WorldWideScience

Sample records for executable black-box tester

  1. Opening the black box the role of personality and anger in executives' decision making and leadership

    CERN Document Server

    Sputtek, Rebekka

    2012-01-01

    Rebekka Sputtek sheds light upon the question of how the personality and emotional traits of executives influence their decision making and leadership behavior. While recent strategic management research has started to recognize the relevance of an executive''s personality traits as antecedents of organizational outcomes, this stream has called for a more fine-grained clarification of the psychological processes underlying executive decision making. In order to contribute to the understanding of these processes, a holistic model integrating the role of an expedient set of personality variables

  2. Fatal exit the automotive black box debate

    CERN Document Server

    Kowalick, Tom

    2005-01-01

    "Fatal Exit: The Automotive Black Box Debate cuts through thirty years of political wrangling and institutional biases to provide an argument for the Motor Vehicle Event Data Recorder (MVEDR). This automotive equivalent of an airplane's flight recorder or black box is intended to solve the mysteries of car crashes and improve the safety of our roads. The reader is taken inside the automotive industry and the government highway safety establishment to foster an understanding of the politics and the positions on all sides of this safety debate. The author takes an unbiased approach, chronologically presenting each argument and uncovering the agendas and mandates of each of the stakeholders." "This publication is essential reading for all consumers who need to have their voices heard on this critical issue, as well as for attorneys, public safety advocates, public policy administrators, engineers, automotive professionals, journalists, and insurance executives."--Jacket.

  3. Broken links and black boxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sindbæk, Søren Michael

    2013-01-01

    Long-distance communication has emerged as a particular focus for archaeological exploration using network theory, analysis, and modelling. Initial attempts to adapt methods from social network analysis to archaeological data have, however, struggled to produce decisive results. This paper argues...... observable distributions and patterns of association in the archaeological record. In formal terms this is not a problem of network analysis, but network synthesis: the classic problem of cracking codes or reconstructing black-box circuits....

  4. Black-Box Search by Unbiased Variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehre, Per Kristian; Witt, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    The complexity theory for black-box algorithms, introduced by Droste, Jansen, and Wegener (Theory Comput. Syst. 39:525–544, 2006), describes common limits on the efficiency of a broad class of randomised search heuristics. There is an obvious trade-off between the generality of the black-box model...... and the strength of the bounds that can be proven in such a model. In particular, the original black-box model provides for well-known benchmark problems relatively small lower bounds, which seem unrealistic in certain cases and are typically not met by popular search heuristics.In this paper, we introduce a more...... restricted black-box model for optimisation of pseudo-Boolean functions which we claim captures the working principles of many randomised search heuristics including simulated annealing, evolutionary algorithms, randomised local search, and others. The key concept worked out is an unbiased variation operator...

  5. Repackaging SRS Black Box TRU Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swale, D. J.; Stone, K.A.; Milner, T. N.

    2006-01-01

    Historically, large items of TRU Waste, which were too large to be packaged in drums for disposal have been packaged in various sizes of custom made plywood boxes at the Savannah River Site (SRS), for many years. These boxes were subsequently packaged into large steel ''Black Boxes'' for storage at SRS, pending availability of Characterization and Certification capability, to facilitate disposal of larger items of TRU Waste. There are approximately 107 Black Boxes in inventory at SRS, each measuring some 18' x 12' x 7', and weighing up to 45,000 lbs. These Black Boxes have been stored since the early 1980s. The project to repackage this waste into Standard Large Boxes (SLBs), Standard Waste Boxes (SWB) and Ten Drum Overpacks (TDOP), for subsequent characterization and WIPP disposal, commenced in FY04. To date, 10 Black Boxes have been repackaged, resulting in 40 SLB-2's, and 37 B25 overpack boxes, these B25's will be overpacked in SLB-2's prior to shipping to WIPP. This paper will describe experience to date from this project

  6. Adaptation of Black-Box Software Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Andreas Rasenack

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The globalization of the software market leads to crucial problems for software companies. More competition between software companies arises and leads to the force on companies to develop ever newer software products in ever shortened time interval. Therefore the time to market for software systems is shortened and obviously the product life cycle is shortened too. Thus software companies shortened the time interval for research and development. Due to the fact of competition between software companies software products have to develop low-priced and this leads to a smaller return on investment. A big challenge for software companies is the use of an effective research and development process to have these problems under control. A way to control these problems can be the reuse of existing software components and adapt those software components to new functionality or accommodate mismatched interfaces. Complete redevelopment of software products is more expensive and time consuming than to develop software components. The approach introduced here presents novel technique together with a supportive environment that enables developers to cope with the adaptability of black-box software components. A supportive environment will be designed that checks the compatibility of black-box software components with the assistance of their specifications. Generated adapter software components can take over the part of adaptation and advance the functionality. Besides, a pool of software components can be used to compose an application to satisfy customer needs. Certainly this pool of software components consists of black-box software components and adapter software components which can be connected on demand.

  7. Faster Black-Box Algorithms Through Higher Arity Operators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doerr, Benjamin; Johannsen, Daniel; Kötzing, Timo

    2011-01-01

    We extend the work of Lehre and Witt (GECCO 2010) on the unbiased black-box model by considering higher arity variation operators. In particular, we show that already for binary operators the black-box complexity of LeadingOnes drops from (n2) for unary operators to O(n log n). For OneMax, the (n...

  8. The BOXES Methodology Black Box Dynamic Control

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, David W

    2012-01-01

    Robust control mechanisms customarily require knowledge of the system’s describing equations which may be of the high order differential type.  In order to produce these equations, mathematical models can often be derived and correlated with measured dynamic behavior.  There are two flaws in this approach one is the level of inexactness introduced by linearizations and the other when no model is apparent.  Several years ago a new genre of control systems came to light that are much less dependent on differential models such as fuzzy logic and genetic algorithms. Both of these soft computing solutions require quite considerable a priori system knowledge to create a control scheme and sometimes complicated training program before they can be implemented in a real world dynamic system. Michie and Chambers’ BOXES methodology created a black box system that was designed to control a mechanically unstable system with very little a priori system knowledge, linearization or approximation.  All the method need...

  9. Efficient approximation of black-box functions and Pareto sets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rennen, G.

    2009-01-01

    In the case of time-consuming simulation models or other so-called black-box functions, we determine a metamodel which approximates the relation between the input- and output-variables of the simulation model. To solve multi-objective optimization problems, we approximate the Pareto set, i.e. the

  10. VBSM: VCC-Based Black Box Service Model with Enhanced Data Integrity

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Won; Lee, Jae; Park, Jong

    2014-01-01

    Recently, intelligent transport systems have been applied to vehicle cloud environments. Such technology is especially useful for the systematic management of road traffic. Moreover, automobiles are increasingly equipped with a black box for accident prevention and preservation of evidence. Vehicle black boxes have become mandatory because black box images and voice data have served as forensic evidence in courts. However, the data from black boxes can be forged or modified by man-in-the-midd...

  11. UW VLSI chip tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Neil

    1989-12-01

    We present a design for a low-cost, functional VLSI chip tester. It is based on the Apple MacIntosh II personal computer. It tests chips that have up to 128 pins. All pin drivers of the tester are bidirectional; each pin is programmed independently as an input or an output. The tester can test both static and dynamic chips. Rudimentary speed testing is provided. Chips are tested by executing C programs written by the user. A software library is provided for program development. Tests run under both the Mac Operating System and A/UX. The design is implemented using Xilinx Logic Cell Arrays. Price/performance tradeoffs are discussed.

  12. THE USE OF EVENT DATA RECORDER (EDR – BLACK BOX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Nowacki

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper refers to the registration of road events by a modern device called EDR – black box for all types of the motor vehicles. The device records data concerning vehicle’s technical condition, the way it was driven and RTS. The recorder may be used in private and commercial cars, taxies, buses and trucks. The recorder may serve the purpose of a neutral witness for the police, courts and insurance firms, for which it will facilitate making the reconstruction of the road accidents events and will provide a proof for those who caused them. The device will bring efficient driving, which will significantly contribute to decreasing the number of road accidents and limiting the environmental pollution. In the end in the last year German parliament backed a proposal to the European Commission to put black boxes, which gather information from vehicles involved in accidents, in all the new cars from 2015 on.

  13. Optimal Black-Box Secret Sharing over Arbitrary Abelian Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramer, Ronald; Fehr, Serge

    2002-01-01

    A black-box secret sharing scheme for the threshold access structure T t,n is one which works over any finite Abelian group G. Briefly, such a scheme differs from an ordinary linear secret sharing scheme (over, say, a given finite field) in that distribution matrix and reconstruction vectors...... are defined over ℤ and are designed independently of the group G from which the secret and the shares are sampled. This means that perfect completeness and perfect privacy are guaranteed regardless of which group G is chosen. We define the black-box secret sharing problem as the problem of devising......, for an arbitrary given T t,n , a scheme with minimal expansion factor, i.e., where the length of the full vector of shares divided by the number of players n is minimal. Such schemes are relevant for instance in the context of distributed cryptosystems based on groups with secret or hard to compute group order...

  14. Two-Black Box Concept for Warhead Verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, Cameron Russell [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Frame, Katherine Chiyoko [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mckigney, Edward Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Smith, Morag Kristin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-06

    We have created a possible solution to meeting the requirements of certification/authentication while still employing complicated criteria. Technical solutions to protecting information from the host in an inspection environment needs to be assessed by those with specific expertise but, LANL can still study the verification problem. The two-black box framework developed provides another potential solution to the confidence vs. certification paradox.

  15. Black-boxing and cause-effect power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albantakis, Larissa; Tononi, Giulio

    2018-01-01

    Reductionism assumes that causation in the physical world occurs at the micro level, excluding the emergence of macro-level causation. We challenge this reductionist assumption by employing a principled, well-defined measure of intrinsic cause-effect power–integrated information (Φ), and showing that, according to this measure, it is possible for a macro level to “beat” the micro level. Simple systems were evaluated for Φ across different spatial and temporal scales by systematically considering all possible black boxes. These are macro elements that consist of one or more micro elements over one or more micro updates. Cause-effect power was evaluated based on the inputs and outputs of the black boxes, ignoring the internal micro elements that support their input-output function. We show how black-box elements can have more common inputs and outputs than the corresponding micro elements, revealing the emergence of high-order mechanisms and joint constraints that are not apparent at the micro level. As a consequence, a macro, black-box system can have higher Φ than its micro constituents by having more mechanisms (higher composition) that are more interconnected (higher integration). We also show that, for a given micro system, one can identify local maxima of Φ across several spatiotemporal scales. The framework is demonstrated on a simple biological system, the Boolean network model of the fission-yeast cell-cycle, for which we identify stable local maxima during the course of its simulated biological function. These local maxima correspond to macro levels of organization at which emergent cause-effect properties of physical systems come into focus, and provide a natural vantage point for scientific inquiries. PMID:29684020

  16. Black-boxing and cause-effect power.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Marshall

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Reductionism assumes that causation in the physical world occurs at the micro level, excluding the emergence of macro-level causation. We challenge this reductionist assumption by employing a principled, well-defined measure of intrinsic cause-effect power-integrated information (Φ, and showing that, according to this measure, it is possible for a macro level to "beat" the micro level. Simple systems were evaluated for Φ across different spatial and temporal scales by systematically considering all possible black boxes. These are macro elements that consist of one or more micro elements over one or more micro updates. Cause-effect power was evaluated based on the inputs and outputs of the black boxes, ignoring the internal micro elements that support their input-output function. We show how black-box elements can have more common inputs and outputs than the corresponding micro elements, revealing the emergence of high-order mechanisms and joint constraints that are not apparent at the micro level. As a consequence, a macro, black-box system can have higher Φ than its micro constituents by having more mechanisms (higher composition that are more interconnected (higher integration. We also show that, for a given micro system, one can identify local maxima of Φ across several spatiotemporal scales. The framework is demonstrated on a simple biological system, the Boolean network model of the fission-yeast cell-cycle, for which we identify stable local maxima during the course of its simulated biological function. These local maxima correspond to macro levels of organization at which emergent cause-effect properties of physical systems come into focus, and provide a natural vantage point for scientific inquiries.

  17. SSL/TLS Vulnerability Detection Using Black Box Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawan, D.; Sitorus, E. H.; Rahmat, R. F.; Hizriadi, A.

    2018-03-01

    Socket Secure Layer (SSL) and Transport Layer Security (TLS) are cryptographic protocols that provide data encryption to secure the communication over a network. However, in some cases, there are vulnerability found in the implementation of SSL/TLS because of weak cipher key, certificate validation error or session handling error. One of the most vulnerable SSL/TLS bugs is heartbleed. As the security is essential in data communication, this research aims to build a scanner that detect the SSL/TLS vulnerability by using black box approach. This research will focus on heartbleed case. In addition, this research also gathers information about existing SSL in the server. The black box approach is used to test the output of a system without knowing the process inside the system itself. For testing purpose, this research scanned websites and found that some of the websites still have SSL/TLS vulnerability. Thus, the black box approach can be used to detect the vulnerability without considering the source code and the process inside the application.

  18. Vehicle Plate Detection in Car Black Box Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongjin Park

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet services that share vehicle black box videos need a way to obfuscate license plates in uploaded videos because of privacy issues. Thus, plate detection is one of the critical functions that such services rely on. Even though various types of detection methods are available, they are not suitable for black box videos because no assumption about size, number of plates, and lighting conditions can be made. We propose a method to detect Korean vehicle plates from black box videos. It works in two stages: the first stage aims to locate a set of candidate plate regions and the second stage identifies only actual plates from candidates by using a support vector machine classifier. The first stage consists of five sequential substeps. At first, it produces candidate regions by combining single character areas and then eliminates candidate regions that fail to meet plate conditions through the remaining substeps. For the second stage, we propose a feature vector that captures the characteristics of plates in texture and color. For performance evaluation, we compiled our dataset which contains 2,627 positive and negative images. The evaluation results show that the proposed method improves accuracy and sensitivity by at least 5% and is 30 times faster compared with an existing method.

  19. VBSM: VCC-Based Black Box Service Model with Enhanced Data Integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Min Kang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, intelligent transport systems have been applied to vehicle cloud environments. Such technology is especially useful for the systematic management of road traffic. Moreover, automobiles are increasingly equipped with a black box for accident prevention and preservation of evidence. Vehicle black boxes have become mandatory because black box images and voice data have served as forensic evidence in courts. However, the data from black boxes can be forged or modified by man-in-the-middle (MITM attacks and message hijacking. In this paper, we propose a vehicle cloud computing-based black box service model that can provide integrity for black box data through digital signatures in vehicle cloud computing (VCC environments. Our proposed model protects against MITM attacks and message hijacking using only a hash value and digital signature. Moreover, a mirroring technique (RAID 1 provides backup and recovery to protect the data from a traffic accident.

  20. Pothole Detection System Using a Black-box Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngtae Jo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aging roads and poor road-maintenance systems result a large number of potholes, whose numbers increase over time. Potholes jeopardize road safety and transportation efficiency. Moreover, they are often a contributing factor to car accidents. To address the problems associated with potholes, the locations and size of potholes must be determined quickly. Sophisticated road-maintenance strategies can be developed using a pothole database, which requires a specific pothole-detection system that can collect pothole information at low cost and over a wide area. However, pothole repair has long relied on manual detection efforts. Recent automatic detection systems, such as those based on vibrations or laser scanning, are insufficient to detect potholes correctly and inexpensively owing to the unstable detection of vibration-based methods and high costs of laser scanning-based methods. Thus, in this paper, we introduce a new pothole-detection system using a commercial black-box camera. The proposed system detects potholes over a wide area and at low cost. We have developed a novel pothole-detection algorithm specifically designed to work with the embedded computing environments of black-box cameras. Experimental results are presented with our proposed system, showing that potholes can be detected accurately in real-time.

  1. Opening the "black box" of current creativity research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann Birk, Rasmus; Ernø, Steffen

    -2012. The sub-fields were chosen because of their prominence in psychological research and research on creativity. The articles were procured from the PsycINFO database, with selection criteria being that they must be peer-reviewed and empirical studies. Typical definitions of creativity were "novelty plus...... value" or none at all. Creativity was mostly measured with different types of divergent thinking tests. There appears to be a lack of deeper theoretical and methodological discussions of creativity in the literature, which creates a disconnection between definitions, methodologies and the interpretation...... of empirical findings in regards to creativity as a phenomenon. Creativity itself thus becomes a "black box", rarely opened to investigation. Creativity research could therefore benefit from a more sustained relfection over its theoretical and methodological underpinnings as well as shifting its focus towards...

  2. Quantum computing with black-box quantum subroutines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Jayne [Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, 117543 Singapore (Singapore); Gu, Mile [Center for Quantum Information, Institute for Interdisciplinary Information Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, 117543 Singapore (Singapore); Modi, Kavan [School of Physics, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Vedral, Vlatko [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Clarendon Laboratory, Oxford, OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, 117543 Singapore (Singapore); Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, 117551 Singapore (Singapore)

    2014-07-01

    In classical computation a subroutine is treated as a black box and we do not need to know its exact physical implementation to use it. A complex problem can be decomposed into smaller problems using such modularity. We show that quantum mechanically applying an unknown quantum process as a subroutine is impossible, and this restricts computation models such as DQC1 from operating on unknown inputs. We present a method to avoid this situation for certain computational problems and apply to a modular version of Shor's factoring algorithm. We examine how quantum entanglement and discord fare in this implementation. In this way we are able to study the role of discord in Shor's factoring algorithm.

  3. Opening the Big Black Box: European study reveals visitors' impressions of science laboratories

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    "On 29 - 30 March the findings of 'Inside the Big Black Box'- a Europe-wide science and society project - will be revealed during a two-day seminar hosted by CERN*. The principle aim of Inside the Big Black Box (IN3B) is to determine whether a working scientific laboratory can capture the curiosity of the general public through visits" (1 page)

  4. Deciphering the black box of food allergy mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampath, Vanitha; Tupa, Dana; Graham, Michelle Toft; Chatila, Talal A; Spergel, Jonathan M; Nadeau, Kari C

    2017-01-01

    To review our current understanding of immunotherapy, the immune mechanisms underlying food allergy, and the methodological advances that are furthering our understanding of the role of immune cells and other molecules in mediating food allergies. Literature searches were performed using the following combination of terms: allergy, immunotherapy, food, and mechanisms. Data from randomized clinical studies using state-of-the-art mechanistic tools were prioritized. Articles were selected based on their relevance to food allergy. Current standard of care for food allergies is avoidance of allergenic foods and the use of epinephrine in case of severe reaction during unintentional ingestion. During the last few decades, great strides have been made in understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying food allergy, and this information is spearheading the development of exciting new treatments. Immunotherapy protocols are effective in desensitizing individuals to specific allergens; however, recurrence of allergic sensitization is common after discontinuation of therapy. Interestingly, in a subset of individuals, immunotherapy is protective against allergens even after discontinuation of immunotherapy. Whether this protection is permanent is currently unknown because of inadequate long-term follow-up data. Research on understanding the underlying mechanisms may assist in modifying protocols to improve outcome and enable sustained unresponsiveness, rather than a temporary relief against food allergies. The cellular changes brought about by immunotherapy are still a black box, but major strides in our understanding are being made at an exciting pace. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Correlated, Static and Dynamic Polarizabilities of Small Molecules. Comparison of Four "Black Box" Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalskov, Erik K.; Sauer, Stephan P. A.

    1998-01-01

    Molecular static and dynamic polarizabilities for thirteen small molecules have been calculated using four "black box" ab initio methods, the random phase approximation, RPA, the second-order polarization propagator approximation, SOPPA, the second-order polarization propagator approximation...

  6. Colouring in the "black-box": Alternative renderings of scientific visualisations in two comic book cosmologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Simon

    2013-04-01

    Two somewhat contrasting views of public uses of scientific visualisations argue that they are "black-boxed" with meaning given by the scientific community or they are "polysemic" with meaning given by the context of presentation. This paper argues that whether they are treated as black-boxed or not and in what manner this is done is itself part of the meaning given by context. Thus, "black-boxing" is done not only by scientists but also by members of the public. The argument is illustrated by reference to two recent comic books, Dave Sim's Cerebus and Alan Moore's Promethea, in which the authors present cosmological visions of the universe using scientific visualisations to create a sense of realism. From analysis of their use of images of planet Earth and the human foetus it is argued that, although the images are black-boxed, the authors re-work them aesthetically to suit their specific moral and cosmological views.

  7. Perancangan Prototipe Receiver Beacon Black Box Locator Acoustic 37,5 kHz Pingers

    OpenAIRE

    RUSTAMAJI RUSTAMAJI; PAULINE RAHMIATI; SARAH PERMATASARI

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRAK Ketika suatu pesawat terbang mengalami kecelakaan terjatuh ke dalam air, maka lokasi keberadaannya dapat dideteksi oleh alat yang disebut receiver beacon black box locator acoustic (pingers receiver). Pingers receiver berfungsi untuk menerima sinyal dengan frekuensi 37,5 kHz ± 1 kHz dari pingers transmitter atau Underwater Locator Beacon (ULB) yang berada pada black box pesawat. Dalam penelitian ini dibuat perancangan pingers receiver yang tersusun dari rangkaian Band Pass Filter (BPF...

  8. Bayesian molecular dating: opening up the black box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromham, Lindell; Duchêne, Sebastián; Hua, Xia; Ritchie, Andrew M; Duchêne, David A; Ho, Simon Y W

    2018-05-01

    Molecular dating analyses allow evolutionary timescales to be estimated from genetic data, offering an unprecedented capacity for investigating the evolutionary past of all species. These methods require us to make assumptions about the relationship between genetic change and evolutionary time, often referred to as a 'molecular clock'. Although initially regarded with scepticism, molecular dating has now been adopted in many areas of biology. This broad uptake has been due partly to the development of Bayesian methods that allow complex aspects of molecular evolution, such as variation in rates of change across lineages, to be taken into account. But in order to do this, Bayesian dating methods rely on a range of assumptions about the evolutionary process, which vary in their degree of biological realism and empirical support. These assumptions can have substantial impacts on the estimates produced by molecular dating analyses. The aim of this review is to open the 'black box' of Bayesian molecular dating and have a look at the machinery inside. We explain the components of these dating methods, the important decisions that researchers must make in their analyses, and the factors that need to be considered when interpreting results. We illustrate the effects that the choices of different models and priors can have on the outcome of the analysis, and suggest ways to explore these impacts. We describe some major research directions that may improve the reliability of Bayesian dating. The goal of our review is to help researchers to make informed choices when using Bayesian phylogenetic methods to estimate evolutionary rates and timescales. © 2017 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  9. Wishful Thinking? Inside the Black Box of Exposure Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Money, Annemarie; Robinson, Christine; Agius, Raymond; de Vocht, Frank

    2016-05-01

    Decision-making processes used by experts when undertaking occupational exposure assessment are relatively unknown, but it is often assumed that there is a common underlying method that experts employ. However, differences in training and experience of assessors make it unlikely that one general method for expert assessment would exist. Therefore, there are concerns about formalizing, validating, and comparing expert estimates within and between studies that are difficult, if not impossible, to characterize. Heuristics on the other hand (the processes involved in decision making) have been extensively studied. Heuristics are deployed by everyone as short-cuts to make the often complex process of decision-making simpler, quicker, and less burdensome. Experts' assessments are often subject to various simplifying heuristics as a way to reach a decision in the absence of sufficient data. Therefore, investigating the underlying heuristics or decision-making processes involved may help to shed light on the 'black box' of exposure assessment. A mixed method study was conducted utilizing both a web-based exposure assessment exercise incorporating quantitative and semiqualitative elements of data collection, and qualitative semi-structured interviews with exposure assessors. Qualitative data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Twenty-five experts completed the web-based exposure assessment exercise and 8 of these 25 were randomly selected to participate in the follow-up interview. Familiar key themes relating to the exposure assessment exercise emerged; 'intensity'; 'probability'; 'agent'; 'process'; and 'duration' of exposure. However, an important aspect of the detailed follow-up interviews revealed a lack of structure and order with which participants described their decision making. Participants mostly described some form of an iterative process, heavily relying on the anchoring and adjustment heuristic, which differed between experts. In spite of having undertaken

  10. Nine optical black-box experiments for lower-secondary students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, Henning; Friege, Gunnar

    2017-05-01

    In this paper a sequence of nine, easy to manufacture optical black-box experiments with increasing levels of difficulty, and supportive frameworks for physics classes are introduced. They have been evaluated in a lower-secondary school at the end of optics lessons. A black-box is a kind of experimental task where the inner structure is not visible to the experimenter. Using mirrors, beam-splitters, and blockers in a black-box to manipulate the light beam’s direction through this specific experiment, students are instructed to vary input and observe the output of light to get an idea of the possible inner structure. The presented sequence of black-box experiments requires a basic knowledge of the linear propagation of light and is suitable for beginner physics. Furthermore a framework for concrete implementation to physics classes is given, which covers suitable structure of class, examples for helpful worksheets, and authentic students’ solutions. The difficulty of the specific black-box experiments is given by the students’ success within observing input-output correlation and conclusion of an inner structure. The experiments’ implementation to physics classes may cover elaboration, practice, and aspects of the nature of science even in a beginner’s class. Evaluation has been conducted with students of young age (11-12 years old), however they are suitable for older students also. Although dealing with a time extensive sequence of experiments, students showed a high level of motivation throughout. Overall, implementing this sequence of black-box experiments is seen as valuable and helpful for physics classes.

  11. myBlackBox: Blackbox Mobile Cloud Systems for Personalized Unusual Event Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junho Ahn

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate the feasibility of constructing a novel and practical real-world mobile cloud system, called myBlackBox, that efficiently fuses multimodal smartphone sensor data to identify and log unusual personal events in mobile users’ daily lives. The system incorporates a hybrid architectural design that combines unsupervised classification of audio, accelerometer and location data with supervised joint fusion classification to achieve high accuracy, customization, convenience and scalability. We show the feasibility of myBlackBox by implementing and evaluating this end-to-end system that combines Android smartphones with cloud servers, deployed for 15 users over a one-month period.

  12. Black Box Thinking: Analysis of a Service Outsourcing Case in Insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witman, Paul D.; Njunge, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Often, users of information systems (both automated and manual) must analyze those systems in a "black box" fashion, without being able to see the internals of how the system is supposed to work. In this case of business process outsourcing, an insurance industry customer encounters an ongoing stream of customer service issues, with both…

  13. The Mind as Black Box: A Simulation of Theory Building in Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Carolyn; Oliver, Jennifer

    2000-01-01

    Discusses an activity that uses the metaphor "the mind is a black box," in which students work in groups to discover what is inside a sealed, black, plastic box. States that the activity enables students to understand the need for theories in psychology and to comprehend how psychologists build, test, and refine those theories. (CMK)

  14. Inside the Black Box: Tracking Decision-Making in an Action Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Cathryn

    2017-01-01

    Action research has been described as "designing the plane while flying it" (Herr & Anderson, 2005, p. 69). A black box documented the researcher's decisions while facilitating leadership development sessions with teacher leaders. Ten process folio steps informed the study through six iterations. Planning steps included a design…

  15. A diary study to open up the black box of overtime work among university faculty members

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beckers, D.G.J.; Hooff, M.L.M. van; Linden, D. van der; Kompier, M.A.J.; Taris, T.W.; Geurts, S.A.E.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed at opening up the black box of overtime work among university faculty members by providing information on (i) when faculty members work overtime, (ii) what activities are undertaken during overtime, and (iii) how overtime is experienced. Methods: Data were collected

  16. Quasi-Newton methods for implicit black-box FSI coupling

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bogaers, Alfred EJ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce a new multi-vector update quasi-Newton (MVQN) method for implicit coupling of partitioned, transient FSI solvers. The new quasi-Newton method facilitates the use of 'black-box' field solvers and under certain circumstances...

  17. Upon opening the black box of participatory design and finding it filled with ethics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, M.G.D.

    2011-01-01

    In this essay, I bring together Participatory Design's (PD) tradition of critical reflection on one's own practices, and Science and Technology Studies' focus on specific activities ('opening the black box'), in order to explore the ethics of PD. Three different forms of ethics—ethics-of-theother,

  18. The Solow residual as a black box: attemps at integrating business cycle and growth theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mata, T.; Louçã, F.

    2009-01-01

    Robert Solow's "Technical Change and the Aggregate Production Function" (1957) has had an enduring influence on macroeconomics. In this article, we examine the history of fluctuations in growth theory through the story of the "Solow residual" as a "black box." We show that after Solow's seminal

  19. 76 FR 82129 - Medical Devices; Ovarian Adnexal Mass Assessment Score Test System; Labeling; Black Box Restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    ... and 13563 direct Agencies to assess all costs and benefits of available regulatory alternatives and... potential economic, environmental, public health and safety, and other advantages; distributive impacts; and... misuse. With the addition of this black box warning to product labeling, advertising, and marketing...

  20. Black-Box Optimization for Buildings and Its Enhancement by Advanced Communication Infrastructure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macek, Karel; Rojíček, J.; Kontes, G.; Rovas, D. V.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 5 (2013), s. 53-64 ISSN 2255-2863 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-13502S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Evolutionary algorithms * Black box modeling * Simplification * Refining * HVAC * Load shedding * Communication infrastructure Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/AS/macek-0423196.pdf

  1. A diary study to open up the black box of overtime work among university faculty members

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beckers, D.G.J.; Hooff, M.L.M. van; Linden, D. van der; Kompier, M.A.J.; Taris, T.W.; Geurts, S.A.E.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives - This study aimed at opening up the black box of overtime work among university faculty members by providing information on (i) when faculty members work overtime, (ii) what activities are undertaken during overtime, and (iii) how overtime is experienced. Methods - Data were collected

  2. Prediction of ionizing radiation effects in integrated circuits using black-box models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, P.W.

    1976-10-01

    A method is described which allows general black-box modelling of integrated circuits as distinct from the existing method of deriving the radiation induced response of the model from actual terminal measurements on the device during irradiation. Both digital and linear circuits are discussed. (author)

  3. IT Decision Making in German Hospitals - Do CEOs Open the Black Box?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thye, Johannes; Hübner, Ursula; Hüsers, Jens; Babitsch, Birgit

    2017-01-01

    Health IT and communication systems are indispensable in German hospitals for clinical as well as administrative process support. However, IT is often regarded as a "black box" for hospital CEOs. Thus, the question arises how can CEOs decide if they do not know what is in the box? In order to answer this question, half-structured interviews with 14 German hospital CEOs were conducted. They revealed three principle decision processes: the supported decision, the joint decision and the corporate level decision. In all cases, the hospital CEO and the CIO interacted to reach the final decision, most strongly in the joint decision mode and least strongly in the corporate decision mode. Only the joint decision mode definitely forced the CEO to open the "black box" of IT. In the era of digitalisation, however, CEOs must develop better competencies to decide over complex matters.

  4. Reconciling White-Box and Black-Box Perspectives on Behavioral Self-adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni, Roberto; Corradini, Andrea; Gadducci, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes to reconcile two perspectives on behavioral adaptation commonly taken at different stages of the engineering of autonomic computing systems. Requirements engineering activities often take a black-box perspective: A system is considered to be adaptive with respect to an environ......This paper proposes to reconcile two perspectives on behavioral adaptation commonly taken at different stages of the engineering of autonomic computing systems. Requirements engineering activities often take a black-box perspective: A system is considered to be adaptive with respect...... to an environment whenever the system is able to satisfy its goals irrespectively of the environment perturbations. Modeling and programming engineering activities often take a white-box perspective: A system is equipped with suitable adaptation mechanisms and its behavior is classified as adaptive depending...

  5. Hybrid Decision Making: When Interpretable Models Collaborate With Black-Box Models

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Tong

    2018-01-01

    Interpretable machine learning models have received increasing interest in recent years, especially in domains where humans are involved in the decision-making process. However, the possible loss of the task performance for gaining interpretability is often inevitable. This performance downgrade puts practitioners in a dilemma of choosing between a top-performing black-box model with no explanations and an interpretable model with unsatisfying task performance. In this work, we propose a nove...

  6. Design and Development of Black Box for Analyzing Accidents in Indian Railways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alka DUBEY

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Black box also known as engine data recorder (EDR is a device for recording and analyzing train engine status for generation a report and analyzing train accidents. EDR is an application of embedded systems based on sensors, microcontroller, memory, serial interface and display unit. In the present paper designing of EDR with their technical specifications is provided. There railway electric engine WAP-7 is used in present study.

  7. Opening the black box: From an individual bias to portfolio performance

    OpenAIRE

    Nosic, Alen; Weber, Martin; Glaser, Markus

    2011-01-01

    We suggest an experimental design that can help opening the black box of investor behavior by documenting a channel of how biases affect portfolio performance. We study two of the most important investor biases (overreaction and overconfidence), show how they are related, and analyze their consequences for portfolio choice and resulting portfolio performance in a controlled experimental setting with 104 participants. The main innovation of our study is that we go beyond just documenting a cor...

  8. Perancangan Prototipe Transmitter Beacon Black Box Locator Acoustic 37.5 kHz Pingers

    OpenAIRE

    RUSTAMAJI RUSTAMAJI; KANIA SAWITRI; RUDI GUNAWAN

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRAK Pingers transmitter berfungsi untuk memancarkan sinyal atau getaran pulsa akustik pada black box. Frekuensi sinyal yang dipancarkan sebesar 37,5 kHz yang dimodulasikan oleh pulsa dengan durasi 10 ms setiap interval 1 second. Modulasi yang digunakan adalah modulasi on off keying. Dalam penelitian ini dibuat perancangan pingers transmitter yang tersusun atas rangkaian osilator, timer, inverter, switch dan rangkaian amplifier. Frekuensi 37,5 kHz tersebut dibangkitkan oleh rangkaian osi...

  9. Poppet valve tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellier, G. F.

    1973-01-01

    Tester investigates fundamental factors affecting cyclic life and sealing performance of valve seats and poppets. Tester provides for varying impact loading of poppet against seat and rate of cycling, and controls amount and type of relative motion between sealing faces of seat and poppet. Relative motion between seat and poppet can be varied in three modes.

  10. Are the program packages for molecular structure calculations really black boxes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA MRAKOVIC

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this communication it is shown that the widely held opinion that compact program packages for quantum–mechanical calculations of molecular structure can safely be used as black boxes is completely wrong. In order to illustrate this, the results of computations of equilibrium bond lengths, vibrational frequencies and dissociation energies for all homonuclear diatomic molecules involving the atoms from the first two rows of the Periodic Table, performed using the Gaussian program package are presented. It is demonstrated that the sensible use of the program requires a solid knowledge of quantum chemistry.

  11. Unlocking the black box: line managers and HRM performance in a call centre context

    OpenAIRE

    Harney, Brian; Jordan, Claire

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to show the way to unlock the black box of HRM and performance linkages by exploring one of the key variables that mediates the link, namely whether line managers can stimulate improvements in firm performance by eliciting appropriate employee outcomes in a call centre context. Design/methodology/approach – The research draws on Purcell's "People-Performance Model" as a sensitising framework to inform an in-depth case study of a call centre. This pro...

  12. Opening the black box of quality improvement collaboratives: an Actor-Network theory approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broer Tineke

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quality improvement collaboratives are often labeled as black boxes because effect studies usually do not describe exactly how the results were obtained. In this article we propose a way of opening such a black box, by taking up a dynamic perspective based on Actor-Network Theory. We thereby analyze how the problematisation process and the measurement practices are constructed. Findings from this analysis may have consequences for future evaluation studies of collaboratives. Methods In an ethnographic design we probed two projects within a larger quality improvement collaborative on long term mental health care and care for the intellectually disabled. Ethnographic observations were made at nine national conferences. Furthermore we conducted six case studies involving participating teams. Additionally, we interviewed the two program leaders of the overall projects. Results In one project the problematisation seemed to undergo a shift of focus away from the one suggested by the project leaders. In the other we observed multiple roles of the measurement instrument used. The instrument did not only measure effects of the improvement actions but also changed these actions and affected the actors involved. Conclusions Effectiveness statistics ideally should be complemented with an analysis of the construction of the collaborative and the improvement practices. Effect studies of collaboratives could benefit from a mixed methods research design that combines quantitative and qualitative methods.

  13. Chips in black boxes? Convenience life span, parafood, brandwidth, families, and co-creation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Marc

    2015-11-01

    Any consumer who opens a bag of potato or corn chips (or crisps in the UK) knows there is no time to waste to enjoy or share them. The convenience life span of chips is limited: it is the shelf or storage life and a very limited time once outside the bag. Many technologies converge to generate the desired effect as a black box, not only of the packaging but also of the chips themselves. The concept of paratext can be applied to printed messages on the package, including the brand name and other texts like advertising (epitexts), which can be expanded into the concept of parafood. These concepts help to discuss technological developments and interpret why this has recently become a negotiation zone for co-creation (see the Do us a flavor campaigns). They are symptoms of changing relations between production, research and development, marketing, and consumption. This paper pays special attention to back stories, underdog brand biographies and narratives about origin. The concept of brandwidth is introduced to sensitize about the limits of combining different stories about chips. A recent brand biography, a family history and a cookery book are used to discuss the phenomenon of cooking with Fritos. Together with the concepts of parafood, brandwidth and black boxes, more reflection and dialogue about the role of history and heritage in marketing put new challenging perspectives on the agenda. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Ten years after the FDA black box warning for antidepressant drugs: a critical narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Martínez-Aguayo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA has warned about the increased suicidality risk associated with the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI and venlafaxine in children and adolescents. Objectives To critically appraise the available evidence supporting the FDA Black box warning concerning to the use of antidepressants in child and adolescents. Methods A critical review of articles in Medline/PubMed and SciELO databases regarding the FDA Black box warning for antidepressants, and the impact of FDA warnings on antidepressant prescriptions and suicide rates. Results The warning was based on surveys that did not report either cases of suicide nor a significant difference supporting an increased suicidality rate. The concept was defined in an ambiguous way and there is currently more available evidence to support such definition. The use of SSRI and venlafaxine has been associated to lower suicidality rates, but the prescription fall due to the warning increased suicide rates. Discussion Suicidality is an inherent feature of depressive disorders so it would be desirable to consider how much of the phenomenon may be attributed to antidepressants per se. It would be appropriate to consider that suicide rates might increase also as a consequence of the warning.

  15. Prediction of AL and Dst Indices from ACE Measurements Using Hybrid Physics/Black-Box Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, E.; Rao, A.; Horton, W.; Mays, L.

    2008-12-01

    ACE measurements of the solar wind velocity, IMF and proton density is used to drive a hybrid Physics/Black- Box model of the nightside magnetosphere. The core physics is contained in a low order nonlinear dynamical model of the nightside magnetosphere called WINDMI. The model is augmented by wavelet based nonlinear mappings between the solar wind quantities and the input into the physics model, followed by further wavelet based mappings of the model output field aligned currents onto the ground based magnetometer measurements of the AL index and Dst index. The black box mappings are introduced at the input stage to account for uncertainties in the way the solar wind quantities are transported from the ACE spacecraft at L1 to the magnetopause. Similar mappings are introduced at the output stage to account for a spatially and temporally varying westward auroral electrojet geometry. The parameters of the model are tuned using a genetic algorithm, and trained using the large geomagnetic storm dataset of October 3-7 2000. It's predictive performance is then evaluated on subsequent storm datasets, in particular the April 15-24 2002 storm. This work is supported by grant NSF 7020201

  16. Separating the early universe from the late universe: Cosmological parameter estimation beyond the black box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tegmark, Max; Zaldarriaga, Matias

    2002-01-01

    We present a method for measuring the cosmic matter budget without assumptions about speculative early Universe physics, and for measuring the primordial power spectrum P * (k) nonparametrically, either by combining CMB and LSS information or by using CMB polarization. Our method complements currently fashionable 'black box' cosmological parameter analysis, constraining cosmological models in a more physically intuitive fashion by mapping measurements of CMB, weak lensing and cluster abundance into k space, where they can be directly compared with each other and with galaxy and Lyα forest clustering. Including the new CBI results, we find that CMB measurements of P(k) overlap with those from 2dF galaxy clustering by over an order of magnitude in scale, and even overlap with weak lensing measurements. We describe how our approach can be used to raise the ambition level beyond cosmological parameter fitting as data improves, testing rather than assuming the underlying physics

  17. Stochastic Simulation of Integrated Circuits with Nonlinear Black-Box Components via Augmented Deterministic Equivalents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANFREDI, P.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper extends recent literature results concerning the statistical simulation of circuits affected by random electrical parameters by means of the polynomial chaos framework. With respect to previous implementations, based on the generation and simulation of augmented and deterministic circuit equivalents, the modeling is extended to generic and ?black-box? multi-terminal nonlinear subcircuits describing complex devices, like those found in integrated circuits. Moreover, based on recently-published works in this field, a more effective approach to generate the deterministic circuit equivalents is implemented, thus yielding more compact and efficient models for nonlinear components. The approach is fully compatible with commercial (e.g., SPICE-type circuit simulators and is thoroughly validated through the statistical analysis of a realistic interconnect structure with a 16-bit memory chip. The accuracy and the comparison against previous approaches are also carefully established.

  18. Black-Box Accumulation: Collecting Incentives in a Privacy-Preserving Way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jager Tibor

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We formalize and construct black-box accumulation (BBA, a useful building block for numerous important user-centric protocols including loyalty systems, refund systems, and incentive systems (as, e.g., employed in participatory sensing and vehicle-to-grid scenarios. A core requirement all these systems share is a mechanism to let users collect and sum up values (call it incentives, bonus points, reputation points, etc. issued by some other parties in a privacy-preserving way such that curious operators may not be able to link the different transactions of a user. At the same time, a group of malicious users may not be able to cheat the system by pretending to have collected a higher amount than what was actually issued to them.

  19. Inside the "Black Box" of a Knowledge Translation Program in Applied Health Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Janet; Day, Jo; Britten, Nicky

    2015-11-01

    In this article, we present the findings of a participatory realistic evaluation of a 5-year program of health care research intended to promote the translation of knowledge into routine clinical practice. The program was one of the nine pilot Collaborations for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care funded by the English National Institute for Health Research between 2008 and 2013. Our aim was to delineate the mechanisms by which, and circumstances in which, some projects carried out under the program achieved success in knowledge translation while others were frustrated. Using qualitative methods, we examined how closer collaboration between academics and clinicians worked in four purposefully chosen case studies. In a synthesis of the findings, we produced a "black box" model of how knowledge translation was enabled by the activation of nine mechanisms. These are summarized in the form of five simple rules for promoting knowledge translation through collaborations based on principles of coproduction. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Car Black Box with Speed Control in Desired Areas for Collision Avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Poddar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an advanced step to the concept of car black-box in developing a comprehensive vehicle safety system which would not only record the video and audio, but also try to prevent a possible collision by limiting the speed of the vehicle in accident-prone areas. In case of an accident, the time and location (co-ordinates is sent through GSM to a preset number for immediate rescue and treatment. Recorded data can also be used for forensics, revealing the problems that caused the accident and give manufacturer an idea for improvement. So the motto is to develop an embedded integrated system consisting of a microcontroller, a power supply unit, sensors, memory, a motor driver unit and a GPS/GSM modem.

  1. Opening the black box of ethics policy work: evaluating a covert practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolic, Andrea; Drolet, Katherine; Bryanton, Kim; Caron, Carole; Cupido, Cynthia; Flaherty, Barb; Fung, Sylvia; McCall, Lori

    2012-01-01

    Hospital ethics committees (HECs) and ethicists generally describe themselves as engaged in four domains of practice: case consultation, research, education, and policy work. Despite the increasing attention to quality indicators, practice standards, and evaluation methods for the other domains, comparatively little is known or published about the policy work of HECs or ethicists. This article attempts to open the "black box" of this health care ethics practice by providing two detailed case examples of ethics policy reviews. We also describe the development and application of an evaluation strategy to assess the quality of ethics policy review work, and to enable continuous improvement of ethics policy review processes. Given the potential for policy work to impact entire patient populations and organizational systems, it is imperative that HECs and ethicists develop clearer roles, responsibilities, procedural standards, and evaluation methods to ensure the delivery of consistent, relevant, and high-quality ethics policy reviews.

  2. Interpreting Black-Box Classifiers Using Instance-Level Visual Explanations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamagnini, Paolo; Krause, Josua W.; Dasgupta, Aritra; Bertini, Enrico

    2017-05-14

    To realize the full potential of machine learning in diverse real- world domains, it is necessary for model predictions to be readily interpretable and actionable for the human in the loop. Analysts, who are the users but not the developers of machine learning models, often do not trust a model because of the lack of transparency in associating predictions with the underlying data space. To address this problem, we propose Rivelo, a visual analytic interface that enables analysts to understand the causes behind predictions of binary classifiers by interactively exploring a set of instance-level explanations. These explanations are model-agnostic, treating a model as a black box, and they help analysts in interactively probing the high-dimensional binary data space for detecting features relevant to predictions. We demonstrate the utility of the interface with a case study analyzing a random forest model on the sentiment of Yelp reviews about doctors.

  3. The black box in somatization: unexplained physical symptoms, culture, and narratives of trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waitzkin, H; Magaña, H

    1997-09-01

    Stimulated by our clinical work with patients who manifest unexplained "somatoform" symptoms in the primary care setting, this article addresses a theoretical black box in our understanding of somatization: how does culture mediate severe stress to produce symptoms that cannot be explained by the presence of physical illness? Despite various problems in his explanation of hysteria, Freud broke new ground by emphasizing narratives of traumatic experiences in the development and treatment of unexplained physical symptoms. Except in anthropologically oriented cultural psychiatry, contemporary psychiatry has traveled away from a focus on narrative in the study of somatization. On the other hand, recent interest in narrative has spread across many intellectual disciplines, including the humanities and literary criticism, psychology, history, anthropology, and sociology. We operationally define narratives as attempts at storytelling that portray the interrelationships among physical symptoms and the psychologic, social, or cultural context of these symptoms. Regarding somatization and trauma, we focus on the ways that narrative integrates the cultural context with traumatic life events. In explaining the black box, we postulate that extreme stress (torture, rape, witnessing deaths of relatives, forced migration, etc.) is processed psychologically as a terrible, largely incoherent narrative of events too awful to hold in consciousness. Culture patterns the psychologic and somatic expression of the terrible narrative. Methodologically, we have developed some techniques for eliciting narratives of severe stress and somatic symptoms, which we illustrate with observations from an ongoing research project. In designing interventions to improve the care of somatizing patients, we are focusing on the creation of social situations where patients may feel empowered to express more coherent narratives of their prior traumatic experiences.

  4. Common tester platform concept.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, Michael James

    2008-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a case study on the doctrine of a common tester platform, a concept of a standardized platform that can be applicable across the broad spectrum of testing requirements throughout the various stages of a weapons program, as well as across the various weapons programs. The common tester concept strives to define an affordable, next-generation design that will meet testing requirements with the flexibility to grow and expand; supporting the initial development stages of a weapons program through to the final production and surveillance stages. This report discusses a concept investing key leveraging technologies and operational concepts combined with prototype tester-development experiences and practical lessons learned gleaned from past weapons programs.

  5. Finding External Indicators of Load on a Web Server via Analysis of Black-Box Performance Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarini, Marc A.

