WorldWideScience

Sample records for exemplar semantic enhancements

  1. Adventures in Semantic Publishing: Exemplar Semantic Enhancements of a Research Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shotton, David; Portwin, Katie; Klyne, Graham; Miles, Alistair

    2009-01-01

    Scientific innovation depends on finding, integrating, and re-using the products of previous research. Here we explore how recent developments in Web technology, particularly those related to the publication of data and metadata, might assist that process by providing semantic enhancements to journal articles within the mainstream process of scholarly journal publishing. We exemplify this by describing semantic enhancements we have made to a recent biomedical research article taken from PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, providing enrichment to its content and increased access to datasets within it. These semantic enhancements include provision of live DOIs and hyperlinks; semantic markup of textual terms, with links to relevant third-party information resources; interactive figures; a re-orderable reference list; a document summary containing a study summary, a tag cloud, and a citation analysis; and two novel types of semantic enrichment: the first, a Supporting Claims Tooltip to permit “Citations in Context”, and the second, Tag Trees that bring together semantically related terms. In addition, we have published downloadable spreadsheets containing data from within tables and figures, have enriched these with provenance information, and have demonstrated various types of data fusion (mashups) with results from other research articles and with Google Maps. We have also published machine-readable RDF metadata both about the article and about the references it cites, for which we developed a Citation Typing Ontology, CiTO (http://purl.org/net/cito/). The enhanced article, which is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0000228.x001, presents a compelling existence proof of the possibilities of semantic publication. We hope the showcase of examples and ideas it contains, described in this paper, will excite the imaginations of researchers and publishers, stimulating them to explore the possibilities of semantic publishing for their own research

  2. Adventures in semantic publishing: exemplar semantic enhancements of a research article.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Shotton

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Scientific innovation depends on finding, integrating, and re-using the products of previous research. Here we explore how recent developments in Web technology, particularly those related to the publication of data and metadata, might assist that process by providing semantic enhancements to journal articles within the mainstream process of scholarly journal publishing. We exemplify this by describing semantic enhancements we have made to a recent biomedical research article taken from PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, providing enrichment to its content and increased access to datasets within it. These semantic enhancements include provision of live DOIs and hyperlinks; semantic markup of textual terms, with links to relevant third-party information resources; interactive figures; a re-orderable reference list; a document summary containing a study summary, a tag cloud, and a citation analysis; and two novel types of semantic enrichment: the first, a Supporting Claims Tooltip to permit "Citations in Context", and the second, Tag Trees that bring together semantically related terms. In addition, we have published downloadable spreadsheets containing data from within tables and figures, have enriched these with provenance information, and have demonstrated various types of data fusion (mashups with results from other research articles and with Google Maps. We have also published machine-readable RDF metadata both about the article and about the references it cites, for which we developed a Citation Typing Ontology, CiTO (http://purl.org/net/cito/. The enhanced article, which is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0000228.x001, presents a compelling existence proof of the possibilities of semantic publication. We hope the showcase of examples and ideas it contains, described in this paper, will excite the imaginations of researchers and publishers, stimulating them to explore the possibilities of semantic publishing for their own

  3. Exemplar-Based Image and Video Stylization Using Fully Convolutional Semantic Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feida; Yan, Zhicheng; Bu, Jiajun; Yu, Yizhou

    2017-05-10

    Color and tone stylization in images and videos strives to enhance unique themes with artistic color and tone adjustments. It has a broad range of applications from professional image postprocessing to photo sharing over social networks. Mainstream photo enhancement softwares, such as Adobe Lightroom and Instagram, provide users with predefined styles, which are often hand-crafted through a trial-and-error process. Such photo adjustment tools lack a semantic understanding of image contents and the resulting global color transform limits the range of artistic styles it can represent. On the other hand, stylistic enhancement needs to apply distinct adjustments to various semantic regions. Such an ability enables a broader range of visual styles. In this paper, we first propose a novel deep learning architecture for exemplar-based image stylization, which learns local enhancement styles from image pairs. Our deep learning architecture consists of fully convolutional networks (FCNs) for automatic semantics-aware feature extraction and fully connected neural layers for adjustment prediction. Image stylization can be efficiently accomplished with a single forward pass through our deep network. To extend our deep network from image stylization to video stylization, we exploit temporal superpixels (TSPs) to facilitate the transfer of artistic styles from image exemplars to videos. Experiments on a number of datasets for image stylization as well as a diverse set of video clips demonstrate the effectiveness of our deep learning architecture.

  4. Semantic tagging of and semantic enhancements to systematics papers: ZooKeys working examples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penev, L.; Agosti, D.; Georgiev, T.; Catapano, T.; Miller, J.; Blagoderov, V.; Roberts, D.; Smith, V.S.; Brake, I.; Ryrcroft, S.; Scott, B.; Johnson, N.F.; Morris, R.A.; Sautter, G.; Chavan, V.; Robertson, T.; Remsen, D.; Stoev, P.; Parr, C.; Knapp, S.; Kress, W.J.; Thompson, F.C.; Erwin, T.

    2010-01-01

    The concept of semantic tagging and its potential for semantic enhancements to taxonomic papers is outlined and illustrated by four exemplar papers published in the present issue of ZooKeys. The four papers were created in different ways: (i) written in Microsoft Word and submitted as non-tagged

  5. Sleep Benefits Memory for Semantic Category Structure While Preserving Exemplar-Specific Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schapiro, Anna C; McDevitt, Elizabeth A; Chen, Lang; Norman, Kenneth A; Mednick, Sara C; Rogers, Timothy T

    2017-11-01

    Semantic memory encompasses knowledge about both the properties that typify concepts (e.g. robins, like all birds, have wings) as well as the properties that individuate conceptually related items (e.g. robins, in particular, have red breasts). We investigate the impact of sleep on new semantic learning using a property inference task in which both kinds of information are initially acquired equally well. Participants learned about three categories of novel objects possessing some properties that were shared among category exemplars and others that were unique to an exemplar, with exposure frequency varying across categories. In Experiment 1, memory for shared properties improved and memory for unique properties was preserved across a night of sleep, while memory for both feature types declined over a day awake. In Experiment 2, memory for shared properties improved across a nap, but only for the lower-frequency category, suggesting a prioritization of weakly learned information early in a sleep period. The increase was significantly correlated with amount of REM, but was also observed in participants who did not enter REM, suggesting involvement of both REM and NREM sleep. The results provide the first evidence that sleep improves memory for the shared structure of object categories, while simultaneously preserving object-unique information.

  6. Integrating Metatheory to Enhance Qualitative Interviewing: A Safety Campaign Exemplar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marifran Mattson PhD

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the ways in which integrating a metatheory to guide qualitative interviews supports health theory and the research methodology of interviewing. This study applied Harm Reduction Theory (HRT as a metatheory to the Reconceptualized Health Belief Model (RHBM in targeting motorcyclists to practice safety behaviors. After integrating the metatheory with a health behavior theory to develop research questions and frame the interview guide, we recruited and interviewed 37 at-risk motorcyclists. The process of interviewing participants and the results of the study support the integration of harm reduction metatheory to enhance interview methodology as a way to effectively engage participants by building rapport, encouraging participants to apply theory, and empowering them to be open and honest in their responses. This research process highlights ways in which incorporating a metatheory to guide theory diverges from the more traditional, theory-driven approach to interviewing.

  7. Semantic tagging of and semantic enhancements to systematics papers: ZooKeys working examples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubomir Penev

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of semantic tagging and its potential for semantic enhancements to taxonomic papers is outlined and illustrated by four exemplar papers published in the present issue of ZooKeys. The four papers were created in different ways: (i written in Microsoft Word and submitted as non-tagged manuscript (doi: 10.3897/zookeys.50.504; (ii generated from Scratchpads and submitted as XML-tagged manuscripts (doi: 10.3897/zookeys.50.505 and doi: 10.3897/zookeys.50.506; (iii generated from an author’s database(doi: 10.3897/zookeys.50.485 and submitted as XML-tagged manuscript. XML tagging and semantic enhancements were implemented during the editorial process of ZooKeys using the Pensoft Mark Up Tool (PMT, specially designed for this purpose. The XML schema used was TaxPub, an extension to the Document Type Definitions (DTD of the US National Library of Medicine Journal Archiving and Interchange Tag Suite (NLM. The following innovative methods of tagging, layout, publishing and disseminating the content were tested and implemented within the ZooKeys editorial workflow: (1 highly automated, fine-grained XML tagging based on TaxPub; (2 final XML output of the paper validated against the NLM DTD for archiving in PubMedCentral; (3 bibliographic metadata embedded in the PDF through XMP (Extensible Metadata Platform; (4 PDF uploaded after publication to the Biodiversitry Heritage Library (BHL; (5 taxon treatments supplied through XML to Plazi; (6 semantically enhanced HTML version of the paper encompassing numerous internal and external links and linkouts, such as: (i vizualisation of main tag elements within the text (e.g., taxon names, taxon treatments, localities, etc.; (ii internal cross-linking between paper sections, citations, references, tables, and figures; (iii mapping of localities listed in the whole paper or within separate taxon treatments; (v taxon names autotagged, dynamically mapped and linked through the Pensoft Taxon Profile (PTP to

  8. Semantic Enhancement for Enterprise Data Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Sun, Xingzhi; Cao, Feng; Wang, Chen; Wang, Xiaoyuan; Kanellos, Nick; Wolfson, Dan; Pan, Yue

    Taking customer data as an example, the paper presents an approach to enhance the management of enterprise data by using Semantic Web technologies. Customer data is the most important kind of core business entity a company uses repeatedly across many business processes and systems, and customer data management (CDM) is becoming critical for enterprises because it keeps a single, complete and accurate record of customers across the enterprise. Existing CDM systems focus on integrating customer data from all customer-facing channels and front and back office systems through multiple interfaces, as well as publishing customer data to different applications. To make the effective use of the CDM system, this paper investigates semantic query and analysis over the integrated and centralized customer data, enabling automatic classification and relationship discovery. We have implemented these features over IBM Websphere Customer Center, and shown the prototype to our clients. We believe that our study and experiences are valuable for both Semantic Web community and data management community.

  9. Enhancing OSCE preparedness with video exemplars in undergraduate nursing students. A mixed method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, D; Byrne, J; Higgins, N; Weeks, B; Shuker, M-A; Coyne, E; Mitchell, M; Johnston, A N B

    2017-07-01

    Objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) are designed to assess clinical skill performance and competency of students in preparation for 'real world' clinical responsibilities. OSCEs are commonly used in health professional education and are typically associated with high levels of student anxiety, which may present a significant barrier to performance. Students, including nursing students, have identified that flexible access to exemplar OSCEs might reduce their anxiety and enable them to better prepare for such examinations. To implement and evaluate an innovative approach to preparing students for OSCEs in an undergraduate (registration) acute care nursing course. A set of digitized OSCE exemplars were prepared and embedded in the University-based course website as part of usual course learning activities. Use of the exemplars was monitored, pre and post OSCE surveys were conducted, and qualitative data were collected to evaluate the approach. OSCE grades were also examined. The online OSCE exemplars increased self-rated student confidence, knowledge, and capacity to prepare and provided clarity around assessment expectations. OSCE exemplars were accessed frequently and positively received; but did not impact on performance. Video exemplars aid student preparation for OSCEs, providing a flexible, innovative and clear example of the assessment process. Video exemplars improved self-rated student confidence and understanding of performance expectations, leading to increased engagement and reduced anxiety when preparing for the OSCE, but not overall OSCE performance. Such OSCE exemplars could be used to increase staff capacity and improve the quality of the student learning experience. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. LEARNING SEMANTICS-ENHANCED LANGUAGE MODELS APPLIED TO UNSUEPRVISED WSD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VERSPOOR, KARIN [Los Alamos National Laboratory; LIN, SHOU-DE [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2007-01-29

    An N-gram language model aims at capturing statistical syntactic word order information from corpora. Although the concept of language models has been applied extensively to handle a variety of NLP problems with reasonable success, the standard model does not incorporate semantic information, and consequently limits its applicability to semantic problems such as word sense disambiguation. We propose a framework that integrates semantic information into the language model schema, allowing a system to exploit both syntactic and semantic information to address NLP problems. Furthermore, acknowledging the limited availability of semantically annotated data, we discuss how the proposed model can be learned without annotated training examples. Finally, we report on a case study showing how the semantics-enhanced language model can be applied to unsupervised word sense disambiguation with promising results.

  11. Enhancing e-Learning Content by Using Semantic Web Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-González, Herminio; Gayo, José Emilio Labra; del Puerto Paule-Ruiz, María

    2017-01-01

    We describe a new educational tool that relies on Semantic Web technologies to enhance lessons content. We conducted an experiment with 32 students whose results demonstrate better performance when exposed to our tool in comparison with a plain native tool. Consequently, this prototype opens new possibilities in lessons content enhancement.

  12. Enhancing clinical concept extraction with distributional semantics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha; Cohen, Trevor; Wu, Stephen; Gonzalez, Graciela

    2012-02-01

    Extracting concepts (such as drugs, symptoms, and diagnoses) from clinical narratives constitutes a basic enabling technology to unlock the knowledge within and support more advanced reasoning applications such as diagnosis explanation, disease progression modeling, and intelligent analysis of the effectiveness of treatment. The recent release of annotated training sets of de-identified clinical narratives has contributed to the development and refinement of concept extraction methods. However, as the annotation process is labor-intensive, training data are necessarily limited in the concepts and concept patterns covered, which impacts the performance of supervised machine learning applications trained with these data. This paper proposes an approach to minimize this limitation by combining supervised machine learning with empirical learning of semantic relatedness from the distribution of the relevant words in additional unannotated text. The approach uses a sequential discriminative classifier (Conditional Random Fields) to extract the mentions of medical problems, treatments and tests from clinical narratives. It takes advantage of all Medline abstracts indexed as being of the publication type "clinical trials" to estimate the relatedness between words in the i2b2/VA training and testing corpora. In addition to the traditional features such as dictionary matching, pattern matching and part-of-speech tags, we also used as a feature words that appear in similar contexts to the word in question (that is, words that have a similar vector representation measured with the commonly used cosine metric, where vector representations are derived using methods of distributional semantics). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first effort exploring the use of distributional semantics, the semantics derived empirically from unannotated text often using vector space models, for a sequence classification task such as concept extraction. Therefore, we first experimented

  13. Action learning enhances professional development of research supervisors: an Australian health science exemplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kierrynn; Brownie, Sonya; Doran, Frances; Evans, Sue; Hutchinson, Marie; Mozolic-Staunton, Beth; Provost, Stephen; van Aken, Rosalie

    2012-03-01

    The worldwide academic workforce is ageing. At the same time, health and human services workforces are expanding. The preparation of educators to fill gaps in expertise and to position the health sciences for future growth is an urgent need. The findings from a recent action learning project that aimed to enhance the professional growth and development of higher degree researcher student supervisors in a School of Health and Human Sciences are presented. Seven early career researchers and the facilitator met for two hours every two to three weeks over 4 months between April and July 2010, in a rural and regional university in New South Wales, Australia. The processes initiated were a combination of experiential knowledge, referral to relevant published reports, use of an effective supervision checklist, and critical conversations. Learning outcomes centered on higher degree management and supervision pedagogy, communities of practice, knowledge translation, and the establishment of a research culture. The contextual barriers and implications of the methodology and learning outcomes for the professional development of health and human science practitioners, researchers and educators is also discussed. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. Enhancing Geoscience Research Discovery Through the Semantic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Linda R.; Gross, M. Benjamin; Mayernik, Matthew; Khan, Huda; Boler, Frances; Maull, Keith; Stott, Don; Williams, Steve; Corson-Rikert, Jon; Johns, Erica M.; Daniels, Michael; Krafft, Dean B.; Meertens, Charles

    2016-04-01

    UNAVCO, UCAR, and Cornell University are working together to leverage semantic web technologies to enable discovery of people, datasets, publications and other research products, as well as the connections between them. The EarthCollab project, a U.S. National Science Foundation EarthCube Building Block, is enhancing an existing open-source semantic web application, VIVO, to enhance connectivity across distributed networks of researchers and resources related to the following two geoscience-based communities: (1) the Bering Sea Project, an interdisciplinary field program whose data archive is hosted by NCAR's Earth Observing Laboratory (EOL), and (2) UNAVCO, a geodetic facility and consortium that supports diverse research projects informed by geodesy. People, publications, datasets and grant information have been mapped to an extended version of the VIVO-ISF ontology and ingested into VIVO's database. Much of the VIVO ontology was built for the life sciences, so we have added some components of existing geoscience-based ontologies and a few terms from a local ontology that we created. The UNAVCO VIVO instance, connect.unavco.org, utilizes persistent identifiers whenever possible; for example using ORCIDs for people, publication DOIs, data DOIs and unique NSF grant numbers. Data is ingested using a custom set of scripts that include the ability to perform basic automated and curated disambiguation. VIVO can display a page for every object ingested, including connections to other objects in the VIVO database. A dataset page, for example, includes the dataset type, time interval, DOI, related publications, and authors. The dataset type field provides a connection to all other datasets of the same type. The author's page shows, among other information, related datasets and co-authors. Information previously spread across several unconnected databases is now stored in a single location. In addition to VIVO's default display, the new database can be queried using SPARQL

  15. Restoration of digital off-axis Fresnel hologram by exemplar and search based image inpainting with enhanced computing speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, A. S. M.; Tsang, P. W. M.; Poon, T.-C.

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we proposed a method for restoration of heavily damaged digital off-axis Fresnel holograms based on image inpainting. Being different from existing image inpainting algorithms, we have employed Artificial Bee Colony search technique to increase the computation efficiency of the inpainting process, resulting in a reduction of over one order of magnitude in the computation time. Briefly, an exemplar and search based image inpainting technique is applied to fill in the damaged regions in the hologram, with the most similar fringe patterns in the intact areas obtained from Artificial Bee Colony search algorithm. Experimental results reveal that with our proposed method, the pictorial information in heavily damaged holograms can be recovered with good fidelity, as compared with those obtained with the original intact holograms. This is the first time that image inpainting technique is applied on hologram restoration.

  16. Proceedings of the First European Workshop on Latent Semantic Analysis in Technology Enhanced Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wild, Fridolin; Kalz, Marco; Van Bruggen, Jan; Koper, Rob

    2007-01-01

    Wild, F., Kalz, M., Van Bruggen, J., & Koper, R. (Eds.) (2007). Proceedings of the First European Workshop on Latent Semantic Analysis in Technology Enhanced Learning. Heerlen, the Netherlands:Open University of the Netherlands.

  17. A Collaborative Semantic Web Layer to Enhance Legacy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gliozzo, Alfio; Gangemi, Aldo; Presutti, Valentina; Cardillo, Elena; Daga, Enrico; Salvati, Alberto; Troiani, Gianluca

    This paper introduces a framework to add a semantic web layer to legacy organizational information, and describes its application to the use case provided by the Italian National Research Council (CNR) intraweb. Building on a traditional web-based view of information from different legacy databases, we have performed a semantic porting of data into a knowledge base, dependent on an OWL domain ontology. We have enriched the knowledge base by means of text mining techniques, in order to discover on-topic relations. Several reasoning techniques have been applied, in order to infer relevant implicit relationships. Finally, the ontology and the knowledge base have been deployed on a semantic wiki by means of the WikiFactory tool, which allows users to browse the ontology and the knowledge base, to introduce new relations, to revise wrong assertions in a collaborative way, and to perform semantic queries. In our experiments, we have been able to easily implement several functionalities, such as expert finding, by simply formulating ad-hoc queries from either an ontology editor or the semantic wiki interface. The result is an intelligent and collaborative front end, which allow users to add information, fill gaps, or revise existing information on a semantic basis, while keeping the knowledge base automatically updated.

  18. Auditory Distraction in Semantic Memory: A Process-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, John E.; Hughes, Robert W.; Jones, Dylan M.

    2008-01-01

    Five experiments demonstrate auditory-semantic distraction in tests of memory for semantic category-exemplars. The effects of irrelevant sound on category-exemplar recall are shown to be functionally distinct from those found in the context of serial short-term memory by showing sensitivity to: The lexical-semantic, rather than acoustic,…

  19. Enhancing biomedical text summarization using semantic relation extraction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Shang

    Full Text Available Automatic text summarization for a biomedical concept can help researchers to get the key points of a certain topic from large amount of biomedical literature efficiently. In this paper, we present a method for generating text summary for a given biomedical concept, e.g., H1N1 disease, from multiple documents based on semantic relation extraction. Our approach includes three stages: 1 We extract semantic relations in each sentence using the semantic knowledge representation tool SemRep. 2 We develop a relation-level retrieval method to select the relations most relevant to each query concept and visualize them in a graphic representation. 3 For relations in the relevant set, we extract informative sentences that can interpret them from the document collection to generate text summary using an information retrieval based method. Our major focus in this work is to investigate the contribution of semantic relation extraction to the task of biomedical text summarization. The experimental results on summarization for a set of diseases show that the introduction of semantic knowledge improves the performance and our results are better than the MEAD system, a well-known tool for text summarization.

  20. [An effect of semantic satiation in conceptual processing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashi, Shimokido

    2007-12-01

    This study examined whether semantic satiation effects for a picture exemplar differ from a word exemplar. If massive repetition of the category name leads to an inhibition of conceptual processing, then semantic satiation effects would be found in both the word and picture exemplar conditions. However, if the repetition leads to an inhibition of lexical processing, then effects would be found for the word exemplar but not the picture exemplar. To examine these hypotheses, 48 college students were asked to judge whether a target pair of exemplars belonged to the same named category. The results showed that semantic satiation effects were found equally in both exemplar conditions. Moreover, the picture-superiority effect was intact regardless of the prime repetitions. The possibility was discussed that word and picture exemplars are integrated into an abstract and amodal conceptual unit; hence category judgment was affected by the satiation effect.

  1. Crossmodal Semantic Priming by Naturalistic Sounds and Spoken Words Enhances Visual Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Chuan; Spence, Charles

    2011-01-01

    We propose a multisensory framework based on Glaser and Glaser's (1989) general reading-naming interference model to account for the semantic priming effect by naturalistic sounds and spoken words on visual picture sensitivity. Four experiments were designed to investigate two key issues: First, can auditory stimuli enhance visual sensitivity when…

  2. Pain-Related and Negative Semantic Priming Enhances Perceived Pain Intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Richter

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Negative affective and pain-related cues, such as pictures or words, have been shown to act as primes and enhance the perceived intensity of subsequent painful events. For pain-related semantic primes, it remains unclear whether this effect depends on negative valence itself or, specifically, on the pain-relatedness of the words.

  3. Enhancing multilingual latent semantic analysis with term alignment information.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chew, Peter A.; Bader, Brett William

    2008-08-01

    Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) is based on the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) of a term-by-document matrix for identifying relationships among terms and documents from co-occurrence patterns. Among the multiple ways of computing the SVD of a rectangular matrix X, one approach is to compute the eigenvalue decomposition (EVD) of a square 2 x 2 composite matrix consisting of four blocks with X and XT in the off-diagonal blocks and zero matrices in the diagonal blocks. We point out that significant value can be added to LSA by filling in some of the values in the diagonal blocks (corresponding to explicit term-to-term or document-to-document associations) and computing a term-by-concept matrix from the EVD. For the case of multilingual LSA, we incorporate information on cross-language term alignments of the same sort used in Statistical Machine Translation (SMT). Since all elements of the proposed EVD-based approach can rely entirely on lexical statistics, hardly any price is paid for the improved empirical results. In particular, the approach, like LSA or SMT, can still be generalized to virtually any language(s); computation of the EVD takes similar resources to that of the SVD since all the blocks are sparse; and the results of EVD are just as economical as those of SVD.

  4. Educating through Exemplars: Alternative Paths to Virtue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croce, Michel; Vaccarezza, Maria Silvia

    2017-01-01

    This article confronts Zagzebski's exemplarism with the intertwined debates over the conditions of exemplarity and the unity-disunity of the virtues, to show the advantages of a pluralistic exemplar-based approach to character education. This pluralistic exemplar-based approach to character education is based on a prima facie disunitarist…

  5. Using cognitive interviewing for the semantic enhancement of multilingual versions of personality questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daouk-Öyry, Lina; McDowal, Almuth

    2013-01-01

    We discuss the use of cognitive interviewing with bilinguals as an integral part of cross-cultural adaptation of personality questionnaires. The aim is to maximize semantic equivalence to increase the likelihood of items maintaining the intended structure and meaning in the target language. We refer to this part of adaptation as semantic enhancement, and integrate cognitive interviewing within it as a tool for scrutinizing translations, the connotative meaning, and the psychological impact of items across languages. During the adaptation of a work-based personality questionnaire from English to Arabic, Chinese (Mandarin), and Spanish, we cognitively interviewed 12 bilingual participants about 136 items in different languages (17% of all items), of which 67 were changed. A content analysis categorizing the reasons for amending items elicited 11 errors that affect 2 identified forms of semantic equivalence. We provide the resultant coding scheme as a framework for designing cognitive interviewing protocols and propose a procedure for implementing them. We discuss implications for theory and practice.

  6. Sex differences in semantic categorization

    OpenAIRE

    Pasterski, Vickie; Zwierzynska, Karolina; Estes, Zachary

    2011-01-01

    Sex differences in certain cognitive abilities, including aspects of semantic processing, are well established. However, there have been no reports investigating a sex difference in semantic categorization. A total of 55 men and 58 women each judged 25 exemplars of natural categories (e.g., fruits) and 25 of artifact categories (e.g., tools) as a nonmember, partial member, or full member of the given category. Participants also rated confidence for each judgment. Women provided a greater numb...

  7. Blind Facial Image Quality Enhancement Using Non-Rigid Semantic Patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hait, Ester; Gilboa, Guy

    2017-06-01

    We propose a new way to solve a very general blind inverse problem of multiple simultaneous degradations, such as blur, resolution reduction, noise, and contrast changes, without explicitly estimating the degradation. The proposed concept is based on combining semantic non-rigid patches, problem-specific high-quality prior data, and non-rigid registration tools. We show how a significant quality enhancement can be achieved, both visually and quantitatively, in the case of facial images. The method is demonstrated on the problem of cellular photography quality enhancement of dark facial images for different identities, expressions, and poses, and is compared with the state-of-the-art denoising, deblurring, super-resolution, and color-correction methods.

  8. Inpainting With Sparse Linear Combinations of Exemplars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Alamos, NM 87545, USA ABSTRACT We introduce a new exemplar-based inpainting algorithm that represents the region to be inpainted as a sparse linear combi...exemplar-based methods. Initial performance comparisons on small inpaint - ing regions indicate that this method provides similar or better performance than...other recent methods. Index Terms— Image restoration, Inpainting , Exemplar 1. INTRODUCTION Exemplar based methods are becoming increasingly popular

  9. Presentations and recorded keynotes of the First European Workshop on Latent Semantic Analysis in Technology Enhanced Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Several

    2007-01-01

    Presentations and recorded keynotes at the 1st European Workshop on Latent Semantic Analysis in Technology-Enhanced Learning, March, 29-30, 2007. Heerlen, The Netherlands: The Open University of the Netherlands. Please see the conference website for more information:

  10. German norms for semantic typicality, age of acquisition, and concept familiarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Astrid; Gemballa, Teresa; Ruppin, Steffie; Wartenburger, Isabell

    2012-06-01

    The present study introduces the first substantial German database with norms for semantic typicality, age of acquisition, and concept familiarity for 824 exemplars of 11 semantic categories, including four natural (ANIMALS, BIRDS, FRUITS,: and VEGETABLES: ) and five man-made (CLOTHING, FURNITURE, VEHICLES, TOOLS: , and MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS: ) categories, as well as PROFESSIONS: and SPORTS: . Each category exemplar in the database was collected empirically in an exemplar generation study. For each category exemplar, norms for semantic typicality, estimated age of acquisition, and concept familiarity were gathered in three different rating studies. Reliability data and additional analyses on effects of semantic category and intercorrelations between age of acquisition, semantic typicality, concept familiarity, word length, and word frequency are provided. Overall, the data show high inter- and intrastudy reliabilities, providing a new resource tool for designing experiments with German word materials. The full database is available in the supplementary material of this file and also at www.psychonomic.org/archive .

  11. SOLE: Applying Semantics and Social Web to Support Technology Enhanced Learning in Software Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colomo-Palacios, Ricardo; Jiménez-López, Diego; García-Crespo, Ángel; Blanco-Iglesias, Borja

    eLearning educative processes are a challenge for educative institutions and education professionals. In an environment in which learning resources are being produced, catalogued and stored using innovative ways, SOLE provides a platform in which exam questions can be produced supported by Web 2.0 tools, catalogued and labeled via semantic web and stored and distributed using eLearning standards. This paper presents, SOLE, a social network of exam questions sharing particularized for Software Engineering domain, based on semantics and built using semantic web and eLearning standards, such as IMS Question and Test Interoperability specification 2.1.

  12. Exemplary Goods: Exemplars as Judgment Devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Dekker (Erwin)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIn this article the notion of exemplars is developed to study valuation processes. It argues that exemplary goods are an important ‘judgment device’ on markets of singular goods, which has so far been ignored in the literature. The article draws on Hannah Arendt’s theory of exemplars, as

  13. Cultural and Contextual Issues in Exemplar Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Pamela Ebstyne; Oakes Mueller, Ross A.; Furrow, James

    2013-01-01

    This chapter specifically addresses how exemplar methods are especially relevant to examining cultural and contextual issues. Cross-cultural, cultural, and indigenous psychologies are discussed in order to highlight how studying actual exemplars in their unique and complex developmental contexts has the potential to identify themes that either…

  14. Effects of popular exemplars in television news

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lefevere, J.; De Swert, K.; Walgrave, S.

    2012-01-01

    Common people that are apparently randomly selected by journalists to illustrate a news story (popular exemplars) have a substantial effect on what the audience think about the issue. This effect may be partly due to the mere fact that popular exemplars attract attention and act as attention

  15. Semantic encoding enhances the pictorial superiority effect in the oldest-old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Katie E; Silva Brown, Jennifer; Jackson Walker, Erin; Smitherman, Emily A; Boudreaux, Emily O; Volaufova, Julia; Michal Jazwinski, S

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT We examined the effect of a semantic orienting task during encoding on free recall and recognition of simple line drawings and matching words in middle-aged (44-59 years), older (60-89 years), and oldest-old (90+ years) adults. Participants studied line drawings and matching words presented in blocked order. Half of the participants were given a semantic orienting task and the other half received standard intentional learning instructions. Results confirmed that the pictorial superiority effect was greater in magnitude following semantic encoding compared to the control condition. Analyses of clustering in free recall revealed that oldest-old adults' encoding and retrieval strategies were generally similar to the two younger groups. Self-reported strategy use was less frequent among the oldest-old adults. These data strongly suggest that semantic elaboration is an effective compensatory mechanism underlying preserved episodic memory performance that persists well into the ninth decade of life.

  16. Semantic Encoding Enhances the Pictorial Superiority Effect in the Oldest-Old

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Katie E.; Brown, Jennifer Silva; Walker, Erin Jackson; Smitherman, Emily A.; Boudreaux, Emily O.; Volaufova, Julia; Jazwinski, S. Michal

    2011-01-01

    We examined the effect of a semantic orienting task during encoding on free recall and recognition of simple line drawings and matching words in middle-aged (44 to 59 years), older (60 to 89 years), and oldest-old (90 + years) adults. Participants studied line drawings and matching words presented in blocked order. Half of the participants were given a semantic orienting task and the other half received standard intentional learning instructions. Results confirmed that the pictorial superiority effect was greater in magnitude following semantic encoding compared to the control condition. Analyses of clustering in free recall revealed that oldest-old adults’ encoding and retrieval strategies were generally similar to the two younger groups. Self-reported strategy use was less frequent among the oldest-old adults. These data strongly suggest that semantic elaboration is an effective compensatory mechanism underlying preserved episodic memory performance that persists well into the ninth decade of life. PMID:22053814

  17. Semantic Encoding Enhances the Pictorial Superiority Effect in the Oldest-Old

    OpenAIRE

    Cherry, Katie E.; Brown, Jennifer Silva; Walker, Erin Jackson; Smitherman, Emily A.; Boudreaux, Emily O.; Volaufova, Julia; Jazwinski, S. Michal

    2011-01-01

    We examined the effect of a semantic orienting task during encoding on free recall and recognition of simple line drawings and matching words in middle-aged (44 to 59 years), older (60 to 89 years), and oldest-old (90 + years) adults. Participants studied line drawings and matching words presented in blocked order. Half of the participants were given a semantic orienting task and the other half received standard intentional learning instructions. Results confirmed that the pictorial superiori...

  18. Semantic Entity-Component State Management Techniques to Enhance Software Quality for Multimodal VR-Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischbach, Martin; Wiebusch, Dennis; Latoschik, Marc Erich

    2017-04-01

    Modularity, modifiability, reusability, and API usability are important software qualities that determine the maintainability of software architectures. Virtual, Augmented, and Mixed Reality (VR, AR, MR) systems, modern computer games, as well as interactive human-robot systems often include various dedicated input-, output-, and processing subsystems. These subsystems collectively maintain a real-time simulation of a coherent application state. The resulting interdependencies between individual state representations, mutual state access, overall synchronization, and flow of control implies a conceptual close coupling whereas software quality asks for a decoupling to develop maintainable solutions. This article presents five semantics-based software techniques that address this contradiction: Semantic grounding, code from semantics, grounded actions, semantic queries, and decoupling by semantics. These techniques are applied to extend the well-established entity-component-system (ECS) pattern to overcome some of this pattern's deficits with respect to the implied state access. A walk-through of central implementation aspects of a multimodal (speech and gesture) VR-interface is used to highlight the techniques' benefits. This use-case is chosen as a prototypical example of complex architectures with multiple interacting subsystems found in many VR, AR and MR architectures. Finally, implementation hints are given, lessons learned regarding maintainability pointed-out, and performance implications discussed.

  19. Enhancing MEDLINE document clustering by incorporating MeSH semantic similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shanfeng; Zeng, Jia; Mamitsuka, Hiroshi

    2009-08-01

    Clustering MEDLINE documents is usually conducted by the vector space model, which computes the content similarity between two documents by basically using the inner-product of their word vectors. Recently, the semantic information of MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) thesaurus is being applied to clustering MEDLINE documents by mapping documents into MeSH concept vectors to be clustered. However, current approaches of using MeSH thesaurus have two serious limitations: first, important semantic information may be lost when generating MeSH concept vectors, and second, the content information of the original text has been discarded. Our new strategy includes three key points. First, we develop a sound method for measuring the semantic similarity between two documents over the MeSH thesaurus. Second, we combine both the semantic and content similarities to generate the integrated similarity matrix between documents. Third, we apply a spectral approach to clustering documents over the integrated similarity matrix. Using various 100 datasets of MEDLINE records, we conduct extensive experiments with changing alternative measures and parameters. Experimental results show that integrating the semantic and content similarities outperforms the case of using only one of the two similarities, being statistically significant. We further find the best parameter setting that is consistent over all experimental conditions conducted. We finally show a typical example of resultant clusters, confirming the effectiveness of our strategy in improving MEDLINE document clustering. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  20. Exemplar Based Recognition of Visual Shapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Søren I.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an approach of visual shape recognition based on exemplars of attributed keypoints. Training is performed by storing exemplars of keypoints detected in labeled training images. Recognition is made by keypoint matching and voting according to the labels for the matched keypoint....... The matching is insensitive to rotations, limited scalings and small deformations. The recognition is robust to noise, background clutter and partial occlusion. Recognition is possible from few training images and improve with the number of training images....

  1. Inpainting with sparse linear combinations of exemplars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlberg, Brendt [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a new exemplar-based inpainting algorithm based on representing the region to be inpainted as a sparse linear combination of blocks extracted from similar parts of the image being inpainted. This method is conceptually simple, being computed by functional minimization, and avoids the complexity of correctly ordering the filling in of missing regions of other exemplar-based methods. Initial performance comparisons on small inpainting regions indicate that this method provides similar or better performance than other recent methods.

  2. Professionalism: An exemplar for the sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurm-Schaar, Mary

    2015-11-15

    The construct of a profession encompasses several core elements that guide the behavior of its members and the quality standards for the services they provide and products they produce: primarily, competency specifications for members of the profession, a code of professional and ethical behavior, and a commitment to serve the public good. Professionalism is the embodiment of a profession's expertise, ethos, and service to the public good. As an academic scientist, David Triggle exhibited an extraordinary mastery of professionalism in two domains: science and academic leadership in higher education. Sociocultural changes, including the commodification of knowledge, science, and higher education, are posing challenges to the professions and their traditional values. Whereas the effectiveness of ethics instruction is questionable, positive mentoring has shown promise as a means to help professionals maintain the ideals and the values of their chosen occupations. David Triggle was an extremely effective and revered mentor to numerous individuals in the sciences as well as in higher education, enhancing their professional enculturation and development. He fostered integrity of purpose in our respective professional lives and work, and was and remains an exemplar of professionalism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cheminformatics and the Semantic Web: adding value with linked data and enhanced provenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Jeremy G; Bird, Colin L

    2013-01-01

    Cheminformatics is evolving from being a field of study associated primarily with drug discovery into a discipline that embraces the distribution, management, access, and sharing of chemical data. The relationship with the related subject of bioinformatics is becoming stronger and better defined, owing to the influence of Semantic Web technologies, which enable researchers to integrate heterogeneous sources of chemical, biochemical, biological, and medical information. These developments depend on a range of factors: the principles of chemical identifiers and their role in relationships between chemical and biological entities; the importance of preserving provenance and properly curated metadata; and an understanding of the contribution that the Semantic Web can make at all stages of the research lifecycle. The movements toward open access, open source, and open collaboration all contribute to progress toward the goals of integration. PMID:24432050

  4. Cheminformatics and the Semantic Web: adding value with linked data and enhanced provenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Jeremy G; Bird, Colin L

    2013-09-01

    Cheminformatics is evolving from being a field of study associated primarily with drug discovery into a discipline that embraces the distribution, management, access, and sharing of chemical data. The relationship with the related subject of bioinformatics is becoming stronger and better defined, owing to the influence of Semantic Web technologies, which enable researchers to integrate heterogeneous sources of chemical, biochemical, biological, and medical information. These developments depend on a range of factors: the principles of chemical identifiers and their role in relationships between chemical and biological entities; the importance of preserving provenance and properly curated metadata; and an understanding of the contribution that the Semantic Web can make at all stages of the research lifecycle. The movements toward open access, open source, and open collaboration all contribute to progress toward the goals of integration.

  5. Topographic mapping data semantics through data conversion and enhancement: Chapter 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varanka, Dalia; Carter, Jonathan; Usery, E. Lynn; Shoberg, Thomas; Edited by Ashish, Naveen; Sheth, Amit P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents research on the semantics of topographic data for triples and ontologies to blend the capabilities of the Semantic Web and The National Map of the U.S. Geological Survey. Automated conversion of relational topographic data of several geographic sample areas to the triple data model standard resulted in relatively poor semantic associations. Further research employed vocabularies of feature type and spatial relation terms. A user interface was designed to model the capture of non-standard terms relevant to public users and to map those terms to existing data models of The National Map through the use of ontology. Server access for the study area triple stores was made publicly available, illustrating how the development of linked data may transform institutional policies to open government data resources to the public. This paper presents these data conversion and research techniques that were tested as open linked data concepts leveraged through a user-centered interface and open USGS server access to the public.

  6. Enhancement of chemical entity identification in text using semantic similarity validation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Grego

    Full Text Available With the amount of chemical data being produced and reported in the literature growing at a fast pace, it is increasingly important to efficiently retrieve this information. To tackle this issue text mining tools have been applied, but despite their good performance they still provide many errors that we believe can be filtered by using semantic similarity. Thus, this paper proposes a novel method that receives the results of chemical entity identification systems, such as Whatizit, and exploits the semantic relationships in ChEBI to measure the similarity between the entities found in the text. The method assigns a single validation score to each entity based on its similarities with the other entities also identified in the text. Then, by using a given threshold, the method selects a set of validated entities and a set of outlier entities. We evaluated our method using the results of two state-of-the-art chemical entity identification tools, three semantic similarity measures and two text window sizes. The method was able to increase precision without filtering a significant number of correctly identified entities. This means that the method can effectively discriminate the correctly identified chemical entities, while discarding a significant number of identification errors. For example, selecting a validation set with 75% of all identified entities, we were able to increase the precision by 28% for one of the chemical entity identification tools (Whatizit, maintaining in that subset 97% the correctly identified entities. Our method can be directly used as an add-on by any state-of-the-art entity identification tool that provides mappings to a database, in order to improve their results. The proposed method is included in a freely accessible web tool at www.lasige.di.fc.ul.pt/webtools/ice/.

  7. Enhancing ASR by MT using Semantic Information from HindiWordNet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tammewar, Aniruddha; Singla, Karan; Bangalore, Srinivas

    In a conventional CAT (Computer Assisted Translation) system a human translator post-edits an automatically generated target language text using the keyboard. In this paper we extend a CAT system with speech input by which the translator speaks the translation, a process refered to as sight...... translation. We report several experiments to improve the performance of an automatic speech recognition system, taking advantage of machine translation output and information fromWordNet. Overall we outperform a baseline system which has no semantic information by an increased 1.6% word accuracy...

  8. Toward an enhanced Arabic text classification using cosine similarity and Latent Semantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawaz S. Al-Anzi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cosine similarity is one of the most popular distance measures in text classification problems. In this paper, we used this important measure to investigate the performance of Arabic language text classification. For textual features, vector space model (VSM is generally used as a model to represent textual information as numerical vectors. However, Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI is a better textual representation technique as it maintains semantic information between the words. Hence, we used the singular value decomposition (SVD method to extract textual features based on LSI. In our experiments, we conducted comparison between some of the well-known classification methods such as Naïve Bayes, k-Nearest Neighbors, Neural Network, Random Forest, Support Vector Machine, and classification tree. We used a corpus that contains 4,000 documents of ten topics (400 document for each topic. The corpus contains 2,127,197 words with about 139,168 unique words. The testing set contains 400 documents, 40 documents for each topics. As a weighing scheme, we used Term Frequency.Inverse Document Frequency (TF.IDF. This study reveals that the classification methods that use LSI features significantly outperform the TF.IDF-based methods. It also reveals that k-Nearest Neighbors (based on cosine measure and support vector machine are the best performing classifiers.

  9. Gist in time: Scene semantics and structure enhance recall of searched objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephs, Emilie L; Draschkow, Dejan; Wolfe, Jeremy M; Võ, Melissa L-H

    2016-09-01

    Previous work has shown that recall of objects that are incidentally encountered as targets in visual search is better than recall of objects that have been intentionally memorized (Draschkow, Wolfe, & Võ, 2014). However, this counter-intuitive result is not seen when these tasks are performed with non-scene stimuli. The goal of the current paper is to determine what features of search in a scene contribute to higher recall rates when compared to a memorization task. In each of four experiments, we compare the free recall rate for target objects following a search to the rate following a memorization task. Across the experiments, the stimuli include progressively more scene-related information. Experiment 1 provides the spatial relations between objects. Experiment 2 adds relative size and depth of objects. Experiments 3 and 4 include scene layout and semantic information. We find that search leads to better recall than explicit memorization in cases where scene layout and semantic information are present, as long as the participant has ample time (2500ms) to integrate this information with knowledge about the target object (Exp. 4). These results suggest that the integration of scene and target information not only leads to more efficient search, but can also contribute to stronger memory representations than intentional memorization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Coupling a regional warning system to a semantic engine on online news for enhancing landslide prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battistini, Alessandro; Rosi, Ascanio; Segoni, Samuele; Catani, Filippo; Casagli, Nicola

    2017-04-01

    Landslide inventories are basic data for large scale landslide modelling, e.g. they are needed to calibrate and validate rainfall thresholds, physically based models and early warning systems. The setting up of landslide inventories with traditional methods (e.g. remote sensing, field surveys and manual retrieval of data from technical reports and local newspapers) is time consuming. The objective of this work is to automatically set up a landslide inventory using a state-of-the art semantic engine based on data mining on online news (Battistini et al., 2013) and to evaluate if the automatically generated inventory can be used to validate a regional scale landslide warning system based on rainfall-thresholds. The semantic engine scanned internet news in real time in a 50 months test period. At the end of the process, an inventory of approximately 900 landslides was set up for the Tuscany region (23,000 km2, Italy). The inventory was compared with the outputs of the regional landslide early warning system based on rainfall thresholds, and a good correspondence was found: e.g. 84% of the events reported in the news is correctly identified by the model. In addition, the cases of not correspondence were forwarded to the rainfall threshold developers, which used these inputs to update some of the thresholds. On the basis of the results obtained, we conclude that automatic validation of landslide models using geolocalized landslide events feedback is possible. The source of data for validation can be obtained directly from the internet channel using an appropriate semantic engine. We also automated the validation procedure, which is based on a comparison between forecasts and reported events. We verified that our approach can be automatically used for a near real time validation of the warning system and for a semi-automatic update of the rainfall thresholds, which could lead to an improvement of the forecasting effectiveness of the warning system. In the near future

  11. Semantic and Virtual Reality-Enhanced Configuration of Domestic Environments: The Smart Home Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Spoladore

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the Smart Home Simulator, one of the main outcomes of the D4All project. This application takes into account the variety of issues involved in the development of Ambient Assisted Living (AAL solutions, such as the peculiarity of each end-users, appliances, and technologies with their deployment and data-sharing issues. The Smart Home Simulator—a mixed reality application able to support the configuration and customization of domestic environments in AAL systems—leverages on integration capabilities of Semantic Web technologies and the possibility to model relevant knowledge (about both the dwellers and the domestic environment into formal models. It also exploits Virtual Reality technologies as an efficient means to simplify the configuration of customized AAL environments. The application and the underlying framework will be validated through two different use cases, each one foreseeing the customized configuration of a domestic environment for specific segments of users.

