014-03-01

    When prolonged intense exercise is performed at high ambient temperatures, cardiac output must meet dual demands for increased blood flow to contracting muscle and to the skin. The literature has commonly painted this scenario as a fierce competition, wherein one circulation preserves perfusion at the expense of the other, with the regulated maintenance of blood pressure as the ultimate goal. This review redefines this scenario as commensalism, an integrated balance of regulatory control where one circulation benefits with little functional effect on the other. In young, healthy subjects, arterial pressure rarely falls to any great extent during either extreme passive heating or prolonged dynamic exercise in the heat, nor does body temperature rise disproportionately due to a compromised skin blood flow. Rather, it often takes the superimposition of additional stressors--e.g., dehydration or simulated hemorrhage--upon heat stress to substantially impact blood pressure regulation.

  2. 21 CFR 870.1100 - Blood pressure alarm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood pressure alarm. 870.1100 Section 870.1100...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1100 Blood pressure alarm. (a) Identification. A blood pressure alarm is a device that accepts the signal from a blood pressure...

  3. Aerobic training does not alter blood pressure in menopausal women with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Aluísio Henrique Rodrigues de Andrade; Couto, Henrique Eduardo; Cardoso, Glêbia Alexa; Toscano, Lidiane Tavares; Silva, Alexandre Sérgio; Mota, Maria Paula Gonçalves

    2012-11-01

    Arterial Hypertension (AH) is an aggravating condition for Metabolic Syndrome (MS), as well as being aggravated by it. Menopause can make hypertension treatment more difficult, as it favors the worsening of MS components. Although there is evidence that exercise training reduces blood pressure, whether menopause and SM affect the exercise-induced benefits is yet to be elucidated. To compare the effects of aerobic training on blood pressure in non-menopausal and menopausal women with MS METHODS: A total of 44 women were recruited and divided into four groups: non-menopausal control (NMC: 39.5 ± 3.6 years, n = 11); menopausal control (MC: 54.9 ± 5.9 years, n = 12), non-menopausal aerobics (NMA: 43.1 ± 6.8 years, n = 11) and menopausal aerobics (MA: 52.1 ± 5 years, n = 10). The exercise groups performed aerobic training for three months, five times a week, at an intensity between 60% and 70% of heart rate reserve. The resting blood pressure and blood pressure response after 60 minutes of exercise were measured before and after the training period. The two-way ANOVA test was used, considering a p value 0.05). Three months of aerobic training improved MS components, but did not alter resting blood pressure or the BP response after an acute exercise session in women with MS.

  4. Blood pressure control among type 2 diabetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Shehri, Ahmed M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to assess blood pressure BP control in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 DM type treated in primary health care. A cross-sectional study was conducted in primary health care at King Fahd Military Complex Hospital in Dhahran, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between August 2003 and February 2004, to assess blood control in type 2 diabetics. A sample of 403 medical records of type 2 diabetic patients was selected using systematic random sampling after ordering the medical record numbers. The data were collected through the pre-coded checklist. Hypertension was found in 57.8% of diabetic patients with no statistically significant difference between males and females. The mean age of diabetic patients was significantly highly in hypertensive than non-hypertensive p=0.001. The mean duration of hypertension was significantly higher in females p=0.02. There were only 14.2% of hypertensive diabetic patients in whom blood pressure was controlled. Poor control was significantly associated with obesity and a high rate of complications. Blood pressure control correlated positively and significantly with the age of patients and negatively with duration of diabetes and hypertension. The most commonly prescribed antihypertensive were angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors in 29.3%, followed by angiotensin receptors blockers in 24.1%, and the least prescribed drug was thiazide diuretic. Blood pressure in diabetic patients needs to be given particular attention from all health care professionals, especially primary care family physicians, who should follow the new guideline for better control of blood pressure, and fewer complications. Patient's awareness should be increased, through continuous health education with different modalities. (author)

  5. Dysglycemia induces abnormal circadian blood pressure variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumarasamy Sivarajan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prediabetes (PreDM in asymptomatic adults is associated with abnormal circadian blood pressure variability (abnormal CBPV. Hypothesis Systemic inflammation and glycemia influence circadian blood pressure variability. Methods Dahl salt-sensitive (S rats (n = 19 after weaning were fed either an American (AD or a standard (SD diet. The AD (high-glycemic-index, high-fat simulated customary human diet, provided daily overabundant calories which over time lead to body weight gain. The SD (low-glycemic-index, low-fat mirrored desirable balanced human diet for maintaining body weight. Body weight and serum concentrations for fasting glucose (FG, adipokines (leptin and adiponectin, and proinflammatory cytokines [monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α] were measured. Rats were surgically implanted with C40 transmitters and blood pressure (BP-both systolic; SBP and diastolic; DBP and heart rate (HR were recorded by telemetry every 5 minutes during both sleep (day and active (night periods. Pulse pressure (PP was calculated (PP = SBP-DBP. Results [mean(SEM]: The AD fed group displayed significant increase in body weight (after 90 days; p Conclusion These data validate our stated hypothesis that systemic inflammation and glycemia influence circadian blood pressure variability. This study, for the first time, demonstrates a cause and effect relationship between caloric excess, enhanced systemic inflammation, dysglycemia, loss of blood pressure control and abnormal CBPV. Our results provide the fundamental basis for examining the relationship between dysglycemia and perturbation of the underlying mechanisms (adipose tissue dysfunction induced local and systemic inflammation, insulin resistance and alteration of adipose tissue precursors for the renin-aldosterone-angiotensin system which generate abnormal CBPV.

  6. Stress and High Blood Pressure: What's the Connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stress and high blood pressure: What's the connection? Stress and long-term high blood pressure may not be linked, but taking steps to reduce your stress can improve your general health, including your blood ...

  7. Blood temperature and perfusion to exercising and non‐exercising human limbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calbet, José A. L.; Boushel, Robert; Helge, Jørn W.; Søndergaard, Hans; Munch‐Andersen, Thor; van Hall, Gerrit; Mortensen, Stefan P.; Secher, Niels H.

    2015-01-01

    New Findings What is the central question of this study? Temperature‐sensitive mechanisms are thought to contribute to blood‐flow regulation, but the relationship between exercising and non‐exercising limb perfusion and blood temperature is not established. What is the main finding and its importance? The close coupling among perfusion, blood temperature and aerobic metabolism in exercising and non‐exercising extremities across different exercise modalities and activity levels and the tight association between limb vasodilatation and increases in plasma ATP suggest that both temperature‐ and metabolism‐sensitive mechanisms are important for the control of human limb perfusion, possibly by activating ATP release from the erythrocytes. Temperature‐sensitive mechanisms may contribute to blood‐flow regulation, but the influence of temperature on perfusion to exercising and non‐exercising human limbs is not established. Blood temperature (T B), blood flow and oxygen uptake (V˙O2) in the legs and arms were measured in 16 healthy humans during 90 min of leg and arm exercise and during exhaustive incremental leg or arm exercise. During prolonged exercise, leg blood flow (LBF) was fourfold higher than arm blood flow (ABF) in association with higher T B and limb V˙O2. Leg and arm vascular conductance during exercise compared with rest was related closely to T B (r 2 = 0.91; P exercise, LBF increased in association with elevations in T B and limb V˙O2, whereas ABF, arm T B and V˙O2 remained largely unchanged. During incremental arm exercise, both ABF and LBF increased in relationship to similar increases in V˙O2. In 12 trained males, increases in femoral T B and LBF during incremental leg exercise were mirrored by similar pulmonary artery T B and cardiac output dynamics, suggesting that processes in active limbs dominate central temperature and perfusion responses. The present data reveal a close coupling among perfusion, T B and aerobic metabolism

  8. Teaming Up Against High Blood Pressure

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-09-04

    This podcast is based on the September 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. A team-based approach by patients, health care systems, and health care providers is one of the best ways to treat uncontrolled high blood pressure.  Created: 9/4/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 9/4/2012.

  9. Dietary protein, blood pressure and mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielemans, S.M.A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the main cause of death worldwide. In 2012, about 17.5 million people died from CVD, accounting for 30% of all deaths. High blood pressure (BP) is a major cardiovascular risk factor, which was responsible for 10.4 million deaths in 2013. Diet and lifestyle play

  10. Neighborhood Disadvantage and Variations in Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathorall, Michelle L.; Xin, Huaibo; Peachey, Andrew; Bibeau, Daniel L.; Schulz, Mark; Aronson, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the extent to which neighborhood disadvantage accounts for variation in blood pressure. Methods: Demographic, biometric, and self-reported data from 19,261 health screenings were used. Addresses of participants were geocoded and located within census block groups (n = 14,510, 75.3%). Three hierarchical linear models were…

  11. Casual blood pressure among Tanzanian undergraduate students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Despite of the recommendations to use population specific blood pressure (BP) references which consider time, ethnicity and environmental factors, there is limited information regarding BP profile among Tanzanians. This cross sectional study was done to determine casual BP profile among healthy volunteer ...

  12. Intrathoracic Pressure Regulator for Blood Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-24

    hepatitis A antibody, and human immunodeficiency virus antibody), urine tests (drug screen I-abuse, marijuana, and a pregnancy test), and a 12-lead... sodium chloride; 250 mL over 2.5 minutes) were administered if systolic BP < 85 mmHg. Blood pressure, other hemodynamics, UO, and total amount of

  13. Ethnic Variations in Blood Pressure and Hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.O. Agyemang (Charles)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThe objective of the study was to review published evidence on whether blood pressure levels and the prevalence of hypertension are higher or lower in South Asian adults living in the UK as compared to white populations. A systematic literature review was carried out using MEDLINE

  14. Association between blood Pressure, waist circumference ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Blood pressure (BP) is one of the main cardiovascular risk indicators, but studies on its relationship with waist circumference, triglycerides and cholesterol are rare in low and middle income countries and even non-existent in some areas like the north of Cameroon. The aim of our study was to determine the ...

  15. Hybrid optical unobtrusive blood pressure measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, G.; Shan, C.; Kirenko, I.; Long, X.; Aarts, R.M.

    2017-01-01

    Blood pressure (BP) is critical in diagnosing certain cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension. Some previous studies have proved that BP can be estimated by pulse transit time (PTT) calculated by a pair of photoplethysmography (PPG) signals at two body sites. Currently, contact PPG (cPPG) and

  16. Blood pressure modifies retinal susceptibility to intraocular pressure elevation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng He

    Full Text Available Primary open angle glaucoma affects more than 67 million people. Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP is a risk factor for glaucoma and may reduce nutrient availability by decreasing ocular perfusion pressure (OPP. An interaction between arterial blood pressure and IOP determines OPP; but the exact contribution that these factors have for retinal function is not fully understood. Here we sought to determine how acute modifications of arterial pressure will affect the susceptibility of neuronal function and blood flow to IOP challenge. Anaesthetized (ketamine:xylazine Long-Evan rats with low (∼60 mmHg, sodium nitroprusside infusion, moderate (∼100 mmHg, saline, or high levels (∼160 mmHg, angiotensin II of mean arterial pressure (MAP, n = 5-10 per group were subjected to IOP challenge (10-120 mmHg, 5 mmHg steps every 3 minutes. Electroretinograms were measured at each IOP step to assess bipolar cell (b-wave and inner retinal function (scotopic threshold response or STR. Ocular blood flow was measured using laser-Doppler flowmetry in groups with similar MAP level and the same IOP challenge protocol. Both b-wave and STR amplitudes decreased with IOP elevation. Retinal function was less susceptible to IOP challenge when MAP was high, whereas the converse was true for low MAP. Consistent with the effects on retinal function, higher IOP was needed to attenuated ocular blood flow in animals with higher MAP. The susceptibility of retinal function to IOP challenge can be ameliorated by acute high BP, and exacerbated by low BP. This is partially mediated by modifications in ocular blood flow.

  17. Changes You Can Make to Manage High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about Bayer Consumer Health. HBP Resources Risk Calculator Animation Library Track Your Blood Pressure: Print (PDF) | Online ... Pressure Tracker Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 Sodium and Salt 3 Heart Attack Symptoms ...

  18. Effects of endurance training on blood pressure, blood pressure-regulating mechanisms, and cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, Véronique A; Fagard, Robert H

    2005-10-01

    Previous meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials on the effects of chronic dynamic aerobic endurance training on blood pressure reported on resting blood pressure only. Our aim was to perform a comprehensive meta-analysis including resting and ambulatory blood pressure, blood pressure-regulating mechanisms, and concomitant cardiovascular risk factors. Inclusion criteria of studies were: random allocation to intervention and control; endurance training as the sole intervention; inclusion of healthy sedentary normotensive or hypertensive adults; intervention duration of > or =4 weeks; availability of systolic or diastolic blood pressure; and publication in a peer-reviewed journal up to December 2003. The meta-analysis involved 72 trials, 105 study groups, and 3936 participants. After weighting for the number of trained participants and using a random-effects model, training induced significant net reductions of resting and daytime ambulatory blood pressure of, respectively, 3.0/2.4 mm Hg (Phypertensive study groups (-6.9/-4.9) than in the others (-1.9/-1.6; Pendurance training decreases blood pressure through a reduction of vascular resistance, in which the sympathetic nervous system and the renin-angiotensin system appear to be involved, and favorably affects concomitant cardiovascular risk factors.

  19. Blood pressure and control of cardiovascular risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith A Whitworth

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Judith A WhitworthJohn Curtin School of Medical Research, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, AustraliaAbstract: Two key early 20th century notions, the first the primacy of diastolic pressure in determining risk, and the second that hypertension is a discrete disorder, have proved to be incorrect. We now recognize the primacy of systolic pressure as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and that hypertension is an arbitrary definition. In the early 21st century, we are moving away from a dichotomous approach to risk classification, and away from notions of hypertension and normotension towards an appreciation that blood pressure-related risk is continuous. In parallel, there has been a paradigm shift from a single risk factor approach to comprehensive cardiovascular disease risk prevention. Accordingly, prevention of cardiovascular disease requires a focus on lowering of blood pressure and modification of associated risk factors rather than simply treatment of hypertension. This emphasis is reflected in the World Health Organization (WHO – International Society of Hypertension (ISH 2003 statement on management of hypertension.Keywords: blood pressure, hypertension, cardiovascular risk, treatment

  20. Office blood pressure or ambulatory blood pressure for the prediction of cardiovascular events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Rikke Nørmark; Gerds, Thomas Alexander; Jeppesen, Jørgen Lykke; Torp-Pedersen, Christian

    2017-11-21

    To determine the added value of (i) 24-h ambulatory blood pressure relative to office blood pressure and (ii) night-time ambulatory blood pressure relative to daytime ambulatory blood pressure for 10-year person-specific absolute risks of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular events. A total of 7927 participants were included from the International Database on Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in relation to Cardiovascular Outcomes. We used cause-specific Cox regression to predict 10-year person-specific absolute risks of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular events. Discrimination of 10-year outcomes was assessed by time-dependent area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). No differences in predicted risks were observed when comparing office blood pressure and ambulatory blood pressure. The median difference in 10-year risks (1st; 3rd quartile) was -0.01% (-0.3%; 0.1%) for cardiovascular mortality and -0.1% (-1.1%; 0.5%) for cardiovascular events. The difference in AUC (95% confidence interval) was 0.65% (0.22-1.08%) for cardiovascular mortality and 1.33% (0.83-1.84%) for cardiovascular events. Comparing daytime and night-time blood pressure, the median difference in 10-year risks was 0.002% (-0.1%; 0.1%) for cardiovascular mortality and -0.01% (-0.5%; 0.2%) for cardiovascular events. The difference in AUC was 0.10% (-0.08 to 0.29%) for cardiovascular mortality and 0.15% (-0.06 to 0.35%) for cardiovascular events. Ten-year predictions obtained from ambulatory blood pressure are similar to predictions from office blood pressure. Night-time blood pressure does not improve 10-year predictions obtained from daytime measurements. For an otherwise healthy population sufficient prognostic accuracy of cardiovascular risks can be achieved with office blood pressure. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. The Effects of Exercise on Judoists’ Circulating Blood Neutrophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Zar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: Type, intensity and duration of exercises exert pivotal effects on athletes’ immune system and probably athletes’ susceptibility to upper respiratory tract infections. In this study we examined the effects of one session of moderate-intensity exercise on male judoists’ circulating blood neutrophil counts (BNC and respiratory burst, and self-reported upper respiratory clinical infections 24 hours after the exercise and during the sport seasons. Methods: Ten male judoists after obtaining informed consent were included in the study. The athletes took part in a session of moderate-intensity exercise (60 minutes running on a treadmill at 60% of maximum heart rate. Blood samples were drawn at rest immediately after the exercise. Blood neutrophil count and percentage of Phorbol Myristate Acetate (PMA stimulated neutrophils in whole blood were assessed [as a marker of oxidative burst (OB quality]. Athletes were asked about any signs of upper respiratory infections 24 hours after the exercise and during sport seasons. Paired-t test was used for statistical analysis and statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Results: BNC were in normal range at rest, and meaningfully increased immediately after the exercise (p<0.05. At rest, the OB activity was in normal range, and increased immediately after the exercise (not significant. During 24 hours after the exercise, athletes showed no signs of upper respiratory system infections. Also they mentioned no history of increased susceptibility of upper respiratory infections during sport seasons. Conclusion: Continuous judo exercises have no negative effects on BNC and OB activity. This finding is in accordance with the absence of self-reported upper respiratory infections in judoists during sport seasons. Significant increase in BNC after a session of exercise was a

  2. Studies Comparing Ambulatory Blood Pressure and Home Blood Pressure on Cardiovascular Disease and Mortality Outcomes: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimbo, Daichi; Abdalla, Marwah; Falzon, Louise; Townsend, Raymond R.; Muntner, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) is more commonly recommended for assessing out-of-clinic blood pressure than home blood pressure monitoring (HBPM). We conducted a systematic review to examine whether ABPM or HBPM is more strongly associated with cardiovascular disease events and/or mortality. Of 1,007 abstracts published through July 20, 2015, nine articles, reporting results from seven cohorts, were identified. After adjustment for blood pressure on HBPM, blood pressure on ABPM was associated with an increased risk of outcomes in two of four cohorts for systolic blood pressure and two of three cohorts for diastolic blood pressure. After adjustment for blood pressure on ABPM, systolic blood pressure on HBPM was associated with outcomes in zero of three cohorts; an association was present in one of two cohorts for diastolic blood pressure on HBPM. There is a lack of strong empiric evidence supporting ABPM or HBPM over the other approach for predicting cardiovascular events or mortality. PMID:26822864

  3. Intrathecal fentanyl abolishes the exaggerated blood pressure response to cycling in hypertensive men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbosa, Thales C; Vianna, Lauro C; Fernandes, Igor A

    2016-01-01

    . In the present study, we tested whether the attenuation of these neural signals in hypertensive patients could normalize their abnormal increase in blood pressure during physical activity. Attenuation of the neural signals from the leg muscles with intrathecal fentanyl injection reduced the blood pressure...... of fentanyl, a μ-opioid receptor agonist, aiming to attenuate the central projection of opioid-sensitive group III and IV muscle afferent nerves. The cardiovascular response to exercise of these subjects was compared with that of six normotensive men. During cycling, the hypertensive group demonstrated...... an exaggerated increase in blood pressure compared to the normotensive group (mean ± SEM: +17 ± 3 vs. +8 ± 1 mmHg, respectively; P 0.05). Fentanyl inhibited the blood pressure response to exercise...

  4. Blood pressure changes in dogs with babesiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Jacobson

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Systemic arterial blood pressures were measured in 30 dogs with acute babesiosis, 10 each with mild uncomplicated, severe uncomplicated and complicated disease. Ten healthy dogs were used as controls. Hypotension was defined as more than 3 standard deviations below the control mean. Normal mean pressures (±SD were: systolic arterial pressure 151 (±11 mm Hg, diastolic arterial pressure 89 (±8 mm Hg and mean arterial pressure 107 (±10 mmHg. Hypotension was the most frequent abnormality, and increased strikingly in incidence as disease severity increased, with 5/10 dogs in the complicated group being hypotensive for systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressures, compared with 2/10 in the severe uncomplicated group and 0/10 in the mild uncomplicated group. Systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressures in the complicated group and severe uncomplicated group, and systolic pressure in the mild uncomplicated group, were significantly lower than in the controls. There were no significant relationships between arterial pressures and age, pulse rate, respiratory rate, temperature, mucous membrane colour or haematocrit. There was a significant negative correlation between arterial pressures and white cell and immature neutrophil counts. Arterial pressures differed significantly between dogs that were clinically collapsed and those that were not, but not between survivors and non-survivors. Pulse pressure (systolic - diastolic was low in 7/10 complicated, 1/10 mild uncomplicated, and 1/10 severe uncomplicated cases, and differed significantly between the complicated and control groups. The high incidence of hypotension in clinically severe babesiosis has important implications for therapy.

  5. Long-term facial artery catheter implantation for serial arterial blood sampling and invasive arterial blood pressure measurement in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Deborah Penteado Martins; Teixeira, Luisa Gouvêa; Canola, Paulo Aléscio; Albernaz, Raquel Mincarelli; Marques, José Antônio; Neto, José Corrêa de Lacerda

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate surgical catheter implantation in the facial artery of horses and the long-term maintenance of such arteries using heparin and ascorbic acid as filling solution. Nine horses were implanted with a polyurethane catheter. The catheters were flushed with a heparin/ascorbic acid solution every 8h and remained patent for 25 days. Arterial blood samples were collected twice a day, and one exercise test that included serial blood samples and arterial pressure recordings was performed on a treadmill. Polyurethane catheters surgically implanted in the facial artery can be kept patent by filling with a heparin/ascorbic acid solution and provide convenient invasive arterial access in horses which is suitable for use for serial blood sampling and blood pressure recordings, even during exercise on treadmill. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Alanine increases blood pressure during hypotension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlay, L. A.; Maher, T. J.; Wurtman, R. J.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of L-alanine administration on blood pressure (BP) during haemorrhagic shock was investigated using anesthetized rats whose left carotid arteries were cannulated for BP measurement, blood removal, and drug administration. It was found that L-alanine, in doses of 10, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, increased the systolic BP of hypotensive rats by 38 to 80 percent (while 100 mg/kg pyruvate increased BP by only 9.4 mmhg, not significantly different from saline). The results suggest that L-alanine might influence cardiovascular function.

  7. Worldwide trends in blood pressure from 1975 to 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, Allan René; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Raised blood pressure is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and chronic kidney disease. We estimated worldwide trends in mean systolic and mean diastolic blood pressure, and the prevalence of, and number of people with, raised blood pressure, defined as systolic blood...... pressure of 140 mm Hg or higher or diastolic blood pressure of 90 mm Hg or higher. METHODS: For this analysis, we pooled national, subnational, or community population-based studies that had measured blood pressure in adults aged 18 years and older. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate trends...... from 1975 to 2015 in mean systolic and mean diastolic blood pressure, and the prevalence of raised blood pressure for 200 countries. We calculated the contributions of changes in prevalence versus population growth and ageing to the increase in the number of adults with raised blood pressure. FINDINGS...

  8. Diagnosis of childhood hypertension: is blood pressure height ratio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood pressure was also recorded according to the standard method. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure to height ratio were then calculated. Receiver operating curves was used to assess the ability of systolic blood and diastolic blood pressure height ratio to discriminate childhood prehypertension and hypertension.

  9. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring-derived short-term blood pressure variability in primary hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concistrè, A; Grillo, A; La Torre, G; Carretta, R; Fabris, B; Petramala, L; Marinelli, C; Rebellato, A; Fallo, F; Letizia, C

    2018-04-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism is associated with a cluster of cardiovascular manifestations, including hypertension, leading to increased cardiovascular risk. The aim of our study was to investigate the ambulatory blood pressure monitoring-derived short-term blood pressure variability in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism, in comparison with patients with essential hypertension and normotensive controls. Twenty-five patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (7 normotensive,18 hypertensive) underwent ambulatory blood pressure monitoring at diagnosis, and fifteen out of them were re-evaluated after parathyroidectomy. Short-term-blood pressure variability was derived from ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and calculated as the following: 1) Standard Deviation of 24-h, day-time and night-time-BP; 2) the average of day-time and night-time-Standard Deviation, weighted for the duration of the day and night periods (24-h "weighted" Standard Deviation of BP); 3) average real variability, i.e., the average of the absolute differences between all consecutive BP measurements. Baseline data of normotensive and essential hypertension patients were matched for age, sex, BMI and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring values with normotensive and hypertensive-primary hyperparathyroidism patients, respectively. Normotensive-primary hyperparathyroidism patients showed a 24-h weighted Standard Deviation (P blood pressure higher than that of 12 normotensive controls. 24-h average real variability of systolic BP, as well as serum calcium and parathyroid hormone levels, were reduced in operated patients (P blood pressure variability is increased in normotensive patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and is reduced by parathyroidectomy, and may potentially represent an additional cardiovascular risk factor in this disease.

  10. Renoprotection with and without blood pressure reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laverman, Gozewijn Dirk; Andersen, Steen; Rossing, Peter

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: AT1-receptor blockade dose dependently lowers blood pressure (BP) and albuminuria. Reduction of BP and albuminuria are independent treatment targets for renoprotection, but whether this requires similar dose titration is unknown. METHODS: We tested this in two studies designed to find...... arterial pressure (MAP) were measured. Patients were divided into "good" and "poor" BP responders (BP+, BP-) according to BP response above or below group median. RESULTS: Baseline MAP in the BP- groups was 102 (97, 104) mm Hg in DM (median, 95% CI) and 91 (80, 108) mm Hg in ND. The top of the dose...

  11. [Effects of high intensity interval training on blood pressure in hypertensive subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olea, María Angélica; Mancilla, Rodrigo; Martínez, Sergio; Díaz, Erik

    2017-09-01

    Exercise training may reduce blood pressure. To determine the effects of a high intensity interval training (HIIT) exercise protocol on systolic and diastolic blood pressure in hypertensive subjects. Eleven men and 27 women aged 46.4 ± 9.8 years were divided in two groups according to their blood pressure. Sixteen were classified as normotensive and 22 as hypertensive. All attended an exercise program with 3 sessions per week for a total of 24 sessions. Each session consisted of one minute of intense exercise performed on a stationary bike, followed by an inactive pause lasting two minutes. This cycle was repeated 10 times and it was thus called 1 * 2 * 10. Blood pressure, weight (kg) and body fat were assessed. In the hypertensive group, there was a significant reduction in systolic blood pressure from 145.4 ± 9.0 to 118.3 ± 15.6 mm Hg (p hypertension in a period of two months and 24 sessions.