    2010-01-01

    Traditional methods for system performance analysis have long relied on a mix of queuing theory, detailed system knowledge, intuition, and trial-and-error. These approaches often require construction of incomplete gray-box models that can be costly to build and difficult to scale or generalize. In this thesis, we present a black-box analysis…

  6. Inside the Black Box of School Reform: Explaining the How and Why of Change at "Getting Results" Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Dennis; Saunders, William M.; Goldenberg, Claude

    2007-01-01

    This article reports key findings from a process-focused external evaluation that compared a subset of "Getting Results" project schools and comparison schools in order to understand the dynamics of school-wide reform efforts at these primary schools. Findings shed light on the "black box" of school reform and illuminate the…

  7. Gene expression profiling--Opening the black box of plant ecosystem responses to global change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leakey, A.D.B.; Ainsworth, E.A.; Bernard, S.M.; Markelz, R.J.C.; Ort, D.R.; Placella, S.A.P.; Rogers, A.; Smith, M.D.; Sudderth, E.A.; Weston, D.J.; Wullschleger, S.D.; Yuan, S.

    2009-11-01

    The use of genomic techniques to address ecological questions is emerging as the field of genomic ecology. Experimentation under environmentally realistic conditions to investigate the molecular response of plants to meaningful changes in growth conditions and ecological interactions is the defining feature of genomic ecology. Since the impact of global change factors on plant performance are mediated by direct effects at the molecular, biochemical and physiological scales, gene expression analysis promises important advances in understanding factors that have previously been consigned to the 'black box' of unknown mechanism. Various tools and approaches are available for assessing gene expression in model and non-model species as part of global change biology studies. Each approach has its own unique advantages and constraints. A first generation of genomic ecology studies in managed ecosystems and mesocosms have provided a testbed for the approach and have begun to reveal how the experimental design and data analysis of gene expression studies can be tailored for use in an ecological context.

  8. Opening the black box in nursing work and management practice: the role of ward managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Keith; Wilkinson, Adrian; Kellner, Ashlea

    2015-03-01

    This paper aims to identify and explore key obstacles preventing ward managers from effectively performing the human resource management (HRM) responsibilities required in their role. In the context of increasing costs and the decentralisation of responsibility to ward level, the relevance of the ward manager role within the 'black box' between human resource management and firm performance is becoming increasingly pertinent. This paper presents an intensive case study including 37 interviews across all levels of a hospital where senior management attempted to shift to a high performance model of human resource management. The findings indicated that ward managers played a critical role in maintaining and improving employee performance, although they were restricted from effectively performing their responsibilities due to budget pressure and limited managerial skill development. Our findings support the contention that hospitals would benefit from focusing on the critical role of the ward manager as the central locus of influence in high performance human resource management (HPHRM) systems. Investment into high performance human resource management is discouraged if the hospital cannot adequately enable ward managers who are responsible for implementation. Introduction of managerial skills training to potential and existing ward managers is critical. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Solving black box computation problems using expert knowledge theory and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booker, Jane M.; McNamara, Laura A.

    2004-01-01

    The challenge problems for the Epistemic Uncertainty Workshop at Sandia National Laboratories provide common ground for comparing different mathematical theories of uncertainty, referred to as General Information Theories (GITs). These problems also present the opportunity to discuss the use of expert knowledge as an important constituent of uncertainty quantification. More specifically, how do the principles and methods of eliciting and analyzing expert knowledge apply to these problems and similar ones encountered in complex technical problem solving and decision making? We will address this question, demonstrating how the elicitation issues and the knowledge that experts provide can be used to assess the uncertainty in outputs that emerge from a black box model or computational code represented by the challenge problems. In our experience, the rich collection of GITs provides an opportunity to capture the experts' knowledge and associated uncertainties consistent with their thinking, problem solving, and problem representation. The elicitation process is rightly treated as part of an overall analytical approach, and the information elicited is not simply a source of data. In this paper, we detail how the elicitation process itself impacts the analyst's ability to represent, aggregate, and propagate uncertainty, as well as how to interpret uncertainties in outputs. While this approach does not advocate a specific GIT, answers under uncertainty do result from the elicitation

  10. Opening the Black Box: The Experiences and Lessons From the Public Hospitals Autonomy Policy in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshmangir, Leila; Rashidian, Arash; Jafari, Mehdi; Takian, Amirhossein; Ravaghi, Hamid

    2015-07-01

    Policy formulation and adoption often happen in a black box. Implementation challenges affect and modify the nature of a policy. We analyzed hospitals' autonomy policy in Iran that was intended to reduce hospitals' financial burden on government and improve their efficiency. We followed a retrospective case-study methodology, involving inductive and deductive analyses of parliamentary proceedings, policy documents, gray literature, published papers and interview transcripts. We analyzed data to develop a policy map that included important dates and events leading to the policy process milestones. We identified four time-periods with distinctive features: 'moving toward the policy' (1989 - 1994), disorganized implementation' (1995 - 1997), 'continuing challenges and indecisiveness in hospitals financing' (1998 - 2003), and 'other structural and financial policies in public hospitals' (2004 to date). We found that stakeholders required different and conflicting objectives, which certainly resulted in an unsatisfactory implementation process. The policy led to long-lasting and often negative changes in the hospital sector and the entire Iranian health system. Hospital autonomy appeared to be an ill-advised policy to remedy the inefficiency problems in low socioeconomic areas of the country. The assumption that hospital autonomy reforms would necessarily result in a better health system, may be a false assumption as their success relies on many contextual, structural and policy implementation factors.

  11. Secrecy in Educational Practices: Enacting Nested Black Boxes in Cheating and Deception Detection Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo An Oravec

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper covers secrecy from the vantage point of recent technological initiatives designed to detect cheating and deception in educational contexts as well as to monitor off-campus social media speech code violations. Many of these systems are developed and implemented by third-party corporate entities who claim practices to be proprietary and secret. The outsourcers involved in these efforts have provided one level of secrecy and educational administrators involved yet another level, thus constructing "nested black boxes." Also discussed in this paper is the “paranoid style” of administration, often supported by the surveillance and construction of rosters of potential non-conformists, such as alleged cheaters and speech code violators. The educational technologies described in this article are increasingly applied to workplace practices, with young people being trained in what is deemed acceptable conduct. Secrecy can serve to alter the character of relationships within the educational institutions involved as well as inside the workplaces in which the approaches are increasingly being integrated.

  12. The molybdenum blue reaction for the determination of orthophosphate revisited: Opening the black box

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagul, Edward A. [School of Chemistry, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Centre for Aquatic Pollution Identification and Management (CAPIM), The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); McKelvie, Ian D. [School of Chemistry, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Plymouth University, Plymouth PL48AA (United Kingdom); Worsfold, Paul [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Plymouth University, Plymouth PL48AA (United Kingdom); Kolev, Spas D., E-mail: s.kolev@unimelb.edu.au [School of Chemistry, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Centre for Aquatic Pollution Identification and Management (CAPIM), The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia)

    2015-08-26

    The molybdenum blue reaction, used predominantly for the determination of orthophosphate in environmental waters, has been perpetually modified and re-optimised over the years, but this important reaction in analytical chemistry is usually treated as something of a 'black box' in the analytical literature. A large number of papers describe a wide variety of reaction conditions and apparently different products (as determined by UV–visible spectroscopy) but a discussion of the chemistry underlying this behaviour is often addressed superficially or not at all. This review aims to rationalise the findings of the many 'optimised' molybdenum blue methods in the literature, mainly for environmental waters, in terms of the underlying polyoxometallate chemistry and offers suggestions for the further enhancement of this time-honoured analytical reaction. - Highlights: • Molybdenum blue chemistry for orthophosphate determination is discussed. • The choice of reductant determines the blue product(s) obtained. • Mechanisms are described for various additive and subtractive interferents. • The choice of strong mineral acid for the reaction should be considered. • Detailed recommendations are made for method optimisation.

  13. The molybdenum blue reaction for the determination of orthophosphate revisited: Opening the black box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagul, Edward A.; McKelvie, Ian D.; Worsfold, Paul; Kolev, Spas D.

    2015-01-01

    The molybdenum blue reaction, used predominantly for the determination of orthophosphate in environmental waters, has been perpetually modified and re-optimised over the years, but this important reaction in analytical chemistry is usually treated as something of a 'black box' in the analytical literature. A large number of papers describe a wide variety of reaction conditions and apparently different products (as determined by UV–visible spectroscopy) but a discussion of the chemistry underlying this behaviour is often addressed superficially or not at all. This review aims to rationalise the findings of the many 'optimised' molybdenum blue methods in the literature, mainly for environmental waters, in terms of the underlying polyoxometallate chemistry and offers suggestions for the further enhancement of this time-honoured analytical reaction. - Highlights: • Molybdenum blue chemistry for orthophosphate determination is discussed. • The choice of reductant determines the blue product(s) obtained. • Mechanisms are described for various additive and subtractive interferents. • The choice of strong mineral acid for the reaction should be considered. • Detailed recommendations are made for method optimisation

  14. Perancangan Prototipe Receiver Beacon Black Box Locator Acoustic 37,5 kHz Pingers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RUSTAMAJI RUSTAMAJI

    2016-01-01

    When an aircraft caught in an accident and crashes into the water, its location can be detected using a device called a receiver beacon black box locator acoustic (pingers receiver. The pingers receiver functioned as a reciever signal with 37,5 kHz ± 1 kHz frequency from trnasmitter pingers or Underwater Locator Beacon (ULB which is on air plane black blox. In this research made design pingers receiver composed of a series of  Band Pass Filter (BPF, envelope detector, audio amplifier, and loud speaker. The signal of 37,5 kHz ± 1 kHz  frequency sent by pingers transmitter will bereceived by pingers receiver, after which the signal will be processed by the Band Pass Filter (BPF circuit before being detected by envelope detector for take back the signal information which like pulse signal with 10ms width and 1 second interval as pingers signal tha can  be to  be heard by human ear. Based on the  design that  was made, the signal ouput generated by the prototype has a 14 ms width with 1 second interval. Keywords: pingers receiver, band pass filter (BPF, envelope detector, loud speaker.

  15. Advanced TCA Backplane Tester

    CERN Document Server

    Oltean, Alexandra Dana

    2004-01-01

    At the beginning of 2003, the PICMG group adopted the AdvancedTCA (Advanced Telecom Computing Architecture) standard. The 10Gb/s backplane of the AdvancedTCA chassis is well specified in the standard but it remains however a high end product, which can be itself subject to printed circuit board manufacturing control problems that could greatly affect its quality control. In order to study the practical aspects of high speed Ethernet switching at 10Gb/s and to validate the signal integrity of the AdvancedTCA backplane, we developed a Backplane Tester. The tester system is able of running monitored PRBS traffic at 3.125Gb/s over every link on the AdvancedTCA backplane simultaneously and to monitor any possible connectivity failure immediately in terms of link and slot position inside the chassis. The present report presents the architectural hardware design, the control structure and software aspects of the AdvancedTCA Backplane Tester design.

  16. Comparative Human and Automatic Evaluation of Glass-Box and Black-Box Approaches to Interactive Translation Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torregrosa Daniel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Interactive translation prediction (ITP is a modality of computer-aided translation that assists professional translators by offering context-based computer-generated continuation suggestions as they type. While most state-of-the-art ITP systems follow a glass-box approach, meaning that they are tightly coupled to an adapted machine translation system, a black-box approach which does not need access to the inner workings of the bilingual resources used to generate the suggestions has been recently proposed in the literature: this new approach allows new sources of bilingual information to be included almost seamlessly. In this paper, we compare for the first time the glass-box and the black-box approaches by means of an automatic evaluation of translation tasks between related languages such as English–Spanish and unrelated ones such as Arabic–English and English–Chinese, showing that, with our setup, 20%–50% of keystrokes could be saved using either method and that the black-box approach outperformed the glass-box one in five out of six scenarios operating under similar conditions. We also performed a preliminary human evaluation of English to Spanish translation for both approaches. On average, the evaluators saved 10% keystrokes and were 4% faster with the black-box approach, and saved 15% keystrokes and were 12% slower with the glass-box one; but they could have saved 51% and 69% keystrokes respectively if they had used all the compatible suggestions. Users felt the suggestions helped them to translate faster and easier. All the tools used to perform the evaluation are available as free/open–source software.

  17. Generic Black-Box End-to-End Attack Against State of the Art API Call Based Malware Classifiers

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenberg, Ishai; Shabtai, Asaf; Rokach, Lior; Elovici, Yuval

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present a black-box attack against API call based machine learning malware classifiers, focusing on generating adversarial sequences combining API calls and static features (e.g., printable strings) that will be misclassified by the classifier without affecting the malware functionality. We show that this attack is effective against many classifiers due to the transferability principle between RNN variants, feed forward DNNs, and traditional machine learning classifiers such...

  18. Beyond opening up the black box: Investigating the role of algorithmic systems in Wikipedian organizational culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Stuart Geiger

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Scholars and practitioners across domains are increasingly concerned with algorithmic transparency and opacity, interrogating the values and assumptions embedded in automated, black-boxed systems, particularly in user-generated content platforms. I report from an ethnography of infrastructure in Wikipedia to discuss an often understudied aspect of this topic: the local, contextual, learned expertise involved in participating in a highly automated social–technical environment. Today, the organizational culture of Wikipedia is deeply intertwined with various data-driven algorithmic systems, which Wikipedians rely on to help manage and govern the “anyone can edit” encyclopedia at a massive scale. These bots, scripts, tools, plugins, and dashboards make Wikipedia more efficient for those who know how to work with them, but like all organizational culture, newcomers must learn them if they want to fully participate. I illustrate how cultural and organizational expertise is enacted around algorithmic agents by discussing two autoethnographic vignettes, which relate my personal experience as a veteran in Wikipedia. I present thick descriptions of how governance and gatekeeping practices are articulated through and in alignment with these automated infrastructures. Over the past 15 years, Wikipedian veterans and administrators have made specific decisions to support administrative and editorial workflows with automation in particular ways and not others. I use these cases of Wikipedia’s bot-supported bureaucracy to discuss several issues in the fields of critical algorithms studies; critical data studies; and fairness, accountability, and transparency in machine learning—most principally arguing that scholarship and practice must go beyond trying to “open up the black box” of such systems and also examine sociocultural processes like newcomer socialization.

  19. Performance Assessment of Black Box Capacity Forecasting for Multi-Market Trade Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela MacDougall

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available With the growth of renewable generated electricity in the energy mix, large energy storage and flexible demand, particularly aggregated demand response is becoming a front runner as a new participant in the wholesale energy markets. One of the biggest barriers for the integration of aggregator services into market participation is knowledge of the current and future flexible capacity. To calculate the available flexibility, the current aggregator pilot and simulation implementations use lower level measurements and device specifications. This type of implementation is not scalable due to computational constraints, as well as it could conflict with end user privacy rights. Black box machine learning approaches have been proven to accurately estimate the available capacity of a cluster of heating devices using only aggregated data. This study will investigate the accuracy of this approach when applied to a heterogeneous virtual power plant (VPP. Firstly, a sensitivity analysis of the machine learning model is performed when varying the underlying device makeup of the VPP. Further, the forecasted flexible capacity of a heterogeneous residential VPP was applied to a trade strategy, which maintains a day ahead schedule, as well as offers flexibility to the imbalance market. This performance is then compared when using the same strategy with no capacity forecasting, as well as perfect knowledge. It was shown that at most, the highest average error, regardless of the VPP makeup, was still less than 9%. Further, when applying the forecasted capacity to a trading strategy, 89% of the optimal performance can be met. This resulted in a reduction of monthly costs by approximately 20%.

  20. Advanced TCA BAckplane Tester

    CERN Document Server

    Oltean, Alexandra Dana; PGNet2005

    2005-01-01

    The “Advanced Telecom Computing Architecture” (AdvancedTCA) is a modular standard chassis based system designed to support the needs of carrier class telecommunication applications. It is defined by a set of industry standards under the direction of the PICMG group. One early deployment of the standard technology has been a 10 Gigabit Ethernet switch developed in the framework of the EU funded ESTA project. In order to study the practical aspects of high speed Ethernet switching at 10 Gigabit and above and to validate the signal integrity of the AdvancedTCA backplane, we developed a Backplane Tester. This system is able to run pseudo-random bit sequence (PRBS) traffic at 3.125 Gbps over every link on the AdvancedTCA backplane simultaneously, and to monitor any possible connectivity failure immediately in terms of the link and slot positions inside the chassis. In this paper, we describe the design and the practical architectural hardware and software aspects of the AdvancedTCA Backplane Tester. We also pr...

  1. Aussteigen (getting out Impossible—Montage and Life Scenarios in Andres Veiel’s Film Black Box BRD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Katharina Seiler

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Andres Veiel’s 2001 documentary film, Black Box BRD, links the biography of Alfred Herrhausen, RAF victim, with one of the 3rdgeneration RAF terrorists, Wolfgang Grams. In my paper, I trace how the film’s aesthetics introduce an image montage of two life scenarios by establishing both parallels and contrast, and therefore, following Susan Haywards definition “creates a third meaning” (112. I examine how the film establishes an aesthetic concept of Aussteigen (getting out—along of the alive, visible bodies—the contemporary interviewees, and dead, invisible bodies—of Herrhausen and Grams.

  2. Constrained optimization by radial basis function interpolation for high-dimensional expensive black-box problems with infeasible initial points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regis, Rommel G.

    2014-02-01

    This article develops two new algorithms for constrained expensive black-box optimization that use radial basis function surrogates for the objective and constraint functions. These algorithms are called COBRA and Extended ConstrLMSRBF and, unlike previous surrogate-based approaches, they can be used for high-dimensional problems where all initial points are infeasible. They both follow a two-phase approach where the first phase finds a feasible point while the second phase improves this feasible point. COBRA and Extended ConstrLMSRBF are compared with alternative methods on 20 test problems and on the MOPTA08 benchmark automotive problem (D.R. Jones, Presented at MOPTA 2008), which has 124 decision variables and 68 black-box inequality constraints. The alternatives include a sequential penalty derivative-free algorithm, a direct search method with kriging surrogates, and two multistart methods. Numerical results show that COBRA algorithms are competitive with Extended ConstrLMSRBF and they generally outperform the alternatives on the MOPTA08 problem and most of the test problems.

  3. Paediatric Patient Safety and the Need for Aviation Black Box Thinking to Learn From and Prevent Medication Errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Chi; Wong, Ian C K; Correa-West, Jo; Terry, David; McCarthy, Suzanne

    2017-04-01

    Since the publication of To Err Is Human: Building a Safer Health System in 1999, there has been much research conducted into the epidemiology, nature and causes of medication errors in children, from prescribing and supply to administration. It is reassuring to see growing evidence of improving medication safety in children; however, based on media reports, it can be seen that serious and fatal medication errors still occur. This critical opinion article examines the problem of medication errors in children and provides recommendations for research, training of healthcare professionals and a culture shift towards dealing with medication errors. There are three factors that we need to consider to unravel what is missing and why fatal medication errors still occur. (1) Who is involved and affected by the medication error? (2) What factors hinder staff and organisations from learning from mistakes? Does the fear of litigation and criminal charges deter healthcare professionals from voluntarily reporting medication errors? (3) What are the educational needs required to prevent medication errors? It is important to educate future healthcare professionals about medication errors and human factors to prevent these from happening. Further research is required to apply aviation's 'black box' principles in healthcare to record and learn from near misses and errors to prevent future events. There is an urgent need for the black box investigations to be published and made public for the benefit of other organisations that may have similar potential risks for adverse events. International sharing of investigations and learning is also needed.

  4. Microcontroller based Integrated Circuit Tester

    OpenAIRE

    Yousif Taha Yousif Elamin; Abdelrasoul Jabar Alzubaidi

    2015-01-01

    The digital integrated circuit (IC) tester is implemented by using the ATmega32 microcontroller . The microcontroller processes the inputs and outputs and displays the results on a Liquid Crystal Display (LCD). The basic function of the digital IC tester is to test a digital IC for correct logical functioning as described in the truth table and/or function table. The designed model can test digital ICs having 14 pins. Since it is programmable, any number of ICs can be tested . Thi...

  5. Spring performance tester for miniature extension springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzbrenner, Bradley; Boyce, Brad

    2017-05-16

    A spring performance tester and method of testing a spring are disclosed that has improved accuracy and precision over prior art spring testers. The tester can perform static and cyclic testing. The spring tester can provide validation for product acceptance as well as test for cyclic degradation of springs, such as the change in the spring rate and fatigue failure.

  6. Multimodal Friction Ignition Tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Eddie; Howard, Bill; Herald, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The multimodal friction ignition tester (MFIT) is a testbed for experiments on the thermal and mechanical effects of friction on material specimens in pressurized, oxygen-rich atmospheres. In simplest terms, a test involves recording sensory data while rubbing two specimens against each other at a controlled normal force, with either a random stroke or a sinusoidal stroke having controlled amplitude and frequency. The term multimodal in the full name of the apparatus refers to a capability for imposing any combination of widely ranging values of the atmospheric pressure, atmospheric oxygen content, stroke length, stroke frequency, and normal force. The MFIT was designed especially for studying the tendency toward heating and combustion of nonmetallic composite materials and the fretting of metals subjected to dynamic (vibrational) friction forces in the presence of liquid oxygen or pressurized gaseous oxygen test conditions approximating conditions expected to be encountered in proposed composite material oxygen tanks aboard aircraft and spacecraft in flight. The MFIT includes a stainless-steel pressure vessel capable of retaining the required test atmosphere. Mounted atop the vessel is a pneumatic cylinder containing a piston for exerting the specified normal force between the two specimens. Through a shaft seal, the piston shaft extends downward into the vessel. One of the specimens is mounted on a block, denoted the pressure block, at the lower end of the piston shaft. This specimen is pressed down against the other specimen, which is mounted in a recess in another block, denoted the slip block, that can be moved horizontally but not vertically. The slip block is driven in reciprocating horizontal motion by an electrodynamic vibration exciter outside the pressure vessel. The armature of the electrodynamic exciter is connected to the slip block via a horizontal shaft that extends into the pressure vessel via a second shaft seal. The reciprocating horizontal

  7. How is the Customer Contributor and Interpreter of Value? : Opening the Black Box of the linkages between value creation and experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sahhar, Y.; Loohuis, R.P.A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to open up the black box of the link between value experience and value creation through a phenomenological lens. We aim to explore distinct linkages between these two concepts and attempt to investigate what constitutes these linkages and how they relate to

  8. Open the "Black Box" Creativity and Innovation: A Study of Activities in R&D Departments. Some Prospects for Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millet, Charlyne; Oget, David; Cavallucci, Denis

    2017-01-01

    Innovation is a key component to the success and longevity of companies. Our research opens the "black box" of creativity and innovation in R&D teams. We argue that understanding the nature of R&D projects in terms of creativity/innovation, efficiency/inefficiency, is important for designing education policies and improving…

  9. Hydrogen fracture toughness tester completion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, Michael J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-09-30

    The Hydrogen Fracture Toughness Tester (HFTT) is a mechanical testing machine designed for conducting fracture mechanics tests on materials in high-pressure hydrogen gas. The tester is needed for evaluating the effects of hydrogen on the cracking properties of tritium reservoir materials. It consists of an Instron Model 8862 Electromechanical Test Frame; an Autoclave Engineering Pressure Vessel, an Electric Potential Drop Crack Length Measurement System, associated computer control and data acquisition systems, and a high-pressure hydrogen gas manifold and handling system.

  10. Penetration Tester's Open Source Toolkit

    CERN Document Server

    Faircloth, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    Great commercial penetration testing tools can be very expensive and sometimes hard to use or of questionable accuracy. This book helps solve both of these problems. The open source, no-cost penetration testing tools presented do a great job and can be modified by the user for each situation. Many tools, even ones that cost thousands of dollars, do not come with any type of instruction on how and in which situations the penetration tester can best use them. Penetration Tester's Open Source Toolkit, Third Edition, expands upon existing instructions so that a professional can get the most accura

  11. Development of the tyre tester

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kuduntwane, P

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available of the tyre tester P KUDUNTWANE1, DU PLESSIS2 AND PROF. S ELS3 1CSIR Defence, Peace, Safety and Security, PO Box 395, Pretoria, South Africa, 0001 2Department of Mechanical Engineering, Central University of Technology, Private Bag X20539, Bloemfontein...

  12. Identification of black-box linear models : the case of thermal periodic contact of exhaust valves in internal combustion engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shojaeefard, M.H.; Fazelpour, M. [Iran Univ. of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Automotive Engineering; Goudarzi, K. [Iran Univ. of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    In internal combustion engines, hot exhaust gases that pass through the exhaust valve lead to high temperatures in the exhaust valve and the valve seat. Heat must be transferred from the exhaust valve to valve seat as they come in contact with each other during the opening and closing cycle in order to avoid damaging the exhaust valve. The heat transfer rate from the valve to valve seat is a function of many factors, including the thermal contact conductance (TCC) between the valve and valve seat. The objective of this study was to experimentally calculate the TCC for six different frequencies in the quasi-steady-state condition and also to obtain a transfer function to estimate the exhaust valve temperature by using black-box models of system identification. Periodic contact was taken into consideration in the study. The paper presented the experimental setup including the loading system, heat and cooling system, temperature measurement system, specimens properties, and data acquisition system. The paper also described the test procedure and experimental results. System identification was also described. It was concluded that the TCC decreased as the frequency of contact increased. The temperature transfer function was calculated by using the system identification method and having the temperatures at both sides of the contact surface. By knowing the temperature of one rod, the temperature of the other rod was estimated with high accuracy. 16 refs., 4 tabs., 7 figs.

  13. How accurate is accident data in road safety research? An application of vehicle black box data regarding pedestrian-to-taxi accidents in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Younshik; Chang, IlJoon

    2015-11-01

    Recently, the introduction of vehicle black box systems or in-vehicle video event data recorders enables the driver to use the system to collect more accurate crash information such as location, time, and situation at the pre-crash and crash moment, which can be analyzed to find the crash causal factors more accurately. This study presents the vehicle black box system in brief and its application status in Korea. Based on the crash data obtained from the vehicle black box system, this study analyzes the accuracy of the crash data collected from existing road crash data recording method, which has been recorded by police officers based on accident parties' statements or eyewitness's account. The analysis results show that the crash data observed by the existing method have an average of 84.48m of spatial difference and standard deviation of 157.75m as well as average 29.05min of temporal error and standard deviation of 19.24min. Additionally, the average and standard deviation of crash speed errors were found to be 9.03km/h and 7.21km/h, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Opening the black box of transfer systems in public sector health services in a Western state in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purohit, Bhaskar; Martineau, Tim; Sheikh, Kabir

    2016-08-22

    Limited research on Posting and Transfer (P&T) policies and systems in the public sector health services and the reluctance for an open debate on the issue makes P&T as a black box. Limited research on P&T in India suggests that P&T policies and systems are either non-existent, weak, poorly implemented or characterized by corruption. Hence the current study aimed at opening the "black box" of P&T systems in public sector health services in India by assessing the implementation gaps between P&T policies and their actual implementation. This was a qualitative study carried out in Department of Health, in a Western State in India. To understand the extant P&T policies, a systems map was first developed with the help of document review and Key Informant (KI) Interviews. Next systems audit was carried out to assess the actual implementation of transfer policies by interviewing Medical Officers (MOs), the group mainly affected by the P&T policies. Job histories were constructed from the interviews to understand transfer processes like frequencies of transfers and to assess if transfer rules were adhered. The analysis is based on a synthesis of document review, 19 in-depth interviews with MOs working with state health department and five in-depth interviews with Key Informants (KIs). Framework analysis approach was used to analyze data using NVIVO. The state has a generic transfer guideline applicable to all government officers but there is no specific transfer policy or guideline for government health personnel. The generic transfer guidelines are weakly implemented indicating a significant gap between policy and actual implementation. The formal transfer guidelines are undermined by a parallel system in which desirable posts are attained, retained or sometimes given up by the use of political connections and money. MOs' experiences of transfers were marked by perceptions of unfairness and irregularities reflected through interviews as well as the job histories. The

  15. Rapidly Adaptable Instrumentation Tester (RAIT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargo, Timothy D.

    1999-01-01

    Emerging technologies in the field of ''Test ampersand Measurement'' have recently enabled the development of the Rapidly Adaptable Instrumentation Tester (RAIT). Based on software developed with LabVIEW, the RAIT design enables quick reconfiguration to test and calibrate a wide variety of telemetry systems. The consequences of inadequate testing could be devastating if a telemetry system were to fail during an expensive flight mission. Supporting both open-bench testing as well as automated test sequences, the RAIT has significantly lowered total time required to test and calibrate a system. This has resulted in an overall lower per unit testing cost than has been achievable in the past

  16. Enhanced Master Controller Unit Tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Patricia; Johnson, Yvette; Johnson, Brian; Williams, Philip; Burton, Geoffrey; McCoy, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    The Enhanced Master Controller Unit Tester (EMUT) software is a tool for development and testing of software for a master controller (MC) flight computer. The primary function of the EMUT software is to simulate interfaces between the MC computer and external analog and digital circuitry (including other computers) in a rack of equipment to be used in scientific experiments. The simulations span the range of nominal, off-nominal, and erroneous operational conditions, enabling the testing of MC software before all the equipment becomes available.

  17. Tester-assisted built in test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guntheroth, Kurt

    It is noted that board makers invest considerable time and money writing extensive self-tests and that this investment can be multiplied by selecting ATE (automatic test equipment) that complements and extends the power of the self-test. The tester can diagnose boards in situations where a fault prevents the self-test from running. If the tester monitors such resources as processor, memory, and I/O, confidence in test results is improved. The tester can be used during development of the self-test and to turn on prototypes before the self-test is complete. The author argues that emulative functional testers outperform other types of ATE on boards with BIST (built-in self-test) and lists features of emulative functional testers that are most important to users of BIST.

  18. Multivariate calibration in Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy quantitative analysis: The dangers of a 'black box' approach and how to avoid them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safi, A.; Campanella, B.; Grifoni, E.; Legnaioli, S.; Lorenzetti, G.; Pagnotta, S.; Poggialini, F.; Ripoll-Seguer, L.; Hidalgo, M.; Palleschi, V.

    2018-06-01

    The introduction of multivariate calibration curve approach in Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) quantitative analysis has led to a general improvement of the LIBS analytical performances, since a multivariate approach allows to exploit the redundancy of elemental information that are typically present in a LIBS spectrum. Software packages implementing multivariate methods are available in the most diffused commercial and open source analytical programs; in most of the cases, the multivariate algorithms are robust against noise and operate in unsupervised mode. The reverse of the coin of the availability and ease of use of such packages is the (perceived) difficulty in assessing the reliability of the results obtained which often leads to the consideration of the multivariate algorithms as 'black boxes' whose inner mechanism is supposed to remain hidden to the user. In this paper, we will discuss the dangers of a 'black box' approach in LIBS multivariate analysis, and will discuss how to overcome them using the chemical-physical knowledge that is at the base of any LIBS quantitative analysis.

  19. Isotope Fuels Impact Tester (IFIT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frantz, C.E.; Taylor, J.W.; Court, D.B.

    1975-07-01

    The Isotope Fuels Impact Tester (IFIT) is used for safely impacting 238 PuO 2 heat sources that have been heated to 2000 0 C. Impact velocities reach 300 m/s (1000 ft/s). A gas gun with a 178-mm (7-in.) bore is used to accelerate the heat source, which is heated by a furnace built into the projectile. Double containment of the impacted heat source is obtained by two vessels that are sealed directly to the gun muzzle. The impact occurs in the inner vessel, and parts of the projectile jam into and thereby close each vessel. The inner vessel, containing the impacted heat source, is removed from the gun and is placed inside a glovebox for disassembly and heat-source recovery. IFIT's modular structure makes it versatile and adaptable to many types of tests. Many applications have demonstrated its versatility and, more important, its capability for impacting 238 PuO 2 heat sources safely. An approximate theoretical relation is used to predict proper conditions for achieving desired impact velocities. Bore lubricants and projectile-seal design are also important for achieving proper impact velocities

  20. 24 CFR 125.107 - Testers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... perjury. (b) Testers must receive training or be experienced in testing procedures and techniques. (c...; (3) Have had any employment or other affiliation, within one year, with the person or organization to...

  1. Tester status report: April-June 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draut, C.F.

    1979-08-31

    This report details tester status and activities in support of testing of timers, actuators, detonators, firing sets, transducers, isolators, and pyrospacers for the period of April through June 1979.

  2. Prediction of black box warning by mining patterns of Convergent Focus Shift in clinical trial study populations using linked public data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Handong; Weng, Chunhua

    2016-04-01

    To link public data resources for predicting post-marketing drug safety label changes by analyzing the Convergent Focus Shift patterns among drug testing trials. We identified 256 top-selling prescription drugs between 2003 and 2013 and divided them into 83 BBW drugs (drugs with at least one black box warning label) and 173 ROBUST drugs (drugs without any black box warning label) based on their FDA black box warning (BBW) records. We retrieved 7499 clinical trials that each had at least one of these drugs for intervention from the ClinicalTrials.gov. We stratified all the trials by pre-marketing or post-marketing status, study phase, and study start date. For each trial, we retrieved drug and disease concepts from clinical trial summaries to model its study population using medParser and SNOMED-CT. Convergent Focus Shift (CFS) pattern was calculated and used to assess the temporal changes in study populations from pre-marketing to post-marketing trials for each drug. Then we selected 68 candidate drugs, 18 with BBW warning and 50 without, that each had at least nine pre-marketing trials and nine post-marketing trials for predictive modeling. A random forest predictive model was developed to predict BBW acquisition incidents based on CFS patterns among these drugs. Pre- and post-marketing trials of BBW and ROBUST drugs were compared to look for their differences in CFS patterns. Among the 18 BBW drugs, we consistently observed that the post-marketing trials focused more on recruiting patients with medical conditions previously unconsidered in the pre-marketing trials. In contrast, among the 50 ROBUST drugs, the post-marketing trials involved a variety of medications for testing their associations with target intervention(s). We found it feasible to predict BBW acquisitions using different CFS patterns between the two groups of drugs. Our random forest predictor achieved an AUC of 0.77. We also demonstrated the feasibility of the predictor for identifying long

  3. Exploring the use of grounded theory as a methodological approach to examine the 'black box' of network leadership in the national quality forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoflund, A Bryce

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes how grounded theory was used to investigate the "black box" of network leadership in the creation of the National Quality Forum. Scholars are beginning to recognize the importance of network organizations and are in the embryonic stages of collecting and analyzing data about network leadership processes. Grounded theory, with its focus on deriving theory from empirical data, offers researchers a distinctive way of studying little-known phenomena and is therefore well suited to exploring network leadership processes. Specifically, this paper provides an overview of grounded theory, a discussion of the appropriateness of grounded theory to investigating network phenomena, a description of how the research was conducted, and a discussion of the limitations and lessons learned from using this approach.

  4. Cheap but accurate calculation of chemical reaction rate constants from ab initio data, via system-specific, black-box force fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Julien; Hartke, Bernd

    2017-10-28

    Building on the recently published quantum-mechanically derived force field (QMDFF) and its empirical valence bond extension, EVB-QMDFF, it is now possible to generate a reliable potential energy surface for any given elementary reaction step in an essentially black box manner. This requires a limited and pre-defined set of reference data near the reaction path and generates an accurate approximation of the reference potential energy surface, on and off the reaction path. This intermediate representation can be used to generate reaction rate data, with far better accuracy and reliability than with traditional approaches based on transition state theory (TST) or variational extensions thereof (VTST), even if those include sophisticated tunneling corrections. However, the additional expense at the reference level remains very modest. We demonstrate all this for three arbitrarily chosen example reactions.

  5. Open the `black box' creativity and innovation: a study of activities in R&D departments. Some prospects for engineering education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millet, Charlyne; Oget, David; Cavallucci, Denis

    2017-11-01

    Innovation is a key component to the success and longevity of companies. Our research opens the 'black box' of creativity and innovation in R&D teams. We argue that understanding the nature of R&D projects in terms of creativity/innovation, efficiency/inefficiency, is important for designing education policies and improving engineering curriculum. Our research addresses the inventive design process, a lesser known aspect of the innovation process, in 197 R&D departments of industrial sector companies in France. One fundamental issue facing companies is to evaluate processes and results of innovation. Results show that the evaluation of innovation is confined by a lack of methodology of inventive projects. We will be establishing the foundations of a formal ontology for inventive design projects and finally some recommendations for engineering education.

  6. An experimental evaluation of the generalizing capabilities of process discovery techniques and black-box sequence models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tax, N.; van Zelst, S.J.; Teinemaa, I.; Gulden, Jens; Reinhartz-Berger, Iris; Schmidt, Rainer; Guerreiro, Sérgio; Guédria, Wided; Bera, Palash

    2018-01-01

    A plethora of automated process discovery techniques have been developed which aim to discover a process model based on event data originating from the execution of business processes. The aim of the discovered process models is to describe the control-flow of the underlying business process. At the

  7. Comparative investigations of tablet crushing force testers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnergaard, Jørn; Jensen, C.G.; Poulsen, L.

    2005-01-01

    The performance of 16 tablet breaking force testers was evaluated in terms of accuracy, reproducibility and repeatability. Three tablet formulations with different plastic or brittle deformation mechanisms and with target breaking forces of 50, 100 and 150 N were tested. Statistically significant...... by the concept of components of variance was 5-7 % depending on the model tablet excipient. The standard deviation within testers (repeatability) was affected by the type of model formulation showing increasing variability with increasing brittleness of the compressed material. No specific effect of altering...

  8. Armstrong Laboratory Space Visual Function Tester Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oneal, Melvin R.; Task, H. Lee; Gleason, Gerald A.

    1992-01-01

    Viewgraphs on space visual function tester program are presented. Many astronauts and cosmonauts have commented on apparent changes in their vision while on-orbit. Comments have included descriptions of earth features and objects that would suggest enhanced distance visual acuity. In contrast, some cosmonaut observations suggest a slight loss in their object discrimination during initial space flight. Astronauts have also mentioned a decreased near vision capability that did not recover to normal until return to earth. Duntley space vision experiment, USSR space vision experiments, and visual function testers are described.

  9. 21 CFR 870.3720 - Pacemaker electrode function tester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pacemaker electrode function tester. 870.3720... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3720 Pacemaker electrode function tester. (a) Identification. A pacemaker electrode function tester is a device which is...

  10. Two ankle joint laxity testers: reliability and validity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhoffs, Gino M. M. J.; Blankevoort, Leendert; Sierevelt, Inger N.; Corvelein, Ruby; Janssen, Guido H. W.; van Dijk, C. Niek

    2005-01-01

    Two test devices were manufactured to objectively measure ankle joint laxity: the dynamic anterior ankle tester (DAAT) and the quasi-static anterior ankle tester (QAAT). The primary aim was to analyse the reliability of both testers; The secondary aim was to assess validity in correlation with TELOS

  11. Predictive Risk Modelling to Prevent Child Maltreatment and Other Adverse Outcomes for Service Users: Inside the 'Black Box' of Machine Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillingham, Philip

    2016-06-01

    Recent developments in digital technology have facilitated the recording and retrieval of administrative data from multiple sources about children and their families. Combined with new ways to mine such data using algorithms which can 'learn', it has been claimed that it is possible to develop tools that can predict which individual children within a population are most likely to be maltreated. The proposed benefit is that interventions can then be targeted to the most vulnerable children and their families to prevent maltreatment from occurring. As expertise in predictive modelling increases, the approach may also be applied in other areas of social work to predict and prevent adverse outcomes for vulnerable service users. In this article, a glimpse inside the 'black box' of predictive tools is provided to demonstrate how their development for use in social work may not be straightforward, given the nature of the data recorded about service users and service activity. The development of predictive risk modelling (PRM) in New Zealand is focused on as an example as it may be the first such tool to be applied as part of ongoing reforms to child protection services.

  12. Dall-Null tester for spaceborne applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingler, R. L.

    1984-12-01

    This is a study to design a self correcting primary mirror system for a space telescope. The design is centered around a Dall-Null tester (a Foucault knife-edge tester with compensating lens). An indepth study of the theory of the Foucault test from Foucault's original publications to current work is presented. Also short comings of the diffraction approach are shown. The findings of a simple experiment showed the way to the correct explanation as to the workings of the test. Based on this new explanation, a computer program to find the error in the surface of the mirror from the irradiance pattern provided by the Dall-Null tester was developed. The computer program with a sample run is included in the appendixes A and B. The basic design of an adaptive optic system for a spaceborne application is also presented in the paper. This design has the desired quality of being able to correct the mirror while the telescope is in use. The equations being independent of wavelength allows for the design to be applied to systems working outside of the visible spectrum as well as the systems working in the visible.

  13. Corrosive environment tester for filter media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, G.S.; Weber, C.W.; Keinberger, C.A.; Rivers, R.D.

    1977-02-01

    Two continuous dynamic systems have been designed and fabricated for testing filter media in humid, corrosive environments--one for fluorine or fluoride exposures, and the other for nitrogen dioxide exposures. The tester using fluorine or fluoride atmospheres was constructed of nickel and the one using nitrogen dioxide was fabricated of stainless steel. Other corrosive gases could be used with the appropriate choice of system. For example, chlorine or hydrogen chloride could be used in the system fabricated of nickel, and sulfur dioxides or ammonia could be used in the stainless steel testing apparatus. Each tester is comprised of four equivalent dynamic systems designed for diluting a corrosive reagent with dry air, then with humidified air to provide a humid-corrosive environment for filter media testing. Auxiliary equipment includes a water injection system, corrosive reagent supply systems, and an automatic pressure differential (ΔP) monitoring and recording system. The testers are relatively maintenance-free and have operated continuously for periods as long as 96 h without requiring any attention, during total exposures of materials exceeding 600 h

  14. Development of a second generation rolling contact fatigue tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Satyam U.

    Contact fatigue failure has been in research since the early twentieth century. The need for a second generation sliding-rolling contact fatigue tester was proposed by Gregory Dvorak and Dr. Marcellin Zahui. The first generation RCF tester was used for testing super finishing processes for gear surfaces. The second generation RCF tester was funded by the Advanced Engineering Materials lab of University of North Dakota. Verification of the second generation Rolling Contact Fatigue Tester will be discussed in this thesis including the design details, assembly and testing procedure and to discuss its different parameters. The tester will have the capability of testing hollow specimens using a bobbin eddy current testing probe. This tester will allow a wide range of experiments and is not built for one specific purpose. An eddy current device is used for detecting cracks. The loading force is applied using hydraulic cylinders and a hydraulic power unit. Before testing began, the machine was run for some time at full speed. A lot of minor problems were detected and fixed. Three specimens of AISI 8620 were tested in this tester. All tests gave results matching with some of the other well-known RCF testers. These tests were performed to evaluate mechanical limits of the tester and to evaluate the software performance of the tester.

  15. Prising open the 'black box': An epistemological critique of discursive constructions of scaling up the provision of mental health care in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Sara

    2015-09-01

    Global mental health research is increasingly highlighting the high levels of untreated mental illness in Africa and calling for the scaling-up of services in order to redress this situation. A particular model of care is being strongly advocated for such scale-up, and a recent explosion of research is providing guidelines for its implementation. This article seeks to open up the 'black box' of international research on scaling up the provision of mental health care in Africa, unearthing the hidden assumptions and power dynamics underpinning the knowledge produced. It insists that gaining a better understanding of care provision demands that we not only fill the gaps in knowledge but also problematize the assumptions upon which existing knowledge is based. This article demonstrates how two interrelated paradigms are strongly mediating research in this area - those of 'scientific evidence' and 'human rights'. Drawing on recent research within the sociology of scientific knowledge, and strands of postcolonial thought, it demonstrates how these paradigms are both underpinned by several contentious epistemological assumptions, assumptions which are deeply inserted within the epistemological order of Western modernity. The main argument is that through their shared ideological undertones of 'objectivity', 'universalism' and 'rationalism', these paradigms are potentially marginalizing other possibly important ways of thinking about care in Africa, ways which might not originate from modernist forms of consciousness. This article makes a plea for a more inclusive and plural archive of knowledge on scaling up mental health care in Africa, one which is more hospitable to diverse epistemological politics and moral landscapes. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Research on characteristics measurement of infrared defect tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ke-jia; Zhang, Bi-feng; Xiong, Li-min; Zhou, Tao-geng; Zhang, Jun-chao; Meng, Hai-feng; Cai, Chuan; He, Ying-wei; Li, Xiao-hui; Wang, Chang-shi

    2017-10-01

    Based on a testing method of spatial frequency response(SFR), a setup for characteristics measurements of the infrared defect tester,which can also be called electroluminescence tester(EL tester), a machine examining defects of photovoltaic (PV) panel, was built. The influences of focusing plane adjustments and infrared light box arrangements on resolution measurement of EL tester in full field of view were analyzed. For different types of EL testers, portable and fixed, testing methods and procedures were presented. Especially, a novel testing method for portable EL was claimed, which could do the work well without reference background. Based on method claimed and setup built, the resolutions of different types of EL testers were obtained and stable results were achieved. This setup is portable designed to meet online measurements requirements of PV industry.

  17. Building instructions: a motorcar battery tester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunz, K

    1975-02-01

    The circuit diagram of a motor car battery tester is given, intended for dashboard mounting. The condition of the battery is indicated by means of a light-emitting diode, which may be off (below 11 V), red (11 to 12.5 V), green (12.5 to 14.8 V) or flashing red (voltage exceeding 14.8 V). The circuit uses two transistors and a single integrated circuit (four-way comparator). Details of the layout, assembly, and testing procedures are included.

  18. Small-Bolt Torque-Tension Tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posey, Alan J.

    2009-01-01

    The device described here measures the torque-tension relationship for fasteners as small as #0. The small-bolt tester consists of a plate of high-strength steel into which three miniature load cells are recessed. The depth of the recess is sized so that the three load cells can be shimmed, the optimum height depending upon the test hardware. The three miniature load cells are arranged in an equilateral triangular configuration with the test bolt aligned with the centroid of the three. This is a kinematic arrangement.

  19. 7 CFR 801.4 - Tolerances for dockage testers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tolerances for dockage testers. 801.4 Section 801.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD... FOR GRAIN INSPECTION EQUIPMENT § 801.4 Tolerances for dockage testers. The maintenance tolerances for...

  20. Development of a Portable Torque Wrench Tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Zhang, Q.; Gou, C.; Su, D.

    2018-03-01

    A portable torque wrench tester (PTWT) with calibration range from 0.5 Nm to 60 Nm has been developed and evaluated for periodic or on-site calibration of setting type torque wrenches, indicating type torque wrenches and hand torque screwdrivers. The PTWT is easy to carry with weight about 10 kg, simple and efficient operation and energy saving with an automatic loading and calibrating system. The relative expanded uncertainty of torque realized by the PTWT was estimated to be 0.8%, with the coverage factor k=2. A comparison experiment has been done between the PTWT and a reference torque standard at our laboratory. The consistency between these two devices under the claimed uncertainties was verified.

