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Sample records for excretory-secretory es proteins

  1. Molecular characterization and expression of two putative protective excretory secretory proteins of Haemonchus contortus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schallig, H. D.; van Leeuwen, M. A.; Verstrepen, B. E.; Cornelissen, A. W.

    1997-01-01

    It has been shown that vaccination with two low molecular mass excretory secretory (ES) antigens of 15 and 24 kDa, respectively, afforded a substantial degree of protection against Haemonchus contortus to sheep. In vitro cultivation of the parasite usually yields a limited amount of these proteins

  2. Diagnosis of Fasciola infection by SDS–PAGE eluted excretory secretory (ES protein fractions using dot-ELISA

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    M.A. Sabry

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fascioliasis is now recognized as an emerging zoonotic disease in Egypt. Diagnosis in suspected patients still needs some degree of accuracy. In the present study, three Fasciola gigantica execratory secretory (ES protein bands of molecular weight (MW ranging from 14 to 20 kDa, 25 to 32 kDa and 45 to 65 kDa were eluted after fractionation of the parasite antigen using SDS–PAGE. The extracted kDa protein bands were concentrated and evaluated in diagnosis of Fasciola infection. Moreover the level of their cross reaction with other parasitic infections in infected and suspected patients of known parasite eggs/gram stool was evaluated using the dot-ELISA technique. Protein bands in the range of 14–20 kDa and that of 25–32 kDa were markedly specific and sensitive in diagnosis of different levels of anti-Fasciola antibodies (Ab in sera of infected cases. These two groups of bands were able to exclude cross-reaction between anti-Fasciola Ab and other parasites recorded in stool of selected patients suffering from Schistosoma mansoni, Ascaris, and Giardia, either in single or mixed conditions with Fasciola eggs. While that of 45–65 kDa appeared less specific than the other previously mentioned bands. Protein bands in the range of 25–32 kDa appeared more sensitive than the other protein bands in detection of anti-Fasciola Ab at higher serum dilutions. The Dot-ELISA technique was proved to be more economic and easy in application. The dotted very small amount of antigens can be stored in a freezer and used at request in diagnosis of large numbers of samples.

  3. Use of cloned excretory/secretory low-molecular-weight proteins of Cooperia oncophora in a serological assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poot, J.; Kooyman, F. N.; Dop, P. Y.; Schallig, H. D.; Eysker, M.; Cornelissen, A. W.

    1997-01-01

    The potential of Cooperia oncophora excretory/secretory (ES) proteins as antigens in a serological assay which aims to establish exposure levels in cattle was assessed. ES proteins were analyzed by one- and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting. The N-terminal domains

  4. Immunolocalization and immunodetection of the excretory/secretory (ES antigens of Fasciola gigantica.

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    M A Hannan Khan

    Full Text Available The digenetic trematode Fasciola gigantica is a parasite of great agricultural and economic importance. Along with Fasciola hepatica, F. gigantica incurs huge economic losses to the agricultural sector. Because of unavailability of an effective and commercial vaccine, the earliest diagnosis of the disease is the only way to control the disease. The conventional coprological techniques are able to detect the disease only after the parasites get matured and starts releasing their eggs with the faeces of host, therefore prepatent infection remain undiagnosed. The alternative method is by serological tests that uses circulatory antigens. Despite high sensitivity, their reliability is quite low because of the common antigens shared between different helminth parasites. To overcome this, investigation was shifted to identify the copro-antigens which could be more sensitive and reliable. In the present study, we tried to identify some of the immunodominant proteins from the Excretory Secretory (ES product of F. gigantica which can be further characterized and used for early detection of infection and also as drug and vaccine candidates. The ES products of F. gigantica were collected and used for raising the polyclonal antibody in rabbit. The polypeptide profile was generated as well as immunogenic polypeptides were identified. The Source of ES antigen was immunolocalized using confocal microscopy and dot blot assay was performed to diagnose field infection. The polypeptide profile of ES products revealed a total of 24 polypeptides out of which 12 immunogenic polypeptides were identified by western blotting. Confocal micrographs showed the immunolocalization of antigens in the intestinal caecae, vitalline glands, gonads as well as in the tegument of the worm. The dot blot assay confirmed the utility of ES products for the detection of field infection. Subsequently, cross reactivity was found negative with Gigantocotyle explanatum; an amphitome parasite

  5. Identification of early diagnostic antigens from major excretory-secretory proteins of Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae using immunoproteomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The excretory-secretory (ES) proteins of Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae (ML) come mainly from the excretory granules of the stichosome and the cuticles (membrane proteins), are directly exposed to the host’s immune system, and are the main target antigens, which induce the immune responses. Although the ES proteins are the most commonly used diagnostic antigens for trichinellosis, their main disadvantage are the false negative results during the early stage of infection. The aim of this study was to identify early specific diagnostic antigens from the main components of T. spiralis muscle larval ES proteins. Methods Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) combined with Western blot were used to screen the early diagnostic antigens from the main components of T. spiralis muscle larval ES proteins. The protein spots recognized by the sera from BALB/c mice infected with T. spiralis at 18 days post-infection (dpi) were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS and putatively annotated using GO terms obtained from the InterPro databases. Results The ES proteins were analyzed by 2-DE, and more than 33 protein spots were detected with molecular weight varying from 40 to 60 kDa and isoelectric point (pI) from 4 to 7. When probed with the sera from infected mice at 18 dpi, 21 protein spots were recognized and then identified, and they were characterized to correlate with five different proteins of T. spiralis, including two serine proteases, one deoxyribonuclease (DNase) II, and two kinds of trypsin. The five proteins were functionally categorized into molecular function and biological process according to GO hierarchy. Conclusions 2-DE and Western blot combined with MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS were used to screen the diagnostic antigens from the main components of T. spiralis muscle larval ES proteins. The five proteins of T. spiralis identified (two serine proteases, DNase II and two kinds of trypsin) might be the early specific diagnostic antigens of trichinellosis. PMID

  6. Mycobacterial excretory secretory-31 protein with serine protease and lipase activities: An immunogen and drug target against tuberculosis infection.

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    Harinath, Bhaskar C

    2016-12-01

    patients suspected of TB attending Kasturba Hospital-a tertiary health care center. The characterization of ES-31 antigen protein showed that ES-31 is a 31-kDa protein antigen with zinc containing serine protease as well as lipase activities and shown to be a chymotrypsin-like protein which has the catalytic triad responsible for both the activities. Addition of serine protease inhibitors: (1) pefabloc; (2) 3,4 dichloroisocoumarin; (3) phenyl methyl sulfonyl fluoride (53-76%); and metallo-protease inhibitors: (1) EDTA; (2) 1,10 phenanthroline (46-61%), lipase inhibitor, orlistat (61%), or anti-ES-31 serine protease antibody (89%) inhibited the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) H37Ra growth in axenic culture which is further confirmed by a decreased amount of ES-31 protein secreted in the culture filtrate. The importance of excretory secretory ES-31 protein for the survival of MTB H37Ra and H37Rv bacilli has been shown by 77% and 78% growth inhibition in macrophage culture by protease inhibitor pefabloc and was further confirmed by the enhancement of growth of TB bacilli in the presence of ES-31. Inhibition of ES-31 leads to the growth inhibition of MTB bacilli, suggesting that ES-31 is important for entry and multiplication of bacilli and an important drug target for exploring new drugs for TB based on protease and lipase activities of ES-31 protein. Copyright © 2016.

  7. Therapeutic potential of larval excretory/secretory proteins of the pig whipworm Trichuris suis in allergic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebner, F; Hepworth, M R; Rausch, S; Janek, K; Niewienda, A; Kühl, A; Henklein, P; Lucius, R; Hamelmann, E; Hartmann, S

    2014-11-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes are currently being evaluated as a novel therapeutic in the treatment of chronic human inflammatory disorders, due to their unique ability to induce immunoregulatory pathways in their hosts. In particular, administration of ova from the pig whipworm Trichuris suis (T. suis; TSO) has been proposed for the treatment of allergic, inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. Despite these advances, the biological pathways through which TSO therapy modulates the host immune system in the context of human disease remain undefined. We characterized the dominant proteins present in the excretory/secretory (E/S) products of first-stage (L1) T. suis larvae (Ts E/S) using LC-MS/MS analysis and examined the immunosuppressive properties of whole larval Ts E/S in vitro and in a murine model of allergic airway disease. Administration of larval Ts E/S proteins in vivo during the allergen sensitization phase was sufficient to suppress airway hyperreactivity, bronchiolar inflammatory infiltrate and allergen-specific IgE production. Three proteins in larval Ts E/S were unambiguously identified. The immunomodulatory function of larval Ts E/S was found to be partially dependent on the immunoregulatory cytokine IL-10. Taken together, these data demonstrate that the released proteins of larval T. suis have significant immunomodulatory capacities and efficiently dampen allergic airway hyperreactivity. Thus, the therapeutic potential of defined larval E/S proteins should be exploited for the treatment of human allergic disorders. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Use of cloned excretory/secretory low-molecular-weight proteins of Cooperia oncophora in a serological assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poot, J; Kooyman, F N; Dop, P Y; Schallig, H D; Eysker, M; Cornelissen, A W

    1997-07-01

    The potential of Cooperia oncophora excretory/secretory (ES) proteins as antigens in a serological assay which aims to establish exposure levels in cattle was assessed. ES proteins were analyzed by one- and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting. The N-terminal domains of two ES proteins were sequenced, and the corresponding cDNAs were cloned. Two cDNAs, designated CoES14.0 and CoES14.2, were expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant proteins were tested in an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in which crude worm antigen (CWA) was used as a reference standard. In total, 67 reference serum samples were used: 27 negative serum samples, 29 C. oncophora-specific serum samples, 7 Dictyocaulus viviparus-specific serum samples, and 4 Ostertagia ostertagi-specific serum samples. This showed respective sensitivities and specificities of 17 and 84%, 0 and 100%, and 100 and 100% by the ELISAs with the three different types of proteins (CWA, CoES14.0, and CoES14.2, respectively). Since the CoES14.2 ELISA had the best sensitivity and specificity with reference sera, its specificity was further validated in an antigen inhibition ELISA. In this assay CoES14.2 and CWA preparations of C. oncophora, Cooperia curticei, O. ostertagi, Nematodirus helvetianus, Fasciola hepatica, D. viviparus, Haemonchus placei, and Trichostrongylus colubriformus were used as competitor antigens. This experiment showed that only the homologous antigens C. oncophora CWA and CoEs14.2 resulted in 100% inhibition. The CWA preparations of all other nematodes did not affect the ELISA, even if concentrations of 250 times the 50% inhibitory concentration of C. oncophora CWA were used. These results indicate that CoES14.2 does not share cross-reactive epitopes with heterologous CWAs. Finally, we tested the CoES14.2 ELISA with sequential serum samples from naturally infected groups of animals. The optical density values that were obtained correlated well with

  9. Proteomic Analysis of Trichinella spiralis Adult Worm Excretory-Secretory Proteins Recognized by Sera of Patients with Early Trichinellosis

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    Zhong Q. Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The most commonly used serodiagnostic antigens for trichinellosis are the excretory-secretory (ES antigens from T. spiralis muscle larvae (ML, but the specific antibodies against the ML ES antigens are usually negative during early stage of Trichinella infection. The recent studies demonstrated that T. spiralis adult worm (AW antigens were recognized by mouse or swine infection sera on Western blot as early as 7–15 days post-infection (dpi, the AW antigens might contain the early diagnostic markers for trichinellosis. The purpose of this study was to screen early diagnostic antigens in T. spiralis AW ES proteins recognized by sera of early patients with trichinellosis. T. spiralis AW were collected at 72 h post-infection (hpi, and their ES antigens were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and Western blot. Our results showed that 5 protein bands (55, 48–50, 45, 44, and 36 kDa were recognized by sera of early patients with trichinellosis collected at 19 dpi, and were subjected to shotgun LC–MS/MS and bioinformatics analyses. A total of 185 proteins were identified from T. spiralis protein database, of which 116 (67.2% proteins had molecular weights of 30∼60 kDa, and 125 (67.6% proteins with pI 4–7. Bioinformatic analyses showed that the identified proteins have a wide diversity of biological functions (binding of nucleotides, proteins, ions, carbohydrates, and lipids; hydrolase, transferase, and oxidoreductase, etc.. Several enzymes (e.g., adult-specific DNase II, serine protease and serine protease inhibitor could be the invasion-related proteins and early diagnostic markers for trichinellosis. Moreover, recombinant T. spiralis serine protease (rTsSP-ZH68 was expressed in E. coli and its antigenicity was analyzed by Western blot with the early infection sera. The rTsSP-ZH68 was recognized by sera of infected mice at 8–10 dpi and sera of early patients with trichinellosis at 19 dpi. T. spiralis AW proteins identified in this study, especially serine

  10. Ancylostoma ceylanicum Excretory-Secretory Protein 2 Adopts a Netrin-Like Fold and Defines a Novel Family of Nematode Proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K Kucera; L Harrison; M Cappello; Y Modis

    2011-12-31

    Hookworms are human parasites that have devastating effects on global health, particularly in underdeveloped countries. Ancylostoma ceylanicum infects humans and animals, making it a useful model organism to study disease pathogenesis. A. ceylanicum excretory-secretory protein 2 (AceES-2), a highly immunoreactive molecule secreted by adult worms at the site of intestinal attachment, is partially protective when administered as a mucosal vaccine against hookworm anemia. The crystal structure of AceES-2 determined at 1.75 {angstrom} resolution shows that it adopts a netrin-like fold similar to that found in tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteases (TIMPs) and in complement factors C3 and C5. However, recombinant AceES-2 does not significantly inhibit the 10 most abundant human matrix metalloproteases or complement-mediated cell lysis. The presence of a highly acidic surface on AceES-2 suggests that it may function as a cytokine decoy receptor. Several small nematode proteins that have been annotated as TIMPs or netrin-domain-containing proteins display sequence homology in structurally important regions of AceES-2's netrin-likefold. Together, our results suggest that AceES-2 defines a novel family of nematode netrin-like proteins, which may function to modulate the host immune response to hookworm and other parasites.

  11. Proteome analysis of excretory-secretory proteins of Entamoeba histolytica HM1:IMSS via LC-ESI-MS/MS and LC-MALDI-TOF/TOF.

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    Ujang, Jorim Anak; Kwan, Soon Hong; Ismail, Mohd Nazri; Lim, Boon Huat; Noordin, Rahmah; Othman, Nurulhasanah

    2016-01-01

    Excretory-secretory (ES) proteins of E. histolytica are thought to play important roles in the host invasion, metabolism, and defence. Elucidation of the types and functions of E. histolytica ES proteins can further our understanding of the disease pathogenesis. Thus, the aim of this study is to use proteomics approach to better understand the complex ES proteins of the protozoa. E. histolytica ES proteins were prepared by culturing the trophozoites in protein-free medium. The ES proteins were identified using two mass spectrometry tools, namely, LC-ESI-MS/MS and LC-MALDI-TOF/TOF. The identified proteins were then classified according to their biological processes, molecular functions, and cellular components using the Panther classification system (PantherDB). A complementary list of 219 proteins was identified; this comprised 201 proteins detected by LC-ESI-MS/MS and 107 proteins by LC-MALDI-TOF/TOF. Of the 219 proteins, 89 were identified by both mass-spectrometry systems, while 112 and 18 proteins were detected exclusively by LC-ESI-MS/MS and LC-MALDI-TOF/TOF respectively. Biological protein functional analysis using PantherDB showed that 27% of the proteins were involved in metabolic processes. Using molecular functional and cellular component analyses, 35% of the proteins were found to be involved in catalytic activity, and 21% were associated with the cell parts. This study showed that complementary use of LC-ESI-MS/MS and LC-MALDI-TOF/TOF has improved the identification of ES proteins. The results have increased our understanding of the types of proteins excreted/secreted by the amoeba and provided further evidence of the involvement of ES proteins in intestinal colonisation and evasion of the host immune system, as well as in encystation and excystation of the parasite.

  12. Extracellular Vesicles from Parasitic Helminths Contain Specific Excretory/Secretory Proteins and Are Internalized in Intestinal Host Cells

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    Marcilla, Antonio; Trelis, María; Cortés, Alba; Sotillo, Javier; Cantalapiedra, Fernando; Minguez, María Teresa; Valero, María Luz; Sánchez del Pino, Manuel Mateo; Muñoz-Antoli, Carla; Toledo, Rafael; Bernal, Dolores

    2012-01-01

    The study of host-parasite interactions has increased considerably in the last decades, with many studies focusing on the identification of parasite molecules (i.e. surface or excretory/secretory proteins (ESP)) as potential targets for new specific treatments and/or diagnostic tools. In parallel, in the last few years there have been significant advances in the field of extracellular vesicles research. Among these vesicles, exosomes of endocytic origin, with a characteristic size ranging from 30–100 nm, carry several atypical secreted proteins in different organisms, including parasitic protozoa. Here, we present experimental evidence for the existence of exosome-like vesicles in parasitic helminths, specifically the trematodes Echinostoma caproni and Fasciola hepatica. These microvesicles are actively released by the parasites and are taken up by host cells. Trematode extracellular vesicles contain most of the proteins previously identified as components of ESP, as confirmed by proteomic, immunogold labeling and electron microscopy studies. In addition to parasitic proteins, we also identify host proteins in these structures. The existence of extracellular vesicles explains the secretion of atypical proteins in trematodes, and the demonstration of their uptake by host cells suggests an important role for these structures in host-parasite communication, as described for other infectious agents. PMID:23029346

  13. Immunosuppressive PAS-1 is an excretory/secretory protein released by larval and adult worms of the ascarid nematode Ascaris suum.

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    Antunes, M F P; Titz, T O; Batista, I F C; Marques-Porto, R; Oliveira, C F; Alves de Araujo, C A; Macedo-Soares, M F

    2015-05-01

    Helminths use several strategies to evade and/or modify the host immune response, including suppression or inactivation of the host antigen-specific response. Several helminth immunomodulatory molecules have been identified. Our studies have focused on immunosuppression induced by the roundworm Ascaris suum and an A. suum-derived protein named protein 1 from A. suum (PAS-1). Here we assessed whether PAS-1 is an excretory/secretory (E/S) protein and whether it can suppress lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation. Larvae from infective eggs were cultured in unsupplemented Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium (DMEM) for 2 weeks. PAS-1 was then measured in the culture supernatants and in adult A. suum body fluid at different time points by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with the monoclonal antibody MAIP-1. Secreted PAS-1 was detected in both larval culture supernatant and adult body fluid. It suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced leucocyte migration and pro-inflammatory cytokine production, and stimulated interleukin (IL)-10 secretion, indicating that larval and adult secreted PAS-1 suppresses inflammation in this model. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory activity of PAS-1 was abolished by treatment with MAIP-1, a PAS-1-specific monoclonal antibody, confirming the crucial role of PAS-1 in suppressing LPS-induced inflammation. These findings demonstrate that PAS-1 is an E/S protein with anti-inflammatory properties likely to be attributable to IL-10 production.

  14. Immunomodulatory effects of excretory/secretory compounds from Contracaecum osculatum larvae in a zebrafish inflammation model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehrdana, Foojan; Kania, Per Walter; Nazemi, Sasan

    2017-01-01

    Excretory/secretory (ES) compounds isolated from third-stage larvae of the anisakid nematode Contracaecum osculatum parasitizing liver of Baltic cod were investigated for effects on immune gene expression in a zebrafish LPS-induced inflammation model. ES products containing a series of proteins...

  15. Immunoproteomic Analysis of the Excretory-Secretory Proteins from Spirometra Mansoni Sparganum

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    Zhong Quan Wang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sparganosis is caused by the invasion of Spirometra sparganum into various tissues/organs. Subcutaneous sparganosis can be diagnosed by biopsy, while visceral/cerebral sparganosis is not easy to be diagnosed. The diagnosis de­pends largely on the detection of specific anti-sparganum antibodies. The specific­ity of the ELISA could be increased by using S. mansoni sparganum excretory–secre­tory (ES antigens, but it also had the cross-reactions with sera of patients with cysticercosis or paragonimiasis. The aim of this study was to identify early specific diagnostic antigens in S. mansoni sparganum ES proteins.Methods: The sparganum ES proteins were analyzed by two-dimensional electrophore­sis (2-DE and Western blot probed with early sera from infected mice at 14 days post-infection. The immunoreactive protein spots were characterized by MALDI-TOF/ TOF-MS.Results: A total of approximately 149 proteins spots were detected with isoelectric point (pI varying from 3 to 7.5 and molecular weight from 20 to 115 kDa and seven protein spots with molecular weight of 23-31 kDa were recognized by the infection sera. Three of seven spots were successfully identified and characterized as the same S. mansoni protein (cysteine protease, and the proteins of other 4 spots were not included in the databases.Conclusion: The cysteine protease from S. mansoni ES proteins recognized by early infection sera might be the early diagnostic antigens for sparganosis.

  16. Dirofilaria immitis exhibits sex- and stage-specific differences in excretory/secretory miRNA and protein profiles.

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    Tritten, Lucienne; Clarke, Damian; Timmins, Scott; McTier, Tom; Geary, Timothy G

    2016-12-15

    The canine heartworm Dirofilaria immitis releases excretory/secretory molecules into its host and in culture. We report analyses of the types, amounts and stage-dependence of microRNAs and proteins found in D. immitis culture media recovered after incubating 800,000 microfilariae for 6days, 500L3 and 500L4 for 7days, as well as 40 adult females and 40 adult males for 48h, all separately. In addition, the presence of exosome-like particles was established by nanoparticle tracking analysis. Our results are in concordance with the D. immitis molecules previously detected in dog blood and in culture medium, but add additional insight into the sex- and stage-specificity of these processes. Of 131 miRNA candidates analyzed, none of the most abundant sequences was exclusively associated with one stage. Several isoforms of the nematode miR-100 family, miR-279, miR-71, were highly represented and overlapped substantially with the profile of heartworm miRNAs described from infected dog blood. lin-4 was primarily associated with males. We also report 4, 27 and 72 proteins in media from microfilariae, females and males, respectively. The only protein in common to all samples was actin, and only 9/88 proteins with a gene ontology description had not been reported in other studies of filarial secretomes. Exosomal proteins were well represented, dominated by cytoskeletal proteins, metabolic enzymes, zeta polypeptide, and chaperones. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Characterization of the DMAE-modified juvenile excretory-secretory protein Juv-p120 of Litomosoides sigmodontis.

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    Wagner, Ulrike; Hirzmann, Jörg; Hintz, Martin; Beck, Ewald; Geyer, Rudolf; Hobom, Gerd; Taubert, Anja; Zahner, Horst

    2011-04-01

    Juv-p120 is an excretory-secretory 160 kDa glycoprotein of juvenile female Litomosoides sigmodontis and exhibits features typical for mucins. 50% of its molecular mass is attributed to posttranslational modifications with the unusual substituent dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE). By that Juv-p120 corresponds to the surface proteins of the microfilarial sheath, Shp3 and Shp3a. The secreted protein consists of 697 amino acids, organized in two different domains of repeat elements separated by a stretch of polar residues. The N-terminal domain shows fourteen P/S/T/F-rich repeat elements highly modified with phospho-DMAE substituted O-glycans confering a negative charge to the protein. The C-terminal domain is extremely rich in glutamine (35%) and leucine (25%) in less organized repeats and may play a role in oligomerization of Juv-p120 monomers. A protein family with a similar Q/L-rich region and conserved core promoter region was identified in Brugia malayi by homology screening and in Wuchereria bancrofti and Loa loa by database similarity search. One of the Q/L-rich proteins in each genus has an extended S/T-rich region and due to this feature is supposed to be a putative Juv-p120 ortholog. The corresponding modification of Juv-p120 and the microfilarial sheath surface antigens Shp3/3a explains the appearance of anti-sheath antibodies before the release of microfilariae. The function of Juv-p120 is unknown. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Excretory/secretory products of the carcinogenic liver fluke are endocytosed by human cholangiocytes and drive cell proliferation and IL6 production.