  12. Diurnal changes of blood pressure values (24 h blood pressures in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Grzechocińska

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: More attention is being paid lately to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS not only in the aspect of fertility but also according to long-term metabolic and cardiovascular abnormalities. Observations of women with PCOS show that the occurrence of blood hypertension is more frequent after the menopause. There are few articles concerning the predictable symptoms of blood hypertension. It seems that twenty-four hour blood pressure monitoring and assessment of changes of diurnal rhythm could be useful in this group of patients.Aim of the study: The purpose of this study was to assess diurnal changes of blood pressure in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.Material and methods: 26 women with PCOS diagnosed according to Rotterdam consensus criteria and Androgen Excess Society (AES criteria were included in our study. The mean age of the examined women was 29.5 years and the mean BMI (body mass index was 24.7 kg/m2. The control group consisted of 12 age-matched women, without PCOS. Twenty-four hour Holter monitoring of ambulatory blood pressure was performed during normal daily activity in all patients. Halberg’s cosinor method was used to analyse daily biorhythm.Results: Results show the diurnal changes of systolic blood pressure in the preclinical phase in 30% and diastolic in 15% of PCOS women. In this group no physiological decrease of blood pressure at night time was observed.

  13. Effect of furosemide on pulmonary blood flow distribution in resting and exercising horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, H. H.; Bernard, S. L.; Glenny, R. W.; Fedde, M. R.; Polissar, N. L.; Basaraba, R. J.; Walther, S. M.; Gaughan, E. M.; McMurphy, R.; Hlastala, M. P.

    1999-01-01

    We determined the spatial distribution of pulmonary blood flow (PBF) with 15-micron fluorescent-labeled microspheres during rest and exercise in five Thoroughbred horses before and 4 h after furosemide administration (0.5 mg/kg iv). The primary finding of this study was that PBF redistribution occurred from rest to exercise, both with and without furosemide. However, there was less blood flow to the dorsal portion of the lung during exercise postfurosemide compared with prefurosemide. Furosemide did alter the resting perfusion distribution by increasing the flow to the ventral regions of the lung; however, that increase in flow was abated with exercise. Other findings included 1) unchanged gas exchange and cardiac output during rest and exercise after vs. before furosemide, 2) a decrease in pulmonary arterial pressure after furosemide, 3) an increase in the slope of the relationship of PBF vs. vertical height up the lung during exercise, both with and without furosemide, and 4) a decrease in blood flow to the dorsal region of the lung at rest after furosemide. Pulmonary perfusion variability within the lung may be a function of the anatomy of the pulmonary vessels that results in a predominantly fixed spatial pattern of flow distribution.

  14. Cocoa, blood pressure, and vascular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudano, Isabella; Flammer, Andreas J; Roas, Susanne; Enseleit, Frank; Ruschitzka, Frank; Corti, Roberto; Noll, Georg

    2012-08-01

    The consumption of a high amount of fruits and vegetables was found to be associated with a lower risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. Epidemiologically, a similar relationship has been found with cocoa, a naturally polyphenol-rich food. Obviously, double blind randomized studies are difficult to perform with cocoa and chocolate, respectively. However, intervention studies strongly suggest that cocoa has several beneficial effects on cardiovascular health, including the lowering of blood pressure, the improvement of vascular function and glucose metabolism, and the reduction of platelet aggregation and adhesion. Several potential mechanisms through which cocoa might exert its positive effects have been proposed, among them activation of nitric oxide synthase, increased bioavailability of nitric oxide as well as antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. It is the aim of this review to summarize the findings of cocoa and chocolate on blood pressure and vascular function.

  15. NOS3 Glu298Asp genotype and blood pressure response to endurance training: the HERITAGE family study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankinen, T; Rice, T; Pérusse, L; Chagnon, Y C; Gagnon, J; Leon, A S; Skinner, J S; Wilmore, J H; Rao, D C; Bouchard, C

    2000-11-01

    Endothelium-dependent vasodilation is a mechanism that may affect blood pressure response to endurance training. Because NO plays a central role in this process, the endothelial NO synthase gene is a good candidate for the regulation of exercise blood pressure. We investigated the associations between an endothelial NO synthase gene polymorphism (Glu298Asp) and endurance training-induced changes in resting and submaximal exercise blood pressure in 471 white subjects of the HERITAGE Family Study. Two submaximal exercise tests at 50 W were conducted both before and after a 20-week endurance training program. Steady-state exercise blood pressure was measured twice in each test with an automated unit. The Glu298Asp polymorphism was typed with a PCR-based method and digestion with BAN:II. Both systolic and diastolic blood pressure at 50 W decreased in response to the training program, whereas resting blood pressure remained unchanged. The decrease in diastolic blood pressure at 50 W was greater (P=0.0005, adjusted for age, gender, baseline body mass index, and baseline diastolic blood pressure at 50 W) in the Glu/Glu homozygotes (4.4 [SEM 0.4] mm Hg, n=187) than in the heterozygotes (3.1 [0.4] mm Hg, n=213) and the Asp/Asp homozygotes (1.3 [0.7] mm Hg, n=71). The genotype accounted for 2.3% of the variance in diastolic blood pressure at 50 W training response. Both the Glu298 homozygotes and the heterozygotes had a greater (P=0.013) training-induced reduction in rate-pressure product at 50 W than the Asp298 homozygotes. These data suggest that DNA sequence variation in the endothelial NO synthase gene locus is associated with the endurance training-induced decreases in submaximal exercise diastolic blood pressure and rate-pressure product in sedentary normotensive white subjects.

  16. Ambulatory blood pressure response to a bout of HIIT in metabolic syndrome patients

    OpenAIRE

    Ramirez-Jimenez, Miguel; Morales Palomo, Felix Alberto; García-Pallarés, J.; Mora-Rodríguez, Ricardo; Ortega, Juan Fernando

    2017-01-01

    The effectiveness of exercise to lower blood pressure may depend on the type and intensity of exercise. We study the short-term (i.e., 14-hour) effects of a bout of high-intensity aerobic interval training (HIIT) on blood pressure in metabolic syndrome (MSyn) patients. Methods: Nineteen MSyn patients (55.2±7.3 years, 6 women) entered the study. Eight of them were normotensive and eleven hypertensive according to MSyn threshold (≥130 mmHg for SBP and/or ≥85 mmHg for DBP). In the...

  17. Splanchnic blood flow and hepatic glucose production in exercising humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergeron, R; Kjaer, M; Simonsen, L

    2001-01-01

    The study examined the implication of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in regulation of splanchnic blood flow and glucose production in exercising humans. Subjects cycled for 40 min at 50% maximal O(2) consumption (VO(2 max)) followed by 30 min at 70% VO(2 max) either with [angiotensin-converti......The study examined the implication of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in regulation of splanchnic blood flow and glucose production in exercising humans. Subjects cycled for 40 min at 50% maximal O(2) consumption (VO(2 max)) followed by 30 min at 70% VO(2 max) either with [angiotensin......-converting enzyme (ACE) blockade] or without (control) administration of the ACE inhibitor enalapril (10 mg iv). Splanchnic blood flow was estimated by indocyanine green, and splanchnic substrate exchange was determined by the arteriohepatic venous difference. Exercise led to an approximately 20-fold increase (P ...-blockade group vs. the control group, hormones, metabolites, VO(2), and RER followed the same pattern of changes in ACE-blockade and control groups during exercise. Splanchnic blood flow (at rest: 1.67 +/- 0.12, ACE blockade; 1.59 +/- 0.18 l/min, control) decreased during moderate exercise (0.78 +/- 0.07, ACE...

  18. Exercise increases pressure pain tolerance but not pressure and heat pain thresholds in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaegter, H B; Hoeger Bement, M; Madsen, A B; Fridriksson, J; Dasa, M; Graven-Nielsen, T

    2017-01-01

    Exercise causes an acute decrease in the pain sensitivity known as exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH), but the specificity to certain pain modalities remains unknown. This study aimed to compare the effect of isometric exercise on the heat and pressure pain sensitivity. On three different days, 20 healthy young men performed two submaximal isometric knee extensions (30% maximal voluntary contraction in 3 min) and a control condition (quiet rest). Before and immediately after exercise and rest, the sensitivity to heat pain and pressure pain was assessed in randomized and counterbalanced order. Cuff pressure pain threshold (cPPT) and pain tolerance (cPTT) were assessed on the ipsilateral lower leg by computer-controlled cuff algometry. Heat pain threshold (HPT) was recorded on the ipsilateral foot by a computer-controlled thermal stimulator. Cuff pressure pain tolerance was significantly increased after exercise compared with baseline and rest (p  0.77) compared with HPT (intraclass correlation = 0.54). The results indicate that hypoalgesia after submaximal isometric exercise is primarily affecting tolerance of pressure pain compared with the pain threshold. These data contribute to the understanding of how isometric exercise influences pain perception, which is necessary to optimize the clinical utility of exercise in management of chronic pain. The effect of isometric exercise on pain tolerance may be relevant for patients in chronic musculoskeletal pain as a pain-coping strategy. WHAT DOES THIS STUDY ADD?: The results indicate that hypoalgesia after submaximal isometric exercise is primarily affecting tolerance of pressure pain compared with the heat and pressure pain threshold. These data contribute to the understanding of how isometric exercise influences pain perception, which is necessary to optimize the clinical utility of exercise in management of chronic pain. © 2016 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  19. Effect of lemon juice on blood pressure

    OpenAIRE

    SARI, Aysel; SELİM, Nevzat; DİLEK, Melda; AYDOĞDU, Turkan; ADIBELLİ, Zelal; BÜYÜKKAYA, Piltan; AKPOLAT, Tekin

    2012-01-01

    Lemon juice has commonly been used by hypertensive patients in order to lower blood pressure (BP) acutely when BP is raised or as an alternative/complementary therapy for expectation of chronic improvement. Grapefruit, a citrus fruit like lemon, causes clinically significant interactions with a variety of drugs including calcium antagonists. The aims of this study were to investigate acute and chronic effects of lemon juice on BP among hypertensive patients. Ninty-eight patients were included...

  20. Renal intercalated cells and blood pressure regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M. Wall

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Type B and non-A, non-B intercalated cells are found within the connecting tubule and the cortical collecting duct. Of these cell types, type B intercalated cells are known to mediate Cl⁻ absorption and HCO₃⁻ secretion largely through pendrin-dependent Cl⁻/HCO₃⁻ exchange. This exchange is stimulated by angiotensin II administration and is also stimulated in models of metabolic alkalosis, for instance after aldosterone or NaHCO₃ administration. In some rodent models, pendrin-mediated HCO₃⁻ secretion modulates acid-base balance. However, the role of pendrin in blood pressure regulation is likely of more physiological or clinical significance. Pendrin regulates blood pressure not only by mediating aldosterone-sensitive Cl⁻ absorption, but also by modulating the aldosterone response for epithelial Na⁺ channel (ENaC-mediated Na⁺ absorption. Pendrin regulates ENaC through changes in open channel of probability, channel surface density, and channels subunit total protein abundance. Thus, aldosterone stimulates ENaC activity through both direct and indirect effects, the latter occurring through its stimulation of pendrin expression and function. Therefore, pendrin contributes to the aldosterone pressor response. Pendrin may also modulate blood pressure in part through its action in the adrenal medulla, where it modulates the release of catecholamines, or through an indirect effect on vascular contractile force. This review describes how aldosterone and angiotensin II-induced signaling regulate pendrin and the contributory role of pendrin in distal nephron function and blood pressure.

  1. Perinatal development and adult blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ashton

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence supports the concept of fetal programming in cardiovascular disease in man, which asserts that an insult experienced in utero exerts a long-term influence on cardiovascular function, leading to disease in adulthood. However, this hypothesis is not universally accepted, hence animal models may be of value in determining potential physiological mechanisms which could explain how fetal undernutrition results in cardiovascular disease in later life. This review describes two major animal models of cardiovascular programming, the in utero protein-restricted rat and the cross-fostered spontaneously hypertensive rat. In the former model, moderate maternal protein restriction during pregnancy induces an increase in offspring blood pressure of 20-30 mmHg. This hypertensive effect is mediated, in part, by fetal exposure to excess maternal glucocorticoids as a result of a deficiency in placental 11-ß hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2. Furthermore, nephrogenesis is impaired in this model which, coupled with increased activity of the renin-angiotensin system, could also contribute to the greater blood pressure displayed by these animals. The second model discussed is the cross-fostered spontaneously hypertensive rat. Spontaneously hypertensive rats develop severe hypertension without external intervention; however, their adult blood pressure may be lowered by 20-30 mmHg by cross-fostering pups to a normotensive dam within the first two weeks of lactation. The mechanisms responsible for this antihypertensive effect are less clear, but may also involve altered renal function and down-regulation of the renin-angiotensin system. These two models clearly show that adult blood pressure is influenced by exposure to one of a number of stimuli during critical stages of perinatal development.

  2. Reduced blood flow through intrapulmonary arteriovenous anastomoses during exercise in lowlanders acclimatizing to high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulet, Lindsey M; Lovering, Andrew T; Tymko, Michael M; Day, Trevor A; Stembridge, Mike; Nguyen, Trang Anh; Ainslie, Philip N; Foster, Glen E

    2017-06-01

    What is the central question of this study? The aim was to determine, using the technique of agitated saline contrast echocardiography, whether exercise after 4-7 days at 5050 m would affect blood flow through intrapulmonary arteriovenous anastomoses (Q̇IPAVA) compared with exercise at sea level. What is the main finding and its importance? Despite a significant increase in both cardiac output and pulmonary pressure during exercise at high altitude, there is very little Q̇IPAVA at rest or during exercise after 4-7 days of acclimatization. Mathematical modelling suggests that bubble instability at high altitude is an unlikely explanation for the reduced Q̇IPAVA. Blood flow through intrapulmonary arteriovenous anastomoses (Q̇IPAVA) is elevated during exercise at sea level (SL) and at rest in acute normobaric hypoxia. After high altitude (HA) acclimatization, resting Q̇IPAVA is similar to that at SL, but it is unknown whether this is true during exercise at HA. We reasoned that exercise at HA (5050 m) would exacerbate Q̇IPAVA as a result of heightened pulmonary arterial pressure. Using a supine cycle ergometer, seven healthy adults free from intracardiac shunts underwent an incremental exercise test at SL [25, 50 and 75% of SL peak oxygen consumption (V̇O2 peak )] and at HA (25 and 50% of SL V̇O2 peak ). Echocardiography was used to determine cardiac output (Q̇) and pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP), and agitated saline contrast was used to determine Q̇IPAVA (bubble score; 0-5). The principal findings were as follows: (i) Q̇ was similar at SL rest (3.9 ± 0.47 l min -1 ) compared with HA rest (4.5 ± 0.49 l min -1 ; P = 0.382), but increased from rest during both SL and HA exercise (P exercise (P = 0.003); (iii) Q̇IPAVA was increased from SL rest (0) to HA rest (median = 1; P = 0.04) and increased from resting values during SL exercise (P exercise (P = 0.91), despite significant increases in Q̇ and PASP. Theoretical

  3. Blood Pressure Measurement: Clinic, Home, Ambulatory, and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drawz, Paul E.; Abdalla, Mohamed; Rahman, Mahboob

    2014-01-01

    Blood pressure has traditionally been measured in the clinic setting using the auscultory method and a mercury sphygmomanometer. Technological advances have led to improvements in measuring clinic blood pressure and allowed for measuring blood pressures outside the clinic. This review outlines various methods for evaluating blood pressure and the clinical utility of each type of measurement. Home blood pressures and 24 hour ambulatory blood pressures have improved our ability to evaluate risk for target organ damage and hypertension related morbidity and mortality. Measuring home blood pressures may lead to more active participation in health care by patients and has the potential to improve blood pressure control. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring enables the measuring nighttime blood pressures and diurnal changes, which may be the most accurate predictors of risk associated with elevated blood pressure. Additionally, reducing nighttime blood pressure is feasible and may be an important component of effective antihypertensive therapy. Finally, estimating central aortic pressures and pulse wave velocity are two of the newer methods for assessing blood pressure and hypertension related target organ damage. PMID:22521624

  4. Blood pressure changes during barium enema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roach, S.C.; Martin, O.J.D.; Owen, A.; Martin, D.F.

    2001-01-01

    AIMS: To document blood pressure changes during barium enema examination and to determine at what point in the examination changes are likely to occur. METHODS AND RESULTS: Blood pressure measurements were taken at seven points during the course of barium enema examination in 107 consecutive patients. We found that patients over the age of 60 years had statistically significant decreases in blood pressure when they were stood up during the course of the examination. Many of these patients were asymptomatic. Patients who had symptoms (15/107, 14%) when standing up had a degree of hypotension. The duration of barium enema examination is longer in those patients who experience symptoms. CONCLUSION: During a barium enema examination hypotension occurs at the point of standing up more frequently in patients over 60 years and in those who suffer symptoms at this time. Patients who fall into one of these groups should be considered at risk of fainting at this point in the examination. A modified technique to avoid standing should be considered in at-risk patients. Roach, S.C. et al. (2001)

  5. Blood Pressure Control: Stroke and Stroke Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Christoph Diener

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is the most important modifiable risk factor for primary and secondary stroke prevention.All antihypertensive drugs are effective in primary prevention: the risk reduction for stroke is 30—42%. However, not all classes of drugs have the same effects: there is some indication that angiotensin receptor blockers may be superior to other classes of antihypertensive drugs in stroke prevention.Seventy-five percent of patients who present to hospital with acute stroke have elevated blood pressure within the first 24—48 hours. Extremes of systolic blood pressure (SBP increase the risk of death or dependency. The aim of treatment should be to achieve and maintain the SBP in the range 140—160 mmHg. However, fast and drastic blood pressure lowering can have adverse consequences.The PROGRESS trial of secondary prevention with perindopril + indapamide versus placebo + placebo showed a decrease in numbers of stroke recurrences in patients given both active antihypertensive agents, more impressive for cerebral haemorrhage.There were also indications that active treatment might decrease the development of post-stroke dementia.

  6. Influence of lifestyle, coping, and job stress on blood pressure in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, T L; Beilin, L J; Knuiman, M W

    1997-01-01

    We designed this study to clarify the role of work stress on long-term blood pressure control and in particular to investigate whether perceived work stress directly affected resting blood pressure levels or whether there were indirect effects mediated by coping mechanisms and lifestyle. Men (n = 337) and women (n = 317) working in a government tax office completed questionnaires for assessment of work-related stress, coping strategies, and lifestyle. Seven resting blood pressure measurements were recorded serially on each of two occasions a week apart. Men had higher blood pressures (119.6/68.6 versus 110.9/65.6 mm Hg) than women; they used more "maladaptive" coping strategies, drank more alcohol, and ate less healthily but exercised more than women. There were no direct associations between measures of work stress and blood pressure. In univariate and regression analyses, both body mass index and lifestyle factors in the form of alcohol consumption, exercise, and diet were related to blood pressure in men and women. Various "adaptive" or "maladaptive" coping mechanisms were identified and independently related to both job stress and blood pressure levels. Women were more likely to use "healthier" or adaptive coping mechanisms than men. Thus, work stress per se had no direct effect on blood pressure, but the ways that individuals reported coping with stress were significantly related to blood pressure, with blood pressure elevation effects appearing to be mediated largely by dietary and drinking habits and physical inactivity. The results point to the need to target individual coping strategies and lifestyle as much as the working environment in workplace cardiovascular health promotion programs.

  7. Exercise increases pressure pain tolerance but not pressure and heat pain thresholds in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaegter, H. B.; Bement, M. Hoeger; Madsen, A. B.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exercise causes an acute decrease in the pain sensitivity known as exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH), but the specificity to certain pain modalities remains unknown. This study aimed to compare the effect of isometric exercise on the heat and pressure pain sensitivity. METHODS...... and counterbalanced order. Cuff pressure pain threshold (cPPT) and pain tolerance (cPTT) were assessed on the ipsilateral lower leg by computer-controlled cuff algometry. Heat pain threshold (HPT) was recorded on the ipsilateral foot by a computer-controlled thermal stimulator. RESULTS: Cuff pressure pain tolerance...... to the understanding of how isometric exercise influences pain perception, which is necessary to optimize the clinical utility of exercise in management of chronic pain. SIGNIFICANCE: The effect of isometric exercise on pain tolerance may be relevant for patients in chronic musculoskeletal pain as a pain...

  8. Significant role of the cardiopostural interaction in blood pressure regulation during standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Da; Verma, Ajay K; Garg, Amanmeet; Bruner, Michelle; Fazel-Rezai, Reza; Blaber, Andrew P; Tavakolian, Kouhyar

    2017-09-01

    Cardiovascular and postural control systems have been studied independently despite the increasing evidence showing the importance of cardiopostural interaction in blood pressure regulation. In this study, we aimed to assess the role of the cardiopostural interaction in relation to cardiac baroreflex in blood pressure regulation under orthostatic stress before and after mild exercise. Physiological variables representing cardiovascular control (heart rate and systolic blood pressure), lower limb muscle activation (electromyography), and postural sway (center of pressure derived from force and moment data during sway) were measured from 17 healthy participants (25 ± 2 yr, 9 men and 8 women) during a sit-to-stand test before and after submaximal exercise. The cardiopostural control (characterized by baroreflex-mediated muscle-pump effect in response to blood pressure changes, i.e., muscle-pump baroreflex) was assessed using wavelet transform coherence and causality analyses in relation to the baroreflex control of heart rate. Significant cardiopostural blood pressure control was evident counting for almost half of the interaction time with blood pressure changes that observed in the cardiac baroreflex (36.6-72.5% preexercise and 34.7-53.9% postexercise). Thus, cardiopostural input to blood pressure regulation should be considered when investigating orthostatic intolerance. A reduction of both cardiac and muscle-pump baroreflexes in blood pressure regulation was observed postexercise and was likely due to the absence of excessive venous pooling and a less stressed system after mild exercise. With further studies using more effective protocols evoking venous pooling and muscle-pump activity, the cardiopostural interaction could improve our understanding of the autonomic control system and ultimately lead to a more accurate diagnosis of cardiopostural dysfunctions. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We examined the interaction between cardiovascular and postural control systems during

  9. Effect of inspiratory muscle training with load compared with sham training on blood pressure in individuals with hypertension: study protocol of a double-blind randomized clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Posser, Simone Regina; Callegaro, Carine Cristina; Beltrami-Moreira, Marina; Moreira, Leila Beltrami

    2016-01-01

    Background Hypertension is a complex chronic condition characterized by elevated arterial blood pressure. Management of hypertension includes non-pharmacologic strategies, which may include techniques that effectively reduce autonomic sympathetic activity. Respiratory exercises improve autonomic control over cardiovascular system and attenuate muscle metaboreflex. Because of these effects, respiratory exercises may be useful to lower blood pressure in subjects with hypertension. Methods/desig...

  10. Relation of maximum blood pressure during exercise and regular physical activity in normotensive men with left ventricular mass and hypertrophy. MARATHOM Investigators. Medida de la Actividad fisica y su Relación Ambiental con Todos los Lípidos en el HOMbre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, L; Elosua, R; Marrugat, J; Pons, S

    1999-10-15

    The relation between maximum systolic blood pressure (BP) during exercise and left ventricular (LV) mass is controversial. Physical activity also induces LV mass increase. The objective was to assess the relation between BP response to exercise and LV mass in normotensive men, taking into account physical activity practice. A cross-sectional study was performed. Three hundred eighteen healthy normotensive men, aged between 20 and 60 years, participated in this study. The Minnesota questionnaire was used to assess physical activity practice. An echocardiogram and a maximum exercise test were performed. LV mass was calculated and indexed to body surface area. LV hypertrophy was defined as a ventricular mass index > or =134 g/m2. BP was measured at the moment of maximum effort. Hypertensive response was considered when BP was > or =210 mm Hg. In the multiple linear regression model, maximum systolic BP was associated with LV mass index and correlation coefficient was 0.27 (SE 0.07). Physical activity practice and age were also associated with LV mass. An association between hypertensive response to exercise and LV hypertrophy was observed (odds ratio 3.16). Thus, BP response to exercise is associated with LV mass and men with systolic BP response > or =210 mm Hg present a 3-times higher risk of LV hypertrophy than those not reaching this limit. Physical activity practice is related to LV mass, but not to LV hypertrophy.

  11. Contribution of pH, diprotonated phosphate and potassium for the reflex increase in blood pressure during handgrip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boushel, Robert Christopher; Madsen, P; Nielsen, H B

    1998-01-01

    The relative importance of pH, diprotonated phosphate (H2PO4-) and potassium (K+) for the reflex increase in mean arterial pressure (MAP) during exercise was evaluated in seven subjects during rhythmic handgrip at 15 and 30% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), followed by post-exercise muscle...... to the exercise levels. Analysis of each variable as a predictor of blood pressure indicated that only the intracellular pH and diprotonated phosphate were linked to the reflex elevation of blood pressure during handgrip....

  12. Hypotensive effects of resistance exercise with continuous and intermittent blood flow restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Rodrigues Neto

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to compare the acute effects of low-intensity (LI resistance exercise (RE with continuous blood flow restriction (CBFR and intermittent blood flow restriction (IBFR on systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, and mean arterial pressure (MAP. After a one-repetition maximum test, 10 normotensive recreationally trained men performed three experimental protocols. In the three RE protocols, increases in SBP, DBP, and MAP were observed immediately after exercise, but the effect sizes (ESs were greater for the LI + CBFR and high-intensity protocols. There were hypotensive effects on SBP, DBP, and MAP in all three protocols; however, the effects on MAP lasted longer for the LI + IBFR and LI + CBFR protocols. These long-lasting hypotensive effects on DBP and MAP occurred in all three protocols. Thus, we conclude that the post exercise hypotensive effects on SBP, DBP, and MAP appear to occur in all three RE protocols, with the effect on SBP being longer in the LI + IBFR and LI + CBFR protocols.

