WorldWideScience

Sample records for excursions

  1. Cruise tourism shore excursions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    João Lopes, Maria; Dredge, Dianne

    2018-01-01

    Very complex yet highly integrated business logics characterise cruise tourism with shore excursions frequently identified as a key source of value. This paper presents a case study of cruise tourism and shore excursion planning in Copenhagen, Denmark. The aim of this paper is to investigate...... the characteristics of cruise tourism, itinerary and shore excursion planning with a view to understanding the value generated from cruise tourism shore excursions. We argue that economic value is a blunt measure, and there are other types of value, positive and negative, that are also generated. This research...... reveals that a range of local conditions and structural characteristics create barriers and opportunities for generating different types of value. Using a case study of shore excursions in Copenhagen, the Baltic’s most important port, this paper explains the dynamics between cruise tourism and shore...

  2. The Iceland Basin excursion: Age, duration, and excursion field geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channell, J. E. T.

    2014-12-01

    The Iceland Basin geomagnetic excursion coincided with the marine isotope stage (MIS) 6/7 boundary. The age and duration of the excursion, at seven North Atlantic sites with sufficient isotope data, are estimated by matching marine isotope stage (MIS) 7a-7c to a calibrated template. Two criteria for defining the excursion, virtual geomagnetic pole (VGP) latitudes Earth's main axial dipole reversed polarity during the excursion, if only for ˜1 kyr; implying that excursions can be manifested globally and are important in millennial-scale stratigraphy. VGP clustering in the South Atlantic and NW Pacific roughly coincide with maxima in the vertical-downward component of the modern nondipole (ND) field determined at the Earth's surface, which implies that the ND field became dominant as the geocentric dipole field weakened during the excursion, and also that the ND field configuration is long-lived on multimillennial timescales.

  3. Framing Learning Conditions in Geography Excursions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonasson, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate and frame some learning conditions involved in the practice of geographical excursions. The empirical material from this study comes from several excursions made by students in human geography and an ethnomethodological approach through participant observation is used. The study is informed by theories from…

  4. Autonomous excursions using tablets and smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Wouter; Groothengel, Marin; van de Grint, Liesbeth; Karssenberg, Derek; Stouthamer, Esther

    2017-04-01

    Excursions and fieldworks are valuable components for geosciences education. However, field activities can be time consuming for teachers and pose a logistical challenge to fit in regular courses. Furthermore, the participation of students diminishes with group size in case of instructor-led outings. We are developing excursions that students can follow autonomously without a teacher present, using instructions, assignments and background information on tablets and smartphones. The goal of this approach is to increase the level of active participation, and to reduce logistical and time table issues. We developed a bike-excursion about the landscape and geology in the vicinity of our University. Such excursion was on the wish-list for several years, but posed a logistical challenge for the group of about 80 students in the available timeslot. In our approach, students had a time-window of two weeks in which they could finish the excursion in groups of 2. 8-Inch tablets with water- and shock-proof cases were available for this excursion. For the excursion we used three apps: 1) IZI-Travel for providing the route, spoken navigation instructions, spoken explanations at stops, location-related images, assignments as text, and multiple-choose questions. 2) PDF-Maps for providing geo-referenced maps. 3) ESRI Collector which the students used to digitize polygons on a map, and to collect geo-referenced photos with explanation. These data were answers to assignments and were later used in a tutorial on campus. The assignments where students had to collect data, and the small group size (pairs) increased the level of active participation. The use of a final tutorial on campus was important for the autonomous excursion, as it gave students the opportunity to discuss their observations and questions with their teacher. The developed teaching materials are available online to use and adapt for others. Parts could be useful for other universities and schools in the vicinity of

  5. The distinction between geomagnetic excursions and reversals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gubbins, David

    1998-01-01

    Two recent studies of the geomagnetic field in the last 1 Myr have found 14 excursions, large changes in direction lasting 5-10 kyr each, six of which are established as global phenomena by correlation between different sites The older picture of the geomagnetic field enjoying long periods of

  6. Clericalization of the Russian Excursion Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Rodoman

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the modern Russia almost every secular excursion is starting to resemble a religious pilgrimage, while reducing itself to a visit to Orthodox monasteries and temples. A lot of stories are told about saints and their actions, an unconcealed religious propaganda is carried on, and the history of the country is presented in a cleric-monarchical manner.

  7. International excursion hydrogeology, Slovakia, [September 8 - 15, 1996

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijksma, R.

    1996-01-01

    This is a report of the hydrogeological excursion to Slovakia, held in the period from September 8 up to September 15, 1996. This report is a compilation of the work of the participating students, parts of the excursion guide and also information, provided by the Slovak excursion guides.

  8. Practices and Methods for Actualization of the Scientific Information in Art Excursions (Excursions and Cultural Heritage in the Contemporary World)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnova, Tatiana V.

    2016-01-01

    The paper deals with various practices and methods for actualization of the scientific information in art excursions. The modern society is characterized by commitment to information richness. The range of cultural and historical materials used as the basis for art excursions is really immense. However if to consider the number of excursions with…

  9. Educational Excursions in Technical Schools of Pre-revolutionary Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timur A. Magsumov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The author, using the data of pre-revolutionary technical schools, traces the genesis and trends of educational excursions development in the Russian Empire. Special attention is attached to the types, organizational forms and methods of excursion activities, educational policy, concerning its development. The article presents author’s classification of educational excursions, notes that educational excursions have become traditional and were operated systematically by the early XX century. Field excursions, which in fact displaced introductive training, prevailed in technical schools

  10. Applications of random process excursion analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Brainina, Irina S

    2013-01-01

    This book addresses one of the key problems in signal processing, the problem of identifying statistical properties of excursions in a random process in order to simplify the theoretical analysis and make it suitable for engineering applications. Precise and approximate formulas are explained, which are relatively simple and can be used for engineering applications such as the design of devices which can overcome the high initial uncertainty of the self-training period. The information presented in the monograph can be used to implement adaptive signal processing devices capable of d

  11. Virtual reality excursions with programs in C

    CERN Document Server

    Watkins, Christopher D

    1994-01-01

    Virtual Reality Excursions with Programs in C provides the history, theory, principles and an account of the milestones in the development of virtual reality technology.The book is organized into five chapters. The first chapter explores the applications in the vast field of virtual reality. The second chapter presents a brief history of the field and its founders. Chapter 3 discusses human perception and how it works. Some interesting notes and much of the hot debate in the field are covered in Chapter 4. The fifth chapter describes many of the complexities involved in implementing virtual en

  12. Simulation of power excursions - Osiris reactor; Simulation des excursions de puissance - pile Osiris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pascouet, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    Following the experimental work accomplished in the U.S.A. on Borax 1 and SPERT 1 and the accident of SL 1, the 'Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique' started a research program about the safety of its own swimming Pool reactors, with regard to power excursions. The first research work led to the design of programmed explosive charges, adapted to the simulation of a power excursion. This report describes the application of these methods to the investigation of Osiris safety. (author) [French] A la suite des essais effectues aux U.S.A. sur BORAX 1 et SPERT 1 et de l'accident survenu a SL 1, le Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique a lance un programme d'etudes sur la surete de ses reacteurs piscines vis-a-vis des excursions de puissance. Les premieres etudes ont abouti A la mise au point de charges programmees capables de simuler une excursion de puissance. On trouvera dans le present rapport l'application de ces methodes a l'etude de la surete d'OSIRIS. (auteur)

  13. Mass functions from the excursion set model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiotelis, Nicos; Popolo, Antonino Del

    2017-11-01

    Aims: We aim to study the stochastic evolution of the smoothed overdensity δ at scale S of the form δ(S) = ∫0S K(S,u)dW(u), where K is a kernel and dW is the usual Wiener process. Methods: For a Gaussian density field, smoothed by the top-hat filter, in real space, we used a simple kernel that gives the correct correlation between scales. A Monte Carlo procedure was used to construct random walks and to calculate first crossing distributions and consequently mass functions for a constant barrier. Results: We show that the evolution considered here improves the agreement with the results of N-body simulations relative to analytical approximations which have been proposed from the same problem by other authors. In fact, we show that an evolution which is fully consistent with the ideas of the excursion set model, describes accurately the mass function of dark matter haloes for values of ν ≤ 1 and underestimates the number of larger haloes. Finally, we show that a constant threshold of collapse, lower than it is usually used, it is able to produce a mass function which approximates the results of N-body simulations for a variety of redshifts and for a wide range of masses. Conclusions: A mass function in good agreement with N-body simulations can be obtained analytically using a lower than usual constant collapse threshold.

  14. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Shark Predation Mitigation Fishing Excursions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fishing excursion information, including summary tables of: Fishing/culling efforts, including date, islets, latitude/longitude, fishing method, soak times, culled...

  15. Experiment of nitrox saturation diving with trimix excursion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Z Y

    1998-11-01

    Depth limitations to diving operation with air as the breathing gas are well known: air density, oxygen toxicity, nitrogen narcosis and requirement for decompression. The main objectives of our experiment were to assess the decompression, counterdiffusion and performance aspect of helium-nitrogen-oxygen excursions from nitrox saturation. The experiment was carried out in a wet diving stimulator with "igloo" attached to a 2-lock living chamber. Four subjects of two teams of 2 divers were saturated at 25 msw simulated depth in a nitrogen oxygen chamber environment for 8 days, during which period they performed 32 divers-excursions to 60 or 80 msw pressure. Excursion gas mix was trimix of 14.6% oxygen, 50% helium and 35.4% nitrogen, which gave a bottom oxygen partial pressure of 1.0 bars at 60 msw and 1.3 at 80 msw. Excursions were for 70 min at 60 msw with three 10-min work periods and 40 min at 80 msw with two 10-min work periods. Work was on a bicycle ergometer at a moderate level. We calculated the excursion decompression with M-Values based on methods of Hamilton (Hamilton et al., 1990). Staged decompression took 70 min for the 60 msw excursion and 98 min for 80 msw, with stops beginning at 34 or 43 msw respectively. After the second dive day bubbles were heard mainly in one diver but in three divers overall, to Spencer Grade III some times. No symptoms were reported. Saturation decompression using the Repex procedures began at 40 msw and was uneventful: Grade II and sometimes III bubbles persisted in 2 of the four divers until 24 hr after surfacing. We conclude that excursions with mixture rich in helium can be performed effectively to as deep as 80 msw using these procedures.

  16. Forsmark site investigation. Bedrock geology - overview and excursion guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Michael B. (Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2010-09-15

    Bearing in mind the significance of the bedrock data from the ground surface for the geological 3D modelling work, SKB decided to present excursion guides that serve in the demonstration of the bedrock geology at the ground surface in both the Forsmark (this guide) and Laxemar-Simpevarp areas. An excursion guide is also available for the Olkiluoto area in south-western Finland, which has been selected for the construction of a repository for the disposal of highly radioactive, spent nuclear fuel in Finland. The current excursion guide presents the bedrock geology and describes in detail the character of the bedrock at ten representative outcrops or outcrop areas at the ground surface in the site investigation area at Forsmark. All localities are located within or immediately adjacent to the proposed repository volume selected by SKB

  17. Oskarshamn site investigation. Bedrock geology - overview and excursion guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlgren, Carl-Henric (Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2010-09-15

    Bearing in mind the significance of the bedrock data from the ground surface for the geological 3D modelling work, SKB decided to present excursion guides that serve in the demonstration of the bedrock geology at the ground surface in both the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp (this guide) areas. An excursion guide is also available for the Olkiluoto area in south-western Finland, which has been selected for the construction of a repository for the disposal of highly radioactive, spent nuclear fuel. The current excursion guide presents the bedrock geology and describes in detail the character of the bedrock at eight representative outcrops or outcrop areas at the ground surface in the site investigation area at Laxemar-Simpevarp and at one locality north of this area, i.e. at a total of nine localities

  18. Computing energy landscape maps and structural excursions of proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapin, Emmanuel; Carr, Daniel B; De Jong, Kenneth A; Shehu, Amarda

    2016-08-18

    Structural excursions of a protein at equilibrium are key to biomolecular recognition and function modulation. Protein modeling research is driven by the need to aid wet laboratories in characterizing equilibrium protein dynamics. In principle, structural excursions of a protein can be directly observed via simulation of its dynamics, but the disparate temporal scales involved in such excursions make this approach computationally impractical. On the other hand, an informative representation of the structure space available to a protein at equilibrium can be obtained efficiently via stochastic optimization, but this approach does not directly yield information on equilibrium dynamics. We present here a novel methodology that first builds a multi-dimensional map of the energy landscape that underlies the structure space of a given protein and then queries the computed map for energetically-feasible excursions between structures of interest. An evolutionary algorithm builds such maps with a practical computational budget. Graphical techniques analyze a computed multi-dimensional map and expose interesting features of an energy landscape, such as basins and barriers. A path searching algorithm then queries a nearest-neighbor graph representation of a computed map for energetically-feasible basin-to-basin excursions. Evaluation is conducted on intrinsically-dynamic proteins of importance in human biology and disease. Visual statistical analysis of the maps of energy landscapes computed by the proposed methodology reveals features already captured in the wet laboratory, as well as new features indicative of interesting, unknown thermodynamically-stable and semi-stable regions of the equilibrium structure space. Comparison of maps and structural excursions computed by the proposed methodology on sequence variants of a protein sheds light on the role of equilibrium structure and dynamics in the sequence-function relationship. Applications show that the proposed methodology

  19. Compensation for large thorax excursions in EIT imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schullcke, B; Krueger-Ziolek, S; Gong, B; Mueller-Lisse, U; Moeller, K

    2016-09-01

    Besides the application of EIT in the intensive care unit it has recently also been used in spontaneously breathing patients suffering from asthma bronchiole, cystic fibrosis (CF) or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In these cases large thorax excursions during deep inspiration, e.g. during lung function testing, lead to artifacts in the reconstructed images. In this paper we introduce a new approach to compensate for image artifacts resulting from excursion induced changes in boundary voltages. It is shown in a simulation study that boundary voltage change due to thorax excursion on a homogeneous model can be used to modify the measured voltages and thus reduce the impact of thorax excursion on the reconstructed images. The applicability of the method on human subjects is demonstrated utilizing a motion-tracking-system. The proposed technique leads to fewer artifacts in the reconstructed images and improves image quality without substantial increase in computational effort, making the approach suitable for real-time imaging of lung ventilation. This might help to establish EIT as a supplemental tool for lung function tests in spontaneously breathing patients to support clinicians in diagnosis and monitoring of disease progression.

  20. An evaluation of postprandial glucose excursions in type 2 diabetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An evaluation of postprandial glucose excursions in type 2 diabetic mellitus subjects on Monotard® HM (ge) versus Humulin N® or Humulin L® insulin, each in combination with metformin. ... The subjects had a mean duration of diabetes of 11.4 ± 6.6 years, with 71% (n = 22) having a positive family history. The study cohort ...

  1. Does the Shuram δ13C excursion record Ediacaran oxygenation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husson, J. M.; Maloof, A. C.; Schoene, B.; Higgins, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    The most negative carbon isotope excursion in Earth history is found in carbonate rocks of the Ediacaran Period (635-542 Ma). Known colloquially as the the 'Shuram' excursion, workers have long noted its tantalizing, broad concordance with the rise of abundant macro-scale fossils in the rock record, variously interpreted as animals, giant protists, macro-algae and lichen, and known as the 'Ediacaran Biota.' Thus, the Shuram excursion has been interpreted by many in the context of a dramatically changing redox state of the Ediacaran oceans - e.g., a result of methane cycling in a low O2 atmosphere, the final destruction of a large pool of recalcitrant dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and the step-wise oxidation of the Ediacaran oceans. More recently, diagenetic interpretations of the Shuram excursion - e.g. sedimentary in-growth of very δ13C depleted authigenic carbonates, meteoric alteration of Ediacaran carbonates, late-stage burial diagenesis - have challenged the various Ediacaran redox models. A rigorous geologic context is required to discriminate between these explanatory models, and determine whether the Shuram excursion can be used to evaluate terminal Neoproterozoic oxygenation. Here, we present chemo-stratigraphic data (δ13C, δ18O, δ44/42Ca and redox sensitive trace element abundances) from 12 measured sections of the Ediacaran-aged Wonoka Formation (Fm.) of South Australia that require a syn-depositional age for the extraordinary range of δ13C values (-12 to +4‰) observed in the formation. In some locations, the Wonoka Fm. is ~700 meters (m) of mixed shelf limestones and siliclastics that record the full 16 ‰ δ13C excursion in a remarkably consistent fashion across 100s of square kilometers of basin area. Fabric-altering diagenesis, where present, occurs at the sub-meter vertical scale, only results in sub-permil offsets in δ13C and cannot be used to explain the full δ13C excursion. In other places, the Wonoka Fm. is host to deep (1 km

  2. Ultrasonographic assessment of flexor tendon mobilization: Effect of different protocols on tendon excursion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.-W.H. Korstanje (Jan-Wiebe); J. Soeters (Johannes); A.R. Schreuders (Ton); P.C. Amadio (Peter ); S.E.R. Hovius (Steven); H.J. Stam (Henk); R.W. Selles (Ruud)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Different mobilization protocols have been proposed for rehabilitation after hand flexor tendon repair to provide tendon excursion sufficient to prevent adhesions. Several cadaver studies have shown that the position of the neighboring fingers influences tendon excursions of

  3. An alternative procedure for discrimination of contacts in centric occlusion and lateral excursion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yuuji; Koretake, Katsunori; Hosokawa, Ryuji

    2002-12-01

    An alternative procedure for discrimination of contacts in centric occlusion and lateral excursion was introduced for eliminating premature contacts in lateral excursion without the alteration of other intercuspations. This procedure involves the application of red paper for the evaluation of lateral excursive contacts and blue paper for centric occlusion holding contacts to provide improved visibility of occlusal contacts.

  4. Magnetosheath excursion and the relevant transport process at the magnetopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Cai

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A large-amplitude excursion of the magnetosheath (MS in quiet solar wind conditions on 17 March 2004 was recorded simultaneously by the Cluster and TC-1 spacecraft. During this period, the IMF Bz was entirely northward. The coherence between the bow shock motion and magnetopause (MP motion is revealed and the excursion velocities of the bow shock motion are analyzed. In addition, the relevant plasma transport phenomenon in the form of flux fluctuations below the ion gyrofrequency at the MP is exposed and is interpreted as manifestation of the drift instability. Correlated observations on charge accumulation and electrostatic potential perturbation are recorded by electron measurements in high energy regime, and also the eventual cross-field vortex motion in the nonlinear stage and the consequential mass exchange are exhibited. The present investigation gives some new insight into the MS plasma transport mechanism across the subsolar MP region in quiet solar wind conditions during a period of northward IMF.

  5. Non-Gaussianity and Excursion Set Theory: Halo Bias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adshead, Peter [Enrico Fermi Institute, Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Baxter, Eric J. [Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Dodelson, Scott [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Lidz, Adam [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2012-09-01

    We study the impact of primordial non-Gaussianity generated during inflation on the bias of halos using excursion set theory. We recapture the familiar result that the bias scales as $k^{-2}$ on large scales for local type non-Gaussianity but explicitly identify the approximations that go into this conclusion and the corrections to it. We solve the more complicated problem of non-spherical halos, for which the collapse threshold is scale dependent.

  6. Geology and prospecting in the Carpatians conference excursion guide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacko Stanislav

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available We would like to welcome you to the excursions finalizing the Geology and prospecting in the Carpathians Conference, Her¾any –2000. The aim of the excursions is to provide you an overview of these Western Carpathian lithostructural units – and their mineralization respectively, research progress of which has been (at that time closely connected with personal investigation enthusiasm of our Professors - the founders of our Faculty. The current state of geological development knowledge of principal structural units of the Western Carpathians is outlined in papers included in special issue of Mineralia Slovaca magazine you have received at the begining of the Conference. For this reason the content of this Excursion quide is exclusively concentrated to description of routes localities. Broader geological relationships of particular outcrops is possible to find in attached Geological map of the Slovak Republic 1:100 000. The organizers of the excursions gratefully acknowledge the efforts of all colleagues who contributed to this quide. We also like to express our thanks for the financial support to Slovak VEGA grant Agency (Grant No:1/7389/2 and to the following organizations: Association of Metallurgy, Minig Industry and Geology of Slovak Republic, Slovak Geological Society, Management of TU Košice, SAPTU Foundation of TU Košice, Geological Survey of the Slovak Republic Betox JSC. Košice, SMW JSC. Jelšava, Uranpress Ltd. Spišská Nová Ves, TESCO Košice, ŽELBA-Siderite JSC. Nižná Slaná and ŽELBA –JSC. Spišská Nová Ves.

  7. An activity index for geomagnetic paleosecular variation, excursions, and reversals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panovska, S.; Constable, C. G.

    2017-04-01

    Magnetic indices provide quantitative measures of space weather phenomena that are widely used by researchers in geomagnetism. We introduce an index focused on the internally generated field that can be used to evaluate long term variations or climatology of modern and paleomagnetic secular variation, including geomagnetic excursions, polarity reversals, and changes in reversal rate. The paleosecular variation index, Pi, represents instantaneous or average deviation from a geocentric axial dipole field using normalized ratios of virtual geomagnetic pole colatitude and virtual dipole moment. The activity level of the index, σPi, provides a measure of field stability through the temporal standard deviation of Pi. Pi can be calculated on a global grid from geomagnetic field models to reveal large scale geographic variations in field structure. It can be determined for individual time series, or averaged at local, regional, and global scales to detect long term changes in geomagnetic activity, identify excursions, and transitional field behavior. For recent field models, Pi ranges from less than 0.05 to 0.30. Conventional definitions for geomagnetic excursions are characterized by Pi exceeding 0.5. Strong field intensities are associated with low Pi unless they are accompanied by large deviations from axial dipole field directions. σPi provides a measure of geomagnetic stability that is modulated by the level of PSV or frequency of excursional activity and reversal rate. We demonstrate uses of Pi for paleomagnetic observations and field models and show how it could be used to assess whether numerical simulations of the geodynamo exhibit Earth-like properties.

  8. Geolab in NASA's First Generation Pressurized Excursion Module: Operational Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, C. A.; Bell, M. S.; Calway, M. J.

    2010-01-01

    We are building a prototype laboratory for preliminary examination of geological samples to be integrated into a first generation Habitat Demonstration Unit-1/Pressurized Excursion Module (HDU1-PEM) in 2010. The laboratory GeoLab will be equipped with a glovebox for handling samples, and a suite of instruments for collecting preliminary data to help characterize those samples. The GeoLab and the HDU1-PEM will be tested for the first time as part of the 2010 Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS), NASAs annual field exercise designed to test analog mission technologies. The HDU1-PEM and GeoLab will participate in joint operations in northern Arizona with two Lunar Electric Rovers (LER) and the DRATS science team. Historically, science participation in DRATS exercises has supported the technology demonstrations with geological traverse activities that are consistent with preliminary concepts for lunar surface science Extravehicular Activities (EVAs). Next years HDU1-PEM demonstration is a starting point to guide the development of requirements for the Lunar Surface Systems Program and test initial operational concepts for an early lunar excursion habitat that would follow geological traverses along with the LER. For the GeoLab, these objectives are specifically applied to enable future geological surface science activities. The goal of our GeoLab is to enhance geological science returns with the infrastructure that supports preliminary examination, early analytical characterization of key samples, insight into special considerations for curation, and data for prioritization of lunar samples for return to Earth.

  9. Magnetosheath excursion and the relevant transport process at the magnetopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Cai

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A large-amplitude excursion of the magnetosheath (MS in quiet solar wind conditions on 17 March 2004 was recorded simultaneously by the Cluster and TC-1 spacecraft. During this period, the IMF Bz was entirely northward. The coherence between the bow shock motion and magnetopause (MP motion is revealed and the excursion velocities of the bow shock motion are analyzed. In addition, the relevant plasma transport phenomenon in the form of flux fluctuations below the ion gyrofrequency at the MP is exposed and is interpreted as manifestation of the drift instability. Correlated observations on charge accumulation and electrostatic potential perturbation are recorded by electron measurements in high energy regime, and also the eventual cross-field vortex motion in the nonlinear stage and the consequential mass exchange are exhibited. The present investigation gives some new insight into the MS plasma transport mechanism across the subsolar MP region in quiet solar wind conditions during a period of northward IMF.

  10. Overlay excursion management through sample plan optimization and cycle time reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuemei; Hung, Ming-Yeon; Kuo, Kelly; Fu, Steven; Shanthikumar, Geoge; Mao, Zhoujie; Deng, Shiming; Hazari, Viral; Monahan, Kevin M.; Slessor, Mike D.; Lev, Amir

    2003-05-01

    As fabs transition from 200 to 300mm wafers with shrinking design rules, the risk and cost associated with overlay excursions become more severe. This significantly impacts the overall litho-cell efficiency. Effective detection, identification, and reduction of overlay excursions are essential for realizing the productivity and cost benefits of the technology shifts. We have developed a comprehensive overlay excursion management method that encompasses baseline variation analysis, statistical separation and characterization of excursion signatures and their frequencies, as well as selection of sampling plans and control methods that minimize material at risk due to excursion. A novel baseline variance estimation method is developed that takes into account the spatial signature and temporal behavior of the litho-cell overlay correction mechanisms. Spatial and temporal excursion signatures are identified and incorporated in a cost model that estimates the material at risk in an excursion cycle. The material at risk associated with various sampling plans, control charts, and cycle times is assessed considering various lot disposition and routing decisions. These results are then used in determining an optimal sampling and control strategy for effective excursion management. In this paper, we describe and demonstrate the effectiveness of the methods using actual 300mm fab overlay data from several critical layers. With a thorough assessment of the actual baseline and excursion distributions, we quantify the amount of wafer-to-wafer and within-wafer sampling necessary for detecting excursions with minimal material at risk. We also evaluate the impact of shorter cycle time and faster response to excursion, which is made possible through automation and alternative metrology configurations.

  11. Proofs of the Cantor-Bernstein theorem a mathematical excursion

    CERN Document Server

    Hinkis, Arie

    2013-01-01

    This book offers an excursion through the developmental area of research mathematics. It presents some 40 papers, published between the 1870s and the 1970s, on proofs of the Cantor-Bernstein theorem and the related Bernstein division theorem. While the emphasis is placed on providing accurate proofs, similar to the originals, the discussion is broadened to include aspects that pertain to the methodology of the development of mathematics and to the philosophy of mathematics. Works of prominent mathematicians and logicians are reviewed, including Cantor, Dedekind, Schröder, Bernstein, Borel, Zermelo, Poincaré, Russell, Peano, the Königs, Hausdorff, Sierpinski, Tarski, Banach, Brouwer and several others mainly of the Polish and the Dutch schools. In its attempt to present a diachronic narrative of one mathematical topic, the book resembles Lakatos’ celebrated book Proofs and Refutations. Indeed, some of the observations made by Lakatos are corroborated herein. The analogy between the two books is clearly an...

  12. Hirnantian Isotope Carbon Excursion in Gorny Altai, southwestern Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay V. Sennikov

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Hirnantian Isotope Carbon Excursion (HICE, a glaciation-induced positive δ13C shift in the end-Ordovician successions, has been widely used in chemostratigraphic correlation of the Ordovician–Silurian boundary beds in many areas of the world. However, large regions with Ordovician sediments in Siberia are almost unstudied for stable isotope chemostratigraphy. The Burovlyanka section in the Altai area is one of the rare Hirnantian–Rhuddanian sections with both carbonates and graptolitiferous shales occurring in the succession. Here we report the discovery of the HICE in the uppermost beds of the Tekhten¢ Formation, the Dalmanitina Beds in the Burovlyanka section. The Dalmanitina limestone Member between the graptolitiferous shales may correspond to the mid-Hirnantian glacial episode, which led to a global sea level drop and major extinction of marine fauna.

  13. Translator’s inferential excursions, with imagination in the background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Tokarz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In a literary work, signals that trigger reader’s inferential excursions allow the reader’s imagination to identify with and control the represented world. They constitute an important element of sense-generating mechanism. Thanks to imagination, the translator imitates the inferential mechanism of the original on various level’s of the text’s structure, activating the imagination of the reader. The translator’s imagination is bi- or multivalent in having the linguistic-semiotic, literary, and cultural quality. Although it manifests itself in language, it goes beyond the boundaries of language. Imagination is a form of consciousness which has no object of its own, and a medium connecting a specific non-imaginary knowledge with representations. It constitutes a mind faculty shaped on the basis of sensory and mental perception. It is derived from individual principles of perception and cognition data processing. It usually requires a stymulus to activate the capabilities of the imagining subject. As a mind faculty, imagination is based on the mental capability common to all people, which is the ability to create chains of associations.Translator’s respect for inferential excursions in the original text is necessary for retaining the original meaning, regardless of whether they occur on the phonetic-phonological level (as in Ionesco’s The Chairs, or on the level of image-semantic and syntactic relations (as in translation of Apollinaire’s Zone, or on the level of syntax (as in translation of Mrożek’s short stories into Slovenian, or on the level of cultural communication (as in Slovenian translation of Gombrowicz’s Trans-Atlantic.

  14. Estimation of first excursion probability for mechanical appendage system subjected to nonstationary earthquake excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, Shigeru; Suzuki, Kohei (Tokyo Metropolitan Univ. (Japan))

    1984-06-01

    An estimation technique whereby the first excursion probability of the mechanical appendage system subjected to the nonstationary seismic excitation can be conventionally calculated is proposed. The first excursion probability of the appendage system is estimated by using this method and the following results are obtained. (1) The probability from this technique is more convervative than that from a simulation technique taking artificial time histories compatible to the design spectrum as input excitation. (2) The first excursion probability is practically independent of the natural period of the appendage system when the tolerable barrier level is normalized by the response amplification factor given by the design spectrum. (3) The first excursion probability decreases as the damping ratio of the appendage system increases. It also decreases as the mass ratio of the appendage system to the supporting system increases. (4) For the inelastic appendage system, the first excursion probability is reduced, if an appropriate elongation is permitted.

  15. Star Excursion Balance Test in Young Athletes with Back Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edem Korkor Appiah-Dwomoh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT is effective in measuring dynamic postural control (DPC. This research aimed to determine whether DPC measured by the SEBT in young athletes (YA with back pain (BP is different from those without BP (NBP. 53 BP YA and 53 NBP YA matched for age, height, weight, training years, training sessions/week and training minutes/session were studied. Participants performed 4 practice trials after which 3 measurements in the anterior, posteromedial and posterolateral SEBT reach directions were recorded. Normalized reach distance was analyzed using the mean of all 3 measurements. There was no statistical significant difference (p > 0.05 between the reach distance of BP (87.2 ± 5.3, 82.4 ± 8.2, 78.7 ± 8.1 and NBP (87.8 ± 5.6, 82.4 ± 8.0, 80.0 ± 8.8 in the anterior, posteromedial and posterolateral directions respectively. DPC in YA with BP, as assessed by the SEBT, was not different from NBP YA.

  16. Lichenological excursion In North Africa. I. Silicicolous lichens in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egea, J. M.

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available This work summarizes the first floristic results of a lichenologic excursion through some representative localities of Morocco. From the 110 silicicolous species recognized, 42 are, after our information, new to Morocco. Synonymy of 2 taxa is established: Pertusaria ludovicae R. G. Werner = P. ceuthocarpoides Zahlbr. and Pertusaria rupícola (Fr. Harm. var. bispora R. G. Werner = Pertusaria gallica B. de Lesd. These two last species are lectotypified.

    Este trabajo contiene los primeros resultados florísticos de la excursión realizada a algunos puntos representativos de Marruecos. Se citan 110 táxones de líquenes de rocas ácidas, de los cuales 42 son, según nuestros datos, nuevas citas para Marruecos. Se sinonimizan dos táxones: Pertusaria ludovicae R. G. Werner = P. ceuthocarpoides Zahlbr. y Pertusaria rupícola (Fr. Harm. var. bispora R. G. Werner = Pertusaria gallica B. de Lesd. Para cada uno de ellos se designa un lectótipo.

  17. Quantitative analysis of single particle trajectories: mean maximal excursion method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejedor, Vincent; Bénichou, Olivier; Voituriez, Raphael; Jungmann, Ralf; Simmel, Friedrich; Selhuber-Unkel, Christine; Oddershede, Lene B; Metzler, Ralf

    2010-04-07

    An increasing number of experimental studies employ single particle tracking to probe the physical environment in complex systems. We here propose and discuss what we believe are new methods to analyze the time series of the particle traces, in particular, for subdiffusion phenomena. We discuss the statistical properties of mean maximal excursions (MMEs), i.e., the maximal distance covered by a test particle up to time t. Compared to traditional methods focusing on the mean-squared displacement we show that the MME analysis performs better in the determination of the anomalous diffusion exponent. We also demonstrate that combination of regular moments with moments of the MME method provides additional criteria to determine the exact physical nature of the underlying stochastic subdiffusion processes. We put the methods to test using experimental data as well as simulated time series from different models for normal and anomalous dynamics such as diffusion on fractals, continuous time random walks, and fractional Brownian motion. Copyright (c) 2010 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Scope Complexity Options Risks Excursions (SCORE) Factor Mathematical Description.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gearhart, Jared Lee [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Samberson, Jonell Nicole [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shettigar, Subhasini [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jungels, John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Welch, Kimberly M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Dean A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of the Scope, Complexity, Options, Risks, Excursions (SCORE) model is to estimate the relative complexity of design variants of future warhead options, resulting in scores. SCORE factors extend this capability by providing estimates of complexity relative to a base system (i.e., all design options are normalized to one weapon system). First, a clearly defined set of scope elements for a warhead option is established. The complexity of each scope element is estimated by Subject Matter Experts (SMEs), including a level of uncertainty, relative to a specific reference system. When determining factors, complexity estimates for a scope element can be directly tied to the base system or chained together via comparable scope elements in a string of reference systems that ends with the base system. The SCORE analysis process is a growing multi-organizational Nuclear Security Enterprise (NSE) effort, under the management of the NA-12 led Enterprise Modeling and Analysis Consortium (EMAC). Historically, it has provided the data elicitation, integration, and computation needed to support the out-year Life Extension Program (LEP) cost estimates included in the Stockpile Stewardship Management Plan (SSMP).

  19. Edge Mechanisms for Power Excursion Control in Burning Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, M. D.; Stacey, W. M.

    2017-10-01

    ITER must have active and preferably also passive control mechanisms that will limit inadvertent plasma power excursions which could trigger runaway fusion heating. We are identifying and investigating the potential of ion-orbit loss, impurity seeding, and various divertor ``choking'' phenomena to control or limit sudden increases in plasma density or temperature by reducing energy confinement, increasing radiation loss, etc., with the idea that such mechanisms could be tested on DIII-D and other existing tokamaks. We are assembling an edge-divertor code (GTEDGE-2) with a neutral transport model and a burn dynamics code, for this purpose. One potential control mechanism is the enhanced ion orbit loss from the thermalized ion distribution that would result from heating of the thermalized plasma ion distribution. Another possibility is impurity seeding with ions whose emissivity would increase sharply if the edge temperature increased. Enhanced radiative losses should also reduce the thermal energy flux across the separatrix, perhaps dropping the plasma into the poorer L-mode confinement regime. We will present some initial calculations to quantify these ideas. Work supported by US DOE under DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  20. The Excursion Set Theory of Halo Mass Functions, Halo Clustering, and Halo Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zentner, Andrew R.

    I review the excursion set theory with particular attention toward applications to cold dark matter halo formation and growth, halo abundance, and halo clustering. After a brief introduction to notation and conventions, I begin by recounting the heuristic argument leading to the mass function of bound objects given by Press and Schechter. I then review the more formal derivation of the Press-Schechter halo mass function that makes use of excursion sets of the density field. The excursion set formalism is powerful and can be applied to numerous other problems. I review the excursion set formalism for describing both halo clustering and bias and the properties of void regions. As one of the most enduring legacies of the excursion set approach and one of its most common applications, I spend considerable time reviewing the excursion set theory of halo growth. This section of the review culminates with the description of two Monte Carlo methods for generating ensembles of halo mass accretion histories. In the last section, I emphasize that the standard excursion set approach is the result of several simplifying assumptions. Dropping these assumptions can lead to more faithful predictions and open excursion set theory to new applications. One such assumption is that the height of the barriers that define collapsed objects is a constant function of scale. I illustrate the implementation of the excursion set approach for barriers of arbitrary shape. One such application is the now well-known improvement of the excursion set mass function derived from the "moving" barrier for ellipsoidal collapse. I also emphasize that the statement that halo accretion histories are independent of halo environment in the excursion set approach is not a general prediction of the theory. It is a simplifying assumption. I review the method for constructing correlated random walks of the density field in the more general case. I construct a simple toy model to illustrate that excursion set

  1. A Science and Technology Excursion-based Unit of Work: The Human Body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Laura

    2000-01-01

    Presents a unit of work based on a few systems of the human body. Stretches students' learning beyond the classroom into the local community by going on an excursion to Kalgoorlie Regional Hospital. (ASK)

  2. ODP Site 1063 (Bermuda Rise) revisited: Oxygen isotopes, excursions and paleointensity in the Brunhes Chron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channell, J. E. T.; Hodell, D. A.; Curtis, J. H.

    2012-02-01

    An age model for the Brunhes Chron of Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1063 (Bermuda Rise) is constructed by tandem correlation of oxygen isotope and relative paleointensity data to calibrated reference templates. Four intervals in the Brunhes Chron where paleomagnetic inclinations are negative for both u-channel samples and discrete samples are correlated to the following magnetic excursions with Site 1063 ages in brackets: Laschamp (41 ka), Blake (116 ka), Iceland Basin (190 ka), Pringle Falls (239 ka). These ages are consistent with current age estimates for three of these excursions, but not for "Pringle Falls" which has an apparent age older than a recently published estimate by ˜28 kyr. For each of these excursions (termed Category 1 excursions), virtual geomagnetic poles (VGPs) reach high southerly latitudes implying paired polarity reversals of the Earth's main dipole field, that apparently occurred in a brief time span (<2 kyr in each case), several times shorter than the apparent duration of regular polarity transitions. In addition, several intervals of low paleomagnetic inclination (low and negative in one case) are observed both in u-channel and discrete samples at ˜318 ka (MIS 9), ˜412 ka (MIS 11) and in the 500-600 ka interval (MIS 14-15). These "Category 2" excursions may constitute inadequately recorded (Category 1) excursions, or high amplitude secular variation.

  3. Support for a reduction in the number of trials needed for the star excursion balance test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Richard H; Gribble, Phillip A

    2008-02-01

    Robinson RH, Gribble PA. Support for a reduction in the number of trials needed for the Star Excursion Balance Test. To determine the number of trials necessary to achieve stability in excursion distance and stance leg angular displacement for the 8 directions of the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT). One-way repeated-measures analysis of variance. Athletic training laboratory. Twenty participants (10 men, 10 women) without any known musculoskeletal injuries or neurologic deficits that could have negatively affected their dynamic balance volunteered for the study. Participants completed 6 practice and 3 test trials in each of the 8 reach directions of the SEBT. Excursion distances of the reaching leg normalized to leg length and angular displacement at the hip and knee of the stance leg in all 3 planes of movement were determined. There were significant increases in excursion distance, hip flexion, and knee flexion for 7, 4, and 5 of the 8 reach directions, respectively. For the majority of the reach directions, maximum excursion distances and stance leg angular displacement values achieved stability within the first 4 practice trials, thus justifying a reduction in the recommended number of practice trials from 6 to 4 and supporting the trend toward simplifying SEBT administration.

  4. Comparison of the Achilles tendon moment arms determined using the tendon excursion and three?dimensional methods

    OpenAIRE

    Hashizume, Satoru; Fukutani, Atsuki; Kusumoto, Kazuki; Kurihara, Toshiyuki; Yanagiya, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The moment arm of muscle?tendon force is a key parameter for calculating muscle and tendon properties. The tendon excursion method was used for determining the Achilles tendon moment arm (ATMA). However, the accuracy of this method remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the magnitude of error introduced in determining the ATMA using the tendon excursion method by comparing it with the reference three?dimensional (3D) method. The tendon excursion method determined the ATMA a...

  5. Magnetic excursions in the late Matuyama Chron (Olduvai to Matuyama-Brunhes boundary) from North Atlantic IODP sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channell, J. E. T.

    2017-02-01

    The sedimentary record of late Matuyama magnetic excursions, between the end of the Olduvai Subchron and the Matuyama-Brunhes boundary, has relied on North Atlantic Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Sites 983/984, and individual recordings at ODP Site 1021 from the California Margin, and Core MD972143 from the west Philippine Sea. North Atlantic IODP Sites U1305, U1306, U1307 (Eirik Drift, off SE Greenland), and Site U1308 (central Atlantic) provide new records from u-channel samples and discrete (8 cm3) cubic samples, collected from multiple holes drilled at each site. The results confirm the existence of the Intra-Jaramillo, Punaruu, Bjorn, Gardar, and Gilsa excursions and possibly the Kamikatsura excursion. These excursions are not recorded at all sampled sites, although they do correspond to excursions recorded at ODP Sites 983/984 and to relative paleointensity minima recorded at all studied sites. For some records, including that of the Bjorn excursion (1251 ka), antipodal magnetization directions yield virtual geomagnetic poles that reach high northern latitudes, implying that the excursion involved reversal of the main axial dipole field. On the other hand, excursions are often partially and inadequately recorded, attributable to a combination of the brevity of geomagnetic excursions, bioturbation, and filtering of the magnetization signal by the detrital remanent magnetization acquisition process, nonuniform sedimentation rates at millennial/centennial scales, and possibly unrecognized drilling/sampling disturbance.

  6. Volcanic records of the Laschamp geomagnetic excursion from Mt Ruapehu, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingham, E.; Turner, G. M.; Conway, C. E.; Heslop, D.; Roberts, A. P.; Leonard, G.; Townsend, D.; Calvert, A.

    2017-08-01

    We present palaeodirectional records of the Laschamp geomagnetic excursion from lavas on Mt Ruapehu, New Zealand. Fourteen lava flows on the northwestern and southern flanks of Mt Ruapehu, with 40Ar/39Ar weighted mean plateau ages that range from 46.3 ± 2.0 to 39.9 ± 1.4 ka, were studied. The youngest and older flows carry a normal polarity magnetization; however, six flows, dated between 46.3 ± 2.0 and 42.7 ± 1.8 ka, record excursional directions. Three of these flows record southerly palaeomagnetic declinations and negative inclinations that agree well with a published Laschamp record from the Auckland Volcanic Field (AVF). Together, the AVF and Mt Ruapehu lavas currently represent the only volcanic records of the Laschamp excursion outside the Chaîne des Puys region, France. Thus, they make an important contribution to the global set of Laschamp excursion records. Virtual geomagnetic pole (VGP) groups for the New Zealand and French records early in the excursion are compatible with a dipole-dominated field that rotated to an equatorial orientation while simultaneously decaying in strength. In contrast, younger excursional flows from France and New Zealand yield separate VGP groups, which suggest either that the field had a nondipolar morphology in this later phase, or that the VGP groups were not synchronous. 40Ar/39Ar ages for the Mt Ruapehu record are on average slightly older than published northern hemisphere ages and from the relative palaeointensity minimum in the GLOPIS sedimentary stack. Although few individual ages differ significantly at the 2σ level, the spread suggests an overall excursion duration that is longer than the currently accepted 1500 years. This age spread may result from excess Ar in magmas at the time of the eruption biasing the results to slightly older ages, or from non-synchronous excursional field behaviour at near-antipodal locations, or, possibly, a precursory phase prior to the main excursion.

  7. The end-Triassic negative δ13C excursion : A lithologic test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bachan, Aviv; van de Schootbrugge, Bas; Payne, Jonathan L.

    2014-01-01

    The end-Triassic mass extinction is associated with a large negative carbon isotope excursion, which has been interpreted as reflecting the rapid injection of 13C depleted CO2 or methane associated with the emplacement of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province. However, in a number of sections in

  8. Geomagnetic excursions recorded in loess: case studies from the Danubian loess province

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hambach, U.; Rolf, C.; Zeeden, C.; Markovic, S.; Jovanovic, M.; Nowaczyk, N.

    2011-01-01

    Geomagnetic excursions are prominent short-lived features (normally < 5 kyr) of the Earth’s magnetic field and lie temporally between Microchrons (Laj & Channell 2007) and short time intervals of anomalously high secular variation. Because of their short duration and the time required for

  9. Multicultural Group Work on Field Excursions to Promote Student Teachers' Intercultural Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendel, Nina; Aksit, Fisun; Aksit, Selahattin; Schrüfer, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    As a response to the intercultural challenges of Geography Education, this study seeks to determine factors fostering intercultural competence of student teachers. Based on a one-week multicultural field excursion of eight German and eight Turkish students in Kayseri (Turkey) on Education for Sustainable Development, we used qualitative interviews…

  10. 49 CFR 38.177 - Ferries, excursion boats and other vessels. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ferries, excursion boats and other vessels. 38.177 Section 38.177 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Other Vehicles and Systems § 38.177...

  11. Modulation of chest wall intermuscular coherence: effects of lung volume excursion and transcranial direct current stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczak, Corey R; Greidanus, Krista R; Boliek, Carol A

    2013-08-01

    Chest wall muscle recruitment varies as a function of the breathing task performed. However, the cortical control of the chest wall muscles during different breathing tasks is not known. We studied chest wall intermuscular coherence during various task-related lung volume excursions in 10 healthy adults (34 ± 15 yr; 2 men, 8 women) and determined if transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) could modulate chest wall intermuscular coherence during these tasks. Simultaneous assessment of regional intercostal and oblique electromyographic activity was measured while participants performed standardized tidal breathing, speech, maximum phonation, and vital capacity tasks. Lung volume and chest wall kinematics were determined using variable inductance plethysmography. We found that chest wall area of intermuscular coherence was greater during tidal and speech breathing compared with phonation and vital capacity (all P < 0.05) and between tidal breathing compared with speech breathing (P < 0.05). Anodal tDCS increased chest wall area of intermuscular coherence from 0.04 ± 0.09 prestimulation to 0.18 ± 0.19 poststimulation for vital capacity (P < 0.05). Sham tDCS and cathodal tDCS had no effect on coherence during lung volume excursions. Chest wall kinematics were not affected by tDCS. Our findings indicate that lung volume excursions about the midrange of vital capacity elicit a greater area of chest wall intermuscular coherence compared with lung volume excursions spanning the entire range of vital capacity in healthy adults. Our findings also demonstrate that brief tDCS may modulate the cortical control of the chest wall muscles in a stimulation- and lung volume excursion task-dependent manner but does not affect chest wall kinematics in healthy adults.

  12. The range of excursion of flexor tendons in Zone V: a comparison of active vs passive flexion mobilisation regimes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Panchal, J

    1997-10-01

    A number of early postoperative mobilisation regimes have been developed in an attempt to increase tendon excursion and gliding and thereby reduce formation of adhesions following repair of flexor tendons. Early active flexion mobilisation regimes are becoming more popular, and have replaced early passive flexion regimes in many centres. The aim of the present study was: (a) to determine the range of excursion of flexor tendons in Zone V, and (b) to compare the excursion ranges between active (Belfast) and passive (modified Duran) flexion mobilisation regimes postoperatively. This was done (a) in two cadavers, and (b) in two patients intraoperatively, and postoperatively at 10 days, 3 weeks and 6 weeks. With passive flexion, the mean tendon excursion in Zone V in cadavers was 1 mm for flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS), flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) and flexor pollicis longus (FPL) tendons respectively. With simulated active flexion, the mean tendon excursion was 14 mm, 10 mm and 11 mm respectively. The mean tendon excursion in clinical cases intraoperatively following passive flexion was 2 mm for FDS, FDP and FPL respectively; following simulated active flexion it was 10 mm, 11 mm and 11 mm for FDS, FDP and FPL respectively. On the tenth day following repair, the mean excursions of FDS, FDP and FPL were 1 mm, 4 mm and 4 mm on passive flexion as compared to 3 mm, 10 mm and 12 mm on active flexion respectively. Three weeks postoperatively, the mean excursions of FDS, FDP and FPL tendons were 1 mm, 2 mm and 1 mm on passive flexion as compared to 5 mm, 15 mm on active flexion respectively. Six weeks postoperatively, the mean excursions of FDS, FDP and FPL tendons were 9 mm, 7 mm and 4 mm on passive flexion as compared to 12 mm, 33 mm and 20 mm on active flexion respectively. These results demonstrate an increased excursion of repaired flexor tendons in Zone V following an active flexion mobilisation regime as compared to a passive flexion mobilisation regime.

  13. Revealing the Microscopic Real-Space Excursion of a Laser-Driven Electron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiko G. Kurz

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available High-order harmonic spectroscopy allows one to extract information on fundamental quantum processes, such as the exit time in the tunneling of an electron through a barrier with attosecond time resolution and molecular structure with angstrom spatial resolution. Here, we study the spatial motion of the electron during high-order harmonic generation in an in situ pump-probe measurement using high-density liquid water droplets as a target. We show that molecules adjacent to the emitting electron-ion pair can disrupt the electron’s trajectory when positioned within the range of the maximum electronic excursion distance. This allows us to use the parent ion and the neighboring molecules as boundaries for the electronic motion to measure the maximum electronic excursion distance during the high-order harmonic generation process. Our analysis of the process is relevant for optimizing high-harmonic yields in dense media.

  14. Paleomagnetic record from lake Baikal sediments: Geomagnetic reversals excursion and relative paleointensity data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pruner, Petr; Kadlec, Jaroslav; Schnabl, Petr; Šlechta, Stanislav; Chadima, Martin

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 34, Spec. (2004), s. 112-113 ISSN 1335-2806. [Paleo, Rock and Environmental Magnetism. Castle /9./. Tatranská Javorina, 27.06.2004-03.07.2004] Grant - others:EVK(XE) Project CONTINENT EC Project EVK 2-2000-00057 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3013912 Keywords : magnetostratigraphy * geomagnetic excursions * Lake Baikal Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  15. Ocean sunfish rewarm at the surface after deep excursions to forage for siphonophores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Itsumi; Goto, Yusuke; Sato, Katsufumi

    2015-05-01

    Ocean sunfish (Mola mola) were believed to be inactive jellyfish feeders because they are often observed lying motionless at the sea surface. Recent tracking studies revealed that they are actually deep divers, but there has been no evidence of foraging in deep water. Furthermore, the surfacing behaviour of ocean sunfish was thought to be related to behavioural thermoregulation, but there was no record of sunfish body temperature. Evidence of ocean sunfish feeding in deep water was obtained using a combination of an animal-borne accelerometer and camera with a light source. Siphonophores were the most abundant prey items captured by ocean sunfish and were typically located at a depth of 50-200 m where the water temperature was Ocean sunfish were diurnally active, made frequently deep excursions and foraged mainly at 100-200 m depths during the day. Ocean sunfish body temperatures were measured under natural conditions. The body temperatures decreased during deep excursions and recovered during subsequent surfacing periods. Heat-budget models indicated that the whole-body heat-transfer coefficient between sunfish and the surrounding water during warming was 3-7 times greater than that during cooling. These results suggest that the main function of surfacing is the recovery of body temperature, and the fish might be able to increase heat gain from the warm surface water by physiological regulation. The thermal environment of ocean sunfish foraging depths was lower than their thermal preference (c. 16-17 °C). The behavioural and physiological thermoregulation enables the fish to increase foraging time in deep, cold water. Feeding rate during deep excursions was not related to duration or depth of the deep excursions. Cycles of deep foraging and surface warming were explained by a foraging strategy, to maximize foraging time with maintaining body temperature by vertical temperature environment. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2015 British

  16. A Philatelic Excursion with Jeff Hunter in Probability and Matrix Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George P. H. Styan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an excursion with Jeff Hunter, visiting some of his research topics. Specifically, we will present some facts about certain people whose work seems to have influenced Jeff in his scientific career; we illustrate our presentation with postage stamps that have been issued in honour of these people. Our main guide is Hunter’s two-volume book entitled Mathematical Techniques of Applied Probability (Academic Press, 1983.

  17. Accurate prediction of vaccine stability under real storage conditions and during temperature excursions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clénet, Didier

    2018-01-13

    Due to their thermosensitivity, most vaccines must be kept refrigerated from production to use. To successfully carry out global immunization programs, ensuring the stability of vaccines is crucial. In this context, two important issues are critical, namely: (i) predicting vaccine stability and (ii) preventing product damage due to excessive temperature excursions outside of the recommended storage conditions (cold chain break). We applied a combination of advanced kinetics and statistical analyses on vaccine forced degradation data to accurately describe the loss of antigenicity for a multivalent freeze-dried inactivated virus vaccine containing three variants. The screening of large amounts of kinetic models combined with a statistical model selection approach resulted in the identification of two-step kinetic models. Predictions based on kinetic analysis and experimental stability data were in agreement, with approximately five percentage points difference from real values for long-term stability storage conditions, after excursions of temperature and during experimental shipments of freeze-dried products. Results showed that modeling a few months of forced degradation can be used to predict various time and temperature profiles endured by vaccines, i.e. long-term stability, short time excursions outside the labeled storage conditions or shipments at ambient temperature, with high accuracy. Pharmaceutical applications of the presented kinetics-based approach are discussed. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Conditional Probabilities in the Excursion Set Theory. Generic Barriers and non-Gaussian Initial Conditions

    CERN Document Server

    De Simone, Andrea; Riotto, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The excursion set theory, where density perturbations evolve stochastically with the smoothing scale, provides a method for computing the dark matter halo mass function. The computation of the mass function is mapped into the so-called first-passage time problem in the presence of a moving barrier. The excursion set theory is also a powerful formalism to study other properties of dark matter halos such as halo bias, accretion rate, formation time, merging rate and the formation history of halos. This is achieved by computing conditional probabilities with non-trivial initial conditions, and the conditional two-barrier first-crossing rate. In this paper we use the recently-developed path integral formulation of the excursion set theory to calculate analytically these conditional probabilities in the presence of a generic moving barrier, including the one describing the ellipsoidal collapse, and for both Gaussian and non-Gaussian initial conditions. The non-Markovianity of the random walks induced by non-Gaussi...

  19. Comparison of dynamic balance in collegiate field hockey and football players using star excursion balance test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Rashi; Moiz, Jamal Ali

    2013-09-01

    The preliminary study aimed to compare dynamic balance between collegiate athletes competing or training in football and hockey using star excursion balance test. A total thirty university level players, football (n = 15) and field hockey (n = 15) were participated in the study. Dynamic balance was assessed by using star excursion balance test. The testing grid consists of 8 lines each 120 cm in length extending from a common point at 45° increments. The subjects were instructed to maintain a stable single leg stance with the test leg with shoes off and to reach for maximal distance with the other leg in each of the 8 directions. A pencil was used to point and read the distance to which each subject's foot reached. The normalized leg reach distances in each direction were summed for both limbs and the total sum of the mean of summed normalized distances of both limbs were calculated. There was no significant difference in all the directions of star excursion balance test scores in both the groups. Additionally, composite reach distances of both groups also found non-significant (P=0.5). However, the posterior (P=0.05) and lateral (P=0.03) normalized reach distances were significantly more in field hockey players. Field hockey players and football players did not differ in terms of dynamic balance.

  20. Excursion of the Sciatic Nerve During Nerve Mobilization Exercises: An In Vivo Cross-sectional Study Using Dynamic Ultrasound Imaging.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppieters, M.W.J.; Andersen, L.S.; Johansen, R.; Giskegjerde, P.K.; Høivik, M.; Vestre, S.; Nee, R.J.

    2015-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Controlled laboratory crosssectional study using single-group, within-subject comparisons. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether different types of neurodynamic techniques result in differences in longitudinal sciatic nerve excursion. BACKGROUND: Large differences in nerve biomechanics have

  1. Paleomagnetic Excursion Recorded in Exposed Lacustrine Sediments on Paoha Island in Mono Lake, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddicoat, J. C.; Coe, R. S.

    2016-12-01

    Paleomagnetic secular variation (PSV) in the Wilson Creek Formation that was deposited in Pleistocene Lake Russell in the Mono Basin, CA, has been known for nearly 50 years. The research began in the late 1960s during a search for the Laschamp Excursion (LE) believed then to have occurred between about 20,000 and 9,000 years ago (Bonhommet and Zahringer, 1969). Although that investigation was unsuccessful in locating the LE in the eroded bank of Wilson Creek on the northwest side of Mono Lake, which is the remnant of Lake Russell, anomalous field behavior was documented that is the Mono Lake Excursion (MLE)(Denham and Cox, 1971; Liddicoat and Coe, 1979). We did a PSV investigation of a portion of the Wilson Creek Formation where it is exposed on Paoha Island in the center of Mono Lake. Using volcanic ash layers from the nearby Mono Craters as stratigraphc marker beds and the tephrochronology of Lajoie (1993), we located anomalous field behavior that is similar to the field behavior during the MLE with some exceptions. One is the onset of negative inclination 45 cm beneath a 7-cm rhyolitic ash bed. That position is four times lower in the formation than negative inclination beneath Ash 15 that is midway in the MLE at three localities in the basin - Wilson Creek, Mill Creek, and Warm Springs (Liddicoat, 1992). Declination, inclination, and relative field intensity (RFI) where we sampled on Paoha Island are different enough from the paleomagnetic field behavior during the MLE that the possibility exists that a second excursion is recorded in the Wilson Creek Formation. We will present the paleomagnetic directions and RFI that are recorded on Paoha Island for that field behavior.