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    Chaiyadet, Sujittra; Smout, Michael; Johnson, Michael; Whitchurch, Cynthia; Turnbull, Lynne; Kaewkes, Sasithorn; Sotillo, Javier; Loukas, Alex; Sripa, Banchob

    2015-10-01

    Liver fluke infection caused by Opisthorchis viverrini remains a major public health problem in many parts of Asia including Thailand, Lao PDR, Vietnam and Cambodia, where there is a strikingly high incidence of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA - hepatic cancer of the bile duct epithelium). Among other factors, uptake of O. viverrini excretory/secretory products (OvES) by biliary epithelial cells has been postulated to be responsible for chronic inflammation and proliferation of cholangiocytes, but the mechanisms by which cells internalise O. viverrini excretory/secretory products are still unknown. Herein we incubated normal human cholangiocytes (H69), human cholangiocarcinoma cells (KKU-100, KKU-M156) and human colon cancer (Caco-2) cells with O. viverrini excretory/secretory products and analysed the effects of different endocytic inhibitors to address the mechanism of cellular uptake of ES proteins. Opisthorchis viverrini excretory/secretory products was internalised preferentially by liver cell lines, and most efficiently/rapidly by H69 cells. There was no evidence for trafficking of ES proteins to cholangiocyte organelles, and most of the fluorescence was detected in the cytoplasm. Pretreatment with clathrin inhibitors significantly reduced the uptake of O. viverrini excretory/secretory products, particularly by H69 cells. Opisthorchis viverrini excretory/secretory products induced proliferation of liver cells (H69 and CCA lines) but not intestinal (Caco-2) cells, and proliferation was blocked using inhibitors of the classical endocytic pathways (clathrin and caveolae). Opisthorchis viverrini excretory/secretory products drove IL6 secretion by H69 cells but not Caco-2 cells, and cytokine secretion was significantly reduced by endocytosis inhibitors. This the first known study to address the endocytosis of helminth ES proteins by host epithelial cells and sheds light on the pathways by which this parasite causes one of the most devastating forms of cancer in south

  19. [Effect of excretory/secretory protein ofTrichinella spiralisadult worm on CLP-induced sepsis in mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao-di, Yang; Wen-Xin, He; Qiang, Fang; Di, Song; Qi, Wu; Xiao-Li, Wang; Nan, Li; Qi, Qi; Yong-Kun, Wan; Hui, Zhang; Rui, Zhou; Xing-Zhi, Chen; Mu-Lin, Liu; Hui-Hui, Li; Liang, Chu

    2016-05-25

    To observe the effect of excretory/secretory products from Trichinella spiralis adult worms (AES) on cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) -induced sepsis in mice. Forty-eight BALB/c mice were randomly divided into 3 groups:a sham operation group (PBS + sham group, Group A), a CLP-induced sepsis group (PBS+CLP group, Group B) and an AES treatment group (AES+CLP group, Group C). The mice of each group were intraperitoneally injected with 25 μg of AES or PBS only as a control in a total volume of 200 μl. Eight mice from each group were selected randomly for survival analysis of 96 hours. The other 8 mice in each group were observed for pathological changes in the lung, liver and kidney tissues by HE staining 12 h after CLP, and then determined for the detection of cytokines including TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10 and TGF-β in the sera by ELISA. The difference among the survival rates of mice in the 3 groups was statistically significant ( χ 2 = 21.16, P CLP. Compared with the mice in group B, the survival rate of those in Group C (70%) increased significantly ( P CLP in mice.

  20. A 24 kDa Excretory-Secretory Protein of Anisakis simplex Larvae Could Elicit Allergic Airway Inflammation in Mice

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    Park, Hye-Kyung; Cho, Min Kyoung; Park, Mi Kyung; Kang, Shin Ae; Kim, Yun Seong; Kim, Ki Uk; Lee, Min Ki; Ock, Mee Sun; Cha, Hee Jae

    2011-01-01

    We have reported that a 24 kDa protein (22U homologous; As22U) of Anisakis simplex larvae could elicit several Th2-related chemokine gene expressions in the intestinal epithelial cell line which means that As22U may play a role as an allergen. In order to determine the contribution of As22U to allergic reactions, we treated mice with 6 times intra-nasal application of recombinant As22U (rAs22U). In the group challenged with rAs22U and ovalbumin (OVA), the number of eosinophils in the bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was significantly increased, as compared to the group receiving only OVA. In addition, mice treated with rAs22U and OVA showed significantly increased airway hyperresponsiveness. Thus, severe inflammation around the airway and immune cell recruitment was observed in mice treated with rAs22U plus OVA. The levels of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 cytokines in the BALF increased significantly after treatment with rAs22U and OVA. Similarly, the levels of anti-OVA specific IgE and IgG1 increased in mice treated with rAs22U and OVA, compared to those treated only with OVA. The Gro-α (CXCL1) gene expression in mouse lung epithelial cells increased instantly after treatment with rAs22U, and allergy-specific chemokines eotaxin (CCL11) and thymus-and-activation-regulated-chemokine (CCL17) gene expressions significantly increased at 6 hr after treatment. In conclusion, rAs22U may induce airway allergic inflammation, as the result of enhanced Th2 and Th17 responses. PMID:22355204

  1. Comparison of Excretory-Secretory and Somatic Antigens of Ornithobilharzia turkestanicum in Agar Gel Diffusion Test

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    H Miranzadeh

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ornithobilharziosis as one of the parasitic infections may give rise to serious economic problems in animal husbandry. The Aim of the study was to prepare and compare the somatic and excretory-secretory (ES antigens of O. tur­kestanicum in gel diffusion test. Methods: Excretory-secretory (ES and somatic antigens of Ornithobilharzia turkestanicum were prepared from collected worms from mesentric blood vessels of infected sheep. The laboratory bred rabbits were immunized with antigens and then antisera were prepared. The reaction of antigens and antisera was observed in gel diffusion test. Results: ES antigens of this species showed positive reaction with antisera raised against ES and also somatic antigens. Somatic antigens also showed positive reaction with antisera raised against somatic and also ES antigens. Conclusion: The antigenicity of O. turkestanicum ES and somatic antigens is the same in gel diffusion test.

  2. Effects of excretory/secretory products from Anisakis simplex (Nematoda) on immune gene expression in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahlool, Qusay Zuhair Mohammad; Skovgaard, Alf; Kania, Per Walter

    2013-01-01

    Excretory/secretory (ES) products are molecules produced by parasitic nematodes, including larval Anisakis simplex, a parasite occurring in numerous marine fish hosts. The effects of these substances on host physiology have not been fully described. The present work elucidates the influence of ES...

  3. Triclabendazole (Anthelmintic Drug Effects on the Excretory- Secretory Proteome of Fasciola hepatica in Two Dimension Electrophoresis Gel.

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    Ashkan Faridi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the protein spots of excretory - secretory products of Fasciola hepatica using two dimension electrophoresis method in the presence and absence of triclabendazole drug which can be considered to detect the target protein of the drug.F. hepatica parasites were collected from infected cattle livers, divided in two groups and cultivated in RPMI 1640 medium. First group was treated with triclabendazole (TCBZ and second group considered as control. The excretory-secretory (ES products of each group were separated and total protein determined by Bradford method. To provide proteome spots, the ES proteins were precipitated and two dimension electrophoresis (2-DE gel prepared. Protein amounts of two groups were compared using the statistical t-test and protein spots from 2-DE in test and control groups were also statistically analyzed. The protein spots of gels were identified by using protein database.The t-test showed a significant increase of total proteins in treated group (P0.05. Cathepsin L- protein (MW 36.7 pH 5.34, 14-3-3 epsilon 2 isoform (MW 28.2 pH 5.36, Cathepsin L1D (MW 36.5 pH 5.8 and Cathepsin L1D (MW 36.6 pH 6.26 were identified in test group.It seems that, these results can be considered to determine the proteins which the drug acts as a target on them.

  4. Isolation and partial characterization of excretory/secretory antigens of Gastrothylax crumenifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifullah, Mohammad K; Ahmad, Gul; Abidi, Syed M A

    2011-08-25

    The present study was carried out to identify the excretory/secretory (E/S) antigens of the rumen infecting digenetic trematode Gastrothylax crumenifer that may be useful for the immunodiagnosis of rumen amphistomosis particularly during the pre-monsoon season during which this rumen parasite stops shedding eggs. The in vitro released E/S proteins were purified on a Sephadex G-200 column. The gel filtration profile revealed three distinct fractions F1-F3 where F1 and F3 appeared as sharp peaks while the F2 fraction was dispersed. The antibody titre against each of the purified E/S fractions was determined by ELISA using anti-whole E/S polyclonal antibodies raised in rabbit. Among the three fractions, the antibody titre against F1 was highest (1:12,800) whereas IgG titre was very low (1:50) for fraction F2 and F3 (1:100). Of the total polypeptides resolved on gradient SDS-PAGE, only a few antigenic polypeptides were detected in each fraction with hyperimmune anti-serum as revealed by Western Blot analysis. However, a 33 kDa antigen detected in each fraction appeared to be immunodominant which could be exploited for the diagnosis of the pouched amphistome. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Immunoproteomic analysis of the excretory-secretory products of Trichinella pseudospiralis adult worms and newborn larvae

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    Yang Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The nematode Trichinella pseudospiralis is an intracellular parasite of mammalian skeletal muscle cells and exists in a non-encapsulated form. Previous studies demonstrated that T. pseudospiralis could induce a lower host inflammatory response. Excretory-secretory (ES proteins as the most important products of host-parasite interaction may play the main functional role in alleviating host inflammation. However, the ES products of T. pseudospiralis early stage are still unknown. The identification of the ES products of the early stage facilitates the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of the immunomodulation and may help finding early diagnostic markers. Results In this study, we used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE-based western blotting coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS/MS to separate and identify the T. pseudospiralis adult worms ES products immunoreaction-positive proteins. In total, 400 protein spots were separated by 2-DE. Twenty-eight protein spots were successfully identified using the sera from infected pigs and were characterized to correlate with 12 different proteins of T. pseudospiralis, including adult-specific DNase II-10, poly-cysteine and histidine-tailed protein isoform 2, serine protease, serine/threonine-protein kinase ULK3, enolase, putative venom allergen 5, chymotrypsin-like elastase family member 1, uncharacterized protein, peptidase inhibitor 16, death-associated protein 1, deoxyribonuclease II superfamily and golgin-45. Bioinformatic analyses showed that the identified proteins have a wide diversity of molecular functions, especially deoxyribonuclease II (DNase II activity and serine-type endopeptidase activity. Conclusions Early candidate antigens from the ES proteins of T. pseudospiralis have been screened and identified. Our results suggest these proteins may play key roles during the T. pseudospiralis

  6. Development and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against excretory-secretory antigens of Fasciola gigantica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viyanant, V; Upatham, E S; Sobhon, P; Krailas, D; Ardseungnoen, P; Anatawara, S

    1997-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed against Fasciola gigantica excretory-secretory (ES) antigens were developed from BALB/c mice. Four were selected for further study, from the panel of hybridomas. The antigen specificities of these MAbs were characterized and localized by enzyme-linked immunoeletrotransfer blot (EITB) and immunoperoxidase technique. The target epitopes of these MAbs are 66 kDa protein (MAb 2D10), 66 and 27-26 kDa proteins (MAbs 5D10 and 4F5) and 27-26 kDa protein (MAb 2D9). MAb 2D9 reacted to the antigenic components of the luminal content and epithelial cell lining the cecum, whereas MAb 2D10 reacted specifically to the antigens of the tegument and surface membrane. It was found that all MAbs cross-reacted to various degrees with the antigens extracted from Schistosoma mansoni, S. mekongi, S. spindale and Paramphistomum spp. However, when MAbs were diluted to 1:100 or 1:400 significant reduction of their cross-reactivities was observed.

  7. Novel cathepsin B and cathepsin B-like cysteine protease of Naegleria fowleri excretory-secretory proteins and their biochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jinyoung; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Sohn, Hae-Jin; Yang, Hee-Jong; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Chwae, Yong-Joon; Park, Sun; Kim, Kyongmin; Shin, Ho-Joon

    2014-08-01

    Naegleria fowleri causes a lethal primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) in humans and experimental animals, which leads to death within 7-14 days. Cysteine proteases of parasites play key roles in nutrient uptake, excystment/encystment, host tissue invasion, and immune evasion. In this study, we cloned N. fowleri cathepsin B (nfcpb) and cathepsin B-like (nfcpb-L) genes from our cDNA library of N. fowleri. The full-length sequences of genes were 1,038 and 939 bp (encoded 345 and 313 amino acids), and molecular weights were 38.4 and 34 kDa, respectively. Also, nfcpb and nfcpb-L showed a 56 and 46 % identity to Naegleria gruberi cathepsin B and cathepsin B-like enzyme, respectively. Recombinant NfCPB (rNfCPB) and NfCPB-L (rNfCPB-L) proteins were expressed by the pEX5-NT/TOPO vector that was transformed into Escherichia coli BL21, and they showed 38.4 and 34 kDa bands on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western blot analysis using their respective antibodies. Proteolytic activity of refolded rNfCPB and rNfCPB-L was maximum at a pH of 4.5, and the most effective substrate was Z-LR-MCA. rNfCPB and rNfCPB-L showed proteolytic activity for several proteins such as IgA, IgG, IgM, collagen, fibronectin, hemoglobin, and albumin. These results suggested that NfCPB and NfCPB-L cysteine protease are important components of the N. fowleri ESP, and they may play important roles in host tissue invasion and immune evasion as pathogens that cause N. fowleri PAM.

  8. Comparative Assay of Glutathione S- Transferase (GSTs Activity of Excretory-Secretory Materials and Somatic Extract of Fasciola spp Parasites

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    Taghi Golmohamadi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Fascioliasis is a worldwide parasitic disease in human and domestic animals. The causative agents of fascioliasis are Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. In the recent years, fasciola resistance to drugs has been reported in the many of publications. Fasciola spp has detoxification system including GST enzyme which may be responsible for its resistance. Therefore , the aim of the study was to assay of GST enzyme activity in fasciola parasites. Fasciola gigantica and Fasciola hepatica helminths were collected from abattoir as a live and cultured in buffer media for 4 h at 37 °C. Excretory-Secretory products were collected and stored in -80◦C. F. gigantica and Fasciola hepatica were homogenized with homogenizing buffer in a glass homogenizer to prepare of somatic extract. Suspension was then centrifuged and supernatant was stored at -80°C. In order to assay the enzyme activity, excretory-secretory and somatic extracts in the form of cocktails (potassium phosphate buffer, reduced glutathione and 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene substrates were prepared and their absorbance recorded for 5 minutes at 340 nm. The total and specific GST activity of F. gigantica somatic and ES products were obtained as 2916.00, 272.01 micromole/minute and 1.33, 1.70 micromole/minute/mg protein, respectively. Fasciola hepatica also showed 2705.00, 276.86 micromole/minute and 1.33, 1.52 micromole/minute/mg protein, respectively. These results are important for analysis of parasite survival / resistance to drugs which use for treatment of fascioliasis.

  9. Proteomic analysis of excretory secretory products from Clonorchis sinensis adult worms: molecular characterization and serological reactivity of a excretory-secretory antigen-fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Minghui; Hu, Kunhua; Liu, Wei; Hu, Xuchu; Hu, Fengyu; Huang, Lisi; Wang, Peng; Hu, Yue; Huang, Yan; Li, Wenfang; Liang, Chi; Yin, Xingfeng; He, Qingyu; Yu, Xinbing

    2011-09-01

    Clonorchis sinensis is a food-borne zoonotic parasite that resides in bile ducts and causes clonorchiasis, which may result in cholelithiasis, cholecystitis, hepatic fibrosis, and liver tumors. Although total excretory secretory products (ESP) of C. sinensis adults induce hepatic fibrosis in vivo in rats, the causative mechanism is not well understood. To study components of the ESP, C. sinensis culture medium was collected and analyzed using shotgun LC-MS/MS. We identified a total of 110 proteins, including glycometabolic enzymes (such as fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) and enolase), detoxification enzymes (such as glutamate dehydrogenase, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase and cathepsin B endopeptidase), and a number of RAB family proteins. To identify a potential causative agent for hepatic fibrosis, we expressed and purified a recombinant FBPase, a 1,041-bp gene product that encodes a 41.7-kDa protein with prototypical FBPase domains and that can form a tetramer with a molecular mass of 166.8 kDa. In addition, we found that FBPase is an antigen present in the ESP and in circulation. Immunofluorescence showed that FBPase localizes to the intestinal cecum and vitellarium in C. sinensis adults. Our results describe the components of the excretory secretory products from C. sinensis adult worms and suggest that FBPase may be an important antigen present in the ESP of C. sinensis and may lay the foundation for additional studies on the development of clonorchiasis-associated hepatic fibrosis.

  10. A Cooperia punctata gene family encoding 14 kDa excretory-secretory antigens conserved for trichostrongyloid nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatsuda, A P; De Vries, E; Vieira Bressan, M C; Eysker, M

    2001-12-01

    A polymorphic set of 14 kDa excretory-secretory (E-S) antigen-encoding cDNAs, with similarity to a previously characterized 15 kDa E-S antigen of Haemonchus contortus, was cloned from Cooperia punctata. Five cDNAs encoding predicted proteins of 70-80% identity were sequenced. Genomic analyses of individuals proved the existence of three 14 kDa E-S antigen-encoding genes, excluding that the differences reflected polymorphisms between individuals in a population. Southern blots indicated the presence of additional members of this gene family. Thus, despite the fact that heterologously expressed C. punctata 14 kDa E-S products are shown to be recognized by immune sera, potential pitfalls in the development of a recombinant vaccine are presented by this genetic diversity. Vaccine design could be further rationalized by knowledge of the function, and possible redundancy in function, of the E-S products which is presently lacking. The limitations encountered in assigning a function to the 14/15 kDa family of E-S proteins that is thus far unique to the trichostrongyloid nematodes are discussed.

  11. Excretory/secretory products of anisakid nematodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehrdana, Foojan; Buchmann, Kurt

    2017-01-01

    as intermediate or transport hosts and mammals or birds as final hosts. Human consumption of raw or underprocessed seafood containing third stage larvae of anisakid parasites may elicit a gastrointestinal disease (anisakidosis) and allergic responses. Excretory and secretory (ES) compounds produced...... a therapeutic potential in immune-related diseases....... by the parasites are assumed to be key players in clinical manifestation of the disease in humans, but the molecules are likely to play a general biological role in invertebrates and lower vertebrates as well. ES products have several functions during infection, e.g. penetration of host tissues and evasion of host...

  12. Trichinella britovi human infection in Spain : antibody response to surface, excretory/secretory and somatic antigens

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    Rodríguez-Osorio M.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A third outbreak of Trichinella britovi with 140 people involved, occurred in Granada Spain (December 1998. The source of infection was sausage made from uninspected wild boar meat. Fifty-two patients agreed to participated in this study. An elevated eosinophil level (> 5 % was detected in 59.6 % of patients, and persisted in most of these cases for two months. A moderate IgG response was observed. At the onset of symptoms, Western blot (WB test detected more positive cases than Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and indirect immunofluorescence (IIF. Six months from infection, ELISA revealed fewer positive cases than the other two tests. It would appear that the response to somatic antigens starts earlier than those to cuticular and excretory/secretory (ES antigens and that the response to ES antigens is the first to decrease.

  13. Proteomic analysis of the excretory-secretory products from larval stages of Ascaris suum reveals high abundance of glycosyl hydrolases.

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    Tao Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum are socioeconomically important and widespread parasites of humans and pigs, respectively. The excretory-secretory (ES molecules produced and presented at the parasite-host interface during the different phases of tissue invasion and migration are likely to play critical roles in the induction and development of protective immune and other host responses. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The aim of this study was to identify the ES proteins of the different larval stages (L3-egg, L3-lung and L4 by LC-MS/MS. In total, 106 different proteins were identified, 20 in L3-egg, 45 in L3-lung stage and 58 in L4. Although most of the proteins identified were stage-specific, 15 were identified in the ES products of at least two stages. Two proteins, i.e. a 14-3-3-like protein and a serpin-like protein, were present in the ES products from the three different larval stages investigated. Interestingly, a comparison of ES products from L4 with those of L3-egg and L3-lung showed an abundance of metabolic enzymes, particularly glycosyl hydrolases. Further study indicated that most of these glycolytic enzymes were transcriptionally upregulated from L4 onwards, with a peak in the adult stage, particularly in intestinal tissue. This was also confirmed by enzymatic assays, showing the highest glycosidase activity in protein extracts from adult worms gut. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present proteomic analysis provides important information on the host-parasite interaction and the biology of the migratory stages of A. suum. In particular, the high transcriptional upregulation of glycosyl hydrolases from the L4 stage onwards reveals that the degradation of complex carbohydrates forms an essential part of the energy metabolism of this parasite once it establishes in the small intestine.

  14. Proteomic analysis of the excretory-secretory products from larval stages of Ascaris suum reveals high abundance of glycosyl hydrolases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Van Steendam, Katleen; Dhaenens, Maarten; Vlaminck, Johnny; Deforce, Dieter; Jex, Aaron R; Gasser, Robin B; Geldhof, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum are socioeconomically important and widespread parasites of humans and pigs, respectively. The excretory-secretory (ES) molecules produced and presented at the parasite-host interface during the different phases of tissue invasion and migration are likely to play critical roles in the induction and development of protective immune and other host responses. The aim of this study was to identify the ES proteins of the different larval stages (L3-egg, L3-lung and L4) by LC-MS/MS. In total, 106 different proteins were identified, 20 in L3-egg, 45 in L3-lung stage and 58 in L4. Although most of the proteins identified were stage-specific, 15 were identified in the ES products of at least two stages. Two proteins, i.e. a 14-3-3-like protein and a serpin-like protein, were present in the ES products from the three different larval stages investigated. Interestingly, a comparison of ES products from L4 with those of L3-egg and L3-lung showed an abundance of metabolic enzymes, particularly glycosyl hydrolases. Further study indicated that most of these glycolytic enzymes were transcriptionally upregulated from L4 onwards, with a peak in the adult stage, particularly in intestinal tissue. This was also confirmed by enzymatic assays, showing the highest glycosidase activity in protein extracts from adult worms gut. The present proteomic analysis provides important information on the host-parasite interaction and the biology of the migratory stages of A. suum. In particular, the high transcriptional upregulation of glycosyl hydrolases from the L4 stage onwards reveals that the degradation of complex carbohydrates forms an essential part of the energy metabolism of this parasite once it establishes in the small intestine.