  12. Semantic Categorization and Reading Skill across Dutch Primary Grades: Development Yes, Relationship No

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gijsel, Martine A. R.; Ormel, Ellen A.; Hermans, Daan; Verhoeven, L.; Bosman, Anna M. T.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, the development of semantic categorization and its relationship with reading was investigated across Dutch primary grade students. Three Exemplar-level tasks (Experiment 1) and two Superordinate-level tasks (Experiment 2) with different types of distracters (phonological, semantic and perceptual) were administered to assess…

  13. Semantic Sensor Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, A.; Henson, C.; Thirunarayan, K.

    2008-12-01

    Sensors are distributed across the globe leading to an avalanche of data about our environment. It is possible today to utilize networks of sensors to detect and identify a multitude of observations, from simple phenomena to complex events and situations. The lack of integration and communication between these networks, however, often isolates important data streams and intensifies the existing problem of too much data and not enough knowledge. With a view to addressing this problem, the Semantic Sensor Web (SSW) [1] proposes that sensor data be annotated with semantic metadata that will both increase interoperability and provide contextual information essential for situational knowledge. Kno.e.sis Center's approach to SSW is an evolutionary one. It adds semantic annotations to the existing standard sensor languages of the Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) defined by OGC. These annotations enhance primarily syntactic XML-based descriptions in OGC's SWE languages with microformats, and W3C's Semantic Web languages- RDF and OWL. In association with semantic annotation and semantic web capabilities including ontologies and rules, SSW supports interoperability, analysis and reasoning over heterogeneous multi-modal sensor data. In this presentation, we will also demonstrate a mashup with support for complex spatio-temporal-thematic queries [2] and semantic analysis that utilize semantic annotations, multiple ontologies and rules. It uses existing services (e.g., GoogleMap) and semantics enhanced SWE's Sensor Observation Service (SOS) over weather and road condition data from various sensors that are part of Ohio's transportation network. Our upcoming plans are to demonstrate end to end (heterogeneous sensor to application) semantics support and study scalability of SSW involving thousands of sensors to about a billion triples. Keywords: Semantic Sensor Web, Spatiotemporal thematic queries, Semantic Web Enablement, Sensor Observation Service [1] Amit Sheth, Cory Henson, Satya

  14. Military Social Work as an Exemplar in Teaching Social Work Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, James G.; Carlson, Joan; Evans, Pinkie

    2015-01-01

    This article is for social work educators unfamiliar with military social work and receptive to a number of exemplars to enhance teaching strategies within their courses. Because examples of military social work are directly tied to the Council on Social Work Education competencies, this article offers a number of suggested teaching strategies…

  15. Lottery semantics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galliani, P.; Mann, A.L.; Kontinen, J.; Väänänen, J.

    2010-01-01

    We present a compositional semantics for a logic of imperfect information and prove its equivalence to equilibrium semantics ([10]), thus extending to mixed (rather than just behavioural) strategies part of the work of ([2], [3]).

  16. Apples are not the only fruit: The effects of concept typicality on semantic representation in the anterior temporal lobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M. Woollams

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Intuitively, an apple seems a fairly good example of a fruit, whereas an avocado seems less so. The extent to which an exemplar is representative of its category, a variable known as concept typicality, has long been thought to be a key dimension determining semantic representation. Concept typicality is, however, correlated with a number of other variables, in particular age of acquisition and name frequency. Consideration of picture naming accuracy from a large case-series of semantic dementia patients demonstrated strong effects of concept typicality that were maximal in the moderately impaired patients, over and above the impact of age of acquisition and name frequency. Induction of a temporary virtual lesion to the left anterior temporal lobe, the region most commonly affected in semantic dementia, via repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation produced an enhanced effect of concept typicality in the picture naming of normal participants, but did not affect the magnitude of the age of acquisition or name frequency effects. These results indicate that concept typicality exerts its influence on semantic representations themselves, as opposed to the strength of connections outside the semantic system. To date, there has been little direct exploration of the dimension of concept typicality within connectionist models of intact and impaired conceptual representation, and these findings provide a target for future computational simulation.

  17. Improvement of the exemplar-based inpainting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weijie; Zhang, Guoshan

    2016-09-01

    This paper proposes an improved exemplar-based inpainting using image segmentation, image quilting, and spatial blending to reduce the excessively propagating texture and pathological geometric configurations. A graph-based segmentation is used to generate an initial segmented map. The segmented regions are merged by a K-means approach with texture similarity to generate a further texture-based segmented map, which reduces the candidate source space and determines whether to utilize image quilting in the iterative updating process. An improved spatial blending is introduced as a postprocess to smooth the filled image when the filling process is completed. Experimental results show that this exemplar-based inpainting approach has a good visual effect and reduces the computing time.

  18. Neuro-Semantics and Semantics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Stewart W.

    1987-01-01

    Draws distinctions between the terms semantics (dealing with such verbal parameters as dictionaries and "laws" of logic and rhetoric), general semantics (semantics, plus the complex, dynamic, organismal properties of human beings and their physical environment), and neurosemantics (names for relations-based input from the neurosensory…

  19. Enhancing Information Awareness Through Directed Qualification of Semantic Relevancy Scoring Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    1], VSM, HITS, etc., the focus of these efforts has been on ontol- ogy matching [2] or temporal/geospatial query enhance- ment [3]. Our approach...publications within the mission’s C2 domain, or a set of entity interaction pattern occurrences from across one or more C2 domains (e.g., Edge, Conflicted, etc...Natural Language Processing ( NLP ) analytics. Our approach towards supplying these capabilities is the Direct Qualification of probabilistic relationships

  20. Linking netCDF Data with the Semantic Web - Enhancing Data Discovery Across Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biard, J. C.; Yu, J.; Hedley, M.; Cox, S. J. D.; Leadbetter, A.; Car, N. J.; Druken, K. A.; Nativi, S.; Davis, E.

    2016-12-01

    Geophysical data communities are publishing large quantities of data across a wide variety of scientific domains which are overlapping more and more. Whilst netCDF is a common format for many of these communities, it is only one of a large number of data storage and transfer formats. One of the major challenges ahead is finding ways to leverage these diverse data sets to advance our understanding of complex problems. We describe a methodology for incorporating Resource Description Framework (RDF) triples into netCDF files called netCDF-LD (netCDF Linked Data). NetCDF-LD explicitly connects the contents of netCDF files - both data and metadata, with external web-based resources, including vocabularies, standards definitions, and data collections, and through them, a whole host of related information. This approach also preserves and enhances the self describing essence of the netCDF format and its metadata, whilst addressing the challenge of integrating various conventions into files. We present a case study illustrating how reasoning over RDF graphs can empower researchers to discover datasets across domain boundaries.

  1. Relying on procedural memory to enhance independence in daily living activities: Smartphone use in a case of semantic dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bier, N; Brambati, S; Macoir, J; Paquette, G; Schmitz, X; Belleville, S; Faucher, C; Joubert, S

    2015-01-01

    Relying on procedural memory is a promising approach for interventions that address the cognitive difficulties found in semantic dementia. The aim of this study was to determine if procedural memory could be used to optimise learning of relevant smartphone functions in MH, a 55-year-old man with semantic dementia. The impact of learning to use specific smartphone applications, which display concepts and their semantic characteristics, on relearning useful significant concepts, was also explored in MH. This patient, who showed no deficits in procedural learning on a serial reaction time paradigm, was able to learn manipulations related to 15 smartphone functions although, because of his deficit in word comprehension, he generally needed verbal cues to clarify which functions he was asked to perform. Six months after the end of the intervention, he was still using 8 of the 15 functions regularly. However, repeated exposure to concepts through the use of two applications did not improve naming or retrieval of semantic attributes. This study showed the potential of relying on procedural memory to optimise learning of new technologies in the ecological rehabilitation of semantic dementia.

  2. Emergent Feature Structures: Harmony Systems in Exemplar Models of Phonology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    In exemplar models of phonology, phonotactic constraints are modeled as emergent from patterns of high activation between units that co-occur with statistical regularity, or as patterns of low activation or inhibition between units that co-occur less frequently or not at all. Exemplar models posit no a "priori" formal or representational…

  3. Making the Common Core Text Exemplars Accessible to Middle Graders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Barbara, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards are driving the profession toward more cross-disciplinary teaching. The standards themselves address the what of curriculum rather than the how, but they do offer text exemplars for different grade levels. While some find the exemplars too difficult, others see them as worthwhile texts that, with a teacher's…

  4. Complementing SRCNN by Transformed Self-Exemplars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aakerberg, Andreas; Rasmussen, Christoffer Bøgelund; Nasrollahi, Kamal

    2017-01-01

    Super-resolution algorithms are used to improve the qualityand resolution of low-resolution images. These algorithms can be dividedinto two classes of hallucination- and reconstruction-based ones. Theimprovement factors of these algorithms are limited, however, previousresearch [10], [9] has shown...... that combining super-resolution algorithmsfrom these two different groups can push the improvement factor further.We have shown in this paper that combining super-resolution algorithmsof the same class can also push the improvement factor up. For thispurpose, we have combined two hallucination based algorithms......, namelythe one found in Single Image Super-Resolution from Transformed Self-Exemplars [7] and the Super-Resolution Convolutional Neural Networkfrom [4]. The combination of these two, through an alpha-blending, hasresulted in a system that outperforms state-of-the-art super-resolutionalgorithms on public...

  5. Understanding semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Torben

    1997-01-01

    Understanding natural language is a cognitive, information-driven process. Discussing some of the consequences of this fact, the paper offers a novel look at the semantic effect of lexical nouns and the identification of reference types.......Understanding natural language is a cognitive, information-driven process. Discussing some of the consequences of this fact, the paper offers a novel look at the semantic effect of lexical nouns and the identification of reference types....

  6. Relearning in Semantic Dementia Reflects Contributions from Both Medial Temporal Lobe Episodic and Degraded Neocortical Semantic Systems: Evidence in Support of the Complementary Learning Systems Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayberry, Emily J.; Sage, Karen; Ehsan, Sheeba; Ralph, Matthew A. Lambon

    2011-01-01

    When relearning words, patients with semantic dementia (SD) exhibit a characteristic rigidity, including a failure to generalise names to untrained exemplars of trained concepts. This has been attributed to an over-reliance on the medial temporal region which captures information in sparse, non-overlapping and therefore rigid representations. The…

  7. Semantic congruency but not temporal synchrony enhances long-term memory performance for audio-visual scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerhoff, Hauke S; Huff, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Human long-term memory for visual objects and scenes is tremendous. Here, we test how auditory information contributes to long-term memory performance for realistic scenes. In a total of six experiments, we manipulated the presentation modality (auditory, visual, audio-visual) as well as semantic congruency and temporal synchrony between auditory and visual information of brief filmic clips. Our results show that audio-visual clips generally elicit more accurate memory performance than unimodal clips. This advantage even increases with congruent visual and auditory information. However, violations of audio-visual synchrony hardly have any influence on memory performance. Memory performance remained intact even with a sequential presentation of auditory and visual information, but finally declined when the matching tracks of one scene were presented separately with intervening tracks during learning. With respect to memory performance, our results therefore show that audio-visual integration is sensitive to semantic congruency but remarkably robust against asymmetries between different modalities.

  8. JOURNALISTIC USE OF EXEMPLARS TO HUMANIZE HEALTH NEWS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinnant, Amanda; Len-Ríos, María E.; Young, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Health journalists often use personal stories to put a “face” on a health issue. This research uses a sociology-of-news approach, based on data collected from 42 in-depth interviews and three surveys with health journalists and editors [national (N = 774), state (N = 55), and purposive (N = 180)], to provide a first look at how important journalists think exemplars are to their stories. Results show journalists select exemplars to inform, inspire, and/or sensationalize a health issue. Some of the strategies journalists use to locate exemplars pose ethical concerns. Further, journalists rank the use of exemplars lower in aiding audience understanding compared with the use of experts, data and statistics, and definitions of technical terms. PMID:24376370

  9. Divide-and-conquer approach for the exemplar breakpoint distance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nguyen, C Thach; Tay, Y C; Zhang, Louxin

    2005-01-01

    .... Unfortunately, the problem is NP-hard even for the breakpoint distance. This paper proposes a divide-and-conquer approach for calculating the exemplar breakpoint distance between two genomes with multiple gene families...

  10. Exemplar-Based Image Inpainting Using a Modified Priority Definition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang-Jian Deng

    Full Text Available Exemplar-based algorithms are a popular technique for image inpainting. They mainly have two important phases: deciding the filling-in order and selecting good exemplars. Traditional exemplar-based algorithms are to search suitable patches from source regions to fill in the missing parts, but they have to face a problem: improper selection of exemplars. To improve the problem, we introduce an independent strategy through investigating the process of patches propagation in this paper. We first define a new separated priority definition to propagate geometry and then synthesize image textures, aiming to well recover image geometry and textures. In addition, an automatic algorithm is designed to estimate steps for the new separated priority definition. Comparing with some competitive approaches, the new priority definition can recover image geometry and textures well.

  11. Exemplar-Based Image Inpainting Using a Modified Priority Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Liang-Jian; Huang, Ting-Zhu; Zhao, Xi-Le

    2015-01-01

    Exemplar-based algorithms are a popular technique for image inpainting. They mainly have two important phases: deciding the filling-in order and selecting good exemplars. Traditional exemplar-based algorithms are to search suitable patches from source regions to fill in the missing parts, but they have to face a problem: improper selection of exemplars. To improve the problem, we introduce an independent strategy through investigating the process of patches propagation in this paper. We first define a new separated priority definition to propagate geometry and then synthesize image textures, aiming to well recover image geometry and textures. In addition, an automatic algorithm is designed to estimate steps for the new separated priority definition. Comparing with some competitive approaches, the new priority definition can recover image geometry and textures well.

  12. Cumulating Retrieval Inhibition in Semantic and Lexical Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alan S.; Zoccoli, Sandy L.; Leahy, Matthew M.

    2005-01-01

    In 3 experiments the authors examined changes in successive exemplar generation percentages within categories defined semantically (e.g., fruit-P, fruit-A, fruit-M) and by 1st letter (e.g., insect-C, sport-C, car-C), with a mixed control condition (e.g., fruit-P, insect-C, disease-M). Retrieval success declined across 12 successive items in both…

  13. Discriminative exemplar coding for sign language recognition with Kinect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chao; Zhang, Tianzhu; Bao, Bing-Kun; Xu, Changsheng; Mei, Tao

    2013-10-01

    Sign language recognition is a growing research area in the field of computer vision. A challenge within it is to model various signs, varying with time resolution, visual manual appearance, and so on. In this paper, we propose a discriminative exemplar coding (DEC) approach, as well as utilizing Kinect sensor, to model various signs. The proposed DEC method can be summarized as three steps. First, a quantity of class-specific candidate exemplars are learned from sign language videos in each sign category by considering their discrimination. Then, every video of all signs is described as a set of similarities between frames within it and the candidate exemplars. Instead of simply using a heuristic distance measure, the similarities are decided by a set of exemplar-based classifiers through the multiple instance learning, in which a positive (or negative) video is treated as a positive (or negative) bag and those frames similar to the given exemplar in Euclidean space as instances. Finally, we formulate the selection of the most discriminative exemplars into a framework and simultaneously produce a sign video classifier to recognize sign. To evaluate our method, we collect an American sign language dataset, which includes approximately 2000 phrases, while each phrase is captured by Kinect sensor with color, depth, and skeleton information. Experimental results on our dataset demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed approach for sign language recognition.

  14. Semantic categorization and reading skill across Dutch primary grades: development yes, relationship no

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijsel, M.A.R.; Ormel, E.A.; Hermans, D.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Bosman, A.M.T.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, the development of semantic categorization and its relationship with reading was investigated across Dutch primary grade students. Three Exemplar-level tasks (Experiment 1) and two Superordinate-level tasks (Experiment 2) with different types of distracters (phonological,

  15. Semantic categorization and reading skill across Dutch primary grades: Development yes, relationship no

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijsel, M.A.R.; Ormel, E.A.; Hermans, D.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Bosman, A.M.T.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, the development of semantic categorization and its relationship with reading was investigated across Dutch primary grade students. Three Exemplar-level tasks (Experiment 1) and two Superordinate-level tasks (Experiment 2) with different types of distracters (phonological,

  16. Episodic grammar: a computational model of the interaction between episodic and semantic memory in language processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borensztajn, G.; Zuidema, W.; Carlson, L.; Hoelscher, C.; Shipley, T.F.

    2011-01-01

    We present a model of the interaction of semantic and episodic memory in language processing. Our work shows how language processing can be understood in terms of memory retrieval. We point out that the perceived dichotomy between rule-based versus exemplar-based language modelling can be

  17. Introduction to geospatial semantics and technology workshop handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varanka, Dalia E.

    2012-01-01

    The workshop is a tutorial on introductory geospatial semantics with hands-on exercises using standard Web browsers. The workshop is divided into two sections, general semantics on the Web and specific examples of geospatial semantics using data from The National Map of the U.S. Geological Survey and the Open Ontology Repository. The general semantics section includes information and access to publicly available semantic archives. The specific session includes information on geospatial semantics with access to semantically enhanced data for hydrography, transportation, boundaries, and names. The Open Ontology Repository offers open-source ontologies for public use.

  18. Domain Generalization and Adaptation using Low Rank Exemplar SVMs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen; Xu, Zheng; Xu, Dong; Dai, Dengxin; Van Gool, Luc

    2017-05-16

    Domain adaptation between diverse source and target domains is a challenging research problem, especially in the real-world visual recognition tasks where the images and videos consist of significant variations in viewpoints, illuminations, qualities, etc. In this paper, we propose a new approach for domain generalization and domain adaptation based on exemplar SVMs. Specifically, we decompose the source domain into many subdomains, each of which contains only one positive training sample and all negative samples. Each subdomain is relatively less diverse, and is expected to have a simpler distribution. By training one exemplar SVM for each subdomain, we obtain a set of exemplar SVMs. To further exploit the inherent structure of source domain, we introduce a nuclear-norm based regularizer into the objective function in order to enforce the exemplar SVMs to produce a low-rank output on training samples. In the prediction process, the confident exemplar SVM classifiers are selected and reweigted according to the distribution mismatch between each subdomain and the test sample in the target domain. We formulate our approach based on the logistic regression and least square SVM algorithms, which are referred to as low rank exemplar SVMs (LRE-SVMs) and low rank exemplar least square SVMs (LRE-LSSVMs), respectively. A fast algorithm is also developed for accelerating the training of LRE-LSSVMs. We further extend Domain Adaptation Machine (DAM) to learn an optimal target classifier for domain adaptation, and show that our approach can also be applied to domain adaptation with evolving target domain, where the target data distribution is gradually changing. The comprehensive experiments for object recognition and action recognition demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach for domain generalization and domain adaptation with fixed and evolving target domains.

  19. Sex differences in semantic categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasterski, Vickie; Zwierzynska, Karolina; Estes, Zachary

    2011-12-01

    Sex differences in certain cognitive abilities, including aspects of semantic processing, are well established. However, there have been no reports investigating a sex difference in semantic categorization. A total of 55 men and 58 women each judged 25 exemplars of natural categories (e.g., FRUITS) and 25 of artifact categories (e.g., TOOLS) as a nonmember, partial member, or full member of the given category. Participants also rated confidence for each judgment. Women provided a greater number of vague (partial member) judgments whereas men provided more inclusive (full member) judgments of artifacts but more exclusive (nonmember) judgments of natural categories. The sex difference in vagueness was observed across domains (Cohen's d = .56). Confidence predicted categorization among both men and women, such that more confident participants exhibited fewer vague category judgments. However, men and women were equally confident in their category judgments, and confidence failed to explain the sex difference in categorization. Men and women appear to categorize the same common objects in systematically different ways.

  20. Deaf and hard of hearing adolescents' processing of pictures and written words for taxonomic categories in a priming task of semantic categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Degao; Gao, Kejuan; Wu, Xueyun; Chen, Xiaojun; Zhang, Xiaona; Li, Ling; He, Weiwei

    2013-01-01

    Inspired by research by Li, Yi, and Kim (2011), the authors examined Chinese deaf and hard of hearing adolescents' responses to pictures for taxonomic categories of basic level (exemplar pictures) preceded by exemplar pictures, and to written words for taxonomic categories of basic level (exemplar words) preceded by exemplar words or by written words for those of superordinate level (category names), in a priming task of semantic categorization. Stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) was manipulated. The adolescents were less aware of taxonomic relations and were more likely to show the advantage of pictures over written words than their hearing counterparts. Their processing of exemplar primes steadily deepened as SOA increased, reaching its deepest level when SOA was 237 ms. Their processing of category names seemed immune to changes in SOA, probably because of their fuzzy representations of taxonomic categories of superordinate level.

  1. Prototypes, exemplars, and the natural history of categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J David

    2014-04-01

    The article explores-from a utility/adaptation perspective-the role of prototype and exemplar processes in categorization. The author surveys important category tasks within the categorization literature from the perspective of the optimality of applying prototype and exemplar processes. Formal simulations reveal that organisms will often (not always!) receive more useful signals about category belongingness if they average their exemplar experience into a prototype and use this as the comparative standard for categorization. This survey then provides the theoretical context for considering the evolution of cognitive systems for categorization. In the article's final sections, the author reviews recent research on the performance of nonhuman primates and humans in the tasks analyzed in the article. Diverse species share operating principles, default commitments, and processing weaknesses in categorization. From these commonalities, it may be possible to infer some properties of the categorization ecology these species generally experienced during cognitive evolution.

  2. Jigsaw Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J. E. Dekker

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade the enterprise of formal semantics has been under attack from several philosophical and linguistic perspectives, and it has certainly suffered from its own scattered state, which hosts quite a variety of paradigms which may seem to be incompatible. It will not do to try and answer the arguments of the critics, because the arguments are often well-taken. The negative conclusions, however, I believe are not. The only adequate reply seems to be a constructive one, which puts several pieces of formal semantics, in particular dynamic semantics, together again. In this paper I will try and sketch an overview of tasks, techniques, and results, which serves to at least suggest that it is possible to develop a coherent overall picture of undeniably important and structural phenomena in the interpretation of natural language. The idea is that the concept of meanings as truth conditions after all provides an excellent start for an integrated study of the meaning and use of natural language, and that an extended notion of goal directed pragmatics naturally complements this picture. None of the results reported here are really new, but we think it is important to re-collect them.ReferencesAsher, Nicholas & Lascarides, Alex. 1998. ‘Questions in Dialogue’. Linguistics and Philosophy 23: 237–309.http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1005364332007Borg, Emma. 2007. ‘Minimalism versus contextualism in semantics’. In Gerhard Preyer & Georg Peter (eds. ‘Context-Sensitivity and Semantic Minimalism’, pp. 339–359. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Cappelen, Herman & Lepore, Ernest. 1997. ‘On an Alleged Connection between Indirect Quotation and Semantic Theory’. Mind and Language 12: pp. 278–296.Cappelen, Herman & Lepore, Ernie. 2005. Insensitive Semantics. Oxford: Blackwell.http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470755792Dekker, Paul. 2002. ‘Meaning and Use of Indefinite Expressions’. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 11: pp. 141–194

  3. Semantic models for adaptive interactive systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hussein, Tim; Lukosch, Stephan; Ziegler, Jürgen; Calvary, Gaëlle

    2013-01-01

    Providing insights into methodologies for designing adaptive systems based on semantic data, and introducing semantic models that can be used for building interactive systems, this book showcases many of the applications made possible by the use of semantic models.Ontologies may enhance the functional coverage of an interactive system as well as its visualization and interaction capabilities in various ways. Semantic models can also contribute to bridging gaps; for example, between user models, context-aware interfaces, and model-driven UI generation. There is considerable potential for using

  4. Prior Learning Assessment with Latent Semantic Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalz, Marco; Van Bruggen, Jan; Giesbers, Bas; Koper, Rob

    2007-01-01

    Kalz, M., Van Bruggen, J., Giesbers, B., & Koper, R. (2007). Prior Learning Assessment with Latent Semantic Analysis. In F. Wild, M. Kalz, J. Van Bruggen & R. Koper (Eds.). Proceedings of the First European Workshop on Latent Semantic Analysis in Technology Enhanced Learning (pp. 24-25). Heerlen,

  5. Prior Learning Assessment with Latent Semantic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kalz, Marco; van Bruggen, Jan; Giesbers, Bas; Koper, Rob

    2007-01-01

    Kalz, M., Van Bruggen, J., Giesbers, B., & Koper, R. (2007). Prior Learning Assessment with Latent Semantic Analysis. In F. Wild, M. Kalz, J. Van Bruggen & R. Koper (Eds.). Proceedings of the First European Workshop on Latent Semantic Analysis in Technology Enhanced Learning (pp. 24-25). Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open University of the Netherlands.

  6. Why a True Account of Human Development Requires Exemplar Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damon, William; Colby, Anne

    2013-01-01

    This chapter uses moral psychology to illustrate why exemplar methods are essential for building a valid, complete understanding of key domains of human development. Social psychological, economic, and biological-evolutionary paradigms for studying morality rely on samples drawn from the general population. This research reveals a bleak picture of…

  7. Associative Symmetry by Pigeons after Few-Exemplar Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Saulo M.; Huziwara, Edson M.; Machado, Armando; Tomanari, Gerson Y.

    2010-01-01

    The present experiment investigated whether pigeons can show associative symmetry on a two-alternative matching-to-sample procedure. The procedure consisted of a within-subject sequence of training and testing with reinforcement, and it provided (a) exemplars of symmetrical responding, and (b) all prerequisite discriminations among test samples…

  8. The Influence of Celebrity Exemplars on College Students' Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Woohyun

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the effect of celebrity smoking exemplars in health news on college students' perceptions of smoking-related health risks and smoking intentions. Participants and Methods: The data were collected using a Web-based survey of 219 undergraduate students at a large midwestern university in March 2011. Separate analyses…

  9. A Semantic Web Blackboard System

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Craig; Preece, Alun; Gray, Peter

    In this paper, we propose a Blackboard Architecture as a means for coordinating hybrid reasoning over the Semantic Web. We describe the components of traditional blackboard systems (Knowledge Sources, Blackboard, Controller) and then explain how we have enhanced these by incorporating some of the principles of the Semantic Web to pro- duce our Semantic Web Blackboard. Much of the framework is already in place to facilitate our research: the communication protocol (HTTP); the data representation medium (RDF); a rich expressive description language (OWL); and a method of writing rules (SWRL). We further enhance this by adding our own constraint based formalism (CIF/SWRL) into the mix. We provide an example walk-though of our test-bed system, the AKTive Workgroup Builder and Blackboard(AWB+B), illustrating the interaction and cooperation of the Knowledge Sources and providing some context as to how the solution is achieved. We conclude with the strengths and weaknesses of the architecture.

  10. Short-Term Memory Scanning Viewed as Exemplar-Based Categorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosofsky, Robert M.; Little, Daniel R.; Donkin, Christopher; Fific, Mario

    2011-01-01

    Exemplar-similarity models such as the exemplar-based random walk (EBRW) model (Nosofsky & Palmeri, 1997b) were designed to provide a formal account of multidimensional classification choice probabilities and response times (RTs). At the same time, a recurring theme has been to use exemplar models to account for old-new item recognition and to…

  11. Collaborative E-Learning Using Semantic Course Blog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lai-Chen; Yeh, Ching-Long

    2008-01-01

    Collaborative e-learning delivers many enhancements to e-learning technology; it enables students to collaborate with each other and improves their learning efficiency. Semantic blog combines semantic Web and blog technology that users can import, export, view, navigate, and query the blog. We developed a semantic course blog for collaborative…

  12. Preserved musical semantic memory in semantic dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Jessica; Koenig, Phyllis; Gunawardena, Delani; McMillan, Corey; Bonner, Michael; Grossman, Murray

    2011-02-01

    To understand the scope of semantic impairment in semantic dementia. Case study. Academic medical center. A man with semantic dementia, as demonstrated by clinical, neuropsychological, and imaging studies. Music performance and magnetic resonance imaging results. Despite profoundly impaired semantic memory for words and objects due to left temporal lobe atrophy, this semiprofessional musician was creative and expressive in demonstrating preserved musical knowledge. Long-term representations of words and objects in semantic memory may be dissociated from meaningful knowledge in other domains, such as music.

  13. Inquisitive semantics and pragmatics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenendijk, J.; Roelofsen, F.; Larrazabal, J.M.; Zubeldia, L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper starts with an informal introduction to inquisitive semantics. After that, we present a formal definition of the semantics, and introduce the basic semantic notions of inquisitiveness and informativeness, in terms of wich we define the semantic categories of questions, assertions, and

  14. Semantic Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lamandini

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The semantic Web is a technology at the service of knowledge which is aimed at accessibility and the sharing of content; facilitating interoperability between different systems and as such is one of the nine key technological pillars of TIC (technologies for information and communication within the third theme, programme specific cooperation of the seventh programme framework for research and development (7°PQRS, 2007-2013. As a system it seeks to overcome overload or excess of irrelevant information in Internet, in order to facilitate specific or pertinent research. It is an extension of the existing Web in which the aim is for cooperation between and the computer and people (the dream of Sir Tim Berners –Lee where machines can give more support to people when integrating and elaborating data in order to obtain inferences and a global sharing of data. It is a technology that is able to favour the development of a “data web” in other words the creation of a space in both sets of interconnected and shared data (Linked Data which allows users to link different types of data coming from different sources. It is a technology that will have great effect on everyday life since it will permit the planning of “intelligent applications” in various sectors such as education and training, research, the business world, public information, tourism, health, and e-government. It is an innovative technology that activates a social transformation (socio-semantic Web on a world level since it redefines the cognitive universe of users and enables the sharing not only of information but of significance (collective and connected intelligence.

  15. Geospatial semantic web

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Chuanrong; Li, Weidong

    2015-01-01

    This book covers key issues related to Geospatial Semantic Web, including geospatial web services for spatial data interoperability; geospatial ontology for semantic interoperability; ontology creation, sharing, and integration; querying knowledge and information from heterogeneous data source; interfaces for Geospatial Semantic Web, VGI (Volunteered Geographic Information) and Geospatial Semantic Web; challenges of Geospatial Semantic Web; and development of Geospatial Semantic Web applications. This book also describes state-of-the-art technologies that attempt to solve these problems such as WFS, WMS, RDF, OWL, and GeoSPARQL, and demonstrates how to use the Geospatial Semantic Web technologies to solve practical real-world problems such as spatial data interoperability.

  16. N1 enhancement in synesthesia during visual and audio-visual perception in semantic cross-modal conflict situations: an ERP study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher eSinke

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Synesthesia entails a special kind of sensory perception, where stimulation in one sensory modality leads to an internally generated perceptual experience of another, not stimulated sensory modality. This phenomenon can be viewed as an abnormal multisensory integration process as here the synesthetic percept is aberrantly fused with the stimulated modality. Indeed, recent synesthesia research has focused on multimodal processing even outside of the specific synesthesia-inducing context and has revealed changed multimodal integration, thus suggesting perceptual alterations at a global level. Here, we focused on audio-visual processing in synesthesia using a semantic classification task in combination with visually or auditory-visually presented animated and inanimated objects in an audio-visual congruent and incongruent manner. Fourteen subjects with auditory-visual and/or grapheme-color synesthesia and 14 control subjects participated in the experiment. During presentation of the stimuli, event-related potentials were recorded from 32 electrodes. The analysis of reaction times and error rates revealed no group differences with best performance for audio-visually congruent stimulation indicating the well-known multimodal facilitation effect. We found an enhanced amplitude of the N1 component over occipital electrode sites for synesthetes compared to controls. The differences occurred irrespective of the experimental condition and therefore suggest a global influence on early sensory processing in synesthetes.

  17. N1 enhancement in synesthesia during visual and audio-visual perception in semantic cross-modal conflict situations: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinke, Christopher; Neufeld, Janina; Wiswede, Daniel; Emrich, Hinderk M; Bleich, Stefan; Münte, Thomas F; Szycik, Gregor R

    2014-01-01

    Synesthesia entails a special kind of sensory perception, where stimulation in one sensory modality leads to an internally generated perceptual experience of another, not stimulated sensory modality. This phenomenon can be viewed as an abnormal multisensory integration process as here the synesthetic percept is aberrantly fused with the stimulated modality. Indeed, recent synesthesia research has focused on multimodal processing even outside of the specific synesthesia-inducing context and has revealed changed multimodal integration, thus suggesting perceptual alterations at a global level. Here, we focused on audio-visual processing in synesthesia using a semantic classification task in combination with visually or auditory-visually presented animated and in animated objects in an audio-visual congruent and incongruent manner. Fourteen subjects with auditory-visual and/or grapheme-color synesthesia and 14 control subjects participated in the experiment. During presentation of the stimuli, event-related potentials were recorded from 32 electrodes. The analysis of reaction times and error rates revealed no group differences with best performance for audio-visually congruent stimulation indicating the well-known multimodal facilitation effect. We found enhanced amplitude of the N1 component over occipital electrode sites for synesthetes compared to controls. The differences occurred irrespective of the experimental condition and therefore suggest a global influence on early sensory processing in synesthetes.

  18. N1 enhancement in synesthesia during visual and audio–visual perception in semantic cross-modal conflict situations: an ERP study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinke, Christopher; Neufeld, Janina; Wiswede, Daniel; Emrich, Hinderk M.; Bleich, Stefan; Münte, Thomas F.; Szycik, Gregor R.

    2014-01-01

    Synesthesia entails a special kind of sensory perception, where stimulation in one sensory modality leads to an internally generated perceptual experience of another, not stimulated sensory modality. This phenomenon can be viewed as an abnormal multisensory integration process as here the synesthetic percept is aberrantly fused with the stimulated modality. Indeed, recent synesthesia research has focused on multimodal processing even outside of the specific synesthesia-inducing context and has revealed changed multimodal integration, thus suggesting perceptual alterations at a global level. Here, we focused on audio–visual processing in synesthesia using a semantic classification task in combination with visually or auditory–visually presented animated and in animated objects in an audio–visual congruent and incongruent manner. Fourteen subjects with auditory-visual and/or grapheme-color synesthesia and 14 control subjects participated in the experiment. During presentation of the stimuli, event-related potentials were recorded from 32 electrodes. The analysis of reaction times and error rates revealed no group differences with best performance for audio-visually congruent stimulation indicating the well-known multimodal facilitation effect. We found enhanced amplitude of the N1 component over occipital electrode sites for synesthetes compared to controls. The differences occurred irrespective of the experimental condition and therefore suggest a global influence on early sensory processing in synesthetes. PMID:24523689

  19. Semantic Mapping: A Study Skills Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schewel, Rosel

    1989-01-01

    A discussion of semantic mapping, a strategy to enhance comprehension and memory based on schema theory, describes the origins of the technique, research in the past decade, and procedures used to teach it. (MSE)

  20. EFFECTS OF MESSAGE FRAMING AND EXEMPLARS ON PROMOTING ORGAN DONATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Yu-Hung; Chang, Wen-Te

    2015-12-01

    People in many countries are unwilling to donate organs. Drawing on previous research regarding the use of message framing and the theory of exemplification promoting intentions to donate organs, this study examined messaging strategies. This study used a 2 × 2 between-subjects factorial design to examine the joint effects of gain/loss frames and statistical/exemplar appeals on the intentions of 189 Taiwanese college students (108 women, 81 men; age range = 19-24 yr., M = 21.6, SD = 2.9) regarding organ donation. Each participant was randomly assigned to read one of four versions of an organ donation promotional message and then to complete a questionnaire. The analysis of variance showed a significant interaction between the two factors. Loss-exemplar messages elicited significantly more positive intentions toward donation than did loss-statistical messages. There was no significant difference between the statistical and exemplar appeals observed under the gain-framed condition. The practical implications of developing effective organ donation promotional materials and the limitations of this study are discussed.

  1. Exemplar-based inference in multi-attribute decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linnea Karlsson

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Several studies propose that exemplar retrieval contributes to multi-attribute decisions. The authors have proposed a process theory enabling a priori predictions of what cognitive representations people use as input to their judgment process (extit{Sigma}, for ``summation''; P. Juslin, L. Karlsson, and H. Olsson, 2008. According to Sigma, exemplar retrieval is a back-up system when the task does not allow for additive and linear abstraction and integration of cue-criterion knowledge (e.g., when the task is non-additive. An important question is to what extent such shifts occur spontaneously as part of automatic procedures, such as error-minimization with the Delta rule, or if they are controlled extit{strategy} shifts contingent on the ability to identify a sufficiently successful judgment strategy. In this article data are reviewed that demonstrate a shift between exemplar memory and cue abstraction, as well as data where the expected shift does extit{not} occur. In contrast to a common assumption of previous models, these results suggest a controlled and contingent strategy shift.

  2. N1 enhancement in synesthesia during visual and audio-visual perception in semantic cross-modal conflict situations: an ERP study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sinke, Christopher; Neufeld, Janina; Wiswede, Daniel; Emrich, Hinderk M; Bleich, Stefan; Münte, Thomas F; Szycik, Gregor R

    2014-01-01

    ... perceptual alterations at a global level. Here, we focused on audio-visual processing in synesthesia using a semantic classification task in combination with visually or auditory-visually presented animated and in animated...

  3. Programming the semantic web

    CERN Document Server

    Segaran, Toby; Taylor, Jamie

    2009-01-01

    With this book, the promise of the Semantic Web -- in which machines can find, share, and combine data on the Web -- is not just a technical possibility, but a practical reality Programming the Semantic Web demonstrates several ways to implement semantic web applications, using current and emerging standards and technologies. You'll learn how to incorporate existing data sources into semantically aware applications and publish rich semantic data. Each chapter walks you through a single piece of semantic technology and explains how you can use it to solve real problems. Whether you're writing

  4. Spatial information semantic query based on SPARQL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhifeng; Huang, Lei; Zhai, Xiaofang

    2009-10-01

    How can the efficiency of spatial information inquiries be enhanced in today's fast-growing information age? We are rich in geospatial data but poor in up-to-date geospatial information and knowledge that are ready to be accessed by public users. This paper adopts an approach for querying spatial semantic by building an Web Ontology language(OWL) format ontology and introducing SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language(SPARQL) to search spatial semantic relations. It is important to establish spatial semantics that support for effective spatial reasoning for performing semantic query. Compared to earlier keyword-based and information retrieval techniques that rely on syntax, we use semantic approaches in our spatial queries system. Semantic approaches need to be developed by ontology, so we use OWL to describe spatial information extracted by the large-scale map of Wuhan. Spatial information expressed by ontology with formal semantics is available to machines for processing and to people for understanding. The approach is illustrated by introducing a case study for using SPARQL to query geo-spatial ontology instances of Wuhan. The paper shows that making use of SPARQL to search OWL ontology instances can ensure the result's accuracy and applicability. The result also indicates constructing a geo-spatial semantic query system has positive efforts on forming spatial query and retrieval.

  5. Semantics via Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culhane, P. T.

    1977-01-01

    Recent experiments in machine translation have given the semantic elements of collocation in Russian more objective criteria. Soviet linguists in search of semantic relationships have attempted to devise a semantic synthesis for construction of a basic language for machine translation. One such effort is summarized. (CHK)

  6. Thalamic semantic paralexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Hoffmann

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Alexia may be divided into different subtypes, with semantic paralexia being particularly rare. A 57 year old woman with a discreet left thalamic stroke and semantic paralexia is described. Language evalution with the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Battery confirmed the semantic paralexia (deep alexia. Multimodality magnetic resonance imaging brain scanning excluded other cerebral lesions. A good recovery ensued.

  7. The Semantic Distance Task: Quantifying Semantic Distance with Semantic Network Path Length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenett, Yoed N.; Levi, Effi; Anaki, David; Faust, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    Semantic distance is a determining factor in cognitive processes, such as semantic priming, operating upon semantic memory. The main computational approach to compute semantic distance is through latent semantic analysis (LSA). However, objections have been raised against this approach, mainly in its failure at predicting semantic priming. We…

  8. A Semantically Automated Protocol Adapter for Mapping SOAP Web Services to RESTful HTTP Format to Enable the Web Infrastructure, Enhance Web Service Interoperability and Ease Web Service Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Doheny

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Semantic Web Services (SWS are Web Service (WS descriptions augmented with semantic information. SWS enable intelligent reasoning and automation in areas such as service discovery, composition, mediation, ranking and invocation. This paper applies SWS to a previous protocol adapter which, operating within clearly defined constraints, maps SOAP Web Services to RESTful HTTP format. However, in the previous adapter, the configuration element is manual and the latency implications are locally based. This paper applies SWS technologies to automate the configuration element and the latency tests are conducted in a more realistic Internet based setting.

  9. Biomedical semantics in the Semantic Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splendiani, Andrea; Burger, Albert; Paschke, Adrian; Romano, Paolo; Marshall, M Scott

    2011-03-07

    The Semantic Web offers an ideal platform for representing and linking biomedical information, which is a prerequisite for the development and application of analytical tools to address problems in data-intensive areas such as systems biology and translational medicine. As for any new paradigm, the adoption of the Semantic Web offers opportunities and poses questions and challenges to the life sciences scientific community: which technologies in the Semantic Web stack will be more beneficial for the life sciences? Is biomedical information too complex to benefit from simple interlinked representations? What are the implications of adopting a new paradigm for knowledge representation? What are the incentives for the adoption of the Semantic Web, and who are the facilitators? Is there going to be a Semantic Web revolution in the life sciences?We report here a few reflections on these questions, following discussions at the SWAT4LS (Semantic Web Applications and Tools for Life Sciences) workshop series, of which this Journal of Biomedical Semantics special issue presents selected papers from the 2009 edition, held in Amsterdam on November 20th.

  10. Publishing FAIR Data: an exemplar methodology utilizing PHI-base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro eRodríguez Iglesias

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Pathogen-Host interaction data is core to our understanding of disease processes and their molecular/genetic bases. Facile access to such core data is particularly important for the plant sciences, where individual genetic and phenotypic observations have the added complexity of being dispersed over a wide diversity of plant species versus the relatively fewer host species of interest to biomedical researchers. Recently, an international initiative interested in scholarly data publishing proposed that all scientific data should be FAIR - Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, and Reusable. In this work, we describe the process of migrating a database of notable relevance to the plant sciences - the Pathogen-Host Interaction Database (PHI-base - to a form that conforms to each of the FAIR Principles. We discuss the technical and architectural decisions, and the migration pathway, including observations of the difficulty and/or fidelity of each step. We examine how multiple FAIR principles can be addressed simultaneously through careful design decisions, including making data FAIR for both humans and machines with minimal duplication of effort. We note how FAIR data publishing involves more than data reformatting, requiring features beyond those exhibited by most life science Semantic Web or Linked Data resources. We explore the value-added by completing this FAIR data transformation, and then test the result through integrative questions that could not easily be asked over traditional Web-based data resources. Finally, we demonstrate the utility of providing explicit and reliable access to provenance information, which we argue enhances citation rates by encouraging and facilitating transparent scholarly reuse of these valuable data holdings.

  11. Publishing FAIR Data: An Exemplar Methodology Utilizing PHI-Base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Iglesias, Alejandro; Rodríguez-González, Alejandro; Irvine, Alistair G; Sesma, Ane; Urban, Martin; Hammond-Kosack, Kim E; Wilkinson, Mark D

    2016-01-01

    Pathogen-Host interaction data is core to our understanding of disease processes and their molecular/genetic bases. Facile access to such core data is particularly important for the plant sciences, where individual genetic and phenotypic observations have the added complexity of being dispersed over a wide diversity of plant species vs. the relatively fewer host species of interest to biomedical researchers. Recently, an international initiative interested in scholarly data publishing proposed that all scientific data should be "FAIR"-Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, and Reusable. In this work, we describe the process of migrating a database of notable relevance to the plant sciences-the Pathogen-Host Interaction Database (PHI-base)-to a form that conforms to each of the FAIR Principles. We discuss the technical and architectural decisions, and the migration pathway, including observations of the difficulty and/or fidelity of each step. We examine how multiple FAIR principles can be addressed simultaneously through careful design decisions, including making data FAIR for both humans and machines with minimal duplication of effort. We note how FAIR data publishing involves more than data reformatting, requiring features beyond those exhibited by most life science Semantic Web or Linked Data resources. We explore the value-added by completing this FAIR data transformation, and then test the result through integrative questions that could not easily be asked over traditional Web-based data resources. Finally, we demonstrate the utility of providing explicit and reliable access to provenance information, which we argue enhances citation rates by encouraging and facilitating transparent scholarly reuse of these valuable data holdings.

  12. An enhanced feature set for pattern recognition based contrast enhancement of contact-less captured latent fingerprints in digitized crime scene forensics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Mario; Kiltz, Stefan; Dittmann, Jana; Vielhauer, Claus

    2014-02-01

    In crime scene forensics latent fingerprints are found on various substrates. Nowadays primarily physical or chemical preprocessing techniques are applied for enhancing the visibility of the fingerprint trace. In order to avoid altering the trace it has been shown that contact-less sensors offer a non-destructive acquisition approach. Here, the exploitation of fingerprint or substrate properties and the utilization of signal processing techniques are an essential requirement to enhance the fingerprint visibility. However, especially the optimal sensory is often substrate-dependent. An enhanced generic pattern recognition based contrast enhancement approach for scans of a chromatic white light sensor is introduced in Hildebrandt et al.1 using statistical, structural and Benford's law2 features for blocks of 50 micron. This approach achieves very good results for latent fingerprints on cooperative, non-textured, smooth substrates. However, on textured and structured substrates the error rates are very high and the approach thus unsuitable for forensic use cases. We propose the extension of the feature set with semantic features derived from known Gabor filter based exemplar fingerprint enhancement techniques by suggesting an Epsilon-neighborhood of each block in order to achieve an improved accuracy (called fingerprint ridge orientation semantics). Furthermore, we use rotation invariant Hu moments as an extension of the structural features and two additional preprocessing methods (separate X- and Y Sobel operators). This results in a 408-dimensional feature space. In our experiments we investigate and report the recognition accuracy for eight substrates, each with ten latent fingerprints: white furniture surface, veneered plywood, brushed stainless steel, aluminum foil, "Golden-Oak" veneer, non-metallic matte car body finish, metallic car body finish and blued metal. In comparison to Hildebrandt et al.,1 our evaluation shows a significant reduction of the error rates

  13. Semantically Interoperable XML Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara-Niedermayr, Cristobal; Wang, Fusheng; Pan, Tony; Kurc, Tahsin; Saltz, Joel

    2013-09-01

    XML is ubiquitously used as an information exchange platform for web-based applications in healthcare, life sciences, and many other domains. Proliferating XML data are now managed through latest native XML database technologies. XML data sources conforming to common XML schemas could be shared and integrated with syntactic interoperability. Semantic interoperability can be achieved through semantic annotations of data models using common data elements linked to concepts from ontologies. In this paper, we present a framework and software system to support the development of semantic interoperable XML based data sources that can be shared through a Grid infrastructure. We also present our work on supporting semantic validated XML data through semantic annotations for XML Schema, semantic validation and semantic authoring of XML data. We demonstrate the use of the system for a biomedical database of medical image annotations and markups.

  14. Enhancing Recall in Semantic Querying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rouces, Jacobo

    2013-01-01

    RDF and SPARQL are currently state-of-the-art W3C standards to respectively represent and query structured information, especially when information from different sources must be federated. However, there are various reasons for which the same knowledge can be modeled in RDF graphs that are both...... lexically and structurally different, which we will introduce in the next section. As RDF graphs from different sources are expected to be linked, the modeling heterogeneities will make the federated graph become sparser and inconsistent. This is detrimental to the recall of SPARQL queries, as the query...