  2. Effect of Local Heating on Postprandial Blood Glucose Excursions Using the InsuPad Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitton, Gabriel; Reimer, André; Krichbaum, Michael; Kulzer, Bernhard; Haak, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The InsuPad is a medical device to accelerate insulin resorption by applying local heat at the insulin injection site. This crossover study examined the impact of the InsuPad use on postprandial glucose excursions under daily life conditions. In 1 study phase, diabetic patients used the InsuPad when injecting bolus insulin before breakfast and dinner and measured their blood glucose 5 times daily (before breakfast, lunch, and dinner and after breakfast and dinner). In the other study phase, blood glucose measurements were maintained without using the InsuPad. The order of the study phases was randomized. Twenty patients with a high insulin demand took part (30% type 1 diabetes, age 53.7 ± 8.9 years, diabetes duration 14.9 ± 7.4 years; HbA1c 8.3 ± 0.8%; total daily insulin demand 0.97 ± 0.32 IU per kg). Postprandial glucose excursion was reduced by 15.4 mg/dl (95% CI 9.7-21.2 mg/dl; P = .011) after breakfast and dinner if InsuPad was used. The mean blood glucose was lower by 8.8 mg/dl (95% CI 0:3-18:0 mg/dl; P = .099) when using the InsuPad. Safety parameters and the percentage of hypoglycemic ( 300 mg/dl) blood glucose measurements were not negatively affected by InsuPad use (hypoglycemic values 1.4% vs 1.5%, P = .961; hyperglycemic values 2.6% vs 4.0%, P = .098). Local heating of the insulin injection site by use of the InsuPad device is an effective and safe method to reduce postprandial blood glucose excursions under daily life conditions without negative side effects on the occurrence of low or high blood glucose values. PMID:25113814

  3. Epaxial muscle fiber architecture favors enhanced excursion and power in the leaper Galago senegalensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huq, Emranul; Wall, Christine E; Taylor, Andrea B

    2015-10-01

    Galago senegalensis is a habitual arboreal leaper that engages in rapid spinal extension during push-off. Large muscle excursions and high contraction velocities are important components of leaping, and experimental studies indicate that during leaping by G. senegalensis, peak power is facilitated by elastic storage of energy. To date, however, little is known about the functional relationship between epaxial muscle fiber architecture and locomotion in leaping primates. Here, fiber architecture of select epaxial muscles is compared between G. senegalensis (n = 4) and the slow arboreal quadruped, Nycticebus coucang (n = 4). The hypothesis is tested that G. senegalensis exhibits architectural features of the epaxial muscles that facilitate rapid and powerful spinal extension during the take-off phase of leaping. As predicted, G. senegalensis epaxial muscles have relatively longer, less pinnate fibers and higher ratios of tendon length-to-fiber length, indicating the capacity for generating relatively larger muscle excursions, higher whole-muscle contraction velocities, and a greater capacity for elastic energy storage. Thus, the relatively longer fibers and higher tendon length-to-fiber length ratios can be functionally linked to leaping performance in G. senegalensis. It is further predicted that G. senegalensis epaxial muscles have relatively smaller physiological cross-sectional areas (PCSAs) as a consequence of an architectural trade-off between fiber length (excursion) and PCSA (force). Contrary to this prediction, there are no species differences in relative PCSAs, but the smaller-bodied G. senegalensis trends towards relatively larger epaxial muscle mass. These findings suggest that relative increase in muscle mass in G. senegalensis is largely attributable to longer fibers. The relative increase in erector spinae muscle mass may facilitate sagittal flexibility during leaping. The similarity between species in relative PCSAs provides empirical support for

  4. Star Excursion Balance Test Anterior Asymmetry Is Associated With Injury Status in Division I Collegiate Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiffler, Mikel R; Bell, David R; Sanfilippo, Jennifer L; Hetzel, Scott J; Pickett, Kristen A; Heiderscheit, Bryan C

    2017-05-01

    Study Design Retrospective cohort. Background Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) performance differs by sport in healthy collegiate athletes, and lower extremity injury rates also vary by sport, sex, and athletic exposure. The relationship between SEBT performance and injury risk has not been evaluated with consideration of these additional variables, which may be necessary to fully describe the relationship between SEBT performance and injury risk. Objectives To assess the association between preseason SEBT performance and noncontact injury occurrence to the knee or ankle in Division I collegiate athletes when controlling for sport, sex, and athletic exposure. Methods Star Excursion Balance Test performance, starting status, and injury status were reviewed retrospectively in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I collegiate athletes from a single institution. A total of 147 athletes were healthy at the time of preseason SEBT testing and either remained healthy (n = 118) or sustained a noncontact injury to the knee or ankle (n = 29) during their sport's subsequent competitive season. Side-to-side asymmetries were calculated in each direction as the absolute difference in reach distance between limbs. Star Excursion Balance Test reach distances and asymmetries were compared between groups using multivariable regression, controlling for sport, sex, and athletic exposure (starter, nonstarter). Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to determine optimal sensitivity and specificity for significant models. Results When controlling for sport, sex, and athletic exposure, SEBT side-to-side asymmetry in the anterior direction, expressed as an absolute or normalized to limb length, discriminated between injured and noninjured athletes (area under the curve greater than 0.82). Conclusion Assessing side-to-side reach asymmetry in the anterior direction of the SEBT may assist in identifying collegiate athletes who are at risk for sustaining noncontact

  5. Excursion sets of infinitely divisible random fields with convolution equivalent Lévy measure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønn-Nielsen, Anders; Jensen, Eva B. Vedel

    2017-01-01

    We consider a continuous, infinitely divisible random field in ℝ d , d = 1, 2, 3, given as an integral of a kernel function with respect to a Lévy basis with convolution equivalent Lévy measure. For a large class of such random fields, we compute the asymptotic probability that the excursion set ...... at level x contains some rotation of an object with fixed radius as x → ∞. Our main result is that the asymptotic probability is equivalent to the right tail of the underlying Lévy measure....

  6. Excursion sets of infinitely divisible random fields with convolution equivalent Lévy measure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønn-Nielsen, Anders; Jensen, Eva B. Vedel

    We consider a continuous, infinitely divisible random field in R d , d = 1, 2, 3, given as an integral of a kernel function with respect to a Lévy basis with convolution equivalent Lévy measure. For a large class of such random fields we compute the asymptotic probability that the excursion set a...... at level x contains some rotation of an object with fixed radius as x → ∞. Our main result is that the asymptotic probability is equivalent to the right tail of the underlying Lévy measure...

  7. Shuram–Wonoka carbon isotope excursion: Ediacaran revolution in the world ocean's meridional overturning circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George E. Williams

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The late Ediacaran Shuram–Wonoka excursion, with δ13Ccarb values as low as –12‰ (PDB in marine-shelf deposits and spanning up to 10 Myr, is the deepest and most protracted δ13Ccarb negative anomaly recognised in Earth history. The excursion formed on at least four continents in low (≤32° palaeolatitudes, and in China is associated with a major phosphogenic event. Global and intrabasinal correlation, magnetostratigraphy, isotope conglomerate tests and further geochemical data are consistent with a primary or syn-depositional origin for the excursion. Continental-margin phosphorites are generated by oceanic upwelling driven by surface winds, and δ13Ccarb negative anomalies are explicable by oceanic upwelling of 13C-depleted deep oceanic waters, arguing that a feature common to these exceptional Ediacaran events was unprecedented perturbation of the world ocean. These events occurred during the transition from an alien Proterozoic world marked by low-palaeolatitude glaciation near sea level and strong seasonality to the familiar Phanerozoic Earth with circum-polar glaciation and temperate climate, suggesting that the Shuram–Wonoka excursion is related to this profound change in Earth's climate system. Of various hypotheses for Proterozoic low-palaeolatitude glaciation, only the high obliquity (>54° hypothesis, which posits secular decrease in obliquity to near the present-day value (23.5° during the Ediacaran, predicts an unparalleled revolution in the Ediacaran world ocean. The obliquity controls the sense of the world ocean's meridional overturning circulation, which today is driven by the sinking of cold, dense water at the poles and upwelling driven by zonal surface winds. When the decreasing obliquity passed the critical value of 54° during the Ediacaran the meridional temperature gradient reversed, with the equator becoming warmer than the poles and Hadley low-latitude (<30°–35° atmospheric zonal circulation reversing

  8. Maximum Acceptable Vibrato Excursion as a Function of Vibrato Rate in Musicians and Non-musicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vatti, Marianna; Santurette, Sébastien; Pontoppidan, Niels H.

    Human vibrato is mainly characterized by two parameters: vibrato extent and vibrato rate. These parameters have been found to exhibit an interaction both in physical recordings of singers’ voices and in listener’s preference ratings. This study was concerned with the way in which the maximum...... and, in most listeners, exhibited a peak at medium vibrato rates (5–7 Hz). Large across-subject variability was observed, and no significant effect of musical experience was found. Overall, most listeners were not solely sensitive to the vibrato excursion and there was a listener-dependent rate...

  9. Maximum Acceptable Vibrato Excursion as a Function of Vibrato Rate in Musicians and Non-musicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vatti, Marianna; Santurette, Sébastien; Pontoppidan, Niels H.

    2014-01-01

    Human vibrato is mainly characterized by two parameters: vibrato extent and vibrato rate. These parameters have been found to exhibit an interaction both in physical recordings of singers’ voices and in listener’s preference ratings. This study was concerned with the way in which the maximum...... and, in most listeners, exhibited a peak at medium vibrato rates (5–7 Hz). Large across-subject variability was observed, and no significant effect of musical experience was found. Overall, most listeners were not solely sensitive to the vibrato excursion and there was a listener-dependent rate...

  10. Evidence for geomagnetic excursions recorded in Brunhes and Matuyama Chron lavas from the trans-Mexican volcanic belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalk, Daniel M.; BöHnel, Harald N.; Nowaczyk, Norbert R.; AguíRre-Diaz, Gerardo J.; López-MartíNez, Margarita; Ownby, Steven; Negendank, JöRg F. W.

    2013-06-01

    This study presents paleomagnetic data from 59 independent lava flows from the trans-Mexican volcanic belt (TMVB) with ages from 6.4 Ma to recent, 52 being younger than 1 Ma, and 11 new 40Ar/39Ar age determinations. Most remanence carriers are Ti-poor titanomagnetite of pseudosingle-domain magnetic structure, nine lavas contain small amounts of titanomaghemite, and four lavas additional (titano-) hematite. Paleosecular variation of lava flows younger than 1.7 Ma is consistent with latitude-dependent Model G and also in agreement with other Pleistocene paleomagnetic data from the TMVB. The directional record of Brunhes and Matuyama Chrons lavas was correlated to the geomagnetic polarity timescale and there is evidence for at least four geomagnetic excursions. One lava flow dated at 592 ± 20 ka has a fully reversed paleodirection and most likely erupted during the Big Lost excursion. Another fully reversed flow, dated at 671 ± 12 ka, gives new volcanic evidence for the Delta/Stage 17 excursion. This excursion is supported by a reversed intermediate direction of another flow from a different volcanic field but of very close age of 673 ± 10 ka. From the Matuyama age lavas, one flow with normal polarity magnetization, dated at 949 ± 37 ka, could either be related to the Kamikatsura or the Santa Rosa excursion and a normal polarity flow, dated at 1628 ± 56 ka, could have been emplaced during the Gilsa excursion. The results presented here confirm in one case but disagree in four cases with results presented in two previous studies of the same lava flows and interpreted as geomagnetic excursions.

  11. Dynamics of the Earth Magnetic Field during the period of high variability covering the Laschamp and Mono Lake excursions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laj, Carlo; Guillou, Hervé; Kissel, Catherine

    2014-05-01

    We report on a synthesis of new paleomagnetic data (direction and intensity), conducted together with new K/Ar and 40Ar/39Ar dating over the past few years on 37 lava flows from the Chaîne des Puys (Massif Central, France). New flows emplaced during the Laschamp excursion have been identified and their K/Ar and 40Ar/39Ar dating improves again the precision of the age of this excursion, now established at 41.3 ± 0.6 ka (2sigma). Also, transitional flows corresponding to the Mono Lake excursion have been identified for the first time in this region, widening the geographical expression of this excursion. Absolute intensities obtained from 22 flows out of the 35 studied flows indicate that the intensity of the earth magnetic field is highly reduced, not only during the Laschamp but also during the Mono Lake excursion (to about 10% of the present-day field value). These two well identified and well dated minima, therefore now constitute very precise and accurate tie-points for the chronostratigraphy of this time period. In the 7000 years long interval separating the two excursions, the intensity of the earth magnetic field recovers to almost non-transitional values. This rules out the recent suggestion that a long intensity minimum (6000 years) between the two excursions would have resulted in the extinction of the Neandertal man-kind, via a strong decrease of the atmospheric ozone and an increase in UVB concentration. Not only the amplitude but also the duration of the observed changes are remarkably consistent in the high resolution records obtained from marine sediments, lavas and cosmogenic isotopes from polar ice. They indicate that the duration of the Laschamp can be estimated at about 1500 years based on the intensity drop and to about 640 years based on the directional change. If an excursion is an aborted polarity state as previously suggested, this would imply a duration of only 320 years for a polarity reversal, far shorter than what is invoked in the

  12. Effects of diaphragm stretching on posterior chain muscle kinematics and rib cage and abdominal excursion: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. González-Álvarez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background Few studies have explored the effects of stretching techniques on diaphragm and spine kinematics. Objective To determine whether the application of diaphragm stretching resulted in changes in posterior chain muscle kinematics and ribcage and abdominal excursion in healthy subjects. Method Eighty healthy adults were included in this randomized clinical trial. Participants were randomized into two groups: the experimental group, which received a diaphragmatic stretching technique, or the placebo group, which received a sham-ultrasound procedure. The duration of the technique, the position of participants, and the therapist who applied the technique were the same for both treatments. Participant assessment (cervical range of movement, lumbar flexibility, flexibility of the posterior chain, and rib cage and abdominal excursion was performed at baseline and immediately after the intervention by a blinded assessor. Results The mean between-group difference [95% CI] for the ribcage excursion after technique at xiphoid level was 2.48 [0.97 to 3.99], which shows significant differences in this outcome. The remaining between-group analysis showed significant differences in cervical extension, right and left flexion, flexibility of the posterior chain, and ribcage excursion at xiphoid level (p<0.05 in favor of the experimental group. Conclusion Diaphragm stretching generates a significant improvement in cervical extension, right and left cervical flexion, flexibility of the posterior chain, and ribcage excursion at xiphoid level compared to a placebo technique in healthy adults.

  13. Variations in Star Excursion Balance Test Performance Between High School and Collegiate Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Ryan S; Kosik, Kyle B; Beard, Megan Q; Terada, Masafumi; Pietrosimone, Brian G; Gribble, Phillip A

    2015-10-01

    The Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) is a reliable inexpensive tool used to assess dynamic postural control deficits and efficacy in the prediction of musculoskeletal injuries, but with little previous consideration for performance differences across age and skill levels. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in SEBT scores between high school and collegiate football players. Three-hundred eighteen high school football players and 180 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I collegiate football players volunteered to participate. Star Excursion Balance Test scores were obtained bilaterally for anterior (ANT), posterolateral (PL), and posteromedial (PM) directions, and for an overall composite (COMP) score. The mean of 3 trials from each leg was normalized to stance leg length and presented as a percentage score. Bilaterally averaged scores were compared between high school and collegiate football players using separate independent t-tests. A multiple linear backward regression determined the amount of variance in SEBT scores explained by age, mass, and height. Compared with collegiate athletes, high school athletes had lower PL (72.8 ± 11.4% vs. 77.1 ± 10.2%; p football players.

  14. Facial paralysis grading system: a new and simple smile excursion score for evaluating facial reanimation surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzou, Chieh-Han John; Chuang, David Chwei-Chin; Chen, Hsin-Hung

    2015-02-01

    Various facial paralysis grading systems have been introduced to evaluate the results of both spontaneous recovery and facial palsy reconstruction. The aim of the present study was to introduce and evaluate an objective new and quick Smile Excursion Score system which is readily applicable and easy to follow. It has been applied over the past 25 years for preoperative and postoperative result evaluation of smile reconstruction at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital. A standardized evaluation method was described for the assessment of the upper lip movement preoperatively and postoperatively with at least 1 year follow-up after functioning muscle transplantation. The evaluation was scored by the number of maxillary teeth exposed when smiling with teeth showing. Reliability of this technique was assessed by using 3 independent examiners who each evaluated the smiles of 34 unilateral facial paralysis patients 4 times, creating 408 sets of measurements. The intraclass correlation coefficients for interrater and intrarater reliability exceeded 0.94, which is considered as excellent and reliable. Chuang's Smile Excursion Score system is simple, quick, and accurate in evaluating smile after reanimation of paralyzed face effecting free functional muscle transplantation with no additional tools.

  15. The Halo Mass Function from Excursion Set Theory. III. Non-Gaussian Fluctuations

    CERN Document Server

    Maggiore, Michele

    2010-01-01

    We compute the effect of primordial non-Gaussianity on the halo mass function, using excursion set theory. In the presence of non-Gaussianity the stochastic evolution of the smoothed density field, as a function of the smoothing scale, is non-markovian and beside "local" terms that generalize Press-Schechter (PS) theory, there are also "memory" terms, whose effect on the mass function can be computed using the formalism developed in the first paper of this series. We find that, when computing the effect of the three-point correlator on the mass function, a PS-like approach which consists in neglecting the cloud-in-cloud problem and in multiplying the final result by a fudge factor close to 2, is in principle not justified. When computed correctly in the framework of excursion set theory, in fact, the "local" contribution vanishes (for all odd-point correlators the contribution of the image gaussian cancels the Press-Schechter contribution rather than adding up), and the result comes entirely from non-trivial ...

  16. Mary Poppins and the Soviet Pilgrimage: P.L.Travers's Moscow Excursion (1934

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John McNair

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Like the journey it chronicles, Moscow Excursion, P.L.Travers’s account of her 1932 visit to Russia, was in part inspired by the genre it effectively parodies: the ‘Soviet pilgrimage’ ‘truth about Russia’ narrative characteristic of the Stalin decades and exemplified (in the Australian context by Katharine Susannah Prichard’s The Real Russia, also published in 1934. The paper examines the ways in which Travers’s book is written against this genre to produce an avowedly ‘un-political’ record whose narrator rejects the restrictions of organized travel, and whose idiosyncratic and critical observations on Soviet reality contrast with the admiration of her more orthodox fellow-travellers for the usual showcase institutions on the official itinerary. At the same time, it is argued that in its blend of self-deprecating irony, whimsy and disillusioned idealism Moscow Excursion suggests parallels with Travers’s personal quest for ‘the truth’ and even with Mary Poppins, published only two months later.

  17. A school excursion to a museum can promote physical activity in children by integrating movement into curricular activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Lærke; Kryger, Tine B; Sidenius, Gry

    2018-01-01

    consisted of an excursion day to a museum. While an increase in light physical activity and reduction in the amount of sedentary time was observed, students did not spend more time in moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) during the visit to the museum than on a regular school day. However, over the full excursion......Since children spend a large proportion of their time in institutional settings such as schools, health promotion researchers have identified this as an important setting to promote physical activity (PA). Apart from physical education, PA could be integrated into the school curriculum in other...... ways. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine whether a school excursion to a museum can increase primary school students? PA and reduce sedentary time. One hundred and ten primary school students aged 12?13, from three Danish schools, wore accelerometers for four consecutive days, of which one...

  18. A school excursion to a museum can promote physical activity in children by integrating movement into curricular activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Lærke; Kryger, Tine; Sidenius, Gry

    2017-01-01

    consisted of an excursion day to a museum. While an increase in light physical activity and reduction in the amount of sedentary time was observed, students did not spend more time in moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) during the visit to the museum than on a regular school day. However, over the full excursion......Since children spend a large proportion of their time in institutional settings such as schools, health promotion researchers have identified this as an important setting to promote physical activity (PA). Apart from physical education, PA could be integrated into the school curriculum in other...... ways. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine whether a school excursion to a museum can increase primary school students’ PA and reduce sedentary time. One hundred and ten primary school students aged 12–13, from three Danish schools, wore accelerometers for four consecutive days, of which one...

  19. Relationship of medial gastrocnemius relative fascicle excursion and ankle joint power and work performance during gait in typically developing children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Lorenzo, Teresa; Albi Rodríguez, Gustavo; Rocon, Eduardo; Martínez Caballero, Ignacio; Lerma Lara, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Muscle fascicles lengthen in response to chronic passive stretch through in-series sarcomere addition in order to maintain an optimum sarcomere length. In turn, the muscles’ force generating capacity, maximum excursion, and contraction velocity is enhanced. Thus, longer fascicles suggest a greater capacity to develop joint power and work. However, static fascicle length measurements may not be taking sarcomere length differences into account. Thus, we considered relative fascicle excursions through passive ankle dorsiflexion may better correlate with the capacity to generate joint power and work than fascicle length. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine if medial gastrocnemius relative fascicle excursions correlate with ankle joint power and work generation during gait in typically developing children. A sample of typically developing children (n = 10) were recruited for this study and data analysis was carried out on 20 legs. Medial gastrocnemius relative fascicle excursion from resting joint angle to maximum dorsiflexion was estimated from trigonometric relations of medial gastrocnemius pennation angle and thickness obtained from B-mode real-time ultrasonography. Furthermore, a three-dimensional motion capture system was used to obtain ankle joint work and power during the stance phase of gait. Significant correlations were found between relative fascicle excursion and peak power absorption (–) r(14) = −0.61, P = .012 accounting for 31% variability, positive work r(18) = 0.56, P = .021 accounting for 31% variability, and late stance positive work r(15) = 0.51, P = .037 accounting for 26% variability. The large unexplained variance may be attributed to mechanics of neighboring structures (e.g., soleus or Achilles tendon mechanics) and proximal joint kinetics which may also contribute to ankle joint power and work performance, and were not taken into account. Further studies are encouraged to provide

  20. AT excursion: a new approach to predict replication origins in viral genomes by locating AT-rich regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Kwok

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Replication origins are considered important sites for understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in DNA replication. Many computational methods have been developed for predicting their locations in archaeal, bacterial and eukaryotic genomes. However, a prediction method designed for a particular kind of genomes might not work well for another. In this paper, we propose the AT excursion method, which is a score-based approach, to quantify local AT abundance in genomic sequences and use the identified high scoring segments for predicting replication origins. This method has the advantages of requiring no preset window size and having rigorous criteria to evaluate statistical significance of high scoring segments. Results We have evaluated the AT excursion method by checking its predictions against known replication origins in herpesviruses and comparing its performance with an existing base weighted score method (BWS1. Out of 43 known origins, 39 are predicted by either one or the other method and 26 origins are predicted by both. The excursion method identifies six origins not predicted by BWS1, showing that the AT excursion method is a valuable complement to BWS1. We have also applied the AT excursion method to two other families of double stranded DNA viruses, the poxviruses and iridoviruses, of which very few replication origins are documented in the public domain. The prediction results are made available as supplementary materials at 1. Preliminary investigation shows that the proposed method works well on some larger genomes too. Conclusion The AT excursion method will be a useful computational tool for identifying replication origins in a variety of genomic sequences.

  1. Glucose excursions and glycaemic control during Ramadan fasting in diabetic patients: insights from continuous glucose monitoring (CGM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessan, N; Hannoun, Z; Hasan, H; Barakat, M T

    2015-02-01

    Ramadan fasting represents a major shift in meal timing and content for practicing Muslims. This study used continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) to assess changes in markers of glycaemic excursions during Ramadan fasting to investigate the short-term safety of this practice in different groups of patients with diabetes. A total of 63 subjects (56 with diabetes, seven healthy volunteers; 39 male, 24 female) had CGM performed during, before and after Ramadan fasting. Mean CGM curves were constructed for each group for these periods that were then used to calculate indicators of glucose control and excursions. Post hoc data analyses included comparisons of different medication categories (metformin/no medication, gliptin, sulphonylurea and insulin). Medication changes during Ramadan followed American Diabetes Association guidelines. Among patients with diabetes, there was a significant difference in mean CGM curve during Ramadan, with a slow fall during fasting hours followed by a rapid rise in glucose level after the sunset meal (iftar). The magnitude of this excursion was greatest in the insulin-treated group, followed by the sulphonylurea-treated group. Markers of control deteriorated in a small number (n=3) of patients. Overall, whether fasting or non-fasting, subjects showed no statistically significant changes in mean interstitial glucose (IG), mean amplitude of glycaemic excursion (MAGE), high and low blood glucose indices (HBGI/LBGI), and number of glucose excursions and rate of hypoglycaemia. The main change in glycaemic control with Ramadan fasting in patients with diabetes is in the pattern of excursions. Ramadan fasting caused neither overall deterioration nor improvement in the majority of patients with good baseline glucose control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Can Postprandial Blood Glucose Excursion Be Predicted in Type 2 Diabetes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franc, Sylvia; Dardari, Dured; Peschard, Caroline; Riveline, Jean-Pierre; Biedzinski, Magdalena; Boucherie, Beatrix; Petit, Catherine; Requeda, Elisabeth; Mistretta, Frederic; Varroud-Vial, Michel; Charpentier, Guillaume

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We investigated the relationship between carbohydrate intake and postprandial blood glucose (BG) levels to determine the most influential meal for type 2 diabetic subjects treated with basal insulin and needing prandial insulin. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Three-day BG profiles for 37 type 2 diabetic subjects, with A1C levels of 7.7%, treated with sulfonylurea and metformin, and well titrated on insulin glargine, were analyzed using a continuous glucose monitoring system. Food intake from 680 meals was recorded and quantified during continuous glucose monitoring. RESULTS The median BG excursion (ΔBG) was higher at breakfast than at lunch or dinner (111 [81; 160] vs. 69.5 [41.5; 106] and 82.5 mg/dl [53; 119] mg/dl, P diabetes management. PMID:20551017

  3. Predictors of right ventricular function as measured by tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion in heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaergaard, Jesper; Iversen, Kasper K; Akkan, Dilek

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Tricuspid Annular Plane Systolic Excursion (TAPSE) has independent prognostic value in heart failure patients but may be influenced by left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction. The present study assessed the association of TAPSE and clinical factors, global and regional LV function...... in 634 patients admitted for symptomatic heart failure. METHODS & RESULTS: TAPSE were correlated with global and regional measures of longitudinal LV function, segmental wall motion scores and measures of diastolic LV function as measured from transthoracic echocardiography.LV ejection fraction, wall...... failure (beta = 1.3, p = 0.002) were independent predictors of TAPSE, R(2) = 0.28, p failure etiology or any of the other clinical factors analyzed, P(interaction) = NS. CONCLUSION: TAPSE is reduced with left ventricular dysfunction...

  4. Limnologic-geologic excursion in the territory of the lower Erft River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, G.; Thome, K.N.

    1976-01-01

    The geography and hydrology of the area of the excursion are described. There is much damage due to brown coal strip mining operations. Ground water was drained through a canal leading to the Erft River. The water in nearby springs is rich in Fe which repels plant life. The canal contains only a few blue algae (Oscillatoria splendida) and filamentous green algae (Ulothrix tenerrima) which tolerate high Fe concentrations. The Erft shore plant population includes Sparganium erectum, Potamogeton natans, P. pectinatus and Ranunculus fluitans. On flowering plants and stones, diatoms, various green algae (Cladophora glomerata, Stigeoclonium tenue, Oedogonium capillare) and the tropical red alga Compsopogon hookeri were found. The macrozoobenthos is composed mainly of snails (Bithynia tenaculata, Lumnaea ovata, Physa fontinalis, P. acuta and worms of North American origin (Dugesia tifrina, Dendrocoelum lacteum and Planaria lugubris). The Isopoda included Asellus coxalis and A. aquaticus. Leeches (Herpobdella octoculata) and insect larvae (Chironomids, Limnephilids) were also found.

  5. Excursions in classical analysis pathways to advanced problem solving and undergraduate research

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Hongwei

    2010-01-01

    Excursions in Classical Analysis introduces undergraduate students to advanced problem solving and undergraduate research in two ways. Firstly, it provides a colourful tour of classical analysis which places a wide variety of problems in their historical context. Secondly, it helps students gain an understanding of mathematical discovery and proof. In demonstrating a variety of possible solutions to the same sample exercise, the reader will come to see how the connections between apparently inapplicable areas of mathematics can be exploited in problem-solving. This book will serve as excellent preparation for participation in mathematics competitions, as a valuable resource for undergraduate mathematics reading courses and seminars and as a supplement text in a course on analysis. It can also be used in independent study, since the chapters are free-standing.

  6. Five scientists on excursion — a picture of marine biology on Helgoland before 1892

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zissler, D.

    1995-03-01

    Five scientists on excursion — a picture of marine biology on Helgoland before 1892. The picture, of which several variant poses with minor differences exist, is a photograph taken on Helgoland in September, 1865. The original is to be found in the collections of the Ernst-Haeckel-Haus in Jena. The photograph shows only a few objects and fewer persons, but they are arranged like a bouquet: in front, collecting vessels; behind, grouped around a table, five scientists, Dohrn, Greeff, Haeckel, Salverda, Marchi. They hold up their catching nets like insignia, identifying their basic activity. This photograph is a unique document for the marine biological research on Helgoland before 1892. Furthermore, it illustrates a time and place for the birth of the idea of establishing the world's most famous marine biological station, the Stazione Zoologica di Napoli.

  7. Tuning the Field Trip: Audio-Guided Tours as a Replacement for 1-Day Excursions in Human Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissmann, Torsten

    2013-01-01

    Educators are experiencing difficulties with 1-day field trips in human geography. Instead of teaching students how to apply theory in the field and learn to "sense" geography in everyday life, many excursions have degraded into tourist-like events where lecturers try to motivate rather passive students against a noisy urban backdrop.…

  8. Eyelid reanimation with gold weight implant and tendon sling suspension: evaluation of excursion and velocity using the FACIAL CLIMA system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hontanilla, Bernardo; Marre, Diego

    2013-04-01

    This study aims to analyse the efficacy of static techniques, namely gold weight implant and tendon sling, in the reanimation of the paralytic eyelid. Upper eyelid rehabilitation in terms of excursion and blinking velocity is performed using the automatic motion capture system, FACIAL CLIMA. Seventy-four patients underwent a total of 101 procedures including 58 upper eyelid gold weight implants and 43 lower eyelid tendon suspension with 27 patients undergoing both procedures. The presence of lagophtalmos, eye dryness, corneal ulcer, epiphora and lower lid ptosis/ectropion was assessed preoperatively. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare preoperative versus postoperative measurements of upper eyelid excursion and blinking velocity determined with FACIAL CLIMA. Significance was set at p CLIMA revealed significant improvement of eyelid excursion and velocity of blinking (p CLIMA system is a reliable method to quantify upper eyelid excursion and blinking velocity and to detect the exact position of the lower eyelid. Copyright © 2012 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Oxygen-isotope trends and seawater temperature changes across the Late Cambrian Steptoean positive carbon-isotope excursion (SPICE event)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrick, M.; Rieboldt, S.; Saltzman, M.; McKay, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    The globally recognized Late Cambrian Steptoean positive C-isotope excursion (SPICE) is characterized by a 3???-5??? positive ??13C shift spanning thermohaline circulation rates contributed to decreased dissolved O2 concentrations, which enhanced the preservation/burial of Corg causing the positive ??13C shift. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

  10. Rapid directional changes associated with a 6.5 kyr-long Blake geomagnetic excursion at the Blake-Bahama Outer Ridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourne, Mark; McNiocaill, Conall; Thomas, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    and provide constraints on the mechanisms producing field variability. We present here the highest resolution record yet published of the Blake geomagnetic excursion (similar to 125 ka) measured in three cores from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1062 on the Blake-Bahama Outer Ridge. The Blake excursion has......Geomagnetic excursions are recognized as intrinsic features of the Earth's magnetic field. High-resolution records of field behaviour, captured in marine sedimentary cores, present an opportunity to determine the temporal and geometric character of the field during geomagnetic excursions...... a controversial structure and timing but these cores have a sufficiently high sedimentation rate (similar to 10 cm ka(-1)) to allow detailed reconstruction of the field behaviour at this site during the excursion. Palaeomagnetic measurements of the cores reveal rapid transitions (

  11. Improving ultrasonic measurement of diaphragmatic excursion after cardiac surgery using the anatomical M-mode: a randomized crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasero, Daniela; Koeltz, Adrien; Placido, Rui; Fontes Lima, Mariana; Haun, Olivia; Rienzo, Mario; Marrache, David; Pirracchio, Romain; Safran, Denis; Cholley, Bernard

    2015-04-01

    Motion-mode (MM) echography allows precise measurement of diaphragmatic excursion when the ultrasound beam is parallel to the diaphragmatic displacement. However, proper alignment is difficult to obtain in patients after cardiac surgery; thus, measurements might be inaccurate. A new imaging modality named the anatomical motion-mode (AMM) allows free placement of the cursor through the numerical image reconstruction and perfect alignment with the diaphragmatic motion. Our goal was to compare MM and AMM measurements of diaphragmatic excursion in cardiac surgical patients. Cardiac surgical patients were studied after extubation. The excursions of the right and left hemidiaphragms were measured by two operators, an expert and a trainee, using MM and AMM successively, according to a blinded, randomized, crossover sequence. Values were averaged over three consecutive respiratory cycles. The angle between the MM and AMM cursors was quantified for each measurement. Fifty patients were studied. The mean (±SD) angle between the MM and AMM cursors was 37° ± 16°. The diaphragmatic excursion as measured by experts was 1.8 ± 0.7 cm using MM and 1.5 ± 0.5 cm using AMM (p AMM in 75 % of the measurements. Bland-Altman analysis showed tighter limits of agreement between experts and trainees with AMM [bias: 0.0 cm; 95 % confidence interval (CI): 0.8 cm] than with MM (bias: 0.0 cm; 95 % CI: 1.4 cm). MM overestimates diaphragmatic excursion in comparison to AMM in cardiac surgical patients. Using MM may lead to a lack of recognition of diaphragmatic dysfunction.

  12. Stimulation of shank muscles during functional electrical stimulation cycling increases ankle excursion in individuals with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornusek, Ché; Davis, Glen M; Baek, Ilhun

    2012-11-01

    To investigate the effect of shank muscle stimulation on ankle joint excursion during passive and functional electrical stimulation (FES) leg cycling. Within-subject comparisons. Laboratory setting. Well-trained FES cyclists (N=7) with chronic spinal cord injuries. Two experimental sessions were performed on an isokinetic FES cycle ergometer with a pedal boot that allowed the ankle to plantarflex and dorsiflex during cycling. During the first session, the optimal stimulation timings to induce plantarflexion and dorsiflexion were investigated by systematically altering the stimulation angles of the shank muscles (tibialis anterior [TA] and triceps surae [TS]). During the second session, TA and TS stimulation was included with standard FES cycling (quadriceps, hamstrings, and gluteals) for 6 subjects. Ankle, knee, and hip movements were analyzed using 2-dimensional video. The ankle excursions during passive cycling were 19°±6°. TA and TS stimulation increased ankle joint excursion up to 33°±10° and 27°±7°, respectively. Compared with passive cycling, ankle joint excursion was not significantly increased during standard FES cycling (24°±7°). TA and TS stimulation significantly increased the ankle excursion when applied during standard FES cycling (41°±4°). Freeing the ankle joint to rotate during FES cycling was found to be safe. The combination of shank muscle stimulation and repetitive ankle joint movement may be beneficial for improving ankle flexibility and leg conditioning. Further research is required to test and design ankle supports that might maximize the benefits of shank muscle activation. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The effect of spinal position on sciatic nerve excursion during seated neural mobilisation exercises: an in vivo study using ultrasound imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Richard; Osborne, Samantha; Whitfield, Janessa; Parmar, Priya; Hing, Wayne

    2017-05-01

    Research has established that the amount of inherent tension a peripheral nerve tract is exposed to influences nerve excursion and joint range of movement (ROM). The effect that spinal posture has on sciatic nerve excursion during neural mobilisation exercises has yet to be determined. The purpose of this research was to examine the influence of different sitting positions (slump-sitting versus upright-sitting) on the amount of longitudinal sciatic nerve movement during different neural mobilisation exercises commonly used in clinical practice. High-resolution ultrasound imaging followed by frame-by-frame cross-correlation analysis was used to assess sciatic nerve excursion. Thirty-four healthy participants each performed three different neural mobilisation exercises in slump-sitting and upright-sitting. Means comparisons were used to examine the influence of sitting position on sciatic nerve excursion for the three mobilisation exercises. Linear regression analysis was used to determine whether any of the demographic data represented predictive variables for longitudinal sciatic nerve excursion. There was no significant difference in sciatic nerve excursion (across all neural mobilisation exercises) observed between upright-sitting and slump-sitting positions (P = 0.26). Although greater body mass index, greater knee ROM and younger age were associated with higher levels of sciatic nerve excursion, this model of variables offered weak predictability (R(2) = 0.22). Following this study, there is no evidence that, in healthy people, longitudinal sciatic nerve excursion differs significantly with regards to the spinal posture (slump-sitting and upright-sitting). Furthermore, although some demographic variables are weak predictors, the high variance suggests that there are other unknown variables that may predict sciatic nerve excursion. It can be inferred from this research that clinicians can individualise the design of seated neural mobilisation exercises

  14. Geomagnetic Excursions recorded from a sediment core from the Great Barrier Reef, IODP Expedition 325, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, J. K.; Herrero-Bervera, E.; Jovane, L.

    2010-12-01

    At the end of the Expedition 325, “Great Barrier Reef Environmental Changes” (GBREC), of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program, a core 40 m long collected fine sediments from seaward of Noggin Reef, Queensland, Australia. Initial uranium-thorium and radiocarbon measurements give relative ages of ~10 to ~30 ka. The main aim of the expedition was an investigation of the magnitude and nature of sea-level changes in relation to the Last Glacial Maximum. Paleoenvironmental analyses will study the sea-level changes in relation to the glacial-interglacial phases. Recent modeling of the geodynamo and studies of the geomagnetic field show that the inner core imposes a physical constraint on fluid motions in the outer core. As a result, this complex vortex could provoke anomalies in the geomagnetic configuration that might also include complete and “aborted” reversals of the geomagnetic field. These “aborted” reversals can last for a few thousand years, and are called excursions. We present preliminary measurements of the magnetic susceptibility and NRM of U-channels and of discrete samples from Exp. 325 hole M0058A drilled in April 2010 in front of Noggin Reef in a water depth of 172 m. The magnetic susceptibility shows two zones of high susceptibility with respect to the rest of the base values. The first zone is located between 8.63 and 14.80 mbsf and the second one is located from ¬27.00 to 32.60 mbsf with a maximum value of 277.78 x 10-8 m3/kg. Natural remanent magnetization (NRM) and stepwise a.f. demagnetization have been measured for the 40 m long U-channels and for high-resolution 1-cc discrete samples. Some anomalies of the inclination of the NRM at 17-18 and 23-24 mbsf are related to increased intensity of NRM, but there is no variation in the magnetic susceptibility for these intervals. Alternating field (a.f.) stepwise demagnetization shows that these features are recognizable along the demagnetization steps, showing a consistent Characteristic

  15. Effect of asbestos-related pleural fibrosis on excursion of the lower chest wall and diaphragm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, B; Eastwood, P R; Finucane, K E; Panizza, J A; Musk, A W

    1999-11-01

    To examine mechanisms responsible for reduced lung volumes (restriction) in asbestos-related pleural fibrosis (APF), we studied diaphragm function and lower rib-cage excursion in 26 subjects with previous asbestos exposure and no evidence of asbestosis. Using posteroanterior (PA) and lateral chest radiographs taken at residual volume and at 25%, 70%, and 100% vital capacity (VC) during a slow inspiratory maneuver, we measured fractional expansion of the lower rib cage (FErc), fractional shortening of the diaphragm (FSdi), and changes (Delta) in diaphragm dome height (Hdo) and subphrenic volume (Vdi). Vdi was estimated by measuring the major and minor axes of the subphrenic space at 1-cm intervals, assuming an elliptical cross-sectional shape, and correcting for the volume of spinal and paraspinal tissues. Seven subjects had no evidence of APF (control), 12 had pleural plaques (PP), and seven had diffuse pleural thickening with costophrenic obliteration (DPT). Over the range of VC, results (mean +/- SEM, normalized for height) in control subjects were VC = 101.2 +/- 4.0 % predicted and DeltaVdi = 326 +/- 8 ml/m(3), and for the right hemithorax and hemidiaphragm on the PA film, FErc = 0.07 +/- 0.02, FSdi = 0.32 +/- 0.02 and DeltaHdo = 0.8 +/- 0.2 cm/m. Relative to controls: DPT subjects had reduced VC (77.4 +/- 4.9%, p dome.

  16. Star Excursion Balance Test performance and application in elite junior rugby union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlan, Garrett F; Delahunt, Eamonn; O'Sullivan, Eoghan; Fullam, Karl; Green, Brian S; Caulfield, Brian M

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate performance on selected reach directions of the Start Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) in an elite underage rugby union population, and determine if differences exist between the forward and back position units. This information may have implications for the application of this test in player injury prevention and management. Descriptive study. Gymnasium at an elite junior rugby union screening camp. 102 healthy male elite rugby union players (age = 17.9 ± 1.1 years, height = 1.83 ± 0.07 m, body mass = 90.5 ± 11.3 kg). Participants were assessed on the Anterior (A), Posterior-medial (PM), and Posterior-lateral (PL) reach directions of the SEBT. Normative data for SEBT performance in the A, PM and PL reach directions were established for an elite junior rugby union population. No significant differences in dynamic postural stability were observed between the forward and back position units. This study provides normative SEBT data on an elite junior rugby union population, which enables clinicians to compare player dynamic postural stability and has implications for use in the prevention and management of player injuries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Fixed field alternating gradient accelerator with small orbit shift and tune excursion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne L. Sheehy

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A new design principle of a nonscaling fixed field alternating gradient accelerator is proposed. It is based on optics that produce approximate scaling properties. A large field index k is chosen to squeeze the orbit shift as much as possible by setting the betatron oscillation frequency in the second stability region of Hill’s equation. Then, the lattice magnets and their alignment are simplified. To simplify the magnets, we expand the field profile of r^{k} into multipoles and keep only a few lower order terms. A rectangular-shaped magnet is assumed with lines of constant field parallel to the magnet axis. The lattice employs a triplet of rectangular magnets for focusing, which are parallel to one another to simplify alignment. These simplifications along with fringe fields introduce finite chromaticity and the fixed field alternating gradient accelerator is no longer a scaling one. However, the tune excursion of the whole ring can be within half an integer and we avoid the crossing of strong resonances.

  18. An Excursion Set Model of the Cosmic Web: the Abundance of Sheets, Filaments And Halos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Jiajian; /Penn State U., Astron. Astrophys.; Abel, Tom; /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Mo, Houjun; /Massachusetts U., Amherst; Sheth, Ravi; /Pennsylvania U.

    2006-01-11

    We discuss an analytic approach for modeling structure formation in sheets, filaments and knots. This is accomplished by combining models of triaxial collapse with the excursion set approach: sheets are defined as objects which have collapsed along only one axis, filaments have collapsed along two axes, and halos are objects in which triaxial collapse is complete. In the simplest version of this approach, which we develop here, large scale structure shows a clear hierarchy of morphologies: the mass in large-scale sheets is partitioned up among lower mass filaments, which themselves are made-up of still lower mass halos. Our approach provides analytic estimates of the mass fraction in sheets, filaments and halos, and its evolution, for any background cosmological model and any initial fluctuation spectrum. In the currently popular {Lambda}CDM model, our analysis suggests that more than 99% of the mass in sheets, and 72% of the mass in filaments, is stored in objects more massive than 10{sup 10}M{sub {circle_dot}} at the present time. For halos, this number is only 46%. Our approach also provides analytic estimates of how halo abundances at any given time correlate with the morphology of the surrounding large-scale structure, and how halo evolution correlates with the morphology of large scale structure.

  19. Effects of Visual Display on Joint Excursions Used to Play Virtual Dodgeball

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Christopher R; Applegate, Megan E; Leitkam, Samuel T; Pidcoe, Peter E; Walkowski, Stevan

    2016-01-01

    Background Virtual reality (VR) interventions hold great potential for rehabilitation as commercial systems are becoming more affordable and can be easily applied to both clinical and home settings. Objective In this study, we sought to determine how differences in the VR display type can influence motor behavior, cognitive load, and participant engagement. Methods Movement patterns of 17 healthy young adults (8 female, 9 male) were examined during games of Virtual Dodgeball presented on a three-dimensional television (3DTV) and a head-mounted display (HMD). The participant’s avatar was presented from a third-person perspective on a 3DTV and from a first-person perspective on an HMD. Results Examination of motor behavior revealed significantly greater excursions of the knee (P=.003), hip (PVirtual Dodgeball. Because VR use within rehabilitation settings is often designed to help restore movement following orthopedic or neurologic injury, these findings provide an important caveat regarding the need to consider the potential influence of presentation format and perspective on motor behavior. PMID:27634561

  20. New Radiometric Age Constraints for the Matuyama-Bruhnes Reversal and Santa Rosa Excursion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbas, A.; Koppers, A. A. P.; Kent, D. V.; Coe, R. S.; Konrad, K.; Clark, P. U.

    2015-12-01

    The coupling of the timing of the virtual geomagnetic pole (VGP) position and the absolute paleointensities for geomagnetic events is vital for understanding the Earth's geodynamo. Here we present new high-precision 40Ar/39Ar age determinations using an ARGUS-VI multi-collector mass spectrometer for lava flows on Floreana Island, Galapagos, and Tahiti Nui, Society Islands. New Galapagos ages (n=6) place the GA-79 lava flow on Floreana Island, which records an excursional VGP from an equatorial region (Cox and Dalrymple, 1966), within the Santa Rosa excursion. This flow contains extremely low paleointesity values of 1.1 x 1022 Am2 (n=11; Wang and Kent, 2013). We also present 52 new ages on 18 lava flows from the Punaruu valley, Tahiti, which record the Matuyama-Bruhnes reversal. The new ages confirm that the lavas record this reversal, but the ages differ from the original stratigraphy presented in Mochizuki et al. (2011). Our new ages using the Kuiper et al. (2008) fish canyon sanidine ages for Punaruu valley lava flows are concordant with previous astronomically tuned ages (Channell et al. 2002, 2009) and represent the highest precision radiometric ages for the most recent reversal. Here we show that paleointensity lows associated with excursional events can be comparable to or less than those associated with reversals. In addition, such field strength reductions can occur in time intervals as short as 3 thousand years.

  1. Accidental nuclear excursion recuplex operation 234-5 facility: Final medical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuqua, P. A.

    1962-04-07

    The April 7, 1962 criticality accident involving human exposures was the first to have occurred in any production facility at Hanford. The accidental nuclear excursion did not result in any mechanical damage or spread of contamination. Three employees received over-exposure to gamma and neutron radiation. None were fatally exposed and in each case the over-exposure was recognized promptly. Following an initial period of medical observation and testing, the men were released to work. They continued to be followed clinically. Clinical studies performed were hematological procedures including leukocyte chromosome aberrations, morphologically aberrant blood cells, bone marrow evaluations, blood chemistry determinations, amino acid excretion studies, seminal fluid, urinary gonadotropins and estrogen excretion studies, testicular biopsies and crystalline lens examinations. These studies, along with a brief description of the accident and of the dosimetry, are summarized in this report by those participating in the studies. In view of the dose ranges received in these cases, both the negative and positive findings are considered to be of unusual interest due to the lack of knowledge of effects following human exposures at these levels.

  2. Automatic Measurements of Mitral Annular Plane Systolic Excursion and Velocities to Detect Left Ventricular Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grue, Jahn Frederik; Storve, Sigurd; Dalen, Håvard; Salvesen, Øyvind; Mjølstad, Ole Christian; Samstad, Stein O; Torp, Hans; Haugen, Bjørn Olav

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the study described here was to evaluate an automatic algorithm for detection of left ventricular dysfunction, based on measurements of mitral annular motion indices from color tissue Doppler apical four-chamber recordings. Two hundred twenty-one patients, among whom 49 had systolic and 11 had diastolic dysfunction, were included. Echocardiographic evaluation by cardiologists was the reference. Twenty patients were also examined by medical students. The ability of the indices to detect systolic and diastolic dysfunction were compared in receiver operating characteristic analyses, and the agreement between automatic and reference measurements was evaluated. Mitral annular plane systolic excursion ≤10 mm detected left ventricular dysfunction with 82% specificity, 76% specificity, 56% positive predictive value and 92% negative predictive value. The automatic measurements acquired from expert recordings better agreed better with the reference than those acquired from student recordings. We conclude that automatic measurements of systolic mitral annular motion indices can be helpful in detection of left ventricular dysfunction. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Scope Complexity Options Risks Excursions (SCORE) Version 3.0 Mathematical Description.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gearhart, Jared Lee [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Samberson, Jonell Nicole [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shettigar, Subhasini [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jungels, John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Welch, Kimberly M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Dean A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of the Scope, Complexity, Options, Risks, Excursions (SCORE) model is to estimate the relative complexity of design variants of future warhead options. The results of this model allow those considering these options to understand the complexity tradeoffs between proposed warhead options. The core idea of SCORE is to divide a warhead option into a well- defined set of scope elements and then estimate the complexity of each scope element against a well understood reference system. The uncertainty associated with estimates can also be captured. A weighted summation of the relative complexity of each scope element is used to determine the total complexity of the proposed warhead option or portions of the warhead option (i.e., a National Work Breakdown Structure code). The SCORE analysis process is a growing multi-organizational Nuclear Security Enterprise (NSE) effort, under the management of the NA- 12 led Enterprise Modeling and Analysis Consortium (EMAC), that has provided the data elicitation, integration and computation needed to support the out-year Life Extension Program (LEP) cost estimates included in the Stockpile Stewardship Management Plan (SSMP).

  4. Development of a Bayesian Belief Network Runway Incursion and Excursion Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Lawrence L.

    2014-01-01

    In a previous work, a statistical analysis of runway incursion (RI) event data was conducted to ascertain the relevance of this data to the top ten Technical Challenges (TC) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Aviation Safety Program (AvSP). The study revealed connections to several of the AvSP top ten TC and identified numerous primary causes and contributing factors of RI events. The statistical analysis served as the basis for developing a system-level Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) model for RI events, also previously reported. Through literature searches and data analysis, this RI event network has now been extended to also model runway excursion (RE) events. These RI and RE event networks have been further modified and vetted by a Subject Matter Expert (SME) panel. The combined system-level BBN model will allow NASA to generically model the causes of RI and RE events and to assess the effectiveness of technology products being developed under NASA funding. These products are intended to reduce the frequency of runway safety incidents/accidents, and to improve runway safety in general. The development and structure of the BBN for both RI and RE events are documented in this paper.

  5. The museum “La casa encantada” of Briones in the teaching of history: proposed primary education school excursion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Molina Puche

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available It has been demonstrated, in order that the school excursions develop all his didactic potential (this is, in order that they serve to stimulate the “guided discovery” learning, have to be framed in didactic itineraries and with it, to be considered as an integral part of the didactic programming of the course. The curricular integration of the school excursions is one of the principal problems which the teacher meets at the moment of putting in practical this important didactic resource. With this work we claim, beside showing many possibilities that there has the museum of “The Enchanted House” of Briones (section ethnology of the Museum of La Rioja for the learning of the history in Primary Education, to indicate how they can integrate in the curriculum the visits to the museum in each of three cycles that shape this educational level.

  6. Impact of shoulder internal rotation on ulnar nerve excursion and strain in embalmed cadavers. A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugliotti, Mark; Futterman, Bennett; Ahrens, Thomas; Block, David; Brown, Lauren; Dagro, Micheal; Falesto, James; Lyon, Aliza

    2016-01-01

    Design Laboratory study, repeated-measures design. Objective To determine if the substitution of shoulder internal rotation for external rotation during the upper limb neurodynamic test (ULNT3) evokes a comparable ulnar nerve excursion and strain in embalmed cadavers. Shoulder external rotation is a primary movement component of the ULNT3. It has been suggested that shoulder internal rotation may provide a similar load to the nervous system. There are no data to either support or negate this claim. Methods Excursion and strain were measured in the ulnar nerve of six embalmed cadavers during the traditional ULNT3 and an experimental maneuver using shoulder internal rotation. Results The total means±SD of excursion for the traditional and experimental maneuvers were 2·11±0·89 and 2·09±0·92 mm, respectively. The total means±SD of strain for the traditional and experimental maneuvers were 5·274±2·223 and 5·241±2·308%, respectively. A very strong correlation (r = 0·98) was shown to exist between maneuvers and this relationship was determined to be significant (P = 0·001). Discussion The results of this study provide evidence that there is no appreciable difference in excursion or strain when substituting shoulder internal rotation for external rotation during the ULNT3. Patients who exhibit limitation of shoulder external rotation mobility may benefit from this substitution when presenting with signs of ulnar nerve pathodynamics. Further research involving patients will be needed to assess the validity of the experimental maneuver for clinical application. PMID:27559280

  7. Excursion of the Sciatic Nerve During Nerve Mobilization Exercises: An In Vivo Cross-sectional Study Using Dynamic Ultrasound Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppieters, Michel W; Andersen, Line S; Johansen, Runar; Giskegjerde, Per K; Høivik, Mona; Vestre, Siv; Nee, Robert J

    2015-10-01

    Controlled laboratory cross-sectional study using single-group, within-subject comparisons. To determine whether different types of neurodynamic techniques result in differences in longitudinal sciatic nerve excursion. Large differences in nerve biomechanics have been demonstrated for different neurodynamic techniques for the upper limb (median nerve), but recent findings for the sciatic nerve have only revealed small differences in nerve excursion that may not be clinically meaningful. High-resolution ultrasound imaging was used to quantify longitudinal sciatic nerve movement in the thigh of 15 asymptomatic participants during 6 different mobilization techniques for the sciatic nerve involving the hip and knee. Healthy volunteers were selected to demonstrate normal nerve biomechanics and to eliminate potentially confounding variables associated with dysfunction. Repeated-measures analyses of variance were used to analyze the data. The techniques resulted in markedly different amounts of nerve movement (Pneurodynamic exercises for the lower limb resulted in markedly different sciatic nerve excursions. Considering the continuity of the nervous system, the movement and position of adjacent joints have a large impact on nerve biomechanics.

  8. Tricuspid Annular Plane Systolic Excursion (TAPSE in a Patient with Pulmonary Emboli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Zawada

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 60-year-old male with a history of pulmonary emboli (PE presented to the emergency department with exertional shortness of breath following a ten-hour flight. The patient admitted to recently stopping his previously prescribed rivaroxaban. His electrocardiogram (ECG showed findings consistent with a S1Q3T3 pattern. Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS was performed using the curvilinear probe, which revealed a thrombus in the inferior vena cava (IVC. POCUS using the phased array probe demonstrated an abnormal tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE and a significantly dilated right ventricle (RV. Computed tomography angiogram (CTA showed evidence of acute emboli within the right and left distal main pulmonary arteries, left lobar, and left proximal segmental artery. Additionally, a thrombus was visualized in the left distal subhepatic IVC. The patient was admitted to telemetry for anticoagulation and monitoring. Right heart catheterization revealed a significantly elevated pulmonary artery pressure of 95/27. Significant findings: Video 1 and Image 1 show a thrombus in the patient’s IVC. Video 2 and Images 2-3 demonstrate a positive TAPSE of less than 17mm (blue arrow length with a significantly dilated RV, indicating abnormal excursion of the tricuspid annulus and right ventricular dysfunction. Discussion: Pulmonary embolism is the third leading cause of death from cardiovascular disease following myocardial infarction and stroke.1 Approximately half of all PEs are diagnosed in the emergency department2 and early detection and treatment have been shown to improve outcomes and survival.3 Pulmonary emboli can present with a wide range of symptoms including dyspnea, chest pain, shock, or sustained hypotension, and can even be asymptomatic, making it a potentially challenging diagnosis.4 Studies show a high specificity of over 80% but low sensitivity of lower than 60%, for echocardiography in the diagnosis of PE

  9. Secondary Structure Predictions for Long RNA Sequences Based on Inversion Excursions and MapReduce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yehdego, Daniel T; Zhang, Boyu; Kodimala, Vikram K R; Johnson, Kyle L; Taufer, Michela; Leung, Ming-Ying

    2013-05-01

    Secondary structures of ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules play important roles in many biological processes including gene expression and regulation. Experimental observations and computing limitations suggest that we can approach the secondary structure prediction problem for long RNA sequences by segmenting them into shorter chunks, predicting the secondary structures of each chunk individually using existing prediction programs, and then assembling the results to give the structure of the original sequence. The selection of cutting points is a crucial component of the segmenting step. Noting that stem-loops and pseudoknots always contain an inversion, i.e., a stretch of nucleotides followed closely by its inverse complementary sequence, we developed two cutting methods for segmenting long RNA sequences based on inversion excursions: the centered and optimized method. Each step of searching for inversions, chunking, and predictions can be performed in parallel. In this paper we use a MapReduce framework, i.e., Hadoop, to extensively explore meaningful inversion stem lengths and gap sizes for the segmentation and identify correlations between chunking methods and prediction accuracy. We show that for a set of long RNA sequences in the RFAM database, whose secondary structures are known to contain pseudoknots, our approach predicts secondary structures more accurately than methods that do not segment the sequence, when the latter predictions are possible computationally. We also show that, as sequences exceed certain lengths, some programs cannot computationally predict pseudoknots while our chunking methods can. Overall, our predicted structures still retain the accuracy level of the original prediction programs when compared with known experimental secondary structure.

  10. Real-time 3-D hybrid simulation of Titan's plasma interaction during a solar wind excursion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Simon

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The plasma environment of Saturn's largest satellite Titan is known to be highly variable. Since Titan's orbit is located within the outer magnetosphere of Saturn, the moon can leave the region dominated by the magnetic field of its parent body in times of high solar wind dynamic pressure and interact with the thermalized magnetosheath plasma or even with the unshocked solar wind. By applying a three-dimensional hybrid simulation code (kinetic description of ions, fluid electrons, we study in real-time the transition that Titan's plasma environment undergoes when the moon leaves Saturn's magnetosphere and enters the supermagnetosonic solar wind. In the simulation, the transition between both plasma regimes is mimicked by a reversal of the magnetic field direction as well as a change in the composition and temperature of the impinging plasma flow. When the satellite enters the solar wind, the magnetic draping pattern in its vicinity is reconfigured due to reconnection, with the characteristic time scale of this process being determined by the convection of the field lines in the undisturbed plasma flow at the flanks of the interaction region. The build-up of a bow shock ahead of Titan takes place on a typical time scale of a few minutes as well. We also analyze the erosion of the newly formed shock front upstream of Titan that commences when the moon re-enters the submagnetosonic plasma regime of Saturn's magnetosphere. Although the model presented here is far from governing the full complexity of Titan's plasma interaction during a solar wind excursion, the simulation provides important insights into general plasma-physical processes associated with such a disruptive change of the upstream flow conditions.

  11. THE DYNAMICS OF RAPID REDSHIFTED AND BLUESHIFTED EXCURSIONS IN THE SOLAR Hα LINE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuridze, D.; Henriques, V.; Mathioudakis, M.; Keys, P. H.; Keenan, F. P. [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen’s University, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Erdélyi, R. [Solar Physics and Space Plasma Research Centre (SPRC), University of Sheffield, Hicks Building, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Zaqarashvili, T. V. [Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Schmiedlstrasse 6, A-8042 Graz (Austria); Shelyag, S., E-mail: d.kuridze@qub.ac.uk [Monash Centre for Astrophysics, School of Mathematical Sciences, Monash University, Clayton VIC 3800 (Australia)

    2015-03-20

    We analyze high temporal and spatial resolution time-series of spectral scans of the Hα line obtained with the CRisp Imaging SpectroPolarimeter instrument mounted on the Swedish Solar Telescope. The data reveal highly dynamic, dark, short-lived structures known as Rapid Redshifted and Blueshifted Excursions (RREs, RBEs) that are on-disk absorption features observed in the red and blue wings of spectral lines formed in the chromosphere. We study the dynamics of RREs and RBEs by tracking their evolution in space and time, measuring the speed of the apparent motion, line of sight (LOS) Doppler velocity, and transverse velocity of individual structures. A statistical study of their measured properties shows that RREs and RBEs have similar occurrence rates, lifetimes, lengths, and widths. They also display non-periodic, nonlinear transverse motions perpendicular to their axes at speeds of 4–31 km s{sup −1}. Furthermore, both types of structures either appear as high speed jets and blobs that are directed outwardly from a magnetic bright point with speeds of 50–150 km s{sup −1}, or emerge within a few seconds. A study of the different velocity components suggests that the transverse motions along the LOS of the chromospheric flux tubes are responsible for the formation and appearance of these redshifted/blueshifted structures. The short lifetime and fast disappearance of the RREs/RBEs suggests that, similar to type II spicules, they are rapidly heated to transition region or even coronal temperatures. We speculate that the Kelvin–Helmholtz instability triggered by observed transverse motions of these structures may be a viable mechanism for their heating.