  15. Analysis of excretory-secretory and somatic antigens of Gastrothylax crumenifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifullah, M K; Ahmad, G; Nizami, W A

    2000-09-01

    The excretory/secretory (ES) metabolic products released by Gastrothylax crumenifer (Trematoda: Digenea) during in vitro incubations and the somatic extract of the adult parasite were analysed using polyacrylamide gel electro-phoresis (PAGE). Immunogenicity of ES and somatic extracts were evaluated by immunoblotting and ELISA using sera raised against ES and somatic antigens in rabbits. The electropherograms of ES and somatic extracts have been resolved into 38 and 41 polypeptides, respectively. The apparent molecular weights of these polypeptides range from 205 kDa. A total of 14 polypeptides were found to be common to both of the samples. The analysis of immunoblot results revealed 22 and 27 antigenic polypeptides in ES and somatic extracts respectively. Only 11 and 13 antigenic polypeptides were found specific to ES and tissue extract respectively. The molecular weights of these specific polypeptides were calculated to be 205 kDa for metabolic products and 205 kDa for the tissue extracts, respectively. Analysis of ELISA results revealed that a dilution of up to 1:3200 of the test sera could react with the ES product. Further, when the ES antigens were allowed to react with antisomatic extracts in hyperimmune sera the titre of IgG increased up to a dilution of 1:12800. The potential importance of these antigens in the immunodiagnosis of amphistomiasis is discussed.

  16. Suppression of dendritic cell maturation by Trichinella spiralis excretory/secretory products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langelaar, M; Aranzamendi, C; Franssen, F; Van Der Giessen, J; Rutten, V; van der Ley, P; Pinelli, E

    2009-10-01

    Evidence from experimental studies indicates that during chronic infections with certain helminth species a regulatory network is induced that can down-modulate not only parasite-induced inflammation but also reduce other immunopathologies such as allergies and autoimmune diseases. The mechanisms however, and the molecules involved in this immunomodulation are unknown. Here, we focus on the effect of Trichinella spiralis excretory/secretory antigens (TspES) on the innate immune response by studying the effect of TspES on DC maturation in vitro. Bone marrow-derived DC from BALB/c mice were incubated with TspES either alone or in combination with LPS derived from two different bacteria. As indicators of DC maturation, the cytokine production (IL-1alpha, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p70 and TNF-alpha) and the expression of various surface molecules (MHC-II, CD40, CD80 and CD86) were measured. Results indicate that while TspES alone did not change the expression of the different surface molecules or the cytokine production, it completely inhibited DC maturation induced by Escherichia coli LPS (E. coli LPS). In contrast, DC maturation induced by LPS from another bacterium, Neisseria meningitidis, was not affected by TspES. These results were confirmed using TLR4/MD2/CD14 transfected HEK 293 cells. In conclusion, T. spiralis ES antigens lead to suppression of DC maturation but this effect depends on the type of LPS used to activate these cells.

  17. Haemonchus contortus: identification of proteases with diverse characteristics in adult worm excretory-secretory products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanu, F N; Rurangirwa, F R; McGuire, T C; Jasmer, D P

    1993-11-01

    Host tissue penetration and feeding by helminth parasites may be mediated by both mechanical processes and histolytic products released by the parasites. To investigate potential histolytic products released by adult Haemonchus contortus worms, proteases in excretory-secretory (ES) products were analyzed. The optimum activity of ES proteases was at pH 5.0, although activity was observed over a wide range of pH tested (pH 3.0-9.0). Four protease bands were observed on gelatin-containing polyacrylamide gels, with estimated molecular weights (M(r)) of 32, 35, 38, and 40 kDa. Proteases of 32 and 35 kDa were active at pH 5.0-8.0, while activity of the 38- and 40-kDa proteases was inhibited at pH 8.0. Based on inhibitor studies, the four proteases identified on gelatin-containing polyacrylamide gels were classified as cysteine proteases. Evidence was also obtained that indicated the presence of aspartic and metalloprotease activities in ES products, but these activities were not detected in gels. The diversity of adult H. contortus ES proteases may indicate variable functional requirements for the proteases. Further characterization of ES proteases will facilitate evaluation of their potential application in immunotherapeuti control of disease.

  18. Evaluation of Humoral Immune Response against Somatic and Excretory-Secretory Antigens of Dicrocoelium Dendriticum in Infected Sheep by Western Blot

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    Mohammad Hosein Razi Jalali

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: Dicrocoelium dendriticum is a worldwide spread parasite of liver, bile ducts and gallbladder of especially ruminants and humans as well. Identification of specific antigens is useful for early diagnosis of the infection. The goal of this study was the isolation and identification of excretory-secretory and somatic antigens from D. dendriticum by sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS-PAGE and evaluation of humoral immune response against these antigens.   Methods: The parasites were collected and washed by phosphate buffered saline (PBS and supplemented by antibiotic for several times. For preparing somatic antigens, parasites were sonicated and centrifuged prior to collect supernatant. For preparing excretory-secretory antigens the viable parasites were transferred to the sterile medium. The samples were centrifuged and supernatants were collected. The sera of infected sheep with different infection degrees were collected too. Somatic and excretory-secretory proteins were isolated with SDS PAGE and stained with coomassie blue. Immunogenicity properties of the resulting proteins were determined using western blot analysis.   Results: The total extract of somatic antigens analyzed by SDS-PAGE revealed 21 proteins. In mild infection, bands of 130 KDa were immune dominant. In moderate infections 48, 80 and 130 KDa and in heavy infections 48, 60, 80, 130 KDa were detected as immune dominant bands. In excretory- secretory antigens seven bands of protein were detected. In mild infection 130 KDa, in moderate infection 100, 120 and 130 KDa and in heavy infection 45, 80, 85, 100, 120 and 130 KDa were immune dominant bands.   Conclusion: Probably the most immunogenic protein band during different degrees of infection was 130KDa that can be used for vaccination and inducing immunity.

  19. [Western blot technique standardization for specific diagnosis of Chagas disease using excretory-secretory antigens of Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalante, Hermes; Jara, César; Davelois, Kelly; Iglesias, Miguel; Benites, Adderly; Espinoza, Renzo

    2014-01-01

    Evaluate the effectiveness of Western Blot for the specific diagnosis of Chagas disease using excretory-secretory antigens of Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes. Antigens were obtained after twenty hours of incubation in Eagle’s Minimum Essential Medium, which were prepared at a protein concentration of 0.2 ug/uL to be faced with 10 mL pool of serum from patients with Chagas disease and a conjugated anti-IgG labeled with peroxidase. The presence of the following antigens was observed: 10, 12, 14, 15, 19, 20, 23, 26, 30, 33, 36, 40, 42, 46, 58, 63, 69, 91, 100, and 112 kDa; of which antigens of 10, 12, 14, 15, 19, 20, 23, and 26 kDa were considered to be specific using pools of serum from patients with other parasitosis and serum from people with no parasites. The sensitivity of the technique was assessed using individual serum from 65 patients with Chagas disease; and the specificity with serum from 40 patients with other parasitosis, and serums from five people who did not have parasites. The technique has a sensitivity of 95.4% in the detection of one to eight specific bands, a specificity of 100%, a positive predictive value of 100%, and a negative predictive value of 93.7%. Western Blot technique with excretory-secretory antigens of T. cruzi epimastigotes is effective in the diagnosis of Chagas disease in Peru; therefore, it can be used as a confirmatory test.

  20. Early serodiagnosis of trichinellosis by ELISA using excretory-secretory antigens of Trichinella spiralis adult worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ge-Ge; Wang, Zhong-Quan; Liu, Chun-Ying; Jiang, Peng; Liu, Ruo-Dan; Wen, Hui; Qi, Xin; Wang, Li; Cui, Jing

    2015-09-23

    The excretory-secretory (ES) antigens of Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae (ML) are the most commonly used diagnostic antigens for trichinellosis. Their main disadvantage for the detection of anti-Trichinella IgG is false-negative results during the early stage of infection. Additionally, there is an obvious window between clinical symptoms and positive serology. ELISA with adult worm (AW) ES antigens was used to detect anti-Trichinella IgG in the sera of experimentally infected mice and patients with trichinellosis. The sensitivity and specificity were compared with ELISAs with AW crude antigens and ML ES antigens. In mice infected with 100 ML, anti-Trichinella IgG were first detected by ELISA with the AW ES antigens, crude antigens and ML ES antigens 8, 12 and 12 days post-infection (dpi), respectively. In mice infected with 500 ML, specific antibodies were first detected by ELISA with the three antigen preparations at 10, 8 and 10 dpi, respectively. The sensitivity of the ELISA with the three antigen preparations for the detection of sera from patients with trichinellosis at 35 dpi was 100%. However, when the patients' sera were collected at 19 dpi, the sensitivities of the ELISAs with the three antigen preparations were 100% (20/20), 100% (20/20) and 75% (15/20), respectively (P < 0.05). The specificities of the ELISAs with the three antigen preparations were 98.11, 95.60 and 89.31%, respectively (P < 0.05). The sensitivity and specificity of the T. spiralis AW ES antigens were superior to those of the AW crude antigens and ML ES antigens. Thus, the AW ES antigens might serve as potential antigens for the early and specific serodiagnosis of trichinellosis.

  1. An alternate technique for isolation of Toxocara canis excretory-secretory antigens

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    Cristiane Maria Colli

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to test the effectiveness of a sausage-casing membrane for dialysis of Toxocara excretory-secretory antigens (TES. The protein concentrated by the tested membrane was compared with that obtained using a Sigma commercial membrane, as were the protein fractions found by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Standard positive and negative serum samples were evaluated in an ELISA immunoassay, and equivalent data were obtained in all steps, indicating that the sausage-casing membrane is efficient, besides being less expensive to process.O objetivo do presente estudo foi testar a eficácia de uma membrana utilizada para o preparo de embutidos, na obtenção do antígeno de excreção e secreção de Toxocara (TES. A concentração protéica foi comparada com a obtida com a membrana Sigma tanto quanto as frações protéicas separadas por eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida. Amostras de soros padrão positivo e negativo foram avaliadas no teste imunoenzimático ELISA. Dados equivalentes foram observados em todas as etapas, sugerindo que a membrana possa ser utilizada para diálise por ser eficiente e de menor custo no preparo do antígeno.

  2. Stage- and gender-specific proteomic analysis of Brugia malayi excretory-secretory products.

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    Yovany Moreno

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: While we lack a complete understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which parasites establish and achieve protection from host immune responses, it is accepted that many of these processes are mediated by products, primarily proteins, released from the parasite. Parasitic nematodes occur in different life stages and anatomical compartments within the host. Little is known about the composition and variability of products released at different developmental stages and their contribution to parasite survival and progression of the infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To gain a deeper understanding on these aspects, we collected and analyzed through 1D-SDS PAGE and LC-MS/MS the Excretory-Secretory Products (ESP of adult female, adult male and microfilariae of the filarial nematode Brugia malayi, one of the etiological agents of human lymphatic filariasis. This proteomic analysis led to the identification of 228 proteins. The list includes 76 proteins with unknown function as well as also proteins with potential immunoregulatory properties, such as protease inhibitors, cytokine homologues and carbohydrate-binding proteins. Larval and adult ESP differed in composition. Only 32 proteins were shared between all three stages/genders. Consistent with this observation, different gene ontology profiles were associated with the different ESP. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A comparative analysis of the proteins released in vitro by different forms of a parasitic nematode dwelling in the same host is presented. The catalog of secreted proteins reflects different stage- and gender-specific related processes and different strategies of immune evasion, providing valuable insights on the contribution of each form of the parasite for establishing the host-parasite interaction.

  3. Triclabendazole Effect on Protease Enzyme Activity in the Excretory- Secretory Products of Fasciola hepatica in Vitro.

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    Yosef Shrifi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fasciola hepatica is one of the most important helminthes parasites and triclabendazole (TCBZ is routinely used for treatment of infected people and animals. Secreted protease enzymes by the F. hepatica plays a critical role in the invasion, migration, nutrition and the survival of parasite and are key targets for novel drugs and vaccines. The aim of study was to determine the protease activity of excretory- secretory products (ESP of F. hepatica in the presence of TCBZ anthelmintic.F. hepatica helminthes were collected and cultured within RPMI 1640 [TCBZ treated (test and untreated (control] for 6 h at 37 °C. ESP of treated and control were collected, centrifuged and supernatants were stored at -20°C. Protein concentrations were measured according to Bradford method. Protease enzymes activities of ESP samples were estimated by using sigma's non-specific protease activity assay. ESP protein bands were detected by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE.Mean protein concentrations in control and treated of ESP samples were determined 196.1 ±14.52 and 376.4 ±28.20 μg/ml, respectively. Mean protease enzymes activities in control and treated were 0.37 ±0.1 and 0.089 ±0.03 U/ml, respectively. Significant difference between proteins concentrations and protease enzymes activities of two groups was observed (P<0.05. SDS-PAGE showed different patterns of protein bands between treated and control samples.The TCBZ reduced secreted protease enzymes activities and possibly effects on invasion, migration, nutrition and particularly survival of the parasite in the host tissues.

  4. New diagnostic antigens for early trichinellosis: the excretory-secretory antigens of Trichinella spiralis intestinal infective larvae.

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    Sun, Ge Ge; Liu, Ruo Dan; Wang, Zhong Quan; Jiang, Peng; Wang, Li; Liu, Xiao Lin; Liu, Chun Yin; Zhang, Xi; Cui, Jing

    2015-12-01

    The excretory-secretory (ES) antigens from Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae (ML) are the most commonly used diagnostic antigens for trichinellosis, but anti-Trichinella IgG antibodies cannot be detected until 2-3 weeks after infection; there is an obvious window period between Trichinella infection and antibody positivity. Intestinal infective larvae (IIL) are the first invasive stage during Trichinella infection, and their ES antigens are firstly exposed to the immune system and might be the early diagnostic markers of trichinellosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the early diagnostic values of IIL ES antigens for trichinellosis. The IIL were collected from intestines of infected mice at 6 h postinfection (hpi), and IIL ES antigens were prepared by incubation for 18 h. Anti-Trichinella IgG antibodies in mice infected with 100 ML were detectable by ELISA with IIL ES antigens as soon as 10 days postinfection (dpi), but ELISA with ML ES antigens did not permit detection of infected mice before 12 dpi. When the sera of patients with trichinellosis at 19 dpi were assayed, the sensitivity (100 %) of ELISA with IIL ES antigens was evidently higher than 75 % of ELISA with ML ES antigens (P < 0.05) The specificity (96.86 %) of ELISA with IIL ES antigens was also higher than 89.31 % of ELISA with ML ES antigens (P < 0.05). The IIL ES antigens provided a new source of diagnostic antigens and could be considered as a potential early diagnostic antigen for trichinellosis.

  5. Comparison of the peptidase activity in the oncosphere excretory/secretory products of Taenia solium and Taenia saginata.

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    Zimic, Mirko J; Infantes, Jesús; López, César; Velásquez, Jeanette; Farfán, Marilú; Pajuelo, Mónica; Sheen, Patricia; Verastegui, Manuela; Gonzalez, Armando; Garciá, Hector H; Gilman, Robert H

    2007-08-01

    We compared the peptidase activities of the excretory/secretory (E/S) antigens of oncospheres of Taenia solium and related, but nonpathogenic, Taenia saginata. Taenia solium and T. saginata oncospheres were cultured, and the spent media of 24-, 48-, 72-, and 96-hr fractions were analyzed. Activities for serine peptidases (chymotrypsin-, trypsin-, and elastase-like), cysteine peptidases (cathepsin B-, cathepsin L-, and calpaine-like), and aminopeptidase (B-like peptidases) were tested fluorometrically with peptides coupled to 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin. In both species, the E/S antigens showed cysteine, serine, and aminopeptidase activities. Although no particular peptidase had high activity in T. solium, and was absent in T. saginata, or vice versa, different patterns of activity were found. A chymotrypsin-like peptidase showed the highest activity in both parasites, and it had 10 times higher activity in T. solium than in T. saginata. Trypsin-like and cathepsin B-like activities were significantly higher in T. solium. Minimal levels of cathepsin B were present in both species, and higher levels of elastase-like and cathepsin L-like activity were observed in T. saginata. Taenia solium and T. saginata have different levels and temporal activities of proteolytic enzymes that could play a modulator role in the host specificity for larval invasion through penetration of the intestinal mucosa.

  6. [Recognition of excretory/secretory antigens of Anisakis type I and evolution of IgE in experimentally infected rats].

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    Gómez-Mateos, Magdalena; Valero-López, Adela; de la Rubia-Nieto, Teresa; Romero-López, María Del Carmen; Díaz-Sáez, Victoriano

    2014-10-01

    Anisakis spp., during parasitism, release excretory-secretory antigens that, in contact with the human immune system, can trigger a hypersensitivity response mediated by IgE, causing various allergic symptoms. To evaluate the IgE response in Wistar rats after infection with L3 larvae of the parasite Anisakis spp. Some determining factors involved in the technique have been improved in this work, such as: the concentration of polyacrylamide used in the preparation of the gels, the antigen concentration used, and the temperature required for denaturation of proteins. Immune responses (Ag-Ab) observed by the immunoblotting technique showed a greater intensity with serum obtained after reinfection, which have recognized proteins that may correspond to the major antigen Ani s 1 and other polypeptides of interest in the diagnosis of human anisakiasis. This paper concludes that immunoblotting is a useful technique to detect IgE antibodies against Anisakis proteins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  7. Transcriptome profiles of the protoscoleces of Echinococcus granulosus reveal that excretory-secretory products are essential to metabolic adaptation.

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    Wei Pan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cystic hydatid disease (CHD is caused by the larval stages of the cestode and affects humans and domestic animals worldwide. Protoscoleces (PSCs are one component of the larval stages that can interact with both definitive and intermediate hosts. Previous genomic and transcriptomic data have provided an overall snapshot of the genomics of the growth and development of this parasite. However, our understanding of how PSCs subvert the immune response of hosts and maintains metabolic adaptation remains unclear. In this study, we used Roche 454 sequencing technology and in silico secretome analysis to explore the transcriptome profiles of the PSCs from E. granulosus and elucidate the potential functions of the excretory-secretory proteins (ESPs released by the parasite.A large number of nonredundant sequences as unigenes were generated (26,514, of which 22,910 (86.4% were mapped to the newly published E. granulosus genome and 17,705 (66.8% were distributed within the coding sequence (CDS regions. Of the 2,280 ESPs predicted from the transcriptome, 138 ESPs were inferred to be involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates, while 124 ESPs were inferred to be involved in the metabolism of protein. Eleven ESPs were identified as intracellular enzymes that regulate glycolysis/gluconeogenesis (GL/GN pathways, while a further 44 antigenic proteins, 25 molecular chaperones and four proteases were highly represented. Many proteins were also found to be significantly enriched in development-related signaling pathways, such as the TGF-β receptor pathways and insulin pathways.This study provides valuable information on the metabolic adaptation of parasites to their hosts that can be used to aid the development of novel intervention targets for hydatid treatment and control.

  8. In Vtro Effects of Triclabendazole (TCBZ on the Excretory-Secretory Products (ESP of Fasciola Spp Parasites

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    Taghi Golmohamdi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Fascioliasis is an endemic disease in Iran and triclabendazole (TCBZ is using for treatment of domestic animals and infected people. Excretory-secretory products (ESP play an important role in the host biochemical defense by means of activities of detoxifying and antioxidant glutathione S-transferase (GST and superoxide dismutase (SOD enzymes respectively. Therefore, the aim of this comparative study was to evaluate fasciola protection against TCBZ drug by detection of enzymatic activities, GST and SOD, in TCBZ treated Fasciola hepatica / Fasciola gigantica and control ESP samples. F. gigantic and F. hepatica helminthes were collected and cultured within buffer media (TCBZ treated and untreated or control for 4 h at 37 °C. Three TCBZ treated and 1 control ESP samples for each species were collected, centrifuged and supernatants were stored at -20°C. ESP samples protein concentrations were measured by Bradford method. SOD and GST enzymes activities of ESP samples were estimated photometrically. To determine the statistically significant difference between ESP of treated and control samples, t-test was conducted. ESP protein bands were detected by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. Protein concentrations in treated F. hepatica and F. gigantica ESP samples were estimated 204.88, 428, 130.4 and 288.2, 488.2, 308.2 µg/ml respectively. Protein concentrations in control samples were estimated 488.18 and 124.8 ug/ml respectively. SOD enzyme specific activities level in treated F.hepatica and F. gigantica ESP samples were determined 0.14, 0.31, 3.96 and 11.11, 13.54, 19.95 U/mg/protein respectively. SOD activities level in control samples were detected 70.69 and 10.92 U/mg/protein. GST specific activities level in treated F.hepatica and F. gigantica ESP samples were calculated 25.3, 85.5, 37.3 and 1823, 1314.3, 1320.8 U/mg respectively. GST activities levels in control samples were detected 98.6 and 1083.9 U/mg/protein

  9. In vitro effects of triclabendazole (TCBZ) on the excretory-secretory products (ESP) of Fasciola spp parasites.

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    Farahnak, Ali; Golmohamdi, Taghi; Eshraghian, Mohamadreza

    2012-01-01

    Fascioliasis is an endemic disease in Iran and triclabendazole (TCBZ) is using for treatment of domestic animals and infected people. Excretory-secretory products (ESP) play an important role in the host biochemical defense by means of activities of detoxifying and antioxidant glutathione S-transferase (GST) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes respectively. Therefore, the aim of this comparative study was to evaluate fasciola protection against TCBZ drug by detection of enzymatic activities, GST and SOD, in TCBZ treated Fasciola hepatica / Fasciola gigantica and control ESP samples. F. gigantic and F. hepatica helminthes were collected and cultured within buffer media (TCBZ treated and untreated or control) for 4 h at 37 °C. Three TCBZ treated and 1 control ESP samples for each species were collected, centrifuged and supernatants were stored at -20°C. ESP samples protein concentrations were measured by Bradford method. SOD and GST enzymes activities of ESP samples were estimated photometrically. To determine the statistically significant difference between ESP of treated and control samples, t-test was conducted. ESP protein bands were detected by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Protein concentrations in treated F. hepatica and F. gigantica ESP samples were estimated 204.88, 428, 130.4 and 288.2, 488.2, 308.2 µg/ml respectively. Protein concentrations in control samples were estimated 488.18 and 124.8 ug/ml respectively. SOD enzyme specific activities level in treated F.hepatica and F. gigantica ESP samples were determined 0.14, 0.31, 3.96 and 11.11, 13.54, 19.95 U/mg/protein respectively. SOD activities level in control samples were detected 70.69 and 10.92 U/mg/protein. GST specific activities level in treated F.hepatica and F. gigantica ESP samples were calculated 25.3, 85.5, 37.3 and 1823, 1314.3, 1320.8 U/mg respectively. GST activities levels in control samples were detected 98.6 and 1083.9 U/mg/protein respectively

  10. Development of indirect sandwich ELISA for determination of excretory-secretory antigens of Fasciola hepatica

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    Libertad Alzamora-Gonzales

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Fasciolosis is a cosmopolitan parasitosis medical-veterinary importance caused by Fasciola hepatica, which affects sheep, goats and cattle; and it affects man accidentally causing an epidemic-endemic infection difficult to diagnose. The aim was to develop an indirect sandwich ELISA with 3 antibodies for detecting excretory-secretory antigens of Fasciola hepatica (ESFh. For the development of indirect sandwich ELISA were used, as capture antibody, mouse polyclonal antibodies anti ESFh and polyclonal antibodies rabbit anti-ESFh as detection antibody, at the concentrations of 10 and 5 µg/mL respectively. The conjugate used was mouse monoclonal anti- total immunoglobulins rabbit linked to peroxidase (1/1000. Were analized 31 sheep fecal samples, and the results were compared with those obtained by direct coproparasitological examination (DC and counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIEP. The detection limit obtained for indirect sandwich ELISA was 100 ng/mL. The test had a 100% sensitivity, 96.6% specificity, positive and negative predictive values of 50% and 96.6% respectively, in relation to DC test. Comparing with CIEP the specificity obtained for indirect sandwich ELISA was 93.5% and a negative predictive value of 100%. We concluded that indirect sandwich ELISA designed is able to detect metabolic antigens in ovine feces samples and can be used for Fasciola hepatica diagnosis.