  1. Breaking Open the Black Box: Isolating the Most Potent Features of a Web and Mobile Phone-Based Intervention for Depression, Anxiety, and Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitton, Alexis E; Proudfoot, Judith; Clarke, Janine; Birch, Mary-Rose; Parker, Gordon; Manicavasagar, Vijaya; Hadzi-Pavlovic, Dusan

    2015-01-01

    Internet-delivered mental health (eMental Health) interventions produce treatment effects similar to those observed in face-to-face treatment. However, there is a large degree of variation in treatment effects observed from program to program, and eMental Health interventions remain somewhat of a black box in terms of the mechanisms by which they exert their therapeutic benefit. Trials of eMental Health interventions typically use large sample sizes and therefore provide an ideal context within which to systematically investigate the therapeutic benefit of specific program features. Furthermore, the growth and impact of mobile phone technology within eMental Health interventions provides an opportunity to examine associations between symptom improvement and the use of program features delivered across computer and mobile phone platforms. The objective of this study was to identify the patterns of program usage associated with treatment outcome in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of a fully automated, mobile phone- and Web-based self-help program, "myCompass", for individuals with mild-to-moderate symptoms of depression, anxiety, and/or stress. The core features of the program include interactive psychotherapy modules, a symptom tracking feature, short motivational messages, symptom tracking reminders, and a diary, with many of these features accessible via both computer and mobile phone. Patterns of program usage were recorded for 231 participants with mild-to-moderate depression, anxiety, and/or stress, and who were randomly allocated to receive access to myCompass for seven weeks during the RCT. Depression, anxiety, stress, and functional impairment were examined at baseline and at eight weeks. Log data indicated that the most commonly used components were the short motivational messages (used by 68.4%, 158/231 of participants) and the symptom tracking feature (used by 61.5%, 142/231 of participants). Further, after controlling for baseline symptom severity

  2. Breaking Open the Black Box: Isolating the Most Potent Features of a Web and Mobile Phone-Based Intervention for Depression, Anxiety, and Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proudfoot, Judith; Clarke, Janine; Birch, Mary-Rose; Parker, Gordon; Manicavasagar, Vijaya; Hadzi-Pavlovic, Dusan

    2015-01-01

    Background Internet-delivered mental health (eMental Health) interventions produce treatment effects similar to those observed in face-to-face treatment. However, there is a large degree of variation in treatment effects observed from program to program, and eMental Health interventions remain somewhat of a black box in terms of the mechanisms by which they exert their therapeutic benefit. Trials of eMental Health interventions typically use large sample sizes and therefore provide an ideal context within which to systematically investigate the therapeutic benefit of specific program features. Furthermore, the growth and impact of mobile phone technology within eMental Health interventions provides an opportunity to examine associations between symptom improvement and the use of program features delivered across computer and mobile phone platforms. Objective The objective of this study was to identify the patterns of program usage associated with treatment outcome in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of a fully automated, mobile phone- and Web-based self-help program, “myCompass”, for individuals with mild-to-moderate symptoms of depression, anxiety, and/or stress. The core features of the program include interactive psychotherapy modules, a symptom tracking feature, short motivational messages, symptom tracking reminders, and a diary, with many of these features accessible via both computer and mobile phone. Methods Patterns of program usage were recorded for 231 participants with mild-to-moderate depression, anxiety, and/or stress, and who were randomly allocated to receive access to myCompass for seven weeks during the RCT. Depression, anxiety, stress, and functional impairment were examined at baseline and at eight weeks. Results Log data indicated that the most commonly used components were the short motivational messages (used by 68.4%, 158/231 of participants) and the symptom tracking feature (used by 61.5%, 142/231 of participants). Further, after

  3. Unpacking the Black Box: A Formative Research Approach to the Development of Theory-Driven, Evidence-Based, and Culturally Safe Text Messages in Mobile Health Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maar, Marion A; Yeates, Karen; Toth, Zsolt; Barron, Marcia; Boesch, Lisa; Hua-Stewart, Diane; Liu, Peter; Perkins, Nancy; Sleeth, Jessica; Wabano, Mary Jo; Williamson, Pamela; Tobe, Sheldon W

    2016-01-22

    evidence-based text message created by researchers and the message received by the recipient in mobile health interventions. These discrepancies were primarily generated by six mediators of meaning in SMS messages: (1) negative or non-affirming framing of advocacies, (2) fear- or stress-inducing content, (3) oppressive or authoritarian content, (4) incongruity with cultural and traditional practices, (5) disconnect with the reality of the social determinants of health and the diversity of cultures within a population, and (6) lack of clarity and/or practicality of content. These 6 mediators of meaning provide the basis for sound strategies for message development because they impact directly on the target populations' capability, opportunity, and motivation for behavior change. The quality of text messages impacts significantly on the effectiveness of a mobile health intervention. Our research underscores the urgent need for interventions to incorporate and evaluate the quality of SMS messages and to examine the mediators of meaning within each targeted cultural and demographic group. Reporting on this aspect of mobile health intervention research will allow researchers to move away from the current black box of SMS text message development, thus improving the transparency of the process as well as the quality of the outcomes.

  4. Development of roller type side slip tester; Roller shiki side slip tester no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishiyama, S [Hiroshima City Industrial Technology Institute, Hiroshima (Japan); Harada, S; Harada, K

    1997-10-01

    This paper presents a new development of roller type side slip tester (RTSSI). The test equipment consists of four parts, which are developed in this research. These are a roller part, a control part, a remote control part and a CRT part. In this study, we especially investigated the mechanism and performance between tire and roller. We analyzed the amount of side slip with various toe angles. The developed tester is examined under the conditions that is considered in industrial applications. We investigated the influences of toe angle, size of tire, pressure of tire, coefficient of friction between tire and roller, pushing force of tire, revolution velocity of roller, axle load and so on. The validity of the developed RTSST is confirmed under these conditions. It was found that the RTSST can be used in practical use. Some measurement results are presented in the form of parametric plots. And we also compared measurements data between the RTSST and that of flat type using several automobiles. 4 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Opening the Gender Diversity Black Box: Causality of Perceived Gender Equity & Locus of Control and Mediation of Work Engagement in Employee Well-being

    OpenAIRE

    Radha R. Sharma

    2015-01-01

    The study is aimed at assessing the role of perceived gender equity and locus of control in employee well-being at the workplace and ascertaining if work engagement mediates between perceived gender equity, locus of control, and employee well-being (measured through optimism, general satisfaction with life and work, and executive burnout). Adopting a personal survey method data was collected from 373 managers (both males and females) from the public and private sectors representing manufactur...

  6. Opening the gender diversity black box: causality of perceived gender equity and locus of control and mediation of work engagement in employee well-being

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Radha R.; Sharma, Neha P.

    2015-01-01

    The study is aimed at assessing the role of perceived gender equity and locus of control in employee well-being at the workplace and ascertaining if work engagement mediates between perceived gender equity, locus of control, and employee well-being (measured through optimism, general satisfaction with life and work, and executive burnout). Adopting a personal survey method data was collected from 373 managers (both males and females) from the public and private sectors representing manufactur...

  7. Colour of Tester Effects on Children's Expressed Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, K. C.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses a study of student attitudes, preferences, and stereotyping among White Britons and West Indian students in an English secondary school. Findings indicated that factors such as the race of the tester influenced the test situation. For journal availability, see SO 506 785. (DB)

  8. Software testing an ISTQB-BCS certified tester foundation guide

    CERN Document Server

    Hambling, Brian; Samaroo, Angelina; Thompson, Geoff; Williams, Peter; Hambling, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This practical guide provides insight into software testing, explaining the basics of the testing process and how to perform effective tests. It provides an overview of different techniques and how to apply them. It is the best-selling official textbook of the ISTQB-BCS Certified Tester Foundation Level.

  9. Opening the Gender Diversity Black Box: Causality of Perceived Gender Equity & Locus of Control and Mediation of Work Engagement in Employee Well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha R. Sharma

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The study is aimed at assessing the role of perceived gender equity and locus of control in employee well-being at the workplace and ascertaining if work engagement mediates between perceived gender equity, locus of control, and employee well-being (measured through optimism, general satisfaction with life and work, and executive burnout. Adopting a personal survey method data was collected from 373 managers (both males and females from the public and private sectors representing manufacturing and service industry in India. The study bridges the knowledge gap by operationalising the construct of perceived gender equity and studying its role in the work engagement and employee well-being. Conceptualization of the well-being in an unconventional way covering both the positive and the negative aspects extends the understanding of the emerging concept of well-being. It has practical implications for talent management and work engagement besides promoting gender equity at the workplace for employee well-being. It opens vistas for the gender based theory and cross cultural research on gender equity.

  10. Opening the gender diversity black box: causality of perceived gender equity and locus of control and mediation of work engagement in employee well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Radha R; Sharma, Neha P

    2015-01-01

    The study is aimed at assessing the role of perceived gender equity and locus of control in employee well-being at the workplace and ascertaining if work engagement mediates between perceived gender equity, locus of control, and employee well-being (measured through optimism, general satisfaction with life and work, and executive burnout). Adopting a personal survey method data was collected from 373 managers (both males and females) from the public and private sectors representing manufacturing and service industry in India. The study bridges the knowledge gap by operationalizing the construct of perceived gender equity and studying its role in the work engagement and employee well-being. Conceptualization of the well-being in an unconventional way covering both the positive and the negative aspects extends the understanding of the emerging concept of well-being. It has practical implications for talent management and work engagement besides promoting gender equity at the workplace for employee well-being. It opens vistas for the gender based theory and cross cultural research on gender equity.

  11. White balance tester with color sensor for industrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiasheng; Zhu, XiaoSong

    1996-12-01

    The white balance tester is an instrument that adjusts the white balance for color TVs, monitors, and PC displays. We have designed a new white balance tester for use directly at the production line. It picks up the R (Red), G (Green), and B (Blue) signals for the screen using color sensors, compares the signals with the data previously stored in the internal memory, displays their differences with LED bars in the compare mode or displays x y Y, u v Y, JND (just noticeable difference) as well as correlated color temperature in the numerical mode. A built-in TV signal generator sets the luminance of the adjusting screen to the brightness of the reference white screen automatically. A 16-bit single chip microcomputer processes the measured values and controls the output levels of the TV signal generator.

  12. Improving deposition tester to study adherent deposits in papermaking

    OpenAIRE

    Monte Lara, Concepción; Sánchez, Mónica; Blanco Suárez, Ángeles; Negro Álvarez, Carlos; Tijero Miquel, Julio

    2012-01-01

    Conventional methods used for the quantification of adherent material contained in a pulp suspension propose either filtration of the sample, which may lead to loss of sticky material in the filtrate, or dilution of the pulp, which may cause destabilization of the dissolved and colloidal material; thus, leading to unreliable results. In 1998, the Cellulose and Paper Group of University Complutense of Madrid developed a deposition tester which aimed to quantify the adherence of material (micro...

  13. Tester Detects Steady-Short Or Intermittent-Open Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Bobby L.

    1990-01-01

    Momentary open circuits or steady short circuits trigger buzzer. Simple, portable, lightweight testing circuit sounds long-duration alarm when it detects steady short circuit or momentary open circuit in coaxial cable or other two-conductor transmission line. Tester sensitive to discontinuities lasting 10 microseconds or longer. Used extensively for detecting intermittent open shorts in accelerometer and extensometer cables. Also used as ordinary buzzer-type continuity checker to detect steady short or open circuits.

  14. Portable bench tester for piezo weigh-in-motion equipment : executive summary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    The Ohio Department of Transportation's (ODOT) piezo weigh-in-motion (WIM) equipment must be tested for initial working operation and to insure continued correct operation. Currently, the only available method to verify the vehicle classification par...

  15. Sandia's severe human body Electrostatic Discharge Tester (SSET)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnum, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the Electromagnetic Testing Division at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has developed a simulator to replicate a severe human body electrostatic discharge event. This simulator is referred to as Sandia's Severe Human Body Electrostatic Discharge Tester (SSET). The SSET is configured as a coaxial transmission line, which allows control of parasitic inductance and capacitance to achieve the desired waveform signature, and operates reliably at voltages up to 35 kV. It is constructed from off-the-shelf or easily fabricated components and costs approximately $750 for materials, not including the power supply. The output is very repeatable and provides good simulation fidelity of a severe human body discharge

  16. Execution and executability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Robert W.; Harrison, Denise

    2015-09-01

    "We have a new strategy to grow our organization." Developing the plan is just the start. Implementing it in the organization is the real challenge. Many organizations don't fail due to lack of strategy; they struggle because it isn't effectively implemented. After working with hundreds of companies on strategy development, Denise and Robert have distilled the critical areas where organizations need to focus in order to enhance profitability through superior execution. If these questions are important to your organization, you'll find useful answers in the following articles: Do you find yourself overwhelmed by too many competing priorities? How do you limit how many strategic initiatives/projects your organization is working on at one time? How do you balance your resource requirements (time and money) with the availability of these resources? How do you balance your strategic initiative requirements with the day-to-day requirements of your organization?

  17. Portable tester for determining gas content within a core sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, F. Jr.; Schatzel, S.J.

    1998-04-21

    A portable tester is provided for reading and displaying the pressure of a gas released from a rock core sample stored within a sealed container and for taking a sample of the released pressurized gas for chemical analysis thereof for subsequent use in a modified direct method test which determines the volume of gas and specific type of gas contained within the core sample. The portable tester includes a pair of low and high range electrical pressure transducers for detecting a gas pressure; a pair of low and high range display units for displaying the pressure of the detected gas; a selector valve connected to the low and high range pressure transducers and a selector knob for selecting gas flow to one of the flow paths; control valve having an inlet connection to the sealed container; and outlets connected to: a sample gas canister, a second outlet port connected to the selector valve means for reading the pressure of the gas from the sealed container to either the low range or high range pressure transducers, and a connection for venting gas contained within the sealed container to the atmosphere. A battery is electrically connected to and supplies the power for operating the unit. The pressure transducers, display units, selector and control valve means and the battery is mounted to and housed within a protective casing for portable transport and use. 5 figs.

  18. Test strategies for industrial testers for converter controls equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oleniuk, P.; Kasampalis, V.; Cosmo, M. Di; Nisbet, D.; Todd, B.; Uznański, S.

    2017-01-01

    Power converters and their controls electronics are key elements for the operation of the CERN accelerator complex, having a direct impact on its availability. To prevent early-life failures and provide means to verify electronics, a set of industrial testers is used throughout the converters controls electronics' life cycle. The roles of the testers are to validate mass production during the manufacturing phase and to provide means to diagnose and repair failed modules that are brought back from operation. In the converter controls electronics section of the power converters group in the technology department of CERN (TE/EPC/CCE), two main test platforms have been adopted: a PXI platform for mixed analogue-digital functional tests and a JTAG Boundary-Scan platform for digital interconnection and functional tests. Depending on the functionality of the device under test, the appropriate test platforms are chosen. This paper is a follow-up to results presented at the TWEPP 2015 conference, adding the boundary scan test platform and the first results from exploitation of the test system. This paper reports on the test software, hardware design and test strategy applied for a number of devices that has resulted in maximizing test coverage and minimizing test design effort.

  19. submitter Test strategies for industrial testers for converter controls equipment

    CERN Document Server

    Oleniuk, P; Kasampalis, V; Nisbet, D; Todd, B; Uznański, S

    2017-01-01

    Power converters and their controls electronics are key elements for the operation of the CERN accelerator complex, having a direct impact on its availability. To prevent early-life failures and provide means to verify electronics, a set of industrial testers is used throughout the converters controls electronics' life cycle. The roles of the testers are to validate mass production during the manufacturing phase and to provide means to diagnose and repair failed modules that are brought back from operation. In the converter controls electronics section of the power converters group in the technology department of CERN (TE/EPC/CCE), two main test platforms have been adopted: a PXI platform for mixed analogue-digital functional tests and a JTAG Boundary-Scan platform for digital interconnection and functional tests. Depending on the functionality of the device under test, the appropriate test platforms are chosen. This paper is a follow-up to results presented at the TWEPP 2015 conference, adding the boundary s...

  20. Alumoxanes: Rationalization of Black Box Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-18

    complexes for the synthesis of polyketones , ICH2CH(R)C(O)in. The activity observed is comparable to commercial systems but without the instability issues...see below). Commercial samples of polyketones suffer from severe thermal decomposition during melt processing. The Patent literature describes the...as well as the structure and molecular weight of the polymer. We intend to further our work with the catalytic synthesis of polyketones . We will

  1. Monetary Policy in Chile: a black box?

    OpenAIRE

    Angel Cabrera; Luis Felipe Lagos

    2000-01-01

    This paper studies monetary policy in Chile during the 1986-1997 period. We concentrate in understanding the monetary transmission mechanism by which the Central Bank instrument—the real interest rate—affects total expenditure, output and the inflation rate. The methodology used is structural VARS. We find a weak effect of the interest rate on all the variables. The interest rate has a significant effect on the expenditure-output gap. Both the interest rate and the expenditure-output gap have...

  2. Construction process assessment or 'Black Box Opener'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abarca Guerrero, L.; Scheublin, F.J.M.; Lambert, A.J.D.; Durmicevic, E.

    2009-01-01

    The construction industry and related ones are considered the world’s largest industrial employer and natural resources consumer. 50% of all materials extracted from the earth are transformed into construction materials and products. When these materials enter the waste stream, they account for some

  3. Black box avatakse tantsuga / Aime Jõgi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jõgi, Aime, 1958-

    1999-01-01

    Viljandi Kultuurikolledzhi musta lae, seinte ja põrandaga saal avatakse 23. sept. Eesti Suvetantsu Kompanii etendusega "Ehitusplats! Hoia sissepääs vaba!", lavastanud Berliini koreograaf Thomas Lehmen

  4. Black box reactor core; Blackbox Reaktorkern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, Angela; Simon, Armin

    2017-07-15

    In the NPPs Brokdorf and Grohnde the fuel rods corrode partially significantly more than allowed. The origin of the formation of thick oxide layers on several fuel rod claddings is still not clear. In the Swiss NPP Leibstadt similar findings occurred in 2016. The nuclear authority ENSI suspects that local dry-outs could cause the strong oxidation.

  5. Opening the Black Box of Trade Agreements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kohl, Tristan; De Lombaerde, Philippe; Saucedo Accosta, Edgar J.

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter the author presents a coding methodology to capture the heterogeneity of trade agreements and to facilitate quantitative analysis departing from qualitative legal differences in trade agreements. The coding is based on whether the provisions of the World Trade Organization (WTO) are

  6. Opening the Black Box of Intermediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nowinska, Agnieszka

    This paper attempts to answer how external environmental factors affect intermediating firms within the maritime industry - the middlemen that plays a very important role in the sector. The category encompasses firms such as liner and port agencies, freight forwarders and shipbrokers, who link sh...

  7. 16 CFR Figure 3 to Subpart A of... - Flooring Radiant Tester Schematic Side Elevation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flooring Radiant Tester Schematic Side Elevation 3 Figure 3 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION.... 1209, Subpt. A, Fig. 3 Figure 3 to Subpart A of Part 1209—Flooring Radiant Tester Schematic Side...

  8. Hand-Drawn Resistors and a Simple Tester Using a Light-Emitting Diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamata, Masahiro; Abe, Mayumi

    2012-01-01

    A thick line drawn on a sheet of paper with a 6B pencil is electrically conductive and its resistance can be roughly estimated using a simple tester made of a light-emitting diode (LED) and a lithium coin-type cell. Using this hand-drawn resistor and the LED tester, we developed teaching materials that help students to understand how electrical…

  9. High inter-tester reliability of the new mobility score in patients with hip fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, M.T.; Bandholm, T.; Foss, N.B.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the inter-tester reliability of the New Mobility Score in patients with acute hip fracture. DESIGN: An inter-tester reliability study. SUBJECTS: Forty-eight consecutive patients with acute hip fracture at a median age of 84 (interquartile range, 76-89) years; 40 admitted from...

  10. Evaluation of dampers using a resonance adhesion tester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Koláček

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the diagnostics of dampers using resonant adhesion tester. This kind of test is non-invasive and evaluation is based on the EUSAMA methodology. The main goals of this method were to practically measure and evaluate technical condition of the shock absorbers. However, this method does not measure only damper properties, but the whole axle, too. During measurements, one must take into account the fact that the results can be easily influenced by external factors. These include e.g. wrong tire pressure, different kind of shock absorbers, and tires. The actual testing revealed that the measurement results are also influenced by bad condition of the vehicle axles. If we eliminate all these draw-backs, dampers testing can be very accurate.

  11. Trial of prestressed concrete cable testing by sonic integrity tester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Masanobu

    1997-01-01

    Highway road network of Japan is in good condition. Those roads were constructed as social infrastructures. But some damages were occurred and propagated in concrete structure which passed more than 20 years after construction. As for the damages load caring capacity of bridge was decreased due to fatigue of increasing traffics and bridge vibration. Recently many troubles happened in PC structure as cut off of the main cables by corrosion and flying the non-grouting PC-bar to roadside. Some case can be checked by hammering testing method and X-ray photo cut or not and condition of cement grouting. But another case has not checking method. Now we are testing for the PC cables by sonic integrity tester which is modified from FPDS(Foundation Pile Diagnosis System). We report in this paper on this result and scope of the future of this method.

  12. Microprocessor tester for the treat upgrade reactor trip system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenkszus, F.R.; Bucher, R.G.

    1984-01-01

    The upgrading of the Transient Reactor Test (TREAT) Facility at ANL-Idaho has been designed to provide additional experimental capabilities for the study of core disruptive accident (CDA) phenomena. In addition, a programmable Automated Reactor Control System (ARCS) will permit high-power transients up to 11,000 MW having a controlled reactor period of from 15 to 0.1 sec. These modifications to the core neutronics will improve simulation of LMFBR accident conditions. Finally, a sophisticated, multiply-redundant safety system, the Reactor Trip System (RTS), will provide safe operation for both steady state and transient production operating modes. To insure that this complex safety system is functioning properly, a Dedicated Microprocessor Tester (DMT) has been implemented to perform a thorough checkout of the RTS prior to all TREAT operations

  13. A portable fracture toughness tester for biological materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvell, B. W.; Lee, P. K. D.; Yuen, T. D. B.; Lucas, P. W.

    1996-06-01

    A portable mechanical tester is described which is both lightweight and cheap to produce. The machine is simple and convenient to operate and requires only a minimum of personnel training. It can be used to measure the fundamental mechanical properties of pliant solids, particularly toughness (in the sense of `work of fracture') using either scissors or wedge tests. This is achieved through a novel hardware integration technique. The circuits are described. The use of the machine does not require a chart recorder but it can be linked to a personal computer, either to show force - displacement relationships or for data storage. The design allows the use of any relatively `soft' mechanical test, i.e. tests in which the deformability of the frame of the machine and its load cell do not introduce significant errors into the results. Examples of its use in measuring the toughness of biomaterials by scissors (paper, wood) and wedges (mung bean starch gels) are given.

  14. The development and application of portable speed tester for special equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lan Peng; Chen Ligang; Dai Sidan; Wang Huiting; Zhang Liangxu; Wang Lin

    2014-01-01

    Special equipment developed to meet the needs for research and industrial application of this stage, with the advantages of small size, high accuracy, long working hours, high reliability and intelligent portable speed tester. This paper describes the development and application of the tester. In terms of hardware, the tester use 'MCU + CPLD' to build the core of the system, and focus on high precision, low-power design, Software to increase their power electricity monitoring and filtering software anti-interference function. The tester can achieve high-precision measurement of the speed parameter, display measurement data in real time via the LCD display functions. Currently, the tester has been successfully achieved industrial application. (authors)

  15. Design, Construction, and Evaluation of Rubber Friction Tester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Razzaghi Kashani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Coeffcient of  friction  (COF  for  rubber parts  is one of  the key parameters in their interaction with solid rough surfaces (micrometer to millimeter scales,  such  as  tire-road  interactions. COF  of  rubber  depends  on  viscoelastic properties of rubber, roughness characteristics of the counter-part surface, and process variables such as contact nominal pressure and sliding speed. Due to the need for measuring COF  for  rubber,  a  new  friction  tester, with  continuous  variation  of nominal pressure and sliding speed, was designed and constructed in order to assess the effect of above mentioned parameters. Tire tread compounds, as the most common rubber part  in  the feld of  rubber  tribology, was used  for  this purpose. Viscoelastic properties of compounds were varied by changing composition of styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR and butadiene rubber (BR in the blend. Effect of surface roughness was evaluated by using silicon-carbide papers with different roughness parameters. By statistical analysis it was shown that the designed friction tester has high accuracy in measuring the coeffcient of friction of rubber and differentiating the effective parameters. Increasing the nominal pressure led to reduction of COF and increase in sliding speed forced it through a maximum. In conclusion, the loss factor of the compound and asymmetry in roughness distribution of the counter-surface are considered as the most effective parameters on COF of rubber.

  16. Initial Development of an Electronic Testis Rigidity Tester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petros Mirilas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to develop our previously presented mechanical device, the Testis Rigidity Tester (TRT, into an electronic system (Electronic Testis Rigidity Tester, ETRT by applying tactile imaging, which has been used successfully with other solid organs. A measuring device, located at the front end of the ETRT incorporates a tactile sensor comprising an array of microsensors. By application of a predetermined deformation of 2 mm, increased pressure alters linearly the resistance of each microsensor, producing changes of voltage. These signals were amplified, filtered, and digitized, and then processed by an electronic collector system, which presented them as a color-filled contour plot of the area of the testis coming into contact with the sensor. Testis models of different rigidity served for initial evaluation of ETRT; their evacuated central spaces contained different, increasing glue masses. An independent method of rigidity measurement, using an electric weight scale and a micrometer, showed that the more the glue injected, the greater the force needed for a 2-mm deformation. In a preliminary test, a single sensor connected to a multimeter showed similar force measurement for the same deformation in these phantoms. For each of the testis models compressed in the same manner, the ETRT system offered a map of pressures, represented by a color scale within the contour plot of the contact area with the sensor. ETRT found certain differences in rigidity between models that had escaped detection by a blind observer. ETRT is easy to use and provides a color-coded “insight“ of the testis internal structure. After experimental testing, it could be valuable in intraoperative evaluation of testes, so that the surgeon can decide about orchectomy or orcheopexy.

  17. Executive Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovici, Gil D.; Stephens, Melanie L.; Possin, Katherine L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of Review: Executive functions represent a constellation of cognitive abilities that drive goal-oriented behavior and are critical to the ability to adapt to an ever-changing world. This article provides a clinically oriented approach to classifying, localizing, diagnosing, and treating disorders of executive function, which are pervasive in clinical practice. Recent Findings: Executive functions can be split into four distinct components: working memory, inhibition, set shifting, and fluency. These components may be differentially affected in individual patients and act together to guide higher-order cognitive constructs such as planning and organization. Specific bedside and neuropsychological tests can be applied to evaluate components of executive function. While dysexecutive syndromes were first described in patients with frontal lesions, intact executive functioning relies on distributed neural networks that include not only the prefrontal cortex, but also the parietal cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus, and cerebellum. Executive dysfunction arises from injury to any of these regions, their white matter connections, or neurotransmitter systems. Dysexecutive symptoms therefore occur in most neurodegenerative diseases and in many other neurologic, psychiatric, and systemic illnesses. Management approaches are patient specific and should focus on treatment of the underlying cause in parallel with maximizing patient function and safety via occupational therapy and rehabilitation. Summary: Executive dysfunction is extremely common in patients with neurologic disorders. Diagnosis and treatment hinge on familiarity with the clinical components and neuroanatomic correlates of these complex, high-order cognitive processes. PMID:26039846

  18. Product-Improvement Test (Phase II), Jetcal Tester, Model H119A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-03-05

    Ao—A0 51 113 ARMY AVIATION ‘Cs’ BOARD FORT tUCKER ALA — P*OOUCTeII ROVEMCNT TEST ( FHAS ~ I I ) . JETCAL TESTER, MODEL M119A~~’ETC(U) MAR S9...Phase i i ) , Jetcal Tester , Model H 119A , USATECOM Project No. 4-6-5011-03 b . No fur ther consideration be given to the TEMPCAL heater probe as a...essen t i a l component of the Jetcal Tester. e. The service manual instruct ions for con t inu i ty te s t ing of EG1 thermocouples be revised to

  19. Tester of the TRT front-end electronics for the ATLAS-experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Hajduk, Z; Kisielewski, B; Kotarba, A; Malecki, P; Natkaniec, Z; Olszowska, J; Ostrowicz, W; Krupinska, G

    2000-01-01

    The VME based tester for front-end electronics of the TRT (Transition Radiation Tracker) detector of the ATLAS-LHC experiment at CERN, Geneva, is described. The TRT read-out electronics for 424576 proportional tubes grouped on many thousands of cards requires stringent quality control after assembly and during installation. The tester provides all required data, pulses, timing and power supplies for tested cards. The essential part of the tester is its software that allows for device handling as well as facilitates functional and statistical tests. The prototype, present design as well as the new design for mass production tests are discussed. (17 refs).

  20. The Development and Application of Simulative Insulation Resistance Tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yan; Chai, Ziqi; Wang, Bo; Ma, Hao

    2018-02-01

    The insulation state determines the performance and insulation life of electrical equipment, so it has to be judged in a timely and accurate manner. Insulation resistance test, as the simplest and most basic test of high voltage electric tests, can measure the insulation resistance and absorption ratio which are effective criterion of part or whole damp or dirty, breakdown, severe overheating aging and other insulation defects. It means that the electrical test personnel need to be familiar with the principle of insulation resistance test, and able to operate the insulation resistance tester correctly. At present, like the insulation resistance test, most of electrical tests are trained by physical devices with the real high voltage. Although this allows the students to truly experience the test process and notes on security, it also has certain limitations in terms of safety and test efficiency, especially for a large number of new staves needing induction training every year. This paper presents a new kind of electrical test training system based on the simulative device of dielectric loss measurement and simulative electrical testing devices. It can not only overcome the defects of current training methods, but also provide other advantages in economical efficiency and scalability. That makes it possible for the system to be allied in widespread.

  1. Explosive component acceptance tester using laser interferometer technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickstrom, Richard D.; Tarbell, William W.

    1993-01-01

    Acceptance testing of explosive components requires a reliable and simple to use testing method that can discern less than optimal performance. For hot-wire detonators, traditional techniques use dent blocks or photographic diagnostic methods. More complicated approaches are avoided because of their inherent problems with setup and maintenance. A recently developed tester is based on using a laser interferometer to measure the velocity of flying plates accelerated by explosively actuated detonators. Unlike ordinary interferometers that monitor displacement of the test article, this device measures velocity directly and is commonly used with non-spectral surfaces. Most often referred to as the VISAR technique (Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflecting Surface), it has become the most widely-accepted choice for accurate measurement of velocity in the range greater than 1 mm/micro-s. Traditional VISAR devices require extensive setup and adjustment and therefore are unacceptable in a production-testing environment. This paper describes a new VISAR approach which requires virtually no adjustments, yet provides data with accuracy comparable to the more complicated systems. The device, termed the Fixed-Cavity VISAR, is currently being developed to serve as a product verification tool for hot-wire detonators and slappers. An extensive data acquisition and analysis computer code was also created to automate the manipulation of raw data into final results.

  2. NPS-SCAT (Solar Cell Array Tester), The Construction of NPS' First Prototype CubeSat

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bein, Alexander L

    2008-01-01

    .... This Master's Thesis describes the NPS-SCAT (solar cell array tester) project, including the author's experience as program manager of the project, responsible for budget, schedule and technical deliverables...

  3. Interference of apex locator, pulp tester and diathermy on pacemaker function

    OpenAIRE

    Narayanan Sriman; V Prabhakar; J S Bhuvaneswaran; N Subha

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of three electronic apex locators (EAL), electric pulp tester (EPT) and diathermy on pacemaker function in vitro. Materials and Methods: Three EALs: Root ZX (J. Morita Co., Tustin, CA, U.S.A.), Propex (Dentsply), Mini Apex locator (SybronEndo, Anaheim, CA, USA), EPT (Parkell pulp vitality tester Farmingdale, NY, USA) and Diathermy (Neomed 250 B) were tested for any interference with one pacemaker (A medtronic kappa KVDD901-serial ...

  4. Evaluation of disintegration properties of orally rapidly disintegrating tablets using a novel disintegration tester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Keita; Niwa, Toshiyuki; Danjo, Kazumi

    2012-01-01

    This report describes a new disintegration tester that can determine not only the disintegration time of orally rapidly disintegrating tablets (ODT), but also the disintegration behavior and mechanism. Using the tester, the disintegration properties of the tablets prepared in a previous study were examined. The purpose of this study is to confirm the utility of the tester as an instrument for evaluating the disintegration properties of ODT and determine relations among time, behavior and mechanism of the disintegration. Results demonstrated that in vitro disintegration time in the tester is similar to that in the commercial disintegration tester for ODT and is highly correlated with oral disintegration time. Observations of disintegration process revealed that a difference in disintegration behavior between tablets compressed at 50-75 MPa and 100 MPa; the disintegration behavior of the tablets were designated immediate disintegrating type and gradual disintegrating type, respectively. The dynamic swelling profile and water absorption profile indicated that the disintegration mechanism of the tablets involved wicking action induced by swelling of the disintegrant; the disintegration time was closely related to the initial rates of swelling and water absorption. Furthermore, the mechanism of water absorption of tablets compressed at 50-75 MPa and 100 MPa shows anomalous diffusion and case-II transport, respectively. The shift in this mechanism is consistent with differences in disintegration time and behavior between the tablets. These findings suggest that information on disintegration properties obtained by our tester is useful for understanding of disintegration phenomena of ODT.

  5. Executive summary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nimwegen, N.; van Nimwegen, N.; van der Erf, R.

    2009-01-01

    The Demography Monitor 2008 gives a concise overview of current demographic trends and related developments in education, the labour market and retirement for the European Union and some other countries. This executive summary highlights the major findings of the Demography Monitor 2008 and further

  6. The reliability of the newly developed bending tester for the measurement of flexural rigidity of textile materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji Musa, A. Binti; Malengier, B.; Van Langenhove, L.; Stevens, C.

    2017-10-01

    A new automated bending tester was developed in Ghent University, Belgium to reduce the human interference in the bending measurement. This paper reports the investigations made on the tester in order to confirm the reliability of its measurement. For that, 11 types of fabrics with different construction parameters were tested for their bending length and flexural rigidity using the new bending tester and the results were compared with that of the standard or manual bending tester, which were conducted in accordance with BS 3356:1990 standard method. Statistical analysis confirms that both measurements are strongly correlated with Pearson’s R≥ 0.90 for all the measurements made. It means that the results from the new automated tester show good correlations with the standard measurement. Nevertheless, this prototype version of the new tester still needs to be adjusted to optimise the functionality of it and further investigations should be done to justify the robustness of the results.

  7. A comparison of damage profiling of automated tap testers on aircraft CFRP panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Aris, K. D.; Shariff, M. F.; Abd Latif, B. R.; Mohd Haris, M. Y.; Baidzawi, I. J.

    2017-12-01

    The use of composite materials nevertheless is getting more prominent. The combination of reinforcing fibers and matrices will produce the desired strength orientation, tailorability and not to mention the complex shape that is hard to form on metallic structure. The weight percentage of composite materials used in aerospace, civil, marine etc. has increased tremendously. Since composite are stacked together, the possibility of delamination and/disbond defects are highly present either in the monolithic or sandwich structures. Tap test is the cheapest form of nondestructive test to identify the presence of this damage. However, its inconsistency and wide area of coverage can reduce its effectivity since it is carried out manually. The indigenous automated tap tester known as KETOK was used to detect the damage due to trapped voids and air pockets. The mechanism of detection is through controlling the tapping on the surface automatically at a constant rate. Another manual tap tester RD-3 from Wichitech Industries Inc. was used as reference. The acquired data was translated into damage profiling and both results were compared. The results have shown that the indigenous automated tester can profile the damage better when compared with the existing tap tester. As a conclusion, the indigenous automated tap tester has a potential to be used as an IN-SITU damage detection tool to detect delamination and disbond damage on composite panel. However, more conclusive tests need to be done in order to make the unit available to conventional users.

  8. HIV impact on women: gender difference among late testers and advanced HIV infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukmawati, N. M. D. D.; Merati, T. P.; Somia, A.; Utama, S.; Gayatri, Y.

    2018-03-01

    This study reported the effect of gender difference on HIV seropositive late testers or advanced infection. A retrospective cohort study of newly diagnosed HIV seropositive based on adatabase in the main referral hospital in Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia from 2004 – 2016. Women and man were categorized as late testers (CD4 ≤ 200 cells/uL and/or AIDS diagnosis ≤ 12 months from first HIV test date). Non-late testers (CD4 > 200 cells/uL and/or no AIDS diagnosis during study period or diagnosis of AIDS >12 months from HIV diagnosis), of reproductive age (13 – 49 years old), and not of reproductive age (>49 years old). Logistic regression was used to estimate risk and its statistical significance. The model consists of gender and age correctly classified 83.5% of cases. Women were almost two times more likely to present as non-late testers compared to men, and reproductive age of 15 – 49 years were 1.5 times more likely to present as non-late testers compared to those with age > 49 years. Women affected by HIV almost in equal as for men. Women and those within reproductive age were more likely to present before the advanced stage compared to men and those aged > 49 years.

  9. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-02-01

    This paper is an 'executive summary' of work undertaken to review proposals for transport, handling and emplacement of high level radioactive wastes in an underground repository, appropriate to the U.K. context, with particular reference to: waste block size and configuration; self-shielded or partially-shielded block; stages of disposal; transportation within the repository; emplacement in vertical holes or horizontal tunnels; repository access by adit, incline or shaft; and costs. The paper contains a section on general conclusions and recommendations. (U.K.)

  10. Microprocessor-controlled tester for evaluation of the Self-Energized Credential System (SECS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corlis, N.E.

    1980-03-01

    The Self-Energized Credential System (SECS) was developed for use in the Plutonium Protection System (PPS) installed at Hanford, Washington. Evaluation and development of the SECS system was enhanced by the use of a microprocessor-controlled portal tester. This tester used infrared (ir) beam sensors to provide information on the direction of travel of the credential wearer and to detect inoperative credentials. A printed record of the portal number, actual code read, time, and direction of the credential passage provided information essential to an assessment of the operability of the SECS

  11. FPGA-based Bit-Error-Rate Tester for SEU-hardened Optical Links

    CERN Document Server

    Detraz, S; Moreira, P; Papadopoulos, S; Papakonstantinou, I; Seif El Nasr, S; Sigaud, C; Soos, C; Stejskal, P; Troska, J; Versmissen, H

    2009-01-01

    The next generation of optical links for future High-Energy Physics experiments will require components qualified for use in radiation-hard environments. To cope with radiation induced single-event upsets, the physical layer protocol will include Forward Error Correction (FEC). Bit-Error-Rate (BER) testing is a widely used method to characterize digital transmission systems. In order to measure the BER with and without the proposed FEC, simultaneously on several devices, a multi-channel BER tester has been developed. This paper describes the architecture of the tester, its implementation in a Xilinx Virtex-5 FPGA device and discusses the experimental results.

  12. Reliability of knee joint range of motion and circumference measurements after total knee arthroplasty: does tester experience matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Thomas Linding; Christensen, Malene; Christensen, Stine Sommer

    2010-01-01

    : The design was an intra-tester, inter-tester and intra-day reliability study. Nineteen outpatients (10 females) having received a TKA were examined by an inexperienced and an experienced physiotherapist. Following a standardized protocol, active and passive knee joint ROM and circumference measurements were...

  13. 16 CFR Figure 4 to Subpart A of... - Flooring Radiant Panel Tester Schematic Low Flux End, Elevation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flooring Radiant Panel Tester Schematic Low Flux End, Elevation 4 Figure 4 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY... Standard Pt. 1209, Subpt. A, Fig. 4 Figure 4 to Subpart A of Part 1209—Flooring Radiant Panel Tester...

  14. Relating the octane numbers of fuels to ignition delay times measured in an ignition quality tester (IQT)

    KAUST Repository

    Naser, Nimal; Yang, Seung Yeon; Kalghatgi, Gautam; Chung, Suk-Ho

    2016-01-01

    an ignition quality tester. A baseline data of ignition delay times were determined using an ignition quality tester at a charge pressure of 21.3 bar between 770 and 850 K and an equivalence ratio of 0.7 for various primary reference fuels (PRFs, mixtures

  15. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    On 18 May 2001, the Finnish Parliament ratified the Decision in Principle on the final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto, within the municipality of Eurajoki. The Municipality Council and the government has made positive decisions earlier, at the end of 2000, and in compliance with the Nuclear Energy Act, Parliament's ratification was then required. The decision is valid for the spent fuel generated by the existing Finnish nuclear power plants and means that the construction of the final disposal facility is considered to be in line with the overall good of society. Earlier steps included, amongst others, the approval of the technical project by the Safety Authority. Future steps include construction of an underground rock characterisation facility, ONKALO (2003-2004), and application for separate construction and operating licences for the final disposal facility (from about 2010). How did this political and societal decision come about? The FSC Workshop provided the opportunity to present the history leading up to the Decision in Principle (DiP), and to examine future perspectives with an emphasis on stakeholder involvement. This Executive Summary gives an overview of the presentations and discussions that took place at the workshop. It presents, for the most part, a factual account of the individual presentations and of the discussions that took place. It relies importantly on the notes that were taken at the meeting. Most materials are elaborated upon in a fuller way in the texts that the various speakers and session moderators contributed for these proceedings. The structure of the Executive Summary follows the structure of the workshop itself. Complementary to this Summary and also provided with this document, is a NEA Secretariat's perspective aiming to place the results of all discussions, feedback and site visit into an international perspective. (authors)

  16. Usefulness of new wetness tester for diagnosis of dry mouth in disabled patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakinoki, Yasuaki; Nishihara, Tatsuji; Arita, Masahiro; Shibuya, Koji; Ishikawa, Masao

    2004-12-01

    The condition of dry mouth is an influential factor in the incidence of caries, periodontal disease, fungal infections, masticatory dysfunctions and denture function. Bedridden elderly and disabled persons often suffer from oral dryness and the aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of measuring the amount of moisture in the oral mucosa for clinical diagnosis of dry mouth in this group. The subjects were 20 elderly bedridden individuals, age range 65-89 years old, living in a nursing home and six healthy laboratory researchers, aged 20-46 years old, used as controls. Tongue dorsum moisture measurements were performed using a newly developed wetness tester (L-SALIVO), in which the wet portion was measured after 10 s. Further, clinical diagnosis of dry mouth was carried out using a clinical classification scale of the tongue mucosa (grade range, 0-3). It was possible to measure tongue dorsum moisture in all subjects with the wetness tester. The average moisture value was 0.1+/-0.2 mm in elderly subjects with a dry mouth grade of 2 (n = 8) or 3 (n = 12), while the average moisture value in the control subjects was 3.67+/-1.75 mm with a dry mouth grade of 0 (n = 4) or 1 (n = 2). Tester values and cliniical classification showed a positive co-relationship (r = 0.31, p < 0.05). Our results show that this new tester could be useful for evaluating oral dryness and diagnosing dry mouth.

  17. Evaluation of Next-Generation Vision Testers for Aeromedical Certification of Aviation Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    measure distant, intermediate, and near acuity. The slides are essentially abbreviated versions of the Early Treatment for Diabetic Retinopathy Study...over, requiring intermediate vision testing and 12 were color deficient. Analysis was designed to detect statistically significant differences between...Vertical Phoria (Right & Left Hyperphoria) Test scores from each of the vision testers were collated and analyzed. Analysis was designed to detect

  18. Development of new design mechanical seal tester for Primary Loop Recirculation Pump (PLR Pump)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, Naoki; Koshiba, Koremutsu

    1995-01-01

    The mechanical seal for a Primary Loop Recirculation Pump (PLR Pump) is an important part of a BWR plant. This study describes a new mechanical seal tester developed to certify mechanical seal performance before installation in a PLR Pump on site. (author)

  19. High inter-tester reliability of the new mobility score in patients with hip fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, M.T.; Bandholm, T.; Foss, N.B.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the inter-tester reliability of the New Mobility Score in patients with acute hip fracture. DESIGN: An inter-tester reliability study. SUBJECTS: Forty-eight consecutive patients with acute hip fracture at a median age of 84 (interquartile range, 76-89) years; 40 admitted from...... their own home and 8 from nursing homes to an acute orthopaedic hip fracture unit at a university hospital. METHODS: The New Mobility Score, which evaluates the prefracture functional level with a score from 0 (not able to walk at all) to 9 (fully independent), was assessed by 2 independent physiotherapists...... the prefracture functional level in patients with acute hip fracture Udgivelsesdato: 2008/7...

  20. Infant Physical Attractiveness, Affect, Temperament, and Gender in Relation to Tester Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Hart, Andrea D.

    1996-01-01

    Easily observable infant characteristics have been shown to influence others; perceptions of infant competence. This study examined the relation between infant characteristics and a tester's willingness to repeat opportunities for the infant to pass items during administration of a cognitive test. Results showed that infant physical attractiveness was related to lower elicited infant performance (the ratio of items initially failed). Positive affect was related to higher test scores. Because ...

  1. Evaluation of bearing configurations using the single bearing tester in liquid nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jett, T.; Hall, P.; Thom, R.

    1991-01-01

    Various bearing configurations were tested using the Marshall Space Flight Center single bearing tester with LN2 as the cryogenic coolant. The baseline was one Rocketdyne phase one high pressure oxidizer turbopump (HPOTP) pump end 45-mm bore bearing. The bearing configurations that were tested included a Salox/M cage configuration, a silicon nitride ball configuration, an elongated cage configuration, and a Bray 601 grease configuration.

  2. Trial manufacture of rotary friction tester and frictional force measurement of metals

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, T; Kanari, M; Tanzawa, S

    2002-01-01

    In the plasma confinement type fusion reactor, in-vessel structures such as a blanket module slide at the joints each other when plasma disruption occurs, and then frictional heat is generated there. Therefore, for the selection of material and the use as the design data, it is important to understand the frictional characteristics of metals and ceramic films in the vacuum. In the present study, we have manufactured a prototype of rotary friction tester and examined the performances of the tester. The frictional characteristics of metals in the room air was measured using the friction tester, and the results obtained are as follows. A drifting friction force for a constant time and a friction force during the idling were 98 mN and 225 mN, respectively. These values were sufficiently small as compared to pressing load (9.8 - 57.8 N) used in the friction test. In a friction force measurement of stainless steel, dynamic friction force obeyed Amontons' law which indicated that dynamic friction force is not depend...

  3. Tester og testtilbakemeldinger som direkte bidragsytere til dypere læring blant studenter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Herrebrøden

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Denne artikkelen diskuterer forskning som tilsier at tester og testtilbakemeldinger kan bidra til dypere læring blant studenter. Testing har vist seg å forbedre langtidshukommelsen av innlært kunnskap sammenlignet med repetert lesing, noe som kalles for testeffekten. For at testeffekten skal optimaliseres, bør tester utformes med mål om å bidra til dyp prosessering av innlært kunnskap. Testtilbakemeldingers rolle i utdanning kan være å bidra til økt metakognitiv selvregulering blant studenter. For at selvregulering skal promoteres best mulig, bør testtilbakemeldinger inneholde utdypende informasjon. Samlet ser tester og testtilbakemeldinger ut til å være nyttige læringsverktøy og potensielle bidragsytere til dypere læring blant studenter.AbstractThis article discusses research supporting that tests and test feedback are learning tools that may promote deeper learning among students. Testing improves long-term retention of knowledge compared to repeated study, a phenomenon known as the testing effect. In order to promote the testing effect, tests should facilitate deep processing of knowledge among students. Test feedback has the potential to increase students’ metacognitive self-regulation. For this type of metacognition to be enhanced, feedback should contain elaborate information. Conclusively, tests and test feedback appear to be valuable learning tools and potential promoters of deeper learning.