  12. Emergency physician performed tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion in the evaluation of suspected pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, James; Grotberg, John; Pare, Joseph; Medoro, Amanda; Liu, Rachel; Hall, Michael Kennedy; Taylor, Andrew; Moore, Christopher L

    2017-01-01

    The primary objectives were to describe the diagnostic characteristics tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) for pulmonary embolism (PE) and to optimize the measurement cutoff of TAPSE for the diagnosis of PE. Secondary objectives included assessment of interrater reliability and the quantitative visual estimation of TAPSE. This is a prospective observational cohort study involving a convenience sample of patients at an urban academic emergency department. Patients underwent focused right heart echocardiogram (FOCUS) before computed tomographic angiography (CTA) for suspected PE. A total of 150 patients were enrolled, 32 of whom (21.3%) were diagnosed as having a PE. A receiver operating characteristic curve analysis yielded 2.0 cm as the optimal cutoff for TAPSE in the diagnosis of PE, with a sensitivity of 72% (95% confidence interval [CI], 53-86), a specificity of 66% (95% CI, 57-75), and an area under the curve of 0.73 (95% CI, 0.65-0.83). In patients with tachycardia or hypotension, post hoc analysis demonstrated that FOCUS is 100% (95% CI, 80-100) sensitive for PE, whereas TAPSE is 94% (95% CI, 71-99) sensitive for PE. The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.87 (95% CI, 0.79-0.93). Emergency physicians with training in echocardiography accurately visually estimated TAPSE, with a κ statistic of 0.94 (95% CI, 0.87-0.98). Emergency physicians with training in echocardiography can reliably measure TAPSE and are able to accurately visually estimate TAPSE as either normal or abnormal. When using an abnormal cutoff of less than 2.0 cm, TAPSE has moderate diagnostic value in patients with suspected PE. On post hoc analysis, TAPSE and FOCUS appear to be highly sensitive for PE in patients with tachycardia or hypotension. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Test of intrarater and interrater reliability for the star excursion balance test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyong, In Hyouk; Kim, Jae Hyun

    2014-08-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the intrarater and interrater reliability of the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT), thereby increasing understanding of its efficient utilization. [Subjects and Methods] There were 67 subjects (49 female; 18 male). For the SEBT, eight lines were made using tape at 45-degree angles from the center of a circle. The experiment was conducted in the following order: the anterior, anterior-medial, medial, posterior-medial, posterior, posterior-lateral, lateral, and anterior-lateral directions. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) (3,1) were used to evaluate the intrarater and interrater reliability (2,1) for each reach distance, while the standard error of measurement (SEM) and smallest detectable distance (SDD) were employed to assess absolute reliability. [Results] For intraratar reliability, the ICC values for all directions ranged from 0.88 to 0.96, SEM values ranged from 2.41 to 3.30, and SDD values ranged from 6.68 to 9.15. For interrater reliability, the ICC values for all directions ranged from 0.83 to 0.93, SEM values ranged from 3.19 to 4.26, and SDD values ranged from 8.85 to 11.82 [Conclusion] The SEBT is a highly reliable tool for measuring dynamic balance. Measurements for intrarater reliability are more reliable than measurements for interrater reliability. When measurement for eight directions was difficult, the SEBT was used. While the anterior, posteromedial, and posterolateral directions employed in the Y Balance Test Kit(TM) can be utilized, this study recommends using the reverse Y Balance Test Kit(TM) method with the posterior direction, not the anterior direction.

  14. Dissolved inorganic carbon isotope signatures in ferruginous lakes: new insights into ancient carbonate isotope excursions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittkop, C.; Swanner, E.; Lambrecht, N.; Torgeson, J.; Katsev, S.; Myrbo, A.

    2016-12-01

    Dissolved iron, nutrient, and oxygen profiles from two newly documented ferruginous lakes demonstrate their ability to serve as ancient ocean analogs. Profiles of δ13C composition of dissolved inorganic carbon (δ13CDIC) from eutrophic Brownie Lake in Minnesota and oligotrophic Canyon Lake in Michigan confirm features previously documented in ferruginous lakes: significant variability in δ13CDIC between surface, chemocline, and bottom waters, told by pronounced negative carbon isotope excursions at the chemocline, shifting to significant enrichments in deep waters. Dissolved methane concentrations and methane isotope compositions in Canyon Lake are consistent with pelagic anaerobic methane oxidation, which appears to be the dominant influence on δ13CDIC at the chemocline of this site. Microprobe data from paleo-ferruginous (Quaternary) lake sediments reveal the presence of zoned Fe-Mn carbonates in finely banded sediments where Fe-speciation data lack a magnetite signature associated with diagenetic dissimilatory iron reduction, suggestive of a water-column origin for some ferruginous carbonates. These field and sediment data are consistent with the hypothesis that carbonate δ13C signatures widely assumed to be diagenetic may also be attributed to processes that occur in a ferruginous water column. Carbonate precipitation at a ferruginous chemocline would yield depleted carbon isotope signatures similar to those imparted by diagenetic organic matter mineralization, while carbonate precipitation at a ferruginous sediment-water interface may yield significantly enriched carbon isotope signatures similar to those imparted by diagenetic methanogenesis. Careful evaluation of sediment texture and geochemistry is needed to discern the potential for water column isotopic signatures in ancient ferruginous carbonates. This model may be applied to enigmatic carbon isotope signatures recorded in Precambrian iron formation carbonates including the Kalahari Manganese Field

  15. Jaw-muscle force and excursion scale with negative allometry in platyrrhine primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Andrea B; Yuan, Tian; Ross, Callum F; Vinyard, Christopher J

    2015-07-14

    Platyrrhines span two orders of magnitude in body size and are characterized by diverse feeding behaviors and diets. While size plays an important role in primate feeding behavior and masticatory apparatus morphology, we know little about size-correlated changes in the force-generating (physiologic cross-sectional area; PCSA) and excursion/stretch (fiber length; Lf ) capabilities of the jaw-closing muscles in platyrrhines. We examined scaling relationships of the superficial masseter and temporalis muscles in 21 platyrrhine species. Previous work suggests that larger platyrrhines are at a mechanical disadvantage for generating bite forces compared with smaller platyrrhines. We hypothesize that scaling of jaw-muscle fiber architecture counters this size-correlated decrease in mechanical advantage. Thus, we predicted that jaw-muscle PCSAs and muscle weights scale with positive allometry while Lf s scale with negative allometry, relative to load-arm estimates for incisor/molar biting and chewing. Jaw-muscle PCSAs and Lf s appear to scale with negative allometry relative to load-arm estimates and body size. Negative allometry of jaw-muscle weights partially accounts for the size-correlated decreases in PCSA and Lf . Estimates of bite force also scale with negative allometry. Large-bodied platyrrhines (e.g., Alouatta) are at a relative disadvantage for generating jaw-muscle and bite force as well as jaw-muscle stretch, compared with smaller species (e.g., Callithrix). The net effect is that larger platyrrhines likely produce relatively smaller maximal bite forces compared with smaller taxa. Relative to small- and intermediate-sized platyrrhines, large-bodied platyrrhines feed on some of the least mechanically challenging foods, consistent with the size-correlated decrease in relative muscle and bite forces across the clade. Am J Phys Anthropol, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Star Excursion Balance Test Performance Varies by Sport in Healthy Division I Collegiate Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiffler, Mikel R; Sanfilippo, Jennifer L; Brooks, M Alison; Heiderscheit, Bryan C

    2015-10-01

    Cross-sectional. To describe performance and asymmetry on the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) by sex and sport, and to determine if differences exist within a collegiate athlete population. Performance on the SEBT may differ between sexes and levels of competition, though the results of previous studies have been inconsistent. Investigation of performance and asymmetry differences between sports is limited. Sex- and sport-specific reference values likely need to be determined to best assess SEBT performance. Performance on the SEBT was retrospectively reviewed in 393 healthy National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I collegiate athletes from 8 sports. Means, standard deviations, and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for all variables. Normalized reach distance (percent limb length) and asymmetry between limbs were compared for the anterior (ANT), posterolateral (PL), and posteromedial (PM) directions and for the composite (COMP) score using a 2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) of sex by sport, and a 1-way ANOVA to separately compare sports within each sex. Average normalized reach distance ranged from 62% to 69%, 84% to 97%, and 99% to 113% in the ANT, PL, and PM directions, respectively, and from 82% to 92% in the COMP score. Normalized asymmetry ranged from 3% to 4%, 5% to 8%, and 5% to 6% in the ANT, PL, and PM directions, respectively. A significant sex-by-sport interaction (P = .039) was observed in the ANT direction, with a sex effect for soccer players (PPerformance on the SEBT varies by team, with a difference between sexes also present for soccer. Performance on the SEBT and potential injury risk should be interpreted within the context of the athlete's sport.

  17. Civil and Patriotic Education of Students by Means of Excursion Activities in Russia in the Second Half of XIX – Early XX Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda V. Tarasova

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is concerned with the problem of civil and patriotic education of students by means of voluntary activity, presents historical and educational analysis of excursion activities as one of the major forms of volunteer work of schoolchildren in Russia in the second half of the XIX – early XX centuries, determines its major goals and objectives. The paper, using archive data, attempts to consider excursion activity as one of the major forms of volunteer work, promoting patriotism development in rising generation. The opinions of innovative teachers of the examined period, who considered that excursions had great educational potential are characterized. The position of the Ministry of Education, concerning educational potential of excursions is examined.

  18. Trunk-rotation differences at maximal reach of the star excursion balance test in participants with chronic ankle instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Motte, Sarah; Arnold, Brent L; Ross, Scott E

    2015-04-01

    Functional reach on the Star Excursion Balance Test is decreased in participants with chronic ankle instability (CAI). However, comprehensive 3-dimensional kinematics associated with these deficits have not been reported. To determine if lower extremity kinematics differed in CAI participants during anteromedial, medial, and posteromedial reach on the Star Excursion Balance Test. Case-control study. Sports medicine research laboratory. Twenty CAI participants (age = 24.15 ± 3.84 years, height = 168.95 ± 11.57 cm, mass = 68.95 ± 16.29 kg) and 20 uninjured participants (age = 25.65 ± 5.58 years, height = 170.14 ± 8.75 cm, mass = 69.89 ± 10.51 kg) with no history of ankle sprain. We operationally defined CAI as repeated episodes of ankle "giving way" or "rolling over" or both, regardless of neuromuscular deficits or pathologic laxity. All CAI participants scored ≤26 on the Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool. Star Excursion Balance Test reaches in the anteromedial, medial, and posteromedial directions. The CAI participants used the unstable side as the stance leg. Control participants were sex, height, mass, and side matched to the CAI group. The 3-dimensional kinematics were assessed with a motion-capture system. Group differences on normalized reach distance, trunk, pelvis, and hip-, knee-, and ankle-joint angles at maximum Star Excursion Balance Test reach. No reach-distance differences were detected between CAI and uninjured participants in any of the 3 reach directions. With anteromedial reach, trunk rotation (t(1,38) = 3.06, P = .004), pelvic rotation (t(1,38) = 3.17, P = .003), and hip flexion (t(1,38) = 2.40, P = .002) were greater in CAI participants. With medial reach, trunk flexion (t(1,38) = 6.39, P = .05) was greater than for uninjured participants. No differences were seen with posteromedial reach. We did not detect reach-distance differences in any direction. However, participants with CAI rotated the trunk and pelvis more toward the stance leg

  19. Manifestation of The Geomagnetic Sterno Excursion In The Sediments of The Barents, White, and Baltic Seas and Related Climatic Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morner, N.-A.; Dergachev, V.; Raspopov, O.; Goos'kova, E.; Gernik, V.; Shumilov, O.

    Measurements of magnetic properties of 15 cores from sediments of the Barents, White, and Baltic seas revealed sharp changes in the geomagnetic field (GF) incli- nation of the same age in Holocene deposits. In sediments of the Baltic sea the change in inclination was accompanied by a 3-fold reduction in the GF intensity. Accord- ing to the radiocarbon dating and sedimentation rate estimates, the age of this event is from 2300 BP to 3000 BP, and the duration is as short as 100-300 years. The re- vealed changes in the magnetic properties of sediments can be associated with the geomagnetic Sterno (Etrussia) excursion. As evidenced by the dendrochronological data, a sharp increase in the C-14 content occurred in the Earth's atmosphere during this time interval (about 2700 and 2200-2300 years ago). It can be attributed to both the decrease in the GF during the excursion and the decrease in the solar activity and a corresponding change in solar radiation. The sharp change in the cosmogenic isotope content in the first millennium BC was accompanied by sharp cooling in the middle and high latitudes. Modern data indicate that variations in cosmic rays controlled by both solar activity and GF affect the lower atmosphere and, hence, climate parame- ters. All these facts show that investigation of the events in the palaeomagnetic data associated with inversions and excursions of the GF is of particular importance. Dur- ing the reversal of the total magnetic field polarity, the magnetic moment decreases, which leads to an increased intensity of penetration of cosmic rays into the upper atmosphere. Global changes in the electromagnetic field of the Earth result in sharp changes in the climate-forming factors in the atmosphere, such as temperatures, total pressure field, moisture circulation, intensity of air flows, thunderstorm activity. In ad- dition, significant changes in the conditions of sea flows and temperature regimes of the world ocean are bound to take place. Thus

  20. Long-term palaeomagnetic secular variation and excursions from the western Equatorial Pacific Ocean (MIS2-4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Steve; Schwartz, Martha; Stott, Lowell

    2017-05-01

    New palaeomagnetic results are presented for the Pleistocene (MIS2-4) portion of deep-sea core MD98-2181 (MD81; Devao Gulf, Philippine Islands). MD81 is the highest resolution (∼50 cm ky-1) palaeomagnetic secular variation (PSV) record for ∼12-70 ka ever recovered from equatorial latitudes (±15°). Magnetic studies indicate that MD81 has a stable natural remanence with directional uncertainties (MAD angles) typically less than 3°. We have also recovered a relative palaeointensity estimate from these sediments based on normalization to isothermal remanence. We have correlated our relative palaeointensity record with high-resolution relative palaeointensity records from the North Atlantic Ocean. The MD81 ages are always within ±500 yr of the North Atlantic records over the entire core. We also correlate our PSV record with another published PSV record from Indonesia (MD34). We are able to correlate 25 inclination features, 25 declination features and 24 relative palaeointensity features between MD81 and MD34. We identify three intervals of 'anomalous' directions in the cores (based on >2σ deviation from mean directions). One of these intervals contains true excursional directions and is dated to ∼40.5 ka. We associate this interval with the Laschamp Excursion. We also note two other intervals that have anomalous directions, but no true excursional directions. These intervals occur around ∼34.5 and ∼61.5 ka and we associate them with the Mono Lake Excursion (∼33.5-34.5 ka) in western USA and the Norwegian-Greenland Sea Excursion (∼61 ± 2 ka) in the North Atlantic Ocean. We view our 'anomalous' PSV in the three intervals to be truly anomalous even though most directions are not truly excursional. We think that it is time to reconsider the definition of what is 'anomalous' PSV or excursions. To do that we need good-quality PSV records from several regions that have reproducible records of normal PSV, excursional waveforms and relative palaeointensity

  1. Comparison of longitudinal excursion of a nerve-phantom model using quantitative ultrasound imaging and motion analysis system methods: A convergent validity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, Philippe; El Khamlichi, Youssef; Lamontagne, Martin; Higgins, Johanne; Gagnon, Dany H

    2017-08-01

    Quantitative ultrasound imaging is gaining popularity in research and clinical settings to measure the neuromechanical properties of the peripheral nerves such as their capability to glide in response to body segment movement. Increasing evidence suggests that impaired median nerve longitudinal excursion is associated with carpal tunnel syndrome. To date, psychometric properties of longitudinal nerve excursion measurements using quantitative ultrasound imaging have not been extensively investigated. This study investigates the convergent validity of the longitudinal nerve excursion by comparing measures obtained using quantitative ultrasound imaging with those determined with a motion analysis system. A 38-cm long rigid nerve-phantom model was used to assess the longitudinal excursion in a laboratory environment. The nerve-phantom model, immersed in a 20-cm deep container filled with a gelatin-based solution, was moved 20 times using a linear forward and backward motion. Three light-emitting diodes were used to record nerve-phantom excursion with a motion analysis system, while a 5-cm linear transducer allowed simultaneous recording via ultrasound imaging. Both measurement techniques yielded excellent association ( r  = 0.99) and agreement (mean absolute difference between methods = 0.85 mm; mean relative difference between methods = 7.48 %). Small discrepancies were largely found when larger excursions (i.e. > 10 mm) were performed, revealing slight underestimation of the excursion by the ultrasound imaging analysis software. Quantitative ultrasound imaging is an accurate method to assess the longitudinal excursion of an in vitro nerve-phantom model and appears relevant for future research protocols investigating the neuromechanical properties of the peripheral nerves.

  2. Free gracilis transfer for smile in children: the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary Experience in excursion and quality-of-life changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadlock, Tessa A; Malo, Juan S; Cheney, Mack L; Henstrom, Douglas K

    2011-01-01

    Free muscle transfer for facial reanimation has become the standard of care in recent decades and is now the cornerstone intervention for dynamic smile reanimation. We sought to quantify smile excursion and quality-of-life (QOL) changes in our pediatric free gracilis recipients following reanimation. We quantified gracilis muscle excursion in 17 pediatric patients undergoing 19 consecutive pediatric free gracilis transplantation operations, using our validated SMILE program, as an objective measure of functional outcome. These were compared against excursion measured the same way in a cohort of 17 adults with 19 free gracilis operations. In addition, we prospectively evaluated QOL outcomes in these children using the Facial Clinimetric Evaluation (FaCE) instrument. The mean gracilis excursion in our pediatric free gracilis recipients was 8.8 mm ± 5.0 mm, which matched adult results, but with fewer complete failures of less than 2-mm excursion, with 2 (11%) and 4 (21%), respectively. Quality-of-life measures indicated statistically significant improvements following dynamic smile reanimation (P = .01). Dynamic facial reanimation using free gracilis transfer in children has an acceptable success rate, yields improved commissure excursion, and improves QOL in the pediatric population. It should be considered first-line therapy for children with lack of a meaningful smile secondary to facial paralysis.

  3. The significance of excursions above the ADI. Case study: monosodium glutamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R

    1999-10-01

    Monosodium glutamate (MSG) has been allocated an "ADI not specified" by the JECFA, which indicates that no toxicological concerns arise associated with its use as a food additive in accordance with good manufacturing practice (GMP) and for that reason it is not necessary to allocate a numerical ADI. The question in this case, then, is not whether excursions above a numerical ADI might occur but whether high peak intakes might arise which could invalidate the assumption of absence of hazard. Two major issues have arisen in relation to high intakes of MSG: (1) What is the significance of neural damage (focal necrosis in the hypothalamus) seen following high parenteral or intragastric doses of MSG to neonatal animals and is this a particular risk for children? (2) What is the role of MSG in "Chinese Restaurant Syndrome" (flushing, tightness of the chest, difficulty in breathing, etc.) following consumption of Chinese foods? In relation to the first issue, human studies have been crucial in resolving the question. The threshold blood levels associated with neuronal damage in the mouse (most sensitive species) are 100-130 mumol/dl in neonates rising to > 630 mumol/dl in adult animals. In humans, plasma levels of this magnitude have not been recorded even after bolus doses of 150 mg/kg body wt (ca. 10 g for an adult). Additionally, studies in infants have confirmed that the human baby can metabolize glutamate as effectively as adults. It is concluded that blood levels of glutamate + aspartate do not rise significantly even after abuse doses and babies are no more at risk than adults. Intake levels associated with the use of MSG as a food additive and natural levels of glutamic acid in foods therefore do not raise toxicological concerns even at high peak levels of intake. It is not envisaged that use of MSG according to GMP requires the allocation of a numerical ADI. With regard to the second issue, controlled double-blind crossover studies have failed to establish a

  4. Cinnamon extract inhibits α-glucosidase activity and dampens postprandial glucose excursion in diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thirumurugan Kavitha

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background α-glucosidase inhibitors regulate postprandial hyperglycemia (PPHG by impeding the rate of carbohydrate digestion in the small intestine and thereby hampering the diet associated acute glucose excursion. PPHG is a major risk factor for diabetic vascular complications leading to disabilities and mortality in diabetics. Cinnamomum zeylanicum, a spice, has been used in traditional medicine for treating diabetes. In this study we have evaluated the α-glucosidase inhibitory potential of cinnamon extract to control postprandial blood glucose level in maltose, sucrose loaded STZ induced diabetic rats. Methods The methanol extract of cinnamon bark was prepared by Soxhlet extraction. Phytochemical analysis was performed to find the major class of compounds present in the extract. The inhibitory effect of cinnamon extract on yeast α-glucosidase and rat-intestinal α-glucosidase was determined in vitro and the kinetics of enzyme inhibition was studied. Dialysis experiment was performed to find the nature of the inhibition. Normal male Albino wistar rats and STZ induced diabetic rats were treated with cinnamon extract to find the effect of cinnamon on postprandial hyperglycemia after carbohydrate loading. Results Phytochemical analysis of the methanol extract displayed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, glycosides, terpenoids, coumarins and anthraquinones. In vitro studies had indicated dose-dependent inhibitory activity of cinnamon extract against yeast α-glucosidase with the IC 50 value of 5.83 μg/ml and mammalian α-glucosidase with IC 50 value of 670 μg/ml. Enzyme kinetics data fit to LB plot pointed out competitive mode of inhibition and the membrane dialysis experiment revealed reversible nature of inhibition. In vivo animal experiments are indicative of ameliorated postprandial hyperglycemia as the oral intake of the cinnamon extract (300 mg/kg body wt. significantly dampened the postprandial hyperglycemia by 78.2% and 52

  5. Cinnamon extract inhibits α-glucosidase activity and dampens postprandial glucose excursion in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed Sham Shihabudeen, H; Hansi Priscilla, D; Thirumurugan, Kavitha

    2011-06-29

    α-glucosidase inhibitors regulate postprandial hyperglycemia (PPHG) by impeding the rate of carbohydrate digestion in the small intestine and thereby hampering the diet associated acute glucose excursion. PPHG is a major risk factor for diabetic vascular complications leading to disabilities and mortality in diabetics. Cinnamomum zeylanicum, a spice, has been used in traditional medicine for treating diabetes. In this study we have evaluated the α-glucosidase inhibitory potential of cinnamon extract to control postprandial blood glucose level in maltose, sucrose loaded STZ induced diabetic rats. The methanol extract of cinnamon bark was prepared by Soxhlet extraction. Phytochemical analysis was performed to find the major class of compounds present in the extract. The inhibitory effect of cinnamon extract on yeast α-glucosidase and rat-intestinal α-glucosidase was determined in vitro and the kinetics of enzyme inhibition was studied. Dialysis experiment was performed to find the nature of the inhibition. Normal male Albino wistar rats and STZ induced diabetic rats were treated with cinnamon extract to find the effect of cinnamon on postprandial hyperglycemia after carbohydrate loading. Phytochemical analysis of the methanol extract displayed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, glycosides, terpenoids, coumarins and anthraquinones. In vitro studies had indicated dose-dependent inhibitory activity of cinnamon extract against yeast α-glucosidase with the IC 50 value of 5.83 μg/ml and mammalian α-glucosidase with IC 50 value of 670 μg/ml. Enzyme kinetics data fit to LB plot pointed out competitive mode of inhibition and the membrane dialysis experiment revealed reversible nature of inhibition. In vivo animal experiments are indicative of ameliorated postprandial hyperglycemia as the oral intake of the cinnamon extract (300 mg/kg body wt.) significantly dampened the postprandial hyperglycemia by 78.2% and 52.0% in maltose and sucrose loaded STZ induced diabetic

  6. Isokinetic eccentric exercise can induce skeletal muscle injury within the physiologic excursion of muscle-tendon unit: a rabbit model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Pei-Yu

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and Purpose Intensive eccentric exercise can cause muscle damage. We simulated an animal model of isokinetic eccentric exercise by repetitively stretching stimulated triceps surae muscle-tendon units to determine if such exercise affects the mechanical properties of the unit within its physiologic excursion. Methods Biomechanical parameters of the muscle-tendon unit were monitored during isokinetic eccentric loading in 12 rabbits. In each animal, one limb (control group was stretched until failure. The other limb (study group was first subjected to isokinetic and eccentric cyclic loading at the rate of 10.0 cm/min to 112% (group I or 120% (group II of its initial length for 1 hour and then stretched to failure. Load-deformation curves and biomechanical parameters were compared between the study and control groups. Results When the muscle-tendon unit received eccentric cyclic loading to 112%, changes in all biomechanical parameters – except for the slope of the load-deformation curve – were not significant. In contrast, most parameters, including the slope of the load-deformation curve, peak load, deformation at peak load, total energy absorption, and energy absorption before peak load, significantly decreased after isokinetic eccentric cyclic loading to 120%. Conclusion We found a threshold for eccentrically induced injury of the rabbit triceps surae muscle at between 12% and 20% strain, which is within the physiologic excursion of the muscle-tendon units. Our study provided evidence that eccentric exercise may induce changes in the biomechanical properties of skeletal muscles, even within the physiologic range of the excursion of the muscle-tendon unit.

  7. Greater postprandial glucose excursions and inadequate nutrient intake in youth with type 1 diabetes and celiac disease

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Pham-Short; Donaghue, Kim C.; Geoffrey Ambler; Sarah Garnett; Maria E Craig

    2017-01-01

    The gluten free diet (GFD) has a high glycemic index and low-fiber content, which potentially influences glycemic excursions in type 1 diabetes (T1D) and celiac disease (CD). Participants in this case-control study of youth with T1D+CD (n?=?10) and T1D only (n?=?7) wore blinded continuous glucose monitoring systems for six days. Blood glucose levels (BGLs) were compared between groups for each meal, including pre-meal, peak, 2-hour postprandial and time-to-peak. Participants consumed a test-b...

  8. A Preliminary Multifactorial Approach Describing the Relationships Among Lower Extremity Alignment, Hip Muscle Activation, and Lower Extremity Joint Excursion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Anh-Dung; Shultz, Sandra J.; Schmitz, Randy J.; Luecht, Richard M.; Perrin, David H.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Multiple factors have been suggested to increase the risk of faulty dynamic alignments that predict noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injury. Few researchers have examined this relationship using an integrated, multifactorial approach. Objective: To describe the relationship among static lower extremity alignment (LEA), hip muscle activation, and hip and knee motion during a single-leg squat. Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Setting: Research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Thirty men (age = 23.9 ± 3.6 years, height = 178.5 ± 9.9 cm, mass = 82.0 ± 14.1 kg) and 30 women (age = 22.2 ± 2.6 years, height = 162.4 ± 6.3 cm, mass = 60.3 ± 8.1 kg). Main Outcome Measure(s): Pelvic angle, femoral anteversion, quadriceps angle, tibiofemoral angle, and genu recurvatum were measured to the nearest degree; navicular drop was measured to the nearest millimeter. The average root mean square amplitude of the gluteus medius and maximus muscles was assessed during the single-leg squat and normalized to the peak root mean square value during maximal contractions for each muscle. Kinematic data of hip and knee were also assessed during the single-leg squat. Structural equation modeling was used to describe the relationships among static LEA, hip muscle activation, and joint kinematics, while also accounting for an individual's sex and hip strength. Results: Smaller pelvic angle and greater femoral anteversion, tibiofemoral angle, and navicular drop predicted greater hip internal-rotation excursion and knee external-rotation excursion. Decreased gluteus maximus activation predicted greater hip internal-rotation excursion but decreased knee valgus excursion. No LEA characteristic predicted gluteus medius or gluteus maximus muscle activation during the single-leg squat. Conclusions: Static LEA, characterized by a more internally rotated hip and valgus knee alignment and less gluteus maximus activation, was related to commonly observed components of

  9. Does muscle coactivation influence joint excursions during gait in children with and without hemiplegic cerebral palsy? Relationship between muscle coactivation and joint kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Raphaël; Leboeuf, Fabien; Hardouin, Jean Benoit; Perrouin-Verbe, Brigitte; Brochard, Sylvain; Rémy-Néris, Olivier

    2015-12-01

    The theoretical role of muscle coactivation is to stiffen joints. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between muscle coactivation and joint excursions during gait in children with and without hemiplegic cerebral palsy. Twelve children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy and twelve typically developing children underwent gait analysis at three different gait speeds. Sagittal hip, knee, and ankle kinematics were divided into their main components corresponding to joint excursions. A coactivation index was calculated for each excursion from the electromyographic envelopes of the rectus femoris/semitendinosus, vastus medialis/semitendinosus, or tibialis anterior/soleus muscles. Mixed linear analyses of covariance modeled joint excursions as a function of the coactivation index and limb. In typically developing children, increased coactivation was associated with reduced joint excursion for 8 of the 14 linear models (hip flexion, knee loading, knee extension in stance, knee flexion in swing, ankle plantarflexion from initial contact to foot-flat, ankle dorsiflexion in stance and in swing). Conversely, ankle plantarflexion excursion at push-off increased with increasing tibialis anterior/soleus coactivation. In the involved limbs of the children with cerebral palsy, knee loading, ankle plantarflexion at push off, and ankle dorsiflexion in swing decreased, while hip extension increased, with increasing muscle coactivation. The relationships between muscle coactivation and joint excursion were not equally distributed in both groups, and predominant in typically developing children. The results suggest that excessive muscle coactivation is not a cause of stiff-knee gait in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy, but appears to be related to spastic drop foot. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Different nerve-gliding exercises induce different magnitudes of median nerve longitudinal excursion: an in vivo study using dynamic ultrasound imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppieters, Michel W; Hough, Alan D; Dilley, Andrew

    2009-03-01

    Controlled laboratory study using single-group, within-subject comparisons. To determine in an in vivo study whether different types of nerve-gliding exercises are associated with different amounts of longitudinal nerve excursion. Different types of nerve-gliding exercises have been proposed. It is assumed that different exercises produce different amounts of excursion and strain in the peripheral nervous system. Although this has been confirmed in cadaveric experiments, in vivo studies are lacking. High-resolution ultrasound was used to measure longitudinal excursion of the median nerve in the upper arm during 6 different nerve-gliding exercises. Nerve mobilization techniques that involved the elbow and neck were evaluated in 15 asymptomatic volunteers (mean +/- SD age, 30 +/- 8 years). Nerve longitudinal excursion was calculated using a frame-by-frame cross-correlation analysis. A repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to analyze the data. Different exercises induced different amounts of longitudinal nerve excursion (Pneurodynamic techniques have different mechanical effects on the nervous system. Recognition of these differences may assist in the selection of treatment techniques. Having demonstrated differences in mechanical effects, future research will have to evaluate whether these different techniques are also associated with different physiological and therapeutic effects.

  11. Accidental nuclear excursion Recuplex operation 234-5 facility. Final report: Date of incident: April 7, 1962

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1962-08-01

    On Saturday morning, April 7, 1962, at about 1059 Armed Forces time, an accidental nuclear excursion occurred in the plutonium waste recovery facility (Recuplex) of the 234-5 Building. This excursion did not result in any mechanical damage or spread of contamination. Three employees of the General Electric Company received overexposures to gamma and neutron radiation. None were fatally exposed; in each case the overexposure was recognized promptly, and following medical observation and testing the men were released to return to work. In compliance with AEC Manual Chapter 0703, an AEC-HAPO committee composed of two AEC employees and five General Electric employees was appointed by the Manger, HOO, with the concurrence of the General Manager, HAPO, to conduct an investigation of the incident. The committee`s purpose was to determine the cause, nature, and extent of the incident, and recommend action to be taken by others to minimize or preclude future incidents of this magnitude. A study of operating practices and operating conditions that appeared to exist prior to, during, and subsequent to the accident was made by the committee. The committee believes that this report provides sufficient information to answer questions which may arise as a result of the criticality incident except those relating to its cause.

  12. The impact of animation on the length of stay and radius of movement of the excursion-recreational tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrić Dragana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic hypothesis from which we started in the paper is the claim that animation of visitors has a direct impact on the length and radius of excursion-recreational tourism. The main objective of the research is to define the role of animation in the choice of tourist destination and length of staying. In the area of the City of Belgrade, there are more protected natural areas and one of them is the Great War Island located at the confluence of the River Sava in River Danube. This area has three protected zones. Temporary population that was the subject of the interview, as well as the Association of Tourist Guides of Serbia occupate one of these zones. We concluded that one of the biggest advantages of developing tourism of the Great War Island is the possibility of developing certain forms of tourism, and one of these forms, the excursion-recreational tourism has multiple positive effects on the population. The paper concluded that the animation proportionally affects the length of stay of tourists, as well as the radius of their movement.

  13. A virtual, interactive and dynamic excursion in Google Earth on soil management and conservation (AgroGeovid)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanwalleghem, Tom; Giráldez, Juan Vicente

    2013-04-01

    Many courses on natural resources require hands-on practical knowledge and experience that students traditionally could only acquire by expensive and time-consuming field excursions. New technologies and social media however provide an interesting alternative to train students and help them improve their practical knowledge. AgroGeovid is a virtual excursion, based on Google Earth, Youtube, Facebook and Twitter that is aimed at agricultural engineering students, but equally useful for any student interested in soil management and conservation, e.g. geography, geology and environmental resources. Agrogeovid provides the framework for teachers and students to upload geotagged photos, comments and discussions. After the initial startup phase, where the teacher uploaded material on e.g. soil erosion phenomena, soil conservation structures and different soil management strategies under different agronomic systems, students contributed with their own material gathered throughout the academic year. All students decided to contribute via Facebook, in stead of Twitter, which was not known to most of them. The final result was a visual and dynamic tool which students could use to train and perfect skills adopted in the classroom using case-studies and examples from their immediate environment.

  14. Variations of magnetic properties in thin lava flow profiles: Implications for the recording of the Laschamp Excursion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vérard, Christian; Leonhardt, Roman; Winklhofer, Michael; Fabian, Karl

    2012-06-01

    Two blocks have been cut in two lava flows from the Skalamaelifell Hill (Iceland) known to have recorded the Laschamp magnetic excursion (40.4 ± 2.0 ka). Detailed sampling and analyses have revealed multiple magnetic components. The high temperature/coercivity component corresponds to the primary magnetisation, with corresponding pole position close to the equator in the Pacific Ocean (φ = 251.90°/λ = -06.49°; dp = 0.74°/dm = 2.12°) and palaeo-intensity determinations below 5 μT. The different VGPs, however, vary in relation with the position of samples in the profiles. It could not be firmly established whether this distribution is associated with a change in the Earth magnetic field during lava cooling. In any case, variations are related with zones in the profiles marked, in particular, by the presence of vesicles. Moreover, the other components are interpreted to be linked with alteration inside the rocks, caused by interactions between vesicles content and the surrounding matrix. Secondary component, however, is interpreted as recording an excursional magnetic field, and should be of greater consideration in studies of Earth magnetic field excursions or reversals.

  15. Longitudinal excursion and strain in the median nerve during novel nerve gliding exercises for carpal tunnel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppieters, Michel W; Alshami, Ali M

    2007-07-01

    Nerve and tendon gliding exercises are advocated in the conservative and postoperative management of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). However, traditionally advocated exercises elongate the nerve bedding substantially, which may induce a potentially deleterious strain in the median nerve with the risk of symptom exacerbation in some patients and reduced benefits from nerve gliding. This study aimed to evaluate various nerve gliding exercises, including novel techniques that aim to slide the nerve through the carpal tunnel while minimizing strain ("sliding techniques"). With these sliding techniques, it is assumed that an increase in nerve strain due to nerve bed elongation at one joint (e.g., wrist extension) is simultaneously counterbalanced by a decrease in nerve bed length at an adjacent joint (e.g., elbow flexion). Excursion and strain in the median nerve at the wrist were measured with a digital calliper and miniature strain gauge in six human cadavers during six mobilization techniques. The sliding technique resulted in an excursion of 12.4 mm, which was 30% larger than any other technique (psliding technique. Nerve gliding associated with wrist movements can be considerably increased and nerve strain substantially reduced by simultaneously moving neighboring joints. These novel nerve sliding techniques are biologically plausible exercises for CTS that deserve further clinical evaluation. Copyright (c) 2007 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  16. Relationship of medial gastrocnemius relative fascicle excursion and ankle joint power and work performance during gait in typically developing children: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Lorenzo, Teresa; Albi Rodríguez, Gustavo; Rocon, Eduardo; Martínez Caballero, Ignacio; Lerma Lara, Sergio

    2017-07-01

    Muscle fascicles lengthen in response to chronic passive stretch through in-series sarcomere addition in order to maintain an optimum sarcomere length. In turn, the muscles' force generating capacity, maximum excursion, and contraction velocity is enhanced. Thus, longer fascicles suggest a greater capacity to develop joint power and work. However, static fascicle length measurements may not be taking sarcomere length differences into account. Thus, we considered relative fascicle excursions through passive ankle dorsiflexion may better correlate with the capacity to generate joint power and work than fascicle length. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine if medial gastrocnemius relative fascicle excursions correlate with ankle joint power and work generation during gait in typically developing children. A sample of typically developing children (n = 10) were recruited for this study and data analysis was carried out on 20 legs. Medial gastrocnemius relative fascicle excursion from resting joint angle to maximum dorsiflexion was estimated from trigonometric relations of medial gastrocnemius pennation angle and thickness obtained from B-mode real-time ultrasonography. Furthermore, a three-dimensional motion capture system was used to obtain ankle joint work and power during the stance phase of gait. Significant correlations were found between relative fascicle excursion and peak power absorption (-) r(14) = -0.61, P = .012 accounting for 31% variability, positive work r(18) = 0.56, P = .021 accounting for 31% variability, and late stance positive work r(15) = 0.51, P = .037 accounting for 26% variability. The large unexplained variance may be attributed to mechanics of neighboring structures (e.g., soleus or Achilles tendon mechanics) and proximal joint kinetics which may also contribute to ankle joint power and work performance, and were not taken into account. Further studies are encouraged to provide greater insight

  17. Duration of and decoupling between carbon isotope excursions during the end-Triassic mass extinction and Central Atlantic Magmatic Province emplacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Joyce A.; West, A. Joshua; Corsetti, Frank A.; Berelson, William M.; Rollins, Nick E.; Rosas, Silvia; Bottjer, David J.

    2017-09-01

    Changes in δ13Ccarb and δ13Corg from marine strata occur globally in association with the end-Triassic mass extinction and the emplacement of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) during the break up of Pangea. As is typical in deep time, the timing and duration of these isotopic excursions has remained elusive, hampering attempts to link carbon cycle perturbations to specific processes. Here, we report δ13Ccarb and δ13Corg from Late Triassic and Early Jurassic strata near Levanto, Peru, where intercalated dated ash beds permit temporal calibration of the carbon isotope record. Both δ13Ccarb and δ13Corg exhibit a broad positive excursion through the latest Triassic into the earliest Jurassic. The first order positive excursion in δ13Corg is interrupted by a negative shift noted in many sections around the world coincident with the extinction horizon. Our data indicate that the negative excursion lasts 85 ± 25 kyrs, longer than inferred by previous studies based on cyclostratigraphy. A 260 ± 80 kyr positive δ13Corg shift follows, during which the first Jurassic ammonites appear. The overall excursion culminates in a return to pre-perturbation carbon isotopic values over the next 1090 ± 70 kyrs. Via chronologic, isotopic, and biostratigraphic correlation to other successions, we find that δ13Ccarb and δ13Corg return to pre-perturbation values as CAMP volcanism ceases and in association with the recovery of pelagic and benthic biota. However, the initiation of the carbon isotope excursion at Levanto predates the well-dated CAMP sills from North America, indicating that CAMP may have started earlier than thought based on these exposures, or that the onset of carbon cycle perturbations was not related to CAMP.

  18. The Mono Lake geomagnetic excursion recorded in loess: Its application as time marker and implications for its geomagnetic nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambach, U.; Hark, M.; Zeeden, C.; Reddersen, B.; Zöller, L.; Fuchs, M.

    2009-04-01

    One of the youngest and worldwide documented geomagnetic excursions in the Brunhes Chron is the Mono Lake excursion (MLE). It has been detected in marine and terrestrial sedimentary archives as well as in lavas. Recent age determinations and age estimates for the MLE centre around an age interval of approximately 31 - 34 ka. Likewise the Laschamp excursion the MLE goes along with a distinct peak in cosmogenic radionuclides in ice cores and sedimentary archives. It provides therefore an additional geomagnetic time marker for various geoarchives to synchronise different climate archives. Here we report on a detailed record of the MLE from a loess site at Krems, Lower Austria. The site is situated on the southern slope of the Wachtberg hill in the vicinity of the old city centre of Krems. The archive comprises Middle to Upper Würmian (Late Pleistocene) loess in which an Upper Palaeolithic (Early Gravettian) cultural layer is embedded. The most spectacular finds are a double infant burial found in 2005 and a single burial discovered in 2006 (Einwögerer et al., 2006). Generally, archaeological findings show an extraordinarily good preservation due to embedding in rapidly sedimented loess (Händel et al., 2008). The about 10 m thick loess pile consists of calcareous sandy, coarse silt which is rich in mica indicating local sources. It is well stratified with brownish horizons representing embryonic soils pointing to incipient pedogenesis. Some of the pedo-horizons show occasionally indications of minor erosion and bedding-parallel sediment transport, but no linear erosional features. Pale greyish horizons are the result of partial gleying under permafrost conditions. No strong pedogenesis including decalcification and clay formation is present. The cultural layer is still covered by more than 5 m of loess, and dated by radiocarbon to ~27 ka 14C BP (Einwögerer et al., 2006). Below this layer up to 2.5 m of loess resting on Lower Pleistocene fluvial gravels are

  19. The Valanginian δ13C excursion may not be an expression of a global oceanic anoxic event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westermann, Stéphane; Föllmi, Karl B.; Adatte, Thierry; Matera, Virginie; Schnyder, Johann; Fleitmann, Dominik; Fiet, Nicolas; Ploch, Izabela; Duchamp-Alphonse, Stéphanie

    2010-02-01

    Marine and terrestrial sediments of the Valanginian age display a distinct positive δ13C excursion, which has recently been interpreted as the expression of an oceanic anoxic episode (OAE) of global importance. Here we evaluate the extent of anaerobic conditions in marine bottom waters and explore the mechanisms involved in changing carbon storage on a global scale during this time interval. We asses redox-sensitive trace-element distributions (RSTE; uranium, vanadium, cobalt, arsenic and molybdenum) and the quality and quantity of preserved organic matter (OM) in representative sections along a shelf-basin transect in the western Tethys, in the Polish Basin and on Shatsky Rise. OM-rich layers corresponding in time to the δ13C shift are generally rare in the Tethyan sections and if present, the layers are not thicker than several centimetres and total organic carbon (TOC) contents do not surpass 1.68 wt..%. Palynological observations and geochemical properties of the preserved OM suggest a mixed marine and terrestrial origin and deposition in an oxic environment. In the Polish Basin, OM-rich layers show evidence for an important continental component. RSTE exhibit no major enrichments during the δ13C excursion in all studied Tethyan sections. RSTE enrichments are, however, observed in the pre- δ13C excursion OM-rich "Barrande" levels of the Vocontian Trough. In addition, all Tethyan sections record higher Mn contents during the δ13C shift, indicating rather well-oxygenated bottom waters in the western Tethys and the presence of anoxic basins elsewhere, such as the restricted basins of the North Atlantic and Weddell Sea. We propose that the Valanginian δ13C shift is the consequence of a combination of increased OM storage in marginal seas and on continents (as a sink of 12C-enriched organic carbon), coupled with the demise of shallow-water carbonate platforms (diminishing the storage capacity of 13C-enriched carbonate carbon). As such the Valanginian provides

  20. Hyperglycemia acutely lowers the postprandial excursions of glucagon-like Peptide-1 and gastric inhibitory polypeptide in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vollmer, Kirsten; Gardiwal, Husai; Menge, Bjoern A

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Impaired secretion of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) has been suggested to contribute to the deficient incretin effect in patients with type 2 diabetes. It is unclear whether this is a primary defect or a consequence of the hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes. We examined whether acute...... hyperglycemia reduces the postprandial excursions of gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) and GLP-1, and if so, whether this can be attributed to changes in gastric emptying. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifteen nondiabetic individuals participated in a euglycemic clamp and a hyperglycemic clamp experiment, carried...... the hyperglycemic clamp experiments and 83 +/- 3 mg/dl during the euglycemia (P hyperglycemia, but meal ingestion led to a decline in glucose requirements in both experiments (P

  1. Testing Postural Stability: Are the Star Excursion Balance Test and Biodex Balance System Limits of Stability Tests Consistent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glave, A Page; Didier, Jennifer J; Weatherwax, Jacqueline; Browning, Sarah J; Fiaud, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    There are a variety of options to test postural stability; however many physical tests lack validity information. Two tests of postural stability - the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) and Biodex Balance System Limits of Stability Test (LOS) - were examined to determine if similar components of balance were measured. Healthy adults (n=31) completed the LOS (levels 6 and 12) and SEBT (both legs). SEBT directions were offset by 180° to approximate LOS direction. Correlations and partial correlations controlling for height were analyzed. Correlations were significant for SEBT 45° and LOS back-left (6: r=-0.41; 12: r=-0.42; ptests seem to assess different components of balance. Research is needed to determine and define what specific components of balance are being assessed. Care must be taken when choosing balance tests to best match the test to the purpose of testing (fall risk, athletic performance, etc.). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Greater postprandial glucose excursions and inadequate nutrient intake in youth with type 1 diabetes and celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham-Short, Anna; Donaghue, Kim C; Ambler, Geoffrey; Garnett, Sarah; Craig, Maria E

    2017-03-24

    The gluten free diet (GFD) has a high glycemic index and low-fiber content, which potentially influences glycemic excursions in type 1 diabetes (T1D) and celiac disease (CD). Participants in this case-control study of youth with T1D+CD (n = 10) and T1D only (n = 7) wore blinded continuous glucose monitoring systems for six days. Blood glucose levels (BGLs) were compared between groups for each meal, including pre-meal, peak, 2-hour postprandial and time-to-peak. Participants consumed a test-breakfast of GF cereal and milk for three days and kept weighed food diaries; nutrient intake was analyzed and compared to national recommendations. Youth with T1D+CD had shorter time-to-peak BGL (77 vs 89 mins, P = 0.03), higher peak (9.3 vs 7.3 mmol/L, P = 0.001) and higher postprandial BGLs than T1D (8.4 vs 7.0 mmol/L, P = 0.01), despite similar pre-meal BGLs (9.2 vs 8.6 mmol/L, P = 0.28). Regarding test breakfast, greater pre and post-meal BGL difference correlated with longer CD duration (R = 0.53, P = 0.01). Total energy and macronutrient intake didn't differ between groups; however the majority of participants collectively had inadequate intake of calcium (76%), folate (71%) and fiber (53%), with excessive saturated fat (12%) and sodium (>2,000 mg/day). The GFD is associated with greater glycemic excursions and inadequate nutritional intake in youth with T1D+CD. Clinical management should address both glycemic variability and dietary quality.

  3. Role of Intestinal LXRα in Regulating Post-prandial Lipid Excursion and Diet-Induced Hypercholesterolemia and Hepatic Lipid Accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibiábin Benítez-Santana

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Post-prandial hyperlipidemia has emerged as a cardiovascular risk factor with limited therapeutic options. The Liver X receptors (Lxrs are nuclear hormone receptors that regulate cholesterol elimination. Knowledge of their role in regulating the absorption and handling of dietary fats is incomplete. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of intestinal Lxrα in post-prandial intestinal lipid transport. Using Lxrα knockout (nr1h3−/− and intestine-limited Lxrα over-expressing [Tg(fabp2a:EGFP-nr1h3] zebrafish strains, we measured post-prandial lipid excursion with live imaging in larvae and physiological methods in adults. We also conducted a long-term high-cholesterol dietary challenge in adults to examine the chronic effect of modulating nr1h3 gene dose on the development of hypercholesterolemia and hepatic lipid accumulation. Over-expression of Lxrα in the intestine delays the transport of ingested lipids in larvae, while deletion of Lxrα increases the rate of lipid transport. Pre-treating wildtype larvae with the liver-sparing Lxr agonist hyodeoxycholic acid also delayed the rate of intestinal lipid transport in larvae. In adult males, deletion of Lxrα accelerates intestinal transport of ingested lipids. Adult females showed higher plasma Lipoprotein lipase (Lpl activity compared to males, and lower post-gavage blood triacylglycerol (TAG excursion. Despite the sexually dimorphic effect on acute intestinal lipid handling, Tg(fabp2a:EGFP-nr1h3 adults of both sexes are protected from high cholesterol diet (HCD-induced hepatic lipid accumulation, while nr1h3−/− mutants are sensitive to the effects of HCD challenge. These data indicate that intestinal Lxr activity dampens the pace of intestinal lipid transport cell-autonomously. Selective activation of intestinal Lxrα holds therapeutic promise.

  4. Latitudinal differences in the amplitude of the OAE-2 carbon isotopic excursion: pCO2 and paleo productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Sinninghe Damsté

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A complete, well-preserved record of the Cenomanian/Turonian (C/T Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (OAE-2 was recovered from Demerara Rise in the southern North Atlantic Ocean (ODP site 1260. Across this interval, we determined changes in the stable carbon isotopic composition of sulfur-bound phytane (δ13Cphytane, a biomarker for photosynthetic algae. The δ13Cphytane record shows a positive excursion at the onset of the OAE-2 interval, with an unusually large amplitude (~7‰ compared to existing C/T proto-North Atlantic δ13Cphytane records (3–6‰. Overall, the amplitude of the excursion of δ13Cphytane decreases with latitude. Using reconstructed sea surface temperature (SST gradients for the proto-North Atlantic, we investigated environmental factors influencing the latitudinal δ13Cphytane gradient. The observed gradient is best explained by high productivity at DSDP Site 367 and Tarfaya basin before OAE-2, which changed in overall high productivity throughout the proto-North Atlantic during OAE-2. During OAE-2, productivity at site 1260 and 603B was thus more comparable to the mid-latitude sites. Using these constraints as well as the SST and δ13Cphytane-records from Site 1260, we subsequently reconstructed pCO2 levels across the OAE-2 interval. Accordingly, pCO2 decreased from ca. 1750 to 900 ppm during OAE-2, consistent with enhanced organic matter burial resulting in lowering pCO2. Whereas the onset of OAE-2 coincided with increased pCO2, in line with a volcanic trigger for this event, the observed cooling within OAE-2 probably resulted from CO2 sequestration in black shales outcompeting CO2 input into the atmosphere. Together these results show that the ice-free Cretaceous world was sensitive to changes in pCO2 related to perturbations of the global carbon cycle.

  5. Effect of soft and semirigid ankle orthoses on Star Excursion Balance Test performance in patients with functional ankle instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadadi, Mohammad; Mousavi, Mohammad Ebrahim; Fardipour, Shima; Vameghi, Roshanak; Mazaheri, Masood

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the effect of soft and semirigid ankle orthoses on dynamic balance assessed using Star Excursion Balance Test in patients with functional ankle instability compared with healthy individuals. Non-experimental, observational study with multiple-factor design, including group (functional ankle instability and healthy) as the between-subjects factor and orthotics condition (no orthosis, soft orthosis and semirigid orthosis) as the within-subjects factor. Sixteen unilateral functional ankle instability patients and a group of 16 healthy control individuals, matched for age, height and weight, participated in the study. Dynamic balance was tested with and without wearing ankle orthosis. Reach distance of participants in 3 bracing conditions were measured in anteromedial, medial and posteromedial directions of Star Excursion Balance Test. Average of 3 trials in 3 measured directions, normalized to leg length of each participant, was used for statistical analysis. There were no differences among orthotics conditions in healthy people. However, normalized reach distance increased from no-orthosis to semirigid to soft orthoses in FAI patients. Differences were significant between soft and no-orthosis (13% in anteromedial, 14% in medial and 15% in posteromedial direction p=0.01) and between semirigid and no-orthosis (10% in anteromedial, 8.5% in medial and 8.5% in posteromedial direction, p=0.01) conditions in all 3 measured directions. The difference between soft and semirigid orthoses was significant (6% difference, pbalance, especially in posteromedial direction, compared with semirigid orthosis. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Resolving the sources of plasma glucose excursions following a glucose tolerance test in the rat with deuterated water and [U-13C]glucose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delgado, T.C.; Barosa, C.; Nunes, P.M.; Cerd\\'an, S.a.; Geraldes, C.F.G.C.; Jones, J.G.

    2012-01-01

    Sources of plasma glucose excursions (PGE) following a glucose tolerance test enriched with [U-(13)C]glucose and deuterated water were directly resolved by (13)C and (2)H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy analysis of plasma glucose and water enrichments in rat. Plasma water (2)H-enrichment

  7. Repeatability and Minimal Detectable Change in Longitudinal Median Nerve Excursion Measures During Upper Limb Neurodynamic Techniques in a Mixed Population: A Pilot Study Using Musculoskeletal Ultrasound Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, Philippe; Lamontagne, Martin; Higgins, Johanne; Gagnon, Dany H

    2015-07-01

    This study determined test-retest reliability and minimum detectable change in longitudinal median nerve excursion during upper limb neurodynamic tests (ULNTs). Seven participants with unilateral or bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome and 11 healthy participants were randomly tested with two ULNTs (i.e., tensioner and slider). Each ULNT was performed three times each at 45° and 90° of shoulder abduction on two separate visits. Video sequences of median nerve excursion, recorded by a physical therapist using ultrasound imaging, were quantified using computer software. The generalizability theory, encompassing a G-Study and a D-study, measured the dependability coefficient (Φ) along with standard error of measurement (SEM) accuracy and allowed various testing protocols to be proposed. The highest reliability (Φ = 0.84) and lowest minimal measurement error (SEM = 0.58 mm) of the longitudinal median nerve excursion were reached during the ULNT-slider performed with 45° of shoulder abduction and when measures obtained from three different image sequences recorded during a single visit were averaged. It is recommended that longitudinal median nerve excursion measures computed from three separate image sequences recorded during a single visit be averaged in clinical practice. Ideally, adding a second visit (six image sequences) is also suggested in research protocols. Copyright © 2015 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. FUNCTIONAL-ANATOMY OF THE SOFT-TISSUES OF THE HAND AND WRIST - INVIVO EXCURSION MEASUREMENT OF THE FLEXOR POLLICIS LONGUS-TENDON USING MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HAM, SJ; KONINGS, JG; WOLF, RFE; MOOYAART, EL

    1993-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the flexor pollicis longus-tendon (FPL-tendon) with the thumb in different positions allows the in vivo assessment of its abduction-adduction/flexion excursion. Measurements can also be performed in different positions of the wrist. In our study, the mean

  9. Students' Long-Term Memories from an Ecology Field Excursion: Retelling a Narrative as an Interplay between Implicit and Explicit Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolpe, Karin; Bjorklund, Lars

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the science content remembered by biology students 6 and 12 months after an ecology excursion. The students' memories were tested during a stimulated recall interview. The authors identified three different types of memories: "recall," "recognition" and "narratives." The "dual…

  10. Excursions out-of-lane versus standard deviation of lateral position as outcome measure of the on-the-road driving test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verster, Joris C; Roth, Thomas

    BACKGROUND: The traditional outcome measure of the Dutch on-the-road driving test is the standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP), the weaving of the car. This paper explores whether excursions out-of-lane are a suitable additional outcome measure to index driving impairment. METHODS: A

  11. A full-vector paleomagnetic secular variation record (PSV) from Pyramid Lake (Nevada) from 47-17 ka: Evidence for the successive Mono Lake and Laschamp Excursions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, S.; Benson, L.; Negrini, R.; Liddicoat, J.; Mensing, S.

    2017-01-01

    We have carried out a paleomagnetic study of late-Pleistocene Pyramid Lake core PLC08-1 (1680 cm). Our goals were to develop a full-vector paleomagnetic secular variation (PSV) record for the core, establish a paleomagnetic chronostratigraphy for the lake based on correlation of the PSV record to other dated PSV records in the region, compare that chronostratigraphy with previously developed radiocarbon and ash chronologies, and search for evidence of the Mono Lake Excursion and Laschamp Excursion. We have recovered a full-vector PSV record (inclination, declination, relative paleointensity) for the interval 47 ka to 17 ka. Twenty radiocarbon dates and four dated ashes provided a chronostratigraphic framework for this record. We have also used the link between our PSV and other dated PSV records to develop an independent PSV chronostratigraphy for the core. The PSV chronostratigraphy is not significantly different from that estimated by the radiocarbon and ash chronologies. We note the existence of two intervals of anomalous paleomagnetic directions. The younger interval, centered at 34.1 ± 0.4 ka, has the characteristic vector component features of the Mono Lake Excursion. The older interval, centered at 40.9 ± 0.5 ka, has the characteristic paleomagnetic signature of the Laschamp Excursion. This is the first time both intervals of excursional behavior have been found in the same sediment record from the western USA. Our new PSV record also corroborates previous estimates of the Mono Lake Excursion directional field behavior (Liddicoat and Coe, 1979) and age (Benson et al., 2003).

  12. Structure of the carbon isotope excursion in a high-resolution lacustrine Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum record from central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zuoling; Wang, Xu; Hu, Jianfang; Yang, Shiling; Zhu, Min; Dong, Xinxin; Tang, Zihua; Peng, Ping'an; Ding, Zhongli

    2014-12-01

    The carbon isotope excursion (CIE) associated with the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) has been recognized for the first time in the micritic carbonate, total organic carbon (TOC) and black carbon (BC) contained within the lacustrine sediments from the Nanyang Basin, central China. The remarkably large excursion (∼ - 6 ‰) in the δ13CTOC and δ13CBC values is possibly attributable to increased humidity and elevated pCO2 concentration. The ∼ - 4 ‰ CIE recorded in the δ13Ccalcite, reflecting the average isotope change of the watershed system, is consistent with that observed in planktonic foraminifera. This correspondence suggests that the true magnitude of the carbon isotope excursion in the ocean-atmosphere system is likely close to - 4 ‰. The ∼10 m excursion onset in our multi-proxy δ13C records demonstrates that the large input of 13C-depleted carbon into the ocean-atmosphere system was not geologically instantaneous. Despite difference and somewhat smoothness in detailed pattern of the CIE due to localized controls on different substrates, inorganic and organic δ13C data generally depict a gradual excursion onset at least over timescales of thousands of years. In addition, continental temperature reconstruction, based on the distribution of membrane lipids of bacteria, suggests a warming of ∼4 °C prior to the PETM and ∼7 °C increase in temperature during the PETM. The temperature data are overall similar in pattern and trend to the δ13C change across the PETM. These observations, combined with pre-CIE warming, are in line with the idea that 13C-depleted carbon release operated as a positive feedback to temperature, suggesting supply from one or more large organic carbon reservoirs on Earth's surface.

  13. Magnitude of the carbon isotope excursion at the Paleocene Eocene thermal maximum: The role of plant community change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Francesca A.; Wing, Scott L.; Freeman, Katherine H.

    2007-10-01

    Carbon-isotope measurements ( δ13C) of leaf-wax n-alkanes from the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, reveal a negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE) of 4-5‰, which is 1-2‰ larger than that observed in marine carbonate δ13C records. Reconciling these records requires either that marine carbonates fail to record the full magnitude of the CIE or that the CIE in plants has been amplified relative to the marine. Amplification of the CIE has been proposed to result from an increase in available moisture that allowed terrestrial plants to increase 13C-discrimination during the PETM. Leaf physiognomy, paleopedology and hydrogen isotope ratios of leaf-wax lipids from the Bighorn Basin, however, all suggest that rather than a simple increase in available moisture, climate alternated between wet and dry during the PETM. Here we consider two other explanations and test them quantitatively with the carbon isotopic record of plant lipids. The "marine modification" hypothesis is that the marine carbonate record was modified by chemical changes at the PETM and that plant lipids record the true magnitude of the CIE. Using atmospheric CO 2δ13C values estimated from the lipid record, and equilibrium fractionation between CO 2 and carbonate, we estimate the expected CIE for planktonic foraminifera to be 6‰. Instead, the largest excursion observed is about 4‰. No mechanism for altering marine carbonate by 2‰ has been identified and we thus reject this explanation. The "plant community change" hypothesis is that major changes in floral composition during the PETM amplified the CIE observed in n-alkanes by 1-2‰ relative to marine carbonate. This effect could have been caused by a rapid transition from a mixed angiosperm/conifer flora to a purely angiosperm flora. The plant community change hypothesis is consistent with both the magnitude and pattern of CIE amplification among the different n-alkanes, and with data from fossil plants

  14. Meal sequence and glucose excursion, gastric emptying and incretin secretion in type 2 diabetes: a randomised, controlled crossover, exploratory trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwata, Hitoshi; Iwasaki, Masahiro; Shimizu, Shinobu; Minami, Kohtaro; Maeda, Haruyo; Seino, Susumu; Nakada, Koji; Nosaka, Chihiro; Murotani, Kenta; Kurose, Takeshi; Seino, Yutaka; Yabe, Daisuke

    2016-03-01

    Investigation of dietary therapy for diabetes has focused on meal size and composition; examination of the effects of meal sequence on postprandial glucose management is limited. The effects of fish or meat before rice on postprandial glucose excursion, gastric emptying and incretin secretions were investigated. The experiment was a single centre, randomised controlled crossover, exploratory trial conducted in an outpatient ward of a private hospital in Osaka, Japan. Patients with type 2 diabetes (n = 12) and healthy volunteers (n = 10), with age 30-75 years, HbA1c 9.0% (75 mmol/mol) or less, and BMI 35 kg/m(2) or less, were randomised evenly to two groups by use of stratified randomisation, and subjected to meal sequence tests on three separate mornings; days 1 and 2, rice before fish (RF) or fish before rice (FR) in a crossover fashion; and day 3, meat before rice (MR). Pre- and postprandial levels of glucose, insulin, C-peptide and glucagon as well as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide were evaluated. Gastric emptying rate was determined by (13)C-acetate breath test involving measurement of (13)CO2 in breath samples collected before and after ingestion of rice steamed with (13)C-labelled sodium acetate. Participants, people doing measurements or examinations, and people assessing the outcomes were not blinded to group assignment. FR and MR in comparison with RF ameliorated postprandial glucose excursion (AUC-15-240 min-glucose: type 2 diabetes, FR 2,326.6 ± 114.7 mmol/l × min, MR 2,257.0 ± 82.3 mmol/l × min, RF 2,475.6 ± 87.2 mmol/l × min [p Japan Society for Promotion of Science, Japan Association for Diabetes Education and Care, and Japan Vascular Disease Research Foundation.