  15. Geospatial Semantics and the Semantic Web

    CERN Document Server

    Ashish, Naveen

    2011-01-01

    The availability of geographic and geospatial information and services, especially on the open Web has become abundant in the last several years with the proliferation of online maps, geo-coding services, geospatial Web services and geospatially enabled applications. The need for geospatial reasoning has significantly increased in many everyday applications including personal digital assistants, Web search applications, local aware mobile services, specialized systems for emergency response, medical triaging, intelligence analysis and more. Geospatial Semantics and the Semantic Web: Foundation

  16. Multiple Exemplar Instruction and the Emergence of Generative Production of Suffixes as Autoclitic Frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speckman, JeanneMarie; Greer, R. Douglas; Rivera-Valdes, Celestina

    2012-01-01

    We report 2 experiments that tested the effects of multiple exemplar instruction (MEI) across training sets on the emergence of productive autoclitic frames (suffixes) for 6 preschoolers with and without language-based disabilities. We implemented multiple exemplar tact instruction with subsets of stimuli whose "names" contained the suffix "-er"…

  17. The development of an exemplar e-module for the continuing professional development of European dentists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kossioni, A.E.; Kavadella, A.; Tzoutzas, I.; Bakas, A.; Tsiklakis, K.; Bailey, S.; Bullock, A.; Cowpe, J.; Barnes, E.; Thomas, H.; Thomas, R.; Karaharju-Suvanto, T.; Suomalainen, K.; Kersten, H.; Povel, E.; Giles, M.; Walmsley, D.; Soboleva, U.; Liepa, A.; Akota, I.

    2013-01-01

    Aim To present the development of an exemplar e-module for dental continuing professional development (CPD) provided by dental schools and other dental educational providers. Materials and methods The exemplar e-module covered the topic of ‘Sterilisation and cross-infection control in the dental

  18. The Semantic eScience Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuinness, Deborah; Fox, Peter; Hendler, James

    2010-05-01

    The goal of this effort is to design and implement a configurable and extensible semantic eScience framework (SESF). Configuration requires research into accommodating different levels of semantic expressivity and user requirements from use cases. Extensibility is being achieved in a modular approach to the semantic encodings (i.e. ontologies) performed in community settings, i.e. an ontology framework into which specific applications all the way up to communities can extend the semantics for their needs.We report on how we are accommodating the rapid advances in semantic technologies and tools and the sustainable software path for the future (certain) technical advances. In addition to a generalization of the current data science interface, we will present plans for an upper-level interface suitable for use by clearinghouses, and/or educational portals, digital libraries, and other disciplines.SESF builds upon previous work in the Virtual Solar-Terrestrial Observatory. The VSTO utilizes leading edge knowledge representation, query and reasoning techniques to support knowledge-enhanced search, data access, integration, and manipulation. It encodes term meanings and their inter-relationships in ontologies anduses these ontologies and associated inference engines to semantically enable the data services. The Semantically-Enabled Science Data Integration (SESDI) project implemented data integration capabilities among three sub-disciplines; solar radiation, volcanic outgassing and atmospheric structure using extensions to existingmodular ontolgies and used the VSTO data framework, while adding smart faceted search and semantic data registrationtools. The Semantic Provenance Capture in Data Ingest Systems (SPCDIS) has added explanation provenance capabilities to an observational data ingest pipeline for images of the Sun providing a set of tools to answer diverseend user questions such as ``Why does this image look bad?. http://tw.rpi.edu/portal/SESF

  19. Visible semantics: an algebraic semantics for automatic verification of algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Palasí Lallana, Vicent Ramon

    1996-01-01

    A new semantics for algebraic specifications, called visible semantics, is defined. Its most notable property is that it is specially suitable for dealing with the problem of program correctness. Some properties of this semantics are proved and some conclusions described.

  20. On the categorization of admired and disliked exemplars of admired and disliked racial groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richeson, Jennifer A; Trawalter, Sophie

    2005-10-01

    The present work examined the influence of affective fit in the racial categorization process. Study 1 tested whether famous exemplars of stigmatized and nonstigmatized racial groups are categorized by race at differential rates, depending on whether they are admired or disliked. Using an inverted-face paradigm, Study 2 examined whether racial categorization accuracy differs for admired and disliked exemplars of these groups. Study 3 examined the influence of collective self-esteem on Whites' tendency to differentially categorize admired and disliked Black and White exemplars. Last, Study 4 replicated the pattern of results found in the previous studies for White participants, making use of unknown exemplars about whom participants learned either positive or negative information prior to categorizing them. Taken together, the results suggested that phenotypically irrelevant affective information regarding exemplars and their social group memberships influences the racial categorization process. Implications for prejudice and stereotyping are discussed.

  1. Semantic prosody and judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, David J; Schwarz, Norbert

    2016-07-01

    Some words tend to co-occur exclusively with a positive or negative context in natural language use, even though such valence patterns are not dictated by definitions or are part of the words' core meaning. These words contain semantic prosody, a subtle valenced meaning derived from co-occurrence in language. As language and thought are heavily intertwined, we hypothesized that semantic prosody can affect evaluative inferences about related ambiguous concepts. Participants inferred that an ambiguous medical outcome was more negative when it was caused, a verb with negative semantic prosody, than when it was produced, a synonymous verb with no semantic prosody (Studies 1a, 1b). Participants completed sentence fragments in a manner consistent with semantic prosody (Study 2), and semantic prosody affected various other judgments in line with evaluative inferences (estimates of an event's likelihood in Study 3). Finally, semantic prosody elicited both positive and negative evaluations of outcomes across a large set of semantically prosodic verbs (Study 4). Thus, semantic prosody can exert a strong influence on evaluative judgment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Applied Semantic Web Technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Sugumaran, Vijayan

    2011-01-01

    The rapid advancement of semantic web technologies, along with the fact that they are at various levels of maturity, has left many practitioners confused about the current state of these technologies. Focusing on the most mature technologies, Applied Semantic Web Technologies integrates theory with case studies to illustrate the history, current state, and future direction of the semantic web. It maintains an emphasis on real-world applications and examines the technical and practical issues related to the use of semantic technologies in intelligent information management. The book starts with

  3. Semantic web for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Pollock, Jeffrey T

    2009-01-01

    Semantic Web technology is already changing how we interact with data on the Web. By connecting random information on the Internet in new ways, Web 3.0, as it is sometimes called, represents an exciting online evolution. Whether you're a consumer doing research online, a business owner who wants to offer your customers the most useful Web site, or an IT manager eager to understand Semantic Web solutions, Semantic Web For Dummies is the place to start! It will help you:Know how the typical Internet user will recognize the effects of the Semantic WebExplore all the benefits the data Web offers t

  4. Semantic Role Labeling

    CERN Document Server

    Palmer, Martha; Xue, Nianwen

    2011-01-01

    This book is aimed at providing an overview of several aspects of semantic role labeling. Chapter 1 begins with linguistic background on the definition of semantic roles and the controversies surrounding them. Chapter 2 describes how the theories have led to structured lexicons such as FrameNet, VerbNet and the PropBank Frame Files that in turn provide the basis for large scale semantic annotation of corpora. This data has facilitated the development of automatic semantic role labeling systems based on supervised machine learning techniques. Chapter 3 presents the general principles of applyin

  5. The One and the Many in Bonaventure Exemplarity Explained

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junius Johnson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The category of exemplarity, which holds a central place in Bonaventure’s thought, is in many ways a certain type of solution to the problem of the many and the one. Bonaventure’s account of the relationship between the created many and the uncreated original on which they are all based is in many ways like the account that Augustine gives; but he both greatly expands upon the Augustinian account and expands it in directions that prepare for the Christocentrism that will mark the rest of his theological work. This article will explicate Bonaventure’s treatment of this issue on the basis of his two most extended conversations, in the first book of his commentary on Lombard’s Sentences and in the Disputed Questions on the Knowledge of Christ.

  6. Exemplar-based image inpainting using multiscale graph cuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yunqiang; Caselles, Vicent

    2013-05-01

    We present a novel formulation of exemplar-based inpainting as a global energy optimization problem, written in terms of the offset map. The proposed energy function combines a data attachment term that ensures the continuity of reconstruction at the boundary of the inpainting domain with a smoothness term that ensures a visually coherent reconstruction inside the hole. This formulation is adapted to obtain a global minimum using the graph cuts algorithm. To reduce the computational complexity, we propose an efficient multiscale graph cuts algorithm. To compensate the loss of information at low resolution levels, we use a feature representation computed at the original image resolution. This permits alleviation of the ambiguity induced by comparing only color information when the image is represented at low resolution levels. Our experiments show how well the proposed algorithm performs compared with other recent algorithms.

  7. Learning Document Semantic Representation with Hybrid Deep Belief Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Yan

    2015-01-01

    it is also an effective way to remove noise from the different document representation type; the DBN can enhance extract abstract of the document in depth, making the model learn sufficient semantic representation. At the same time, we explore different input strategies for semantic distributed representation. Experimental results show that our model using the word embedding instead of single word has better performance.

  8. Semantic Web Primer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antoniou, Grigoris; Harmelen, Frank van

    2004-01-01

    The development of the Semantic Web, with machine-readable content, has the potential to revolutionize the World Wide Web and its use. A Semantic Web Primer provides an introduction and guide to this still emerging field, describing its key ideas, languages, and technologies. Suitable for use as a

  9. Semantics of Statebuilding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grasten, Maj Lervad

    2016-01-01

    Book review of: Semantics of Statebuilding: Language, Meanings & Sovereignty / (eds) Nicolas Lemay-Hébert, Nicholas Onuf, Vojin Rakić, Petar Bojanić. Abingdon: Routledge, 2014. 200 pp.......Book review of: Semantics of Statebuilding: Language, Meanings & Sovereignty / (eds) Nicolas Lemay-Hébert, Nicholas Onuf, Vojin Rakić, Petar Bojanić. Abingdon: Routledge, 2014. 200 pp....

  10. Pragmatics for formal semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    This tech talk describes how to write and how to inter-derive formal semantics for sequential programming languages. The progress reported here is (1) concrete guidelines to write each formal semantics to alleviate their proof obligations, and (2) simple calculational tools to obtain a formal...

  11. Learn locally, think globally. Exemplar variability supports higher-order generalization and word learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Lynn K; Samuelson, Larissa K; Malloy, Lisa M; Schiffer, Ryan N

    2010-12-01

    Research suggests that variability of exemplars supports successful object categorization; however, the scope of variability's support at the level of higher-order generalization remains unexplored. Using a longitudinal study, we examined the role of exemplar variability in first- and second-order generalization in the context of nominal-category learning at an early age. Sixteen 18-month-old children were taught 12 categories. Half of the children were taught with sets of highly similar exemplars; the other half were taught with sets of dissimilar, variable exemplars. Participants' learning and generalization of trained labels and their development of more general word-learning biases were tested. All children were found to have learned labels for trained exemplars, but children trained with variable exemplars generalized to novel exemplars of these categories, developed a discriminating word-learning bias generalizing labels of novel solid objects by shape and labels of nonsolid objects by material, and accelerated in vocabulary acquisition. These findings demonstrate that object variability leads to better abstraction of individual and global category organization, which increases learning outside the laboratory.

  12. Words from the Wise: Exploring the Lives, Qualities, and Opinions of Wisdom Exemplars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drew Krafcik

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to study exemplars of wisdom through a structured, theoretically grounded peer-nomination process. Twenty exemplars were given a variety of quantitative measures that included the Self-Assessed Wisdom Scale (SAWS, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI, Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10, Spiritual Perspective Scale (SPS, Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS, Loyola Generativity Scale (LGS, Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS, Narcissistic Personality Inventory-16 (NPI-16, Humility Inventory (HI, Big Five Inventory (BFI, and the Washington University Sentence Completion Test (WUSCT. Exemplars also underwent lengthy semi-structured interviews to assess their lives, qualities, and understanding of wisdom. Interviews were analyzed for their significant themes. Results of this study suggest that exemplars of wisdom are humble, spiritual, mindful, insightful, tell the truth, and are open to experiences. They have meaningful, long-term relationships with mentors and loved ones. Exemplars are deeply influential in the lives of others and have very high life satisfaction. The 2 predominant definitions of wisdom given by exemplars were that wisdom is practical and comes from the unknown. Exemplars offered multiple strategies for the cultivation of wisdom-related processes, primarily the relationship with a mentor. Future research may clarify an emerging relationship between transcendent and practical wisdom.

  13. Geoscience Challenges and Semantic Web Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritschel, B.

    2009-12-01

    Nowadays geosciences face a triple of major challenges. These challenges are the study and understanding of complex systems, like e.g. climate change, further the exponential growing of raw and unstructured data, information and knowledge and finally the necessity of an inter-domain group-based collaboration of geoscientists. In addition to this triple of issues, new Web 2.0 techniques, like the mash-up of data content and context or the inclusion of user feedback data and information wait to be used for enhanced geoscientific research. The semantic web approach for the semantic integration of data, information and knowledge seems to be a promising way for geoscientists. It should be used in order to find the right language and common vocabularies for the inter-domain joint study of earth system processes. This approach enables both, first the right semantic preparation of domain specific data and information in a certain context and second -based on this preparation- the interdisciplinary use of world-wide distributed and semantic augmented data, information especially in a different context. This paper shows the impact of a semantic based thinking and the usage of semantic web-based techniques on the example of specific geophysical and geodetic data and information for the improvement of geoscience research in a much broader context.

  14. Order Theoretical Semantic Recommendation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joslyn, Cliff A.; Hogan, Emilie A.; Paulson, Patrick R.; Peterson, Elena S.; Stephan, Eric G.; Thomas, Dennis G.

    2013-07-23

    Mathematical concepts of order and ordering relations play multiple roles in semantic technologies. Discrete totally ordered data characterize both input streams and top-k rank-ordered recommendations and query output, while temporal attributes establish numerical total orders, either over time points or in the more complex case of startend temporal intervals. But also of note are the fully partially ordered data, including both lattices and non-lattices, which actually dominate the semantic strcuture of ontological systems. Scalar semantic similarities over partially-ordered semantic data are traditionally used to return rank-ordered recommendations, but these require complementation with true metrics available over partially ordered sets. In this paper we report on our work in the foundations of partial order measurement in ontologies, with application to top-k semantic recommendation in workflows.

  15. Semantic Requirements Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeki, Motoshi

    Requirements engineering (RE) techniques play a crucial role in information systems development processes. There are many excellent techniques of RE to assist requirements analysts and stakeholders in producing requirements specification of higher quality, and some of them are put into practice in industry. However, one of the issues of these RE techniques is that they do not handle semantic aspects of requirements. If we can deal with the meaning of requirements by using automated techniques, we can get more effective RE techniques to produce requirements specifications of higher quality. In this chapter, we consider an ontology as a semantic domain so as to provide the meaning for requirements, and discuss the potentials of the RE techniques using an ontology as a semantic basis. Especially, we illustrate an extension of goal-oriented requirements analysis where this idea is embedded, i.e. we provide the semantics for goal descriptions written in natural language using a mapping from them to an ontology. The inference mechanisms of the ontology allow us to decompose a goal into sub-goals and to find missing goals. Furthermore, in this chapter we discuss the possibilities of the techniques to support the other activities of RE processes using this ontological technique, e.g. measuring quality metrics and controlling versions of requirements from a semantic view. Due to similarity to Semantic Web techniques, we call a family of these engineering techniques Semantic Requirements Engineering in this chapter.

  16. Founded Semantics and Constraint Semantics of Logic Rules

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yanhong A.; Stoller, Scott D.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a simple new semantics for logic rules, founded semantics, and its straightforward extension to another simple new semantics, constraint semantics. The new semantics support unrestricted negation, as well as unrestricted existential and universal quantifications. They are uniquely expressive and intuitive by allowing assumptions about the predicates and rules to be specified explicitly. They are completely declarative and easy to understand and relate cleanly to prior sem...

  17. A Defense of Semantic Minimalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su

    2012-01-01

    Semantic Minimalism is a position about the semantic content of declarative sentences, i.e., the content that is determined entirely by syntax. It is defined by the following two points: "Point 1": The semantic content is a complete/truth-conditional proposition. "Point 2": The semantic content is useful to a theory of…

  18. Basic semantics of product sounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özcan Vieira, E.; Van Egmond, R.

    2012-01-01

    Product experience is a result of sensory and semantic experiences with product properties. In this paper, we focus on the semantic attributes of product sounds and explore the basic components for product sound related semantics using a semantic differential paradigmand factor analysis. With two

  19. ELN in the semantic era

    OpenAIRE

    Frey, Jeremy G.

    2006-01-01

    The importance of semantics in human-computer and computer-computer communications Capturing the laboratory processes and data in a semantically rich form at source. Implementing semantics - The use of the semantic web & grid The importance of context in the use of ELNs Publication and dissemination - Using the information obtained with ELNs

  20. Semantic Web Evaluation Challenge

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post conference proceedings of the first edition of the Semantic Web Evaluation Challenge, SemWebEval 2014, co-located with the 11th Extended Semantic Web conference, held in Anissaras, Crete, Greece, in May 2014. This book includes the descriptions of all methods and tools that competed at SemWebEval 2014, together with a detailed description of the tasks, evaluation procedures and datasets. The contributions are grouped in three areas: semantic publishing (sempub), concept-level sentiment analysis (ssa), and linked-data enabled recommender systems (recsys).

  1. Reactive Kripke semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Gabbay, Dov M

    2013-01-01

    This text offers an extension to the traditional Kripke semantics for non-classical logics by adding the notion of reactivity. Reactive Kripke models change their accessibility relation as we progress in the evaluation process of formulas in the model. This feature makes the reactive Kripke semantics strictly stronger and more applicable than the traditional one. Here we investigate the properties and axiomatisations of this new and most effective semantics, and we offer a wide landscape of applications of the idea of reactivity. Applied topics include reactive automata, reactive grammars, rea

  2. Benchmarking semantic web technology

    CERN Document Server

    García-Castro, R

    2009-01-01

    This book addresses the problem of benchmarking Semantic Web Technologies; first, from a methodological point of view, proposing a general methodology to follow in benchmarking activities over Semantic Web Technologies and, second, from a practical point of view, presenting two international benchmarking activities that involved benchmarking the interoperability of Semantic Web technologies using RDF(S) as the interchange language in one activity and OWL in the other.The book presents in detail how the different resources needed for these interoperability benchmarking activities were defined:

  3. UML 2 Semantics and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lano, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    A coherent and integrated account of the leading UML 2 semantics work and the practical applications of UML semantics development With contributions from leading experts in the field, the book begins with an introduction to UML and goes on to offer in-depth and up-to-date coverage of: The role of semantics Considerations and rationale for a UML system model Definition of the UML system model UML descriptive semantics Axiomatic semantics of UML class diagrams The object constraint language Axiomatic semantics of state machines A coalgebraic semantic framework for reasoning about interaction des

  4. Strategies for Disseminating Qualitative Research Findings: Three Exemplars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Keen

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Assuming there are those who do pay attention to the dissemination of qualitative research findings, what can we learn from them? For this article, we searched for examples of qualitative research where findings have been disseminated beyond the journal article and/or conference presentation. The rationale for pursuing examples of how good qualitative research has been disseminated is that we pay attention to both scientific and communicative concerns. All three exemplars in this article go beyond the forms of dissemination that traditionally serve academic communities and attempt to address the communicative concern of qualitative research findings. This is not to say that these modes of dissemination replace the scholarship of qualitative research and/or the peer-reviewed journal manuscript—far from it. In disseminating qualitative data, researchers have an array of presentational styles and formats to choose from that best fit their research purposes, such as drama, dance, poetry, websites, video and evocative forms of writing. We conclude by considering the ethical issues that may be involved in these forms of disseminating qualitative research, as well as the challenges for evaluating the impact of such strategies. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0703174

  5. Development of an alcohol withdrawal protocol: CNS collaborative exemplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Susan; Haycock, Camille; Boyle, Deborah

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this process improvement project was to develop an Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome (AWS) management protocol for acute care. The prevalence of alcohol abuse in our society presents challenges for health professionals, and few nurses have received formal education on the identification and treatment of AWS, which has frequently resulted in ineffective, nonstandardized care. However, nurses practicing in medical-surgical, emergency, trauma, and critical care settings must be astute in the assessment and management of AWS. DESIGN/BACKGROUND/RATIONALE: Following an analysis of existing management protocols, a behavioral health clinical nurse specialist was asked to lead a work team composed of physicians, pharmacists, and nurses to develop a new evidence-based alcohol withdrawal protocol for acute care. By implementing a standardized assessment tool and treatment protocol, clinical nurse specialists empowered nursing staff with strategies to prevent the serious medical complications associated with AWS. FINDINGS/OUTCOMES: The development and integration of a safe and effective treatment protocol to manage AWS was facilitated by collaborative, evidence-based decision making. Clinical experience and specialty expertise were integrated by clinical nurse specialists skilled in group dynamics, problem-solving, and the implementation of change. Improving care of patients in AWS is an exemplar for clinical nurse specialist roles as change agent and patient advocate.

  6. Big data science: A literature review of nursing research exemplars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westra, Bonnie L; Sylvia, Martha; Weinfurter, Elizabeth F; Pruinelli, Lisiane; Park, Jung In; Dodd, Dianna; Keenan, Gail M; Senk, Patricia; Richesson, Rachel L; Baukner, Vicki; Cruz, Christopher; Gao, Grace; Whittenburg, Luann; Delaney, Connie W

    Big data and cutting-edge analytic methods in nursing research challenge nurse scientists to extend the data sources and analytic methods used for discovering and translating knowledge. The purpose of this study was to identify, analyze, and synthesize exemplars of big data nursing research applied to practice and disseminated in key nursing informatics, general biomedical informatics, and nursing research journals. A literature review of studies published between 2009 and 2015. There were 650 journal articles identified in 17 key nursing informatics, general biomedical informatics, and nursing research journals in the Web of Science database. After screening for inclusion and exclusion criteria, 17 studies published in 18 articles were identified as big data nursing research applied to practice. Nurses clearly are beginning to conduct big data research applied to practice. These studies represent multiple data sources and settings. Although numerous analytic methods were used, the fundamental issue remains to define the types of analyses consistent with big data analytic methods. There are needs to increase the visibility of big data and data science research conducted by nurse scientists, further examine the use of state of the science in data analytics, and continue to expand the availability and use of a variety of scientific, governmental, and industry data resources. A major implication of this literature review is whether nursing faculty and preparation of future scientists (PhD programs) are prepared for big data and data science. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. THE EXEMPLAR T8 SUBDWARF COMPANION OF WOLF 1130

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mace, Gregory N.; McLean, Ian S.; Logsdon, Sarah E.; Wright, Edward L.; Kulas, Kristin R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, 430 Portola Plaza, Box 951547, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Gelino, Christopher R.; Beichman, Charles A. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Cushing, Michael C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, MS 111, University of Toledo, 2801 W. Bancroft St., Toledo, OH 43606-3328 (United States); Skrutskie, Michael F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Eisenhardt, Peter R., E-mail: gmace@astro.ucla.edu [NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2013-11-01

    We have discovered a wide separation (188.''5) T8 subdwarf companion to the sdM1.5+WD binary Wolf 1130. Companionship of WISE J200520.38+542433.9 is verified through common proper motion over a ∼3 yr baseline. Wolf 1130 is located 15.83 ± 0.96 pc from the Sun, placing the brown dwarf at a projected separation of ∼3000 AU. Near-infrared colors and medium resolution (R ≈ 2000-4000) spectroscopy establish the uniqueness of this system as a high-gravity, low-metallicity benchmark. Although there are a number of low-metallicity T dwarfs in the literature, WISE J200520.38+542433.9 has the most extreme inferred metallicity to date with [Fe/H] = –0.64 ± 0.17 based on Wolf 1130. Model comparisons to this exemplar late-type subdwarf support it having an old age, a low metallicity, and a small radius. However, the spectroscopic peculiarities of WISE J200520.38+542433.9 underscore the importance of developing the low-metallicity parameter space of the most current atmospheric models.

  8. Science exemplars in the eye of the beholder: How exposure to online science information affects attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knobloch-Westerwick, S.; Johnson, B.K.; Silver, N.A.; Westerwick, A.

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on exemplification theory and confirmation bias, this study examined exposure to online science information and subsequent attitude impacts. Participants freely browsed online messages manipulated to feature (a) either exemplar or numeric information and (b) opposing viewpoints, resulting in

  9. Leveraging the Semantic Web for Adaptive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravcik, Milos; Gasevic, Dragan

    2007-01-01

    In the area of technology-enhanced learning reusability and interoperability issues essentially influence the productivity and efficiency of learning and authoring solutions. There are two basic approaches how to overcome these problems--one attempts to do it via standards and the other by means of the Semantic Web. In practice, these approaches…

  10. Hybrid Filtering in Semantic Query Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hanjo

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation presents a hybrid filtering method and a case-based reasoning framework for enhancing the effectiveness of Web search. Web search may not reflect user needs, intent, context, and preferences, because today's keyword-based search is lacking semantic information to capture the user's context and intent in posing the search query.…

  11. Organizational Semantic Web based Portals

    OpenAIRE

    Necula, Sabina-Cristiana

    2011-01-01

    This paper tries to treat organizational semantic web based portals. The first part of the paper focuses on concepts regarding semantic web based portals. After discussing some concepts we treat the basic functionalities that a semantic web based portal must have and we finish by presenting these functionalities by actual examples. We present semantic web based portals after studying the necessary implementations from literature and practice. We develop some examples that use semantic web ...

  12. Semantic-Based Crossmodal Processing During Visual Suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dustin eCox

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To reveal the mechanisms underpinning the influence of auditory input on visual awareness, we examine, 1 whether purely semantic-based multisensory integration facilitates the access to visual awareness for familiar visual events, and 2 whether crossmodal semantic priming is the mechanism responsible for the semantic auditory influence on visual awareness. Using continuous flash suppression (CFS, we rendered dynamic and familiar visual events (e.g., a video clip of an approaching train inaccessible to visual awareness. We manipulated the semantic auditory context of the videos by concurrently pairing them with a semantically matching soundtrack (congruent audiovisual condition, a semantically non-matching soundtrack (incongruent audiovisual condition, or with no soundtrack (neutral video-only condition. We found that participants identified the suppressed visual events significantly faster (an earlier breakup of suppression in the congruent audiovisual condition compared to the incongruent audiovisual condition and video-only condition. However, this facilitatory influence of semantic auditory input was only observed when audiovisual stimulation co-occurred. Our results suggest that the enhanced visual processing with a semantically congruent auditory input occurs due to audiovisual crossmodal processing rather than semantic priming, which may occur even when visual information is not available to visual awareness.

  13. Semantic-based crossmodal processing during visual suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Dustin; Hong, Sang Wook

    2015-01-01

    To reveal the mechanisms underpinning the influence of auditory input on visual awareness, we examine, (1) whether purely semantic-based multisensory integration facilitates the access to visual awareness for familiar visual events, and (2) whether crossmodal semantic priming is the mechanism responsible for the semantic auditory influence on visual awareness. Using continuous flash suppression, we rendered dynamic and familiar visual events (e.g., a video clip of an approaching train) inaccessible to visual awareness. We manipulated the semantic auditory context of the videos by concurrently pairing them with a semantically matching soundtrack (congruent audiovisual condition), a semantically non-matching soundtrack (incongruent audiovisual condition), or with no soundtrack (neutral video-only condition). We found that participants identified the suppressed visual events significantly faster (an earlier breakup of suppression) in the congruent audiovisual condition compared to the incongruent audiovisual condition and video-only condition. However, this facilitatory influence of semantic auditory input was only observed when audiovisual stimulation co-occurred. Our results suggest that the enhanced visual processing with a semantically congruent auditory input occurs due to audiovisual crossmodal processing rather than semantic priming, which may occur even when visual information is not available to visual awareness.

  14. Semantic Web Development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berners-Lee, Tim; Swick, Ralph

    2006-01-01

    ...) project between 2002 and 2005 provided key steps in the research in the Semantic Web technology, and also played an essential role in delivering the technology to industry and government in the form...

  15. Trusting Crowdsourced Geospatial Semantics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodhue, P.; McNair, H.; Reitsma, F.

    2015-08-01

    The degree of trust one can place in information is one of the foremost limitations of crowdsourced geospatial information. As with the development of web technologies, the increased prevalence of semantics associated with geospatial information has increased accessibility and functionality. Semantics also provides an opportunity to extend indicators of trust for crowdsourced geospatial information that have largely focused on spatio-temporal and social aspects of that information. Comparing a feature's intrinsic and extrinsic properties to associated ontologies provides a means of semantically assessing the trustworthiness of crowdsourced geospatial information. The application of this approach to unconstrained semantic submissions then allows for a detailed assessment of the trust of these features whilst maintaining the descriptive thoroughness this mode of information submission affords. The resulting trust rating then becomes an attribute of the feature, providing not only an indication as to the trustworthiness of a specific feature but is able to be aggregated across multiple features to illustrate the overall trustworthiness of a dataset.

  16. MODEL FOR SEMANTICALLY RICH POINT CLOUD DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Poux

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an interoperable model for managing high dimensional point clouds while integrating semantics. Point clouds from sensors are a direct source of information physically describing a 3D state of the recorded environment. As such, they are an exhaustive representation of the real world at every scale: 3D reality-based spatial data. Their generation is increasingly fast but processing routines and data models lack of knowledge to reason from information extraction rather than interpretation. The enhanced smart point cloud developed model allows to bring intelligence to point clouds via 3 connected meta-models while linking available knowledge and classification procedures that permits semantic injection. Interoperability drives the model adaptation to potentially many applications through specialized domain ontologies. A first prototype is implemented in Python and PostgreSQL database and allows to combine semantic and spatial concepts for basic hybrid queries on different point clouds.

  17. Model for Semantically Rich Point Cloud Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poux, F.; Neuville, R.; Hallot, P.; Billen, R.

    2017-10-01

    This paper proposes an interoperable model for managing high dimensional point clouds while integrating semantics. Point clouds from sensors are a direct source of information physically describing a 3D state of the recorded environment. As such, they are an exhaustive representation of the real world at every scale: 3D reality-based spatial data. Their generation is increasingly fast but processing routines and data models lack of knowledge to reason from information extraction rather than interpretation. The enhanced smart point cloud developed model allows to bring intelligence to point clouds via 3 connected meta-models while linking available knowledge and classification procedures that permits semantic injection. Interoperability drives the model adaptation to potentially many applications through specialized domain ontologies. A first prototype is implemented in Python and PostgreSQL database and allows to combine semantic and spatial concepts for basic hybrid queries on different point clouds.

  18. Hypermineralized whale rostrum as the exemplar for bone mineral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Pasteris, Jill D.; Novack, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Although bone is a nanocomposite of mineral and collagen, mineral has been the more elusive component to study. A standard for bone mineral clearly is needed. We hypothesized that the most natural, least-processed bone mineral could be retrieved from the most highly mineralized bone. We therefore studied the rostrum of the toothed whale Mesoplodon densirostris, which has the densest recognized bone. Essential to establishment of a standard for bone mineral is documentation that the proposed tissue is bone-like in all properties except for its remarkably high concentration of mineral. Transmitted-light microscopy of unstained sections of rostral material shows normal bone morphology in osteon geometry, lacunae concentration, and vasculature development. Stained sections reveal extremely low density of thin collagen fibers throughout most of the bone, but enrichment in and thicker collagen fibers around vascular holes and in a minority of osteons. FE-SEM shows the rostrum to consist mostly of dense mineral prisms. Most rostral areas have the same chemical-structural features, Raman spectroscopically dominated by strong bands at ~962 Δcm−1 and weak bands at ~2940 Δcm−1. Spectral features indicate that the rostrum is composed mainly of the calcium phosphate mineral apatite and has only about 4 wt.% organic content. The degree of carbonate substitution (~8.5 wt.% carbonate) in the apatite is in the upper range found in most types of bone. We conclude that, despite its enamel-like extraordinarily high degree of mineralization, the rostrum is in all other features bone-like. Its mineral component is the long-sought uncontaminated, unaltered exemplar of bone mineral. PMID:23586370

  19. Hypermineralized whale rostrum as the exemplar for bone mineral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Pasteris, Jill D; Novack, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Although bone is a nanocomposite of mineral and collagen, mineral has been the more elusive component of study. A standard for bone mineral is clearly needed. We hypothesized that the most natural, least-processed bone mineral could be retrieved from the most highly mineralized bone. We therefore studied the rostrum of the toothed whale Mesoplodon densirostris, which has the densest recognized bone. Essential to establishment of a standard for bone mineral is the documentation that the proposed tissue is bone-like in all properties except for its remarkably high concentration of mineral. Transmitted-light microscopy of unstained sections of rostral material shows normal bone morphology in osteon geometry, lacunae concentration, and vasculature development. Stained sections reveal extremely low density of thin collagen fibers in most of the bone, but enrichment of thicker collagen fibers around vascular holes and in a minority of osteons. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy shows the rostrum mostly consists of dense mineral prisms. Most rostral areas have the same chemical-structural features, i.e., Raman spectroscopically dominated by strong bands at ∼962 Δcm(-1) and weak bands at ∼2940 Δcm(-1). Spectral features indicate that the rostrum is composed mainly of the calcium phosphate mineral apatite and has only about 4 wt.% organic content. The degree of carbonate substitution (∼8.5 wt.% carbonate) in the apatite is in the upper range found in most types of bone. We conclude that, despite its enamel-like extraordinarily high degree of mineralization, the rostrum is in all other features bone-like. Its mineral component is the long-sought uncontaminated, unaltered exemplar of bone mineral.

  20. SemantEco: a semantically powered modular architecture for integrating distributed environmental and ecological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Evan W.; Seyed, Patrice; Wang, Ping; Fu, Linyun; Dein, F. Joshua; Bristol, R. Sky; McGuinness, Deborah L.

    2014-01-01

    We aim to inform the development of decision support tools for resource managers who need to examine large complex ecosystems and make recommendations in the face of many tradeoffs and conflicting drivers. We take a semantic technology approach, leveraging background ontologies and the growing body of linked open data. In previous work, we designed and implemented a semantically enabled environmental monitoring framework called SemantEco and used it to build a water quality portal named SemantAqua. Our previous system included foundational ontologies to support environmental regulation violations and relevant human health effects. In this work, we discuss SemantEco’s new architecture that supports modular extensions and makes it easier to support additional domains. Our enhanced framework includes foundational ontologies to support modeling of wildlife observation and wildlife health impacts, thereby enabling deeper and broader support for more holistically examining the effects of environmental pollution on ecosystems. We conclude with a discussion of how, through the application of semantic technologies, modular designs will make it easier for resource managers to bring in new sources of data to support more complex use cases.

  1. The semantic origin of unconscious priming: Behavioral and event-related potential evidence during category congruency priming from strongly and weakly related masked words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortells, Juan J; Kiefer, Markus; Castillo, Alejandro; Megías, Montserrat; Morillas, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying masked congruency priming, semantic mechanisms such as semantic activation or non-semantic mechanisms, for example response activation, remain a matter of debate. In order to decide between these alternatives, reaction times (RTs) and event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded in the present study, while participants performed a semantic categorization task on visible word targets that were preceded either 167 ms (Experiment 1) or 34 ms before (Experiment 2) by briefly presented (33 ms) novel (unpracticed) masked prime words. The primes and targets belonged to different categories (unrelated), or they were either strongly or weakly semantically related category co-exemplars. Behavioral (RT) and electrophysiological masked congruency priming effects were significantly greater for strongly related pairs than for weakly related pairs, indicating a semantic origin of effects. Priming in the latter condition was not statistically reliable. Furthermore, priming effects modulated the N400 event-related potential (ERP) component, an electrophysiological index of semantic processing, but not ERPs in the time range of the N200 component, associated with response conflict and visuo-motor response priming. The present results demonstrate that masked congruency priming from novel prime words also depends on semantic processing of the primes and is not exclusively driven by non-semantic mechanisms such as response activation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Foundations of semantic web technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Hitzler, Pascal; Rudolph, Sebastian

    2009-01-01

    The Quest for Semantics Building Models Calculating with Knowledge Exchanging Information Semanic Web Technologies RESOURCE DESCRIPTION LANGUAGE (RDF)Simple Ontologies in RDF and RDF SchemaIntroduction to RDF Syntax for RDF Advanced Features Simple Ontologies in RDF Schema Encoding of Special Data Structures An ExampleRDF Formal Semantics Why Semantics? Model-Theoretic Semantics for RDF(S) Syntactic Reasoning with Deduction Rules The Semantic Limits of RDF(S)WEB ONTOLOGY LANGUAGE (OWL) Ontologies in OWL OWL Syntax and Intuitive Semantics OWL Species The Forthcoming OWL 2 StandardOWL Formal Sem

  3. The Semantic SPASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, S.; Crichton, D.; Thieman, J.; Ramirez, P.; King, T.; Weiss, M.

    2005-12-01

    The Semantic SPASE (Space Physics Archive Search and Extract) prototype demonstrates the use of semantic web technologies to capture, document, and manage the SPASE data model, support facet- and text-based search, and provide flexible and intuitive user interfaces. The SPASE data model, under development since late 2003 by a consortium of space physics domain experts, is intended to serve as the basis for interoperability between independent data systems. To develop the Semantic SPASE prototype, the data model was first analyzed to determine the inherit object classes and their attributes. These were entered into Stanford Medical Informatics' Protege ontology tool and annotated using definitions from the SPASE documentation. Further analysis of the data model resulted in the addition of class relationships. Finally attributes and relationships that support broad-scope interoperability were added from research associated with the Object-Oriented Data Technology task. To validate the ontology and produce a knowledge base, example data products were ingested. The capture of the data model as an ontology results in a more formal specification of the model. The Protege software is also a powerful management tool and supports plug-ins that produce several graphical notations as output. The stated purpose of the semantic web is to support machine understanding of web-based information. Protege provides an export capability to RDF/XML and RDFS/XML for this purpose. Several research efforts use RDF/XML knowledge bases to provide semantic search. MIT's Simile/Longwell project provides both facet- and text-based search using a suite of metadata browsers and the text-based search engine Lucene. Using the Protege generated RDF knowledge-base a semantic search application was easily built and deployed to run as a web application. Configuration files specify the object attributes and values to be designated as facets (i.e. search) constraints. Semantic web technologies provide

  4. Comparing Refinements for Failure and Bisimulation Semantics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eshuis, H.; Fokkinga, M.M.

    2002-01-01

    Refinement in bisimulation semantics is defined differently from refinement in failure semantics: in bisimulation semantics refinement is based on simulations between labelled transition systems, whereas in failure semantics refinement is based on inclusions between failure systems. There exist

  5. Comparing Refinements for Failure and Bisimulation Semantics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eshuis, H.; Fokkinga, M.M.

    Refinement in bisimulation semantics is defined differently from refinement in failure semantics: in bisimulation semantics refinement is based on simulations between labelled transition systems, whereas in failure semantics refinement is based on inclusions between decorated traces systems. There

  6. Semantic Changes of Gerund

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofija Babickienė

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, semantic models of gerund in the Lithuanian language are being investigated. Their productivity and the reasons of their change in the Lithuanian language are identified. The tendency to use gerund semantic structure in noun constructions is typical not only in Greek or Latin languages but also in English, Russian, etc. Regular polysemy is regarded as semantic derivation, i. e. shifting from main meanings to derivative ones. The object of this investigation is the usage patterns of gerunds which bear both the meaning of a verb and a noun. The examples for the present study have been gathered from the language of different Lithuanian dialects as well as from the Dictionary of the Lithuanian language (different volumes, etc. The research results reveal that semantic changes of object and result are the most productive, whereas mood or time semantic model proved to be not so productive. The productivity of regular models depends on the fact that there are suffix derivatives which have the meaning of a result. The research shows that scientific style and language of different dialects are rich in the use of gerund.

  7. Semantic Observation Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Kuhn

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Although the integration of sensor-based information into analysis and decision making has been a research topic for many years, semantic interoperability has not yet been reached. The advent of user-generated content for the geospatial domain, Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI, makes it even more difficult to establish semantic integration. This paper proposes a novel approach to integrating conventional sensor information and VGI, which is exploited in the context of detecting forest fires. In contrast to common logic-based semantic descriptions, we present a formal system using algebraic specifications to unambiguously describe the processing steps from natural phenomena to value-added information. A generic ontology of observations is extended and profiled for forest fire detection in order to illustrate how the sensing process, and transformations between heterogeneous sensing systems, can be represented as mathematical functions and grouped into abstract data types. We discuss the required ontological commitments and a possible generalization.

  8. Usage and applications of Semantic Web techniques and technologies to support chemistry research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkum, Mark I; Frey, Jeremy G

    2014-01-01

    The drug discovery process is now highly dependent on the management, curation and integration of large amounts of potentially useful data. Semantics are necessary in order to interpret the information and derive knowledge. Advances in recent years have mitigated concerns that the lack of robust, usable tools has inhibited the adoption of methodologies based on semantics. THIS PAPER PRESENTS THREE EXAMPLES OF HOW SEMANTIC WEB TECHNIQUES AND TECHNOLOGIES CAN BE USED IN ORDER TO SUPPORT CHEMISTRY RESEARCH: a controlled vocabulary for quantities, units and symbols in physical chemistry; a controlled vocabulary for the classification and labelling of chemical substances and mixtures; and, a database of chemical identifiers. This paper also presents a Web-based service that uses the datasets in order to assist with the completion of risk assessment forms, along with a discussion of the legal implications and value-proposition for the use of such a service. We have introduced the Semantic Web concepts, technologies, and methodologies that can be used to support chemistry research, and have demonstrated the application of those techniques in three areas very relevant to modern chemistry research, generating three new datasets that we offer as exemplars of an extensible portfolio of advanced data integration facilities. We have thereby established the importance of Semantic Web techniques and technologies for meeting Wild's fourth "grand challenge".

  9. Evolution of semantic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Küppers, Bernd-Olaf; Artmann, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Complex systems in nature and society make use of information for the development of their internal organization and the control of their functional mechanisms. Alongside technical aspects of storing, transmitting and processing information, the various semantic aspects of information, such as meaning, sense, reference and function, play a decisive part in the analysis of such systems.With the aim of fostering a better understanding of semantic systems from an evolutionary and multidisciplinary perspective, this volume collects contributions by philosophers and natural scientists, linguists, i

  10. Simpler TAG semantics through synchronization

    OpenAIRE

    Shieber, Stuart; Nesson, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    In recent years Laura Kallmeyer, Maribel Romero, and their collaborators have led research on TAG semantics through a series of papers refining a system of TAG semantics computation. Kallmeyer and Romero bring together the lessons of these attempts with a set of desirable properties that such a system should have. First, computation of the semantics of a sentence should rely only on the relationships expressed in the TAG derivation tree. Second, the generated semantics should compactl...

  11. Temporal Representation in Semantic Graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levandoski, J J; Abdulla, G M

    2007-08-07

    A wide range of knowledge discovery and analysis applications, ranging from business to biological, make use of semantic graphs when modeling relationships and concepts. Most of the semantic graphs used in these applications are assumed to be static pieces of information, meaning temporal evolution of concepts and relationships are not taken into account. Guided by the need for more advanced semantic graph queries involving temporal concepts, this paper surveys the existing work involving temporal representations in semantic graphs.

  12. Flow Logics and Operational Semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    1998-01-01

    Flow logic is a “fast prototyping” approach to program analysis that shows great promise of being able to deal with a wide variety of languages and calculi for computation. However, seemingly innocent choices in the flow logic as well as in the operational semantics may inhibit proving the analysis...... correct. Our main conclusion is that environment based semantics is more flexible than either substitution based semantics or semantics making use of structural congruences (like alpha-renaming)....

  13. Semantic Search of Web Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Ke

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation addresses semantic search of Web services using natural language processing. We first survey various existing approaches, focusing on the fact that the expensive costs of current semantic annotation frameworks result in limited use of semantic search for large scale applications. We then propose a vector space model based service…

  14. Incremental semantics for propositional texts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, C.F.M.

    In this paper we are concerned with the special requirements that a semantics of texts should meet. It is argued that a semantics of texts should be incremental and should satisfy the break in principle. We develop a semantics for propositional texts that satisfies these constraints. We will see

  15. A Timed Semantics for SDL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Simon; Godskesen, Jens Christian; Hansen, Michael Reichhardt

    1996-01-01

    An alternative formal semantics for describing the temporal aspects for the ITU-T specification language SDL is proposed, based on the interval temporal logic Duration Calculus (DC). It is shown how DC can be used to give an SDL semantics with a precise treatment oftemporal phenomena. The semantics...

  16. Syntactic behaviour and semantic kinship of selected Danish verbs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braasch, Anna Rosita

    2008-01-01

    that combine morphological, syntactic and semantic descriptions of the lemmas. The development of such a lexical resource is rather demanding, therefore, an enhancement of existing resources with additional information types is a worthwhile task. The computational lexicon for Danish SprogTeknologisk Ordbase...... (STO) comprises a comprehensive syntactic layer which is assumed to be suitable for enhancement with semantic information. The theoretical background for the current approach is the consensus on obvious relationships between a syntactic behaviour and a particular sense of lemmas, as a surface...... complementation structure reflects the underlying semantic argument structure. The idea is to test the feasibility of deriving semantic information systematically from the syntactic structures encoded in syntactic patterns....

  17. Analysis of Verbal Fluency Ability in Alzheimer's Disease: The Role of Clustering, Switching and Semantic Proximities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weakley, Alyssa; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen

    2014-01-01

    The underlying nature of verbal fluency deficits in Alzheimer's disease (AD) was investigated in this study. Participants were 48 individuals with AD and 48 cognitively healthy older adults. Fluency performance on letter and category tasks was analyzed across two 30-s intervals for total words produced, mean cluster size, and total switches. Compared with the control group, AD participants produced fewer words and switches on both fluency tasks and had a reduced category cluster size. The AD group was differentially impaired on category compared with letter fluency and produced more repetitive responses but fewer category exemplars than controls on the category task. A multidimensional scaling approach revealed that AD participants' semantic maps were similar to controls. Overall, the data suggest that executive abilities involving search and retrieval processes and a reduced availability of semantically related words contributed to the AD group's poorer performance despite similar temporal recall and organizational patterns. PMID:24687588

  18. Communication of Semantic Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Boelskifte, Per

    2004-01-01

    processes. This working paper argues for the need for a commonly accepted terminology used to communicate semantic product properties. Designers and others involved in design processes are dependent of a sharp and clear verbal communication. Search facilities in computer programs for product and material...

  19. Formal fault tree semantics

    OpenAIRE

    Schellhorn, Gerhard

    2002-01-01

    Formal fault tree semantics / G. Schellhorn, A. Thums, and W. Reif. - In: IDPT : Proceedings of the Sixth World Conference on Integrated Design and Process Technology : June 23 - 27, 2003, Pasadena, California / SDPS, Society for Design & Process Science. - 2002. - 1CD-ROM

  20. MORPHOLOGICAL REPRESENTATION AND SEMANTIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MORPHOLOGICAL REPRESENTATION AND SEMANTIC INTERPRETATION. Rudolf P. Botha. Introduction ... The morphological representation assigned to a complex word must provide the formal structure required ..... It has been argued in the literature that "markedness" claims such as. (16)(a) and (b) are unacceptable ...