  4. Requirement analysis of testers qualified for aircraft compatibility test x-ray diagnostic and interventional radiology in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diah Astuti Indarwati; Haendra Subekti

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of the need of Qualified Tester by calculating the number of test team to perform conformance test of diagnostic and interventional X-ray equipment has been done. This analysis was conducted in order to map the needs of Qualified Testers in Indonesia. As the conformance test certificate will be used in the licensing process, the availability of Tester will greatly affect the continuity and smoothness of the licensing process. The result shows the number of required test team is currently as much as 49 teams, while the availability of the test team is 7 test team. Thus there is still a large gap between the need and availability of the test team to perform conformance test. For the central and eastern of Indonesia on the scope of CT Scan, Mammography, Fluoroscopy and can only be met by tester in Java. (author)

  5. Patient perceptions and expectations of an anticoagulation service: a quantitative comparison study of clinic-based testers and patient self-testers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Money, Arthur G; Barnett, Julie; Kuljis, Jasna; Duffin, Debbie

    2015-12-01

    Government initiatives see the provision of technology-assisted self-care as one of the key areas in which there is capacity for improving quality of care whilst reducing costs. However, levels of patient engagement in self-testing and management (STM) remain low. Little emphasis has been placed on understanding the patients' perspectives of the reasons for this limited engagement. Typically, patient engagement in STM is achieved via the provision of patient education programmes, which aim to enable patients to make the changes necessary to become competent self-carers. However, placing the onus to change on the individual patient is unrealistic. If levels of patient engagement are to be improved, patient needs and expectations of clinical services must be better understood and service provision must be adapted accordingly. Explore patient perceptions and expectations of clinical service provision and their views of having and making choices about care. Participants [N = 191, 103 patient self-tester managers (PSTMs) and 87 clinic-based testers (CBTs)] completed the SERVQUAL and ChQ instruments to capture perspectives on service quality and choice, respectively. A comparative statistical analysis explored the similarities and differences between PSTMs' and CBTs' responses. Clinic-based testers' perceptions of service quality were significantly more positive than PSTMs', as were their expectations of the 'tangible' aspects of service delivery. PSTMs' expectations of service quality were significantly higher than their perceptions. PSTMs attributed significantly more value to making choices compared with CBTs. To close the gap between PSTMs expectations and perceptions of service quality and better cater for their choice preferences, service providers may benefit from taking into account the following practice considerations: maintain frequent, timely, personalised and direct interactions with PSTMs; prioritise investment in resources to facilitate patient

  6. MorphoTester: An Open Source Application for Morphological Topographic Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia M Winchester

    Full Text Available The increased prevalence and affordability of 3D scanning technology is beginning to have significant effects on the research questions and approaches available for studies of morphology. As the current trend of larger and more precise 3D datasets is unlikely to slow in the future, there is a need for efficient and capable tools for high-throughput quantitative analysis of biological shape. The promise and the challenge of implementing relatively automated methods for characterizing surface shape can be seen in the example of dental topographic analysis. Dental topographic analysis comprises a suite of techniques for quantifying tooth surfaces and component features. Topographic techniques have provided insight on mammalian molar form-function relationships and these methods could be applied to address other topics and questions. At the same time implementing multiple complementary topographic methods can have high time and labor costs, and comparability of data formats and approaches is difficult to predict. To address these challenges I present MorphoTester, an open source application for visualizing and quantifying topography from 3D triangulated polygon meshes. This application is Python-based and is free to use. MorphoTester implements three commonly used dental topographic metrics-Dirichlet normal energy, relief index, and orientation patch count rotated (OPCR. Previous OPCR algorithms have used raster-based grid data, which is not directly interchangeable with vector-based triangulated polygon meshes. A 3D-OPCR algorithm is provided here for quantifying complexity from polygon meshes. The efficacy of this metric is tested in a sample of mandibular second molars belonging to four species of cercopithecoid primates. Results suggest that 3D-OPCR is at least as effective for quantifying complexity as previous approaches, and may be more effective due to finer resolution of surface data considered here. MorphoTester represents an advancement

  7. Line tester analysis of yield and yield related attributed in different sunflower genotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Din, S.U.; Khan, M.A.; Usman, K.; Sayal, O.U.

    2014-01-01

    This paper encompasses the study of line * tester analysis to chalk out genetic implications regarding yield and yield relating components in different genotypes of sunflower. Eight parents (four CMS lines and four restorers) along with their sixteen F1 hybrids were considered and planted in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) replicated thrice at experimental area of Oilseed Research Program, National Agriculture Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad, Pakistan in 2011. Combining ability for some important morphological traits included days to flower initiation, days to flower completion, days to maturity, plant height, head diameter and seed yield plant-1. In this concern general combining ability (GCA), reciprocals combining ability (RCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) for all traits were studied. The GCA and SCA variances due to lines and testers interaction were significant for all the characters. However, the magnitude of GCAs from CMS lines (females) and restorers (pollinators) were higher than the SCA indicating preponderance of additive genes in the expression of all the traits. Among the lines, CMS-HA-54 whereas in testers, RHP-71, by manifesting maximum GCA effects were considered as the best general combiners for almost all the traits indicating the presence of more additive gene effects in these parents, therefore may serve as potential parents for hybridization and to improve the characters studied. Among the F1 hybrids, CMS HA-99 * RHP-76 (1.54, 212.65) and CMS HA-101 * RHP-73 (0.91, 432.73) were found as the best specific combiners for head or capitulum and seed yield. Hence, if farming community and researchers include these hybrids in their selection and hybridization program for the trait under study optimum result may be obtained. (author)

  8. LVDS tester: a systematic test of cable signal transmission at the ALICE experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Barnby, L; Bombara, M; Evans, D; Jones, G T; Jones, P G; Jovanović, P; Jusko, A; Kour, R; Králik, I; Krivda, M; Lazzeroni, C; Lietava, R; Matthews, Z L; Navin, S; Palaha, A; Petrov, P; Platt, R; Šándor, L; Scott, P; Urbán, J; Villalobos Baillie, O; Tapia Takaki, J D

    2010-01-01

    In the ALICE experiment, the Low-Voltage Differential Signalling (LVDS) format is used for the transmission of trigger inputs from the detectors to the Central Trigger Processor (CTP), the L0 trigger outputs from Local Trigger Units (LTU) boards back to the detectors and the BUSY inputs from the sub-detectors to the CTP. ALICE has designed a set-up, called the LVDS transmission tester, that aims to measure various transmission quality parameters and the bit-error rate (BER) for long period runs in an automatic way. In this paper, this method is described and the conclusions from these tests for the ALICE LVDS cables are discussed

  9. LVDS tester: a systematic test of cable signal transmission at the ALICE experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnby, L; Bhasin, A; Evans, D; Jones, G T; Jones, P G; Jovanovic, P; Jusko, A; Kour, R; Krivda, M; Lazzeroni, C; Lietava, R; Matthews, Z L; Navin, S; Palaha, A; Petrov, P; Platt, R; Scott, P; Bombara, M; Kralik, I; Sandor, L

    2010-01-01

    In the ALICE experiment, the Low-Voltage Differential Signalling (LVDS) format is used for the transmission of trigger inputs from the detectors to the Central Trigger Processor (CTP), the L0 trigger outputs from Local Trigger Units (LTU) boards back to the detectors and the BUSY inputs from the sub-detectors to the CTP. ALICE has designed a set-up, called the LVDS transmission tester, that aims to measure various transmission quality parameters and the bit-error rate (BER) for long period runs in an automatic way. In this paper, this method is described and the conclusions from these tests for the ALICE LVDS cables are discussed.

  10. An investigation of the composition of gases sampled by formation testers during drilling and well development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamkina, L.S.; Snezhko, M.P.

    1983-01-01

    The experience of studying samples taken by formation testers during the drilling and development of wells that penetrate Foraminifera, Cretaceous and Jurassic deposits at the fields of the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic is correlated. The compositions of gases taken from oil bearing, water bearing and gas bearing deposits in exploratory and operating wells are compared. Recommendations are given for determining (estimating) the phase state of hydrocarbons in the cross section based on results from an investigation of the composition of gas taken during the drilling process. A corresponding interpretation method is proposed.

  11. Illuminating the Black Box of Entrepreneurship Education Programmes: Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maritz, Alex

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide a justified, legitimate and validated model on entrepreneurship education programmes (EEPs), by combining recent research and scholarship in leading edge entrepreneurship education (EE). Design/methodology/approach: A systematic literature review of recent EE research and scholarship is followed by…

  12. Distributed R and D. Inside the Black Box

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jørgen Lindgaard

    2006-01-01

    During the last few decades business R and D has changed from beeing an in-house activity to beeing an activty offshored, outsourced or made as joint venture with other other companies or R and D institutions. Gerybadze and Reger has in an article (Recent Changes in the Management of Innovation...... in Transnational Corporations, Research Policy 28, issue 2-3, pp. 252-274, 1999)stressed the existence of two different trends in R&D locations: 1)An on-going process with setting up R&D laboratories and product development activities in different places in the world, and 2)An even more consistent concentration...... as an outsourcing.In hearing aid industry nearly nothing in R&D has been moved out from companies. Something like clinical tests are made in cooperation with hospitals or clinics. In enzymes some R and D activites are offshored. According to informations from companies there are no disasters but in some cases...

  13. Black-Box Fuzzing of the REDHAWK Software Communications Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Sayed, Shereef

    2015-01-01

    As the complexity of software increases, so does the complexity of software testing. This challenge is especially true for modern military communications as radio functionality becomes more digital than analog. The Software Communications Architecture was introduced to manage the increased complexity of software radios. But the challenge of testing software radios still remains. A common methodology of software testing is the unit test. However, unit testing of software assumes that the ...

  14. Unlocking the black box: teaching mathematical modeling with popular culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofgren, Eric T

    2016-10-01

    Mathematical modeling is an important tool in biological research, allowing for the synthesis of results from many studies into an understanding of a system. Despite this, the need for extensive subject matter knowledge and complex mathematics often leaves modeling as an esoteric subspecialty. A 2-fold approach can be used to make modeling more approachable for students and those interested in obtaining a functional knowledge of modeling. The first is the use of a popular culture disease system-a zombie epidemic-to allow for exploration of the concepts of modeling using a flexible framework. The second is the use of available interactive and non-calculus-based tools to allow students to work with and implement models to cement their understanding. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Iron Homeostasis in Peripheral Nervous System, Still a Black Box?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taveggia, Carla

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Iron is the most abundant transition metal in biology and an essential cofactor for many cellular enzymes. Iron homeostasis impairment is also a component of peripheral neuropathies. Recent Advances: During the past years, much effort has been paid to understand the molecular mechanism involved in maintaining systemic iron homeostasis in mammals. This has been stimulated by the evidence that iron dyshomeostasis is an initial cause of several disorders, including genetic and sporadic neurodegenerative disorders. Critical Issues: However, very little has been done to investigate the physiological role of iron in peripheral nervous system (PNS), despite the development of suitable cellular and animal models. Future Directions: To stimulate research on iron metabolism and peripheral neuropathy, we provide a summary of the knowledge on iron homeostasis in the PNS, on its transport across the blood–nerve barrier, its involvement in myelination, and we identify unresolved questions. Furthermore, we comment on the role of iron in iron-related disorder with peripheral component, in demyelinating and metabolic peripheral neuropathies. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 634–648. PMID:24409826

  16. Opening the black box: knowledge creation in data teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hubers, Mireille Desirée; Poortman, Cindy Louise; Schildkamp, Kim; Pieters, Julius Marie; Handelzalts, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – In this study, Nonaka and Takeuchi’s socialization, externalization, combination and internalization (SECI) model of knowledge creation is used to gain insight into the process of knowledge creation in data teams. These teams are composed of school leaders and teachers, who work together

  17. Black-box optimization benchmarking of PRCGA on noisy testbed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Computer Science and Its Application. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 20, No 2 (2013) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  18. Evolution of Black-Box Models Based on Volterra Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel D. Silveira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a historical review of the many behavioral models actually used to model radio frequency power amplifiers and a new classification of these behavioral models. It also discusses the evolution of these models, from a single polynomial to multirate Volterra models, presenting equations and estimation methods. New trends in RF power amplifier behavioral modeling are suggested.

  19. Illuminating the Black Box of Entrepreneurship Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maritz, Alex; Brown, Christopher R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to explore the components of entrepreneurship education programs (EEPs) and their interrelationships to develop a conceptual framework through which entrepreneurship education may be contextually evaluated and developed. Design/methodology/approach: The paper presents an extensive literature review of the…

  20. Business Paradoxes, Black Boxes, and Big Data: Beyond Organizational Ambidexterity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøe-Lillegraven, Tor

    This is a study of the conflicts involved when firms try to do new things. Try too little, and you risk being left behind as new competition realigns the playing field around you. Try hard, and you risk cannibalizing and slowly eroding away your legacy business. This story has been told in many...

  1. Managerial Discretion: Exploring the black box of demographic research

    OpenAIRE

    Galavan, Robert

    2005-01-01

    The strategic leadership research stream is dominated by the predominantly instrumental approach of the upper echelons research stream. In recent years this research stream has been criticised for failing to develop from an exploration of whether relationships exist between managers’ background characteristics, their strategic choices and firm performances to an exploration of how managers’ characteristics influence outcomes. In this paper we build on the existing work in the s...

  2. Managerial Discretion: Exploring the Black Box of Demographic Research

    OpenAIRE

    Galavan, Robert; Kakabadse, Andrew; Kakabadse , Nada

    2009-01-01

    The strategic leadership research stream is dominated by the predominantly instrumental approach of the upper echelons research stream. In recent years this research stream has been criticized for failing to develop from an exploration of whether relationships exist between managers’ background characteristics, their strategic choices and firm performances to an exploration of how managers’ characteristics influence outcomes. In this paper we build on the existing work in the stream by sugges...

  3. Unraveling the Black Box of New Venture Team Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnåli, Ekaterina S.; Knockaert, Mirjam; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2017-01-01

    of Entrepreneurial Theorizing, the chapter argues how and when specific theories such as faultline theory, creativity and imagination, and organizational and team justice may be instructive in studying NVT processes at the prefounding phase, and particularly the (self)-selection of individuals into (out of) the NVT...... established input-processes-outcome (IPO) framework. This framework has long been used within the field of organizational behavior as it seeks to understand group performance and other group-level outcomes as the consequence of the inputs and processes that precede them. Building upon the foundations...

  4. Opening the black box: imaging nanoparticle transport with MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoenix, V.; Holmes, W. M.

    2009-12-01

    While most renown for its use in medicine, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has tremendous potential in the study of environmental processes. Its ability to non-invasively image inside materials that are opaque to other imaging methods (in particular light based techniques) is a particular strength. MRI has already been used, for example, to study fluid flow in rocks and image mass transport and biogeochemical processes in biofilms [1-4]. Here, we report of the use of MRI to image nanoparticle transport through porous geologic media (in this case packed gravel columns). Packed column experiments are key to understanding nanoparticulate transport in porous geologic media. Whilst highly informative, the data obtained can be a bulk average of a complex and heterogeneous array of interactions within the column. Natural environmental systems are often complex, displaying heterogeneity in geometry, hydrodynamics, geochemistry and microbiology throughout. MRI enables us to quantify better how this heterogeneity may influence nanoparticle transport and fate by enabling us to look inside the column and image the movement of nanoparticles within. To make the nanoparticle readily visible to MRI, it is labelled with a paramagnetic tag (commonly gadolinium). Indeed, a wide variety of off-the-shelf paramagnetically tagged nanoparticles and macromolecules are available, each with different properties enabling us to explore the impact of particle charge, size etc on their transport behaviour. In this preliminary study, packed columns of quartz or marble based gravels (approx 5 mm diameter) were first imaged to check their suitability for MR imaging. This was done as geologic material can contain sufficiently high concentrations of ferro- and paramagnetic ions to induce unwanted artefacts in the MR image. All gravels imaged (Rose quartz, Creswick quartz gravel and Ben Deulin white marble) produced minimal or no artefacts. A solution of the nanoparticle GadoCELLTrack (BioPAL), was prepared and connected to a 30 mm diameter flow cell containing rose quartz. GadoCELLTrack is a 30 nm diameter, neutrally charged gadolinium colloid. MR images were collected as the nanoparticle solution was pumped through the flow cell. These images were calibrated to provide fully quantitative maps of nanoparticle concentration at regular time intervals throughout the column. Such data can be used to help develop predictive models of nanoparticulate transport. [1] Holmes WM, Packer KJ (2003) Magnetic Resonance Imaging 21,389-391 [2] Seymour JD et al., (2004) Journal of Magnetic Resonance 167, 322-327 [3] McLean JS et al., (2008) ISME, 2, 121-131 [4] Phoenix et al., (2008) Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 74, 4934-4943

  5. Technology for noninvasive mechanical ventilation: looking into the black box

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Farré

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Current devices for providing noninvasive respiratory support contain sensors and built-in intelligence for automatically modifying ventilation according to the patient's needs. These devices, including automatic continuous positive airway pressure devices and noninvasive ventilators, are technologically complex and offer a considerable number of different modes of ventilation and setting options, the details of which are sometimes difficult to capture by the user. Therefore, better predicting and interpreting the actual performance of these ventilation devices in clinical application requires understanding their functioning principles and assessing their performance under well controlled bench test conditions with simulated patients. This concise review presents an updated perspective of the theoretical basis of intelligent continuous positive airway pressure and noninvasive ventilation devices, and of the tools available for assessing how these devices respond under specific ventilation phenotypes in patients requiring breathing support.

  6. Opening the black box: understanding cross-media effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorveld, H.A.M.; Neijens, P.C.; Smit, E.G.

    2011-01-01

    Despite their popularity, the reasons why cross-media campaigns are more successful than single medium campaigns are still unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study is (a) to investigate which psychological processes are present when people are exposed to cross-media campaigns, and (b) to examine to

  7. Features for Exploiting Black-Box Optimization Problem Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Malitsky, Yuri; Abell, Tinus

    2013-01-01

    landscape of BBO problems and show how an algorithm portfolio approach can exploit these general, problem indepen- dent features and outperform the utilization of any single minimization search strategy. We test our methodology on data from the GECCO Workshop on BBO Benchmarking 2012, which contains 21...

  8. Motivating crowding theory - opening the black box of intrinsic motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher

    2010-01-01

    Public employees work for many other reasons than because they are paid for it. In other words, intrinsic motivation is an important determinant for their performance. Nonetheless, public sector organizations increasingly rely on extrinsic motivation factors such as monetary incentives to motivate...... employees. Motivation crowding theory claims that this may be at the expense of intrinsic motivation, if the extrinsic motivation factor is perceived to be controlling. On the other hand, intrinsic motivation will be enhanced (crowded in), if the extrinsic motivation factor is perceived to be supportive......, monetary incentives are found to cause different crowding effects for these different types of intrinsic motivation. The results call for more theoretical work on the drivers of motivation crowding effects and for practitioners to pay more attention to what type of intrinsic motivation is at stake, when...

  9. Black Boxing Restraints: The Need for Full Disclosure and Consent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Wanda K.; Nunno, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    In this article we discuss the necessity of fully informing patients and their families of what constitutes physical interventions and their attendant risks under the established principles and obligations of informed consent. After a brief review of the elements of informed consent and the nature of the duty to advise patients and their families…

  10. What's in the black box of arthritis rehabilitation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grotle, Margreth; Klokkerud, Mari; Kjeken, Ingvild

    2013-01-01

    Background: In evaluating complex interventions, it is a challenge for researchers to provide transparent reporting of the intervention content with sufficient detail and clarity such that effects can be compared across studies or countries. Objective: To describe and compare the content of curre...

  11. Combining Ability in Wheat for Seedling Traits by Line X Tester Analysis Under Saline Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Osaf

    Full Text Available A line × tester analysis involving five varieties SQ-26, SQ-77, GH-10, 8670, PARC-N2 (lines and three varieties 8721, SARC-5 and DN-4 (testers were crossed to study some hydroponics growing characters. In controlled conditions SQ-26 exhibited the highest positive GCA effects on Shoot length, Shoot fresh weight, Na+ and K+ concentrations, while SQ-77 showed maximum GCA effects on Root length, Root fresh weight and Shoot dry weight in females and in males and both DN-4 and SARC-5 showed the highest GCA effects. Under high saline concentration female SQ-77 showed the maximum positive effects on all characters but on shoot length and Na concentration while male SARC-5 exhibited the highest positive GCA effects on all characters. Under high saline level, the cross combination SQ-26 × 8721 showed SCA effects for shoot length, whereas 8670 x 8721 showed the same effects for shoot fresh weight, root fresh weight and root dry weight. For Na+ and K+ concentrations, the cross combination GH-10 × DN-4 showed then highest SCA effects, whereas for shoot dry weight and root length, the cross combinations GH-10 × SARC-5 and PARC-N2 × 8721 showed the highest SCA effects, respectively.

  12. Interference of apex locator, pulp tester and diathermy on pacemaker function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriman, Narayanan; Prabhakar, V; Bhuvaneswaran, J S; Subha, N

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of three electronic apex locators (EAL), electric pulp tester (EPT) and diathermy on pacemaker function in vitro. Three EALs: Root ZX (J. Morita Co., Tustin, CA, U.S.A.), Propex (Dentsply), Mini Apex locator (SybronEndo, Anaheim, CA, USA), EPT (Parkell pulp vitality tester Farmingdale, NY, USA) and Diathermy (Neomed 250 B) were tested for any interference with one pacemaker (A medtronic kappa KVDD901-serial number: PLE734632S). Directly connecting the pacemaker lead with the EAL/EPT/diathermy operating on a flat bench top, the telemetry wand was held directly over the pacemaker to monitor the pacing pattern for a period of 30 s. Pacemaker activity was continuously recorded on the telemetric programmer and electro gram (EGM) readings examined for pacer inhibition, noise reversion or inappropriate pacemaker pulses. All the three apex locators showed no pacing interference or background noise during its function or at rest. The EGM readings of EPT showed varying levels of background noise in between pacing however, this did not affect the normal pacing pattern and the pacing interval remained constant. EGM readings of diathermy showed an increase in the pacing interval (irregular pacing pattern) followed by complete inhibition of the pacing system. The tested EALs do not interfere with cardiac pacemaker function. The tested EPT showed varying levels of background noise but does not interfere with cardiac pacemaker function. Use of Diathermy interfered with the normal pacing, leading to complete inhibition of the pacing system.

  13. Influence of wearing latex gloves on electric pulp tester readings in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holan, G

    1993-12-01

    Electric pulp testers operated by completing an electric circuit. Latex examination gloves have been claimed to interrupt this circuit and lead to false-negative results. This study was conducted to evaluate the influence of wearing latex gloves on electric pulp tester (EPT) readings. The pulps of 80 maxillary permanent incisors of 22 children 10-13 1/2 years old were tested using the Pelton & Crane 'Vitapulp' instrument. Each tooth was tested twice: with gloves and with bare hands. Teeth failing to respond to the EPT without gloves were excluded from the study. All EPT readings ranged between 1 and 9.5. Five teeth gave the same responses with gloved and ungloved hands. Only five teeth did not respond when gloves were worn, and all of these gave readings near the top of the EPT scale when tested without gloves. The other 70 teeth presented significantly higher readings with gloves than without gloves. It is concluded that removal of examination gloves during the operation of the EPT is necessary only if no response is obtained.

  14. Results of the new eddy current tester for steam generator applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribes, B.; Hernandez, J.; Barcenilla, V.

    2006-01-01

    As a result of the recent developing line of eddy current data acquisition systems a new product comes to the market named Teddy+. With only 4 kg of weight constitutes a great advance with regards to the equipments used for this type of inspections available in the market. This advances, have enabled, among others, to increase considerably the S/N ratio, avoid typical saturation problems in the eddy current signal, increase the inspection speed, eliminate the reference probe, detect the air/tube signal in real time, together with the possibility to integrate the tester inside the pusher thanks to its reduced size and to have integrated the mechanical systems control board as part of the tester. The software application in charge of data acquisition and analysis has been optimized making it possible a faster and efficient data access, incorporating a new tool to allow a data quality control on-line, which has accelerated the detection process of non-valid registers. The processes related with the supervision of different analysis have been automated enabling a simultaneous comparison of up to four different analysis types. At the same time the necessary tools to make the successive passes of the resolution process have been included in the analysis software according to EPRI guidelines. These innovations and improvements place the new SG inspection system from TECNATOM, as one of the most powerful and reliable existing in the market (orig.)

  15. Hip strength assessment using handheld dynamometry is subject to intertester bias when testers are of different sex and strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorborg, K; Bandholm, T; Schick, M

    2013-01-01

    Handheld dynamometry (HHD) is a promising tool for obtaining reliable hip strength measurements in the clinical setting, but intertester reliability has been questioned, especially in situations where testers exhibit differences in upper-extremity muscle strength (male vs female). The purpose...... of this study was to examine the intertester reliability concerning strength assessments of hip abduction, adduction, external and internal rotation, flexion and extension using HHD, and to test whether systematic differences in test values exist between testers of different upper-extremity strength. Fifty...... healthy individuals (29 women), aged 25 ± 5 years were included. Two physiotherapist students (one female, one male) of different upper-extremity strength performed the measurements. The tester order and strength test order were randomized. Intraclass correlation coefficients were used to quantify...

  16. Tabled Execution in Scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willcock, J J; Lumsdaine, A; Quinlan, D J

    2008-08-19

    Tabled execution is a generalization of memorization developed by the logic programming community. It not only saves results from tabled predicates, but also stores the set of currently active calls to them; tabled execution can thus provide meaningful semantics for programs that seemingly contain infinite recursions with the same arguments. In logic programming, tabled execution is used for many purposes, both for improving the efficiency of programs, and making tasks simpler and more direct to express than with normal logic programs. However, tabled execution is only infrequently applied in mainstream functional languages such as Scheme. We demonstrate an elegant implementation of tabled execution in Scheme, using a mix of continuation-passing style and mutable data. We also show the use of tabled execution in Scheme for a problem in formal language and automata theory, demonstrating that tabled execution can be a valuable tool for Scheme users.

  17. Estimates of genetic parameters from line x tester mating design for some quantitative traits in upload cotton, gossypium hirsutum L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baloch, M.H.; Kumbher, M.B.; Jatoi, W.A.

    2008-01-01

    Combining abilities of cotton varieties were evaluated using a line x tester design with eight lines and 4 testers. Good performance combination was found between the varieties CRIS-134 and BH-147. The former was a good candidate for fibre length improvement and the latter, a good parent for yield improvement. The specific combining ability suggested that both additive and dominant genes controlled the characters. Hybrid performance per se may be used to predict the parental performance for specific combining ability and thus for hybrid crop development. (author)

  18. Tutoring executives online

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bignoux, Stephane; Sund, Kristian J.

    2018-01-01

    Studies of learning and student satisfaction in the context of online university programmes have largely neglected programmes catering specifically to business executives. Such executives have typically been away from higher education for a number of years, and have collected substantial practical...... experience in the subject matters they are taught. Their expectations in terms of both content and delivery may therefore be different from non-executive students. We explore perceptions of the quality of tutoring in the context of an online executive MBA programme through participant interviews. We find...... that in addition to some of the tutor behaviours already discussed in the literature, executive students look specifically for practical industry knowledge and experience in tutors, when judging how effective a tutor is. This has implications for both the recruitment and training of online executive MBA tutors....

  19. Tutoring Executives Online

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bignoux, Stephane; Sund, Kristian J.

    2016-01-01

    Studies of learning and student satisfaction in the context of online university programs have largely neglected programs catering specifically to business executives. Such executives have typically been away from higher education for a number of years, and have collected substantial practical...... experience in the subject matters they are taught. Their expectations in terms of both content and delivery may therefore be different from non-executive students. We explore perceptions of the quality of tutoring in the context of an online executive MBA program through participant interviews. We find...... that in addition to some of the tutor behaviors already discussed in the literature, executive students look specifically for practical industry knowledge and experience in tutors, when judging how effective a tutor is. This has implications for both the recruitment and training of online executive MBA tutors....

  20. Technical exercise and demonstration of the spent fuel attribute tester at the TVO NPS in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tikkinen, J.; Tarvainen, M.

    1991-01-01

    A piece of new safeguards equipment, the Spent Fuel Attribute Tester (SFAT), is being developed for the verification of spent nuclear fuel in a standard storage geometry. Lifting of fuel assemblies from the storage position is not required for the verification. The SFAT can be handled like a fresh fuel assembly in the storage basin by the fuel handling machine. The feasibility of the SFAT-equipment for the verification of spent BWR fuel was demonstrated. A comparison of various types of gamma detectors, such as the Geiger-Mueller counter, NaI- and CdTe detectors was made for SFAT use. Measurements for optimizing the lead shielding, filtering, collimation and other geometrical parameters of SFAT were made. The precision of movements of the SFAT in the pond by the fuel handling machine and safety margins for these operations were estimated. (orig.)

  1. Analysis and Comparison of Thickness and Bending Measurements from Fabric Touch Tester (FTT and Standard Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Atiyyah Binti Haji

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Fabric Touch Tester (FTT is a relatively new device from SDL Atlas to determine touch properties of fabrics. It simultaneously measures 13 touch-related fabric physical properties in four modules that include bending and thickness measurements. This study aims to comparatively analyze the thickness and bending measurements made by the FTT and the common standard methods used in the textile industry. The results obtained with the FTT for 11 different fabrics were compared with that of standard methods. Despite the different measurement principle, a good correlation was found between the two methods used for the assessment of thickness and bending. As FTT is a new tool for textile comfort measurement and no standard yet exists, these findings are essential to determine the reliability of the measurements and how they relate to the well-established standard methods.

  2. Magnetic properties measurement of soft magnetic composite material (SOMALOY 700) by using 3-D tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asari, Ashraf; Guo, Youguang; Zhu, Jianguo

    2017-08-01

    Core losses of rotating electrical machine can be predicted by identifying the magnetic properties of the magnetic material. The magnetic properties should be properly measured since there are some variations of vector flux density in the rotating machine. In this paper, the SOMALOY 700 material has been measured under x, y and z- axes flux density penetration by using the 3-D tester. The calibrated sensing coils are used in detecting the flux densities which have been generated by the Labview software. The measured sensing voltages are used in obtaining the magnetic properties of the sample such as magnetic flux density B, magnetic field strength H, hysteresis loop which can be used to calculate the total core loss of the sample. The results of the measurement are analyzed by using the Mathcad software before being compared to another material.

  3. Suitability of Torrent Permeability Tester to measure air-permeability of covercrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, C.; Gonzales-Gasca, C. [Institute of Construction Sciences ' Eduardo Torroja' , Madrid (Spain); Torrent, R. [Portland Cement Institute, (Argentina)

    2000-07-01

    Suitability of the Torrent Permeability Tester (TPT) to measure the permeability of covercrete to air, both in the laboratory and the field, is investigated, and test results obtained in laboratory studies are discussed. The tests performed included the determination of air permeability (TPT method), oxygen permeability (Cembureau method) and capillary suction, rapid chloride permeability test (ASTM C 1202), as well as a one-year carbonation depth test. Concrete specimens of various compositions and curing regimes were used in the tests; the gas-permeability tests were repeated on the same specimens after 28 days, than again at 6 months and 12 months. Test results confirmed the suitability of the TPT as a useful tool in the characterization of the quality the of concrete cover. It was found to be sensitive to changes in concrete quality; repeatable for sensitive properties such as gas permeability ; also, it was found to correlate well with other durability-related properties. 10 refs., 8 tabs., 8 figs.

  4. Testing parameters of TMR heads affected by dynamic-tester induced EMI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruesubthaworn, A.; Sivaratana, R.; Ungvichian, V.; Siritaratiwat, A.

    2007-01-01

    A variety of expected electromagnetic interference (EMI) sources of both radiated and conducted EMI emissions produced by a dynamic tester is studied. It is determined that the power cable connector of the robot arm radiates a significant electric field (E-field) of about 197 V/m at 1 foot away and an estimated calculation of the E-field of about 212 mV/m is at the spindle motor. These fields can be attenuated by about 20-30 dB when using a copper lined Faraday's cage. Furthermore, the study has revealed that the radiated EMI plays a more significant role than the conducted EMI. In addition, it is determined that out of seven selected testing parameters, the SGAW is rather more sensitive to EMI than conventional failure parameters, especially static glitche during the write cycle

  5. Novel in situ mechanical testers to enable integrated metal surface micro-machines.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Follstaedt, David Martin; de Boer, Maarten Pieter; Kotula, Paul Gabriel; Hearne, Sean Joseph; Foiles, Stephen Martin; Buchheit, Thomas Edward; Dyck, Christopher William

    2005-10-01

    The ability to integrate metal and semiconductor micro-systems to perform highly complex functions, such as RF-MEMS, will depend on developing freestanding metal structures that offer improved conductivity, reflectivity, and mechanical properties. Three issues have prevented the proliferation of these systems: (1) warpage of active components due to through-thickness stress gradients, (2) limited component lifetimes due to fatigue, and (3) low yield strength. To address these issues, we focus on developing and implementing techniques to enable the direct study of the stress and microstructural evolution during electrodeposition and mechanical loading. The study of stress during electrodeposition of metal thin films is being accomplished by integrating a multi-beam optical stress sensor into an electrodeposition chamber. By coupling the in-situ stress information with ex-situ microstructural analysis, a scientific understanding of the sources of stress during electrodeposition will be obtained. These results are providing a foundation upon which to develop a stress-gradient-free thin film directly applicable to the production of freestanding metal structures. The issues of fatigue and yield strength are being addressed by developing novel surface micromachined tensile and bend testers, by interferometry, and by TEM analysis. The MEMS tensile tester has a ''Bosch'' etched hole to allow for direct viewing of the microstructure in a TEM before, during, and after loading. This approach allows for the quantitative measurements of stress-strain relations while imaging dislocation motion, and determination of fracture nucleation in samples with well-known fatigue/strain histories. This technique facilitates the determination of the limits for classical deformation mechanisms and helps to formulate a new understanding of the mechanical response as the grain sizes are refined to a nanometer scale. Together, these studies will result in a science

  6. Inter-tester reliability of selected clinical tests for long-lasting temporomandibular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julsvoll, Elisabeth Heggem; Vøllestad, Nina Køpke; Opseth, Gro; Robinson, Hilde Stendal

    2017-09-01

    Clinical tests used to examine patients with temporomandibular disorders vary in methodological quality, and some are not tested for reliability. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate inter-tester reliability of clinical tests and a cluster of tests used to examine patients with long-lasting temporomandibular disorders. Forty patients with pain in the temporomandibular area treated by health-professionals were included. They were between 18-70 years, had 65 symptomatic (33 right/32 left) and 15 asymptomatic joints. Two manual therapists examined all participants with selected tests. Percentage agreement and the kappa coefficient ( k ) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to evaluate the tests with categorical outcomes. For tests with continuous outcomes, the relative inter-tester reliability was assessed by the intraclass-correlation-coefficient (ICC 3,1 , 95% CI) and the absolute reliability was calculated by the smallest detectable change (SDC). The best reliability among single tests was found for the dental stick test, the joint-sound test ( k  = 0.80-1.0) and range of mouth-opening (ICC 3,1 (95% CI) = 0.97 (0.95-0.98) and SDC = 4 mm). The reliability of cluster of tests was excellent with both four and five positive tests out of seven. The reliability was good to excellent for the clinical tests and the cluster of tests when performed by experienced therapists. The tests are feasible for use in the clinical setting. They require no advanced equipment and are easy to perform.

  7. The validity and intra-tester reliability of markerless motion capture to analyse kinematics of the BMX Supercross gate start.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigg, Josephine; Haakonssen, Eric; Rathbone, Evelyne; Orr, Robin; Keogh, Justin W L

    2017-11-13

    The aim of this study was to quantify the validity and intra-tester reliability of a novel method of kinematic measurement. The measurement target was the joint angles of an athlete performing a BMX Supercross (SX) gate start action through the first 1.2 s of movement in situ on a BMX SX ramp using a standard gate start procedure. The method employed GoPro® Hero 4 Silver (GoPro Inc., USA) cameras capturing data at 120 fps 720 p on a 'normal' lens setting. Kinovea 0.8.15 (Kinovea.org, France) was used for analysis. Tracking data was exported and angles computed in Matlab (Mathworks®, USA). The gold standard 3D method for joint angle measurement could not safely be employed in this environment, so a rigid angle was used. Validity was measured to be within 2°. Intra-tester reliability was measured by the same tester performing the analysis twice with an average of 55 days between analyses. Intra-tester reliability was high, with an absolute error <6° and <9 frames (0.075 s) across all angles and time points for key positions, respectively. The methodology is valid within 2° and reliable within 6° for the calculation of joint angles in the first ~1.25 s.

  8. Two-stage Lagrangian modeling of ignition processes in ignition quality tester and constant volume combustion chambers

    KAUST Repository

    Alfazazi, Adamu; Kuti, Olawole Abiola; Naser, Nimal; Chung, Suk-Ho; Sarathy, Mani

    2016-01-01

    The ignition characteristics of isooctane and n-heptane in an ignition quality tester (IQT) were simulated using a two-stage Lagrangian (TSL) model, which is a zero-dimensional (0-D) reactor network method. The TSL model was also used to simulate

  9. Open-source micro-tensile testers via additive manufacturing for the mechanical characterization of thin films and papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandy, Krishanu; Collinson, David W; Scheftic, Charlie M; Brinson, L Catherine

    2018-01-01

    The cost of specialized scientific equipment can be high and with limited funding resources, researchers and students are often unable to access or purchase the ideal equipment for their projects. In the fields of materials science and mechanical engineering, fundamental equipment such as tensile testing devices can cost tens to hundreds of thousands of dollars. While a research lab often has access to a large-scale testing machine suitable for conventional samples, loading devices for meso- and micro-scale samples for in-situ testing with the myriad of microscopy tools are often hard to source and cost prohibitive. Open-source software has allowed for great strides in the reduction of costs associated with software development and open-source hardware and additive manufacturing have the potential to similarly reduce the costs of scientific equipment and increase the accessibility of scientific research. To investigate the feasibility of open-source hardware, a micro-tensile tester was designed with a freely accessible computer-aided design package and manufactured with a desktop 3D-printer and off-the-shelf components. To our knowledge this is one of the first demonstrations of a tensile tester with additively manufactured components for scientific research. The capabilities of the tensile tester were demonstrated by investigating the mechanical properties of Graphene Oxide (GO) paper and thin films. A 3D printed tensile tester was successfully used in conjunction with an atomic force microscope to provide one of the first quantitative measurements of GO thin film buckling under compression. The tensile tester was also used in conjunction with an atomic force microscope to observe the change in surface topology of a GO paper in response to increasing tensile strain. No significant change in surface topology was observed in contrast to prior hypotheses from the literature. Based on this result obtained with the new open source tensile stage we propose an

  10. Open-source micro-tensile testers via additive manufacturing for the mechanical characterization of thin films and papers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishanu Nandy

    Full Text Available The cost of specialized scientific equipment can be high and with limited funding resources, researchers and students are often unable to access or purchase the ideal equipment for their projects. In the fields of materials science and mechanical engineering, fundamental equipment such as tensile testing devices can cost tens to hundreds of thousands of dollars. While a research lab often has access to a large-scale testing machine suitable for conventional samples, loading devices for meso- and micro-scale samples for in-situ testing with the myriad of microscopy tools are often hard to source and cost prohibitive. Open-source software has allowed for great strides in the reduction of costs associated with software development and open-source hardware and additive manufacturing have the potential to similarly reduce the costs of scientific equipment and increase the accessibility of scientific research. To investigate the feasibility of open-source hardware, a micro-tensile tester was designed with a freely accessible computer-aided design package and manufactured with a desktop 3D-printer and off-the-shelf components. To our knowledge this is one of the first demonstrations of a tensile tester with additively manufactured components for scientific research. The capabilities of the tensile tester were demonstrated by investigating the mechanical properties of Graphene Oxide (GO paper and thin films. A 3D printed tensile tester was successfully used in conjunction with an atomic force microscope to provide one of the first quantitative measurements of GO thin film buckling under compression. The tensile tester was also used in conjunction with an atomic force microscope to observe the change in surface topology of a GO paper in response to increasing tensile strain. No significant change in surface topology was observed in contrast to prior hypotheses from the literature. Based on this result obtained with the new open source tensile stage we

  11. Essays in Executive Compensation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Zhang (Dan)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis dissertation focuses on how executive compensation is designed and its implications for corporate finance and government regulations. Chapter 2 analyzes several proposals to restrict CEO compensation and calibrates two models of executive compensation that describe how firms would

  12. MC-TESTER v. 1.23: A universal tool for comparisons of Monte Carlo predictions for particle decays in high energy physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, N.; Golonka, P.; Przedziński, T.; Waş, Z.

    2011-03-01

    200 decay channels that were found will initialize histograms and if the multiplicity of decay products in a given channel was larger than 7, histograms will not be created for that channel. Additional comments: New features: HepMC interface, use of lists in definition of histograms and decay channels, filters for decay products or secondary decays to be omitted, bug fixing, extended flexibility in representation of program output, installation configuration scripts, merging multiple output files from separate generations. Running time: Varies substantially with the analyzed decay particle, but generally speed estimation of the old version remains valid. On a PC/Linux with 2.0 GHz processors MC-TESTER increases the run time of the τ-lepton Monte Carlo program TAUOLA by 4.0 seconds for every 100 000 analyzed events (generation itself takes 26 seconds). The analysis step takes 13 seconds; LATEX processing takes additionally 10 seconds. Generation step runs may be executed simultaneously on multiprocessor machines.

  13. The Executive as Integrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Hans M.

    1983-01-01

    Argues that although the executive has many tasks, he or she must view internal organizational integration as a primary task, making use of organizational charts, job descriptions, statements of goals and objectives, evaluations, and feedback devices. (RH)

  14. Compaction comparison testing using a modified impact soil tester and nuclear density gauge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erchul, R.A.

    1999-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to compare test results of a modified Impact Soil Tester (IST) on compacted soil with data obtained from the same soil using a nuclear density gauge at the US Army Corp of Engineer's Buena Vista Flood Wall project in Buena Vista, Virginia. The tests were run during construction of the earth flood wall during the summer of 1996. This comparison testing demonstrated the credibility of the procedure developed for the IST as a compacting testing device. The comparison data was obtained on a variety of soils ranging from silty sands to clays. The Flood Wall comparison compaction data for 90% Standard Proctor shows that the results of the IST as modified are consistent with the nuclear density gauge 89% of the time for all types of soil tested. However, if the soils are more cohesive than the results are consistent with the nuclear density gauge 97% of the time. In addition these comparison tests are in general agreement with comparison compaction testing using the same testing techniques and methods of compacted backfill in utility trenches conducted earlier for the Public Works Department, Chesterfield County, Virginia.

  15. Compaction comparison testing using a modified impact soil tester and nuclear density gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erchul, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to compare test results of a modified Impact Soil Tester (IST) on compacted soil with data obtained from the same soil using a nuclear density gauge at the US Army Corp of Engineer's Buena Vista Flood Wall project in Buena Vista, Virginia. The tests were run during construction of the earth flood wall during the summer of 1996. This comparison testing demonstrated the credibility of the procedure developed for the IST as a compacting testing device. The comparison data was obtained on a variety of soils ranging from silty sands to clays. The Flood Wall comparison compaction data for 90% Standard Proctor shows that the results of the IST as modified are consistent with the nuclear density gauge 89% of the time for all types of soil tested. However, if the soils are more cohesive than the results are consistent with the nuclear density gauge 97% of the time. In addition these comparison tests are in general agreement with comparison compaction testing using the same testing techniques and methods of compacted backfill in utility trenches conducted earlier for the Public Works Department, Chesterfield County, Virginia

  16. Ignition delay times of Gasoline Distillation Cuts measured with Ignition Quality Tester

    KAUST Repository

    Naser, Nimal

    2017-04-21

    Tailoring fuel properties to maximize the efficiency of internal combustion engines is a way towards achieving cleaner combustion systems. In this work, the ignition properties of various gasoline fuel distillation cuts are analyzed to better understand fuel properties of the full boiling range fuel. An advanced distillation column (ADC) provides a more realistic representation of volatility characteristics, which can be modeled using equilibrium thermodynamic methods. The temperature reported is that of the liquid, as opposed to the vapor temperature in conventional ASTM D86 distillation standard. Various FACE (fuels for advanced combustion engines) gasolines were distilled and various cuts were obtained. The separated fractions were then tested in an ignition quality tester (IQT) to see the effect of chemical composition of different fractions on their ignition delay time. Fuels with lower aromatic content showed decreasing ignition delay time with increasing boiling point (i.e., molecular weight). However, fuels with higher aromatic content showed an initial decrease in ignition delay time with increasing boiling point, followed by drastic increase in ignition delay time due to fractions containing aromatics. This study also provides an understanding on contribution of different fractions to the ignition delay time of the fuel, which provides insights into fuel stratification utilized in gasoline compression ignition (GCI) engines to tailor heat release rates.

  17. Patch testers' opinions regarding diagnostic criteria for metal hypersensitivity reactions to metallic implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalock, Peter C; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2013-01-01

    Metal hypersensitivity reactions to implanted devices remain a challenging and controversial topic. Diagnostic criteria and methods are not well delineated. Diagnostic criteria for hypersensitivity reactions after metallic device implantation are evaluated in this study by a multinational group of patch testers using Thyssen's previously published criteria. A total of 119 dermatologists at the 2012 European Contact Dermatitis Society and 2013 American Contact Dermatitis Society meetings answered a survey regarding their opinions on topics relating to metal hypersensitivity. Four major and 5 minor diagnostic criteria emerged. Approximately 80% of respondents found the following criteria useful (major criteria): chronic dermatitis beginning weeks to months after metallic implantation, eruption overlying the metal implant, positive patch test to a metal component of the implant, and complete clearing after removal of the potentially allergenic implant. Minor criteria (metals (eg, lymphocyte transformation test). In the challenging situation such as a symptomatic or failing orthopedic device, applying these 4 major criteria and the 5 supportive minor criteria may be useful for guiding decision making.

  18. Optimization of the Spent Fuel Attribute Tester using radiation transport calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laub, T.W.; Dupree, S.A.; Arlt, R.

    1993-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency uses the Spent Fuel Attribute Tester (SFAT) to measure gamma signatures from fuel assemblies stored in spent fuel pools. It consists of a shielded, collimated NaI(Tl) detector attached to an air-filled pipe. The purpose of the present study was to define design changes, within operational constraints, that would improve the target assembly 137 Cs signal relative to the background signals from adjacent assemblies. This improvement is essential to reducing to an acceptable level the measurement time during an inspection. Monte Carlo calculations of the entire geometry were impractical, therefore, a hybrid method was developed that combined one-dimensional discrete ordinates models of the spent fuel pool, three-dimensional Monte Carlo calculations of the SFAT, and detector response calculations. The method compared well with measurements taken with the existing baseline SFAT. Calculations predicted significant improvements in signal-to-noise ratio. Recommended changes included shortening the pipe and increasing its wall thickness, placing low-Z filters in the crystal line of sight, reducing the thickness of shielding around the collimator aperture and adding shielding around the crystal, and reducing the diameter of the crystal. An instrument incorporating these design changes is being fabricated in Finland and will be tested this year

  19. Calibrators measurement system for headlamp tester of motor vehicle base on machine vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yue; Zhang, Fan; Xu, Xi-ping; Zheng, Zhe

    2014-09-01

    With the development of photoelectric detection technology, machine vision has a wider use in the field of industry. The paper mainly introduces auto lamps tester calibrator measuring system, of which CCD image sampling system is the core. Also, it shows the measuring principle of optical axial angle and light intensity, and proves the linear relationship between calibrator's facula illumination and image plane illumination. The paper provides an important specification of CCD imaging system. Image processing by MATLAB can get flare's geometric midpoint and average gray level. By fitting the statistics via the method of the least square, we can get regression equation of illumination and gray level. It analyzes the error of experimental result of measurement system, and gives the standard uncertainty of synthesis and the resource of optical axial angle. Optical axial angle's average measuring accuracy is controlled within 40''. The whole testing process uses digital means instead of artificial factors, which has higher accuracy, more repeatability and better mentality than any other measuring systems.