  11. Excretory-secretory products (ESP) from Fasciola hepatica induce tolerogenic properties in myeloid dendritic cells.

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    Falcón, Cristian; Carranza, Franco; Martínez, Fernando F; Knubel, Carolina P; Masih, Diana T; Motrán, Claudia C; Cervi, Laura

    2010-09-15

    Fasciola hepatica is a helminth trematode that migrates through the host tissues until reaching bile ducts where it becomes an adult. During its migration the parasite releases different excretory-secretory products (ESP), which are in contact with the immune system. In this study, we focused on the effect of ESP on the maturation and function of murine bone marrow derived-dendritic cells (DC). We found that the treatment of DC with ESP failed to induce a classical maturation of these cells, since ESP alone did not activate DC to produce any cytokines, although they impaired the ability of DC to be activated by TLR ligands and also their capacity to stimulate an allospecific response. In addition, using an in vitro ovalbumin peptide-restricted priming assay, ESP-treated DC exhibited a capacity to drive Th2 and regulatory T cell (Treg) polarization of CD4(+) cells from DO11.10 transgenic mice. This was characterized by increased IL-4, IL-5, IL-10 and TGF-beta production and the expansion of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) cells. Our results support the hypothesis that ESP from F. hepatica modulate the maturation and function of DC as part of a generalized immunosuppressive mechanism that involves a bias towards a Th2 response and Treg development. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Characterization of the excretory/secretory products of Dermatobia hominis larvae, the human bot fly.

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    Brant, M P R; Guimarães, S; Souza-Neto, J A; Ribolla, P E M; Oliveira-Sequeira, T C G

    2010-03-25

    Proteolytic activity in excretory/secretory products (ESP) of first- (L1), second- (L2) and third-instar (L3) larvae of Dermatobia hominis was analyzed through gelatin-gel and colorimetric enzyme assays with the chromogenic substrates azocasein and BApNA. The functional characterization of proteases was based on inhibition assays including synthetic inhibitors. ESP were obtained from new-hatched larvae reared in the laboratory and from second- and third-instar larvae removed from naturally infested cattle. Gelatin-gel analysis evidenced few bands of proteolysis, predominantly of high apparent molecular masses, in ESP of L1, whereas in the gel of L2 and L3 ESP there was a wide range of proteolytic activity most of them not resolved in a single species. Azocasein assays revealed a progressive increase of protease activity from first- to third-instar larvae. Protease inhibitor assays revealed a predominance of metalloproteases in L1 ESP that could be related to a skin penetration process and to a diversion of host immune response. The predominance of serine proteases in L2 and L3 and the great tryptic activity presented by L3 ESP were attributed to an increasing trophic activity by the growing larvae, since the viability of adult flies strictly depends on larval abilities to assimilate nutrients from the host. Taking together, these results suggest that Dematobia larvae secrete/excrete different proteases that may be related to diverse functions during host penetration and infestation, which reinforces the relevance of the study of such proteolytic enzymes.

  13. Excretory/Secretory Products from Trichinella spiralis Adult Worms Ameliorate DSS-Induced Colitis in Mice

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    Wang, Yunyun; Zhan, Bin; Gu, Yuan; Cheng, Yuli; Zhu, Xinping

    2014-01-01

    Background Many evidences show the inverse correlation between helminth infection and allergic or autoimmune diseases. Identification and characterization of the active helminth-derived products responsible for the beneficial effects on allergic or inflammatory diseases will provide another feasible approach to treat these diseases. Methods and Findings Colitis was induced in C57BL/6 mice by giving 3% DSS orally for 7 days. During this period, the mice were treated daily with the excretory/secretory products from T. spiralis adult worms (AES) intraperitoneally. The severity of colitis was monitored by measuring body weight, stool consistency or bleeding, colon length and inflammation. To determine the T. spiralis AES product-induced immunological response, Th1, Th2, Th17 and regulatory cytokine profiles were measured in lymphocytes isolated from colon, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), and the spleen of treated mice. The CD4+ CD25+ FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) were also measured in the spleens and MLN of treated mice. Mice treated with AES significantly ameliorated the severity of the DSS-induced colitis indicated by the reduced disease manifestations, improved macroscopic and microscopic inflammation correlated with the up-regulation of Treg response (increased regulatory cytokines IL-10, TGF-beta and regulatory T cells) and down-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-gamma, IL-6 and IL-17) in the spleens, MLN and colon of treated mice. Conclusions Our results provide direct evidences that T. spiralis AES have a therapeutic potential for alleviating inflammatory colitis in mice. This effect is possibly mediated by the immunomodulation of regulatory T cells to produce regulatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines and inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokines. PMID:24788117

  14. Excretory/secretory products from Trichinella spiralis adult worms ameliorate DSS-induced colitis in mice.

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    Xiaodi Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many evidences show the inverse correlation between helminth infection and allergic or autoimmune diseases. Identification and characterization of the active helminth-derived products responsible for the beneficial effects on allergic or inflammatory diseases will provide another feasible approach to treat these diseases. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Colitis was induced in C57BL/6 mice by giving 3% DSS orally for 7 days. During this period, the mice were treated daily with the excretory/secretory products from T. spiralis adult worms (AES intraperitoneally. The severity of colitis was monitored by measuring body weight, stool consistency or bleeding, colon length and inflammation. To determine the T. spiralis AES product-induced immunological response, Th1, Th2, Th17 and regulatory cytokine profiles were measured in lymphocytes isolated from colon, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN, and the spleen of treated mice. The CD4+ CD25+ FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs were also measured in the spleens and MLN of treated mice. Mice treated with AES significantly ameliorated the severity of the DSS-induced colitis indicated by the reduced disease manifestations, improved macroscopic and microscopic inflammation correlated with the up-regulation of Treg response (increased regulatory cytokines IL-10, TGF-beta and regulatory T cells and down-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-gamma, IL-6 and IL-17 in the spleens, MLN and colon of treated mice. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide direct evidences that T. spiralis AES have a therapeutic potential for alleviating inflammatory colitis in mice. This effect is possibly mediated by the immunomodulation of regulatory T cells to produce regulatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines and inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokines.

  15. A low molecular weight ES-20 protein released in vivo and in vitro with diagnostic potential in lymph node tuberculosis

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    Shende N

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine role of antigens released in vivo and in vitro in immunodiagnosis of tuberculosis (TB. Methods: In vivo released circulating tuberculosis antigen (CTA was obtained from TB sera by ammonium sulphate precipitation and in vitro released excretory-secretory (ES antigens from Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture filtrate. CTA and ES antigens were fractionated by SDS-PAGE and electro-eluted gel fractions were analysed for antigen by ELISA. Results: Low molecular weight proteins CTA-9 and ES-9 showed high titre of antigen activity. To explore the diagnostic potential of low molecular weight ES antigen, M. tuberculosis ES antigen was further fractionated by gel filtration chromatography followed by purification on anion exchange column using fast protein liquid chromatography and a highly seroreactive ESG-5D (ES-20 antigen was obtained. Competitive inhibition showed that CTA-9 and ES-9 antigens inhibit the binding of ES-20 antigen to its antibody. Seroanalysis showed sensitivity of 83 and 80% for ES-20 antigen and antibody detection, respectively, in pulmonary TB and 90% in lymph node TB. Conclusions: Seroreactivity studies using M. tuberculosis ES-20 antigen showed usefulness in detection of TB; in particular, lymph node TB.

  16. Therapeutic effect of soluble worm protein acting as immune regulatory on colitis

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    Agustina Tri Endharti

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Excretory-secretory 55 kDa protein could reduce inflammation and have potential therapy. H. polygyrus excretory-secretory 55 kDa was the soluble factor that may help in the development of novel treatments to cure colitis.

  17. Proteomic analysis of the tegument and excretory-secretory products of adult Schistosoma bovis worms.

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    Pérez-Sánchez, Ricardo; Ramajo-Hernández, Alicia; Ramajo-Martín, Vicente; Oleaga, Ana

    2006-04-01

    Schistosoma bovis is a ruminant pathogen that is poorly known at a molecular level. With an aim of identifying the parasite proteins involved in host-parasite interplay, we studied two protein extracts that contain, respectively, the proteins excreted/secreted by the adult worm (ES) and the tegumental proteins exposed to the host (TG). The 2-DE, 2-D immunoblot and MS were employed to separate and identify the antigenic proteins and the most abundant non-antigenic proteins in each extract. There were some 400 and 600 spots detected in the ES and the TG extracts, respectively. Ninety-six spots were subjected to MS analysis and 64 of them were identified. Overall, we identified 18 S. bovis proteins located at the host-parasite interface, 16 of which have not been identified previously in this parasite, and one of which -lysozyme- has never been reported in a Schistosoma species. Of the proteins identified, at least 4 can counteract host defence mechanisms. The other proteins are also likely to play some role in the host-parasite relationships. Therefore, studies in grater depth on all these proteins will provide a better understanding of how this parasite interacts with its host and new strategies for anti-schistosome drug or vaccine design.

  18. The roles of supernatant of macrophage treated by excretory-secretory products from muscle larvae of Trichinella spiralis on the differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts

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    The excretory-secretory products (ESPs) released by the muscle-larvae (ML) stage of Trichinella spiralis have been suggested to be involved in nurse cell formation. However, the molecular mechanisms by which ML-ESPs modulate nurse cell formation remain unclear. Macrophages exert either beneficial or...

  19. Diagnostic efficacy of monoclonal antibody based sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for detection of Fasciola gigantica excretory/secretory antigens in both serum and stool

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    Zoheiry Mona K

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This research was carried out to develop a reliable monoclonal antibody (MoAb-based sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for the diagnosis of active Fasciola gigantica infection in both serum and stool for comparative purposes. Methods From a panel of MoAbs raised against F. gigantica excretory/secretory antigens (ES Ags, a pair (12B/11D/3F and 10A/9D/10G was chosen due to its high reactivity and strict specificity to F. gigantica antigen by indirect ELISA. Results The two MoAbs were of the IgG1 and IgG2a subclasses, respectively. Using SDS-PAGE and EITB, the selected MoAbs recognized 83, 64, 45 and 26 kDa bands of ES Ags. The lower detection limit of ELISA assay was 3 ng/ml. In stool, the sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic efficacy of ELISA was 96%, 98.2 and 97.1%; while in serum they were 94%, 94.6% and 94.3%, respectively. Moreover, a positive correlation was found between ova count in stool of F. gigantica infected patients and the OD readings of ELISA in both stool and serum samples (r = 0.730, p Conclusions These data showed that the use of MoAb-based sandwich ELISA for the detection of F. gigantica coproantigens in stool specimens was superior to serum samples; it provides a highly efficient, non-invasive technique for the diagnosis of active F. gigantica infection.

  20. Antigen Ekskretori-Sekretori Cacing Jantung (Dirofilaria immitis Jantan dan Betina yang Berpotensi Sebagai Marka Diagnosis (EXCRETORY-SECRETORY ANTIGENS OF MALE AND FEMALE HEART WORMS (DIROFILARIA IMMITIS WHICH POTENTIALLY AS A DIAGNOSTIC MARKER

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    I Gusti Made Krisna Erawan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Heart worm (Dirofilaria immitis is the causative agent of a serious parasitic disease in dogs.Dirofilariasis is generally diagnosed by microfilariae examination and specific antigen testing. Microfilariaeexamination has low sensitivity due to occult infections. The available antigen test at this time is able todetect circulating antigens secreted by adult female worms only. The aim of the present study was toidentify male (MES and female (FES heart worms excretory-secretory antigens which have the potentialas a diagnostic targets. Identification of antigen was done by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gelelectrophoresis (SDS-PAGE and Western Blotting analysis. The results of this study indicated that therewere differences between the MES and the FES profiles. The results showed 12 bands in MES (14–118kDa and 18 bands in FES (10–205 kDa. Protein with a molecular weight of 59 kDa has the potential asdiagnostic markers of dirofilariasis.

  1. Differences in the gene expression profiles of haemocytes from schistosome-susceptible and -resistant biomphalaria glabrata exposed to Schistosoma mansoni excretory-secretory products.

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    Zahida Zahoor

    Full Text Available During its life cycle, the helminth parasite Schistosoma mansoni uses the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata as an intermediate host to reproduce asexually generating cercariae for infection of the human definitive host. Following invasion of the snail, the parasite develops from a miracidium to a mother sporocyst and releases excretory-secretory products (ESPs that likely influence the outcome of host infection. To better understand molecular interactions between these ESPs and the host snail defence system, we determined gene expression profiles of haemocytes from S. mansoni-resistant or -susceptible strains of B. glabrata exposed in vitro to S. mansoni ESPs (20 μg/ml for 1 h, using a 5K B. glabrata cDNA microarray. Ninety-eight genes were found differentially expressed between haemocytes from the two snail strains, 57 resistant specific and 41 susceptible specific, 60 of which had no known homologue in GenBank. Known differentially expressed resistant-snail genes included the nuclear factor kappa B subunit Relish, elongation factor 1α, 40S ribosomal protein S9, and matrilin; known susceptible-snail specific genes included cathepsins D and L, and theromacin. Comparative analysis with other gene expression studies revealed 38 of the 98 identified genes to be uniquely differentially expressed in haemocytes in the presence of ESPs, thus identifying for the first time schistosome ESPs as important molecules that influence global snail host-defence cell gene expression profiles. Such immunomodulation may benefit the schistosome, enabling its survival and successful development in the snail host.

  2. Clonorchis sinensis excretory-secretory products regulate migration and invasion in cholangiocarcinoma cells via extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2/nuclear factor-κB-dependent matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression.

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    Pak, Jhang Ho; Shin, Jimin; Song, In-Sung; Shim, Sungbo; Jang, Sung-Wuk

    2017-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-9 plays an important role in the invasion and metastasis of various types of cancer cells. We have previously reported that excretory-secretory products from Clonorchis sinensis increases matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression. However, the regulatory mechanisms through which matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression affects cholangiocarcinoma development remain unclear. In the current study, we examined the potential role of excretory-secretory products in regulating the migration and invasion of various cholangiocarcinoma cell lines. We demonstrated that excretory-secretory products significantly induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression and activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Reporter gene and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that excretory-secretory products induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression by enhancing the activity of nuclear factor-kappa B. Moreover, excretory-secretory products induced the degradation and phosphorylation of IκBα and stimulated nuclear factor-kappa B p65 nuclear translocation, which was regulated by extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2. Taken together, our findings indicated that the excretory-secretory product-dependent enhancement of matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity and subsequent induction of IκBα and nuclear factor-kappa B activities may contribute to the progression of cholangiocarcinoma. Copyright © 2016 Australian Society for Parasitology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Ancylostoma duodenale infection: a study of serum immunoglobulin G4 response to the excretory secretory antigen of adult worm.

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    Mahmoud, Manal S E; Abou Gamra, Maha M M; Elkhayat, Mohsen M

    2005-04-01

    The serum anti-Ancylostoma duodenale immunoglobulin (Ig) G4 antibody response to fraction III of the partially purified excretory secretory antigen of adult worm (Ad III ESA) was studied. The work included 60 patients with A. duodenale infection (GI), 40 patients with other parasitic infections (GII) and 30 apparently healthy parasite-free controls (GIII). Level of serum specific IgG4 was measured by indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and compared with serum specific IgG, IgG 1, 2 & 3 subclass antibodies. Patients of GI had gastro-intestinal manifestations and symptoms suggestive of anaemia, and by investigations they had anaemia in 31.7% & eosinophilia in 100%. Measuring the intensity of A. duodenale infection, quantified as fecal egg counts, in patients of GI revealed that 60%, 30% & 10% had light, moderate, and heavy infections, respectively. The serum anti-Ad III ESA IgG & IgG 1-4 subclass antibodies were significantly elevated (P duodenale infection, as was demonstrated by IgG & IgG3 (P 0.05) from IgG. Finally, serum specific IgG4 recorded a 100% specificity that was significantly higher than IgG, IgG2, IgG3 (P < 0.01) & IgG1 (P < 0.05). They showed cross-reactions with ascariasis, lymphatic filariasis and strongyloidiasis. The results are discussed.

  4. IMMUNE REGULATING ES-PRODUCTS IN PARASITIC NEMATODES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahlool, Qusay Zuhair Mohammad; Buchmann, Kurt; Kania, Per Walter

    Excretory/secretory (ES) products are molecules including various proteins produced by parasitic nematodes including larval A. simplex which is occurring in numerous marine fish hosts. The function of these substances and their effect on host physiology has not been fully described. The present...... work elucidates the effect of ES substances on the fish immune system by measuring immune gene expression in spleen and liver of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) injected intraperitoneally with ES products isolated from A. simplex third stage larvae. The overall gene expression profile of exposed...... fish showed a generalized down-regulation of the immune genes tested, suggesting a role of ES proteins in minimizing the immune reaction of rainbow trout against invading nematodes. We also tested the enzymatic activity of the ES proteins and found that lipase, esterase lipase, valine and cysteine...

  5. Comparison of excretory-secretory antigen and positive faecal supernatant antigen in the detection of Echinococcus granulosus infection in dogs by CIEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. Prathiush

    Full Text Available Coproantigen detection of Echinococcosis in dogs by counter immunoelectrophoresis was standardized. Adult Echinococcus granulosus worms were obtained from intestine of a necropsied positive dog. Excretory-secretory antigen was prepared by culturing adult worms in Medium 199 (pH 7.4. Faeces of positive dog were collected and fecal supernatant was prepared and used for coproantigen detection. CIEP was carried out using tris-borate buffer (pH 8.0 at a constant current of 8mA/slide for 60 minutes. CIEP detected infection with both the antigens. [Vet World 2009; 2(11.000: 421-422

  6. Excretory/secretory proteases and mechanical movement of Anisakis pegreffii infective larvae in the penetration of BALB/c mice gastrointestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    June-Der Lee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Anisakiasis is a human parasitic disease caused by infection with the infective larvae of Anisakis. Accidental infection in humans causes the gastrointestinal pathophysiological effects of mechanical tissue damage by migrating larvae. The mechanism of the infective larval invasion and migration is suspected to involve larval excretory/secretory proteases and motility. This study demonstrates the penetration rate of the infective larvae of Anisakis pegreffii in mouse gastrointestine depends on the time after infection, and that only 15% of larvae remain in the gastrointestinal tract 3 h after infection. Strong activities of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs and serine proteases, especially plasmin, were found in the excretory/secretory products of A. pegreffii; these can be inhibited by ONO-4817 and phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, respectively. The protease activity was also significantly decreased in another 1 h of cultivation of larvae in fresh 0.9% normal saline (NS after previous cultivation for 48 h in NS. The motility scores of larvae were significantly lower after 48 h of cultivation in NS. The penetration rate of A. pegreffii larvae in the gastrointestine of infected mice sequentially were 90% in the freshly prepared, 68% in serine protease inhibited, 55% in MMPs inhibited larvae, and 16% in larvae cultivated in NS for 48 h. Therefore, this study demonstrates that MMPs and serine proteases excreted and secreted by A. pegreffii and the mechanical movement of infective larvae participate in the penetration of the gastrointestine of mice after infection.

  7. Molecular characterization of cathepsin B from Clonorchis sinensis excretory/secretory products and assessment of its potential for serodiagnosis of clonorchiasis

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    Zhou Chenhui

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cathepsin cysteine proteases play multiple roles in the life cycle of parasites such as food uptake, immune invasion and pathogenesis, making them valuable targets for diagnostic assays, vaccines and drugs. The purpose of this study was to identify a cathepsin B of Clonorchis sinensis (CsCB and to investigate its diagnostic value for human helminthiases. Results The predicted amino acid sequence of the cathepsin B of C. sinensis shared 63%, 52%, 50% identity with that of Schistosoma japonicum, Homo sapiens and Fasciola hepatica, respectively. Sequence encoding proenzyme of CsCB was overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Reverse transcription PCR experiments revealed that CsCB transcribed in both adult worm and metacercaria of C. sinensis. CsCB was identified as a C. sinensis excretory/secretory product by immunoblot assay, which was consistent with immunohistochemical localization showing that CsCB was especially expressed in the intestine of C. sinensis adults. Both ELISA and western blotting analysis showed recombinant CsCB could react with human sera from clonorchiasis and other helminthiases. Conclusions Our findings revealed that secreted CsCB may play an important role in the biology of C. sinensis and could be a diagnostic candidate for helminthiases.

  8. Conservation of a microRNA cluster in parasitic nematodes and profiling of miRNAs in excretory-secretory products and microvesicles of Haemonchus contortus.

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    Henry Y Gu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available microRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that are important regulators of gene expression in a range of animals, including nematodes. We have analysed a cluster of four miRNAs from the pathogenic nematode species Haemonchus contortus that are closely linked in the genome. We find that the cluster is conserved only in clade V parasitic nematodes and in some ascarids, but not in other clade III species nor in clade V free-living nematodes. Members of the cluster are present in parasite excretory-secretory products and can be detected in the abomasum and draining lymph nodes of infected sheep, indicating their release in vitro and in vivo. As observed for other parasitic nematodes, H. contortus adult worms release extracellular vesicles (EV. Small RNA libraries were prepared from vesicle-enriched and vesicle-depleted supernatants from both adult worms and L4 stage larvae. Comparison of the miRNA species in the different fractions indicated that specific miRNAs are packaged within vesicles, while others are more abundant in vesicle-depleted supernatant. Hierarchical clustering analysis indicated that the gut is the likely source of vesicle-associated miRNAs in the L4 stage, but not in the adult worm. These findings add to the growing body of work demonstrating that miRNAs released from parasitic helminths may play an important role in host-parasite interactions.

  9. Validation of an excretory/secretory antigen based-ELISA for the diagnosis of Opisthorchis felineus infection in humans from low trematode endemic areas.