  1. Semantic Gaps Are Dangerous

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejstrup, Michael; le Fevre Jakobsen, Bjarne

    2014-01-01

    Semantic gaps are dangerous Language adapts to the environment where it serves as a tool to communication. Language is a social agreement, and we all have to stick to both grammaticalized and non-grammaticalized rules in order to pass information about the world around us. As such language develops...

  2. TRUSTING CROWDSOURCED GEOSPATIAL SEMANTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Goodhue

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The degree of trust one can place in information is one of the foremost limitations of crowdsourced geospatial information. As with the development of web technologies, the increased prevalence of semantics associated with geospatial information has increased accessibility and functionality. Semantics also provides an opportunity to extend indicators of trust for crowdsourced geospatial information that have largely focused on spatio-temporal and social aspects of that information. Comparing a feature’s intrinsic and extrinsic properties to associated ontologies provides a means of semantically assessing the trustworthiness of crowdsourced geospatial information. The application of this approach to unconstrained semantic submissions then allows for a detailed assessment of the trust of these features whilst maintaining the descriptive thoroughness this mode of information submission affords. The resulting trust rating then becomes an attribute of the feature, providing not only an indication as to the trustworthiness of a specific feature but is able to be aggregated across multiple features to illustrate the overall trustworthiness of a dataset.

  3. Latent Semantic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumais, Susan T.

    2004-01-01

    Presents a literature review that covers the following topics related to Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA): (1) LSA overview; (2) applications of LSA, including information retrieval (IR), information filtering, cross-language retrieval, and other IR-related LSA applications; (3) modeling human memory, including the relationship of LSA to other…

  4. The semantic similarity ensemble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ballatore

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Computational measures of semantic similarity between geographic terms provide valuable support across geographic information retrieval, data mining, and information integration. To date, a wide variety of approaches to geo-semantic similarity have been devised. A judgment of similarity is not intrinsically right or wrong, but obtains a certain degree of cognitive plausibility, depending on how closely it mimics human behavior. Thus selecting the most appropriate measure for a specific task is a significant challenge. To address this issue, we make an analogy between computational similarity measures and soliciting domain expert opinions, which incorporate a subjective set of beliefs, perceptions, hypotheses, and epistemic biases. Following this analogy, we define the semantic similarity ensemble (SSE as a composition of different similarity measures, acting as a panel of experts having to reach a decision on the semantic similarity of a set of geographic terms. The approach is evaluated in comparison to human judgments, and results indicate that an SSE performs better than the average of its parts. Although the best member tends to outperform the ensemble, all ensembles outperform the average performance of each ensemble's member. Hence, in contexts where the best measure is unknown, the ensemble provides a more cognitively plausible approach.

  5. Lexicology, Semantics and Lexicography

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    Volume 194 of the series Current Issues in Linguistic Theory, entitled Lexicology,. Semantics and Lexicography ... the theoretical and methodological fundamentals of the Cognitive Linguistics enterprise, more specifically .... database was rather small (100 folk-etymologies taken from Palmer's Dictionary of Folk-etymology).

  6. Operational Semantics of Termination Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    1996-01-01

    and algebraic data types. The well-founded orderings are defined by pattern matching against the definition of the algebraic data types. We prove that the analysis is semantically sound with respect to a big-step (or natural) operational semantics. We compare our approach based on operational semantics to one...... based on denotational semantics and we identify the need for extending the semantic universe with low constructs whose sole purpose is to facilitate the proof. For dealing with partial correctness it suffices to consider approximations that are less defined than the desired fixed points; for dealing...

  7. Exemplars and prototypes in natural language concepts: a typicality-based evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorspoels, Wouter; Vanpaemel, Wolf; Storms, Gert

    2008-06-01

    Are natural language categories represented by instances of the category or by a summary representation? We used an exemplar model and a prototype model, both derived within the framework of the generalized context model (Nosofsky, 1984, 1986), to predict typicality ratings for 12 superordinate natural language concepts. The models were fitted to typicality ratings averaged across participants and to the typicality judgments of individual participants. Both analyses yielded results in favor of the exemplar model. These results suggest that higher-level natural language concepts are represented by their subordinate members, rather than by a summary representation.

  8. Semantics, ontologies and eScience for the geosciences

    OpenAIRE

    Reitsma, Femke; Laxton, John; Ballard, Stuart; Kuhn, Werner; Abdelmoty, Alia

    2009-01-01

    Semantics, ontologies and eScience are key areas of research that aim to deal with the growing volume, number of sources and heterogeneity of geoscience data, information and knowledge. Following a workshop held at the eScience Institute in Edinburgh on the 7–9th of March 2008, this paper discusses some of the significant research topics and challenges for enhancing geospatial computing using semantic and grid technologies.

  9. Semantics, ontologies and eScience for the geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitsma, Femke; Laxton, John; Ballard, Stuart; Kuhn, Werner; Abdelmoty, Alia

    2009-04-01

    Semantics, ontologies and eScience are key areas of research that aim to deal with the growing volume, number of sources and heterogeneity of geoscience data, information and knowledge. Following a workshop held at the eScience Institute in Edinburgh on the 7-9th of March 2008, this paper discusses some of the significant research topics and challenges for enhancing geospatial computing using semantic and grid technologies.

  10. Biotea: semantics for Pubmed Central.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Alexander; Lopez, Federico; Garcia, Leyla; Giraldo, Olga; Bucheli, Victor; Dumontier, Michel

    2018-01-01

    A significant portion of biomedical literature is represented in a manner that makes it difficult for consumers to find or aggregate content through a computational query. One approach to facilitate reuse of the scientific literature is to structure this information as linked data using standardized web technologies. In this paper we present the second version of Biotea, a semantic, linked data version of the open-access subset of PubMed Central that has been enhanced with specialized annotation pipelines that uses existing infrastructure from the National Center for Biomedical Ontology. We expose our models, services, software and datasets. Our infrastructure enables manual and semi-automatic annotation, resulting data are represented as RDF-based linked data and can be readily queried using the SPARQL query language. We illustrate the utility of our system with several use cases. Our datasets, methods and techniques are available at http://biotea.github.io.

  11. Biotea: semantics for Pubmed Central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Garcia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A significant portion of biomedical literature is represented in a manner that makes it difficult for consumers to find or aggregate content through a computational query. One approach to facilitate reuse of the scientific literature is to structure this information as linked data using standardized web technologies. In this paper we present the second version of Biotea, a semantic, linked data version of the open-access subset of PubMed Central that has been enhanced with specialized annotation pipelines that uses existing infrastructure from the National Center for Biomedical Ontology. We expose our models, services, software and datasets. Our infrastructure enables manual and semi-automatic annotation, resulting data are represented as RDF-based linked data and can be readily queried using the SPARQL query language. We illustrate the utility of our system with several use cases. Our datasets, methods and techniques are available at http://biotea.github.io.

  12. Incorporating Semantic Knowledge into Dynamic Data Processing for Smart Power Grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Qunzhi; Simmhan, Yogesh; Prasanna, Viktor

    2012-11-15

    Semantic Web allows us to model and query time-invariant or slowly evolving knowledge using ontologies. Emerging applications in Cyber Physical Systems such as Smart Power Grids that require continuous information monitoring and integration present novel opportunities and challenges for Semantic Web technologies. Semantic Web is promising to model diverse Smart Grid domain knowledge for enhanced situation awareness and response by multi-disciplinary participants. However, current technology does pose a performance overhead for dynamic analysis of sensor measurements. In this paper, we combine semantic web and complex event processing for stream based semantic querying. We illustrate its adoption in the USC Campus Micro-Grid for detecting and enacting dynamic response strategies to peak power situations by diverse user roles. We also describe the semantic ontology and event query model that supports this. Further, we introduce and evaluate caching techniques to improve the response time for semantic event queries to meet our application needs and enable sustainable energy management.

  13. Simultanagnosia: effects of semantic category and repetition blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coslett, H Branch; Lie, Eunhui

    2008-01-01

    When confronted with two identical stimuli in a very brief period of time subjects often fail to report the second stimulus, a phenomenon termed "repetition blindness". The "type-token" account attributes the phenomenon to a failure to individuate the exemplars. We report a subject, KE, who developed simultanagnosia (the inability to see more than one item in an array) as a consequence of bilateral parietal lobe infarctions. With presentation of two words, pictures or letters for an unlimited time, KE typically reported both stimuli on less than half of trials. Performance was significantly influenced by the semantic relationship between items in the array. He reported both items significantly more frequently if they were semantically related; in contrast, when presented either identical or visually different depictions of the same item, he reported both items on only 2-4% of trials. Performance was not influenced by the visual similarity between the stimuli; he reported visually dissimilar objects less frequently than visually similar but different objects. We suggest that KE's bilateral parietal lesions prevent the binding of preserved object representations to a representation computed by the dorsal visual system. More generally, these data are consistent with the claim that the posterior parietal cortex is crucial for individuating a stimulus by computing its unique spatio-temporal characteristics.

  14. The Many Faces of Wisdom: An Investigation of Cultural-Historical Wisdom Exemplars Reveals Practical, Philosophical, and Benevolent Prototypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weststrate, Nic M; Ferrari, Michel; Ardelt, Monika

    2016-05-01

    Psychological research on wisdom has flourished in the last 30 years, much of it investigating laypeople's implicit theories of wisdom. In three studies, we took an exemplar and prototype approach to implicit wisdom theories by asking participants to nominate one or more cultural-historical figures of wisdom. Study 1 revealed that individuals draw from a wide range of wisdom exemplars, with substantial agreement on the most iconic figures. In Study 2, multidimensional scaling analysis of exemplars revealed practical, philosophical, and benevolent prototypes; follow-up analyses indicated that prototypes differed in familiarity, likability, and perceived wisdom. Study 3 showed that individuals nominated exemplars from the practical prototype more frequently than from the philosophical and benevolent prototypes and that prototype nomination depended in part on nominator characteristics. These studies suggest that exemplar- and prototype-based implicit wisdom theories are consistent with explicit psychological theories of wisdom. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  15. Latent Semantic Indexing of medical diagnoses using UMLS semantic structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chute, C. G.; Yang, Y.; Evans, D. A.

    1991-01-01

    The relational files within the UMLS Metathesaurus contain rich semantic associations to main concepts. We invoked the technique of Latent Semantic Indexing to generate information matrices based on these relationships and created "semantic vectors" using singular value decomposition. Evaluations were made on the complete set and subsets of Metathesaurus main concepts with the semantic type "Disease or Syndrome." Real number matrices were created with main concepts, lexical variants, synonyms, and associated expressions. Ancestors, children, siblings, and related terms were added to alternative matrices, preserving the hierarchical direction of the relation as the imaginary component of a complex number. Preliminary evaluation suggests that this technique is robust. A major advantage is the exploitation of semantic features which derive from a statistical decomposition of UMLS structures, possibly reducing dependence on the tedious construction of semantic frames by humans. PMID:1807584

  16. Adolescent Spiritual Exemplars: Exploring Spirituality in the Lives of Diverse Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Pamela Ebstyne; Clardy, Casey E.; Ramos, Jenel Sánchez

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study aimed to develop theory about psychological constructs relevant to spiritual development in diverse adolescents. Exemplar and Consensual Qualitative Research methods were used to explore 30 interviews of adolescents aged 12 to 21 years ("M" = 17.73 years) representing eight religions and six countries from around…

  17. The rabbi as symbolic exemplar by the power vested in me

    CERN Document Server

    Bloom, Jack H

    2012-01-01

    The solution to the growing problem of stress and burnout in rabbis! Written by a practicing clinical psychologist who spent 10 years as a congregational rabbi, The Rabbi As Symbolic Exemplar: By the Power Vested in Me presents positive solutions to the inevitable negative effects of symbolic exemplarhood, coaching rabbis through dilemmas of the “inner soul.” Being a rabbi means serving as a Symbolic Exemplar of the best that is in humankind, being experienced and treated and expected to act as a stand-in for God, and a walking, talking symbol of all that Jewish tradition represents. The burden of being a symbolic exemplar of God is extraordinary, and the struggle to live up to its “requirements” can be one of loneliness, frustration, and despair, alienating rabbis who tire of living in a glass house. The Rabbi As Symbolic Exemplar examines how the symbolic role that serves as the source of the rabbi's authority and power can lead to disillusionment and disenchantment. Author Jack H Bloom draws on his own...

  18. Mind the Gap! Students' Use of Exemplars and Detailed Rubrics as Formative Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipnevich, Anastasiya A.; McCallen, Leigh N.; Miles, Katharine Pace; Smith, Jeffrey K.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined efficient modes for providing standardized feedback to improve performance on an assignment for a second year college class involving writing a brief research proposal. Two forms of standardized feedback (detailed rubric and proposal exemplars) were utilized is an experimental design with undergraduate students (N = 100)…

  19. Drivers of Teaching Effectiveness: Views from Accounting Educator Exemplars in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wygal, Donald E.; Watty, Kim; Stout, David E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper summarizes the views, obtained via a survey instrument created by the authors and reported in studies by Stout and Wygal, of 22 accounting educator teaching exemplars from Australia. Each of these individuals has been cited for teaching excellence through receipt of one or more formal teaching awards. The paper responds to calls in…

  20. Integrating Writing Skills and Ethics Training in Business Communication Pedagogy: A Resume Case Study Exemplar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Cynthia E.

    2008-01-01

    An integrated approach to teaching resume construction in the business communication classroom focuses on simultaneously (a) emphasizing writing-related proficiencies and (b) encouraging ethical and moral orientations to this task. This article provides a resume construction exemplar that operationalizes these two pedagogical goals. The techniques…

  1. Using Multiple-Exemplar Training to Teach a Generalized Repertoire of Sharing to Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzullo-Kerth, Denise; Reeve, Sharon A.; Reeve, Kenneth F.; Townsend, Dawn B.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined the utility of multiple-exemplar training to teach children with autism to share. Stimuli from 3 of 4 categories were trained using a treatment package of video modeling, prompting, and reinforcement. Offers to share increased for all 3 children following the introduction of treatment, with evidence of skill maintenance.…

  2. High-speed web attack detection through extracting exemplars from HTTP traffic

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Wei

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we propose an effective method for high-speed web attack detection by extracting exemplars from HTTP traffic before the detection model is built. The smaller set of exemplars keeps valuable information of the original traffic while it significantly reduces the size of the traffic so that the detection remains effective and improves the detection efficiency. The Affinity Propagation (AP) is employed to extract the exemplars from the HTTP traffic. K-Nearest Neighbor(K-NN) and one class Support Vector Machine (SVM) are used for anomaly detection. To facilitate comparison, we also employ information gain to select key attributes (a.k.a. features) from the HTTP traffic for web attack detection. Two large real HTTP traffic are used to validate our methods. The extensive test results show that the AP based exemplar extraction significantly improves the real-time performance of the detection compared to using all the HTTP traffic and achieves a more robust detection performance than information gain based attribute selection for web attack detection. © 2011 ACM.

  3. Photo-Realistic Statistical Skull Morphotypes: New Exemplars for Ancestry and Sex Estimation in Forensic Anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caple, Jodi; Stephan, Carl N

    2017-05-01

    Graphic exemplars of cranial sex and ancestry are essential to forensic anthropology for standardizing casework, training analysts, and communicating group trends. To date, graphic exemplars have comprised hand-drawn sketches, or photographs of individual specimens, which risks bias/subjectivity. Here, we performed quantitative analysis of photographic data to generate new photo-realistic and objective exemplars of skull form. Standardized anterior and left lateral photographs of skulls for each sex were analyzed in the computer graphics program Psychomorph for the following groups: South African Blacks, South African Whites, American Blacks, American Whites, and Japanese. The average cranial form was calculated for each photographic view, before the color information for every individual was warped to the average form and combined to produce statistical averages. These mathematically derived exemplars-and their statistical exaggerations or extremes-retain the high-resolution detail of the original photographic dataset, making them the ideal casework and training reference standards. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  4. Reducing Children's Implicit Racial Bias through Exposure to Positive Out-Group Exemplars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Antonya M.; Steele, Jennifer R.; Baron, Andrew S.

    2017-01-01

    Studies with adults suggest that implicit preferences favoring White versus Black individuals can be reduced through exposure to positive Black exemplars. However, it remains unclear whether developmental differences exist in the capacity for these biases to be changed. This study included 369 children and examined whether their implicit racial…

  5. Spacing and Induction: Application to Exemplars Presented as Auditory and Visual Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkiply, Norehan; McLean, John; Burt, Jennifer S.; Bath, Debra

    2012-01-01

    It is an established finding that spacing repetitions generally facilitates memory for the repeated events. However, the effect of spacing of exemplars on inductive learning is not really known. Two experiments using textual material were conducted to investigate the effect of spacing on induction. Experiment 1 and 2 extended the generality of…

  6. Differential modulation of word recognition by semantic and spatial orienting of attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristescu, Tamara C; Nobre, Anna Christina

    2008-05-01

    In the present study, we investigated the ability to orient attention to abstract associative features of complex stimuli, more specifically, to the semantic categories of visual word stimuli. We compared the behavioral and electrophysiological effects of semantic orienting with those elicited by spatial orienting to word stimuli. Two parallel, cued lexical-decision tasks, with semantic- or spatial-orienting cues, were used. Results showed that both semantic and spatial orienting facilitated behavioral performance. The event-related potential analysis revealed different and non-overlapping patterns of modulation of word processing by semantic and spatial orienting. Modulation by semantic orienting started later, affecting only the potentials linked to conceptual or semantic processing (N300 and N400). The pattern of N300/N400 modulation in the semantic-orienting condition was similar to that observed in semantic-priming tasks, and was compatible with the operation of controlled semantic processes. Spatial orienting significantly enhanced the amplitude of the early visual potential P1 as well as the language-related N400 potential. These findings showed that the similar end-result of behavioral facilitation by semantic and spatial orienting is achieved through largely distinct mechanisms acting upon separate levels of stimulus analysis.

  7. The Semantics of "Violence"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levisen, Carsten

    counterparts in many (most) languages, and thatPinker’s claims are Anglocentric in nature. My papir studies the intricate details of vaeolens, as a new word that has attracted a number ofother English-based phraseologies such as vaeolens againsem woman ‘violence against women’,and vaeolens againsem pikinini...... ‘violence against children’. Semantic explications of “violence/vaeolens”, kilim and faetem will be provided and based on these explications, two different culturalmodels will be articulated, based on two radically different ways of co-conceptualizing the humanbody, personhood, sociality, and power......This paper presents a semantic analysis of “violence” – a word around which Anglo-internationaldiscourses revolve. Many ethnolinguistic communities around the world are currently adapting thisEnglish lexical concept into their linguistic systems, and, presumably also, the view of the worldembodied...

  8. Living With Semantic Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, Karen; Wilkinson, Ray; Keady, John

    2014-01-01

    Semantic dementia is a variant of frontotemporal dementia and is a recently recognized diagnostic condition. There has been some research quantitatively examining care partner stress and burden in frontotemporal dementia. There are, however, few studies exploring the subjective experiences of family members caring for those with frontotemporal dementia. Increased knowledge of such experiences would allow service providers to tailor intervention, support, and information better. We used a case study design, with thematic narrative analysis applied to interview data, to describe the experiences of a wife and son caring for a husband/father with semantic dementia. Using this approach, we identified four themes: (a) living with routines, (b) policing and protecting, (c) making connections, and (d) being adaptive and flexible. Each of these themes were shared and extended, with the importance of routines in everyday life highlighted. The implications for policy, practice, and research are discussed. PMID:24532121

  9. SEMANTIC DERIVATION OF BORROWINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigapova, F.F.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The author carried out the contrastive analysis of the word спикер borrowed into Russian from English and the English word speaker. The findings of the analysis include confirm (1 different derivational abilities and functions of the borrowed word and the native word; (2 distinctive features in the definitions, i.e. semantic structures, registered in monolingual non-abridged dictionaries; (3 heterogeneous parameters of frequencies recorded in the National Corpus of the Russian language and the British National Corpus; (4 absence of bilingual equivalent collocations with words спикер and speaker. The collocations with words studied revealed new lexical and connotative senses in the meaning of the word. Relevance of the study conducted is justified by the new facts revealed about the semantic adaptation of the borrowed word in the system of the Russian language and its paradigmatic and syntagmatic connections in the system of the recipient language.

  10. Semantic Web Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    Datamining Initiative (TAMI [TAMI])), implementing these ideas much more fully. 4.0 Language development 4.1 OWL development DAML and OIL languages...Swick (for DIG),Transparent Accountable Datamining Initiative, 2005. http://dig.csail.mit.edu/TAMI/ to.Ical: Dan Connolly and Tim Berners-Lee...open and unbounded Semantic Web which was delivered as N3 (Notation3). TAMI: (Transparent Accountable Datamining Initiative), technical, legal, and

  11. Semantically-Sensitive Macroprocessing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-15

    mechanism u sed by the language translator: computation over the syntactic domain of the langu age at translation time. We propose, however, that...any syntactic class , i.e. they may comput e (meta)values of any (meta)type in the syntactic domain, and furthermore may accept arguments of any such... class . The term syntactic domain is in- tended to include what is usually referred to as static semantics as well as more patently structural

  12. Syntax, Semantics, and Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-04-01

    for many applications) or what one really wants the semantic selectional restrictions to test , A major practical difficulty with incorporating...context is tne type ^ at trie ielt -nanu gie nonterrainai nonempty string pe 3 grammars, more restricted u in generative cnaracterized by 1...words the passi tne sp s ence. gra la nary th c imul t o deca msky ntex ules nera siti test he ana si ve t "su true mmar

  13. Insensitive Enough Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Vallée

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available According to some philosophers, sentences like (1 “It is raining” and (2 “John is ready” are context sensitive sentences even if they do not contain indexicals or demonstratives. That view initiated a context sensitivity frenzy. Cappelen and Lepore (2005 summarize the frenzy by the slogan “Every sentence is context sensitive” (Insensitive Semantics, p. 6, note 5. They suggest a view they call Minimalism according to which the truth conditions of utterances of sentences like (1/(2 are exactly what Convention T gives you. I will distinguish different propositions, and refocus semantics on sentences. As distinct from what the protagonists in the ongoing debate think, I argue that the content or truth conditions of utterances of both context sensitive sentences and sentences like (1/(2 are not interesting from a semantic point of view, and that the problem sentences like (1/(2 raises is not about context sensitivity or context insensitivity of sentences, but relevance of the content of utterances.

  14. A general schema for generating argumentation semantics from logic programming semantics

    OpenAIRE

    Nieves Sánchez, Juan Carlos; Osorio Galindo, Mauricio

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, by considering the idea that argumentation semantics can be viewed as a special form of logic programming semantics with negation as failure, we show that any logic programming semantics as the stable model semantics, the minimal models, etc., can define candidate argumentation semantics. These new argumentation semantics will overcome some of the problems of the Dung's argumentation semantics that have been discussed in the literature. The new argumentation semantics are based...

  15. Subliminal semantic priming in speech.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Daltrozzo

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have reported subliminal repetition and semantic priming in the visual modality. We transferred this paradigm to the auditory modality. Prime awareness was manipulated by a reduction of sound intensity level. Uncategorized prime words (according to a post-test were followed by semantically related, unrelated, or repeated target words (presented without intensity reduction and participants performed a lexical decision task (LDT. Participants with slower reaction times in the LDT showed semantic priming (faster reaction times for semantically related compared to unrelated targets and negative repetition priming (slower reaction times for repeated compared to semantically related targets. This is the first report of semantic priming in the auditory modality without conscious categorization of the prime.

  16. A Semantic Enhanced Model for Effective Spatial Information Retrieval : Un modèle sémantique améliorée for Effective Information Retrieval spatiale

    OpenAIRE

    Akanbi, Adeyinka; Agunbiade, Olusanya,; Dehinbo, Olumuyiwa,; Kuti, Sadiq

    2014-01-01

    International audience; A lot of information on the web is geographically referenced. Discovering and retrieving this geographic information to satisfy various users needs across both open and distributed Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDI) poses eminent research challenges. However, this is mostly caused by semantic heterogeneity in user's query and lack of semantic referencing of the Geographic Information (GI) metadata. To addressing these challenges, this paper discusses an ontology-based ...

  17. Semantic multimedia analysis and processing

    CERN Document Server

    Spyrou, Evaggelos; Mylonas, Phivos

    2014-01-01

    Broad in scope, Semantic Multimedia Analysis and Processing provides a complete reference of techniques, algorithms, and solutions for the design and the implementation of contemporary multimedia systems. Offering a balanced, global look at the latest advances in semantic indexing, retrieval, analysis, and processing of multimedia, the book features the contributions of renowned researchers from around the world. Its contents are based on four fundamental thematic pillars: 1) information and content retrieval, 2) semantic knowledge exploitation paradigms, 3) multimedia personalization, and 4)

  18. Survey of semantic modeling techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C.L.

    1975-07-01

    The analysis of the semantics of programing languages was attempted with numerous modeling techniques. By providing a brief survey of these techniques together with an analysis of their applicability for answering semantic issues, this report attempts to illuminate the state-of-the-art in this area. The intent is to be illustrative rather than thorough in the coverage of semantic models. A bibliography is included for the reader who is interested in pursuing this area of research in more detail.

  19. System semantics of explanatory dictionaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Shyrokov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available System semantics of explanatory dictionaries Some semantic properties of the language to be followed from the structure of lexicographical systems of big explanatory dictionaries are considered. The hyperchains and hypercycles are determined as the definite kind of automorphisms of the lexicographical system of explanatory dictionary. Some semantic consequencies following from the principles of lexicographic closure and lexicographic completeness are investigated using the hyperchains and hypercycles formalism. The connection between the hypercyle properties of the lexicographical system semantics and Goedel’s incompleteness theorem is discussed.

  20. A unified computational account of cumulative semantic, semantic blocking, and semantic distractor effects in picture naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelofs, Ardi

    2018-03-01

    Computational models of lexical selection in spoken word production have been applied to semantic interference effects in picture naming response times obtained with continuous naming, blocked-cyclic naming, and picture-word interference paradigms. However, a unified computational account of the effects in the three paradigms is lacking. Here, I show that the inclusion of conceptual bias in the WEAVER++model (Levelt, Roelofs, & Meyer, 1999) explains cumulative semantic and semantic blocking effects while preserving the model's account of semantic distractor effects. The key assumptions of the account are (1) lexical selection by competition, and (2) a conceptual origin and lexical locus of the semantic effects. I provide a proof of concept of the account by reporting computer simulation results, addressing behavioral and neuroimaging evidence. The assumptions are sufficient for a unified account of semantic effects in the three paradigms, contrary to pessimistic views of this area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Action semantics for defining dynamic semantics of modeling languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuurman, Gijs; Ivanov, Ivan

    Most languages in Model Driven Engineering (MDE) are defined by metamodels. Metamodels specify the structural aspects of models but do not capture the computational meaning of the modeling constructs (the dynamic semantics). There are several semantic definition frameworks used for programming

  2. Fully Abstract Game Semantics for Actors

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Along the way paved by the recent concurrent game semantics for process algebra CCS and $\\pi$-calculus, based on the basic characteristics of the actor computational model and the very reductive semantics for actors, we establish a fully abstract concurrent game semantics for actors by borrowing the algebraic structure from CCS. This semantics can both be seen as an innocent presheaf semantics, and a concurrent game semantics.

  3. The UMLS® Semantic Network and the Semantic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Vipul

    2003-01-01

    The Unified Medical Language System® (UMLS®) , an extensive source of biomedical knowledge developed and maintained by the US National Library of Medicine (NLM) is being currently used in a wide variety of biomedical applications. The Semantic Network, a component of the UMLS is a structured description of core biomedical knowledge consisting of well defined semantic types and relationships between them. We investigate the expressiveness of DAML+OIL, a markup language proposed for ontologies on the Semantic Web, for representing the knowledge contained in the Semantic Network. Requirements specific to the Semantic Network, such as polymorphic relationships and blocking relationship inheritance are discussed and approaches to represent these in DAML+OIL are presented. Finally, conclusions are presented along with a discussion of ongoing and future work. PMID:14728193

  4. A Schema for Generating Update Semantics

    OpenAIRE

    Jos´e Luis Carballido Carranza; Claudia Zepeda; Guillermo Flores

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present a general schema for dening new update semantics. This schema takes as input any basic logic programming semantics, such as the stable semantics, the p-stable semantics or the MMr semantics, and gives as output a new update semantics. The schema proposed is based on a concept called minimal generalized S models, where S is any of the logic programming semantics. Each update semantics is associated to an update operator. We also present some properties of these update...

  5. Addressing the Challenges of Multi-Domain Data Integration with the SemantEco Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, E. W.; Seyed, P.; McGuinness, D. L.

    2013-12-01

    Data integration across multiple domains will continue to be a challenge with the proliferation of big data in the sciences. Data origination issues and how data are manipulated are critical to enable scientists to understand and consume disparate datasets as research becomes more multidisciplinary. We present the SemantEco framework as an exemplar for designing an integrative portal for data discovery, exploration, and interpretation that uses best practice W3C Recommendations. We use the Resource Description Framework (RDF) with extensible ontologies described in the Web Ontology Language (OWL) to provide graph-based data representation. Furthermore, SemantEco ingests data via the software package csv2rdf4lod, which generates data provenance using the W3C provenance recommendation (PROV). Our presentation will discuss benefits and challenges of semantic integration, their effect on runtime performance, and how the SemantEco framework assisted in identifying performance issues and improved query performance across multiple domains by an order of magnitude. SemantEco benefits from a semantic approach that provides an 'open world', which allows data to incrementally change just as it does in the real world. SemantEco modules may load new ontologies and data using the W3C's SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language via HTTP. Modules may also provide user interface elements for applications and query capabilities to support new use cases. Modules can associate with domains, which are first-class objects in SemantEco. This enables SemantEco to perform integration and reasoning both within and across domains on module-provided data. The SemantEco framework has been used to construct a web portal for environmental and ecological data. The portal includes water and air quality data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and species observation counts for birds and fish from the Avian Knowledge Network and the Santa Barbara Long Term

  6. The Semantics of Ontology Alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-08-01

    AUG 2004 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2004 to 00-00-2004 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Semantics of Ontology Alignment 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 1 The Semantics of Ontology Alignment

  7. Semantic Analysis in Machine Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorokhodko, E. F.

    1970-01-01

    In many cases machine-translation does not produce satisfactory results within the framework of purely formal (morphological and syntaxic) analysis, particularly, in the case of syntaxic and lexical homonomy. An algorithm for syntaxic-semantic analysis is proposed, and its principles of operation are described. The syntaxico-semantic structure is…

  8. On the Semantics of Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kess, Joseph F.

    1975-01-01

    This article discusses the semantics of the notion of focus, insofar as it relates to Filipino languages. The evolution of this notion is reviewed, and an alternative explanation of it is given, stressing the fact that grammar and semantics should be kept separate in a discussion of focus. (CLK)

  9. Indexing by Latent Semantic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deerwester, Scott; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Describes a new method for automatic indexing and retrieval called latent semantic indexing (LSI). Problems with matching query words with document words in term-based information retrieval systems are discussed, semantic structure is examined, singular value decomposition (SVD) is explained, and the mathematics underlying the SVD model is…

  10. COEUS: "semantic web in a box" for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Pedro; Oliveira, José Luís

    2012-12-17

    As the "omics" revolution unfolds, the growth in data quantity and diversity is bringing about the need for pioneering bioinformatics software, capable of significantly improving the research workflow. To cope with these computer science demands, biomedical software engineers are adopting emerging semantic web technologies that better suit the life sciences domain. The latter's complex relationships are easily mapped into semantic web graphs, enabling a superior understanding of collected knowledge. Despite increased awareness of semantic web technologies in bioinformatics, their use is still limited. COEUS is a new semantic web framework, aiming at a streamlined application development cycle and following a "semantic web in a box" approach. The framework provides a single package including advanced data integration and triplification tools, base ontologies, a web-oriented engine and a flexible exploration API. Resources can be integrated from heterogeneous sources, including CSV and XML files or SQL and SPARQL query results, and mapped directly to one or more ontologies. Advanced interoperability features include REST services, a SPARQL endpoint and LinkedData publication. These enable the creation of multiple applications for web, desktop or mobile environments, and empower a new knowledge federation layer. The platform, targeted at biomedical application developers, provides a complete skeleton ready for rapid application deployment, enhancing the creation of new semantic information systems. COEUS is available as open source at http://bioinformatics.ua.pt/coeus/.

  11. Semantic Segmentation of Indoor Point Clouds Using Convolutional Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babacan, K.; Chen, L.; Sohn, G.

    2017-11-01

    As Building Information Modelling (BIM) thrives, geometry becomes no longer sufficient; an ever increasing variety of semantic information is needed to express an indoor model adequately. On the other hand, for the existing buildings, automatically generating semantically enriched BIM from point cloud data is in its infancy. The previous research to enhance the semantic content rely on frameworks in which some specific rules and/or features that are hand coded by specialists. These methods immanently lack generalization and easily break in different circumstances. On this account, a generalized framework is urgently needed to automatically and accurately generate semantic information. Therefore we propose to employ deep learning techniques for the semantic segmentation of point clouds into meaningful parts. More specifically, we build a volumetric data representation in order to efficiently generate the high number of training samples needed to initiate a convolutional neural network architecture. The feedforward propagation is used in such a way to perform the classification in voxel level for achieving semantic segmentation. The method is tested both for a mobile laser scanner point cloud, and a larger scale synthetically generated data. We also demonstrate a case study, in which our method can be effectively used to leverage the extraction of planar surfaces in challenging cluttered indoor environments.

  12. Semantics and pragmatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Louise

    2013-05-01

    The fields of semantics and pragmatics are devoted to the study of conventionalized and context- or use-dependent aspects of natural language meaning, respectively. The complexity of human language as a semiotic system has led to considerable debate about how the semantics/pragmatics distinction should be drawn, if at all. This debate largely reflects contrasting views of meaning as a property of linguistic expressions versus something that speakers do. The fact that both views of meaning are essential to a complete understanding of language has led to a variety of efforts over the last 40 years to develop better integrated and more comprehensive theories of language use and interpretation. The most important advances have included the adaptation of propositional analyses of declarative sentences to interrogative, imperative and exclamative forms; the emergence of dynamic, game theoretic, and multi-dimensional theories of meaning; and the development of various techniques for incorporating context-dependent aspects of content into representations of context-invariant content with the goal of handling phenomena such as vagueness resolution, metaphor, and metonymy. WIREs Cogn Sci 2013, 4:285-297. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1227 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. The authors declare no conflict of interest. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Polish Semantic Parser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Grudzinska

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Amount of information transferred by computers grows very rapidly thus outgrowing the average man's capability of reception. It implies computer programs increase in the demand for which would be able to perform an introductory classitication or even selection of information directed to a particular receiver. Due to the complexity of the problem, we restricted it to understanding short newspaper notes. Among many conceptions formulated so far, the conceptual dependency worked out by Roger Schank has been chosen. It is a formal language of description of the semantics of pronouncement integrated with a text understanding algorithm. Substantial part of each text transformation system is a semantic parser of the Polish language. It is a module, which as the first and the only one has an access to the text in the Polish language. lt plays the role of an element, which finds relations between words of the Polish language and the formal registration. It translates sentences written in the language used by people into the language theory. The presented structure of knowledge units and the shape of understanding process algorithms are universal by virtue of the theory. On the other hand the defined knowledge units and the rules used in the algorithms ure only examples because they are constructed in order to understand short newspaper notes.

  14. Distributed Semantic Overlay Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doulkeridis, Christos; Vlachou, Akrivi; Nørvåg, Kjetil; Vazirgiannis, Michalis

    Semantic Overlay Networks (SONs) have been recently proposed as a way to organize content in peer-to-peer (P2P) networks. The main objective is to discover peers with similar content and then form thematically focused peer groups. Efficient content retrieval can be performed by having queries selectively forwarded only to relevant groups of peers to the query. As a result, less peers need to be contacted, in order to answer a query. In this context, the challenge is to generate SONs in a decentralized and distributed manner, as the centralized assembly of global information is not feasible. Different approaches for exploiting the generated SONs for content retrieval have been proposed in the literature, which are examined in this chapter, with a particular focus on SON interconnections for efficient search. Several applications, such as P2P document and image retrieval, can be deployed over generated SONs, motivating the need for distributed and truly scalable SON creation. Therefore, recently several research papers focus on SONs as stated in our comprehensive overview of related work in the field of semantic overlay networks. A classification of existing algorithms according to a set of qualitative criteria is also provided. In spite of the rich existing work in the field of SONs, several challenges have not been efficiently addressed yet, therefore, future promising research directions are pointed out and discussed at the end of this chapter.

  15. AN IMPROVED EXEMPLAR-BASED IMAGE INPAINTING ALGORITHM FOR ERROR CONCEALMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwang Byongsu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Error concealment is an important technique to improve the video quality in case that the video frame is corrupted during transmission. A spatial error concealment algorithm based on the improved exemplar-based image inpainting is presented. Each corrupted macroblock is separated into sixteen 4×4 blocks, and a 4×4 block-based image inpainting is used for error concealment. In the exemplar-based inpainting process the best matching patch is determined by calculating the weighted sum of squared differences for the available patch regions which includes already concealed blocks. Experimental results show that our proposed method achieves better quality in terms of objective and subjective evaluations compared with the previous algorithms.

  16. "Pre-Semantic" Cognition Revisited: Critical Differences between Semantic Aphasia and Semantic Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies, Elizabeth; Rogers, Timothy T.; Hopper, Samantha; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2010-01-01

    Patients with semantic dementia show a specific pattern of impairment on both verbal and non-verbal "pre-semantic" tasks, e.g., reading aloud, past tense generation, spelling to dictation, lexical decision, object decision, colour decision and delayed picture copying. All seven tasks are characterised by poorer performance for items that are…

  17. An interplay of fusiform gyrus and hippocampus enables prototype- and exemplar-based category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Robert K; Güntürkün, Onur; Suchan, Boris

    2016-09-15

    The aim of the present study was to examine the contributions of different brain structures to prototype- and exemplar-based category learning using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Twenty-eight subjects performed a categorization task in which they had to assign prototypes and exceptions to two different families. This test procedure usually produces different learning curves for prototype and exception stimuli. Our behavioral data replicated these previous findings by showing an initially superior performance for prototypes and typical stimuli and a switch from a prototype-based to an exemplar-based categorization for exceptions in the later learning phases. Since performance varied, we divided participants into learners and non-learners. Analysis of the functional imaging data revealed that the interaction of group (learners vs. non-learners) and block (Block 5 vs. Block 1) yielded an activation of the left fusiform gyrus for the processing of prototypes, and an activation of the right hippocampus for exceptions after learning the categories. Thus, successful prototype- and exemplar-based category learning is associated with activations of complementary neural substrates that constitute object-based processes of the ventral visual stream and their interaction with unique-cue representations, possibly based on sparse coding within the hippocampus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Narrative Exemplars and the Celebrity Spokesperson in Lebanese Anti-Domestic Violence Public Service Announcements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Khoury, Jessica R; Shafer, Autumn

    2016-08-01

    Domestic violence is a worldwide epidemic. This study examines the effects of narrative exemplars and a celebrity spokesperson in anti-domestic violence ads on Lebanese college students' attitudes and beliefs towards domestic violence and whether these effects are impacted by personal experience. The practical significance is derived from the high prevalence of domestic violence internationally, making it important to find ways to effectively use media to address this health-related issue that has huge consequences for the individual and society. This study adds to the theoretical understanding of narrative persuasion and media effects. Results indicated that narrative exemplars in anti-domestic violence ads promoting bystander awareness and intervention were more beneficial for people without relevant experience compared to people who know someone affected by domestic violence. Anti-domestic violence ads without narrative exemplars, but that also featured an emotional self-efficacy appeal targeting bystanders, were more effective for participants who know someone who had experienced domestic violence compared to participants without relevant experience. The presence of a celebrity spokesperson elicited more positive attitudes about the ad than a noncelebrity, but failed to directly affect relevant anti-domestic violence attitudes or beliefs. These results highlight the significance of formative audience research in health communication message design.

  19. K-MEAP: Multiple Exemplars Affinity Propagation With Specified $K$ Clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yangtao; Chen, Lihui

    2016-12-01

    Recently, an attractive clustering approach named multiexemplar affinity propagation (MEAP) has been proposed as an extension to the single exemplar-based AP. MEAP is able to automatically identify multiple exemplars for each cluster associated with a superexemplar. However, if the cluster number is a prior knowledge and can be specified by the user, MEAP is unable to make use of such knowledge directly in its learning process. Instead, it has to rely on rerunning the process as many times as it takes by tuning parameters until it generates the desired number of clusters. The process of MEAP rerunning may be very time-consuming. In this paper, we propose a new clustering algorithm called Multiple Exemplars Affinity Propagation with Specified K Clusters which is able to generate specified K clusters directly while retaining the advantages of MEAP. Two kinds of new additional messages are introduced in K-MEAP in order to control the number of clusters in the process of message passing. Detailed problem formulation, derived messages, and in-depth analysis of the proposed K-MEAP are provided. Experimental studies on 11 real-world data sets with different kinds of applications demonstrate that K-MEAP not only generates K clusters directly and efficiently without tuning parameters but also outperforms related approaches in terms of clustering accuracy.

  20. Semantic enrichment for medical ontologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yugyung; Geller, James

    2006-04-01

    The Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) contains two separate but interconnected knowledge structures, the Semantic Network (upper level) and the Metathesaurus (lower level). In this paper, we have attempted to work out better how the use of such a two-level structure in the medical field has led to notable advances in terminologies and ontologies. However, most ontologies and terminologies do not have such a two-level structure. Therefore, we present a method, called semantic enrichment, which generates a two-level ontology from a given one-level terminology and an auxiliary two-level ontology. During semantic enrichment, concepts of the one-level terminology are assigned to semantic types, which are the building blocks of the upper level of the auxiliary two-level ontology. The result of this process is the desired new two-level ontology. We discuss semantic enrichment of two example terminologies and how we approach the implementation of semantic enrichment in the medical domain. This implementation performs a major part of the semantic enrichment process with the medical terminologies, with difficult cases left to a human expert.

  1. Neural Semantic Encoders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munkhdalai, Tsendsuren; Yu, Hong

    2017-04-01

    We present a memory augmented neural network for natural language understanding: Neural Semantic Encoders. NSE is equipped with a novel memory update rule and has a variable sized encoding memory that evolves over time and maintains the understanding of input sequences through read, compose and write operations. NSE can also access multiple and shared memories. In this paper, we demonstrated the effectiveness and the flexibility of NSE on five different natural language tasks: natural language inference, question answering, sentence classification, document sentiment analysis and machine translation where NSE achieved state-of-the-art performance when evaluated on publically available benchmarks. For example, our shared-memory model showed an encouraging result on neural machine translation, improving an attention-based baseline by approximately 1.0 BLEU.

  2. Adaptive semantics visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Nazemi, Kawa

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces a novel approach for intelligent visualizations that adapts the different visual variables and data processing to human’s behavior and given tasks. Thereby a number of new algorithms and methods are introduced to satisfy the human need of information and knowledge and enable a usable and attractive way of information acquisition. Each method and algorithm is illustrated in a replicable way to enable the reproduction of the entire “SemaVis” system or parts of it. The introduced evaluation is scientifically well-designed and performed with more than enough participants to validate the benefits of the methods. Beside the introduced new approaches and algorithms, readers may find a sophisticated literature review in Information Visualization and Visual Analytics, Semantics and information extraction, and intelligent and adaptive systems. This book is based on an awarded and distinguished doctoral thesis in computer science.

  3. Sequence Semantics for Dynamic Predicate Logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, C.F.M.

    In this paper a semantics for dynamic predicate logic is developed that uses sequence valued assignments. This semantics is compared with the usual relational semantics for dynamic predicate logic: it is shown that the most important intuitions of the usual semantics are preserved. Then it is shown

  4. Requirements Level Semantics for UML Statecharts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, S.F.; Eshuis, H.; Talcott, C.L.; Wieringa, Roelf J.

    We propose a formal real-time semantics for UML statecharts aimed at the requirements level. A requirements-level model assumes perfect technology and has a considerably simpler semantics than an implementation level model. Our semantics is an adaptation of the Statemate statechart semantics, with

  5. A Joint Investigation of Semantic Facilitation and Semantic Interference in Continuous Naming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaltritti, Michele; Peressotti, Francesca; Navarrete, Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    When speakers name multiple semantically related items, opposing effects can be found. Semantic facilitation is found when naming 2 semantically related items in a row. In contrast, semantic interference is found when speakers name semantically related items separated by 1 or more intervening unrelated items. This latter form of interference is…

  6. Semantic acquisition games harnessing manpower for creating semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Šimko, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive and extensive review of state-of-the-art in semantics acquisition game (SAG) design A set of design patterns for SAG designers A set of case studies (real SAG projects) demonstrating the use of SAG design patterns

  7. High Performance Descriptive Semantic Analysis of Semantic Graph Databases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joslyn, Cliff A.; Adolf, Robert D.; al-Saffar, Sinan; Feo, John T.; Haglin, David J.; Mackey, Greg E.; Mizell, David W.

    2011-06-02

    As semantic graph database technology grows to address components ranging from extant large triple stores to SPARQL endpoints over SQL-structured relational databases, it will become increasingly important to be able to understand their inherent semantic structure, whether codified in explicit ontologies or not. Our group is researching novel methods for what we call descriptive semantic analysis of RDF triplestores, to serve purposes of analysis, interpretation, visualization, and optimization. But data size and computational complexity makes it increasingly necessary to bring high performance computational resources to bear on this task. Our research group built a novel high performance hybrid system comprising computational capability for semantic graph database processing utilizing the large multi-threaded architecture of the Cray XMT platform, conventional servers, and large data stores. In this paper we describe that architecture and our methods, and present the results of our analyses of basic properties, connected components, namespace interaction, and typed paths such for the Billion Triple Challenge 2010 dataset.

  8. Workspaces in the Semantic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Shawn R.; Keller, RIchard M.

    2005-01-01

    Due to the recency and relatively limited adoption of Semantic Web technologies. practical issues related to technology scaling have received less attention than foundational issues. Nonetheless, these issues must be addressed if the Semantic Web is to realize its full potential. In particular, we concentrate on the lack of scoping methods that reduce the size of semantic information spaces so they are more efficient to work with and more relevant to an agent's needs. We provide some intuition to motivate the need for such reduced information spaces, called workspaces, give a formal definition, and suggest possible methods of deriving them.

  9. Formal Component-Based Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Madlener

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the proposed solutions for improving the scalability of semantics of programming languages is Component-Based Semantics, introduced by Peter D. Mosses. It is expected that this framework can also be used effectively for modular meta theoretic reasoning. This paper presents a formalization of Component-Based Semantics in the theorem prover Coq. It is based on Modular SOS, a variant of SOS, and makes essential use of dependent types, while profiting from type classes. This formalization constitutes a contribution towards modular meta theoretic formalizations in theorem provers. As a small example, a modular proof of determinism of a mini-language is developed.