  20. Bearing tester data compilation analysis, and reporting and bearing math modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    Integration of heat transfer coefficients, modified to account for local vapor quality, into the 45 mm bearing model has been completed. The model has been evaluated with two flow rates and subcooled and saturated coolant. The evaluation showed that by increasing the flow from 3.6 to 7.0 lbs/sec the average ball temperature was decreased by 102 F, using a coolant temperature of -230 F. The average ball temperature was decreased by 63 F by decreasing the inlet coolant temperature from saturated to -230 F at a flow rate of 7.0 lbs/sec. Since other factors such as friction, cage heating, etc., affect bearing temperatures, the above bearing temperature effects should be considered as trends and not absolute values. The two phase heat transfer modification has been installed in the 57 mm bearing model and the effects on bearing temperatures have been evaluated. The average ball temperature was decreased by 60 F by increasing the flow rate from 4.6 to 9.0 lbs/sec for the subcooled case. By decreasing the inlet coolant temperature from saturation to -24 F, the average ball temperature was decreased 57 F for a flow rate of 9.0 lbs/sec. The technique of relating the two phase heat transfer coefficient to local vapor quality will be applied to the tester model and compared with test data.

  1. Radioprotective action of glycerol and cysteamine on inactivation and mutagenesis in Salmonella tester strains after gamma and heavy ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basha, S.G.; Krasavin, E.A.; Kozubek, S.

    1991-01-01

    Inactivation and mutagenesis were studied in Salmonella tester strains after γ-irradiation and after heavy ion irradiation in the presence of glycerol and cysteamine. Bacterial cells were irradiated at Dubna, JINR. Ions from deuterons to carbon were used with residual energies 2-9 MeV/u. The protective effect of glycerol was found both for γ-radiation and for heavy ions up to 50 keV/μm for both cell inactivation and mutagenesis in Salmonella tester strains with different mutation events. Cell sensitivity slightly increased with LET before falling down. The maximum was shifted in the presence of glycerol to the left and was less pronounced. The radioprotective effect of glycerol diminished gradually with LET from 2.0 for γ-radiation to 1.1 for carbon ions. Mutagenesis increases with LET in TA100 strain; in TA98 strain no marked increase could be detected. 13 refs.; 4 figs.; 5 tabs

  2. Effect of Temperature, Pressure and Equivalence Ratio on Ignition Delay in Ignition Quality Tester (IQT): Diesel,n-Heptane, andiso-Octane Fuels under Low Temperature Conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Seung Yeon; Naser, Nimal; Chung, Suk-Ho; Cha, Junepyo

    2015-01-01

    -octane in relatively low temperature conditions to simulate unsteady spray ignition behavior. A KAUST Research ignition quality tester (KR-IQT) was utilized, which has a feature of varying temperature, pressure and equivalence ratio using a variable displacement fuel

  3. Blinded Comparison between an In-Air Reverberation Method and an Electronic Probe Tester in the Detection of Ultrasound Probe Faults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Nicholas J; Woolley, Darren J

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a blinded trial, comparing the results of a visual inspection of the in-air reverberation pattern with the results of an electronic probe tester in detecting ultrasound probe faults. Sixty-two probes were tested. A total of 28 faults were found, 3 only by in-air reverberation assessment and 2 only by the electronic probe tester. The electronic probe tester provided additional information regarding the location of the fault in 74% of the cases in which both methods detected a fault. It is possible to detect the majority of probe faults by visual inspection and in-air reverberation assessment. The latter provides an excellent first-line test, easily performed on a daily basis by equipment users. An electronic probe tester is required if detailed evaluation of faults is necessary. Copyright © 2017 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology. All rights reserved.

  4. Educating Executive Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Clancy

    2016-01-01

    Executive functions are thinking skills that assist with reasoning, planning, problem solving, and managing one’s life. The brain areas that underlie these skills are interconnected with and influenced by activity in many different brain areas, some of which are associated with emotion and stress. One consequence of the stress-specific connections is that executive functions, which help us to organize our thinking, tend to be disrupted when stimulation is too high and we are stressed out, or too low when we are bored and lethargic. Given their central role in reasoning and also in managing stress and emotion, scientists have conducted studies, primarily with adults, to determine whether executive functions can be improved by training. By and large, results have shown that they can be, in part through computer-based videogame-like activities. Evidence of wider, more general benefits from such computer-based training, however, is mixed. Accordingly, scientists have reasoned that training will have wider benefits if it is implemented early, with very young children as the neural circuitry of executive functions is developing, and that it will be most effective if embedded in children’s everyday activities. Evidence produced by this research, however, is also mixed. In sum, much remains to be learned about executive function training. Without question, however, continued research on this important topic will yield valuable information about cognitive development. PMID:27906522

  5. MIV Project: Executive Summary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravazzotti, Mariolina T.; Jørgensen, John Leif; Neefs, Marc

    1997-01-01

    Under the ESA contract #11453/95/NL/JG(SC), aiming at assessing the feasibility of Rendez-vous and docking of unmanned spacecrafts, a reference mission scenario was defined. This report gives an executive summary of the achievements and results from the project.......Under the ESA contract #11453/95/NL/JG(SC), aiming at assessing the feasibility of Rendez-vous and docking of unmanned spacecrafts, a reference mission scenario was defined. This report gives an executive summary of the achievements and results from the project....

  6. Intra-tester Reliability and Construct Validity of a Hip Abductor Eccentric Strength Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindle, Richard A; Ebaugh, D David; Milner, Clare E

    2017-11-15

    Side-lying hip abductor strength tests are commonly used to evaluate muscle strength. In a 'break' test the tester applies sufficient force to lower the limb to the table while the patient resists. The peak force is postulated to occur while the leg is lowering, thus representing the participant's eccentric muscle strength. However, it is unclear whether peak force occurs before or after the leg begins to lower. To determine intra-rater reliability and construct validity of a hip abductor eccentric strength test. Intra-rater reliability and construct validity study. Twenty healthy adults (26 ±6 years; 1.66 ±0.06 m; 62.2 ±8.0 kg) made two visits to the laboratory at least one week apart. During the hip abductor eccentric strength test, a hand-held dynamometer recorded peak force and time to peak force and limb position was recorded via a motion capture system. Intra-rater reliability was determined using intra-class correlation (ICC), standard error of measurement (SEM), and minimal detectable difference (MDD). Construct validity was assessed by determining if peak force occurred after the start of the lowering phase using a one-sample t-test. The hip abductor eccentric strength test had substantial intra-rater reliability (ICC( 3,3 ) = 0.88; 95% confidence interval: 0.65-0.95), SEM of 0.9%BWh, and a MDD of 2.5%BWh. Construct validity was established as peak force occurred 2.1s (±0.6s; range 0.7s to 3.7s) after the start of the lowering phase of the test (p ≤ 0.001). The hip abductor eccentric strength test is a valid and reliable measure of eccentric muscle strength. This test may be used clinically to assess changes in eccentric muscle strength over time.

  7. A circulating loop tester for liquid alloyed metal of lead-bismuth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitano, Teruaki; Ono, Mikinori; Kamata, Kinya

    2002-01-01

    Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co., Ltd. (MES) had focused to merits of this lead-bismuth alloy, to actively carry out many works on this field such as an experience of development of heat exchanger at industrial level of intercourse with IPPE (Institute of Physics and Power Engineering) in Russia with an experience of using results for 80 years on coolant for nuclear reactor. Before about 20 years, MES developed a heat exchanger for installation at a lead-zinc separation process in a refinery in Japan under cooperation of the Mitsui Metal and Mine Co., Ltd., to deliver it for a power generation system at the Hachinohe refinery. As the heat exchanger aims at control of cooling in the separation process, it also contributes to power generation of about 4,300 kW, and now it continues to separate and contribute to self-power generation in the refinery. The heat exchanger is filled with the liquid alloyed metal of lead-bismuth for an intermediate thermal medium in its casing. The metal has some merits such as inactivity to air and water, high boiling point (1,700 centigrade), almost no volume change at its coagulation, and its minus reactivity coefficient. However, the metal has some problems to be solved, such as its steel corrosion, its purification, and control technology. To grow up lead-bismuth technology to a nuclear energy technology in Japan, the lead-bismuth circulating loop tester was produced on May, 2001, to establish application technology on this system to nuclear energy technology in Japan. (G.K.)

  8. Spontaneous and mutagen-induced deletions: mechanistic studies in Salmonella tester strain TA102

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, D.E.; Marnett, L.J.; Ames, B.N.

    1984-01-01

    Salmonella tester strain TA102 carries the hisG428 ochre mutation on the multicopy plasmid pAQ1. DNA sequence analysis of 45 spontaneous revertants of hisG428 on the chromosome in the presence of pKM101 (strain TA103) indicates that hisG428 revertants fall into three major categories: (i) small, in-frame deletions (3 or 6 base pairs) that remove part or all of the ochre triplet; (ii) base substitution mutations at the ochre site; (iii) extragenic ochre suppressors. Deletion revertants are identified in a simple phenotypic screen by their resistance to the inhibitory histidine analog thiazolealanine, which feedback inhibits the wild-type hisG enzyme but not the enzyme resulting from the deletions. The effect of various genetic backgrounds on the generation of spontaneous deletion revertants was examined. The presence of a uvrB mutation or a recA mutation suppressed the generation of spontaneous deletion revertants to approximately 1/2.5. When hisG428 was in multiple copies on pAQ1, the frequency of spontaneous deletion revertants increased by 40-fold, which is the approximate copy number of pAQ1. Mutagenic agents that induce single-strand breaks in DNA (e.g., x-rays, bleomycin, and nalidixic acid) induced deletion revertants in TA102. These agents induced deletion revertants only in hisG428 on pAQ1 and only in the presence of pKM101. Deletion revertants were not induced by frameshift mutagens (i.e., ICR-191 and 9aminoacridine). These results indicate that different pathways exist for the generation of spontaneous and mutagen-induced deletion revertants of hisG428. 41 references, 2 figures, 3 tables

  9. Executions in The Bahamas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lofquist, William Steele

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The stories of those who have been executed in the Bahamas are heretofore untold. In telling these stories and in linking them to the changing course of Bahamian history, the present research adds an important dimension to our understanding of Bahamian history and politics. The major theme of this effort is that the changing practice of the death penalty is much more than a consequence of changes in crime. The use of the death penalty parallels the changing interests of colonial rulers, the changing practice of slavery, and the changing role of the Bahamas in colonial and regional affairs. Four distinctive eras of death penalty practice can be identified: (1 the slave era, where executions and commutations were used liberally and with a clear racial patterning; (2 a long era of stable colonialism, a period of marginalization and few executions; (3 an era of unstable colonialism characterized by intensive and efficient use of the death penalty; and (4 the current independence era of high murder rates and equally high impediments to the use of executions.

  10. Executive functions in synesthesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rouw, Romke; van Driel, Joram; Knip, Koen; Richard Ridderinkhof, K.

    2013-01-01

    In grapheme-color synesthesia, a number or letter can evoke two different and possibly conflicting (real and synesthetic) color sensations at the same time. In this study, we investigate the relationship between synesthesia and executive control functions. First, no general skill differences were

  11. School Executive Website Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiede, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The School Executive Website will be a one-stop, online site for officials who are looking for educational data, best practices, product reviews, school documents, professional opinions, and/or job-related networking. The format of the website is designed in certain sections similar to other current and popular websites, such as Angie's List.com,…

  12. Healthcare. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, Anthony P.; Smith, Nicole; Gulish, Artem; Beach, Bennett H.

    2012-01-01

    This executive summary highlights several findings about healthcare. These are: (1) Healthcare is 18 percent of the U.S. economy, twice as high as in other countries; (2) There are two labor markets in healthcare: high-skill, high-wage professional and technical jobs and low-skill, low-wage support jobs; (3) Demand for postsecondary education in…

  13. EXECUTIVE FUNCTIONING IN SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gricel eOrellana

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The executive function (EF is a set of abilities, which allows us to invoke voluntary control of our behavioral responses. These functions enable human beings to develop and carry out plans, make up analogies, obey social rules, solve problems, adapt to unexpected circumstances, do many tasks simultaneously and locate episodes in time and place. EF includes divided attention and sustained attention, working memory, set-shifting, flexibility, planning and the regulation of goal directed behavior and can be defined as a brain function underlying the human faculty to act or think not only in reaction to external events but also in relation with internal goals and states. EF is mostly associated with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC. Besides EF, PFC is involved in self-regulation of behavior, i.e. the ability to regulate behavior according to internal goals and constraints, particularly in less structured situations. Self-regulation of behavior is subtended by ventral medial /orbital PFC. Impairment of EF is one of the most commonly observed deficits in schizophrenia through the various disease stages. Impairment in tasks measuring conceptualization, planning, cognitive flexibility, verbal fluency, ability to solve complex problems and working memory occur in schizophrenia. Disorders detected by executive tests are consistent with evidence from functional neuroimaging, which have shown PFC dysfunction in patients while performing these kinds of tasks. Schizophrenics also exhibit deficit in odor identifying, decision-making and self-regulation of behavior suggesting dysfunction of the orbital PFC. However, impairment in executive tests is explained by dysfunction of prefronto-striato-thalamic, prefronto-parietal and prefronto-temporal neural networks mainly. Disorders in executive functions may be considered central facts with respect to schizophrenia and it has been suggested that negative symptoms may be explained by that executive dysfunction.

  14. Educating executive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Clancy

    2017-01-01

    Executive functions are thinking skills that assist with reasoning, planning, problem solving, and managing one's life. The brain areas that underlie these skills are interconnected with and influenced by activity in many different brain areas, some of which are associated with emotion and stress. One consequence of the stress-specific connections is that executive functions, which help us to organize our thinking, tend to be disrupted when stimulation is too high and we are stressed out, or too low when we are bored and lethargic. Given their central role in reasoning and also in managing stress and emotion, scientists have conducted studies, primarily with adults, to determine whether executive functions can be improved by training. By and large, results have shown that they can be, in part through computer-based videogame-like activities. Evidence of wider, more general benefits from such computer-based training, however, is mixed. Accordingly, scientists have reasoned that training will have wider benefits if it is implemented early, with very young children as the neural circuitry of executive functions is developing, and that it will be most effective if embedded in children's everyday activities. Evidence produced by this research, however, is also mixed. In sum, much remains to be learned about executive function training. Without question, however, continued research on this important topic will yield valuable information about cognitive development. WIREs Cogn Sci 2017, 8:e1403. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1403 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Modeling the rate of HIV testing from repeated binary data amidst potential never-testers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, John D; Johnson, Brent A; Strawderman, Robert L

    2018-01-04

    competitors. Applying the PVF as well as a Gaussian random intercept model and a corresponding discrete mixture model to our motivating data set, we conclude that the group assigned to receive follow-up messages via SMS was self-testing at a significantly lower rate than the control group, but that there is no evidence to support the existence of a group of never-testers. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Best estimate probabilistic safety assessment results for the Westinghouse Advanced Loop Tester (WALT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Guoqiang; Xu, Yiban; Oelrich, Robert L. Jr.; Byers, William A.; Young, Michael Y.; Karoutas, Zeses E.

    2011-01-01

    The nuclear industry uses the probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) technique to improve safety decision making and operation. The methodology evaluates the system reliability, which is defined as the probability of system success, and the postulated accident/problematic scenarios of systems for the nuclear power plants or other facilities. The best estimate probabilistic safety assessment (BE-PSA) method of evaluating system reliability and postulated problematic scenarios will produce more detailed results of interest, such as best estimated reliability analysis and detailed thermal hydraulic calculations using a sub-channel or Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code. The methodology is typically applied to reactors, but can also be applied to any system such as a test facility. In this paper, a BE-PSA method is introduced and used for evaluating the Westinghouse Advanced Loop Tester (WALT). The WALT test loop at the George Westinghouse Science and Technology Center (STC), which was completed in October 2005, is designed to be utilized to model the top grid span of a hot rod in a fuel assembly under the Pressurizer Water Reactor (PWR) normal operating conditions. In order to safely and successfully operate the WALT test loop and correctly use the WALT experimental data, it is beneficial to perform a probabilistic safety assessment and analyze the thermal hydraulic results for the WALT loop in detail. Since October 2005, a number of test runs have been performed on the WALT test facility designed and fabricated by Westinghouse Electric Company LLC. This paper briefly describes the BE-PSA method and performs BE-PSA for the WALT loop. Event trees linked with fault trees embedding thermal hydraulic analysis models, such as sub-channel and/or CFD models, were utilized in the analyses. Consequently, some selected useful experimental data and analysis results are presented for future guidance on WALT and/or other similar test facilities. For example, finding and

  17. Toots, tastes and tester shots: user accounts of drug sampling methods for gauging heroin potency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, Sarah G; Ondocsin, Jeff; Ciccarone, Daniel

    2018-05-16

    Internationally, overdose is the primary cause of death among people injecting drugs. However, since 2001, heroin-related overdose deaths in the United States (US) have risen sixfold, paralleled by a rise in the death rate attributed to synthetic opioids, particularly the fentanyls. This paper considers the adaptations some US heroin injectors are making to protect themselves from these risks. Between 2015 and 2016, a team of ethnographers collected data through semi-structured interviews and observation captured in field notes and video recording of heroin preparation/consumption. Ninety-one current heroin injectors were interviewed (Baltimore, n = 22; Chicago, n = 24; Massachusetts and New Hampshire, n = 36; San Francisco, n = 9). Experience injecting heroin ranged from methods of sampling "heroin" were identified, sometimes used in combination, ranging from non-injecting routes (snorting, smoking or tasting a small amount prior to injection) to injecting a partial dose and waiting. Partial injection took different forms: a "slow shot" where the user injected a portion of the solution in the syringe, keeping the needle in the injection site, and continuing or withdrawing the syringe or a "tester shot" where the solution was divided into separate injections. Other techniques included getting feedback from others using heroin of the same batch or observing those with higher tolerance injecting heroin from the same batch before judging how much to inject themselves. Although a minority of those interviewed described using these drug sampling techniques, there is clearly receptivity among some users to protecting themselves by using a variety of methods. The use of drug sampling as a means of preventing an overdose from injection drug use reduces the quantity absorbed at any one time allowing users to monitor drug strength and titrate their dose accordingly. Given the highly unpredictable potency of the drugs currently being sold as heroin in the US

  18. Perancangan Dan Pengujian Radiator Tester Skala Laboratorium Yang Terintegrasi Pengatur Putaran Mesin Dan Hembusan Angin (Regulator Wind Blower )

    OpenAIRE

    Suudi, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Cooling system in the engine functions as the protector of the machine by absorbing the heat. Heat engine is produced by fuel in the cylinder. The heat is deliberately created to generate energy, but it will cause excessive heat if it is left unchecked (over heating effect). In order to prevent overheating and keep the machine temperature, then it uses radiator. How effective radiator is used can be seen by using a tool called a radiator tester. Therefore, this research was Designed a Trial R...

  19. What executives should remember.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drucker, Peter F

    2006-02-01

    In more than 30 essays for Harvard Business Review, Peter Drucker (1909-2005) urged readers to take on the hard work of thinking--always combined, he insisted, with decisive action. He closely analyzed the phenomenon of knowledge work--the growing call for employees who use their minds rather than their hands--and explained how it challenged the conventional wisdom about the way organizations should be run. He was intrigued by employees who knew more about certain subjects than their bosses or colleagues but who still had to cooperate with others in a large organization. As the business world matured in the second half of the twentieth century, executives came to think that they knew how to run companies--and Drucker took it upon himself to poke holes in their assumptions, lest organizations become stale. But he did so sympathetically, operating from the premise that his readers were intelligent, hardworking people of goodwill. Well suited to HBR's format of practical, idea-based essays for executives, his clear-eyed, humanistic writing enriched the magazine time and again. This article is a compilation of the savviest management advice Drucker offered HBR readers over the years--in short, his greatest hits. It revisits the following insightful, influential contributions: "The Theory of the Business" (September-October 1994), "Managing for Business Effectiveness" (May-June 1963), "What Business Can Learn from Nonprofits" (July-August 1989), "The New Society of Organizations" (September-October 1992), "The Information Executives Truly Need" (January-February 1995), "Managing Oneself" (March-April 1999 republished January 2005), "They're Not Employees, They're People" (February 2002), "What Makes an Effective Executive" (June 2004).

  20. INTERNATIONALIZATION OF CHINESE EXECUTIVES

    OpenAIRE

    Lingfang Fayol-Song

    2012-01-01

    Over the last two decades, Chinese nationals have increasingly been employed by multinational companies (MNCs) operating in China taking positions previously occupied by foreign expatriates from investor countries. The development of local managers has therefore become crucial in the field of human resource management because the success of these companies depends greatly upon the ability and competence of their executive management class. The present paper addresses the issue of how to devel...

  1. Concurrent Models for Object Execution

    OpenAIRE

    Diertens, Bob

    2012-01-01

    In previous work we developed a framework of computational models for the concurrent execution of functions on different levels of abstraction. It shows that the traditional sequential execution of function is just a possible implementation of an abstract computational model that allows for the concurrent execution of functions. We use this framework as base for the development of abstract computational models that allow for the concurrent execution of objects.

  2. Executive Energy Leadership Academy | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Executive Energy Leadership Academy Executive Energy Leadership Academy NREL's Executive Energy Leadership Academy is a nationally renowned program that provides non-technical business, governmental, and foreground. Leadership Program The Leadership Program is designed for community and industry leaders with an

  3. Relating the octane numbers of fuels to ignition delay times measured in an ignition quality tester (IQT)

    KAUST Repository

    Naser, Nimal

    2016-09-21

    A methodology for estimating the octane index (OI), the research octane number (RON) and the motor octane number (MON) using ignition delay times from a constant volume combustion chamber with liquid fuel injection is proposed by adopting an ignition quality tester. A baseline data of ignition delay times were determined using an ignition quality tester at a charge pressure of 21.3 bar between 770 and 850 K and an equivalence ratio of 0.7 for various primary reference fuels (PRFs, mixtures of isooctane and n-heptane). Our methodology was developed using ignition delay times for toluene reference fuels (mixtures of toluene and n-heptane). A correlation between the OI and the ignition delay time at the initial charge temperature enabled the OI of non-PRFs to be predicted at specified temperatures. The methodology was validated using ignition delay times for toluene primary reference fuels (ternary mixtures of toluene, iso-octane, and n-heptane), fuels for advanced combustion engines (FACE) gasolines, and certification gasolines. Using this methodology, the RON, the MON, and the octane sensitivity were estimated in agreement with values obtained from standard test methods. A correlation between derived cetane number and RON is also provided. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. China's SOE Executives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik; Hubbard, Paul; Cai, Guilong

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on a database tracking the career of 1,250 top Chinese executives from 1,084 publicly-listed state-owned enterprises (SOEs), this article analyzes differences in career incentives for subsidiaries controlled by the central government compared to those controlled by local governments. It a...... of promotion. However, in the case of central SOE subsidiaries, leaders are more likely to be promoted based on financial performance. For both central and local 'direct' SOE groups age is a significant negative factor for promotion, whereas tenure is a significant positive factor....

  5. Build and Execute Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-04-21

    At exascale, the challenge becomes to develop applications that run at scale and use exascale platforms reliably, efficiently, and flexibly. Workflows become much more complex because they must seamlessly integrate simulation and data analytics. They must include down-sampling, post-processing, feature extraction, and visualization. Power and data transfer limitations require these analysis tasks to be run in-situ or in-transit. We expect successful workflows will comprise multiple linked simulations along with tens of analysis routines. Users will have limited development time at scale and, therefore, must have rich tools to develop, debug, test, and deploy applications. At this scale, successful workflows will compose linked computations from an assortment of reliable, well-defined computation elements, ones that can come and go as required, based on the needs of the workflow over time. We propose a novel framework that utilizes both virtual machines (VMs) and software containers to create a workflow system that establishes a uniform build and execution environment (BEE) beyond the capabilities of current systems. In this environment, applications will run reliably and repeatably across heterogeneous hardware and software. Containers, both commercial (Docker and Rocket) and open-source (LXC and LXD), define a runtime that isolates all software dependencies from the machine operating system. Workflows may contain multiple containers that run different operating systems, different software, and even different versions of the same software. We will run containers in open-source virtual machines (KVM) and emulators (QEMU) so that workflows run on any machine entirely in user-space. On this platform of containers and virtual machines, we will deliver workflow software that provides services, including repeatable execution, provenance, checkpointing, and future proofing. We will capture provenance about how containers were launched and how they interact to annotate

  6. Guidelines for Automation Project Execution

    OpenAIRE

    Takkinen, Heidi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this Master’s thesis was to create instructions for executing an automation project. Sarlin Oy Ab needed directions on how to execute an automation project. Sarlin is starting up a new business area offering total project solutions for customers. Sarlin focuses on small and minor automation projects on domestic markets. The thesis represents issues related to project execution starting from the theory of the project to its kick-off and termination. Site work is one importan...

  7. Editor, Executive and Entrepreneur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøe-Lillegraven, Tor; Wilberg, Erik

    2016-01-01

    To survive in today’s increasingly complex business environments, firms must embrace strategic paradoxes: contradictory yet interrelated objectives that persist over time. This can be one of toughest of all leadership challenges, as managers must accept inconsistency and contradictions....... In this article, we develop and empirically test a set of hypotheses related to ambidexterity, a key example of a paradoxical strategy. Through our analysis of data from a survey of executive leaders, we find a link between organizational ambidexterity and strategic planning, suggesting that the complexities...... of navigating in explorative ventures require more explicit strategy work than the old certainties of a legacy business. We identify and discuss inherent paradoxes and their implications for firm performance in 22 industry-specific strategies, where empirical industry data shows a pattern of conflict between...

  8. Executable Use Cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jens Bæk; Bossen, Claus

    2004-01-01

    and into the work processes they're to support. However, prototypes typically provide an explicit representation only of the system itself. Executable use cases, on the other hand, can also describe the environment. EUCs are designed to: narrow the gap between informal ideas about requirements and the formalization...... modeling. This article describes a case study in which developers used EUCs to prototype an electronic patient record system for hospitals in Aarhus, Denmark.......Many software experts argue that when we design a new system, we should create an explicit description of the environment in which the proposed system is to be used. The argument becomes crucial for pervasive computing, which aims to tightly integrate systems into their environments...

  9. Executive Orders-Barack Obama

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — Executive orders are official documents, numbered consecutively, through which the President of the United States manages the operations of the Federal Government....

  10. Two executives, one career.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Cynthia R; Murray, Shelley S

    2005-02-01

    For six years, Cynthia Cunningham and Shelley Murray shared an executive job at Fleet Bank. One desk, one chair, one computer, one telephone, and one voice-mail account. To their clients and colleagues, they were effectively one person, though one person with the strengths and ideas of two, seamlessly handing projects back and forth. Although their department was dissolved after the bank merged with Bank of America, the two continue to consider themselves a package-they have one resume, and they are seeking their next opportunity together. Their choice to share a job was not only a quality-of-life decision but one intended to keep their careers on course: "Taking two separate part-time jobs would have thrown us completely off track" they write in this first-person account."We're both ambitious people, and neither of us wanted just a job. We wanted careers" In this article, the two highly motivated women reveal their determination to manage the demands of both family and career. Flextime,telecommuting, and compressed workweeks are just some of the options open to executives seeking greater work/ life balance, and the job share, as described by Cunningham and Murray, could well be the next solution for those wishing to avoid major trade-offs between their personal and professional lives. Cunningham and Murray describe in vivid detail how they structured their unusual arrangement, how they sold themselves to management, and the hurdles they faced along the way. Theirs is a win-win story, for the company and for them.

  11. Radioprotective action of glycerol and cysteamine on inactivation and mutagenesis in Salmonella tester strains after γ- and heavy ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basha, S.G.; Krasavin, E.A.; Kozubek, S.

    1992-01-01

    Inactivation and mutagenesis were studied in Salmonella tester strains after γ-irradiation and after heavy ion irradiation in the presence of glycerol and cysteamine. Ions from deuteron to carbon with residual energies of 2-9 MeV/n were used. Cell sensitivity slightly increased with LET before decreasing. In the presence of glycerol the maximum was shifted to higher values of LET. The radioprotective effect of glycerol for cell killing diminished gradually with increasing LET from 2.0 for γ-radiation to 1.1 for carbon ions. Mutagenic effectiveness increased slightly for deuterium and helium ions. The radioprotective effect of cysteamine on mutagenesis was found to be very small in the case of γ-radiation for the three strains examined. (author). 20 refs.; 4 figs.; 5 tabs

  12. Comparative mutability of the Ames tester strains of Salmonella typhimurium by ultraviolet radiation and by 4-nitroquinoline I-oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, E.; Ichikawa-Ryo, H.; Kondo, S.

    1982-01-01

    A standard method for determining mutant frequencies per survivor was used to study the detailed kinetics of reverse mutations of Ames tester strains of Salmonella typhimurium induced by UV and by 4NQO. After UV irradiation, strain TA1538 was non-mutable, but its plasmid-containing derivative TA98 was mutable, whereas TA1535 was mutable and its plasmid-bearing derivative TA100 was about 10-fold more mutable. After treatment with 4NQO, TA98 was less mutable than TA1538, whereas TA100 was more mutable than TA1535 by a factor of 10-50. TA1537 was slightly less mutable than TA1535 by either UV or 4NQO. The differential mutabilities of these strains are briefly discussed in relation to the 'hot spot' base sequences for reversion and the nature of DNA damage caused by UV and 4NQO. (orig.)

  13. Design and analysis of a toroidal tester for the measurement of core losses under axial compressive stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alatawneh, Natheer, E-mail: natheer80@yahoo.com [Department of Mining and Materials Engineering, McGill University, QC H3A 0G4 (Canada); Rahman, Tanvir; Lowther, David A. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, McGill University, QC H3A 0E9 (Canada); Chromik, Richard [Department of Mining and Materials Engineering, McGill University, QC H3A 0G4 (Canada)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Develop a toroidal tester for magnetic measurements under compressive axial stress. • The shape of the toroidal ring has been verified using 3D stress analysis. • The developed design has been prototyped, and measurements were carried out. • Physical explanations for the core loss trend due to stress are provided. - Abstract: Electric machine cores are subjected to mechanical stresses due to manufacturing processes. These stresses include radial, circumferential and axial components that may have significant influences on the magnetic properties of the electrical steel and hence, on the output and efficiencies of electrical machines. Previously, most studies of iron losses due to mechanical stress have considered only radial and circumferential components. In this work, an improved toroidal tester has been designed and developed to measure the core losses and the magnetic properties of electrical steel under a compressive axial stress. The shape of the toroidal ring has been verified using 3D stress analysis. Also, 3D electromagnetic simulations show a uniform flux density distribution in the specimen with a variation of 0.03 T and a maximum average induction level of 1.5 T. The developed design has been prototyped, and measurements were carried out using a steel sample of grade 35WW300. Measurements show that applying small mechanical stresses normal to the sample thickness rises the delivered core losses, then the losses decrease continuously as the stress increases. However, the drop in core losses at high stresses does not go lower than the free-stress condition. Physical explanations for the observed trend of core losses as a function of stress are provided based on core loss separation to the hysteresis and eddy current loss components. The experimental results show that the effect of axial compressive stress on magnetic properties of electrical steel at high level of inductions becomes less pronounced.

  14. Hip- and knee-strength assessments using a hand-held dynamometer with external belt-fixation are inter-tester reliable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorborg, Kristian; Bandholm, Thomas; Hölmich, Per

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: In football, ice-hockey, and track and field, injuries have been predicted, and hip- and knee-strength deficits quantified using hand-held dynamometry (HHD). However, systematic bias exists when testers of different sex and strength perform the measurements. Belt-fixation of the dynamome...

  15. Determining the fertility status of Setaria infecting Magnaporthe grisea isolates with standard testers and identification of tolerant cultivar of Setaria italica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, Veluswamy; Gnanamanickam, S S

    2008-10-01

    A total of 128 isolates of Setaria-infecting Magnaporthe grisea strains were obtained from different states of South India which includes sampling sites from Tamil Nadu, two from Karnataka, one from Andhra Pradesh and Kerala. Out of the selected 128 isolates 30 strains were tested with MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 fertile standard testers to determine their mating type. None of the 30 Setaria isolates produced perithecia with fertile testers. However, when monoconidial isolates were mated among themselves, isolates from the same field produced only barren perithecia and the tester isolates were able to mate readily with finger millet isolates. This is the first report of the mating-type studies on Setaria infecting Magnaporthe grisea with standard testers. This result indicates that the Setaria infecting population is infertile. In pathogenicity assay, it was found that 9 out of the 22 Setaria accessions were highly susceptible to Setaria strains of the blast fungus and seven cultivars/accessions were resistant to blast pathogen. Various virulence reactions were scored according to Standard Evaluation System.

  16. A measuring system for mechanical characterization of thin films based on a compact in situ micro-tensile tester and SEM moiré method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yanjie; Tang, Minjin; Xie, Huimin; Zhu, Ronghua; Luo, Qiang; Gu, Changzhi

    2013-01-01

    A measuring system for mechanical characterization of thin films based on a compact in situ micro-tensile tester and scanning electron microscope (SEM) moiré method is proposed. The load is exerted by the tensile tester and the full field strain is measured by SEM moiré method. The configuration of the tensile tester and the principle of SEM moiré method are introduced. In the tensile tester, a lever structure is designed to amplify the displacement imposed by lead–zirconate–titanate (PZT) actuator. The SEM moiré method is applied to measure the strain of the thin film, including both the average strain in the gage section and the local strain distribution at a specific region. As an application, the measuring system is applied to characterize the mechanical property of the free-standing aluminum thin film. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of the system and its good application potential for mechanical behavior analysis of film-like materials. (paper)

  17. Disciplining and Screening Top Executives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Dominguez Martinez (Silvia); O.H. Swank (Otto); B. Visser (Bauke)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractBoards of directors face the twin task of disciplining and screening executives. To perform these tasks directors do not have detailed information about executives' behaviour, and only infrequently have information about the success or failure of initiated strategies, reorganizations,

  18. Developmental Changes in Executive Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kerry; Bull, Rebecca; Ho, Ringo M. H.

    2013-01-01

    Although early studies of executive functioning in children supported Miyake et al.'s (2000) three-factor model, more recent findings supported a variety of undifferentiated or two-factor structures. Using a cohort-sequential design, this study examined whether there were age-related differences in the structure of executive functioning among…

  19. Executive Orders from 1994-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — The President of the United States manages the operations of the Executive branch of Government through Executive orders. After the President signs an Executive...

  20. Television and children's executive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillard, Angeline S; Li, Hui; Boguszewski, Katie

    2015-01-01

    Children spend a lot of time watching television on its many platforms: directly, online, and via videos and DVDs. Many researchers are concerned that some types of television content appear to negatively influence children's executive function. Because (1) executive function predicts key developmental outcomes, (2) executive function appears to be influenced by some television content, and (3) American children watch large quantities of television (including the content of concern), the issues discussed here comprise a crucial public health issue. Further research is needed to reveal exactly what television content is implicated, what underlies television's effect on executive function, how long the effect lasts, and who is affected. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Executive Schedule C System (ESCS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — Used to store information on Federal employees in the Senior Executive Service (SES) and appointed employees in the Schedule C System. Every four years, just after...

  2. Innovative behavior in nurse executives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, C E

    1994-05-01

    This study addresses the problem-solving styles of hospital nurse executives and explores the relationship between problem-solving style and leader effectiveness. The Kirton Adaption-Innovation Inventory (KAI) and the Leader Effectiveness and Adaptability Description-Self (LEAD-S) were the instruments used to survey nurse executives from 66 medium-sized urban California hospitals. The majority of respondents used innovative approaches, but no correlation was found between problem-solving style and leader effectiveness.

  3. Executive functions in anorexia nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Jauregui-Lobera, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The pathophysiologic mechanisms that account for the development and persistence of anorexia nervosa (AN) remain unclear. With respect to the neuropsychological functioning, the executive functions have been reported to be altered, especially cognitive flexibility and decision-making processes. Objectives: The aim of this study was to review the current state of the neuropsychological studies focused on anorexia nervosa, especially those highlighting the executive functions. Met...

  4. Supervision of execution of dismantling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canizares, J.

    2015-01-01

    Enresa create and organizational structure that covers various areas involved in effective control of Decommissioning Project. One area is the Technical Supervision of Works Decommissioning Project, as Execution Department dependent Technical Management. In the structure, Execution Department acts as liaison between the project, disciplines involved in developing and specialized companies contracted work to achieve your intended target. Equally important is to ensure that such activities are carried out correctly, according to the project documentation. (Author)

  5. A competence executive coaching model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Koortzen

    2010-07-01

    Research purpose: The purpose of this article is to address the training and development needs of these consulting psychologists by presenting a competence executive coaching model for the planning, implementation and evaluation of executive coaching interventions. Research design, approach and method: The study was conducted while one of the authors was involved in teaching doctoral students in consulting psychology and executive coaching, specifically in the USA. The approach involved a literature review of executive coaching models and a qualitative study using focus groups to develop and evaluate the competence executive coaching model. Main findings: The literature review provided scant evidence of competence executive coaching models and there seems to be a specific need for this in the training of coaches in South Africa. Hence the model that was developed is an attempt to provide trainers with a structured model for the training of coaches. Contribution/value-add: The uniqueness of this competence model is not only described in terms of the six distinct coaching intervention phases, but also the competencies required in each.

  6. Design and analysis of a toroidal tester for the measurement of core losses under axial compressive stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatawneh, Natheer; Rahman, Tanvir; Lowther, David A.; Chromik, Richard

    2017-06-01

    Electric machine cores are subjected to mechanical stresses due to manufacturing processes. These stresses include radial, circumferential and axial components that may have significant influences on the magnetic properties of the electrical steel and hence, on the output and efficiencies of electrical machines. Previously, most studies of iron losses due to mechanical stress have considered only radial and circumferential components. In this work, an improved toroidal tester has been designed and developed to measure the core losses and the magnetic properties of electrical steel under a compressive axial stress. The shape of the toroidal ring has been verified using 3D stress analysis. Also, 3D electromagnetic simulations show a uniform flux density distribution in the specimen with a variation of 0.03 T and a maximum average induction level of 1.5 T. The developed design has been prototyped, and measurements were carried out using a steel sample of grade 35WW300. Measurements show that applying small mechanical stresses normal to the sample thickness rises the delivered core losses, then the losses decrease continuously as the stress increases. However, the drop in core losses at high stresses does not go lower than the free-stress condition. Physical explanations for the observed trend of core losses as a function of stress are provided based on core loss separation to the hysteresis and eddy current loss components. The experimental results show that the effect of axial compressive stress on magnetic properties of electrical steel at high level of inductions becomes less pronounced.

  7. Prophage induction, mutagenesis, and cell survival of Ames' mutagen tester strains after 8-methoxypsoralen plus ultraviolet light-A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, L.A.; DeMeo, M. (California Univ., Los Angeles (USA)); Lowe, N. (Combined UCLA-WADSWORTH Dermatology Program, Los Angeles, CA (USA))

    1983-10-01

    8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) is not detected as a mutagen in the standard Ames test either in the presence or absence of S9-mix and/or ultraviolet light-A (320-400 nm). The Ames strains have been shown to harbor bacteriophages that are inducible by carcinogens and mutagens. Psoralen plus UVA (PUVA) was found to be a potent prophage inducing treatment. Induction was observed in TA1535, TA1538, TA98, TA100, TA1978 and TA1975 with 8-MOP and UVA. PUVA is a potent bactericidal treatment at concentrations of 8-MOP above 0.5 ..mu..g/ml and 2.5 kJ/m/sup 2/ in tester strains TA1535, TA1538, TA98 and TA100. PUVA is known to be bactericidal, but the cytotoxicity observed in the present study was unique in that the frameshift tester strains (TA1538 and TA98) were more sensitive to the lethal effects of PUVA than the base pair tester strains (TA1535 and TA100). The differential cytotoxicity in such closely related strains led to the examination of some of the strains from which the Ames strains were derived. It is postulated that TA1535 retains a DNA repair function that is lost by TA1538 during the selection for uvrB deficient strains.

  8. Supramodal Executive Control of Attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALFREDO eSPAGNA

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The human attentional system can be subdivided into three functional networks of alerting, orienting, and executive control. Although these networks have been extensively studied in the visuospatial modality, whether the same mechanisms are deployed across different sensory modalities remains unclear. In this study we used the attention network test for visuospatial modality, in addition to two auditory variants with spatial and frequency manipulations to examine cross-modal correlations between network functions. Results showed that among the visual and auditory tasks the effects of executive control, but not effects of alerting and orienting were significantly correlated. These findings suggest that while alerting and orienting functions rely more upon modality specific processes, the executive control of attention coordinates complex behavior via supramodal mechanisms.

  9. Cooperative Testing of Uncontrollable Timed Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Alexandre; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Li, Shuhao

    2008-01-01

    the SUT against the test purpose as long as the SUT reacts to our moves in a cooperative style. We present an operational framework of cooperative winning strategy generation, test case derivation and execution. The test method is proved to be sound and complete. Preliminary experimental results indicate......Abstract. This paper deals with targeted testing of timed systems with uncontrollable behavior. The testing activity is viewed as a game between the tester and the system under test (SUT) towards a given test purpose. The SUT is modeled as Timed Game Automaton and the test purpose is specified...... in Timed CTL formula. We can employ a timed game solver UPPAAL-TIGA to check if the test purpose is ture w.r.t. the model, and if yes, to generate a winning strategy and use it for black-box conformance testing. Specifically, we show that in case the checking yields a negative result, we can still test...

  10. Executive Headteachers: What's in a Name? Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobald, Katy; Lord, Pippa

    2016-01-01

    Executive headteachers (EHTs) are becoming increasingly prevalent as the self-improving school system matures; there are over 620 EHTs in the school workforce today; and the number recorded in the School Workforce Census (SWC) has increased by 240 per cent between 2010 and 2014. The role is still evolving locally and nationally and, as EHTs take…

  11. ADAMS executive and operating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, W. D.

    1981-01-01

    The ADAMS Executive and Operating System, a multitasking environment under which a variety of data reduction, display and utility programs are executed, a system which provides a high level of isolation between programs allowing them to be developed and modified independently, is described. The Airborne Data Analysis/Monitor System (ADAMS) was developed to provide a real time data monitoring and analysis capability onboard Boeing commercial airplanes during flight testing. It inputs sensor data from an airplane performance data by applying transforms to the collected sensor data, and presents this data to test personnel via various display media. Current utilization and future development are addressed.

  12. Application specific Tester-On-a-Resident-Chip (TORCH{trademark}) - innovation in the area of semiconductor testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowles, M. [L& M Technologies, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Peterson, T. [New Mexico Highlands Univ., Las Vegas, NM (United States); Savignon, D.; Campbell, D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-12-01

    Manufacturers widely recognize testing as a major factor in the cost, producability, and delivery of product in the $100 billion integrated circuit business: {open_quotes}The rapid development of VLSI using sub-micron CMOS technology has suddenly exposed traditional test techniques as a major cost factor that could restrict the development of VLSI devices exceeding 512 pins an operating frequencies above 200 MHz.{close_quotes} -- 1994 Semiconductor Industry Association Roadmap, Design and Test, Summary, pg. 43. This problem increases dramatically for stockpile electronics, where small production quantities make it difficult to amortize the cost of increasingly expensive testers. Application of multiple ICs in Multi-Chip Modules (MCM) greatly multiplies testing problems for commercial and defense users alike. By traditional test methods, each new design requires custom test hardware and software and often dedicated testing equipment costing millions of dollars. Also, physical properties of traditional test systems often dedicated testing equipment costing millions of dollars. Also, physical properties of traditional test systems limit capabilities in testing at-speed (>200 MHz), high-impedance, and high-accuracy analog signals. This project proposed a revolutionary approach to these problems: replace the multi-million dollar external test system with an inexpensive test system integrated onto the product wafer. Such a methodology enables testing functions otherwise unachievable by conventional means, particularly in the areas of high-frequency, at-speed testing, high impedance analog circuits, and known good die assessment. The techniques apply specifically to low volume applications, typical of Defense Programs, where testing costs represent an unusually high proportional of product costs, not easily amortized.

  13. Integration testing through reusing representative unit test cases for high-confidence medical software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Youngsul; Choi, Yunja; Lee, Woo Jin

    2013-06-01

    As medical software is getting larger-sized, complex, and connected with other devices, finding faults in integrated software modules gets more difficult and time consuming. Existing integration testing typically takes a black-box approach, which treats the target software as a black box and selects test cases without considering internal behavior of each software module. Though it could be cost-effective, this black-box approach cannot thoroughly test interaction behavior among integrated modules and might leave critical faults undetected, which should not happen in safety-critical systems such as medical software. This work anticipates that information on internal behavior is necessary even for integration testing to define thorough test cases for critical software and proposes a new integration testing method by reusing test cases used for unit testing. The goal is to provide a cost-effective method to detect subtle interaction faults at the integration testing phase by reusing the knowledge obtained from unit testing phase. The suggested approach notes that the test cases for the unit testing include knowledge on internal behavior of each unit and extracts test cases for the integration testing from the test cases for the unit testing for a given test criteria. The extracted representative test cases are connected with functions under test using the state domain and a single test sequence to cover the test cases is produced. By means of reusing unit test cases, the tester has effective test cases to examine diverse execution paths and find interaction faults without analyzing complex modules. The produced test sequence can have test coverage as high as the unit testing coverage and its length is close to the length of optimal test sequences. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cannabinoid modulation of executive functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pattij, T.; Wiskerke, J.; Schoffelmeer, A.N.M.