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    Maria Angeles Gómez-Morales

    Full Text Available Since opisthorchiasis does not show pathognomonic signs or symptoms, physicians can have serious problems to make a differential diagnosis of this infection in non endemic areas, in particular when there is a simultaneous occurrence with other seasonal infections. Moreover, symptomatic infections due to O. felineus can last a few weeks and then the signs and symptoms disappear, but the worms survive in the bile ducts for years causing hepatobiliary diseases including hepatomegaly, cholangitis, fibrosis of the periportal system, cholecystitis, and gallstones. Consequently, an early diagnosis prevents chronicity and loss of working days. The detection of specific antibodies has been considered as a complementary tool to the fecal examination to establish the definitive diagnosis of this infection and for the follow up. Therefore the aim of this work was the development and validation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA using excretory/secretory antigens (ESA from O. felineus adult worms to detect anti-Opisthorchis IgG in human sera. A total of 370 human sera were tested: 144 sera from persons with a confirmed diagnosis of opisthorchiasis, 110 sera from healthy Italian people, and 116 sera from people with other parasitic or non-parasitic infections. Results were analyzed by receiver-operator characteristic (ROC curve analysis. The accuracy of the test, calculated by the area under curve (AUC, yielded a 0.999 value, indicating the high performance of the test. The sensitivity was 100% (95% CI: 97.40% to 100% and no false-negative sera were detected; the specificity was 99.09% (95% CI: 95.02% to 99.83%. The validated ELISA shows a good performance in terms of sensitivity, repeatability and reproducibility, and it is suitable to detect anti-Opisthorchis IgG in human sera for diagnostic purposes and for the follow up to assess the efficacy of drug treatment.

  10. Partially Protective Immunity Induced by a 20 kDa Protein Secreted by Trichinella spiralis Stichocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Gu, Yuan; Zhan, Bin; Zhu, Xinping

    2015-01-01

    Background Trichinella spiralis infection induces protective immunity against re-infection in animal models. Identification of the antigens eliciting acquired immunity during infection is important for vaccine development against Trichinella infection and immunodiagnosis. Methods and Findings The T. spiralis adult cDNA library was immunoscreened with sera from pigs experimentally infected with 20,000 infective T. spiralis larvae. Total 43 positive clones encoding for 28 proteins were identified; one of the immunodominant proteins was 20 kDa Ts-ES-1 secreted by Trichinella stichocytes and existing in the excretory/secretory (ES) products of T. spiralis adult and muscle larval worms. Ts-ES-1 contains 172 amino acids with a typical signal peptide in the first 20 amino acids. The expression of Ts-ES-1 was detected in both the adult and muscle larval stages at the mRNA and protein expression levels. Mice immunized with recombinant Ts-ES-1 (rTs-ES-1) formulated with ISA50v2 adjuvant exhibited a significant worm reduction in both the adult worm (27%) and muscle larvae burden (42.1%) after a challenge with T. spiralis compared to the adjuvant control group (pTrichinella stichocytes during natural infection and enables to the induction of partial protective immunity in vaccinated mice against Trichinella infection. Therefore, rTs-ES-1 is a potential candidate for vaccine development against trichinellosis. PMID:26288365

  11. "Purification and evaluation of somatic, excretory-secretory and Cysteine proteinase antigens of Fasciola Hepatica using IgG-ELISA in diagnosing Fascioliasis "

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    "Rokni MB

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Fasciolosis, or liver fluke disease, caused by parasites of the genus Fasciola is emerging as an important disease in man and animals, in the world and Iran, particularly in nortern parts. The economical losses in domestic animals are considerable. In the recent decade there were two major outbreaks of human fasciolosis in the Caspian region, northern part of Iran with 7000-10000 infected cases. Sicne it is impossible to diagnose fasciolosis in acute phase using coprological methods and even in chronic phases its sensitivity is low, evaluating and establishing a reliable and cost-effetive test is indispensable and notewortly.In the present survey, we produced and examined the sensitivity and specificity of liver fluke homogenate (LFH , excretory-secetory (ES and cysteine proteinase (CP antigens of F. hepatica using IgG-ELISA test. A 25-27 kilo Dalton coomassie blue-stained band was observed and using of specific inhibitors indicated that this antigen belongs to the class of cysteine proteinase. The sensitivity of LFH, ES and CP antigen in IgG-ELISa was 100% for each, while their specificity was 97.8%, 98.8% and 98.8% respectively. There was a significant difference in mean OD values between cases of proven fasciolosis and other true negative cases, including healthy control individuals and patients with other parasitic diseases.This present report is the first to demonstrate the purification and evaluation of F. hepatica cysteine proteinase antigen by IgG-ELISA test for the diagnosis of fasciolosis in Iran. In conclusion, the IgG-ELISa using ES and CP show high sensitivity and specificity and would be a valuable tool to diagnose human fasciolosis in Iran, particularly in endemic areas.

  12. Brugia malayi excreted/secreted proteins at the host/parasite interface: stage- and gender-specific proteomic profiling.

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    Sasisekhar Bennuru

    Full Text Available Relatively little is known about the filarial proteins that interact with the human host. Although the filarial genome has recently been completed, protein profiles have been limited to only a few recombinants or purified proteins of interest. Here, we describe a large-scale proteomic analysis using microcapillary reverse-phase liquid chromatography-tandem-mass spectrometry to identify the excretory-secretory (ES products of the L3, L3 to L4 molting ES, adult male, adult female, and microfilarial stages of the filarial parasite Brugia malayi. The analysis of the ES products from adult male, adult female, microfilariae (Mf, L3, and molting L3 larvae identified 852 proteins. Annotation suggests that the functional and component distribution was very similar across each of the stages studied; however, the Mf contributed a higher proportion to the total number of identified proteins than the other stages. Of the 852 proteins identified in the ES, only 229 had previous confirmatory expressed sequence tags (ESTs in the available databases. Moreover, this analysis was able to confirm the presence of 274 "hypothetical" proteins inferred from gene prediction algorithms applied to the B. malayi (Bm genome. Not surprisingly, the majority (160/274 of these "hypothetical" proteins were predicted to be secreted by Signal IP and/or SecretomeP 2.0 analysis. Of major interest is the abundance of previously characterized immunomodulatory proteins such as ES-62 (leucyl aminopeptidase, MIF-1, SERPIN, glutathione peroxidase, and galectin in the ES of microfilariae (and Mf-containing adult females compared to the adult males. In addition, searching the ES protein spectra against the Wolbachia database resulted in the identification of 90 Wolbachia-specific proteins, most of which were metabolic enzymes that have not been shown to be immunogenic. This proteomic analysis extends our knowledge of the ES and provides insight into the host-parasite interaction.

  13. Fasciola hepatica Fatty Acid Binding Protein Induces the Alternative Activation of Human Macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Figueroa-Santiago, Olgary; Espino, Ana M.

    2014-01-01

    The liver fluke Fasciola hepatica is a highly evolved parasite that uses sophisticated mechanisms to evade the host immune response. The immunosuppressive capabilities of the parasite have been associated with antigens secreted through the parasite's tegument, called excretory-secretory products (ESPs). Proteomic studies have identified the fatty acid binding protein (FABP) as one of molecules present in the parasite ESPs. Although FABP has been investigated for potential use in the developme...

  14. Partially Protective Immunity Induced by a 20 kDa Protein Secreted by Trichinella spiralis Stichocytes.

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    Kuo Bi

    Full Text Available Trichinella spiralis infection induces protective immunity against re-infection in animal models. Identification of the antigens eliciting acquired immunity during infection is important for vaccine development against Trichinella infection and immunodiagnosis.The T. spiralis adult cDNA library was immunoscreened with sera from pigs experimentally infected with 20,000 infective T. spiralis larvae. Total 43 positive clones encoding for 28 proteins were identified; one of the immunodominant proteins was 20 kDa Ts-ES-1 secreted by Trichinella stichocytes and existing in the excretory/secretory (ES products of T. spiralis adult and muscle larval worms. Ts-ES-1 contains 172 amino acids with a typical signal peptide in the first 20 amino acids. The expression of Ts-ES-1 was detected in both the adult and muscle larval stages at the mRNA and protein expression levels. Mice immunized with recombinant Ts-ES-1 (rTs-ES-1 formulated with ISA50v2 adjuvant exhibited a significant worm reduction in both the adult worm (27% and muscle larvae burden (42.1% after a challenge with T. spiralis compared to the adjuvant control group (p<0.01. The rTs-ES-1-induced protection was associated with a high level of specific anti-Ts-ES-1 IgG antibodies and a Th1/Th2 mixed immune response.The newly identified rTs-ES-1 is an immunodominant protein secreted by Trichinella stichocytes during natural infection and enables to the induction of partial protective immunity in vaccinated mice against Trichinella infection. Therefore, rTs-ES-1 is a potential candidate for vaccine development against trichinellosis.

  15. Production and characterization of a monoclonal antibody against recombinant saposin-like protein 2 of Fasciola gigantica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kueakhai, Pornanan; Changklungmoa, Narin; Chaithirayanon, Kulathida; Songkoomkrong, Sineenart; Riengrojpitak, Suda; Sobhon, Prasert

    2013-02-01

    A monoclonal antibody (MoAb) against recombinant Fasciola gigantica saposin-like protein 2 (rFgSAP-2) was produced by hybridoma technique using spleen cells from BALB/c mice immunized with rFgSAP-2. This MoAb is an IgG1, κ light chain isotype. By immunoblotting and indirect ELISA, the MoAb reacted specifically with rFgSAP-2, the natural FgSAP-2 at 10kDa in whole body (WB) and excretory-secretory (ES) fractions of F. gigantica. It did not cross react with antigens in WB fractions from other parasites, including Opisthorchis viverrini, Schistosoma mansoni which are human parasites, Haemonchus placei, Setaria labiato-papillosa, Eurytrema pancreaticum, Cotylophoron cotylophorum, Fischoederius cobboldi, Gigantocotyle explanatum, Gastrothylax crumenifer, and Paramphistomum cervi which are ruminant parasites. By immunohistochemistry, the FgSAP-2 protein was localized only in the cytoplasm of caecal epithelial cells of 4-week-old juvenile and adult stages, but not in metacercariae, newly excysted juvenile (NEJ), 2- and 3-week-old juveniles. This finding indicated that FgSAP-2 is an abundantly expressed parasite protein that is released into the ES, hence SAP-2 and its MoAb may be used for immunodiagnosis of ruminant and human fasciolosis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Use of a 14.2 kDa recombinant Cooperia oncophora protein in an ELISA for herd health monitoring of nematode infections in first grazing season calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Githiori, J B; Kooyman, F N; Kruitwagen, C; Ploeger, H W; Eysker, M

    2000-07-24

    An ELISA using a recombinant 14.2kDa excretory/secretory Cooperia oncophora protein (CoES14.2 ELISA) was evaluated for estimating level of cumulative exposure to infective Cooperia larvae in first grazing season calves. Data from one experiment were used to obtain a quantitative relationship between IgG levels and cumulative exposure. That relationship was validated against data from another experimental study and from natural field studies. The latter included different pasture management strategies with or without an anthelmintic treatment. Validation involved 'predicting' cumulative exposure for the groups of calves in the latter two datasets based on observed IgG levels measured with the CoES14.2 ELISA, and subsequently comparing those 'predictions' with observed cumulative exposures. Generally, 'predicted' cumulative exposures correlated well to observed exposures (r values of 0.7-0.9). However, 'predicted' cumulative exposures underestimated observed exposures in the natural field studies. Anthelmintic treatments in some of the groups of the natural field studies reduced the 'prediction' accuracy of the CoES14.2 ELISA. This suggests that cumulative exposure in relation to IgG levels is more accurately defined by the total amount of host-parasite contact than by the cumulative number of larvae ingested. It is concluded that IgG levels measured with the CoES14.2 ELISA allow evaluating how much exposure to infection calves have experienced in the first grazing season.

  17. Comparative assessment of ELISAs using recombinant saposin-like protein 2 and recombinant cathepsin L-1 from Fasciola hepatica for the serodiagnosis of human Fasciolosis.

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    Bruno Gottstein

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Two recombinant Fasciola hepatica antigens, saposin-like protein-2 (recSAP2 and cathepsin L-1 (recCL1, were assessed individually and in combination in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA for the specific serodiagnosis of human fasciolosis in areas of low endemicity as encountered in Central Europe. Antibody detection was conducted using ProteinA/ProteinG (PAG conjugated to alkaline phosphatase. Test characteristics as well as agreement with results from an ELISA using excretory-secretory products (FhES from adult stage liver flukes was assessed by receiver operator characteristic (ROC analysis, specificity, sensitivity, Youdens J and overall accuracy. Cross-reactivity was assessed using three different groups of serum samples from healthy individuals (n=20, patients with other parasitic infections (n=87 and patients with malignancies (n=121. The best combined diagnostic results for recombinant antigens were obtained using the recSAP2-ELISA (87% sensitivity, 99% specificity and 97% overall accuracy employing the threshold (cut-off to discriminate between positive and negative reactions that maximized Youdens J. The findings showed that recSAP2-ELISA can be used for the routine serodiagnosis of chronic fasciolosis in clinical laboratories; the use of the PAG-conjugate offers the opportunity to employ, for example, rabbit hyperimmune serum for the standardization of positive controls.

  18. Effect of ES products from Anisakis (Nematoda: Anisakidae) on experimentally induced colitis in adult zebrafish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haarder, Simon; Kania, Per Walter; Holm, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    with helminth-derived substances have supported this notion, but underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This study therefore dissects to what extent a series of immune-related genes are modulated in zebrafish with experimentally induced colitis following exposure to excretory-secretory (ES) products isolated...... from larval Anisakis, a widely distributed fish nematode. Adult zebrafish intrarectally exposed to the colitis-inducing agent TNBS developed severe colitis leading to 80% severe morbidity, but if co-injected (ip) with Anisakis ES products, the morbidity rate was 50% at the end of the experiment (48...... hours post-exposure). Gene expression studies of TNBS-treated zebrafish showed clear upregulation of a range of genes encoding inflammatory cytokines and effector molecules and some induction of genes related to the adaptive response. A distinct innate-driven immune response was seen in both TNBS...

  19. Purification and Characterization of AsES Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalfoun, Nadia R.; Grellet-Bournonville, Carlos F.; Martínez-Zamora, Martín G.; Díaz-Perales, Araceli; Castagnaro, Atilio P.; Díaz-Ricci, Juan C.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, the purification and characterization of an extracellular elicitor protein, designated AsES, produced by an avirulent isolate of the strawberry pathogen Acremonium strictum, are reported. The defense eliciting activity present in culture filtrates was recovered and purified by ultrafiltration (cutoff, 30 kDa), anionic exchange (Q-Sepharose, pH 7.5), and hydrophobic interaction (phenyl-Sepharose) chromatographies. Two-dimensional SDS-PAGE of the purified active fraction revealed a single spot of 34 kDa and pI 8.8. HPLC (C2/C18) and MS/MS analysis confirmed purification to homogeneity. Foliar spray with AsES provided a total systemic protection against anthracnose disease in strawberry, accompanied by the expression of defense-related genes (i.e. PR1 and Chi2-1). Accumulation of reactive oxygen species (e.g. H2O2 and O2˙̄) and callose was also observed in Arabidopsis. By using degenerate primers designed from the partial amino acid sequences and rapid amplification reactions of cDNA ends, the complete AsES-coding cDNA of 1167 nucleotides was obtained. The deduced amino acid sequence showed significant identity with fungal serine proteinases of the subtilisin family, indicating that AsES is synthesized as a larger precursor containing a 15-residue secretory signal peptide and a 90-residue peptidase inhibitor I9 domain in addition to the 283-residue mature protein. AsES exhibited proteolytic activity in vitro, and its resistance eliciting activity was eliminated when inhibited with PMSF, suggesting that its proteolytic activity is required to induce the defense response. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of a fungal subtilisin that shows eliciting activity in plants. This finding could contribute to develop disease biocontrol strategies in plants by activating its innate immunity. PMID:23530047

  20. Effect of ES products from Anisakis (Nematoda: Anisakidae) on experimentally induced colitis in adult zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haarder, S; Kania, P W; Holm, T L; von Gersdorff Jørgensen, L; Buchmann, K

    2017-10-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in developed countries is linked with elevated hygienic standards. One of the several factors involved in this question may be reduced exposure to the immunomodulatory effects of parasitic helminths. Several investigations on treatment of mice and humans with helminth-derived substances have supported this notion, but underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This study therefore dissects to what extent a series of immune-related genes are modulated in zebrafish with experimentally induced colitis following exposure to excretory-secretory (ES) products isolated from larval Anisakis, a widely distributed fish nematode. Adult zebrafish intrarectally exposed to the colitis-inducing agent TNBS developed severe colitis leading to 80% severe morbidity, but if co-injected (ip) with Anisakis ES products, the morbidity rate was 50% at the end of the experiment (48 hours post-exposure). Gene expression studies of TNBS-treated zebrafish showed clear upregulation of a range of genes encoding inflammatory cytokines and effector molecules and some induction of genes related to the adaptive response. A distinct innate-driven immune response was seen in both TNBS and TNBS + ES groups, but expression values were significantly depressed for several important pro-inflammatory genes in the TNBS + ES group, indicating protective mechanisms of Anisakis ES compounds on intestinal immunopathology in zebrafish. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Serological diagnosis of Strongylus vulgaris infection: use of a recombinant protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ulla Vestergaard; Howe, Daniel K.; Olsen, Susanne Nautrup

    the pathogenic migrating larval stages of S. vulgaris ante mortem. A cDNA library was constructed from RNA extracted from migrating S. vulgaris larvae. Excretory-secretory antigens from S. vulgaris adult specimens were used to immunise a rat. Hyperimmune serum was used to immunoscreen the cDNA library......, an immunoreactive cDNA clone was subcloned into E. coli and the plasmid sequenced, the open reading frame encoding the mature protein was cloned into a pET22b expression vector and expressed as a His-tagged recombinant protein in BL21 expression cells. The recombinant protein was used in an indirect enzyme...... infection in suspected clinical cases, measuring herd level exposure, and as a potentially useful research tool for investigating possible risk factors associated with development of disease....

  2. EmTIP, a T-Cell immunomodulatory protein secreted by the tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis is important for early metacestode development.

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    Justin Komguep Nono

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alveolar echinococcosis (AE, caused by the metacestode of the tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, is a lethal zoonosis associated with host immunomodulation. T helper cells are instrumental to control the disease in the host. Whereas Th1 cells can restrict parasite proliferation, Th2 immune responses are associated with parasite proliferation. Although the early phase of host colonization by E. multilocularis is dominated by a potentially parasitocidal Th1 immune response, the molecular basis of this response is unknown. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We describe EmTIP, an E. multilocularis homologue of the human T-cell immunomodulatory protein, TIP. By immunohistochemistry we show EmTIP localization to the intercellular space within parasite larvae. Immunoprecipitation and Western blot experiments revealed the presence of EmTIP in the excretory/secretory (E/S products of parasite primary cell cultures, representing the early developing metacestode, but not in those of mature metacestode vesicles. Using an in vitro T-cell stimulation assay, we found that primary cell E/S products promoted interferon (IFN-γ release by murine CD4+ T-cells, whereas metacestode E/S products did not. IFN-γ release by T-cells exposed to parasite products was abrogated by an anti-EmTIP antibody. When recombinantly expressed, EmTIP promoted IFN-γ release by CD4+ T-cells in vitro. After incubation with anti-EmTIP antibody, primary cells showed an impaired ability to proliferate and to form metacestode vesicles in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: We provide for the first time a possible explanation for the early Th1 response observed during E. multilocularis infections. Our data indicate that parasite primary cells release a T-cell immunomodulatory protein, EmTIP, capable of promoting IFN-γ release by CD4+ T-cells, which is probably driving or supporting the onset of the early Th1 response during AE. The impairment of primary cell proliferation and the inhibition of metacestode

  3. Cloning of 1183 bp Fragment from Rhoptry Protein I (ROPI Gene of Toxoplasma gondii (RH in Expression Prokaryote Plasmid PET32a

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    Zahra Eslamirad

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toxoplasma gondii is an obligatory intracellular protozoan. Considering to high prevalence of this disease the best way to reduce the raised loses is prevention of human and animal infection, rapid diagnosis, differentiation between acute and chronic disease. Rhoptry protein 1 of Toxoplasma gondii is an excretory-secretory antigen that exists in the most stages of life cycle. According to specifications of excretory-secretory antigen that seems this antigen is a suitable candidate to produce recombinant vaccine and diagnostic kit. The main object of the present work was cloning rhoptry protein 1 (ROP1 gene of Toxoplasma gondii (RH in a cloning vector for further production of rhoptry proteins.Materials and Methods: Genomic DNA was extracted by phenol-chloroform method. The ROP1 fragment was amplified by PCR. This product was approved by sequencing and was cloned between the EcoR1 and Sal1 sites of the pTZ57R/T vector. Then transformed into Escherichia coli DH5α strain and screened by IPTG and X-Gal. After isolating of this gene from pTZ57R/T, it was subcloned into pET32a plasmid.Results: The plasmid was purified and approved by electrophoresis, enzyme restriction and PCR. After isolating of this gene from pTZ57R/T, it was subcloned into pET32a plasmid. After enzyme restriction and electrophoresis a fragment about 1183bp was separated from pET32a.Conclusion: Recombinant plasmid of ROP1 gene was constructed and ready for future study. That seems the antigen is a suitable candidate to produce recombinant vaccine and diagnostic kit.

  4. Lipid binding proteins from parasitic platyhelminthes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvite, Gabriela; Esteves, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    Two main families of lipid binding proteins have been identified in parasitic Platyhelminthes: hydrophobic ligand binding proteins (HLBPs) and fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs). Members of the former family of proteins are specific to the Cestoda class, while FABPs are conserved across a wide range of animal species. Because Platyhelminthes are unable to synthesize their own lipids, these lipid-binding proteins are important molecules in these organisms. HLBPs are a high molecular mass complex of proteins and lipids. They are composed of subunits of low molecular mass proteins and a wide array of lipid molecules ranging from CoA esters to cholesterol. These proteins are excretory-secretory molecules and are key serological tools for diagnosis of diseases caused by cestodes. FABPs are mainly intracellular proteins of low molecular weight. They are also vaccine candidates. Despite that the knowledge of their function is scarce, the differences in their molecular organization, ligand preferences, intra/extracellular localization, evolution, and phylogenetic distribution, suggest that platyhelminths HLBPs and FABPs should play different functions. FABPs might be involved in the removal of fatty acids from the inner surface of the cell membrane and in their subsequent targeting to specific cellular destinations. In contrast, HLBPs might be involved in fatty acid uptake from the host environment. PMID:22988444

  5. Lipid Binding Proteins from Parasitic Platyhelmithes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela eAlvite

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Two main families of lipid binding proteins have been identified in parasitic Platyhelminthes: hydrophobic ligand binding proteins (HLBPs and fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs. Members of the former family of proteins are specific to the Cestoda class, while FABPs are conserved across a wide range of animal species. Because Platyhelminthes are unable to synthesise their own lipids, these lipid-binding proteins are important molecules in these organisms.HLBPs are a high molecular mass complex of proteins and lipids. They are composed of subunits of low molecular mass proteins and a wide array of lipid molecules ranging from CoA esters to cholesterol. These proteins are excretory-secretory molecules and are key serological tools for diagnosis of diseases caused by cestodes. FABPs are mainly intracellular proteins of low molecular weight. They are also vaccine candidates.Despite that the knowledge of their function is scarce, the differences in their molecular organisation, ligand preferences, intra/extracellular localisation, evolution, and phylogenetic distribution, suggest that platyhelminths HLBPs and FABPs should play different functions. FABPs might be involved in the removal of fatty acids from the inner surface of the cell membrane and in their subsequent targeting to specific cellular destinations. In contrast, HLBPs might be involved in fatty acid uptake from the host environment.