  15. Relationship between the modified star excursion balance test and the 4x10 m shuttle run test in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Calatayud

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen La agilidad y el equilibrio dinámico son habilidades cruciales en la actividad física prepuberal y la participación deportiva, por lo tanto es necesaria la identificación de pruebas eficientes para su evaluación. Evaluar la correlación entre la agilidad y el equilibrio dinámico en niños escolares de primaria. Veintisiete niños y veinte niñas de 10 años participaron voluntariamente en el estudio. El Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT modificado y el 4x10 m Shuttle Run Test se utilizaron respectivamente para evaluar el equilibrio dinámico y agilidad. Las puntuaciones compuestas del equilibrio dinámico con apoyo diestro mostraron solo entre los niños una moderada correlación significativa (r = -0.51, p < 0.05 con la prueba de agilidad. Sin embargo, entre las niñas se mostró una correlación significativa (r = -0.45, p < 0.05 durante la distancia de alcance posterolateral obtenida en el SEBT. La realización del test completo o de las distancias alcanzadas a nivel posteromedial y posterolateral del SEBT se asocia moderadamente con la agilidad entre los niños, mientras que la distancia posterolateral se asocia con la agilidad entre las niñas.

  16. Sex Differences in Frontal and Transverse Plane Hip and Knee Kinematics During the Modified Star Excursion Balance Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willis Brad W.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The modified Star Excursion Balance Test (mSEBT assesses dynamic neuromuscular control, with predictive ability regarding lower extremity injury risk. Previous kinematic mSEBT analyses are limited to sex differences between injured or fatigued populations or non-fatigued groups in the sagittal plane only. We hypothesize that sex differences exist in the frontal and transverse plane kinematics of the hip and knee in healthy, non-fatigued subjects during the mSEBT. Methods. The descriptive laboratory study involved 38 healthy subjects: 20 males (aged 24.8 ± 2.7 years and 18 females (24.1 ± 3.7 years. Peak kinematics, obtained by a VICONTM motion system, of the hip and knee in the sagittal, frontal, and transverse plane were compared during the anterior, posteromedial, and posterolateral reach of the mSEBT. Wilcoxon rank test with significant differences at p < 0.05 was used. Results. Kinematic differences existed between the groups in the frontal and transverse plane of the hip and knee in all reach directions (p < 0.05. No differences were found in the sagittal plane of the hip or knee between the groups. Conclusions. Sex differences exist in frontal and transverse plane kinematics of the hip and knee during the mSEBT. The mSEBT may be enhanced as an injury prediction tool, if frontal and transverse plane kinematics were included during risk assessment screening.

  17. The ability of modified star excursion balance test to differentiate between women athletes with and without chronic ankle instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Razeghi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT is one functional clinical test that widely used to assess dynamic balance in patients with ankle injuries. Since the ability of this test to detect impairments between athletes with and without chronic ankle instability(CAI is not clear, the aim of present study was to determine if the modified SEBT could detect reach deficits in patients with unilateral CAI. A convenience sample of thirty elite and sub elite women athletes were selected and assigned into two groups: CAI group (Mean ± SD: age: 25±3.5 years; height: 1.68±0.09 m; weight: 62.7±7.3kg, and healthy controls (Mean ± SD: age: 26±4.2 years; height: 1.69±0.05 m; weigh t: 62.7±7.3 kg.The dynamic balance test was obtained using modified SEBT from both limbs of each participant. The independent sample t-test was used for both between group and within group inter-limb comparisons. There was no significant difference in any directions of modified SEBT between two groups in both limbs. No significant interlimb differences were also observed within both groups. The modified SEBT may not enough sensitive to differentiate between athletes with and without CAI. Other factors such as ankle range of motion, muscle strength and pain intensity should be considered for better interpretation of the SEBT results.

  18. How gravity and muscle action control mediolateral center of mass excursion during slow walking: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Karen; De Groote, Friedl; Duysens, Jacques; Jonkers, Ilse

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining mediolateral (ML) balance is very important to prevent falling during walking, especially at very slow speeds. The effect of walking speed on support and propulsion of the center of mass (COM) has been focus of previous studies. However, the influence of speed on ML COM control and the associated coupling with sagittal plane control remains unclear. Simulations of walking at very slow and normal speeds were generated for twelve healthy subjects. Our results show that gluteus medius (GMED) contributions to ML stability decrease, while its contributions to sagittal plane accelerations increase during very slow compared to normal walking. Simultaneously the destabilizing influence of gravity increases in ML direction at a very slow walking speed. This emphasizes the need for a tight balance between gravity and gluteus medius action to ensure ML stability. When walking speed increases, GMED has a unique role in controlling ML acceleration and therefore stabilizing ML COM excursion. Contributions of other muscles decrease in all directions during very slow speed. Increased contributions of these muscles are therefore required to provide for both stability and propulsion when walking speed increases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of Postprandial Glucose Excursion Using a Novel Minimally Invasive Glucose Area-Under-the-Curve Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachi Kuranuki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To develop a minimally invasive interstitial fluid extraction technology (MIET to monitor postprandial glucose area under the curve (AUC without blood sampling, we evaluated the accuracy of glucose AUC measured by MIET and compared with that by blood sampling after food intake. Methods: Interstitial fluid glucose AUC (IG-AUC following consumption of 6 different types of foods was measured by MIET. MIET consisted of stamping microneedle arrays, placing hydrogel patches on the areas, and calculating IG-AUC based on glucose levels in the hydrogels. Glycemic index (GI was determined using IG-AUC and reference AUC measured by blood sampling. Results: IG-AUC strongly correlated with reference AUC (R = 0.91, and GI determined using IG-AUC showed good correlation with that determined by reference AUC (R = 0.88. Conclusions: IG-AUC obtained by MIET can accurately predict the postprandial glucose excursion without blood sampling. In addition, feasibility of GI measurement by MIET was confirmed.

  20. Finnish–Hungarian Cooperation in Bryology; Memories from Excursions, Congresses and Research with Professor Tamás Pócs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koponen Timo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes Professor Tamás Pócs’ cooperation with Finnish bryologists and other cryptogam taxonomists. Cooperation began with exchange of reprints in 1966 and identification of African bryophyte specimens in 1973. In 1976, Timo Koponen visited Budapest and Eger, and joint work continued during a University of Helsinki Department of Botany student excursion to Tanzania in 1988. Tamás Pócs, then a professor at Sokoine Agricultural University, arranged the logistics for the preparatory visit of four teachers as well as for the excursion itself. Later, Pócs participated in the Congress of Eastern Asiatic Bryology, the EU-funded ‘Advanced instruction in bryology and lichenology’ (Large Scale Facility program and the ‘Bryophyte Flora of the Huon Peninsula, Papua New Guinea’ project organized in Helsinki. He was elected a corresponding member of the Finnish Bryological Society in 2009.

  1. The Halo Mass Function from the Excursion Set Method. I. First principle derivation for the non-markovian case of gaussian fluctuations and generic filter

    CERN Document Server

    Maggiore, Michele

    2010-01-01

    A classic method to compute the mass function of dark matter halos is the excursion set method. To date, however, analytical results were only obtained if the density perturbation is smoothed with a sharp filter in momentum space: the dynamics is then markovian, and the probability satisfies the Fokker-Planck equation, with an "absorbing barrier" boundary condition. For different filters or when non-Gaussianity is present, the dynamics becomes non-markovian, the probability does not satisfy a local diffusion equation, and even the notion of absorbing barrier may be ill-defined. We develop an approach from first principles for computing analytically the halo mass function, formulating the problem in terms of a path integral with boundaries, valid for a generic filter function and arbitrary non-Gaussian theories. We perform explicitly the computation of the halo mass function with a tophat filter in coordinate space, finding full agreement with existing Monte Carlo simulations. These results put excursion set t...

  2. Study of the thermal and hydraulic phenomena occurring during power excursion on a heated test section; Etude des phenomenes thermiques et hydrauliques accompagnant une excursion rapide de puissance sur un canal chauffant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyer, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    The thermal and hydrodynamic phenomena occurring during a power excursion were studied in an out-of-pile loop with a water cooled channel at low pressure (1 to 4 atm. abs. ). Circular and rectangular test sections with electrically heated walls of two different thermal diffusivity materials(aluminium and stainless steel) were used. The rectangular test sections were 600 mm long, 35 mm wide and had a 2, 9 mm gap; they simulate two half plates of the M.T.R. fuel element. Natural or forced convection are possible in the test section; the water height above it can be varied from 2.8 to 8 meters and the maximum allowed pressure at its outlet is 4 atm. abs.The heating source is a series of lead batteries which is able to generate, for short periods of time, 85 volts and 25000 amperes; linear, square or exponential power rise versus time can be realized. A 14 channels tape recorder (0-10 000 Hz bandwidth; is used for the measurements of temperature (8/100 mm diameter thermocouple), pressure ('Statham' pressure transducers) and void fraction (X rays). More than 500 tests have been carried out. The influence of the initial water temperature, flow rate, pressure, water height on the water ejections, pressure variations and void fraction in the test section were studied. Tests with energies up to 3000 W/cm in 50 milliseconds were attempted. The energy above which the instabilities appear was determined. An interpretation of the observed phenomena and a simplified theoretical model are presented. [French] Les phenomenes thermiques et hydrodynamiques qui apparaissent au cours d'une excursion de puissance ont ete etudies sur un canal refroidi par de l'eau a basse pression situe sur une installation hors pile. On a utilise des sections d'essais de geometrie cylindrique ou parallipedique dont les parois chauffees par effet Joule sont constituees de materiaux de diffusivite calorifique differente (aluminium et acier inoxydable). La section d

  3. Stable carbon and oxygen isotope stratigraphic evidence of Shuram Excursion and PC-C boundary in Bilara carbonate sequence of Rajasthan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Arif; Pandey, Santosh; Sharma, Mukund; Agarwal, Shailesh; Kumar, Yogesh

    2017-04-01

    The Post-Cryogenian period was a time of sharp increase in ocean primary productivity and subsequent oxygenation to present atmospheric level (PAL), due to the massive influx of terrestrial weathering-derived nutrients in the sea. This change along with palaeogeography of continents during Late Ediacaran period instigated large scale deposition of carbonates with highly negative δ13C-carb. Like the continents those have established Shuram Excursion sites (i.e. Oman, Australia, China, North America), the location of Indian continent was also near atmospheric convergence zone (i.e. near the equator). Therefore a robust high-resolution carbon and oxygen stable isotope study was undertaken on Bilara carbonate sequences to test the possibility of Shuram Excursion and trace the Precambrian-Cambrian Boundary by comparing with well-dated established Shuram Excursion sites. The δ13C-carb and δ18O-carb in Bilara Group varies from -9.0 to 4.1 ‰ and from -10.7 to 8.3 ‰ respectively. Overall, most of the samples have δ18O-carb significantly above -10‰ below which carbonates are considered diagenetically altered. The δ13C-carb pattern is more similar to Yangtze Gorges platform where Ediacaran δ13C-carb variation profile has been divided into four negative (EN1, EN2, EN3, EN4) and three positive excursions (EP1, EP2, EP3). Similarities of δ13C-carb pattern demonstrate that Bilara is equivalent to Yangtze Gorges platform and, to some extent Shuram Formation. According to these comparisons, the Precambrian-Cambrian boundary lies near the top of Bilara Group.

  4. A diagenetic control on the Early Triassic Smithian-Spathian carbon isotopic excursions recorded in the marine settings of the Thaynes Group (Utah, USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomazo, C; Vennin, E; Brayard, A; Bour, I; Mathieu, O; Elmeknassi, S; Olivier, N; Escarguel, G; Bylund, K G; Jenks, J; Stephen, D A; Fara, E

    2016-05-01

    In the aftermath of the end-Permian mass extinction, Early Triassic sediments record some of the largest Phanerozoic carbon isotopic excursions. Among them, a global Smithian-negative carbonate carbon isotope excursion has been identified, followed by an abrupt increase across the Smithian-Spathian boundary (SSB; ~250.8 Myr ago). This chemostratigraphic evolution is associated with palaeontological evidence that indicate a major collapse of terrestrial and marine ecosystems during the Late Smithian. It is commonly assumed that Smithian and Spathian isotopic variations are intimately linked to major perturbations in the exogenic carbon reservoir. We present paired carbon isotopes measurements from the Thaynes Group (Utah, USA) to evaluate the extent to which the Early Triassic isotopic perturbations reflect changes in the exogenic carbon cycle. The δ(13) Ccarb variations obtained here reproduce the known Smithian δ(13) Ccarb -negative excursion. However, the δ(13) C signal of the bulk organic matter is invariant across the SSB and variations in the δ(34) S signal of sedimentary sulphides are interpreted here to reflect the intensity of sediment remobilization. We argue that Middle to Late Smithian δ(13) Ccarb signal in the shallow marine environments of the Thaynes Group does not reflect secular evolution of the exogenic carbon cycle but rather physicochemical conditions at the sediment-water interface leading to authigenic carbonate formation during early diagenetic processes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Doppler ultrasound surveillance in deep tunneling compressed-air work with Trimix breathing: bounce dive technique compared to saturation-excursion technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellinga, T P van Rees; Sterk, W; de Boer, A G E M; van der Beek, A J; Verhoeven, A C; van Dijk, F J H

    2008-01-01

    The Western Scheldt Tunneling Project in The Netherlands provided a unique opportunity to evaluate two deep-diving techniques with Doppler ultrasound surveillance. Divers used the bounce diving techniques for repair and maintenance of the TBM. The tunnel boring machine jammed at its deepest depth. As a result the work time was not sufficient. The saturation diving technique was developed and permitted longer work time at great depth. Thirty-one divers were involved in this project. Twenty-three divers were examined using Doppler ultrasound. Data analysis addressed 52 exposures to Trimix at 4.6-4.8 bar gauge using the bounce technique and 354 exposures to Trimix at 4.0-6.9 bar gauge on saturation excursions. No decompression incidents occurred with either technique during the described phase of the project. Doppler ultrasound revealed that the bubble loads assessed in both techniques were generally low. We find out, that despite longer working hours, shorter decompression times and larger physical workloads, the saturation-excursion technique was associated with significant lower bubble grades than in the bounce technique using Doppler Ultrasound. We conclude that the saturation-excursion technique with Trimix is a good option for deep and long exposures in caisson work. The Doppler technique proved valuable, and it should be incorporated in future compressed-air work.

  6. Real-time 3-D hybrid simulation of Titan's plasma interaction during a solar wind excursion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Simon

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The plasma environment of Saturn's largest satellite Titan is known to be highly variable. Since Titan's orbit is located within the outer magnetosphere of Saturn, the moon can leave the region dominated by the magnetic field of its parent body in times of high solar wind dynamic pressure and interact with the thermalized magnetosheath plasma or even with the unshocked solar wind. By applying a three-dimensional hybrid simulation code (kinetic description of ions, fluid electrons, we study in real-time the transition that Titan's plasma environment undergoes when the moon leaves Saturn's magnetosphere and enters the supermagnetosonic solar wind. In the simulation, the transition between both plasma regimes is mimicked by a reversal of the magnetic field direction as well as a change in the composition and temperature of the impinging plasma flow. When the satellite enters the solar wind, the magnetic draping pattern in its vicinity is reconfigured due to reconnection, with the characteristic time scale of this process being determined by the convection of the field lines in the undisturbed plasma flow at the flanks of the interaction region. The build-up of a bow shock ahead of Titan takes place on a typical time scale of a few minutes as well. We also analyze the erosion of the newly formed shock front upstream of Titan that commences when the moon re-enters the submagnetosonic plasma regime of Saturn's magnetosphere. Although the model presented here is far from governing the full complexity of Titan's plasma interaction during a solar wind excursion, the simulation provides important insights into general plasma-physical processes associated with such a disruptive change of the upstream flow conditions.

  7. Kinect-based assessment of lower limb kinematics and dynamic postural control during the star excursion balance test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltoukhy, Moataz; Kuenze, Christopher; Oh, Jeonghoon; Wooten, Savannah; Signorile, Joseph

    2017-10-01

    Assessments using dynamic postural control tests, like the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT), in combination with three-dimensional (3D) motion analysis can yield critical information regarding a subject's lower limb movement patterns. 3D analysis can provide a clear understanding of the mechanisms that lead to specific outcome measures on the SEBT. Currently, the only technology for 3D motion analysis during such tests is expensive marker-based motion analysis systems, which are impractical for use in clinical settings. In this study we validated the use of the Microsoft Kinect as a cost-effective and marker-less alternative to more complex and expensive gold-standard motion analysis systems. Ten healthy subjects performed the SEBT while their lower limb kinematics were measured concurrently using a traditional motion capture system and a single Kinect v2 sensor. Analyses revealed errors in lower limb kinematics of less than 5°, except for the knee frontal-plane angle (5.7°) in the posterior-lateral direction. Ensemble curve analyses supported these findings, showing minimal between-system differences in all directions. Additionally, we found that the Kinect displayed excellent agreement (ICC3,k=0.99) and consistency (ICC2,k=0.99) when assessing reach distances in all directions. These results indicate that this low-cost and easy to implement technology may provide to clinicians a simple tool to simultaneously assess reach distances while developing a clearer understanding of the lower extremity movement patterns associated with SEBT performance in healthy and injured populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. THE ROLE OF FOLK ARTS AND CRAFTS OF DAGESTAN IN CONSOLIDATING AND EXPANDING THE TOURIST-EXCURSION ROUTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Gazimagomedov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of this study is to create and represent the tourist routes in the places of the traditional folk arts and crafts in the Republic of Dagestan.Research Methodology. In the first stage of the study, according to the register and public materials we identified and studied traditional places of folk arts and crafts; carried out monitoring of existing tourist routes and programs. Developed routes are included in the tourist route map.Findings and discussion. We developed five radial exit routes from the city of Makhachkala, characteristics of which are presented below. Folk arts and crafts of Dagestan are a unique part of the artistic culture and at the same time, it is a branch of industry with a high level of tourist attractiveness. Today, Dagestan is one of the few areas in the modern world where traditional folk art is naturally a part of a contemporary social life having the rights of the dominant cultural unity due to the peculiarities of its historical development. Archaeological studies show that due to the geographical position, in Dagestan, there has been an interaction of significant aspects of cultural phenomena relating to the ancient civilizations of the Mediterranean, Western, Central and Eastern Europe, on the one hand, and the development of cultures of different regions of Asia, on the other hand. Coupled with the traditions of the ancient population of the Caucasus, they formed complex and varied artistic conglomerate.Conclusion. The study revealed the basic centers of traditional arts and crafts of the Republic of Dagestan, hiving a high tourism potential. On this basis, we developed five tourist-excursion routes. These routes are included in the information booklet, which has a marketing and information value. 

  9. Effects of Real-World Versus Virtual Environments on Joint Excursions in Full-Body Reaching Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Christopher R.; Leitkam, Samuel T.; Applegate, Megan E.; Pidcoe, Peter E.; Walkowski, Stevan

    2016-01-01

    Starting from an upright standing posture and reaching for a target that requires some forward bending of the trunk can involve many different configurations of the trunk and limb segments. We sought to determine if configurations of the limb and trunk segments during our standardized full-body reaching tasks were influenced by the visual environment. This paper examined movement patterns of healthy participants (\\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$n=17$ \\end{document}, eight female and nine male) performing full body reaching tasks to: 1) real-world targets; 2) virtual targets presented on a 3-D television; and 3) virtual targets presented using a head-mounted display. For reaches performed in the virtual world, the avatar was presented from a third-person perspective for the 3-D television and from a first-person perspective for the head-mounted display. Reaches to virtual targets resulted in significantly greater excursions of the ankle, knee, hip, spine, and shoulder compared with reaches made to real-world targets. This resulted in significant differences in the forward and downward displacements of the whole-body center of mass between the visual environments. Visual environment clearly influences how subjects perform full-body reaching tasks to static targets. Because a primary goal of virtual reality within rehabilitation is often to restore movement following orthopedic or neurologic injury, it is important to understand how visual environment will affect motor behavior. The present findings suggest that the existing game systems that track and present avatars from a third-person perspective elicit significantly different motor behavior when compared with the same tasks being presented from a first-person perspective. PMID:27957404

  10. Is There a Relationship Between the Functional Movement Screen, Star Excursion Balance Test, and Balance Error Scoring System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harshbarger, Nicole D; Anderson, Barton E; Lam, Kenneth C

    2017-07-21

    To evaluate associations between the Functional Movement Screen (FMS), Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT), and Balance Error Scoring System (BESS) scores. Correlational. College athletic training facilities. Fifty-two intercollegiate athletes (men = 36 and women = 16) representing 8 sports and cleared for unrestricted sport participation. Participants completed the FMS, SEBT, and BESS, in random order, during 1 testing session. Testing order was randomized to control for fatigue and learning effects. Composite and item scores for the FMS, SEBT, and BESS. A fair, negative correlation was found between FMS asymmetry and SEBT composite (r = -0.31, P = 0.03) scores. Fair, positive correlations were reported for FMS rotary stability task and SEBT anterior (r = 0.37-0.41, P ≤ 0.007) and posteromedial (r = 0.31, P = 0.03) reaches. Fair, negative correlations were reported for FMS deep squat and BESS single-leg firm (r = -0.33, P = 0.02), double-leg foam (r = -0.34, P = 0.02) and tandem foam (r = -0.40, P = 0.003), FMS inline lunge and BESS single-leg firm (r = -0.39, P = 0.004), FMS trunk stability pushup and tandem foam (r = -0.31, P = 0.025), and FMS composite and BESS single-leg firm (r = -0.37, P = 0.007). Little-to-no correlations were reported for remaining comparisons. Results indicate that each instrument provides distinct information about function, with only small areas of overlap. Associations between the FMS asymmetry score and SEBT composite score may indicate a relationship between movement asymmetry and postural stability. Associations between the FMS deep squat and BESS foam tasks may be related to underlying neuromuscular control factors.

  11. Effects of Real-World Versus Virtual Environments on Joint Excursions in Full-Body Reaching Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, James S; France, Christopher R; Leitkam, Samuel T; Applegate, Megan E; Pidcoe, Peter E; Walkowski, Stevan

    2016-01-01

    Starting from an upright standing posture and reaching for a target that requires some forward bending of the trunk can involve many different configurations of the trunk and limb segments. We sought to determine if configurations of the limb and trunk segments during our standardized full-body reaching tasks were influenced by the visual environment. This paper examined movement patterns of healthy participants ([Formula: see text], eight female and nine male) performing full body reaching tasks to: 1) real-world targets; 2) virtual targets presented on a 3-D television; and 3) virtual targets presented using a head-mounted display. For reaches performed in the virtual world, the avatar was presented from a third-person perspective for the 3-D television and from a first-person perspective for the head-mounted display. Reaches to virtual targets resulted in significantly greater excursions of the ankle, knee, hip, spine, and shoulder compared with reaches made to real-world targets. This resulted in significant differences in the forward and downward displacements of the whole-body center of mass between the visual environments. Visual environment clearly influences how subjects perform full-body reaching tasks to static targets. Because a primary goal of virtual reality within rehabilitation is often to restore movement following orthopedic or neurologic injury, it is important to understand how visual environment will affect motor behavior. The present findings suggest that the existing game systems that track and present avatars from a third-person perspective elicit significantly different motor behavior when compared with the same tasks being presented from a first-person perspective.

  12. Excursions into Diverse Fields

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    his biology sabbatical year he got to know James Watson, Francis. Crick, and other well-known biologists and became friends with them. The experience of his year in the biology department that pleased. Feynman the most was the response to him as a 'graduate teach- ing assistant'! In biology they put the students through ...

  13. Experience as Excursion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie; Shanks, Michael

    2014-01-01

    qualities of experience are highlighted as part of a suggestion that design may indeed relate as much to metaphysics as to mechanics, materials science, and the psychology of the consumer and user. An Experience Design is sketched out as the choreography of temporary and shifting engagements across...... disparate designs, a perspective that complements well the pragmatics of much contemporary design practice, and as captured in the designation “design thinking”....

  14. Laboratory Measures of Postural Control During the Star Excursion Balance Test After Acute First-Time Lateral Ankle Sprain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Cailbhe; Bleakley, Chris M.; Hertel, Jay; Caulfield, Brian; Ryan, John; Delahunt, Eamonn

    2015-01-01

    Context No researchers, to our knowledge, have investigated the immediate postinjury-movement strategies associated with acute first-time lateral ankle sprain (LAS) as quantified by center of pressure (COP) and kinematic analyses during performance of the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT). Objective To analyze the kinematic and COP patterns of a group with acute first-time LAS and a noninjured control group during performance of the SEBT. Design Case-control study. Setting University biomechanics laboratory. Patients or Other Participants A total of 81 participants with acute first-time LAS (53 men, 28 women; age = 23.22 ± 4.93 years, height = 1.73 ± 0.09 m, mass = 75.72 ± 13.86 kg) and 19 noninjured controls (15 men, 4 women; age = 22.53 ± 1.68 years, height = 1.74 ± 0.08 m, mass = 71.55 ± 11.31 kg). Intervention Participants performed the anterior (ANT), posterolateral (PL), and posteromedial (PM) reach directions of the SEBT. Main Outcome Measure(s) We assessed 3-dimensional kinematics of the lower extremity joints and associated fractal dimension (FD) of the COP path during performance of the SEBT. Results The LAS group had decreased normalized reach distances in the ANT, PL, and PM directions when compared with the control group on their injured (ANT: 58.16% ± 6.86% versus 64.86% ± 5.99%; PL: 85.64% ± 10.62% versus 101.14% ± 8.39%; PM: 94.89% ± 9.26% versus 107.29 ± 6.02%) and noninjured (ANT: 60.98% ± 6.74% versus 64.76% ± 5.02%; PL: 88.95% ± 11.45% versus 102.36% ± 8.53%; PM: 97.13% ± 8.76% versus 106.62% ± 5.78%) limbs (P postural control, as evidenced by the bilateral reduction in angular displacement of the lower extremity joints and reduced reach distances and FD of the COP path on the injured limb during performance of the SEBT. PMID:25811845

  15. Relationships between core strength, hip external rotator muscle strength, and star excursion balance test performance in female lacrosse players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Angela T; Ambegaonkar, Jatin P; Caswell, Shane V

    2013-04-01

    PURPOSEBACKGROUND: Female athletes have high rates of lower extremity (LE) injuries. Core strength (CS) and hip external rotator (HER) strength have been suggested to be factors that influence LE injury risk. Better balance has also been shown to decrease LE injury risk. Still, little research has examined whether core strength and hip muscle strength can influence LE balance. Therefore the purpose of the current study was to examine the relationships between core strength, hip ER strength and lower extremity balance as measured by the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT). CS was examined via the bent knee lowering test (BKLT) (grades 1-5). Hip external rotator (HER) strength was measured singularly (HERL and HERR and combined (HERCOM) assessed via hand held dynamometry (reported in Newtons), and balance assessed via the SEBT expressed as % leg length, bilaterally in the postero-medial, postero-lateral, anterior directions and as a combined score (SEBTCOM). All outcomes were assessed in 45 female lacrosse players (16.0 ± 5.9 yrs, 65.1 ± 2.4 cm, 57.3 ± 7.4 kgs, experience=5.9 ± 2.9 yrs). Pearson product-moment correlations examined relationships between the BKLT, HER and SEBT. Linear regression analyses examined possible influences of CS and HER on balance (p ≤ .05). SEBTCOM was not correlated with BKLT [r(45)=-.20, p=.18] or HERCOM [r(45)=.20, p=.18]. There was no correlation between HER strength and CS (BKLT) [r(45)=.20, p=.20]. Overall scores on the BKLT were not correlated with any of the three balance SEBT scores. HERL [r(45)=.36, p=.02] and HERR [r(45)=.30, p=.05] were moderately positively correlated with left posteromedial SEBT direction. HERCOM and BKLT did not predict overall SEBTCOM balance scores (r(2)=.068, p=.23). BKLT scores and combined HER strength did not correlate with LE balance, as measured by the SEBT, in female lacrosse players. However, HER strength of both the left and right LE's (singularly) was moderately correlated with scores on one

  16. Spatial isotopic heterogeneity during the Guttenberg isotopic carbon excursion: Mechanisms and implications for craton-wide isotope gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, J. G.; Fike, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    The carbon isotopic compositions of carbonate carbon (δ13Ccarb) and organic carbon (δ13Corg) in marine limestones are frequently used as paleoenvironmental proxies and as chemostratigraphic tools for aligning strata. These functions are predicated upon the assumption that isotopic variability in these strata reflects the secular variation in the marine reservoir of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). As such, the utility of these isotopic systems largely depends on the assumed spatial homogeneity of marine δ13CDIC. While other isotope systems such as sulfate and strontium have been shown to be extremely well mixed in the modern ocean, a 1-2‰ range in δ13CDIC exists over the entire depth and latitude range of the ocean. This variability in δ13CDIC is largely the result of differences in the local balance of organic carbon fixation and export (increasing δ13CDIC) and/or organic carbon oxidation (decreasing δ13CDIC). The preservation of such isotopic variability in the geologic record has been advocated on several occasions. In particular, previous workers have argued for an ocean-to-interior seaway isotopic gradient in δ13Ccarb, δ13Corg, and ɛNd across Laurentia during the Late Ordovician across the interval that spans the Guttenberg Isotopic Carbon Excursion (GICE). Here we examine two Late Ordovician-aged sections from Missouri, USA that contain the GICE. At first glace, our data showed high degree of stratigraphic and lateral variability. Detailed petrographic and geochemical (e.g., trace element abundance) screening reveals that the majority of the isotopic heterogeneity in our sections is the result of local syndepositional/diagenetic alteration - and not the result of primary gradients in δ13CDIC between the localities examined. Our 'least-altered' δ13Ccarb profile matches closely with previously published records from Iowa; however, sections adjacent both to our locations in Missouri and to the similar δ13Ccarb profile in Iowa are characterized by

  17. Kinematic analysis of selected reach directions of the Star Excursion Balance Test compared with the Y-Balance Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullam, Karl; Caulfield, Brian; Coughlan, Garrett F; Delahunt, Eamonn

    2014-02-01

    The Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) and the Y-Balance Test (YBT) have 3 common reach directions: anterior (ANT), posteromedial (PM), and posterolateral (PL). Previous research has indicated that reach-distance performance on the ANT reach direction of the SEBT differs from that on the YBT. Kinematic patterns associated with the ANT reach direction of the SEBT and YBT need to be investigated to fully understand this difference, along with the PM and PL reach directions, to deduce any kinematic discrepancies between the 2 balance tests. To compare and contrast the kinematic patterns associated with test performance on the reach directions common to the SEBT and YBT. Controlled laboratory study. University laboratory. 15 healthy male (age 23.33 ± 2.02 y, height 1.77 ± 0.04 m, body mass 80.00 ± 9.03 kg) and 14 healthy female (age 21.14 ± 1.66 y, height 1.63 ± 0.06 m, body mass 59.58 ± 7.61 kg) volunteers. Each participant performed 3 trials of the ANT, PM, and PL reach directions of the SEBT and YBT on their dominant leg. Sagittal-plane lower-limb kinematic profiles were recorded using a 3-D motion-analysis system. Reach distances were also recorded for each reach direction. A significant main effect (P test condition with participants reaching farther on the ANT reach direction of the SEBT compared with the YBT. While reaching in the ANT direction participants were characterized by a more flexed position of the hip joint at the point of maximum reach on the YBT (27.94° ± 13.84°) compared with the SEBT (20.37° ± 18.64°). Based on these observed results, the authors conclude that test performance on the SEBT and YBT differ in terms of dynamic neuro-muscular demands, as evidenced by differences in reach distances achieved in the ANT reach direction and associated test kinematic profile.

  18. Predictability of tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion for the effectiveness of tolvaptan in patients with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Toru; Waseda, Katsuhisa; Mizuno, Tomofumi; Nakano, Yusuke; Mukai, Kentaro; Wakabayashi, Hirokazu; Watanabe, Atsushi; Ando, Hirohiko; Takashima, Hiroaki; Amano, Tetsuya

    2017-09-01

    There is no echocardiographic predictor of the effectiveness of tolvaptan in patients with heart failure (HF). The aim of this study was to investigate the echocardiographic predictor of responders to tolvaptan in patients with HF. This observational study consisted of 62 consecutive in-hospital patients with HF who received tolvaptan with volume overload despite standard therapies. The echocardiography data were obtained within 1 week before the administration of tolvaptan. Tolvaptan responders were defined as those having a body weight decrease from baseline >1 kg on the morning of day 8. The mean age of the 62 patients was 75.1 ± 13.9 years, and 45 patients (72.6%) were considered to be responders. Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) was significantly higher (17.1 ± 3.8 vs. 13.0 ± 3.9 mm; p = 0.0004) and the tricuspid valve regurgitation pressure gradient (33.3 ± 14.6 vs. 44.9 ± 12.2 mmHg; p = 0.007) and estimated right atrium pressure (7.8 ± 4.2 vs. 10.3 ± 4.5 mmHg; p = 0.043) were significantly lower in the Responder group than in the Non-responder group. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, TAPSE was found to be an independent predictor of response (odds ratio 1.28; 95% confidence interval 1.03-1.60). According to the receiver operating characteristics analysis, the area under the curve of TAPSE was the largest among the parameters measured by echocardiography. The cut-off value for TAPSE to predict responders was determined to be 17.0 mm (sensitivity = 56.8%, specificity = 94.1%). TAPSE is a simple predictor of the effectiveness of tolvaptan in patients with HF.

  19. Effect of local heating on postprandial blood glucose excursions using the InsuPad device: results of an outpatient crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermanns, Norbert; Bitton, Gabriel; Reimer, André; Krichbaum, Michael; Kulzer, Bernhard; Haak, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    The InsuPad is a medical device to accelerate insulin resorption by applying local heat at the insulin injection site. This crossover study examined the impact of the InsuPad use on postprandial glucose excursions under daily life conditions. In 1 study phase, diabetic patients used the InsuPad when injecting bolus insulin before breakfast and dinner and measured their blood glucose 5 times daily (before breakfast, lunch, and dinner and after breakfast and dinner). In the other study phase, blood glucose measurements were maintained without using the InsuPad. The order of the study phases was randomized. Twenty patients with a high insulin demand took part (30% type 1 diabetes, age 53.7 ± 8.9 years, diabetes duration 14.9 ± 7.4 years; HbA1c 8.3 ± 0.8%; total daily insulin demand 0.97 ± 0.32 IU per kg). Postprandial glucose excursion was reduced by 15.4 mg/dl (95% CI 9.7-21.2 mg/dl; P = .011) after breakfast and dinner if InsuPad was used. The mean blood glucose was lower by 8.8 mg/dl (95% CI 0:3-18:0 mg/dl; P = .099) when using the InsuPad. Safety parameters and the percentage of hypoglycemic ( 300 mg/dl) blood glucose measurements were not negatively affected by InsuPad use (hypoglycemic values 1.4% vs 1.5%, P = .961; hyperglycemic values 2.6% vs 4.0%, P = .098). Local heating of the insulin injection site by use of the InsuPad device is an effective and safe method to reduce postprandial blood glucose excursions under daily life conditions without negative side effects on the occurrence of low or high blood glucose values. © 2014 Diabetes Technology Society.

  20. The simulation of a criticality accident excursion occurring in a simple fast metal system using the coupled neutronic-hydrodynamic method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, W.L.

    1996-12-31

    Analysis of a criticality accident scenario occuring in a simple fast metal system using the coupled neutronic-hydrodynamic method is demonstrated by examining the last Godiva-I criticality accident. The basis tools and information for creating a coupled neutronic-hydrodynamic code are presented. Simplifying assumptions and approximations for creating an idealized model for the Godiva-I system are discussed. Estimates of the total energy generation and the maximum attainable kinetic energy yield are the most important results that are obtained from the code. With modifications, the methodology presented in this paper can be extended to analyze criticality accident excursions in other kinds of nuclear systems.

  1. Environmental impact and magnitude of paleosol carbonate carbon isotope excursions marking five early Eocene hyperthermals in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abels, Hemmo A.; Lauretano, Vittoria; van Yperen, Anna E.; Hopman, Tarek; Zachos, James C.; Lourens, Lucas J.; Gingerich, Philip D.; Bowen, Gabriel J.

    2016-05-01

    Transient greenhouse warming events in the Paleocene and Eocene were associated with the addition of isotopically light carbon to the exogenic atmosphere-ocean carbon system, leading to substantial environmental and biotic change. The magnitude of an accompanying carbon isotope excursion (CIE) can be used to constrain both the sources and amounts of carbon released during an event and also to correlate marine and terrestrial records with high precision. The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) is well documented, but CIE records for the subsequent warming events are still rare, especially from the terrestrial realm.Here, we provide new paleosol carbonate CIE records for two of the smaller hyperthermal events, I1 and I2, as well as two additional records of Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 (ETM2) and H2 in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, USA. Stratigraphic comparison of this expanded, high-resolution terrestrial carbon isotope history to the deep-sea benthic foraminiferal isotope records from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) sites 1262 and 1263, Walvis Ridge, in the southern Atlantic Ocean corroborates the idea that the Bighorn Basin fluvial sediments record global atmospheric change. The ˜ 34 m thicknesses of the eccentricity-driven hyperthermals in these archives corroborate precession forcing of the ˜ 7 m thick fluvial overbank-avulsion sedimentary cycles. Using bulk-oxide mean-annual-precipitation reconstructions, we find soil moisture contents during the four younger hyperthermals that are similar to or only slightly wetter than the background, in contrast with soil drying observed during the PETM using the same proxy, sediments, and plant fossils.The magnitude of the CIEs in soil carbonate for the four smaller, post-PETM events scale nearly linearly with the equivalent event magnitudes documented in marine records. In contrast, the magnitude of the PETM terrestrial CIE is at least 5 ‰ smaller than expected based on extrapolation of the scaling relationship established

  2. Effects of different proportion of carbohydrate in breakfast on postprandial glucose excursion in normal glucose tolerance and impaired glucose regulation subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Xin; Wang, Chun; Lifang, Lv; Chen, Dawei; Yang, Yanzhi; Liu, Guanjian; Wen, Hu; Chen, Lihong; He, Liping; Li, Xiujun; Tian, Haoming; Jia, Weiping; Ran, Xingwu

    2013-07-01

    The variability of postprandial plasma glucose is an independent risk factor for diabetes. The type and amount of carbohydrate may be important determinants of glycemic control. The aim of the study was to compare the effects of different proportions of carbohydrate in breakfast on postprandial blood glucose fluctuations in impaired glucose regulation (IGR) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT) subjects. This is a cross-sectional study of two groups including 55 subjects with IGR and 78 individuals with NGT. Their recorded breakfast was sorted into low-carbohydrate (LC) (carbohydrate 65%) meals according to the proportion of carbohydrate. Glucose concentrations were continuously measured with a continuous glucose monitoring system, and parameters such as the incremental area under the curve (iAUC) of glucose and postprandial glucose excursion (PPGE) were calculated to evaluate postprandial glucose fluctuations. The postprandial fluctuations of glucose increased gradually with increased proportions of carbohydrate in breakfast in both IGR and NGT subjects. For the MC and HC meals, iAUC, PPGE, postprandial glucose spike (PGS), and mean blood glucose were significantly greater than those in the NGT group (Pglucose concentrations decreased to baseline after the MC and HC meals in the IGR group were significantly longer than those in the NGT group (Pglucose concentrations, SD, and PPGE (Pglucose excursions in the NGT and IGR subjects. In the IGR subjects, a HC meal should be avoided and a LC meal should be recommended to prevent development of diabetes.

  3. Mitigation of starch and glucose-induced postprandial glycemic excursion in rats by antioxidant-rich green-leafy vegetables' juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Ashok Kumar; Jyothi, Atmakuri Lakshmana; Tejeswini, Vasantharao Brahma; Madhusudana, Kuncha; Kumar, Domati Anand; Zehra, Amtul; Agawane, Sachin Bharat

    2013-10-01

    Consumption of green-leafy vegetables is being advocated beneficial for type 2 diabetes mellitus individuals possibly because they are cost effective source of potent biological antioxidants. This research analyzed various phytochemicals, free radicals scavenging antioxidant potentials and starch digesting enzymes inhibitory activities in fresh juice of nine green-leafy vegetables. Furthermore, this study also investigated influence of these vegetables juice on starch and glucose induced postprandial glycemic load. Phytochemical constituents, in vitro free radicals scavenging antioxidant and enzymes inhibitory activities were evaluated applying various reported methods. Post-prandial glycemic excursion was induced in rats pretreated with vegetables juice by oral administration of starch and glucose. All the leafy vegetables juice displayed potent free radicals scavenging activities. Juice of amaranthus, rumex, palak and raphanus displayed potential anti-oxidative property by reducing H2O2 induced hemolysis in rats red blood cells RBCs. Ajwain and rumex juice showed pancreatic α-amylase inhibitory activity. Alternanthera, ajwain, methi, amaranthus and sowa leaves juice displayed intestinal α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Juice of raphanus, ajwain and sowa significantly mitigated starch-induced postprandial glycemic load. Amaranthus leaves juice potently mitigated glucose-induced postprandial glycemic load and also reduced hemoglobin glycation induced by glucose in vitro. This investigation finds that juice of leafy vegetables is potent source of biological antioxidants. In addition, juice of raphanus, ajwain and sowa leaves possess capacity to mitigate starch induced postprandial glycemic burden and amaranthus leaves' juice can reduce glucose induced postprandial glycemic excursion.

  4. Reference values of the right ventricular outflow tract systolic excursion in 711 healthy children and calculation of z-score values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koestenberger, Martin; Ravekes, William; Nagel, Bert; Avian, Alexander; Heinzl, Bernd; Cvirn, Gerhard; Fritsch, Peter; Fandl, Andrea; Rehak, Thomas; Gamillscheg, Andreas

    2014-09-01

    Quantitative determination of right ventricular (RV) function has gained more interest over the last years. The RV outflow tract systolic excursion (RVOT SE) has been recently proposed as an echocardiographic tool to assess RV systolic function in adults. We aimed to determine growth-related changes of RVOT SE in children and to establish references values. A prospective study was conducted in a group of 711 healthy paediatric patients (age: 1 day to 18 years). We determined the effects of age and body surface area (BSA) on RVOT SE values. RVOT SE values were further correlated with the established RV systolic function parameters tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) and tricuspid annular peak systolic velocity (S'). The RVOT SE ranged from a mean of 3.4 mm in neonates to 9.5 mm in 18-year-old adolescents. The RVOT SE values showed a positive correlation with age (r = 0.90, P rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Cosmogenic signature of geomagnetic reversals and excursions from the Réunion event to the Matuyama-Brunhes transition (0.7-2.14 Ma interval)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Quentin; Bourlès, Didier L.; Thouveny, Nicolas; Horng, Chorng-Shern; Valet, Jean-Pierre; Bassinot, Franck; Choy, Sandrine

    2018-01-01

    Long-term variations of the geomagnetic dipole moment (GDM) during periods of stable polarity and in transitional states (reversals and excursions) provide key information for understanding the geodynamo regime. Following several studies dealing with the Brunhes chron and the Matuyama-Brunhes transition, this study presents a new authigenic 10Be/9Be ratio (Be-ratio) record obtained from the MD97-2143 core (western Pacific Ocean). This new Be-ratio series yields a record of GDM variations covering the early Brunhes and mid to late Matuyama time period (i.e. 700-2140 ka), independently from the relative paleointensity (RPI) record obtained from the same core, that can be compared with available RPI records and stacks. Stratigraphic offsets measured between the Be-ratio peaks and the corresponding RPI minima reach 2 to 14 cm. They can be assigned to (post-) detrital remanent magnetization (pDRM) effects leading to magnetization locking-in delays varying from 2 to 12 ka in the studied core. 10Be overproduction episodes triggered by geomagnetic dipole moment lows (GDL) linked to polarity reversals and excursions confirm the global control exerted by the GDM on cosmogenic radionuclides production. A dipole moment reconstruction derived from the Beryllium-10 (BeDiMo) was compiled and calibrated using absolute paleointensity data. This independent record complements the available paleomagnetic RPI records, permitting 1) to overcome the pDRM lock-in offsets induced below the mixing layer, 2) to confront and increase the robustness and precision of GDM reconstructions and, 3) to better constrain the chronology of geomagnetic field instabilities during the mid to late Matuyama chron. Our new 10Be derived inventory is fully compatible with the GDL series linked to geomagnetic polarity reversals and events (Matuyama-Brunhes transition, Jaramillo and Olduvai subchron boundaries, Cobb Mountain, Réunion) and it strengthens the occurrence of several excursions (Kamikatsura, Santa

  6. Can Echocardiography, Especially Tricuspid Annular Plane Systolic Excursion Measurement, Predict Pulmonary Hypertension and Improve Prognosis in Patients on Long-Term Dialysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabysa, Radosław; Wańkowicz, Zofia

    2015-12-23

    In recent years, increasing attention has been paid to pulmonary hypertension (PH) as a strong and independent risk factor for adverse outcome in the population of patients on long-term dialysis. Published results of observational studies indicate that the problem of PH refers mostly to patients on long-term hemodialysis and is less common in peritoneal dialysis patients. The main cause of this complication is proximal location of the arteriovenous fistula, causing chronically increased cardiac output. This paper presents the usefulness of transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) for measurement of the Tricuspid Annular Plane Systolic Excursion (TAPSE) in the early diagnosis of PH in dialysis patients. Echocardiographic diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension with TTE, especially in the case of HD patients, ensures the selection of the proper location for the first arteriovenous fistula and facilitates the decision to switch to peritoneal dialysis or to accelerate the process of qualification for kidney transplantation.

  7. Mitigation of starch and glucose-induced postprandial glycemic excursion in rats by antioxidant-rich green-leafy vegetables’ juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Ashok Kumar; Jyothi, Atmakuri Lakshmana; Tejeswini, Vasantharao Brahma; Madhusudana, Kuncha; Kumar, Domati Anand; Zehra, Amtul; Agawane, Sachin Bharat

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Consumption of green-leafy vegetables is being advocated beneficial for type 2 diabetes mellitus individuals possibly because they are cost effective source of potent biological antioxidants. This research analyzed various phytochemicals, free radicals scavenging antioxidant potentials and starch digesting enzymes inhibitory activities in fresh juice of nine green-leafy vegetables. Furthermore, this study also investigated influence of these vegetables juice on starch and glucose induced postprandial glycemic load. Materials and Methods: Phytochemical constituents, in vitro free radicals scavenging antioxidant and enzymes inhibitory activities were evaluated applying various reported methods. Post-prandial glycemic excursion was induced in rats pretreated with vegetables juice by oral administration of starch and glucose. Results: All the leafy vegetables juice displayed potent free radicals scavenging activities. Juice of amaranthus, rumex, palak and raphanus displayed potential anti-oxidative property by reducing H2O2 induced hemolysis in rats red blood cells RBCs. Ajwain and rumex juice showed pancreatic α-amylase inhibitory activity. Alternanthera, ajwain, methi, amaranthus and sowa leaves juice displayed intestinal α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Juice of raphanus, ajwain and sowa significantly mitigated starch-induced postprandial glycemic load. Amaranthus leaves juice potently mitigated glucose-induced postprandial glycemic load and also reduced hemoglobin glycation induced by glucose in vitro. Conclusions: This investigation finds that juice of leafy vegetables is potent source of biological antioxidants. In addition, juice of raphanus, ajwain and sowa leaves possess capacity to mitigate starch induced postprandial glycemic burden and amaranthus leaves’ juice can reduce glucose induced postprandial glycemic excursion. PMID:24143048

  8. Effects of postmeal exercise on postprandial glucose excursions in people with type 2 diabetes treated with add-on hypoglycemic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Melissa L; Little, Jonathan P; Gay, Jennifer L; McCully, Kevin K; Jenkins, Nathan T

    2017-04-01

    Type 2 diabetes treatment primarily focuses on reducing hyperglycemia, including postprandial glucose excursions. Hypoglycemic agents are used clinically to lower fasting and postprandial glucose. Metformin is the first-line therapy; however, if metformin is inadequate then 'add-on' hypoglycemic agents are implemented. Postmeal exercise has been shown to lower postprandial glucose. The aim of this study was to assess if postmeal exercise provides additional glucose-lowering benefit, beyond medication alone, in those on add-on hypoglycemic agents. Postprandial glucose excursions in eight participants with type 2 diabetes (Age: 60±10.7, HbA1C: 7.9±2.3) being treated with add-on hypoglycemic agents were assessed during both drug-treated sedentary and drug-treated postmeal exercise conditions. Continuous glucose monitoring was used to assess peak and area under the glucose curve (AUC) during exercise, as well as peak within a 2-h time window, 2-h total and 2-h incremental AUC after a standardized breakfast meal. Postmeal exercise consisted of 3×10-min intervals of treadmill walking at 50% maximal oxygen uptake. Glucose peak (drug only: 13.8±3.7, drug/exercise: 9.9±2.7mmol/L; p=0.02) and AUC (drug only: 500±136, drug/exercise: 357±89mmol/L×40min; p=0.03) were reduced during postmeal exercise. Breakfast 2-h incremental AUC was also reduced (drug only: 585±291, drug/exercise: 330±294; p=0.047). Post-breakfast exercise lowered glucose during the exercise bout, although this effect was not sustained on later meals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Center of pressure excursion as a measure of balance performance in patients with non-specific low back pain compared to healthy controls: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhe, Alexander; Fejer, René; Walker, Bruce

    2011-03-01

    Over the past 20 years, the center of pressure (COP) has been commonly used as an index of postural stability in standing. While many studies investigated COP excursions in low back pain patients and healthy individuals, no comprehensive analysis of the reported differences in postural sway pattern exists. Six online databases were systematically searched followed by a manual search of the retrieved papers. The selection criteria comprised papers comparing COP measures derived from bipedal static task conditions on a force-plate of non-specific low back pain (NSLBP) sufferers to those of healthy controls. Sixteen papers met the inclusion criteria. Heterogeneity in study designs prevented pooling of the data so only a qualitative data analysis was conducted. The majority of the papers (14/16, 88%) concluded that NSLBP patients have increased COP mean velocity and overall excursion as compared to healthy individuals. This was statistically significant in the majority of studies (11/14, 79%). An increased sway in anteroposterior direction was also observed in NSLBP patients. Patients with NSLBP exhibit greater postural instability than healthy controls, signified by greater COP excursions and a higher mean velocity. While the decreased postural stability in NSLBP sufferers further appears to be associated with the presence of pain, it seems unrelated to the exact location and pain duration. No correlation between the pain intensity and the magnitude of COP excursions could be identified.

  10. Stance foot alignment and hand positioning alter star excursion balance test scores in those with chronic ankle instability: What are we really assessing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuğ, Mutlu

    2017-04-01

    The literature has consistently shown that the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) is a reliable and valid tool to anticipate the risk of lower extremity injury, assess dynamic postural control differences among groups, and assess the effectiveness of balance training programs in both healthy individuals and people with lower extremity injuries. However, there is no standard administration technique for the SEBT in research, clinical practice, or performance settings. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to compare six different combinations (3 different foot alignments × 2 hand positions) on the SEBT performance in those with chronic ankle instability (CAI). Repeated Measures Design. University Research Laboratory. Twenty-five university students with CAI (12 males, 13 females; age: 20.3 ± 2.4 years, height: 172.7 ± 7.4 cm, weight: 77.5 ± 15.3 kg. 25.9 ± 4.0 kg/m2) voluntarily participated in the study. Six different SEBT positions were used to assess dynamic postural control. Three foot positions: 1) Foot centered; 2) Toe fixed; and 3) Toe-heel changing and two hand placements: 1) Hands free and 2) Hands on the hips were used in this study. After 6familiarization trials for each condition, three Star Excursion Balance Test scores were recorded. Normalized reach distance (% of leg length) in the anterior, posteromedial, and posterolateral directions as well as a composite reach score quantified dynamic postural control. Both foot alignment and hand position significantly altered normalized SEBT reach distance in the anterior (p < 0.003), posteromedial (p < 0.001), posterolateral (p < 0.001), and composite reach scores (p < 0.001). Different foot alignments and hand constraints significantly altered normalized reach distances and the composite score in individuals with CAI. These results do not suggest that any combination of foot alignments and/or hand constraints is superior. However, changing the toe/heel position, while maintaining hands on the

  11. The Cenomanian-Turonian Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (OAE2) in the Western Interior US and Gulf of Mexico: Decoupled Black Shale Deposition and Carbon Isotope Excursion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, C.; Snedden, J.; Cunningham, R.; Barrie, C.; Leckie, R. M.

    2016-12-01

    The largest carbon isotope excursions (CIEs) of the Cretaceous are associated with widespread evidence for marine anoxia and have been termed Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAEs). OAEs were originally thought to be globally-correlative intervals of black shales, but black shale deposition is an inherently provincial phenomenon driven by local conditions, and black shales associated with individual OAEs are often slightly diachronous and can be absent in some regions. Workers currently favor a definition of OAEs that is focused on the positive carbon isotope excursion driven by the global burial of organic matter and resulting carbon cycle perturbation; i.e., recording the global, rather than local, changes. While this is certainly the best way to define a global event, differences in the expression of the event between regions can be used to study the nature of the event itself. The greater Gulf of Mexico region in southern North America offers an excellent example of the diachroneity of black shale deposition and anoxia during one of the largest OAEs, the Cenomanian-Turonian OAE2. The Western Interior Seaway (WIS), flooded the interior of North America from the Gulf of Mexico up through the Canadian Arctic. In Texas and elsewhere across the WIS, high marine organic matter deposition and proxies for anoxia (especially benthic foraminifera and redox sensitive trace metals) are common before the event, but decrease at its onset, and in some places increase again after the event. Further south, across the Mexican shelf, deeper shelf environments remain dysoxic/anoxic through the event, while several carbonate platforms remain oxygenated during the event, but drown and record anoxic bottom waters shortly afterward. Here, we present new bulk carbonate and organic carbon isotopes and planktic and benthic foraminiferal populations from a 90 m core in southern Mississippi, USA, to present the first record of OAE2 from the northern Gulf of Mexico. In particular, we use

  12. Growth of Interfacial Intermetallic Compound Layer in Diffusion-Bonded SAC-Cu Solder Joints During Different Types of Thermomechanical Excursion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanjilal, Anwesha; Kumar, Praveen

    2017-09-01

    The effects of mechanical strain on the growth kinetics of interfacial intermetallic compounds (IMCs) sandwiched between Cu substrate and Sn-1.0 wt.%Ag-0.5 wt.%Cu (SAC105) solder have been investigated. Isothermal aging (IA) at 70°C and 125°C, and thermal cycling (TC) as well as thermomechanical cycling (TMC) with shear strain of 12.8% per cycle between -25°C and 125°C were applied to diffusion-bonded solder joints to study the growth behavior of the interfacial IMC layer under various types of thermomechanical excursion (TME). The microstructure of the solder joint tested under each TME was observed at regular intervals. It was observed that the growth rate of the IMC layer was higher in the case of TMC compared with TC or IA. This increased growth rate of the IMC layer in the presence of mechanical strain suggests an additional driving force that enhances the growth kinetics of the IMC. Finite element analysis was performed to gain insight into the effect of TC and TMC on the stress field in the solder joint, especially near the interface between the solder and the substrate. Finally, an analytical model was developed to quantify the effect of strain on the effective diffusivity and express the growth kinetics for all three types of TME using a single expression.

  13. Z-score of Mitral Annular Plane Systolic Excursion is a Useful Indicator of Evaluation of Left Ventricular Function in Patients with Acute-Phase Kawasaki Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Ikuo; Watanabe, Kazuhiro

    2017-06-01

    We previously reported the clinical usefulness of the mitral annular plane systolic excursion (MAPSE) to evaluate the left ventricular (LV) function in patients with Kawasaki disease (KD) in the acute-phase. However, the feasibility of the MAPSE z-score has not been evaluated in patients with acute KD. We prospectively studied 60 KD patients without coronary aneurysms. The MAPSE z-scores were calculated using our standard MAPSE data. Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) was measured as a parameter of LV function. In total, 281 healthy age- and body size-matched subjects were chosen as the control group. The MAPSE z-score decreased in the acute-phase (median value, -1.4) and increased in the convalescent phase (median value, 0.18; P characteristic (ROC) analysis, the optimal cutoff value for the MAPSE z-score to judge LV dysfunction was -0.9. The MAPSE z-score is a useful index to evaluate LV function, and the cutoff value of -0.9 can be an indicator to judge LV dysfunction in the patients with acute-phase KD.

  14. Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion is preserved in young patients with pulmonary hypertension except when associated with repaired congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Amanda; Guo, Ruixin; Ivy, D Dunbar; Younoszai, Adel

    2017-04-01

    Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) is a measure of right ventricular (RV) longitudinal function that correlates with functional status and mortality in adults with pulmonary hypertension (PH). The diagnostic and predictive value of TAPSE in children with PH has not been fully examined. We aimed to define TAPSE across aetiologies of paediatric PH and assess the correlation between TAPSE and measures of disease severity. TAPSE measurements were obtained in 84 children and young adults undergoing treatment for PH and 315 healthy children to establish z-scores at moderate altitude for comparison. The relationships between TAPSE and echocardiographic, biomarker, and functional measures of disease severity between aetiologies were assessed. TAPSE z-scores in PH patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) repaired with open cardiac surgery (n = 20, mean -2.73) were significantly decreased compared with normal children and patients with other aetiologies of PH (P disease (n = 14, -0.39) were not different from normal. TAPSE correlated modestly with brain natriuretic peptide, echocardiographic function parameters, and functional class except in patients with repaired CHD. Children with PH maintain normal TAPSE values early except when associated with repaired CHD. Superior RV adaptation to high afterload in children compared with adults may account for this finding. Reduced TAPSE after repair of CHD does not correlate with functional status and may reflect post-operative changes rather than poor function primarily due to PH.