  13. Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in Clinical Practice: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viera, Anthony J.; Shimbo, Daichi

    2016-01-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring offers the ability to collect blood pressure readings several times an hour across a 24-hour period. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring facilitates the identification of white-coat hypertension, the phenomenon whereby certain individuals who are not on antihypertensive medication show elevated blood pressure in a clinical setting but show non-elevated blood pressure averages when assessed by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Additionally, readings can be segmented into time windows of particular interest, e.g., mean daytime and nighttime values. During sleep, blood pressure typically decreases, or dips, such that mean sleep blood pressure is lower than mean awake blood pressure. A non-dipping pattern and nocturnal hypertension are strongly associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Approximately 70% of individuals dip ≥10% at night, while 30% have non-dipping patterns, when blood pressure remains similar to daytime average, or occasionally rises above daytime average. The various blood pressure categorizations afforded by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring are valuable for clinical management of high blood pressure since they increase accuracy for diagnosis and the prediction of cardiovascular risk. PMID:25107387

  14. High blood pressure and visual sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisner, Alvin; Samples, John R.

    2003-09-01

    The study had two main purposes: (1) to determine whether the foveal visual sensitivities of people treated for high blood pressure (vascular hypertension) differ from the sensitivities of people who have not been diagnosed with high blood pressure and (2) to understand how visual adaptation is related to standard measures of systemic cardiovascular function. Two groups of middle-aged subjects-hypertensive and normotensive-were examined with a series of test/background stimulus combinations. All subjects met rigorous inclusion criteria for excellent ocular health. Although the visual sensitivities of the two subject groups overlapped extensively, the age-related rate of sensitivity loss was, for some measures, greater for the hypertensive subjects, possibly because of adaptation differences between the two groups. Overall, the degree of steady-state sensitivity loss resulting from an increase of background illuminance (for 580-nm backgrounds) was slightly less for the hypertensive subjects. Among normotensive subjects, the ability of a bright (3.8-log-td), long-wavelength (640-nm) adapting background to selectively suppress the flicker response of long-wavelength-sensitive (LWS) cones was related inversely to the ratio of mean arterial blood pressure to heart rate. The degree of selective suppression was also related to heart rate alone, and there was evidence that short-term changes of cardiovascular response were important. The results suggest that (1) vascular hypertension, or possibly its treatment, subtly affects visual function even in the absence of eye disease and (2) changes in blood flow affect retinal light-adaptation processes involved in the selective suppression of the flicker response from LWS cones caused by bright, long-wavelength backgrounds.

  15. A Nutritional Strategy for the Treatment of High Blood Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podell, Richard N.

    1984-01-01

    Some physicians wonder if high blood pressure can be controlled without the use of drugs and their potential side effects. Current findings concerning nutrition and high blood pressure are presented. (RM)

  16. Get the Most Out of Home Blood Pressure Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Get the most out of home blood pressure monitoring Checking your blood pressure at home is an important part of managing ... monitors might not give you an accurate reading. Most pharmacies, medical supply stores and some websites sell ...

  17. Can Whole-Grain Foods Lower Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eating more whole-grain foods help lower my blood pressure? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. It might. Eating ... might help reduce your chance of developing high blood pressure (hypertension). Whole grains are grains that include the ...

  18. Snapshot: Blood Pressure in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Home Blood Pressure: Make Control Your Goal Infographic Recommend on Facebook ... Compartir Copy the code below to use the Blood Pressure Infographic on your web page or social media ...

  19. Sleep Deprivation: A Cause of High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it true that sleep deprivation can cause high blood pressure? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Possibly. It's thought that ... hours a night could be linked to increased blood pressure. People who sleep five hours or less a ...

  20. Blood Pressure Medications: Can They Raise My Triglycerides?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medications: Can they raise my triglycerides? Can some blood pressure medications cause an increase in triglycerides? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Yes, some blood pressure medications can affect triglyceride and cholesterol levels. Hydrochlorothiazide ...

  1. High blood pressure - what to ask your doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    What to ask your doctor about high blood pressure; Hypertension - what to ask your doctor ... problems? What medicines am I taking to treat high blood pressure? Do they have any side effects? What should ...

  2. High Blood Pressure, Afib and Your Risk of Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More High Blood Pressure, AFib and Your Risk of Stroke Updated:Aug ... have a stroke for the first time have high blood pressure . And an irregular atrial heart rhythm — a condition ...

  3. Blood pressure pattern of adolescent offsprings of hypertensive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood pressure pattern of adolescent offsprings of hypertensive fathers in Lagos ... in adults which emphasizes the need to track blood pressure in children. ... are hypertensive while among adolescents with normotensive parents, 11.0% for ...

  4. Muscle blood volume assessment during exercise with Power Doppler Ultrasound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heres, H.M.; Tchang, B.C.Y.; Schoots, T.; Rutten, M.C.M.; van de Vosse, F.N.; Lopata, R.G.P.

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of perfusion adaptation in muscle during exercise can provide diagnostic information on cardiac and endothelial diseases. Power Doppler Ultrasound (PDUS) is known for its feasibility in the non-invasive measurement of moving blood volume (MBV), a perfusion related parameter. In this

  5. [Development of a continuous blood pressure monitoring and recording system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Li, Yong; Gao, Shumei; Song, Yilin

    2012-09-01

    A small experimental system is constructed with working principle of continuous blood pressure monitoring based on the volume compensation method. The preliminary experimental results show that the system can collect blood pressure signals at the radial artery effectively. The digital PID algorithm can track the variation of blood pressure. And the accuracy of continuous blood pressure detecting achieve the level of same kind of product.

  6. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) in nonagenarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formiga, Francesc; Ferrer, Assumpta; Sobrino, Javier; Coca, Antonio; Riera, Antoni; Pujol, Ramón

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the study is to investigate ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) in a sample of Spanish nonagenarians. We also analyzed the misdiagnosis of hypertension and investigated blood pressure (BP) control in treated hypertensive nonagenarians. Twenty-four-hour ABPM was undertaken in a group of 42 nonagenarians. The 24-h mean, daytime BP, nighttime BP and heart rate (HR) were extracted from the ABPM. Sociodemographic data, the ability to perform basic daily activities, measured by the Barthel index (BI) or instrumental activities revealed by the Lawton and Brody index (LI), cognition, and comorbidity were evaluated. Thirty-one subjects were receiving antihypertensive drug treatment. Twenty-four hour, daytime and sleeping pressures averaged 130/65, 131/68 and 128/63mmHg, respectively. Seventeen (40.5%) of the 42 patients had a daytime BP of 135/85 or higher. In terms of the BP pattern, 8 (19%) subjects were dippers, 19 (45%) non-dippers, and 15 (36%) were risers. Five (45.46%) out of 11 patients with no evidence of hypertension (normotensive patients) had a daytime BP of 135/85 or higher. The mean daytime BP was 135/85 or higher in 12 (38.7%) out of 31 nonagenarians who had previously received therapy for hypertension. In, conclusion a high prevalence of hypertension, misdiagnosis and inadequate BP control was found in nonagenarians treated for hypertension.

  7. Cerebral Blood Flow Responses to Aquatic Treadmill Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfitt, Rhodri; Hensman, Marianne Y; Lucas, Samuel J E

    2017-07-01

    Aquatic treadmills are used as a rehabilitation method for conditions such as spinal cord injury, osteoarthritis, and stroke, and can facilitate an earlier return to exercise training for athletes. However, their effect on cerebral blood flow (CBF) responses has not been examined. We tested the hypothesis that aquatic treadmill exercise would augment CBF and lower HR compared with land-based treadmill exercise. Eleven participants completed incremental exercise (crossover design) starting from walking pace (4 km·h, immersed to iliac crest [aquatic], 6 km·h [land]) and increasing 1 km·h every 2 min up to 10 km·h for aquatic (maximum belt speed) or 12 km·h for land. After this, participants completed two 2-min bouts of exercise immersed to midthigh and midchest at constant submaximal speed (aquatic), or were ramped to exhaustion (land; increased gradient 2° every min). Middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity (MCAv) and HR were measured throughout, and the initial 10 min of each protocol and responses at each immersion level were compared. Compared with land-based treadmill, MCAvmean increased more from baseline for aquatic exercise (21% vs 12%, P aquatic walking compared with land-based moderate intensity running (~10 cm·s, P = 0.56). Greater water immersion lowered HR (139 vs 178 bpm for midchest vs midthigh), whereas MCAvmean remained constant (P = 0.37). Findings illustrate the potential for aquatic treadmill exercise to enhance exercise-induced elevations in CBF and thus optimize shear stress-mediated adaptation of the cerebrovasculature.

  8. A modified isometric test to evaluate blood pressure control with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lifting and supporting weights) and have an important influence on blood pressure, it is essential to evaluate blood pressure response to iso- metric effort. This test can reveal high blood pressure that might otherwise not be detected. Only a few ...

  9. Admission Blood Pressure of Stroke Patients and Its Relationship to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: High blood pressure is often said to be associated with poor outcome in stroke. However, there remains some uncertainly about the relationship of blood pressure to mortality in stroke. Objective: This study seeks to determine the influence of admission blood pressure on early mortality of stroke patients at the ...

  10. Worldwide trends in blood pressure from 1975 to 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ezzati, Majid; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Background

    Raised blood pressure is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and chronic kidney disease. We estimated worldwide trends in mean systolic and mean diastolic blood pressure, and the prevalence of, and number of people with, raised blood pressure, defined as systolic

  11. 21 CFR 870.1120 - Blood pressure cuff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood pressure cuff. 870.1120 Section 870.1120...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1120 Blood pressure cuff. (a) Identification. A blood pressure cuff is a device that has an inflatable bladder in an inelastic...

  12. Anxiety and blood pressure prior to dental treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benjamins, C.; Schuurs, A.H.; Asscheman, H.; Hoogstraten, J.

    1990-01-01

    Assessed dental anxiety and blood pressure immediately prior to a dental appointment in 24 patients attending a university dental clinic or a clinic for anxious dental patients in the Netherlands. Blood pressure was assessed by 2 independent methods, and the interchangeability of the blood-pressure

  13. A modified isometric test to evaluate blood pressure control with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood pressure at rest is not predictive of roundthe- clock values. Blood pressure should therefore be measured during effort to evaluate hypertension and its response to treatment. The effect of sustained-release verapamil (240 mg taken once a day) on blood pressure at rest and during isometric effort was therefore ...

  14. Contributions of mean and shape of blood pressure distribution to worldwide trends and variations in raised blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overvad, Kim

    2018-01-01

    interventions to control blood pressure in the hypertensive population). Our aim was to quantify the contributions of these two phenomena to the worldwide trends in the prevalence of raised blood pressure. Methods: We pooled 1018 population-based studies with blood pressure measurements on 88.6 million......, where relevant. We used a linear mixed effect model to quantify the association between (probit-transformed) prevalence of raised blood pressure and age-group- and sex-specific mean blood pressure. We calculated the contributions of change in mean SBP and DBP, and of change in the prevalence...... participants from 1985 to 2016. We first calculated mean systolic blood pressure (SBP), mean diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and prevalence of raised blood pressure by sex and 10-year age group from 20-29 years to 70-79 years in each study, taking into account complex survey design and survey sample weights...

  15. The Acute Effect of Resistance Exercise with Blood Flow Restriction with Hemodynamic Variables on Hypertensive Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araújo Joamira P.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP and the heart rate (HR before, during and after training at moderate intensity (MI, 50%-1RM and at low intensity with blood flow restriction (LIBFR. In a randomized controlled trial study, 14 subjects (average age 45±9,9 years performed one of the exercise protocols during two separate visits to the laboratory. SBP, DBP and HR measurements were collected prior to the start of the set and 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes after knee extension exercises. Repeated measures of analysis of variance (ANOVA were used to identify significant variables (2 x 5; group x time. The results demonstrated a significant reduction in SBP in the LIBFR group. These results provide evidence that strength training performed acutely alters hemodynamic variables. However, training with blood flow restriction is more efficient in reducing blood pressure in hypertensive individuals than training with moderate intensity.

  16. Cerebral blood flow in normal pressure hydrocephalus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamo, H.L.; Meric, P.C.; Ponsin, J.C.; Rey, A.C.; Luft, A.G.; Seylaz, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    A xenon-133 method was used to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF) before and after cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) removal in patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH). Preliminary results suggested that shunting should be performed on patients whose CBF increased after CSF removal. There was a significant increase in CBF in patients with NPH, which was confirmed by the favorable outcome of 88% of patients shunted. The majority of patients with senile and presenile dementia showed a decrease or no change in CBF after CSF removal. It is suggested that although changes in CBF and clinical symptoms of NPH may have the same cause, i.e., changes in the cerebral intraparenchymal pressure, there is no simple direct relation between these two events. The mechanism underlying the loss of autoregulation observed in NPH is also discussed

  17. Strength training reduces arterial blood pressure but not sympathetic neural activity in young normotensive subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jason R.; Ray, Chester A.; Downs, Emily M.; Cooke, William H.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of resistance training on arterial blood pressure and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) at rest have not been established. Although endurance training is commonly recommended to lower arterial blood pressure, it is not known whether similar adaptations occur with resistance training. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that whole body resistance training reduces arterial blood pressure at rest, with concomitant reductions in MSNA. Twelve young [21 +/- 0.3 (SE) yr] subjects underwent a program of whole body resistance training 3 days/wk for 8 wk. Resting arterial blood pressure (n = 12; automated sphygmomanometer) and MSNA (n = 8; peroneal nerve microneurography) were measured during a 5-min period of supine rest before and after exercise training. Thirteen additional young (21 +/- 0.8 yr) subjects served as controls. Resistance training significantly increased one-repetition maximum values in all trained muscle groups (P < 0.001), and it significantly decreased systolic (130 +/- 3 to 121 +/- 2 mmHg; P = 0.01), diastolic (69 +/- 3 to 61 +/- 2 mmHg; P = 0.04), and mean (89 +/- 2 to 81 +/- 2 mmHg; P = 0.01) arterial blood pressures at rest. Resistance training did not affect MSNA or heart rate. Arterial blood pressures and MSNA were unchanged, but heart rate increased after 8 wk of relative inactivity for subjects in the control group (61 +/- 2 to 67 +/- 3 beats/min; P = 0.01). These results indicate that whole body resistance exercise training might decrease the risk for development of cardiovascular disease by lowering arterial blood pressure but that reductions of pressure are not coupled to resistance exercise-induced decreases of sympathetic tone.

  18. Exercise intensity modulates the change in cerebral blood flow following aerobic exercise in chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Andrew D; Crane, David E; Rajab, A Saeed; Swardfager, Walter; Marzolini, Susan; Shirzadi, Zahra; Middleton, Laura E; MacIntosh, Bradley J

    2015-08-01

    The mechanisms supporting functional improvement by aerobic exercise following stroke remain incompletely understood. This study investigated how cycling intensity and aerobic fitness influence cerebral blood flow (CBF) following a single exercise session. Thirteen community-living stroke survivors performed 20 min of semi-recumbent cycling at low and moderate intensities (40-50 and 60-70 % of heart rate reserve, respectively) as determined from an exercise stress test. CBF was quantified by arterial spin labeling MRI at baseline, as well as 30 and 50 min post-exercise. An intensity-dependent effect was observed in the right post-central and supramarginal gyri up to 50 min after exercise (uncorrected p Aerobic fitness was directly related to posterior cingulate and thalamic CBF, and inversely related to precuneal CBF at rest (R (2) ≥ 0.75); however, no relationship between fitness and the post-exercise change in CBF was observed. Divergent changes in regional CBF were observed in the right parietal cortex following low- and moderate-intensity exercise, which suggests that intensity of prescribed exercise may be useful in optimizing rehabilitation.

  19. Oscillometric blood pressure measurements: differences between measured and calculated mean arterial pressure.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiers, H.D.; Hofstra, J.M.; Wetzels, J.F.M.

    2008-01-01

    Mean arterial pressure (MAP) is often used as an index of overall blood pressure. In recent years, the use of automated oscillometric blood pressure measurement devices is increasing. These devices directly measure and display MAP; however, MAP is often calculated from systolic blood pressure (SBP)

  20. Ankle Blood Pressure and Pulse Pressure as Predictors of Cerebrovascular Morbidity and Mortality in a Prospective Follow-Up Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heikki J. Hietanen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective. We examined the association of elevated ankle blood pressure (ABP, together with exercise blood pressure, with incident cerebrovascular (CV morbidity and mortality in a prospective follow-up study of 3,808 patients. The results were compared with pulse pressure, another indicator of arterial stiffness. Methods. Patients with normal ankle and exercise brachial blood pressures were taken as the reference group. Pulse pressure was considered as quartiles with the lowest quartile as the reference category. Results. A total of 170 subjects had a CV event during the follow-up. Multivariate adjusted hazard ratio of a CV event was 2.24 (95% CI 1.43–3.52, <.0001 in patients with abnormal ABP. The pulse pressure was significant only in the model adjusted for age and sex. Conclusion. The risk of a future CV event was elevated already in those patients among whom elevated ABP was the only abnormal finding. As a risk marker, ABP is superior to the pulse pressure.

  1. Blood Volume: Importance and Adaptations to Exercise Training, Environmental Stresses and Trauma/Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawka, Michael N.; Convertino, Victor A.; Eichner, E. Randy; Schnieder, Suzanne M.; Young, Andrew J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews the influence of several perturbations (physical exercise, heat stress, terrestrial altitude, microgravity, and trauma/sickness) on adaptations of blood volume (BV), erythrocyte volume (EV), and plasma volume (PV). Exercise training can induced BV expansion; PV expansion usually occurs immediately, but EV expansion takes weeks. EV and PV expansion contribute to aerobic power improvements associated with exercise training. Repeated heat exposure induces PV expansion but does not alter EV. PV expansion does not improve thermoregulation, but EV expansion improves thermoregulation during exercise in the heat. Dehydration decreases PV (and increases plasma tonicity) which elevates heat strain and reduces exercise performance. High altitude exposure causes rapid (hours) plasma loss. During initial weeks at altitude, EV is unaffected, but a gradual expansion occurs with extended acclimatization. BV adjustments contribute, but are not key, to altitude acclimatization. Microgravity decreases PV and EV which contribute to orthostatic intolerance and decreased exercise capacity in astronauts. PV decreases may result from lower set points for total body water and central venous pressure, which EV decrease bay result form increased erythrocyte destruction. Trauma, renal disease, and chronic diseases cause anemia from hemorrhage and immune activation, which suppressions erythropoiesis. The re-establishment of EV is associated with healing, improved life quality, and exercise capabilities for these injured/sick persons.

  2. [Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring for hypertension diagnosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gijón Conde, T; Banegas, J R

    2017-01-01

    The early and accurate diagnosis of hypertension is essential given its importance in the development of cardiovascular disease. The boundaries between normal blood pressure (BP) and hypertension are arbitrary and based on the benefits of treating exceeding those of not treating. Conventional BP measurement at the clinic only offers information of a particular time and presents multiple biases dependent on inherent variability of BP and measurement technique itself. Multiple studies have demonstrated the prognosis superiority in the development of cardiovascular disease of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM), allows detection of white coat hypertension, avoiding overdiagnosis and overtreatment, and the detection of patients with masked hypertension who are at risk of underdetection and undertreatment. ABPM also assess nightime BP and circadian variability, providing additional prognostic value. ABPM is recognized in the diagnosis of hypertension in 2011 British NICE Guidelines, very argued at the 2013 European Society of Hypertension guidelines, and recommended in the US Preventive Services Task Force in 2015, 2016 Canadian Guidelines and the 2016 Spanish Program of Preventive Activities and Health Promotion (PAPPS). Its generalization is likely to be only a matter of time. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Hipertension-Liga Española para la Lucha de la Hipertensión Arterial (SEH-LELHA). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Lactate Accumulation in Muscle and Blood during Submaximal Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-21

    exercise, fast and slow twitch fibers Short title: Lactate in muscle and blood P.A. Tesch, W.L. Daniels and D.S. Sharp Exercise Physiology Division, U.S...KIRBY, R.L. & BELCASTRO, A.N. 1978. Relationship between slow - twitch muscle fibres and lactic acid removal. Can J Appl Sports Sci 3:160-162. BRODAL, P...oxygen uptake (Karlsson 1971, Knuttgen & Saltin 1972). It is generally agreed that the main muscle fiber type to be recruited below this level is the slow

  4. Metabolic control of muscle blood flow during exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boushel, Robert Christopher

    2003-01-01

    that combined blockade of NOS and PGI2, and NOS and cytochrome P450, both attenuate exercise-induced hyperemia in humans. Combined vasodilator blockade studies offer the potential to uncover important interactions and compensatory vasodilator responses. The signaling pathways that link metabolic events evoked...... to exert control of muscle vasodilation. Adenosine, nitric oxide (NO), prostacyclin (PGI2), and endothelial-derived hyperpolarization factor (EDHF) are possible mediators of muscle vasodilation during exercise. In humans, adenosine has been shown to contribute to functional hyperemia as blood flow...... by muscle contraction to vasodilatory signals in the local vascular bed remains an important area of study....

  5. Influence of Exercise Modality on Cerebral-Ocular Hemodynamics and Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, J.; Martin, D.; Crowell, B.; Goetchius, E.; Seponski, C.; Gonzales, R.; Matz, T.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Stenger, M.; Ploutz-Snyder, L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Moderate and high intensity aerobic or resistance exercise has clearly identified benefits for cardiac, muscle, and bone health. However, the impact of such exercise - either as a mitigating or an exacerbating factor - on the development of the visual impairment and intracranial pressure syndrome (VIIP) is unknown. Accordingly, our aim was to characterize the effect of an acute bout of resistance (RE), moderate-intensity continuous (CE), and high-intensity interval exercise (IE) during a cephalad fluid shift on cerebral-ocular hemodynamics and pressures. Methods: 10 male subjects (36 plus or minus 9 years) completed 4 testing days in a 15 degree head-down tilt (HDT): (1) assessment of maximum volume of O (sub 2), (2) RE session (4 sets of 12 repetition maximum leg press exercise), (3) CE session (30 minutes of cycling at 60 percent maximum volume of O (sub 2)), and (4) IE session (4 by 4-minute intervals of exercise at 85 percent maximum volume of O (sub 2) with 3-minute active rest periods). During each session, blood flow (Vivid-e, GE Healthcare) in extracranial arteries (common carotid artery, CCA; internal carotid artery, ICA; external carotid artery, ECA and vertebral artery, VA), and mean blood flow velocity in middle cerebral artery (MCA), internal jugular pressure (IJP; VeinPress), and intraocular pressure (IOP; Icare PRO) were measured at rest, at the end of each resistance or interval set, and every 5 minutes during continuous exercise. Translaminar pressure gradient (TLPG) was estimated by subtracting IJP from IOP. Results: There were no differences across days in pre-exercise resting blood flows or pressures. IOP decreased slightly from HDT rest (20.2 plus or minus 2.3 millimeters of mercury) to exercise (RE: 19.2 plus or minus 2.8 millimeters of mercury; CE: 18.9 plus or minus 3.2 millimeters of mercury; IE: 20.1 plus or minus 2.8 millimeters of mercury), while IJP decreased during CE (31.6 plus or minus 9.5 millimeters of mercury) and RE

  6. Compression garments and exercise: no influence of pressure applied.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beliard, Samuel; Chauveau, Michel; Moscatiello, Timothée; Cros, François; Ecarnot, Fiona; Becker, François

    2015-03-01

    Compression garments on the lower limbs are increasingly popular among athletes who wish to improve performance, reduce exercise-induced discomfort, and reduce the risk of injury. However, the beneficial effects of compression garments have not been clearly established. We performed a review of the literature for prospective, randomized, controlled studies, using quantified lower limb compression in order to (1) describe the beneficial effects that have been identified with compression garments, and in which conditions; and (2) investigate whether there is a relation between the pressure applied and the reported effects. The pressure delivered were measured either in laboratory conditions on garments identical to those used in the studies, or derived from publication data. Twenty three original articles were selected for inclusion in this review. The effects of wearing compression garments during exercise are controversial, as most studies failed to demonstrate a beneficial effect on immediate or performance recovery, or on delayed onset of muscle soreness. There was a trend towards a beneficial effect of compression garments worn during recovery, with performance recovery found to be improved in the five studies in which this was investigated, and delayed-onset muscle soreness was reportedly reduced in three of these five studies. There is no apparent relation between the effects of compression garments worn during or after exercise and the pressures applied, since beneficial effects were obtained with both low and high pressures. Wearing compression garments during recovery from exercise seems to be beneficial for performance recovery and delayed-onset muscle soreness, but the factors explaining this efficacy remain to be elucidated. Key pointsWe observed no relationship between the effects of compression and the pressures applied.The pressure applied at the level of the lower limb by compression garments destined for use by athletes varies widely between

  7. [Development of an automatic pneumatic tourniquet system that determines pressures in synchrony with systolic blood pressure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongyun; Li, Kaiyuan; Zhang, Zhengbo; Guo, Junyan; Wang, Weidong

    2012-11-01

    The correlation coefficients between arterial occlusion pressure and systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, limb circumference, body mass etc were obtained through healthy volunteer experiments, in which tourniquet were applied on upper/lower extremities. The prediction equations were derived from the data of experiments by multiple regression analysis. Based on the microprocessor C8051F340, a new pneumatic tourniquet system that can determine tourniquet pressure in synchrony with systolic blood pressure was developed and verified the function and stability of designed system. Results showed that the pneumatic tourniquet which automatically adjusts occlusion pressure in accordance with systolic blood pressure could stop the flow of blood to get a bloodless field.

  8. Repeated Plyometric Exercise Attenuates Blood Glucose in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barillas, Saldiam R; Watkins, Casey M; Wong, Megan A; Dobbs, Ian J; Archer, David C; Munger, Cameron N; Galpin, Andrew J; Coburn, Jared W; Brown, Lee E

    2017-01-01

    Plyometric exercise is popular in commercial exercise programs aiming to maximize energy expenditure for weight loss. However, the effect of plyometric exercise on blood glucose is unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of relatively high intensity plyometric exercise on blood glucose. Thirteen subjects (6 females age= 21.8 ± 1.0 yrs.; height= 163.7 ± 7.8 cm; mass= 60.8 ± 6.7 kg and 7 males age= 22.0 ± 2.6 yrs.; height= 182.3 ± 3.6 cm; mass= 87.4 ± 12.5 kg) volunteered to participate. Subjects completed two random conditions on two separate days, consisting of either five sets of 10 maximal effort countermovement squat jumps (SJ) with 50 seconds' rest between sets or quiet sitting (SIT) for the time equated to the SJ duration (~4min). Immediately after each condition, subjects drank 75g of anhydrous glucose (CHO) in 100ml of water. Blood glucose measurements were taken via finger prick pre and immediately post SJ or SIT, and 5, 15, 30, and 60 min post. A 2×6 (condition × time) ANOVA revealed a significant interaction where SJ blood glucose was lower at 15 (114.0 ± 14.6 mg/dl) and 30 (142.1 ± 22.5 mg/dl) min compared to SIT (15min 130.8 ± 14.0 mg/dl and 30min 159.3 ± 21.0 mg/dl). The current plyometric protocol attenuated CHO-induced blood glucose at 15 and 30 min. This may be due to increased physiological stress applied to the muscles, thus increasing muscular glucose uptake.