    2008-01-01

    Executive functions are higher-order cognitive processes such as attention, behavioural flexibility, decision-making, inhibitory control, planning, time estimation and working memory that exert top-down control over behaviour. In addition to the role of cannabinoid signaling in other cognitive

  15. Execute-Only Attacks against Execute-Only Defenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-18

    strongest implementations of execute-only defenses: it exploits novel hardware features to incorporate non-readable code to prevent direct information...build two proof-of- concept exploits that can achieve control flow hijacking on a system protected by full- featured Readactor. • We evaluate the...According to the CVE [31], 123 such arbitrary read vulnerabilities were reported between January and September of 2015, in Firefox (CVE-2015-4495

  16. Two-stage Lagrangian modeling of ignition processes in ignition quality tester and constant volume combustion chambers

    KAUST Repository

    Alfazazi, Adamu

    2016-08-10

    The ignition characteristics of isooctane and n-heptane in an ignition quality tester (IQT) were simulated using a two-stage Lagrangian (TSL) model, which is a zero-dimensional (0-D) reactor network method. The TSL model was also used to simulate the ignition delay of n-dodecane and n-heptane in a constant volume combustion chamber (CVCC), which is archived in the engine combustion network (ECN) library (http://www.ca.sandia.gov/ecn). A detailed chemical kinetic model for gasoline surrogates from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was utilized for the simulation of n-heptane and isooctane. Additional simulations were performed using an optimized gasoline surrogate mechanism from RWTH Aachen University. Validations of the simulated data were also performed with experimental results from an IQT at KAUST. For simulation of n-dodecane in the CVCC, two n-dodecane kinetic models from the literature were utilized. The primary aim of this study is to test the ability of TSL to replicate ignition timings in the IQT and the CVCC. The agreement between the model and the experiment is acceptable except for isooctane in the IQT and n-heptane and n-dodecane in the CVCC. The ability of the simulations to replicate observable trends in ignition delay times with regard to changes in ambient temperature and pressure allows the model to provide insights into the reactions contributing towards ignition. Thus, the TSL model was further employed to investigate the physical and chemical processes responsible for controlling the overall ignition under various conditions. The effects of exothermicity, ambient pressure, and ambient oxygen concentration on first stage ignition were also studied. Increasing ambient pressure and oxygen concentration was found to shorten the overall ignition delay time, but does not affect the timing of the first stage ignition. Additionally, the temperature at the end of the first stage ignition was found to increase at higher ambient pressure

  17. Cross-Sectional Analysis of Late HAART Initiation in Latin America and the Caribbean: Late Testers and Late Presenters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabtree-Ramírez, Brenda; Caro-Vega, Yanink; Shepherd, Bryan E.; Wehbe, Firas; Cesar, Carina; Cortés, Claudia; Padgett, Denis; Koenig, Serena; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Cahn, Pedro; McGowan, Catherine; Masys, Daniel; Sierra-Madero, Juan

    2011-01-01

    Background Starting HAART in a very advanced stage of disease is assumed to be the most prevalent form of initiation in HIV-infected subjects in developing countries. Data from Latin America and the Caribbean is still lacking. Our main objective was to determine the frequency, risk factors and trends in time for being late HAART initiator (LHI) in this region. Methodology Cross-sectional analysis from 9817 HIV-infected treatment-naïve patients initiating HAART at 6 sites (Argentina, Chile, Haiti, Honduras, Peru and Mexico) from October 1999 to July 2010. LHI had CD4+ count ≤200cells/mm3 prior to HAART. Late testers (LT) were those LHI who initiated HAART within 6 months of HIV diagnosis. Late presenters (LP) initiated after 6 months of diagnosis. Prevalence, risk factors and trends over time were analyzed. Principal Findings Among subjects starting HAART (n = 9817) who had baseline CD4+ available (n = 8515), 76% were LHI: Argentina (56%[95%CI:52–59]), Chile (80%[95%CI:77–82]), Haiti (76%[95%CI:74–77]), Honduras (91%[95%CI:87–94]), Mexico (79%[95%CI:75–83]), Peru (86%[95%CI:84–88]). The proportion of LHI statistically changed over time (except in Honduras) (p≤0.02; Honduras p = 0.7), with a tendency towards lower rates in recent years. Males had increased risk of LHI in Chile, Haiti, Peru, and in the combined site analyses (CSA). Older patients were more likely LHI in Argentina and Peru (OR 1.21 per +10-year of age, 95%CI:1.02–1.45; OR 1.20, 95%CI:1.02–1.43; respectively), but not in CSA (OR 1.07, 95%CI:0.94–1.21). Higher education was associated with decreased risk for LHI in Chile (OR 0.92 per +1-year of education, 95%CI:0.87–0.98) (similar trends in Mexico, Peru, and CSA). LHI with date of HIV-diagnosis available, 55% were LT and 45% LP. Conclusion LHI was highly prevalent in CCASAnet sites, mostly due to LT; the main risk factors associated were being male and older age. Earlier HIV-diagnosis and earlier treatment initiation

  18. Assessing Hepatitis C Burden and Treatment Effectiveness through the British Columbia Hepatitis Testers Cohort (BC-HTC): Design and Characteristics of Linked and Unlinked Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjua, Naveed Zafar; Kuo, Margot; Chong, Mei; Yu, Amanda; Alvarez, Maria; Cook, Darrel; Armour, Rosemary; Aiken, Ciaran; Li, Karen; Mussavi Rizi, Seyed Ali; Woods, Ryan; Godfrey, David; Wong, Jason; Gilbert, Mark; Tyndall, Mark W; Krajden, Mel

    2016-01-01

    The British Columbia (BC) Hepatitis Testers Cohort (BC-HTC) was established to assess and monitor hepatitis C (HCV) epidemiology, cost of illness and treatment effectiveness in BC, Canada. In this paper, we describe the cohort construction, data linkage process, linkage yields, and comparison of the characteristics of linked and unlinked individuals. The BC-HTC includes all individuals tested for HCV and/or HIV or reported as a case of HCV, hepatitis B (HBV), HIV or active tuberculosis (TB) in BC linked with the provincial health insurance client roster, medical visits, hospitalizations, drug prescriptions, the cancer registry and mortality data using unique personal health numbers. The cohort includes data since inception (1990/1992) of each database until 2012/2013 with plans for annual updates. We computed linkage rates by year and compared the characteristics of linked and unlinked individuals. Of 2,656,323 unique individuals available in the laboratory and surveillance data, 1,427,917(54%) were included in the final linked cohort, including about 1.15 million tested for HCV and about 1.02 million tested for HIV. The linkage rate was 86% for HCV tests, 89% for HCV cases, 95% for active TB cases, 48% for HIV tests and 36% for HIV cases. Linkage rates increased from 40% for HCV negatives and 70% for HCV positives in 1992 to ~90% after 2005. Linkage rates were lower for males, younger age at testing, and those with unknown residence location. Linkage rates for HCV testers co-infected with HIV, HBV or TB were very high (90-100%). Linkage rates increased over time related to improvements in completeness of identifiers in laboratory, surveillance, and registry databases. Linkage rates were higher for HCV than HIV testers, those testing positive, older individuals, and females. Data from the cohort provide essential information to support the development of prevention, care and treatment initiatives for those infected with HCV.

  19. Behavioral intention to take up different types of HIV testing among men who have sex with men who were never-testers in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zixin; Lau, Joseph T F; She, Rui; Ip, Mary; Jiang, Hui; Ho, Shara P Y; Yang, XueYing

    2018-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing is an important global prevention strategy but underutilized by local men who have sex with men (MSM). This study investigated the prevalence of behavioral intention to take up HIV testing (specific or any type), in the next six months among MSM who had not been tested for HIV in the last three years (never-testers) in Hong Kong. The data was based on 141 never-testers of 430 MSM who completed the anonymous baseline telephone survey of an ongoing randomized controlled trial from January 2015 to August 2015. Only 17.7% of them showed strong intention to take up any type of HIV testing in the next six months. Adjusted analysis showed that perceived benefit of HIV testing (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.29, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01, 1.66), perceived psychological barriers of HIV testing (AOR: 0.85, 95%CI: 0.73, 1.00), and perceived self-efficacy in taking up HIV testing (AOR: 1.28, 95%CI: 1.07, 1.52) were significantly associated with behavioral intention to take up any HIV testing. Perceived cue to action from non-governmental organization staff was positively associated with a marginal p-value of 0.077 (AOR: 2.37, 95%CI: 0.97, 5.77). It is warranted to strengthen perceived benefit, remove psychological barriers, and increase perceived self-efficacy related to HIV testing. Innovative and effective health promotions are greatly needed to increase HIV testing coverage among never-testers.

  20. Assessing Hepatitis C Burden and Treatment Effectiveness through the British Columbia Hepatitis Testers Cohort (BC-HTC: Design and Characteristics of Linked and Unlinked Participants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveed Zafar Janjua

    Full Text Available The British Columbia (BC Hepatitis Testers Cohort (BC-HTC was established to assess and monitor hepatitis C (HCV epidemiology, cost of illness and treatment effectiveness in BC, Canada. In this paper, we describe the cohort construction, data linkage process, linkage yields, and comparison of the characteristics of linked and unlinked individuals.The BC-HTC includes all individuals tested for HCV and/or HIV or reported as a case of HCV, hepatitis B (HBV, HIV or active tuberculosis (TB in BC linked with the provincial health insurance client roster, medical visits, hospitalizations, drug prescriptions, the cancer registry and mortality data using unique personal health numbers. The cohort includes data since inception (1990/1992 of each database until 2012/2013 with plans for annual updates. We computed linkage rates by year and compared the characteristics of linked and unlinked individuals.Of 2,656,323 unique individuals available in the laboratory and surveillance data, 1,427,917(54% were included in the final linked cohort, including about 1.15 million tested for HCV and about 1.02 million tested for HIV. The linkage rate was 86% for HCV tests, 89% for HCV cases, 95% for active TB cases, 48% for HIV tests and 36% for HIV cases. Linkage rates increased from 40% for HCV negatives and 70% for HCV positives in 1992 to ~90% after 2005. Linkage rates were lower for males, younger age at testing, and those with unknown residence location. Linkage rates for HCV testers co-infected with HIV, HBV or TB were very high (90-100%.Linkage rates increased over time related to improvements in completeness of identifiers in laboratory, surveillance, and registry databases. Linkage rates were higher for HCV than HIV testers, those testing positive, older individuals, and females. Data from the cohort provide essential information to support the development of prevention, care and treatment initiatives for those infected with HCV.

  1. Assessing Hepatitis C Burden and Treatment Effectiveness through the British Columbia Hepatitis Testers Cohort (BC-HTC): Design and Characteristics of Linked and Unlinked Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjua, Naveed Zafar; Kuo, Margot; Chong, Mei; Yu, Amanda; Alvarez, Maria; Cook, Darrel; Armour, Rosemary; Aiken, Ciaran; Li, Karen; Mussavi Rizi, Seyed Ali; Woods, Ryan; Godfrey, David; Wong, Jason; Gilbert, Mark; Tyndall, Mark W.; Krajden, Mel

    2016-01-01

    Background The British Columbia (BC) Hepatitis Testers Cohort (BC-HTC) was established to assess and monitor hepatitis C (HCV) epidemiology, cost of illness and treatment effectiveness in BC, Canada. In this paper, we describe the cohort construction, data linkage process, linkage yields, and comparison of the characteristics of linked and unlinked individuals. Methods The BC-HTC includes all individuals tested for HCV and/or HIV or reported as a case of HCV, hepatitis B (HBV), HIV or active tuberculosis (TB) in BC linked with the provincial health insurance client roster, medical visits, hospitalizations, drug prescriptions, the cancer registry and mortality data using unique personal health numbers. The cohort includes data since inception (1990/1992) of each database until 2012/2013 with plans for annual updates. We computed linkage rates by year and compared the characteristics of linked and unlinked individuals. Results Of 2,656,323 unique individuals available in the laboratory and surveillance data, 1,427,917(54%) were included in the final linked cohort, including about 1.15 million tested for HCV and about 1.02 million tested for HIV. The linkage rate was 86% for HCV tests, 89% for HCV cases, 95% for active TB cases, 48% for HIV tests and 36% for HIV cases. Linkage rates increased from 40% for HCV negatives and 70% for HCV positives in 1992 to ~90% after 2005. Linkage rates were lower for males, younger age at testing, and those with unknown residence location. Linkage rates for HCV testers co-infected with HIV, HBV or TB were very high (90–100%). Conclusion Linkage rates increased over time related to improvements in completeness of identifiers in laboratory, surveillance, and registry databases. Linkage rates were higher for HCV than HIV testers, those testing positive, older individuals, and females. Data from the cohort provide essential information to support the development of prevention, care and treatment initiatives for those infected with HCV

  2. Vectorization vs. compilation in query execution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Sompolski (Juliusz); M. Zukowski (Marcin); P.A. Boncz (Peter)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractCompiling database queries into executable (sub-) programs provides substantial benefits comparing to traditional interpreted execution. Many of these benefits, such as reduced interpretation overhead, better instruction code locality, and providing opportunities to use SIMD

  3. ARC Code TI: IPG Execution Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Execution Service allows users to submit, monitor, and cancel complex jobs. Each job consists of a set of tasks that perform actions such as executing...

  4. Direct measurement of the field from a magnetic recording head using an InAs Hall sensor on a contact write/read tester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gokemeijer, N.J.; Clinton, T.W.; Crawford, T.M.; Johnson, Mark

    2005-01-01

    At 1 Tbit/in 2 areal density magnetic recording dimensions, reliable magnetic field metrology does not exist. One technique to map the spatial profile of the magnetic field of a write head is to use a contact read/write tester. A magnetic recording head is brought into contact with a Hall sensor, and is subsequently scanned with nm resolution. For a 300 nm track width longitudinal recording head, the magnetic field of the head was mapped. Measurements include the down track field gradient and cross-track field profile and the current-field transfer curve. These results suggest this technique offers a viable write field metrology

  5. Executive Information Systems' Multidimensional Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Executive Information Systems are design to improve the quality of strategic level of management in organization through a new type of technology and several techniques for extracting, transforming, processing, integrating and presenting data in such a way that the organizational knowledge filters can easily associate with this data and turn it into information for the organization. These technologies are known as Business Intelligence Tools. But in order to build analytic reports for Executive Information Systems (EIS in an organization we need to design a multidimensional model based on the business model from the organization. This paper presents some multidimensional models that can be used in EIS development and propose a new model that is suitable for strategic business requests.

  6. Executable Operational Semantics of Solidity

    OpenAIRE

    Jiao, Jiao; Kan, Shuanglong; Lin, Shang-Wei; Sanan, David; Liu, Yang; Sun, Jun

    2018-01-01

    Bitcoin has attracted everyone's attention and interest recently. Ethereum (ETH), a second generation cryptocurrency, extends Bitcoin's design by offering a Turing-complete programming language called Solidity to develop smart contracts. Smart contracts allow creditable execution of contracts on EVM (Ethereum Virtual Machine) without third parties. Developing correct smart contracts is challenging due to its decentralized computation nature. Buggy smart contracts may lead to huge financial lo...

  7. Executive compensation: a calibration approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ivilina Popova; Joseph G. Haubrich

    1998-01-01

    We use a version of the Grossman and Hart principal-agent model with 10 actions and 10 states to produce quantitative predictions for executive compensation. Performance incentives derived from the model are compared with the performance incentives of 350 firms chosen from a survey by Michael Jensen and Kevin Murphy. The results suggest both that the model does a reasonable job of explaining the data and that actual incentives are close to the optimal incentives predicted by theory.

  8. 36th ATLANTA EXECUTIVE SEMINAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    assignments as an Army Division G-4, Divisional Support Battalion Commander, Divisional Material Readiness officer, and Support Battalion Executive...Battalion; Corps Material Management Officer, Corps Support Command; Fort Hood, Texas • Jul 1991 – Jun 1994: Research Analyst, Office of Economic and...LABBLEE Corp, Raytheon, Labat-Anderson Inc., KPMG , Huber Corp, The Boeing Company, and Philadelphia Electric Company. He has also served on a

  9. Financial accounting for radiology executives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidmann, Abraham; Mehta, Tushar

    2005-03-01

    The authors review the role of financial accounting information from the perspective of a radiology executive. They begin by introducing the role of pro forma statements. They discuss the fundamental concepts of accounting, including the matching principle and accrual accounting. The authors then explore the use of financial accounting information in making investment decisions in diagnostic medical imaging. The paper focuses on critically evaluating the benefits and limitations of financial accounting for decision making in a radiology practice.

  10. Executive pay and shareholder litigation

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Peng; Ailsa Röell

    2008-01-01

    The paper examines the impact of executive compensation on private securities litigation. We find that incentive pay in the form of options increases the probability of securities class action litigation, holding constant a wide range of firm characteristics. We further document that there is abnormal upward earnings manipulation during litigation class periods and that insiders exercise more options and sell more shares during class periods, but that this activity is largely driven by pre-ex...

  11. Experience with Remote Job Execution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, Vickie E.; Cobb, John W; Green, Mark L.; Kohl, James Arthur; Miller, Stephen D.; Ren, Shelly; Smith, Bradford C.; Vazhkudai, Sudharshan S.

    2008-01-01

    The Neutron Science Portal at Oak Ridge National Laboratory submits jobs to the TeraGrid for remote job execution. The TeraGrid is a network of high performance computers supported by the US National Science Foundation. There are eleven partner facilities with over a petaflop of peak computing performance and sixty petabytes of long-term storage. Globus is installed on a local machine and used for job submission. The graphical user interface is produced by java coding that reads an XML file. After submission, the status of the job is displayed in a Job Information Service window which queries globus for the status. The output folder produced in the scratch directory of the TeraGrid machine is returned to the portal with globus-url-copy command that uses the gridftp servers on the TeraGrid machines. This folder is copied from the stage-in directory of the community account to the user's results directory where the output can be plotted using the portal's visualization services. The primary problem with remote job execution is diagnosing execution problems. We have daily tests of submitting multiple remote jobs from the portal. When these jobs fail on a computer, it is difficult to diagnose the problem from the globus output. Successes and problems will be presented

  12. [Memory and the executive functions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirapu-Ustárroz, J; Muñoz-Céspedes, J M

    The terms 'executive functioning' or 'executive control' refer to a set of mechanisms involved in the improvement of cognitive processes to guide them towards the resolution of complex problems. Both the frontal lobes, acting as structure, and the executive processes, acting as function, work with memory contents, operating with information placed in the diencephalic structures and in the medial temporal lobe. Generally, we can state that many works find an association between frontal damage and specific memory shortages like working memory deficit, metamemory problems, source amnesia, or difficulties in the prospective memory. This paper is a critical review of the working memory concept and proposes a new term: the attentional operative system that works with memory contents. Concerning the metamemory, the frontal lobes are essential for monitoring processes in general and for 'the feeling of knowing' kind of judgements in particular. Patients suffering prefrontal damage show serious problems to remember the information source. Thus, the information is rightly remembered but the spatiotemporal context where that information was learned has been forgotten. Finally, the prospective memory deals with remembering to make something in a particular moment in the future and performing the plan previously drawn up.

  13. Sexual Harassment and Organizational Outcomes Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    quid pro quo type of Sexual harassment and Organizational, 4 sexual harassment (e.g., sexual coercion). This should drive organizational efforts to... Sexual Harassment and Organizational Outcomes Executive Summary Charlie L. Law DEFENSE EQUAL...Executive Summary] No. 99-11 Sexual harassment and Organizational, 2 Executive Summary Issue

  14. Assessing Executive Functioning: A Pragmatic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hass, Michael R.; Patterson, Ashlea; Sukraw, Jocelyn; Sullivan, Brianna M.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the common usage of the term "executive functioning" in neuropsychology, several aspects of this concept remain unsettled. In this paper, we will address some of the issues surrounding the notion of executive functioning and how an understanding of executive functioning and its components might assist school-based practitioners…

  15. 40 CFR 68.155 - Executive summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Executive summary. 68.155 Section 68...) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.155 Executive summary. The owner or operator shall provide in the RMP an executive summary that includes a brief description of the following...

  16. Opening the black box of energy modelling: Strategies and lessons learned

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfenninger, Stefan; Hirth, Lion; Schlecht, Ingmar

    2018-01-01

    and appropriate modelling languages, distributing code and data, and providing support and building communities. After illustrating these decisions with examples and lessons learned from the community, we conclude that even though individual researchers' choices are important, institutional changes are still also...

  17. Making the black box signal processor transparent explains the contradictions in x-ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papp, T.; Maxwell, J.A.; Papp, A.T.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: There are significant differences in the experimental data needed in the analysis of x-ray spectra, and many of the results contradict basic conservation laws and simple arithmetic. We have identified that the main source of the unexplainable results is rooted in the signal processing electronics. We have developed a line of fully digital signal processors that have yielded improved resolution, line shape, tailing and pile up recognition. The signal processor is a time variant, non-paralyzable signal processor. The signal processor accounts for and registers all events, sorting them into two spectra, one spectrum for the desirable or accepted events, and one spectrum for the rejected events. Although the information on the rejected events is always necessary, we recently realized its additional benefits in high rate, (10 5 -10 6 cps) analytical measurements. Having all information available we were surprised to see how different conclusions and level of understandings are possible in detector characterization, detector efficiency, spectrum evaluation methodology, and that it explains many of the contradictions. We will demonstrate how the Coster-Kronig transition measurements often do not even comply with arithmetic, and why is it difficult to interpret the spectra with other processors. It will be presented that for different spectra in origin, like radioisotope measurements, x-ray fluorescence, and particle induced x-ray emission, the primary signal from the preamplifier is so different, that the signal processor is facing very different challenges, and different metrological approaches are necessary in data processing. This data processing methodology cannot be established on the partial and fractional information offered by other approaches. However, the maximum information utilization approach offered by our processor's rejected spectrum supplements the accepted spectrum to allow the development of straight forward and accurate metrology. All the control of the processor is digital, via USB port, and therefore can be deployed in industrial settings for remote operation

  18. Explicit Instructional Interactions: Exploring the Black Box of a Tier 2 Mathematics Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doabler, Christian T.; Clarke, Ben; Stoolmiller, Mike; Kosty, Derek B.; Fien, Hank; Smolkowski, Keith; Baker, Scott K.

    2017-01-01

    A critical aspect of intervention research is investigating the active ingredients that underlie intensive interventions and their theories of change. This study explored the rate of instructional interactions within treatment groups to determine whether they offered explanatory power of an empirically validated Tier 2 kindergarten mathematics…

  19. Beware the black box: investigating the sensitivity of FEA simulations to modelling factors in comparative biomechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher W. Walmsley

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Finite element analysis (FEA is a computational technique of growing popularity in the field of comparative biomechanics, and is an easily accessible platform for form-function analyses of biological structures. However, its rapid evolution in recent years from a novel approach to common practice demands some scrutiny in regards to the validity of results and the appropriateness of assumptions inherent in setting up simulations. Both validation and sensitivity analyses remain unexplored in many comparative analyses, and assumptions considered to be ‘reasonable’ are often assumed to have little influence on the results and their interpretation.Here we report an extensive sensitivity analysis where high resolution finite element (FE models of mandibles from seven species of crocodile were analysed under loads typical for comparative analysis: biting, shaking, and twisting. Simulations explored the effect on both the absolute response and the interspecies pattern of results to variations in commonly used input parameters. Our sensitivity analysis focuses on assumptions relating to the selection of material properties (heterogeneous or homogeneous, scaling (standardising volume, surface area, or length, tooth position (front, mid, or back tooth engagement, and linear load case (type of loading for each feeding type.Our findings show that in a comparative context, FE models are far less sensitive to the selection of material property values and scaling to either volume or surface area than they are to those assumptions relating to the functional aspects of the simulation, such as tooth position and linear load case. Results show a complex interaction between simulation assumptions, depending on the combination of assumptions and the overall shape of each specimen. Keeping assumptions consistent between models in an analysis does not ensure that results can be generalised beyond the specific set of assumptions used. Logically, different comparative datasets would also be sensitive to identical simulation assumptions; hence, modelling assumptions should undergo rigorous selection. The accuracy of input data is paramount, and simulations should focus on taking biological context into account. Ideally, validation of simulations should be addressed; however, where validation is impossible or unfeasible, sensitivity analyses should be performed to identify which assumptions have the greatest influence upon the results.

  20. The Black Box. Obscurity and Transparency in the Dutch Coal Supply Chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilde-Ramsing, J.; Steinweg, T.; Racz, K.; Scheele, F.

    2012-01-15

    Every year more than 50 million tonnes of coal flow into the Netherlands, destined either for combustion in coal-fired power plants in this country or for re-export to other European countries for electricity generation there. The capacity to generate electricity from coal in the Netherlands will more than double if the four new coal-fired power plants currently being planned in the Netherlands go forward as envisioned. Much of that coal comes from countries like Colombia, Russia, and South Africa, where sub-standard social and environmental conditions often prevail. A lack of transparency about the origin of coal used in the Netherlands has allowed the electricity companies responsible for importing irresponsibly mined coal to avoid public and political pressure for improving conditions in their supply chain. Increasing transparency in the coal supply chain is an important first step toward improving the sub-standard conditions at coal mines around the world. This report details the functioning of the coal supply chain and provides a thorough overview of all publicly available information on the origin of coal used in Dutch power plants. The report identifies critical gaps in public knowledge resulting from the lack of transparency provided by electricity companies operating in the Netherlands and analyses whether the degree of transparency provided by electricity companies is in line with international standards.

  1. From inside the black box: Teacher perceptions of science instruction at the elementary level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrini, Cynthia D.

    Science education reform projects aimed at elementary school children arose in the 1960's. The most prevalent of these reforms utilized the inquiry, or hands-on, science method. Billions of dollars have been invested in these reforms. Yet, reports indicate that science is not being taught at the level one might expect in elementary schools. This research was an analysis of the problems and concerns teachers at one school district faced as they tried to implement and sustain elementary inquiry science instruction. The district chosen was a large suburban district in the Western United States. The population was ninety percent Caucasian with a slightly more ethnically diverse school population. This district was chosen because it had an elementary science program for over twenty years and had received national acclaim for that program. The district had a stable and homogeneous staff there was a low administrator and teacher turnover rate and the elementary teaching population was ninety percent Caucasian and ninety percent female. Interviews with administrators and teachers were conducted. Data were collected from focus groups of teachers and science partners. Observations of elementary science classroom instruction and professional development sessions were made. Results of this research indicated that one important key to elementary science reform rests in the hands of teachers. Once the door to the classroom is closed, the teacher can decide to teach or not to teach science. The findings of this research illustrate that teachers hold ideas about science and science instruction that are antithetical to some tenets of inquiry science. Until these ideas are addressed it will be difficult, if not impossible, to implement a systemic elementary inquiry science program. This study demonstrates that professional development for elementary teachers in science needs to change from a focus on the mechanical usage of individual units to a focus on teacher expectations for student achievement. Professional development for teachers in inquiry science must address the cognitive foundations for inquiry science and the benefits students derive from this educational approach. Institutions delivering pre-service training for elementary teachers in science must change the curriculum to reflect these needs.

  2. Beyond the black box: Forest sector vulnerability assessments and adaptation to climate change in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wellstead, Adam; Rayner, Jeremy; Howlett, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In the wake of the failures to date of well-publicized multilateral and multi-sectoral mitigation efforts to control greenhouse gases, attention is now increasingly focused on the effectiveness and capacity of national and sub-national level sectoral plans, including forestry, to usher in a new era of adaptation efforts. In Canada, the government of British Columbia spent several years developing its Future Forest Ecosystems Initiative as part of a larger climate change response strategy in the forest sector. Similarly, in the United States, wildfire related events have led to climate change inspired efforts by individual states (e.g., Alaska, California) and the US Forest Service has recently undertaken plans to incorporate climate change considerations in national forest planning beginning with the National Road Map for Responding to Climate Change. This paper highlights a number of shortcomings with both these national and sub-national strategies with respect to the relationships existing between governance, forestry and climate change. It proposes incorporating considerations of governance mechanisms directly into forest sector planning and the need to assess not only natural system level changes but also the extent to which new problems can be dealt with by ‘old’ or ‘new’ governance arrangements

  3. Unpainting the black box : exploring mechanisms and practices of start-up incubators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Weele, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Although incubators have become one of the most prominent instruments to stimulate the emergence and growth of start-ups, questions are being raised about their effectiveness. One major obstacle to evaluate the effectiveness of incubators is that the incubator remains a ‘black box’: the extant

  4. Dogs, cats, parasites, and humans in Brazil: opening the black box

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Dogs and cats in Brazil serve as primary hosts for a considerable number of parasites, which may affect their health and wellbeing. These may include endoparasites (e.g., protozoa, cestodes, trematodes, and nematodes) and ectoparasites (i.e., fleas, lice, mites, and ticks). While some dog and cat parasites are highly host-specific (e.g., Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and Felicola subrostratus for cats, and Angiostrongylus vasorum and Trichodectes canis for dogs), others may easily switch to other hosts, including humans. In fact, several dog and cat parasites (e.g., Toxoplasma gondii, Dipylidium caninum, Ancylostoma caninum, Strongyloides stercoralis, and Toxocara canis) are important not only from a veterinary perspective but also from a medical standpoint. In addition, some of them (e.g., Lynxacarus radovskyi on cats and Rangelia vitalii in dogs) are little known to most veterinary practitioners working in Brazil. This article is a compendium on dog and cat parasites in Brazil and a call for a One Health approach towards a better management of some of these parasites, which may potentially affect humans. Practical aspects related to the diagnosis, treatment, and control of parasitic diseases of dogs and cats in Brazil are discussed. PMID:24423244

  5. Opening the Black Box and Searching for Smoking Guns: Process Causality in Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Elisabeth E.; McWhorter, Rochell R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of qualitative research in causality, with particular emphasis on process causality. In one paper, it is not possible to discuss all the issues of causality, but the aim is to provide useful ways of thinking about causality and qualitative research. Specifically, a brief overview of the…

  6. Opening the Black Box: Conceptualizing Community Engagement From 109 Community-Academic Partnership Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Syed M; Maurana, Cheryl; Nelson, David; Meister, Tim; Young, Sharon Neu; Lucey, Paula

    2016-01-01

    This research effort includes a large scale study of 109 community-academic partnership projects funded by the Healthier Wisconsin Partnership Program (HWPP), a component of the Advancing a Healthier Wisconsin endowment at the Medical College of Wisconsin (MCW) in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. The study provides an analysis unlike other studies, which have been smaller, and/or more narrowly focused in the type of community-academic partnership projects analyzed. To extract themes and insights for the benefit of future community-academic partnerships and the field of community-engaged research (CEnR). Content analysis of the final reports submitted by 109 community-academic partnership projects awards within the time frame of March 2005 to August 2011. Thirteen themes emerged from the report analysis: community involvement, health accomplishments, capacity building, sustainability, collaboration, communication, best practices, administration, relationship building, clarity, adjustment of plan, strategic planning, and time. Data supported previous studies in the importance of some themes, and provided insights regarding how these themes are impactful. The case analysis revealed new insights into the characteristics of these themes, which the authors then grouped into three categories: foundational attributes of successful community-academic partnership, potential challenges of community-academic partnerships, and outcomes of community-academic partnerships. The insights gained from these reports further supports previous research extolling the benefits of community-academic partnerships and provides valuable direction for future partners, funders and evaluators in how to deal with challenges and what they can anticipate and plan for in developing and managing community-academic partnership projects.

  7. Identification of Distillation Process Dynamics Comparing Process Knowledge and Black Box Based Approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Knud H; Nielsen, C. S.; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    1990-01-01

    A distillation plant equipped with a heat pump separates a mixture of isopropanol and methanol. The mixture contains some water as impurity. The model development aims at dual composition control design, where top and bottom compositions should follow the setpoints, and disturbances should...... obtained in closed loop operation of the distillation plant. In the present work, the two approaches are compared in terms of how well the model fits, and predicts the data, the conditioning of the model parameter estimation, and convenience of usage....

  8. Opening the Black Box: Exploring the Effect of Transformation on Online Service Delivery in Local Governments

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veenstra, Anne Fleur; Zuurmond, Arre

    To enhance the quality of their online service delivery, many government organizations seek to transform their organization beyond merely setting up a front office. This transformation includes elements such as the formation of service delivery chains, the adoption of a management strategy supporting process orientation and the implementation of enterprise architecture. This paper explores whether undertaking this transformation has a positive effect on the quality of online service delivery, using data gathered from seventy local governments. We found that having an externally oriented management strategy in place, adopting enterprise architecture, aligning information systems to business and sharing activities between processes and departments are positively related to the quality of online service delivery. We recommend that further research should be carried out to find out whether dimensions of organizational development too have an effect on online service delivery in the long term.

  9. Political Economy of Right to Education in Rural China: Unpacking the Black Box of State

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hong, Y.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation approaches the inequality of basic education between urban and rural China from a human rights perspective and positions this issue in the context of Chinese political economy. It demonstrates the slackness of the Chinese state in the 1990s and its insufficient efforts in the 2000s

  10. Data Driven Exploratory Attacks on Black Box Classifiers in Adversarial Domains

    OpenAIRE

    Sethi, Tegjyot Singh; Kantardzic, Mehmed

    2017-01-01

    While modern day web applications aim to create impact at the civilization level, they have become vulnerable to adversarial activity, where the next cyber-attack can take any shape and can originate from anywhere. The increasing scale and sophistication of attacks, has prompted the need for a data driven solution, with machine learning forming the core of many cybersecurity systems. Machine learning was not designed with security in mind, and the essential assumption of stationarity, requiri...

  11. Views from inside the "Black Box": A Q-Methodology Study of Mentoring Support for Entrepreneurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanigar, Jennifer Jill

    2016-01-01

    Aspiring entrepreneurs give and receive support in growth-fostering interactions with seasoned entrepreneurs, mentors, peers, and others. This dissertation investigates viewpoints held by entrepreneurs about their experiences of effective mentoring support. Little is known about how an entrepreneur learns through interacting with different…

  12. Scientific models red atoms, white lies and black boxes in a yellow book

    CERN Document Server

    Gerlee, Philip

    2016-01-01

    A zebrafish, the hull of a miniature ship, a mathematical equation and a food chain - what do these things have in common? They are examples of models used by scientists to isolate and study particular aspects of the world around us. This book begins by introducing the concept of a scientific model from an intuitive perspective, drawing parallels to mental models and artistic representations. It then recounts the history of modelling from the 16th century up until the present day. The iterative process of model building is described and discussed in the context of complex models with high predictive accuracy versus simpler models that provide more of a conceptual understanding. To illustrate the diversity of opinions within the scientific community, we also present the results of an interview study, in which ten scientists from different disciplines describe their views on modelling and how models feature in their work. Lastly, it includes a number of worked examples that span different modelling approaches a...

  13. Anu Juurak : Must kast, tsoonid, totaalne ruum = Black box, zones, total space / Reet Varblane

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Varblane, Reet, 1952-

    2007-01-01

    Anu Juuraku looming on jagunenud aastate lõikes selgesti eristatavateks perioodideks: 1988-89 värviline graafika, 1996-2000 installatsioonid ja 2000-ndate algusest tantsufilmid. Ta ei ole muutnud mitte ainult oma kujundikeelt vaid hüpanud ühest meediumist teise, vahetanud eneseväljenduse valdkondi ja nendega kaasnevaid kontekstuaalseid tähendusi. Need kunsti erinevad vormid on oma aja täpsed ja selged metafoorid. Oma tähenduslikke nägemuspilte vaatajani tuues, paneb kunstnik publiku uskuma, et ka temani on need kujundid ja ruumid jõudnud pigem nägemustena, unenäoliste kaadritena

  14. THE BLACK BOX OF CULTURAL TRANSMISSION An empirical analysis of the evolution of social capital.

    OpenAIRE

    Winje, Even Joachim Aarebrot

    2014-01-01

    Social capital have gained wide acceptance within the economic discourse in recent decades. Researchers have argued that social capital and culture influence a wide range of economic and political outcomes. This thesis aims to contribute to the understanding of the evolutionary aspect of social capital. I define social capital as a set of beliefs and values that fosters cooperation and develop an applied theoretical framework. I claim that values and beliefs interact and reinforce each other ...

  15. On Looking into the Black Box: Prospects and Limits in the Search for Mental Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, W. B.; Morris, N. M.

    1984-01-01

    To place the arguments advanced in this paper in alternative points of view with regard to mental models are reviewed. Use of the construct in areas such as neural information processing, manual control, decision making, problem solving, and cognitive science are discussed. Also reviewed are several taxonomies of mental models. The available empirical evidence for answering questions concerning the nature and usage of mental models is then discussed. A variety of studies are reviewed where the type and form of humans' knowledge have been manipulated. Also considered are numerous transfer of training studies whose results provide indirect evidence of the nature of mental models. The alternative perspectives considered and the spectrum of empirical evidence are combined to suggest a framework within which research on mental models can be viewed. By considering interactions of dimensions of this framework, the most salient unanswered questions can be identified.

  16. Breaking Open the Black Boxes: media archaeology, anarchaeology and media materiality

    OpenAIRE

    Goddard, M.

    2015-01-01

    An essay on the emergent methodology of media archaeology, in realtion to the material turn in approaches to digital media. In particular, this article advocates taking up Siegfried Zielinski's concept of 'anarchaeology', but in a different sense to the way it was originally proposed, in order to emphasise the political potentials of a media (an)archaeological methodological approach.

  17. Performance Assessment of Black Box Capacity Forecasting for Multi-Market Trade Application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MacDougall, Pamela; Ran, Bob; Huitema, George B.; Deconinck, Geert

    2017-01-01

    With the growth of renewable generated electricity in the energy mix, large energy storage and flexible demand, particularly aggregated demand response is becoming a front runner as a new participant in the wholesale energy markets. One of the biggest barriers for the integration of aggregator

  18. Mapping innovation processes: Visual techniques for opening and presenting the black box of service innovation processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Anne Rørbæk

    2017-01-01

    This chapter argues for the usefulness of visual mapping techniques for performing qualitative analysis of complex service innovation processes. Different mapping formats are presented, namely, matrices, networks, process maps, situational analysis maps and temporal situational analysis maps....... For the purpose of researching service innovation processes, the three latter formats are argued to be particularly interesting. Process maps can give an overview of different periods and milestones in a process in one carefully organized location. Situational analysis maps and temporal situational analysis maps...... can open up complexities of service innovation processes, as well as close them down for presentational purposes. The mapping formats presented are illustrated by displaying maps from an exemplary research project, and the chapter is concluded with a brief discussion of the limitations and pitfalls...

  19. Disease management interventions II: What else is in the black box?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Ariel; Butterworth, Susan W; Roberts, Nancy

    2006-04-01

    The success of any disease management (DM) program ultimately depends upon the ability and willingness of participants to change and maintain desired health behaviors. To achieve those results, DM program administrators have several issues to consider, including the type of behavioral change desired, the scope of intervention that the organization is willing and capable of implementing, and whether the appropriate support structures are available to ensure successful achievement of program goals. An understanding of these issues will assist program designers in selecting the appropriate change models. This paper serves as an extension of our prior paper in which eight core psychosocial behavioral change models were described. Here, five more recently developed theory-based approaches are introduced, providing readers with up-to-date information in this area.

  20. Improving Robot Locomotion Through Learning Methods for Expensive Black-Box Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    in an industrial process, or the prescribed dosage of a drug during development. Definition (Environment Parameter). The environment parameter space...line indicates the deviation of this approximation from the original (right axis scale). The secondary gradient descent optimization over the linear...done through gradient descent on the representational error, cycling through all points one at a. t ime until convergence is reached. Figure 7.5 shows

  1. Opening the Black Box of ICT4D: Advancing Our Understanding of ICT4D Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Jin

    2013-01-01

    The term, Information and Communication Technologies for Development (ICT4D), pertains to programs or projects that strategically use ICTs (e.g. mobile phones, computers, and the internet) as a means toward the socio-economic betterment for the poor in developing contexts. Gaining the political and financial support of the international community…

  2. The White Cube in the Black Box: Assessing Artistic Research Quality in Multidisciplinary Academic Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Despite its imperfections, academic peer review has been accepted as a satisfactory process by which assessment panels comprised of different disciplinary representatives arrive at agreement through a system of shared rules and language that respects disciplinary plurality. Artistic researchers, whose output is required to meet both scholarly…

  3. Opening the Implicit Leadership Theories' Black Box: An Experimental Approach with Conjoint Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Gustavo M; Sobral, Filipe; Goldszmidt, Rafael; Araújo, Felipe

    2018-01-01

    Although research on implicit leadership theories (ILTs) has concentrated on determining which attributes define a leadership prototype, little attention has been paid to testing the relative importance of each of these attributes for individuals' leadership perceptions. Building on socio-cognitive theories of impression processes, we experimentally explore the formation of leadership perceptions based on the recognition of six key attributes in a series of three experimental studies comprising 566 US-based participants recruited online via Amazon Mechanical Turk. Our results show that while certain attributes play an important role in the leader categorization process, others are less relevant. We also demonstrate that some attributes' importance is contingent on the presence of other attributes and on the leadership schema type activated in respondents' minds. Consistent with the Leadership Categorization Theory, our findings support the premise that individuals cognitively hold a superordinate leadership prototype, which imposes constraints on their more basic level prototypes. We discuss the implications of these results for leadership theory and practice.

  4. Talking about sensitive topics during the advance care planning discussion: A peek into the black box

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Pernille; Neergaard, Mette Asbjørn; Brogaard, Trine

    2015-01-01

    -of-life decisions are addressed in concrete ACP discussions, with special focus on doctor-patient interactions. METHOD: Following a discourse-analysis approach, the study uses the concept of doctor and patient "voices" to analyze 10 directly observed and audiotaped ACP discussions among patients, relatives...... discussions about sensitive end-of-life issues the healthcare professional will be able to pose and explore sensitive ACP questions in a straightforward manner, if the voices that express empathy and seek to empower the patient in different ways are emphasized....

  5. Smolyak's algorithm: A powerful black box for the acceleration of scientific computations

    KAUST Repository

    Tempone, Raul

    2017-03-26

    We provide a general discussion of Smolyak\\'s algorithm for the acceleration of scientific computations. The algorithm first appeared in Smolyak\\'s work on multidimensional integration and interpolation. Since then, it has been generalized in multiple directions and has been associated with the keywords: sparse grids, hyperbolic cross approximation, combination technique, and multilevel methods. Variants of Smolyak\\'s algorithm have been employed in the computation of high-dimensional integrals in finance, chemistry, and physics, in the numerical solution of partial and stochastic differential equations, and in uncertainty quantification. Motivated by this broad and ever-increasing range of applications, we describe a general framework that summarizes fundamental results and assumptions in a concise application-independent manner.

  6. Opening the Implicit Leadership Theories’ Black Box: An Experimental Approach with Conjoint Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo M. Tavares; Filipe Sobral; Rafael Goldszmidt; Felipe Araújo

    2018-01-01

    Although research on implicit leadership theories (ILTs) has concentrated on determining which attributes define a leadership prototype, little attention has been paid to testing the relative importance of each of these attributes for individuals’ leadership perceptions. Building on socio-cognitive theories of impression processes, we experimentally explore the formation of leadership perceptions based on the recognition of six key attributes in a series of three experimental studies comprisi...

  7. Canada’s Equalization Formula: Peering Inside the Black Box.. and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Feehan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Ontario only started receiving equalization payments, for the first time in its history, in 2009. As soon as Ontario slipped into that “have-not” status, the federal government imposed a cap on the growth of equalization payouts. That led to substantial federal savings, but has cost Ontario and other recipients what would have been much larger payments since then. The federal government’s move to rein in the potential ballooning cost of equalization may have been understandable, from a cost-control perspective, but it ultimately defied the very purpose of equalization. The fixed-growth rule imposed by the federal government is just one of several elements within the current equalization arrangement that should be corrected. The federal government should end that practice and absorb any resulting increase in cost. However, if that cost is onerous, then it could consider adjustments of its other major transfers to the provinces – Canada Health Transfer and the Canada Social Transfer – and reduce those per-capita transfers to provinces that are well ahead of the equalization norm. That would be better than shifting the entire burden to the those below the norm. Another flaw in the current equalization arrangement is the inclusion of Crown-owned hydro corporations’ remittances of earnings to their provincial owners in the natural resources category of equalization calculations. Many of these corporations are not simply energy producers, but are also vertically integrated, with transmission and retail sales operations, and some have no resources at all, but rely instead on fuel purchased in the marketplace. Moreover, taxes paid by private energy corporations are not considered part of the natural resource category but are included in the business income tax category. This means the formula is essentially inconsistent, discriminating based on the ownership profile. Hydro remittances should be removed from the natural resource revenue category in the formula that calculates equalization. They should go in the business income tax category, just as do the earnings of other commercial Crown corporations and taxes paid by private businesses. Going beyond the formula, it is time to re-consider the practice of exempting commercial Crown corporations from corporate income taxation. A more fundamental and long-recognized problem is the incentive for provinces receiving equalization payments to underprice the water-rental rates they charge for hydro production. Lowering water-rental rates has the effect of reducing provincial hydro revenues, which can entitle those provinces to larger equalization payments, while benefitting residents with cheaper hydro rates. Looked at empirically, “have-not” provinces do charge lower average rates for hydro than do “have” provinces, lending credence to the criticism that non-recipient provinces subsidize cheaper energy for residents of recipient provinces. The increased development of competitive North American wholesale electricity markets in recent decades has made it more feasible to assess what a fair market price for water-rental rates could be. Updating the equalization formula to consider not water-rental revenue, but water-rental fiscal capacity, should be the highest priority of all in reforming Canada’s equalization formula to align it more closely to the principles behind its creation. It is also time to include municipal government revenues from user fees in the formula. Those revenues are significant and it makes little sense to exclude them when municipal property tax revenues are included. Equalization is not out of control but reform is needed. Action on these fronts should be the priorities. These insidethe-box issues should be resolved before going beyond and considering the more complex task of extending the formula to account for provincial governments’ different expenditure needs and costs.

  8. Exploring the Black Box in Brazilian Work Groups: a Study of Diversity, Conflict and Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Sobral

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades, several studies have been conducted to examine the complex relationships betweenteam diversity and individual and organizational outcomes. Although, in theory, team diversity can fosterpositive organizational synergies by increasing the variance of perspectives and approaches to work differentmembers can bring, the same idiosyncratic characteristics can also engender significant difficulties resultingfrom problems in coordination, communication and conflict. This study used a sample of 44 work groups toexamine the influence of five types of diversity on team outcomes and the mediating role of task and relationalconflict on this relationship. A survey of 279 team members and interviews with the 44 team managers wereused to examine these relationships. Findings suggest that different forms of diversity impact task conflict indifferent ways, which in turn is negatively associated with job satisfaction and team performance. Results furthershow that diversity is unrelated to relational conflict; however, this type of conflict seems to hinder both jobsatisfaction and team performance. Overall, these patterns suggest a complex link between team diversity andhow work groups function.

  9. Soft sensors with white- and black-box approaches for a wastewater treatment process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Zyngier

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The increasing degradation of water resources makes it necessary to monitor and control process variables that may disturb the environment, but which may be very difficult to measure directly, either because there are no physical sensors available, or because these are too expensive. In this work, two soft sensors are proposed for monitoring concentrations of nitrate (NO and ammonium (NH ions, and of carbonaceous matter (CM during nitrification of wastewater. One of them is based on reintegration of a process model to estimate NO and NH and on a feedforward neural network to estimate CM. The other estimator is based on Stacked Neural Networks (SNN, an approach that provides the predictor with robustness. After simulation, both soft sensors were implemented in an experimental unit using FIX MMI (Intellution, Inc automation software as an interface between the process and MATLAB 5.1 (The Mathworks Inc. software.

  10. Cystic Fibrosis Related Liver Disease—Another Black Box in Hepatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Staufer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to improved medical care, life expectancy in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF has veritably improved over the last decades. Importantly, cystic fibrosis related liver disease (CFLD has become one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in CF patients. However, CFLD might be largely underdiagnosed and diagnostic criteria need to be refined. The underlying pathomechanisms are largely unknown, and treatment strategies with proven efficacy are lacking. This review focuses on current invasive and non-invasive diagnostic standards, the current knowledge on the pathophysiology of CFLD, treatment strategies, and possible future developments.

  11. Smolyak's algorithm: A powerful black box for the acceleration of scientific computations

    KAUST Repository

    Tempone, Raul; Wolfers, Soeren

    2017-01-01

    We provide a general discussion of Smolyak's algorithm for the acceleration of scientific computations. The algorithm first appeared in Smolyak's work on multidimensional integration and interpolation. Since then, it has been generalized in multiple directions and has been associated with the keywords: sparse grids, hyperbolic cross approximation, combination technique, and multilevel methods. Variants of Smolyak's algorithm have been employed in the computation of high-dimensional integrals in finance, chemistry, and physics, in the numerical solution of partial and stochastic differential equations, and in uncertainty quantification. Motivated by this broad and ever-increasing range of applications, we describe a general framework that summarizes fundamental results and assumptions in a concise application-independent manner.

  12. Tailored vs Black-Box Models for Forecasting Hourly Average Solar Irradiance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brabec, Marek; Paulescu, M.; Badescu, V.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 111, January (2015), s. 320-331 ISSN 0038-092X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LD12009 Grant - others:European Cooperation in Science and Technology(XE) COST ES1002 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : solar irradiance * forecasting * tilored statistical models Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 3.685, year: 2015

  13. Opening the black box: internal capital markets and managerial power in conglomerates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glaser, M.; Lopez-de-Silanes, F.; Sautner, Z.

    2010-01-01

    How do firms allocate capital internally across units? Do more powerful and better connected managers inside a conglomerate get larger capital allocations? To answer these questions, we put together a unique five-year business-unit panel data set on planned and actual capital allocations inside a

  14. Exploding the Black Box: Personal Computing, the Notebook Battery Crisis, and Postindustrial Systems Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisler, Matthew N

    Historians of science and technology have generally ignored the role of power sources in the development of consumer electronics. In this they have followed the predilections of historical actors. Research, development, and manufacturing of batteries has historically occurred at a social and intellectual distance from the research, development, and manufacturing of the devices they power. Nevertheless, power source technoscience should properly be understood as an allied yet estranged field of electronics. The separation between the fields has had important consequences for the design and manufacturing of mobile consumer electronics. This paper explores these dynamics in the co-construction of notebook batteries and computers. In so doing, it challenges assumptions of historians and industrial engineers and planners about the nature of computer systems in particular and the development of technological systems. The co-construction of notebook computers and batteries, and the occasional catastrophic failure of their compatibility, challenges systems thinking more generally.