  10. Automated Speech and Audio Analysis for Semantic Access to Multimedia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, F.M.G. de; Ordelman, R.; Huijbregts, M.

    2006-01-01

    The deployment and integration of audio processing tools can enhance the semantic annotation of multimedia content, and as a consequence, improve the effectiveness of conceptual access tools. This paper overviews the various ways in which automatic speech and audio analysis can contribute to

  11. Automated speech and audio analysis for semantic access to multimedia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Franciska M.G.; Ordelman, Roeland J.F.; Huijbregts, M.A.H.; Avrithis, Y.; Kompatsiaris, Y.; Staab, S.; O' Connor, N.E.

    2006-01-01

    The deployment and integration of audio processing tools can enhance the semantic annotation of multimedia content, and as a consequence, improve the effectiveness of conceptual access tools. This paper overviews the various ways in which automatic speech and audio analysis can contribute to

  12. Does semantic redundancy gain result from multiple semantic priming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröter, Hannes; Bratzke, Daniel; Fiedler, Anja; Birngruber, Teresa

    2015-10-01

    Fiedler, Schröter, and Ulrich (2013) reported faster responses to a single written word when the semantic content of this word (e.g., "elephant") matched both targets (e.g., "animal", "gray") as compared to a single target (e.g., "animal", "brown"). This semantic redundancy gain was explained by statistical facilitation due to a race of independent memory retrieval processes. The present experiment addresses one alternative explanation, namely that semantic redundancy gain results from multiple pre-activation of words that match both targets. In different blocks of trials, participants performed a redundant-targets task and a lexical decision task. The targets of the redundant-targets task served as primes in the lexical decision task. Replicating the findings of Fiedler et al., a semantic redundancy gain was observed in the redundant-targets task. Crucially, however, there was no evidence of a multiple semantic priming effect in the lexical decision task. This result suggests that semantic redundancy gain cannot be explained by multiple pre-activation of words that match both targets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. From Science to e-Science to Semantic e-Science: A Heliosphysics Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narock, Thomas; Fox, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The past few years have witnessed unparalleled efforts to make scientific data web accessible. The Semantic Web has proven invaluable in this effort; however, much of the literature is devoted to system design, ontology creation, and trials and tribulations of current technologies. In order to fully develop the nascent field of Semantic e-Science we must also evaluate systems in real-world settings. We describe a case study within the field of Heliophysics and provide a comparison of the evolutionary stages of data discovery, from manual to semantically enable. We describe the socio-technical implications of moving toward automated and intelligent data discovery. In doing so, we highlight how this process enhances what is currently being done manually in various scientific disciplines. Our case study illustrates that Semantic e-Science is more than just semantic search. The integration of search with web services, relational databases, and other cyberinfrastructure is a central tenet of our case study and one that we believe has applicability as a generalized research area within Semantic e-Science. This case study illustrates a specific example of the benefits, and limitations, of semantically replicating data discovery. We show examples of significant reductions in time and effort enable by Semantic e-Science; yet, we argue that a "complete" solution requires integrating semantic search with other research areas such as data provenance and web services.

  14. Towards a semantic PACS: Using Semantic Web technology to represent imaging data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Soest, Johan; Lustberg, Tim; Grittner, Detlef; Marshall, M Scott; Persoon, Lucas; Nijsten, Bas; Feltens, Peter; Dekker, Andre

    2014-01-01

    The DICOM standard is ubiquitous within medicine. However, improved DICOM semantics would significantly enhance search operations. Furthermore, databases of current PACS systems are not flexible enough for the demands within image analysis research. In this paper, we investigated if we can use Semantic Web technology, to store and represent metadata of DICOM image files, as well as linking additional computational results to image metadata. Therefore, we developed a proof of concept containing two applications: one to store commonly used DICOM metadata in an RDF repository, and one to calculate imaging biomarkers based on DICOM images, and store the biomarker values in an RDF repository. This enabled us to search for all patients with a gross tumor volume calculated to be larger than 50 cc. We have shown that we can successfully store the DICOM metadata in an RDF repository and are refining our proof of concept with regards to volume naming, value representation, and the applications themselves.

  15. Operational semantics for signal handling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim Strygin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Signals are a lightweight form of interprocess communication in Unix. When a process receives a signal, the control flow is interrupted and a previously installed signal handler is run. Signal handling is reminiscent both of exception handling and concurrent interleaving of processes. In this paper, we investigate different approaches to formalizing signal handling in operational semantics, and compare them in a series of examples. We find the big-step style of operational semantics to be well suited to modelling signal handling. We integrate exception handling with our big-step semantics of signal handling, by adopting the exception convention as defined in the Definition of Standard ML. The semantics needs to capture the complex interactions between signal handling and exception handling.

  16. Semantic priming from crowded words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Su-Ling; He, Sheng; Cavanagh, Patrick

    2012-06-01

    Vision in a cluttered scene is extremely inefficient. This damaging effect of clutter, known as crowding, affects many aspects of visual processing (e.g., reading speed). We examined observers' processing of crowded targets in a lexical decision task, using single-character Chinese words that are compact but carry semantic meaning. Despite being unrecognizable and indistinguishable from matched nonwords, crowded prime words still generated robust semantic-priming effects on lexical decisions for test words presented in isolation. Indeed, the semantic-priming effect of crowded primes was similar to that of uncrowded primes. These findings show that the meanings of words survive crowding even when the identities of the words do not, suggesting that crowding does not prevent semantic activation, a process that may have evolved in the context of a cluttered visual environment.

  17. Semantic Knowledge Representation (SKR) API

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The SKR Project was initiated at NLM in order to develop programs to provide usable semantic representation of biomedical free text by building on resources...

  18. Introduction to semantic e-Science in biomedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yimin

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Semantic Web technologies provide enhanced capabilities that allow data and the meaning of the data to be shared and reused across application, enterprise, and community boundaries, better enabling integrative research and more effective knowledge discovery. This special issue is intended to give an introduction of the state-of-the-art of Semantic Web technologies and describe how such technologies would be used to build the e-Science infrastructure for biomedical communities. Six papers have been selected and included, featuring different approaches and experiences in a variety of biomedical domains.

  19. NASA and The Semantic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashish, Naveen

    2005-01-01

    We provide an overview of several ongoing NASA endeavors based on concepts, systems, and technology from the Semantic Web arena. Indeed NASA has been one of the early adopters of Semantic Web Technology and we describe ongoing and completed R&D efforts for several applications ranging from collaborative systems to airspace information management to enterprise search to scientific information gathering and discovery systems at NASA.

  20. Semantic Ambiguity and Perceived Ambiguity

    OpenAIRE

    Poesio, Massimo

    1995-01-01

    I explore some of the issues that arise when trying to establish a connection between the underspecification hypothesis pursued in the NLP literature and work on ambiguity in semantics and in the psychological literature. A theory of underspecification is developed `from the first principles', i.e., starting from a definition of what it means for a sentence to be semantically ambiguous and from what we know about the way humans deal with ambiguity. An underspecified language is specified as t...

  1. Efficient computation of argumentation semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Liao, Beishui

    2013-01-01

    Efficient Computation of Argumentation Semantics addresses argumentation semantics and systems, introducing readers to cutting-edge decomposition methods that drive increasingly efficient logic computation in AI and intelligent systems. Such complex and distributed systems are increasingly used in the automation and transportation systems field, and particularly autonomous systems, as well as more generic intelligent computation research. The Series in Intelligent Systems publishes titles that cover state-of-the-art knowledge and the latest advances in research and development in intelligen

  2. Semiotes: a semantics for sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazic, T

    2000-12-01

    Reliable, automated communication of biological information requires methods to declare the information's semantics. In this paper I describe an approach to semantic declaration intended to permit independent, distributed databases, algorithms, and servers to exchange and process requests for information and computations without requiring coordination or agreement among them on universe of discourse, data model, schema, or implementation. This approach uses Glossa, a formal language defining the semantics of biological ideas, information, and algorithms, to executably define the semantics of complex ideas and computations by constructs of semiotes, terms which axiomatically define very simple notions. A database or algorithm wishing to exchange information or computations maintains a set of mappings between its particular notions and semiotes, and a parser to translate between its indigenous ideas and implementation and the semiotes. Requests from other databases or algorithms are issued as semiotic messages, locally interpreted and processed, and the results returned as semiotes to the requesting entity. Thus, semiotes serve as a shared, abstract layer of definitions which can be computably combined by each database or algorithm according to its own needs and ideas. By combining the explicit declaration of semantics with the computation of the semantics of complex ideas, Glossa and its semiotes permit independent computational entities to lightly federate their capabilities as desired while maintaining their unique perspectives on both scientific and technical questions.

  3. COTARD SYNDROME IN SEMANTIC DEMENTIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Mario F.; Ramírez-Bermúdez, Jesús

    2011-01-01

    Background Semantic dementia is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of meaning of words or concepts. semantic dementia can offer potential insights into the mechanisms of content-specific delusions. Objective The authors present a rare case of semantic dementia with Cotard syndrome, a delusion characterized by nihilism or self-negation. Method The semantic deficits and other features of semantic dementia were evaluated in relation to the patient's Cotard syndrome. Results Mrs. A developed the delusional belief that she was wasting and dying. This occurred after she lost knowledge for her somatic discomforts and sensations and for the organs that were the source of these sensations. Her nihilistic beliefs appeared to emerge from her misunderstanding of her somatic sensations. Conclusion This unique patient suggests that a mechanism for Cotard syndrome is difficulty interpreting the nature and source of internal pains and sensations. We propose that loss of semantic knowledge about one's own body may lead to the delusion of nihilism or death. PMID:22054629

  4. Toward a brain-based componential semantic representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Jeffrey R; Conant, Lisa L; Humphries, Colin J; Fernandino, Leonardo; Simons, Stephen B; Aguilar, Mario; Desai, Rutvik H

    2016-01-01

    Componential theories of lexical semantics assume that concepts can be represented by sets of features or attributes that are in some sense primitive or basic components of meaning. The binary features used in classical category and prototype theories are problematic in that these features are themselves complex concepts, leaving open the question of what constitutes a primitive feature. The present availability of brain imaging tools has enhanced interest in how concepts are represented in brains, and accumulating evidence supports the claim that these representations are at least partly "embodied" in the perception, action, and other modal neural systems through which concepts are experienced. In this study we explore the possibility of devising a componential model of semantic representation based entirely on such functional divisions in the human brain. We propose a basic set of approximately 65 experiential attributes based on neurobiological considerations, comprising sensory, motor, spatial, temporal, affective, social, and cognitive experiences. We provide normative data on the salience of each attribute for a large set of English nouns, verbs, and adjectives, and show how these attribute vectors distinguish a priori conceptual categories and capture semantic similarity. Robust quantitative differences between concrete object categories were observed across a large number of attribute dimensions. A within- versus between-category similarity metric showed much greater separation between categories than representations derived from distributional (latent semantic) analysis of text. Cluster analyses were used to explore the similarity structure in the data independent of a priori labels, revealing several novel category distinctions. We discuss how such a representation might deal with various longstanding problems in semantic theory, such as feature selection and weighting, representation of abstract concepts, effects of context on semantic retrieval, and

  5. Graph-based Operational Semantics of a Lazy Functional Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Kristoffer Høgsbro

    1992-01-01

    Presents Graph Operational Semantics (GOS): a semantic specification formalism based on structural operational semantics and term graph rewriting. Demonstrates the method by specifying the dynamic ...

  6. Semantic Similarity Based on Corpus Statistics and Lexical Taxonomy

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, J J; Jiang, Jay J.; Conrath, David W.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach for measuring semantic similarity/distance between words and concepts. It combines a lexical taxonomy structure with corpus statistical information so that the semantic distance between nodes in the semantic space constructed by the taxonomy can be better quantified with the computational evidence derived from a distributional analysis of corpus data. Specifically, the proposed measure is a combined approach that inherits the edge-based approach of the edge counting scheme, which is then enhanced by the node-based approach of the information content calculation. When tested on a common data set of word pair similarity ratings, the proposed approach outperforms other computational models. It gives the highest correlation value (r = 0.828) with a benchmark based on human similarity judgements, whereas an upper bound (r = 0.885) is observed when human subjects replicate the same task.

  7. Semantic Workflows and Provenance-Aware Software (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Workflows are increasingly used in science to manage complex computations and data processing at large scale. Intelligent workflow systems provide assistance in setting up parameters and data, validating workflows created by users, and automating the generation of workflows from high-level user guidance. These systems use semantic workflows that extend workflow representations with semantic constraints that express characteristics of the data and analytic models. Reasoning algorithms propagate these semantic constraints throughout the workflow structure, select executable components for underspecified steps, and suggest parameter values. Semantic workflows also enhance provenance records with abstract steps that reflect the overall data analysis method rather than just execution traces. Intelligent workflow systems are provenance-aware, since they both use and generate provenance and metadata as the data is being processed. Provenance-aware software enhances scientific analysis by propagating upstream metadata and provenance to new data products. Through the use of provenance standards, such as the recent W3C PROV recommendation for provenance on the Web, provenance-aware software can significantly enhance scientific data analysis, publication, and reuse. New capabilities are enabled when provenance is brought to the forefront in the design of software systems for science.

  8. Whither Experimental Semantics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Devitt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the paper is to propose a methodology for the theory of reference in which experiments feature prominently. These experiments should primarily test linguistic usage rather than the folk’s referential intuitions. The proposed methodology urges the use of: (A philosophers’ referential intuitions, both informally and, occasionally, scientifically gathered; (B the corpus, both informally and scientifically gathered; (C elicited production; and, occasionally, (D folk’s referential intuitions. The most novel part of this is (C and that is where most of the experimental work should be. The secondary goal of the paper is to defend my earlier paper “Experimental Semantics” from the criticisms of Machery, Mallon, Nichols, and Stich in “If Folk Intuitions Vary, Then What?” They charge that I have seriously misunderstood their goal in “Semantics, Cross-Cultural Style” and that many of my arguments are “largely irrelevant”. I argue that these charges are baseless.

  9. SCALEUS: Semantic Web Services Integration for Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sernadela, Pedro; González-Castro, Lorena; Oliveira, José Luís

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, we have witnessed an explosion of biological data resulting largely from the demands of life science research. The vast majority of these data are freely available via diverse bioinformatics platforms, including relational databases and conventional keyword search applications. This type of approach has achieved great results in the last few years, but proved to be unfeasible when information needs to be combined or shared among different and scattered sources. During recent years, many of these data distribution challenges have been solved with the adoption of semantic web. Despite the evident benefits of this technology, its adoption introduced new challenges related with the migration process, from existent systems to the semantic level. To facilitate this transition, we have developed Scaleus, a semantic web migration tool that can be deployed on top of traditional systems in order to bring knowledge, inference rules, and query federation to the existent data. Targeted at the biomedical domain, this web-based platform offers, in a single package, straightforward data integration and semantic web services that help developers and researchers in the creation process of new semantically enhanced information systems. SCALEUS is available as open source at http://bioinformatics-ua.github.io/scaleus/ .

  10. Exemplarity in Mathematics Education: from a Romanticist Viewpoint to a Modern Hermeneutical One

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patronis, Tasos; Spanos, Dimitris

    2013-08-01

    This paper proposes a setting of exemplarity different from the already known one, which is basically a Romanticist philosophical setting. Our general aim is to describe and explore the nature of some exemplary themes and interpretive models in advanced mathematics teaching and learning. In order to do so, we move from Romanticism towards the viewpoint of Modern Hermeneutics, by applying ideas appearing mainly in Gadamer and Ricoeur. We use this new setting as a philosophical framework, to interpret some results from two didactical research studies that have already appeared on infinitesimals.

  11. Similar exemplar pooling processes underlie the learning of facial identity and handwriting style: Evidence from typical observers and individuals with Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipser, Alberta; Ring, Melanie; Murphy, Jennifer; Gaigg, Sebastian B; Cook, Richard

    2016-05-01

    Considerable research has addressed whether the cognitive and neural representations recruited by faces are similar to those engaged by other types of visual stimuli. For example, research has examined the extent to which objects of expertise recruit holistic representation and engage the fusiform face area. Little is known, however, about the domain-specificity of the exemplar pooling processes thought to underlie the acquisition of familiarity with particular facial identities. In the present study we sought to compare observers' ability to learn facial identities and handwriting styles from exposure to multiple exemplars. Crucially, while handwritten words and faces differ considerably in their topographic form, both learning tasks share a common exemplar pooling component. In our first experiment, we find that typical observers' ability to learn facial identities and handwriting styles from exposure to multiple exemplars correlates closely. In our second experiment, we show that observers with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are impaired at both learning tasks. Our findings suggest that similar exemplar pooling processes are recruited when learning facial identities and handwriting styles. Models of exemplar pooling originally developed to explain face learning, may therefore offer valuable insights into exemplar pooling across a range of domains, extending beyond faces. Aberrant exemplar pooling, possibly resulting from structural differences in the inferior longitudinal fasciculus, may underlie difficulties recognising familiar faces often experienced by individuals with ASD, and leave observers overly reliant on local details present in particular exemplars. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Process-oriented semantic web search

    CERN Document Server

    Tran, DT

    2011-01-01

    The book is composed of two main parts. The first part is a general study of Semantic Web Search. The second part specifically focuses on the use of semantics throughout the search process, compiling a big picture of Process-oriented Semantic Web Search from different pieces of work that target specific aspects of the process.In particular, this book provides a rigorous account of the concepts and technologies proposed for searching resources and semantic data on the Semantic Web. To collate the various approaches and to better understand what the notion of Semantic Web Search entails, this bo

  13. Spatial and Semantic Processing between Audition and Vision: An Event-Related Potential Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxi Chen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Using a crossmodal priming paradigm, this study investigated how the brain bound the spatial and semantic features in multisensory processing. The visual stimuli (pictures of animals were presented after the auditory stimuli (sounds of animals, and the stimuli from different modalities may match spatially (or semantically or not. Participants were required to detect the head orientation of the visual target (an oddball paradigm. The event-related potentials (ERPs to the visual stimuli was enhanced by spatial attention (150–170 ms irrespectively of semantic information. The early crossmodal attention effect for the visual stimuli was more negative in the spatial-congruent condition than in the spatial-incongruent condition. By contrast, the later effects of spatial ERPs were significant only for the semantic- congruent condition (250–300 ms. These findings indicated that spatial attention modulated early visual processing, and semantic and spatial features were simultaneously used to orient attention and modulate later processing stages.

  14. Building a biomedical semantic network in Wikipedia with Semantic Wiki Links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Benjamin M; Clarke, Erik L; Loguercio, Salvatore; Su, Andrew I

    2012-01-01

    Wikipedia is increasingly used as a platform for collaborative data curation, but its current technical implementation has significant limitations that hinder its use in biocuration applications. Specifically, while editors can easily link between two articles in Wikipedia to indicate a relationship, there is no way to indicate the nature of that relationship in a way that is computationally accessible to the system or to external developers. For example, in addition to noting a relationship between a gene and a disease, it would be useful to differentiate the cases where genetic mutation or altered expression causes the disease. Here, we introduce a straightforward method that allows Wikipedia editors to embed computable semantic relations directly in the context of current Wikipedia articles. In addition, we demonstrate two novel applications enabled by the presence of these new relationships. The first is a dynamically generated information box that can be rendered on all semantically enhanced Wikipedia articles. The second is a prototype gene annotation system that draws its content from the gene-centric articles on Wikipedia and exposes the new semantic relationships to enable previously impossible, user-defined queries. DATABASE URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portal:Gene_Wiki.

  15. Preservation of the Semantic Verbal Fluency Advantage in a Large Population-Based Sample: Normative Data from the TILDA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Roisin M; Coen, Robert F; Kenny, RoseAnne; Lawlor, Brian A

    2016-05-01

    It is widely believed that phonemic fluency is more difficult than naming exemplars from a semantic category. Normative data in this regard are scarce, and there is considerable disagreement in the literature regarding the pattern in normal ageing and neurodegenerative conditions. Our objective was to provide normative data for semantic phonemic discrepancy scores from a large sample of older adults. A total of 5780 community-dwelling older adults were included in this prospective, longitudinal study. Discrepancy scores were calculated by subtracting phonemic fluency score from semantic fluency score for each participant. Quantile regression was used to estimate normative values stratified for age. Subjects did better on testing of semantic fluency. The average discrepancy score was 9.18±6.89 words, (range, -20 to 37; n=5780). At the fiftieth percentile, those in their fifth decade produced 10 more "animals" than "letter F" words. Subjects scored one word less per decade, with an average of seven more "animal" words produced by those in their eighth decade. Our study is the first to provide normative data and confirms that, for animal versus letter F fluency, the semantic advantage persists into later life in a population-based sample of community-dwelling older adults. Given that a majority of clinical samples have confirmed a reverse of this pattern in Alzheimer's dementia (i.e., loss of semantic advantage in Alzheimer's disease, yielding a phonemic advantage), our findings support the clinical utility of brief fluency tests and encourage further research into their use in diagnosis and prediction of progression to dementia.

  16. Semantic Support for Complex Ecosystem Research Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klawonn, M.; McGuinness, D. L.; Pinheiro, P.; Santos, H. O.; Chastain, K.

    2015-12-01

    . Further we will present learnings from its use in three relatively diverse large ecosystem research efforts and highlight some benefits and challenges related to our semantically-enhanced foundation.

  17. Interpretable exemplar-based shape classification using constrained sparse linear models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdsson, Gunnar A; Yang, Zhen; Tran, Trac D; Prince, Jerry L

    2015-02-01

    Many types of diseases manifest themselves as observable changes in the shape of the affected organs. Using shape classification, we can look for signs of disease and discover relationships between diseases. We formulate the problem of shape classification in a holistic framework that utilizes a lossless scalar field representation and a non-parametric classification based on sparse recovery. This framework generalizes over certain classes of unseen shapes while using the full information of the shape, bypassing feature extraction. The output of the method is the class whose combination of exemplars most closely approximates the shape, and furthermore, the algorithm returns the most similar exemplars along with their similarity to the shape, which makes the result simple to interpret. Our results show that the method offers accurate classification between three cerebellar diseases and controls in a database of cerebellar ataxia patients. For reproducible comparison, promising results are presented on publicly available 2D datasets, including the ETH-80 dataset where the method achieves 88.4% classification accuracy.

  18. Towards Compatible and Interderivable Semantic Specifications for the Scheme Programming Language, Part I: Denotational Semantics, Natural Semantics, and Abstract Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    We derive two big-step abstract machines, a natural semantics, and the valuation function of a denotational semantics based on the small-step abstract machine for Core Scheme presented by Clinger at PLDI'98. Starting from a functional implementation of this small-step abstract machine, (1) we fus...... of a denotational semantics in continuation-passing style.  We then compare this valuation function with that of Clinger's original denotational semantics of Scheme....

  19. Effects of iconicity and semantic relatedness on lexical access in american sign language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosworth, Rain G; Emmorey, Karen

    2010-11-01

    Iconicity is a property that pervades the lexicon of many sign languages, including American Sign Language (ASL). Iconic signs exhibit a motivated, nonarbitrary mapping between the form of the sign and its meaning. We investigated whether iconicity enhances semantic priming effects for ASL and whether iconic signs are recognized more quickly than noniconic signs are (controlling for strength of iconicity, semantic relatedness, familiarity, and imageability). Twenty deaf signers made lexical decisions to the 2nd item of a prime-target pair. Iconic target signs were preceded by prime signs that were (a) iconic and semantically related, (b) noniconic and semantically related, or (c) semantically unrelated. In addition, a set of noniconic target signs was preceded by semantically unrelated primes. Significant facilitation was observed for target signs when they were preceded by semantically related primes. However, iconicity did not increase the priming effect (e.g., the target sign PIANO was primed equally by the iconic sign GUITAR and the noniconic sign MUSIC). In addition, iconic signs were not recognized faster or more accurately than were noniconic signs. These results confirm the existence of semantic priming for sign language and suggest that iconicity does not play a robust role in online lexical processing.

  20. Action semantics modulate action prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Anne; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2010-11-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that action prediction involves an internal action simulation that runs time-locked to the real action. The present study replicates and extends these findings by indicating a real-time simulation process (Graf et al., 2007), which can be differentiated from a similarity-based evaluation of internal action representations. Moreover, results showed that action semantics modulate action prediction accuracy. The semantic effect was specified by the processing of action verbs and concrete nouns (Experiment 1) and, more specifically, by the dynamics described by action verbs (Experiment 2) and the speed described by the verbs (e.g., "to catch" vs. "to grasp" vs. "to stretch"; Experiment 3). These results propose a linkage between action simulation and action semantics as two yet unrelated domains, a view that coincides with a recent notion of a close link between motor processes and the understanding of action language.

  1. Compiling Dictionaries Using Semantic Domains*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Moe

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: The task of providing dictionaries for all the world's languages is prodigious, re-quiring efficient techniques. The text corpus method cannot be used for minority languages lacking texts. To meet the need, the author has constructed a list of 1 600 semantic domains, which he has successfully used to collect words. In a workshop setting, a group of speakers can collect as many as 17 000 words in ten days. This method results in a classified word list that can be efficiently expanded into a full dictionary. The method works because the mental lexicon is a giant web or-ganized around key concepts. A semantic domain can be defined as an important concept together with the words directly related to it by lexical relations. A person can utilize the mental web to quickly jump from word to word within a domain. The author is developing a template for each domain to aid in collecting words and in de-scribing their semantics. Investigating semantics within the context of a domain yields many in-sights. The method permits the production of both alphabetically and semantically organized dic-tionaries. The list of domains is intended to be universal in scope and applicability. Perhaps due to universals of human experience and universals of linguistic competence, there are striking simi-larities in various lists of semantic domains developed for languages around the world. Using a standardized list of domains to classify multiple dictionaries opens up possibilities for cross-lin-guistic research into semantic and lexical universals.

    Keywords: SEMANTIC DOMAINS, SEMANTIC FIELDS, SEMANTIC CATEGORIES, LEX-ICAL RELATIONS, SEMANTIC PRIMITIVES, DOMAIN TEMPLATES, MENTAL LEXICON, SEMANTIC UNIVERSALS, MINORITY LANGUAGES, LEXICOGRAPHY

    Opsomming: Samestelling van woordeboeke deur gebruikmaking van se-mantiese domeine. Die taak van die voorsiening van woordeboeke aan al die tale van die wêreld is geweldig en vereis doeltreffende tegnieke. Die

  2. Compiling dictionaries using semantic domains | Moe | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    larities in various lists of semantic domains developed for languages around the world. Using a standardized list of domains to classify multiple dictionaries opens up possibilities for cross-lin-guistic research into semantic and lexical universals.

  3. Formal Language Decomposition into Semantic Primes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes FÄHNDRICH

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an algorithm for semantic decomposition. For that we surveys languages used to enrich contextual information with semantic descriptions. Such descriptions can be e.g. applied to enable reasoning when collecting vast amounts of information. In particular, we focus on the elements of the languages that make up their semantic. To do so, we compare the expressiveness of the well-known languages OWL, PDDL and MOF with a theory from linguistic called the Natural Semantic Metalanguage. We then analyze how the semantic of the language is build up and describe how semantic decomposition based on the semantic primes can be used for a so called mental lexicon. This mental lexicon can be used to reason upon semantic service description in the research domain of service match making.

  4. The semantic structure of gratitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smirnov, Alexander V.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the modern social and economic environment of Russia, gratitude might be considered an ambiguous phenomenon. It can have different meaning for a person in different contexts and can manifest itself differently as well (that is, as an expression of sincere feelings or as an element of corruption. In this respect it is topical to investigate the system of meanings and relationships that define the semantic space of gratitude. The goal of the study was the investigation and description of the content and structure of the semantic space of the gratitude phenomenon as well as the determination of male, female, age, and ethnic peculiarities of the expression of gratitude. The objective was achieved by using the semantic differential designed by the authors to investigate attitudes toward gratitude. This investigation was carried out with the participation of 184 respondents (Russians, Tatars, Ukrainians, Jews living in the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Israel, Australia, Canada, and the United Kingdom and identifying themselves as representatives of one of these nationalities. The structural components of gratitude were singled out by means of exploratory factor analysis of the empirical data from the designed semantic differential. Gender, age, and ethnic differences were differentiated by means of Student’s t-test. Gratitude can be represented by material and nonmaterial forms as well as by actions in response to help given. The empirical data allowed us to design the ethnically nonspecified semantic structure of gratitude. During the elaboration of the differential, semantic universals of gratitude, which constitute its psychosemantic content, were distinguished. Peculiarities of attitudes toward gratitude by those in different age and gender groups were revealed. Differences in the degree of manifestation of components of the psychosemantic structure of gratitude related to ethnic characteristics were not discovered

  5. A Modular Rewriting Semantics for CML

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chalub, Fabricio; Braga, Christiano de Oliveira

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a modular rewriting semantics (MRS) specification for Reppy's Concurrent ML (CML), based on Peter Mosses' modular structural operational semantics specification for CML. A modular rewriting semantics specification for a programming language is a rewrite theory in rewriting logic...... of rewriting logic, and to verify CML programs using Maude's built-in LTL model checker. It is assumed that the reader is familiar with basic concepts of structural operational semantics and algebraic specifications....

  6. Semantic reclassification of the UMLS concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jung-Wei; Friedman, Carol

    2008-09-01

    Accurate semantic classification is valuable for text mining and knowledge-based tasks that perform inference based on semantic classes. To benefit applications using the semantic classification of the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) concepts, we automatically reclassified the concepts based on their lexical and contextual features. The new classification is useful for auditing the original UMLS semantic classification and for building biomedical text mining applications. http://www.dbmi.columbia.edu/~juf7002/reclassify_production

  7. A generalized notion of semantic independence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fränzle, Martin; Stengel, Bernhard von; Wittmüss, Arne

    1995-01-01

    For programs represented semantically as relations, a concept of semantic independence is defined that is more general than previously stated notions. It allows for shared input variables and irrelevant interference due to nondeterminism.......For programs represented semantically as relations, a concept of semantic independence is defined that is more general than previously stated notions. It allows for shared input variables and irrelevant interference due to nondeterminism....

  8. Comparison and Evaluation of Semantic Search Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Raheleh Dorri

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we evaluate the performance of five semantic search engines that are available on the web, using 45 criteria, in the form of a researcher-made checklist. Criteria provided in the checklist included both common and semantic features. Common criteria or features are those applicable to all search engines and semantic ones are those only applicable to semantic search engines. Findings show that the selected search engines do not have suitable performance and expected efficiency. D...

  9. Matching Alternative Addresses: a Semantic Web Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariannamazi, S.; Karimipour, F.; Hakimpour, F.

    2015-12-01

    Rapid development of crowd-sourcing or volunteered geographic information (VGI) provides opportunities for authoritatives that deal with geospatial information. Heterogeneity of multiple data sources and inconsistency of data types is a key characteristics of VGI datasets. The expansion of cities resulted in the growing number of POIs in the OpenStreetMap, a well-known VGI source, which causes the datasets to outdate in short periods of time. These changes made to spatial and aspatial attributes of features such as names and addresses might cause confusion or ambiguity in the processes that require feature's literal information like addressing and geocoding. VGI sources neither will conform specific vocabularies nor will remain in a specific schema for a long period of time. As a result, the integration of VGI sources is crucial and inevitable in order to avoid duplication and the waste of resources. Information integration can be used to match features and qualify different annotation alternatives for disambiguation. This study enhances the search capabilities of geospatial tools with applications able to understand user terminology to pursuit an efficient way for finding desired results. Semantic web is a capable tool for developing technologies that deal with lexical and numerical calculations and estimations. There are a vast amount of literal-spatial data representing the capability of linguistic information in knowledge modeling, but these resources need to be harmonized based on Semantic Web standards. The process of making addresses homogenous generates a helpful tool based on spatial data integration and lexical annotation matching and disambiguating.

  10. Secure Sensor Semantic Web and Information Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-25

    Matrix Anal. Appl ., vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 1812–1834, Mar. 2010. 5 K. Hoffman, D. Zage, and C. Nita-Rotaru, “A survey of attack and defense techniques...published FBI reports. This research significantly expanded semantic analysis of free text by 1) quantifying semantic content and semantic context, 2

  11. CASL The Common Algebraic Specification Language Semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne

    1998-01-01

    This is version 1.0 of the CASL Language Summary, annotated by the CoFI Semantics Task Group with the semantics of constructs. This is the first complete but possibly imperfect version of the semantics. It was compiled prior to the CoFI workshop at Cachan in November 1998....

  12. Semantic Vector Space Model: Implementation and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Geoffrey Z.

    1997-01-01

    Presents the Semantic Vector Space Model, a text representation and searching technique based on the combination of Vector Space Model with heuristic syntax parsing and distributed representation of semantic case structures. In this model, both documents and queries are represented as semantic matrices, and retrieval is achieved by computing…

  13. Semantic Web Technologies for Digital Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajab Abd al-Hamed

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available An article about the semantic web, it begins with defining the semantic web and its importance, then talks about the ontology relations, then the role of the semantic web in digital libraries, and its features which will serve digital libraries.

  14. Chinese Character Decoding: A Semantic Bias?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Clay; Bever, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The effects of semantic and phonetic radicals on Chinese character decoding were examined. Our results suggest that semantic and phonetic radicals are each available for access when a corresponding task emphasizes one or the other kind of radical. But in a more neutral lexical recognition task, the semantic radical is more informative. Semantic…

  15. Semantic Weight and Verb Retrieval in Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barde, Laura H. F.; Schwartz, Myrna F.; Boronat, Consuelo B.

    2006-01-01

    Individuals with agrammatic aphasia may have difficulty with verb production in comparison to nouns. Additionally, they may have greater difficulty producing verbs that have fewer semantic components (i.e., are semantically "light") compared to verbs that have greater semantic weight. A connectionist verb-production model proposed by Gordon and…

  16. Denotational semantics for thread algebra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vu, T.D.

    2008-01-01

    This paper gives a denotational semantics for thread algebra (TA), an algebraic framework for the description and analysis of recent programming languages such as C# and Java [J.A. Bergstra, C.A. Middelburg, Thread algebra for strategic interleaving, Formal Aspects of Computing, in press.

  17. The Semantic Web in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohler, Jason

    2008-01-01

    The semantic web or Web 3.0 makes information more meaningful to people by making it more understandable to machines. In this article, the author examines the implications of Web 3.0 for education. The author considers three areas of impact: knowledge construction, personal learning network maintenance, and personal educational administration.…

  18. Semantic Reasoning for Scene Interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Baunegaard With; Baseski, Emre; Pugeault, Nicolas

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a hierarchical architecture for representing scenes, covering 2D and 3D aspects of visual scenes as well as the semantic relations between the different aspects. We argue that labeled graphs are a suitable representational framework for this representation and demonstrat...

  19. SEMSIN SEMANTIC AND SYNTACTIC PARSER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. K. Boyarsky

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the principle of operation for SemSin semantic and syntactic parser creating a dependency tree for the Russian language sentences. The parser consists of 4 blocks: a dictionary, morphological analyzer, production rules and lexical analyzer. An important logical part of the parser is pre-syntactical module, which harmonizes and complements morphological analysis results, separates the text paragraphs into individual sentences, and also carries out predisambiguation. Characteristic feature of the presented parser is an open type of control – it is done by means of a set of production rules. A varied set of commands provides the ability to both morphological and semantic-syntactic analysis of the sentence. The paper presents the sequence of rules usage and examples of their work. Specific feature of the rules is the decision making on establishment of syntactic links with simultaneous removal of the morphological and semantic ambiguity. The lexical analyzer provides the execution of commands and rules, and manages the parser in manual or automatic modes of the text analysis. In the first case, the analysis is performed interactively with the possibility of step-by-step execution of the rules and scanning the resulting parse tree. In the second case, analysis results are filed in an xml-file. Active usage of syntactic and semantic dictionary information gives the possibility to reduce significantly the ambiguity of parsing. In addition to marking the text, the parser is also usable as a tool for information extraction from natural language texts.

  20. Are Some Semantic Changes Predictable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, Steen

    2010-01-01

      Historical linguistics is traditionally concerned with phonology and syntax. With the exception of grammaticalization - the development of auxiliary verbs, the syntactic rather than localistic use of prepositions, etc. - semantic change has usually not been described as a result of regular...

  1. Russian nominal semantics and morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård-Sørensen, Jens

    The principal idea behind this book is that lexis and grammar make up a single coherent structure. It is shown that the grammatical patterns of the different classes of Russian nominals are closely interconnected. They can be described as reflecting a limited set of semantic distinctions which ar...

  2. Towards semantic software engineering enviroments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falbo, R.A.; Guizzardi, G.; Natali, A.; Bertollo, G.; Ruy, F.; Mian, P.; Tortora, G.; Chang, S.K.

    2002-01-01

    Software tools processing partially common set of data should share an understanding of what these data mean. Since ontologies have been used to express formally a shared understanding of information, we argue that they are a way towards Semantic SEEs. In this paper we discuss an ontology-based

  3. Action representation: crosstalk between semantics and pragmatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinz, Wolfgang

    2014-03-01

    Marc Jeannerod pioneered a representational approach to movement and action. In his approach, motor representations provide both, declarative knowledge about action and procedural knowledge for action (action semantics and action pragmatics, respectively). Recent evidence from language comprehension and action simulation supports the claim that action pragmatics and action semantics draw on common representational resources, thus challenging the traditional divide between declarative and procedural action knowledge. To account for these observations, three kinds of theoretical frameworks are discussed: (i) semantics is grounded in pragmatics, (ii) pragmatics is anchored in semantics, and (iii) pragmatics is part and parcel of semantics. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Semantic mappings and locality of nursing diagnostic concepts in UMLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Youn; Coenen, Amy; Hardiker, Nicholas

    2012-02-01

    One solution for enhancing the interoperability between nursing information systems, given the availability of multiple nursing terminologies, is to cross-map existing nursing concepts. The Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) developed and distributed by the National Library of Medicine (NLM) is a knowledge resource containing cross-mappings of various terminologies in a unified framework. While the knowledge resource has been available for the last two decades, little research on the representation of nursing terminologies in UMLS has been conducted. As a first step, UMLS semantic mappings and concept locality were examined for nursing diagnostic concepts or problems selected from three terminologies (i.e., CCC, ICNP, and NANDA-I) along with corresponding SNOMED CT concepts. The evaluation of UMLS semantic mappings was conducted by measuring the proportion of concordance between UMLS and human expert mappings. The semantic locality of nursing diagnostic concepts was assessed by examining the associations of select concepts and the placement of the nursing concepts on the Semantic Network and Group. The study found that the UMLS mappings of CCC and NANDA-I concepts to SNOMED CT were highly concordant to expert mappings. The level of concordance in mappings of ICNP to SNOMED CT, CCC and NANDA-I within UMLS was relatively low, indicating the need for further research and development. Likewise, the semantic locality of ICNP concepts could be further improved. Various stakeholders need to collaborate to enhance the NLM knowledge resource and the interoperability of nursing data within the discipline as well as across health-related disciplines. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The semantic mapping of words and co-words in contexts

    OpenAIRE

    Leydesdorff, Loet; Welbers, Kasper

    2010-01-01

    Meaning can be generated when information is related at a systemic level. Such a system can be an observer, but also a discourse, for example, operationalized as a set of documents. The measurement of semantics as similarity in patterns (correlations) and latent variables (factor analysis) has been enhanced by computer techniques and the use of statistics; for example, in "Latent Semantic Analysis". This communication provides an introduction, an example, pointers to relevant software, and su...

  6. Transformational leadership required to design and sustain evidence-based practice: a system exemplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Linda Q; Sitterding, Mary Cathryn

    2011-04-01

    In a pay-for-performance environment, implementing and sustaining evidence-based practice (EBP) is no longer a luxury but a necessity. A critical driving force for EBP is that our communities-the people we serve-expect to receive care based on the best available evidence. Transformational nursing leadership is required to create an infrastructure that influences organizational factors, processes and expectations, thus enabling the sustainability of EBP. The American Nurses Credentialing Center and the American Organization of Nurse Executives provide a framework for nursing leaders to consider when designing EBP implementation structures. This exemplar illustrates nursing leadership competencies with regard to implementation and sustainability of EBP within a multihospital system.

  7. Exemplar-based inpainting: technical review and new heuristics for better geometric reconstructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyssens, Pierre; Daisy, Maxime; Tschumperle, David; Lezoray, Olivier

    2015-06-01

    This paper proposes a technical review of exemplar-based inpainting approaches with a particular focus on greedy methods. Several comparative and illustrative experiments are provided to deeply explore and enlighten these methods, and to have a better understanding on the state-of-the-art improvements of these approaches. From this analysis, three improvements over Criminisi et al. algorithm are then presented and detailed: 1) a tensor-based data term for a better selection of pixel candidates to fill in; 2) a fast patch lookup strategy to ensure a better global coherence of the reconstruction; and 3) a novel fast anisotropic spatial blending algorithm that reduces typical block artifacts using tensor models. Relevant comparisons with the state-of-the-art inpainting methods are provided that exhibit the effectiveness of our contributions.

  8. What is 'needed' to keep remembering? War-specific communication, parental exemplar behaviour and participation in national commemorations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coopmans, M.; Lippe, A.G. van der; Lubbers, M.

    2017-01-01

    Given the abundance of literature on collective memory practices, there is relatively little empirical research on the socialization processes explaining the transmission of such practices. This article examines to what extent war-specific communication and parental exemplar behaviour function as a

  9. Opportunities in the integration of primary care and public health nursing: Two case exemplars on physical activity and nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Agnew, Robin A; Mayer, Kala A; Miller, Lori L L

    2018-01-01

    The integration of primary care and public health nursing may provide new opportunities for transforming nursing practice that addresses population health. Effective programs emphasize multilevel approaches that include both downstream (education) and upstream (policy change) actions. The purpose of this article is to identify downstream and upstream nursing actions that integrate public health and primary care practice through two case exemplars concerning disparities in physical activity and nutrition. Describe two research case exemplars: (1) a secondary analysis of school physical activity policy for female adolescents in 36 public middle schools and (2) a focus group study of African American adults in a community kitchen program. In exemplar 1, school policies lacked population-based standards and presented structural disadvantages to African American girls who were already obese. In exemplar 2, participants found the community kitchen program to be more effective than the federally funded nutrition program. Integrating primary care and public health nursing could improve the tailoring of physical activity and nutrition programs to local populations by following core principles of community engagement, infrastructural sustainability, aligned leadership, and data sharing for population health improvement. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. A Survey of Exemplar Teachers' Perceptions, Use, and Access of Computer-Based Games and Technology for Classroom Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Michael D.; Marks, Yaela

    2013-01-01

    This research reports and analyzes for archival purposes surveyed perceptions, use, and access by 259 United States based exemplar Primary and Secondary educators of computer-based games and technology for classroom instruction. Participating respondents were considered exemplary as they each won the Milken Educator Award during the 1996-2009…

  11. Open PHACTS: semantic interoperability for drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Antony J; Harland, Lee; Groth, Paul; Pettifer, Stephen; Chichester, Christine; Willighagen, Egon L; Evelo, Chris T; Blomberg, Niklas; Ecker, Gerhard; Goble, Carole; Mons, Barend

    2012-11-01

    Open PHACTS is a public-private partnership between academia, publishers, small and medium sized enterprises and pharmaceutical companies. The goal of the project is to deliver and sustain an 'open pharmacological space' using and enhancing state-of-the-art semantic web standards and technologies. It is focused on practical and robust applications to solve specific questions in drug discovery research. OPS is intended to facilitate improvements in drug discovery in academia and industry and to support open innovation and in-house non-public drug discovery research. This paper lays out the challenges and how the Open PHACTS project is hoping to address these challenges technically and socially. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Region filling and object removal by exemplar-based image inpainting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criminisi, Antonio; Pérez, Patrick; Toyama, Kentaro

    2004-09-01

    A new algorithm is proposed for removing large objects from digital images. The challenge is to fill in the hole that is left behind in a visually plausible way. In the past, this problem has been addressed by two classes of algorithms: 1) "texture synthesis" algorithms for generating large image regions from sample textures and 2) "inpainting" techniques for filling in small image gaps. The former has been demonstrated for "textures"--repeating two-dimensional patterns with some stochasticity; the latter focus on linear "structures" which can be thought of as one-dimensional patterns, such as lines and object contours. This paper presents a novel and efficient algorithm that combines the advantages of these two approaches. We first note that exemplar-based texture synthesis contains the essential process required to replicate both texture and structure; the success of structure propagation, however, is highly dependent on the order in which the filling proceeds. We propose a best-first algorithm in which the confidence in the synthesized pixel values is propagated in a manner similar to the propagation of information in inpainting. The actual color values are computed using exemplar-based synthesis. In this paper, the simultaneous propagation of texture and structure information is achieved by a single, efficient algorithm. Computational efficiency is achieved by a block-based sampling process. A number of examples on real and synthetic images demonstrate the effectiveness of our algorithm in removing large occluding objects, as well as thin scratches. Robustness with respect to the shape of the manually selected target region is also demonstrated. Our results compare favorably to those obtained by existing techniques.

  13. A Semantics for Distributed Execution of Statemate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fränzle, Martin; Niehaus, Jürgen; Metzner, Alexander

    2003-01-01

    We present a semantics for the statechart variant implemented in the Statemate product of i-Logix. Our semantics enables distributed code generation for Statemate models in the context of rapid prototyping for embedded control applications. We argue that it seems impossible to efficiently generate...... distributed code using the original Statemate semantics. The new, distributed semantics has the advantages that, first, it enables the generation of efficient distributed code, second, it preserves many aspects of the original semantics for those parts of a model that are not distributed, and third......, the changes made regarding the interaction of distributed model parts are similar to the interaction between the model and its environment in the original semantics, thus giving designers a familiar execution model. The semantics has been implemented in Grace, a framework for rapid prototyping code generation...

  14. Semantic-based technique for thai documents plagiarism detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorawat Prapanitisatian

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Plagiarism is the act of taking another person's writing or idea without referring to the source of information. This is one of major problems in educational institutes. There is a number of plagiarism detection software available on the Internet. However, a few numbers of them works. Typically, they use a simple method for plagiarism detection e.g. string matching. The main weakness of this method is it cannot detect the plagiarism when the author replaces some words using synonyms. As such, this paper presents a new technique for a semantic-based plagiarism detection using Semantic Role Labeling (SRL and term weighting. SRL is deployed in order to calculate the semantic-based similarity. The main different from the existing framework is terms in a sentence are weighted dynamically depending on their roles in the sentence e.g. subject, verb or object. This technique enhances the plagiarism detection mechanism more efficiently than existing system although positions of terms in a sentence are reordered. The experimental results show that the proposed method can detect the plagiarism document more effective than the existing methods, Anti-kobpae, Turnit-in and Traditional Semantic Role Labeling.