  9. Flow-related Right Ventricular - Pulmonary Arterial Pressure Gradients during Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Stephen P; Opotowsky, Alexander R; Buchan, Tayler A; Esfandiari, Sam; Granton, John T; Goodman, Jack M; Mak, Susanna

    2018-06-06

    The assumption of equivalence between right ventricular and pulmonary arterial systolic pressure is fundamental to several assessments of right ventricular or pulmonary vascular hemodynamic function. Our aims were to 1) determine whether systolic pressure gradients develop across the right ventricular outflow tract in healthy adults during exercise, 2) examine the potential correlates of such gradients, and 3) consider the effect of such gradients on calculated indices of right ventricular function. Healthy untrained and endurance-trained adult volunteers were studied using right-heart catheterization at rest and during submaximal cycle ergometry. Right ventricular and pulmonary artery pressures were simultaneously transduced, and cardiac output was determined by thermodilution. Systolic pressures, peak and mean gradients, and indices of chamber, vascular, and valve function were analyzed offline. Summary data are reported as mean ± standard deviation or median [interquartile range]. No significant right ventricular outflow tract gradients were observed at rest (mean gradient = 4 [3-5] mmHg), and calculated effective orifice area was 3.6±1.0 cm2. Right ventricular systolic pressure increases during exercise were greater than that of pulmonary artery systolic pressure. Accordingly, mean gradients developed during light exercise (8 [7-9] mmHg) and increased during moderate exercise (12 [9-14] mmHg, p < 0.001). The magnitude of the mean gradient was linearly related to cardiac output (r2 = 0.70, p < 0.001). In healthy adults without pulmonic stenosis, systolic pressure gradients develop during exercise, and the magnitude is related to blood flow rate.

  10. Correlates of blood pressure in Yanomami Indians of northwestern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, D E; Mancilha-Carvalho, J J

    1993-01-01

    We determined associations of measures of body habitus with blood pressure for 100 adult Yanomami Indians (61 men, 39 women) examined during February and March 1990. Measurements included body weight and height, four skinfolds (triceps, subscapular, suprailiac, abdomen), four circumferences (wrist, upper arm, abdomen, hip), systolic and diastolic blood pressures, pulse rate, and estimated age. Various indices of fat distribution were determined from the measurements of skinfolds, circumferences, weight, and height. Estimated age averaged 35.0 years in men and 33.4 years in women (range: 15 to 63 years). Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures were low in both men (104.8/70.4 mm Hg) and women (94.8/63.5 mm Hg), as was body mass index (men: 20.7; women: 21.4 kg/m2). In Yanomami women, all four skinfolds, wrist circumference, and the indices of hip and abdominal fat were significant correlates of systolic blood pressure, while the abdominal skinfold and wrist and hip circumferences correlated significantly with diastolic blood pressure. Among men, there was a negative correlation between estimated age and systolic blood pressure and a positive correlation between BMI and upper arm and hip circumferences and systolic blood pressure. There was a significant positive correlation between wrist, upper arm, and hip circumferences and diastolic blood pressure among Yanomami men. We used stepwise regression to generate sex-specific predictive equations for blood pressure. For men, estimated age and hip circumference, and for women, abdominal skinfold measurement and age were included in the model for systolic blood pressure. Among men, wrist circumference and height, and among women, wrist circumference alone entered the model for diastolic blood pressure. On the basis of these results, we suggest that even in a low-blood pressure, low-body fat, no-salt setting, systolic blood pressure is associated with the amount and placement of adipose tissue. However, diastolic blood

  11. Simultaneous compared with sequential blood pressure measurement results in smaller inter-arm blood pressure differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hoeven, Niels V.; Lodestijn, Sophie; Nanninga, Stephanie; van Montfrans, Gert A.; van den Born, Bert-Jan H.

    2013-01-01

    There are currently few recommendations on how to assess inter-arm blood pressure (BP) differences. The authors compared simultaneous with sequential measurement on mean BP, inter-arm BP differences, and within-visit reproducibility in 240 patients stratified according to age ( <50 or ≥60 years) and

  12. Inter-arm blood pressure differences in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, L C Y; Kametas, N; Strobl, I; Pachoumi, C; Nicolaides, K H

    2008-08-01

    To determine the prevalence of blood pressure inter-arm difference (IAD) in early pregnancy and to investigate its possible association with maternal characteristics. A cross-sectional observational study. Routine antenatal visit in a university hospital. A total of 5435 pregnant women at 11-14 weeks of gestation. Blood pressure was taken from both arms simultaneously with a validated automated device. The presence of inter-arm blood pressure difference of 10 mmHg or more. The IAD in systolic and diastolic blood pressure was 10 mmHg or more in 8.3 and 2.3% of the women, respectively. Systolic IAD was found to be significantly related to systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure, and diastolic IAD was found to be significantly related to maternal age, diastolic blood pressure and pulse pressure. The systolic and diastolic IAD were higher in the hypertensive group compared with the normotensive group and absolute IAD increased with increasing blood pressure. About 31.0 and 23.9% of cases of hypertension would have been underreported if the left arm and the right arm were used, respectively, in measuring the blood pressure. There is a blood pressure IAD in a significant proportion of the pregnant population, and its prevalence increases with increasing blood pressure. By measuring blood pressure only on one arm, there is a one in three chance of underreporting hypertension. Therefore, it would be prudent that during the booking visit blood pressure should be taken in both arms and thus provide guidance for subsequent blood pressure measurements during the course of pregnancy.

  13. Acute effects of intradialytic aerobic exercise on solute removal, blood gases and oxidative stress in patients with chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseane Böhm

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Hemodialysis contributes to increased oxidative stress and induces transitory hypoxemia. Compartmentalization decreases the supply of solutes to the dialyzer during treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effects of intradialytic aerobic exercise on solute removal, blood gases and oxidative stress in patients with chronic kidney disease during a single hemodialysis session. Methods: Thirty patients were randomized to perform aerobic exercise with cycle ergometer for lower limbs during 30 minutes with intensity between 60-70% of maximal heart rate, or control group (CG. Blood samples were collected prior to and immediately after exercise or the equivalent time in CG. Analysis of blood and dialysate biochemistry as well as blood gases were performed. Mass removal and solute clearance were calculated. Oxidative stress was determined by lipid peroxidation and by the total antioxidant capacity. Results: Serum concentrations of solutes increased with exercise, but only phosphorus showed a significant elevation (p = 0.035. There were no significant changes in solute removal and in the acid-base balance. Both oxygen partial pressure and saturation increased with exercise (p = 0.035 and p = 0.024, respectivelly, which did not occur in the CG. The total antioxidant capacity decreased significantly (p = 0.027. Conclusion: The acute intradialytic aerobic exercise increased phosphorus serum concentration and decreased total antioxidant capacity, reversing hypoxemia resulting from hemodialysis. The intradialytic exercise did not change the blood acid-base balance and the removal of solutes.

  14. Acute effects of intradialytic aerobic exercise on solute removal, blood gases and oxidative stress in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Joseane; Monteiro, Mariane Borba; Andrade, Francini Porcher; Veronese, Francisco Veríssimo; Thomé, Fernando Saldanha

    2017-01-01

    Hemodialysis contributes to increased oxidative stress and induces transitory hypoxemia. Compartmentalization decreases the supply of solutes to the dialyzer during treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effects of intradialytic aerobic exercise on solute removal, blood gases and oxidative stress in patients with chronic kidney disease during a single hemodialysis session. Thirty patients were randomized to perform aerobic exercise with cycle ergometer for lower limbs during 30 minutes with intensity between 60-70% of maximal heart rate, or control group (CG). Blood samples were collected prior to and immediately after exercise or the equivalent time in CG. Analysis of blood and dialysate biochemistry as well as blood gases were performed. Mass removal and solute clearance were calculated. Oxidative stress was determined by lipid peroxidation and by the total antioxidant capacity. Serum concentrations of solutes increased with exercise, but only phosphorus showed a significant elevation (p = 0.035). There were no significant changes in solute removal and in the acid-base balance. Both oxygen partial pressure and saturation increased with exercise (p = 0.035 and p = 0.024, respectivelly), which did not occur in the CG. The total antioxidant capacity decreased significantly (p = 0.027). The acute intradialytic aerobic exercise increased phosphorus serum concentration and decreased total antioxidant capacity, reversing hypoxemia resulting from hemodialysis. The intradialytic exercise did not change the blood acid-base balance and the removal of solutes.

  15. Negative interstitial pressure in the peritendinous region during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langberg, Henning; Skovgaard, D; Bülow, J

    1999-01-01

    of these observations, microdialysis was performed in the peritendinous region with a colloid osmotic active substance (Dextran 70, 0.1 g/ml) added to the perfusate with the aim of counteracting the negative tissue pressure. Dialysate volume was found to be fully restored (100 +/- 4%) during exercise. It is concluded...

  16. Buddhist religious practices and blood pressure among elderly in rural Uttaradit Province, northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Onwilasini; Yamarat, Khemika; Neeser, Karl J; Lertmaharit, Somrat; Holroyd, Eleanor

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the relationship between Buddhist religious practices and blood pressure. A cross-sectional survey of Buddhist religious practices and blood pressure was conducted with 160 Buddhist elderly in rural Uttaradit, northern Thailand. After controlling for the variables of gender, status, education, salary, underlying hypertension, exercise, salt intake, and taking antihypertensive medications, it was found that lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure is associated with the Buddhist religious practice of temple attendance. The Buddhist older people who regularly attended a temple every Buddhist Holy day (which occurs once a week) were found to have systolic and diastolic blood pressure readings lower than people who did not attend as regularly. It is recommended that nurses advocate for temple attendance in the care protocols for older Buddhist hypertensive patients both in Thailand and internationally. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  17. Assessing the influence of mechanical ventilation on blood gases and blood pressure in rattlesnakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Mads Frost; Buchanan, Rasmus; Jensen, Heidi Meldgaard

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterize the impact of mechanical positive pressure ventilation on heart rate (HR), arterial blood pressure, blood gases, lactate, glucose, sodium, potassium and calcium concentrations in rattlesnakes during anesthesia and the subsequent recovery period. STUDY DESIGN: Prospectiv...

  18. Blood flow restriction training and the exercise pressor reflex: a call for concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spranger, Marty D; Krishnan, Abhinav C; Levy, Phillip D; O'Leary, Donal S; Smith, Scott A

    2015-11-01

    Blood flow restriction (BFR) training (also known as Kaatsu training) is an increasingly common practice employed during resistance exercise by athletes attempting to enhance skeletal muscle mass and strength. During BFR training, blood flow to the exercising muscle is mechanically restricted by placing flexible pressurizing cuffs around the active limb proximal to the working muscle. This maneuver results in the accumulation of metabolites (e.g., protons and lactic acid) in the muscle interstitium that increase muscle force and promote muscle growth. Therefore, the premise of BFR training is to simulate and receive the benefits of high-intensity resistance exercise while merely performing low-intensity resistance exercise. This technique has also been purported to provide health benefits to the elderly, individuals recovering from joint injuries, and patients undergoing cardiac rehabilitation. Since the seminal work of Alam and Smirk in the 1930s, it has been well established that reductions in blood flow to exercising muscle engage the exercise pressor reflex (EPR), a reflex that significantly contributes to the autonomic cardiovascular response to exercise. However, the EPR and its likely contribution to the BFR-mediated cardiovascular response to exercise is glaringly missing from the scientific literature. Inasmuch as the EPR has been shown to generate exaggerated increases in sympathetic nerve activity in disease states such as hypertension (HTN), heart failure (HF), and peripheral artery disease (PAD), concerns are raised that BFR training can be used safely for the rehabilitation of patients with cardiovascular disease, as has been suggested. Abnormal BFR-induced and EPR-mediated cardiovascular complications generated during exercise could precipitate adverse cardiovascular or cerebrovascular events (e.g., cardiac arrhythmia, myocardial infarction, stroke and sudden cardiac death). Moreover, although altered EPR function in HTN, HF, and PAD underlies our

  19. Association between ambient temperature and blood pressure and blood pressure regulators: 1831 hypertensive patients followed up for three years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Chen

    Full Text Available Several studies have suggested an association between ambient air temperature and blood pressure. However, this has not been reliably confirmed by longitudinal studies. Also, whether the reaction to temperature stimulation is modified by other factors such as antihypertensive medication is rarely investigated. The present study explores the relationship between ambient temperature and blood pressure, without and with antihypertensive medication, in a study of 1,831 hypertensive patients followed up for three years, in two or four weekly check ups, accumulating 62,452 follow-up records. Both baseline and follow-up blood pressure showed an inverse association with ambient temperature, which explained 32.4% and 65.6% of variation of systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure (P<0.05 respectively. The amplitude of individual blood pressure fluctuation with temperature throughout a year (a 29 degrees centigrade range was 9.4/7.3 mmHg. Medication with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor benazepril attenuated the blood pressure fluctuation by 2.4/1.3 mmHg each year, though the inverse association of temperature and blood pressure remained. Gender, drinking behavior and body mass index were also found to modify the association between temperature and diastolic blood pressure. The results indicate that ambient temperature may negatively regulate blood pressure. Hypertensive patients should monitor and treat blood pressure more carefully in cold days, and it could be especially important for the males, thinner people and drinkers.

  20. Heritability of blood pressure traits and the genetic contribution to blood pressure variance explained by four blood-pressure-related genes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijn, M.J. van; Schut, A.F.; Aulchenko, Y.S.; Deinum, J.; Sayed-Tabatabaei, F.A.; Yazdanpanah, M.; Isaacs, A.; Axenovich, T.I.; Zorkoltseva, I.V.; Zillikens, M.C.; Pols, H.A.; Witteman, J.C.; Oostra, B.A.; Duijn, C.M. van

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the heritability of four blood pressure traits and the proportion of variance explained by four blood-pressure-related genes. METHODS: All participants are members of an extended pedigree from a Dutch genetically isolated population. Heritability and genetic correlations of

  1. Haemodynamics of aerobic and resistance blood flow restriction exercise in young and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staunton, Craig A; May, Anthony K; Brandner, Christopher R; Warmington, Stuart A

    2015-11-01

    Light-load blood flow restriction exercise (BFRE) may provide a novel training method to limit the effects of age-related muscle atrophy in older adults. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the haemodynamic response to resistance and aerobic BFRE between young adults (YA; n = 11; 22 ± 1 years) and older adults (OA; n = 13; 69 ± 1 years). On two occasions, participants completed BFRE or control exercise (CON). One occasion was leg press (LP; 20 % 1-RM) and the other was treadmill walking (TM; 4 km h(-1)). Haemodynamic responses (HR, Q, SV and BP) were recorded during baseline and exercise. At baseline, YA and OA were different for some haemodynamic parameters (e.g. BP, SV). The relative responses to BFRE were similar between YA and OA. Blood pressures increased more with BFRE, and also for LP over TM. Q increased similarly for BFRE and CON (in both LP and TM), but with elevated HR and reduced SV (TM only). While BFR conferred slightly greater haemodynamic stress than CON, this was lower for walking than leg-press exercise. Given similar response magnitudes between YA and OA, these data support aerobic exercise being a more appropriate BFRE for prescription in older adults that may contribute to limiting the effects of age-related muscle atrophy.

  2. Efeitos de exercícios aquáticos sobre a aptidão cardiorrespiratória e a pressão arterial em hipertensas Effects of aquatic exercise on cardiorespiratory fitness and blood pressure in hypertensive women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisiane Piazza

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O estudo visou avaliar a influência de um programa de exercícios aquáticos sobre a aptidão cardiorrespiratória e a pressão arterial em mulheres hipertensas. Dez hipertensas participaram do programa de exercícios aquáticos - aeróbicos, de fortalecimento, alongamento e relaxamento - duas vezes por semana durante 7 semanas, totalizando 14 sessões. Foram avaliadas pelo teste de esforço cardiorrespiratório antes e após o desenvolvimento do programa. A pressão arterial foi mensurada ao repouso e aos 10, 20 e 30 minutos após o exercício em cada sessão. As variáveis cardiorrespiratórias não apresentaram alterações significativas após o programa, tanto dos valores de limiar de anaerobiose quanto os do pico de esforço. As pressões arteriais sistólica, diastólica e média de repouso permaneceram estáveis no decorrer do programa. Entretanto, no período pós-exercício, os níveis da pressão arterial sistólica (PAS e média (PAM foram significativamente menores, quando comparados aos valores pré-exercício: houve redução média de 6,43 mmHg da PAS e 3,08 mmHg da PAM aos 30 minutos pós-exercício. Assim, o programa de exercícios aquáticos proposto não promove ganho aeróbico efetivo, mas os resultados sugerem que exercícios aquáticos como os propostos, em intensidade próxima ao limiar de anaerobiose, desencadeiam redução dos níveis de pressão arterial no período pós-exercício, em mulheres hipertensas.The aim of this study was to assess the influence of an aquatic exercise program on cardiorespiratory fitness and blood pressure in hypertensive women. Ten hypertensive women took part in the study. The program consisted of aquatic aerobic, strengthening, and stretching exercises in intensity near the anaerobic threshold, besides relaxation, twice a week during 7 weeks, totalling 14 sessions. They were assessed by cardiorespiratory exercise testing before and after program development. Blood pressure was measured at

  3. Impact of Physical Activity Interventions on Blood Pressure in Brazilian Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Freitas Rezende Bento

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: High blood pressure is associated with cardiovascular disease, which is the leading cause of mortality in the Brazilian population. Lifestyle changes, including physical activity, are important for lowering blood pressure levels and decreasing the costs associated with outcomes. Objective: Assess the impact of physical activity interventions on blood pressure in Brazilian individuals. Methods: Meta-analysis and systematic review of studies published until May 2014, retrieved from several health sciences databases. Seven studies with 493 participants were included. The analysis included parallel studies of physical activity interventions in adult populations in Brazil with a description of blood pressure (mmHg before and after the intervention in the control and intervention groups. Results: Of 390 retrieved studies, eight matched the proposed inclusion criteria for the systematic review and seven randomized clinical trials were included in the meta-analysis. Physical activity interventions included aerobic and resistance exercises. There was a reduction of -10.09 (95% CI: -18.76 to -1.43 mmHg in the systolic and -7.47 (95% CI: -11.30 to -3.63 mmHg in the diastolic blood pressure. Conclusions: Available evidence on the effects of physical activity on blood pressure in the Brazilian population shows a homogeneous and significant effect at both systolic and diastolic blood pressures. However, the strength of the included studies was low and the methodological quality was also low and/or regular. Larger studies with more rigorous methodology are necessary to build robust evidence.

  4. Hybrid Optical Unobtrusive Blood Pressure Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangfei Zhang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Blood pressure (BP is critical in diagnosing certain cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension. Some previous studies have proved that BP can be estimated by pulse transit time (PTT calculated by a pair of photoplethysmography (PPG signals at two body sites. Currently, contact PPG (cPPG and imaging PPG (iPPG are two feasible ways to obtain PPG signals. In this study, we proposed a hybrid system (called the ICPPG system employing both methods that can be implemented on a wearable device, facilitating the measurement of BP in an inconspicuous way. The feasibility of the ICPPG system was validated on a dataset with 29 subjects. It has been proved that the ICPPG system is able to estimate PTT values. Moreover, the PTT measured by the new system shows a correlation on average with BP variations for most subjects, which could facilitate a new generation of BP measurement using wearable and mobile devices.

  5. Cocoa, Blood Pressure, and Vascular Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludovici, Valeria; Barthelmes, Jens; Nägele, Matthias P.; Enseleit, Frank; Ferri, Claudio; Flammer, Andreas J.; Ruschitzka, Frank; Sudano, Isabella

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) represents the most common cause of death worldwide. The consumption of natural polyphenol-rich foods, and cocoa in particular, has been related to a reduced risk of CVD, including coronary heart disease and stroke. Intervention studies strongly suggest that cocoa exerts a beneficial impact on cardiovascular health, through the reduction of blood pressure (BP), improvement of vascular function, modulation of lipid and glucose metabolism, and reduction of platelet aggregation. These potentially beneficial effects have been shown in healthy subjects as well as in patients with risk factors (arterial hypertension, diabetes, and smoking) or established CVD (coronary heart disease or heart failure). Several potential mechanisms are supposed to be responsible for the positive effect of cocoa; among them activation of nitric oxide (NO) synthase, increased bioavailability of NO as well as antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. It is the aim of this review to summarize the findings of cocoa and chocolate on BP and vascular function. PMID:28824916

  6. Cocoa, Blood Pressure, and Vascular Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Ludovici

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD represents the most common cause of death worldwide. The consumption of natural polyphenol-rich foods, and cocoa in particular, has been related to a reduced risk of CVD, including coronary heart disease and stroke. Intervention studies strongly suggest that cocoa exerts a beneficial impact on cardiovascular health, through the reduction of blood pressure (BP, improvement of vascular function, modulation of lipid and glucose metabolism, and reduction of platelet aggregation. These potentially beneficial effects have been shown in healthy subjects as well as in patients with risk factors (arterial hypertension, diabetes, and smoking or established CVD (coronary heart disease or heart failure. Several potential mechanisms are supposed to be responsible for the positive effect of cocoa; among them activation of nitric oxide (NO synthase, increased bioavailability of NO as well as antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. It is the aim of this review to summarize the findings of cocoa and chocolate on BP and vascular function.

  7. [Blood pressure in 6 Yanomami villages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancilha-Carvalho, J J; Sousa e Silva, N A; Carvalho, J V; Lima, J A

    1991-06-01

    To investigate in Yanomami Indians that not add salt to food, the relationship between blood pressure (BP), biological variables (age, body weight, height and pulse) and urinary electrolytes (Na+, K+, Ca++ and Mg++). We studied 125 males and 129 females from six villages on Surucuru plateau and on Catrimani and Ajarani rivers region in the state of Roraima, north Brazil. Two BP measurements were made and the mean of them were used in data analysis. None hypertensive was found. Systolic BP decreased with age and correlated with body weight, pulse and urinary Na+. Diastolic BP only correlated with body weight. Height, urinary K+, Ca++ and Mg++ did not correlate with BP. There was no hypertension nor increase of BP with increasing age in these isolated Yanomami.

  8. Rate of rise in diastolic blood pressure influences vascular sympathetic response to mental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sayed, Khadigeh; Macefield, Vaughan G; Hissen, Sarah L; Joyner, Michael J; Taylor, Chloe E

    2016-12-15

    Research indicates that individuals may experience a rise (positive responders) or fall (negative responders) in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during mental stress. In this study, we examined the early blood pressure responses (including the peak, time of peak and rate of rise in blood pressure) to mental stress in positive and negative responders. Negative MSNA responders to mental stress exhibit a more rapid rise in diastolic pressure at the onset of the stressor, suggesting a baroreflex-mediated suppression of MSNA. In positive responders there is a more sluggish rise in blood pressure during mental stress, which appears to be MSNA-driven. This study suggests that whether MSNA has a role in the pressor response is dependent upon the reactivity of blood pressure early in the task. Research indicates that individuals may experience a rise (positive responders) or fall (negative responders) in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during mental stress. The aim was to examine the early blood pressure response to stress in positive and negative responders and thus its influence on the direction of change in MSNA. Blood pressure and MSNA were recorded continuously in 21 healthy young males during 2 min mental stressors (mental arithmetic, Stroop test) and physical stressors (cold pressor, handgrip exercise, post-exercise ischaemia). Participants were classified as negative or positive responders according to the direction of the mean change in MSNA during the stressor tasks. The peak changes, time of peak and rate of changes in blood pressure were compared between groups. During mental arithmetic negative responders experienced a significantly greater rate of rise in diastolic blood pressure in the first minute of the task (1.3 ± 0.5 mmHg s -1 ) compared with positive responders (0.4 ± 0.1 mmHg s -1 ; P = 0.03). Similar results were found for the Stroop test. Physical tasks elicited robust parallel increases in blood pressure and MSNA across

  9. Similar hypotensive responses to resistance exercise with and without blood flow restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jr R Moriggi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Low intensity resistance exercise (RE with blood flow restriction (BFR has gained attention in the literature due to the beneficial effects on functional and morphological variables, similar to those observed during traditional RE without BFR, while the effects of BFR on post-exercise hypotension remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to compare the blood pressure (BP response of trained normotensive individuals to RE with and without BFR. In this cross-over randomized trial, eight male subjects (23.8 ± 4 years, 74 ± 3 kg, 174 ± 4 cm completed two exercise protocols: traditional RE (3 x 10 repetitions at 70% one-repetition maximum [1-RM] and low intensity RE (3 x 15 repetitions at 20% 1-RM with BFR. Blood pressure measurements were performed after 15 min of seated rest (0, immediately after and 10 min, 20 min, 30 min, 40 min, 50 min and 60 min after the experimental sessions. Similar hypotensive effects for systolic BP (SBP were observed for both protocols (P 0.05 and no statistically significant difference for diastolic BP (P > 0.05. These results suggest that in normotensive trained individuals, both traditional RE and RE with BFR induce hypotension for SBP, which is important to prevent cardiovascular disturbances.

  10. Effects of vegetarian diets on blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yokoyama Y

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Yoko Yokoyama,1,2 Kazuo Tsubota,2,3 Mitsuhiro Watanabe1,2,4,5 1Graduate School of Media and Governance, Keio University, Fujisawa, Kanagawa, 2Health Science Laboratory, 3Department of Ophthalmology, 4Department of Internal Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, 5Faculty of Environment and Information Studies, Keio University, Fujisawa, Kanagawa, Japan Abstract: Hypertension is a major independent risk factor for coronary artery diseases, and the prevalence of hypertension is continuously increasing. Diet is an important factor that can be modified to prevent hypertension. According to the US Department of Health and Human Services, dietary patterns are defined as the quantities, proportions, and variety or combinations of different foods and beverages in diets and the frequency with which they are habitually consumed. In this review, the vegetarian dietary pattern is introduced with a focus on the effect on blood pressure (BP. Although the available evidence is limited, according to a previous meta-analysis of controlled trials, vegetarian dietary patterns significantly reduced systolic and diastolic BPs. One of the common features of a vegetarian diet is weight loss, which might, at least partially, explain the effect on BP. Other possible factors such as sodium, potassium, protein, amino acids, vitamin B-12, antioxidants, fiber, and the microbiome are introduced as possible mechanisms. Further studies are needed with non-Western populations to determine the most effective vegetarian dietary pattern and to explore the exact mechanisms by which these dietary patterns affect BP. Keywords: vegetarian diet, plant-based diet, blood pressure, hypertension, meta-analysis

  11. Improving Blood Pressure Control Using Smart Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciemins, Elizabeth L; Arora, Anupama; Coombs, Nicholas C; Holloway, Barbara; Mullette, Elizabeth J; Garland, Robin; Walsh Bishop-Green, Shannon; Penso, Jerry; Coon, Patricia J

    2018-03-01

    The authors sought to determine if wireless oscillometric home blood pressure monitoring (HBPM) that integrates with smartphone technology improves blood pressure (BP) control among patients with new or existing uncontrolled hypertension (HTN). A prospective observational cohort study monitored BP control before and after an educational intervention and introduction to HBPM. Patients in the intervention group were instructed to track their BP using a smartphone device three to seven times per week. Cases were matched to controls at a 1:3 allocation ratio on several clinical characteristics over the same period and received usual care. The proportion of patients with controlled BP was compared between groups at pre- and postintervention, ∼9 months later. Results and Materials: The total study population included 484 patients with mean age 60 years (range 23-102 years), 47.7% female, and 84.6% Caucasian. Mean preintervention BP was 137.8 mm Hg systolic and 81.4 mm Hg diastolic. Mean BP control rates improved for patients who received HBPM from 42% to 67% compared with matched control patients who improved from 59% to 67% (p technology has the potential to improve HTN management among patients with uncontrolled or newly diagnosed HTN. Technology needs to be easy to use and operate and would work best when integrated into local electronic health record systems. In systems without this capability, medical assistants or other personnel may be trained to facilitate the process. Nurse navigator involvement was instrumental in bridging communication between the patients and provider.