  15. Right Ventricular Outflow Tract (RVOT) Changes in Children with an Atrial Septal Defect: Focus on RVOT Velocity Time Integral, RVOT Diameter, and RVOT Systolic Excursion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koestenberger, Martin; Ravekes, William; Avian, Alexander; Grangl, Gernot; Burmas, Ante; Raith, Wolfgang; Cvirn, Gerhard; Grillitsch, Marlene; Gamillscheg, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    Aim of the study was to determine the influence of right heart volume overload in children with atrial septal defect (ASD) on right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) variables. A prospective study was conducted in 115 children (age range: 2 days-18.1 years) with a moderate to large ASD. We determined effects of age, body length (BL), body weight (BW), and body surface area (BSA) on the variables RVOT diameter, RVOT velocity time integral (VTI), and RVOT systolic excursion (SE), and tested the predictive value of published normal values for age, BW, BL, and BSA in our ASD patients. In our pediatric ASD patients, the age-specific RVOT diameter (z-score: +2.2, 95% CI: 2.0-2.4, P 2.0. The age-specific RVOT VTI z-score (z-score: +3.6, 95% CI: 3.2-3.9, P 2.0. The age-specific RVOT SE z-score was not increased but slightly lower compared to normal values (z-score: -0.5, 95% CI: -0.7 to -0.3, P 2.0 while 12% of the patients had a z-score children with moderate to large ASD. © 2016, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Calcium isotope constraints on the marine carbon cycle and CaCO3 deposition during the late Silurian (Ludfordian) positive δ13C excursion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkaš, Juraj; Frýda, Jiří; Holmden, Chris

    2016-10-01

    This study investigates calcium isotope variations (δ 44 / 40 Ca) in late Silurian marine carbonates deposited in the Prague Basin (Czech Republic), which records one of the largest positive carbon isotope excursion (CIE) of the entire Phanerozoic, the mid-Ludfordian CIE, which is associated with major climatic changes (abrupt cooling) and global sea-level fluctuations. Our results show that during the onset of the CIE, when δ13 C increases rapidly from ∼0‰ to ∼8.5‰, δ 44 / 40Ca remains constant at about 0.3 ± 0.1 ‰ (relative to NIST 915a), while 87Sr/86Sr in well-preserved carbonates are consistent with a typical Ludfordian seawater composition (ranging from ∼0.70865 to ∼0.70875). Such decoupling between δ13 C and δ 44 / 40Ca trends during the onset of the CIE is consistent with the expected order-of-magnitude difference in the residence times of Ca (∼106yr) and C (∼105yr) in the open ocean, suggesting that the mid-Ludfordian CIE was caused by processes where the biogeochemical pathways of C and Ca in seawater were mechanistically decoupled. These processes may include: (i) near shore methanogenesis and photosynthesis, (ii) changes in oceanic circulation and stratification, and/or (iii) increased production and burial of organic C in the global ocean. The latter, however, is unlikely due to the lack of geological evidence for enhanced organic C burial, and also because of unrealistic parameterization of the ocean C cycle needed to generate the observed CIE over the relatively short time interval. In contrast, higher up in the section where δ13 C shifts back to pre-excursion baseline values, there is a correlated shift to higher δ 44 / 40Ca values. Such coupling of the records of Ca and C isotope changes in this part of the study section is inconsistent with the abovementioned differences in oceanic Ca and C residence times, indicating that the record of δ 44 / 40Ca changes does not faithfully reflect the evolution of the oceanic Ca

  17. Resolving the sources of plasma glucose excursions following a glucose tolerance test in the rat with deuterated water and [U-13C]glucose.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa C Delgado

    Full Text Available Sources of plasma glucose excursions (PGE following a glucose tolerance test enriched with [U-(13C]glucose and deuterated water were directly resolved by (13C and (2H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy analysis of plasma glucose and water enrichments in rat. Plasma water (2H-enrichment attained isotopic steady-state within 2-4 minutes following the load. The fraction of PGE derived from endogenous sources was determined from the ratio of plasma glucose position 2 and plasma water (2H-enrichments. The fractional gluconeogenic contributions to PGE were obtained from plasma glucose positions 2 and 5 (2H-positional enrichment ratios and load contributions were estimated from plasma [U-(13C]glucose enrichments. At 15 minutes, the load contributed 26±5% of PGE while 14±2% originated from gluconeogenesis in healthy control rats. Between 15 and 120 minutes, the load contribution fell whereas the gluconeogenic contribution remained constant. High-fat fed animals had significant higher 120-minute blood glucose (173±6 mg/dL vs. 139±10 mg/dL, p<0.05 and gluconeogenic contributions to PGE (59±5 mg/dL vs. 38±3 mg/dL, p<0.01 relative to standard chow-fed controls. In summary, the endogenous and load components of PGE can be resolved during a glucose tolerance test and these measurements revealed that plasma glucose synthesis via gluconeogenesis remained active during the period immediately following a glucose load. In rats that were placed on high-fat diet, the development of glucose intolerance was associated with a significantly higher gluconeogenic contribution to plasma glucose levels after the load.

  18. Mitral annular plane systolic excursion is an easy tool for fibrosis detection by late gadolinium enhancement cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doesch, Christina; Sperb, Amelie; Sudarski, Sonja; Lossnitzer, Dirk; Rudic, Boris; Tülümen, Erol; Heggemann, Felix; Schimpf, Rainer; Schoenberg, Stefan O; Borggrefe, Martin; Papavassiliu, Theano

    2015-01-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) causes various degrees of fibrosis resulting in left ventricular function impairment, which can be measured using mitral annular plane systolic excursion (MAPSE). To determine the values for septal, lateral and average MAPSE using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in healthy controls and patients with HCM; and to investigate whether MAPSE correlated with the extent of fibrosis. Patients with HCM and healthy controls underwent CMR. In 50 healthy controls, septal and lateral MAPSE were comparable and showed excellent intra- and inter-observer reliability. Patients with HCM had significantly reduced septal, lateral and average MAPSE compared to healthy controls. Furthermore, in patients with HCM, septal MAPSE measurements were significantly reduced compared to lateral ones. Correspondingly, the septal myocardial segments showed significantly more late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) than lateral ones. No significant differences were found between echocardiographic and CMR MAPSE measurements in healthy controls and patients with HCM. Patients who suffered a major adverse cardiac event or stroke revealed a significantly reduced MAPSE and a significantly greater LGE extent compared to event-free patients with HCM. MAPSE measurement using CMR is feasible, reproducible and comparable to echocardiography in healthy controls and patients with HCM. The asymmetric and mainly septal distribution of myocardial hypertrophy and fibrosis detected by LGE in patients with HCM was reflected by significantly reduced septal versus lateral MAPSE. Therefore, reduced MAPSE seems to be an easily determinable marker of fibrosis accumulation leading to left ventricular mechanical dysfunction and also seems to have a prognostic implication. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion in the assessment of right ventricular function in children and adolescents after repair of tetralogy of Fallot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer-Rosa, Laura; Parnell, Aimee; Forfia, Paul R; Yang, Wei; Goldmuntz, Elizabeth; Kawut, Steven M

    2013-11-01

    Assessing right ventricular (RV) performance is essential for patients with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability and validity of tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) against cardiac magnetic resonance imaging measures and cardiopulmonary exercise testing. A retrospective study was performed in 125 outpatients with repaired TOF with available protocol-driven echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, and exercise stress testing obtained as part of a cross-sectional study. TAPSE was measured on the two-dimensional apical four-chamber view on echocardiography by two readers. Multivariate linear regression was used to examine the association between TAPSE and measures of RV function and exercise capacity. The mean age was 12.6 ± 3.3 years, 41 patients (33%) were female, and 104 (83%) were white. TAPSE averaged 1.6 ± 0.37 cm, with an interreader intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.78 (n = 18). TAPSE was significantly associated with cardiac magnetic resonance-based RV stroke volume after adjustment for gender and body surface area (β = 13.8; 95% confidence interval, 2.25-25.30; P = .02). TAPSE was not associated with cardiac magnetic resonance-based RV ejection fraction (P = .77). On exercise testing, TAPSE was not associated with peak oxygen consumption, percentage of predicted oxygen consumption, oxygen pulse, or the ventilatory equivalent for carbon dioxide in patients with maximal exercise stress testing (n = 73 [58%]). TAPSE is reproducibly measured by echocardiography in patients with TOF. It is not associated with RV ejection fraction or exercise performance, and its association with RV stroke volume may be confounded by body size. On the basis of these results, TAPSE is not representative of global RV performance in patients with TOF. Copyright © 2013 American Society of Echocardiography. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of the immediate effect of different types of trunk exercise on the star excursion balance test in male adolescent soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Atsushi; Kaneoka, Koji; Okubo, Yu; Shiraki, Hitoshi

    2014-08-01

    Trunk exercises, such as trunk stabilization exercises (SE) and conventional trunk exercises (CE), are performed to improve static or dynamic balance. Recently, trunk exercises have also been often used as part of warm-up programs. A few studies have demonstrated the immediate effects of SE and CE on static balance. However, immediate effects on dynamic balance are not yet known. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the immediate effect of SE with that of CE on the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT). Eleven adolescent male soccer players (17.9 ± 0.3 years, 168.5 ± 5.4 cm, and 60.1 ± 5.1 kg) participated in this study. A crossover design was used, and each participant completed three kinds of testing sessions: SE, CE, and non-exercise (NE). Experiments took place for three weeks with three testing sessions, and a 1-week interval was provided between different conditions. Each testing session consisted of three steps: pretest, intervention, and posttest. To assess dynamic balance, the SEBT score in the anterior, posteromedial, and posterolateral directions was measured before and 5 minutes after each intervention program. The data of reach distance were normalized with the leg length to exclude the influence of the leg length on the analysis. The SEBT composite score was significantly improved after the SE (p 0.05). Furthermore, in the SE condition, SEBT scores of the posterolateral and posteromedial directions were significantly improved at the posttest, compared with those at the pretest (p balance. 3b.

  1. An excursion through elementary mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Caminha Muniz Neto, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive, in-depth overview of elementary mathematics as explored in Mathematical Olympiads around the world. It expands on topics usually encountered in high school and could even be used as preparation for a first-semester undergraduate course. This first volume covers Real Numbers, Functions, Real Analysis, Systems of Equations, Limits and Derivatives, and much more. As part of a collection, the book differs from other publications in this field by not being a mere selection of questions or a set of tips and tricks that applies to specific problems. It starts from the most basic theoretical principles, without being either too general or too axiomatic. Examples and problems are discussed only if they are helpful as applications of the theory. Propositions are proved in detail and subsequently applied to Olympic problems or to other problems at the Olympic level. The book also explores some of the hardest problems presented at National and International Mathematics Olympiads, as we...

  2. Furongian Stable Carbon Isotope Excursions (SPICE and HERB) in the Mixed Carbonate-Siliclastics on an Epeiric Platform of the Taebaeksan Basin, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, G. S.; Lim, J. N.; Park, T. Y.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, B. S.; Seo, K. S.

    2014-12-01

    Stable carbon isotope stratigraphy of the Late Cambrian mixed carbonate-siliciclastics from an epeiric platform allows a good stratigraphic marker and interpretation of paleoenvironmental conditions. The SPICE (Steptoean positive carbon excursion) and HERB (Hellnmaria-Red Tops Boundary) events are distinctly developed in the Furongian (Late Cambrian) of mixed carbonate-siliciclastics (Sesong and Hwajeol Formations) deposited on an epeiric platform of the Taebaeksan Basin, Korea, part of the North China Platform. The SPICE event occurs in the Prochuangia mansuyi zone and in the lower part of Chuangia zone of trilobite in the Sesong Formation with the δ13C values ranging from 1.1 to 1.8‰; it occurs in the stratigraphic interval mostly composed of nodular shale, massive to laminated fine sandstone with intercalation of limestone conglomerate beds which is interpreted to have been deposited in the inner to middle ramp. The HERB event begins at about the Eoconodontus notchpeakensis FAD of conodont and ends in the lower part of the range of E. notchpeakensis in the Hwajeol Formation. The HERB event shows negative δ13C values up to -5.5‰ forming a conspicuous and distinctive peak. The HERB event occurs in the stratigraphic interval mostly composed of nodular shale, limestone-shale couplet, and limestone conglomerate which is interpreted to have been deposited in the middle ramp. The onset of HERB event at the E. notchpeakensis FAD in the Taebaeksan basin, Korea suggests that the HERB event may be an excellent tool for intercontinental correlation defining the base of the terminal Cambrian (Stage 10). The paleoenvironmental conditions of the SPICE and HERB events seem to be contrary to each other; the SPICE event may be caused by the high rate of primary production and the high rate burial of organic matter with probable association of the high rate of input of terrigenous sediments. In contrast, the HERB event may be caused by the low rate of primary productivity

  3. Estimativa da excursão condilar em pacientes com disfunção craniomandibular: um enfoque multidisciplinar Estimate of condilar excursion in patients with craniomandibular dysfunction: a multidisciplinary approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Cristina Aquotti Ilha

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar o padrão de excursão condilar em pacientes com disfunção craniomandibular. METODOLOGIA: a estimativa da excursão condilar da ATM foi estudada em 17 pacientes, 34 ATMs do Serviço de Cirurgia Bucomaxilofacial do Hospital Jaraguá-São Paulo/SP, todos com diagnóstico de disfunção craniomandibular. Foi utilizado o exame radiográfico do tipo transcraniano para verificar a estimativa da excursão condilar, bem como o índice de Helkimo, para classificar o grau de disfunção de cada paciente. As ATMs de cada paciente foram examinadas por três diferentes profissionais com auxílio do exame radiográfico. O exame clínico observou dados como raça, gênero, a queixa principal de cada paciente, presença de dor pré-auricular, dor muscular, estalo nas articulações e limitação da abertura da boca. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: a dor pré-auricular e os estalidos foram as principais queixas dos pacientes. A excursão condilar mais freqüente foi a normoexcursão, seguida da hiperexcursão, associada com o grau II de disfunção articular de Helkimo.AIM: to evaluate the condilar excursion pattern in patients presenting craniomandibular dysfunction. METHODS: the estimate of condilar excursion of TMJ were studied in 17 patients, 34 TMJs of the service of Hospital Jaraguá São Paulo/SP. All of them with diagnostic of craniomandibular dysfunction. It was used TMJ transcranial radiographs to verify the radiographics alterations and Helkimo index to classify the dysfunction degree of each patient. The TMJs of each patient were examined by three differents professionals with help of radiographics exams. The clinical examination searched to observe aspects as race, sex, age, the main complaint of each patient, presence of preauricular pain, muscular pain, articular cracks and limitation of mouth overture. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: pre-auricular pain and articular clicks were the main complain among patients. The normo-excursion was more

  4. Tricuspid Regurgitation Peak Gradient (TRPG)/Tricuspid Annulus Plane Systolic Excursion (TAPSE) - A Novel Parameter for Stepwise Echocardiographic Risk Stratification in Normotensive Patients With Acute Pulmonary Embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciurzyński, Michał; Kurnicka, Katarzyna; Lichodziejewska, Barbara; Kozłowska, Marta; Pływaczewska, Magdalena; Sobieraj, Piotr; Dzikowska-Diduch, Olga; Goliszek, Sylwia; Bienias, Piotr; Kostrubiec, Maciej; Pruszczyk, Piotr

    2018-01-26

    Patients with intermediate-risk acute pulmonary embolism (APE) are a heterogeneous group with an early mortality rate of 2-15%. The tricuspid annulus plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) and tricuspid regurgitation peak gradient (TRPG) can be used for risk stratification, so we analyzed the prognostic value of a new echo parameter (TRPG/TAPSE) for prediction of APE-related 30-day death or need for rescue thrombolysis in initially normotensive APE patients.Methods and Results:The study group consists of 400 non-high-risk APE patients (191 men, age: 63.1±18.9 years) who had undergone echocardiography within the first 24 h of admission. The TRPG/TAPSE parameter was calculated. The clinical endpoint (CE) was a combination of 30-day APE-related death and/or rescue thrombolysis. The CE occurred in 8 (2%) patients. All patients with TAPSE ≥20 mm (n=193, 48.2%) had a good prognosis. Among 206 patients with TAPSE 4.5 were 0.2 and 0.98, respectively. The CE was significantly more frequent in 19 (9.2%) patients with TRPG/TAPSE >4.5 than in 188 (90.8%) with TRPG/TAPSE ≤4.5 (4 (21.1%) vs. 4 (2.1%), P=0.0005). Among normotensive APE patients with TAPSE 4.5 was associated with 21.1% risk of APE-related death or rescue thrombolysis. TRPG/TAPSE, a novel echocardiographic parameter, may be useful for stepwise echocardiographic risk stratification in normotensive patients with APE, and it identifies patients with a poor prognosis.

  5. Interrupting the Public Realm: Performative Excursions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Malcolm

    2007-01-01

    In the context of debates on place, space, and identity in a period of globalisation, this article asks whether collaborative arts projects are a means to identity formation for participants. This is of interest, not least, because such projects are outside consumption, the latter more often discussed in work on identity in sociology. Situated…

  6. Excursions in fluvial (dis)continuity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Gordon E.; O'Connor, James E.; Safran, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Lurking below the twin concepts of connectivity and disconnectivity are their first, and in some ways, richer cousins: continuity and discontinuity. In this paper we explore how continuity and discontinuity represent fundamental and complementary perspectives in fluvial geomorphology, and how these perspectives inform and underlie our conceptions of connectivity in landscapes and rivers. We examine the historical roots of continuum and discontinuum thinking, and how much of our understanding of geomorphology rests on contrasting views of continuity and discontinuity. By continuum thinking we refer to a conception of geomorphic processes as well as geomorphic features that are expressed along continuous gradients without abrupt changes, transitions, or thresholds. Balance of forces, graded streams, and hydraulic geometry are all examples of this perspective. The continuum view has played a prominent role in diverse disciplinary fields, including ecology, paleontology, and evolutionary biology, in large part because it allows us to treat complex phenomena as orderly progressions and invoke or assume equilibrium processes that introduce order and prediction into our sciences.In contrast the discontinuous view is a distinct though complementary conceptual framework that incorporates non-uniform, non-progressive, and non-equilibrium thinking into understanding geomorphic processes and landscapes. We distinguish and discuss examples of three different ways in which discontinuous thinking can be expressed: 1) discontinuous spatial arrangements or singular events; 2) specific process domains generally associated with thresholds, either intrinsic or extrinsic; and 3) physical dynamics or changes in state, again often threshold-linked. In moving beyond the continuous perspective, a fertile set of ideas comes into focus: thresholds, non-equilibrium states, heterogeneity, catastrophe. The range of phenomena that is thereby opened up to scientific exploration similarly expands: punctuated episodes of cutting and filling, discretization of landscapes into hierarchies of structure and control, the work of extreme events. Orderly and progressive evolution towards a steady or ideal state is replaced by chaotic episodes of disturbance and recovery. Recent developments in the field of geomorphology suggest that we may be on the cusp of a new paradigm that recognizes that both continuous and discontinuous processes and mechanisms play a role in fluvial processes and landscape evolution with neither holding sway over the other and both needed to see rivers as they are.

  7. An excursion on Linneaeus's drum from Sorsele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Lundmark

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available When Linnaeus made his journey to Holland in 1735, a Saami drum was included in his baggage. The original owner of the drum was the Saami, Anders Nilsson Pont of Granbyn, who was denounced for the possession and use of drums. In this way Linnaeus received greetings from Lycksele lappmark, where he had never set foot. The most likely explanation is that Linnaeus got the drum from Georg Wallin the younger, who made a visit of inspection in 1715.

  8. Grapevine: An Excursion into Steinbeck Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Robert; Hanlon, Patricia

    1986-01-01

    A high school teacher and a librarian are collecting and analyzing material in every medium for teaching John Steinbeck's novel, "The Grapes of Wrath," including the political and social history of the 1930s--altogether some 33 topic headings touched upon in the novel and in about 54 related works: books, films, television documentaries,…

  9. Travessias da aula em campo na geografia escolar: a necessidade convertida para além da fábula The excursions of the class in the field in school geography: the need converted beyond the fable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Dennys Monteiro de Oliveira

    2009-04-01

    in presenting and discussing specific approaches to this kind of classes. However, this cultivation does not happen continuously, and is not at the heart of the planning of school geography. It shows up as an exception, a situation decried by these authors, who characterize limitations and potentialities and point to solutions. For that, they propose the revival of this idea within the various forms that activities external to the school take: excursions, visits, environmental studies, tourism. The pedagogical strength of the class in the field resides, however, in the potential of the teacher-student interaction for apprehending with the world, and for planning itself as it goes, resulting, in the conclusion to this article, in a defense of a strategic posture towards the management of the return to the classroom. Under the title of collective autobiography of the previous class, this text proposes to extend the relevance of the discussions about the field experience to fertilize contents and learning methods, recalling that the class in the field is, like an artistic inspiration, an irreplaceable element in the understanding of the space at the level of the school.

  10. Relação entre a excursão do músculo diafragma e as curvaturas da coluna vertebral em crianças respiradoras bucais The relationship between excursion of the diaphragm and curvatures of the spinal column in mouth breathing children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Chiao Yi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a relação entre a excursão do músculo diafragma e as curvaturas da coluna vertebral em crianças respiradoras bucais. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliadas 52 crianças de 5 a 12 anos de idade, de ambos os sexos. Por meio de avaliação otorrinolaringológica, foram divididas em dois grupos: respiradores bucais e respiradores nasais. Todos os participantes foram submetidos a exame de videofluoroscopia do músculo diafragma e a avaliação postural. A excursão do diafragma foi analisada pelo programa Adobe Photoshop®, e a avaliação postural através de fotografias em norma lateral esquerda, sendo analisadas pelo Software de Avaliação Postural. RESULTADOS: Os grupos estudados apresentaram diferença estatisticamente significante quanto ao comportamento das curvaturas da coluna vertebral (lordose cervical: p = 0,003; lordose lombar: p = 0,001; cifose torácica: p = 0,002; posição da pelve: p = 0,001 e da excursão do músculo diafragma (diafragma lado direito: p = 0,001; diafragma lado esquerdo: p = 0,001. O grupo respirador bucal apresentou diminuição da lordose cervical, aumento da cifose torácica, aumento da lordose lombar e anteversão da posição da pelve. A distância excursionada pelo músculo diafragma em crianças respiradoras bucais é menor que em crianças respiradoras nasais. Não houve significância estatística ao relacionar o comportamento das curvaturas da coluna vertebral com a excursão do músculo diafragma. CONCLUSÃO: Não há relação entre as curvaturas da coluna vertebral com a excursão do músculo diafragma nos grupos estudados.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between excursion of the diaphragm muscle and spinal curvatures in mouth breathing children. METHODS: A total of 52 children of both sexes, aged from 5 to 12 years, were studied. After otorhinolaryngological assessment, the children were divided into two groups: mouth breathers and nose breathers. All of the children underwent

  11. Nonlinear excursions of particles in ideal 2D flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aref, Hassan; Pedersen, Johan Rønby; Stremler, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    A number of problems related to particle trajectories in ideal 2D flows are discussed. Both regular particle paths, corresponding to integrable dynamics, and irregular or chaotic paths may arise. Examples of both types are shown. Sometimes, in the same flow, certain particles will follow regular...

  12. The Uncounted Poor: An Ethnological Excursion to an Institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, William

    The upcoming Bureau of the Census document titled, "The Survey of Institutionalized Persons" will provide complete information and data on long-term institutional care. Because this document provides data basically devoid of context, this discussion paper presents an ethnology of a total institution. In it, the author conveys his impressions and…

  13. Katetov revisited: a frame-theoretic excursion | Dube | Quaestiones ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Katetov extension of a frame is, as in the case of spaces, compact only for compact completely regular frames. This result is purely topological because, subject to appropriate foundations, compact regular frames are topologies. In this paper we find a necessary and sufficient condition for the Katetov extension of a ...

  14. 40 CFR 63.505 - Parameter monitoring levels and excursions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... manufacturer's recommendations. (e) Demonstration of compliance with back-end process provisions using stripper... paragraphs (b)(1) through (b)(4) of this section, as applicable. (1) (2) Back-end process operations using a control or recovery device to comply with §§ 63.493 through 63.500 and continuous front-end process vents...

  15. UF{sub 6} pressure excursions during cylinder heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, P.G. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Paducah, KY (United States)

    1991-12-31

    As liquid UF{sub 6} inside a cylinder changes from a liquid to a solid, it forms a porous solid which occupies approximately the same volume as that of the liquid before cooling. Simultaneously as the liquid cools, UF{sub 6} vapor in the cylinder ullage above the liquid desublimes on the upper region of the inner cylinder wall. This solid is a dense, glass-like material which can accumulate to a significant thickness. The thickness of the solid coating on the upper cylinder wall and directly behind the cylinder valve area will vary depending on the conditions during the cooling stage. The amount of time lapsed between UF{sub 6} solidification and UF{sub 6} liquefaction can also affect the UF{sub 6} coating. This is due to the daily ambient heat cycle causing the coating to sublime from the cylinder wall to cooler areas, thus decreasing the thickness. Structural weakening of the dense UF{sub 6} layer also occurs due to cylinder transport vibration and thermal expansion. During cylinder heating, the UF{sub 6} nearest the cylinder wall will liquefy first. As the solid coating behind the cylinder valve begins to liquefy, it results in increased pressure depending upon the available volume for expansion. At the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) during the liquefaction of the UF{sub 6} in cylinders in the UF{sub 6} feed and sampling autoclaves, this pressure increase has resulted in the activation of the systems rupture discs which are rated at 100 pounds per square inch differential.

  16. An evaluation of postprandial glucose excursions in type 2 diabetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tight blood glucose control decreases the risk of micro- and macrovascular complications of DM.4. Current mea- sures of glycaemic control include FBG, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and fructosamine. In type 2 DM, FBG is the main param- eter of glucose metabolism that is used to monitor and control hyperglycaemia.

  17. Excursion to Milan with Cisalpino and Carlson Wagonlit Travel

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    Special offer for CERN staff and their family. Offer valid: - from 20th May to 12th July 2009 (last return) - only in first class - on direct trains from Geneva or Lausanne Return price per person: CHF 146.00 from Geneva CHF 130.00 from Lausanne Conditions : - reservation only via Carlson Wagonlit Travel, CERN - return reservation compulsory - reservation at least 3 days before departure - tickets are not changeable and not refundable - CWT agency fee not included: CHF 25.00 per order - maximum 4 persons per order - no other reduction possible - limited number of seats Enjoy your lunch in an exclusive and traditional place : in the 1st floor of "Zucca in Galleria" http://www.caffemiani.it EUR 44.00 per person (instead of about 80 Euros) Included: Aperitif, antipasti, main dish, dessert, wine/water, coffee. (Closed on Mondays) Reservation: mailto:business@cisalpino.com

  18. Computational proximity excursions in the topology of digital images

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, James F

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces computational proximity (CP) as an algorithmic approach to finding nonempty sets of points that are either close to each other or far apart. Typically in computational proximity, the book starts with some form of proximity space (topological space equipped with a proximity relation) that has an inherent geometry. In CP, two types of near sets are considered, namely, spatially near sets and descriptivelynear sets. It is shown that connectedness, boundedness, mesh nerves, convexity, shapes and shape theory are principal topics in the study of nearness and separation of physical aswell as abstract sets. CP has a hefty visual content. Applications of CP in computer vision, multimedia, brain activity, biology, social networks, and cosmology are included. The book has been derived from the lectures of the author in a graduate course on the topology of digital images taught over the past several years. Many of the students have provided important insights and valuable suggestions. The topics in ...

  19. Cranberries improve postprandial glucose excursions in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell, Jace; Betts, Nancy M; Foster, Megan; Scofield, R Hal; Basu, Arpita

    2017-09-20

    Recent research supports a favorable role of cranberries on cardiometabolic health. Postprandial metabolism, especially hyperglycemia, has been shown to be an independent cardiovascular risk and few clinical studies have reported the role of berries in improving postprandial dysmetabolism. We investigated the postprandial effects of dried cranberries following a high-fat breakfast challenge in obese participants with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), in a randomized crossover trial. Blood draw and vascular measurements were conducted at fasting, 1, 2 and 4 hours (h), following the consumption of a fast-food style high-fat breakfast (70 g fat, 974 kcal) with or without cranberries (40 g). Analyses of our data (n = 25; BMI (kg m -2 ) (mean ± s.d.) = 39.5 ± 6.5; age (years) = 56 ± 6) revealed that postprandial increases in glucose were significantly lower in the cranberry vs. control at 2 & 4 h (p blood pressure between the cranberry and control groups. Among the biomarkers of inflammation and oxidation, postprandial serum interleukin-18 and malondialdehyde were significantly lower at 4 h, and serum total nitrite was higher at 2 h in the cranberry vs. control group (all p postprandial glucose and selected biomarkers of inflammation and oxidation in participants with T2DM. These findings provide evidence that adding whole cranberries to a high-fat meal may improve postprandial blood glucose management and warrant further investigation.

  20. An Excursion Into The Public-Private Partnership Jungle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelling, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    While the Private Finance Initiative (PFI) is doubtless the most visible Public-Private Partnership (PPP) in the public debate it is by no means the only one. A number of scholars have outlined the ambiguity of the PPP concept beyond PFIs and pointed to the multiplicity of differing types...... and understandings. Thus, when examining up close, the PPP concept seems to cover a jungle of arrangements and settings. However, induc-tive explorations across disciplinary and professional borders are still scarce. This ar-ticle addresses this lack and reviews more than 100 publications for their PPP concepts...

  1. Higher education in the United States: Historical excursions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack H. Schuster

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Higher education in the United States has been transformed in the last decade as never before in its three hundred years of history. Even though its origin is intimately linked to the religious groups of English settlers, nowadays it is characterized by increasing opportunities of access for students and by a decentralized system which allows institutional diversity. This paper is intended to explain both features by means of a retrospective journey along the main trends of current American higher education; and on the way, a critical review is done of its development, policies, similarities and differences when compared with other countries' higher education.

  2. Librarians as Hunter-Gatherers: Lessons Learned from an Excursion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Mindy M.

    2013-01-01

    Fueled by the pressing need for electronic resource usage statistics, librarians are finding themselves being thrust into the role of hunter-gatherer. This article discusses the work done at University Library at Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis to provide usage statistics for all its paid subscriptions for a 3-year period. The…

  3. "no snow - no skiing excursion - consequences of climatic change?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neunzig, Thilo

    2014-05-01

    Climatology and climate change have become central topics in Geography at our school. Because of that we set up a climatological station at our school. The data are an important basis to observe sudden changes in the weather. The present winter (2013/2014) shows the importance of climate change in Alzey / Germany. In winter many students think of the yearly skiing trip to Schwaz / Austria which is part of our school programme. Due to that the following questions arise: Will skiing still be possible if climate change accelerates? How are the skiing regions in the Alpes going to change? What will happen in about 20 years? How does artificial snow change the landscape and the skiing sport? Students have to be aware of the ecological damage of skiing trips. Each class has to come up with a concept how these trips can be as environmentally friendly as possible. - the trip is for a restricted number of students only (year 8 only) - a small skiing region is chosen which is not overcrowded - snow has to be guaranteed in the ski area to avoid the production of artificial snow (avoidance of high water consumption) - the bus arrives with a class and returns with the one that had been there before These are but a few ideas of students in order to make their trip as environmentally friendly as possible. What is missing is only what is going to happen in the future. What will be the effect of climate change for skiing regions in the secondary mountains? How is the average temperature for winter going to develop? Are there possibilities for summer tourism (e.g. hiking) instead of skiing in winter? The students are going to try to find answers to these questions which are going to be presented on a poster on the GIFT-Workshop in Vienna.

  4. Literary journeys: new excursions to the city of Luanda resignified

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Ribeiro Jacob

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available During the period of the struggles for Angolan independence, the city of Luanda has become one of the privileged symbolic spaces of literary texts, being a reference for the construction of national identity process. After the independence, Angolan authors start to write about the disillusionment and disappointment and the new challenges for the country. In this process, Luanda also underwent reinterpretation and became the beginning to new and necessary journeys. The objective of this study is to discuss these changes concerning this symbolic space, from a brief review of José Luan­dino Vieira’s texts produced during the colonial period and two Angolan novels of the post-independence: A casa velha das margens (1999, written by Arnaldo Santos, and Mãe, materno mar (2001, written by Boaventura Cardoso. In these novels, Luanda is no longer the privileged stage of events. The focus, now, is the displacement of the characters that are the guides of both texts and the findings of themselves and of the country provided by their travels.

  5. Mafic and related complexes in Galicia: an excursion guide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arps, C.E.S.; Calsteren, van P.W.C.; Hilgen, J.D.; Kuijper, R.P.; Tex, den E.

    1978-01-01

    In Galicia occur several polymetamorphic complexes that contain mafic and ultramafic rocks. Mafic volcanics and gabbros are situated in or near the complexes. An episode of metamorphism and granitization encompassed the generation of the volcanics and gabbros. Gravity surveys revealed the existence

  6. Patch pump versus conventional pump: postprandial glycemic excursions and the influence of wear time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijf, Yoeri M.; Arnolds, Sabine; Avogaro, Angelo; Benesch, Carsten; Bruttomesso, Daniela; Farret, Anne; Heinemann, Lutz; Place, Jerome; Renard, Eric; Scotton, Rachele; DeVries, J. Hans

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare blood glucose and plasma insulin profiles after bolus insulin infusion by a patch pump (PP) versus a conventional pump (CP), directly after placement and after Day 3 of use. Twenty patients with type 1 diabetes came in for two blocks of visits: one block of two

  7. An Excursion into the Intriguing World of Polymeric Tl(I and Ag(I Cyanoximates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Gerasimchuk

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of hot (~95 °C aqueous solutions of Tl2CO3 with solid HL (HL = NC-C(=N-OH-R is a cyanoxime, and R is an electron-withdrawing group; 37 ligands are known up-to-date leads to crystalline yellow/orange TlL. Similarly, the reaction between AgNO3 and ML (M = K+, Na+; L = anion of the monodeprotonated cyanoxime this time at room temperature in mixed ethanol/aqueous solutions leads to sparingly soluble, colored AgL in high-yield. All synthesized monovalent Tl and Ag complexes were characterized using a variety of spectroscopic methods and X-ray analysis, which revealed the formation of primarily 2D coordination polymers of different complexity. In all cases cyanoxime mono-anions act as bridging ligands. Thallium(I cyanoximates adopt in most cases a double-stranded motif that is originated from centrosymmetric (TlL2 dimers in which two Tl2O2 rhombs are fused into infinite “ladder-type” structure. There are very short (3.65–3.85 Å intermetallic distances in (TlLn, which are close to that (3.46 Å in metallic thallium. This opens the possibility for the electrochemical or chemical generation of mixed valence Tl(I/Tl(III polymers that may exhibit electrical conductivity. Synthesized silver(I compounds demonstrate a very significant (for multiple years! stability towards visible light. There are three areas of potential practical applications of these unusual complexes: (1 battery-less detectors of UV-radiation, (2 non electrical sensors for gases of industrial importance, (3 antimicrobial additives to light-curable acrylate polymeric glues, fillers and adhesives used during introduction of indwelling medical devices. Chemical, structural, technological and biological aspects of application of Tl(I and Ag(I cyanoximes-based coordination polymers are reviewed.

  8. There and Back Again: A Middle Scholar's Inquiry Excursion (Middle School).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Claudia Anne; Johnson-Kuby, Sue Ann

    1996-01-01

    Describes an inquiry project that middle school students complete during the first quarter of the year, and that serves as a foundation for future inquiry undertakings, research papers, and writing workshops. (SR)

  9. Creativity in the Research Process. Accompanying Aristotle on a scuba diving excursion in the Red Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åke Nilsén

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates creativity as an attitude on demand from the researcher in a special situation in the research process. The situation occurs when the collected data does not coinside with the antecipated result. Hans Joas understanding of creative action is abolished for the adaptation of the Aristotelian concept of practical wisdom (phronesis as the foundation for the attitude. The data has to be analysed with the unique and particular in focus in order for new connections and relations to be revealed. An attitude concentrated on revealing the particular in the data is necessary. From there a new attitude takes over that focuses the general on behalf of the particular. The research process is exposed in a parallell text on Scuba diving.

  10. Requalification of SPERT (Special Power Excursion Reactor Test) pins for use in university reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snelgrove, J.L.; Domagala, R.F.; Dates, L.R.

    1986-12-01

    A series of nondestructive and destructive examinations have been performed on a representative sample of stainless steel-clad UO/sub 2/ fuel pins procured in the early-to-mid 1960s for the SPERT program. These examinations were undertaken in order to requalify the SPERT pins for use in converting university research reactors from the use of highly enriched uranium to the use of low-enriched uranium. The requalification program included visual and dimensional inspections of fuel pins and fuel pellets, radiographic inspections of welds, fill gas analyses, and chemical and spectrographic analyses of fuel and cladding materials. In general all attributes tested were within or very close to specified values, although some weld defects not covered by the original specifications were found. 1 ref., 4 figs., 11 tabs.

  11. Feminine Shame/Masculine Disgrace: A Literary Excursion through Gender and Embodied Emotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Nurka

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks a disarticulation of shame and disgrace, and hypothesises that there is a gendered cultural articulation of the two terms at work that runs counter to the normative understanding of their symbiotic unity. Specifically, I argue that the primary difference is that where shame is embodied, or an emotion fundamentally of the body, disgrace is facialised and thus able to rid itself of the body in its capacity as the privileged representative of the face. I turn to literature—using JM Coetzee’s novel Disgrace (1999 as my example—both to elucidate this distinction and to argue that the meanings of shame and disgrace diverge noticeably when the two terms come into contact with gender. As a consequence, the paper will contend that the book’s dominant narrative of racial reconciliation is in fact articulated through sexually distinct shamed positionalities.

  12. Environmental education excursions and proximity to urban green space : Densification in a ‘compact city’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolsink, M.

    2016-01-01

    The value of urban green space for environmental education fieldwork is empirically investigated in a study among all secondary schools in Amsterdam. The article describes how the proximity of schools to green spaces emerges as a new factor in the ‘sustainable city’ and the ‘compact city’ debate.

  13. Environmental Education Excursions and Proximity to Urban Green Space--Densification in a "Compact City"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolsink, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    The value of urban green space for environmental education fieldwork is empirically investigated in a study among all secondary schools in Amsterdam. The article describes how the proximity of schools to green spaces emerges as a new factor in the "sustainable city" and the "compact city" debate. For fieldwork excursions…

  14. Field guide to geologic excursions in southwestern Utah and adjacent areas of Arizona and Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, William R.; Lund, William R.

    2002-01-01

    This field guide contains road logs for field trips planned in conjunction with the 2002 Rocky Mountain Section meeting of the Geological Society of America held at Southern Utah University in Cedar City, Utah. There are a total of eight field trips, covering various locations and topics in southwestern Utah and adjacent areas of Arizona and Nevada. In addition, the field guide contains a road log for a set of Geological Engineering Field Camp Exercises run annually by the University of Missouri at Rolla in and around Cedar City. Two of the field trips address structural aspects of the geology in southwestern Utah and northwestern Arizona; two trips deal with ground water in the region; and along with the Field Camp Exercises, one trip, to the Grand Staircase, is designed specifically for educators. The remaining trips examine the volcanology and mineral resources of a large area in and around the Tusher Mountains in Utah; marine and brackish water strata in the Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument; and the Pine Valley Mountains, which are cored by what may be the largest known laccolith in the world. The "Three Corners" area of Utah, Arizona, and Nevada is home to truly world-class geology, and I am confident that all of the 2002 Rocky Mountain Section meeting attendees will find a field trip suited to their interests.

  15. Excursion probabilities of non-homogeneous Gaussian scalar fields based on maxima considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Michael Havbro Faber; Rackwitz, R.

    1988-01-01

    Many uncertain natural or technical phenomena are most realistically described by random fields. A typical example of a random field is the load effect in a floor slab which is loaded by a spatially distributed gravity load. Other examples of random fields include the sea-level around off-shore p...

  16. Execution of excursions: The development of educational trails with(out) Geocaching - a comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisser, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    "Geo" stems from the Greek language and means earth. "Together with the English word "Cache" the term Geocache points out to a hideout on the earth. The principally easy hide and seek is a modern version of scavenger hunt, motivates and is the attraction of Geocaching. Methodical skills are trained subliminally during the search. Installed Geocaches are an inherent part of recreational activities which gain in amount and popularity constantly. GPS devices are common use in the daily life and are used in geography classes increasingly often. Presently, specialist literature is merely descriptive and thematically reduced to the function of orientation. The questions whether they are an applicable tool for teaching geographical circumstances and if the lasting learning success shows any differences compared to normal lessons hold in a class room haven't been answered. Educational trails request the person walking them to be active and secure the results. This activity-orientated experience leads to better learning results because the user has to do more than only reading and accepting. Neurobiological and teaching psychological knowledge support the idea that pupils completing the educational trail will learn more sustainable compared to pupils in a "normal" class: A successful contextualization of modern geomedia stimulates the motivation. Geocaches are also suitable for didactical structuration. Their order is chosen in a way that the content of teaching is being displayed adequate. The students feel addressed affectively due to the real-life encounters and experience their environment consciously. A more comprehensively addressing of the senses takes place and the pupils get connected to the place emotionally. As the learning motivation is topical and gender referred different learning effects are expected. The formal curriculum for gymnasia in Baden-Würtemberg offers, in reference to explorative methods, the possibility to deviate knowledge of regions on the basic of educational trails, to work further with the gained knowledge and to use it for transfer. In order to get two groups with characteristics as different as possible, due to their developmental psychology, age-related education of cognitive and methodical competence, classes from grade 5 (11 years old) and 11 (17 years old) have been chosen. The different cognitive states of development require different didactical approaches. For the 11 grade the topic "Umgestaltung von Flusslandschaften" (rearrangements of fluvial topography) is a possible one. Using the example of anthropogenic rearrangements of the Rheinaue wetlands near Karlsruhe the interdependency between human and environment can be shown. The "Nördlinger Ries" between the Swabian and the Franconian Jura has been chosen for grade 5. The typical elements of the Swabian Jura (karst formation, hydrogeology, typical vegetation) are provided just as well as the impressive special form of the impact tectonics. The sustainability of educational trails using GPS is evaluated by the learning effect of the 441 probands. The sustainability of trails is evaluated through an anonym, unheralded test in both grades, which prompt the cognitive competence. The learning effect of the educational trail groups is compared to groups that completed the particular topics in a carousel activity.

  17. Interpretive Excursions in Educational Administration: Reconstructing Weberian Theory as a Comparative Historical Sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samier, Eugenie A.

    1996-01-01

    Examines the presentation of Max Weber's work in educational administration. Shows how the nature and scope of Weber's methodological writings and studies have been misrepresented and how the potential value of Weber's comparative historical sociology has been reduced to administrative studies. Considers Weber's historical principles of…

  18. Gödel, Einstein, Mach, Gamow, and Lanczos: Gödel's remarkable excursion into cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindler, Wolfgang

    2009-06-01

    This article is an expanded version of a talk given at the International Symposium Celebrating the 100th Birthday of Kurt Gödel (Vienna, 2006). It seeks to trace the path which led this preeminent mathematical logician to discover one of the famous results of General Relativity, the rotating Gödel Universe. This universe has some remarkable properties, which gave the philosophers plenty to worry about. It allows a person to travel into his own past, with all the ensuing causal paradoxes; it allows no unique temporal ordering of events; and though Gödel's Universe is rigid and infinite, the Foucault pendulum planes everywhere in it rotate in unison, a clear affront to adherents of Mach's Principle. We also discuss some lesser known precursors in the field, who just missed discovering Gödel's universe. While the article gives all the necessary derivations in simplified form (for example, of the metric and its geodesics), much of it should be accessible to the general reader, who can simply skip most of the mathematics. [Reprinted, with permission, from Kurt Gödel and the Foundations of Mathematics: Horizons of Truth, edited by Matthias Baaz, Christos H. Papadimitriou, Dana S. Scott, Hilary Putnam, and Charles L. Harper, Jr. (Cambridge U. P., New York, 2009).

  19. Investigating physiological glucose excursions before, during, and after Ramadan in adults without diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallayova, Maria; Zaghloul, Hadeel B; Arora, Teresa; Choudhury, Sopna M; Omar, Omar M; Chagoury, Odette L; Taheri, Shahrad

    2017-10-01

    The study aimed to investigate physiological effects of Ramadan fasting on continuously monitored glucose levels in relation to Ramadan in young non-diabetic adults. Continuous glucose monitoring was employed to measure interstitial glucose for several days 1-2weeks before Ramadan, in the middle of Ramadan, and 4-6weeks after Ramadan to assess glucose exposure and glucose variability. A total of 34,182 accurate glucose sensor readings and 438 capillary blood glucose values [mean absolute difference median (interquartile range) 8.5 (6.9-11.1)%] were obtained from 18 non-diabetic adults [13 females; aged 24 (21-27) years; baseline body mass index 23.9 (20.6-28.9) kg/m2]. The continuous glucose monitoring profiles showed an increase in the hyperglycemic (above 140mg/dL) area under the curve after Ramadan compared to both before (P=0.004) and during Ramadan (P=0.003), along with an increased glucose variability after Ramadan (P=0.014). Both the area under the interstitial glucose concentration curve for the entire day and the average glucose were positively associated with body mass index during (P=0.004 and P=0.005, respectively) and after Ramadan (P=0.013 and P=0.01, respectively). Atypical continuous glucose patterns were recognized in 11% of subjects, distinguished by a prolonged increased glucose exposure, particularly in response to a meal. The time-point 4-6weeks after Ramadan was distinguished by greater glucose exposure and wider glucose variability that may reflect ongoing changes in insulin sensitivity in response to altering lifestyle patterns in non-diabetic young adults across the spectrum of body weight. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Locked Doors and Dark Rooms in Calderonian Tragedies (with Some Excursion in the Comedies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausta Antonucci

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In many Calderón’s tragic plays, a room or a hall can turn into a space of violence, if locked or opened against the will of the character (mostly a woman who lives in it. That is what we can observe in La gran Cenobia, El médico de su honra, El pintor de su deshonra, El mayor monstruo del mundo, La vida es sueño. In comic plays, on the contrary, dramatic situations like these use to turn out well, thanks to ingenious solutions or favorable chance: it is what happens in Amor, honor y poder and La dama duende; whereas the case of No hay cosa como callar confirms the generic ambiguity of this play.

  1. Spin flipping in rings with Siberian Snakes II: Simulations with localized orbit excursions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mane, S.R., E-mail: srmane001@gmail.com [Convergent Computing Inc., P.O. Box 561, Shoreham, NY 11786 (United States)

    2012-07-21

    A new program EILMS is used to perform spin tracking simulations, for spin flippers in model rings with full strength Siberian Snakes, at a spin tune of 1/2 . EILMS employs canonical variables and symplectic-unitary integrators for all beamline elements. In particular, tracking studies are presented for a new design of a spin flipper proposed for stored polarized proton beams in RHIC. The induced coherent vertical betatron oscillations are localized within the flipper system. Points of detail which require further study are elucidated.

  2. REPRODUCIBILITY OF THE MODIFIED STAR EXCURSION BALANCE TEST COMPOSITE AND SPECIFIC REACH DIRECTION SCORES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lieshout, Remko; Reijneveld, Elja A E; van den Berg, Sandra M; Haerkens, Gijs M; Koenders, Niek H; de Leeuw, Arina J; van Oorsouw, Roel G; Paap, Davy; Scheffer, Else; Weterings, Stijn; Stukstette, Mirelle J

    2016-06-01

    The mSEBT is a screening tool used to evaluate dynamic balance. Most research investigating measurement properties focused on intrarater reliability and was done in small samples. To know whether the mSEBT is useful to discriminate dynamic balance between persons and to evaluate changes in dynamic balance, more research into intra- and interrater reliability and smallest detectable change (synonymous with minimal detectable change) is needed. To estimate intra- and interrater reliability and smallest detectable change of the mSEBT in adults at risk for ankle sprain. Cross-sectional, test-retest design. Fifty-five healthy young adults participating in sports at risk for ankle sprain participated (mean ± SD age, 24.0 ± 2.9 years). Each participant performed three test sessions within one hour and was rated by two physical therapists (session 1, rater 1; session 2, rater 2; session 3, rater 1). Participants and raters were blinded for previous measurements. Normalized composite and reach direction scores for the right and left leg were collected. Analysis of variance was used to calculate intraclass correlation coefficient values for intra- and interrater reliability. Smallest detectable change values were calculated based on the standard error of measurement. Intra- and interrater reliability for both legs was good to excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient ranging from 0.87 to 0.94). The intrarater smallest detectable change for the composite score of the right leg was 7.2% and for the left 6.2%. The interrater smallest detectable change for the composite score of the right leg was 6.9% and for the left 5.0%. The mSEBT is a reliable measurement instrument to discriminate dynamic balance between persons. Most smallest detectable change values of the mSEBT appear to be large. More research is needed to investigate if the mSEBT is usable for evaluative purposes. Level 2.

  3. The Market, the Media and the Family in a School Excursion Rape Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, Susanne

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines a local and specific instance of the effects of neoliberal markets on individual and institutional subjects of schooling. It reviews a court case between a prestigious private girls' school and an ex-student who sued the school for failing to provide adequate supervision on a school trip to Europe during which she was raped. It…

  4. Effect of eating vegetables before carbohydrates on glucose excursions in patients with type 2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Imai, Saeko; Fukui, Michiaki; Kajiyama, Shizuo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this review was to evaluate whether eating vegetables before carbohydrates could reduce the postprandial glucose, insulin, and improve long-term glycemic control in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes. We studied the effect of eating vegetables before carbohydrates on postprandial plasma glucose, insulin, and glycemic control for 2.5 y in patients with type 2 diabetes. The postprandial glucose and insulin levels decreased significantly when the patients ate vegetables before car...

  5. Behaviour of neutron irradiated beryllium during temperature excursions up to and beyond its melting temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pajuste, Elina, E-mail: elina.pajuste@lu.lv; Kizane, Gunta; Avotiņa, Līga; Zariņš, Artūrs

    2015-10-15

    Beryllium pebble behaviour has been studied regarding the accidental operation conditions of tritium breeding blanket of fusion reactors. Structure evolution, oxidation and thermal properties have been compared for nonirradiated and neutron irradiated beryllium pebbles during thermal treatment in a temperature range from ambient temperature to 1600 K. For neutron irradiated pebbles tritium release process was studied. Methods of temperature programmed tritium desorption (TPD) in combination with thermogravimetry (TG) and temperature differential analysis (TDA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in combination with Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) have been used. It was found that there are strong relation between tritium desorption spectra and structural evolution of neutron irradiated beryllium. The oxidation rate is also accelerated by the structure damages caused by neutrons.

  6. Roots Running Deep Arms Sales and Russia’s Excursion into Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-06

    Research Report Submitted to the Faculty In Partial Fulfillment of the Graduation Requirements Advisor: William K. Lewis 06 April 2017...DISTRIBUTION A. Approved for public release: distribution unlimited. i DISCLAIMER The views expressed in this academic research paper are those of the...to expand its strategic influence and bolster its economy through outreach in the lucrative arms market . Coming Full Circle: The Return of Foreign

  7. Feasibility of a bihormonal closed-loop system to control postexercise and postprandial glucose excursions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bon, Arianne C.; Jonker, Lisanne D.; Koebrugge, Rob; Koops, Robin; Hoekstra, Joost B. L.; DeVries, J. Hans

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to test the feasibility of a bihormonal (glucagon and insulin) closed-loop (CL) system by challenging the system with two meals and 30 min exercise. Ten patients with type 1 diabetes treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion underwent a standardized

  8. A 6,000-year sedimentary molecular record of chemocline excursions in the Black Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Wakeham, S.G.; Kohnen, M.E.L.; Hayes, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    The Black Sea is the world's largest anoxic basin; it is also a contemporary analogue of the environment in which carbonaceous shales and petroleum source beds formed. Recently, Repeta et al. reported that anoxygenic photosynthesis may be an important component of carbon cycling in the present Black

  9. Analysis of the Effect of Historical Cultural Changes Relative to the Development of Affordability Excursions to Existing Parametric Cost Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-30

    automatic fire. • Articulated chains similar to the bicycle chain. a A vertical takeoff aircraft with an aerodynamic rotor similar to the modem...and tobacco andI believed that every individual had the latent capability to become "... a human dynamo , capable of accomplishing anything to which he...that were connected to the engine by means of bicycle chains. Their work attracted little attention at the time. By the end of 1904 the Wright

  10. 33. Two dimensional and M-mode measurements of tricuspid annular systolic plane excursion, are they comparable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haleem Shamsan

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: MM-TAPSE and 2D-TAPSE correlate strongly. 2D-TAPSE can provide a reliable alternative to MM-TAPSE to quantitatively measure RV systolic function and may be especially useful in situations where retrospective comparisons are sought.

  11. Study of Neutron-Rich $^{124,126,128}$Cd Isotopes; Excursion from Symmetries to Shell-Model Picture

    CERN Multimedia

    Nieminen, A M; Reponen, M

    2002-01-01

    A short outline is given on a number of topics that are present in the long series of even-even Cd nuclei and therefore, may turn out to constitute an ideal test bench in order to verify a number of theoretical ideas on how collective motion, near closed shells, builds up taking into account both the valence and core nucleons when studying the nucleon correlations. Moreover, these experiments can reveal new challenges when moving towards very neutron-rich systems.

  12. Glycemic Excursions in Type 1 Diabetes in Pregnancy: A Semiparametric Statistical Approach to Identify Sensitive Time Points during Gestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resmi Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To examine the gestational glycemic profile and identify specific times during pregnancy that variability in glucose levels, measured by change in velocity and acceleration/deceleration of blood glucose fluctuations, is associated with delivery of a large-for-gestational-age (LGA baby, in women with type 1 diabetes. Methods. Retrospective analysis of capillary blood glucose levels measured multiple times daily throughout gestation in women with type 1 diabetes was performed using semiparametric mixed models. Results. Velocity and acceleration/deceleration in glucose levels varied across gestation regardless of delivery outcome. Compared to women delivering LGA babies, those delivering babies appropriate for gestational age exhibited significantly smaller rates of change and less variation in glucose levels between 180 days of gestation and birth. Conclusions. Use of innovative statistical methods enabled detection of gestational intervals in which blood glucose fluctuation parameters might influence the likelihood of delivering LGA baby in mothers with type 1 diabetes. Understanding dynamics and being able to visualize gestational changes in blood glucose are a potentially useful tool to assist care providers in determining the optimal timing to initiate continuous glucose monitoring.

  13. Latitudinal differences in the amplitude of the OAE-2 carbon isotopic excursion: pCO2 and paleoproductivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bentum, E.C.; Reichart, G.-J.; Forster, A.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2011-01-01

    A complete, well-preserved record of the Cenomanian/Turonian (C/T) Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (OAE-2) was recovered from Demerara Rise in the southern North Atlantic Ocean (ODP site 1260). Across this interval, we determined changes in the stable carbon isotopic composition of sulfur-bound phytane

  14. Urban Environmental Excursions: Designing field trips to demonstrate sustainable connections between natural and engineered systems in urban environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, L. D.

    2012-12-01

    Field trips are a proven and effective instructional tool to connect students with the world around them. In most communities, opportunities abound to allow students to make connections between concepts introduced in classroom or lab activities and the urban environment that surrounds them. Potential destinations include solid and liquid waste disposal sites, brownfield redevelopment sites, hazardous waste sites, industrial complexes, or sites with ongoing environmental restoration efforts. Each of these locations presents opportunities to explore sustainable aspects of anthropogenic activities in relation to the natural systems that they seek to modify or exploit. Early planning is essential, however, because it can sometimes take several months lead time to arrange for a large group tour of industrial or municipal sites. Several practices may be employed to design effective learning experiences for students when visiting such sites. These include: 1) choose local sites to keep trips relevant and practical; 2) balance sites of environmental concern with those where significant progress is being made in environmental restoration or stewardship; 3) connect sites with a pertinent theme (e.g., air quality, water quality, economic development, environmental justice, etc.); 4) develop a sense of location among student participants by providing a map showing the relationship between campus and the field sites; 5) prepare a guidebook containing one-page descriptions of each stop along with a list of questions to stimulate discussion and promote active engagement among all participants; 6) employ expert guides to maximize students' access to authoritative information; 7) tie each field experience to your curriculum; and 8) model active learning by asking genuine questions and engaging in open discussions with experts and student participants. In this presentation, urban field trip design will be illustrated with examples from trips run in conjunction with freshman-level introductory courses in Physical and Environmental Geology, as well as a junior-level course in Environmental Systems Analysis at Wayne State University in Detroit, Michigan, USA. Ties to environmental systems and sustainability, emphasizing systems boundaries, fluxes, and transformations of systems components, will be described along with logistical tips to help instructors prepare meaningful and memorable field trips.

  15. DNA Packaging Specificity of Bacteriophage N15 with an Excursion into the Genetics of a Cohesive End Mismatch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Feiss

    Full Text Available During DNA replication by the λ-like bacteriophages, immature concatemeric DNA is produced by rolling circle replication. The concatemers are processed into mature chromosomes with cohesive ends, and packaged into prohead shells, during virion assembly. Cohesive ends are generated by the viral enzyme terminase, which introduces staggered nicks at cos, an approx. 200 bp-long sequence containing subsites cosQ, cosN and cosB. Interactions of cos subsites of immature concatemeric DNA with terminase orchestrate DNA processing and packaging. To initiate DNA packaging, terminase interacts with cosB and nicks cosN. The cohesive ends of N15 DNA differ from those of λ at 2/12 positions. Genetic experiments show that phages with chromosomes containing mismatched cohesive ends are functional. In at least some infections, the cohesive end mismatch persists through cyclization and replication, so that progeny phages of both allelic types are produced in the infected cell. N15 possesses an asymmetric packaging specificity: N15 DNA is not packaged by phages λ or 21, but surprisingly, N15-specific terminase packages λ DNA. Implications for genetic interactions among λ-like bacteriophages are discussed.

  16. Titan's plasma environment during a magnetosheath excursion: Real-time scenarios for Cassini's T32 flyby from a hybrid simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Simon

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available With a Saturnian magnetopause average stand-off distance of about 21 planetary radii, Titan spends most of its time inside the rotating magnetosphere of its parent planet. However, when Saturn's magnetosphere is compressed due to high solar wind dynamic pressure, Titan can cross Saturn's magnetopause in the subsolar region of its orbit and therefore to interact with the shocked solar wind plasma in Saturn's magnetosheath. This situation has been observed during the T32 flyby of the Cassini spacecraft on 13 June 2007. Until a few minutes before closest approach, Titan had been located inside the Saturnian magnetosphere. During the flyby, Titan encountered a sudden change in the direction and magnitude of the ambient magnetic field. The density of the ambient plasma also increased dramatically during the pass. Thus, the moon's exosphere and ionosphere were exposed to a sudden change in the upstream plasma conditions. The resulting reconfiguration of Titan's plasma tail has been studied in real-time by using a three-dimensional, multi-species hybrid simulation model. The hybrid approximation treats the electrons of the plasma as a massless, charge-neutralizing fluid, while ion dynamics are described by a kinetic approach. In the simulations, the magnetopause crossing is modeled by a sudden change of the upstream magnetic field vector as well as a modification of the upstream plasma composition. We present real-time simulation results, illustrating how Titan's induced magnetotail is reconfigured due to magnetic reconnection. The simulations allow to determine a characteristic time scale for the erosion of the original magnetic draping pattern that commences after Titan has crossed Saturn's magnetopause. Besides, the influence of the plasma composition in the magnetosheath on the reconfiguration process is discussed in detail. The question of whether the magnetopause crossing is likely to yield a detachment of Titan's exospheric tail from the satellite is investigated as well.

  17. A search for thermal excursions from ancient extraterrestrial impacts using Hadean zircon Ti-U-Th-Pb depth profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Sunshine S; Harrison, T Mark; Schmitt, Axel K; Mojzsis, Stephen J

    2012-08-21

    Few terrestrial localities preserve more than a trace lithic record prior to ca. 3.8 Ga greatly limiting our understanding of the first 700 Ma of Earth history, a period inferred to have included a spike in the bolide flux to the inner solar system at ca. 3.85-3.95 Ga (the Late Heavy Bombardment, LHB). An accessible record of this era may be found in Hadean detrital zircons from the Jack Hills, Western Australia, in the form of μm-scale epitaxial overgrowths. By comparing crystallization temperatures of pre-3.8 Ga zircon overgrowths to the archive of zircon temperature spectra, it should, in principle, be possible to identify a distinctive impact signature. We have developed Ti-U-Th-Pb ion microprobe depth profiling to obtain age and temperature information within these zircon overgrowths and undertaken a feasibility study of its possible use in identifying impact events. Of eight grains profiled in this fashion, four have overgrowths of LHB-era age. Age vs. temperature profiles reveal a period between ca. 3.85-3.95 Ga (i.e., LHB era) characterized by significantly higher temperatures (approximately 840-875 °C) than do older or younger zircons or zircon domains (approximately 630-750 °C). However, temperatures approaching 900 °C can result in Pb isotopic exchange rendering interpretation of these profiles nonunique. Coupled age-temperature depth profiling shows promise in this role, and the preliminary data we report could represent the first terrestrial evidence for impact-related heating during the LHB.