  15. Minimal founded semantics for disjunctive logic programs and deductive databases

    OpenAIRE

    Furfaro, Filippo; Greco, Gianluigi; Greco, Sergio

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a variant of stable model semantics for disjunctive logic programming and deductive databases. The semantics, called minimal founded, generalizes stable model semantics for normal (i.e. non disjunctive) programs but differs from disjunctive stable model semantics (the extension of stable model semantics for disjunctive programs). Compared with disjunctive stable model semantics, minimal founded semantics seems to be more intuitive, it gives meaning to programs which ...

  16. Exploiting semantic linkages among multiple sources for semantic information retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, JianQiang; Yang, Ji-Jiang; Liu, Chunchen; Zhao, Yu; Liu, Bo; Shi, Yuliang

    2014-07-01

    The vision of the Semantic Web is to build a global Web of machine-readable data to be consumed by intelligent applications. As the first step to make this vision come true, the initiative of linked open data has fostered many novel applications aimed at improving data accessibility in the public Web. Comparably, the enterprise environment is so different from the public Web that most potentially usable business information originates in an unstructured form (typically in free text), which poses a challenge for the adoption of semantic technologies in the enterprise environment. Considering that the business information in a company is highly specific and centred around a set of commonly used concepts, this paper describes a pilot study to migrate the concept of linked data into the development of a domain-specific application, i.e. the vehicle repair support system. The set of commonly used concepts, including the part name of a car and the phenomenon term on the car repairing, are employed to build the linkage between data and documents distributed among different sources, leading to the fusion of documents and data across source boundaries. Then, we describe the approaches of semantic information retrieval to consume these linkages for value creation for companies. The experiments on two real-world data sets show that the proposed approaches outperform the best baseline 6.3-10.8% and 6.4-11.1% in terms of top five and top 10 precisions, respectively. We believe that our pilot study can serve as an important reference for the development of similar semantic applications in an enterprise environment.

  17. An overview of semantic compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalz, Mark S.

    2010-08-01

    We live in such perceptually rich natural and manmade environments that detection and recognition of objects is mediated cerebrally by attentional filtering, in order to separate objects of interest from background clutter. In computer models of the human visual system, attentional filtering is often restricted to early processing, where areas of interest (AOIs) are delineated around anomalies of interest, then the pixels within each AOI's subtense are isolated for later processing. In contrast, the human visual system concurrently detects many targets at multiple levels (e.g., retinal center-surround filters, ganglion layer feature detectors, post-retinal spatial filtering, and cortical detection / filtering of features and objects, to name but a few processes). Intracranial attentional filtering appears to play multiple roles, including clutter filtration at all levels of processing - thus, we process individual retinal cell responses, early filtering response, and so forth, on up to the filtering of objects at high levels of semantic complexity. Computationally, image compression techniques have progressed from emphasizing pixels, to considering regions of pixels as foci of computational interest. In more recent research, object-based compression has been investigated with varying rate-distortion performance and computational efficiency. Codecs have been developed for a wide variety of applications, although the majority of compression and decompression transforms continue to concentrate on region- and pixel-based processing, in part because of computational convenience. It is interesting to note that a growing body of research has emphasized the detection and representation of small features in relationship to their surrounding environment, which has occasionally been called semantic compression. In this paper, we overview different types of semantic compression approaches, with particular interest in high-level compression algorithms. Various algorithms and

  18. Semantics of data and service registration to advance interdisciplinary information and data access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, P. P.; McGuinness, D. L.; Raskin, R.; Sinha, A. K.

    2008-12-01

    In developing an application of semantic web methods and technologies to address the integration of heterogeneous and interdisciplinary earth-science datasets, we have developed methodologies for creating rich semantic descriptions (ontologies) of the application domains. We have leveraged and extended where possible existing ontology frameworks such as SWEET. As a result of this semantic approach, we have also utilized ontologic descriptions of key enabling elements of the application, such as the registration of datasets with ontologies at several levels of granularity. This has enabled the location and usage of the data across disciplines. We are also realizing the need to develop similar semantic registration of web service data holdings as well as those provided with community and/or standard markup languages (e.g. GeoSciML). This level of semantic enablement extending beyond domain terms and relations significantly enhances our ability to provide a coherent semantic data framework for data and information systems. Much of this work is on the frontier of technology development and we will present the current and near-future capabilities we are developing. This work arises from the Semantically-Enabled Science Data Integration (SESDI) project, which is an NASA/ESTO/ACCESS-funded project involving the High Altitude Observatory at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), McGuinness Associates Consulting, NASA/JPL and Virginia Polytechnic University.

  19. Semantics, contrastive linguistics and parallel corpora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violetta Koseska

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Semantics, contrastive linguistics and parallel corpora In view of the ambiguity of the term “semantics”, the author shows the differences between the traditional lexical semantics and the contemporary semantics in the light of various semantic schools. She examines semantics differently in connection with contrastive studies where the description must necessary go from the meaning towards the linguistic form, whereas in traditional contrastive studies the description proceeded from the form towards the meaning. This requirement regarding theoretical contrastive studies necessitates construction of a semantic interlanguage, rather than only singling out universal semantic categories expressed with various language means. Such studies can be strongly supported by parallel corpora. However, in order to make them useful for linguists in manual and computer translations, as well as in the development of dictionaries, including online ones, we need not only formal, often automatic, annotation of texts, but also semantic annotation - which is unfortunately manual. In the article we focus on semantic annotation concerning time, aspect and quantification of names and predicates in the whole semantic structure of the sentence on the example of the “Polish-Bulgarian-Russian parallel corpus”.

  20. Semantic priming of familiar songs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sarah K; Halpern, Andrea R

    2012-05-01

    We explored the functional organization of semantic memory for music by comparing priming across familiar songs both within modalities (Experiment 1, tune to tune; Experiment 3, category label to lyrics) and across modalities (Experiment 2, category label to tune; Experiment 4, tune to lyrics). Participants judged whether or not the target tune or lyrics were real (akin to lexical decision tasks). We found significant priming, analogous to linguistic associative-priming effects, in reaction times for related primes as compared to unrelated primes, but primarily for within-modality comparisons. Reaction times to tunes (e.g., "Silent Night") were faster following related tunes ("Deck the Hall") than following unrelated tunes ("God Bless America"). However, a category label (e.g., Christmas) did not prime tunes from within that category. Lyrics were primed by a related category label, but not by a related tune. These results support the conceptual organization of music in semantic memory, but with potentially weaker associations across modalities.

  1. Semantic Event Correlation Using Ontologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Thomas; Roth, Heinz; Rozsnyai, Szabolcs; Mordinyi, Richard; Biffl, Stefan

    Complex event processing (CEP) is a software architecture paradigm that aims at low latency, high throughput, and quick adaptability of applications for supporting and improving event-driven business processes. Events sensed in real time are the basic information units on which CEP applications operate and react in self-contained decision cycles based on defined processing logic and rules. Event correlation is necessary to relate events gathered from various sources for detecting patterns and situations of interest in the business context. Unfortunately, event correlation has been limited to syntactically identical attribute values instead of addressing semantically equivalent attribute meanings. Semantic equivalence is particularly relevant if events come from organizations that use different terminologies for common concepts.

  2. Network visualization by semantic substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shneiderman, Ben; Aris, Aleks

    2006-01-01

    Networks have remained a challenge for information visualization designers because of the complex issues of node and link layout coupled with the rich set of tasks that users present. This paper offers a strategy based on two principles: (1) layouts are based on user-defined semantic substrates, which are non-overlapping regions in which node placement is based on node attributes, (2) users interactively adjust sliders to control link visibility to limit clutter and thus ensure comprehensibility of source and destination. Scalability is further facilitated by user control of which nodes are visible. We illustrate our semantic substrates approach as implemented in NVSS 1.0 with legal precedent data for up to 1122 court cases in three regions with 7645 legal citations.

  3. Flavour processing in semantic dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Piwnica-Worms, Katherine E.; Omar, Rohani; Hailstone, Julia C.; Warren, Jason D.

    2010-01-01

    The cognitive mechanisms for the analysis of flavour information remain poorly understood. Patients with semantic dementia (SD) could potentially provide a window on these mechanisms; however, while abnormal eating behaviour and altered food preferences are common in SD, flavour processing has been little studied in this disorder. Here we undertook a detailed investigation of flavour processing in three patients at different stages of SD. One patient with a clinical syndrome of logopenic apha...

  4. Semantics Web and Ontology Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Musumbu, Kaninda

    2013-01-01

    International audience; The Semantics Web is a vision for the future of the Web in which informati on is given explicit meaning, making it easier for machines to automatically pro cess and integrate information available on the Web. An ontology defines the terms used to describe and represent an area of knowledg e. Ontologies are used by people, databases, and applications that need to share domain information (a domain is just a specific subject area or area of knowled ge, like medicine, too...

  5. From Speech Acts to Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mackenzie Jim

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Frege introduced the notion of pragmatic force as what distinguishes statements from questions. This distinction was elaborated by Wittgenstein in his later works, and systematised as an account of different kinds of speech acts in formal dialogue theory by Hamblin. It lies at the heart of the inferential semantics more recently developed by Brandom. The present paper attempts to sketch some of the relations between these developments.

  6. Semantic e-Science: From Microformats to Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumb, L. I.; Freemantle, J. R.; Aldridge, K. D.

    2009-05-01

    A platform has been developed to transform semi-structured ASCII data into a representation based on the eXtensible Markup Language (XML). A subsequent transformation allows the XML-based representation to be rendered in the Resource Description Format (RDF). Editorial metadata, expressed as external annotations (via XML Pointer Language), also survives this transformation process (e.g., Lumb et al., http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cageo.2008.03.009). Because the XML-to-RDF transformation uses XSLT (eXtensible Stylesheet Language Transformations), semantic microformats ultimately encode the scientific data (Lumb & Aldridge, http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/HPCS.2006.26). In building the relationship-centric representation in RDF, a Semantic Model of the scientific data is extracted. The systematic enhancement in the expressivity and richness of the scientific data results in representations of knowledge that are readily understood and manipulated by intelligent software agents. Thus scientists are able to draw upon various resources within and beyond their discipline to use in their scientific applications. Since the resulting Semantic Models are independent conceptualizations of the science itself, the representation of scientific knowledge and interaction with the same can stimulate insight from different perspectives. Using the Global Geodynamics Project (GGP) for the purpose of illustration, the introduction of GGP microformats enable a Semantic Model for the GGP that can be semantically queried (e.g., via SPARQL, http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query). Although the present implementation uses the Open Source Redland RDF Libraries (http://librdf.org/), the approach is generalizable to other platforms and to projects other than the GGP (e.g., Baker et al., Informatics and the 2007-2008 Electronic Geophysical Year, Eos Trans. Am. Geophys. Un., 89(48), 485-486, 2008).

  7. Semantic network analysis of vaccine sentiment in online social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Gloria J; Ewing-Nelson, Sinclair R; Mackey, Lauren; Schlitt, James T; Marathe, Achla; Abbas, Kaja M; Swarup, Samarth

    2017-06-22

    To examine current vaccine sentiment on social media by constructing and analyzing semantic networks of vaccine information from highly shared websites of Twitter users in the United States; and to assist public health communication of vaccines. Vaccine hesitancy continues to contribute to suboptimal vaccination coverage in the United States, posing significant risk of disease outbreaks, yet remains poorly understood. We constructed semantic networks of vaccine information from internet articles shared by Twitter users in the United States. We analyzed resulting network topology, compared semantic differences, and identified the most salient concepts within networks expressing positive, negative, and neutral vaccine sentiment. The semantic network of positive vaccine sentiment demonstrated greater cohesiveness in discourse compared to the larger, less-connected network of negative vaccine sentiment. The positive sentiment network centered around parents and focused on communicating health risks and benefits, highlighting medical concepts such as measles, autism, HPV vaccine, vaccine-autism link, meningococcal disease, and MMR vaccine. In contrast, the negative network centered around children and focused on organizational bodies such as CDC, vaccine industry, doctors, mainstream media, pharmaceutical companies, and United States. The prevalence of negative vaccine sentiment was demonstrated through diverse messaging, framed around skepticism and distrust of government organizations that communicate scientific evidence supporting positive vaccine benefits. Semantic network analysis of vaccine sentiment in online social media can enhance understanding of the scope and variability of current attitudes and beliefs toward vaccines. Our study synthesizes quantitative and qualitative evidence from an interdisciplinary approach to better understand complex drivers of vaccine hesitancy for public health communication, to improve vaccine confidence and vaccination coverage

  8. Semantic Memory in the Clinical Progression of Alzheimer Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchakoute, Christophe T; Sainani, Kristin L; Henderson, Victor W

    2017-09-01

    Semantic memory measures may be useful in tracking and predicting progression of Alzheimer disease. We investigated relationships among semantic memory tasks and their 1-year predictive value in women with Alzheimer disease. We conducted secondary analyses of a randomized clinical trial of raloxifene in 42 women with late-onset mild-to-moderate Alzheimer disease. We assessed semantic memory with tests of oral confrontation naming, category fluency, semantic recognition and semantic naming, and semantic density in written narrative discourse. We measured global cognition (Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale, cognitive subscale), dementia severity (Clinical Dementia Rating sum of boxes), and daily function (Activities of Daily Living Inventory) at baseline and 1 year. At baseline and 1 year, most semantic memory scores correlated highly or moderately with each other and with global cognition, dementia severity, and daily function. Semantic memory task performance at 1 year had worsened one-third to one-half standard deviation. Factor analysis of baseline test scores distinguished processes in semantic and lexical retrieval (semantic recognition, semantic naming, confrontation naming) from processes in lexical search (semantic density, category fluency). The semantic-lexical retrieval factor predicted global cognition at 1 year. Considered separately, baseline confrontation naming and category fluency predicted dementia severity, while semantic recognition and a composite of semantic recognition and semantic naming predicted global cognition. No individual semantic memory test predicted daily function. Semantic-lexical retrieval and lexical search may represent distinct aspects of semantic memory. Semantic memory processes are sensitive to cognitive decline and dementia severity in Alzheimer disease.

  9. A user-centred evaluation framework for the Sealife semantic web browsers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Helen; Diallo, Gayo; de Quincey, Ed; Alexopoulou, Dimitra; Habermann, Bianca; Kostkova, Patty; Schroeder, Michael; Jupp, Simon; Khelif, Khaled; Stevens, Robert; Jawaheer, Gawesh; Madle, Gemma

    2009-10-01

    Semantically-enriched browsing has enhanced the browsing experience by providing contextualized dynamically generated Web content, and quicker access to searched-for information. However, adoption of Semantic Web technologies is limited and user perception from the non-IT domain sceptical. Furthermore, little attention has been given to evaluating semantic browsers with real users to demonstrate the enhancements and obtain valuable feedback. The Sealife project investigates semantic browsing and its application to the life science domain. Sealife's main objective is to develop the notion of context-based information integration by extending three existing Semantic Web browsers (SWBs) to link the existing Web to the eScience infrastructure. This paper describes a user-centred evaluation framework that was developed to evaluate the Sealife SWBs that elicited feedback on users' perceptions on ease of use and information findability. Three sources of data: i) web server logs; ii) user questionnaires; and iii) semi-structured interviews were analysed and comparisons made between each browser and a control system. It was found that the evaluation framework used successfully elicited users' perceptions of the three distinct SWBs. The results indicate that the browser with the most mature and polished interface was rated higher for usability, and semantic links were used by the users of all three browsers. Confirmation or contradiction of our original hypotheses with relation to SWBs is detailed along with observations of implementation issues.

  10. The influence of autonomic arousal and semantic relatedness on memory for emotional words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Tony W; Etzel, Joset A; Adolphs, Ralph; Tranel, Daniel

    2006-07-01

    Increased memory for emotional stimuli is a well-documented phenomenon. Emotional arousal during the encoding of a stimulus is one mediator of this memory enhancement. Other variables such as semantic relatedness also play a role in the enhanced memory for emotional stimuli, especially for verbal stimuli. Research has not addressed the contributions of emotional arousal, indexed by self-report and autonomic measures, and semantic relatedness on memory performance. Twenty young adults (10 women) were presented neutral-unrelated words, school-related words, moderately arousing emotional words, and highly arousing taboo words while heart rate and skin conductance were measured. Memory was tested with free recall and recognition tests. Results showed that taboo words, which were both semantically related and high arousal were remembered best. School-related words, which were high on semantic relatedness but low on arousal, were remembered better than the moderately arousing emotional words and semantically unrelated neutral words. Psychophysiological responses showed that within the moderately arousing emotional and neutral word groups, those words eliciting greater autonomic activity were better remembered than words that did not elicit such activity. These results demonstrate additive effects of semantic relatedness and emotional arousal on memory. Relatedness confers an advantage to memory (as in the school-words), but the combination of relatedness and arousal (as in the taboo words) results in the best memory performance.

  11. Neural correlates of exemplar novelty processing under different spatial attention conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoppel, Christian Michael; Boehler, Carsten Nicolas; Strumpf, Hendrik; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Hopf, Jens Max; Düzel, Emrah; Schoenfeld, Mircea Ariel

    2009-11-01

    The detection of novel events and their identification is a basic prerequisite in a rapidly changing environment. Recently, the processing of novelty has been shown to rely on the hippocampus and to be associated with activity in reward-related areas. The present study investigated the influence of spatial attention on neural processing of novel relative to frequently presented standard and target stimuli. Never-before-seen Mandelbrot-fractals absent of semantic content were employed as stimulus material. Consistent with current theories, novelty activated a widespread network of brain areas including the hippocampus. No activity, however, could be observed in reward-related areas with the novel stimuli absent of a semantic meaning employed here. In the perceptual part of the novelty-processing network a region in the lingual gyrus was found to specifically process novel events when they occurred outside the focus of spatial attention. These findings indicate that the initial detection of unexpected novel events generally occurs in specialized perceptual areas within the ventral visual stream, whereas activation of reward-related areas appears to be restricted to events that do possess a semantic content indicative of the biological relevance of the stimulus.

  12. Implicit word learning benefits from semantic richness: electrophysiological and behavioral evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabovsky, Milena; Sommer, Werner; Abdel Rahman, Rasha

    2012-07-01

    Words differ considerably in the amount of associated semantic information. Despite the crucial role of meaning in language, it is still unclear whether and how this variability modulates language learning. Here, we provide initial evidence demonstrating that implicit learning in repetition priming is influenced by the amount of semantic features associated with a given word. Electroencephalographic recordings were obtained while participants performed a visual lexical decision task; the complete stimulus set was repeated once. Repetition priming effects on performance accuracy and the N400 component of the event-related brain potential were enhanced for words with many semantic features. These findings suggest a novel and important impact of the richness of semantic representations on learning and plasticity within the lexical-conceptual system; they are discussed in their relevance for assumptions concerning basic mechanisms underlying word learning. 2012 APA, all rights reserved

  13. Operationalizing Semantic Medline for meeting the information needs at point of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastegar-Mojarad, Majid; Li, Dingcheng; Liu, Hongfang

    2015-01-01

    Scientific literature is one of the popular resources for providing decision support at point of care. It is highly desirable to bring the most relevant literature to support the evidence-based clinical decision making process. Motivated by the recent advance in semantically enhanced information retrieval, we have developed a system, which aims to bring semantically enriched literature, Semantic Medline, to meet the information needs at point of care. This study reports our work towards operationalizing the system for real time use. We demonstrate that the migration of a relational database implementation to a NoSQL (Not only SQL) implementation significantly improves the performance and makes the use of Semantic Medline at point of care decision support possible.

  14. A Semantic Web-based Methodology for Building Conceptual Models of Scientific Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, J. L.; McGuinness, D. L.; Fox, P.

    2007-12-01

    We have designed, developed, and deployed a number of applications that leverage ontologies in interdisciplinary scientific applications. As our work has evolved, we have developed a methodology for leveraging semantic technologies as kind of methodology for building and deploying semantically-enhanced science community applications. We will present our semantic web methodology that has been used in science applications covering Solar Terrestrial Physics, Atmospheric Research, Volcanology, and Plate Tectonics applications, among others. The methodology includes use case generation, carefully chosen mixed skill-set teams, use case analysis, development of a conceptual model, semantic tool usage, expert review and iteration, leveraging of technological infrastructure, rapid prototyping, and open world evolution, iteration, redesign, and redeployment. In this presentation, we will show how the methodology has been used in our projects and highlight benefits including quick deployment and rapid community buy-in.

  15. Spatial and Temporal Features of Superordinate Semantic Processing Studied with fMRI and EEG.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle E Costanzo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between the anatomical representation of semantic knowledge in the human brain and the timing of neurophysiological mechanisms involved in manipulating such information remain unclear. This is the case for superordinate semantic categorization – the extraction of general features shared by broad classes of exemplars (e.g. living vs. non-living semantic categories. We proposed that, because of the abstract nature, of this information, input from diverse input modalities (visual or auditory, lexical or non-lexical should converge and be processed in the same regions of the brain, at similar time scales during superordinate categorization - specifically in a network of heteromodal regions, and late in the course of the categorization process. In order to test this hypothesis, we utilized electroencephalography and event related potentials (EEG/ERP with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to characterize subjects’ responses as they made superordinate categorical decisions (living vs. nonliving about objects presented as visual pictures or auditory words. Our results reveal that, consistent with our hypothesis, during the course of superordinate categorization, information provided by these diverse inputs appears to converge in both time and space: fMRI showed that heteromodal areas of the parietal and temporal cortices are active during categorization of both classes of stimuli. The ERP results suggest that superordinate categorization is reflected as a late positive component (LPC with a parietal distribution and long latencies for both stimulus types. Within the areas and times in which modality independent responses were identified, some differences between living and non-living categories were observed, with a more widespread spatial extent and longer latency responses for categorization of non-living items.  

  16. A Denotational Semantics for Logic Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Gudmund Skovbjerg

    A fully abstract denotational semantics for logic programming has not been constructed yet. In this paper we present a denotational semantics that is almost fully abstract. We take the meaning of a logic program to be an element in a Plotkin power domain of substitutions. In this way our result...... shows that standard domain constructions suffice, when giving a semantics for logic programming. Using the well-known fixpoint semantics of logic programming we have to consider two different fixpoints in order to obtain information about both successful and failed computations. In contrast, our...... semantics is uniform in that the (single) meaning of a logic program contains information about both successful, failed and infinite computations. Finally, based on the full abstractness result, we argue that the detail level of substitutions is needed in any denotational semantics for logic programming....

  17. Discovery and Selection of Semantic Web Services

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xia

    2013-01-01

    For advanced web search engines to be able not only to search for semantically related information dispersed over different web pages, but also for semantic services providing certain functionalities, discovering semantic services is the key issue. Addressing four problems of current solution, this book presents the following contributions. A novel service model independent of semantic service description models is proposed, which clearly defines all elements necessary for service discovery and selection. It takes service selection as its gist and improves efficiency. Corresponding selection algorithms and their implementation as components of the extended Semantically Enabled Service-oriented Architecture in the Web Service Modeling Environment are detailed. Many applications of semantic web services, e.g. discovery, composition and mediation, can benefit from a general approach for building application ontologies. With application ontologies thus built, services are discovered in the same way as with single...

  18. Top-down analysis of low-level object relatedness leading to semantic understanding of medieval image collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarlagadda, Pradeep; Monroy, Antonio; Carque, Bernd; Ommer, Bjorn

    2011-03-01

    The aim of image understanding, which is a long standing goal of computer vision, is to develop algorithms with which computers can advance to the semantic content of images. One ability of such algorithms would be the automatic discovery of relations between different objects in large collections of images. To analyze this relatedness we present an unsupervised and a semi-supervised approach for decomposing the large intra-class variability of object categories. The relations between objects is discovered by mapping all exemplars into a single low-dimensional projection that preserves the structure that is inherent to the category. The analysis reveals subtypes and an automatic classification algorithm is presented that predicts the artistic workshop that has drawn the objects. Finally, an approach for ordering the instances of an object category is proposed that also shows transitions between object instances. Our work is based on late medieval manuscripts from the Codices Palatini germanici.

  19. The Semantics of Englishes and Creoles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    This chapter provides a lexical-semantic comparison of a selection of Englishes and English-related creoles in the Australia-Pacific area. Faced with the conundrum in sociolinguistic classificatory practice and its contested categories: “language”, “creole”, “dialect”, “variety”, and “English...... in the Australia-Pacific region, and we suggest a principled areal-semantic investigation of words based on semantic principles....

  20. Semantics-based Automated Web Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Hai-Feng Guo; Qing Ouyang; Harvey Siy

    2015-01-01

    We present TAO, a software testing tool performing automated test and oracle generation based on a semantic approach. TAO entangles grammar-based test generation with automated semantics evaluation using a denotational semantics framework. We show how TAO can be incorporated with the Selenium automation tool for automated web testing, and how TAO can be further extended to support automated delta debugging, where a failing web test script can be systematically reduced based on grammar-direct...

  1. A semantic word structure as a fragment of a semantic structure of a system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С В Кезина

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A semantic word structure is presented in the article as a fragment of a semantic structure of a diachronic system. A semantic word structure may exist in two states: in a language continuity and in a definite chronological period. The correlation of the semantic structure of the polysemy with the diachronic system structure doesn't allow to reveal the initial polysemantic meaning.

  2. “Pre-semantic” cognition revisited: Critical differences between semantic aphasia and semantic dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies, Elizabeth; Rogers, Timothy T.; Hopper, Samantha; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2009-01-01

    Patients with semantic dementia show a specific pattern of impairment on both verbal and non-verbal “pre-semantic” tasks: e.g., reading aloud, past tense generation, spelling to dictation, lexical decision, object decision, colour decision and delayed picture copying. All seven tasks are characterised by poorer performance for items that are atypical of the domain and “regularisation errors” (irregular/atypical items are produced as if they were domain-typical). The emergence of this pattern across diverse tasks in the same patients indicates that semantic memory plays a key role in all of these types of “pre-semantic” processing. However, this claim remains controversial because semantically-impaired patients sometimes fail to show an influence of regularity. This study demonstrates that (a) the location of brain damage and (b) the underlying nature of the semantic deficit affect the likelihood of observing the expected relationship between poor comprehension and regularity effects. We compared the effect of multimodal semantic impairment in the context of semantic dementia and stroke aphasia on the seven “pre-semantic” tasks listed above. In all of these tasks, the semantic aphasia patients were less sensitive to typicality than the semantic dementia patients, even though the two groups obtained comparable scores on semantic tests. The semantic aphasia group also made fewer regularisation errors and many more unrelated and perseverative responses. We propose that these group differences reflect the different locus for the semantic impairment in the two conditions: patients with semantic dementia have degraded semantic representations, whereas semantic aphasia patients show deregulated semantic cognition with concomitant executive deficits. These findings suggest a reinterpretation of single case studies of comprehension-impaired aphasic patients who fail to show the expected effect of regularity on “pre-semantic” tasks. Consequently, such

  3. From Outermost Reduction Semantics to Abstract Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Johannsen, Jacob

    Reduction semantics is a popular format for small-step operational semantics of deterministic programming languages with computational effects. Each reduction semantics gives rise to a reduction-based normalization function where the reduction sequence is enumerated. Refocusing is a practical way...... of the term to enumerate the reduction sequence, in contrast to the reduction-based normalization function. We have discovered that refocusing does not apply as readily for reduction semantics that use an outermost reduction strategy and have overlapping rules where a contractum can be a proper subpart...

  4. Two-Level Semantics and Abstract Interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming

    1989-01-01

    Two-level semantics is a variant of Scott/Strachey denotational semantics in which the concept of binding time is treated explicitly. This is done by formally distinguishing between those computations that take place at run-time and those that take place at compile-time. Abstract interpretation...... is developed. This may also be used to compare the precision of various analyses. Next it is shown that, given a choice of properties of programs, one may specify a most precise analysis (or best induced analysis). This may also be used to investigate the collecting semantics (or static semantics). Finally...

  5. Analysis and Interpretation of Semantic HTML Tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wensheng; Guo, Feifei; Xu, Fan; Chen, Xiuguo

    Table is an effective manifestation of structural knowledge, on which the semantic analysis is a very important part in semantic document analysis. To interpret the structure and the semantic relations of the HTML documents, definitions of normalized table and tabular coordinate system are proposed according to database relation theory. This paper classifies cells into normalized cells and visual cells, indicates that row or column and its combined cell are the primary semantic expression forms of table and nested tables are the further expansion of a certain table cell. Finally, a table analyzing algorithm is given based on tabular coordinate system. Practice shows that the algorithm is simple, fast and having certain practical significance.

  6. Semantics-based Automated Web Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Feng Guo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We present TAO, a software testing tool performing automated test and oracle generation based on a semantic approach. TAO entangles grammar-based test generation with automated semantics evaluation using a denotational semantics framework. We show how TAO can be incorporated with the Selenium automation tool for automated web testing, and how TAO can be further extended to support automated delta debugging, where a failing web test script can be systematically reduced based on grammar-directed strategies. A real-life parking website is adopted throughout the paper to demonstrate the effectivity of our semantics-based web testing approach.

  7. Representations for Semantic Learning Webs: Semantic Web Technology in Learning Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzbor, M.; Stutt, A.; Motta, E.; Collins, T.

    2007-01-01

    Recent work on applying semantic technologies to learning has concentrated on providing novel means of accessing and making use of learning objects. However, this is unnecessarily limiting: semantic technologies will make it possible to develop a range of educational Semantic Web services, such as interpretation, structure-visualization, support…

  8. Pascal Semantics by a Combination of Denotational Semantics and High-level Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Schmidt, Erik Meineche

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the formal semantics of a subset of PASCAL, by means of a semantic model based on a combination of denotational semantics and high-level Petri nets. It is our intention that the paper can be used as part of the written material for an introductory course in computer science....

  9. SSWAP: A Simple Semantic Web Architecture and Protocol for Semantic Web Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    SSWAP (Simple Semantic Web Architecture and Protocol) is an architecture, protocol, and platform for using reasoning to semantically integrate heterogeneous disparate data and services on the web. SSWAP is the driving technology behind the Virtual Plant Information Network, an NSF-funded semantic w...

  10. The complex interplay between semantics and grammar in impression formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shreves, Wyley B; Hart, William; Adams, John M; Guadagno, Rosanna E; Eno, Cassie A

    2014-09-01

    We sought to bridge findings showing that (a) describing a person's behavior with the perfective verb aspect (did), compared to the imperfective aspect (was doing), increases processing of semantic knowledge unrelated to the target's action such as stereotypes and (b) an increased recognition of stereotypical thoughts often promotes a judgment correction for the stereotypes. We hypothesized an interplay between grammar (verb conjugation) and semantic information (gender) in impression-formation. Participants read a resume, attributed to a male or female, for a traditionally masculine job. When the resume was written in the imperfective, people rated a male (vs. female) more positively. When the resume was in the perfective, this pattern reversed. Only these latter effects of gender were influenced by cognitive load. Further, people more quickly indicated the applicant's gender in the perfective condition, suggesting an enhanced focus on gender during processing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The Time Course of Spatial and Semantic Processing between Audition and Vision: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxi Chen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Using a crossmodal priming paradigm, this study investigated how the brain bound the spatial and semantic features in multisensory processing. The visual stimuli (pictures of animals were presented after the auditory stimuli (sounds of animals, and the stimuli from different modalities may match spatially (or semantically or not. Participants were required to detect the head orientation of the visual target (an oddball paradigm. The event-related potentials (ERPs to the visual stimuli were enhanced by spatial attention (150–170 ms irrespectively of semantic information. The early crossmodal attention effect for the visual stimuli was more negative in the spatial-congruent condition than in the spatial-incongruent condition. By contrast, the later effects of spatial ERPs were significant only for the semantic-congruent condition (250–300 ms. These findings indicated that spatial attention modulated early visual processing, and semantic and spatial features were simultaneously used to orient attention and modulate later processing stages.

  12. Theta and Alpha Alterations in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment in Semantic Go/NoGo Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Lydia T; Mudar, Raksha A; Chiang, Hsueh-Sheng; Schneider, Julie M; Maguire, Mandy J; Kraut, Michael A; Hart, John

    2017-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that cognitive control processes are impaired in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI); however the nature of these alterations needs further examination. The current study examined differences in electroencephalographic theta and alpha power related to cognitive control processes involving response execution and response inhibition in 22 individuals with aMCI and 22 age-, sex-, and education-matched cognitively normal controls. Two Go/NoGo tasks involving semantic categorization were used. In the basic categorization task, Go/NoGo responses were made based on exemplars of a single car (Go) and a single dog (NoGo). In the superordinate categorization task, responses were made based on multiple exemplars of objects (Go) and animals (NoGo). Behavioral data showed that the aMCI group had more false alarms during the NoGo trials compared to controls. The EEG data revealed between group differences related to response type in theta (4-7 Hz) and low-frequency alpha (8-10 Hz) power. In particular, the aMCI group differed from controls in theta power during the NoGo trials at frontal and parietal electrodes, and in low-frequency alpha power during Go trials at parietal electrodes. These results suggest that alterations in theta power converge with behavioral deterioration in response inhibition, whereas alterations in low-frequency alpha power appear to precede behavioral changes in response execution. Both behavioral and electrophysiological correlates combined provide a more comprehensive characterization of cognitive control deficits in aMCI.

  13. Theta and Alpha Alterations in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment in Semantic Go/NoGo Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia T. Nguyen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Growing evidence suggests that cognitive control processes are impaired in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI; however the nature of these alterations needs further examination. The current study examined differences in electroencephalographic theta and alpha power related to cognitive control processes involving response execution and response inhibition in 22 individuals with aMCI and 22 age-, sex-, and education-matched cognitively normal controls. Two Go/NoGo tasks involving semantic categorization were used. In the basic categorization task, Go/NoGo responses were made based on exemplars of a single car (Go and a single dog (NoGo. In the superordinate categorization task, responses were made based on multiple exemplars of objects (Go and animals (NoGo. Behavioral data showed that the aMCI group had more false alarms during the NoGo trials compared to controls. The EEG data revealed between group differences related to response type in theta (4–7 Hz and low-frequency alpha (8–10 Hz power. In particular, the aMCI group differed from controls in theta power during the NoGo trials at frontal and parietal electrodes, and in low-frequency alpha power during Go trials at parietal electrodes. These results suggest that alterations in theta power converge with behavioral deterioration in response inhibition, whereas alterations in low-frequency alpha power appear to precede behavioral changes in response execution. Both behavioral and electrophysiological correlates combined provide a more comprehensive characterization of cognitive control deficits in aMCI.

  14. The Neurodevelopmental Basis of Early Childhood Disruptive Behavior: Irritable and Callous Phenotypes as Exemplars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakschlag, Lauren S; Perlman, Susan B; Blair, R James; Leibenluft, Ellen; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J; Pine, Daniel S

    2017-11-17

    The arrival of the Journal's 175th anniversary occurs at a time of recent advances in research, providing an ideal opportunity to present a neurodevelopmental roadmap for understanding, preventing, and treating psychiatric disorders. Such a roadmap is particularly relevant for early-childhood-onset neurodevelopmental conditions, which emerge when experience-dependent neuroplasticity is at its peak. Employing a novel developmental specification approach, this review places recent neurodevelopmental research on early childhood disruptive behavior within the historical context of the Journal. The authors highlight irritability and callous behavior as two core exemplars of early disruptive behavior. Both phenotypes can be reliably differentiated from normative variation as early as the first years of life. Both link to discrete pathophysiology: irritability with disruptions in prefrontal regulation of emotion, and callous behavior with abnormal fear processing. Each phenotype also possesses clinical and predictive utility. Based on a nomologic net of evidence, the authors conclude that early disruptive behavior is neurodevelopmental in nature and should be reclassified as an early-childhood-onset neurodevelopmental condition in DSM-5. Rapid translation from neurodevelopmental discovery to clinical application has transformative potential for psychiatric approaches of the millennium.

  15. Novel dictation and intraverbal responses as a function of a multiple exemplar instructional history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, R Douglas; Yaun, Lynn; Gautreaux, Grant

    2005-01-01

    We tested the effect of multiple exemplar instruction (MEI) on acquisition of joint spelling responses, vocal to written and vice versa, for three sets of five words by four kindergarteners with language delays using a delayed multiple probe design. First, students were taught to spell Set 1 as either vocal or written responses (two vocal and two written) and probed on untaught responses. Next students were taught Set 2 using MEI (i.e., alternating responses) and again probed untaught responses for Set 1. Finally, Set 3 was taught in a single response and students were probed on untaught responses. Two students spelled none of Set 1 untaught responses before MEI, while two spelled the words at 60% accuracy or 10% accuracy. After MEI on Set 2, all students spelled untaught responses for Set 1 at 80% to 100% accuracy and Set 3 at 80% to 100% accuracy. The MEI resulted in joint stimulus function such that formerly independent responses came under the same stimulus control. We replicated these results with four other kindergartners with autism who performed academically above their typically developing peers. The results are discussed in terms of Skinner's treatment of the independence of the two verbal operants.

  16. Expressions of ecological identity across the life span of eight environmental exemplars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seydel, Jennifer

    While there is a substantial body of literature looking at various aspects of ecological identity and factors that influence it, there has been less work done on how an individual's ecological identity changes with time. Much of that work is limited to short segments of the life span (e.g. the impact of wilderness experiences). This dissertation attempts to address this perceived gap by investigating how the ecological identity of eight environmental exemplars changed during the course of his or her life. What has emerged from this qualitative grounded theory investigation of the lives and works of Charles Darwin, John Muir, Aldo Leopold, Marjory Stoneman Douglas, Hazel Wolf, Rachel Carson, James Lovelock and E.O. Wilson are five sequential expressions of ecological identity. These 'stages' serve as a framework to explain ecological identity as a developmental process, both fluid and continuous, rather than at) end product. The development of an ecological identity is traced, through the development of five cognitive foundations and their alignment with five emotional foundations that reflect a progression from a sensory interaction and a kinship bond with nature into a deep understanding of the interconnectedness of all aspects of the planet. The findings reveal the evolution of an ecological identity and suggest the importance of looking beyond content knowledge in the nurturing of ecological attitudes, values, and lifestyles.

  17. Dynamic mechanistic explanation: computational modeling of circadian rhythms as an exemplar for cognitive science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtel, William; Abrahamsen, Adele

    2010-09-01

    We consider computational modeling in two fields: chronobiology and cognitive science. In circadian rhythm models, variables generally correspond to properties of parts and operations of the responsible mechanism. A computational model of this complex mechanism is grounded in empirical discoveries and contributes a more refined understanding of the dynamics of its behavior. In cognitive science, on the other hand, computational modelers typically advance de novo proposals for mechanisms to account for behavior. They offer indirect evidence that a proposed mechanism is adequate to produce particular behavioral data, but typically there is no direct empirical evidence for the hypothesized parts and operations. Models in these two fields differ in the extent of their empirical grounding, but they share the goal of achieving dynamic mechanistic explanation. That is, they augment a proposed mechanistic explanation with a computational model that enables exploration of the mechanism's dynamics. Using exemplars from circadian rhythm research, we extract six specific contributions provided by computational models. We then examine cognitive science models to determine how well they make the same types of contributions. We suggest that the modeling approach used in circadian research may prove useful in cognitive science as researchers develop procedures for experimentally decomposing cognitive mechanisms into parts and operations and begin to understand their nonlinear interactions.

  18. The Photovoltaic Higher Education National Exemplar Facility (PHENEF). Final report, [August 1, 1980--September 30, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podbielski, V.; Shaff, D.

    1994-04-01

    In August 1980, the US Department of Energy awarded the proposed grant to Georgetown University. The grant covered the following tasks: Task 1, The Department of Energy would participate in the building of an academic facility that would facilitate the integration of flat plate photovoltaic roof modules with an optimally oriented solar architecture. The completion of the facility to be built on the Georgetown University Campus and known as the Georgetown University Intercultural Center was to be a jointly funded endeavor with the Department of Education funding $9.2M through a grant and a loan, Department of Energy funding a maximum of $4M and Georgetown University funding the residual costs. Task II, Georgetown University would provide the necessary skills, services, materials, equipment and facilities to design, furnish, install and make operational the Georgetown University Intercultural Center Photovoltaic System. The specific objective of this effort would be to build an exemplar flat plate electrical grid connected photovoltaic (PV) system which would demonstrate integration of PV modules into a watertight roofing surface. The system capability, measured at the input to the inverter, would be a 300 kilowatt peak power system as measured at the normal cell operating temperature and an isolation of 100 milliwatts per square centimeter at the collector surface. DOE funding under the grant for the PV system would be limited to a system cost of $20.00 per peak watt up to maximum of six million dollars.

  19. Depth map occlusion filling and scene reconstruction using modified exemplar-based inpainting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronin, V. V.; Marchuk, V. I.; Fisunov, A. V.; Tokareva, S. V.; Egiazarian, K. O.

    2015-03-01

    RGB-D sensors are relatively inexpensive and are commercially available off-the-shelf. However, owing to their low complexity, there are several artifacts that one encounters in the depth map like holes, mis-alignment between the depth and color image and lack of sharp object boundaries in the depth map. Depth map generated by Kinect cameras also contain a significant amount of missing pixels and strong noise, limiting their usability in many computer vision applications. In this paper, we present an efficient hole filling and damaged region restoration method that improves the quality of the depth maps obtained with the Microsoft Kinect device. The proposed approach is based on a modified exemplar-based inpainting and LPA-ICI filtering by exploiting the correlation between color and depth values in local image neighborhoods. As a result, edges of the objects are sharpened and aligned with the objects in the color image. Several examples considered in this paper show the effectiveness of the proposed approach for large holes removal as well as recovery of small regions on several test images of depth maps. We perform a comparative study and show that statistically, the proposed algorithm delivers superior quality results compared to existing algorithms.

  20. Extending the use of references to the literature: Lessons from a content analysis of mixed method case exemplars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Creamer, Elizabeth G.; Musaeus, Peter; Edwards, Cherie

    2017-01-01

    The role of references to the literature in a scholarly publication is conceived principally in terms of its foundational role in establishing the need for a study and framing its contribution. This methodological inquiry used content analysis to examine how authors of mixed methods exemplars...... of relevant literature may be particularly important in mixed methods research where a strong emergent strand often introduces heightens awareness that a phenomenon is more complex than initially conceived....

  1. The woman’s place. An overview on women in classical antiquity through three exemplar figures: Antigone, Clytemnestra, and Medea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna Lauriola

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available O ensaio discute o papel da mulher na antiguidade clássica, usando exemplos que aparecem em três figuras exemplares, Antigone, Clytemnestra, e Medea. O texto mostra, com exemplos das tragédias, que a mulher na antiguidade clássica era relegada ao silêncio e à invisibilidade, e aquelas que se rebelavam contra estas ordens eram punidas exemplarmente, muitas vezes com a morte.

  2. Editions of the works of Ioanikii Galiatovsky in Latin script in the fond of V. Vernadsky National Library of Ukraine: historical and bibliological study of the exemplars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudakova Yu.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article we have investigated 46 exemplars of six editions of works written in Polish language by the most prominent representative of Ukrainian baroque literature Ioanikii Galiatovsky, and also one exemplar of the work, which was mistakenly supposed to be written by him. These works are mostly polemic anti-Catholic and anti-Muslim treatises printed in the typography of Kyiv-Pechersk Lavra and the typographies of archbishop Lazar Baranovych in Novgorod-Siversky and Chernihiv. We have provided bibliographic descriptions of the editions, fully stating each work title, signatures, fingerprint and bibliographies. We have analyzed the exemplars, artistic decoration, pagination specifics, defectiveness, bindings and proveniences. We have emphasized that the works of Ioanikii Galiatovsky were commonly present in the libraries of Ukrainian monasteries, educational institutions and those of famous secular and religious people, which is proved by the inscriptions and stamps in the investigated exemplars

  3. Exemplar variability facilitates rapid learning of an otherwise unlearnable grammar by individuals with language-based learning disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Koss Torkildsen, Janne; Dailey, Natalie S; Aguilar, Jessica M; Gómez, Rebecca; Plante, Elena

    2013-04-01

    Even without explicit instruction, learners are able to extract information about the form of a language simply by attending to input that reflects the underlying grammar. In this study, the authors explored the role of variability in this learning by asking whether varying the number of unique exemplars heard by the learner affects learning of an artificial syntactic form. Learners with normal language (n = 16) and language-based learning disability (LLD; n = 16) were exposed to strings of nonwords that represented an underlying grammar. Half of the learners heard 3 exemplars 16 times each (low variability group), and the other half of the learners heard 24 exemplars twice each (high variability group). Learners were then tested for recognition of items heard and generalization of the grammar with new nonword strings. Only those learners with LLD who were in the high variability group were able to demonstrate generalization of the underlying grammar. For learners with normal language, both those in the high and the low variability groups showed generalization of the grammar, but relative effect sizes suggested a larger learning effect in the high variability group. The results demonstrate that the structure of the learning context can determine the ability to generalize from specific training items to novel cases.

  4. Tracking word semantic change in biomedical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Erjia; Zhu, Yongjun

    2018-01-01

    Up to this point, research on written scholarly communication has focused primarily on syntactic, rather than semantic, analyses. Consequently, we have yet to understand semantic change as it applies to disciplinary discourse. The objective of this study is to illustrate word semantic change in biomedical literature. To that end, we identify a set of representative words in biomedical literature based on word frequency and word-topic probability distributions. A word2vec language model is then applied to the identified words in order to measure word- and topic-level semantic changes. We find that for the selected words in PubMed, overall, meanings are becoming more stable in the 2000s than they were in the 1980s and 1990s. At the topic level, the global distance of most topics (19 out of 20 tested) is declining, suggesting that the words used to discuss these topics are stabilizing semantically. Similarly, the local distance of most topics (19 out of 20) is also declining, showing that the meanings of words from these topics are becoming more consistent with those of their semantic neighbors. At the word level, this paper identifies two different trends in word semantics, as measured by the aforementioned distance metrics: on the one hand, words can form clusters with their semantic neighbors, and these words, as a cluster, coevolve semantically; on the other hand, words can drift apart from their semantic neighbors while nonetheless stabilizing in the global context. In relating our work to language laws on semantic change, we find no overwhelming evidence to support either the law of parallel change or the law of conformity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Perceptual-Semantic Congruency Facilitates Semantic Discrimination of Thermal Qualities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yizhen Zhou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability to sense temperature is vital to our life. It signals the environmental condition, reflects the physiological conditions of our own body, and generates feelings of pleasantness or unpleasantness. Moreover, recent studies have demonstrated implicit associations between physical temperature and social/emotional concepts, suggesting the processing of temperature may even influence cognition. In this work, we examined the effect of physical warmth and coldness on semantic cognition. Participants performed speeded target categorization for thermal descriptors in the form of semantic words or illustrative figures representing the thermal qualities “warm” or “cold” while physical thermal stimulation was presented. We compared the average reaction time (RT for the congruent and incongruent conditions managed by response key assignments. In the congruent condition, the response key for the symbol associated with warmth (coldness was assigned to the hand with warm (cold thermal stimulation, and in the incongruent condition the key assignment was reversed. Our results demonstrate that the average RT in the congruent condition was faster than in the incongruent one for both forms of thermal descriptors, suggesting that the experience of physical temperature facilitates the internal processing of the meaning of thermal quality.