  12. Occlusion of blood flow attenuates exercise-induced hypoalgesia in the occluded limb of healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Matthew D; Taylor, Janet L; Barry, Benjamin K

    2017-05-01

    Animal studies have demonstrated an important role of peripheral mechanisms as contributors to exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH). Whether these same mechanisms contribute to EIH in humans is not known. In the current study, pain thresholds were assessed in healthy volunteers ( n = 36) before and after 5 min of high-intensity leg cycling exercise and an equivalent period of quiet rest. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were assessed over the rectus femoris muscle of one leg and first dorsal interosseous muscles (FDIs) of both arms. Blood flow to one arm was occluded by a cuff throughout the 5-min period of exercise (or rest) and postexercise (or rest) assessments. Ratings of pain intensity and pain unpleasantness during occlusion were also measured. Pain ratings during occlusion increased over time (range, 1.5 to 3.5/10, all d > 0.63, P exercise conditions ( d 0.4). PPTs at all sites were unchanged following rest (range, -1.3% to +0.9%, all d 0.51). Consistent with EIH, exercise significantly increased PPT at the leg (+29%, d = 0.69, P exercise attenuates EIH, suggesting that peripheral factors contribute to EIH in healthy adults. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This is the first demonstration in humans that a factor carried by the circulation and acting at the periphery is important for exercise-induced hypoalgesia. Further understanding of this mechanism may provide new insight to pain relief with exercise as well as potential interactions between analgesic medications and exercise. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Pomegranate Consumption and Blood Pressure: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgary, Sedigheh; Keshvari, Mahtab; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal

    2017-01-01

    Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is a polyphenol-rich fruit with diverse medicinal properties. Several lines of experimental and clinical evidence have shown that pomegranate intake helps lowering blood pressure (BP) through different mechanisms. This study aimed to present a narrative review on the anti-hypertensive properties of different parts of pomegranate such as pomegranate juice (PJ), pomegranate peels (PP), pomegranate seed oil (PSO), pomegranate fruit extract (PFE) and the mechanisms and phytochemicals responsible for these effects. A review on the efficacy of consuming different parts of pomegranate (juice, peels, fruit extract and seed oil) in lowering BP has been performed. To find relevant studies, a search in PubMed, Science Direct and Scopus up from inception to May 4, 2015 was performed. Human, animals and in vitro studies investigating the anti-hypertensive effects of pomegranate were included in the search. Findings arising from animal and clinical studies have shown pomegranate juice can reduce BP in both short-term and long-term course. These effects are accompanied by antioxidant and anti-atherosclerotic actions that collectively improve cardiovascular health. The anti-hypertensive effects have been reported for both pomegranate juice and seed oil. Both systolic and diastolic pressures are affected. Pomegranate juice possesses antioxidant, anti-hypertensive and anti-atherosclerotic properties. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. Child Abuse, Resting Blood Pressure, and Blood Pressure Reactivity to Psychosocial Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, Holly C; Milliren, Carly E; Austin, S Bryn; Sheridan, Margaret A; McLaughlin, Katie A

    2016-01-01

    Childhood trauma is associated with hypertension in adults. It is unknown whether childhood trauma predicts elevated blood pressure earlier in development. We investigated whether the trauma of child abuse was associated with blood pressure in adolescents. The sample included 145 adolescents aged 13-17 years, 40% with exposure to child abuse. The mean age of participants was 14.93 years (SD = 1.33); 58% were female. The majority self-identified as non-Hispanic White (43%), with the remainder identifying as non-Hispanic Black (17%), Hispanic (17%), or other/mixed race (23%). We used established age/sex/height-specific cutoffs to determine the prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension in the sample. We used two-sample t tests to examine associations of abuse with resting systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and blood pressure reactivity to the Trier Social Stress Test and a frustration task. We used linear regression to adjust for potential confounders including sociodemographic variables, body mass index, smoking, and psychopathology. Mean resting SBP and DBP were 114.07 mmHg and 61.35 mmHg in those with a history of abuse and 111.39 mmHg and 56.89 mmHg in those without a history of abuse. This difference was significant for DBP only. Twelve percent of participants met criteria for prehypertension or hypertension based on resting blood pressure values; this did not differ between those with and without an abuse history. Child abuse was associated with lower DBP and SBP reactivity to laboratory stress tasks and reduced DBP reactivity to frustration. These associations were robust to adjustment for potential confounders. Child abuse is associated with higher resting DBP and blunted DBP and SBP reactivity to laboratory stress in adolescence. These findings suggest a potential pathway by which child abuse leads to hypertension. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All

  15. Accurate blood pressure recording: is it difficult?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, A; Singh, R; D'cruz, S; Lehl, S S; Sachdev, A

    2005-11-01

    Blood pressure (BP) measurement is a routine procedure but errors are frequently committed during BP recording. AIMS AND SETTINGS: The aim of the study was to look at the prevalent practices in the institute regarding BP recording. The study was conducted in the Medicine Department at Government Medical College, Chandigarh, a teaching institute for MBBS students. A prospective, observational study was performed amongst the 80 doctors in a tertiary care hospital. All of them were observed by a single observer during the act of BP recording. The observer was well versed with the guidelines issued by British Hypertension Society (BHS) and the deviations from the standard set of guidelines issued by BHS were noted. The errors were defined as deviations from these guidelines. The results were recorded as percentage of doctors committing these errors. In our study, 90% used mercury type sphygmomanometer. Zero error of the apparatus, hand dominance was not noted by any one. Every one used the standard BP cuff for recording BP. 70% of them did not let the patient rest before recording BP. 80% did not remove the clothing from the arm. None of them recorded BP in both arms. In out patient setting, 80% recorded blood pressure in sitting position and 14% in supine position. In all the patients where BP was recorded in sitting position BP apparatus was below the level of heart and 20% did not have their arm supported. 60% did not use palpatory method for noticing systolic BP and 70% did not raise pressure 30-40 mm Hg above the systolic level before checking the BP by auscultation. 80% lowered the BP at a rate of more than 2 mm/s and 60% rounded off the BP to nearest 5-10 mm Hg. 70% recorded BP only once and 90% of the rest re inflated the cuff without completely deflating and allowing rest before a second reading was obtained. The practice of recording BP in our hospital varies from the standard guidelines issued by the BHS.

  16. Fitness Level Modulates Intraocular Pressure Responses to Strength Exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Jesús; Jiménez, Raimundo; Redondo, Beatríz; Cárdenas, David; García-Ramos, Amador

    2018-06-01

    Purpose/Aim: The execution of strength exercises has demonstrated to increase the intraocular pressure (IOP) levels, and it may have a negative impact on the ocular health. We aimed to explore the influence of fitness level on the acute IOP response to strength exercises performed under different loading conditions, as well as to test whether the IOP responses differ between the bench press and jump squat when performed against the same relative loads. Forty military personnel males were divided in two subgroups (20 high-fit and 20 low-fit) based on their relative to body mass one-repetition maximum (1-RM). Participants performed an incremental loading test in the bench press and jump squat exercises, and IOP was assessed before and after each repetition by rebound tonometry. IOP increased immediately after executing both exercises (p e., high-fit and low-fit) and in both exercises (R 2 range: 0.81-1.00). Higher fitness level attenuated the IOP rise produced by both exercises (p < 0.01 in both cases). The bench press induced higher IOP increments than the jump squat for both groups at relative loads of ~50%1-RM and ~60%1-RM (p < 0.01 in all cases). These data indicate that IOP increases as a consequence of performing strength exercises, being the increment accentuated with the increase of the load and in the bench press compared to the jump squat exercise. Of special importance would be that the IOP responses were significantly reduced in high-fit individuals. These findings should be addressed in glaucoma patients.

  17. Response of the arterial blood pressure of quadriplegic patients to treadmill gait training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.C.L. Carvalho

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Blood pressure pattern was analyzed in 12 complete quadriplegics with chronic lesions after three months of treadmill gait training. Before training, blood pressure values were obtained at rest, during treadmill walking and during the recovery phase. Gait training was performed for 20 min twice a week for three months. Treadmill gait was achieved using neuromuscular electrical stimulation, assisted by partial body weight relief (30-50%. After training, blood pressure was evaluated at rest, during gait and during recovery phase. Before and after training, mean systolic blood pressures and heart rates increased significantly during gait compared to rest (94.16 ± 5.15 to 105 ± 5.22 mmHg and 74.27 ± 10.09 to 106.23 ± 17.31 bpm, respectively, and blood pressure decreased significantly in the recovery phase (86.66 ± 9.84 and 57.5 ± 8.66 mmHg, respectively. After three months of training, systolic blood pressure became higher at rest (94.16 ± 5.15 mmHg before training and 100 ± 8.52 mmHg after training; P < 0.05 and during gait exercise (105 ± 5.22 mmHg before and 110 ± 7.38 mmHg after training; P < 0.05 when compared to the initial values, with no changes in heart rate. No changes occurred in blood pressure during the recovery phase, with the lower values being maintained. A drop in systolic pressure from 105 ± 5.22 to 86.66 ± 9.84 mmHg before training and from 110 ± 7.38 to 90 ± 7.38 mmHg after training was noticed immediately after exercise, thus resulting in hypotensive symptoms when chronic quadriplegics reach the sitting position from the upright position.

  18. How to Prevent High Blood Pressure: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spanish Understanding Blood Pressure Readings (American Heart Association) Weightlifting: Bad for Your Blood Pressure? (Mayo Foundation for ... High Blood Pressure High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy Nutrition Quitting Smoking Stress National Institutes of Health The ...

  19. Enhanced muscle blood flow with intermittent pneumatic compression of the lower leg during plantar flexion exercise and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuj, K A; Prince, C N; Hughson, R L; Peterson, S D

    2018-02-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that intermittent compression of the lower limb would increase blood flow during exercise and postexercise recovery. Data were collected from 12 healthy individuals (8 men) who performed 3 min of standing plantar flexion exercise. The following three conditions were tested: no applied compression (NoComp), compression during the exercise period only (ExComp), and compression during 2 min of standing postexercise recovery. Doppler ultrasound was used to determine superficial femoral artery (SFA) blood flow responses. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and cardiac stroke volume (SV) were assessed using finger photoplethysmography, with vascular conductance (VC) calculated as VC = SFA flow/MAP. Compared with the NoComp condition, compression resulted in increased MAP during exercise [+3.5 ± 4.1 mmHg (mean ± SD)] but not during postexercise recovery (+1.6 ± 5.9 mmHg). SV increased with compression during both exercise (+4.8 ± 5.1 ml) and recovery (+8.0 ± 6.6 ml) compared with NoComp. There was a greater increase in SFA flow with compression during exercise (+52.1 ± 57.2 ml/min) and during recovery (+58.6 ± 56.7 ml/min). VC immediately following exercise was also significantly greater in the ExComp condition compared with the NoComp condition (+0.57 ± 0.42 ml·min -1 ·mmHg -1 ), suggesting the observed increase in blood flow during exercise was in part because of changes in VC. Results from this study support the hypothesis that intermittent compression applied during exercise and recovery from exercise results in increased limb blood flow, potentially contributing to changes in exercise performance and recovery. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Blood flow to working skeletal muscle is achieved in part through the rhythmic actions of the skeletal muscle pump. This study demonstrated that the application of intermittent pneumatic compression during the diastolic phase of the cardiac cycle, to mimic the mechanical

  20. Contributions of social context to blood pressure: findings from a multilevel analysis of social capital and systolic blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamano, Tsuyoshi; Fujisawa, Yoshikazu; Yamasaki, Masayuki; Ito, Katsuhisa; Nabika, Toru; Shiwaku, Kuninori

    2011-06-01

    In recent years, few studies have quantified the effect of residential context on blood pressure. Although these studies have emphasized the importance of socioeconomic influences such as education or poverty levels, the association between the features of social structure such as social capital and blood pressure remain unclear. Therefore, we investigated whether social capital was associated with systolic blood pressure after controlling for individual potential confounders. We analyzed data from the Shimane Study conducted from 2006 to 2008 in rural mountainous regions of Japan. After excluding the missing data and data of participants taking hypertension medication, we conducted a multilevel analysis of the data for 335 individuals nested within 30 postcode sectors. Systolic blood pressure increased with increasing age and body mass index. We also found that a higher systolic blood pressure was observed among smokers and those taking medication for diabetes. Regarding the contextual effects of social capital, systolic blood pressure increased with an increasing proportion of lack of fairness, after adjustment for individual confounders. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to investigate the association between social capital and systolic blood pressure by using a multilevel methodological framework. Surprisingly, we found that lack of fairness had a strong effect on systolic blood pressure. However, we could not find any significant associations between other items of social capital and systolic blood pressure. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanism by which lack of fairness may have an effect on systolic blood pressure.

  1. Announcement: National High Blood Pressure Education Month - May 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-27

    May is National High Blood Pressure Education Month. High blood pressure (hypertension) is a major contributor to heart disease and stroke, two leading causes of death in the United States.* High blood pressure affects one third of U.S. adults, or approximately 75 million persons, yet approximately 11 million of these persons are not aware they have hypertension, and approximately 18 million are not being treated (unpublished data) (1,2).

  2. Mean Blood Pressure Difference among Adolescents Based on Dyssomnia Types

    OpenAIRE

    Krisnarta Sembiring; Oke Rina Ramayani; Munar Lubis

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dyssomnia is the most frequent sleep disturbance and associated with increased blood pressure. There has been no study determining the difference in mean blood pressure based on dyssomnia types among adolescents. OBJECTIVE: To determine the difference in mean blood pressure among adolescents based on dyssomnia types. METHODS: a Cross-sectional study was conducted in SMP Negeri 1 Muara Batang Gadis in April 2016. Samples were students having sleep disturbance based on Sleep...

  3. Blood pressure among the Inuit (Eskimo) populations in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Dewailly, Eric; Young, T Kue

    2003-01-01

    Studies of blood pressure among various Inuit (Eskimo) populations in the Arctic have given inconsistent results. Most studies reported lower blood pressure among the Inuit as compared with the predominantly white national populations. This has been attributed to traditional subsistence practices...... and lifestyle. This study compared the blood pressure among the major Inuit population groups with other populations and examined the associations with factors like age, gender, obesity and smoking....

  4. [Blood pressure variability: clinical interest or simple curiosity?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciaroni, Stefano

    2007-03-14

    Blood pressure variability is a physiological phenomenon influenced by many internal and external factors. This variability could be also influenced by pathological conditions such as arterial hypertension. Two forms must be mainly distinguished: the blood pressure variability at long and short-term. The latter could only be studied by continuous recordings. In this article will be analysed the interest of measuring blood pressure variability, its cardiovascular prognosis and the therapeutic tools when it is increased.

  5. Potentiation by aminopeptidase P of blood pressure response to bradykinin.

    OpenAIRE

    Kitamura, S; Carbini, L A; Carretero, O A; Simmons, W H; Scicli, A G

    1995-01-01

    We examined whether a specific aminopeptidase P (APP) inhibitor, apstatin, increases vasodepressor responses to bradykinin in anaesthetized rats, and whether it would augment blood pressure responses further after treatment with the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEi), lisinopril. Apstatin doubled the maximum blood pressure response to bradykinin. The area under the curve (AUC), which incorporates both peak blood pressure changes and duration of response, was doubled in apstatin-tr...

  6. Blood pressure normalization post-jugular venous balloon angioplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Zohara; Grewal, Prabhjot; Cen, Steven; DeBarge-Igoe, Frances; Yu, Jinhee; Arata, Michael

    2015-05-01

    This study is the first in a series investigating the relationship between autonomic nervous system dysfunction and chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in multiple sclerosis patients. We screened patients for the combined presence of the narrowing of the internal jugular veins and symptoms of autonomic nervous system dysfunction (fatigue, cognitive dysfunction, sleeping disorders, headache, thermal intolerance, bowel/bladder dysfunction) and determined systolic and diastolic blood pressure responses to balloon angioplasty. The criteria for eligibility for balloon angioplasty intervention included ≥ 50% narrowing in one or both internal jugular veins, as determined by the magnetic resonance venography, and ≥ 3 clinical symptoms of autonomic nervous system dysfunction. Blood pressure was measured at baseline and post-balloon angioplasty. Among patients who were screened, 91% were identified as having internal jugular veins narrowing (with obstructing lesions) combined with the presence of three or more symptoms of autonomic nervous system dysfunction. Balloon angioplasty reduced the average systolic and diastolic blood pressure. However, blood pressure categorization showed a biphasic response to balloon angioplasty. The procedure increased blood pressure in multiple sclerosis patients who presented with baseline blood pressure within lower limits of normal ranges (systolic ≤ 105 mmHg, diastolic ≤ 70 mmHg) but decreased blood pressure in patients with baseline blood pressure above normal ranges (systolic ≥ 130 mmHg, diastolic ≥ 80 mmHg). In addition, gender differences in baseline blood pressure subcategories were observed. The coexistence of internal jugular veins narrowing and symptoms of autonomic nervous system dysfunction suggests that the two phenomena may be related. Balloon angioplasty corrects blood pressure deviation in multiple sclerosis patients undergoing internal jugular vein dilation. Further studies should investigate the

  7. Teaming Up Against High Blood Pressure PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Nearly one-third of American adults have high blood pressure, and more than half of them don’t have it under control. Simply seeing a doctor and taking medications isn’t enough for many people who have high blood pressure. A team-based approach by patients, health care systems, and health care providers is one of the best ways to treat uncontrolled high blood pressure.

  8. Decreased muscle oxygenation and increased arterial blood flow in the non-exercising limb during leg exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiroishi, Kiyoshi; Kime, Ryotaro; Osada, Takuya; Murase, Norio; Shimomura, Kousuke; Katsumura, Toshihito

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated arterial blood flow, muscle tissue oxygenation and muscle metabolism in the non-exercising limb during leg cycling exercise. Ten healthy male volunteers performed a graded leg cycling exercise at 0, 40, 80, 120 and 160 watts (W) for 5 min each. Tissue oxygenation index (TOI) of the non-exercising left forearm muscle was measured using a near-infrared spatially resolved spectroscopy (NIR(SRS)), and non-exercising forearm blood flow ((NONEX)FBF) in the brachial artery was also evaluated by a Doppler ultrasound system. We also determined O(2) consumption of the non-exercising forearm muscle (NONEXV(O)(2mus)) by the rate of decrease in O(2)Hb during arterial occlusion at each work rate. TOI was significantly decreased at 160 W (p exercising muscle may be reduced, even though (NONEX)FBF increases at high work rates during leg cycling exercise.

  9. Cerebral blood flow and metabolism during exercise: implications for fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secher, Neils H; Seifert, Thomas; Van Lieshout, Johannes J

    2008-01-01

    During exercise: the Kety-Schmidt-determined cerebral blood flow (CBF) does not change because the jugular vein is collapsed in the upright position. In contrast, when CBF is evaluated by (133)Xe clearance, by flow in the internal carotid artery, or by flow velocity in basal cerebral arteries, a approximately 25% increase is detected with a parallel increase in metabolism. During activation, an increase in cerebral O(2) supply is required because there is no capillary recruitment within the brain and increased metabolism becomes dependent on an enhanced gradient for oxygen diffusion. During maximal whole body exercise, however, cerebral oxygenation decreases because of eventual arterial desaturation and marked hyperventilation-related hypocapnia of consequence for CBF. Reduced cerebral oxygenation affects recruitment of motor units, and supplemental O(2) enhances cerebral oxygenation and work capacity without effects on muscle oxygenation. Also, the work of breathing and the increasing temperature of the brain during exercise are of importance for the development of so-called central fatigue. During prolonged exercise, the perceived exertion is related to accumulation of ammonia in the brain, and data support the theory that glycogen depletion in astrocytes limits the ability of the brain to accelerate its metabolism during activation. The release of interleukin-6 from the brain when exercise is prolonged may represent a signaling pathway in matching the metabolic response of the brain. Preliminary data suggest a coupling between the circulatory and metabolic perturbations in the brain during strenuous exercise and the ability of the brain to access slow-twitch muscle fiber populations.

  10. Effect of aquatic resistance training on blood pressure and physical function of postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Sattar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4    BACKGROUND: In postmenopausal women, the risk of having cardiac diseases, especially high blood pressure, is increased due to the decrease in secretion of estrogen. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of 8 weeks of aquatic resistance training on blood pressure and physical function of postmenopausal women.    METHODS: In this quasi-experimental study, 24 postmenopausal women (age: 53-60 years, BMI= 29.23 ± 5.27kg/m2  ( were randomly divided into experimental (n = 14 and control (n = 10 groups. Women in the experimental group participated in an aquatic exercise program for 8 weeks (3 sessions per week in the deep parts of the pool. Training included walking and running in water with water dumbbells weighing 250 grams. Before and after the exercise period, the body composition, blood pressure, dynamic balance, and flexibility of the subjects were measured.    RESULTS: According to the T-score, the average systolic blood pressure in the experimental group significantly decreased (9.29% (P = 0.001. Dynamic balance and flexibility, respectively, significantly increased by 22.02% and 24.4% (P < 0.01. No significant changes were observed in body fat and weight.    CONCLUSION: Due to the positive effect of aquatic resistance training on blood pressure, dynamic balance, and flexibility these exercises are recommended for postmenopausal women.   Keywords: Menopausal Women, Blood Pressure, Flexibility, Aquatic Resistance Training  

  11. Evaluation of left ventricular function during exercise in patients with ischemic heart disease using multigated blood pool scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmori, Yoshiaki; Kanoh, Yasushi; Shiotani, Hideyuki; Fujitani, Kazuhiro; Fukuzaki, Hisashi; Kajiya, Teishi; Nakashima, Yoshiharu; Maeda, Kazumi.

    1985-01-01

    Multigated blood pool scintigraphy (exercise RI ventriculography) and exercise stress thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy were performed in 44 ischemic heart disease (IHD) patients (16 with angina pectoris and 28 with old myocardial infarction) and 11 healthy persons. Furthermore, blood circulation was examined in 38 of the subjects. Work load was significantly greater, and the number of diseased vessels and the incidence of indicators for transient ischemia during exercise were significantly lower in the group with a remarkably increased left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) during exercise than in the group with a remarkably decreased EF. In the group with unchanged EF, reginal left ventricular wall movement could be assessed using phase analysis. In IHD patients with a remarkably decreased EF at rest, EF was scarcely changed during exercise, and indicators for transient ischemia were not observed frequently. There was a highly significnat correlation between EF during exercise and pulmonary artery wedge pressure or cardiac index during exercise, suggesting that EF is a noninvasive indicator for coronary circulation during exercise. Exercise RI ventriculography was considered useful for evaluating the physiology of IHD. (Namekawa, K.)

  12. Elevated preoperative blood pressures in adult surgical patients are highly predictive of elevated home blood pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonberger, Robert B; Nwozuzu, Adambeke; Zafar, Jill; Chen, Eric; Kigwana, Simon; Monteiro, Miriam M; Charchaflieh, Jean; Sophanphattana, Sophisa; Dai, Feng; Burg, Matthew M

    2018-04-01

    Blood pressure (BP) measurement during the presurgical assessment has been suggested as a way to improve longitudinal detection and treatment of hypertension. The relationship between BP measured during this assessment and home blood pressure (HBP), a better indicator of hypertension, is unknown. The purpose of the present study was to determine the positive predictive value of presurgical BP for predicting elevated HBP. We prospectively enrolled 200 patients at a presurgical evaluation clinic with clinic blood pressures (CBPs) ≥130/85 mm Hg, as measured using a previously validated automated upper-arm device (Welch Allyn Vital Sign Monitor 6000 Series), to undergo daily HBP monitoring (Omron Model BP742N) between the index clinic visit and their day of surgery. Elevated HBP was defined, per American Heart Association guidelines, as mean systolic HBP ≥135 mm Hg or mean diastolic HBP ≥85 mm Hg. Of the 200 participants, 188 (94%) returned their home blood pressure monitors with valid data. The median number of HBP recordings was 10 (interquartile range, 7-14). Presurgical CBP thresholds of 140/90, 150/95, and 160/100 mm Hg yielded positive predictive values (95% confidence interval) for elevated HBP of 84.1% (0.78-0.89), 87.5% (0.81-0.92), and 94.6% (0.87-0.99), respectively. In contrast, self-reported BP control, antihypertensive treatment, availability of primary care, and preoperative pain scores demonstrated poor agreement with elevated HBP. Elevated preoperative CBP is highly predictive of longitudinally elevated HBP. BP measurement during presurgical assessment may provide a way to improve longitudinal detection and treatment of hypertension. Copyright © 2018 American Heart Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Association of betaine with blood pressure in dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lulu; Zhao, Mingming; Liu, Wenjin; Li, Xiurong; Chu, Hong; Bai, Youwei; Sun, Zhuxing; Gao, Chaoqing; Zheng, Lemin; Yang, Junwei

    2018-02-01

    Mechanisms underlying elevated blood pressure in dialysis patients are complex as a variety of non-traditional factors are involved. We sought to explore the association of circulating betaine, a compound widely distributed in food, with blood pressure in dialysis patients. We used baseline data of an ongoing cohort study involving patients on hemodialysis. Plasma betaine was measured by high performance liquid chromatography in 327 subjects. Blood pressure level was determined by intradialytic ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. The mean age of the patients was 52.6 ± 11.9 years, and 58.4% were male. Average interdialytic ambulatory systolic and diastolic blood pressure were 138.4 ± 22.7 mm Hg and 84.4 ± 12.5 mm Hg, respectively. Mean plasma betaine level was 37.6 μmol/L. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed significant associations of betaine with both systolic blood pressure (β = -3.66, P = .003) and diastolic blood pressure (β = -2.00, P = .004). The associations persisted even after extensive adjustment for cardiovascular covariates. Subgroup analysis revealed that the association between betaine and blood pressure was mainly limited to female patients. Our data suggest that alteration of circulating betaine possibly contributes to blood pressure regulation in these patients. ©2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Ambulatory blood pressure response to a bout of HIIT in metabolic syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Jimenez, M; Morales-Palomo, F; Pallares, J G; Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo; Ortega, J F

    2017-07-01

    The effectiveness of exercise to lower blood pressure may depend on the type and intensity of exercise. We study the short-term (i.e., 14-h) effects of a bout of high-intensity aerobic interval training (HIIT) on blood pressure in metabolic syndrome (MetS) patients. Nineteen MetS patients (55.2 ± 7.3 years, 6 women) entered the study. Eight of them were normotensive and eleven hypertensive according to MetS threshold (≥130 mmHg for SBP and/or ≥85 mmHg for DBP). In the morning of 3 separated days, they underwent a cycling exercise bout of HIIT (>90% of maximal heart rate, ~85% VO 2max ), or a bout of isocaloric moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT; ~70% of maximal heart rate, ~60% VO 2max ), or a control no-exercise trial (REST). After exercise, ambulatory blood pressure (ABP; 14 h) was monitored, while subjects continued their habitual daily activities wearing a wrist-band activity monitor. No ABP differences were found for normotensive subjects. In hypertensive subjects, systolic ABP was reduced by 6.1 ± 2.2 mmHg after HIIT compared to MICT and REST (130.8 ± 3.9 vs. 137.4 ± 5.1 and 136.4 ± 3.8 mmHg, respectively; p HIIT exercise bout is superior to an equivalent bout of continuous exercise when used as a non-pharmacological aid in the treatment of hypertension in MetS.