  6. Immunization of goldfish with excretory/secretory molecules of Trypanosoma danilewskyi confers protection against infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bienek, D.R.; Plouffe, D.A.; Wiegertjes, G.F.; Belosevic, M.

    2002-01-01

    Trypanosoma danilewskyi is a protozoan that lives in blood and other tissues of fish. In the aquaculture industry, economic losses may be substantial, since the prevalence of infection may approach 100 nd the parasite may cause significant mortality in farmed carp. Most of the surviving fish acquire

  7. Folding of newly translated membrane protein CCR5 is assisted by the chaperonin GroEL-GroES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Haixia; Wang, Xiaoqiang; Li, Jiqiang; Ren, Hao; Huang, Fang

    2015-11-01

    The in vitro folding of newly translated human CC chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5), which belongs to the physiologically important family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), has been studied in a cell-free system supplemented with the surfactant Brij-35. The freshly synthesized CCR5 can spontaneously fold into its biologically active state but only slowly and inefficiently. However, on addition of the GroEL-GroES molecular chaperone system, the folding of the nascent CCR5 was significantly enhanced, as was the structural stability and functional expression of the soluble form of CCR5. The chaperonin GroEL was partially effective on its own, but for maximum efficiency both the GroEL and its GroES lid were necessary. These results are direct evidence for chaperone-assisted membrane protein folding and therefore demonstrate that GroEL-GroES may be implicated in the folding of membrane proteins.

  8. In vitro biomarker discovery in the parasitic flatworm Fasciola hepatica for monitoring chemotherapeutic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell M. Morphew

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The parasitic flatworm Fasciola hepatica is a global food security risk. With no vaccines, the sustainability of triclabendazole (TCBZ is threatened by emerging resistance. F. hepatica excretory/secretory (ES products can be detected in host faeces and used to estimate TCBZ success and failure. However, there are no faecal based molecular diagnostics dedicated to assessing drug failure or resistance to TCBZ in the field. Utilising in vitro maintenance and sub-proteomic approaches two TCBZ stress ES protein response fingerprints were identified: markers of non-killing and lethal doses. This study provides candidate protein/peptide biomarkers to validate for detection of TCBZ failure and resistance.

  9. Expression analysis of the endogenous Zscan4 locus and its coding proteins in mouse ES cells and preimplantation embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiguro, Kei-Ichiro; Nakatake, Yuhki; Chikazawa-Nohtomi, Nana; Kimura, Hiromi; Akiyama, Tomohiko; Oda, Mayumi; Ko, Shigeru B H; Ko, Minoru S H

    2017-02-01

    Mouse Zinc finger and SCAN domain containing 4 (Zscan4) is encoded in multiple copies of Zscan4 genes, which are expressed in late two-cell stage preimplantation embryos and in 1-5% of the embryonic stem (ES) cell population at a given time. Due to the highly identical nucleotide sequences of multiple copies of Zscan4 paralogs and pseudogenes in the mouse Zscan4 genomic cluster, previous analyses have been done using exogenous transgenes under the regulation of Zscan4c promoter. In this manuscript, we generated knock-in mouse ES cell lines and mouse lines, in which the expression of endogenous Zscan4c, one of the Zscan4 genes, can be specifically monitored with a green fluorescent protein variant, Emerald. Interestingly, we found that only ∼30% of Zscan4-immunopositive ES cells were Emerald positive, suggesting that even when the Zscan4 locus is active, not all Zscan4 genes are expressed synchronously. We also carried out mass spectrometry of protein complexes associated with endogenous Zscan4 proteins. Taken together, our genetic engineering at an endogenous Zscan4c gene provides the first clue for the expression and function of each gene copy of Zscan4 locus in a physiological context.

  10. Purification and characterization of AsES protein: a subtilisin secreted by Acremonium strictum is a novel plant defense elicitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalfoun, Nadia R; Grellet-Bournonville, Carlos F; Martínez-Zamora, Martín G; Díaz-Perales, Araceli; Castagnaro, Atilio P; Díaz-Ricci, Juan C

    2013-05-17

    In this work, the purification and characterization of an extracellular elicitor protein, designated AsES, produced by an avirulent isolate of the strawberry pathogen Acremonium strictum, are reported. The defense eliciting activity present in culture filtrates was recovered and purified by ultrafiltration (cutoff, 30 kDa), anionic exchange (Q-Sepharose, pH 7.5), and hydrophobic interaction (phenyl-Sepharose) chromatographies. Two-dimensional SDS-PAGE of the purified active fraction revealed a single spot of 34 kDa and pI 8.8. HPLC (C2/C18) and MS/MS analysis confirmed purification to homogeneity. Foliar spray with AsES provided a total systemic protection against anthracnose disease in strawberry, accompanied by the expression of defense-related genes (i.e. PR1 and Chi2-1). Accumulation of reactive oxygen species (e.g. H2O2 and O2(˙)) and callose was also observed in Arabidopsis. By using degenerate primers designed from the partial amino acid sequences and rapid amplification reactions of cDNA ends, the complete AsES-coding cDNA of 1167 nucleotides was obtained. The deduced amino acid sequence showed significant identity with fungal serine proteinases of the subtilisin family, indicating that AsES is synthesized as a larger precursor containing a 15-residue secretory signal peptide and a 90-residue peptidase inhibitor I9 domain in addition to the 283-residue mature protein. AsES exhibited proteolytic activity in vitro, and its resistance eliciting activity was eliminated when inhibited with PMSF, suggesting that its proteolytic activity is required to induce the defense response. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of a fungal subtilisin that shows eliciting activity in plants. This finding could contribute to develop disease biocontrol strategies in plants by activating its innate immunity.

  11. Symmetric GroEL:GroES2 complexes are the protein-folding functional form of the chaperonin nanomachine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dong; Ye, Xiang; Lorimer, George H

    2013-11-12

    Using calibrated FRET, we show that the simultaneous occupancy of both rings of GroEL by ATP and GroES occurs, leading to the rapid formation of symmetric GroEL:GroES2 "football" particles regardless of the presence or absence of substrate protein (SP). In the absence of SP, these symmetric particles revert to asymmetric GroEL:GroES1 "bullet" particles. The breakage of GroES symmetry requires the stochastic hydrolysis of ATP and the breakage of nucleotide symmetry. These asymmetric particles are both persistent and dynamic; they turnover via the asymmetric cycle. When challenged with SP, however, they revert to symmetric particles within a second. In the presence of SP, the symmetric particles are also persistent and dynamic. They turn over via the symmetric cycle. Under these conditions, the stochastic hydrolysis of ATP and the breakage of nucleotide symmetry also occur within the ensemble of particles. However, on account of SP-catalyzed ADP/ATP exchange, GroES symmetry is rapidly restored. The residence time of both GroES and SP on functional GroEL is reduced to ∼1 s, enabling many more iterations than was previously believed possible, consistent with the iterative annealing mechanism. This result is inconsistent with currently accepted models. Using a foldable SP, we show that as the SP folds to the native state and the population of unfolded SP declines, the population of symmetric particles reverts to asymmetric particles in parallel, a result that is consistent with the former being the folding functional form.

  12. Phage annealing proteins promote oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis in Escherichia coli and mouse ES cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muyrers Joep PP

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The phage protein pairs, RecE/RecT from Rac or Redα/Redβ from λ, initiate efficient double strand break repair (DSBR in Escherichia coli that has proven very useful for DNA engineering. These phage pairs initiate DSBR either by annealing or by another mechanism that is not defined. Results Here we report that these proteins also mediate single strand oligonucleotide repair (ssOR at high efficiencies. The ssOR activity, unlike DSBR, does not require a phage exonuclease (RecE or Redα but only requires a phage annealing protein (RecT or Redβ. Notably, the P22 phage annealing protein Erf, which does not mediate the same DSBR reactions, also delivers ssOR activity. By altering aspects of the oligonucleotides, we document length and design parameters that affect ssOR efficiency to show a simple relationship to homologies either side of the repair site. Notably, ssOR shows strand bias. Oligonucleotides that can prime lagging strand replication deliver more ssOR than their leading complements. This suggests a model in which the annealing proteins hybridize the oligonucleotides to single stranded regions near the replication fork. We also show that ssOR is a highly efficient way to engineer BACs and can be detected in a eukaryotic cell upon expression of a phage annealing protein. Conclusion Phage annealing proteins can initiate the recombination of single stranded oligonucleotides into endogenous targets in Escherichia coli at very high efficiencies. This expands the repertoire of useful DNA engineering strategies, shows promise for applications in eukaryotic cells, and has implications for the unanswered questions regarding DSBR mediated by RecE/RecT and Redα/Redβ.

  13. Proteins secreted by the parasitic nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis act as adjuvants for Th2 responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, M J; Harcus, Y M; Riches, P L; Maizels, R M

    2000-07-01

    Infections with parasitic helminths such as Nippostronglyus brasiliensis induce dominant type 2 responses from antigen-specific T helper cells. The potency of the Th2 bias can also drive Th2 responses to bystander antigens introduced at the same time as infection. We now report that the Th2-promoting effect of infection can be reproduced with soluble N. brasiliensis excretory-secretory proteins (NES) released by adult parasites in vitro. Immunization of BALB/c mice with NES results in the production of IL-4 with elevated total serum IgE and specific IgG1 antibodies. NES is also able to stimulate IL-4 and polyclonal IgE production in other mouse strains (C57BL/6, B10.D2, CBA). These features are seen whether NES is administered without adjuvant as soluble protein in phosphate-buffered saline or with complete Freund's adjuvant which normally favors Th1 responses. Thus, NES possesses intrinsic adjuvanticity. Moreover, co-administration of hen egg lysozyme (HEL) with NES in the absence of other adjuvants results in generation of HEL-specific lymphocyte proliferation, IL-4 release and IgG1 antibody responses, documenting that NES can act as an adjuvant for third-party antigens. Proteinase K digestion or heat treatment of NES before immunization abolished the IL-4-stimulating activity, indicating that the factors acting to promote Th2 induction are proteins secreted by the adult parasite.

  14. Characterization ofTrichuris murissecreted proteins and extracellular vesicles provides new insights into host-parasite communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberger, Ramon M; Talukder, Md Hasanuzzaman; Field, Matthew A; Wangchuk, Phurpa; Giacomin, Paul; Loukas, Alex; Sotillo, Javier

    2018-01-01

    Whipworms are parasitic nematodes that live in the gut of more than 500 million people worldwide. Owing to the difficulty in obtaining parasite material, the mouse whipworm Trichuris muris has been extensively used as a model to study human whipworm infections. These nematodes secrete a multitude of compounds that interact with host tissues where they orchestrate a parasitic existence. Herein we provide the first comprehensive characterization of the excretory/secretory products of T. muris . We identify 148 proteins secreted by T. muris and show for the first time that the mouse whipworm secretes exosome-like extracellular vesicles (EVs) that can interact with host cells. We use an Optiprep® gradient to purify the EVs, highlighting the suitability of this method for purifying EVs secreted by a parasitic nematode. We also characterize the proteomic and genomic content of the EVs, identifying >350 proteins, 56 miRNAs (22 novel) and 475 full-length mRNA transcripts mapping to T. muris gene models. Many of the miRNAs putatively mapped to mouse genes are involved in regulation of inflammation, implying a role in parasite-driven immunomodulation. In addition, for the first time to our knowledge, colonic organoids have been used to demonstrate the internalization of parasite EVs by host cells. Understanding how parasites interact with their host is crucial to develop new control measures. This first characterization of the proteins and EVs secreted by T. muris provides important information on whipworm-host communication and forms the basis for future studies.

  15. Venestatin, a Ca++-binding protein from the parasitic nematode Strongyloides venezuelensis, is involved in the larval migration process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubokawa, Daigo; Hatta, Takeshi; Kikuchi, Taisei; Maeda, Hiroki; Mikami, Fusako; Alim, M Abdul; Maruyama, Haruhiko; Tsuji, Naotoshi

    2017-07-01

    The secretory EF-hand Ca++-binding proteins act as calcium signaling molecules for control of cell functions, but those proteins from parasitic helminths are poorly understood. Here, we have identified and characterized an EF-hand Ca++-binding protein from the rodent nematode, Strongyloides venezuelensis, termed 'venestatin', which is highly conserved in Strongyloides spp. Canonical two EF-hand domains and a signal peptide are present in venestatin. A gel mobility shift assay and Ruthenium red staining indicated that the recombinant venestatin possesses binding ability with Ca++ ions. Endogenous venestatin was seemingly localized in the hypodermis and gut of the worms and was found in the excretory-secretory products. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR data showed that venestatin-specific transcript was upregulated in the parasitic stages of S. venezuelensis, and the upregulation occurred promptly after larval invasion through the host's skin, but not in the case of in vitro incubation. Immunization of mice with recombinant venestatin caused a 55% reduction in larval migration to the lungs, and lung hemorrhaging was mild compared with non-immunized groups, suggesting that anti-venestatin sera may interfere with larval migration from skin to lung. Our results suggest that venestatin is secreted from the hypodermis and gut of S. venezuelensis, and has pivotal roles in larval migration. Copyright © 2017 Australian Society for Parasitology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cyclic AMP receptor protein regulates pheromone-mediated bioluminescence at multiple levels in Vibrio fischeri ES114.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyell, Noreen L; Colton, Deanna M; Bose, Jeffrey L; Tumen-Velasquez, Melissa P; Kimbrough, John H; Stabb, Eric V

    2013-11-01

    Bioluminescence in Vibrio fischeri ES114 is activated by autoinducer pheromones, and this regulation serves as a model for bacterial cell-cell signaling. As in other bacteria, pheromone concentration increases with cell density; however, pheromone synthesis and perception are also modulated in response to environmental stimuli. Previous studies suggested that expression of the pheromone-dependent bioluminescence activator LuxR is regulated in response to glucose by cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptor protein (CRP) (P. V. Dunlap and E. P. Greenberg, J. Bacteriol. 164:45-50, 1985; P. V. Dunlap and E. P. Greenberg, J. Bacteriol. 170:4040-4046, 1988; P. V. Dunlap, J. Bacteriol. 171:1199-1202, 1989; and W. F. Friedrich and E. P. Greenberg, Arch. Microbiol. 134:87-91, 1983). Consistent with this model, we found that bioluminescence in V. fischeri ES114 is modulated by glucose and stimulated by cAMP. In addition, a Δcrp mutant was ∼100-fold dimmer than ES114 and did not increase luminescence in response to added cAMP, even though cells lacking crp were still metabolically capable of producing luminescence. We further discovered that CRP regulates not only luxR but also the alternative pheromone synthase gene ainS. We found that His-tagged V. fischeri CRP could bind sequences upstream of both luxR and ainS, supporting bioinformatic predictions of direct regulation at both promoters. Luminescence increased in response to cAMP if either the ainS or luxR system was under native regulation, suggesting cAMP-CRP significantly increases luminescence through both systems. Finally, using transcriptional reporters in transgenic Escherichia coli, we elucidated two additional regulatory connections. First, LuxR-independent basal transcription of the luxI promoter was enhanced by CRP. Second, the effect of CRP on the ainS promoter depended on whether the V. fischeri regulatory gene litR was also introduced. These results suggest an integral role for CRP in pheromone signaling that goes

  17. Use of KikGR a photoconvertible green-to-red fluorescent protein for cell labeling and lineage analysis in ES cells and mouse embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadjantonakis Anna-Katerina

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of genetically-encoded fluorescent proteins has revolutionized the fields of cell and developmental biology and in doing so redefined our understanding of the dynamic morphogenetic processes that shape the embryo. With the advent of more accessible and sophisticated imaging technologies as well as an abundance of fluorescent proteins with different spectral characteristics, the dynamic processes taking place in situ in living cells and tissues can now be probed. Photomodulatable fluorescent proteins are one of the emerging classes of genetically-encoded fluorescent proteins. Results We have compared PA-GFP, PS-CFP2, Kaede and KikGR four readily available and commonly used photomodulatable fluorescent proteins for use in ES cells and mice. Our results suggest that the green-to-red photoconvertible fluorescent protein, Kikume Green-Red (KikGR, is most suitable for cell labeling and lineage studies in ES cells and mice because it is developmentally neutral, bright and undergoes rapid and complete photoconversion. We have generated transgenic ES cell lines and strains of mice exhibiting robust widespread expression of KikGR. By efficient photoconversion of KikGR we labeled subpopulations of ES cells in culture, and groups of cells within ex utero cultured mouse embryos. Red fluorescent photoconverted cells and their progeny could be followed for extended periods of time. Conclusion Transgenic ES cells and mice exhibiting widespread readily detectable expression of KikGR are indistinguishable from their wild type counterparts and are amenable to efficient photoconversion. They represent novel tools for non-invasive selective labeling specific cell populations and live imaging cell dynamics and cell fate. Genetically-encoded photomodulatable proteins such as KikGR represent emergent attractive alternatives to commonly used vital dyes, tissue grafts and genetic methods for investigating dynamic behaviors of individual cells

  18. Activated entomopathogenic nematode infective juveniles release lethal venom proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dihong Lu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs are unique parasites due to their symbiosis with entomopathogenic bacteria and their ability to kill insect hosts quickly after infection. It is widely believed that EPNs rely on their bacterial partners for killing hosts. Here we disproved this theory by demonstrating that the in vitro activated infective juveniles (IJs of Steinernema carpocapsae (a well-studied EPN species release venom proteins that are lethal to several insects including Drosophila melanogaster. We confirmed that the in vitro activation is a good approximation of the in vivo process by comparing the transcriptomes of individual in vitro and in vivo activated IJs. We further analyzed the transcriptomes of non-activated and activated IJs and revealed a dramatic shift in gene expression during IJ activation. We also analyzed the venom proteome using mass spectrometry. Among the 472 venom proteins, proteases and protease inhibitors are especially abundant, and toxin-related proteins such as Shk domain-containing proteins and fatty acid- and retinol-binding proteins are also detected, which are potential candidates for suppressing the host immune system. Many of the venom proteins have conserved orthologs in vertebrate-parasitic nematodes and are differentially expressed during IJ activation, suggesting conserved functions in nematode parasitism. In summary, our findings strongly support a new model that S. carpocapsae and likely other Steinernema EPNs have a more active role in contributing to the pathogenicity of the nematode-bacterium complex than simply relying on their symbiotic bacteria. Furthermore, we propose that EPNs are a good model system for investigating vertebrate- and human-parasitic nematodes, especially regarding the function of excretory/secretory products.

  19. Human and mouse ZFP57 proteins are functionally interchangeable in maintaining genomic imprinting at multiple imprinted regions in mouse ES cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takikawa, Sachiko; Wang, Xin; Ray, Chelsea; Vakulenko, Max; Bell, Fong T; Li, Xiajun

    2013-12-01

    Genomic imprinting is a common epigenetic phenomenon in mammals. Dysregulation of genomic imprinting has been implicated in a variety of human diseases. ZFP57 is a master regulator in genomic imprinting. Loss of ZFP57 causes loss of DNA methylation imprint at multiple imprinted regions in mouse embryos, as well as in embryonic stem (ES) cells. Similarly, mutations in human ZFP57 result in hypomethylation at many imprinted regions and are associated with transient neonatal diabetes and other human diseases. Mouse and human Zfp57 genes are located in the same syntenic block. However, mouse and human ZFP57 proteins only display about 50% sequence identity with different number of zinc fingers. It is not clear if they share similar mechanisms in maintaining genomic imprinting. Here we report that mouse and human ZFP57 proteins are functionally interchangeable. Expression of exogenous wild-type human ZFP57 could maintain DNA methylation imprint at three imprinted regions in mouse ES cells in the absence of endogenous mouse ZFP57. However, mutant human ZFP57 proteins containing the mutations found in human patients could not substitute for endogenous mouse ZFP57 in maintaining genomic imprinting in ES cells. Like mouse ZFP57, human ZFP57 and its mutant proteins could bind to mouse KAP1, the universal cofactor for KRAB zinc finger proteins, in mouse ES cells. Thus, we conclude that mouse and human ZFP57 are orthologs despite relatively low sequence identity and mouse ES cell system that we had established before is a valuable system for functional analyses of wild-type and mutant human ZFP57 proteins.

  20. Molecular cloning and tissue expression of the fatty acid-binding protein (Es-FABP gene in female Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Lin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs, small cytosolic proteins that function in the uptake and utilization of fatty acids, have been extensively studied in higher vertebrates while invertebrates have received little attention despite similar nutritional requirements during periods of reproductive activity. Results Therefore, a cDNA encoding Eriocheir sinensis FABP (Es-FABP was cloned based upon EST analysis of a hepatopancreas cDNA library. The full length cDNA was 750 bp and encoded a 131 aa polypeptide that was highly homologous to related genes reported in shrimp. The 9108 bp Es-FABP gene contained four exons that were interrupted by three introns, a genomic organization common among FABP multigene family members in vertebrates. Gene expression analysis, as determined by RT-PCR, revealed the presence of Es-FABP transcripts in hepatopancreas, hemocytes, ovary, gills, muscle, thoracic ganglia, heart, and intestine, but not stomach or eyestalk. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that Es-FABP expression in ovary, hemocytes, and hepatopancreas was dependent on the status of ovarian development, with peak expression observed in January. Conclusions Evidence provided in the present report supports a role of Es-FABP in lipid transport during the period of rapid ovarian growth in E. sinensis, and indirectly confirms the participation of the hepatopancreas, ovary, and hemocytes in lipid nutrient absorption and utilization processes.

  1. Induction of heat shock proteins DnaK, GroEL, and GroES by salt stress in Lactococcus lactis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilstrup, Mogens; Jacobsen, Susanne; Hammer, Karin

    1997-01-01

    pattern. The fast-induced proteins (including DnaK) showed an abruptly increased rate of synthesis during the first 10 min, declining to intermediate levels after 15 min, GroEL and GroES, which also belong to this group, maintained a high rate of synthesis after 15 min, The class of slowly induced......, by comparison of prototrophic wild-type strains and auxotrophic domesticated (daily) strains. In a study of the capacity of domesticated strains to perform directed responses toward various stress conditions, we have analyzed the heat and salt stress response in the established L,. lactis subsp. cremoris...... laboratory strain MG1363, which was originally derived from a dairy strain, After two-dimensional separation of proteins, the DnaK, GroEL, and GroES heat shock proteins, the HrcA (Orf1) heat shack repressor, and the glycolytic enzymes pyruvate kinase, glyceral-dehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase...

  2. Brugia malayi Antigen (BmA Inhibits HIV-1 Trans-Infection but Neither BmA nor ES-62 Alter HIV-1 Infectivity of DC Induced CD4+ Th-Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily E I M Mouser

    Full Text Available One of the hallmarks of HIV-1 disease is the association of heightened CD4+ T-cell activation with HIV-1 replication. Parasitic helminths including filarial nematodes have evolved numerous and complex mechanisms to skew, dampen and evade human immune responses suggesting that HIV-1 infection may be modulated in co-infected individuals. Here we studied the effects of two filarial nematode products, adult worm antigen from Brugia malayi (BmA and excretory-secretory product 62 (ES-62 from Acanthocheilonema viteae on HIV-1 infection in vitro. Neither BmA nor ES-62 influenced HIV-1 replication in CD4+ enriched T-cells, with either a CCR5- or CXCR4-using virus. BmA, but not ES-62, had the capacity to bind the C-type lectin dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN thereby inhibiting HIV-1 trans-infection of CD4+ enriched T-cells. As for their effect on DCs, neither BmA nor ES-62 could enhance or inhibit DC maturation as determined by CD83, CD86 and HLA-DR expression, or the production of IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 and TNF-α. As expected, due to the unaltered DC phenotype, no differences were found in CD4+ T helper (Th cell phenotypes induced by DCs treated with either BmA or ES-62. Moreover, the HIV-1 susceptibility of the Th-cell populations induced by BmA or ES-62 exposed DCs was unaffected for both CCR5- and CXCR4-using HIV-1 viruses. In conclusion, although BmA has the potential capacity to interfere with HIV-1 transmission or initial viral dissemination through preventing the virus from interacting with DCs, no differences in the Th-cell polarizing capacity of DCs exposed to BmA or ES-62 were observed. Neither antigenic source demonstrated beneficial or detrimental effects on the HIV-1 susceptibility of CD4+ Th-cells induced by exposed DCs.