  6. SEMANTIC WEB TECHNOLOGIES: AN OVERVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Minakshi Sharma *, Chanda Monga, Sakshi Kalra

    2017-01-01

    The term “Semantic Web” is often used more specifi­cally to refer to the formats and technologies that enable it . These technologies include the Resource Description Framework (RDF), a variety of data substitution formats, and notations such as RDF Schema and the Web Ontology Language, all of which are intended to provide a formal description of concepts, terms, and relationships within a given knowl­edge domain. In the last decade the increasing popularity of the World Wide Web has lead to ...

  7. The Algebra of Lexical Semantics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornai, András

    The current generative theory of the lexicon relies primarily on tools from formal language theory and mathematical logic. Here we describe how a different formal apparatus, taken from algebra and automata theory, resolves many of the known problems with the generative lexicon. We develop a finite state theory of word meaning based on machines in the sense of Eilenberg [11], a formalism capable of describing discrepancies between syntactic type (lexical category) and semantic type (number of arguments). This mechanism is compared both to the standard linguistic approaches and to the formalisms developed in AI/KR.

  8. A Postcolonial Semantics of Personhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levisen, Carsten

    levels. Traditionalterms like devil and pija are being problematized by urban speakers, and are both in decline. Sol,maen, and had have become more common, and speret/spirit has undergone a semanticanglicization. Tingting remains the key construct, around which Bislama personhood semantics isorganized......, 2013-2015 (Levisen 2016a, 2016b). I willfocus on the keyword tingting ‘mind, heart’ (from English ‘think-think’), and the related concepts speret(from English ‘spirit’), devil (from English ‘devil’), and pija (from English ‘picture’), as well as morerecent imports from English: maen (mind), sol (soul...

  9. Semantic search meets the Web

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Sánchez, Miriam; López, Vanessa; Sabou, Marta; Uren, Victoria S; Vallet Weadon, David Jordi; Motta, Enrico; Castells, Pablo

    2008-01-01

    Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works. M. Fernández, V. López, M. Sabou, V. S. Uren, D. Vallet, E. Motta, and P. Castells, "Semantic search meets the Web", 2008 IE...

  10. SETL: A programmable semantic extract-transform-load framework for semantic data warehouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nath, Rudra; Hose, Katja; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2017-01-01

    In order to create better decisions for business analytics, organizations increasingly use external structured, semi-structured, and unstructured data in addition to the (mostly structured) internal data. Current Extract-Transform-Load (ETL) tools are not suitable for this “open world scenario......” because they do not consider semantic issues in the integration processing. Current ETL tools neither support processing semantic data nor create a semantic Data Warehouse (DW), a repository of semantically integrated data. This paper describes our programmable Semantic ETL (SETL) framework. SETL builds...

  11. E-Government Goes Semantic Web: How Administrations Can Transform Their Information Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klischewski, Ralf; Ukena, Stefan

    E-government applications and services are built mainly on access to, retrieval of, integration of, and delivery of relevant information to citizens, businesses, and administrative users. In order to perform such information processing automatically through the Semantic Web,1 machine-readable2 enhancements of web resources are needed, based on the understanding of the content and context of the information in focus. While these enhancements are far from trivial to produce, administrations in their role of information and service providers so far find little guidance on how to migrate their web resources and enable a new quality of information processing; even research is still seeking best practices. Therefore, the underlying research question of this chapter is: what are the appropriate approaches which guide administrations in transforming their information processes toward the Semantic Web? In search for answers, this chapter analyzes the challenges and possible solutions from the perspective of administrations: (a) the reconstruction of the information processing in the e-government in terms of how semantic technologies must be employed to support information provision and consumption through the Semantic Web; (b) the required contribution to the transformation is compared to the capabilities and expectations of administrations; and (c) available experience with the steps of transformation are reviewed and discussed as to what extent they can be expected to successfully drive the e-government to the Semantic Web. This research builds on studying the case of Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, where semantic technologies have been used within the frame of the Access-eGov3 project in order to semantically enhance electronic service interfaces with the aim of providing a new way of accessing and combining e-government services.

  12. The semantic-similarity effect in children: influence of long-term knowledge on verbal short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnier, Catherine; Bonthoux, Françoise

    2011-11-01

    The present research was designed to highlight the relation between children's categorical knowledge and their verbal short-term memory (STM) performance. To do this, we manipulated the categorical organization of the words composing lists to be memorized by 5- and 9-year-old children. Three types of word list were drawn up: semantically similar context-dependent (CD) lists, semantically similar context-independent (CI) lists, and semantically dissimilar lists. In line with the procedure used by Poirier and Saint-Aubin (1995), the dissimilar lists were produced using words from the semantically similar lists. Both 5- and 9-year-old children showed better recall for the semantically similar CD lists than they did for the unrelated lists. In the semantic similar CI condition, semantic similarity enhanced immediate serial recall only at age 9 but contributed to item information memory both at ages 5 and 9. These results, which indicate a semantic influence of long-term memory (LTM) on serial recall from age 5, are discussed in the light of current models of STM. Moreover, we suggest that differences between results at 5 and 9 years are compatible with pluralist models of development. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  13. Enhanced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin I. Bayala

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Land Surface Temperature (LST is a key parameter in the energy balance model. However, the spatial resolution of the retrieved LST from sensors with high temporal resolution is not accurate enough to be used in local-scale studies. To explore the LST–Normalised Difference Vegetation Index relationship potential and obtain thermal images with high spatial resolution, six enhanced image sharpening techniques were assessed: the disaggregation procedure for radiometric surface temperatures (TsHARP, the Dry Edge Quadratic Function, the Difference of Edges (Ts∗DL and three models supported by the relationship of surface temperature and water stress of vegetation (Normalised Difference Water Index, Normalised Difference Infrared Index and Soil wetness index. Energy Balance Station data and in situ measurements were used to validate the enhanced LST images over a mixed agricultural landscape in the sub-humid Pampean Region of Argentina (PRA, during 2006–2010. Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (EOS-MODIS thermal datasets were assessed for different spatial resolutions (e.g., 960, 720 and 240 m and the performances were compared with global and local TsHARP procedures. Results suggest that the Ts∗DL technique is the most adequate for simulating LST to high spatial resolution over the heterogeneous landscape of a sub-humid region, showing an average root mean square error of less than 1 K.

  14. Semantic data mapping technology to solve semantic data problem on heterogeneity aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arda Yunianta

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of applications developed with different programming languages, application/data architectures, database systems and representation of data/information leads to heterogeneity issues. One of the problem challenges in the problem of heterogeneity is about heterogeneity data in term of semantic aspect. The semantic aspect is about data that has the same name with different meaning or data that has a different name with the same meaning. The semantic data mapping process is the best solution in the current days to solve semantic data problem. There are many semantic data mapping technologies that have been used in recent years. This research aims to compare and analyze existing semantic data mapping technology using five criteria’s. After comparative and analytical process, this research provides recommendations of appropriate semantic data mapping technology based on several criteria’s. Furthermore, at the end of this research we apply the recommended semantic data mapping technology to be implemented with the real data in the specific application. The result of this research is the semantic data mapping file that contains all data structures in the application data source. This semantic data mapping file can be used to map, share and integrate with other semantic data mapping from other applications and can also be used to integrate with the ontology language.

  15. Verbal and non-verbal semantic impairment: From fluent primary progressive aphasia to semantic dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Lie Hosogi Senaha

    Full Text Available Abstract Selective disturbances of semantic memory have attracted the interest of many investigators and the question of the existence of single or multiple semantic systems remains a very controversial theme in the literature. Objectives: To discuss the question of multiple semantic systems based on a longitudinal study of a patient who presented semantic dementia from fluent primary progressive aphasia. Methods: A 66 year-old woman with selective impairment of semantic memory was examined on two occasions, undergoing neuropsychological and language evaluations, the results of which were compared to those of three paired control individuals. Results: In the first evaluation, physical examination was normal and the score on the Mini-Mental State Examination was 26. Language evaluation revealed fluent speech, anomia, disturbance in word comprehension, preservation of the syntactic and phonological aspects of the language, besides surface dyslexia and dysgraphia. Autobiographical and episodic memories were relatively preserved. In semantic memory tests, the following dissociation was found: disturbance of verbal semantic memory with preservation of non-verbal semantic memory. Magnetic resonance of the brain revealed marked atrophy of the left anterior temporal lobe. After 14 months, the difficulties in verbal semantic memory had become more severe and the semantic disturbance, limited initially to the linguistic sphere, had worsened to involve non-verbal domains. Conclusions: Given the dissociation found in the first examination, we believe there is sufficient clinical evidence to refute the existence of a unitary semantic system.

  16. Ontological semantics in modified categorial grammar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szymczak, Bartlomiej Antoni

    2009-01-01

    Categorial Grammar is a well established tool for describing natural language semantics. In the current paper we discuss some of its drawbacks and how it could be extended to overcome them. We use the extended version for deriving ontological semantics from text. A proof-of-concept implementation...

  17. A Semantics for Modular General Logic Programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etalle, Sandro

    1998-01-01

    Modular programs are built as a combination of separate modules, which may be developed and verified separately. Therefore, in order to reason over such programs, compositionality plays a crucial role: the semantics of the whole program must be obtainable as a simple function from the semantics of

  18. Disentangling Linguistic Modality Effects in Semantic Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moita, Mara; Nunes, Maria Vânia

    2017-01-01

    Sensory systems are essential for perceiving and conceptualizing our semantic knowledge about the world and the way we interact with it. Despite studies reporting neural changes to compensate for the absence of a given sensory modality, studies focusing on the assessment of semantic processing reveal poor performances by deaf individuals when…

  19. Typed Operational Semantics for Dependent Record Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangyue Feng

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Typed operational semantics is a method developed by H. Goguen to prove meta-theoretic properties of type systems. This paper studies the metatheory of a type system with dependent record types, using the approach of typed operational semantics. In particular, the metatheoretical properties we have proved include strong normalisation, Church-Rosser and subject reduction.

  20. Semantique et psychologie (Semantics and Psychology)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Ny, Jean-Francois

    1975-01-01

    Semantic activities constitute a sub-class of psychological activities; from this point of departure the article discusses such topics as: idiosyncrasies, meaning and causality, internal determinants, neo-associationism, componential theories, noun- and verb-formation, sentences and propositions, semantics and cognition, mnemesic compontents, and…

  1. Social Networking on the Semantic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finin, Tim; Ding, Li; Zhou, Lina; Joshi, Anupam

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Aims to investigate the way that the semantic web is being used to represent and process social network information. Design/methodology/approach: The Swoogle semantic web search engine was used to construct several large data sets of Resource Description Framework (RDF) documents with social network information that were encoded using the…

  2. The Semantic Web in Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerkawski, Betül Özkan

    2014-01-01

    The Semantic Web enables increased collaboration among computers and people by organizing unstructured data on the World Wide Web. Rather than a separate body, the Semantic Web is a functional extension of the current Web made possible by defining relationships among websites and other online content. When explicitly defined, these relationships…

  3. The Semantic Web and Educational Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddux, Cleborne D., Ed.

    2008-01-01

    The "Semantic Web" is an idea proposed by Tim Berners-Lee, the inventor of the "World Wide Web." The topic has been generating a great deal of interest and enthusiasm, and there is a rapidly growing body of literature dealing with it. This article attempts to explain how the Semantic Web would work, and explores short-term and long-term…

  4. Quality model for semantic IS standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, E.J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Semantic IS (Information Systems) standards are essential for achieving interoperability between organizations. However a recent survey suggests that not the full benefits of standards are achieved, due to the quality issues. This paper presents a quality model for semantic IS standards, that should

  5. Compositional Semantics Grounded in Commonsense Metaphysics

    OpenAIRE

    Saba, Walid S.

    2007-01-01

    We argue for a compositional semantics grounded in a strongly typed ontology that reflects our commonsense view of the world and the way we talk about it in ordinary language. Assuming the existence of such a structure, we show that the semantics of various natural language phenomena may become nearly trivial.

  6. SEMANTIC REPRESENTATION AND THE TRANSLATION OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    on its syntactic structure. The text then enters a stage of semantic analysis, where the task of "concept recovery" is undertaken. The next stage consists of a pragmatic analysis in which the communicative function of the text is determined. A "semantic representation" of the text is thus created in the mind of the reader, clause ...

  7. Should We Teach Semantic Prosody Awareness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Iain

    2012-01-01

    While considerable attention has been paid to collocation, and the development of the collocational competence of L2 learners in recent years, very little has been said about a related concept in teaching journals, namely semantic prosody, and L2 learner awareness of this phenomenon. In this paper the concept of semantic prosody is introduced, and…

  8. Some Novel Techniques in Operational Semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosses, Peter David

    2003-01-01

    Several novel techniques for use in operational semantics are presented. They were developed in connection with a modular vatriant of the conventional Structural Operational Semantics framework, but can also be exploited when modularity is of no great concern. Gives a simple introduction...

  9. Learning the Semantics of Structured Data Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheriyan, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Information sources such as relational databases, spreadsheets, XML, JSON, and Web APIs contain a tremendous amount of structured data, however, they rarely provide a semantic model to describe their contents. Semantic models of data sources capture the intended meaning of data sources by mapping them to the concepts and relationships defined by a…

  10. Phasic Affective Modulation of Semantic Priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topolinski, Sascha; Deutsch, Roland

    2013-01-01

    The present research demonstrates that very brief variations in affect, being around 1 s in length and changing from trial to trial independently from semantic relatedness of primes and targets, modulate the amount of semantic priming. Implementing consonant and dissonant chords (Experiments 1 and 5), naturalistic sounds (Experiment 2), and visual…

  11. Semantics vs Pragmatics of a Compound Word

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Elena A.; Biktemirova, Ella I.; Davletbaeva, Diana N.

    2016-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of correlation between semantic and pragmatic potential of a compound word, which functions in informal speech, and the mechanisms of secondary nomination, which realizes the potential of semantic-pragmatic features of colloquial compounds. The relevance and the choice of the research question is based on the…

  12. Orthographic and Semantic Processing in Young Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polse, Lara R.; Reilly, Judy S.

    2015-01-01

    This investigation examined orthographic and semantic processing during reading acquisition. Children in first to fourth grade were presented with a target word and two response alternatives, and were asked to identify the semantic match. Words were presented in four conditions: an exact match and unrelated foil (STONE-STONE-EARS), an exact match…

  13. A first-order inquisitive semantics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciardelli, I.A.; Aloni, M.; Bastiaanse, H.; de Jager, T.; Schulz, K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the extension of propositional inquisitive semantics [Ciardelli and Roelofsen, 2009a, Groenendijk and Roelofsen, 2009] to the first order setting. We show that such an extension requires essential changes in some of the core notions of inquisitive semantics, and we propose and

  14. Essay Assessment with Latent Semantic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Tristan

    2003-01-01

    Latent semantic analysis (LSA) is an automated, statistical technique for comparing the semantic similarity of words or documents. In this article, I examine the application of LSA to automated essay scoring. I compare LSA methods to earlier statistical methods for assessing essay quality, and critically review contemporary essay-scoring systems…

  15. Implicit Learning of Semantic Preferences of Verbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paciorek, Albertyna; Williams, John N.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies of semantic implicit learning in language have only examined learning grammatical form-meaning connections in which learning could have been supported by prior linguistic knowledge. In this study we target the domain of verb meaning, specifically semantic preferences regarding novel verbs (e.g., the preference for a novel verb to…

  16. Social Semantics for an Effective Enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Sarah; Doane, Mike

    2012-01-01

    An evolution of the Semantic Web, the Social Semantic Web (s2w), facilitates knowledge sharing with "useful information based on human contributions, which gets better as more people participate." The s2w reaches beyond the search box to move us from a collection of hyperlinked facts, to meaningful, real time context. When focused through the lens of Enterprise Search, the Social Semantic Web facilitates the fluid transition of meaningful business information from the source to the user. It is the confluence of human thought and computer processing structured with the iterative application of taxonomies, folksonomies, ontologies, and metadata schemas. The importance and nuances of human interaction are often deemphasized when focusing on automatic generation of semantic markup, which results in dissatisfied users and unrealized return on investment. Users consistently qualify the value of information sets through the act of selection, making them the de facto stakeholders of the Social Semantic Web. Employers are the ultimate beneficiaries of s2w utilization with a better informed, more decisive workforce; one not achieved with an IT miracle technology, but by improved human-computer interactions. Johnson Space Center Taxonomist Sarah Berndt and Mike Doane, principal owner of Term Management, LLC discuss the planning, development, and maintenance stages for components of a semantic system while emphasizing the necessity of a Social Semantic Web for the Enterprise. Identification of risks and variables associated with layering the successful implementation of a semantic system are also modeled.

  17. Configuring Semantic Web Interfaces by Data Mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Hildebrand (Michiel); J.R. van Ossenbruggen (Jacco)

    2009-01-01

    htmlabstractWe demonstrate how to develop Web-based user interfaces for Semantic Web applications using commonly available, off-the-shelf Web widget libraries. By formally defining the underlying data model that is assumed by these widgets, Semantic Web application developers can use familiar

  18. Additive and Substitutive Borrowing against Semantic Broadening ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The thrust of this paper lies on semantic changes associated with additive and substitutive borrowing in Bantu-speaking communities in Tanzania. Due to contact of languages, semantic differences of the terms related to architectural structures emanate. Apart from data from a few elderly native speakers, research was ...

  19. Adding Recursive Constructs to Bialgebraic Semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klin, Bartek

    2004-01-01

    This paper aims at fitting a general class of recursive equations into the framework of ‘well-behaved' structural operational semantics, formalized as bialgebraic semantics by Turi and Plotkin. Rather than interpreting recursive constructs by means of operational rules, separate recursive equations...... as analyzed by Turi and Plotkin. This means that regular unfolding rules can be merged seamlessly with abstract operational rules....

  20. On the Privacy Implications of Location Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ağır Berker

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Mobile users increasingly make use of location-based online services enabled by localization systems. Not only do they share their locations to obtain contextual services in return (e.g., ‘nearest restaurant’, but they also share, with their friends, information about the venues (e.g., the type, such as a restaurant or a cinema they visit. This introduces an additional dimension to the threat to location privacy: location semantics, combined with location information, can be used to improve location inference by learning and exploiting patterns at the semantic level (e.g., people go to cinemas after going to restaurants. Conversely, the type of the venue a user visits can be inferred, which also threatens her semantic location privacy. In this paper, we formalize this problem and analyze the effect of venue-type information on location privacy. We introduce inference models that consider location semantics and semantic privacy-protection mechanisms and evaluate them by using datasets of semantic check-ins from Foursquare, totaling more than a thousand users in six large cities. Our experimental results show that there is a significant risk for users’ semantic location privacy and that semantic information improves inference of user locations.

  1. An Event Related Potentials Study of Semantic Coherence Effect during Episodic Encoding in Schizophrenia Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lâle Battal Merlet

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this electrophysiological study was to investigate the processing of semantic coherence during encoding in relation to episodic memory processes promoted at test, in schizophrenia patients, by using the N400 paradigm. Eighteen schizophrenia patients and 15 healthy participants undertook a recognition memory task. The stimuli consisted of pairs of words either semantically related or unrelated to a given category name (context. During encoding, both groups exhibited an N400 external semantic coherence effect. Healthy controls also showed an N400 internal semantic coherence effect, but this effect was not present in patients. At test, related stimuli were accompanied by an FN400 old/new effect in both groups and by a parietal old/new effect in the control group alone. In the patient group, external semantic coherence effect was associated with FN400, while, in the control group, it was correlated to the parietal old/new effect. Our results indicate that schizophrenia patients can process the contextual information at encoding to enhance familiarity process for related stimuli at test. Therefore, cognitive rehabilitation therapies targeting the implementation of semantic encoding strategies can mobilize familiarity which in turn can overcome the recollection deficit, promoting successful episodic memory performance in schizophrenia patients.

  2. COEUS: “semantic web in a box” for biomedical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopes Pedro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As the “omics” revolution unfolds, the growth in data quantity and diversity is bringing about the need for pioneering bioinformatics software, capable of significantly improving the research workflow. To cope with these computer science demands, biomedical software engineers are adopting emerging semantic web technologies that better suit the life sciences domain. The latter’s complex relationships are easily mapped into semantic web graphs, enabling a superior understanding of collected knowledge. Despite increased awareness of semantic web technologies in bioinformatics, their use is still limited. Results COEUS is a new semantic web framework, aiming at a streamlined application development cycle and following a “semantic web in a box” approach. The framework provides a single package including advanced data integration and triplification tools, base ontologies, a web-oriented engine and a flexible exploration API. Resources can be integrated from heterogeneous sources, including CSV and XML files or SQL and SPARQL query results, and mapped directly to one or more ontologies. Advanced interoperability features include REST services, a SPARQL endpoint and LinkedData publication. These enable the creation of multiple applications for web, desktop or mobile environments, and empower a new knowledge federation layer. Conclusions The platform, targeted at biomedical application developers, provides a complete skeleton ready for rapid application deployment, enhancing the creation of new semantic information systems. COEUS is available as open source at http://bioinformatics.ua.pt/coeus/.

  3. An Analysis of Semantic Aware Crossover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uy, Nguyen Quang; Hoai, Nguyen Xuan; O'Neill, Michael; McKay, Bob; Galván-López, Edgar

    It is well-known that the crossover operator plays an important role in Genetic Programming (GP). In Standard Crossover (SC), semantics are not used to guide the selection of the crossover points, which are generated randomly. This lack of semantic information is the main cause of destructive effects from SC (e.g., children having lower fitness than their parents). Recently, we proposed a new semantic based crossover known GP called Semantic Aware Crossover (SAC) [25]. We show that SAC outperforms SC in solving a class of real-value symbolic regression problems. We clarify the effect of SAC on GP search in increasing the semantic diversity of the population, thus helping to reduce the destructive effects of crossover in GP.

  4. A Semantic Approach to Describe Geospatial Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Sidney Roberto

    Geographic information systems (GIS) are increasingly using geospatial data from the Web to produce geographic information. One big challenge is to find the relevant data, which often is based on keywords or even file names. However, these approaches lack semantics. Thus, it is necessary to provide mechanisms to prepare data to help retrieval of semantically relevant data. This paper proposes an approach to attack this problem. This approach is based on semantic annotations that use geographic metadata and ontologies to describe heterogeneous geospatial data. Semantic annotations are RDF/XML files that rely on a FGDC metadata schema, filled with appropriate ontology terms, and stored in a XML database. The proposal is illustrated by a case study of semantic annotations of agricultural resources, using domain ontologies.

  5. Semantic Web Technologies for the Adaptive Web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolog, Peter; Nejdl, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    Ontologies and reasoning are the key terms brought into focus by the semantic web community. Formal representation of ontologies in a common data model on the web can be taken as a foundation for adaptive web technologies as well. This chapter describes how ontologies shared on the semantic web p...... are crucial to be formalized by the semantic web ontologies for adaptive web. We use examples from an eLearning domain to illustrate the principles which are broadly applicable to any information domain on the web.......Ontologies and reasoning are the key terms brought into focus by the semantic web community. Formal representation of ontologies in a common data model on the web can be taken as a foundation for adaptive web technologies as well. This chapter describes how ontologies shared on the semantic web...

  6. Semantic Context Detection Using Audio Event Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Wen-Huang

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Semantic-level content analysis is a crucial issue in achieving efficient content retrieval and management. We propose a hierarchical approach that models audio events over a time series in order to accomplish semantic context detection. Two levels of modeling, audio event and semantic context modeling, are devised to bridge the gap between physical audio features and semantic concepts. In this work, hidden Markov models (HMMs are used to model four representative audio events, that is, gunshot, explosion, engine, and car braking, in action movies. At the semantic context level, generative (ergodic hidden Markov model and discriminative (support vector machine (SVM approaches are investigated to fuse the characteristics and correlations among audio events, which provide cues for detecting gunplay and car-chasing scenes. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approaches and provide a preliminary framework for information mining by using audio characteristics.

  7. SASL: A Semantic Annotation System for Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Pingpeng; Wang, Guoyin; Zhang, Qin; Jin, Hai

    Due to ambiguity, search engines for scientific literatures may not return right search results. One efficient solution to the problems is to automatically annotate literatures and attach the semantic information to them. Generally, semantic annotation requires identifying entities before attaching semantic information to them. However, due to abbreviation and other reasons, it is very difficult to identify entities correctly. The paper presents a Semantic Annotation System for Literature (SASL), which utilizes Wikipedia as knowledge base to annotate literatures. SASL mainly attaches semantic to terminology, academic institutions, conferences, and journals etc. Many of them are usually abbreviations, which induces ambiguity. Here, SASL uses regular expressions to extract the mapping between full name of entities and their abbreviation. Since full names of several entities may map to a single abbreviation, SASL introduces Hidden Markov Model to implement name disambiguation. Finally, the paper presents the experimental results, which confirm SASL a good performance.

  8. Determining Semantically Related Significant Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    GO relation embodies some aspects of existence dependency. If GO term xis existence-dependent on GO term y, the presence of y implies the presence of x. Therefore, the genes annotated with the function of the GO term y are usually functionally and semantically related to the genes annotated with the function of the GO term x. A large number of gene set enrichment analysis methods have been developed in recent years for analyzing gene sets enrichment. However, most of these methods overlook the structural dependencies between GO terms in GO graph by not considering the concept of existence dependency. We propose in this paper a biological search engine called RSGSearch that identifies enriched sets of genes annotated with different functions using the concept of existence dependency. We observe that GO term xcannot be existence-dependent on GO term y, if x- and y- have the same specificity (biological characteristics). After encoding into a numeric format the contributions of GO terms annotating target genes to the semantics of their lowest common ancestors (LCAs), RSGSearch uses microarray experiment to identify the most significant LCA that annotates the result genes. We evaluated RSGSearch experimentally and compared it with five gene set enrichment systems. Results showed marked improvement.

  9. Addressing Semantic Geographic Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore F. Pileggi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The progressive consolidation of information technologies on a large scale has been facilitating and progressively increasing the production, collection, and diffusion of geographic data, as well as facilitating the integration of a large amount of external information into geographic information systems (GIS. Traditional GIS is transforming into a consolidated information infrastructure. This consolidated infrastructure is affecting more and more aspects of internet computing and services. Most popular systems (such as social networks, GPS, and decision support systems involve complex GIS and significant amounts of information. As a web service, GIS is affected by exactly the same problems that affect the web as a whole. Therefore, next generation GIS solutions have to address further methodological and data engineering challenges in order to accommodate new applications’ extended requirements (in terms of scale, interoperability, and complexity. The conceptual and semantic modeling of GIS, as well as the integration of semantics into current GIS, provide highly expressive environments that are capable of meeting the needs and requirements of a wide range of applications.

  10. Using ontology-based semantic similarity to facilitate the article screening process for systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiaonan; Ritter, Alan; Yen, Po-Yin

    2017-05-01

    Systematic Reviews (SRs) are utilized to summarize evidence from high quality studies and are considered the preferred source of evidence-based practice (EBP). However, conducting SRs can be time and labor intensive due to the high cost of article screening. In previous studies, we demonstrated utilizing established (lexical) article relationships to facilitate the identification of relevant articles in an efficient and effective manner. Here we propose to enhance article relationships with background semantic knowledge derived from Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) concepts and ontologies. We developed a pipelined semantic concepts representation process to represent articles from an SR into an optimized and enriched semantic space of UMLS concepts. Throughout the process, we leveraged concepts and concept relations encoded in biomedical ontologies (SNOMED-CT and MeSH) within the UMLS framework to prompt concept features of each article. Article relationships (similarities) were established and represented as a semantic article network, which was readily applied to assist with the article screening process. We incorporated the concept of active learning to simulate an interactive article recommendation process, and evaluated the performance on 15 completed SRs. We used work saved over sampling at 95% recall (WSS95) as the performance measure. We compared the WSS95 performance of our ontology-based semantic approach to existing lexical feature approaches and corpus-based semantic approaches, and found that we had better WSS95 in most SRs. We also had the highest average WSS95 of 43.81% and the highest total WSS95 of 657.18%. We demonstrated using ontology-based semantics to facilitate the identification of relevant articles for SRs. Effective concepts and concept relations derived from UMLS ontologies can be utilized to establish article semantic relationships. Our approach provided a promising performance and can easily apply to any SR topics in the

  11. Semantic File Annotation and Retrieval on Mobile Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadaqat Jan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of mobile technologies has facilitated users to generate and store files on mobile devices such as mobile phones and PDAs. However, it has become a challenging issue for users to efficiently and effectively search for files of interest in a mobile environment involving a large number of mobile nodes. This paper presents SemFARM framework which facilitates users to publish, annotate and retrieve files which are geographically distributed in a mobile network enabled by Bluetooth. The SemFARM framework is built on semantic web technologies in support of file retrieval on low-end mobile devices. A generic ontology is developed which defines a number of keywords, their possible domains and properties. Based on semantic reasoning, similarity degrees are computed to match user queries with published file descriptions. The SemFARM prototype is implemented using the Java mobile platform (J2ME. The performance of SemFARM is evaluated from a number of aspects in comparison with traditional mobile file systems and enhanced alternatives. Experimental results are encouraging showing the effectiveness of SemFARM in file retrieval. We can conclude that the use of semantic web technologies have facilitated file retrieval in mobile computing environments maximizing user satisfaction in searching for files of interest.

  12. Enriching Education with Exemplars in Practice: Iterative Development of Data Curation Internships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S. Mayernik

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Partnerships between educational programs and research centers are vital to meeting the escalating workforce demands in data curation. They offer a platform for educators to increase their knowledge of current best practices and emerging challenges in the field. Student internships can be key to the success of these partnerships, not just for the students who gain authentic experience in facilities that excel at data intensive research and data services. Such partnerships provide an effective platform for rich and mutually beneficial engagement among educators, data professionals, scientists, and students. This paper reports on results from the Data Curation Education in Research Centers (DCERC program aimed at developing a model for data curation education featuring field experiences in exemplar research centers. A strength of the DCERC model is its emphasis on facilitating mutual exchange of information among the DCERC program mentors and students. This model has evolved as a result of iterative and gradual refinements to the program model based upon information gathered from the formative evaluation. These refinements not only resulted in improved outcomes for the program participants but also, we believe, a more sustainable model for the program that leverages the knowledge base of the research scientists and students through peer-to-peer learning, rather than a traditional expert to trainee model. This paper describes formative evaluation findings that shaped the development of the DCERC program. We conclude with a discussion of the critical features of this model for the development of similar programs, and a data curation workforce that is able to accommodate and adapt to emergent data needs in a variety of environments.

  13. Success factors for international HTA projects: evaluating EUnetHTA Joint Action as an exemplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guegan, Eleanor Woodford; Cook, Andrew

    2014-11-01

    Evaluation is essential for the management of international projects or networks in health technology assessment (HTA). It extends beyond the normal process of project management by incorporating qualitative dimensions and provides information about a project's effectiveness and achievements. This article aimed to identify the factors that are important for the success of international HTA projects. The European network for Health Technology Assessment Joint Action (EUnetHTA JA) is presented as an exemplar. METHODS for the evaluation of international HTA projects include interviews, focus groups, questionnaires, observations and documentary review, and the key points of these approaches have been summarized. The impact and effectiveness of the EUnetHTA JA was evaluated by questionnaires of project participants and external stakeholders, and by documentary review. The response rate for the three annual questionnaires sent to project participants ranged from 86 percent to 88 percent and for external stakeholders ranged from 65 percent to 88 percent. Key factors for project success included production of deliverables according to the workplan, achievement of objectives, added value generated, effective communication, involvement of external stakeholders, workstream management and progress from the preceding EUnetHTA 2006-2008 project. The experience of this project can inform the evaluation of future international HTA collaborations, such as the EUnetHTA 2nd Joint Action and HTAsiaLink. A high response rate was achieved to the self-completion questionnaires and the strategy followed is recommended for evaluation of international HTA projects. Future assessments of international HTA projects should strive to measure outcomes and impact, not just outputs and process.

  14. Semantic MEDLINE for discovery browsing: using semantic predications and the literature-based discovery paradigm to elucidate a mechanism for the obesity paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairelli, Michael J; Miller, Christopher M; Fiszman, Marcelo; Workman, T Elizabeth; Rindflesch, Thomas C

    2013-01-01

    Applying the principles of literature-based discovery (LBD), we elucidate the paradox that obesity is beneficial in critical care despite contributing to disease generally. Our approach enhances a previous extension to LBD, called "discovery browsing," and is implemented using Semantic MEDLINE, which summarizes the results of a PubMed search into an interactive graph of semantic predications. The methodology allows a user to construct argumentation underpinning an answer to a biomedical question by engaging the user in an iterative process between system output and user knowledge. Components of the Semantic MEDLINE output graph identified as "interesting" by the user both contribute to subsequent searches and are constructed into a logical chain of relationships constituting an explanatory network in answer to the initial question. Based on this methodology we suggest that phthalates leached from plastic in critical care interventions activate PPAR gamma, which is anti-inflammatory and abundant in obese patients.

  15. Demonstrating the Qualitative Differences between Semantic Aphasia and Semantic Dementia: A Novel Exploration of Nonverbal Semantic Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krist A. Noonan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Semantic dementia (SD implicates the anterior temporal lobes (ATL as a critical substrate for semantic memory. Multi-modal semantic impairment can also be a feature of post-stroke aphasia (referred to here as “semantic aphasia” or SA where patients show impaired regulatory control accompanied by lesions to the frontal and/or temporo-parietal cortices, and thus the two patient groups demonstrate qualitatively different patterns of semantic impairment [1]. Previous comparisons of these two patient groups have tended to focus on verbal receptive tasks. Accordingly, this study investigated nonverbal receptive abilities via a comparison of reality decision judgements in SD and SA. Pictures of objects were presented alongside non-real distracters whose features were altered to make them more/less plausible for the semantic category. The results highlighted a number of critical differences between the two groups. Compared to SD patients, SA patients: (1 were relatively unimpaired on the two alternative forced choice (2AFC decisions despite showing a comparable degree of semantic impairment on other assessments; (2 showed minimal effects of the plausibility manipulation; (3 were strongly influenced by variations in the regulatory requirements of tasks; and (4 exhibited a reversed effect of familiarity–i.e., better performance on less commonly encountered items. These results support a distinction between semantic impairments which arise from impaired regulatory processes (e.g., SA versus those where degraded semantic knowledge is the causal factor (e.g., SD. SA patients performed relatively well because the task structure reduced the requirement for internally generated control. In contrast, SD patients performed poorly because their degraded knowledge did not allow the fine-grained distinctions required to complete the task.

  16. Priming the semantic neighbourhood during the attentional blink.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina M Harris

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: When two targets are presented in close temporal proximity amongst a rapid serial visual stream of distractors, a period of disrupted attention and attenuated awareness lasting 200-500 ms follows identification of the first target (T1. This phenomenon is known as the "attentional blink" (AB and is generally attributed to a failure to consolidate information in visual short-term memory due to depleted or disrupted attentional resources. Previous research has shown that items presented during the AB that fail to reach conscious awareness are still processed to relatively high levels, including the level of meaning. For example, missed word stimuli have been shown to prime later targets that are closely associated words. Although these findings have been interpreted as evidence for semantic processing during the AB, closely associated words (e.g., day-night may also rely on specific, well-worn, lexical associative links which enhance attention to the relevant target. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a measure of semantic distance to create prime-target pairs that are conceptually close, but have low word associations (e.g., wagon and van and investigated priming from a distractor stimulus presented during the AB to a subsequent target (T2. The stimuli were words (concrete nouns in Experiment 1 and the corresponding pictures of objects in Experiment 2. In both experiments, report of T2 was facilitated when this item was preceded by a semantically-related distractor. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study is the first to show conclusively that conceptual information is extracted from distractor stimuli presented during a period of attenuated awareness and that this information spreads to neighbouring concepts within a semantic network.

  17. Semantic facilitation in bilingual first language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilson, Samuel; Yoshida, Hanako; Tran, Crystal D; Woods, Elizabeth A; Hills, Thomas T

    2015-07-01

    Bilingual first language learners face unique challenges that may influence the rate and order of early word learning relative to monolinguals. A comparison of the productive vocabularies of 435 children between the ages of 6 months and 7 years-181 of which were bilingual English learners-found that monolinguals learned both English words and all-language concepts faster than bilinguals. However, bilinguals showed an enhancement of an effect previously found in monolinguals-the preference for learning words with more associative cues. Though both monolinguals and bilinguals were best fit by a similar model of word learning, semantic network structure and growth indicated that the two groups were learning English words in a different order. Further, in comparison with a model of two-monolinguals-in-one-mind, bilinguals overproduced translational equivalents. Our results support an emergent account of bilingual first language acquisition, where learning a word in one language facilitates its acquisition in a second language. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Scandinavian Semantics and the Human Body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levisen, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an ethnolinguistic analysis of how the space between the head and the body is construed in Scandinavian semantic systems vis-a-vis the semantic system of English. With an extensive case study of neck-related meanings in Danish, and with cross-Scandinavian reference, it is demo......This paper presents an ethnolinguistic analysis of how the space between the head and the body is construed in Scandinavian semantic systems vis-a-vis the semantic system of English. With an extensive case study of neck-related meanings in Danish, and with cross-Scandinavian reference......, it is demonstrated that Scandinavian and English systems differ significantly in some aspects of the way in which the construe the human body with words. The study ventures an innovative combination of methods, pairing the Natural Semantic Metalanguage (NSM) approach to linguistic and conceptual analysis...... with empirical evidence from the Evolution of Semantic Systems (EoSS) project. This combination of empirical and interpretative tools helps to integrate evidence from semantics and semiotics, pinning out in great detail the intricacies of the meanings of particular body words. The paper concludes that body words...

  19. Combinatorial algebra syntax and semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Sapir, Mark V

    2014-01-01

    Combinatorial Algebra: Syntax and Semantics provides a comprehensive account of many areas of combinatorial algebra. It contains self-contained proofs of  more than 20 fundamental results, both classical and modern. This includes Golod–Shafarevich and Olshanskii's solutions of Burnside problems, Shirshov's solution of Kurosh's problem for PI rings, Belov's solution of Specht's problem for varieties of rings, Grigorchuk's solution of Milnor's problem, Bass–Guivarc'h theorem about the growth of nilpotent groups, Kleiman's solution of Hanna Neumann's problem for varieties of groups, Adian's solution of von Neumann-Day's problem, Trahtman's solution of the road coloring problem of Adler, Goodwyn and Weiss. The book emphasize several ``universal" tools, such as trees, subshifts, uniformly recurrent words, diagrams and automata.   With over 350 exercises at various levels of difficulty and with hints for the more difficult problems, this book can be used as a textbook, and aims to reach a wide and diversified...

  20. Latent semantics as cognitive components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Michael Kai; Mørup, Morten; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2010-01-01

    emotional responses can be encoded in words, we propose a simplified cognitive approach to model how we perceive media. Representing song lyrics in a vector space of reduced dimensionality using LSA, we combine bottom-up defined term distances with affective adjectives, that top-down constrain the latent......Cognitive component analysis, defined as an unsupervised learning of features resembling human comprehension, suggests that the sensory structures we perceive might often be modeled by reducing dimensionality and treating objects in space and time as linear mixtures incorporating sparsity...... semantics according to the psychological dimensions of valence and arousal. Subsequently we apply a Tucker tensor decomposition combined with re-weighted L1 regularization and a Bayesian ARD automatic relevance determination approach to derive a sparse representation of complementary affective mixtures...

  1. Initial Semantics for Strengthened Signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Hirschowitz

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We give a new general definition of arity, yielding the companion notions of signature and associated syntax. This setting is modular in the sense requested by Ghani and Uustalu: merging two extensions of syntax corresponds to building an amalgamated sum. These signatures are too general in the sense that we are not able to prove the existence of an associated syntax in this general context. So we have to select arities and signatures for which there exists the desired initial monad. For this, we follow a track opened by Matthes and Uustalu: we introduce a notion of strengthened arity and prove that the corresponding signatures have initial semantics (i.e. associated syntax. Our strengthened arities admit colimits, which allows the treatment of the λ-calculus with explicit substitution.

  2. Semantics of color in chromatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serov, Nikolai V.

    2002-06-01

    The aim of this investigation is to describe the semantics of color in chromatism (from the ancient Greek triune notion of >: (1) color as ideal (Id- plan), psychic; (2) tint as physical, verbal; material (M- plan), physiological, syntonic (S-plan), and (3) emotion as their informative-energetic correlation). Being a new field of science, chromatism links humanitarian and natural subjects by means of interdiscipline investigation of a real (f-m) man living in a real (color) surrounding environment. According to the definition for >, color may be considered to be the most universal notion, permitting to assume the unity of both a man and an environment. Due to this assumption, we may give models of human intellect.

  3. Verb Semantics and Lexical Selection

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Z; Wu, Zhibiao; Palmer, Martha

    1994-01-01

    This paper will focus on the semantic representation of verbs in computer systems and its impact on lexical selection problems in machine translation (MT). Two groups of English and Chinese verbs are examined to show that lexical selection must be based on interpretation of the sentence as well as selection restrictions placed on the verb arguments. A novel representation scheme is suggested, and is compared to representations with selection restrictions used in transfer-based MT. We see our approach as closely aligned with knowledge-based MT approaches (KBMT), and as a separate component that could be incorporated into existing systems. Examples and experimental results will show that, using this scheme, inexact matches can achieve correct lexical selection.

  4. The Semantics of Plurals: A Defense of Singularism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florio, Salvatore

    2010-01-01

    In this dissertation, I defend "semantic singularism", which is the view that syntactically plural terms, such as "they" or "Russell and Whitehead", are semantically singular. A semantically singular term is a term that denotes a single entity. Semantic singularism is to be distinguished from "syntactic singularism", according to which…

  5. Verb Production during Action Naming in Semantic Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meligne, D.; Fossard, M.; Belliard, S.; Moreaud, O.; Duvignau, K.; Demonet, J.-F.

    2011-01-01

    In contrast with widely documented deficits of semantic knowledge relating to object concepts and the corresponding nouns in semantic dementia (SD), little is known about action semantics and verb production in SD. The degradation of action semantic knowledge was studied in 5 patients with SD compared with 17 matched control participants in an…

  6. The Influence of Semantic Neighbours on Visual Word Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Although it is assumed that semantics is a critical component of visual word recognition, there is still much that we do not understand. One recent way of studying semantic processing has been in terms of semantic neighbourhood (SN) density, and this research has shown that semantic neighbours facilitate lexical decisions. However, it is not clear…

  7. Inter-deriving Semantic Artifacts for Object-Oriented Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Johannsen, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    We present a new abstract machine for Abadi and Cardelli's untyped non-imperative calculus of objects.  This abstract machine mechanically corresponds to both the reduction semantics (i.e., small-step operational semantics) and the natural semantics (i.e., big-step operational semantics) specified...

  8. Semantic Priming for Coordinate Distant Concepts in Alzheimer's Disease Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perri, R.; Zannino, G. D.; Caltagirone, C.; Carlesimo, G. A.

    2011-01-01

    Semantic priming paradigms have been used to investigate semantic knowledge in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). While priming effects produced by prime-target pairs with associative relatedness reflect processes at both lexical and semantic levels, priming effects produced by words that are semantically related but not associated should…

  9. Proof-Theoretic Semantics for a Natural Language Fragment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francez, Nissim; Dyckhoff, Roy

    We propose a Proof - Theoretic Semantics (PTS) for a (positive) fragment E+0 of Natural Language (NL) (English in this case). The semantics is intended [7] to be incorporated into actual grammars, within the framework of Type - Logical Grammar (TLG) [12]. Thereby, this semantics constitutes an alternative to the traditional model - theoretic semantics (MTS), originating in Montague's seminal work [11], used in TLG.

  10. Varieties of semantic ‘access’ deficit in Wernicke’s aphasia and semantic aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Holly; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.; Jefferies, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Comprehension deficits are common in stroke aphasia, including in cases with (i) semantic aphasia, characterized by poor executive control of semantic processing across verbal and non-verbal modalities; and (ii) Wernicke’s aphasia, associated with poor auditory–verbal comprehension and repetition, plus fluent speech with jargon. However, the varieties of these comprehension problems, and their underlying causes, are not well understood. Both patient groups exhibit some type of semantic ‘access’ deficit, as opposed to the ‘storage’ deficits observed in semantic dementia. Nevertheless, existing descriptions suggest that these patients might have different varieties of ‘access’ impairment—related to difficulty resolving competition (in semantic aphasia) versus initial activation of concepts from sensory inputs (in Wernicke’s aphasia). We used a case series design to compare patients with Wernicke’s aphasia and those with semantic aphasia on Warrington’s paradigmatic assessment of semantic ‘access’ deficits. In these verbal and non-verbal matching tasks, a small set of semantically-related items are repeatedly presented over several cycles so that the target on one trial becomes a distractor on another (building up interference and eliciting semantic ‘blocking’ effects). Patients with Wernicke’s aphasia and semantic aphasia were distinguished according to lesion location in the temporal cortex, but in each group, some individuals had additional prefrontal damage. Both of these aspects of lesion variability—one that mapped onto classical ‘syndromes’ and one that did not—predicted aspects of the semantic ‘access’ deficit. Both semantic aphasia and Wernicke’s aphasia cases showed multimodal semantic impairment, although as expected, the Wernicke’s aphasia group showed greater deficits on auditory-verbal than picture judgements. Distribution of damage in the temporal lobe was crucial for predicting the initially

  11. Semantically aided interpretation and querying of Jefferson Project data using the SemantEco framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, E. W.; Pinheiro, P.; McGuinness, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    We will describe the benefits we realized using semantic technologies to address the often challenging and resource intensive task of ontology alignment in service of data integration. Ontology alignment became relatively simple as we reused our existing semantic data integration framework, SemantEco. We work in the context of the Jefferson Project (JP), an effort to monitor and predict the health of Lake George in NY by deploying a large-scale sensor network in the lake, and analyzing the high-resolution sensor data. SemantEco is an open-source framework for building semantically-aware applications to assist users, particularly non-experts, in exploration and interpretation of integrated scientific data. SemantEco applications are composed of a set of modules that incorporate new datasets, extend the semantic capabilities of the system to integrate and reason about data, and provide facets for extending or controlling semantic queries. Whereas earlier SemantEco work focused on integration of water, air, and species data from government sources, we focus on redeploying it to provide a provenance-aware, semantic query and interpretation interface for JP's sensor data. By employing a minor alignment between SemantEco's ontology and the Human-Aware Sensor Network Ontology used to model the JP's sensor deployments, we were able to bring SemantEco's capabilities to bear on the JP sensor data and metadata. This alignment enabled SemantEco to perform the following tasks: (1) select JP datasets related to water quality; (2) understand how the JP's notion of water quality relates to water quality concepts in previous work; and (3) reuse existing SemantEco interactive data facets, e.g. maps and time series visualizations, and modules, e.g. the regulation module that interprets water quality data through the lens of various federal and state regulations. Semantic technologies, both as the engine driving SemantEco and the means of modeling the JP data, enabled us to rapidly

  12. Attention trees and semantic paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusti, Christian; Pieroni, Goffredo G.; Pieroni, Laura

    2007-02-01

    In the last few decades several techniques for image content extraction, often based on segmentation, have been proposed. It has been suggested that under the assumption of very general image content, segmentation becomes unstable and classification becomes unreliable. According to recent psychological theories, certain image regions attract the attention of human observers more than others and, generally, the image main meaning appears concentrated in those regions. Initially, regions attracting our attention are perceived as a whole and hypotheses on their content are formulated; successively the components of those regions are carefully analyzed and a more precise interpretation is reached. It is interesting to observe that an image decomposition process performed according to these psychological visual attention theories might present advantages with respect to a traditional segmentation approach. In this paper we propose an automatic procedure generating image decomposition based on the detection of visual attention regions. A new clustering algorithm taking advantage of the Delaunay- Voronoi diagrams for achieving the decomposition target is proposed. By applying that algorithm recursively, starting from the whole image, a transformation of the image into a tree of related meaningful regions is obtained (Attention Tree). Successively, a semantic interpretation of the leaf nodes is carried out by using a structure of Neural Networks (Neural Tree) assisted by a knowledge base (Ontology Net). Starting from leaf nodes, paths toward the root node across the Attention Tree are attempted. The task of the path consists in relating the semantics of each child-parent node pair and, consequently, in merging the corresponding image regions. The relationship detected in this way between two tree nodes generates, as a result, the extension of the interpreted image area through each step of the path. The construction of several Attention Trees has been performed and partial

  13. Accessing multimedia content from mobile applications using semantic web technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutel, Jörn; Gerlach, Andrea; Klekamp, Stefanie; Schulz, Kristin

    2014-02-01

    We describe the ideas and results of an applied research project that aims at leveraging the expressive power of semantic web technologies as a server-side backend for mobile applications that provide access to location and multimedia data and allow for a rich user experience in mobile scenarios, ranging from city and museum guides to multimedia enhancements of any kind of narrative content, including e-book applications. In particular, we will outline a reusable software architecture for both server-side functionality and native mobile platforms that is aimed at significantly decreasing the effort required for developing particular applications of that kind.