  15. Risk Stratification by Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring Across JNC Classes of Conventional Blood Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brguljan-Hitij, Jana; Thijs, Lutgarde; Li, Yan

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Guidelines propose classification of conventional blood pressure (CBP) into normotension (<120/<80 mm Hg), prehypertension (120-139/80-89 mm Hg), and hypertension (≥140/≥90 mm Hg). METHODS: To assess the potential differential contribution of ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) in predict......BACKGROUND: Guidelines propose classification of conventional blood pressure (CBP) into normotension (ABP......%) and of cardiovascular (-34%), cardiac (-33%), or cerebrovascular (-47%) events. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for stroke associated with 24-hour and daytime diastolic ABP (+5 mm Hg) were higher (P ≤ 0.045) in normotension than in prehypertension and hypertension (1.98 vs.1.19 vs.1.28 and 1.73 vs.1.09 vs. 1.......24, respectively) with similar trends (0.03 ≤ P ≤ 0.11) for systolic ABP (+10 mm Hg). However, HRs for fatal endpoints and cardiac events associated with ABP did not differ significantly (P ≥ 0.13) across CBP categories. Of normotensive and prehypertensive participants, 7.5% and 29.3% had masked hypertension...

  16. Influence of Baseline Diastolic Blood Pressure on Effects of Intensive Compared With Standard Blood Pressure Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beddhu, Srinivasan; Chertow, Glenn M; Cheung, Alfred K; Cushman, William C; Rahman, Mahboob; Greene, Tom; Wei, Guo; Campbell, Ruth C; Conroy, Margaret; Freedman, Barry I; Haley, William; Horwitz, Edward; Kitzman, Dalane; Lash, James; Papademetriou, Vasilios; Pisoni, Roberto; Riessen, Erik; Rosendorff, Clive; Watnick, Suzanne G; Whittle, Jeffrey; Whelton, Paul K

    2018-01-09

    In individuals with a low diastolic blood pressure (DBP), the potential benefits or risks of intensive systolic blood pressure (SBP) lowering are unclear. SPRINT (Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial) was a randomized controlled trial that compared the effects of intensive (target baseline DBP. Mean baseline SBP and DBP were 139.7±15.6 and 78.1±11.9 mm Hg, respectively. Regardless of the randomized treatment, baseline DBP had a U-shaped association with the hazard of the primary cardiovascular disease outcome. However, the effects of the intensive SBP intervention on the primary outcome were not influenced by baseline DBP level ( P for interaction=0.83). The primary outcome hazard ratio for intensive versus standard treatment was 0.78 (95% confidence interval, 0.57-1.07) in the lowest DBP quintile (mean baseline DBP, 61±5 mm Hg) and 0.74 (95% confidence interval, 0.61-0.90) in the upper 4 DBP quintiles (mean baseline DBP, 82±9 mm Hg), with an interaction P value of 0.78. Results were similar for all-cause death and kidney events. Low baseline DBP was associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease events, but there was no evidence that the benefit of the intensive SBP lowering differed by baseline DBP. URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01206062. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Home Monitoring of Blood Pressure: Patients' Perception and Role ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    measuring devices, patients' emotional response to their blood pressure readings and actions taken in response. ... pressure, their response regarding different readings, and the .... pivotal position for providing pharmaceutical care services ...

  18. Efeito do exercício aeróbio e resistido no perfil antropométrico e respostas cardiovasculares de idosos portadores de hipertensão = Aerobic exercise and resistance effect on the anthropometric profile and cardiovascular responses in elderly people with high blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleverton Krinski

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por objetivo analisar os efeitos do exercício aeróbio e resistido no perfil antropométrico e respostas cardiovasculares de idosos portadores de hipertensão arterial (HA. A amostra foi composta de 53 voluntários de ambos os sexos, todos sedentários, com idade de 64,28±4,7 anos, cor branca, portadores de HA. Foram analisados os níveis de pressão arterial (PA, freqüência cardíaca (FC peso corporal (Kg, IMC e percentual de gordura corporal (%GC, antes, durante e após seis meses de exercícios. O protocolo de treinamento foi composto por uma sessão de exercícios, dividida em 20 minutos de atividade aeróbia e 40 minutos de exercícios resistidos dinâmicos, com freqüência semanal de três vezes e duração de seis meses. Como principais resultados apresentaram-se diferenças significativas em relação ao %GC, acompanhado de umaredução linear na pressão arterial média (PAM e FC, indicando uma melhora em importantes parâmetros morfofuncionais.The present study aimed to analyze the aerobic and resistance exercise effects on the anthropometric profile and cardiovascular responses in elderly people with High Blood Pressure (HBP. The sample consisted of 53 volunteers of both genders who were allsedentary, at the age of 64.28±4.7 years old, fair skin, with HBP. The blood pressure levels, cardiac frequency (CF, body weight (Kg, BMI and body fat percentage (BF% were analyzed before, during and after the period of exercises. The training protocol consisted ofexercise sessions divided into 20 minutes of aerobic activity and 40 minutes of dynamic resistance exercises, three times a week, during a period of six months. Results showed a significant difference in relation to the BF%, followed by a linear reduction in the AverageBlood Pressure (ABP and CF, as well as an improvement in important morphofunctional parameters.

  19. Dialysate magnesium level and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriazis, John; Kalogeropoulou, Konstantina; Bilirakis, Leonidas; Smirnioudis, Nikolaos; Pikounis, Vasilios; Stamatiadis, Dimitrios; Liolia, Ekaterini

    2004-09-01

    We investigated the way dialysate magnesium (dMg) concentrations could affect blood pressure (BP) during hemodialysis (HD). Eight HD patients underwent four midweek HD treatments consecutively, using, during each four-hour HD session, one of the following four dialysate formulations, in randomized order, which differed only with regard to dMg and dialysate calcium (dCa) concentrations (in mmol/L): 0.75 dMg, 1.75 dCa (group I); 0.25 dMg, 1.75 dCa (group II); 0.75 dMg, 1.25 dCa (group III); 0.25 dMg, 1.25 dCa (group IV). Before HD and at four 60-minute intervals during the HD sessions, BP and noninvasive measurements of cardiac index (CI) were obtained. Additionally, 14 HD patients were treated for four weeks with 0.5 mmol/L dMg, followed by four weeks with 0.25 mmol/L dMg, and another four weeks with 0.75 mmol/L dMg, in random order. In all treatments dCa was 1.25 mmol/L. BP and symptoms were recorded during each HD session. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) decreased to a significantly (P dMg was superior to the other two treatments regarding intradialytic morbidity (P dMg level to 0.75 mmol/L could prevent IDH frequently seen with the use of 1.25 mmol/L dCa. Thus, manipulating dMg levels independently or in concert with dCa levels might have important implications with regard to dialysis tolerance.

  20. Mean arterial pressure following prolonged exercise in the heat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gagnon, D; Lynn, A G; Binder, K

    2012-01-01

    benefit to its regulation. We examined MAP (Finometer) in eight trained (T) and eight untrained (UT) individuals prior to, and following, 120 min of cycling at 42 °C with (HYD) and without (DEHY) fluid replacement. Exercise during DEHY induced significant hyperthermia (T: 39.20 ± 0.52 °C vs UT: 38.70 ± 0......Prolonged exercise in the heat without fluid replacement represents a significant challenge to the regulation of mean arterial pressure (MAP). It is unknown, however, if MAP is equally challenged during the post-exercise period, and whether regular endurance exercise training can provide any.......36 °C, P = 0.941) and body weight losses (T: 3.4 ± 1.2% vs UT: 2.7 ± 0.9%, P = 0.332), which did not differ between groups. Although MAP was equally reduced 5 min into the post-exercise period of DEHY (T: -20 ± 11 mmHg vs UT: -22 ± 13 mmHg, P = 0.800), its subsequent recovery was significantly different...

  1. Efficacy of blood flow restriction exercise during dialysis for end stage kidney disease patients: protocol of a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, Matthew J; Fraser, Steve F; Bennett, Paul N; McMahon, Lawrence P; Brumby, Catherine; Warmington, Stuart A

    2017-09-11

    Exercise during haemodialysis improves strength and physical function. However, both patients and clinicians are time poor, and current exercise recommendations add an excessive time burden making exercise a rare addition to standard care. Hypothetically, blood flow restriction exercise performed during haemodialysis can provide greater value for time spent exercising, reducing this time burden while producing similar or greater outcomes. This study will explore the efficacy of blood flow restriction exercise for enhancing strength and physical function among haemodialysis patients. This is a randomised controlled trial design. A total of 75 participants will be recruited from haemodialysis clinics. Participants will be allocated to a blood flow restriction cycling group, traditional cycling group or usual care control group. Both exercising groups will complete 3 months of cycling exercise, performed intradialytically, three times per week. The blood flow restriction cycling group will complete two 10-min cycling bouts separated by a 20-min rest at a subjective effort of 15 on a 6 to 20 rating scale. This will be done with pressurised cuffs fitted proximally on the active limbs during exercise at 50% of a pre-determined limb occlusion pressure. The traditional cycling group will perform a continuous 20-min bout of exercise at a subjective effort of 12 on the same subjective effort scale. These workloads and volumes are equivalent and allow for comparison of a common blood flow restriction aerobic exercise prescription and a traditional aerobic exercise prescription. The primary outcome measures are lower limb strength, assessed by a three repetition maximum leg extension test, as well as objective measures of physical function: six-minute walk test, 30-s sit to stand, and timed up and go. Secondary outcome measures include thigh muscle cross sectional area, body composition, routine pathology, quality of life, and physical activity engagement. This study will

  2. Cerebral blood flow and metabolism during exercise: implications for fatigue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seifert, T.; Lieshout, J.J. van; Secher, Niels

    2008-01-01

    During exercise: the Kety-Schmidt-determined cerebral blood flow (CBF) does not change because the jugular vein is collapsed in the upright position. In contrast, when CBF is evaluated by (133)Xe clearance, by flow in the internal carotid artery, or by flow velocity in basal cerebral arteries......, a approximately 25% increase is detected with a parallel increase in metabolism. During activation, an increase in cerebral O(2) supply is required because there is no capillary recruitment within the brain and increased metabolism becomes dependent on an enhanced gradient for oxygen diffusion. During maximal...... whole body exercise, however, cerebral oxygenation decreases because of eventual arterial desaturation and marked hyperventilation-related hypocapnia of consequence for CBF. Reduced cerebral oxygenation affects recruitment of motor units, and supplemental O(2) enhances cerebral oxygenation and work...

  3. Predicting Increased Blood Pressure Using Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golino, Hudson Fernandes; Amaral, Liliany Souza de Brito; Duarte, Stenio Fernando Pimentel; Soares, Telma de Jesus; dos Reis, Luciana Araujo

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the prediction of increased blood pressure by body mass index (BMI), waist (WC) and hip circumference (HC), and waist hip ratio (WHR) using a machine learning technique named classification tree. Data were collected from 400 college students (56.3% women) from 16 to 63 years old. Fifteen trees were calculated in the training group for each sex, using different numbers and combinations of predictors. The result shows that for women BMI, WC, and WHR are the combination that produces the best prediction, since it has the lowest deviance (87.42), misclassification (.19), and the higher pseudo R 2 (.43). This model presented a sensitivity of 80.86% and specificity of 81.22% in the training set and, respectively, 45.65% and 65.15% in the test sample. For men BMI, WC, HC, and WHC showed the best prediction with the lowest deviance (57.25), misclassification (.16), and the higher pseudo R 2 (.46). This model had a sensitivity of 72% and specificity of 86.25% in the training set and, respectively, 58.38% and 69.70% in the test set. Finally, the result from the classification tree analysis was compared with traditional logistic regression, indicating that the former outperformed the latter in terms of predictive power. PMID:24669313

  4. Predicting increased blood pressure using machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golino, Hudson Fernandes; Amaral, Liliany Souza de Brito; Duarte, Stenio Fernando Pimentel; Gomes, Cristiano Mauro Assis; Soares, Telma de Jesus; Dos Reis, Luciana Araujo; Santos, Joselito

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the prediction of increased blood pressure by body mass index (BMI), waist (WC) and hip circumference (HC), and waist hip ratio (WHR) using a machine learning technique named classification tree. Data were collected from 400 college students (56.3% women) from 16 to 63 years old. Fifteen trees were calculated in the training group for each sex, using different numbers and combinations of predictors. The result shows that for women BMI, WC, and WHR are the combination that produces the best prediction, since it has the lowest deviance (87.42), misclassification (.19), and the higher pseudo R (2) (.43). This model presented a sensitivity of 80.86% and specificity of 81.22% in the training set and, respectively, 45.65% and 65.15% in the test sample. For men BMI, WC, HC, and WHC showed the best prediction with the lowest deviance (57.25), misclassification (.16), and the higher pseudo R (2) (.46). This model had a sensitivity of 72% and specificity of 86.25% in the training set and, respectively, 58.38% and 69.70% in the test set. Finally, the result from the classification tree analysis was compared with traditional logistic regression, indicating that the former outperformed the latter in terms of predictive power.

  5. Predicting Increased Blood Pressure Using Machine Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudson Fernandes Golino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the prediction of increased blood pressure by body mass index (BMI, waist (WC and hip circumference (HC, and waist hip ratio (WHR using a machine learning technique named classification tree. Data were collected from 400 college students (56.3% women from 16 to 63 years old. Fifteen trees were calculated in the training group for each sex, using different numbers and combinations of predictors. The result shows that for women BMI, WC, and WHR are the combination that produces the best prediction, since it has the lowest deviance (87.42, misclassification (.19, and the higher pseudo R2 (.43. This model presented a sensitivity of 80.86% and specificity of 81.22% in the training set and, respectively, 45.65% and 65.15% in the test sample. For men BMI, WC, HC, and WHC showed the best prediction with the lowest deviance (57.25, misclassification (.16, and the higher pseudo R2 (.46. This model had a sensitivity of 72% and specificity of 86.25% in the training set and, respectively, 58.38% and 69.70% in the test set. Finally, the result from the classification tree analysis was compared with traditional logistic regression, indicating that the former outperformed the latter in terms of predictive power.

  6. Hyperuricemia and non-dipping blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marrone O

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Oreste Marrone,1 Maria Rosaria Bonsignore1,21National Research Council, Institute of Biomedicine and Molecular Immunology, Palermo, Italy; 2Biomedical Department of Internal and Specialistic Medicine, University of Palermo, Palermo, ItalyThe strong association between the metabolic derangements that characterize the metabolic syndrome with arterial hypertension is very well-known, as it is the common finding of hyperuricemia in the patients with the metabolic syndrome. Besides, hyperuricemia has been found to be associated with cardiovascular, renal, and metabolic diseases; including not only gout but also type 2 diabetes mellitus, although its role as a risk factor is still debated.1 We were not aware of previous studies describing an association between uric acid levels and the non-dipping 24-hour blood pressure (BP pattern, and for that reason we were intrigued by Tutal et al’s article, regarding hypertensive patients with the metabolic syndrome.2 The authors explain some possible causes that could determine an increase in uric acid in the metabolic syndrome, and describe some pathogenetic mechanisms of systemic hypertension in their patients. We would like to point out one more possible mechanism that could link hyperuricemia to non-dipping BP.View original paper by Tutal et al

  7. Blood pressure response to low level static contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fallentin, Nils; Jørgensen, Kurt

    1992-01-01

    The present study re-examines the 15% MVC concept, i.e. the existence of a circulatory steady-state in low intensity static contractions below 15% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). Mean arterial blood pressure was studied during static endurance contractions of the elbow flexor and extensor...... 0.7) min for elbow extension]. Mean arterial blood pressure exhibited a continuous and progressive increase during the 10% MVC contractions indicating that the 15% MVC concept would not appear to be valid. The terminal blood pressure value recorded at the point of exhaustion in the 10% MVC elbow...... the circulation to the muscles was arrested just prior to the cessation of the contraction, blood pressure only partly recovered and remained elevated for as long as the occlusion persisted, indicating the level of pressure-raising muscle chemoreflexes. Based on blood pressure recordings obtained during...

  8. High blood pressure in acute ischemic stroke and clinical outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manabe, Yasuhiro; Kono, Syoichiro; Tanaka, Tomotaka; Narai, Hisashi; Omori, Nobuhiko

    2009-11-16

    This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of acute phase blood pressure in patients with acute ischemic stroke by determining whether or not it contributes to clinical outcome. We studied 515 consecutive patients admitted within the first 48 hours after the onset of ischemic strokes, employing systolic and diastolic blood pressure measurements recorded within 36 hours after admission. High blood pressure was defined when the mean of at least 2 blood pressure measurements was ≥200 mmHg systolic and/or ≥110 mmHg diastolic at 6 to 24 hours after admission or ≥180 mmHg systolic and/or ≥105 mmHg diastolic at 24 to 36 hours after admission. The high blood pressure group was found to include 16% of the patients. Age, sex, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, atrial fibrillation, ischemic heart disease, stroke history, carotid artery stenosis, leukoaraiosis, NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS) on admission and mortality were not significantly correlated with either the high blood pressure or non-high blood pressure group. High blood pressure on admission was significantly associated with a past history of hypertension, kidney disease, the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) on discharge and the length of stay. On logistic regression analysis, with no previous history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, atrial fibrillation, and kidney disease were independent risk factors associated with the presence of high blood pressure [odds ratio (OR), 1.85 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06-3.22), 1.89 (95% CI: 1.11-3.22), and 3.31 (95% CI: 1.36-8.04), respectively]. Multi-organ injury may be presented in acute stroke patients with high blood pressure. Patients with high blood pressure had a poor functional outcome after acute ischemic stroke.

  9. EFFECT 0F ISOTONIC AND ISOMETRIC EXERCISES ON INTRA OCULAR PRESSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intra O cular Pressure (IOP changes following dynamic (Isotonic or Isokinetic and static (Isometric exercise. AIM: To study the effect of dynamic and static exercises on IOP and blood pressure in the same subject following each type of exercise and to correlate the changes in BP to the changes in the IOP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study group consisted of 55 volunteers, visually normal as subjects, 30 boys and 25 girls in the age group of 18 to 20 years. Independent measurements of the IOP of each eye were obtained and BP was also measured in the resting state. Keelar Pulsair air i mpulse tonometer was used in all the subjects for IOP measurement. IOP was measured in the department of Ophthalmology, Teaching Hospital between 08AM to 10 AM on two consecutive mornings in a randomized manner. The subject undertook static exercise using the hand grip dynamometer and towards the end of the test, IOP and BP were measured. The next morning, resting IOP and the BP were measured and the subject undertook the dynamic exercise using the bicycle ergometer and the IOP’s and the BP were measured at the end of the test. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS : were done using Paired ‘t’ test. RESULTS: IOP decreased by 2.58±0.16 mmHg(R eye & 2.64±0.09 mmHg (L eye during exercise using Hand grip dynamometer and the systolic and diastolic blood pressures increased by 14 .73±0.87 & 12.98±1.01 mmHg respectively. The changes were statistically significant (P<0.001. IOP decreased by 2.55±0.07 mmHg(R eye & 2.49±0.1 mmHg(Leye following exercise using bicycle ergometer and the systolic increased by 15.73±1.71 mmHg and the dia stolic decreased by 10.83±2.46 mmHg. The changes were statistically significant (P<0.001. There was no correlation between the changes in BP to the changes in IOP. CONCLUSION: IOP decreased in both static and dynamic exercises. There was no correlation between the changes in BP to the changes in IOP

  10. Favorable effect of aerobic exercise on arterial pressure and aortic pulse wave velocity during stress testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milatz, Florian; Ketelhut, Sascha; Ketelhut, Sascha; Ketelhut, Reinhard G

    2015-07-01

    Increased central pulse wave velocity is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The favorable influence of exercise on arterial stiffness (AS) and blood pressure (BP) has been reported exclusively at rest. The present study investigated the influence of a single bout of acute cycling on AS and BP during recovery and, moreover, during cold pressor stress testing. 32 healthy men (33.7 ± 8 years, BMI 24 ± 2.5 kg/m²) performed a 60 minute endurance exercise on a bicycle ergometer (45 % VO2max). Before and after exercise aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV) as well as central and peripheral BP were measured non-invasively at rest and at the end of a 2 minute cold pressor test (CPT). Even after 60 minutes of recovery aPWV (- 0.22 ± 0.3 m / sec) was significantly reduced (p Exercise decreased peripheral (- 8 ± 7 mmHg) and central (- 7 ± 8 mmHg) systolic BP as well as peripheral (- 3 ± 5 mmHg) and central (- 4 ± 7 mmHg) diastolic BP (p exercise, there was a significant reduction in aPWV (- 0.19 ± 0.3 m / sec), peripheral (- 6 ± 10 mmHg) and central (- 5 ± 8 mmHg) systolic BP as well as peripheral (- 3 ± 6 mmHg) and central (- 3 ± 6 mmHg) diastolic BP during CPT after exercise (p exercise leads not only to decreased BP but even more reduces aPWV as a measure of AS even after 60 minutes of recovery. In particular, the investigation provides evidence that acute moderate-intensity exercise has a favorable effect on BP and aPWV during stress testing.

  11. Blood pressure lowering effect of Tylophora hirsuta wall | Ahmad ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crude hydromethanolic extract of Tylophora hirsuta (Th.Cr) was studied in spontaneous hypertensive Wistar rats for possible effects on high blood pressure and heart rate. In the absence of atropine, fall in arterial blood pressure was 64±7 mmHg at the dose of 100 mg/kg while in the presence of atropine, there was no effect ...

  12. High blood pressure in older subjects with cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossello, Enrico; Simoni, David

    2016-06-22

    High blood pressure and cognitive impairment often coexist in old age, but their pathophysiological association is complex. Several longitudinal studies have shown that high blood pressure at midlife is a risk factor for cognitive impairment and dementia, although this association is much less clear in old age. The effect of blood pressure lowering in reducing the risk of dementia is only borderline significant in clinical trials of older subjects, partly due to the insufficient follow-up time. Conversely, dementia onset is associated with a decrease of blood pressure values, probably secondary to neurodegeneration. Prognostic effect of blood pressure values in cognitively impaired older subjects is still unclear, with aggressive blood pressure lowering being potentially harmful in this patients category. Brief cognitive screening, coupled with simple motor assessment, are warranted to identify frail older subjects who need a more cautious approach to antihypertensive treatment. Values obtained with ambulatory blood pressure monitoring seem more useful than clinical ones to predict the outcome of cognitively impaired older subjects. Future studies should identify the most appropriate blood pressure targets in older subjects with cognitive impairment.

  13. What You Should Know About High Blood Pressure and Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Aortic Aneurysm More What You Should Know About High Blood Pressure and Medications Updated:Jan 18,2017 Is medication ... resources . This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  14. Relationship between blood pressure, body mass index and health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Globally, studies have shown that the trend of overweight and obesity has increased astronomically and there is a close link between body mass index and blood pressure. This study determined the link between the body mass index (BMI), blood pressure and health promoting practices of women in rural and ...

  15. Chronic Tea Consumption Lowers Blood Pressure in Rats: Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chronic Tea Consumption Lowers Blood Pressure in Rats: Some Associated Mechanisms. ... Nigerian Journal of Health and Biomedical Sciences ... In experiment 5, group 9 (kept on NF and indomethacin solution) also had similar BP as group 10 (kept on ... KEY WORDS: Blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), rats, tea.

  16. 21 CFR 870.1110 - Blood pressure computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood pressure computer. 870.1110 Section 870.1110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... computer. (a) Identification. A blood pressure computer is a device that accepts the electrical signal from...

  17. Prenatal air pollution exposure and newborn blood pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rossem, Lenie; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Melly, Steven J.; Kloog, Itai; Luttmann-Gibson, Heike; Zanobetti, Antonella; Coull, Brent A.; Schwartz, Joel D.; Mittleman, Murray A.; Oken, Emily; Gillman, Matthew W.; Koutrakis, Petros; Gold, Diane R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Air pollution exposure has been associated with increased blood pressure in adults. oBjective: We examined associations of antenatal exposure to ambient air pollution with newborn systolic blood pressure (SBP). Methods: We studied 1,131 mother–infant pairs in a Boston, Massachusetts,

  18. Cardiovascular Topics Blood pressure control at a hospital day clinic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1999-02-01

    Feb 1, 1999 ... control in a hospital day clinic population receiving cal- cium channel ... we had showed poor control of blood pressure in this hospital-based population .... Assessment of com- .... Program are obering: 19 almost half of newly treated hyper- tensives will di ... blood pressure control and quality of life. There is ...

  19. How Potassium Can Help Control High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Aneurysm More How Potassium Can Help Control High Blood Pressure Updated:Jan 29,2018 Understanding the heart-healthy ... This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  20. How High Blood Pressure Can Lead to Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More How High Blood Pressure Can Lead to Stroke Updated:Jan 29,2018 ... This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  1. Auscultatory versus oscillometric measurement of blood pressure in octogenarians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosholm, Jens-Ulrik; Pedersen, Sidsel Arnspang; Matzen, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Auscultatory measurement using a sphygmomanometer has been the predominant method for clinical estimation of blood pressure, but it is now rapidly being replaced by oscillometric measurement.......Auscultatory measurement using a sphygmomanometer has been the predominant method for clinical estimation of blood pressure, but it is now rapidly being replaced by oscillometric measurement....