  3. Expression of a highly toxic protein, Bax, in Escherichia coli by attachment of a leader peptide derived from the GroES cochaperone.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnelly, M. I.; Stols, L.; Stevens, P. W.; Su, S. X.; Tollaksen, S.; Giometti, C. S.; Joachimiak , A.

    2001-08-01

    Expression of the human apoptosis modulator protein Bax in Escherichia coli is highly toxic, resulting in cell lysis at very low concentrations (Asoh, S., et al., J. Biol. Chem. 273, 11384-11391, 1998). Attempts to express a truncated form of murine Bax in the periplasm by using an expression vector that attached the OmpA signal sequence to the protein failed to alleviate this toxicity. In contrast, attachment of a peptide based on a portion of the E. coli cochaperone GroES reduced Bax's toxicity significantly and allowed good expression. The peptide, which was attached to the N-terminus, included the amino acid sequence of the mobile loop of GroES that has been demonstrated to interact with the chaperonin, GroEL. Under normal growth conditions, expression of this construct was still toxic, but generated a small amount of detectable recombinant Bax. However, when cells were grown in the presence of 2% ethanol, which stimulated overproduction of the molecular chaperones GroEL and DnaK, toxicity was reduced and good overexpression occurred. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis showed that approximately 15-fold more GroES-loop-Bax was produced under these conditions than under standard conditions and that GroEL and DnaK were elevated approximately 3-fold.

  4. SwissPalm: Protein Palmitoylation database [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/5co

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Blanc

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Protein S-palmitoylation is a reversible post-translational modification that regulates many key biological processes, although the full extent and functions of protein S-palmitoylation remain largely unexplored. Recent developments of new chemical methods have allowed the establishment of palmitoyl-proteomes of a variety of cell lines and tissues from different species.  As the amount of information generated by these high-throughput studies is increasing, the field requires centralization and comparison of this information. Here we present SwissPalm (http://swisspalm.epfl.ch, our open, comprehensive, manually curated resource to study protein S-palmitoylation. It currently encompasses more than 5000 S-palmitoylated protein hits from seven species, and contains more than 500 specific sites of S-palmitoylation. SwissPalm also provides curated information and filters that increase the confidence in true positive hits, and integrates predictions of S-palmitoylated cysteine scores, orthologs and isoform multiple alignments. Systems analysis of the palmitoyl-proteome screens indicate that 10% or more of the human proteome is susceptible to S-palmitoylation. Moreover, ontology and pathway analyses of the human palmitoyl-proteome reveal that key biological functions involve this reversible lipid modification. Comparative analysis finally shows a strong crosstalk between S-palmitoylation and other post-translational modifications. Through the compilation of data and continuous updates, SwissPalm will provide a powerful tool to unravel the global importance of protein S-palmitoylation.

  5. A potential role for the interaction of Wolbachia surface proteins with the Brugia malayi glycolytic enzymes and cytoskeleton in maintenance of endosymbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikow, Elena; Xu, Shulin; Liu, Jing; Bell, Aaron J; Ghedin, Elodie; Unnasch, Thomas R; Lustigman, Sara

    2013-01-01

    The human filarial parasite Brugia malayi harbors an endosymbiotic bacterium of the genus Wolbachia. The Wolbachia represent an attractive target for the control of filarial induced disease as elimination of the bacteria affects molting, reproduction and survival of the worms. The molecular basis for the symbiotic relationship between Wolbachia and their filarial hosts has yet to be elucidated. To identify proteins involved in this process, we focused on the Wolbachia surface proteins (WSPs), which are known to be involved in bacteria-host interactions in other bacterial systems. Two WSP-like proteins (wBm0152 and wBm0432) were localized to various host tissues of the B. malayi female adult worms and are present in the excretory/secretory products of the worms. We provide evidence that both of these proteins bind specifically to B. malayi crude protein extracts and to individual filarial proteins to create functional complexes. The wBm0432 interacts with several key enzymes involved in the host glycolytic pathway, including aldolase and enolase. The wBm0152 interacts with the host cytoskeletal proteins actin and tubulin. We also show these interactions in vitro and have verified that wBm0432 and B. malayi aldolase, as well as wBm0152 and B. malayi actin, co-localize to the vacuole surrounding Wolbachia. We propose that both WSP protein complexes interact with each other via the aldolase-actin link and/or via the possible interaction between the host's enolase and the cytoskeleton, and play a role in Wolbachia distribution during worm growth and embryogenesis.

  6. Fasciola hepatica fatty acid binding protein induces the alternative activation of human macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-Santiago, Olgary; Espino, Ana M

    2014-12-01

    The liver fluke Fasciola hepatica is a highly evolved parasite that uses sophisticated mechanisms to evade the host immune response. The immunosuppressive capabilities of the parasite have been associated with antigens secreted through the parasite's tegument, called excretory-secretory products (ESPs). Proteomic studies have identified the fatty acid binding protein (FABP) as one of molecules present in the parasite ESPs. Although FABP has been investigated for potential use in the development of vaccines against fascioliasis, its direct interaction with cells of immune system has not been studied. In this study, FABP was purified in native form from soluble extracts of F. hepatica adult flukes using a combination of molecular sieving chromatography and preparative isoelectric focusing. The immunological effect of the purified protein, termed Fh12, was assayed in vitro using monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) obtained from healthy human donors. Results from the assay indicate that Fh12 produced a significantly increased arginase expression and activity and induced the expression of chitinase-3-like protein (CHI3L1). The assay also showed that Fh12 downregulated the production of nitric oxide (NO) and the expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS2). This indicates that Fh12 induced the production of alternatively activated macrophages (AAMϕ). The results also demonstrated the ability of Fh12 to downregulate the secretion of the proinflammatory and inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-12 (IL-12), and IL-1βB, even after stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), as well as its ability to stimulate the overexpression of IL-10. These results suggest a potent anti-inflammatory role for Fh12, which could occur via targeting of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Fontes de proteína e carboidratos para cães e gatos Protein and carbohydrate ingredients for dogs and cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aulus Cavalieri Carciofi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available O mercado de alimentos para cães e gatos absorve importante quantidade de proteínas e carboidratos, apesar disso poucos estudos existem sobre digestibilidade e energia metabolizável destes ingredientes. Arroz e milho têm sido considerados as melhores fontes de amido, mas demonstra-se que o sorgo é igualmente bem digerido por cães. Na interpretação dos estudos, deve-se distinguir os que empregaram farinhas ou amidos purificados dos que empregaram ingredientes moídos, como utilizado na fabricação de alimentos para animais de companhia. Além de sua digestibilidade e valor energético, amidos interferem na glicemia de cães, o que torna interessante se empregar, para animais em condições específicas, fontes de carboidrato que levem à menores respostas de glicose e insulina. Devido a elevada necessidade de proteína, ingredientes protéicos são importantes nas formulações. Proteínas de origem animal apresentam maior variação em composição química, qualidade e digestibilidade que as de origem vegetal. Farinhas de origem animal podem apresentar excesso de matéria mineral, limitando sua inclusão na fórmula, enquanto derivados protéicos vegetais apresentam diversos fatores anti-nutricionais que devem ser inativados durante seu processamento. Demonstra-se que proteínas vegetais apresentam boa digestibilidade e energia metabolizável para cães e gatos, sendo sua inclusão interessante para reduzir a matéria mineral da dieta, controlar o excesso de bases do alimento e manter adequada a digestibilidade do produto, neste sentido soja micronizada e o farelo de glúten de milho 60% se destacam em digestibilidade e teor de energia metabolizável. A farinha de vísceras de frango, dentre as proteínas de origem animal secas demonstra-se como a de melhor digestibilidade e energia metabolizável.Although Pet food companies use important amounts of protein and carbohydrate sources, little scientific information was published about

  8. Vaccination of calves against Cooperia oncophora with a double-domain activation-associated secreted protein reduces parasite egg output and pasture contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlaminck, Johnny; Borloo, Jimmy; Vercruysse, Jozef; Geldhof, Peter; Claerebout, Edwin

    2015-03-01

    With the increasing incidence of anthelmintic resistance worldwide, immunological control of worm infections through vaccination is often put forward as a rational and cost-effective alternative for anthelmintic drugs. In this study we report on the evaluation of a double-domain activation-associated secreted protein purified from the excretory-secretory material of the adult stage of the small intestinal parasite Cooperia oncophora as a vaccine antigen against this parasite. In a first experiment, calves were vaccinated three times i.m. with activation-associated secreted protein and Quil A adjuvant or with adjuvant alone, and subsequently challenged with a trickle infection of 25,000 infective larvae in total over 25 days. Vaccinated calves showed a significant reduction of 91% in their cumulative faecal egg counts and a significantly higher number of inhibited L4s present in their intestine compared with control animals. Furthermore, both female and male adult worms were significantly smaller in the vaccinated group than in the control group. In a second experiment, the vaccine antigen was further evaluated under field conditions. Calves were immunised as described above, followed by a natural challenge infection on pasture. Cooperia oncophora faecal egg counts in the vaccinated animals were reduced during the entire grazing period, resulting in a significant reduction in the cumulative faecal egg counts of 58.5%. Numbers of infective C. oncophora larvae were lower on plots grazed by vaccinated calves, with a reduction in mean pasture larval counts of 65% at housing. A significant reduction of 81.6% in total numbers of C. oncophora worms was shown in the vaccinated group compared with the control group. Taken together, the data highlight the protective capacity of the double-domain activation-associated secreted protein and the possibility of controlling C. oncophora infections through vaccination. Copyright © 2014 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc

  9. Comparison of two enzyme immunoassays for the detection of Haemonchus contortus infections in sheep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schallig, H. D.; Hornok, S.; Cornelissen, J. B.

    1995-01-01

    Two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) using either excretory/secretory (ES) products or crude somatic antigens (CSA) of adult Haemonchus contortus were compared for their ability to detect antibodies against H. contortus in sheep. Serum samples obtained from a group of 32 H. contortus

  10. Excretory, Secretory, and Tissue Residues after Label and Extra-label Administration of Flunixin Meglumine to Saline- or Lipopolysaccharide-Exposed Dairy Cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David J; Shelver, Weilin L; Baynes, Ronald E; Tell, Lisa; Gehring, Ronette; Li, Mengjie; Dutko, Terry; Schroeder, J W; Herges, Grant; Riviere, Jim E

    2015-05-20

    Twenty lactating dairy cattle were intravenously infused with either lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (n = 10) or sterile saline (n = 10). Five cattle in each group received three doses of flunixin meglumine administered by either intravenous infusion or intramuscular injection at 24 h intervals. Milk, urine, and tissues were collected. Thirty-six hours after the last flunixin administration, milk from six cows contained 5-hydroxyflunixin (5OHF) levels greater than the milk tolerance of 2 ng/mL; by 48 h, milk from two cows, a saline and a LPS-treated animal, had violative milk concentrations of 5OHF. A single animal treated with LPS and intramuscular flunixin contained violative flunixin residues in liver. The ratio of urinary flunixin/5OHF was correlated (P flunixin residues in LPS-treated animals, but not (P = 0.96; R(2) = 0.003) in cows treated with saline in lieu of LPS. Violative residues of flunixin in dairy cattle may be related to LPS inhibition of flunixin metabolism.

  11. Excretory, secretory, and tissue residues after label and extra-label administration of flunixin meglumine to saline or lipopolysaccharide-exposed dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenty lactating dairy cattle were intravenously infused with either lipopolysaccharide (n = 10) or sterile saline (n = 10). Five cattle in each group received 3 doses of flunixin meglumine administered by either IV infusion or IM injection at 24 h intervals. Milk, urine, and tissues were collected....

  12. Expression and Isolation of Recombinant Microneme 3 (MIC3 Protein of Toxoplasma gondii Local Isolate on Eschericia coli (BL21

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Indrasanti

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is a disease that infects all warm-blooded animals, including livestocks and humans caused by Toxoplasma gondii parasites. There are major drugs used for the therapy, though they have some effects to the patients, such as allergy, toxic and teratogenic for fetus. In addition, toxoplasmosis treatment is only effective for tachyzoites T. gondii in acute infection, while tissue cysts cannot be eradicated in chronic toxoplasmosis Tissue cysts of T. gondii contained in meat that are consumed by humans and meat-derived products may be important sources of infection for humans. Microneme protein (MIC is one of proteins that belongs to excretory-secretory antigens (ESAs of Toxoplasma gondii. Microneme 3 protein (MIC3 is the protein that plays an important role in the invasion process during cell infection as a mediator attachment parasite to the host cell. Recombinant MIC3 protein has been already used for the detection of toxoplasmosis and it could induce humoral and cellular immune response in experimental animals. The aim of this research was to express MIC3 recombinant protein of T. gondii from local isolate that was cloned into expression vector and transformed to E. coli BL21. In the future, recombinant protein MIC3 can be used for vaccine candidate and diagnostic tools for toxoplasmosis in animals and humans. Gene of MIC3 T. gondii local isolate (1.2 Kbp was cloned into expression vector pET-32a(+ (5.9 Kbp and transformed to Escherichia coli BL21. Protein from plasmid recombinant (7.1 Kbp was expressed and performed by culturing recombinant bacteria into LB medium containing ampicillin and IPTG. Recombinant protein was isolated by sonication method and identified using SDS-PAGE. Finally, the recombinant protein was analyzed by immunoblotting using anti-ESAs polyclonal antibody. In conclusion, expression of the MIC3 gene with ~108 kDa has been successfully performed by cloning gene encoding for MIC3 protein of T. gondii local isolate

  13. Expression and Isolation of Recombinant Microneme 3 (MIC3 Protein of Toxoplasma gondii Local Isolate on Eschericia coli (BL21

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Indrasanti

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Toxoplasmosis is a disease that infects all warm-blooded animals, including livestocks and humans caused by Toxoplasma gondii parasites. There are major drugs used for the therapy, though they have some effects to the patients, such as allergy, toxic and teratogenic for fetus. In addition, toxoplasmosis treatment is only effective for tachyzoites T. gondii in acute infection, while tissue cysts cannot be eradicated in chronic toxoplasmosis Tissue cysts of T. gondii contained in meat that are consumed by humans and meat-derived products may be important sources of infection for humans. Microneme protein (MIC is one of proteins that belongs to excretory-secretory antigens (ESAs of Toxoplasma gondii. Microneme 3 protein (MIC3 is the protein that plays an important role in the invasion process during cell infection as a mediator attachment parasite to the host cell. Recombinant MIC3 protein has been already used for the detection of toxoplasmosis and it could induce humoral and cellular immune response in experimental animals. The aim of this research was to express MIC3 recombinant protein of T. gondii from local isolate that was cloned into expression vector and transformed to E. coli BL21. In the future, recombinant protein MIC3 can be used for vaccine candidate and diagnostic tools for toxoplasmosis in animals and humans. Gene of MIC3 T. gondii local isolate (1.2 Kbp was cloned into expression vector pET-32a(+ (5.9 Kbp and transformed to Escherichia coli BL21. Protein from plasmid recombinant (7.1 Kbp was expressed and performed by culturing recombinant bacteria into LB medium containing ampicillin and IPTG. Recombinant protein was isolated by sonication method and identified using SDS-PAGE. Finally, the recombinant protein was analyzed by immunoblotting using anti-ESAs polyclonal antibody. In conclusion, expression of the MIC3 gene with ~108 kDa has been successfully performed by cloning gene encoding for MIC3 protein of T. gondii

  14. Characterizing alpha helical properties of Ebola viral proteins as potential targets for inhibition of alpha-helix mediated protein-protein interactions [v3; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/50u

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Chakraborty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ebola, considered till recently as a rare and endemic disease, has dramatically transformed into a potentially global humanitarian crisis. The genome of Ebola, a member of the Filoviridae family, encodes seven proteins. Based on the recently implemented software (PAGAL for analyzing the hydrophobicity and amphipathicity properties of alpha helices (AH in proteins, we characterize the helices in the Ebola proteome. We demonstrate that AHs with characteristically unique features are involved in critical interactions with the host proteins. For example, the Ebola virus membrane fusion subunit, GP2, from the envelope glycoprotein ectodomain has an AH with a large hydrophobic moment. The neutralizing antibody (KZ52 derived from a human survivor of the 1995 Kikwit outbreak recognizes a protein epitope on this AH, emphasizing the critical nature of this secondary structure in the virulence of the Ebola virus. Our method ensures a comprehensive list of such `hotspots'. These helices probably are or can be the target of molecules designed to inhibit AH mediated protein-protein interactions. Further, by comparing the AHs in proteins of the related Marburg viruses, we are able to elicit subtle changes in the proteins that might render them ineffective to previously successful drugs. Such differences are difficult to identify by a simple sequence or structural alignment. Thus, analyzing AHs in the small Ebola proteome can aid rational design aimed at countering the `largest Ebola epidemic, affecting multiple countries in West Africa' (http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/outbreaks/2014-west-africa/index.html.

  15. Fontes de proteína e carboidratos para cães e gatos Protein and carbohydrate ingredients for dogs and cats

    OpenAIRE

    Aulus Cavalieri Carciofi

    2008-01-01

    O mercado de alimentos para cães e gatos absorve importante quantidade de proteínas e carboidratos, apesar disso poucos estudos existem sobre digestibilidade e energia metabolizável destes ingredientes. Arroz e milho têm sido considerados as melhores fontes de amido, mas demonstra-se que o sorgo é igualmente bem digerido por cães. Na interpretação dos estudos, deve-se distinguir os que empregaram farinhas ou amidos purificados dos que empregaram ingredientes moídos, como utilizado na fabricaç...

  16. Proteins and lipids of glycosomal membranes from Leishmania tarentolae and Trypanosoma brucei [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/x1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Colasante

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In kinetoplastid protists, several metabolic pathways, including glycolysis and purine salvage, are located in glycosomes, which are microbodies that are evolutionarily related to peroxisomes. With the exception of some potential transporters for fatty acids, and one member of the mitochondrial carrier protein family, proteins that transport metabolites across the glycosomal membrane have yet to be identified. We show here that the phosphatidylcholine species composition of Trypanosoma brucei glycosomal membranes resembles that of other cellular membranes, which means that glycosomal membranes are expected to be impermeable to small hydrophilic molecules unless transport is facilitated by specialized membrane proteins. Further, we identified 464 proteins in a glycosomal membrane preparation from Leishmania tarentolae. The proteins included approximately 40 glycosomal matrix proteins, and homologues of peroxisomal membrane proteins - PEX11, GIM5A and GIM5B; PXMP4, PEX2 and PEX16 - as well as the transporters GAT1 and GAT3. There were 27 other proteins that could not be unambiguously assigned to other compartments, and that had predicted trans-membrane domains. However, no clear candidates for transport of the major substrates and intermediates of energy metabolism were found. We suggest that, instead, these metabolites are transported via pores formed by the known glycosomal membrane proteins.

  17. Expression and secretion of the Giardia duodenalis variant surface protein 9B10A by transfected trophozoites causes damage to epithelial cell monolayers mediated by protease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Licona, Ariana; Solano-González, Eduardo; Fonseca-Liñán, Rocío; Bazán-Tejeda, Ma Luisa; Raúl Argüello-García; Bermúdez-Cruz, Rosa Ma; Ortega-Pierres, Guadalupe

    2017-08-01

    Giardia duodenalis is the protozoan parasite responsible for most cases of parasitic diarrhea worldwide. The pathogenic mechanisms of giardiasis have not yet been fully characterized. In this context parasite's excretory/secretory products have been related to the damage induced by the parasite on enterocytes. Among these is the Variable Surface Proteins (VSPs) family involved in antigenic variation and in the induction of protective response. In proteomic analyses carried out to identify the proteases with high molecular weight secreted by Giardia trophozoites during the initial phase of interaction with IEC-6 cell monolayers we identified the VSP9B10A protein. In silico bioinformatics analyses predicted a central region in residues 324-684 displaying the catalytic triad and the substrate binding pocket of cysteine proteases. The analysis of the effect of the VSP9B10A protein on epithelial cell monolayers using trophozoites that were transfected with a plasmid carrying the vsp9b10a gene sequence under the control of a constitutive promoter showed that transfected trophozoites expressing the VSP9B10A protein caused cytotoxic damages on IEC-6 and MDCK cell monolayers. This was characterized by loss of cell-cell contacts and cell detachment from the substrate while no damage was observed with trophozoites that did not express the VSP9B10A protein. The same cytotoxic effect was detected when IEC-6 cell monolayers were incubated only with supernatants from co-cultures of IEC-6 cell monolayers with VSP9B10A transfected trophozoites and this effect was not observed when transfected trophozoites were incubated with a monospecific polyclonal antibody anti-VSP9B10A previous to interaction with IEC-6 monolayers. These results demonstrate that the VSP9B10A protein secreted upon interaction with epithelial cells caused damage in these cells. Thus this protein might be considered as a conditional virulence factor candidate. To our knowledge this is the first report on the

  18. Perfil eletroforético de proteínas séricas do sangue do cordão umbilical de cães Electrophoretic profile of serum proteins from the umbilical chord blood of dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Vieira Godoy

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available A importância do estudo do sangue do cordão umbilical (SCU tem sido verificada pela presença de células-tronco hematopoéticas no SCU humano. O modelo experimental em cão tem propiciado informações importantes nos transplantes em humanos. Entretanto, apesar da importância do SCU e do modelo experimental em cães, não existem estudos sobre a eletroforese de proteínas séricas do cordão umbilical canino. No presente protocolo experimental, foi feita a colheita de SCU de 20 neonatos caninos, o qual foi utilizado para o fracionamento eletroforético de suas proteínas. Os valores médios absolutos obtidos para proteínas séricas totais, albumina, alfa, beta e gamaglobulinas no sangue do cordão umbilical de cães ao nascimento foram 3,09±0,59; 1,51±0,38; 0,87±0,17; 0,68±0,12 e 0,03±0,01, respectivamente. Todos os resultados apresentaram-se abaixo dos níveis reportados para animais adultos, devido à passagem das proteínas e suas frações ocorrerem principalmente através do colostro e pela imaturidade hepática. Em todos os traçados eletroforéticos do SCU de cães, foi observada uma pequena curva entre alfaglobulina 2 e betaglobulina 1, não relatada no soro de cães adultos. Portanto, neste experimento, foram observadas diferenças quantitativas no traçado eletroforético das proteínas séricas do SCU de cães, ao nascimento, diferindo-os, neste particular, de cães em diferentes fases da vida pós-colostral.The importance of umbilical chord blood (UCB study has been verified by the presence of hematopoietic stem cells in human UCB. The use of dogs as experimental model has provided usefull information for transplants in humans. However, despite the importance of UCB and dogs as experimental model, there are no studies concerning to the serum protein electrophoresis of the canine UCB. In this assay, UCB from 20 newborn dogs were collected, which was used for protein electrophoretic fractioning. The serum protein absolute

  19. [Effect of Trichinella spiralis and its worm-derived proteins on CLP-induced sepsis in mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui-Hui; He, Wen-Xin; Song, Di; Wu, Qi; Li, Nan; Wan, Yong-Kun; Zhang, Hui; Qiu, Da-Peng; Chu, Liang; Wang, Li-Yuan; Yang, Xiao-di; Fang, Qiang

    2016-08-20

    To observe the effect of Trichinella spiralis and its worm-derived proteins on cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis in mice. Eighty male BALB/c mice were randomly divided into sham-operated group, CLP group, Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae (ML) pre-infection group (ML+CLP group), soluble muscle larvae proteins (SMP) treatment group (SMP+CLP group) and excretory-secretory proteins (MES) treatment group (MES+CLP group). In ML+CLP group, the mice were orally infected with 300 Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae at 28 days before CLP and those in the other groups were intraperitioneally injected with PBS or SMP (25 µg/mice) or MES (25µg/mice) 30 min after CLP. The general condition and 72-h survival after CLP of the mice were observed. The levels of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr), TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, IL-10 and TGF-β were measured at 12 h after the operation, and the pathological changes of the liver and kidney were observed. s Compared with the sham-operated mice, the mice in CLP group showed decreased 72-h survival, obviously increased ALT, AST, BUN, Cr, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, IL-10, and TGF-β with hepatic cords disorder, hepatocytes swelling, glomerulus shrinkage, and renal tubular cell edema. Compared with CLP group, the mice in ML+CLP group showed lowered levels of ALT, AST, Cr, TNF-α and IL-1β and increased levels of IL-10 and TGF-β; in SMP+CLP group, the levels of ALT, AST, Cr, TNF-α and IL-1β were decreased and TGF-β increased. In MES+CLP group, the mice showed obviously increased 72-h survival with lowered levels of ALT, AST, BUN, Cr, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β, increased levels of IL-10 and TGF-β, and alleviated liver and kidney damages. Trichinella spiralis and its worm-derived proteins can decrease the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and increase immunomodulatory cytokines, and MES has more potent effect to reduce structural and functional damages of the liver

  20. Ranking the quality of protein structure models using sidechain based network properties [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/2eu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soma Ghosh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Determining the correct structure of a protein given its sequence still remains an arduous task with many researchers working towards this goal. Most structure prediction methodologies result in the generation of a large number of probable candidates with the final challenge being to select the best amongst these. In this work, we have used Protein Structure Networks of native and modeled proteins in combination with Support Vector Machines to estimate the quality of a protein structure model and finally to provide ranks for these models. Model ranking is performed using regression analysis and helps in model selection from a group of many similar and good quality structures. Our results show that structures with a rank greater than 16 exhibit native protein-like properties while those below 10 are non-native like. The tool is also made available as a web-server (http://vishgraph.mbu.iisc.ernet.in/GraProStr/native_non_native_ranking.html, where, 5 modelled structures can be evaluated at a given time.