  15. Opening up the black box: an introduction to qualitative research methods in anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, C L; Smith, A F; Mort, M

    2014-03-01

    Qualitative research methods are a group of techniques designed to allow the researcher to understand phenomena in their natural setting. A wide range is used, including focus groups, interviews, observation, and discourse analysis techniques, which may be used within research approaches such as grounded theory or ethnography. Qualitative studies in the anaesthetic setting have been used to define excellence in anaesthesia, explore the reasons behind drug errors, investigate the acquisition of expertise and examine incentives for hand-hygiene in the operating theatre. Understanding how and why people act the way they do is essential for the advancement of anaesthetic practice, and rigorous, well-designed qualitative research can generate useful data and important insights. Meticulous social scientific methods, transparency, reproducibility and reflexivity are markers of quality in qualitative research. Tools such as the consolidated criteria for reporting qualitative research checklist and the critical appraisal skills programme are available to help authors, reviewers and readers unfamiliar with qualitative research assess its merits. © 2013 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  16. Opening the Implicit Leadership Theories’ Black Box: An Experimental Approach with Conjoint Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo M. Tavares

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Although research on implicit leadership theories (ILTs has concentrated on determining which attributes define a leadership prototype, little attention has been paid to testing the relative importance of each of these attributes for individuals’ leadership perceptions. Building on socio-cognitive theories of impression processes, we experimentally explore the formation of leadership perceptions based on the recognition of six key attributes in a series of three experimental studies comprising 566 US-based participants recruited online via Amazon Mechanical Turk. Our results show that while certain attributes play an important role in the leader categorization process, others are less relevant. We also demonstrate that some attributes’ importance is contingent on the presence of other attributes and on the leadership schema type activated in respondents’ minds. Consistent with the Leadership Categorization Theory, our findings support the premise that individuals cognitively hold a superordinate leadership prototype, which imposes constraints on their more basic level prototypes. We discuss the implications of these results for leadership theory and practice.

  17. From the Boob Tube to the Black Box: TV News Comprehension from an Information Processing Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodall, W. Gill; And Others

    Based on data drawn from a larger study concerning what people learn from television news broadcasts, this paper suggests ways that researchers might conceptualize audience comprehension of television news. Following a review of the information processing literature, the paper analyzes several conceptualizations taken from the literature and…

  18. From the Boob Tube to the Black Box: Television News Comprehension from an Information Processing Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodall, W. Gill; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Reviews research on viewers' understanding and retention of television news broadcasts; discusses the cognitive processes of memory and comprehension; and develops two models, one based on episodical memory and the other on semantic networks. Guidelines are offered for research based on both of these models. More than 40 sources are cited. (EAO)

  19. Ziziphus mauritiana (masau) fruits fermentation in Zimbabwe: from black-box to starter culture development

    OpenAIRE

    Nyanga, L.K.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis reports on studies of microbiological and biochemical properties of masau (Ziziphus mauritiana) fruit fermentation and the development of starter cultures for the production of masau beverages. A survey to document the traditional processing techniques was conducted using a questionnaire and focus group discussions in each of the three districts, i.e., Mudzi, Mt Darwin and Muzarabani in Zimbabwe. The survey results showed that the masau fruit is usually gathered by women and chi...

  20. Ziziphus mauritiana (masau) fruits fermentation in Zimbabwe: from black-box to starter culture development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyanga, L.K.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis reports on studies of microbiological and biochemical properties of masau (Ziziphus mauritiana) fruit fermentation and the development of starter cultures for the production of masau beverages.

    A survey to document the traditional processing

  1. Inside the Black Box: The Case Review Process of an Elder Abuse Forensic Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Adria E; Wysong, Julia; DeLiema, Marguerite; Schwartz, Elizabeth L; Nichol, Michael B; Wilber, Kathleen H

    2016-08-01

    Preliminary evidence suggests that elder abuse forensic centers improve victim welfare by increasing necessary prosecutions and conservatorships and reducing the recurrence of protective service referrals. Center team members gather information and make decisions designed to protect clients and their assets, yet the collective process of how these case reviews are conducted remains unexamined. The purpose of this study is to present a model describing the interprofessional approach of investigation and response to financial exploitation (FE), a frequent and complex type of abuse of vulnerable adults. To develop an understanding of the case review process at the Los Angeles County Elder Abuse Forensic Center (Center), a quasi-Delphi field study approach was used involving direct observations of meetings, surveying team members, and review from the Center's Advisory Council. The goal of this iterative analysis was to understand the case review process for suspected FE in Los Angeles County. A process map of key forensic center elements was developed that may be useful for replication in other settings. The process map includes: (a) multidisciplinary data collection, (b) key decisions for consideration, and (c) strategic actions utilized by an interprofessional team focused on elder justice. Elder justice relies on a complex system of providers. Elder abuse forensic centers provide a process designed to efficiently address client safety, client welfare, and protection of assets. Study findings provide a process map that may help other communities replicate an established multidisciplinary team, one experienced with justice system outcomes designed to protect FE victims. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Unlocking the Black Box: Exploring the Link between High-Performance Work Systems and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messersmith, Jake G.; Patel, Pankaj C.; Lepak, David P.

    2011-01-01

    With a growing body of literature linking systems of high-performance work practices to organizational performance outcomes, recent research has pushed for examinations of the underlying mechanisms that enable this connection. In this study, based on a large sample of Welsh public-sector employees, we explored the role of several individual-level…

  3. Filling the Black Box of Implementation for Health-Promoting Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowling, Louise; Samdal, Oddrun

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Achieving organisational learning and greater specificity for implementation action for health-promoting schools requires detailed understanding of the necessary components. They include: preparing and planning for school development, policy and institutional anchoring, professional development and learning, leadership and management…

  4. Exploring the black box of quality improvement collaboratives: modelling relations between conditions, applied changes and outcomes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dückers, M.L.A.; Spreeuwenberg, P.; Wagner, C.; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Despite the popularity of quality improvement collaboratives (QICs) in different healthcare settings, relatively little is known about the implementation process. The objective of the current study is to learn more about relations between relevant conditions for successful

  5. Researching the black box of wrItIng processes in higher education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smedegaard Ernst Bengtsen, Søren; Jensen, Gry Sandholm

    Paper Presenter/author: Søren S.E. Bengtsen Title/position: PhD, Research assistant, Centre for Teaching Development and Digital Media, Aarhus University Postal Address: Paludan Müllers-Vej 48, 8200 Aarhus N. E-mail: ssbe@dpu.dk Co-author: Gry S. Jensen (co-author and co-presenter) Supervisory......, we wish to render visible such student thinking and writing processes. Drawing on phenomenological and linguistic research methods (Manen 2002; Manen 1997; Johnstone 1996) we argue that a new vocabulary for supervision on student texts must be developed for supervisors to more fully grasp...

  6. Black boxes on wheels: research challenges and ethical problems in MEA-based robotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Martin Mose

    2016-01-01

    Robotic systems consisting of a neuron culture grown on a multielectrode array (MEA) which is connected to a virtual or mechanical robot have been studied for approximately 15 years. It is hoped that these MEA-based robots will be able to address the problem that robots based on conventional...... and that they are not likely to be solved within the field. After that, I discuss whether MEA-based robotics should be considered pop science. Finally, I investigate the ethical aspects of this research....

  7. Opening the Black-box of Academic Research: Assessment, Publishing and Critical Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Magaudda

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available What does it mean today to take a critical stance on scientific knowledge, its production and its dissemination? And what tactics should one adopt for this purpose? These questions are relevant to all disciplines; but for STS they are crucial, because the processes by which knowledge is produced and institutionalized are among the main themes of the entire STS field of study. This paper tries to answer the above questions by outlining the main features of the scenario in which the production and assessment of scientific knowledge today take place. It then concentrates on a concrete case in the field of open-access scientific publishing in order to show some of the tactics useful for pursuing a critical perspective on both the production and dissemination of knowledge at academic level. 

  8. Shining a light in the black box of orphan drug pricing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The pricing mechanism of orphan drugs appears arbitrary and has been referred to as a “black box”. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate how drug- and disease-specific variables relate to orphan drug prices. Additionally, we aim to explore if certain country-specific pricing and reimbursement policies affect the price level of orphan drugs. Methods Annual treatment costs per indication per patient were calculated for 59 orphan drugs with a publicly available price in Belgium, the Netherlands, Czech Republic, France, Italy and the United Kingdom. A multiple linear regression model was built with 14 drug- and disease-specific variables. A Mann-Whitney U test was used to explore whether there is a correlation between annual treatment costs of orphan drugs across countries with different pricing and reimbursement policies. Results Repurposed orphan drugs, orally administered orphan drugs or orphan drugs for which an alternative treatment is available are associated with lower annual treatment costs. Orphan drugs with multiple orphan indications, for chronic treatments or for which an improvement in overall survival or quality-of-life has been demonstrated, are associated with higher annual treatment costs. No association was found between annual treatments cost of orphan drugs across countries and the different pricing and reimbursement systems. Conclusions This study has shown that prices of orphan drugs are influenced by factors such as the availability of an alternative drug treatment, repurposing, etc. Current debate about the affordability of orphan drugs highlights the need for more transparency in orphan drug price setting. PMID:24767472

  9. Percepção: uma Caixa Preta para Marketing? PERCEPTION: A BLACK BOX TO MARKETING?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Satiko Sato

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabela normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} One of the least studied elements in the marketing literature, but which is of fundamental importance for understanding the process of buying decision is perception. Thinking of perception is not only thinking about how a consumer sees their options, but also to understand the mechanisms involved in this direction. This article aims to discuss human Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabela normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} perception from the perspective of marketing. This is a work of theoretical, with exploration goals, based on review of the literature on the subject. The stimuli are perceived by the individual through its capabilities, ie, for each individual in their personalities, mental and perceptive. It was evident the strong relationship between perception and sensory stimuli. Unravel the workings of the formation of perception can result in understanding the actions of consumers that are currently considered emotional, and fleeing the predictability of business. Studying the perception brings the ability to understand how information reaches the person and becomes conscious. The limitations of the study concern the fact and it is a test, leaving for future studies involving empirical research consistent with the issues that are worked involving perception.Um dos elementos menos estudado pela literatura de marketing, mas que é de fundamental importância para a compreensão do processo de decisão de compra, é a percepção. Pensar em percepção não é somente pensar em como um consumidor enxerga as suas opções de compra, mas também entender os mecanismos envolvidos para esse sentido. O presente artigo tem como objetivo discutir a percepção humana sob a perspectiva de marketing. Trata-se de um trabalho de cunho teórico, com objetivos exploratórios, baseado na revisão da literatura relativa ao assunto em questão. Os estímulos são percebidos pelo indivíduo por meio de suas capacidades, ou seja, por cada pessoa em suas individualidades mentais e perceptivas. Ficou evidenciada a forte relação existente entre a percepção e os estímulos sensoriais. Desvendar o funcionamento da formação da percepção pode resultar na compreensão das ações dos consumidores que, atualmente, são consideradas emocionais e que fogem das previsibilidades das empresas. Estudar a percepção traz a possibilidade de entender como a informação chega ao indivíduo e se torna consciente. As limitações do trabalho dizem respeito ao fato e se tratar de um ensaio, ficando para estudos futuros o envolvimento de pesquisas empíricas compatíveis com as problemáticas que forem trabalhadas envolvendo a percepção.

  10. Looking into the Black Box: Insights into the Mechanisms of Somatic Cell Reprogramming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey L. Wrana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The dramatic discovery that somatic cells could be reprogrammed to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs, by the expression of just four factors, has opened new opportunities for regenerative medicine and novel ways of modeling human diseases. Extensive research over the short time since the first iPSCs were generated has yielded the ability to reprogram various cell types using a diverse range of methods. However the duration, efficiency, and safety of induced reprogramming have remained a persistent limitation to achieving a robust experimental and therapeutic system. The field has worked to resolve these issues through technological advances using non-integrative approaches, factor replacement or complementation with microRNA, shRNA and drugs. Despite these advances, the molecular mechanisms underlying the reprogramming process remain poorly understood. Recently, through the use of inducible secondary reprogramming systems, researchers have now accessed more rigorous mechanistic experiments to decipher this complex process. In this review we will discuss some of the major recent findings in reprogramming, pertaining to proliferation and cellular senescence, epigenetic and chromatin remodeling, and other complex cellular processes such as morphological changes and mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition. We will focus on the implications of this work in the construction of a mechanistic understanding of reprogramming and discuss unexplored areas in this rapidly expanding field.

  11. On looking into the Black Box: Prospects and Limits in the Search for Mental Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-01

    particularly in terms of the ways in which humans understand systems. Norman (19831 characterizes this understanding as messy, sloppy, incomplete, and...Kleinman, et al., 1971]). However, for tasks involving only monitoring [ Smallwood , 1967; Sheridan, 1970], especially when apparent discontinuities...18 Norman [1983] uses the word "conceptaalization" to characterize researchers’ models of humans’ mental models. This characterization serves to

  12. Looking into the black-box: analysis of the effectiveness of human resources strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª del Valle Fernández Moreno

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have shown a positive relationship between Human Resources Management (HRM and firm performance. However, in spite of the variety of studies, adopted approaches and statistical methodologies to be found, it has not been possible to clarify the exact manner and conditions under which HRM can become a source of competitive advantage. This can be explained by the fact that most empirical works have ignored mediating hypothesis and merely examined the direct relationship between High Performance Work Systems (HPWS and firm performance. This article, attempts to gain further insights into such an analysis by integrating the two main theoretical approaches in this field: The Resource Based View (RBV of firm and Behavioural Theory. Using a sample of 62 financial firms we examined this mediating and moderating effect of Human Capital and HR Outcomes on the HPWS – Business Performance linkage. Hierarchical Regression Analysis revealed that HPWS was positively related to firm performance, Human Capital and HR outcomes. In addition, the level of Human Capital and HR outcomes mediate the relationship between HPWS and firm performance. These results shed new light on the mechanisms through which HPWS impacts business performance.

  13. 76 FR 16350 - Medical Devices; Ovarian Adnexal Mass Assessment Score Test System; Labeling; Black Box Restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... inflation) in any one year.'' The current threshold after adjustment for inflation is $135 million, using the most current (2009) Implicit Price Deflator for the Gross Domestic Product. FDA does not expect... proposes to amend 21 CFR part 866 as follows. PART 866--IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES 1. The...

  14. Black Boxes in Analytical Chemistry: University Students' Misconceptions of Instrumental Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbo, Antonio Domenech; Adelantado, Jose Vicente Gimeno; Reig, Francisco Bosch

    2010-01-01

    Misconceptions of chemistry and chemical engineering university students concerning instrumental analysis have been established from coordinated tests, tutorial interviews and laboratory lessons. Misconceptions can be divided into: (1) formal, involving specific concepts and formulations within the general frame of chemistry; (2)…

  15. Opening the Black Box: Understanding the Science Behind Big Data and Predictive Analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Ira S; Halperin, Eran; Cannesson, Maxime

    2018-05-25

    Big data, smart data, predictive analytics, and other similar terms are ubiquitous in the lay and scientific literature. However, despite the frequency of usage, these terms are often poorly understood, and evidence of their disruption to clinical care is hard to find. This article aims to address these issues by first defining and elucidating the term big data, exploring the ways in which modern medical data, both inside and outside the electronic medical record, meet the established definitions of big data. We then define the term smart data and discuss the transformations necessary to make big data into smart data. Finally, we examine the ways in which this transition from big to smart data will affect what we do in research, retrospective work, and ultimately patient care.

  16. Getting Inside the Black Box: Examining How the Operation of Charter Schools Affects Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Ron; Buddin, Richard

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, a series of articles have examined the performance of charter schools with mixed results. Some of this research has shown that charter school performance varies by charter type or the age of the school (Bifulco & Ladd, 2006; Buddin & Zimmer, 2005; Hanushek, Kain, & Rivkin, 2002; Sass, 2006). However, this research has…

  17. Opening the Frey/Osborne Black Box: Which Tasks of a Job are Susceptible to Computerization?

    OpenAIRE

    Brandes, Philipp; Wattenhofer, Roger

    2016-01-01

    In their seminal paper, Frey and Osborne quantified the automation of jobs, by assigning each job in the O*NET database a probability to be automated. In this paper, we refine their results in the following way: Every O*NET job consists of a set of tasks, and these tasks can be related. We use a linear program to assign probabilities to tasks, such that related tasks have a similar probability and the tasks can explain the computerization probability of a job. Analyzing jobs on the level of t...

  18. Bricolage as innovation: opening the black box of drip irrigation systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benouniche, M.; Zwarteveen, M.; Kuper, M.

    2014-01-01

    In Morocco, many farmers enthusiastically use drip irrigation. However, few drip irrigation systems conform to engineering standards. In a process they refer to as bricolage, farmers modify and adapt standard designs, thus creating their own technical standards. We document three instances of

  19. Bricolage as innovation: opening the black box of Drip Irrigation Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benouniche, M.; Zwarteveen, M.Z.; Kuper, M.

    2014-01-01

    In Morocco, many farmers enthusiastically use drip irrigation. However, few drip irrigation systems conform to engineering standards. In a process they refer to as bricolage, farmers modify and adapt standard designs, thus creating their own technical standards. We document three instances of

  20. Methanogenic Archaea and oral infections – ways to unravel the black box

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Peter Horz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Archaea, organisms that make up the third domain of cellular life are members of the human oral microflora. They are strikingly less diverse than oral bacteria and appear to be relatively rare with respect to their numerical abundance. Since they have been exclusively found in association with oral infections such as periodontitis and apical periodontitis and given their unique physiology and energy metabolism, it is highly plausible that they are more than just secondary colonizers of infected areas, but instead are actively involved in the overall poly-microbial infection process. Conversely, it is a highly challenging task to clearly demonstrate their possible active participation – mostly due to the difficulty to grow them in routine microbiology laboratories. This current review points out the importance for understanding the medical impact of methanogens and aims at devising strategies for elucidating the true function of archaea in the oral ecosystem.

  1. Productivity Spillovers from Foreign Direct Investment: What If Productivity is No Longer a Black Box?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toan Thang Tran

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available While the positive productivity spillover from Foreign Direct Investment (FDI to domestic owned firms in host countries is unequivocally emphasized in theory, the empirical evidence is contradictory. This paper, based on firm level data in Vietnam (enterprise census, 2000-2005, provides more inside on that. Using time-varying stochastic frontier approach, the study decomposed the change of productivity into technical change, technical efficiency change and scale efficiency change. The evidence from estimating the spillovers in each corresponding components suggest that horizontal FDI bring negative spillovers, mainly to technical change but positive spillovers to technical efficiency. Vertical FDI also have mixed impacts to domestic owned firm’s productivity.

  2. Productivity Spillovers from Foreign Direct Investment: What If Productivity is No Longer a Black Box?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toan Thang Tran

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available While the positive productivity spillover from Foreign Direct Investment (FDI to domestic owned firms in host countries is unequivocally emphasized in theory, the empirical evidence is contradictory. This paper, based on firm level data in Vietnam (enterprise census, 2000-2005, provides more inside on that. Using time-varying stochastic frontier approach, the study decomposed the change of productivity into technical change, technical efficiency change and scale efficiency change. The evidence from estimating the spillovers in each corresponding components suggest that horizontal FDI bring negative spillovers, mainly to technical change but positive spillovers to technical efficiency. Vertical FDI also have mixed impacts to domestic owned firm’s productivity.Keywords: Stochastic frontier model, foreign direct investment, productivity spillover, panel data

  3. Opening the Implicit Leadership Theories’ Black Box: An Experimental Approach with Conjoint Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Gustavo M.; Sobral, Filipe; Goldszmidt, Rafael; Araújo, Felipe

    2018-01-01

    Although research on implicit leadership theories (ILTs) has concentrated on determining which attributes define a leadership prototype, little attention has been paid to testing the relative importance of each of these attributes for individuals’ leadership perceptions. Building on socio-cognitive theories of impression processes, we experimentally explore the formation of leadership perceptions based on the recognition of six key attributes in a series of three experimental studies comprising 566 US-based participants recruited online via Amazon Mechanical Turk. Our results show that while certain attributes play an important role in the leader categorization process, others are less relevant. We also demonstrate that some attributes’ importance is contingent on the presence of other attributes and on the leadership schema type activated in respondents’ minds. Consistent with the Leadership Categorization Theory, our findings support the premise that individuals cognitively hold a superordinate leadership prototype, which imposes constraints on their more basic level prototypes. We discuss the implications of these results for leadership theory and practice. PMID:29467706

  4. Integrating organizational and human behavior perspectives on mergers and acquisitions: Looking inside the black box

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, Yaakov; Drori, Israel

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a conceptual framework for investigating merger and acquisition (M&A) performance through a multistage and multilevel approach. First, human resource challenges during the integration process following a merger are explored to help explain the inconsistencies among empirical

  5. Inside the black box: incentive regulation and incentive channeling on energy markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Heine (Klaus)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis paper aims to achieve more insight into the complex interplay between the "external" market regulations and "internal" regulations (corporate governance) of energy firms. In recent years, many countries have deregulated the incumbent energy monopolies and have introduced new modes

  6. Peering into a Chilean black box: parental storytelling in pediatric genetic counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordonez, Jessica; Margarit, Sonia; Downs, Katy; Yashar, Beverly M

    2013-12-01

    While genetic counseling has expanded to multiple international settings, research about providing culturally sensitive services to non-U.S. patients is limited. To gain insights, we utilized a process study to explore parental communication in pediatric genetics clinics in Chile. We utilized a phenomenological hermeneutic approach to assess storytelling in six pediatric sessions that were conducted in Spanish, and translated into English. The majority of the sessions focused on information gathering (35 %), and providing medical (20 %) and genetics education (18 %). The 14 instances of storytelling we identified usually emerged during information gathering, genetics education, and the closing of the session. Stories illustrated parental efforts to create a cognitive and emotional context for their child's genetic diagnosis. Parents emerged as competent caregivers who discussed the role of the child as a social being in the family and the larger community. Our analysis found that genetic counseling sessions in the U.S. and Chile are structured similarly and although communication is not a balanced process, parents use storytelling to participate as active agents in the session. Via storytelling, we learned that parents are working to understand and gain control over their child's genetic diagnosis by relying on mechanisms that extend beyond the genetics appointment.

  7. Opening the "Black Box" of efficiency measurement : Input allocation in multi-output settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dierynck, B.; Cherchye, L.J.H.; Sabbe, J.; Roodhooft, F.; de Rock, B.

    2013-01-01

    We develop a new data envelopment analysis (DEA)-based methodology for measuring the efficiency of decision-making units (DMUs) characterized by multiple inputs and multiple outputs. The distinguishing feature of our method is that it explicitly includes information about output-specific inputs and

  8. The opacity of reduction: nutritional black-boxing and the meanings of nourishment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yates-Doerr, E.

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the process of consolidating technical and historically contingent ideas about nourishment into seemingly straightforward terms such as vitamins and minerals. I study the adoption of scientific principles of abstraction and reduction as a strategy of nutrition education in

  9. 5 CFR 842.211 - Senior Executive Service, Defense Intelligence Senior Executive Service, and Senior Cryptologic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Senior Executive Service, Defense Intelligence Senior Executive Service, and Senior Cryptologic Executive Service. 842.211 Section 842.211... EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-BASIC ANNUITY Eligibility § 842.211 Senior Executive Service, Defense...

  10. Single-instruction multiple-data execution

    CERN Document Server

    Hughes, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    Having hit power limitations to even more aggressive out-of-order execution in processor cores, many architects in the past decade have turned to single-instruction-multiple-data (SIMD) execution to increase single-threaded performance. SIMD execution, or having a single instruction drive execution of an identical operation on multiple data items, was already well established as a technique to efficiently exploit data parallelism. Furthermore, support for it was already included in many commodity processors. However, in the past decade, SIMD execution has seen a dramatic increase in the set of

  11. Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation of Hydrodynamics and Stresses in the PhEur/USP Disintegration Tester Under Fed and Fasted Fluid Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindgen, Sarah; Wachtel, Herbert; Abrahamsson, Bertil; Langguth, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Disintegration of oral solid dosage forms is a prerequisite for drug dissolution and absorption and is to a large extent dependent on the pressures and hydrodynamic conditions in the solution that the dosage form is exposed to. In this work, the hydrodynamics in the PhEur/USP disintegration tester were investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Particle image velocimetry was used to validate the CFD predictions. The CFD simulations were performed with different Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids, representing fasted and fed states. The results indicate that the current design and operating conditions of the disintegration test device, given by the pharmacopoeias, are not reproducing the in vivo situation. This holds true for the hydrodynamics in the disintegration tester that generates Reynolds numbers dissimilar to the reported in vivo situation. Also, when using homogenized US FDA meal, representing the fed state, too high viscosities and relative pressures are generated. The forces acting on the dosage form are too small for all fluids compared to the in vivo situation. The lack of peristaltic contractions, which generate hydrodynamics and shear stress in vivo, might be the major drawback of the compendial device resulting in the observed differences between predicted and in vivo measured hydrodynamics. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  12. WEBSITE EXECUTION OF CAD MODULES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Lyalinsky

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Web-based interface of modules that are part of the computer-aided design system in microelectronics is considered. The influence of several factors (available computer  memory, maximum allowed run time, degree of homogeneity of the software on the structure of the created system is investigated. Synchronous and asynchronous variants of interaction between control and executive parts are described. References on the systems that allow an access to applications in CAD microelectronics and are based on the principles discussed in this article are given.

  13. Warhead Monitoring Planning and Execution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakae, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-12-05

    The Warhead Measurement Campaign is a multi-laboratory project lead by the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The project will measure several items of the US nuclear weapons stockpile with a wide range of radiation detection systems. This report provides a brief summary of those LLNL executed activities for the Warhead Measurement Campaign from FY11 through FY16. A more detailed description of all of LLNL’s activiites for the WMC will be presented in the final report of a follow-on project, , LA17-V-Wx.

  14. 78 FR 55244 - Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board; Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ... DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES SAFETY BOARD Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board... the membership of the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Senior Executive Service (SES... rating of a senior executive's performance, the executive's response, and the higher level official's...

  15. Career patterns of healthcare executives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahey, D F; Myrtle, R C

    2001-02-01

    This research examines the job and career changes of healthcare executives and managers working in different segments of the healthcare industry in the western United States. The results suggest that the job and career patterns in the healthcare delivery sector are undergoing significant transformation. One third of the respondents reports that at least one of their last four job changes was involuntary or unplanned. One half of those attempted to make a career change. This study identifies four different executive and management career patterns. The most common was one of multiple career changes. The second pattern was that of a single career change, followed by a 'traditional' career in which one did not seek a career change. The final pattern was characterized as a movement back and forth between two different segments of the healthcare industry. Age, gender, marital status and education were not associated with any specific career pattern. The need to achieve results early in the respondent's career had a strong influence on career patterns. This study confirms the fluidity of career movement and the changing permeability between the various segments of the healthcare industry. It also suggests that career success increasingly will require broad management experience in those different segments.

  16. Executive Functions in Developmental Dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela eVarvara

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed at investigating different aspects of Executive Functions (EF in children with Developmental Dyslexia (DD.A neuropsychological battery tapping verbal fluency, spoonerism, attention, verbal shifting, short-term and working memory was used to assess 60 children with DD and 65 with typical reading abilities.Compared to their controls, children with DD showed deficits in several EF domains such as verbal categorical and phonological fluency, visual-spatial and auditory attention, spoonerism, verbal and visual short-term memory, and verbal working memory. Moreover, exploring predictive relationships between EF measures and reading, we found that spoonerism abilities better explained word and non-word reading deficits. Although to a lesser extent, auditory and visual-spatial attention also explained the increased percentage of variance related to reading deficit.EF deficits found in DD are interpreted as an expression of a deficient functioning of the Central Executive System and are discussed in the context of the recent temporal sampling theory.

  17. Executive function, episodic memory, and Medicare expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Alex C; Austin, Andrea M; Grodstein, Francine; Bynum, Julie P W

    2017-07-01

    We examined the relationship between health care expenditures and cognition, focusing on differences across cognitive systems defined by global cognition, executive function, or episodic memory. We used linear regression models to compare annual health expenditures by cognitive status in 8125 Nurses' Health Study participants who completed a cognitive battery and were enrolled in Medicare parts A and B. Adjusting for demographics and comorbidity, executive impairment was associated with higher total annual expenditures of $1488 per person (P episodic memory impairment was found. Expenditures exhibited a linear relationship with executive function, but not episodic memory ($584 higher for every 1 standard deviation decrement in executive function; P < .01). Impairment in executive function is specifically and linearly associated with higher health care expenditures. Focusing on management strategies that address early losses in executive function may be effective in reducing costly services. Copyright © 2017 the Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Executable Architecture Research at Old Dominion University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolk, Andreas; Shuman, Edwin A.; Garcia, Johnny J.

    2011-01-01

    Executable Architectures allow the evaluation of system architectures not only regarding their static, but also their dynamic behavior. However, the systems engineering community do not agree on a common formal specification of executable architectures. To close this gap and identify necessary elements of an executable architecture, a modeling language, and a modeling formalism is topic of ongoing PhD research. In addition, systems are generally defined and applied in an operational context to provide capabilities and enable missions. To maximize the benefits of executable architectures, a second PhD effort introduces the idea of creating an executable context in addition to the executable architecture. The results move the validation of architectures from the current information domain into the knowledge domain and improve the reliability of such validation efforts. The paper presents research and results of both doctoral research efforts and puts them into a common context of state-of-the-art of systems engineering methods supporting more agility.

  19. Culture, executive function, and social understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Charlie; Koyasu, Masuo; Oh, Seungmi; Ogawa, Ayako; Short, Benjamin; Huang, Zhao

    2009-01-01

    Much of the evidence from the West has shown links between children's developing self-control (executive function), their social experiences, and their social understanding (Carpendale & Lewis, 2006, chapters 5 and 6), across a range of cultures including China. This chapter describes four studies conducted in three Oriental cultures, suggesting that the relationships among social interaction, executive function, and social understanding are different in these cultures, implying that social and executive skills are underpinned by key cultural processes.

  20. Spirituality and the physician executive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, L R

    2000-01-01

    The "s" word can now be spoken without flinching in health care organizations. Spirituality is becoming a common topic in management conferences around the world. Many U.S. corporations are recognizing the role of spirituality in creating a new humanistic capitalism that manages beyond the bottom line. Spirituality refers to a broad set of principles that transcend all religions. It is the relationship between yourself and something larger, such as the good of your patient or the welfare of the community. Spirituality means being in right relationship to all that is and understanding the mutual interdependence of all living beings. Physician executives should be primary proponents of spirituality in their organizations by: Modeling the power of spirituality in their own lives; integrating spiritual methodologies into clinical practice; fostering an integrative approach to patient care; encouraging the organization to tithe its profits for unmet community health needs; supporting collaborative efforts to improve the health of the community; and creating healing environments.

  1. CSP for Executable Scientific Workflows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friborg, Rune Møllegaard

    and can usually benefit performance-wise from both multiprocessing, cluster and grid environments. PyCSP is an implementation of Communicating Sequential Processes (CSP) for the Python programming language and takes advantage of CSP's formal and verifiable approach to controlling concurrency...... on multi-processing and cluster computing using PyCSP. Additionally, McStas is demonstrated to utilise grid computing resources using PyCSP. Finally, this thesis presents a new dynamic channel model, which has not yet been implemented for PyCSP. The dynamic channel is able to change the internal...... synchronisation mechanisms on-the-fly, depending on the location and number of channel-ends connected. Thus it may start out as a simple local pipe and evolve into a distributed channel spanning multiple nodes. This channel is a necessary next step for PyCSP to allow for complete freedom in executing CSP...

  2. Advanced Fuels Campaign Execution Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemal Pasamehmetoglu

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of the Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) Execution Plan is to communicate the structure and management of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) activities within the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program. Included in this document is an overview of the FCRD program, a description of the difference between revolutionary and evolutionary approaches to nuclear fuel development, the meaning of science-based development of nuclear fuels, and the “Grand Challenge” for the AFC that would, if achieved, provide a transformational technology to the nuclear industry in the form of a high performance, high reliability nuclear fuel system. The activities that will be conducted by the AFC to achieve success towards this grand challenge are described and the goals and milestones over the next 20 to 40 year period of research and development are established.

  3. Advanced Fuels Campaign Execution Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemal Pasamehmetoglu

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of the Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) Execution Plan is to communicate the structure and management of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) activities within the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program. Included in this document is an overview of the FCRD program, a description of the difference between revolutionary and evolutionary approaches to nuclear fuel development, the meaning of science-based development of nuclear fuels, and the 'Grand Challenge' for the AFC that would, if achieved, provide a transformational technology to the nuclear industry in the form of a high performance, high reliability nuclear fuel system. The activities that will be conducted by the AFC to achieve success towards this grand challenge are described and the goals and milestones over the next 20 to 40 year period of research and development are established.

  4. EMI Execution Service (EMI-ES) Specification

    CERN Document Server

    Schuller, B

    2010-01-01

    This document provides the interface specification, including related data models such as state model, activity description, resource and activity information, of an execution service, matching the needs of the EMI production middleware stack composed of ARC, gLite and UNICORE components. This service therefore is referred to as the EMI Execution Service (or “ES” for short). This document is a continuation of the work previously know as the GENEVA, then AGU (“ARC, gLite UNICORE”), then PGI execution service. As a starting point, the v0.42 of the “PGI Execution Service Specification” (doc15839) was used.

  5. A simple hypothesis of executive function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno eKopp

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Executive function is traditionally conceptualized as a set of abilities required to guide behavior toward goals. Here, an integrated theoretical framework for executive function is developed which has its roots in the notion of hierarchical mental models. Further following Duncan (2010a,b, executive function is construed as a hierarchical recursive system of test-operation-test-exit units (Miller, Galanter, and Pribram, 1960. Importantly, it is shown that this framework can be used to model the main regional prefrontal syndromes, which are characterized by apathetic, disinhibited and dysexecutive cognition and behavior, respectively. Implications of these considerations for the neuropsychological assessment of executive function are discussed.

  6. Executive Orders-William J. Clinton

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — Executive orders are official documents, numbered consecutively, through which the President of the United States manages the operations of the Federal Government....

  7. +Gz load and executive functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biernacki, Marcin P; Tarnowski, Adam; Lengsfeld, Kamila; Lewkowicz, Rafał; Kowalczuk, Krzysztof; Dereń, Miroslaw

    2013-05-01

    Pilots are constantly exposed to a number of environmental factors, which include +Gz load. Physiological changes evoked by +Gz stimuli have already been well investigated in aviation medicine. However, the influence of +Gz stimulation on executive functions in pilots has not yet been thoroughly explored. There were 20 pilot cadets between the ages of 19 and 22 yr who volunteered to participate in the experiment. The subjects were divided into two groups: the G-load group, which was exposed to accelerations in the centrifuge, and the control group, which did not undergo this stimulation. Executive functions were assessed by means of the Schulte tables and the Rey-Osterrieth complex figure test. +Gz load exposure significantly improved attention switching. This relationship was valid for performance speed (M = 268.09 s in the pretest in the G-load group; M = 228.09 s in the posttest in the G-load group) and for the cumulative time of mistakes (M = 26.73 s in the pretest in the G-load group; M = 12 s in the posttest in the G-load group), whereas reproduction of visuospatial stimuli from memory deteriorated significantly under the influence of +Gz stimulation (M = 17.18 points in the posttest in the G-load group; M = 28.18 points in the posttest in the control group). These results suggest that the impact of +Gz load is not homogenous and unidirectional, since it improves attention switching but visuospatial working memory decreases under its influence. These aspects are particularly important for understanding the mechanisms responsible for maintaining situational awareness during the flight.

  8. Remodelación del probador de aceites WPOT 0.25/75; Remodelig of the WPOT0.25/75 oil tester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignat Pérez Almirall

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fundamental de este trabajo es el rediseño del probador de aceites WPOT 0.25/75. Para estofue necesario rediseñar completamente todo su sistema de control y de protección pues el original ademásde estar constituido sobre la base de válvulas de vacío, no funcionaba ya que presentaba fallas en lossoportes aislantes de las mismas, fallas de dichas válvulas y fallas en la placa aislante que sirve desoporte a los componentes de los mecanismos de protección y control. Para solucionar estos problemasse diseñó un sistema de control con tiristores para la protección del equipo sustituyéndose por completoel obsoleto sistema de control a válvulas, lográndose un sistema de control seguro, confiable y de fáciloperación como para ser operado por personal con pocas habilidades.  The main objective of this paper is to remodel the WPOT 0.25/75 oil tester equipment. The originalequipment was made with vacuum valves, coupled on an insulated support. This equipment presentedseveral electrical failures on the insulated support and in the vacuum valves. In order to solve this problem,a new control and protecting system, using tiristor,  was designed . With this new design it was possibleto use this oil tester again. Moreover, the design offers better and new operating options useful for somespecial interesting tests.

  9. Remote Testing of Timed Specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Alexandre; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Mikucionis, Marius

    2013-01-01

    We present a study and a testing framework on black box remote testing of real-time systems using UPPAAL TIGA. One of the essential challenges of remote testing is the communication latency between the Tester and the System Under Test (IUT) that may lead to interleaving of inputs and outputs. Thi...

  10. Universal control and measuring system for modern classic and amorphous magnetic materials single/on-line strip testers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemánek, Ivan; Havlíček, Václav

    2006-09-01

    A new universal control and measuring system for classic and amorphous soft magnetic materials single/on-line strip testing has been developed at the Czech Technical University in Prague. The measuring system allows to measure magnetization characteristic and specific power losses of different tested materials (strips) at AC magnetization of arbitrary magnetic flux density waveform at wide range of frequencies 20 Hz-20 kHz. The measuring system can be used for both single strip testing in laboratories and on-line strip testing during the production process. The measuring system is controlled by two-stage master-slave control system consisting of the external PC (master) completed by three special A/D measuring plug-in boards, and local executing control unit (slave) with one-chip microprocessor 8051, connected with PC by the RS232 serial line. The "user friendly" powerful control software implemented on the PC and the effective program code for the microprocessor give possibility for full automatic measurement with high measuring power and high measuring accuracy.

  11. Conceptualization and Operationalization of Executive Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggetta, Peter; Alexander, Patricia A.

    2016-01-01

    Executive function is comprised of different behavioral and cognitive elements and is considered to play a significant role in learning and academic achievement. Educational researchers frequently study the construct. However, because of its complexity functionally, the research on executive function can at times be both confusing and…

  12. Challenging executive dominance in European democracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curtin, D.

    2014-01-01

    Executive dominance in the contemporary EU is part of a wider migration of executive power towards types of decision making that eschew electoral accountability and popular democratic control. This democratic gap is fed by far-going secrecy arrangements and practices exercised in a concerted fashion

  13. Challenging Executive Dominance in European Democracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curtin, D.

    2013-01-01

    Executive dominance in the contemporary EU is part of a wider migration of executive power towards types of decision making that eschew electoral accountability and popular democratic control. This democratic gap is fed by far‐going secrecy arrangements and practices exercised in a concerted fashion

  14. Ten Years of Change in Executive Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolt, James F.

    1993-01-01

    As recently as the 1980s, most companies did not pay much attention to executive education. In the 1990s, many see executive education as a must for revamping competitive strategies, increasing productivity, improving quality, reducing cycle time, and revitalizing corporate culture. (Author/JOW)

  15. Financial Management for Childcare Executive Officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster-Jorgensen, Karen; Harrington, Angela

    This handbook is designed to assist childcare executive officers (CEOs) in managing the finances of their programs. The guide is divided into five sections. Section 1, "Financial Entrepreneurship," advocates the adoption of an entrepreneurial spirit in directors and recommends: (1) becoming the Chief Executive Officer of the program; (2) actively…

  16. Understanding the Executive Functioning Heterogeneity in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffard, Stephane; Bayard, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    Schizophrenia is characterized by heterogeneous brain abnormalities involving cerebral regions implied in the executive functioning. The dysexecutive syndrome is one of the most prominent and functionally cognitive features of schizophrenia. Nevertheless, it is not clear to what extend executive deficits are heterogeneous in schizophrenia…

  17. 32 CFR 724.702 - Executive management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Executive management. 724.702 Section 724.702 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL NAVAL DISCHARGE REVIEW BOARD Organization of the Naval Discharge Review Board § 724.702 Executive management. The...

  18. Design review of the SYVAC Executive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, G.D.

    1985-01-01

    The report documents the current SYVAC Executive design. Eight criteria for evaluating aspects of the design as objectively as possible are described as well as the results of applying them. Principal benefits arising from implementation of design recommendations are perceived to be improved maintainability and better delineation of the interface between the Executive and SYVAC submodels. (author)

  19. Neural modeling of prefrontal executive function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, D.S. [Univ. of Texas, Arlington, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Brain executive function is based in a distributed system whereby prefrontal cortex is interconnected with other cortical. and subcortical loci. Executive function is divided roughly into three interacting parts: affective guidance of responses; linkage among working memory representations; and forming complex behavioral schemata. Neural network models of each of these parts are reviewed and fit into a preliminary theoretical framework.

  20. Project Execution Plan, Rev. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IT Corporation, Las Vegas

    2002-01-01

    This plan addresses project activities encompassed by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office, Environmental Restoration Division and conforms to the requirements contained in the Life-Cycle Asset Management, DOE Order 430.1A; The Joint Program Office Policy on Project Management in Support of DOE Order 430.1; Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets, DOE Order 413.3; the Project Execution and Engineering Management Planning Guide, GPG-FM-010; and other applicable Good Practice Guides; and the FY 2001 Integrated Planning, Accountability, and Budgeting System Policy Guidance. The plan also reflects the milestone philosophies of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, as agreed to by the State of Nevada, the DOE, and the U.S. Department of Defense; and traditional project management philosophies such as the development of life-cycle costs, schedules, and work scope; identification o f roles and responsibilities; and baseline management and controls

  1. Autism Spectrum Disorder and intact executive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, R; Ansermet, F; Massoni, F; Petrone, L; Onofri, E; Ricci, P; Archer, T; Ricci, S

    2016-01-01

    Earliest notions concerning autism (Autism Spectrum Disorders, ASD) describe the disturbance in executive functioning. Despite altered definition, executive functioning, expressed as higher cognitive skills required complex behaviors linked to the prefrontal cortex, are defective in autism. Specific difficulties in children presenting autism or verbal disabilities at executive functioning levels have been identified. Nevertheless, the developmental deficit of executive functioning in autism is highly diversified with huge individual variation and may even be absent. The aim of the present study to examine the current standing of intact executive functioning intact in ASD. Analysis of ASD populations, whether high-functioning, Asperger's or autism Broad Phenotype, studied over a range of executive functions including response inhibition, planning, cognitive flexibility, cognitive inhibition, and alerting networks indicates an absence of damage/impairment compared to the typically-developed normal control subjects. These findings of intact executive functioning in ASD subjects provide a strong foundation on which to construct applications for growth environments and the rehabilitation of autistic subjects.

  2. EMI Execution Service Specification 1.0

    CERN Document Server

    Schuller, B. (JUELICH); Smirnova, O (Lund University); Konstantinov, A. (Oslo University); Skou Andersen, M. (University of Copenhagen); Riedel, M. (JUELICH); Memon, A.S. (JUELICH); Memon, M.S. (JUELICH); Zangrando, L. (INFN); Sgaravatto, M. (INFN); Frizziero, E. (INFN)

    2010-01-01

    This document provides the interface specification, including related data models such as state model, activity description, resource and activity information, of an execution service, matching the needs of the EMI production middleware stack composed of ARC, gLite and UNICORE components. This service therefore is referred to as the EMI Execution Service (or “ES” for short). This document is a continuation of the work previously known as the GENEVA, then AGU (“ARC, gLite UNICORE”), then PGI execution service.

  3. Genetic analyses of the stability of executive functioning during childhood.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polderman, T.J.C.; Posthuma, D.; de Sonneville, L.M.J.; Stins, J.F.; Verhulst, F.C.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2007-01-01

    Executive functioning is an umbrella term for several related cognitive functions like selective- and sustained attention, working memory, and inhibition. Little is known about the stability of executive functioning during childhood. In this study the longitudinal stability of executive functioning

  4. 29 CFR 541.100 - General rule for executive employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS DEFINING AND DELIMITING THE EXEMPTIONS FOR EXECUTIVE, ADMINISTRATIVE, PROFESSIONAL, COMPUTER AND OUTSIDE SALES EMPLOYEES Executive Employees § 541.100 General rule for executive employees. (a) The term...

  5. 76 FR 69770 - Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board AGENCY: Office of... of a senior executive's performance by the supervisor, and considers recommendations to the appointing authority regarding the performance of the senior executive. Office of Personnel Management. John...

  6. 78 FR 28243 - Senior Executive Service; Performance Review Board; Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... NATIONAL CAPITAL PLANNING COMMISSION Senior Executive Service; Performance Review Board; Members AGENCY: National Capital Planning Commission. ACTION: Notice of Members of Senior Executive Service... Senior Executive Service. The PRB established for the National Capital Planning Commission also makes...

  7. 76 FR 29013 - Senior Executive Service; Performance Review Board; Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ... NATIONAL CAPITAL PLANNING COMMISSION Senior Executive Service; Performance Review Board; Members AGENCY: National Capital Planning Commission. ACTION: Notice of Members of Senior Executive Service... Senior Executive Service. The PRB established for the National Capital Planning Commission also makes...

  8. 78 FR 41191 - Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Senior Executive Service Performance... Transportation Board (STB) publishes the names of the Persons selected to serve on its Senior Executive Service... performance appraisal system making senior executives accountable for organizational and individual goal...

  9. 77 FR 54570 - Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-05

    ... DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES SAFETY BOARD Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board AGENCY... the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Senior Executive Service (SES) Performance Review.... The PRB shall review and evaluate the initial summary rating of the senior executive's performance...

  10. 75 FR 62501 - Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board: Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ... AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board: Update... Development, Office of Inspector General's Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board. DATES: September... reference-- USAID OIG Senior Executive Service (SES) Performance Review Board). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: 5...

  11. Trends in HIV testing, prevalence among first-time testers, and incidence in most-at-risk populations in Spain: the EPI-VIH Study, 2000 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez, M; Bleda, M J; Varela, J R; Ordonana, J; Azpiri, M A; Vall, M; Santos, C; Viloria, L; de Armas, C; Urena, J M; Trullen, J; Pueyo, I; Martinez, B; Puerta, T; Vera, M; Sanz, I; Junquera, M L; Landa, M C; Martinez, E; Camara, M M; Belda, J; Bru, F J; Diaz, A

    2014-11-27

    During 2000 to 2009, data on people undergoing HIV testing and on those newly diagnosed with HIV were collected in a network of 20 Spanish clinics specialising in sexually transmitted infections and/or HIV testing and counselling. The number of tests performed, overall and disaggregated by different variables, was obtained. HIV prevalence among first-time testers and HIV incidence among repeat testers were calculated. To evaluate trends, joinpoint regression models were fitted. In total, 236,939 HIV tests were performed for 165,745 individuals. Overall HIV prevalence among persons seeking HIV testing was 2.5% (95% CI: 2.4 to 2.6). Prevalence was highest in male sex workers who had sex with other men (19.0% (95% CI: 16.7 to 21.4)) and was lowest in female sex workers (0.8% (95% CI: 0.7 to 0.9)). Significant trends in prevalence were observed in men who have sex with men (MSM) (increasing) and heterosexual individuals (decreasing). The incidence analysis included 30,679 persons, 64,104 person-years (py) of follow-up and 642 seroconversions. The overall incidence rate (IR) was 1.0/100 py (95% CI: 0.9/100 to 1.1/100). Incidence was significantly higher in men and transgender females than in women (1.8/100 py (95% CI: 1.6 to 1.9), 1.2/100 py (95% CI: 0.5 to 2.8) and 0.1/100 py (95% CI: 0.09 to 0.2) respectively) and increased with age until 35–39 years. IRs in MSM and people who inject drugs were significantly greater than in heterosexual individuals (2.5/100 py (95% CI: 2.3 to 2.7), 1.6/100 py (95% CI: 1.1 to 2.2) and 0.1/100 py (95% CI: 0.09 to 0.2) respectively), and an upward trend was observed in MSM. Our results call for HIV prevention to be reinforced in MSM and transgender women in Spain.