  14. Bridging the semantics gap between terminologies, ontologies, and information models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Stefan; Schober, Daniel; Daniel, Christel; Jaulent, Marie-Christine

    2010-01-01

    SNOMED CT and other biomedical vocabularies provide semantic identifiers for all kinds of linguistic expressions, many of which cannot be considered terms in a strict sense. We analyzed such "non-terms" in SNOMED CT and concluded that many of them cannot be interpreted as directly referring to objects or processes, but rather to information entities. Discussing two approaches to represent information entities, viz. the OBO Information artifact ontology (IAO) and the HL7 v3 Reference Information Model (RIM), we propose an integrative solution for representing information entities in SNOMED CT, in a way that is still compatible with RIM and the IAO and uses moderately enhanced description logics.

  15. A Foundation for Spatial Data Warehouses on the Semantic Web


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gur, Nurefsan; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Zimaányi, Esteban

    2017-01-01

    Large volumes of geospatial data are being published on the Semantic Web (SW), yielding a need for advanced analysis of such data. However, existing SW technologies only support advanced analytical concepts such as multidimensional (MD) data warehouses and Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) over...... non-spatial SW data. To remedy this need, this paper presents the QB4SOLAP vocabulary, which supports spatially enhanced MD data cubes over RDF data. The paper also defines a number of Spatial OLAP (SOLAP) operators over QB4SOLAP cubes and provides algorithms for generating spatially extended SPARQL...

  16. On the relations between monadic semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filinski, Andrzej

    2007-01-01

    We present a simple computational metalanguage with general recursive types and multiple notions of effects, through which a variety of concrete denotational semantics can be conveniently factored, by suitably interpreting the effects as monads. We then propose a methodology for relating two...... such interpretations of the metalanguage, with the aim of showing that the semantics they induce agree for complete programs. As a prototypical instance of such a relation, we use the framework to show agreement between a direct and a continuation semantics of the simple, untyped functional language from Reynolds...

  17. A Survey on Semantic Web Search Engine

    OpenAIRE

    G.Sudeepthi; Anuradha, G.; M.Surendra Prasad Babu

    2012-01-01

    The tremendous growth in the volume of data and with the terrific growth of number of web pages, traditional search engines now a days are not appropriate and not suitable anymore. Search engine is the most important tool to discover any information in World Wide Web. Semantic Search Engine is born of traditional search engine to overcome the above problem. The Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which information is given well-defined meaning. Semantic web technologies are pla...

  18. Coinductive Big-Step Semantics for Concurrency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarmo Uustalu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In a paper presented at SOS 2010, we developed a framework for big-step semantics for interactive input-output in combination with divergence, based on coinductive and mixed inductive-coinductive notions of resumptions, evaluation and termination-sensitive weak bisimilarity. In contrast to standard inductively defined big-step semantics, this framework handles divergence properly; in particular, runs that produce some observable effects and then diverge, are not "lost". Here we scale this approach for shared-variable concurrency on a simple example language. We develop the metatheory of our semantics in a constructive logic.

  19. Semantic-Web Technology: Applications at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashish, Naveen

    2004-01-01

    We provide a description of work at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) on building system based on semantic-web concepts and technologies. NASA has been one of the early adopters of semantic-web technologies for practical applications. Indeed there are several ongoing 0 endeavors on building semantics based systems for use in diverse NASA domains ranging from collaborative scientific activity to accident and mishap investigation to enterprise search to scientific information gathering and integration to aviation safety decision support We provide a brief overview of many applications and ongoing work with the goal of informing the external community of these NASA endeavors.

  20. Change management for semantic web services

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xumin; Bouguettaya, Athman

    2011-01-01

    Change Management for Semantic Web Services provides a thorough analysis of change management in the lifecycle of services for databases and workflows, including changes that occur at the individual service level or at the aggregate composed service level. This book describes taxonomy of changes that are expected in semantic service oriented environments. The process of change management consists of detecting, propagating, and reacting to changes. Change Management for Semantic Web Services is one of the first books that discuss the development of a theoretical foundation for managing changes

  1. Preserved cumulative semantic interference despite amnesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Michael Oppenheim

    2015-05-01

    As predicted by Oppenheim et al’s (2010 implicit incremental learning account, WRP’s BCN RTs demonstrated strong (and significant repetition priming and semantic blocking effects (Figure 1. Similar to typical results from neurally intact undergraduates, WRP took longer to name pictures presented in semantically homogeneous blocks than in heterogeneous blocks, an effect that increased with each cycle. This result challenges accounts that ascribe cumulative semantic interference in this task to explicit memory mechanisms, instead suggesting that the effect has the sort of implicit learning bases that are typically spared in hippocampal amnesia.

  2. A Developer's Guide to the Semantic Web

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Liyang

    2011-01-01

    The Semantic Web represents a vision for how to make the huge amount of information on the Web automatically processable by machines on a large scale. For this purpose, a whole suite of standards, technologies and related tools have been specified and developed over the last couple of years, and they have now become the foundation for numerous new applications. A Developer's Guide to the Semantic Web helps the reader to learn the core standards, key components, and underlying concepts. It provides in-depth coverage of both the what-is and how-to aspects of the Semantic Web. From Yu's presentat

  3. Reflect: a practical approach to web semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Donoghue, S.I.; Horn, Heiko; Pafilisa, E.

    2010-01-01

    To date, adding semantic capabilities to web content usually requires considerable server-side re-engineering, thus only a tiny fraction of all web content currently has semantic annotations. Recently, we announced Reflect (http://reflect.ws), a free service that takes a more practical approach......: Reflect uses augmented browsing to allow end-users to add systematic semantic annotations to any web-page in real-time, typically within seconds. In this paper we describe the tagging process in detail and show how further entity types can be added to Reflect; we also describe how publishers and content...

  4. Semantic matchmaking with nonmonotonic description logics

    CERN Document Server

    Grimm, S

    2009-01-01

    Semantic web has grown into a mature field of research. Its methods find innovative applications on and off the World Wide Web. Its underlying technologies have significant impact on adjacent fields of research and on industrial applications. This new book series reports on the state-of-the-art in foundations, methods, and applications of semantic web and its underlying technologies. It is a central forum for the communication of recent developments and comprises research monographs, textbooks and edited volumes on all topics related to the semantic web. In this first volume several non-monoto

  5. A developer's guide to the semantic web

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Liyang

    2014-01-01

    The Semantic Web represents a vision for how to make the huge amount of information on the Web automatically processable by machines on a large scale. For this purpose, a whole suite of standards, technologies and related tools have been specified and developed over the last couple of years and they have now become the foundation for numerous new applications. A Developer's Guide to the Semantic Web helps the reader to learn the core standards, key components and underlying concepts. It provides in-depth coverage of both the what-is and how-to aspects of the Semantic Web. From Yu's presentat

  6. 3D exemplar-based random walks for tooth segmentation from cone-beam computed tomography images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Yuru; Ai, Xingsheng; Zha, Hongbin; Xu, Tianmin; Ma, Gengyu

    2016-09-01

    Tooth segmentation is an essential step in acquiring patient-specific dental geometries from cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. Tooth segmentation from CBCT images is still a challenging task considering the comparatively low image quality caused by the limited radiation dose, as well as structural ambiguities from intercuspation and nearby alveolar bones. The goal of this paper is to present and discuss the latest accomplishments in semisupervised tooth segmentation with adaptive 3D shape constraints. The authors propose a 3D exemplar-based random walk method of tooth segmentation from CBCT images. The proposed method integrates semisupervised label propagation and regularization by 3D exemplar registration. To begin with, the pure random walk method is to get an initial segmentation of the teeth, which tends to be erroneous because of the structural ambiguity of CBCT images. And then, as an iterative refinement, the authors conduct a regularization by using 3D exemplar registration, as well as label propagation by random walks with soft constraints, to improve the tooth segmentation. In the first stage of the iteration, 3D exemplars with well-defined topologies are adapted to fit the tooth contours, which are obtained from the random walks based segmentation. The soft constraints on voxel labeling are defined by shape-based foreground dentine probability acquired by the exemplar registration, as well as the appearance-based probability from a support vector machine (SVM) classifier. In the second stage, the labels of the volume-of-interest (VOI) are updated by the random walks with soft constraints. The two stages are optimized iteratively. Instead of the one-shot label propagation in the VOI, an iterative refinement process can achieve a reliable tooth segmentation by virtue of exemplar-based random walks with adaptive soft constraints. The proposed method was applied for tooth segmentation of twenty clinically captured CBCT images. Three metrics

  7. Semantic Image Based Geolocation Given a Map (Author’s Initial Manuscript)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    retrieved images using geometric constraints [19]. The improvements of this methods include learning better vocabularies, develop- ing better...compute probabilities of building identities for image regions labelled as buildings in the image by semantic segmentation algorithm . Figure 3...meta information associated with the map and a single view reconstruction. This enhanced labeling then improves the BoW retrieval strategies in case

  8. Contribution of Prior Semantic Knowledge to New Episodic Learning in Amnesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Irene P.; Alexander, Michael P.; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated whether prior semantic knowledge would enhance episodic learning in amnesia. Subjects studied prices that are either congruent or incongruent with prior price knowledge for grocery and household items and then performed a forced-choice recognition test for the studied prices. Consistent with a previous report, healthy controls'…

  9. Virtual Field Sites: Losses and Gains in Authenticity with Semantic Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litherland, Kate; Stott, Tim A.

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigate the potential of semantic web technologies to enhance "Virtual Fieldwork" resources and learning activities in the Geosciences. They consider the difficulties inherent in the concept of Virtual Fieldwork and how these might be reconciled with the desire to provide students with "authentic" tools for…

  10. The role of automated speech and audio analysis in semantic multimedia annotation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Franciska M.G.; Ordelman, Roeland J.F.; van Hessen, Adrianus J.

    This paper overviews the various ways in which automatic speech and audio analysis can be deployed to enhance the semantic annotation of multimedia content, and as a consequence to improve the effectiveness of conceptual access tools. A number of techniques will be presented, including the alignment

  11. Effects of Iconicity and Semantic Relatedness on Lexical Access in American Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosworth, Rain G.; Emmorey, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Iconicity is a property that pervades the lexicon of many sign languages, including American Sign Language (ASL). Iconic signs exhibit a motivated, nonarbitrary mapping between the form of the sign and its meaning. We investigated whether iconicity enhances semantic priming effects for ASL and whether iconic signs are recognized more quickly than…

  12. Putting semantics into the semantic web: how well can it capture biology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazic, Toni

    2006-01-01

    Could the Semantic Web work for computations of biological interest in the way it's intended to work for movie reviews and commercial transactions? It would be wonderful if it could, so it's worth looking to see if its infrastructure is adequate to the job. The technologies of the Semantic Web make several crucial assumptions. I examine those assumptions; argue that they create significant problems; and suggest some alternative ways of achieving the Semantic Web's goals for biology.

  13. Semantic impairment in stroke aphasia versus semantic dementia: A case-series comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Jefferies, Elizabeth; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2006-01-01

    Different neuropsychological populations implicate diverse cortical regions in semantic memory: semantic dementia (SD) is characterized by atrophy of the anterior temporal lobes whilst poor comprehension in stroke aphasia is associated with prefrontal or temporal-parietal infarcts. This study employed a case-series design to compare SD and comprehension-impaired stroke aphasic patients directly on the same battery of semantic tests. Although the two groups obtained broadly equivalent scores, ...

  14. Measuring cognitive load during procedural skills training with colonoscopy as an exemplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewell, Justin L; Boscardin, Christy K; Young, John Q; Ten Cate, Olle; O'Sullivan, Patricia S

    2016-06-01

    Few studies have investigated cognitive factors affecting learning of procedural skills in medical education. Cognitive load theory, which focuses on working memory, is highly relevant, but methods for measuring cognitive load during procedural training are not well understood. Using colonoscopy as an exemplar, we used cognitive load theory to develop a self-report instrument to measure three types of cognitive load (intrinsic, extraneous and germane load) and to provide evidence for instrument validity. We developed the instrument (the Cognitive Load Inventory for Colonoscopy [CLIC]) using a multi-step process. It included 19 items measuring three types of cognitive load, three global rating items and demographics. We then conducted a cross-sectional survey that was administered electronically to 1061 gastroenterology trainees in the USA. Participants completed the CLIC following a colonoscopy. The two study phases (exploratory and confirmatory) each lasted for 10 weeks during the 2014-2015 academic year. Exploratory factor analysis determined the most parsimonious factor structure; confirmatory factor analysis assessed model fit. Composite measures of intrinsic, extraneous and germane load were compared across years of training and with global rating items. A total of 477 (45.0%) invitees participated (116 in the exploratory study and 361 in the confirmatory study) in 154 (95.1%) training programmes. Demographics were similar to national data from the USA. The most parsimonious factor structure included three factors reflecting the three types of cognitive load. Confirmatory factor analysis verified that a three-factor model was the best fit. Intrinsic, extraneous and germane load items had high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha 0.90, 0.87 and 0.96, respectively) and correlated as expected with year in training and global assessment of cognitive load. The CLIC measures three types of cognitive load during colonoscopy training. Evidence of validity is

  15. Varieties of social experience: The religious cultural context of diverse spiritual exemplars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Pamela Ebstyne; Abo-Zena, Mona M; Weber, Jonathan D

    2017-03-01

    From cultural developmental and relational developmental systems perspectives, the current study employed an exemplar research design along with qualitative content analysis to gain deeper understanding of how adolescents perceived the social influences on their religious and spiritual development (RSD) among religiously and culturally diverse youth. The sample included interviews of 28 highly spiritual youth aged 12-21 years (M = 17.73 years) from six countries and eight different religious traditions. Analysis revealed that 96% of participants reported multiple relational influences on their RSD and that these persons impacted their religiousness and spirituality through various processes such as teaching and encouragement. Portions of the narrative are presented to reveal how the meaning and influence of these interactions are informed by cultural and religious tradition. The narratives testify to the multifaceted nature of spiritual development and how it is embedded within religious, social, and cultural contexts. Statement of contribution Already known Existing research suggests that adolescent relationships are critical in shaping the religious and spiritual attitudes and practices that youth demonstrate (for reviews, see King & Boyatzis, 2015, Social and Emotional Issues; Mahoney, 2010, Journal of Marriage and Family, 72, 805; Roehlkepartain et al., 2006, The handbook of spiritual development in childhood and adolescence). Parents and peers are significant in shaping adolescents' involvement and beliefs in a religious system (i.e., Denton, 2012, Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 5, 42; Desrosiers et al., 2011, Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 3, 39; French et al., 2011, Journal of Youth Adolescence, 40, 1623). Other studies have noted the importance of faith communities, mentors, or religious educators (see Schwartz et al., 2006, The handbook of spiritual development in childhood and adolescence; Vaidyanathan, 2011, Journal for

  16. A narrative inquiry into teaching physics as inquiry: An examination of in-service exemplars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Paige K.

    ; Craig, 2010) demonstrate what needs to be taken into account when teachers live physics curriculum alongside their students in physics classroom settings. The exemplars featured in this thesis illuminate teachers' developing knowledge as they expand their understandings of inquiry in a physics inquiry course undertaken for professional development purposes and their subsequent enactment of science curriculum in their own classrooms with their students as they, too, inquire into physics.

  17. Semantic Fluency in Mild and Moderate Alzheimer's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Pekkala, Seija

    2004-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by an impairment of the semantic memory responsible for processing meaning-related knowledge. This study was aimed at examining how Finnish-speaking healthy elderly subjects (n = 30) and mildly (n=20) and moderately (n = 20) demented AD patients utilize semantic knowledge to performa semantic fluency task, a method of studying semantic memory. In this task subjects are typically given 60 seconds to generate words belonging to the semantic category of ...

  18. Word priming in schizophrenia: Associational and semantic influences

    OpenAIRE

    Nestor, Paul Gerard; Valdman, Olga; Niznikiewicz, Margaret A.; Spencer, Kevin M.; McCarley, Robert William; Shenton, Martha Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    We examined semantic vs. associational influences on word priming in schizophrenia. Tested on three occasions, subjects made speeded lexical decisions to three kinds of prime-word relationships: semantic-only (e.g., Deer-Pony), associated-only (e.g., Bee-Honey), or semantic-and-associated (e.g., Doctor-Nurse). Controls showed greater priming of words related via two relationships (semantic-and-associated) than for words related only semantically.. However, patients showed greater priming for ...

  19. Semantic computing and language knowledge bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Wang, Houfeng; Yu, Shiwen

    2017-09-01

    As the proposition of the next-generation Web - semantic Web, semantic computing has been drawing more and more attention within the circle and the industries. A lot of research has been conducted on the theory and methodology of the subject, and potential applications have also been investigated and proposed in many fields. The progress of semantic computing made so far cannot be detached from its supporting pivot - language resources, for instance, language knowledge bases. This paper proposes three perspectives of semantic computing from a macro view and describes the current status of affairs about the construction of language knowledge bases and the related research and applications that have been carried out on the basis of these resources via a case study in the Institute of Computational Linguistics at Peking University.

  20. A Model Theoretic Semantics for Ontology Versioning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heflin, Jeff; Pan, Zhengxiang

    2004-01-01

    .... Since the Web is the product of a diverse community, as opposed to a single agent, this semantics accommodates different viewpoints by having different entailment relations for different ontology perspectives...

  1. Fuzzy knowledge management for the semantic web

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Zongmin; Yan, Li; Cheng, Jingwei

    2014-01-01

    This book goes to great depth concerning the fast growing topic of technologies and approaches of fuzzy logic in the Semantic Web. The topics of this book include fuzzy description logics and fuzzy ontologies, queries of fuzzy description logics and fuzzy ontology knowledge bases, extraction of fuzzy description logics and ontologies from fuzzy data models, storage of fuzzy ontology knowledge bases in fuzzy databases, fuzzy Semantic Web ontology mapping, and fuzzy rules and their interchange in the Semantic Web. The book aims to provide a single record of current research in the fuzzy knowledge representation and reasoning for the Semantic Web. The objective of the book is to provide the state of the art information to researchers, practitioners and graduate students of the Web intelligence and at the same time serve the knowledge and data engineering professional faced with non-traditional applications that make the application of conventional approaches difficult or impossible.

  2. The semantic sphere of juvenile offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oshevsky D.S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of a preliminary empirical study aimed to identify features of the semantic sphere of adolescents who have committed illegal, including aggressive acts. The study included 50 male juveniles aged of 16 - 17 years. The first group consisted of adolescents convicted of aggressive and violent crimes; the second – of property socially dangerous acts (SDA. It is shown that evaluation of such adolescents is generally categorical and polar, the semantic field is subdifferentiable, less hierarchic, and has not enough realistic structure of meanings. Developed structure of motives and meanings is the basis of voluntary regulation of socially significant behavior. Thus, assessing the semantic sphere of juvenile offenders we can highlight its characteristics as risk factors of unlawful behavior, as well as the resource side, that will contribute to addressing issues of prevention and correction of unlawful behavior. Key words: juvenile offenders, semantic field of juvenile offenders, unlawful behavior.

  3. Igor Burkhanov. Linguistic Foundations of Ideography: Semantic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    development of semantics is unravelled from the field theory of the early 20th ... Generally speaking, applied disciplines (for example in mathematics, the- .... small scale. .... guistic systematization but to improve their linguistic competence.

  4. Semantic Web: Metadata, Linked Data, Open Data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vanessa Russo

    2015-01-01

    .... This metadata system represents the innovative element through web 2.0 to web 3.0. In this context will try to understand what are the theoretical and informatic requirements of the Semantic Web...

  5. Semantic Antinomies and Deep Structure Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuber, Ryszard

    1975-01-01

    This article discusses constructions known as semantic antinomies, that is, the paradoxical results of false presuppositions, and how they can be dealt with by means of deep structure analysis. See FL 508 186 for availability. (CLK)

  6. Linguistic Foundations of Ideography: Semantic Analysis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Igor Burkhanov. Linguistic Foundations of Ideography: Semantic Analysis and Ideographic Dictionaries. 1999, 388pp. ISBN 83 87288 98 5. Rzeszów: Wydawnictwo Wyższej Szkoły Pedagogicznej. Price: 16 PLN ...

  7. The Sesame Land of General Semantics

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien Patrick M.

    1972-01-01

    The author discusses a seven-day advanced seminar in General Semantics held at the University of Denver during the summer of 1969, and the profound effects it had on an experienced, disillusioned English teacher. (Author/LF)

  8. Trust Networks on the Semantic Web

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Golbeck, Jennifer; Parisa, Bijan; Hendler, James

    2006-01-01

    The so-called "Web of Trust" is one of the ultimate goals of the Semantic Web. Research on the topic of trust in this domain has focused largely on digital signatures, certificates, and authentication...

  9. Denotational semantics in Synthetic Guarded Domain Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paviotti, Marco

    2016-01-01

    the definition by adding a well- founded structure that gives a handle for recursion. Guarded dependent Type Theory (gDTT) is a type theory which implements step-indexing via a unary modality used to guard recursive definitions. Every circular definition is well-defined as long as the recursive variable......In functional programming, features such as recursion, recursive types and general references are central. To define semantics of this kind of languages one needs to come up with certain definitions which may be non-trivial to show well-defined. This is because they are circular. Domain theory has...... is guarded. In this thesis we show that gDTT is a natural setting to give denotational semantics of typed functional programming languages with recursion and recursive types. We formulate operational semantics and denotational semantics and prove computational adequacy entirely inside the type theory...

  10. Use of latent semantic analysis at Otec

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Bruggen, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Van Bruggen, J. (2006). Use of latent semantic analysis at Otec. Presentations discusses the applications of LSA in the Otec RTD program and a number of methodological issues. May, 18, 2006, Hannover, Germany.

  11. Sharing personal knowlege over the Semantic Web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kostadinov, Zlatko

    2006-01-01

    Please, cite this publication as: Kostadinov, Z. (2006). Sharing personal knowlege over the Semantic Web. Proceedings of International Workshop in Learning Networks for Lifelong Competence Development, TENCompetence Conference. September 12th, Sofia, Bulgaria: TENCompetence. Retrieved June 30th,

  12. Tree Kernels for Semantic Role Labeling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alessandro Moschitti; Daniele Pighin; Roberto Basili

    2008-01-01

    .... Regarding the former choice, structural properties of full syntactic parses are largely employed as they represent ways to encode different principles suggested by the linking theory between syntax and semantics...

  13. Action Semantics and ASF+SDF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosses, Peter David

    2002-01-01

    Modularity and tool support are crucial features for practical use of formal descriptions of programming languages. The combination of unrestricted context-free grammars with action semantics allows complete language descriptions with exceptionally good modularity. Moreover, by specifying...

  14. Propagating semantic information in biochemical network models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulz Marvin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To enable automatic searches, alignments, and model combination, the elements of systems biology models need to be compared and matched across models. Elements can be identified by machine-readable biological annotations, but assigning such annotations and matching non-annotated elements is tedious work and calls for automation. Results A new method called "semantic propagation" allows the comparison of model elements based not only on their own annotations, but also on annotations of surrounding elements in the network. One may either propagate feature vectors, describing the annotations of individual elements, or quantitative similarities between elements from different models. Based on semantic propagation, we align partially annotated models and find annotations for non-annotated model elements. Conclusions Semantic propagation and model alignment are included in the open-source library semanticSBML, available on sourceforge. Online services for model alignment and for annotation prediction can be used at http://www.semanticsbml.org.

  15. A Collection of Features for Semantic Graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliassi-Rad, T; Fodor, I K; Gallagher, B

    2007-05-02

    Semantic graphs are commonly used to represent data from one or more data sources. Such graphs extend traditional graphs by imposing types on both nodes and links. This type information defines permissible links among specified nodes and can be represented as a graph commonly referred to as an ontology or schema graph. Figure 1 depicts an ontology graph for data from National Association of Securities Dealers. Each node type and link type may also have a list of attributes. To capture the increased complexity of semantic graphs, concepts derived for standard graphs have to be extended. This document explains briefly features commonly used to characterize graphs, and their extensions to semantic graphs. This document is divided into two sections. Section 2 contains the feature descriptions for static graphs. Section 3 extends the features for semantic graphs that vary over time.

  16. Presenting results as dynamically generated co-authorship subgraphs in semantic digital library collections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Powell

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Semantic web representations of data are by definition graphs, and these graphs can be explored using concepts from graph theory. This paper demonstrates how semantically mapped bibliographic metadata, combined with a lightweight software architecture and Web-based graph visualization tools, can be used to generate dynamic authorship graphs in response to typical user queries, as an alternative to more common text-based results presentations. It also shows how centrality measures and path analysis techniques from social network analysis can be used to enhance the visualization of query results. The resulting graphs require modestly more cognitive engagement from the user but offer insights not available from text.

  17. Modification Semantics in Now-Relative Databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp, Kristian; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Snodgrass, R. T.

    2004-01-01

    , and with values of the type NOW + D, where D is a non-variable time duration. To accommodate these semantics, three new timestamp values are introduced. Finally, implementation is explored. We show how to represent the variable NOW with columns of standard SQL data types and give a mapping from SQL on NOW......-relative  data to standard SQL on these columns. The paper thereby completes the semantics, the querying, and the modification of now-relative databases.   Udgivelsesdato: DEC...

  18. Semantics of probabilistic processes an operational approach

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, Yuxin

    2015-01-01

    This book discusses the semantic foundations of concurrent systems with nondeterministic and probabilistic behaviour. Particular attention is given to clarifying the relationship between testing and simulation semantics and characterising bisimulations from metric, logical, and algorithmic perspectives. Besides presenting recent research outcomes in probabilistic concurrency theory, the book exemplifies the use of many mathematical techniques to solve problems in computer science, which is intended to be accessible to postgraduate students in Computer Science and Mathematics. It can also be us

  19. SEMANTIC IMAGE RETRIEVAL USING MULTIPLE FEATURES

    OpenAIRE

    Nishant Singh; Shiv Ram Dubey; Pushkar Dixit; Jay Prakash Gupta

    2012-01-01

    In Content Based Image Retrieval (CBIR) some problem such as recognizing the similar images, the need for databases, the semantic gap, and retrieving the desired images from huge collections are the keys to improve. CBIR system analyzes the image content for indexing, management, extraction and retrieval via low-level features such as color, texture and shape. To achieve higher semantic performance, recent system seeks to combine the low-level features of images with high-level...

  20. About Certain Semantic Annotation in Parallel Corpora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violetta Koseska-Toszewa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available About Certain Semantic Annotation in Parallel Corpora The semantic notation analyzed in this works is contained in the second stream of semantic theories presented here – in the direct approach semantics. We used this stream in our work on the Bulgarian-Polish Contrastive Grammar. Our semantic notation distinguishes quantificational meanings of names and predicates, and indicates aspectual and temporal meanings of verbs. It relies on logical scope-based quantification and on the contemporary theory of processes, known as “Petri nets”. Thanks to it, we can distinguish precisely between a language form and its contents, e.g. a perfective verb form has two meanings: an event or a sequence of events and states, finally ended with an event. An imperfective verb form also has two meanings: a state or a sequence of states and events, finally ended with a state. In turn, names are quantified universally or existentially when they are “undefined”, and uniquely (using the iota operator when they are “defined”. A fact worth emphasizing is the possibility of quantifying not only names, but also the predicate, and then quantification concerns time and aspect.  This is a novum in elaborating sentence-level semantics in parallel corpora. For this reason, our semantic notation is manual. We are hoping that it will raise the interest of computer scientists working on automatic methods for processing the given natural languages. Semantic annotation defined like in this work will facilitate contrastive studies of natural languages, and this in turn will verify the results of those studies, and will certainly facilitate human and machine translations.

  1. A Walk in the Semantic Park

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Johannsen, Jacob; Zerny, Ian

    2011-01-01

    To celebrate the 20th anniversary of PEPM, we are inviting you to a walk in the semantic park and to inter-derive reduction-based and reduction-free negational normalization functions.......To celebrate the 20th anniversary of PEPM, we are inviting you to a walk in the semantic park and to inter-derive reduction-based and reduction-free negational normalization functions....

  2. Project Integration Architecture: Formulation of Semantic Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, William Henry

    2005-01-01

    One of several key elements of the Project Integration Architecture (PIA) is the intention to formulate parameter objects which convey meaningful semantic information. In so doing, it is expected that a level of automation can be achieved in the consumption of information content by PIA-consuming clients outside the programmatic boundary of a presenting PIA-wrapped application. This paper discusses the steps that have been recently taken in formulating such semantically-meaningful parameters.

  3. Formal Semantics: Origins, Issues, Early Impact

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara H. Partee

    2010-01-01

    Formal semantics and pragmatics as they have developed since the late 1960's have been shaped by fruitful interdisciplinary collaboration among linguists, philosophers, and logicians, among others, and in turn have had noticeable effects on developments in syntax, philosophy of language, computational linguistics, and cognitive science.In this paper I describe the environment in which formal semantics was born and took root, highlighting the differences in ways of thinking about natural langu...

  4. Bibliographic information organization in the semantic web

    CERN Document Server

    Willer, Mirna

    2013-01-01

    New technologies will underpin the future generation of library catalogues. To facilitate their role providing information, serving users, and fulfilling their mission as cultural heritage and memory institutions, libraries must take a technological leap; their standards and services must be transformed to those of the Semantic Web. Bibliographic Information Organization in the Semantic Web explores the technologies that may power future library catalogues, and argues the necessity of such a leap. The text introduces international bibliographic standards and models, and fundamental concepts in

  5. Semantic Analysis of Women Beauty Product Advertisements

    OpenAIRE

    El Hainun

    2015-01-01

    Advertisement is a kind of communication processes between consumer and producer. The most important thing in communication process is the understanding about meaning that is discussed to avoid missunderstanding between hearer and speaker. The study about meaning is semantics, and through this thesis entitled “Semantic Analysis of Woman Beauty Products Advertisements”, the writer is going to explore the meaning in used that appears in the object of the analysis. The data are collected from wo...

  6. Semantic Web: Metadata, Linked Data, Open Data

    OpenAIRE

    Vanessa Russo

    2015-01-01

    What's the Semantic Web? What's the use? The inventor of the Web Tim Berners-Lee describes it as a research methodology able to take advantage of the network to its maximum capacity. This metadata system represents the innovative element through web 2.0 to web 3.0. In this context will try to understand what are the theoretical and informatic requirements of the Semantic Web. Finally will explain Linked Data applications to develop new tools for active citizenship.

  7. Verbal prefixation, construction grammar, and semantic compatibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewandowski, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    ’s Construction Grammar and Langacker’s Cognitive Grammar approach and show that resultative prefixes are not abstract syntactic features, but rather that each prefixed change-of-state construction is based on a specific configuration between the locatum and the location. I demonstrate that the interaction...... between resultative prefixes, alternating verbs, and the more abstract change-of-state variant is driven by semantic coherence. Keywords: resultative prefixes, construction grammar, semantic coherence, locative alternation, Polish...

  8. The Use of Multiple Peer Exemplars to Enhance the Generalization of Play Skills to the Siblings of Children with Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belchic, Jill K.; Harris, Sandra L.

    1994-01-01

    Describes study in which three children with autism were trained to initiate social interactions with normally developing peers. The findings offer evidence that children with autism can learn to initiate and maintain a social interaction with their peers and that these skills will generalize to novel settings and people. (LKS)

  9. Usage of semantic representations in recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Ryoji; Hirano, Tetsuji; Ukita, Jun

    2017-11-01

    Meanings of words facilitate false acceptance as well as correct rejection of lures in recognition memory tests, depending on the experimental context. This suggests that semantic representations are both directly and indirectly (i.e., mediated by perceptual representations) used in remembering. Studies using memory conjunction errors (MCEs) paradigms, in which the lures consist of component parts of studied words, have reported semantic facilitation of rejection of the lures. However, attending to components of the lures could potentially cause this. Therefore, we investigated whether semantic overlap of lures facilitates MCEs using Japanese Kanji words in which a whole-word image is more concerned in reading. Experiments demonstrated semantic facilitation of MCEs in a delayed recognition test (Experiment 1), and in immediate recognition tests in which participants were prevented from using phonological or orthographic representations (Experiment 2), and the salient effect on individuals with high semantic memory capacities (Experiment 3). Additionally, analysis of the receiver operating characteristic suggested that this effect is attributed to familiarity-based memory judgement and phantom recollection. These findings indicate that semantic representations can be directly used in remembering, even when perceptual representations of studied words are available.

  10. Primary progressive semantic aphasia: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertesz, A; Davidson, W; McCabe, P

    1998-07-01

    A longitudinal case study of a patient with a progressive loss of meaning of objects with preserved phonology and syntax is presented. Repeated measures of language, praxis, visual cognition, and semantic processing were carried out. The patient still has preserved conversational speech, social skills, and orientation in her 8th year of her illness, but shows severe anomia and comprehension deficit in all modalities of stimulus presentation. In addition to standardized tests of language, cognition, and memory, specific experiments of categorization, modalities of word access, item consistency, category specificity, and definition of words were carried out. Results indicate a frequency dependent loss of meaning that was consistent in all modalities and throughout all object categories. However, the relative preservation of visual categorization of all categories tested and the language based categorization of animals suggested some fractionation of semantic memory. Relative preservation of autobiographical and personal memories versus semantic memory was a striking observation. Evidence for selective impairment of central semantic processing was obtained from experiments indicating item consistency of loss and the lack of semantic cuing. Neuroimaging evidence of left temporal lobe atrophy and the classical picture is compatible with similar cases published under the term semantic dementia or "transcortical sensory aphasia with visual agnosia" and suggest the diagnosis of Pick's disease.

  11. Vowelling and semantic priming effects in Arabic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountaj, Nadia; El Yagoubi, Radouane; Himmi, Majid; Lakhdar Ghazal, Faouzi; Besson, Mireille; Boudelaa, Sami

    2015-01-01

    In the present experiment we used a semantic judgment task with Arabic words to determine whether semantic priming effects are found in the Arabic language. Moreover, we took advantage of the specificity of the Arabic orthographic system, which is characterized by a shallow (i.e., vowelled words) and a deep orthography (i.e., unvowelled words), to examine the relationship between orthographic and semantic processing. Results showed faster Reaction Times (RTs) for semantically related than unrelated words with no difference between vowelled and unvowelled words. By contrast, Event Related Potentials (ERPs) revealed larger N1 and N2 components to vowelled words than unvowelled words suggesting that visual-orthographic complexity taxes the early word processing stages. Moreover, semantically unrelated Arabic words elicited larger N400 components than related words thereby demonstrating N400 effects in Arabic. Finally, the Arabic N400 effect was not influenced by orthographic depth. The implications of these results for understanding the processing of orthographic, semantic, and morphological structures in Modern Standard Arabic are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison and Evaluation of Semantic Search Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheleh Dorri

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluate the performance of five semantic search engines that are available on the web, using 45 criteria, in the form of a researcher-made checklist. Criteria provided in the checklist included both common and semantic features. Common criteria or features are those applicable to all search engines and semantic ones are those only applicable to semantic search engines. Findings show that the selected search engines do not have suitable performance and expected efficiency. DuckDuckGo, has the most points, considering regular features. Cluuz is in the second place with 20 points and Hakia with 18 points was in the third place. Lexxe and Factbites, with scores of 15 and 10 were placed in the next categories in order of their points. In semantic features, DuckDuckGo, with 10/65 points was in the first place. Hakia with 9/99 points was in the second place, and then the search engines Cluuz with 8/66 Points, Lexxe with 8/65 points and Factbites with 7/32 points were allocated to the next levels. The research results also indicated that on the whole, considering ordinary and semantic features, DuckDuckGo with 31/65 points, Cluuz with 28/66, Hakia with 27/99 points, Lexxe with 23/65 points and Factbites with 17/32 points, got the highest scores out of it.

  13. Strategic search from long-term memory: an examination of semantic and autobiographical recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsworth, Nash; Brewer, Gene A; Spillers, Gregory J

    2014-01-01

    Searching long-term memory is theoretically driven by both directed (search strategies) and random components. In the current study we conducted four experiments evaluating strategic search in semantic and autobiographical memory. Participants were required to generate either exemplars from the category of animals or the names of their friends for several minutes. Self-reported strategies suggested that participants typically relied on visualization strategies for both tasks and were less likely to rely on ordered strategies (e.g., alphabetic search). When participants were instructed to use particular strategies, the visualization strategy resulted in the highest levels of performance and the most efficient search, whereas ordered strategies resulted in the lowest levels of performance and fairly inefficient search. These results are consistent with the notion that retrieval from long-term memory is driven, in part, by search strategies employed by the individual, and that one particularly efficient strategy is to visualize various situational contexts that one has experienced in the past in order to constrain the search and generate the desired information.

  14. Semantics of Kinship Terms in Tamil from the Semantic Typology Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Анна Александровна Смирнитская

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author examines the lexical-semantic group “kinship terms” in Tamil, applying the attainments of modern semantic typology and the theory of semantic derivation. The kinship terms describing nuclear and extended family are explored. The “semantic shift” relation between two different meanings is established if such relation is realized by synchronous polysemy in one lexeme, semantic derivation, diachronic semantic change, cognates or some other means. The starting point of the study is the typological data from the DatSemShift catalogue of semantic shifts in languages of the world developed by a group of researchers under the guidance of Anna A. Zalizniak in the Institute of Linguistics, RAS. We verify the presence of semantic shifts described in the Database in Tamil. Also, we propose new semantic shifts specific only for this language. We confirm the presence of semantic relation of the studied type among the meanings with English “labels”: father - parents, girl - daughter, to deliver (a child - parents, - child, old woman - wife, owner - wife and others. The data also allows the assumption that the same relation exists between the meanings: old - grandfather, earth - mother, son - courage, unripe - son and others. The meanings of this field are the sources of semantic movements to abstract notions, lexicon of posession, forms of address and others; in addition many inner semantic relations inside this field are revealed. The meanings covering the nuclear part of the kinship system participate in universal semantic shifts described in the DatSemShift catalogue, while the meanings from collateral branches of this bifurcative kinship system (uncle, aunt turn out to be incomparable with kinship terms from indo-european lineal systems. Their meanings can be included in the DatSemShift catalogue only with an indication of system specifics. The information about semantic shifts can be useful for

  15. Semantic framework for mapping object-oriented model to semantic web languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ježek, Petr; Mouček, Roman

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with and discusses two main approaches in building semantic structures for electrophysiological metadata. It is the use of conventional data structures, repositories, and programming languages on one hand and the use of formal representations of ontologies, known from knowledge representation, such as description logics or semantic web languages on the other hand. Although knowledge engineering offers languages supporting richer semantic means of expression and technological advanced approaches, conventional data structures and repositories are still popular among developers, administrators and users because of their simplicity, overall intelligibility, and lower demands on technical equipment. The choice of conventional data resources and repositories, however, raises the question of how and where to add semantics that cannot be naturally expressed using them. As one of the possible solutions, this semantics can be added into the structures of the programming language that accesses and processes the underlying data. To support this idea we introduced a software prototype that enables its users to add semantically richer expressions into a Java object-oriented code. This approach does not burden users with additional demands on programming environment since reflective Java annotations were used as an entry for these expressions. Moreover, additional semantics need not to be written by the programmer directly to the code, but it can be collected from non-programmers using a graphic user interface. The mapping that allows the transformation of the semantically enriched Java code into the Semantic Web language OWL was proposed and implemented in a library named the Semantic Framework. This approach was validated by the integration of the Semantic Framework in the EEG/ERP Portal and by the subsequent registration of the EEG/ERP Portal in the Neuroscience Information Framework.

  16. Semantic Framework for Mapping Object-Oriented Model to Semantic Web Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr eJezek

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with and discusses two main approaches in building semantic structures for electrophysiological metadata. It is the use of conventional data structures, repositories, and programming languages on one hand and the use of formal representations of ontologies, known from knowledge representation, such as description logics or semantic web languages on the other hand. Although knowledge engineering offers languages supporting richer semantic means of expression and technological advanced approaches, conventional data structures and repositories are still popular among developers, administrators and users because of their simplicity, overall intelligibility, and lower demands on technical equipment. The choice of conventional data resources and repositories, however, raises the question of how and where to add semantics that cannot be naturally expressed using them. As one of the possible solutions, this semantics can be added into the structures of the programming language that accesses and processes the underlying data. To support this idea we introduced a software prototype that enables its users to add semantically richer expressions into a~Java object-oriented code. This approach does not burden users with additional demands on programming environment since reflective Java annotations were used as an entry for these expressions. Moreover, additional semantics need not to be written by the programmer directly to the code, but it can be collected from non-programmers using a graphic user interface. The mapping that allows the transformation of the semantically enriched Java code into the Semantic Web language OWL was proposed and implemented in a library named the Semantic Framework. This approach was validated by the integration of the Semantic Framework in the EEG/ERP Portal and by the subsequent registration of the EEG/ERP Portal in the Neuroscience Information Framework.

  17. Reliable Adaptive Video Streaming Driven by Perceptual Semantics for Situational Awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel-Niño, M A; Saxena, Paresh; Vazquez-Castro, M A

    2015-01-01

    A novel cross-layer optimized video adaptation driven by perceptual semantics is presented. The design target is streamed live video to enhance situational awareness in challenging communications conditions. Conventional solutions for recreational applications are inadequate and novel quality of experience (QoE) framework is proposed which allows fully controlled adaptation and enables perceptual semantic feedback. The framework relies on temporal/spatial abstraction for video applications serving beyond recreational purposes. An underlying cross-layer optimization technique takes into account feedback on network congestion (time) and erasures (space) to best distribute available (scarce) bandwidth. Systematic random linear network coding (SRNC) adds reliability while preserving perceptual semantics. Objective metrics of the perceptual features in QoE show homogeneous high performance when using the proposed scheme. Finally, the proposed scheme is in line with content-aware trends, by complying with information-centric-networking philosophy and architecture.

  18. Reliable Adaptive Video Streaming Driven by Perceptual Semantics for Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel-Niño, M. A.; Saxena, Paresh; Vazquez-Castro, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    A novel cross-layer optimized video adaptation driven by perceptual semantics is presented. The design target is streamed live video to enhance situational awareness in challenging communications conditions. Conventional solutions for recreational applications are inadequate and novel quality of experience (QoE) framework is proposed which allows fully controlled adaptation and enables perceptual semantic feedback. The framework relies on temporal/spatial abstraction for video applications serving beyond recreational purposes. An underlying cross-layer optimization technique takes into account feedback on network congestion (time) and erasures (space) to best distribute available (scarce) bandwidth. Systematic random linear network coding (SRNC) adds reliability while preserving perceptual semantics. Objective metrics of the perceptual features in QoE show homogeneous high performance when using the proposed scheme. Finally, the proposed scheme is in line with content-aware trends, by complying with information-centric-networking philosophy and architecture. PMID:26247057

  19. Semantic modeling and interoperability in product and process engineering a technology for engineering informatics

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    In the past decade, feature-based design and manufacturing has gained some momentum in various engineering domains to represent and reuse semantic patterns with effective applicability. However, the actual scope of feature application is still very limited. Semantic Modeling and Interoperability in Product and Process Engineering provides a systematic solution for the challenging engineering informatics field aiming at the enhancement of sustainable knowledge representation, implementation and reuse in an open and yet practically manageable scale.   This semantic modeling technology supports uniform, multi-facet and multi-level collaborative system engineering with heterogeneous computer-aided tools, such as CADCAM, CAE, and ERP.  This presented unified feature model can be applied to product and process representation, development, implementation and management. Practical case studies and test samples are provided to illustrate applications which can be implemented by the readers in real-world scenarios. �...

  20. The Influence of Statistical versus Exemplar Appeals on Indian Adults' Health Intentions: An Investigation of Direct Effects and Intervening Persuasion Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, Christopher J; Limbu, Yam; Jayachandran, C N

    2017-04-01

    In two separate investigations, we examined the persuasive effectiveness of statistical versus exemplar appeals on Indian adults' smoking cessation and mammography screening intentions. To more comprehensively address persuasion processes, we explored whether message response and perceived message effectiveness functioned as antecedents to persuasive effects. Results showed that statistical appeals led to higher levels of health intentions than exemplar appeals. In addition, findings from both studies indicated that statistical appeals stimulated more attention and were perceived as more effective than anecdotal accounts. Among male smokers, statistical appeals also generated greater cognitive processing than exemplar appeals. Subsequent mediation analyses revealed that message response and perceived message effectiveness fully carried the influence of appeal format on health intentions. Given these findings, future public health initiatives conducted among similar populations should design messages that include substantive factual information while ensuring that this content is perceived as credible and valuable.