  18. The Experiential Learning Impact of International and Domestic Study Tours: Class Excursions That Are More than Field Trips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Lanier, Lilia

    2017-01-01

    Experiential education programs, such as international and domestic study tours, bridge the limitations of formal learning classroom by allowing students to experience reality in a new learning dimension. This mixed-methods study explores experiential learning during a domestic interior design study tour to New York City and an international…

  19. Practice as ‘Research’ Within The Context of Art and Design Academia: A Brief Excursion Into Its Philosophical Underpinnings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Rio Adiwijaya

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Integration of many fields of human endeavor including art and design into academic system is not at all surprising in our modern world that continues to modernize itself in the quest for ever increasing welfare of humanity. The backbone of modern welfare is unmistakably techno-scientific academic research, explaining current expansion of its ‘standardized’ paradigm, regulation and infrastructure without exception into the field of art and design. This is where the problem precisely arises, since their own nature, art and design as ‘creative’ fields, are incompatible with scientific paradigm which emphasizes a uniform reproducibility of research findings. ‘The heart of the arts’, in contrast, is its singularities. The industry actually has recognized the difference by assigning ‘patents’ to technological invention and ‘copyright’ to singular artworks. The question is then how to incorporate such creatively plural fields into uniform academic research system. Fortunately within the past 20 years, there were developments within international art and design academia that came up with a keystone principle called practice-based research. It relies upon philosophical underpinnings of phenomenology and hermeneutics which has been critically acclaimed in showing inadequacies of positivistic (natural science-based paradigm in understanding cultural phenomena exemplified by art and design. It is the intention of this article to briefly explain this new principle and its philosophical underpinnings in order to let us appreciate its positive contribution for our understanding of art and design. This understanding in turn would allow us to cultivate those creative fields within academic context in a more appropriate way. 

  20. Resolving the sources of plasma glucose excursions following a glucose tolerance test in the rat with deuterated water and [U-13C]glucose

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Delgado, T.C; Barosa, C; Nunes, P.M; Cerd\\'an, S.a; Geraldes, C.F.G.C; Jones, J.G

    2012-01-01

    ... de Investigaciones Biomédicas de Madrid Alberto Sols CSIC/UAM, Madrid, Spain Carlos F. G. C. Geraldes Affiliation: Intermediary Metabolism Group and Inorganic Biochemistry and Molecular Imaging G...

  1. Invited Commentary: Explaining the Relationship Between Attending Worship Services and Mortality-A Brief Excursion Into the Contribution of Social Relationships in Religious Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Neal

    2017-04-01

    In this issue of the Journal, VanderWeele et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2017;000(00):000-000) report that more frequent attendance at worship services is associated with a lower mortality risk. However, the underlying processes that might explain this relationship were not discussed fully. A problem arises because the potentially beneficial association between attending worship services and mortality risk may be due to a number of different factors. At least part of the explanation may be found by turning to social relationships that arise in religious institutions. Within this context, there are potentially important benefits of providing social support to others. Support can be provided in several ways that involve potentially important health-related associations. In this commentary, I briefly examine the possible relationships between religious social support systems and other dimensions of congregational life and health. In-depth conceptual analyses are needed to move research in religious involvement and mortality to the next level. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Excursion Guide-Book: International Symposium: Time Frequency and Dating in Geomorphology Held in Czechoslovakia on 16-21 June 1992,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-21

    occurring in Central Europe as Quercus, blmus, Fraxinus or Acer, and in part to extinct taxa as Gingko, T,,rreya, Juglans , Celtis, Liquidambar...shows the similarity of flora developing during the whole Riss-Wurm Interglacial that h,. preserved in both localities. Presence of pollen of Juglans

  3. Coordinated ground-based, low altitude satellite and Cluster observations on global and local scales during a transient post-noon sector excursion of the magnetospheric cusp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Opgenoorth

    Full Text Available On 14 January 2001, the four Cluster spacecraft passed through the northern magnetospheric mantle in close conjunction to the EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR and approached the post-noon dayside magnetopause over Green-land between 13:00 and 14:00 UT. During that interval, a sudden reorganisation of the high-latitude dayside convection pattern occurred after 13:20 UT, most likely caused by a direction change of the Solar wind magnetic field. The result was an eastward and poleward directed flow-channel, as monitored by the SuperDARN radar network and also by arrays of ground-based magnetometers in Canada, Greenland and Scandinavia. After an initial eastward and later poleward expansion of the flow-channel between 13:20 and 13:40 UT, the four Cluster spacecraft, and the field line footprints covered by the eastward looking scan cycle of the Söndre Strömfjord incoherent scatter radar were engulfed by cusp-like precipitation with transient magnetic and electric field signatures. In addition, the EISCAT Svalbard Radar detected strong transient effects of the convection reorganisation, a poleward moving precipitation, and a fast ion flow-channel in association with the auroral structures that suddenly formed to the west and north of the radar. From a detailed analysis of the coordinated Cluster and ground-based data, it was found that this extraordinary transient convection pattern, indeed, had moved the cusp precipitation from its former pre-noon position into the late post-noon sector, allowing for the first and quite unexpected encounter of the cusp by the Cluster spacecraft. Our findings illustrate the large amplitude of cusp dynamics even in response to moderate solar wind forcing. The global ground-based data proves to be an invaluable tool to monitor the dynamics and width of the affected magnetospheric regions.

    Key words. Magnetospheric cusp, ionosphere, reconnection, convection flow-channel, Cluster, ground-based observations

  4. Coordinated ground-based, low altitude satellite and Cluster observations on global and local scales during a transient post-noon sector excursion of the magnetospheric cusp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Opgenoorth, H.J.; Lockwood, M.; Alcayde, D.

    2001-01-01

    in Canada, Greenland and Scandinavia. After an initial eastward and later poleward expansion of the flow-channel between 13:20 and 13:40 UT, the four Cluster spacecraft, and the field line footprints covered by the eastward looking scan cycle of the Sondre Stromfjord incoherent scatter radar were engulfed...... by cusp-like precipitation with transient magnetic and electric field signatures. In addition, the EISCAT Svalbard Radar detected strong transient effects of the convection reorganisation, a poleward moving precipitation, and a fast ion flow-channel in association with the auroral structures that suddenly...... of the high-latitude dayside convection pattern accurred after 13:20 UT most likely caused by a direction change of the Solar wind magnetic field. The result was an eastward and poleward directed flow-channel, as monitored by the SuperDARN radar network and also by arrays of ground-based magnetometers...

  5. SHAD-Nisat: A Composite Study of Shallow Saturation Diving Incorporating Long Duration Air Saturation with Excursions, Deep Nitrox Saturation, and Switch from Nitrogen to Helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    exposures caused red blood cell losses; recovery began a few days after return to normal pressure. The divers were also deconditioned , presumably...5. Deconditioning following long saturation 1-15 6. Pulmonary function changes 1-15 7. Sickness in 7 atm nitrox 1-16 8. Performance and...II-l 1. Chamber system II-l a. Physical characteristics II-l b. Air supply system II-4 c. Pure gas supply II-4 d. Pressurization and

  6. Doppler ultrasound surveillance in deep tunneling compressed-air work with Trimix breathing: bounce dive technique compared to saturation-excursion technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vellinga, T. P. Van Rees; Sterk, W.; de Boer, A. G. E. M.; van der Beek, A. J.; Verhoeven, A. C.; van Dijk, F. J. H.

    2008-01-01

    The Western Scheldt Tunneling Project in The Netherlands provided a unique opportunity to evaluate two deep-diving techniques with Doppler ultrasound surveillance. Divers used the bounce diving techniques for repair and maintenance of the TBM. The tunnel boring machine jammed at its deepest depth.

  7. Annual view (1999) - aeronautic relation/space relation. Space relation - space science/lunar excursion; Nenkan tenbo (1999) koku kankei uchu kankei. Uchu kagaku, tsuki tansa kanren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-05

    For the purpose of learning the technology required for a mission to sample rocks, soil, etc. from small planets or satellites and bring them back to the earth, the Institute of the Space and Astronautical Science has been proceeding with the development of No. 20 scientific satellite (MUSES-C) and conducted the technical development of the electric propulsion system, interplanetary self-contained navigation, sampling, reentry into the earth, recovery, etc. With the aim of acquiring data for survey of usability of the moon and developing science to study the origin and evolution of the moon, the Institute of the Space and Astronautical Science and National Space Development Agency of Japan are jointly carrying out the R and D of a selenological and engineering explorer (SELENE). The explorer is planned to be launched with H-II A rocket in 2004. No. 17 scientific satellite is now under development with the aim of elucidating the crustal structure and thermal structure inside the moon, but the plan for launching in summer 1999 was postponed because it takes time to develop the penetrator. The 5th X-ray astronomical satellite (ASTRO-E) of Japan is now in final inspection and service toward the launch in February 8, 2000. (NEDO)

  8. Titan's plasma environment during a magnetosheath excursion: Real-time scenarios for Cassini's T32 flyby from a hybrid simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Simon

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available With a Saturnian magnetopause average stand-off distance of about 21 planetary radii, Titan spends most of its time inside the rotating magnetosphere of its parent planet. However, when Saturn's magnetosphere is compressed due to high solar wind dynamic pressure, Titan can cross Saturn's magnetopause in the subsolar region of its orbit and therefore to interact with the shocked solar wind plasma in Saturn's magnetosheath. This situation has been observed during the T32 flyby of the Cassini spacecraft on 13 June 2007. Until a few minutes before closest approach, Titan had been located inside the Saturnian magnetosphere. During the flyby, Titan encountered a sudden change in the direction and magnitude of the ambient magnetic field. The density of the ambient plasma also increased dramatically during the pass. Thus, the moon's exosphere and ionosphere were exposed to a sudden change in the upstream plasma conditions. The resulting reconfiguration of Titan's plasma tail has been studied in real-time by using a three-dimensional, multi-species hybrid simulation model. The hybrid approximation treats the electrons of the plasma as a massless, charge-neutralizing fluid, while ion dynamics are described by a kinetic approach. In the simulations, the magnetopause crossing is modeled by a sudden change of the upstream magnetic field vector as well as a modification of the upstream plasma composition. We present real-time simulation results, illustrating how Titan's induced magnetotail is reconfigured due to magnetic reconnection. The simulations allow to determine a characteristic time scale for the erosion of the original magnetic draping pattern that commences after Titan has crossed Saturn's magnetopause. Besides, the influence of the plasma composition in the magnetosheath on the reconfiguration process is discussed in detail. The question of whether the magnetopause crossing is likely to yield a detachment of Titan's exospheric tail from the satellite is investigated as well.

  9. Product’s Development Strategy and Market Expansion in Development of Traditional Food as a Product of Culinary Excursion in Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luh Putu Wrasiati

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the traditional market would be developed as a culinary tourism by the local government of Level II regions (districts / cities, formulation of activities and facilities needed by the strategy of product development and market expansion, implement strategies that had been selected and defined as conduct training, coaching, and mentoring to traders and waiters in traditional markets that have been determined. The results showed that the chosen market that would be developed markets were “senggol” market (night market of Tabanan City, Kreneng-Asoka Denpasar, Gianyar City, Klungkung City, and City Park Singaraja. Food vendors who were in these markets got guidance regarding the development of products such as ordinances presentation, use of additives, sanitation, and coaching appearance. Market expansion strategy carried out by making brochures, websites "baliwisatakuliner.com" and the provision of traditional food outlets at every event such as the Feast of Balinese art, Buleleng Festival, Festival Vilage Sanur, Nusa Penida Festival, and the annual events in the Anniversary Exhibition of the Republic of Indonesia.

  10. Benelux Colloquium on Geomorphological Processes and Soils (4th) Held in Amsterdam and Leuven on April 24-May 2, 1988. Excursion Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    be used for urban development; - the small coastal villages in the dunes grew into considerable sea-side resorts; - urban expansion swallowed up a...restricted to a small area and the complete loss of dunes has been confined to just a few places: the urban development of The Hague, the construction of...and for rich vegetation, owing to afforest - ation that has its chief national distribution in these areas (north of The Hague, Zuid-Kennemerland and

  11. Fatigue of the hip abductors results in increased medial-lateral center of pressure excursion and altered peroneus longus activation during a unipedal landing task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Szu-Ping; Powers, Christopher

    2013-06-01

    Previous studies have reported that diminished hip abductor muscle strength is associated with a loss of frontal plane postural stability and increased risk for ankle sprain. The purpose of this study was to determine whether hip abductor fatigue results in compensatory changes in neuromuscular activation of the peroneus longus (an important lateral stabilizer of the ankle) during a unipedal landing task. Thirty healthy females performed a unipedal landing task before and after completing a hip abductor fatigue protocol. Paired t-tests were used to assess changes in medial-lateral center of pressure displacement, and EMG (electromyographic) amplitude of the peroneus longus following hip abductor fatigue. Changes in peroneus longus onset timing also were assessed. Following the hip abductor fatigue protocol, participants exhibited increased mean center of pressure displacement (7.7 (1.5) vs. 9.2 (2.0) cm, Pincreased EMG amplitude of peroneus longus (0.75 (0.18) vs. 0.86 (0.21), Pincreased EMG amplitude and earlier onset of the peroneus longus appears to be a protective compensatory adaptation to stabilize the ankle in response to frontal plane postural instability induced by hip abductor fatigue. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Newton to Einstein the trail of light: an excursion to the wave-particle duality and the special theory of relativity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borcherds, Peter

    2002-03-01

    This book developed from a well received course given by the author to first year students at Wesleyan University, Connecticut. The book starts with a discussion of reflection, refraction and rainbows, goes on to general properties of waves, interference and diffraction, and then on to special relativity, the twin effect and the Lorentz transformation, with a digression on radioactivity. There are numerous excellent diagrams, and the mathematics (all pre-calculus) is presented very clearly. The following are a few quotations from the book intended to give some idea of its coverage. In the preface 'Demonstrations are a vital part of my teaching, and that is one reason why I so often teach about light: the demonstrations work (for there is no friction), and they are often beautiful. When I ask my students for advice about the course, one of the questions has been this: If there has been a topic or demonstration that you particularly enjoyed, tell me that, too. [One] student had this to say in response: 'Mostly, the demonstrations are a GREAT way of seeing what you say - without them, I don't know how I'd learn any of it, or believe you.' I agree, and I wouldn't know how to give a lecture without some props. Beyond that, all of us enjoy the demonstrations and they provide something to look forward to when the alarm clock goes off for an early morning class.' There appears to be a regrettable recent tendency to move away from real demonstrations towards computer simulations. If this book achieves nothing other than encouraging the use of demonstrations, it will have made a valuable contribution. And for a do-it-yourself demonstration, the author points out that 'You do not need any special apparatus to see single-slit interference. A street light or even a car headlight at 100 meters can serve as a light source. Your index and middle fingers...form the slit...'. If you need more details see the book. Another do-it-yourself demonstration of interference is to observe the lights of an approaching car though the fabric of an open umbrella: at large distances a single maximum is seen: as the car gets nearer the point splits and the two lights are resolved. To quote the author again 'I am embarrassed to confess how often I have stopped along a street, struck by a particularly good light source, and checked that light still shows interference and that it is indeed a wave phenomenon.' I, too, enjoy making such observations, and hope you do as well. Considerable use is made of helpful quotations. The following, on the importance of good experimental technique, is from Compton, reporting in 1923 on his test to establish the validity of the theory of his Effect: 'I was afraid of being influenced by finding what I was looking for, so I got to help me in the laboratory an assistant who did not know at all what I had in mind. I made the spectrometer settings, while he took the readings. Not knowing what we were looking for, he felt that the readings were very erratic. After the experiment was over, he remarked to me: 'It was too bad, wasn't it, Professor, that the apparatus wasn't working so well today?' He was disturbed by the fact that the readings went up and down, and he had no idea that they were just the kind of thing I wanted.' Reviewing this book has been a pleasure. It should be accessible to sixth form students and first year undergraduates, will refresh the memories of mature graduates, and be an invaluable aid to anyone teaching a related course. It is a must for every library. (author)

  13. Nature excursions in the Dutch Wadden Sea: tools to integrate tourism, outdoor recreation and nature protection in a natural World Heritage site

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akke Folmer; Hans Revier

    2014-01-01

    Presentation at the 7th International Conference on Monitoring and Management of Visitors in Recreational and Protected Areas (MMV) Local Community and Outdoor Recreation August 20 - 23, 2014 Tallinn, Estonia

  14. Nature excursions in the Dutch Wadden Sea: tools to integrate tourism, outdoor recreation and nature protection in a natural World Heritage site.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akke Folmer; Hans Revier

    2014-01-01

    Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Monitoring and Management of Visitors in Recreational and Protected Areas (MMV) Local Community and Outdoor Recreation August 20 - 23, 2014 Tallinn, Estonia

  15. Major Δ14C excursions during the late glacial and early Holocene : changes in ocean ventilation or solar forcing of climate change?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Geel, B.; van der Plicht, Johannes; Renssen, H

    2003-01-01

    The atmospheric 14C record during the Late Glacial and the early Holocene shows sharp increases simultaneous with cold climatic phases. These increases in the atmospheric 14C content are usually explained as the effect of reduced oceanic CO2 ventilation after episodic outbursts of large meltwater

  16. Postprandial glycemic excursions with the use of a closed-loop platform in subjects with type 1 diabetes: a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bon, Arianne C.; Hermanides, Jeroen; Koops, Robin; Hoekstra, Joost B. L.; DeVries, J. Hans

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a proportional derivative algorithm closed-loop system to control postprandial glucose concentrations in subjects with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Six subjects treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion received a

  17. Co-ingestion of a protein hydrolysate with or without additional leucine effectively reduces postprandial blood glucose excursions in type 2 diabetic men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manders, R.J.; Koopman, R.; Sluijsmans, W.E.; Berg, R. van den; Verbeek, K.; Saris, W.H.; Wagenmakers, A.J.; Loon, L.J. van

    2006-01-01

    This study examined postprandial plasma insulin and glucose responses after co-ingestion of an insulinotropic protein (Pro) hydrolysate with and without additional free leucine with a single bolus of carbohydrate (Cho). Male patients with long-standing Type 2 diabetes (n = 10) and healthy controls

  18. Mitigation of starch and glucose-induced postprandial glycemic excursion in rats by antioxidant-rich green-leafy vegetables? juice

    OpenAIRE

    Tiwari, Ashok Kumar; Jyothi, Atmakuri Lakshmana; Tejeswini, Vasantharao Brahma; Madhusudana, Kuncha; Kumar, Domati Anand; Zehra, Amtul; Agawane, Sachin Bharat

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Consumption of green-leafy vegetables is being advocated beneficial for type 2 diabetes mellitus individuals possibly because they are cost effective source of potent biological antioxidants. This research analyzed various phytochemicals, free radicals scavenging antioxidant potentials and starch digesting enzymes inhibitory activities in fresh juice of nine green-leafy vegetables. Furthermore, this study also investigated influence of these vegetables juice on starch and glucose i...

  19. Sedimentology of SPICE (Steptoean positive carbon isotope excursion): A high-resolution trace fossil and microfabric analysis of the middle to late Cambrian Alum Shale Formation, southern Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egenhoff, Sven; Fishman, Neil; Ahlberg, Per; Maletz, Jorg; Jackson, Allison; Kolte, Ketki; Lowers, Heather; Mackie, James; Newby, Warren; Petrowsky, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The Cambrian Alum Shale Formation in the Andrarum-3 core from Scania, southern Sweden, consists of black siliciclastic mudstone with minor carbonate intercalations. Four facies comprise three siliciclastic mudstones and one fine-grained carbonate. The facies reflect deposition along a transect from deep ramp to basin on a Cambrian shelf. The three mudstone facies contain abundant clay clasts and laterally variable siltstone laminae. Bed-load transport processes seem to have dominated deposition on this deep shelf. These sedimentary rocks record mainly event deposition, and only relatively few, thin laminae probably resulted from suspension settling. The Alum Shale Formation deep shelf did not show a bioturbation gradient, but fecal strings are common and Planolites burrows are rare in all mudstone facies. Evidence for biotic colonization indicates that this mudstone environment was not persistently anoxic, but rather was most likely intermittently dysoxic. The Alum Shale Formation in the Andrarum-3 core shows an overall decrease of grain size, preserved energy indicators, and carbonate content upsection interpreted to reflect a deepening upward. The succession can also be divided into four small-scale fining-upward cycles that represent deepening, and four overlying coarsening-upward cycles that represent upward shallowing.

  20. List of collecting stations of an excursion in Fiji from 15.I.1979 – 30.III.1979 by J.P. & M.J. Duffels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duffels, J.P.

    1979-01-01

    All localities in Viti Levu and Vanua Levu can be found on the 1:250.000 maps, which are published by the Directorate of Overseas Surveys and are sold by Edward Stanford Ltd., 12-14 Long Acre, London WC2E 9LP. Maps 1:50.00 of the Fiji Islands, contoured, are also sold by Edward Stanford Ltd. (a

  1. Hydrocarbon Biomarker Stratigraphy of C-Isotopic Excursions Marking Chemical Changes in the Ocean with Contemporanious Biotic Extinction-Radiation Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summons, Roger E.

    2004-01-01

    One paper recording progress in this topic has been accepted for publication. We report a method for the rigorous identification of biomarkers (crocetane and PMI) that may be specific for methanotrophic and methanogenic archaea and, perhaps, the process of anaerobic oxidation of methane. If catastrophic methane efflux from sub-sea methane hydrate is responsible for extinction events, as has been hypothesized by many workers, then we might expect to find biomarkers for methane oxidation in sediments marking some extinction boundaries. Unfortunately, identifying crocetane and PMI with certainty is not a trivial exercise and these biomarkers appear to have been mis-identified in a recent publication by workers from Curtin University. Barber et al. (2001) identified crocetane and PMI in sediments deposited in the basal Triassic of the Perth Basin, Australia. However, Barber et al. (2001) also found crocetane and PMI in many other sediments and oils in a way that was inconsistent with our knowledge of these systems.

  2. Paleomagnetic Evidence From Volcanic Units of Valsequillo Basin for the Laschamp Geomagnetic Excursion, and Implications for Early Human Occupation in Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, J.; Gogichaishvili, A.; Martin Del Pozzo, A.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.; Soler, A. M.

    2007-12-01

    Alleged human and animal footprints were found within the upper bedding surfaces of the Xalnene volcanic ash layer that outcrops in Valsequillo basin, south of Puebla, Mexico (Gonzalez et al., Quaternary Science Reviews doi: 10.1016/j.quascirev, 2005). The ash has been dated to 40 ka by means of optically stimulated luminescence analysis. This was held as new evidence that America was colonized earlier. We carried out paleomagnetic and rock magnetic analysis of 18 Xalnene ash block and core samples collected at two distinct localities, and nineteen standard paleomagnetic cores belonging to nearby monogenetic volcanoes. Our data yield evidence that both volcanic lava flow and Xalnene ash were emplaced at during the Laschamp geomagnetic event spanning from about 45 to 39 ka. This interpretation indicates that Valsequillo probably remains one of the sites of early human occupation in the Americas, producing evidence of early arrival.

  3. The impact of pH inhomogeneities on CHO cell physiology and fed-batch process performance - two-compartment scale-down modelling and intracellular pH excursion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Matthias; Braun, Philipp; Doppler, Philipp; Posch, Christoph; Behrens, Dirk; Herwig, Christoph; Fricke, Jens

    2017-07-01

    Due to high mixing times and base addition from top of the vessel, pH inhomogeneities are most likely to occur during large-scale mammalian processes. The goal of this study was to set-up a scale-down model of a 10-12 m 3 stirred tank bioreactor and to investigate the effect of pH perturbations on CHO cell physiology and process performance. Short-term changes in extracellular pH are hypothesized to affect intracellular pH and thus cell physiology. Therefore, batch fermentations, including pH shifts to 9.0 and 7.8, in regular one-compartment systems are conducted. The short-term adaption of the cells intracellular pH are showed an immediate increase due to elevated extracellular pH. With this basis of fundamental knowledge, a two-compartment system is established which is capable of simulating defined pH inhomogeneities. In contrast to state-of-the-art literature, the scale-down model is included parameters (e.g. volume of the inhomogeneous zone) as they might occur during large-scale processes. pH inhomogeneity studies in the two-compartment system are performed with simulation of temporary pH zones of pH 9.0. The specific growth rate especially during the exponential growth phase is strongly affected resulting in a decreased maximum viable cell density and final product titer. The gathered results indicate that even short-term exposure of cells to elevated pH values during large-scale processes can affect cell physiology and overall process performance. In particular, it could be shown for the first time that pH perturbations, which might occur during the early process phase, have to be considered in scale-down models of mammalian processes. Copyright © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Pattern and Impact of Altered Regional Myocardial Excursion on Global Ventricular Performance After First-Time Acute Anterior Wall Myocardial Infarction by Real-Time Three-Dimensional Echocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Lieh Hung

    2008-12-01

    Conclusion: Regional wall motion abnormalities quantified by RT-3DE are clinically convenient and feasible in both MI patients and the normal population. This rapid and objective quantification may also help discriminate abnormal from normal regional and global functions after infarction and, therefore, has the potential to be an attractive solution for clinical diagnosis.

  5. Center-of-pressure total trajectory length is a complementary measure to maximum excursion to better differentiate multidirectional standing limits of stability between individuals with incomplete spinal cord injury and able-bodied individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemay, Jean-François; Gagnon, Dany H; Nadeau, Sylvie; Grangeon, Murielle; Gauthier, Cindy; Duclos, Cyril

    2014-01-17

    Sensorimotor impairments secondary to a spinal cord injury affect standing postural balance. While quasi-static postural balance impairments have been documented, little information is known about dynamic postural balance in this population. The aim of this study was to quantify and characterize dynamic postural balance while standing among individuals with a spinal cord injury using the comfortable multidirectional limits of stability test and to explore its association with the quasi-static standing postural balance test. Sixteen individuals with an incomplete spinal cord injury and sixteen able-bodied individuals participated in this study. For the comfortable multidirectional limits of stability test, participants were instructed to lean as far as possible in 8 directions, separated by 45° while standing with each foot on a forceplate and real-time COP visual feedback provided. Measures computed using the center of pressure (COP), such as the absolute maximal distance reached (COPmax) and the total length travelled by the COP to reach the maximal distance (COPlength), were used to characterize performance in each direction. Quasi-static standing postural balance with eyes open was evaluated using time-domain measures of the COP. The difference between the groups and the association between the dynamic and quasi-static test were analyzed. The COPlength of individuals with SCI was significantly greater (p ≤ 0.001) than that of able-bodied individuals in all tested directions except in the anterior and posterior directions (p ≤ 0.039), indicating an increased COP trajectory while progressing towards their maximal distance. The COPmax in the anterior direction was significantly smaller for individuals with SCI. Little association was found between the comfortable multidirectional limits of stability test and the quasi-static postural balance test (r ≥ -0.658). Standing dynamic postural balance performance in individuals with an incomplete spinal cord injury can be differentiated from that of able-bodied individuals with the comfortable limits of stability test. Performance among individuals with an incomplete spinal cord injury is characterized by lack of precision when reaching. The comfortable limits of stability test provides supplementary information and could serve as an adjunct to the quasi-static test when evaluating postural balance in an incomplete spinal cord injury population.

  6. Center-of-pressure total trajectory length is a complementary measure to maximum excursion to better differentiate multidirectional standing limits of stability between individuals with incomplete spinal cord injury and able-bodied individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Lemay, Jean-FranÇois; Gagnon, Dany H.; Nadeau, Sylvie; Grangeon, Murielle; Gauthier, Cindy; Duclos, Cyril

    2014-01-01

    Background Sensorimotor impairments secondary to a spinal cord injury affect standing postural balance. While quasi-static postural balance impairments have been documented, little information is known about dynamic postural balance in this population. The aim of this study was to quantify and characterize dynamic postural balance while standing among individuals with a spinal cord injury using the comfortable multidirectional limits of stability test and to explore its association with the q...

  7. Evidence for a (15)N positive excursion in terrestrial foodwebs at the Middle to Upper Palaeolithic transition in south-western France: Implications for early modern human palaeodiet and palaeoenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocherens, Hervé; Drucker, Dorothée G; Madelaine, Stéphane

    2014-04-01

    The Middle to Upper Palaeolithic transition around 35,000 years ago coincides with the replacement of Neanderthals by anatomically modern humans in Europe. Several hypotheses have been suggested to explain this replacement, one of them being the ability of anatomically modern humans to broaden their dietary spectrum beyond the large ungulate prey that Neanderthals consumed exclusively. This scenario is notably based on higher nitrogen-15 amounts in early Upper Palaeolithic anatomically modern human bone collagen compared with late Neanderthals. In this paper, we document a clear increase of nitrogen-15 in bone collagen of terrestrial herbivores during the early Aurignacian associated with anatomically modern humans compared with the stratigraphically older Châtelperronian and late Mousterian fauna associated with Neanderthals. Carnivores such as wolves also exhibit a significant increase in nitrogen-15, which is similar to that documented for early anatomically modern humans compared with Neanderthals in Europe. A shift in nitrogen-15 at the base of the terrestrial foodweb is responsible for such a pattern, with a preserved foodweb structure before and after the Middle to Upper Palaeolithic transition in south-western France. Such an isotopic shift in the terrestrial ecosystem may be due to an increase in aridity during the time of deposition of the early Aurignacian layers. If it occurred across Europe, such a shift in nitrogen-15 in terrestrial foodwebs would be enough to explain the observed isotopic trend between late Neanderthals and early anatomically modern humans, without any significant change in the diet composition at the Middle to Upper Palaeolithic transition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. livret-guide de l'excursion en Auvergne 18-21 septembre 1991 organisée par le Comité National de Géographie Commission ''Géographie physique des socles''

    OpenAIRE

    Le Griel, Alain

    1991-01-01

    Liste et coordonnées géographique des différents sites visités : 1ère journée : La Limagne bourbonnaise et ses marges Arrêt n°1 : sablière des Vayots (Neuilly-le-Réal) carte Moulins l/50.000èrne : X = 682,2 ; Y = 165,7 ; Z = 240 m. Arrêt n°2 : sablière des rays -ou Raies- (Bessay-sur-A11ier) carte St-pourçain-sur-Sioule l/50.000èrne : X = 680,6 ; Y = 159,7 Z = 250 m. Arrêt n°3 : carrière de givreuil (Besson) Carte Moulins l/50.000èrne X = 671,8 ; Y = 161,5 ; Z = 265 m. Arrêt n°4 : sommet de l...

  9. Corrigendum to ;Calcium isotope constraints on the marine carbon cycle and CaCO3 deposition during the late Silurian (Ludfordian) positive δ13C excursion; [Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 451 (2016) 31-40

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkaš, Juraj; Frýda, Jiří; Holmden, Chris

    2017-07-01

    The authors regret an error related to the calculation of the 'calcite-aragonite mixing' trend presented in the paper, which caused an incorrect illustration of the above trend in a plot with δ 44 / 40Ca versus Sr-concentration coordinates (i.e., Fig. 5). The correct 'calcite-aragonite mixing' trend is shown below, and the amended mass balance equations used for the calculation of this trend are also listed below in the corrected Appendix A (i.e., an equivalent to the last page of the original Appendix).

  10. Efectividad de un programa de entrenamiento neuromuscular de 6 semanas de duración aplicado en el tobillo en la realización del Star Excursion Balance Test en jugadores de baloncesto

    OpenAIRE

    Borao, Olga; Planas, Antoni; Beltran, Vicente; Corbi, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: La mayoría de lesiones que se registran en la práctica del baloncesto se localizan en la extremidad inferior, especialmente en el tobillo, y son la principal causa de ausencia en las sesiones de entrenamiento. Estas lesiones pueden repercutir en un aumento del riesgo de recidiva de la lesión. Objetivos: Determinar si un programa de entrenamiento propioceptivo, confeccionado en base a ejercicios propios del baloncesto, podría provocar un cambio en la estabilidad dinámica de u...

  11. Field guides for excursions to the Nevado del Ruiz Volcano and to the Romeral Fault System (Colombia, in the frame of the Neotectonics of arc-continent collision concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borrero Carlos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Central Cordillera of Colombia near to the Nevado del Ruiz volcano, is a seismically active area above the subducting slab of the Nazca plate and deforming upper crust of the Andes. Buildings in the region require strengthening against the effects of both types of hazards: earthquakes and volcanoes. During these trips, we will discuss the 13
    November, 1985, Nevado del Ruiz Volcano eruption that destroyed the Armero city with about 22,000 deceases, as well the 25 January, 1999, Armenia earthquake (M 6.2 that killed about 2000 people and injured 4000 largely as the result of older, poorly 3 constructed buildings. The economic impact of the quake on the region was significant with about 8000 coffee farms either completely or partially destroyed and over 13,000 structures either partially damaged or completely destroyed.
    Both phenomena are associated to a large-transversal structure termed Caldas tear, which is controlling strong motion earthquakes and the Quaternary volcanism of the northern Andes.

  12. Fieldwork in Geography and Long-term Memory Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Andrew A.; White, Richard T.

    1982-01-01

    Three treatments based on the model of memory proposed by R.M. Gagne and R.T. White were compared in their effects on eighth- and ninth-graders' learning and retention of geographical facts and skills. The first treatment had an active excursion, the second had a passive excursion, and the third had no excursion. (Author/PN)

  13. Tourism and excursion: the rural qualifying adjective: a study about the experiences and potentialities of the Old North Region of Paraná, Brazil Turismo e excursionismo: o qualificativo rural : um estudo das experiências e potencialidades no Norte Velho do Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del Carmen Matilde Huertas Calvente

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses the contemporary diversification of tourism under the Geography perspective, having the rural tourism as its main theme, and as sub-themes its potentiality, regulation, impacts and perspectives. Among the current trends of the social practices of tourism there is the valorization of rusticity and natural landscapes – the rural areas are, therefore, also considered appropriate for leisure. In rural tourism does not have a predetermined concept. In the discussion of what it is or what is must be, in the interrelation among the several agents connected to its regulation, some possibilities are put into perspective: the activity can be a means to a modernization, which excludes large number of Brazilian population; on the other hand, it can be a way of integrating these people in the transformations the society needs. The final text was divided was divided into five parts: the diversification of tourism while a contemporary process, examining its current trends; the different contributions which support conceptual understanding of the main theme and survey of the problems and benefits; the different actions which have an influence on rural tourism; at different levels; the elements of potentiality; and a picture of the rural tourism in the studied region. The empirical survey dealt with the incipient development of tourism in the rural areas of Old North Region of Paraná, based on the new trends, on the experiences carried out by their supporters as well as on the profile of the farm owners who are engaged with this activity as an economic alternative, or as visitors. Through the necessary relation between the theoretical and empirical approaches, there is an attempt to contribute to the knowledge, understanding and analysis of this expanding phenomenon, not yet thoroughly dealt with by geographical studies.Este estudo enfoca a diversificação contemporânea do turismo, na perspectiva da Geografia, tendo o turismo rural como tema central e como sub-temas a sua potencialidade, regulamentação, impactos e perspectivas. Entre as tendências atuais da prática social do turismo está a valorização da rusticidade e de paisagens naturais – as áreas rurais passam, portanto, a serem encaradas também como um território de suporte para as atividades de lazer. O turismo rural, no caso brasileiro, não possui um conceito já determinado, e na discussão do que é ou deve ser e na interrelação entre os vários agentes ligados à sua regulamentação algumas possibilidades são vislumbradas: a atividade pode servir para uma modernização que exclui grandes parcelas da população brasileira mas também pode ser encarada como uma maneira de incorporação destas pessoas nas transformações que a sociedade necessita. O texto resultante foi dividido em cinco partes: a diversificação do turismo enquanto um processo contemporâneo, investigando suas tendências atuais; as diferentes contribuições que servem à compreensão conceitual do tema principal e um levantamento dos problemas e benefícios relatados como possíveis; as diversas ações que influem no turismo rural, nas mais diversas escalas; os elementos da potencialidade; e um quadro do turismo rural na região estudada. O trabalho de investigação empírica abordou o desenvolvimento embrionário do turismo nas áreas rurais do Norte Velho do Paraná, Brasil, a partir das modalidades que estão surgindo, das experiências que seus protagonistas estão vivenciando e do perfil das pessoas que procuram o turismo rural como alternativa econômica e como visitantes. Através da necessária relação entre a abordagem teórica e empírica, há uma tentativa de contribuição para o conhecimento, entendimento e análise deste fenômeno cuja expansão é recente e, portanto, ainda pouco abordada pelos estudos geográficos.

  14. Skleník Fata Morgana Botanické zahrady hl.m. Prahy jako místo vzdělávání

    OpenAIRE

    Černý, Bohumil

    2013-01-01

    The thesis deals with utilization of the greenhouse Fata Morgana, which belongs to the Prague Botanical Garden, for botanical educational excursions. In the first part excursion is introduced as a part of education. The next topic shows the history of Botanical Garden as an educational centre. The last chapter refers to present expositions of the Botanical Garden. The main aim of this thesis is to prove that tropical greenhouse is a suitable place for holding school excursions supported by pr...

  15. The square-root principle in the calculation of one-stage (no-stop) decompression tables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnke, A R

    1979-12-01

    A square-root formulation, square-root time x excursion depth = k, developed at the Royal Navy Physiologic Laboratory (RNPL) predicts the safe duration of air excursions at 1 ATA for periods up to 6 h (air) and up to 3 h (heliox atmosphere). At pressures above 1 ATA, the value of k was initially considered to be proportional to Haldanian multiples of ATA and not to the square-root ATA used in this paper. Excursions of infinite (infinity) duration can also be predicted from a square-root formula derived from the systematic heliox saturation excursions conducted at the Experimental Diving Unit in which net excursion depth = k square-root P abs. This paper presents a broad spectrum format that extends the square-root principle: 1) to values of k above 1 ATA in the RNPL formula and 2) to excursions for (infinity) time from habitat depths to 820 ft; and 3) which demonstrates a relationship between fractional time excursions and excursions for infinite periods of time. Application of the generalization that net excursion depths are proportional to square-root P abs would reduce to a minimum the number of programmed test dives and would, in addition, allow such dives to be conducted at relatively low pressures, with only occasional validating tests at deep depths.

  16. Comparison of longitudinal sciatic nerve movement with different mobilization exercises: an in vivo study utilizing ultrasound imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Richard F; Hing, Wayne A; McNair, Peter J

    2012-08-01

    Controlled laboratory study using a single-group, within-subjects comparison. To determine whether different types of neural mobilization exercises are associated with differing amounts of longitudinal sciatic nerve excursion measured in vivo at the posterior midthigh region. Recent research focusing on the upper limb of healthy subjects has shown that nerve excursion differs significantly between different types of neural mobilization exercises. This has not been examined in the lower limb. It is important to initially examine the influence of neural mobilization on peripheral nerve excursion in healthy people to identify peripheral nerve excursion impairments under conditions in which nerve excursion may be compromised. High-resolution ultrasound imaging was used to assess sciatic nerve excursion at the posterior midthigh region. Four different neural mobilization exercises were performed in 31 healthy participants. These neural mobilization exercises used combinations of knee extension and cervical spine flexion and extension. Frame-by-frame cross-correlation analysis of the ultrasound images was used to calculate nerve excursion. A repeated-measures analysis of variance and isolated means comparisons were used for data analysis. Different neural mobilization exercises induced significantly different amounts of sciatic nerve excursion at the posterior midthigh region (Ptensioner exercise (simultaneous cervical spine flexion and knee extension). The single-joint neck flexion exercise resulted in the least amount of sciatic nerve excursion at the posterior midthigh (mean ± SD, -0.1 ± 0.1 mm), which was significantly smaller than the other 3 exercises (P<.001). These findings are consistent with the results of previous research that has examined median nerve excursion associated with different neural mobilization exercises. Such nerve excursion supports theories of nerve motion associated with cervical spine and extremity movement, as generalizable to the lower

  17. High-resolution stable isotope stratigraphy of the upper Cambrian and Ordovician in the Argentine Precordillera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sial, A.N.; Peralta, S.; Gaucher, C.

    2013-01-01

    We report the occurrence of important carbon isotope excursions in early Paleozoic formations of the Eastern and Central Argentine Precordillera. The Steptoean positive isotope carbon excursion (SPICE) is known from North America, Kazakhstan, South China, Australia and South America, and the nega...

  18. A Teaching-Learning Sequence of Colour Informed by History and Philosophy of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurício, Paulo; Valente, Bianor; Chagas, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we present a teaching-learning sequence on colour intended to a pre-service elementary teacher programme informed by History and Philosophy of Science. Working in a socio-constructivist framework, we made an excursion on the history of colour. Our excursion through history of colour, as well as the reported misconception on colour…

  19. Enhancing Life Sciences Teachers' Biodiversity Knowledge

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In terms of biodiversity, the Eastern Cape has a higher biome diversity than any other province in South Africa, including all South African biomes except the desert (Hamann. & Tuinder, 2012), as well as a number of .... Focusing on assessment, an excursion to the mangrove forest was conducted. As part of the excursion, ...

  20. Petro- and Paleomagnetic Investigations of Tuzla Section Sediments (Krasnodarsk Territory)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilipenko, Olga; Abrahamsen, N.; Trubikhin, Valerian

    2006-01-01

    in this study display an anomalous direction coinciding in time (~25-35 ka) with an anomalous horizon discovered in rocks of the Roxolany section (Ukraine). According to the world time scale of geomagnetic excursions, the anomalous direction correlates with the Mono Lake excursion. A significant correlation...

  1. Resource geometry and provisioning routines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ydenberg, R.C.; Davies, W.E.

    2010-01-01

    Provisioners capture items both for delivery and for self-feeding. In doing so, they may travel directly to and from a single location, visit several patches on each excursion from a delivery point, or alternate excursions to different destinations. Prey suitable for self-feeding versus delivery

  2. Guide to the Geology of the Owyhee Region of Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittleman, Laurence R.

    In this bulletin a detailed description of a geologic region in Oregon is presented with numerous illustrations, both plates and schematic diagrams. Maps of the region as well as maps of various excursions are included in the booklet. A geologic-time unit table is presented covering the Cenozoic Era. Three excursions with included side-trips are…

  3. The occurrence of Cyperus strigosus (Cyperaceae) in Serbia and Montenegro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevanovic, V.; Tan, Kit; Tomasevic, M.

    2005-01-01

    Cyperus strigosus, was collected during an excursion to the wetlands of Southeastern Banat province during , was collected during an excursion to the wetlands of Southeastern Banat province during the XI OPTIMA meeting held in Belgrade between 5th and 11th September 2004. It is a species native t...

  4. A digital to analog converter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westra, Jan R.; Annema, Anne J.

    2000-01-01

    A digital to analog converter for a multibit digital input signal has a set of conversion elements for the positive signal excursions and a set of conversion elements for the negative signal excursions. In each set the conversion elements are selected according to a dynamic element matching

  5. A digital to analog converter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westra, Jan R.; Annema, Anne J.

    2006-01-01

    A digital to analog converter for a multibit digital input signal has a set of conversion elements for the positive signal excursions and a set of conversion elements for the negative signal excursions. In each set the conversion elements are selected according to a dynamic element matching

  6. Sea-surface hydrographical conditions off South Faeroes and within the North-Eastern North Atlantic through MIS 2: the response of dinocysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caulle, C.; Penaud, A.; Eynaud, F.; Zaragosi, S.; Roche, D.M.; Michel, E.; Boulay, S.; Richter, T.

    2013-01-01

    The last glacial period, showing the progressive development of large boreal ice sheets, was punctuated by large climatic excursions. These excursions were triggered mainly by atmosphereoceanice coupled dynamics and are thus exemplary case studies of natural climate variability. To characterize the

  7. Sea-surface hydrographical conditions off South Faeroes and within the North-Eastern North Atlantic through MIS 2: the response of dinocysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caulle, C.; Penaud, A.; Eynaud, F.; Zaragosi, S.; Roche, D.M.V.A.P.; Michel, E.; Boulay, S.; Richter, T.

    2013-01-01

    The last glacial period, showing the progressive development of large boreal ice sheets, was punctuated by large climatic excursions. These excursions were triggered mainly by atmosphere-ocean-ice coupled dynamics and are thus exemplary case studies of natural climate variability. To characterize

  8. Implementation of methane cycling for deep time, global warming simulations with the DCESS Earth System Model (Version 1.2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaffer, Gary; Villanueva, Esteban Fernández; Rondanelli, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Geological records reveal a number of ancient, large and rapid negative excursions of carbon-13 isotope. Such excursions can only be explained by massive injections of depleted carbon to the Earth System over a short duration. These injections may have forced strong global warming events, sometim...

  9. An Impending geomagnetic transition? Hints from the past.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo eLAJ

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The rapid decrease of the geomagnetic field intensity in the last centuries has led to speculations that an attempt to a reversal or an excursion might be under way. Here we investigate this hypothesis by examining past records of geomagnetic field intensity obtained from sedimentary cores and from the study of cosmogenic nuclides. The selected records describe geomagnetic changes with an unprecedented temporal resolution between 20 and 75 kyr B.P. We find that some aspects of the present-day geomagnetic field have some similarities with those documented for the Laschamp excursion 41 kyr ago. Under the assumption that the dynamo processes for an eventual future reversal or excursion would be similar to those of the Laschamp excursion, we tentatively suggest that, whilst irreversible processes that will drive the geodynamo into a polarity change may have already started, a reversal or an excursion should not be expected before 500 to 1000 years.

  10. δ13C chemostratigraphy of the Middle and Upper Ordovician succession in the Tartu-453 drillcore, southern Estonia, and the significance of the HICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heikki Bauert

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The δ13C isotope data from the Tartu-453 core section in southern Estonia enabled creation of a continuous Ordovician carbon isotope record, ranging from the Floian to the end of the Hirnantian. Five positive δ13C excursions and one negative δ13C excursion were recognized. Most of the positive excursions correspond to those defined on the Baltoscandian carbon isotope chemostratigraphic scheme, except for the Paroveja and Rakvere ICEs which are not well expressed in the Tartu-453 curve. Besides the positive δ13C excursions, a distinctive negative δ13C excursion, the Lower Sandbian NICE, was recorded in the Tartu-453 succession. The well-expressed HICE extends about 10 m higher than the traditional Ordovician–Silurian boundary (between the Porkuni and Juuru regional stages into the Juuru Regional Stage, suggesting that the Ordovician–Silurian boundary is positioned significally higher than traditionally suggested for the East Baltic area.

  11. Wave-induced dynamics of flexible blades

    CERN Document Server

    Luhar, M

    2015-01-01

    We present an experimental and numerical study that describes the motion of flexible blades, scaled to be dynamically similar to natural aquatic vegetation, forced by wave-induced oscillatory flows. For the conditions tested, blade motion is governed primarily by two dimensionless variables: (i) the Cauchy number, $Ca$, which represents the ratio of the hydrodynamic forcing to the restoring force due to blade stiffness, and (ii) the ratio of the blade length to the wave orbital excursion, $L$. For flexible blades with $Ca \\gg 1$, the relationship between drag and velocity can be described by two different scaling laws at the large- and small-excursion limits. For large excursions ($L \\ll 1$), the flow resembles a unidirectional current and the scaling laws developed for steady-flow reconfiguration studies hold. For small excursions ($L \\gg 1$), the beam equations may be linearized and a different scaling law for drag applies. The experimental force measurements suggest that the small-excursion scaling applies...

  12. An Evaluation of the British Columbia Asthma Monitoring System (BCAMS and PM2.5 Exposure Metrics during the 2014 Forest Fire Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen E. McLean

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The British Columbia Asthma Monitoring System (BCAMS tracks forest fire smoke exposure and asthma-related health outcomes, identifying excursions beyond expected daily counts. Weekly reports during the wildfire season support public health and emergency management decision-making. We evaluated BCAMS by identifying excursions for asthma-related physician visits and dispensations of the reliever medication salbutamol sulfate and examining their corresponding smoke exposures. A disease outbreak detection algorithm identified excursions from 1 July to 31 August 2014. Measured, modeled, and forecasted concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5 were used to assess exposure. We assigned PM2.5 levels to excursions by choosing the highest value within a seven day window centred on the excursion day. Smoky days were defined as those with PM2.5 levels ≥ 25 µg/m3. Most excursions (57%–71% were assigned measured or modeled PM2.5 concentrations of 10 µg/m3 or higher. Of the smoky days, 55.8% and 69.8% were associated with at least one excursion for physician visits and salbutamol dispensations, respectively. BCAMS alerted most often when measures of smoke exposure were relatively high. Better performance might be realized by combining asthma-related outcome metrics in a bivariate model.

  13. An Evaluation of the British Columbia Asthma Monitoring System (BCAMS) and PM2.5 Exposure Metrics during the 2014 Forest Fire Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Kathleen E; Yao, Jiayun; Henderson, Sarah B

    2015-06-12

    The British Columbia Asthma Monitoring System (BCAMS) tracks forest fire smoke exposure and asthma-related health outcomes, identifying excursions beyond expected daily counts. Weekly reports during the wildfire season support public health and emergency management decision-making. We evaluated BCAMS by identifying excursions for asthma-related physician visits and dispensations of the reliever medication salbutamol sulfate and examining their corresponding smoke exposures. A disease outbreak detection algorithm identified excursions from 1 July to 31 August 2014. Measured, modeled, and forecasted concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were used to assess exposure. We assigned PM2.5 levels to excursions by choosing the highest value within a seven day window centred on the excursion day. Smoky days were defined as those with PM2.5 levels ≥ 25 µg/m3. Most excursions (57%-71%) were assigned measured or modeled PM2.5 concentrations of 10 µg/m3 or higher. Of the smoky days, 55.8% and 69.8% were associated with at least one excursion for physician visits and salbutamol dispensations, respectively. BCAMS alerted most often when measures of smoke exposure were relatively high. Better performance might be realized by combining asthma-related outcome metrics in a bivariate model.

  14. Bits and Pieces ehk kolumna. White label : Chungin & The Strap-On Faggots. Kuula / DJ Pickney Tiger

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    DJ Pickney Tiger, pseud., 1970-

    2008-01-01

    Popmuusikauudised. Punk-ansamblist. Heliplaatidest: Sigur Ros "Hvart", Waylon Jennings "The Essential", "Eesti Rock Antoloogia", The Dynamics "Version Excursion", Pat Metheny "Secret Story", Raadio Maria "Siin Tallinn", Killers "Sawdust", "Electric Cypsyland 2: A Crammed Discs"

  15. Theoretical and experimental study of the light deflection by a frequency modulated ultrasonic wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guessoum, A.; Laouar, N.; Ferria, K.

    2017-12-01

    A formula that describes angular excursion variation of an acousto-optical deflector is theoretically demonstrated and experimentally confirmed. This deflector is obtained using a laser beam interaction with a frequency modulated ultrasonic sinusoidal wave in a liquid medium. The obtained results show that each diffracted order position varies sinusoidally around its central position, in the same rhythm as the modulating signal. Moreover, the scanning frequency of the diffraction order increases linearly according to the modulating signal frequency. Furthermore, the increase in the frequency excursion leads to the increase of the angular excursion. All the theoretical results are confirmed experimentally. Finally, the frequency modulation index has been easily obtained with good precision using experimental measurements of the diffracted order angular excursion.

  16. Development of a Hybrid Hands-Off Human Computer Interface Based on Electromyogram Signals and Eye-Gaze Tracking

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lyons, E

    2001-01-01

    ...) and Electromyogram (EMG) signals is introduced. This system combines the advantages of both subsystems, providing quick cursor displacement in long excursions and steady, accurate movement in small position adjustments...

  17. 76 FR 40984 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-12

    ... waters, with high-quality catering provided. As a professional oceanographer I will be sharing my... Excursions, with high-quality catering. Up-close fireworks displays will be seen on weekend evenings when Sea...

  18. The effect of a brief northward turning in IMF Bz on solar wind‐magnetosphere coupling in a global MHD simulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pham, Kevin H; Lopez, Ramon E; Bruntz, Robert

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we examine the response of the magnetosphere‐ionopshere (M‐I) system to a transient northward excursion in the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) using the Lyon‐Fedder‐Mobarry (LFM...

  19. 40 CFR 63.1283 - Inspection and monitoring requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., “Atmospheric Rich/Lean Method for Determining Glycol Dehydrator Emissions” (GRI-95/0368.1) as inputs for the... when the excursion occurs during any one of the following periods: (A) During a period of startup...

  20. 77 FR 8002 - Unified Agenda of Federal Regulatory and Deregulatory Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-13

    ... Americans With 3014-AA11 Disabilities Act (ADA) Accessibility Guidelines for Transportation Vehicles... Guidelines for Buildings and Facilities: Public Rights- of-Way. ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS...) Accessibility Guidelines for Transportation Vehicles to include additional requirements for ferries, excursion...

  1. Elasto-plastic frame under horizontal and vertical Gaussian excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Tarp-Johansen, Niels Jacob; Randrup-Thomsen, S.

    1999-01-01

    /compression axial force. Assuming that the horizontal excitationof the traverse is Gaussian white noise, statistics related to the plastic displacement response are determinedby use of simulation based on the Slepian modelprocess method combined with envelope excursion properties. Besidesgiving physical insight...

  2. Field Trips: An Effective Supplement to Humane Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRosa, Bill

    1986-01-01

    Applies research on the instructional effectiveness of science-oriented field trips to humane education programs. Advocates the use of animal-related field trips and provides guidelines for excursion activities. (ML)

  3. A digital to analog converter

    OpenAIRE

    Westra, Jan R.; Annema, Anne J.

    2000-01-01

    A digital to analog converter for a multibit digital input signal has a set of conversion elements for the positive signal excursions and a set of conversion elements for the negative signal excursions. In each set the conversion elements are selected according to a dynamic element matching algorithm. To improve the mismatch-noise shaping of these algorithms, excess conversion elements may be additionally selected.

  4. Validating a universal model of particle transport lengths with laboratory measurements of suspended grain motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqshband, Suleyman; McElroy, Brandon; Mahon, Robert C.

    2017-05-01

    The mechanics of sediment transport are of fundamental importance for fluvio-deltaic morphodynamics. The present study focuses on quantifying particle motions and trajectories across a wide range of flow conditions. In particular, a continuous model is presented that predicts particle travel distances for saltation and suspension based on Rouse number and relative grain roughness. By utilizing a series of eight video cameras in a plexiglass flume direct measurements of the distributions of particle travel distances (excursion lengths) were obtained. To this end, experiments were carried out in dark under black lights with fluorescent painted plastic and quartz sand particles. For relatively high Rouse numbers indicating bed load dominant transport regime (P≥2.5), particle motion is governed by the effect of gravitational forces (settling velocities) and measured excursion lengths closely follow a Gaussian distribution. For P=2.5, particle motion is equally subjected to both gravitational and turbulent forces. Consequently, measured excursion lengths exhibit a bimodal distribution with two distinct peaks. As turbulent fluctuations increase and dominate particle motion over gravity (P(P=1.8-8.9). Furthermore, measured excursion lengths are observed to fit within the predicted range of excursion lengths with no significant difference between measured excursion lengths of plastic and quartz sand particles.

  5. Superior vena cava flow and tricuspid anular motion after cardioversion of atrial fibrillation, and role of right atrial relaxation on systolic venous return.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochi, H; Izumi, S; Murakami, R; Shimada, T; Morioka, S; Moriyama, K

    1991-11-15

    To determine whether atrial relaxation or systolic descent of the tricuspid anulus is the predominant factor determining systolic venous return, 22 patients with atrial fibrillation were studied. Venous return (i.e., superior vena cava (SVC) flow) was measured using pulsed Doppler echocardiography. Systolic descent of the tricuspid anulus (i.e., total excursion of tricuspid anulus during systole) was also measured using echocardiography. Serial examinations were performed before and after cardioversion of atrial fibrillation in 15 patients. In 11 patients, both the total excursion of the tricuspid anulus and SVC flow were examined in relation to the ratio of the preceding to the pre-preceding RR interval (R2/R1). Systolic forward flow of SVC increased as the ratio of late diastolic to total excursion of the tricuspid anulus (i.e., right atrial systolic function) increased. It correlated significantly with the ratio of late diastolic to total excursion of the tricuspid anulus but not with total excursion. Total excursion of the tricuspid anulus correlated significantly with R2/R1, but systolic forward flow of SVC did not. These results indicate that atrial relaxation rather than systolic descent of the tricuspid anulus was the predominant factor determining systolic forward flow in the SVC.

  6. Variability in Glycemic Control with Temperature Transitions during Therapeutic Hypothermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystal K. Haase

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Patients treated with therapeutic hypothermia (TH and continuous insulin may be at increased risk of hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia, particularly during temperature transitions. This study aimed to evaluate frequency of glucose excursions during each phase of TH and to characterize glycemic control patterns in relation to survival. Methods. Patients admitted to a tertiary care hospital for circulatory arrest and treated with both therapeutic hypothermia and protocol-based continuous insulin between January 2010 and June 2013 were included. Glucose measures, insulin, and temperatures were collected through 24 hours after rewarming. Results. 24 of 26 patients experienced glycemic excursions. Hyperglycemic excursions were more frequent during initiation versus remaining phases (36.3%, 4.3%, 2.5%, and 4.0%, p=0.002. Hypoglycemia occurred most often during rewarming (0%, 7.7%, 23.1%, and 3.8%, p=0.02. Patients who experienced hypoglycemia had higher insulin doses prior to rewarming (16.2 versus 2.1 units/hr, p=0.03. Glucose variation was highest during hypothermia and trended higher in nonsurvivors compared to survivors (13.38 versus 9.16, p=0.09. Frequency of excursions was also higher in nonsurvivors (32.3% versus 19.8%, p=0.045. Conclusions. Glycemic excursions are common and occur more often in nonsurvivors. Excursions differ by phase but risk of hypoglycemia is increased during rewarming.

  7. A carbon isotopic and sedimentological record of the latest Devonian (Famennian) from the Western U.S. and Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrow, P.M.; Strauss, J.V.; Creveling, J.R.; Sicard, K.R.; Ripperdan, R.; Sandberg, C.A.; Hartenfels, S.

    2011-01-01

    New carbon isotopic data from upper Famennian deposits in the western United States reveal two previously unrecognized major positive isotopic excursions. The first is an abrupt ~. 3??? positive excursion, herein referred to as ALFIE (A Late Famennian Isotopic Excursion), recorded in two sections of the Pinyon Peak Limestone of north-central Utah. Integration of detailed chemostratigraphic and biostratigraphic data suggests that ALFIE is the Laurentian record of the Dasberg Event, which has been linked to transgression in Europe and Morocco. Sedimentological data from the Chaffee Group of western Colorado also record transgression at a similar biostratigraphic position, with a shift from restricted to open-marine lithofacies. ALFIE is not evident in chemostratigraphic data from age-equivalent strata in Germany studied herein and in southern Europe, either because it is a uniquely North American phenomenon, or because the German sections are too condensed relative to those in Laurentia. A second positive carbon isotopic excursion from the upper Chaffee Group of Colorado is recorded in transgressive strata deposited directly above a previously unrecognized paleokarst interval. The age of this excursion, and the duration of the associated paleokarst hiatus, are not well constrained, although the events occurred sometime after the Late Famennian Middle expansa Zone. The high positive values recorded in this excursion are consistent with those associated with the youngest Famennian Middle to Late praesulcata Hangenberg Isotopic Excursion in Europe, the isotopic expression of the Hangenberg Event, which included mass extinction, widespread black shale deposition, and a glacio-eustatic fall and rise. If correct, this would considerably revise the age of the Upper Chaffee Group strata of western Colorado. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  8. Disentangling the Hettangian carbon isotope record: Implications for the aftermath of the end-Triassic mass extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolini, A.; Guex, J.; Spangenberg, J. E.; Schoene, B.; Taylor, D. G.; Schaltegger, U.; Atudorei, V.