  2. Longitudinal correlates of change in blood pressure in adolescent girls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daniels, [No Value; McMahon, RP; Obarzanek, E; Waclawiw, MA; Similo, SL; Biro, FM; Schreiber, GB; Kimm, SYS; Morrison, JA; Barton, BA

    The objective of this study was to assess the longitudinal changes in blood pressure in black and white adolescent girls and evaluate potential determinants of changes in blood pressure, including sexual maturation and body size. A total of 1213 black and 1166 white girls, ages 9 or 10 years at

  3. Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa on Blood Pressure and Electrolyte ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa on Blood Pressure and Electrolyte Profile of Mild to Moderate Hypertensive Nigerians: A Comparative Study with Hydrochlorothiazide. ... Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of HS consumption on blood pressure (BP) and electrolytes of mild to moderate hypertensive Nigerians ...

  4. Blood pressure self-measurement in the obstetric waiting room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Stefan; Kamper, Christina H.; Toftegaard, Thomas Skjødeberg

    2013-01-01

    a reliable blood pressure reading. Results: We found that the patients did not adhere to given instructions when performing blood pressure self-measurement in the waiting room. None of the 81 patients adhered to all six inves- tigated recommendations, while around a quarter adhered to five out of six...

  5. Effects of Malaria on Blood Pressure, Heart Rate, Electrocardiogram ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of malaria on blood pressure, heart rate, electrocardiogram and the cardiovascular responses to postural change were studied in malaria patients. Blood pressure was measured by the sphygmomanometric-auscultatory method. Standard ECG machine was used to record the electrocardiogram. Heart rate was ...

  6. Blood pressure indices and disease severity in patients with sickle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Individuals with sickle cell anaemia (SCA) have lower systemic blood pressures compared to individuals with haemoglobin Hb AA phenotype. Objective: To evaluate blood pressure indices of individuals with SCA in steady state, in comparison with haematological and clinical markers of disease severity.

  7. Effects of aging on blood pressure variability in resting conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerman, D. P.; Imholz, B. P.; Wieling, W.; Karemaker, J. M.; van Montfrans, G. A.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of aging on beat-to-beat blood pressure and pulse interval variability in resting conditions and to determine the effect of aging on the sympathetic and vagal influence on the cardiovascular system by power spectral analysis of blood pressure

  8. Blood pressure and heart rate adjustment following acute Frenkel's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Frenkel's ambulatory activity has been routinely employed by physiotherapists for rehabilitation of gait coordination, however, its immediate influence on blood pressure and heart rate has not been investigated. Objective: To investigate the acute effect of Frenkel's ambulatory activity on blood pressure and ...

  9. Hypertension. Age-specificity of blood-pressure-associated complications

    OpenAIRE

    Staessen, Jan A

    2014-01-01

    In an analysis of electronic health records, 1.25 million patients aged ≥30 years without diagnosed cardiovascular disease experienced 83,098 cardiovascular events during follow-up (median 5.2 years). Associations between incident cardiovascular disease and blood pressure differed for systolic and diastolic blood pressures and between the 12 cardiovascular end points examined.

  10. Blood Pressure Abnormalities in Parkinson's Disease in a Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To compare the effect of posture on blood pressure in levodopa-treated Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with that of age-matched controls. The design is a case control study. Blood pressure was recorded manually in the seated position with Accossons® mercury sphygmomanometer in 30 consecutive patients with PD on ...

  11. High Blood Pressure and Cold Remedies: Which Are Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... counter cold remedies safe for people who have high blood pressure? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Over- ... remedies aren't off-limits if you have high blood pressure, but it's important to make careful choices. Among ...

  12. Blood Pressure Management in Cardiovascular Risk Stratification. Procedure, Progression, Process.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adiyaman, A.

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis we have explored different aspects of blood pressure measurement and related it to the risk of cardiovascular disease. In the first part we showed that when the arm is positioned under heart level, for example when the arm is placed on a desk or a chair support, the blood pressure and

  13. Nutrition Coupled with High-Load Traditional or Low-Load Blood Flow Restricted Exercise During Human Limb Suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackney, K. J.; Everett, M.; Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.

    2011-01-01

    High-load resistance exercise (HRE) and low-load blood flow restricted (BFR) exercise have demonstrated efficacy for attenuating unloading related muscle atrophy and dysfunction. In recreational exercisers, protein consumption immediately before and/or after exercise has been shown to increase the skeletal muscle anabolic response to resistance training. PURPOSE: To compare the skeletal muscle adaptations when chocolate milk intake was coupled with HRE or low-load BFR exercise [3 d/wk] during simulated lower limb weightlessness. METHODS: Eleven subjects were counterbalanced [based on age and gender] to HRE (31 +/- 14 yr, 170 +/- 13 cm, 71 +/- 18 kg, 2M/3W) or low-load BFR exercise (31 +/- 12 yr, 169 +/- 13 cm, 66 +/- 14 kg, 2M/4W) during 30 days of unilateral lower limb suspension (ULLS). Both HRE and BFR completed 3 sets of single leg press and calf raise exercise during ULLS. BFR exercise intensity was 20% of repetition maximum (1RM) with a cuff inflation pressure of 1.3 systolic blood pressure (143 4 mmHg). Cuff pressure was maintained during all 3 sets including rest intervals (90s). HRE intensity was 75% 1RM and was performed without cuff inflation. Immediately (HRE vs. BFR, respectively. Leg press training loads were 44 +/- 7 kg in HRE compared to 11 +/- 1 kg in BFR. Similarly, calf raise training loads were 81 +/- 11 kg in HRE and 16 +/- 1 kg in BFR. Pre to post-ULLS training adaptations in the unloaded leg are shown in the table. CONCLUSION: The preliminary results of this investigation suggest when HRE is optimized for muscle anabolism during unloading muscle size and strength are preserved (or enhanced) at the expense of muscle endurance. In contrast, when BFR exercise is optimized for muscle anabolism during unloading muscle endurance is preserved (or enhanced) at the expense of muscle size and strength

  14. The association between blood pressure and whole blood methylmercury in a cross-sectional study among Inuit in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anni Brit Sternhagen; Davidsen, Michael; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2012-01-01

    to a high exposure of methylmercury. We examined the relation between whole blood mercury and blood pressure (BP) in Inuit in Greenland. METHODS: A cross-sectional population-based study among adult Inuit in Greenland was performed in 2005-2009. Information on socio-demography, lifestyle, BP, blood samples...... whole blood mercury concentrations, diastolic BP and the risk of hypertension decreased among men in the study: this may be explained by confounding by exercise or unknown factors.......BACKGROUND: The Inuit in Greenland have a high average consumption of marine species and are highly exposed to methylmercury, which in other studies has been related to hypertension. Data on the relation between methylmercury and hypertension is limited, especially in populations subjected...

  15. Wearing an abdominal belt increases diastolic blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafacz, W; McGill, S M

    1996-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of wearing an abdominal belt on blood pressure (systolic and diastolic) and heart rate during a variety of tasks. The belt was typical of the elastic type with suspenders and Velcro tabs for cinching the belt snug. The tasks performed included sitting at rest, sitting with the torso inclined forward at 45 degrees, standing with the torso inclined forward at 45 degrees (with and without holding an 11-kg weight), a trunk axial rotation task, and squat lifting. Blood pressure was monitored noninvasively with a FINAPRES blood pressure monitor. Twenty healthy men performed each task with and without the abdominal belt. Although no significant increases in mean systolic blood pressure or heart rate were found, there was a significant increase in diastolic blood pressure in all conditions. All people considering wearing an abdominal belt should also consider the risks and liability associated with the additional cardiovascular load, particularly heart attack and stroke.

  16. TREATMENT OF HYPERTENSION USING TELEMEDICAL HOME BLOOD PRESSURE MEASUREMENTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann-Petersen, N; Lauritzen, T; Bech, J N

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Telemonitoring of home blood pressure measurements (TBPM) is a new and promising supplement to diagnosis, control and treatment of hypertension. We wanted to compare the outcome of antihypertensive treatment based on TBPM and conventional monitoring of blood pressure. DESIGN AND METHOD...... of the measurements and subsequent communication by telephone or E-mail. In the control group, patients received usual care. Primary outcome was reduction in daytime ambulatory blood pressure measurements (ABPM) from baseline to 3 months' follow-up. RESULTS: In both groups, daytime ABPM decreased significantly....../181), p = 0.34. Blood pressure reduction in the TBPM group varied with the different practices. CONCLUSIONS: No further reduction in ABPM or number of patients reaching blood pressure targets was observed when electronic transmission of TBPM was applied in the treatment of hypertension by GPs. Thus...

  17. A comparison of blood pressure measurements in newborns.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Shea, Joyce

    2012-02-01

    Blood pressure monitoring is an essential component of neonatal intensive care. We compared invasive and noninvasive (Dinamap, Marquette, and Dash) recordings in newborns and also noninvasive values obtained from upper and lower limbs. Infants\\' blood pressure was recorded every 6 hours for 72 hours using three noninvasive devices and compared with invasive readings taken simultaneously. Twenty-five babies were enrolled in the study, with birth weights of 560 to 4500 g and gestation 24 + 1 to 40 + 5 weeks. Three hundred thirty-two recordings were obtained. Comparison between invasive and noninvasive readings revealed that all three noninvasive monitors overread mean blood pressure. There was no significant difference between the cuff recordings obtained from the upper or lower limbs. All three noninvasive devices overestimated mean blood pressure values compared with invasive monitoring. Clinicians may be falsely reassured by noninvasive monitoring. Mean blood pressure values obtained from the upper and lower limb are similar.

  18. Noninvasive 24-hour ambulatory arterial blood pressure monitoring in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Wiinberg, N; Henriksen, Jens Henrik

    1995-01-01

    Cirrhotic patients have disturbed systemic hemodynamics with reduced arterial blood pressure, but this has not been investigated during daily activity and sleep. Systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP), and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), and heart rate (HR) were measured by an automatic ambulant...... device for monitoring blood pressure in 35 patients with cirrhosis and 35 healthy matched controls. During the daytime, SBP, DBP, and MAP were significantly lower in the patients than in the controls (median 118 vs. 127; 70 vs. 78; 86 vs. 94 mm Hg, P blood pressures...... were almost similar in the two groups (108 vs. 110; 65 vs. 67; 78 vs. 82 mm Hg, NS). Conversely, HR was significantly higher in the patients both in the daytime (86 vs. 72/min, P blood pressure and HR from daytime...

  19. Cost-effectiveness of Intensive Blood Pressure Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richman, Ilana B; Fairley, Michael; Jørgensen, Mads Emil

    2016-01-01

    Importance: Among high-risk patients with hypertension, targeting a systolic blood pressure of 120 mm Hg reduces cardiovascular morbidity and mortality compared with a higher target. However, intensive blood pressure management incurs additional costs from treatment and from adverse events......-effectiveness of intensive blood pressure management among 68-year-old high-risk adults with hypertension but not diabetes. We used the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) to estimate treatment effects and adverse event rates. We used Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Life Tables to project age...... and accrued $155 261 in lifetime costs, while intensive management yielded 10.5 QALYs and accrued $176 584 in costs. Intensive blood pressure management cost $23 777 per QALY gained. In a sensitivity analysis, serious adverse events would need to occur at 3 times the rate observed in SPRINT and be 3 times...

  20. Blood pressure measurement: one arm or both arm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Prasad K; Shekhar, Susheela; Reddy, B N; Nirmala, B C

    2011-09-01

    Guidelines for measuring blood pressure includes measurement of blood pressure on both arms but it is often ignored. Our case report aims at highlighting the need follow the guidelines. A 60 year old 59 kg weighing male asymptomatic patient without any comobidities was posted for bilateral inguinal hernia repair. The interarm blood pressure difference was discovered incidentally during his preanaesthetic evalution. On further evaluation patient was found to be having subclavian stenosis on left side which was asymptomatic. Intraoperative and post operative period was uneventful. Blood pressure measurement should be done in accordance with the stipulated guidelines. Inter arm blood pressure difference should be noted in all patients as not only for diagnosis and treatment of hypertension but also as a tool to diagnose asymptomatic peripheral vascular disesase.

  1. Blood pressure and pain sensitivity in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouin, Sammantha; McGrath, Jennifer J

    2013-06-01

    Elevated blood pressure is associated with diminished pain sensitivity. While this finding is well established in adults, it is less clear when the relation between blood pressure and pain sensitivity emerges across the life course. Evidence suggests this phenomenon may exist during childhood. Children (N = 309; 56% boys) aged 10-15 years and their parents participated. Blood pressure readings were taken during a resting baseline. Maximum pain intensity was rated using a visual analogue scale (rated 0-10) in response to a finger prick pain induction. Parent-measured resting blood pressure was inversely associated with boys' pain ratings only. Cross-sectionally, lower pain ratings were related to higher SBP, univariately. Longitudinally, pain ratings predicted higher DBP, even after controlling for covariates. Determining when and how the relation between blood pressure and pain sensitivity emerges may elucidate the pathophysiology of hypertension. Copyright © 2013 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  2. Arterialized and venous blood lactate concentration difference during different exercise intensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro C. Felippe

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: These results suggest a delayed lactate appearance in the venous blood, which is accentuated at higher exercise intensities. The lactate measured in arterialized and venous blood is interchangeable only when blood samples are collected at least 10 minutes after the exercise starts.

  3. Home readings of blood pressure in assessment of hypertensive subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, P.E.; Myschetzky, P; Andersen, A R

    1986-01-01

    Out-patient clinic blood pressure (OPC-BP) was compared to home blood pressure (Home-BP) measured three times daily during a two week period in 122 consecutively referred hypertensive subjects. A semi-automatic device (TM-101) including a microphone for detection of Korotkoff-sounds, self......-deflation of cuff pressure and digital display of blood pressure was used. Mean difference between OPC-BP and Home-BP was systolic +13 mm Hg (range -21 - +100 mg Hg) and diastolic +5 mm Hg (range -27 - +36 mm Hg). Although a significant correlation could be demonstrated between Home-BP and OPC-BP, the inter...

  4. Blood pressure in Afghan male immigrants to Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmar, Ali; Bülow, Jens; Simonsen, Lene

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: Immigration from a Third-World society to a Western society can be associated with higher blood pressure and salt sensitivity. We therefore tested whether immigrants from Afghanistan to Denmark compared with non-immigrant Danes exhibit a (i) higher 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (24-h ABP...... immigrants to Denmark exhibit a lower 24-h ABP than Danes. In young Afghans, PRA is less sensitive to changes in salt intake, while PNA is higher and may reflect their lower systolic blood pressure and/or arterial pulse pressure. Whether these hormonal differences can explain the lower 24-h ABP in Afghans...

  5. High Blood Pressure and Chronic Kidney Disease in Children: A Guide for Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy Donate A to Z Health Guide High Blood Pressure and Kidney Disease in Children Print Email High ... such as the heart and brain. What is high blood pressure? Blood pressure is the force of your blood ...

  6. Middle cerebral artery blood velocity and cerebral blood flow and O2 uptake during dynamic exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, P L; Sperling, B K; Warming, T

    1993-01-01

    Results obtained by the 133Xe clearance method with external detectors and by transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD) suggest that dynamic exercise causes an increase of global average cerebral blood flow (CBF). These data are contradicted by earlier data obtained during less-well-defined conditions....... To investigate this controversy, we applied the Kety-Schmidt technique to measure the global average levels of CBF and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) during rest and dynamic exercise. Simultaneously with the determination of CBF and CMRO2, we used TCD to determine mean maximal flow velocity...... in the middle cerebral artery (MCA Vmean). For values of CBF and MCA Vmean a correction for an observed small drop in arterial PCO2 was carried out. Baseline values for global CBF and CMRO2 were 50.7 and 3.63 ml.100 g-1.min-1, respectively. The same values were found during dynamic exercise, whereas a 22% (P

  7. The importance of a multidisciplinary assistance program in the control of blood pressure in hypertensive elderly patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Macedo-Soares

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To verify if being placed on a geriatric multidisciplinaryassistance program contributes to better blood pressure control.Methods and Design: Cross-section study. Setting: A tertiary-careteaching hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. Participants: 110 hypertensivepatients aged over 60 years. Measurements: Blood pressure of theelderly in the Geriatric Service, called “the reference group”, wasverified. Subsequently, blood pressure of the same elderly patientswas verified after being placed on a multidisciplinary program - “themultidisciplinary group”. Results: A significant difference betweenthe “reference group” x the “multidisciplinary group” was foundregarding the proportion of patients under blood pressure control (p= 0.021. In the “reference group”, 24.7% of patients had controlledblood pressure while in the “multidisciplinary group” this proportionwas 41.1%. Conclusion: Being placed on a geriatric multidisciplinaryassistance exercise program significantly improved blood pressurecontrol in hypertensive elderly.

  8. Influence of cold-water immersion on limb and cutaneous blood flow after exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawhinney, Chris; Jones, Helen; Joo, Chang Hwa; Low, David A; Green, Daniel J; Gregson, Warren

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to determine the influence of cold (8°C) and cool (22°C) water immersion on femoral artery and cutaneous blood flow after exercise. Twelve men completed a continuous cycle exercise protocol at 70% peak oxygen uptake until a core temperature of 38°C was attained. Subjects were then immersed semireclined into 8°C or 22°C water to the iliac crest for 10 min or rested. Rectal and thigh skin temperature, deep and superficial muscle temperature, thigh and calf skin blood flow (laser Doppler flowmetry), and superficial femoral artery blood flow (duplex ultrasound) were measured before and up to 30 min after immersion. Indices of vascular conductance were calculated (flux and blood flow/mean arterial pressure). Reductions in rectal temperature were similar (0.6°C-0.7°C) in all three trials (P = 0.38). The mean ± SD thigh skin temperature during recovery was 25.4°C ± 3.8°C in the 8°C trial, which was lower than the 28.2°C ± 1.4°C and 33.78°C ± 1.0°C in the 22°C and control trials, respectively (P lower (∼55%) compared with the control condition 30 min after immersion (P water temperatures may be more effective in the treatment of exercise-induced muscle damage and injury rehabilitation by virtue of greater reductions in muscle temperature and not muscle blood flow.

  9. Body weight and perceived social pressure to exercise at a health club.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Wayne C; Miller, Todd A

    2009-01-01

    To determine the social pressure overweight (OW, n=1183) and normal-weight (NW, n=550) adults perceive regarding health club exercise. A 12-item survey, based on the theory of reasoned action and theory of planned behavior, measured subjective norm toward exercising at a health club 30 min, twice a week, for the next month. OW feel more social pressure to exercise at a club than do NW, but motivation to comply is the same between groups. Exercise interventions for OW should capitalize on individual perceived social pressures to exercise by designing strategies to increase motivation to comply with these pressures.

  10. Circadian blood pressure patterns and blood pressure control in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Daniele, Nicola; Fegatelli, Danilo Alunni; Rovella, Valentina; Castagnola, Veronica; Gabriele, Marco; Scuteri, Angelo

    2017-12-01

    Hypertension is a major risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD), and CKD progression is associated with suboptimal blood pressure (BP) control. Here we evaluate the impact of CKD on the attainment of BP control and the circadian BP profile in older subjects. In this observational study, we studied 547 patients referred to the hypertension clinic, of whom 224 (40.9%) had CKD. Blood pressure (BP) control and circadian BP patterns were evaluated by 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring. Circadian BP variability was measured as the within-subject SD of BP, the percentage of measurements exceeding normal values, hypotension, and dipping status. The attainment of adequate BP control was similar in subjects with or without CKD (around 31%). Logistic regression analysis indicated that CKD was not a determinant of adequate BP control (OR 1.004; 95% CI 0.989-1.019; p = 0.58). Patients with CKD presented as twice as higher prevalence of reverse dipper (night-time peak) for systolic BP and episodes of hypotension during daytime, independently of BP control. Knowledge of the circadian pattern of BP in hypertensive subjects with CKD could inform better than attainment of BP target about risky condition for CKD progression and cognitive decline and allow a more personalized antihypertensive treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Automatic noninvasive measurement of systolic blood pressure using photoplethysmography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glik Zehava

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Automatic measurement of arterial blood pressure is important, but the available commercial automatic blood pressure meters, mostly based on oscillometry, are of low accuracy. Methods In this study, we present a cuff-based technique for automatic measurement of systolic blood pressure, based on photoplethysmographic signals measured simultaneously in fingers of both hands. After inflating the pressure cuff to a level above systolic blood pressure in a relatively slow rate, it is slowly deflated. The cuff pressure for which the photoplethysmographic signal reappeared during the deflation of the pressure-cuff was taken as the systolic blood pressure. The algorithm for the detection of the photoplethysmographic signal involves: (1 determination of the time-segments in which the photoplethysmographic signal distal to the cuff is expected to appear, utilizing the photoplethysmographic signal in the free hand, and (2 discrimination between random fluctuations and photoplethysmographic pattern. The detected pulses in the time-segments were identified as photoplethysmographic pulses if they met two criteria, based on the pulse waveform and on the correlation between the signal in each segment and the signal in the two neighboring segments. Results Comparison of the photoplethysmographic-based automatic technique to sphygmomanometry, the reference standard, shows that the standard deviation of their differences was 3.7 mmHg. For subjects with systolic blood pressure above 130 mmHg the standard deviation was even lower, 2.9 mmHg. These values are much lower than the 8 mmHg value imposed by AAMI standard for automatic blood pressure meters. Conclusion The photoplethysmographic-based technique for automatic measurement of systolic blood pressure, and the algorithm which was presented in this study, seems to be accurate.

  12. Heritability of retinal vessel diameters and blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taarnhøj, Nina C B B; Larsen, Michael; Sander, Birgit

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess the relative influence of genetic and environmental effects on retinal vessel diameters and blood pressure in healthy adults, as well as the possible genetic connection between these two characteristics. METHODS: In 55 monozygotic and 50 dizygotic same-sex healthy twin pairs......%-80%) for CRAE, 83% (95% CI: 73%-89%) for CRVE, and 61% (95% CI: 44%-73%) for mean arterial blood pressure (MABP). Retinal artery diameter decreased with increasing age and increasing arterial blood pressure. Mean vessel diameters in the population were 165.8 +/- 14.9 microm for CRAE, 246.2 +/- 17.7 microm...... for CRVE, and 0.67 +/- 0.05 microm for AVR. No significant influence on artery or vein diameters was found for gender, smoking, body mass index (BMI), total cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, or 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test values. CONCLUSIONS: In healthy young adults with normal blood pressure...

  13. Heat stress exacerbates the reduction in middle cerebral artery blood velocity during prolonged self-paced exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Périard, J D; Racinais, S

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the influence of hyperthermia on middle cerebral artery mean blood velocity (MCA Vmean). Eleven cyclists undertook a 750 kJ self-paced time trial in HOT (35 °C) and COOL (20 °C) conditions. Exercise time was longer in HOT (56 min) compared with COOL (49 min; P blood flow, and heart rate were higher throughout HOT compared with COOL (P blood pressure and oxygen uptake were lower from 50% of work completed onward in HOT compared with COOL (P heat appears to have exacerbated the reduction in MCA Vmean, in part via increases in peripheral blood flow and a decrease in arterial blood pressure. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Blood pressure and sexual maturity in adolescents: the Heartfelt Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, S D; Mueller, W H; Meininger, J C; Liehr, P; Chan, W

    2001-01-01

    This study investigates sexual maturity as a predictor of resting blood pressures independent of other known predictors, in 179 boys and 204 girls 11-16 years of age from the Heartfelt Study. The sample included youth of African (n = 140), Mexican (n = 117), and European and "other" (n = 126) backgrounds. Sexual maturity was assessed during clinical examination of three standard indicators for each sex. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were higher in children of maturity stages IV and V, compared to stages I-III, in each gender/ethnic group (P maturity for their age group, had significantly higher systolic blood pressures (but not diastolic) than the less advanced in linear models that included height, body mass index (BMI), ethnicity, and age as co-predictors. Diastolic blood pressures were predicted by height in boys and by age and the BMI in girls. This analysis, using a very conservative approach, suggests that sexual maturity provides important and independent information on systolic blood pressure in adolescents. Further investigation of its role in 24-hr blood pressures and in blood pressures taken during physical and emotional stress, is recommended.

  15. Mean Blood Pressure Difference among Adolescents Based on Dyssomnia Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sembiring, Krisnarta; Ramayani, Oke Rina; Lubis, Munar

    2018-02-15

    Dyssomnia is the most frequent sleep disturbance and associated with increased blood pressure. There has been no study determining the difference in mean blood pressure based on dyssomnia types among adolescents. To determine the difference in mean blood pressure among adolescents based on dyssomnia types. Cross-sectional study was conducted in SMP Negeri 1 Muara Batang Gadis in April 2016. Samples were students having sleep disturbance based on Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children (SDSC) questionnaire. Stature and blood pressure data were collected along with demographic data and sleep disorder questionnaire. Analyses were done with Kruskal-Wallis test and logistic regression. P - value blood pressure (DBP) was 111.1 (SD 16.46) mmHg and 70.3 (SD 11.98) mmHg respectively. Mean SDSC score was 49.7 (SD 8.96), and the most frequent dyssomnia type was disorders of initiating and maintaining sleep. Age and sex were not the risk factors of hypertension in dyssomnia. There was a significant difference in mean SBP (P = 0.006) and DBP (P = 0.022) based on dyssomnia types. Combination dyssomnia type had the highest mean blood pressure among dyssomnia types. There is a significant difference in mean blood pressure among adolescents based on dyssomnia types.