  12. Executive Coaching Practices in the Adult Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campone, Francine

    2015-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of key principles and practices in executive coaching. Coaching is discussed as a reflective learning opportunity and offers the theoretical grounding, strategies, and case studies for each of four key elements of a coaching engagement.

  13. Women School Executives Get Serious about Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rist, Marilee C.

    1984-01-01

    Summarizes the business and discussions of the Chicago convention of the National Conference of Women School Executives. Includes tips on how women can swim in the shark-infested waters of administration--and survive. (JW)

  14. FIXING HEALTH SYSTEMS / Executive Summary (2008 update ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-14

    Dec 14, 2010 ... FIXING HEALTH SYSTEMS / Executive Summary (2008 update) ... In several cases, specific approaches recommended by the TEHIP team have been acted upon regionally and internationally, including the ... Related articles ...

  15. Charles River Residual Designation: Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read an executive summary of the Record of Decision's preliminary decision by the Regional Administrator of EPA Region 1 that storm water permits are needed to address serious water quality problems in the Charles River.

  16. Stateless and stateful implementations of faithful execution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Lyndon G; Witzke, Edward L; Tarman, Thomas D; Robertson, Perry J; Eldridge, John M; Campbell, Philip L

    2014-12-16

    A faithful execution system includes system memory, a target processor, and protection engine. The system memory stores a ciphertext including value fields and integrity fields. The value fields each include an encrypted executable instruction and the integrity fields each include an encrypted integrity value for determining whether a corresponding one of the value fields has been modified. The target processor executes plaintext instructions decoded from the ciphertext while the protection engine is coupled between the system memory and the target processor. The protection engine includes logic to retrieve the ciphertext from the system memory, decrypt the value fields into the plaintext instructions, perform an integrity check based on the integrity fields to determine whether any of the corresponding value fields have been modified, and provide the plaintext instructions to the target processor for execution.

  17. Assessment of procurement methods used for executing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of procurement methods used for executing maintenance works in Lagos state. ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management ... Others are risk allocation, price competition and flexibility of contract. Finally, better ...

  18. Renewal and change for health care executives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, G C; Bice, M O

    1991-01-01

    Health care executives must consider renewal and change within their own lives if they are to breathe life into their own institutions. Yet numerous barriers to executive renewal exist, including time pressures, fatigue, cultural factors, and trustee attitudes. This essay discusses such barriers and suggests approaches that health care executives may consider for programming renewal into their careers. These include self-assessment for professional and personal goals, career or job change, process vs. outcome considerations, solitude, networking, lifelong education, surrounding oneself with change agents, business travel and sabbaticals, reading outside the field, physical exercise, mentoring, learning from failures, a sense of humor, spiritual reflection, and family and friends. Renewal is a continuous, lifelong process requiring constant learning. Individual executives would do well to develop a framework for renewal in their careers and organizations.

  19. A Case Study for Executive Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Phyllis J.

    1975-01-01

    A newly appointed woman dean discusses the value of a management development program involving a process of self-analysis and self-determination of leadership style and effectiveness (the University of Illinois "Executive Leadership Seminar"). (JT)

  20. Grid workflow job execution service 'Pilot'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamardin, Lev; Kryukov, Alexander; Demichev, Andrey; Ilyin, Vyacheslav

    2011-12-01

    'Pilot' is a grid job execution service for workflow jobs. The main goal for the service is to automate computations with multiple stages since they can be expressed as simple workflows. Each job is a directed acyclic graph of tasks and each task is an execution of something on a grid resource (or 'computing element'). Tasks may be submitted to any WS-GRAM (Globus Toolkit 4) service. The target resources for the tasks execution are selected by the Pilot service from the set of available resources which match the specific requirements from the task and/or job definition. Some simple conditional execution logic is also provided. The 'Pilot' service is built on the REST concepts and provides a simple API through authenticated HTTPS. This service is deployed and used in production in a Russian national grid project GridNNN.

  1. Grid workflow job execution service 'Pilot'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamardin, Lev; Kryukov, Alexander; Demichev, Andrey; Ilyin, Vyacheslav

    2011-01-01

    'Pilot' is a grid job execution service for workflow jobs. The main goal for the service is to automate computations with multiple stages since they can be expressed as simple workflows. Each job is a directed acyclic graph of tasks and each task is an execution of something on a grid resource (or 'computing element'). Tasks may be submitted to any WS-GRAM (Globus Toolkit 4) service. The target resources for the tasks execution are selected by the Pilot service from the set of available resources which match the specific requirements from the task and/or job definition. Some simple conditional execution logic is also provided. The 'Pilot' service is built on the REST concepts and provides a simple API through authenticated HTTPS. This service is deployed and used in production in a Russian national grid project GridNNN.

  2. Helping Behavior in Executives' Global Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Stewart; Mors, Marie Louise; McDonald, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on research on helping behavior in networks at the upper echelons, we develop and test theory about helping behavior in senior executive networks. We examine the location and relational dependence of the network contact. Our results reveal that executives are more likely to perceive...... insiders in their network to be helpful, but geographic location has no effect on expectations of receiving help. With regards to relational dependence: executives who are more dependent on their contacts are more likely to perceive them to be helpful. We also look at whether perceived helpfulness affects...... an executive’s willingness to engage in risky new business development -- an important performance indicator - and indeed find that those executives that perceive their networks to be helpful are more likely to be willing to take risky decisions. We test these arguments using primary data on 1845 relationships...

  3. Page | 133 LEGISLATIVE APPROVAL OF EXECUTIVE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    NAUJILJ 9 (2) 2018. Page | 133 ... Keywords: Executive appointments, Legislative approval, National Assembly, Constitutional duty. 1. ... Representatives is led by a Speaker.6 The election of the leadership of the senate is entirely the affair of.

  4. 29 CFR 541.402 - Executive and administrative computer employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... LABOR REGULATIONS DEFINING AND DELIMITING THE EXEMPTIONS FOR EXECUTIVE, ADMINISTRATIVE, PROFESSIONAL, COMPUTER AND OUTSIDE SALES EMPLOYEES Computer Employees § 541.402 Executive and administrative computer...

  5. Management report of the executive board 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This 2005 report of the executive board of the group AREVA provides information on the following five topics: 1 - asset of financial position and performance with the human resources and the environmental report. 2 - general information on the company and share capital. 3 - the regulated agreements. 4 - information regarding executive management and supervisory bodies. 5 - annual general meeting of shareholders of may 2, 2006 and financial statements and notes. (A.L.B.)

  6. Management report of the executive board 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This 2005 report of the executive board of the group AREVA provides information on the following five topics: 1 - asset of financial position and performance with the human resources and the environmental report. 2 - general information on the company and share capital. 3 - the regulated agreements. 4 - information regarding executive management and supervisory bodies. 5 - annual general meeting of shareholders of may 2, 2006 and financial statements and notes. (A.L.B.)

  7. Executive Compensation and Principal-Agent Theory.

    OpenAIRE

    Garen, John E

    1994-01-01

    The empirical literature on executive compensation generally fails to specify a model of executive pay on which to base hypotheses regarding its determinants. In contrast, this paper analyzes a simple principal-agent model to determine how well it explains variations in CEO incentive pay and salaries. Many findings are consistent with the basic intuition of principle-agent models that compensation is structured to trade off incentives with insurance. However, statistical significance for some...

  8. Impact of sociodemographic variables on executive functions

    OpenAIRE

    Campanholo, Kenia Repiso; Boa, Izadora Nogueira Fonte; Hodroj, Flávia Cristina da Silva Araujo; Guerra, Glaucia Rosana Benute; Miotto, Eliane Correa; Lucia, Mara Cristina Souza de

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Executive functions (EFs) regulate human behavior and allow individuals to interact and act in the world. EFs are sensitive to sociodemographic variables such as age, which promotes their decline, and to others that can exert a neuroprotective effect. Objective: To assess the predictive role of education, occupation and family income on decline in executive functions among a sample with a wide age range. Methods: A total of 925 participants aged 18-89 years with 1-28 years' education...

  9. Marketing the Masters of Executive Management program

    OpenAIRE

    Barrera, Mark A.; Karriker, Timothy W.

    2007-01-01

    MBA Professional Report The purpose of this MBA project was to review the current Masters of Executive Management education curriculum at NPS. An internal analysis of the current program was conducted to fully understand the strategic goals of the program and the existing curriculum. An environmental scan of current and potential military customers was conducted to assess requirements for junior executive education and determine whether the MEM program corresponds with these requiremen...

  10. Executive dysfunction, brain aging, and political leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Mark; Franklin, David L; Post, Jerrold M

    2014-01-01

    Decision-making is an essential component of executive function, and a critical skill of political leadership. Neuroanatomic localization studies have established the prefrontal cortex as the critical brain site for executive function. In addition to the prefrontal cortex, white matter tracts as well as subcortical brain structures are crucial for optimal executive function. Executive function shows a significant decline beginning at age 60, and this is associated with age-related atrophy of prefrontal cortex, cerebral white matter disease, and cerebral microbleeds. Notably, age-related decline in executive function appears to be a relatively selective cognitive deterioration, generally sparing language and memory function. While an individual may appear to be functioning normally with regard to relatively obvious cognitive functions such as language and memory, that same individual may lack the capacity to integrate these cognitive functions to achieve normal decision-making. From a historical perspective, global decline in cognitive function of political leaders has been alternatively described as a catastrophic event, a slowly progressive deterioration, or a relatively episodic phenomenon. Selective loss of executive function in political leaders is less appreciated, but increased utilization of highly sensitive brain imaging techniques will likely bring greater appreciation to this phenomenon. Former Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon was an example of a political leader with a well-described neurodegenerative condition (cerebral amyloid angiopathy) that creates a neuropathological substrate for executive dysfunction. Based on the known neuroanatomical and neuropathological changes that occur with aging, we should probably assume that a significant proportion of political leaders over the age of 65 have impairment of executive function.

  11. Executive Functioning Heterogeneity in Pediatric ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofler, Michael J; Irwin, Lauren N; Soto, Elia F; Groves, Nicole B; Harmon, Sherelle L; Sarver, Dustin E

    2018-04-28

    Neurocognitive heterogeneity is increasingly recognized as a valid phenomenon in ADHD, with most estimates suggesting that executive dysfunction is present in only about 33%-50% of these children. However, recent critiques question the veracity of these estimates because our understanding of executive functioning in ADHD is based, in large part, on data from single tasks developed to detect gross neurological impairment rather than the specific executive processes hypothesized to underlie the ADHD phenotype. The current study is the first to comprehensively assess heterogeneity in all three primary executive functions in ADHD using a criterion battery that includes multiple tests per construct (working memory, inhibitory control, set shifting). Children ages 8-13 (M = 10.37, SD = 1.39) with and without ADHD (N = 136; 64 girls; 62% Caucasian/Non-Hispanic) completed a counterbalanced series of executive function tests. Accounting for task unreliability, results indicated significantly improved sensitivity and specificity relative to prior estimates, with 89% of children with ADHD demonstrating objectively-defined impairment on at least one executive function (62% impaired working memory, 27% impaired inhibitory control, 38% impaired set shifting; 54% impaired on one executive function, 35% impaired on two or all three executive functions). Children with working memory deficits showed higher parent- and teacher-reported ADHD inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive symptoms (BF 10  = 5.23 × 10 4 ), and were slightly younger (BF 10  = 11.35) than children without working memory deficits. Children with vs. without set shifting or inhibitory control deficits did not differ on ADHD symptoms, age, gender, IQ, SES, or medication status. Taken together, these findings confirm that ADHD is characterized by neurocognitive heterogeneity, while suggesting that contemporary, cognitively-informed criteria may provide improved precision for identifying a

  12. The assessment of executive functioning in children

    OpenAIRE

    Henry, L.; Bettenay, C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Executive functioning is increasingly seen as incorporating several component sub-skills and clinical assessments should reflect this complexity. \\ud \\ud Method: Tools for assessing executive functioning in children are reviewed within five key areas, across verbal and visuospatial abilities, with emphasis on batteries of tests. \\ud \\ud Results: There are many appropriate tests for children, although the choice is more limited for those under the age of 8 years. \\ud \\ud Conclusion...

  13. Quality circles: the nurse executive as mentor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flarey, D L

    1991-12-01

    Changes within and around the health care environment are forcing health care executives to reexamine their managerial and leadership styles to confront the resulting turbulence. The nurse executive is charged with the profound responsibility of directing the delivery of nursing care throughout the organization. Care delivered today must be of high quality. Declining financial resources as well as personnel shortages cause the executive to be an effective innovator in meeting the increasing demands. Quality circles offer the nurse executive an avenue of recourse. Circles have been effectively implemented in the health care setting, as has been consistently documented over time. By way of a participative management approach, quality circles may lead to increased employee morale and productivity, cost savings, and decreased employee turnover rates, as well as realization of socialization and self-actualization needs. A most effective approach to their introduction would be implementation at the first-line manager level. This promotes an acceptance of the concept at the management level as well as a training course for managers to implement the process at the unit level. The nurse executive facilitates the process at the first-line manager level. This facilitation will cause a positive outcome to diffuse throughout the entire organization. Quality circles offer the nurse executive the opportunity to challenge the existing environmental turmoil and effect a positive and lasting change.

  14. Metacognition and executive functioning in Elementary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trinidad García

    Full Text Available This study analyzes differences in metacognitive skills and executive functioning between two groups of students (10-12 years with different levels of metacognitive knowledge (high n = 50, low n = 64. Groups were established based on students' score on a test of knowledge of strategy use. Metacognitive skills were assessed by means of self-report. Students reported the frequency with which they applied these strategies during the phases of planning, execution, and evaluation of learning. Information about student executive functioning was provided by families and teachers, who completed two parallel forms of a behavior rating scale. The results indicated that: a the group with high levels of metacognitive knowledge reported using their metacognitive skills more frequently than their peers in the other group. These differences were statistically significant in the phases of planning and execution; b both family and teachers informed of better levels of executive functioning in the students with high metacognitive knowledge. Statistically significant differences were found in planning, functional memory, focus, and sustained attention. These results show the existence of an association between different levels of metacognitive knowledge, and differences in metacognitive skills and executive functions, and suggest the need to emphasize this set of variables in order to encourage students to acquire increasing levels of control over their learning process.

  15. Statistical Symbolic Execution with Informed Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filieri, Antonio; Pasareanu, Corina S.; Visser, Willem; Geldenhuys, Jaco

    2014-01-01

    Symbolic execution techniques have been proposed recently for the probabilistic analysis of programs. These techniques seek to quantify the likelihood of reaching program events of interest, e.g., assert violations. They have many promising applications but have scalability issues due to high computational demand. To address this challenge, we propose a statistical symbolic execution technique that performs Monte Carlo sampling of the symbolic program paths and uses the obtained information for Bayesian estimation and hypothesis testing with respect to the probability of reaching the target events. To speed up the convergence of the statistical analysis, we propose Informed Sampling, an iterative symbolic execution that first explores the paths that have high statistical significance, prunes them from the state space and guides the execution towards less likely paths. The technique combines Bayesian estimation with a partial exact analysis for the pruned paths leading to provably improved convergence of the statistical analysis. We have implemented statistical symbolic execution with in- formed sampling in the Symbolic PathFinder tool. We show experimentally that the informed sampling obtains more precise results and converges faster than a purely statistical analysis and may also be more efficient than an exact symbolic analysis. When the latter does not terminate symbolic execution with informed sampling can give meaningful results under the same time and memory limits.

  16. THE SOFTWARE OF THE ADVANCED MIL-STD-1553B MULTIPLEX DATA BUS TESTER AND INTERFACE MODULE: FEATURES AND IMPLEMENTATION DETAILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry E. Gouriev

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The UEM-MK is a new module of universal device and parametric tester of multiplex data bus, which meets all requirements for testing equipment for use in validation of devices against requirements of GOST R 52070-2003 (the same as MIL-STD-1553B Notice 4. The module can handle work of bus controller, up to 32 remote terminals and bus monitor/analyser simultaneously, can inject errors of all necessary types. In the article the software of the module is described. The software consist of: the driver, the control panel, the self-test program, the program for validation testing of remote terminals (PTOU, the extended function library, integrated environment (program BPOUEM. The latter three components are top-level components for users and software developments. The driver provides a connection with the module. Control panel provides module identification, self-testing and simplest actions on the bus in interactive mode. The PTOU program provides validation testing of remote terminals in accordance with the GOST R 51765-2001 test plan. The BPOUEM program lets users to create their own scenarios for testing and network environment imitation in interactive mode, whereas the extended function library lets the same in a form of application programs. Both these components also let to record and analyse bus traffic. The purpose, features and implementation details of all mentioned software components are described in the article, however, especial attention is paid to extended function library and the BPOUEM program.

  17. Characterizing the transplanar and in-plane water transport properties of fabrics under different sweat rate: Forced Flow Water Transport Tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, K. P. M.; Chau, K. H.; Kan, C. W.; Fan, J. T.

    2015-11-01

    The water absorption and transport properties of fabrics are critical to wear comfort, especially for sportswear and protective clothing. A new testing apparatus, namely Forced Flow Water Transport Tester (FFWTT), was developed for characterizing the transplanar and in-plane wicking properties of fabrics based on gravimetric and image analysis technique. The uniqueness of this instrument is that the rate of water supply is adjustable to simulate varying sweat rates with reference to the specific end-use conditions ranging from sitting, walking, running to other strenuous activities. This instrument is versatile in terms of the types of fabrics that can be tested. Twenty four types of fabrics with varying constructions and surface finishes were tested. The results showed that FFWTT was highly sensitive and reproducible in differentiating these fabrics and it suggests that water absorption and transport properties of fabrics are sweat rate-dependent. Additionally, two graphic methods were proposed to map the direction of liquid transport and its relation to skin wetness, which provides easy and direct comparison among different fabrics. Correlation analysis showed that FFWTT results have strong correlation with subjective wetness sensation, implying validity and usefulness of the instrument.

  18. An ultrafast programmable electrical tester for enabling time-resolved, sub-nanosecond switching dynamics and programming of nanoscale memory devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Krishna Dayal; Saxena, Nishant; Manivannan, Anbarasu

    2017-12-01

    Recent advancements in commercialization of high-speed non-volatile electronic memories including phase change memory (PCM) have shown potential not only for advanced data storage but also for novel computing concepts. However, an in-depth understanding on ultrafast electrical switching dynamics is a key challenge for defining the ultimate speed of nanoscale memory devices that demands for an unconventional electrical setup, specifically capable of handling extremely fast electrical pulses. In the present work, an ultrafast programmable electrical tester (PET) setup has been developed exceptionally for unravelling time-resolved electrical switching dynamics and programming characteristics of nanoscale memory devices at the picosecond (ps) time scale. This setup consists of novel high-frequency contact-boards carefully designed to capture extremely fast switching transient characteristics within 200 ± 25 ps using time-resolved current-voltage measurements. All the instruments in the system are synchronized using LabVIEW, which helps to achieve various programming characteristics such as voltage-dependent transient parameters, read/write operations, and endurance test of memory devices systematically using short voltage pulses having pulse parameters varied from 1 ns rise/fall time and 1.5 ns pulse width (full width half maximum). Furthermore, the setup has successfully demonstrated strikingly one order faster switching characteristics of Ag5In5Sb60Te30 (AIST) PCM devices within 250 ps. Hence, this novel electrical setup would be immensely helpful for realizing the ultimate speed limits of various high-speed memory technologies for future computing.

  19. Toward synthesizing executable models in biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jasmin; Piterman, Nir; Bodik, Rastislav

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade, executable models of biological behaviors have repeatedly provided new scientific discoveries, uncovered novel insights, and directed new experimental avenues. These models are computer programs whose execution mechanistically simulates aspects of the cell's behaviors. If the observed behavior of the program agrees with the observed biological behavior, then the program explains the phenomena. This approach has proven beneficial for gaining new biological insights and directing new experimental avenues. One advantage of this approach is that techniques for analysis of computer programs can be applied to the analysis of executable models. For example, one can confirm that a model agrees with experiments for all possible executions of the model (corresponding to all environmental conditions), even if there are a huge number of executions. Various formal methods have been adapted for this context, for example, model checking or symbolic analysis of state spaces. To avoid manual construction of executable models, one can apply synthesis, a method to produce programs automatically from high-level specifications. In the context of biological modeling, synthesis would correspond to extracting executable models from experimental data. We survey recent results about the usage of the techniques underlying synthesis of computer programs for the inference of biological models from experimental data. We describe synthesis of biological models from curated mutation experiment data, inferring network connectivity models from phosphoproteomic data, and synthesis of Boolean networks from gene expression data. While much work has been done on automated analysis of similar datasets using machine learning and artificial intelligence, using synthesis techniques provides new opportunities such as efficient computation of disambiguating experiments, as well as the ability to produce different kinds of models automatically from biological data.

  20. Towards Synthesizing Executable Models in Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmin eFisher

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, executable models of biological behaviors have repeatedly provided new scientific discoveries, uncovered novel insights, and directed new experimental avenues. These models are computer programs whose execution mechanistically simulates aspects of the cell’s behaviors. If the observed behavior of the program agrees with the observed biological behavior, then the program explains the phenomena. This approach has proven beneficial for gaining new biological insights and directing new experimental avenues. One advantage of this approach is that techniques for analysis of computer programs can be applied to the analysis of executable models. For example, one can confirm that a model agrees with experiments for all possible executions of the model (corresponding to all environmental conditions, even if there are a huge number of executions. Various formal methods have been adapted for this context, for example, model checking or symbolic analysis of state spaces. To avoid manual construction of executable models, one can apply synthesis, a method to produce programs automatically from high-level specifications. In the context of biological modelling, synthesis would correspond to extracting executable models from experimental data. We survey recent results about the usage of the techniques underlying synthesis of computer programs for the inference of biological models from experimental data. We describe synthesis of biological models from curated mutation experiment data, inferring network connectivity models from phosphoproteomic data, and synthesis of Boolean networks from gene expression data. While much work has been done on automated analysis of similar datasets using machine learning and artificial intelligence, using synthesis techniques provides new opportunities such as efficient computation of disambiguating experiments, as well as the ability to produce different kinds of models automatically from biological data.

  1. Executive control of attention in narcolepsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Bayard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Narcolepsy with cataplexy (NC is a disabling sleep disorder characterized by early loss of hypocretin neurons that project to areas involved in the attention network. We characterized the executive control of attention in drug-free patients with NC to determine whether the executive deficits observed in patients with NC are specific to the disease itself or whether they reflect performance changes due to the severity of excessive daytime sleepiness. METHODOLOGY: Twenty-two patients with NC compared to 22 patients with narcolepsy without cataplexy (NwC matched for age, gender, intellectual level, objective daytime sleepiness and number of sleep onset REM periods (SOREMPs were studied. Thirty-two matched healthy controls were included. All participants underwent a standardized interview, completed questionnaires, and neuropsychological tests. All patients underwent a polysomnography followed by multiple sleep latency tests (MSLT, with neuropsychological evaluation performed the same day between MSLT sessions. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Irrespective of diagnosis, patients reported higher self-reported attentional complaints associated with the intensity of depressive symptoms. Patients with NC performed slower and more variably on simple reaction time tasks than patients with NwC, who did not differ from controls. Patients with NC and NwC generally performed slower, reacted more variably, and made more errors than controls on executive functioning tests. Individual profile analyses showed a clear heterogeneity of the severity of executive deficit. This severity was related to objective sleepiness, higher number of SOREMPs on the MSLT, and lower intelligence quotient. The nature and severity of the executive deficits were unrelated to NC and NwC diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated that drug-free patients with NC and NwC complained of attention deficit, with altered executive control of attention being explained by the severity of objective

  2. 8 CFR 1003.0 - Executive Office for Immigration Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Executive Office for Immigration Review. 1003.0 Section 1003.0 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW § 1003.0 Executive Office for...

  3. 8 CFR 3.0 - Executive Office for Immigration Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Executive Office for Immigration Review 3.0 Section 3.0 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL PROVISIONS EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW § 3.0 Executive Office for Immigration Review Regulations of the Executive Office for...

  4. Mismanagement Reasons of the Projects Execution Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatem Khaleefah Al-Agele

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The execution phase of the project is most dangerous and the most drain on the resources during project life cycle, therefore, its need to monitor and control by specialists to exceeded obstructions and achieve the project goals. The study aims to detect the actual reasons behind mismanagement of the execution phase. The study begins with theoretical part, where it deals with the concepts of project, project selection, project management, and project processes. Field part consists of three techniques: 1- brainstorming, 2- open interviews with experts and 3- designed questionnaire (with 49 reason. These reasons result from brainstorming and interviewing with experts., in order to find the real reasons behind mismanagement of the execution phase. The most important reasons which are negatively impact on management of the execution phase that proven by the study were (Inability of company to meet project requirements because it's specialized and / or large project, Multiple sources of decision and overlap in powers, Inadequate planning, Inaccurate estimation of cost, Delayed cash flows by owners, Poor performance of project manager, inefficient decision making process, and the Negative impact of people in the project area. Finally, submitting a set of recommendations which will contribute to overcome the obstructions of successful management of the execution phase.

  5. Building the blocks of executive functioning: differentiating early developing processes contributing to executive functioning skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandell, D.J.; Ward, S.E.

    2011-01-01

    The neural processes that underlie executive function begin to develop in infancy. However, it is unclear how the behavior manifested by these processes are related or if they can be differentiated early in development. This study seeks to examine early emerging executive functioning skills in

  6. TOWARD THE DOMINANCE OF THE EXECUTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danica Fink-Hafner

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the recent processes of globalization and (within this framework Europeanization, with a focus on the changes in national political Systems (particularly in post-communist EU member states due to the pressures of these processes. The main thesis is that national executives have been gaining power in relation to the legislative due to international pressures. The international financial and economic crisis has added to this trend as countries become more financially dependent on International centers of power which demand efficient economic liberalization from national executives as a precondition for the required international loans. The case study of Slovenia is presented from a comparative perspective (in some aspects being a deviant case so as to offer new theoretical insights into the mechanisms of strengthening the national executives.

  7. Executive functions and self-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Wilhelm; Schmeichel, Brandon J; Baddeley, Alan D

    2012-03-01

    Self-regulation is a core aspect of adaptive human behavior that has been studied, largely in parallel, through the lenses of social and personality psychology as well as cognitive psychology. Here, we argue for more communication between these disciplines and highlight recent research that speaks to their connection. We outline how basic facets of executive functioning (working memory operations, behavioral inhibition, and task-switching) may subserve successful self-regulation. We also argue that temporary reductions in executive functions underlie many of the situational risk factors identified in the social psychological research on self-regulation and review recent evidence that the training of executive functions holds significant potential for improving poor self-regulation in problem populations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Empowering Muslim Women Though Executive Coaching & Mentoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadila Grine

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the role and effect of executive coaching and mentoring on the empowerment of Muslim women and enhancing their levels of contribution. It further substantiates the manner in which executive coaching can accommodate both the nature and needs of Muslim women while further unleashing her respective talents, creativity and skills. The study further highlights the role and significance of coaching in spheres relevant to family, as well as social and career development. This study highlights the use of the strategic technique for personal and leadership development set to explore talents, leaders and implicit abilities. Moreover, it exhibits the flexibility of self-coaching and its appropriateness for Muslim women, especially concerning self-development, which in turn influences social and institutional development. This inquiry highlights a number of practical results which emphasizes the viability and efficacy of executive coaching on personal and institutional levels as far as the making of better world for Muslim women is concerned.

  9. Career Patterns of Supply Chain Executives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flöthmann, Christoph; Hoberg, Kai

    2017-01-01

    career patterns for SCEs. They differ in terms of the individuals' previous professional experience, educational background, and the time they needed to arrive in an executive position. By characterizing the backgrounds and career paths of SCEs, we show that supply chain management (SCM) is truly a cross......This exploratory study analyzes the careers of 307 supply chain executives (SCEs). Motivated by career theory, our findings create new knowledge about the educational backgrounds and career paths that lead to SCE positions. Based on an optimal matching analysis, we are able to distinguish among six......-functional profession. Our findings suggest that previous staff responsibility appears to be a more important hiring criterion than extensive SCM experience. While 56% of the executives had prior staff responsibility, only 12% of the cumulated careers were actually spent inside the SCM function....

  10. File Managing and Program Execution in Web Operating Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bravetti, Mario

    2010-01-01

    Web Operating Systems can be seen as an extension of traditional Operating Systems where the addresses used to manage files and execute programs (via the basic load/execution mechanism) are extended from local filesystem path-names to URLs. A first consequence is that, similarly as in traditional web technologies, executing a program at a given URL, can be done in two modalities: either the execution is performed client-side at the invoking machine (and relative URL addressing in the executed...

  11. 75 FR 55574 - Joint Public Roundtable on Swap Execution Facilities and Security-Based Swap Execution Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-13

    ...; File No. 4-612] Joint Public Roundtable on Swap Execution Facilities and Security-Based Swap Execution Facilities AGENCY: Commodity Futures Trading Commission (``CFTC'') and Securities and Exchange Commission... discuss swap execution facilities and security-based swap execution facilities in the context of certain...

  12. The Lisbon Strategy's Empowerment of Core Executives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrás, Susana; Peters, B. Guy

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of the Lisbon Strategy on the way in which national executives co-ordinate EU policy at the domestic level. Comparing seven countries (Denmark, the United Kingdom [UK], Austria, Slovenia, Spain, France and Poland) it finds evidence that the Lisbon Strategy has been...... advancing (further) centralization and politicization in national patterns of EU policy co-ordination, empowering core executives. The Lisbon Strategy's ideational elements (‘grand’ goals and politically visible targets) as well as organizational requirements (Spring Council, national programming and annual...

  13. Enhancing Writing through Strengthened Executive Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Jay Hendel

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We explore aspects of essay writing requiring high-level organizational capacity and executive function. The literature supports the approach that specific and focused writing-skill mastery leads to reduced anxiety and increased self-efficacy which correlates with improved writing skills. Although essay writing is a complex multi-dimensional task, two particular strategies, tree-diagram and reference methods, specifically address the organizational skills characteristic of executive function. The tree and reference methods presented in this paper address the flow of information, not content, and consequently, the methods presented in this paper apply to mathematics and English as well as to K-12 and college level.

  14. Towards a Reactive Semantic Execution Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komazec, Srdjan; Facca, Federico Michele

    Managing complex and distributed software systems built on top of the service-oriented paradigm has never been more challenging. While Semantic Web Service technologies offer a promising set of languages and tools as a foundation to resolve the heterogeneity and scalability issues, they are still failing to provide an autonomic execution environment. In this paper we present an approach based on Semantic Web Services to enable the monitoring and self-management of a Semantic Execution Environment (SEE), a brokerage system for Semantic Web Services. Our approach is founded on the event-triggered reactivity paradigm in order to facilitate environment control, thus contributing to its autonomicity, robustness and flexibility.

  15. Reconfigurable manufacturing execution system for pipe cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Y. H.; Xie, J. Y.

    2011-08-01

    This article presents a reconfigurable manufacturing execution system (RMES) filling the gap between enterprise resource planning and resource layer for pipe-cutting production with mass customisation and rapid adaptation to dynamic market, which consists of planning and scheduling layer and executive control layer. Starting from customer's task and process requirements, the cutting trajectories are planned under generalised mathematical model able to reconfigure in accordance with various intersecting types' joint, and all tasks are scheduled by nesting algorithm to maximise the utilisation rate of rough material. This RMES for pipe cutting has been effectively implemented in more than 100 companies.

  16. Effect of Temperature, Pressure and Equivalence Ratio on Ignition Delay in Ignition Quality Tester (IQT): Diesel,n-Heptane, andiso-Octane Fuels under Low Temperature Conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Seung Yeon

    2015-11-02

    Effects of temperature, pressure and global equivalence ratio on total ignition delay time in a constant volume spray combustion chamber were investigated for diesel fuel along with the primary reference fuels (PRFs) of n-heptane and iso-octane in relatively low temperature conditions to simulate unsteady spray ignition behavior. A KAUST Research ignition quality tester (KR-IQT) was utilized, which has a feature of varying temperature, pressure and equivalence ratio using a variable displacement fuel pump. A gradient method was adopted in determining the start of ignition in order to compensate pressure increase induced by low temperature heat release. Comparison of this method with other existing methods was discussed. Ignition delay times were measured at various equivalence ratios (0.5-1.7) with the temperatures of initial charge air in the range from 698 to 860 K and the pressures in the range of 1.5 to 2.1 MPa, pertinent to low temperature combustion (LTC) conditions. An attempt to scale the effect of pressure on total ignition delay was undertaken and the equivalence ratio exponent and activation energy in the Arrhenius expression of total ignition delay were determined. Ignition delay results indicated that there were strong correlations of pressure, temperature, and equivalence ratio under most conditions studied except at relatively low pressures. Diesel (DCN 52.5) and n-heptane (DCN 54) fuels exhibited reasonably similar ignition delay characteristics, while iso-octane showed a distinct behavior under low temperature regime having a two-stage ignition, which substantiate the adoption of the gradient method in determining ignition delay.

  17. Auto-Ignition and Spray Characteristics of n-Heptane and iso-Octane Fuels in Ignition Quality Tester

    KAUST Repository

    Jaasim, Mohammed

    2018-04-04

    Numerical simulations were conducted to systematically assess the effects of different spray models on the ignition delay predictions and compared with experimental measurements obtained at the KAUST ignition quality tester (IQT) facility. The influence of physical properties and chemical kinetics over the ignition delay time is also investigated. The IQT experiments provided the pressure traces as the main observables, which are not sufficient to obtain a detailed understanding of physical (breakup, evaporation) and chemical (reactivity) processes associated with auto-ignition. A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code, CONVERGE™, was used to capture the detailed fluid/spray dynamics and chemical characteristics within the IQT configuration. The Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) turbulence with multi-zone chemistry sub-models was adopted with a reduced chemical kinetic mechanism for n-heptane and iso-octane. The emphasis was on the assessment of two common spray breakup models, namely the Kelvin-Helmholtz/Rayleigh-Taylor (KH-RT) and linearized instability sheet atomization (LISA) models, in terms of their influence on auto-ignition predictions. Two spray models resulted in different local mixing, and their influence in the prediction of auto-ignition was investigated. The relative importance of physical ignition delay, characterized by spray evaporation and mixing processes, in the overall ignition behavior for the two different fuels were examined. The results provided an improved understanding of the essential contribution of physical and chemical processes that are critical in describing the IQT auto-ignition event at different pressure and temperature conditions, and allowed a systematic way to distinguish between the physical and chemical ignition delay times.

  18. Program Execution on Reconfigurable Multicore Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjiva Prasad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on the two observations that diverse applications perform better on different multicore architectures, and that different phases of an application may have vastly different resource requirements, Pal et al. proposed a novel reconfigurable hardware approach for executing multithreaded programs. Instead of mapping a concurrent program to a fixed architecture, the architecture adaptively reconfigures itself to meet the application's concurrency and communication requirements, yielding significant improvements in performance. Based on our earlier abstract operational framework for multicore execution with hierarchical memory structures, we describe execution of multithreaded programs on reconfigurable architectures that support a variety of clustered configurations. Such reconfiguration may not preserve the semantics of programs due to the possible introduction of race conditions arising from concurrent accesses to shared memory by threads running on the different cores. We present an intuitive partial ordering notion on the cluster configurations, and show that the semantics of multithreaded programs is always preserved for reconfigurations "upward" in that ordering, whereas semantics preservation for arbitrary reconfigurations can be guaranteed for well-synchronised programs. We further show that a simple approximate notion of efficiency of execution on the different configurations can be obtained using the notion of amortised bisimulations, and extend it to dynamic reconfiguration.

  19. Infant Attention and Early Childhood Executive Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Kimberly; Bell, Martha Ann

    2014-01-01

    Individual differences in infant attention are theorized to reflect the speed of information processing and are related to later cognitive abilities (i.e., memory, language, and intelligence). This study provides the first systematic longitudinal analysis of infant attention and early childhood executive function (EF; e.g., working memory,…

  20. The executive MBA in information security

    CERN Document Server

    Trinckes, John J

    2009-01-01

    Supplying a complete overview of the concepts executives need to know, this book provides the tools needed to ensure your organization has an effective information security management program in place. It also includes a ready-to use security framework for developing workable programs and supplies proven tips for avoiding common pitfalls.

  1. SPAWAR Strategic Plan Execution Year 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-11

    Transitioned financial reporting capability into SPAWAR’s business intelligence environment reducing the number of siloed business intelligence solutions...level forums, we are highlighting it here for visibility within the 2017 Strategic Execution Guidance. We will continue to report progress via...and savings • Number of analytic users MILESTONES Deliver Enterprise Business Intelligence Reports - Workforce Management Report Build #2 (January

  2. Writing executable assertions to test flight software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, A.; Andrews, D. M.; Mccluskey, E. J.

    1984-01-01

    An executable assertion is a logical statement about the variables or a block of code. If there is no error during execution, the assertion statement results in a true value. Executable assertions can be used for dynamic testing of software. They can be employed for validation during the design phase, and exception and error detection during the operation phase. The present investigation is concerned with the problem of writing executable assertions, taking into account the use of assertions for testing flight software. They can be employed for validation during the design phase, and for exception handling and error detection during the operation phase The digital flight control system and the flight control software are discussed. The considered system provides autopilot and flight director modes of operation for automatic and manual control of the aircraft during all phases of flight. Attention is given to techniques for writing and using assertions to test flight software, an experimental setup to test flight software, and language features to support efficient use of assertions.

  3. Executive Compensation and the Cost of Debt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabir, Mohammed Rezaul; Li, Hao; Veld-Merkoulova, Yulia V.

    2010-01-01

    We examine how executive compensation affects the cost of debt financing. Analyzing CEO pay data from the UK, we find that debt-like and equity-like pay components have opposite effects on the cost of debt. An increase in defined benefit pensions is associated with lower bond yield spread, while an

  4. Scheduling with time-dependent execution times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woeginger, G.J.

    1995-01-01

    We consider systems of tasks where the task execution times are time-dependent and where all tasks have some common deadline. We describe how to compute in polynomial time a schedule that minimizes the number of late tasks. This answers a question raised in a recent paper by Ho, Leung and Wei.

  5. Validating Avionics Conceptual Architectures with Executable Specifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Fischer

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Current avionics systems specifications, developed after conceptual design, have a high degree of uncertainty. Since specifications are not sufficiently validated in the early development process and no executable specification exists at aircraft level, system designers cannot evaluate the impact of their design decisions at aircraft or aircraft application level. At the end of the development process of complex systems, e. g. aircraft, an average of about 65 per cent of all specifications have to be changed because they are incorrect, incomplete or too vaguely described. In this paper, a model-based design methodology together with a virtual test environment is described that makes complex high level system specifications executable and testable during the very early levels of system design. An aircraft communication system and its system context is developed to demonstrate the proposed early validation methodology. Executable specifications for early conceptual system architectures enable system designers to couple functions, architecture elements, resources and performance parameters, often called non-functional parameters. An integrated executable specification at Early Conceptual Architecture Level is developed and used to determine the impact of different system architecture decisions on system behavior and overall performance.

  6. Executive Compensation and the Cost of Debt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabir, Rezaul; Liu, Hao; Veld-Merkoulova, Yulia V.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines how different components of executive compensation affect the cost of debt. We find that debt-like and equity-like pay components have differing effects: an increase in defined benefit pensions is associated with lower bond yield spread, while higher share holdings lead to higher

  7. Organ procurement from executed prisoners in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, A; Singh, M Fiatarone; Trey, T; Lavee, J

    2014-10-01

    Organ procurement from executed prisoners in China is internationally condemned, yet this practice continues unabated in 2014. This is despite repeated announcements from Chinese authorities that constructive measures have been undertaken to conform to accepted ethical standards. While there is unanimous agreement on the unethical nature of using organs from executed prisoners, due to its limitations on voluntary and informed consent, there is insufficient coverage of forced organ procurement from prisoners of conscience without consent. Strategies to influence positive change in China over the last few decades have failed to bring this practice to an end. While organ donation and transplantation services in China have undergone considerable structural changes in the last few years, fundamental attempts to shift practice to ethically sourced organs have floundered. In this article, we discuss the organ trade in China, reflect upon organ procurement from executed prisoners (including both capital prisoners and prisoners of conscience) and provide an overview of contradictory Chinese efforts to halt forced organ procurement from executed prisoners. Finally, we highlight current actions being taken to address this issue and offer comprehensive recommendations to bring this ethically indefensible practice to an immediate end. © Copyright 2014 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  8. High-Impact Succession Management. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamoureux, Kim; Campbell, Michael; Smith, Roland

    2009-01-01

    Most companies have an opportunity to improve their succession management programs. The number one challenge for succession management (as identified by both HR leaders and executives) is developing a succession planning strategy. This comprehensive industry study sets out to determine how succession management (when done well) helps improve…

  9. Execution Management Solutions for Geographically Distributed Simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, T.W. van den; Jansen, H.G.M.; Jansen, R.E.J.; Prins, L.M.

    2009-01-01

    Managing the initialization, execution control and monitoring of HLA federates is not always straightforward, especially for a geographically distributed time managed federation. Issues include pre and post run-time data distribution and run-time data collection; starting, stopping and monitoring

  10. Central executive involvement in children's spatial memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Su Yin; Lee, Kerry

    2008-11-01

    Previous research with adults found that spatial short-term and working memory tasks impose similar demands on executive resources. We administered spatial short-term and working memory tasks to 8- and 11-year-olds in three separate experiments. In Experiments 1 and 2 an executive suppression task (random number generation) was found to impair performances on a short-term memory task (Corsi blocks), a working memory task (letter rotation), and a spatial visualisation task (paper folding). In Experiment 3 an articulatory suppression task only impaired performance on the working memory task. These results suggest that short-term and working memory performances are dependent on executive resources. The degree to which the short-term memory task was dependent on executive resources was expected to be related to the amount of experience children have had with such tasks. Yet we found no significant age-related suppression effects. This was attributed to differences in employment of cognitive strategies by the older children.

  11. Model Adoption Exchange Payment System: Executive Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosino, Robert J.

    This executive summary provides a brief description of the Model Adoption Exchange Payment System (MAEPS), a unique payment system aimed at improving the delivery of adoption exchange services throughout the United States. Following a brief introductory overview, MAEPS is described in terms of (1) its six components (registration, listing,…

  12. News from the Staff Association Executive Committee

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2018-01-01

    On 17 April, the Staff Council proceeded to the election of the Executive Committee of the Staff Association and the members of the Bureau. First of all, why a new election of the Executive Committee elected in April 2018 after that of December 2017 (Echo No. 281)? Quite simply because a Crisis Executive Committee with a provisional Bureau had been elected for a period from 1st January to 16 April 2018 with defined and restricted objectives (Echo No. 283). Therefore, on 17 April, G. Roy presented for election a list of 12 persons, including five members for the Bureau, who agreed to continue their work within the Executive Committee, based on an intensive programme with the following main axes: Crèche and School and in particular the establishment of a foundation; Concertation: review and relaunch of the concertation process; Finalisation of the 2015 five-yearly review; Preparation and start of the 2020 five-yearly review; Actuarial reviews of the Pension Fund and the CHIS; Internal enquiries and...

  13. Executive functions in persons with metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subotić Tatjana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern man lyfestyle contributes to the increasing incidence of metabolic syndrome in the developed world. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in adults ranges from 20 to 25%, and it tends to increase. Each year, 3.2 million people around the world die from complications associated with this syndrome. Treatment involves cooperation of medical doctors of various specialties, but the decisive factor is patient motivation, given that the treatment requires significant lifestyle changes. Our hypothesis is that metabolic syndrome patients have reduced ability to plan, convert plan into action and effectively implement planned activities, showing signs of dysexecutive syndrome. The term executive functions comes from the English word 'executive', which also means the controlling, in neuropsychology reserved for high-level abilities that influence more basic abilities such as attention, perception, memory, thinking and speaking. The main objective of this study was to determine characteristics of executive functioning in patients with metabolic syndrome. The sample consisted of 61 subjects of both sexes, aged 20 to 60 years, divided into two groups - those with a diagnosis of metabolic syndrome and those without this diagnosis. The results suggest that people with metabolic syndrome showed significantly poorer performance in almost all indicators of executive functions, represented by Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (Wisconsin Card Sorting Test variables.

  14. Hawaii energy strategy: Executive summary, October 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    This is an executive summary to a report on the Hawaii Energy Strategy Program. The topics of the report include the a description of the program including an overview, objectives, policy statement and purpose and objectives; energy strategy policy development; energy strategy projects; current energy situation; modeling Hawaii`s energy future; energy forecasts; reducing energy demand; scenario assessment, and recommendations.

  15. Intergenerational Transmission of Neuropsychological Executive Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jester, Jennifer M.; Nigg, Joel T.; Puttler, Leon I.; Long, Jeffrey C.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.; Zucker, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Relationships between parent and child executive functioning were examined, controlling for the critical potential confound of IQ, in a family study involving 434 children (130 girls and 304 boys) and 376 parents from 204 community recruited families at high risk for the development of substance use disorder. Structural equation modeling found…

  16. Executive Functions in Individuals with Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menghini, D.; Addona, F.; Costanzo, F.; Vicari, S.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The present study was aimed at investigating working memory (WM) and executive functions capacities in individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) as compared with mental-age matched typically developing (TD) children. Method: In order to serve the study goal, a sizeable battery of tasks tapping WM as well as attention, memory, planning,…

  17. Executive succession in English local government

    OpenAIRE

    Boyne, George A.; James, Oliver; John, Peter; Petrovsky, Nicolai

    2008-01-01

    The authors report the results of the first quantitative study of senior management turnover in English local authorities. Consistent with existing management theory, rates of executive succession were found to be higher in an adverse external environment, and where organizational performance is weak. © 2008 CIPFA.

  18. Helping Behavior in Multinational Executive Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mors, Marie Louise; Miller, Stewart; McDonald, Michael

    This study develops a framework that draws upon the socio-psychology and network literatures to explain helping behavior in an executive’s multinational network. Focusing on executives' perceptions of willingness to help, we examine network structure (geographic and organizational boundaries), st...

  19. The International Research Experience: Executive MBA Distinctiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, David M.; Pol, Louis G.

    1995-01-01

    The University of Nebraska's Executive Master's in Business Administration (MBA) program has integrated international research activities into the curriculum. The university contracted with domestic corporations to conduct studies on prospects for international business. Research assignments include assessment of competitors, economic evaluations,…

  20. 45 CFR 1700.5 - Executive Director.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Executive Director. 1700.5 Section 1700.5 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND..., recommendation and implementation of overall plans and policies to achieve the Commission's goals. (d) To...