    2012-01-01

    This study provides an organic carbon stable isotope (δ13Corg) record calibrated with detailed ammonite biostratigraphy, following the end-Triassic biological crisis. Precise correlation between this crucial fossil group and the δ13Corg record is key to understanding feedbacks between biological and environmental events following mass extinction. The latest Triassic and Hettangian δ13Corg record shows several negative and positive excursions. The end-Triassic negative shift coinciding with the mass extinction interval is followed by a positive excursion in the earliest Hettangian Psiloceras spelae beds, which marks the onset of recovery in the marine ecosystem. This positive trend is interrupted by a second negative δ13Corg excursion in the P. pacificum beds related to a minor ammonite extinction event. This pattern of the δ13Corg curve culminates in the uppermost Hettangian Angulata Zone major positive excursion. This indicates that both the ecosystem and the carbon cycle remained in a state of perturbation for at least 2 Ma, although the recovery of some pelagic taxa already began at the base of Jurassic. The early and late Hettangian positive δ13Corg excursions have been confused in several recent papers. Here, we show that during the Hettangian there are indeed two distinct positive δ13Corg excursions. Phases of anoxia and further pulses of Central Atlantic Magmatic Province volcanism during the Hettangian might have inhibited the full recovery for that interval of time. The main Liasicus-Angulata organic positive CIE (carbon isotope excursion) during the Late Hettangian might be related to gradual decreasing of pCO2 due to protracted high organic burial, and coincides with a second phase of recovery, as indicated by a pulse of ammonoid diversification.

  9. Moebius syndrome: the new finding of hypertrophy of the coronoid process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, A E; McCarthy, J G; Nichter, L S; Thorne, C H

    1999-01-01

    The first detailed description of congenital facial paralysis was reported by Moebius in 1888. It is characterized by either unilateral or bilateral paralysis of the facial muscles and an associated abducens palsy. The present report is of two patients with Moebius syndrome, who were also diagnosed with trismus at birth. Each patient also demonstrated bilateral hypertrophy of the coronoid process of the mandible. In effect, the zygoma obstructed the excursion of the mandible because of a "coronoid block." A three-dimensional computed tomography scan demonstrated normal temporomandibular joints but bilateral hypertrophy of the coronoid processes and micrognathia. Both patients demonstrated less than 10 mm of oral excursion. Bilateral coronoidectomies were performed through an intraoral approach. The oral excursions after surgery increased to at least 20 mm. In each of these patients, the coronoid process was enlarged relative to the zygoma, which was of normal size and configuration. The trismus was associated with blocking of the coronoid by the anterior zygoma, preventing open or full excursion of the hypoplastic mandibles. Moebius syndrome can have a variable presentation at birth. In two patients, the authors describe a new finding of hypertrophy of the coronoid process and trismus secondary to obstruction of the coronoid by the hypertrophic zygomas during oral excursions. Each patient is described, and a review of the literature is discussed.

  10. Palaeoceanography: methane release in the Early Jurassic period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wignall, Paul B; McArthur, John M; Little, Crispin T S; Hallam, Anthony

    2006-06-01

    Dramatic global warming, triggered by release of methane from clathrates, has been postulated to have occurred during the early Toarcian age in the Early Jurassic period. Kemp et al. claim that this methane was released at three points, as recorded by three sharp excursions of delta13C(org) of up to 3 per thousand magnitude. But they discount another explanation for the excursions: namely that some, perhaps all, of the rapid excursions could be a local signature of a euxinic basin caused by recycling of isotopically light carbon from the lower water column. This idea has been proposed previously (see ref. 3, for example) and is supported by the lack evidence for negative delta13C excursions in coeval belemnite rostra. Kemp et al. dismiss this alternative, claiming that each abrupt shift would have required the recycling of about double the amount of organic carbon that is currently present in the modern ocean; however, their measurements are not from an ocean but from a restricted, epicontinental seaway and so would not require whole-ocean mixing to achieve the excursions.

  11. Carbon isotope signatures of latest Permian marine successions of the Southern Alps suggest a continental runoff pulse enriched in land plant material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Kraus

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The latest Permian mass extinction, the most severe Phanerozoic biotic crisis, is marked by dramatic changes in palaeoenvironments. These changes significantly disrupted the global carbon cycle, reflected by a prominent and well known negative carbon isotope excursion recorded in marine and continental sediments. Carbon isotope trends of bulk carbonate and bulk organic matter in marine deposits of the European Southern Alps near the low-latitude marine event horizon deviate from each other. A positive excursion of several permil in δ13Corg starts earlier and is much more pronounced than the short-term positive 13Ccarb excursion; both excursions interrupt the general negative trend. Throughout the entire period investigated, 13Corg values become lighter with increasing distance from the palaeocoastline. Changing 13Corg values may be due to the influx of comparatively isotopically heavy land plant material. The stronger influence of land plant material on the 13Corg during the positive isotope excursion indicates a temporarily enhanced continental runoff that may either reflect increased precipitation, possibly triggered by aerosols originating from Siberian Trap volcanism, or indicate higher erosion rate in the face of reduced land vegetation cover. doi:10.1002/mmng.201300004

  12. Geometrical effects of conventional and digital prosthodontic planning wax-ups on lateral occlusal contact number, contact area, and steepness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abduo, Jaafar

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated and compared the effect of conventional and digital wax-ups on three lateral occlusion variables: contact number, contact area, and steepness. Dental casts of 10 patients with Angle Class I relationship were included in the study. All patients required fixed prosthodontic treatment that would affect lateral occlusion. The casts of all patients received conventional and digital wax-ups. For pretreatment, conventional wax-up, and digital wax-up casts, contact number, contact area, and occlusion steepness were measured at four lateral positions, that is, at excursions of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 mm from maximal intercuspation. Lateral occlusion scheme variables were affected by use of diagnostic wax-ups. For all types of casts, contact number decreased as excursion increased. The two types of wax-ups had similar contact number patterns, and contact number was significantly greater for these casts than for pretreatment casts in the earlier stages of excursion. Similarly, contact area gradually decreased with increasing excursion in the pretreatment and conventional and digital wax-up casts. There was only a minimal decrease in occlusion steepness as excursion increased. However, lateral occlusion was generally steeper for digital wax-up casts.

  13. Limits of stability in patients with vascular (due to diabetes) and nonvascular unilateral transtibial amputation: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Rueda, Francisco; Molero-Sánchez, Alberto; Carratalá-Tejada, María; Cuesta-Gómez, Alicia; Miangolarra-Page, Juan C; Alguacil-Diego, Isabel M

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the differences in the stability limits between patients with vascular and nonvascular unilateral transtibial amputation (UTA) and patients without amputation. Eighteen patients with UTA who used a prosthesis were divided into two groups: vascular (n=9) and nonvascular (n=9). Twenty-four patients without amputation served as the control group. Computerized dynamic posturography Smart EquiTest System, version 8.0 was used for measuring stability limits. The limits of stability test was used to assess the participants' ability to voluntarily sway to various locations in space. The measured parameters were maximum centre of gravity (COG) excursion, endpoint COG excursion and directional control. Single-factor analysis of variance and Bonferroni adjustment a posteriori tests was performed to investigate the differences between groups. The patients with vascular UTA had significantly lower endpoint COG excursion to oblique and forward direction compared with controls (P=0.017). In addition, the patients with vascular UTA had significantly lower maximum COG excursion to oblique and forward and to oblique and backward directions (P=0.031; 0.019). Patients with vascular UTA had significantly lower endpoint and maximum COG excursion to oblique and backward direction compared with patients with nonvascular UTA (P=0.30; 0.029). To summarize, patients with vascular UTA have substantially reduced limits of stability compared with patients without amputation and the patients with nonvascular UTA.

  14. Perception of a Sung Vowel as a Function of Frequency-Modulation Rate and Excursionin Normal-Hearing and Hearing-Impaired Listeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vatti, Marianna; Santurette, Sébastien; Pontoppidan, Niels henrik

    2014-01-01

    affects the perception of a sung vowel based on FM cues. Method: Vibrato maps were obtained in 14 NH and 12 HI listeners with different degrees of musical experience. The FM rate and FM excursion of a synthesized vowel, to which coherent FM was applied, were adjusted until a singing voice emerged. Results......: In NH listeners, adding FM to the steady vowel components produced perception of a singing voice for FM rates between 4.1 and 7.5 Hz and FM excursions between 17 and 83 cents on average. In contrast, HI listeners showed substantially broader vibrato maps. Individual differences in map boundaries were......, overall, not correlated with audibility or frequency selectivity at the vowel fundamental frequency, with no clear effect of musical experience. Conclusion: Overall, it was shown that hearing loss affects the perception of a sung vowel based on FM-rate and FM-excursion cues, possibly due to deficits in FM...

  15. Carbon isotope chemostratigraphy of the Llandovery in northern peri-Gondwana: new data from the Barrandian area, Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Frýda

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The first complete δ13Corg record of the uppermost Hirnantian to lower Telychian strata of the Barrandian area (northern peri-Gondwana is presented based on 168 new samples. The new data from the study area reveal that the evolution of the Llandoverian organic carbon isotope reservoir was similar to that on other palaeoplates, but it differs from the development of the coeval carbonate carbon isotope reservoir in the absence of two δ13C excursions (i.e. the early Aeronian positive excursion in the upper part of the Demirastrites triangulatus graptolite Biozone and a negative excursion occurring close to the boundary between the Cystograptus vesiculosus and Coronograptus cyphus graptolite biozones.

  16. A Review of Criticality Accidents 2000 Revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas P. McLaughlin; Shean P. Monahan; Norman L. Pruvost; Vladimir V. Frolov; Boris G. Ryazanov; Victor I. Sviridov

    2000-05-01

    Criticality accidents and the characteristics of prompt power excursions are discussed. Sixty accidental power excursions are reviewed. Sufficient detail is provided to enable the reader to understand the physical situation, the chemistry and material flow, and when available the administrative setting leading up to the time of the accident. Information on the power history, energy release, consequences, and causes are also included when available. For those accidents that occurred in process plants, two new sections have been included in this revision. The first is an analysis and summary of the physical and neutronic features of the chain reacting systems. The second is a compilation of observations and lessons learned. Excursions associated with large power reactors are not included in this report.

  17. Analysis of mandibular motion following unilateral and bilateral alloplastic TMJ reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voiner, J; Yu, J; Deitrich, P; Chafin, C; Giannakopoulos, H

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the masticatory patterns and range of motion (maximal incisal opening (MIO), protrusion and lateral excursion) in patients who have had unilateral and bilateral temporomandibular joint (TMJ) replacement with an alloplastic prosthesis, and compare them to each other and to normal controls. Mandibular motion was examined in 18 patients, who had undergone alloplastic TMJ reconstruction, 13 with a bilateral prosthesis and 5 with a unilateral prosthesis, and in 13 normal controls. A statistically significant difference (Pprotrusion was only statistically significantly different (Pprotrusion between the unilateral and bilateral groups. Even though maximum ipsilateral lateral excursion was greater for the unilateral group than either left or right maximum lateral excursion by the bilateral group, this difference was not statistically significant. This study provided an in vivo analysis of mandibular motion following alloplastic TMJ reconstruction. Copyright © 2011 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Sex-specific gait adaptations prior to and up to six months after ACL reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasi, Stephanie L. Di; Hartigan, Erin H.; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN Controlled longitudinal laboratory study. OBJECTIVES Compare sagittal plane gait mechanics of men and women before and up to 6 months after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). BACKGROUND Aberrant gait patterns are ubiquitous after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture and persist after ACLR despite skilled physical therapy. Sex influences post-operative function and second ACL injury risk, but its influence on gait adaptations after injury have not been investigated. METHODS Sagittal plane knee and hip joint excursions during midstance and internal knee and hip extension moments at peak knee flexion were collected on 12 women and 27 men using 3-dimensional gait analysis before (Screen) and after pre-operative physical therapy (Pre-sx), and 6 months after ACLR (6mo). Repeated measures analysis of variance models were used to determine whether limb asymmetries changed differently over time in men and women. RESULTS Significant time x limb x sex interactions were identified for hip and knee excursions and internal knee extension moments (P≤.007). Both sexes demonstrated smaller knee excursions on the involved compared to the uninvolved knee at each time point (P≤.007), but only women demonstrated a decrease in the involved knee excursion from pre-sx to 6mo (P=.03). Women also demonstrated smaller hip excursions (P<.001) and internal knee extension moments (P=.005) on the involved limb compared to the uninvolved limb at 6mo. Men demonstrated smaller hip excursions and knee moments on the involved limb compared to the uninvolved limb (main effects, P<.001). CONCLUSION The persistence of limb asymmetries in men and women 6 months after ACLR indicates that current rehabilitation efforts are inadequate for some individuals following ACLR. PMID:25627155

  19. Carbon isotopes and lipid biomarkers from organic-rich facies of the Shuram Formation, Sultanate of Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C; Fike, D A; Love, G D; Sessions, A L; Grotzinger, J P; Summons, R E; Fischer, W W

    2013-09-01

    The largest recorded carbon isotopic excursion in Earth history is observed globally in carbonate rocks of middle Ediacaran age. Known from the Sultanate of Oman as the 'Shuram excursion', this event records a dramatic, systematic shift in δ(13) Ccarbonate values to ca. -12‰. Attempts to explain the nature, magnitude and origin of this excursion include (i) a primary signal resulting from the protracted oxidation of a large dissolved organic carbon reservoir in seawater, release of methane from sediment-hosted clathrates, or water column stratification; and (ii) a secondary signal from diagenetic processes. The compositions and isotope ratios of organic carbon phases during the excursion are critical to evaluating these ideas; however, previous work has focused on localities that are low in organic carbon, hindering straightforward interpretation of the observed time-series trends. We report carbon isotope data from bulk organic carbon, extracted bitumen and kerogen, in addition to lipid biomarker data, from a subsurface well drilled on the eastern flank of the South Oman Salt Basin, Sultanate of Oman. This section captures Nafun Group strata through the Ediacaran-Cambrian boundary in the Ara Group and includes an organic-rich, deeper-water facies of the Shuram Formation. Despite the high organic matter contents, the carbon isotopic compositions of carbonates - which record a negative δ(13) C isotope excursion similar in shape and magnitude to sections elsewhere in Oman - do not covary with those of organic phases (bulk TOC, bitumen and kerogen). Paired inorganic and organic δ(13) C data only display coupled behaviour during the latter part of the excursion's recovery. Furthermore, lipid biomarker data reveal that organic matter composition and source inputs varied stratigraphically, reflecting biological community shifts in non-migrated, syngenetic organic matter deposited during this interval. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. An open ocean record of the Toarcian oceanic anoxic event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Gröcke

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Oceanic anoxic events were time intervals in the Mesozoic characterized by widespread distribution of marine organic matter-rich sediments (black shales and significant perturbations in the global carbon cycle. These perturbations are globally recorded in sediments as carbon isotope excursions irrespective of lithology and depositional environment. During the early Toarcian, black shales were deposited on the epi- and pericontinental shelves of Pangaea, and these sedimentary rocks are associated with a pronounced (ca. 7 ‰ negative (organic carbon isotope excursion (CIE which is thought to be the result of a major perturbation in the global carbon cycle. For this reason, the lower Toarcian is thought to represent an oceanic anoxic event (the T-OAE. If the T-OAE was indeed a global event, an isotopic expression of this event should be found beyond the epi- and pericontinental Pangaean localities. To address this issue, the carbon isotope composition of organic matter (δ13Corg of lower Toarcian organic matter-rich cherts from Japan, deposited in the open Panthalassa Ocean, was analysed. The results show the presence of a major (>6 ‰ negative excursion in δ13Corg that, based on radiolarian biostratigraphy, is a correlative of the lower Toarcian negative CIE known from Pangaean epi- and pericontinental strata. A smaller negative excursion in δ13Corg (ca. 2 ‰ is recognized lower in the studied succession. This excursion may, within the current biostratigraphic resolution, represent the excursion recorded in European epicontinental successions close to the Pliensbachian/Toarcian boundary. These results from the open ocean realm suggest, in conjunction with other previously published datasets, that these Early Jurassic carbon cycle perturbations affected the active global reservoirs of the exchangeable carbon cycle (deep marine, shallow marine, atmospheric.

  1. Influence of dietary protein on postprandial blood glucose levels in individuals with Type 1 diabetes mellitus using intensive insulin therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, M A; Smart, C E M; Lopez, P E; McElduff, P; Attia, J; Morbey, C; King, B R

    2016-05-01

    To determine the effects of protein alone (independent of fat and carbohydrate) on postprandial glycaemia in individuals with Type 1 diabetes mellitus using intensive insulin therapy. Participants with Type 1 diabetes mellitus aged 7-40 years consumed six 150 ml whey isolate protein drinks [0 g (control), 12.5, 25, 50, 75 and 100] and two 150 ml glucose drinks (10 and 20 g) without insulin, in randomized order over 8 days, 4 h after the evening meal. Continuous glucose monitoring was used to assess postprandial glycaemia. Data were collected from 27 participants. Protein loads of 12.5 and 50 g did not result in significant postprandial glycaemic excursions compared with control (water) throughout the 300 min study period (P > 0.05). Protein loads of 75 and 100 g resulted in lower glycaemic excursions than control in the 60-120 min postprandial interval, but higher excursions in the 180-300 min interval. In comparison with 20 g glucose, the large protein loads resulted in significantly delayed and sustained glucose excursions, commencing at 180 min and continuing to 5 h. Seventy-five grams or more of protein alone significantly increases postprandial glycaemia from 3 to 5 h in people with Type 1 diabetes mellitus using intensive insulin therapy. The glycaemic profiles resulting from high protein loads differ significantly from the excursion from glucose in terms of time to peak glucose and duration of the glycaemic excursion. This research supports recommendations for insulin dosing for large amounts of protein. © 2015 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Diabetes UK.

  2. Solar maximum mission panel jettison analysis remote manipulator system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, R. B.

    1980-01-01

    A study is presented of the development of the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) configurations for jettison of the solar panels on the Solar Maximum Mission/Multimission Satellite. A valid RMS maneuver between jettison configurations was developed. Arm and longeron loads and effector excursions due to the solar panel jettison were determined to see if they were within acceptable limits. These loads and end effector excursions were analyzed under two RMS modes, servos active in position hold submode, and in the brakes on mode.

  3. Continuous glucose monitoring: current use and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSalvo, Daniel; Buckingham, Bruce

    2013-10-01

    Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is an emerging technology that provides a continuous measure of interstitial glucose levels. In addition to providing a more complete pattern of glucose excursions, CGMs utilize real-time alarms for thresholds and predictions of hypo- and hyperglycemia, as well as rate of change alarms for rapid glycemic excursions. CGM users have been able to improve glycemic control without increasing their risk of hypoglycemia. Sensor accuracy, reliability, and wearability are important challenges to CGM success and are critical to the development of an artificial pancreas (or closed-loop system).

  4. Tibet-The Last Frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Elmar R.; Reiter, Gabriella J.

    1981-01-01

    From 2 to 14 June 1980 the authors participated in an excursion by jeepacross Tibet, following the road from Lhosa via Gyangze, Xigaze, Tingri, and Nyalam to Zham on the Nepal border. The excursion was organized by the Academia Sinica, with direct support by Vice-Chairman and Vice-Premier Deng Xiaoping and Vice-Premier Feng Yi, and relied on the excellent logistic support of the Chinese People's Liberation Army. This report gives an account of impressions, including those of local and regional meteorological and climatological problems.

  5. Sinemurian–Pliensbachian calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy and organic carbon isotope stratigraphy in the Paris Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peti, Leonie; Thibault, Nicolas Rudolph; Clemence, Marie-Emilie

    2017-01-01

    organic carbon isotope curve based on 385 data points. The main bioevents, i.e. the first occurrences of Parhabdolithus liasicus, Crepidolithus pliensbachensis, Crepidolithus crassus, Mitrolithus lenticularis, Similiscutum cruciulus sensu lato, Lotharingius hauffii, Crepidolithus cavus and Lotharingius...... carbon isotope excursions are identified and defined in the Paris Basin including the well-documented Sinemurian–Pliensbachian boundary event. One positive excursion is further defined in the Pliensbachian interval. Our calibration of high-resolution calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy to ammonite...... biostratigraphy and organic carbon isotopes represents a new stratigraphic reference for the Lower Jurassic series....

  6. Development of a new simulation code for evaluation of criticality transients involving fissile solution boiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basoglu, Benan; Yamamoto, Toshihiro; Okuno, Hiroshi; Nomura, Yasushi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    In this work, we report on the development of a new computer code named TRACE for predicting the excursion characteristics of criticality excursions involving fissile solutions. TRACE employs point neutronics coupled with simple thermal-hydraulics. The temperature, the radiolytic gas effects, and the boiling phenomena are estimated using the transient heat conduction equation, a lumped-parameter energy model, and a simple boiling model, respectively. To evaluate the model, we compared our results with the results of CRAC experiments. The agreement in these comparisons is quite satisfactory. (author)

  7. In search of a gust definition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, L.; Casanova, M.; Courtney, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    We propose a simple gust definition based on the theory of excursions by Rice (1944 and 1945). We discuss the relation to the distribution of extreme events and demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that the most probable extreme event is very close to being identical to the gust according...... to our definition. We demonstrate how it is possible to predict the gust on the basis of the measured mean wind and variance rather than rely on actually measured extreme excursions. Our gust definition also allows us to predict the average duration of a gust....

  8. Engineering Design Handbook. Explosions in Air. Part One

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-07-15

    Reactor Core Excursions, BRL waston, Berkshire, England, April 1967. Memorandum Report No. 1102, Aber- deen Proving Ground, Md., September 16. C. H. Norris...March 1950). Nuclear Reactor Core Excursions, BRL Memorandum Report No. 1102, Sep- 24. H. E. Lindberg and R. D. Firth, Struc- tme 97 tural Response of...k > ɘ (flow out) T ~ a;+ Vak ~I+k p",k i k* if a< >0 (flow in) (413) + FI n~ 2 iV~ (Af whr F, k is Wi, Uk ’r, 1k epciey n % + ,k ’i + VP+ l i + ,kAt

  9. €—l—eomonsoon —nd p—l—eoprodu™tivity re™ords of IVyD IQg ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (Guptha et al 1990) do not support this. Gupta et al charge due to the weakening of the southwest mon-. (1992) propose that the negative excursion was caused. Soon and probable enhancement in the discharge from by warming and consequent melting of the Tibetan ice the peninsular rivers, which drained vast amounts ...

  10. Suburban Ark [Eng. versie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doepel, D.; Matton, T.; Timmermans, W.

    2006-01-01

    This publication deals with a number of topical issues brought together on a installation called the Suburban Ark. The theme of this installation was The Flood, which was also the theme of the 2nd International Architecture Biennial in Rotterdam. In a series of lectures, excursions, and workshops

  11. Upwelling filaments are cold, typically narrow features in surface ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    Where eddies draw recently upwelled water away from the coast, they create a surface temperature structure similar to a squirt. The last conceptual model consisted of a continuous equatorward jet, meandering offshore and onshore. During onshore excursions, the jet entrains coastally upwelled water and creates fila-.

  12. The Boyhood of Birbal Sahni -42 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the Kumaun Himalaya. During these visits, Birbal made exten- sive collections of plants. M R Sahni states [7] (p.81): . " I accompanied him on most of these Himalayan excursions and recall the thrill that we experienced when a plant new to the collection or an. While traversing the. Zo Jila Pass, then almost inaccessible,.

  13. Addition of a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, sitagliptin, to ongoing therapy with the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist liraglutide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nauck, Michael A; Kahle, Melanie; Baranov, Oleg

    2017-01-01

    AimTo determine whether the addition of sitagliptin to pre-existing therapy with liraglutide changes glycaemic excursions after a mixed meal. MethodsA total of 16 patients with type 2 diabetes treated with metformin and liraglutide (1.2 mg/d for ≥2 weeks) were randomized (sealed envelopes), within...

  14. HbA(1c) and mean blood glucose show stronger associations with cardiovascular disease risk factors than do postprandial glycaemia or glucose variability in persons with diabetes: the A1C-Derived Average Glucose (ADAG) study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borg, R.; Kuenen, J.C.; Carstensen, B.; Zheng, H.; Nathan, D.M.; Heine, R.J.; Nerup, J.; Borch-Johnsen, K.; Witte, D.R.

    2011-01-01

    Aims: Increased glucose excursions and postprandial hyperglycaemia have been suggested as unique risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus. Much of the evidence is based on a single 2 h glucose value after oral glucose tolerance testing in

  15. Mechanism of Intramolecular Photostabilization in Self-Healing Cyanine Fluorophores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde, Jasper H. M.; Ploetz, Evelyn; Hiermaier, Matthias; Oelerich, Jens; de Vries, Jan; Roelfes, Johannes; Cordes, Thorben

    2013-01-01

    Organic fluorophores, which are popular labels for microscopy applications, intrinsically suffer from transient and irreversible excursions to dark-states. An alternative to adding photostabilizers at high concentrations to the imaging buffer relies on the direct linkage to the fluorophore. However,

  16. Science Safaris: Developing Bold Academic Explorers outside the Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilbronner, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    Science, like most subjects, can only come alive when students are actively engaged in real-life pursuits that interest and challenge them (VanTassel-Baska and Bass 1998). Here the author describes how she was able to bring science to life for her middle school students through a series of Science Safaris--inquiry-based excursions to a variety of…

  17. [Madison School Forests Ecology Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madison Public Schools, WI.

    Each of these three booklets is to be used in conjunction with a field trip in the Madison, Wisconsin area, and to serve as a guide for presenting the filmstrips for each excursion. "Madison School Forests" emphasizes plant succession in a natural oak community. "Three Layers of Green in the Madison School Forest" emphasizes…

  18. Walking through the Revolution: A Spatial Reading of Literary Echoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Ana Isabel; Alves, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an embryo of a literary guide on the Carnation Revolution to be explored for educational historical excursions other than leisure and tourism. We propose a historical trail through the centre of Lisbon, city of the Carnation Revolution, called "Walk through the Revolution." The trail aims to reinforce collective…

  19. Change in email domain name

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    821 Quantum Computation. Particle and Wave Aspects of Algorithms. Apoorva Patel. 836 Excursions into Diverse Fields. Jagdish Mehra. 849 The Errors of Feynman and Hibbs. Daniel Styer. SERIES ARTICLES. 854 Dawn of Science. The Invisible Weight. T Padmanabhan. REFLECTIONS. 860 What is Science? Richard ...

  20. 76 FR 10086 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-23

    ... group of freight cars and locomotives built after 1945, in public excursion service as operating... chartered programs designed for photographers, film production, and for ] railroad historians. Revenue from these activities is used to further restore/maintain these cars for public display. On occasion, these...

  1. Implementation of Collaborative Learning as a High-Impact Practice in a Natural Resources Management Section of Freshman Seminar

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBroom, Matthew; Bullard, Steven; Kulhavy, David; Unger, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Forestry and environmental science students enrolled in a one credit hour freshman seminar course participated in a land management evaluation and water quality sampling excursion using canoes and water sampling equipment. The purpose of this assessment was to engage students with hands-on, field based education in order to foster connections to…

  2. Supervision of School and Youth Groups on Lift-Served Ski Slopes: A Research Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Andrew; Holmes, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Supervised practice is a common feature of many snow sports excursions to downhill ski resorts by school or youth groups, often in combination with lessons from a ski school. What is the role of supervision in preventing mishaps, injury, or fatalities? This article presents results of a search of published snow sports safety research for evidence…

  3. Width and rugosity of the topological plasma flow structures and their relation to the radial flights of particle tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, L.; Llerena Rodríguez, I.; Carreras, B. A.

    2015-09-01

    An analysis of the distributions of the width and rugosity of topological plasma flow structures is presented for some resistive pressure-gradient-driven turbulence results. The distributions of the radial excursions of particle tracers during trappings are compared with those of the width and rugosity of the flow structures.

  4. Do a Dozen Dispatches Constitute a Consensus? (Middle School).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Claudia Anne; Johnson-Kuby, Sue Ann

    1997-01-01

    Reviews mail sent in response to a year's worth of "Middle School" columns in this journal. Notes that the column on a middle scholar's inquiry excursion went completely unnoticed and that the column on portfolio assessment received the most attention. (SR)

  5. Final Technical Report: Fundamental Research on the Fractionation of Carbon Isotopes during Photosynthesis, New Interpretations of Terrestrial Organic Carbon within Geologic Substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, Brian [Univ. of Louisiana, Lafayette (United States); Jahren, A. Hope [Univ. of Louisiana, Lafayette (United States)

    2017-11-30

    The goal for the current grant period (2013 – 2016) was to quantify the effect of changing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration (pCO2) on published terrestrial carbon isotope excursion events. This work supported four scientists across multiple career stages, and resulted in 5 published papers.

  6. Recent advances in flexor tendon repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.H.M. van der Meulen (Jacques)

    1971-01-01

    markdownabstractThe prognosis for restoration of good function after the treatment of a tendon lesion in 'no-man's land' is influenced by a number of factors which may be summarized as follows: - The nature of the injury. - The amplitude of the tendon excursion. - The motility of the

  7. Barbara Bodichon's Travel Writing: Her Epistolary Articulation of "Bildung"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon-Martin, Meritxell

    2016-01-01

    English painter Barbara Bodichon received a dynamic home education, consisting of engaging lessons, reading sessions, family discussions, sketching excursions, and trips at home and abroad. As an adult, Bodichon led a nomadic life, living between Algeria and England and travelling across Europe and America. Seeking to unpack travelling and travel…

  8. Development of Teacher Attitude Scale towards the Field Trip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortop, Hasan Said

    2012-01-01

    A field trip is an excursion by group of students with teachers to a place away from classroom such as natural field, science center, and zoo. So, it is an important tool for renewable energy education. This study was carried out to develop a new scale for measuring teacher attitudes towards the field trip. Teacher attitude scale towards the field…

  9. 38 CFR 4.46 - Accurate measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accurate measurement. 4... RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.46 Accurate measurement. Accurate measurement of the length of stumps, excursion of joints, dimensions and location of scars with respect to...

  10. The effect of pilates exercise on trunk and postural stability and throwing velocity in college baseball pitchers: single subject design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Tony; Howe, Katherine

    2007-02-01

    Baseball pitchers need trunk strength to maximize performance. The Pilates method of exercise is gaining popularity throughout the country as a fitness and rehabilitation method of exercise. However, very few studies exist that examine the effects of the Pilates method of exercise on trunk strength or performance. Using a single subject, multiple baseline across subjects design, this study examines the effects of the Pilates method of exercise on performance of double leg lowering, star excursion balance test, and throwing velocity in college-aged baseball pitchers. A convenience sample of three college baseball pitchers served as the subjects for this single subject design study. For each subject, double leg lowering, star excursion balance test, and throwing speed were measured prior to the introduction of the intervention. When baseline test values showed consistent performance, the intervention was introduced to one subject at a time. Intervention was introduced to the other subjects over a period of 4 weeks as they also demonstrated consistent performance on the baseline tests. Intervention was continued with periodic tests for the remainder of the 10 week trial. Each subject improved in performance on double leg lowering (increased 24.43-32.7%) and star excursion balance test (increased 4.63-17.84%) after introduction of the intervention. Throwing speed improved in two of the three subjects (up to 5.61%). The Pilates method of exercise may contribute to improved performance in double leg lowering, star excursion balance tests, and throwing speed in college baseball pitchers.

  11. Using EnergyPlus to Perform Dehumidification Analysis on Building America Homes: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, X.; Winkler, J.; Christensen, D.

    2011-03-01

    A parametric study was conducted using EnergyPlus version 6.0 to investigate humidity issues on a typical mid-1990s reference home, a 2006 International Energy Conservation Code home, and a high-performance home in a hot-humid climate. The impacts of various dehumidification equipment and controls are analyzed on the high performance home. The study examined the combined effects of infiltration and mechanical ventilation with balanced and unbalanced mechanical ventilation systems. Indoor relative humidity excursions were examined; specifically, the number of excursions, average excursion length, and maximum excursion length. Space relative humidity, thermal comfort, and whole-house source energy consumption were analyzed for indoor relative humidity set points of 50%, 55%, and 60%. The study showed and explained why similar trends of high humidity were observed in all three homes regardless of energy efficiency, and why humidity problems are not necessarily unique in high-performance homes. Thermal comfort analysis indicated that occupants are unlikely to notice indoor humidity problems. The study confirmed that supplemental dehumidification should be provided to maintain space relative humidity below 60% in a hot-humid climate.

  12. Exercise after You Eat: Hitting the Postprandial Glucose Target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa L. Erickson

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We discuss a novel hypothesis: the effect size of postmeal exercise for attenuating postprandial glucose will be a function of the exercise bout vs. the size of the postprandial glucose response, specifically peak and duration of the postprandial glucose excursion.

  13. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-07-16

    Jul 16, 2016 ... and goods (A'rabi and Izadi, 2008, 69). Tourism is an activity with many objectives and it is done in a place outside of the usual environment of the tourist and its purpose is entertainment, business or other activities (W.T.O 2005). In the opinion of the majority of the people the word tourism means excursions ...

  14. 70612-171057-1 Onguene corrected Proofs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    confo

    three years, mushroom excursions were carried out in four sites with contrasted soil and altitude characteristics of South Cameroon, during wet ... to the same Basidiomycete taxa as those that provide the fungal .... Table 3: List of putative ectomycorrhizal mushroom species by family, genus and species in humid forests of.

  15. Geography by Rail®: A New Twist on a Romantic Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Casey D.; Barbour, Jon M.

    2016-01-01

    Based on William Morris Davis' great Transcontinental Excursion of 1912, this article assesses and reviews the Geography by Rail® program (GbR)--a unique, short-term, field-based study abroad experience that takes an uncommon-in-the-US approach to international exploration and fieldwork, incorporating on-the-ground, regional geography-based…

  16. Compared to glibenclamide, repaglinide treatment results in a more rapid fall in glucose level and beta-cell secretion after glucose stimulation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink-Zandbergen, E.J.; Wal, P.S. van der; Sweep, C.G.J.; Smits, P.; Tack, C.J.J.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The more rapid onset of action and the shorter half-life of repaglinide may reduce the post-load glucose excursion and limit sustained insulin secretion compared to sulphonylurea (SU) derivatives. METHODS: We studied 12 patients with type 2 diabetes (age 62 +/- 2 years, BMI 28.3 +/- 1.3

  17. TERRITORIALITY: THE EXAMPLE OF THE WHITE RHINOCEROS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    were seen; and (iii) in encounters, even between bulls, aggression was only occasionally manifested. ... Thirty-five animals, mostly subadults, were marked with ear-tags. Ten radio transmitters were placed on cows and sub adults to assist in the detennination of range patterns. R ep rod u ced b ... Drinking excursions when.

  18. Tooth mobility changes subsequent to root fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jens Ove; Christensen, Søren Steno Ahrensburg; Tsilingaridis, Georgios

    2012-01-01

    with a Mühlemanns periodontometer and noninjured incisors served as controls. The mobility values represented the labial-lingual excursion of the root measured in μm when the tooth received a frontal and a palatal impact of 100 g force. In 18 cases of hard tissue healing (HT), a slightly increased mobility was seen...

  19. Homing Behaviour in an Atlantic Walrus (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Born, Erik W.; Aquarone, Mario; Knutsen, Lars Ø.

    2005-01-01

    four inshore summering periods (August to September), the animal used only one terrestrial haul-out from which it made excursions to the same general shallow water area (i.e., likely clam beds) in western Dove Bay (ca. 76º to 77º N). In different years, the size of the inshore foraging area varied...

  20. Invitation to the 17th international congress on photosynthesis research in 2016 : photosynthesis in a changing world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Amerongen, Herbert; Croce, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    The 17th International Congress on Photosynthesis will be held from August 7 to 12, 2016 in Maastricht, The Netherlands. The congress will include an opening reception, 15 plenary lectures, 28 scientific symposia, many poster sessions, displays by scientific companies, excursions, congress dinner,

  1. Final Report: Fundamental Research on the Fractionation of Carbon Isotopes during Photosynthesis, New Interpretations of Terrestrial Organic Carbon within Geologic Substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahren, A. Hope [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Schubert, Brian A. [Univ. of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA (United States)

    2017-08-02

    The goal for the current grant period (2013 – 2016) was to quantify the effect of changing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration (pCO2) on published terrestrial carbon isotope excursion events. This work supported four scientists across multiple career stages, and resulted in 5 published papers.

  2. Comparing the Security Strategies of the United States and the Republic of the Philippines Regarding Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    Zone GWOT Global War on Terrorism. The military campaign undertaken by the United States since the attacks of 9/11/2001. KALAHI Kapit-Bisig Laban sa...however, the NSP appears to consider China as a potential threat, stemming mainly from China’s excursions and provocative movements in the South

  3. 46 CFR 178.330 - Simplified stability proof test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... vessel carries passengers on diving excursions, the total weight of diving gear must be included in the loaded condition as follows: (A) The total weight of individual diving gear for each passenger carried is... measured as follows: (1) For a flush deck or well deck vessel, the freeboard must be measured to the top of...

  4. Task Content Familiarity, Task Type and Efficacy of Recasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revesz, Andrea; Han, ZhaoHong

    2006-01-01

    The role of recasts has been the subject of an increasing number of second language acquisition (SLA) studies in recent years, as has been the role of tasks. Few studies, nevertheless, exist that investigate the interaction between the two. The present study makes a preliminary excursion into this unexplored domain by examining the impact of two…

  5. Vigna unguiculata [Linn] Walp varieties

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADA) recommends a low carbohydrate diet to reduce weight for those with or at risk of type 2 diabetes.3 One of the ways of achieving low plasma glucose excursion is by ingestion of a low GI diet that is rich in fibre. GI factor is a ranking of foods ...

  6. Second order Volterra Inverses for Compensation of Loudspeaker Nonlinearity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schurer, H.; Schurer, Hans; Slump, Cornelis H.; Herrmann, O.E.

    1995-01-01

    High quality sound reproduction by loudspeakers is increasingly problematic if the dimensions of the loudspeaker decrease. To produce enough power, large diaphragm excursions are needed which give rise to significant distortions especially at very low frequencies. Instead of improving the mechanical

  7. Stable carbon and oxygen isotope study on benthic foraminifera ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Isotopic fractionations are mainly controlled by ontogeny, bottom/pore water chemistry, habitat preference, kinetic effect and respiration. ... Infaunal species (B. marginata, Ammonia spp. and N. auris) show a lighter carbon isotopic excursion with respect to the epifaunal to shallow infaunal forms (C. wuellerstorfi, ...

  8. 26 CFR 1.217-2 - Deduction for moving expenses paid or incurred in taxable years beginning after December 31, 1969.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... addition, A detours into Mexico for sightseeing. Because of the stopovers and tour into Mexico, A's travel... vehicle. Since A's excursion into Mexico is away from the usual Boston-Los Angeles route, the portion of... employment there. Thus, while a member of a railroad crew may spend most of his working time aboard a train...

  9. Notes on some land and freshwater Mollusca from Auvergne, France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggen, van A.C.

    1957-01-01

    From August 16 till September 1, 1955, Dr. H. C. Blöte, Mr. J. J. Barkman, and the present author were the leaders of an excursion of students in biology of the University at Leiden to Central France. For some two weeks the party was hospitably lodged in the "Station Biologique" in the village

  10. Extended void merging tree algorithm for self-similar models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Russell, Esra

    In hierarchical evolution, voids exhibit two different behaviours related with their surroundings and environments, they can merge or collapse. These two different types of void processes can be described by the two-barrier excursion set formalism based on Brownian random walks. In this study, the

  11. Population Size and Diet of Bush Hyrax Hetrohyrax brucei (Gray ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    leishmaniasis occurring in the highlands of Kenya and Ethiopia (Ashford et al., 1973; Lemma et al., 2009). During a field excursion to Romanat Michael church forest (Fig 2) located on the outskirts of. Mekelle city, capital of the Tigray Region in northern Ethiopia, we encountered a population of bush hyrax basking on trees ...

  12. Probing the Natural World, Level III, Teacher's Edition: Why You're You. Intermediate Science Curriculum Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonar, John R., Ed.; Hathway, James A., Ed.

    This is the teacher's edition of one of the eight units of the Intermediate Science Curriculum Study (ISCS) for level III students (grade 9). The chapters include basic information about heredity, activities, and optional "excursions." The answers to all activities are included. An introduction describes the work of Gregor Mendel and his…

  13. Habitat and diversity of ectomycorrhizal fungi in forests of South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information is lacking on habitat and diversity of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi of African humid forests. For three years, mushroom excursions were carried out in four sites with contrasted soil and altitude characteristics of South Cameroon, during wet seasons. Collected fungi were described in fresh state and dried ...

  14. Supervising Snowsport Activities: A Reflection upon Legislation, Policies, Guidelines and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Tracey J.; Terwiel, F. Anne

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores on-snow supervision in school-based snowsport excursions by investigating snowsport participation and safety data and relevant legislation and policies that form the framework for practice. Snowsports may present a more complex environment for managing of participants than many other outdoor environments and provide a valuable…

  15. Ecotourism and its effects on wildlife of Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    The flat land and good visibility along with rich wildlife makes excursions here unforgettable. Among them Mahadeo, Catacomb,. Jumbudweep, Madai, Dorothideep, Jatashankar , Pandav caves, Bazar caves, Maradeo, Kaila khurd, Taptka pani,. Kanjighat, Tamia, Rajat Prapat, Kharilanes are important from archaeological ...

  16. How some infinities cause problems in classical physical theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atkinson, David; Peijnenburg, Jeanne; Allo, P.; van Kerhove, B.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we review a 1992 excursion of Jean Paul Van Bendegem into physics, ‘How Infinities Cause Problems in Classical Physical Theories’, in the light of two later models concerning colliding balls, of Pérez Laraudogoitia and of Alper and Bridger, respectively. We show that Van Bendegem

  17. 49 CFR 1580.200 - Applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... off the general railroad system of transportation. (d) Each operator of private cars, including business/office cars and circus trains, on or connected to the general railroad system of transportation... Excursion Operators, and Private Cars § 1580.200 Applicability. This subpart includes requirements for: (a...

  18. 49 CFR 1580.203 - Reporting significant security concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., Scenic, Historic and Excursion Operators, and Private Cars § 1580.203 Reporting significant security... transportation. (4) Each operator of private cars, including business/office cars and circus trains, on or connected to the general railroad system of transportation. (5) Each operator of a rail transit system that...

  19. The Library of Congress Use of Microcomputers in the Optical Disk Pilot Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Joseph W.

    1985-01-01

    Description of Optical Disk Pilot Program (ODPP) at Library of Congress, a research and development excursion into laser-based information storage and retrieval, focuses on the Sony videodisk system and innovative use of microcomputers in the storage and retrieval of visual and audio materials. Future goals of ODPP are outlined. (MBR)

  20. GLOBAL ECONOMIC MELTDOWN AND THE NIGERIAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    economy. Through a historical excursion, it shows how the causes of the. Great Depression and the current crisis are related. It situates the meltdown in the way ... For the first time in recent years, the Nigerian economy, all through the last quarter of 2008 ..... we are not deeply hooked in the global digital economy. It is fool ...

  1. Validation Study and Quality Assurance of Pharmaceutical Water, Waterborne Microorganisms and Endotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shintani, Hideharu

    2016-01-01

     Water for injection (WFI) and purified water are the most widely used and stringently regulated raw material in pharmaceutical manufacturing. WFI is utilized for a parenteral drug product. Water system is monitored at frequent and routine frequency for demonstrating the overall system control and stability of performance. The critical ports demonstrating systemic control should be monitored more frequently. For reducing the overall risk of microbial contamination or microbial build-up, it is important to develop appropriate alert and action levels. The assignment of alert and action levels should be performance-based, derived from the historic data and well below water specifications. These levels and overall excursion rates should be assessed annually. An action level should not be established at a level equivalent to the specification. Consecutive or multiple alert level excursions and each action level excursion should be comprehensively investigated with appropriate corrective and preventive action. It is important to analyze the efficacy of the corrective and preventive action to reduce the overall excursion rates.

  2. Random walk models of large-scale structure

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. This paper describes the insights gained from the excursion set approach, in which vari- ous questions about the phenomenology of large-scale structure formation can be mapped to problems associated with the first crossing distribution of appropriately defined barriers by random walks. Much of this is ...

  3. International Consensus on Use of Continuous Glucose Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danne, Thomas; Nimri, Revital; Battelino, Tadej

    2017-01-01

    Measurement of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) has been the traditional method for assessing glycemic control. However, it does not reflect intra- and interday glycemic excursions that may lead to acute events (such as hypoglycemia) or postprandial hyperglycemia, which have been linked to both microv...

  4. 40 CFR 63.1366 - Monitoring and inspection requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to evaluate the flow rates, and the resulting correction factor used in Equation 8 of this subpart... more than one process in the course of an operating day, exceedances or excursions will result in no... that chooses to comply with the requirements of § 63.1362(g) (2) or (3) shall calculate annual rolling...

  5. Right ventricular dysfunction in patients with end-stage renal disease on regular hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Momtaz

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion Subclinical RV dysfunction - as estimated by RV function indices; tricuspid plane systolic excursion, right ventricle fractional area change, and LTDISº - is increased among HD patients. A high prevalence of pulmonary hypertension was found among HD patients and this was not associated significantly with RV or left ventricular dysfunction in these patients.

  6. Research Informed Science Enrichment Programs at the Gravity Discovery Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venville, Grady; Blair, David; Coward, David; Deshon, Fred; Gargano, Mark; Gondwe, Mzamose; Heary, Auriol; Longnecker, Nancy; Pitts, Marina; Zadnik, Marjan

    2012-01-01

    Excursions to museums and science centres generally are great fun for students and teachers. The potential educational benefits beyond enjoyment, however, are rarely realised or analysed for their efficacy. The purpose of this paper is to describe four educational enrichment programs delivered at the Gravity Discovery Centre (GDC), near Gingin,…

  7. Séminaire de probabilités XXIII

    CERN Document Server

    Yor, Marc; Meyer, Paul

    1989-01-01

    Besides a number of papers on classical areas of research in probability such as martingale theory, Malliavin calculus and 2-parameter processes, this new volume of the Séminaire de Probabilités develops the following themes: - chaos representation for some new kinds of martingales, - quantum probability, - branching aspects on Brownian excursions, - Brownian motion on a set of rays.

  8. Notes sur les Limaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regteren, van C.O.

    1964-01-01

    9. DESCRIPTION D'UNE NOUVELLE ESPÈ CE DE DEROCERAS DES ENVIRONS DE GRENADE 1) Même pour celui qui ne dispose pas d'une voiture, la ville de Grenade est un magnifique centre d'excursions. Les trams et autobus permettent au naturaliste de sortir de la ville en toutes directions et de commencer ses

  9. Measurement of the tendon of the biceps brachii after tenotomy: study on cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Cunha Machado

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTOBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of elbow and forearm range of motion on the distal excursion of the long head of the biceps (LHB. METHODS: The distal excursion of the LHB after tenotomy of the shoulders of eight cadavers was ascertained by measuring the distance between a point marked out on the LHB, 3 cm from the anterolateral border of the acromion, and its position at different degrees of elbow flexion, using a digital pachymeter. The measurements at elbow flexion of 135°, 90°, 45° and 0° were noted: these angles were established using a goniometer. The measurements were made with the forearm in neutral, supination and pronation positions. RESULTS: Differences between the mean measurements of the distal excursion of the LHB (total sample were observed between the degrees of elbow flexion ( p< 0.01. However, no statistical differences were observed between the different forearm positions, between the sides, genders and ages of the cadavers studied. CONCLUSION: Progressive extension of the elbow caused progressive distal excursion of the LHB, but without interference in the forearm position, gender, side or age of the cadavers studied.

  10. environmental effects on tensile strength and other mechanical

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    strength) as in aerospace parts subjected to thermal spiking (rapid excursions to high temperatures) with subsequent high strain rates [3 ]. Appropriate quality control procedures and production details are employed to minimize the effects of production related defects which cannot be completely eliminated, as shown by the ...

  11. Bandwidth of Gaussian weighted Chirp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilhjelm, Jens E.

    1993-01-01

    Four major time duration and bandwidth expressions are calculated for a linearly frequency modulated sinusoid with Gaussian shaped envelope. This includes a Gaussian tone pulse. The bandwidth is found to be a nonlinear function of nominal time duration and nominal frequency excursion of the chirp...

  12. A treelet transform analysis to relate nutrient patterns to the risk of hormonal receptor-defined breast cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assi, Nada; Moskal, Aurelie; Slimani, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Aims: Increased glucose excursions and postprandial hyperglycaemia have been suggested as unique risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus. Much of the evidence is based on a single 2 h glucose value after oral glucose tolerance testing in epid...

  13. Time constraint on food choice in provisioning blue tits, Parus caeruleus: the relationship between feeding rate and prey size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grieco, F.

    2002-01-01

    Previous work on food-provisioning behaviour in blue tits suggested that the parents could gather larger prey items only by making longer foraging excursions, for example, by being more selective or by reaching more distant (and less exploited) feeding sites. Here, I show that within-nest,

  14. Thermogenic methane release as a cause for the long duration of the PETM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frieling, Joost|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/338017909; Svensen, Henrik H.; Planke, Sverre; Cramwinckel, Margot J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/411939998; Selnes, Haavard; Sluijs, Appy|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/311474748

    2016-01-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) (∼56 Ma) was a ∼170,000-y (∼170-kyr) period of global warming associated with rapid and massive injections of 13C-depleted carbon into the ocean-atmosphere system, reflected in sedimentary components as a negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE). Carbon

  15. 46 CFR 72.40-5 - Where rails required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... business of the vessel, as in the case of a sport fishing vessel, other arrangements may be specifically..., excursion vessels, and vessels of a similar type, the space below the top of the rail shall be fitted with suitable wire mesh or the equivalent. Depending upon the type of construction, the lower rail courses may...

  16. Charles Darwin in the Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizzo, Nelio; Bizzo, Luis Eduardo Maestrelli

    2006-01-01

    Considering geological time as an important epistemological obstacle to the construction of ideas on biological evolution, a study was carried out on the so-called "Darwin Papers". The conclusion was that Charles Darwin's excursion in the Andes during March-April 1835 was a crucial step in this regard. An expedition was carried out in…

  17. Climate aberrations during the middle Miocene: evidence from the eastern North Atlantic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quaijtaal, W.; Donders, T.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/290469872; Schouten, S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/137124929; Louwye, S.

    2013-01-01

    During the Middle Miocene Climatic Optimum (MMCO; 17-14.5 Ma) the relatively warm climate of the Miocene reached peak temperatures. After the MMCO, the global climate started cooling through several short-lived cooling events, represented by positive oxygen isotope excursions: the Mi-events (Miocene

  18. Enhanced productivity rather than enhanced preservation led to increased organic carbon burial in the euxinic southern proto North Atlantic Ocean during the Cenomanian/Turonian Oceanic Anoxic Event

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Kuypers, M.M.M.; Pancost, R.D.; Nijenhuis, I.A.

    2002-01-01

    Three Cenomanian/Turonian (C/T, ∼93.5 Ma) black shale sections along a northeast-southwest transect in the southern part of the proto-North Atlantic Ocean were correlated by stable carbon isotope stratigraphy using the characteristic excursion in δ¹³C values of both bulk organic matter (OM) and

  19. On the relationship between pain intensity and postural sway in patients with non-specific neck pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruhe, Alexander; Fejer, René; Walker, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Increased center of pressure excursions are well documented in patients with non-specific neck pain. While a linear relationship between pain intensity and postural sway has been described in low back pain patients, no such investigation has been conducted in adults with non-specific neck pain....

  20. THE ENVIRONMENTAL ELECTIVE: TEACHING EXPERIENCE OUT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    day fie1dwork excursion for primry school child- ren. Much of the course is ... part of environmental education, the theoretical and the practical ... they are engaged, the first part of the course in- volves the study of ... and responsible action necessary to assure our survival and to .... small part, to inadequacies in their training.

  1. Palmar and digital flexor tendon pulleys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, J R

    2001-02-01

    Retinacular structures, called pulleys, maintain the flexor tendons of the hand in constant relationship to the joint axes and promote economy and efficiency in finger flexion. This system is composed of the transverse carpal ligament, the palmar aponeurosis pulley, and the digital flexor pulley system. Of these three components, the digital pulleys are the most critical to finger flexion. In their normal state, these pulley components are ideal in all aspects including configuration and location, which accomodates a 260 degrees arc of motion without impingement and with minimum friction while at the same time using muscle tendon excursion that is well within the natural range of the muscle. An absent pulley results in an increased moment arm and requires increased tendon excursion to produce the same arc of motion. Because muscle excursion is not a limitless factor and is directly proportional to muscle fiber length, the effectiveness of tendon excursion is dependent on maintenance of the critical relationship between pulleys and the adjacent joints. Preservation and reconstruction of this system is based on knowledge of the anatomy and an understanding of the relative functional significance of each component of the system.

  2. [Studies of the degree of movement in the flexor pollicis longus tendon at the forearm with functioning pulleys in the thumb and after their excision].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmiel, Z

    1996-01-01

    The relative value of three pulleys in the thumb has been evaluated by serial resections and subsequent measurement of flexor pollicis longus tendon excursion at the level of the forearm. The metacarpophalangeal pulley appears to be the most important and should be preserved or reconstructed if normal tendon function is to result.

  3. Assessing offsets between the δ13C of sedimentary components and the global exogenic carbon pool across early Paleogene carbon cycle perturbations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluijs, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/311474748; Dickens, G.R.

    2012-01-01

    Negative stable carbon isotope excursions (CIEs) across the Paleocene–Eocene thermal maximum (PETM; ∼56 Ma) range between 2‰ and 7‰, even after discounting sections with truncated records. Individual carbon isotope records differ in shape and magnitude from variations in the global exogenic carbon

  4. Effect of Field Trip on Students' Academic Performance in Basic Technology in Ilorin Metropolis, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amosa, Abdul Ganiyu Alasela; Ogunlade, Oyeronke Olufunmilola; Atobatele, Adunni Suliat

    2015-01-01

    The use of field trip in teaching and learning helps to bring about effective and efficient learning in Basic Technology. Field trip is a group excursion away from the normal education environment for firsthand experience of an historic site or place of special interest. This study therefore was geared towards finding out the effect of field trip…

  5. Exponential increase in postprandial blood-glucose exposure with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Postprandial glucose excursions contribute significantly to average blood glucose, glycaemic variability and cardiovascular risk. Carbohydrate counting is a method of insulin dosing that balances carbohydrate load to insulin dose using a fixed ratio. Many patients and current insulin pumps calculate insulin ...

  6. Knee joint contact mechanics during downhill gait and its relationship with varus/valgus motion and muscle strength in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrokhi, Shawn; Voycheck, Carrie A; Gustafson, Jonathan A; Fitzgerald, G Kelley; Tashman, Scott

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this exploratory study was to evaluate tibiofemoral joint contact point excursions and velocities during downhill gait and assess the relationship between tibiofemoral joint contact mechanics with frontal-plane knee joint motion and lower extremity muscle weakness in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Dynamic stereo X-ray was used to quantify tibiofemoral joint contact mechanics and frontal-plane motion during the loading response phase of downhill gait in 11 patients with knee OA and 11 control volunteers. Quantitative testing of the quadriceps and the hip abductor muscles was also performed. Patients with knee OA demonstrated larger medial/lateral joint contact point excursions (p knee OA compared to their control counterparts (p = 0.02). Additionally, patients with knee OA demonstrated significantly increased frontal-plane varus motion excursions (p knee OA were linearly associated with greater frontal-plane varus motion excursions (p knee OA may be related to compromised frontal-plane joint stability but not with deficits in muscle strength.

  7. New records of Marine Turbellaria from Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velde, van der G.

    1976-01-01

    INTRODUCTION During an excursion to Norway organized by the Department of Systematic Zoology of the Rijksuniversiteit of Leiden in August 1973, I had the opportunity to make some observations on Turbellarians of salt-marshes and rocky shores of the Trondheimsfjord (63o 37' N 9° 43' Ε) and the

  8. Patriot Script 1.0.13 User Guide for PEM 1.3.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleland, Timothy James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kubicek, Deborah Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stroud, Phillip David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Cuellar-Hengartner, Leticia [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mathis, Mark [Descartes Labs, Inc., Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-02

    This document provides an updated user guide for Patriot Script Version 1.0.13, for release with PEM 1.3.1 (LAUR-1422817) that adds description and instructions for the new excursion capability (see section 4.5.1).

  9. Breeding behavior of female white-tailed deer relative to conception: Evidence for female mate choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Jeffery D; Ditchkoff, Stephen S; Collier, Bret A; Ruth, Charles R; Raglin, Joshua B

    2017-04-01

    Female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are thought to choose between two behavioral strategies to maximize the quality of potential mates: sit and wait, characterized by concentrating activity within a restricted area, and excursive behavior, characterized by increased activity and excursions outside the home range. As movement patterns may influence conception, our goal was to examine the patterns of female white-tailed deer movements to evaluate which breeding strategy was employed. We equipped 36 female white-tailed deer with GPS collars from August 2013 to December 2015. We found that movement rate and probability of activity were greatest near the peak of the breeding season, and we observed increases in both metrics during the 40 days prior to estimated conception. Peak size of home range and core area occurred in the days surrounding conception. We found that 11 deer performed an excursion, ranging from 43 days before until 36 days after conception, with the peak probability of being outside of an individual home range occurring 1 day prior to conception. Our results suggest that female white-tailed deer may attempt to maximize the quality of their mates by advertising availability for breeding through excursive behaviors just prior to entering estrus.

  10. Anthicid Beetles from Venezuela, Colombia, Cuba, and the Netherlands Antilles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buck, F.D.

    1960-01-01

    The material of Anthicidae covered in this paper was taken by Prof. H. J. MAC GILLAVRY in 1930 and 1933, when being a studentmember of two geological excursions under the leadership of the late Prof. L. M. R. RUTTEN. It comprises ten species, three of which are new to science, viz. Formicillia

  11. 75 FR 52060 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... acts of vandalism against the excursion trains. Trackside believes that the cost to retrofit these cars is not economically feasible due to the limited annual use of the cars and low exposure to vandalism.... Communications received within 45 days of the date of this notice will be considered by FRA before final action...

  12. 75 FR 26841 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ..., thus considered by FRA to be antiquated, but over 50 years of age from original construction. A Special Approval for continued use of this over-age caboose will be considered under a separate proceeding. MSTRP... stoning or acts of vandalism against the excursion trains since the start of operations, and the cars are...

  13. 75 FR 20035 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... operating on the tourist/excursion train were built prior to 1946, and considered ``antiquated'' under Sec... states in their petition, there have been no reported acts of vandalism to the refurbished passenger cars.... Communications received within 45 days of the date of this notice will be considered by FRA before final action...

  14. 75 FR 60860 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... incidents of stoning or acts of vandalism against the excursion trains. WMSR believes that the cost to.... Communications received within 45 days of the date of this notice will be considered by FRA before final action is taken. Comments received after that date will be considered as far as practicable. All written...

  15. Perspective of agricultural extension in livestock production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main source of extension services was the private sector and the services rendered were educational, health, technical, management and marketing. The extension communication methods used were visits, demonstration, workshop, training and excursion. The benefits of extension services were introduction of ...

  16. MODELLING EARTH SYSTEM CHANGES THROUGH THE SHURUM-WONOKA ANOMALY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Christian J.; Canfield, D. E.

    and organic carbon at lower values of d13CIC, with a cross-plot slope of about 1. This unit slope seems to be unique to the Neoproterozoic in Earth history and not easily explained. In our model, the carbon isotope excursions were driven by methane from sediment-hosted clathrate hydrate deposits. Being...

  17. Thermal sensation and comfort with transient metabolic rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goto, Tomonobu; Toftum, Jørn; Dear, R. d.

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the effect on thermal perceptions and preferences of controlled metabolic excursions of various intensities (20%, 40%, 60% relative work load) and durations (3-30 min) imposed on subjects that alternated between sedentary activity and exercise on a treadmill. The thermal...