  16. Associations between bacterial infections and blood pressure in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Clive J; Ong, Ken K; Hughes, Ieuan A; Acerini, Carlo L; Dunger, David B

    2017-10-01

    To test the hypothesis that bacterial infections in pregnancy are related to maternal blood pressure. Bacterial infection was assessed using antibiotic usage as a surrogate and its association with blood pressure in pregnancy tested in the Cambridge Baby Growth Study. Antibiotic usage in pregnancy was self-reported in questionnaires. Blood pressure measurements at four time points in pregnancy were collected from the hospital notes of 622 women. Using all the available blood pressure readings (adjusted for weeks gestation) antibiotic usage was associated with a higher mean arterial blood pressure across pregnancy: antibiotics used 85(84, 87)mmHg vs. no antibiotics used 83 (83, 84) mmHg (β=2.3 (0.6, 4.0) mmHg, p=9.6×10 -3 , from 621 individuals). Further analysis revealed that antibiotic usage was associated with diastolic (β=2.3 (0.6, 4.0) mmHg; p=7.0×10 -3 ) more than systolic blood pressure (β=1.4(-0.9, 3.7)mmHg; p=0.2). The effect size associated with antibiotic usage appeared to rise slightly after the first trimester. Bacterial infection in pregnancy, as assessed by self-reported antibiotic usage, is associated with small rises in blood pressure. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Dark chocolate and blood pressure: a novel study from Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Safi, Saafan A; Ayoub, Nehad M; Al-Doghim, Imad; Aboul-Enein, Faisal H

    2011-11-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the effect of dark chocolate intake on cardiovascular parameters like blood pressure and heart rate values in a normotensive population. This is a randomized cross-sectional study involving a total of 14,310 adults that were selected from various regions of Jordan. Well-trained pharmacy students interviewed participants in the outpatient settings. Participants reported their weekly intake of dark chocolate that has been further classified into mild (1-2 bars/week), moderate (3-4 bars/week), and high intake ( > 4 bars/week). For each participant, the systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and heart rate were measured three times with (10-15) minute intervals in the sitting position and the resting state. The arterial blood pressure (ABP) was calculated from the measured SBP and DBP values. All measured blood pressure values were significantly decreased for participants who reported higher dark chocolate consumption. Our results showed that heart rate values were not affected by variable intake of dark chocolate. In addition, increasing dark chocolate intake was associated with a significant decrease of blood pressure values in participants irrespective of the family history of hypertension or the age of the individual. However, heart rate values were unaffected. Higher intake of dark chocolate can be associated with lower values of blood pressure, while its effect on heart rate values was not consistent.

  18. Increased nocturnal blood pressure in enuretic children with polyuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Anne; Mahler, Birgitte; Rittig, Soren; Djurhuus, Jens Christian

    2009-10-01

    We investigated the association between nocturnal blood pressure and urine production in children with enuresis. A total of 39 consecutive children with a mean age of 9.8 years (range 6.2 to 14.9) with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis completed a bladder diary, including 2 weeks of basic documentation and 2 with desmopressin titration from 120 to 240 microg sublingually. Arterial blood pressure was measured every 30 minutes during 24 hours and during 4 additional nights using an ambulatory blood pressure monitor. Furthermore, 10 healthy children were recruited into the study who completed a bladder diary for 5 days while measuring arterial blood pressures with documentation of all intake and voided volumes. Patients with nocturnal polyuria had significantly higher nocturnal mean arterial pressure than patients without polyuria and controls (p polyuria than in children without polyuria. There was a significant positive correlation between average nocturnal mean arterial pressure and nocturnal urine volume in the whole study. The association between nocturnal blood pressure and urine volume, and the role of blood pressure should be investigated in a larger group of children with enuresis who have nocturnal polyuria.

  19. Accuracy of home blood pressure readings: monitors and operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stryker, Trina; Wilson, Merne; Wilson, Thomas W

    2004-06-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of automated digital blood pressure monitoring devices and operators in the community. Also, we tested the effects of a simple education program, and looked for arm-arm differences. Subjects who had bought their own automated digital blood pressure monitor were recruited via an advertisement in the local newspaper. On arrival, they were asked to record their blood pressure exactly as they would at home. The investigator noted any technique deficiencies then corrected them. Blood pressures were then recorded by the investigator and the subject, on opposite arms, simultaneously, and repeated with the arms switched. Finally, subjects recorded their blood pressure again. The subjects' readings were compared to the average of monitor and mercury readings using Bland-Altman methods. A total of 80 subjects were tested. Before educating, subjects' systolic blood pressure (SBP) readings were +5.8+/-6.4 (standard deviation) mmHg greater than the mean of all readings, and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were +1.3+/-4.0 mmHg; after educating they were +1.3+/-4.0 and -1.3+/-2.7 respectively. The monitors, as a group, were accurate, and met British Hypertension Society and AAMI highest standards. We found no differences among monitors that had been validated (n=26) and those that had not. There were differences between the arms: 5.3+/-5.2 mmHg for SBP and 3.4+/-3.3 mmHg for DBP. Most patients had never been informed by anyone of proper blood pressure measuring techniques. We conclude that home blood pressure measurement, as practiced in our community, is prone to error, mostly due to mistakes by the operator. These can easily be corrected, so that readings become more accurate. Attention should be paid to arm-arm differences.

  20. Effect of exercise on erythrocyte count and blood activity concentration after technetium-99m in vivo red blood cell labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstom, M.A.; Tu'meh, S.; Wynne, J.; Beck, J.R.; Kozlowski, J.; Holman, B.L.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of exercise on blood radiotracer concentration after technetium-99m in vivo red blood cell labeling was studied. After red blood cell labeling, 13 subjects underwent maximal supine bicycle exercise. Radioactivity, analyzed with a well counter, was measured in heparinized venous blood samples drawn at rest and during peak exercise. Changes in activity were compared with changes in erythrocyte count. Activity and erythrocyte counts increased in erythrocyte count (r=0.78), but did not correlate with either duration of exercise or maximal heart rate. Twenty minutes after termination of exercise, activity and erythrocyte count had decreased from peak exercise values but remained higher than preexercise values. In nine nonexercised control subjects, samples drawn 20 minutes apart showed no change in activity or in erythrocyte count. It was concluded that exercise increases blood activity, primarily because of an increase in erythrocyte count. During radionuclide ventriculography, blood activity must be measured before and after any intervention, particularly exercise, before a change in left ventricular activity can be attributed to a change in left ventricular volume

  1. Prevalence of pre-high blood pressure and high blood pressure among non-overweight children and adolescents using international blood pressure references in developed regions in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Changwei; Xu, Shuang; Wang, Hua; Wang, Wenming; Shen, Hui

    2017-09-01

    There is a lack of data on the prevalence of pre-high blood pressure (PreHBP) and high blood pressure (HBP), based on recent international blood pressure references, in non-overweight children and adolescents. To describe the prevalence of PreHBP and HBP in non-overweight children and adolescents in developed regions of China. In total, 588 097 non-overweight children and adolescents aged 6-17 years from the National Surveys on Chinese Students' Constitution and Health in 2015 were included. The prevalence of PreHBP was 13.41% and subjects in urban areas had a higher prevalence of PreHBP (14.14%) than those in rural areas (12.92%). Subjects in regions with a high (13.56%) or moderate (13.61%) socioeconomic status showed a higher prevalence of PreHBP than those in regions with a relatively low socioeconomic status (12.76%). A similar pattern was found for the prevalence of HBP, and the prevalence of HBP was 18.25% for all participants, 20.55% for subjects in urban areas, 16.71% in rural areas, 18.76% in high socioeconomic areas, 18.62% in moderate socioeconomic areas and 16.70% in relatively low socioeconomic areas. A large proportion of non-overweight children and adolescents had elevated blood pressure and there were urban-rural and socioeconomic disparities in the prevalence of elevated blood pressure.

  2. Home blood pressure measurement in elderly patients with cognitive impairment: comparison of agreement between relative-measured blood pressure and automated blood pressure measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plichart, Matthieu; Seux, Marie-Laure; Caillard, Laure; Chaussade, Edouard; Vidal, Jean-Sébastien; Boully, Clémence; Hanon, Olivier

    2013-08-01

    Home blood pressure measurement (HBPM) is recommended by guidelines for hypertension management. However, this method might be difficult to use in elderly individuals with cognitive disorders. Our aim was to assess the agreement and the feasibility of HBPM by a relative as compared with 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) in elderly patients with dementia. Sixty outpatients with dementia aged 75 years and older with office hypertension (≥140/90 mmHg) were subjected successively to HBPM by a trained relative and 24-h ABPM. The order of the two methods was randomized. Current guidelines' thresholds for the diagnosis of hypertension were used. The mean (SD) age of the patients was 80.8 (6.1) years (55% women) and the mean (SD) mini-mental state examination score was 20.1 (6.9). The feasibility of relative-HBPM was very high, with a 97% success rate (defined by ≥12/18 measurements reported). The blood pressure measurements were highly correlated between the two methods (r=0.75 and 0.64 for systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure, respectively; Pmethods for the diagnosis of sustained hypertension and white-coat hypertension was excellent (overall agreement, 92%; κ coefficient, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.61-0.93). Similar results were found for daytime-ABPM. In cognitively impaired elderly patients, HBPM by a relative using an automated device was a good alternative to 24-h ABPM.

  3. [Comparison of invasive blood pressure measurement in the aorta with indirect oscillometric blood pressure measurement at the wrist and forearm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saul, F; Aristidou, Y; Klaus, D; Wiemeyer, A; Lösse, B

    1995-09-01

    Indirectly measured blood pressure at the wrist or upper arm was compared with directly measured values in the aortic arch during routinely performed diagnostic cardiac catheterization in 100 patients (31-80 years, mean 59.3 years, 60% males). The noninvasive measurements were carried out by oscillometric devices, NAiS Blood Pressure Watch for measurements at the wrist, and Hestia OZ80 at the upper arm. Systolic blood pressure measured at the wrist was 4.3 +/- 14.1 mm Hg, and the diastolic value 6.0 +/- 8.9 mm Hg higher than when measured at the aortic arch; the difference was significant in both cases. Correlation coefficients were 0.85 for systolic and 0.71 for diastolic blood pressure. In 16% of the patients the systolic blood pressure at the wrist differed more than +/- 20 mm Hg. The diastolic blood pressure at the wrist measured more than +/- 20 mm Hg higher than in the aorta in 5% of the patients. At the upper arm mean systolic values were not different to the aorta. The diastolic pressure was 9.3 +/- 9.8 mm Hg higher in the aorta than at the upper arm. To verify the accuracy of values measured with the NAiS Blood Pressure Watch compared with the standard technique at the upper arm, sequential measurements were made at wrist and ipsilateral upper arm in the same group of 100 patients. The systolic blood pressure at the left wrist was 3.4 +/- 13.3 mm Hg higher and the diastolic pressure 3.8 +/- 9.5 mm Hg lower than at the upper arm. Only 53% of systolic values lay within a range of +/- 10 mm Hg. The correspondence between wrist and upper arm values was better for diastolic blood pressure, the values differing by less than +/- 10 mm Hg in two-thirds of patients. Self-measurement of arterial blood pressure with an oscillometric device at the wrist can be recommended only in individual cases with a difference of simultaneously measured values at the upper arm of less than +/- 10 mm Hg for systolic and diastolic blood pressures. The standard method for indirectly

  4. The effect of fish oil supplements on blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofgren, R P; Wilt, T J; Nichol, K L; Crespin, L; Pluhar, R; Eckfeldt, J

    1993-01-01

    We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study to determine the effects of fish oil supplementation on blood pressure in middle-aged men. Subjects were randomly assigned to consume either 20 g of fish oil or safflower oil for 12 weeks and then consume the other oil for an additional 12 weeks after a 4-week washout period. We found no significant changes from the pretreatment value in systolic or diastolic blood pressure with the use of fish oil supplements. In addition, there were no significant differences in the posttreatment blood pressures comparing the fish and safflower oil phases of the study. PMID:8427339

  5. Goat Meat Does Not Cause Increased Blood Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsunori Sunagawa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While there are persistent rumors that the consumption of goat meat dishes increases blood pressure, there is no scientific evidence to support this. Two experiments were conducted to clarify whether or not blood pressure increases in conjunction with the consumption of goat meat dishes. In experiment 1, 24 Dahl/Iwai rats (15 weeks old, body weight 309.3±11.1 g were evenly separated into 4 groups. The control group (CP was fed a diet containing 20% chicken and 0.3% salt on a dry matter basis. The goat meat group (GM was fed a diet containing 20% goat meat and 0.3% salt. The goat meat/salt group (GS was fed a diet containing 20% goat meant and 3% to 4% salt. The Okinawan mugwort (Artemisia Princeps Pampan/salt group (GY was fed a diet containing 20% goat meat, 3% to 4% salt and 5% of freeze-dried mugwort powder. The experiment 1 ran for a period of 14 weeks during which time the blood pressure of the animals was recorded. The GS, and GY groups consumed significantly more water (p<0.01 than the CP and GM groups despite the fact that their diet consumption levels were similar. The body weight of animals in the CP, GM, and GS groups was similar while the animals in the GY group were significantly smaller (p<0.01. The blood pressure in the GM group was virtually the same as the CP group throughout the course of the experiment. In contrast, while the blood pressure of the animals in the GS and GY group from 15 to 19 weeks old was the same as the CP group, their blood pressures were significantly higher (p<0.01 after 20 weeks of age. The GY group tended to have lower blood pressure than the GS group. In experiment 2, in order to clarify whether or not the increase in blood pressure in the GS group and the GY group in experiment 1 was caused by an excessive intake of salt, the effects on blood pressure of a reduction of salt in diet were investigated. When amount of salt in the diet of the GS and GY group was reduced from 4% to 0.3%, the animal

  6. Dairy consumption, systolic blood pressure, and risk of hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Huang, Tao; Bergholdt, Helle Km

    2017-01-01

    Objective To examine whether previous observed inverse associations of dairy intake with systolic blood pressure and risk of hypertension were causal.Design Mendelian randomization study using the single nucleotide polymorphism rs4988235 related to lactase persistence as an instrumental variable...... blood pressure but not risk of hypertension (odds ratio 0.98, 0.97 to 1.00; P=0.11).Conclusion The weak inverse association between dairy intake and systolic blood pressure in observational studies was not supported by a comprehensive instrumental variable analysis and systematic review of existing...

  7. Teaming Up Against High Blood Pressure PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-09-04

    Nearly one-third of American adults have high blood pressure, and more than half of them don’t have it under control. Simply seeing a doctor and taking medications isn’t enough for many people who have high blood pressure. A team-based approach by patients, health care systems, and health care providers is one of the best ways to treat uncontrolled high blood pressure.  Created: 9/4/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 9/4/2012.

  8. Relationship between blood lead, blood pressure, stroke, and heart attacks in middle-aged British men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pocock, S.J.; Shaper, A.G.; Ashby, D.; Delves, H.T.; Clayton, B.E.

    1988-01-01

    The relationship between blood lead concentration and blood pressure is examined in a survey of 7371 men aged 40 to 59 from 24 British towns. After allowance for relevant confounding variables, including town of residence and alcohol consumption, there exists a very weak but statistically significant positive association between blood lead and both systolic and diastolic blood pressure. After 6 years of follow-up, 316 of these men had major ischemic heart disease, and 66 had a stroke. After allowance for the confounding effects of cigarette smoking and town of residence there is no evidence that blood lead is a risk factor for these cardiovascular events. However, as the blood lead-blood pressure association is so weak, it is unlikely that any consequent association between lead and cardiovascular disease could be demonstrated from prospective epidemiological studies. An overview of data from this and other large epidemiological surveys provides reasonable consistent evidence on lead and blood pressure. While NHANES II data on 2254 US men indicate a slightly stronger association between blood lead and systolic blood pressure, data from two Welsh studies on over 2000 men did not show a statistically significant association. Nevertheless, such statistical association cannot be taken as establishing a causal effect of low-level lead exposure on blood pressure

  9. Physical Activity and Pattern of Blood Pressure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    2014-04-02

    Apr 2, 2014 ... This study investigated physical activity (PA) and pattern of blood ... values of SBP, DBP, BMI and WHR were higher among participants with low PA compared to those ..... nervous system is associated with abdominal visceral ...

  10. High Blood Pressure and Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or technician places a strip of chemically treated paper, called a dipstick, into the urine. Patches on the dipstick change color when blood or protein is present in urine. Urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio. A health care provider uses ...

  11. Exercise increases blood flow to locomotor, vestibular, cardiorespiratory and visual regions of the brain in miniature swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delp, M. D.; Armstrong, R. B.; Godfrey, D. A.; Laughlin, M. H.; Ross, C. D.; Wilkerson, M. K.

    2001-01-01

    1. The purpose of these experiments was to use radiolabelled microspheres to measure blood flow distribution within the brain, and in particular to areas associated with motor function, maintenance of equilibrium, cardiorespiratory control, vision, hearing and smell, at rest and during exercise in miniature swine. Exercise consisted of steady-state treadmill running at intensities eliciting 70 and 100 % maximal oxygen consumption (V(O(2),max)). 2. Mean arterial pressure was elevated by 17 and 26 % above that at rest during exercise at 70 and 100 % V(O(2),max), respectively. 3. Mean brain blood flow increased 24 and 25 % at 70 and 100 % V(O(2),max), respectively. Blood flow was not locally elevated to cortical regions associated with motor and somatosensory functions during exercise, but was increased to several subcortical areas that are involved in the control of locomotion. 4. Exercise elevated perfusion and diminished vascular resistance in several regions of the brain related to the maintenance of equilibrium (vestibular nuclear area, cerebellar ventral vermis and floccular lobe), cardiorespiratory control (medulla and pons), and vision (dorsal occipital cortex, superior colliculi and lateral geniculate body). Conversely, blood flow to regions related to hearing (cochlear nuclei, inferior colliculi and temporal cortex) and smell (olfactory bulbs and rhinencephalon) were unaltered by exercise and associated with increases in vascular resistance. 5. The data indicate that blood flow increases as a function of exercise intensity to several areas of the brain associated with integrating sensory input and motor output (anterior and dorsal cerebellar vermis) and the maintenance of equilibrium (vestibular nuclei). Additionally, there was an intensity-dependent decrease of vascular resistance in the dorsal cerebellar vermis.

  12. Gender difference in blood pressure, blood sugar, and cholesterol in young adults with comparable routine physical exertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T S Anish

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Gender differences in the risk of developing non-communicable diseases (NCD are a matter of debate. The susceptibility of a woman to NCD should be evaluated taking into consideration the social factors that limit the physical activity among women. It will be interesting to note what will happen if women are allowed to take part in physical exercise to the extent of men. Aims: To find out the gender difference in the pattern of the clinical and biochemical indices related to NCD in young adults with comparable daily physical activity. Settings and Design: This is an institution-based cross-sectional study and the setting was Lekshmibhai National College for Physical Education (LNCPE, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India. Materials and Methods: The study participants were students who were regularly involved in more than three hours of physical exercise daily at least for the previous one year. The information on socio-demography, anthropometry, and blood pressure was recorded. Blood samples were taken for laboratory examination. Results: Out of 150 students registered, 126 (84% in the age group of 17 to 25 years who fulfilled the eligibility criteria were studied. Fifty-five (43.7% of them were women. Systolic blood pressure, fasting blood sugar, and low-density lipoprotein were found significantly lower in women. No significant difference was noted in the case of diastolic blood pressure and total cholesterol. Conclusion: Gender differences exist for NCD risk factors among young adults with comparable physical activity and physical exertion seems to be more protective for females.

  13. Beta-1 vs. beta-2 adrenergic control of coronary blood flow during isometric handgrip exercise in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maman, Stephan R; Vargas, Alvaro F; Ahmad, Tariq Ali; Miller, Amanda J; Gao, Zhaohui; Leuenberger, Urs A; Proctor, David N; Muller, Matthew D

    2017-08-01

    During exercise, β-adrenergic receptors are activated throughout the body. In healthy humans, the net effect of β-adrenergic stimulation is an increase in coronary blood flow. However, the role of vascular β1 vs. β2 receptors in coronary exercise hyperemia is not clear. In this study, we simultaneously measured noninvasive indexes of myocardial oxygen supply (i.e., blood velocity in the left anterior descending coronary artery; Doppler echocardiography) and demand [i.e., rate pressure product (RPP) = heart rate × systolic blood pressure) and tested the hypothesis that β1 blockade with esmolol improves coronary exercise hyperemia compared with nonselective β-blockade with propranolol. Eight healthy young men received intravenous infusions of esmolol, propranolol, and saline on three separate days in a single-blind, randomized, crossover design. During each infusion, subjects performed isometric handgrip exercise until fatigue. Blood pressure, heart rate, and coronary blood velocity (CBV) were measured continuously, and RPP was calculated. Changes in parameters from baseline were compared with paired t -tests. Esmolol (Δ = 3296 ± 1204) and propranolol (Δ = 2997 ± 699) caused similar reductions in peak RPP compared with saline (Δ = 5384 ± 1865). In support of our hypothesis, ΔCBV with esmolol was significantly greater than with propranolol (7.3 ± 2.4 vs. 4.5 ± 1.6 cm/s; P = 0.002). This effect was also evident when normalizing ΔCBV to ΔRPP. In summary, not only does selective β1 blockade reduce myocardial oxygen demand during exercise, but it also unveils β2-receptor-mediated coronary exercise hyperemia. NEW & NOTEWORTHY In this study, we evaluated the role of vascular β1 vs. β2 receptors in coronary exercise hyperemia in a single-blind, randomized, crossover study in healthy men. In response to isometric handgrip exercise, blood flow velocity in the left anterior descending coronary artery was significantly greater with esmolol compared with

  14. Blood flow and oxygenation in peritendinous tissue and calf muscle during dynamic exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boushel, Robert Christopher; Langberg, H; Green, Sara Marie Ehrenreich

    2000-01-01

    1. Circulation around tendons may act as a shunt for muscle during exercise. The perfusion and oxygenation of Achilles' peritendinous tissue was measured in parallel with that of calf muscle during exercise to determine (1) whether blood flow is restricted in peritendinous tissue during exercise......, and (2) whether blood flow is coupled to oxidative metabolism. 2. Seven individuals performed dynamic plantar flexion from 1 to 9 W. Radial artery and popliteal venous blood were sampled for O2, peritendinous blood flow was determined by 133Xe-washout, calf blood flow by plethysmography, cardiac output...

  15. Peripheral vascular effects on auscultatory blood pressure measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbany, S Y; Drzewiecki, G M; Noordergraaf, A

    1993-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to examine the accuracy of the conventional auscultatory method of blood pressure measurement. The influence of the physiologic state of the vascular system in the forearm distal to the site of Korotkoff sound recording and its impact on the precision of the measured blood pressure is discussed. The peripheral resistance in the arm distal to the cuff was changed noninvasively by heating and cooling effects and by induction of reactive hyperemia. All interventions were preceded by an investigation of their effect on central blood pressure to distinguish local effects from changes in central blood pressure. These interventions were sufficiently moderate to make their effect on central blood pressure, recorded in the other arm, statistically insignificant (i.e., changes in systolic [p cooling experiments was statistically significant (p < 0.001). Moreover, both measured systolic (p < 0.004) and diastolic (p < 0.001) pressure decreases during the reactive hyperemia experiments were statistically significant. The findings demonstrate that alteration in vascular state generates perplexing changes in blood pressure, hence confirming experimental observations by earlier investigators as well as predictions by our model studies.

  16. Is the area under blood pressure curve the best parameter to evaluate 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring data?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Fernando; Mion, Décio

    2005-10-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) provides relevant data about blood pressure over a 24-h period. The analysis of parameters to determine the blood pressure profile from these data is of great importance. To calculate areas under systolic and diastolic blood pressure curves (SBP-AUC/DBP-AUC) and compare with systolic and diastolic blood pressure load (SBPL/DBPL) and 24-h systolic and diastolic blood pressure (24-h SBP/24-h DBP) in order to determine which provides the best correlation with left ventricular mass index (LVMI). ABPM measurements (1143 individuals) were analyzed to obtain 24-h SBP/24-h DBP, SBPL/DBPL, and SBP-AUC/ DBP-AUC, using Spacelabs (90207) and CardioSistemas devices. Left ventricular mass was determined using an echocardiograph HP Sonos 5500 and LVMI was calculated. The correlations between all possible pairs within the group 24-h SBP/SBPL/SBP-AUC and 24-h DBP/DBPL/DBP-AUC were high and statistically significant. The correlations between 24-h SBP/24-h DBP and SBP-AUC/DBP-AUC with SBPL/DBPL close to 100%, were lower than those mentioned above. The correlations of the parameters obtained by ABPM with LVMI were also high and statistically significant, except for blood pressure load between 90 and 100%, and for 24-h SBP of 135 mmHg or less and SBPL higher than 50%. SBPL/DBPL and SBP-AUC/DBP-AUC can be used for the evaluation of ABPM data owing to the strong correlation with 24-h SBP/24-h DBP and with LVMI, except when SBPL is close to 100% or 24-h SBP is below 135 mmHg but SBPL is above 50%. SBP-AUC/DBP-AUC, however, are a better alternative because they do not have the limitations of blood pressure load or even of 24-h blood pressure present.

  17. Blood pressure and control of cardiovascular risk

    OpenAIRE

    Judith A Whitworth

    2005-01-01

    Judith A WhitworthJohn Curtin School of Medical Research, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, AustraliaAbstract: Two key early 20th century notions, the first the primacy of diastolic pressure in determining risk, and the second that hypertension is a discrete disorder, have proved to be incorrect. We now recognize the primacy of systolic pressure as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and that hypertension is an arbitrary definition. In the early 21st century, we are moving a...

  18. Blood pressure load does not add to ambulatory blood pressure level for cardiovascular risk stratification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yan; Thijs, Lutgarde; Boggia, José

    2014-01-01

    Experts proposed blood pressure (BP) load derived from 24-hour ambulatory BP recordings as a more accurate predictor of outcome than level, in particular in normotensive people. We analyzed 8711 subjects (mean age, 54.8 years; 47.0% women) randomly recruited from 10 populations. We expressed BP...... load as percentage (%) of systolic/diastolic readings ≥135/≥85 mm Hg and ≥120/≥70 mm Hg during day and night, respectively, or as the area under the BP curve (mm Hg×h) using the same ceiling values. During a period of 10.7 years (median), 1284 participants died and 1109 experienced a fatal or nonfatal...... cardiovascular end point. In multivariable-adjusted models, the risk of cardiovascular complications gradually increased across deciles of BP level and load (Pbased on 24-hour systolic or diastolic BP level (generalized R(2) statistic ≤0.294%; net...

  19. Intensive versus conventional blood pressure monitoring in a general practice population. The Blood Pressure Reduction in Danish General Practice trial: a randomized controlled parallel group trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarskov, Pia; Bang, Lia E; Schultz-Larsen, Peter

    2018-01-01

    To compare the effect of a conventional to an intensive blood pressure monitoring regimen on blood pressure in hypertensive patients in the general practice setting. Randomized controlled parallel group trial with 12-month follow-up. One hundred and ten general practices in all regions of Denmark....... One thousand forty-eight patients with essential hypertension. Conventional blood pressure monitoring ('usual group') continued usual ad hoc blood pressure monitoring by office blood pressure measurements, while intensive blood pressure monitoring ('intensive group') supplemented this with frequent...... a reduction of blood pressure. Clinical Trials NCT00244660....

  20. Remote Blood Pressure Waveform Sensing Method and Apparatus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Antonelli, Lynn T

    2008-01-01

    The invention as disclosed is a non-contact method and apparatus for continuously monitoring a physiological event in a human or animal, such as blood pressure, which involves utilizing a laser-based...