  18. MUSIC EDUCATION AND MUSICAL ACTIVITIES IN LAGOS: THEN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AdéOlúwa OKÙNADÉ. Abstract. This article is a historical excursion into the musical activities in Lagos from around. 600 to 1800, which it classifies as the first phase, from around 1800 to 1914, the second period, and third period, from around ...

  19. Music education and musical activities in Lagos: then and now ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article is a historical excursion into the musical activities in Lagos from around 600 to 1800, which it classifies as the first phase, from around 1800 to 1914, the second period, and third period, from around 1914 up to date and how they have affected music education in the area. The study also highlights the roles played ...

  20. Science Based Stockpile Stewardship

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-11-01

    low level of radioactivity produced are comparable to those in TFTR presently operating routinely on the Forrestal Campus of Princeton University and...to nu- merous astronomical objects and processes (e.g., primordial nucleosynthesis, stellar evoiution, and hydrodynamic instabilities in supernova ... radioactive decay heat, reactivity excursions beyond the subcriticality margin etc. A specific APS system based on the thorium fuel cycle has recently

  1. Potential sighting of the Sokoke dog mongoose Bdeogale omnivora ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During a bird watching excursion to the Amani Nature Reserve (East Usambara Mountains), Tanzania, in July 2003, five ornithologists encountered a mongoose of the Bdeogale-group. The mongoose was most likely the Sokoke dog mongoose Bdeogale omnivore Heller, 1913, a species first observed from this area in ...

  2. Notes on the birds of St. Martin, Saba and St. Eustatius

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    †, Hoogerwerf A.

    1977-01-01

    In 1973, 1974 and 1975 I visited St. Maarten, Netherlands Antilles. During these visits I spent much time observing birds on this island, while short excursions were also made to the neighbouring islands Saba and St. Eustatius. The periods of our visits were: ST. MARTIN: 7-19 April, 30 April-3 May

  3. Comparison of in vivo segmental foot motion during walking and step descent in patients with midfoot arthritis and matched asymptomatic control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Smita; Baumhauer, Judith F; Tome, Josh; Nawoczenski, Deborah A

    2009-05-29

    The purpose of this study was to compare in vivo segmental foot motion during walking and step descent in patients with midfoot arthritis and asymptomatic control subjects. Segmental foot motion during walking and step descent was assessed using a multi-segment foot model in 30 patients with midfoot arthritis and 20 age, gender and BMI matched controls. Peak and total range of motion (ROM), referenced to subtalar neutral, were examined for each of the following dependent variables: 1st metatarso-phalangeal (MTP1) dorsiflexion, 1st metatarsal (MT1) plantarflexion, ankle dorsiflexion, calcaneal eversion and forefoot abduction. The results showed that, compared to level walking, step descent required greater MTP1 dorsiflexion (pplantarflexion (pdorsiflexion (pdorsiflexion (pdorsiflexion (pplantarflexion excursion compared to control subjects (p=0.03). However, during step descent, both groups showed similar MT1 plantarflexion excursion. During walking, patients with midfoot arthritis showed similar calcaneus eversion excursion compared to control subjects. However, during step descent, patients with midfoot arthritis showed significantly greater calcaneus eversion excursion compared to control subjects (p=0.03). Independently or in combination, these motions may contribute to articular stress and consequently to symptoms in patients with midfoot arthritis.

  4. Potential benefits of propulsion and flight control integration for supersonic cruise vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, D. T.; Schweikhard, W. G.

    1976-01-01

    Typical airframe/propulsion interactions such as Mach/altitude excursions and inlet unstarts are reviewed. The improvements in airplane performance and flight control that can be achieved by improving the interfaces between propulsion and flight control are estimated. A research program to determine the feasibility of integrating propulsion and flight control is described. This program includes analytical studies and YF-12 flight tests.

  5. Evidence for the Blake Event recorded at the Eemian archaeological site of Caours, France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sier, M.J.; Parés, J.M.; Antoine, P.; Locht, J.-L.; Dekkers, M.J.; Limondin-Lozouet, N.; Roebroeks, W.

    2015-01-01

    A palaeomagnetic study of the Last Interglacial calcareous tufa sequence at the archaeological site of Caours (northern France) identified a geomagnetic excursion that we interpret as the Blake Event. Earlier palaeontological (molluscs, mammals) and geochemical proxy studies at this site allowed

  6. One Small Reversal for the Field, one Giant Leap for Mankind (Petrus Peregrinus Medal Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valet, Jean-Pierre

    2010-05-01

    Despite complex factors governing the acquisition of their magnetization, sediments have allowed us to recover the evolution of the dipole field variations during the past 2 Ma. One dominant feature is the existence of multiple periods of very low field intensity associated with either excursions or reversals. It is reasonable to consider that similar characteristics of the field during the brief transitional and excursional periods emerge from the records of lava flows as well as from very fast deposited sea-sediments. They can be easily simulated by the dominance of a time varying non-dipole field emerging after a long and large decrease of the dipole. Similarities between excursions and reversals are reinforced by the fact that all detailed records of excursions exhibit virtual geomagnetic poles (VGPs) which reach the opposite polarity. In fact, it is impossible to reach the ratio of the number of reversed to intermediate VGPs present in the paleomagnetic records if excursions were not associated with a short period of reversed dipole field. Therefore, most if not all excursions should be regarded as two successive reversals bracketing an aborted polarity interval. A significant exemple is the Laschamp event which can be seen as the youngest excursion of the field immediately after the Mono Lake event which is not so clearly identified. The age of the Laschamp event is now well constrained by multiple datings that converge at 40 ka B.P. The Laschamp is also the best documented event from volcanic and sedimentary records obtained at distinct geographic locations. During this short period we know that the field reversed completely and remained extremely weak at the surface of the planet. No attention has been given so far to the puzzling synchronism between the geomagnetic excursion of Laschamp and the desmise of the Neanderthal population. The Laschamp has been the most dramatic event that was encountered by the Neanderthals over the past 300 thousand years of

  7. Changes in CO2 during OAE1d: A Comparison to Other Carbon Cycle Perturbations of the Mesozoic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richey, J. D.; Upchurch, G. R., Jr.; Suarez, M. B.; Joeckel, R. M.; Ludvigson, G. A.; John, S. J.; Lomax, B. H.

    2014-12-01

    Ocean Anoxic Events (OAEs) and their associated carbon cycle perturbations are hallmarks of the Cretaceous. Quantification of these short-term disruptions to the carbon cycle is needed to understand the nature and climatic tipping points of greenhouse gas-initiated OAEs. The Rose Creek Pit (RCP) locality, Dakota Formation, southeastern Nebraska, offers a unique opportunity to make these comparisons for OAE1d through a combination of δ13C analysis and stomatal index (SI). RCP is already known to contain the negative δ13C excursion of OAE1d in charcoal and bulk organic matter. We produced new δ13C curves from fossil gymnosperm charcoal (δ13C gym) and vitrain (δ13Cvit) collected at 30cm intervals at RCP. These new curves reproduce the negative δ13C isotopic excursion found in the earlier chemostratigraphic curves and confirm that RCP contains the record of the carbon isotope excursion associated with OAE1d. In the same stratigraphic interval, SI as a proxy for atmospheric CO2 was calculated from dispersed leaf cuticle of Pandemophyllum kvacekii, new morphotypes of Pandemophyllum, and the related species Pabiania variloba. Average SI responds to the negative δ13C excursion (~3‰) by a gradual decrease from 8.2 to 5.1. Both δ13C and SI return to pre-excursion values above the level of the excursion. Furthermore, we calculate a coeval CO2 increase of 141-470 ppm during the negative excursion on the basis of published transfer functions, a value smaller than those calculated for other Mesozoic carbon cycle perturbations assessed with SI (K-T and Tr-J Boundaries, OAE2, TOAE; 179-2000+ ppm). We estimate that between 282-940 Gt of carbon was added to the atmosphere during OAE1d, much less than that estimated for other events (358-4000+ Gt C). Calculated changes in radiative forcing (ΔF ≈1.1-4.7 W/m2) and global temperatures (ΔT ≈ 0.9-3.8 ⁰C) resulting from increased CO2 also suggest that OAE1d had a smaller global effect than other events (ΔF ≈ 2.5-9.9 W

  8. Evaluation of a new paleosecular variation activity index as a diagnostic tool for geomagnetic field variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panovska, Sanja; Constable, Catherine

    2015-04-01

    Geomagnetic indices like Dst, K and A, have been used since the early twentieth century to characterize activity in the external part of the modern geomagnetic field and as a diagnostic for space weather. These indices reflect regional and global activity and serve as a proxy for associated physical processes. However, no such tools are yet available for the internal geomagnetic field driven by the geodynamo in Earth's liquid outer core. To some extent this reflects limited spatial and temporal sampling for longer timescales associated with paleomagnetic secular variation, but recent efforts in both paleomagnetic data gathering and modeling activity suggest that longer term characterization of the internal geomagnetic weather/climate and its variability would be useful. Specifically, we propose an index for activity in paleosecular variation, useful as both a local and global measure of field stability during so-called normal secular variation and as a means of identifying more extreme behavior associated with geomagnetic excursions and reversals. To date, geomagnetic excursions have been identified by virtual geomagnetic poles (VGPs) deviating more than some conventional limit from the geographic pole (often 45 degrees), and/or by periods of significant intensity drops below some critical value, for example 50% of the present-day field. We seek to establish a quantitative definition of excursions in paleomagnetic records by searching for synchronous directional deviations and lows in relative paleointensity. We combine paleointensity variations with deviations from the expected geocentric axial dipole (GAD) inclination in a single parameter, which we call the paleosecular variation (PSV) activity index. This new diagnostic can be used on any geomagnetic time series (individual data records, model predictions, spherical harmonic coefficients, etc.) to characterize the level of paleosecular variation activity, find excursions, or even study incipient reversals

  9. Implementation and Assessment of a Decentralized Load Frequency Control: Application to Power Systems with High Wind Energy Penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Muñoz-Benavente

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes and assesses a decentralized solution based on a wireless sensor-actuator network to provide primary frequency control from demand response in power systems with high wind energy penetration and, subsequently, with relevant frequency excursions. The proposed system is able to modify the electrical power demand of a variety of thermostatically-controlled loads, maintaining minimum comfort levels and minimizing both infrastructure requirements and primary reserves from the supply side. This low-cost hardware solution avoids any additional wiring, extending the wireless sensor-actuator network technology towards small customers, which account for over a 30% share of the current power demand. Frequency excursions are collected by each individual load controller, considering not only the magnitude of the frequency deviation, but also their evolution over time. Based on these time-frequency excursion characteristics, controllers are capable of modifying the power consumption of thermostatically-controlled loads by switching them off and on, thus contributing to primary frequency control in power systems with higher generation unit oscillations as a consequence of relevant wind power integration. Field tests have been carried out in a laboratory environment to assess the load controller performance, as well as to evaluate the electrical and thermal response of individual loads under frequency deviations. These frequency deviations are estimated from power systems with a high penetration of wind energy, which are more sensitive to frequency oscillations and where demand response can significantly contribute to mitigate these frequency excursions. The results, also included in the paper, evaluate the suitability of the proposed load controllers and their suitability to decrease frequency excursions from the demand side in a decentralized manner.

  10. A simulation study on the efficacy of advanced belt restraints to mitigate the effects of obesity for rear-seat occupant protection in frontal crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yulong; Bai, Zhonghao; Cao, Libo; Reed, Matthew P; Fischer, Kurt; Adler, Angelo; Hu, Jingwen

    2015-01-01

    Recent field data analyses have shown that the safety advantages of rear seats relative to the front seats have decreased in newer vehicles. Separately, the risks of certain injuries have been found to be higher for obese occupants. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of advanced belt features on the protection of rear-seat occupants with a range of body mass index (BMI) in frontal crashes. Whole-body finite element human models with 4 BMI levels (25, 30, 35, and 40 kg/m2) developed previously were used in this study. A total of 52 frontal crash simulations were conducted, including 4 simulations with a standard rear-seat, 3-point belt and 48 simulations with advanced belt features. The parameters varied in the simulations included BMI, load limit, anchor pretensioner, and lap belt routing relative to the pelvis. The injury measurements analyzed in this study included head and hip excursions, normalized chest deflection, and torso angle (defined as the angle between the hip-shoulder line and the vertical direction). Analyses of covariance were used to test the significance (P routing increased the hip excursion and torso angle, which indicates a higher submarining risk, whereas the anchor pretensioner reduced hip excursion and torso angle. Lower load limits decreased the normalized chest deflection but increased the head excursion. Normalized chest deflection had a positive correlation with maximum torso angle. Occupants with higher BMI have to use higher load limits to reach head excursions similar to those in lower BMI occupants. The simulation results suggest that optimizing load limiter and adding pretensioner(s) can reduce injury risks associated with obesity, but conflicting effects on head and chest injuries were observed. This study demonstrated the feasibility and importance of using human models to investigate protection for occupants with various BMI levels. A seat belt system capable of adapting to occupant size and body shape will

  11. Uranium isotope evidence for an expansion of marine anoxia during the end-Triassic extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Adam B.; Bachan, Aviv; van de Schootbrugge, Bas; Lau, Kimberly V.; Weaver, Karrie L.; Maher, Kate; Payne, Jonathan L.

    2017-08-01

    The end-Triassic extinction coincided with an increase in marine black shale deposition and biomarkers for photic zone euxinia, suggesting that anoxia played a role in suppressing marine biodiversity. However, global changes in ocean anoxia are difficult to quantify using proxies for local anoxia. Uranium isotopes (δ238U) in CaCO3 sediments deposited under locally well-oxygenated bottom waters can passively track seawater δ238U, which is sensitive to the global areal extent of seafloor anoxia due to preferential reduction of 238U(VI) relative to 235U(VI) in anoxic marine sediments. We measured δ238U in shallow-marine limestones from two stratigraphic sections in the Lombardy Basin, northern Italy, spanning over 400 m. We observe a ˜0.7‰ negative excursion in δ238U beginning in the lowermost Jurassic, coeval with the onset of the initial negative δ13C excursion and persisting for the duration of subsequent high δ13C values in the lower-middle Hettangian stage. The δ238U excursion cannot be realistically explained by local mixing of uranium in primary marine carbonate and reduced authigenic uranium. Based on output from a forward model of the uranium cycle, the excursion is consistent with a 40-100-fold increase in the extent of anoxic deposition occurring worldwide. Additionally, relatively constant uranium concentrations point toward increased uranium delivery to the oceans from continental weathering, which is consistent with weathering-induced eutrophication following the rapid increase in pCO2 during emplacement of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province. The relative timing and duration of the excursion in δ238U implies that anoxia could have delayed biotic recovery well into the Hettangian stage.

  12. Mandibular kinematic changes after unilateral cross-bite with lateral shift correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venancio, F; Alarcon, J A; Lenguas, L; Kassem, M; Martin, C

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this randomised prospective study was to evaluate the effects of slow maxillary expansion with expansion plates and Hyrax expanders on the kinematics of the mandible after cross-bite correction. Thirty children (15 boys and 15 girls), aged 7·1-11·8, with unilateral cross-bite and functional shift were divided into two groups: expansion plate (n = 15) and Hyrax expander (n = 15). Thirty children with normal occlusion (14 boys and 16 girls, aged 7·3-11·6) served as control group. The maximum vertical opening, lateral mandibular shift (from maximum vertical opening to maximum intercuspation, from rest position to maximum intercuspation and from maximum vertical opening to rest position) and lateral excursions were recorded before and 4 months after treatment. After treatment, the expansion plate group showed a greater lateral shift from rest position to maximum intercuspation than did the control group. The expansion plate patients also presented greater left/contralateral excursion than did the control group. Comparisons of changes after treatment in the cross-bite groups showed significant decreases in the lateral shift from the maximum vertical opening to maximum intercuspation and from the maximum vertical opening to rest position, a significant increase in the homolateral excursion and a significant decrease in the contralateral excursion in the Hyrax expander group, whereas no significant differences were found in the expansion plate group. In conclusion, the Hyrax expander showed better results than did the expansion plate. The Hyrax expander with acrylic occlusal covering significantly improved the mandibular lateral shift and normalised the range of lateral excursion. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Effect of different lateral occlusion schemes on peri-implant strain: A laboratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Jennifer; Palamara, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE This study aims to investigate the effects of four different lateral occlusion schemes and different excursions on peri-implant strains of a maxillary canine implant. MATERIALS AND METHODS Four metal crowns with different occlusion schemes were attached to an implant in the maxillary canine region of a resin model. The included schemes were canine-guided (CG) occlusion, group function (GF) occlusion, long centric (LC) occlusion, and implant-protected (IP) occlusion. Each crown was loaded in three sites that correspond to maximal intercuspation (MI), 1 mm excursion, and 2 mm excursion. A load of 140 N was applied on each site and was repeated 10 times. The peri-implant strain was recorded by a rosette strain gauge that was attached on the resin model buccal to the implant. For each loading condition, the maximum shear strain value was calculated. RESULTS The different schemes and excursive positions had impact on the peri-implant strains. At MI and 1 mm positions, the GF had the least strains, followed by IP, CG, and LC. At 2 mm, the least strains were associated with GF, followed by CG, LC, and IP. However, regardless of the occlusion scheme, as the excursion increases, a linear increase of peri-implant strains was detected. CONCLUSION The peri-implant strain is susceptible to occlusal factors. The eccentric location appears to be more influential on peri-implant strains than the occlusion scheme. Therefore, adopting an occlusion scheme that can reduce the occurrence of occlusal contacts laterally may be beneficial in reducing peri-implant strains. PMID:28243391

  14. Effect of different lateral occlusion schemes on peri-implant strain: A laboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Jennifer; Abduo, Jaafar; Palamara, Joseph

    2017-02-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of four different lateral occlusion schemes and different excursions on peri-implant strains of a maxillary canine implant. Four metal crowns with different occlusion schemes were attached to an implant in the maxillary canine region of a resin model. The included schemes were canine-guided (CG) occlusion, group function (GF) occlusion, long centric (LC) occlusion, and implant-protected (IP) occlusion. Each crown was loaded in three sites that correspond to maximal intercuspation (MI), 1 mm excursion, and 2 mm excursion. A load of 140 N was applied on each site and was repeated 10 times. The peri-implant strain was recorded by a rosette strain gauge that was attached on the resin model buccal to the implant. For each loading condition, the maximum shear strain value was calculated. The different schemes and excursive positions had impact on the peri-implant strains. At MI and 1 mm positions, the GF had the least strains, followed by IP, CG, and LC. At 2 mm, the least strains were associated with GF, followed by CG, LC, and IP. However, regardless of the occlusion scheme, as the excursion increases, a linear increase of peri-implant strains was detected. The peri-implant strain is susceptible to occlusal factors. The eccentric location appears to be more influential on peri-implant strains than the occlusion scheme. Therefore, adopting an occlusion scheme that can reduce the occurrence of occlusal contacts laterally may be beneficial in reducing peri-implant strains.

  15. Early Jurassic shale chemostratigraphy and U-Pb ages from the Neuquén Basin (Argentina): implications for the Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzini, Adriano; Svensen, Henrik; Leanza, Hector; Corfu, Fernando; Planke, Sverre

    2010-05-01

    New data from a Lower Jurassic shale section in the Neuquén Basin, Argentina, are presented in order to better constrain the triggering mechanism for the Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event (TOAE) and the associated negative carbon isotope excursion. Chemostratigraphy from a 65 m thick shale-dominated marine section of Late Pliensbachian to Early Toarcian age, shows the presence of a 19.5 m thick interval of organic-rich black shale where the bulk rock organic carbon content reaches almost 4 wt%. The 13C of the bulk organic matter changes from -22.3 ‰ in the lower parts of the profile to -29.8 ‰ VPDB in the black shale interval, documenting a -8 ‰ excursion over five stratigraphic meters. Twelve interbedded tuff layers, representing fallouts from paleo-Andean arc magmatism, were discovered in the section. Dating by ID-TIMS of zircons from two tuff beds located within the carbon isotope excursion interval gave ages of 181.42±0.24 Ma and 180.59±0.43 Ma. Assuming linear sedimentation rates within the black shale interval, the initiation of the anoxic event occurred at 182.16±0.6 Ma, lasting until 180.16±0.66 Ma. Thus the total duration is between 0.74 and 3.26 Ma, taking into account the propagation of dating uncertainties. The U/Pb age of the initiation of the observed carbon isotope excursion overlaps the U/Pb emplacement ages of mafic sill intrusions in the Karoo Basin in South Africa, and support the hypothesis that thermogenic methane released during contact metamorphism within the Karoo Basin was the main trigger of the anoxic event. Our findings show that the Toarcian carbon isotope excursion is present also in the southern hemisphere and that the TOAE was a global phenomenon likely triggered by a massive greenhouse gas release.

  16. Digital goniometric measurement of knee joint motion. Evaluation of usefulness for research settings and clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleffken, Berry; van Breukelen, Gerard; Brink, Peter; van Mameren, Henk; Olde Damink, Steven

    2007-10-01

    An accurate and reproducible measurement method for joint motion is essential for classification of success or failure in therapeutic intervention. Digital goniometry is increasingly used as a method of classification for knee joint excursion. The reliability of goniometry however remains debatable. Aim of the study was to determine both intra- and inter-rater reproducibility in degrees, with an electronic digital inclinometer (EDI 320) for active and passive maximum flexion and active maximum extension of the knee joint and to determine the reproducibility of active and passive range of motion. A classical crossover design, with strict measurement protocol was used. Two raters measured 72 knee motions each, in 42 healthy subjects in four sessions. The smallest detectable difference (SDD) was calculated by using adjusted Bland and Altman plots for each knee excursion. No differences in joint excursions between the sexes were found. Passive maximum flexion showed larger excursions than active maximum flexion with additional higher levels of reproducibility. SDDs for inter-rater comparisons yielded: 0+/-3.9 degrees for active maximum extension, 0+/-7.4 degrees for active maximum flexion, 0+/-6.4 degrees for passive maximum flexion, 0+/-7.6 degrees for AROM and 0+/-5.4 degrees for PROM. Intra-rater SDDs showed increased reproducibility by 0.4-1.9 degrees. We conclude that interpretation of knee joint excursions in clinical settings is with these SDDs. Clinical and statistical differences in research settings within these SDDs are not a true difference but should be attributed to measurement error.

  17. The Influence of Enhanced Side Impact Protection on Kinematics and Injury Measures of Far- or Center-Seated Children in Forward-Facing Child Restraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauschild, Hans W; Humm, John R; Pintar, Frank A; Yoganandan, Narayan; Kaufman, Bruce; Maltese, Matthew R; Arbogast, Kristy B

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of forward-facing child restraint systems' (FFCRSs) side impact structure, such as side wings, on the head kinematics and response of a restrained, far- or center-seated 3-year-old anthropomorphic test device (ATD) in oblique sled tests. Sled tests were conducted utilizing an FFCRS with large side wings and with the side wings removed. The CRS were attached via LATCH on 2 different vehicle seat fixtures-a small SUV rear bench seat and minivan rear bucket seat-secured to the sled carriage at 20° from lateral. Four tests were conducted on each vehicle seat fixture, 2 for each FFCRS configuration. A Q3s dummy was positioned in FFCRS according to the CRS owner's manual and FMVSS 213 procedures. The tests were conducted using the proposed FMVSS 213 side impact pulse. Three-dimensional motion cameras collected head excursion data. Relevant data collected during testing included the ATD head excursions, head accelerations, LATCH belt loads, and neck loads. Results indicate that side wings have little influence on head excursions and ATD response. The median lateral head excursion was 435 mm with side wings and 443 mm without side wings. The primary differences in head response were observed between the 2 vehicle seat fixtures due to the vehicle seat head restraint design. The bench seat integrated head restraint forced a tether routing path over the head restraint. Due to the lateral crash forces, the tether moved laterally off the head restraint reducing tension and increasing head excursion (477 mm median). In contrast, when the tether was routed through the bucket seat's adjustable head restraint, it maintained a tight attachment and helped control head excursion (393 mm median). This testing illustrated relevant side impact crash circumstances where side wings do not provide the desired head containment for a 3-year-old ATD seated far-side or center in FFCRS. The head appears to roll out of the FFCRS even in the presence of side wings, which

  18. The Statistical Distribution of Turbulence Driven Velocity Extremes in the Atmosperic Boundary Layer cartwright/Longuet-Higgins Revised

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose

    2007-01-01

    " distribution, Cartwright and Longuet-Higgens [1] derived an asymptotic expression for the distribution of the largest excursion from the mean level during an arbitrary recurrence period. From its inception, this celebrated expression has been widely used in wind engineering (as well as in off-shore engineering...... excursions by more than one decade, which is obviously unfortunate in relation to modelling of an asymptotic extreme distribution based on a Gaussian "mother" distribution. The potential problems with applying the Cartwright/Longuet-Higgens distribution to describe extreme gust events, related to wind speeds...... as simple functions of the basic parameters characterizing the stochastic wind speed process in the atmospheric boundary layer. Finally, model predictions of the derived model are compared to predictions from the Cartwright/Longuet-Higgens model as well as to results derived from full-scale measurements...

  19. Nuclear reactor safety device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutter, Ernest

    1986-01-01

    A safety device is disclosed for use in a nuclear reactor for axially repositioning a control rod with respect to the reactor core in the event of an upward thermal excursion. Such safety device comprises a laminated helical ribbon configured as a tube-like helical coil having contiguous helical turns with slidably abutting edges. The helical coil is disclosed as a portion of a drive member connected axially to the control rod. The laminated ribbon is formed of outer and inner laminae. The material of the outer lamina has a greater thermal coefficient of expansion than the material of the inner lamina. In the event of an upward thermal excursion, the laminated helical coil curls inwardly to a smaller diameter. Such inward curling causes the total length of the helical coil to increase by a substantial increment, so that the control rod is axially repositioned by a corresponding amount to reduce the power output of the reactor.

  20. Community Structure of Terrestrial Invertebrates Inhabiting a Tidal Marsh Islet in the Mediterranean Sea (Gulf of Gabes, Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Colombini

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The composition of the terrestrial arthropod community of a tidal marsh islet in the Gulf of Gabes (Tunisia was studied during two seasons (spring, autumn. The study was conducted on a small islet located in an area where the highest tidal excursions of the Mediterranean occur. Standard trapping methods (pitfall traps, mobile cages were used to evaluate specie richness and abundance in different areas of the islet. Diversity indices were calculated for coleopterans and isopods alone. The structure of the arthropod community varied a great deal from one season to the other and differences were found when seaward areas were compared with landward ones. El Bessila presented a particularly rich beetle community whereas only few isopod species occurred. The moderately high diversity levels found for the beetle indicate the influence of the high tidal excursions in modelling the structure of the community.

  1. Student-Teachers' Ability to Read Nature: Reflections on their own learning in ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magntorn, Ola; Helldén, Gustav

    2005-08-01

    This paper addresses student-teachers' ability to read nature in a woodland habitat before and after a 10-week ecology course. Reading nature is our definition of the ability to observe, describe and explain basic ecology in the field. Data consists of field-based pre-course and post-course interviews followed up by metacognitive interviews where students analyse their own learning. A bi-dimensional coding scheme is adopted to examine the range and development of students' ability to read nature. Students find it important to know the ecology of a few key species and they recognize the importance of having learned the language of ecology — ecologish — helping them to describe and discuss ecology. Students generally recognize the excursions as key learning situations in ecology education but they give different reasons for finding excursions so important. This variation will be elaborated in the paper together with the implications for teaching ecology.

  2. Novel GLP-1 fusion chimera as potent long acting GLP-1 receptor agonist.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghua Wang

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available GLP-1 has a variety of anti-diabetic effects. However, native GLP-1 is not suitable for therapy of diabetes due to its short half-life (t1/2168 h. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT in mice showed that GLP-1/hIgG2 significantly decreased glucose excursion. Furthermore, IPGTT performed on mice one week after a single drug-injection also displayed significantly reduced glucose excursion, indicating that GLP-1/hIgG2 fusion protein has long-lasting effects on the modulation of glucose homeostasis. GLP-1/hIgG2 was found to be effective in reducing the incidence of diabetes in multiple-low-dose streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes in mice. Together, the long-lasting bioactive GLP-1/hIgG2 retains native GLP-1 activities and thus may serve as a potent GLP-1 receptor agonist.

  3. Clinical Implications of Glucose Variability: Chronic Complications of Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Seung Jung

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Glucose variability has been identified as a potential risk factor for diabetic complications; oxidative stress is widely regarded as the mechanism by which glycemic variability induces diabetic complications. However, there remains no generally accepted gold standard for assessing glucose variability. Representative indices for measuring intraday variability include calculation of the standard deviation along with the mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (MAGE. MAGE is used to measure major intraday excursions and is easily measured using continuous glucose monitoring systems. Despite a lack of randomized controlled trials, recent clinical data suggest that long-term glycemic variability, as determined by variability in hemoglobin A1c, may contribute to the development of microvascular complications. Intraday glycemic variability is also suggested to accelerate coronary artery disease in high-risk patients.

  4. Fissile solution dynamics: Student research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hetrick, D.L.

    1994-09-01

    There are two research projects in criticality safety at the University of Arizona: one in dynamic simulation of hypothetical criticality accidents in fissile solutions, and one in criticality benchmarks using transport theory. We have used the data from nuclear excursions in KEWB, CRAC, and SILENE to help in building models for solution excursions. An equation of state for liquids containing gas bubbles has been developed and coupled to point-reactor dynamics in an attempt to predict fission rate, yield, pressure, and kinetic energy. It appears that radiolytic gas is unimportant until after the first peak, but that it does strongly affect the shape of the subsequent power decrease and also the dynamic pressure.

  5. Dynamic posture assessment in patients with peripheral vestibulopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rama-Lopez, Julio; Pérez, Nicolas; Martinez Vila, Eduardo

    2004-08-01

    To assess the effects on balance of different strategies to create sensory conflict. Two different systems of dynamic posturography were compared: computerized dynamic posturography and a static platform on which different visual and support conditions were used. The study was performed in 127 patients with dizziness of a peripheral vestibular origin. When patients stood on a foam support surface, the length and area of the center-of-pressure excursions increased. Interestingly, optokinetic stimulation evoked a longer length and a wider area of the center-of-pressure excursions in patients with a combined vestibular and visual deficit pattern than when they kept their eyes closed. This was opposite to the effect observed in patients with a pattern indicative of a vestibular deficit alone. The effects of visual stimulation on balance in patients with unilateral vestibulopathy reflect the type of sensory deficit, and can be considered to be specific to such a deficit.

  6. Postural sway and active balance performance in highly active lower-limb amputees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, John G; O'Driscoll, Dan; Bennett, Simon J

    2002-01-01

    To determine the balance performance of active lower-limb amputees during quiet standing and under dynamic conditions. Center-of-pressure excursions during quiet standing and the standing balance performance on a single axis stabilimeter was assessed in six unilateral lower-limb amputees and six able-bodied controls. Stabilimeter trials were repeated with subjects standing so that pivoting occurred either in the anteroposterior or mediolateral direction or in the mediolateral direction but with vision occluded. Center-of-pressure excursions were significantly greater (P balance than able-bodied controls (P static and dynamic balance than able-bodied controls. Amputees had a greater problem controlling dynamic balance in the anteroposterior direction than the mediolateral direction. Findings highlight the importance of the ankle in maintaining balance in situations that involve body movements in the sagittal plane.

  7. The Effect of Postoperative Rehabilitation for Hand Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takako Nagai

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available When initial treatment and rehabilitation are inappropriate, it may leave severe dysfunction in hand infection. We experienced rehabilitation with postoperative hand based splint therapy and obtained good results. Case 1: A 59-yearold male stuck chopsticks in the right-hand metacarpus, the middle of the left volar hand was painful. The postoperative rehabilitation conducted blocking exercise and adductor stretching. There are not the pain and excursion restrictions. Case 2: A 64-year old male was operated for purulent flexor tendon tenosynovitis. The postoperative rehabilitation was done in the same method and there are not the pain and excursion as Case 1. Enforcement of careful exercise therapy depending on an episode of care is important.

  8. [Massage of the lateral pterygoid muscle in acute TMJ dysfunction syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriere, P; Zink, S; Riehm, S; Kahn, J L; Veillon, F; Wilk, A

    2009-04-01

    Massage of the lateral pterygoid muscle according to Cyriax's principles is an unrecognized procedure. This procedure was tried on patients presenting with temporomandibular joint dysfunction syndrome. Fifteen patients were treated. Pain, joint clicking, measurement of mouth opening, lateral excursion and propulsion were recorded. Assessment was made before and after the massage in the same consultation. Joint clicking was solved in 80% and pain in 50% of the cases. Mouth opening increased by 12.8%, propulsion by 11.6% and lateral excursion by 41.3%. Massage of the lateral pterygoid muscle according to Cyriax's principles is a simple and efficient method that can be recommended for patients presenting with temporomandibular joint dysfunction syndrome. We performed a brief anatomical and radiological MRI study supporting the feasibility of lateral pterygoid muscle palpation.

  9. Conditioned random walks and interaction-driven condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szavits-Nossan, Juraj; Evans, Martin R.; Majumdar, Satya N.

    2017-01-01

    We consider a discrete-time continuous-space random walk under the constraints that the number of returns to the origin (local time) and the total area under the walk are fixed. We first compute the joint probability of an excursion having area a and returning to the origin for the first time after time τ. We then show how condensation occurs when the total area constraint is increased: an excursion containing a finite fraction of the area emerges. Finally we show how the phenomena generalises previously studied cases of condensation induced by several constraints and how it is related to interaction-driven condensation which allows us to explain the phenomenon in the framework of large deviation theory.

  10. Evaluation of efficacy of arthrocentesis (with normal saline) with or without sodium hyaluronate in treatment of internal derangement of TMJ – A prospective randomized study in 20 patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Aditi; Rana, Amar Singh; Jain, Gaurav; Kalra, Puneet; Gupta, Deepak; Sharma, Siddharth

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To compare the outcome of arthrocentesis alone and arthrocentesis with sodium hyaluronate in internal derangement of TMJ. Materials and methods 20 patients of disc displacement with reduction of TMJ were randomized into 2 experimental groups. Control group of patients received arthrocentesis alone and study group of patients received arthrocentesis with sodium hyaluronate. Patients TMJ status and clinical symptoms were evaluated for 6 months follow up. The clinical parameter recorded were maximal mouth opening (MMO), lateral excursions (right and left side), protrusive movement, joint noises, and pain (at rest, at function). Results When 2 groups are compared there was no statistically significant difference in terms of inter-incisal opening, lateral excursion, protrusive movement, joint noises and pain however the group with sodium hyaluronidase has shown better results than the control group. Conclusion Both study and control group found to be statistically insignificant but patient who were in the group of arthrocentesis with admission of sodium hyaluronidase had better results. PMID:25737898

  11. The Effect of a Non-Gaussian Random Loading on High-Cycle Fatigue of a Thermally Post-Buckled Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, Stephen A.; Behnke, marlana N.; Przekop, Adam

    2010-01-01

    High-cycle fatigue of an elastic-plastic beam structure under the combined action of thermal and high-intensity non-Gaussian acoustic loadings is considered. Such loadings can be highly damaging when snap-through motion occurs between thermally post-buckled equilibria. The simulated non-Gaussian loadings investigated have a range of skewness and kurtosis typical of turbulent boundary layer pressure fluctuations in the vicinity of forward facing steps. Further, the duration and steadiness of high excursion peaks is comparable to that found in such turbulent boundary layer data. Response and fatigue life estimates are found to be insensitive to the loading distribution, with the minor exception of cases involving plastic deformation. In contrast, the fatigue life estimate was found to be highly affected by a different type of non-Gaussian loading having bursts of high excursion peaks.

  12. Texting while driving using Google Glass™: Promising but not distraction-free.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jibo; Choi, William; McCarley, Jason S; Chaparro, Barbara S; Wang, Chun

    2015-08-01

    Texting while driving is risky but common. This study evaluated how texting using a Head-Mounted Display, Google Glass, impacts driving performance. Experienced drivers performed a classic car-following task while using three different interfaces to text: fully manual interaction with a head-down smartphone, vocal interaction with a smartphone, and vocal interaction with Google Glass. Fully manual interaction produced worse driving performance than either of the other interaction methods, leading to more lane excursions and variable vehicle control, and higher workload. Compared to texting vocally with a smartphone, texting using Google Glass produced fewer lane excursions, more braking responses, and lower workload. All forms of texting impaired driving performance compared to undistracted driving. These results imply that the use of Google Glass for texting impairs driving, but its Head-Mounted Display configuration and speech recognition technology may be safer than texting using a smartphone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Approximate scaling properties of RNA free energy landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskaran, S.; Stadler, P. F.; Schuster, P.

    1996-01-01

    RNA free energy landscapes are analysed by means of "time-series" that are obtained from random walks restricted to excursion sets. The power spectra, the scaling of the jump size distribution, and the scaling of the curve length measured with different yard stick lengths are used to describe the structure of these "time series". Although they are stationary by construction, we find that their local behavior is consistent with both AR(1) and self-affine processes. Random walks confined to excursion sets (i.e., with the restriction that the fitness value exceeds a certain threshold at each step) exhibit essentially the same statistics as free random walks. We find that an AR(1) time series is in general approximately self-affine on timescales up to approximately the correlation length. We present an empirical relation between the correlation parameter rho of the AR(1) model and the exponents characterizing self-affinity.

  14. Preseismic Velocity Changes Observed from Active Source Monitoringat the Parkfield SAFOD Drill Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daley, Thomas; Niu, Fenglin; Silver, Paul G.; Daley, Thomas M.; Cheng, Xin; Majer, Ernest L.

    2008-06-10

    Measuring stress changes within seismically active fault zones has been a long-sought goal of seismology. Here we show that such stress changes are measurable by exploiting the stress dependence of seismic wave speed from an active source cross-well experiment conducted at the SAFOD drill site. Over a two-month period we observed an excellent anti-correlation between changes in the time required for an S wave to travel through the rock along a fixed pathway--a few microseconds--and variations in barometric pressure. We also observed two large excursions in the traveltime data that are coincident with two earthquakes that are among those predicted to produce the largest coseismic stress changes at SAFOD. Interestingly, the two excursions started approximately 10 and 2 hours before the events, respectively, suggesting that they may be related to pre-rupture stress induced changes in crack properties, as observed in early laboratory studies.

  15. Specificities of Sightseeing Foot Tour Arrangement for History Related Street with Regard to Karl Marx Street in the Town of Irkutsk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulakov, A. I.; Shishkanov, V. S.

    2017-11-01

    The paper is devoted to the preparation of an innovative foot itinerary for tourists in Karl Marx Street in the town of Irkutsk. Methodology on preparation of sightseeing tours has been analysed by the authors. The analysis of the methodology has facilitated selecting the criteria to classify the excursions as well as the criteria for assessing and shortlisting the objects for excursion exposure. Some chosen criteria being used in tour arrangement and certain specificities of tour preparation have been revealed which are characteristic particularly for Karl Marx Street as a history-related one. It is also proved in the paper that the itinerary prepared for tourists is in full correspondence with the key innovation objectives in tourism.

  16. Topology and geometry of the dark matter web: A multi-stream view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandra, Nesar S.; Shandarin, Sergei F.

    2017-05-01

    Topological connections in the single-streaming voids and multistreaming filaments and walls reveal a cosmic web structure different from traditional mass density fields. A single void structure not only percolates the multistream field in all the directions, but also occupies over 99 per cent of all the single-streaming regions. Sub-grid analyses on scales smaller than simulation resolution reveal tiny pockets of voids that are isolated by membranes of the structure. For the multistreaming excursion sets, the percolating structure is significantly thinner than the filaments in overdensity excursion approach. Hessian eigenvalues of the multistream field are used as local geometrical indicators of dark matter structures. Single-streaming regions have most of the zero eigenvalues. Parameter-free conditions on the eigenvalues in the multistream region may be used to delineate primitive geometries with concavities corresponding to filaments, walls and haloes.

  17. Prosthetic motility in pegged versus unpegged integrated porous orbital implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillinta, Paulo; Vasani, Sunil N; Granet, David B; Kikkawa, Don O

    2003-03-01

    To objectively measure and compare prosthetic motility in pegged versus unpegged orbital implants and to determine subjective patient assessment of motility after the pegging procedure. A prospective case series of 10 patients with integrated porous orbital implants, who had secondary motility peg placement procedure, were studied. Infrared oculography was used to quantitatively assess pegged and unpegged prosthetic eye motility in horizontal and vertical excursions. For horizontal excursions, prosthetic motility in unpegged implants retained an average of 49.6% of measured motility of the contralateral normal eye, which increased to 86.5% with peg placement (Ppeg placement (P>0.3). Nine of 10 patients judged their motility as "significantly improved," and 1 patient gave a rating of "some improvement" after peg placement. Four of 10 patients had granulomas around the peg sites. Objective assessment of prosthetic motility shows a significant increase in horizontal gaze after motility peg placement.

  18. Injury Prevention in Aircraft Crashes: Investigative Techniques and Applications (la Prevention des lesions lors des accidents d’ avions: les techniques d’investigation et leurs applications)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-02-01

    respiratory excursion. Soot in the distal trachea (below the vocal cords) and bronchi is good evidence of inhalation of combustion products. The...no thermal bums below the level of the vocal cords and very low levels of carboxyhemoglobin. Burns seen in the airways of those not exposed to a...prepared by INTA (Institute» Nacional de Tecnica Aeroespacial) at the request of, and with the help of, the Lecture Series Director, Major Francisco Rios

  19. Grænsefeltet mellem psykoterapi og coachingpsykologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spaten, Ole Michael

    2015-01-01

    This article marks boundaries between psychotherapy and coaching-psychology by discussing the prevailing arguments and definitions in the scientific community, which in different - but also comprehensive way - shows commonalities in relation to daily coaching-psychology practice. The article adds...... a short excursion to related concepts such as counseling, consultation, mentoring and supervision; finally the concepts are offered in four-sided boxes for a bid of distinctions and interfaces...

  20. Waddenfonds Tidal Texel Demonstration project. BlueTEC Texel Tidal Project: Environmental measurement and performance analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ponsoni, L.; Nauw, J. J.; Smit, M.; Ober, S.; Nichols, C; Kenkhuis, J.; Schmidt, C.; Buatois, A.; Haas, P.

    2016-01-01

    In the context of the BlueTEC project, this report starts by introducing theBlueTEC tidal energy platform and reviewing the patterns of circulation of theMarsdiep inlet. The energy resource assessment and the site selection for theplatform's deployment are reported. This document analyses di?erent datasetssampled during the project, including current speeds, wave parameters, turbinepower output, platform excursions, and environmental parameters. Most of thedata was measured by instruments ins...

  1. Organizace kontrol ve vybrané části centra sdílených služeb

    OpenAIRE

    Sedmíková, Tereza

    2010-01-01

    This diploma thesis is a practical excursion into the organization of controls in a particular shared service centre. The work deals with the company relation to the section 302 and 404 of Sarbanes-Oxley Act and describes the company's internal control system according to the COSO "Integrated framework - Internal control" issued in 1992. More detailed description is provided within the company's fraud risk assessment process and within yearly testing process of control activities in order to ...

  2. Journal of Special Operation Medicine: A Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals. Training Supplement, Winter 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    seconds 2. Dry lips and gums, dehydration 3. Excessive drooling in some poison cases 4. Weak femoral pulse, rapid 150 to 200 beats per minute 5...o Acute renal failure o Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus o Renal insufficiency o Proteinuria General disorders o Weakness o Fatigue TMEP Use...insufficiency Proteinuria Polyuria o General disorders and administration site conditions Fatigue Other notes: o Store at 25 °C (77 °F), excursions

  3. Land of kleptocracy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walter D Connor

    1983-01-01

    ... frauds of our lime, as this line honk O UW [I m By / ,\\1. Sint/s /r Sr//, 316 lope, .9S LAND OF KLEPTOCRACY WALTER D, CONNOR "'[hose who are not willing lo accept corruption and who prefer lo wage an open baule with it are doomed to Lois is a center conclusion of excursion through Soviet economic life, from which one galLers that these nay-s...

  4. THE ROLE OF LEG AND TRUNK MUSCLES PROPRIOCEPTION ON STATIC AND DYNAMIC POSTURAL CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEYED Hossein Hosseinimehr

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The proprioception information is a prerequisite for balance, body’s navigation system, and the movement coordinator. Due to changes between the angles of ankle, knee, and hip joints the aforementioned information are important in the coordination of the limbs and postural balance. The aim of this study was to investigate therole of leg and trunk muscles proprioception on static and dynamic postural control. Thirty males students of physical education and sport sciences (age =21.23 ± 2.95 years, height = 170.4 ± 5.1 cm, and weight = 70.7 ± 5.6 kg participated in this study volunteered. Vibration (100HZ was used to disturb of proprioception. Vibrationoperated on leg muscle (gasterocnemius and trunk muscles (erector spine muscle, at L1 level. Leg stance time and Star Excursion Balance Test were used for evaluation of static and dynamic postural control respectively.Subjects performed pre and post (with operated vibration leg stance time and star excursion balance test. Paired sample test used for investigation the effect of vibration on leg and trunk muscles in static and dynamic postural control. Result of this study showed in static postural control, there is no significant difference between pre and post test (operated vibration in leg and trunk muscles (p≤0.05. In contrast there is significant difference indynamic postural control between pre and post test in leg muscles in 8 directions of star excursion balance test (p≤0.05 while there is only significant difference in trunk muscle in antrolateral and lateral of star excursion balance test (p≤0.05. During physical training such conditions like fatigue and injury can disturbproprioceptions’ information. Thus, due to the importance of this information we recommend that coaches'additionally specific trainings any sport used specific exercises to enhance the proprioception information

  5. Certain Actions from the Functional Movement Screen Do Not Provide an Indication of Dynamic Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lockie Robert G.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic stability is an essential physical component for team sport athletes. Certain Functional Movement Screen (FMS exercises (deep squat; left- and right-leg hurdle step; left- and right-leg in-line lunge [ILL]; left- and right-leg active straight-leg raise; and trunk stability push-up [TSPU] have been suggested as providing an indication of dynamic stability. No research has investigated relationships between these screens and an established test of dynamic stability such as the modified Star Excursion Balance Test (mSEBT, which measures lower-limb reach distance in posteromedial, medial, and anteromedial directions, in team sport athletes. Forty-one male and female team sport athletes completed the screens and the mSEBT. Participants were split into high-, intermediate-, and low-performing groups according to the mean of the excursions when both the left and right legs were used for the mSEBT stance. Any between-group differences in the screens and mSEBT were determined via a one-way analysis of variance with Bonferroni post hoc adjustment (p < 0.05. Data was pooled for a correlation analysis (p < 0.05. There were no between-group differences in any of the screens, and only two positive correlations between the screens and the mSEBT (TSPU and right stance leg posteromedial excursion, r = 0.37; left-leg ILL and left stance leg posteromedial excursion, r = 0.46. The mSEBT clearly indicated participants with different dynamic stability capabilities. In contrast to the mSEBT, the selected FMS exercises investigated in this study have a limited capacity to identify dynamic stability in team sport athletes.

  6. Kinetics of combustion related processes at high temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiefer, J.H. [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This past year has seen an excursion into perhalomethane dissociation using the laser-schlieren (LS) technique, with work on CCl{sub 4} already published and on CF{sub 3}Cl under analysis. However, the author`s emphasis has again been on the study of relaxation and dissociation of large molecules using the converging/diverging nozzle method to generate very weak (low pressure) shock waves.

  7. Grænsefeltet mellem psykoterapi og coachingpsykologi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Michael Spaten

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article marks boundaries between psychotherapy and coaching-psychology by discussing the prevailingarguments and definitions in the scientific community, which in different - but also comprehensive way -shows commonalities in relation to daily coaching-psychology practice. The article adds a short excursion torelated concepts such as counseling, consultation, mentoring and supervision; finally the concepts are offeredin four-sided boxes for a bid of distinctions and interfaces

  8. Atlantic Coastal Experiment VI: R/V KNORR cruise, 23 August--11 September 1980, data report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrens, W.; von Bock, K. (eds)

    1983-01-01

    An investigation of the influence of estuaries on the ecosystem of the Mid-Atlantic Bight was undertaken. Data were collected from excursions into the Hudson, Delaware and Chesapeake estuaries, three across-shelf and one along-shelf transects, and two time series stations. In all, 139 stations were occupied and 164 XBT soundings were taken. In addition to standard hydrographic measurements, nutrient , chlorophyll, particulate carbon and nitrogen, 14C, 15N, DNA, particle size, FTD, phytoplankton and zooplankton analyses were made.

  9. Validating Center of Pressure Balance Measurements Using the MatScan® Pressure Mat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetschius, John; Feger, Mark A; Hertel, Jay; Hart, Joseph M

    2017-07-17

    Measurements of center of pressure (COP) excursions during balance are common practice in clinical and research settings to evaluate adaptations in postural control due to pathological or environmental conditions. Traditionally measured using laboratory force-plates, pressure-mat devices may be a suitable option for clinicians and scientist to measure COP excursions. Compare COP measures and changes during balance between MatScan® pressure-mat and force-plate. Validation study. Laboratory. Thirty healthy, young adults (19 female,11 male, 22.7±3.4 years, 70.3±SD kg, 1.71±0.09 m). COP excursions were simultaneously measured using pressure-mat and force-plate devices. Participants completed 3 eyes-open and 3 eyes-closed single-leg balance trials (10-seconds). Mean of the 3 trials was used to calculate four COP variables, medial-lateral and anterior-posterior excursion, total distance, and area, with eyes-open and eyes-closed. Percent-change and effect sizes were calculated between eyes-open to closed conditions for each variable and for both devices. All COP variables were highly correlated between devices for eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions (all r > .92, P .85, P 2.25) and similar magnitude between devices. COP measures were correlated between devices, but values tended to be smaller using the pressure-mat. The pressure-mat and force-plate detected comparable magnitude changes in COP measurements between eyes-open and eyes-closed. Pressure-mats may provide be a viable option for detecting large magnitude changes in postural control during short duration testing.

  10. Tree-ring records of near-Younger Dryas time in central North America : preliminary results from the Lincoln Quarry site, central Illinois, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irina P. Panyushkina; Steven W. Leavitt; Alex Wiedenhoeft; Sarah Noggle; Brandon Curry; Eric Grimm

    2004-01-01

    The abrupt millennial-scale changes associated with the Younger Dryas (YD) event (“chronozone”) near the dawn of the Holocene are at least hemispheric, if not global, in extent. Evidence for the YD cold excursion is abundant in Europe but fairly meager in central North America. We are engaged in an investigation of high-resolution environmental changes in mid-North...

  11. Variability in mid-depth ventilation of the western Atlantic Ocean during the last deglaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, I.; Cruz, A. P. S.; Mulitza, S.; Chiessi, C. M.; Mackensen, A.; Lippold, J.; Antz, B.; Zabel, M.; Zhang, Y.; Barbosa, C. F.; Tisserand, A. A.

    2017-09-01

    Negative stable carbon isotopic excursions have been observed throughout most of the mid-depth ( 1000-3000 m) Atlantic Ocean during Heinrich Stadial 1 (HS1) and the Younger Dryas (YD). Although there is an agreement that these mid-depth excursions were in some way associated with a slowdown of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), there is still no consensus on the precise mechanism(s). Here we present benthic stable carbon and oxygen isotopic (δ13C and δ18O) records from five cores from the western equatorial Atlantic (WEA). Together with published benthic isotopic records from nearby cores, we produced a WEA depth transect ( 800-2500 m). We compare HS1 and YD data from this transect with data from previously published North and South Atlantic cores and demonstrate that the largest negative δ13C excursions occurred in the WEA during these times. Moreover, our benthic δ18O records require the presence of two water masses flowing from the Southern Ocean, bisected by a Northern Component Water (NCW). Given that δ18O is a conservative water mass tracer, we suggest that δ13C was decoupled from water mass composition and does not correspond to simple alternations between northern and southern sourced waters. Instead, δ13C behaved non-conservatively during HS1 and the YD. Consistently with our new 231Pa/230Th record from the WEA transect, that allowed the reconstruction of AMOC strength, we hypothesize that the negative δ13C excursions reflect an increase in the residence time of NCW in response to a weakened AMOC, allowing for a marked accumulation of 13C-depleted respired carbon at the mid-depth WEA.

  12. Mechanisms Mediating the Perception of Complex Acoustic Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-11-09

    RPT. 0 DTIC USERS TNC._SIIED 22a. NAME CF RESPONSIBLE INDIVIDUAL 22b. TELEPHONE (Include Area Code) 22c OFFICE SYMBOL Dr. Genevieve Haddad (202) ,7...sequences; and (4) illusory changes in repeated words. In addition, there will be some excursions into related areas . ILLUSORY PRESENCE OF OBLITERATED...Vicario, G. (1960). L’effecto tunnel acoustico. Rivista di Psicologia , 54, 41-52. Warren, R.M. (1961). Illusory changes of distinct speech upon

  13. Static Balance in Patients with Vestibular Impairments: A Preliminary Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Talebi; Mohammad Taghi Karimi; Seyed Hamid Reza Abtahi; Niloofar Fereshtenejad

    2016-01-01

    Aims. Vestibular system is indicated as one of the most important sensors responsible for static and dynamic postural control. In this study, we evaluated static balance in patients with unilateral vestibular impairments. Materials and Methods. We compared static balance control using Kistler force plate platform between 10 patients with unilateral vestibular impairments and 20 normal counterparts in the same sex ratio and age limits (50 ? 7). We evaluated excursion and velocity of center of ...

  14. Identification of sources and estimation of emission profiles from highly time-resolved pollutant measurements in Tampa, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancras, Joseph Patrick; Ondov, John M.; Poor, Noreen; Landis, Matthew S.; Stevens, Robert K.

    Aerosol slurry samples were collected at 30-min intervals for sequential 1-month periods at each of two sites (Sydney and "Dairy") in the Tampa Bay area during the 2002 Bay Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment using the University of Maryland Semicontinuous Elements in Aerosol Sampler-II (SEAS-II). More than 500 samples, believed to be affected by plumes from local utility and industrial sources, were selected for electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometric analyses for elemental markers (Al, Fe, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, Se, As, Ni, Zn and Cd) based on excursions in SO 2 and NO x measurements. Correlation of short-term excursions in metals and SO 2, and surface wind directions observed between May 23 and 26th, 2002, revealed the influence of an animal feed supplements production facility (AFS), 17 km upwind at a station angle of 81°, for which emissions had not previously been detected by standard monitoring methods. Emission "profiles" for this source were developed, separately, from the time series data and by using principle components analysis (PCA) and positive matrix factorization (PMF). In addition, a local dust component was evident in Al and Fe concentration profiles during periods of elevated wind speeds and was resolved by PCA/PMF. Similarly, large but brief 1.5-h excursions in Zn (maximum, 403 ng m -3), Cd, and Pb on May 17th were correlated with winds from the direction of an incinerator (station angle, 250°) 17 km from Sydney. Lastly, large excursions in As concentrations (maximum, 86 ng m -3) observed (May 4th and 5th at Sydney and November 2nd and 3rd at the Dairy) were used to locate previously unrecognized sources, tentatively associated with combustion/production of pressure-treated lumber. Profiles developed directly from the time series data were in the range of those derived from PCA-PMF (AFS); and those for the incinerator, with previously published values.

  15. Posture and Texting: Effect on Balance in Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Nurul Retno Nurwulan; Bernard C. Jiang; Hardianto Iridiastadi

    2015-01-01

    Using a mobile phone while doing another activity is a common dual-task activity in our daily lives. This study examined the effect of texting on the postural stability of young adults. Twenty college students were asked to perform static and dynamic postural stability tasks. Traditional COP and multivariate multiscale entropy (MMSE) were used to assess the static postural stability and the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) was used to assess the dynamic postural stability. Results showed th...

  16. Application of δ13c Values Recorded in Neoproterozoic Marine Dolomite As a Marker for Global Correlations: Significance of Major δ13c Variations for the Carbon Cycle Based on Studies of Modern Dolomite Precipitating Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, J. A.; Bontognali, T. R. R.; Bahniuk, A.; Vasconcelos, C.

    2014-12-01

    Since the early Paleozoic, the average bulk δ13C value of marine carbonates has remained relatively positive varying between 0 and +4‰ with distinctive positive excursions that are associated with global changes in the carbon cycle. Unlike the Phanerozoic δ13C data for marine limestones, a major δ13C excursion has been recorded in a globally deposited Neoproterozoic marine dolomite formation, known as the cap dolostone. This excursion with δ13C values ranging systematically between -3 and -5‰ represents a global chronstratigraphic marker used to correlate the end of the major Marinoan glaciation at 636 Ma1. Does this excursion signify a primary seawater value and how might it be interpreted as a primary carbon cycle signal, considering the widespread distribution of the cap dolostone? Studies of modern dolomite precipitating environments, such as supratidal sabkhas of Abu Dhabi, U.A.E. and Qatar and coastal hypersaline lagoons of Rio de Janiero State, Brazil, indicate that microbial activity or the biological products, thereof, influence or mediate mineral formation. The precipitating solutions are sourced from normal seawater, which has experienced variable stages of concentration through evaporative processes. Comparison of δ13C values of sabkha dolomite with that formed in the hypersaline lagoons reveals that the former are always rather positive (approx. +2 to +7 ‰), whereas the latter are always negative (approx. -5‰ to -11‰). During very early diagenesis, the original δ13C value of the initial precipitate is not necessarily retained, indicating that synsedimentary processes can alter the carbon signal prior to burial and later diagenesis. However, the potential for very early lithification of microbial dolomite promotes the preservation of original δ13C values, which, thus, can be useful for evaluation of the ancient carbon cycle. 1Halverson, G.P. et al., 2005. Toward a Neoproterozoic composite carbon-isotope record, GSA Bulletin, v. 117, p

  17. Stochastic Response Analysis of Mooring Systems with Emphasis on Frequency-domain Analysis of Fatigue due to Wide-band Response Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Zhen

    2008-01-01

    Mooring systems are widely used in the offshore industry to limit the horizontal excursions of a floating structure from desired position in order for the structure to fulfill the required tasks. Safety of mooring systems is therefore crucial for successful marine operations. Under the environmental actions of waves, wind and current, large dynamic tension in mooring lines can be excited at both wave frequency (WF) and low frequency (LF). Due to the nonlinearities of environmental loads a...

  18. The Development of the AFIT Communications Laboratory and Experiments for Communications Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    Actiatesdigtal wag*andPermits monitoring of max. Actiatesdigial sorag animum signal excursions over selects the "A" or 󈧑" porn indeienite time...level at which the vertical display is installed in the 71.5. either peak detected or digitally averaged. Video signals above the level set by the... Video signals below the level set by the PEAK AVERAGE control or VERT P05 Positions the display Or baseline on digitally averaged and stored. th c_

  19. Feeding habits of the frog Pleurodema diplolistris (Anura, Leptodactylidae) in Quaternary sand dunes of the Middle Rio São Francisco, Bahia, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    José Wellington Alves dos Santos; Roberta Pacheco Damasceno; Pedro Luís Bernardo da Rocha

    2003-01-01

    In this work, we investigate the feeding habits of Pleurodema diplolistris, the most abundant anuran species of the São Francisco sand dunes, during a period of slightly over one year. The fieldwork was undertaken during four excursions to a sand dune in the semiarid Caatinga, Brazil, and the analyses were based on stomach contents. Pleurodema diplolistris were not active during the dry season. The important food categories in diet were Isoptera (winged forms), Coleoptera, and Formicidae. Sma...

  20. Initial Human Response to Nuclear Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-01

    Nuclear Excursion," New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 272, No. 15, 15 April 1965, pp. 755-761. On 24 July 1964, at a United Nuclear Corporation plant... nematological depression, days 24 to 34, the patient remained well. On day 36 a mouth infection was treated with orally administeied penicillin. By day...l Journal , II April 1953, pp. 802-805. Fifty patients were given a single therapeutic X-ray dose of about 150 rads. They were primarily afflicted