  1. The electrostatic profile of consecutive Cβ atoms applied to protein structure quality assessment [v3; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/4dq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Chakraborty

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The structure of a protein provides insight into its physiological interactions with other components of the cellular soup. Methods that predict putative structures from sequences typically yield multiple, closely-ranked possibilities. A critical component in the process is the model quality assessing program (MQAP, which selects the best candidate from this pool of structures. Here, we present a novel MQAP based on the physical properties of sidechain atoms. We propose a method for assessing the quality of protein structures based on the electrostatic potential difference (EPD of Cβ atoms in consecutive residues. We demonstrate that the EPDs of Cβ atoms on consecutive residues provide unique signatures of the amino acid types. The EPD of Cβ atoms are learnt from a set of 1000 non-homologous protein structures with a resolution cuto of 1.6 Å obtained from the PISCES database. Based on the Boltzmann hypothesis that lower energy conformations are proportionately sampled more, and on Annsen's thermodynamic hypothesis that the native structure of a protein is the minimum free energy state, we hypothesize that the deviation of observed EPD values from the mean values obtained in the learning phase is minimized in the native structure. We achieved an average specificity of 0.91, 0.94 and 0.93 on hg_structal, 4state_reduced and ig_structal decoy sets, respectively, taken from the Decoys `R' Us database. The source code and manual is made available at https://github.com/sanchak/mqap and permanently available on 10.5281/zenodo.7134.

  2. The electrostatic profile of consecutive Cβ atoms applied to protein structure quality assessment [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/2cf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Chakraborty

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The structure of a protein provides insight into its physiological interactions with other components of the cellular soup. Methods that predict putative structures from sequences typically yield multiple, closely-ranked possibilities. A critical component in the process is the model quality assessing program (MQAP, which selects the best candidate from this pool of structures. Here, we present a novel MQAP based on the physical properties of sidechain atoms. We propose a method for assessing the quality of protein structures based on the electrostatic potential difference (EPD of Cβ atoms in consecutive residues. We demonstrate that the EPDs of Cβ atoms on consecutive residues provide unique signatures of the amino acid types. The EPD of Cβ atoms are learnt from a set of 1000 non-homologous protein structures with a resolution cuto of 1.6 Å obtained from the PISCES database. Based on the Boltzmann hypothesis that lower energy conformations are proportionately sampled more, and on Annsen's thermodynamic hypothesis that the native structure of a protein is the minimum free energy state, we hypothesize that the deviation of observed EPD values from the mean values obtained in the learning phase is minimized in the native structure. We achieved an average specificity of 0.91, 0.94 and 0.93 on hg_structal, 4state_reduced and ig_structal decoy sets, respectively, taken from the Decoys `R' Us database. The source code and manual is made available at https://github.com/sanchak/mqap and permanently available on 10.5281/zenodo.7134.

  3. Protein structure quality assessment based on the distance profiles of consecutive backbone Cα atoms [v3; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/2kg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Chakraborty

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Predicting the three dimensional native state structure of a protein from its primary sequence is an unsolved grand challenge in molecular biology. Two main computational approaches have evolved to obtain the structure from the protein sequence - ab initio/de novo methods and template-based modeling - both of which typically generate multiple possible native state structures. Model quality assessment programs (MQAP validate these predicted structures in order to identify the correct native state structure. Here, we propose a MQAP for assessing the quality of protein structures based on the distances of consecutive Cα atoms. We hypothesize that the root-mean-square deviation of the distance of consecutive Cα (RDCC atoms from the ideal value of 3.8 Å, derived from a statistical analysis of high quality protein structures (top100H database, is minimized in native structures. Based on tests with the top100H set, we propose a RDCC cutoff value of 0.012 Å, above which a structure can be filtered out as a non-native structure. We applied the RDCC discriminator on decoy sets from the Decoys 'R' Us database to show that the native structures in all decoy sets tested have RDCC below the 0.012 Å cutoff. While most decoy sets were either indistinguishable using this discriminator or had very few violations, all the decoy structures in the fisa decoy set were discriminated by applying the RDCC criterion. This highlights the physical non-viability of the fisa decoy set, and possible issues in benchmarking other methods using this set. The source code and manual is made available at https://github.com/sanchak/mqap and permanently available on 10.5281/zenodo.7134.

  4. Protein structure quality assessment based on the distance profiles of consecutive backbone Cα atoms [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/1tg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Chakraborty

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Predicting the three dimensional native state structure of a protein from its primary sequence is an unsolved grand challenge in molecular biology. Two main computational approaches have evolved to obtain the structure from the protein sequence - ab initio/de novo methods and template-based modeling - both of which typically generate multiple possible native state structures. Model quality assessment programs (MQAP validate these predicted structures in order to identify the correct native state structure. Here, we propose a MQAP for assessing the quality of protein structures based on the distances of consecutive Cα atoms. We hypothesize that the root-mean-square deviation of the distance of consecutive Cα (RDCC atoms from the ideal value of 3.8 Å, derived from a statistical analysis of high quality protein structures (top100H database, is minimized in native structures. Based on tests with the top100H set, we propose a RDCC cutoff value of 0.012 Å, above which a structure can be filtered out as a non-native structure. We applied the RDCC discriminator on decoy sets from the Decoys 'R' Us database to show that the native structures in all decoy sets tested have RDCC below the 0.012 Å cutoff. While most decoy sets were either indistinguishable using this discriminator or had very few violations, all the decoy structures in the fisa decoy set were discriminated by applying the RDCC criterion. This highlights the physical non-viability of the fisa decoy set, and possible issues in benchmarking other methods using this set. The source code and manual is made available at https://github.com/sanchak/mqap and permanently available on 10.5281/zenodo.7134.

  5. Metodologias para determinação da digestibilidade de dietas contendo fontes proteicas vegetal ou animal em cães Methodology for determination of digestibility of diets containing vegetable or animal protein sources in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Pedro Zanatta

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar diferentes metodologias de determinação da digestibilidade em cães, alimentados com duas dietas contendo fontes proteicas animal (farinha de vísceras de aves - FVA e vegetal (farelo de soja - FS. As metodologias avaliadas foram: colheita total de fezes (CTF e os indicadores cinza insolúvel em ácido (CIA, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA e fibra bruta (FB. Foram utilizados 8 cães adultos, em delineamento Cross over, em parcela subdividida no tempo (parcela: fontes proteicas; e subparcela: metodologias de digestibilidade. O período experimental foi constituído por cinco dias de adaptação, com cinco dias de colheita total de fezes. A dieta contendo FS apresentou maior CDA da PB, enquanto a dieta contendo FVA apresentou maior CDA dos demais nutrientes e energia metabolizável (EM. Os CDA e EM determinados pela CTF e pelos indicadores não diferiram entre si, podendo ser determinados pelos indicadores FB, FDA e CIA, independentemente da fonte proteica da dieta.The objective was to evaluate different methods of measuring digestibility in dogs fed two diets containing animal (poultry by products - PBP and vegetable (soybean meal - SBM protein sources. The methods evaluated were: total fecal collection (TFC and indicators: acid insoluble ash (AIA, acid detergent fiber (ADF and crude fiber (CF. Eight dogs were distributed in Cross Over in split plots (plot: sources of protein; subplot: methods for digestibility, fed by five days of adaptation and five days of total fecal collection. The diet containing SBM had a higher ADC of CP, while the diet containing POM showed higher ADC of all nutrients and metabolizable energy (ME. The ADC and ME determined by the TFC and the indicators did not differ. Thus, the ADC of diets in dogs can be determined by TFC and CF, ADF and AIA indicators, regardless of source of dietary protein.

  6. DAR ES SALAAM, TANZANIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Othman-Specialion of Cadmium, Copper , Lead and Zinc in Msimbazi river ... Samples of water were taken from river Msimbazi that runs through the city of Dar es ... immediately subjected to laboratory analysis and when necessary stored in a.

  7. Diatomées

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact environnemental et évaluation de la qualité des eaux par des méthodes chimiques et biologiques « Diatomées » ... possèdent un caractère alcaliphyle prononcé avec une abondance des espèces résistantes à la pollution organique. Mots clés : Diatomées, qualité de l'eau, bio-indicateur, IDL, IPO, Merja Fouarat.

  8. A preliminary proteomic characterisation of extracellular vesicles released by the ovine parasitic nematode, Teladorsagia circumcincta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzelos, Thomas; Matthews, Jacqueline B; Buck, Amy H; Simbari, Fabio; Frew, David; Inglis, Neil F; McLean, Kevin; Nisbet, Alasdair J; Whitelaw, C Bruce A; Knox, David P; McNeilly, Tom N

    2016-05-15

    Teladorsagia circumcincta is a major cause of ovine parasitic gastroenteritis in temperate climatic regions. The development of high levels of anthelmintic resistance in this nematode species challenges its future control. Recent research indicates that many parasite species release extracellular vesicles into their environment, many of which have been classified as endocytic in origin, termed exosomes. These vesicles are considered to play important roles in the intercellular communication between parasites and their hosts, and thus represent potentially useful targets for novel control strategies. Here, we demonstrate that exosome-like extracellular vesicles can be isolated from excretory-secretory (ES) products released by T. circumcincta fourth stage larvae (Tci-L4ES). Furthermore, we perform a comparative proteomic analysis of vesicle-enriched and vesicle-free Tci-L4ES. Approximately 73% of the proteins identified in the vesicle-enriched fraction were unique to this fraction, whilst the remaining 27% were present in both vesicle-enriched and vesicle-free fraction. These unique proteins included structural proteins, nuclear proteins, metabolic proteins, proteolytic enzymes and activation-associated secreted proteins. Finally, we demonstrate that molecules present within the vesicles-enriched material are targets of the IgA and IgG response in T. circumcincta infected sheep, and could potentially represent useful targets for future vaccine intervention studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. NADAR ES LA CLAVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANUEL RUIZ C.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Claro, la clave es nadar, nadar para crecer y trascender.  Pues, es el agua, el fluido mágico en el cual se dinamiza  nuestro cuerpo en forma sensorial, y en donde el espíritu  se recrea, mientras la mente se complace al comprender,  que es la natación, la que compromete al ser en su totalidad  y lo funde en una perfecta unidad funcional;  cuerpo y mente, soma y psiquis, sensaciones y sentimientos.

  10. Identification of cDNA clones expressing immunodiagnostic antigens from Trichinella spiralis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarlenga, D.; Gamble, H.R.

    1987-05-01

    A cDNA expression library was built in lambda gt11 phage using poly A mRNA isolated from Trichinella spiralis muscle stage larvae. This library was screened with rabbit antibodies to parasite excretory-secretory (ES) products and greater than 180 clones were isolated. Thirteen clones producing highly immunogenic protein antigens were plaque purified and rescreened with pig antisera to T.spiralis, Trichuris suis or Ascaris suum to identify clones producing epitopes specific to T.spiralis ES products, only. Two clones, TsAc-2 and TsAc-8, which displayed strong interactions with pig antisera to T. spiralis were lysogenized in E. coli Y1089 and the protein extracted. Western blots of the crude fusion proteins revealed molecular weights of 133 kD and 129 kD, respectively. Northern blot analysis of total RNA with TSP labelled cDNA:lambda gt11 probes indicated single RNA transcripts for each clone with molecular sizes corresponding to 800-850 nucleotides. dscDNA inserts were estimated by southern blot analysis to be 500 bp and 340 bp, respectively, with no cross-hybridization observed between the cloned sequences. Dot blots using pig sera to screen crude fusion protein preparations, total bacterial protein (negative controls) and crude worm extract or ES products from T.spiralis, T.suis and A.suum (positive controls) corroborated the specificity and sensitivity of these clones as potential diagnostic antigens for swine trichinellosis.

  11. R-ES-ONANCEI

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Tribute. H R Krishnamurthy. 70 John Maynard Smith (1920-2004). NOne of the last Grand Evolutionary Theorists of the 20th. Century'". Vidyanand Nanjundiah. BOOK REVIEWS. 93 Indian Mathematics and Astronomy - Some. Landmarks. B Sury. -6--------------------------~---------R-ES-O-N-A-N-C-E-I--N-ov-e-m-be-r-2-o--o5 ...

  12. COSIMA-ES-PORT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Michael Bruhn; Leleur, Steen

    2007-01-01

    -ES-PORT model showed some promising perspectives in the handling of the three pre-feasibility studies. Parameters such as cargo handling and ship related issues could with advantage be implemented in the decision model and forecasted similarly to road infrastructure impacts. Furthermore, the development...

  13. Es imposible no comunicar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Costa y Solá-Segalés

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available La confusión entre "comunicar" y "significar" proviene del hecho de que la comunicación transporta significados, pero también se producen significados fuera del proceso de comunicación. Es lo que llamamos "semiosis no comunicativa".

  14. PPI layouts: BioJS components for the display of Protein-Protein Interactions [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/2u5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo A. Salazar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Summary: We present two web-based components for the display of Protein-Protein Interaction networks using different self-organizing layout methods: force-directed and circular. These components conform to the BioJS standard and can be rendered in an HTML5-compliant browser without the need for third-party plugins. We provide examples of interaction networks and how the components can be used to visualize them, and refer to a more complex tool that uses these components. Availability: http://github.com/biojs/biojs; http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.7753

  15. Resolving the paradox for protein aggregation diseases: a common mechanism for aggregated proteins to initially attack membranes without needing aggregates [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/221

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haina Qin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Paradoxically, aggregation of specific proteins is characteristic of many human diseases and aging, yet aggregates have been found to be unnecessary for initiating pathogenesis. Here we determined the NMR topology and dynamics of a helical mutant in a membrane environment transformed from the 125-residue cytosolic all-β MSP by the ALS-causing P56S mutation. Unexpectedly, despite its low hydrophobicity, the P56S major sperm protein (MSP domain becomes largely embedded in the membrane environment with high backbone rigidity. Furthermore it is composed of five helices with amphiphilicity comparable to those of the partly-soluble membrane toxin mellitin and α-synuclein causing Parkinson's disease. Consequently, the mechanism underlying this chameleon transformation becomes clear: by disrupting the specific tertiary interaction network stabilizing the native all-β MSP fold to release previously-locked amphiphilic segments, the P56S mutation acts to convert the classic MSP fold into a membrane-active protein that is fundamentally indistinguishable from mellitin and α-synuclein which are disordered in aqueous solution but spontaneously partition into membrane interfaces driven by hydrogen-bond energetics gained from forming α-helix in the membrane environments. As segments with high amphiphilicity exist in all proteins, our study successfully resolves the paradox by deciphering that the proteins with a higher tendency to aggregate have a stronger potential to partition into membranes through the same mechanism as α-synuclein to initially attack membranes to trigger pathogenesis without needing aggregates. This might represent the common first step for various kinds of aggregated proteins to trigger familiar, sporadic and aging diseases. Therefore the homeostasis of aggregated proteins in vivo is the central factor responsible for a variety of human diseases including aging. The number and degree of the membrane attacks by aggregated proteins may

  16. The Human dsRNA binding protein PACT is unable to functionally substitute for the Drosophila dsRNA binding protein R2D2 [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/201

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin K Dickerman

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The primary function of the dsRNA binding protein (dsRBP PACT/RAX is to activate the dsRNA dependent protein kinase PKR in response to stress signals.  Additionally, it has been identified as a component of the small RNA processing pathway.  A role for PACT/RAX in this pathway represents an important interplay between two modes of post-transcriptional gene regulation.  The function of PACT/RAX in this context is poorly understood.  Thus, additional models are required to clarify the mechanism by which PACT/RAX functions.  In this study, Drosophila melanogaster was employed to identify functionally orthologous dsRNA-binding proteins.  Transgenic Drosophila expressing human PACT were generated to determine whether PACT is capable of functionally substituting for the Drosophila dsRBP R2D2, which has a well-defined role in small RNA biogenesis.  Results presented here indicate that PACT is unable to substitute for R2D2 at the whole organism level.

  17. EL ORO ES TRISTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose María Corella Hurtado

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Esas narraciones eran las mismas cantaletas de mis abuelos, de mis tíos, de los negros y los mineros, contadas bajo las torrenciales noches de lluvia o bajo los indignos soles. Mi madre también relataba de memoria, como una cotorra y con la misma exactitud mientras realizaba los oficios domésticos, bien sean los de la barraca del puerto de Barbacoas o los de la casa de Pasto. Los barbacoanos de esa lejana generación, debieron soportar los recuerdos nefastos de la historia enquistada con dolor porque crecieron coreando episodios con la misma y sorprendente precisión. Era, es y será por siempre, una carcoma dolorosa y perseverante, aquello de la draga. Es que lo sucedido en Barbacoas no debe olvidarse y menos repetirse. Esos sucesos me comprometían de alguna manera; vividos unos en carne propia y a oídas otros que mezclaban el dolor que causó a los paisanos la pobreza en que quedaron.

  18. LA PROTEÍNA PTHB DE Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. Manihotis ES AUTOACTIVA EN ENSAYOS DE DOBLE HÍBRIDO The PthB Protein from Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. Manihotis is an Autoactive in Yeast Two-Hybrid Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIANA GIL

    Full Text Available La bacteriosis vascular de yuca producida por la bacteria Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis (Xam es una enfermedad limitante para la producción de yuca. Dentro de los primeros factores de patogenicidad identificados en esta bacteria se encuentra el gen PthB. La proteína PthB pertenece a la familia de efectores PthA/AvrBs3, que se caracterizan por presentar dominios NLS (Nuclear Localization Signal y un dominio AAD (Acidic Activation Domain, lo cual sugiere que estas proteínas actúan como factores de transcripción. La identificación de las proteínas de yuca que interactúan con PthB permitiría dar luces sobre la función de esta proteína en la patogenicidad de esta bacteria. En este trabajo se clonó PthB en una fusión traduccional con el BD (Binding Domain del factor de transcripción GAL4. Después de transformar este constructo en una cepa de levadura, se observó autoactivación de los genes reporteros, incluso a concentraciones altas de 3-AT. La eliminación del primer, segundo o de los dos NLS y del AAD no eliminaron la capacidad de autoactivación de los genes reporteros mediada por PthB. Estos resultados indican la imposibilidad de su utilización en un tamizaje de una librería de ADNc de yuca para identificar las proteínas que interactúan con PthB.Cassava bacterial blight disease is caused by the gram-negative bacteria Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis (Xam, and constitutes one of the most important constraints for cassava production. One of the first determinants of pathogenicity identified in this bacterium is the PthB gene. The PthB protein belongs to the PthA/AvrBs3 family, characterized by the presence of Nuclear Localization Signal (NLS and Acidic Activation (AAD domains, suggesting that these proteins are transcription factors. The identification of cassava proteins interacting with PthB could give insights about the function of this protein in the pathogenicity of this bacterium. In this work we cloned PthB in

  19. TEOR DE PROTEÍNA NO GRÃO EM POPULAÇÕES DE MILHO DE ALTA QUALIDADE PROTÉICA E SEUS CRUZAMENTOS KERNEL PROTEIN CONTENT IN QUALITY PROTEIN MAIZE POPULATIONS AND THEIR CROSSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyla de Oliveira Ribeiro

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O milho é um alimento de alto valor energético e de baixo valor protéico. Além disso, apresenta uma carência em aminoácidos essenciais como lisina e triptofano. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar populações de milho de alta qualidade protéica (QPM e seus cruzamentos, quanto ao teor de proteína total no grão, determinando-se a heterose e seus componentes, como subsídio para programas de melhoramento genético. As análises foram executadas em 96 híbridos, provenientes de oito populações de grãos dentados e treze de grãos duros, incluindo os genitores, em um esquema dialélico parcial intergrupos. A proteína total em amostras de grãos foi determinada utilizando-se o método de Kjeldahl. Os resultados da análise de variância apresentaram significância para todos os efeitos do modelo, revelando heterogeneidade entre e dentro dos grupos, além da existência de heterose. Com relação ao teor de proteína total, a média do grupo dentado foi de 9,67 g/100g e a do grupo duro, de 10,51 g/100g, enquanto nas combinações híbridas a média foi de 11,86 g/100g. A média geral, envolvendo todos os genitores e cruzamentos, foi de 11,61 g/100g. A heterose média correspondeu a 17,58%, revelando uma superioridade média dos híbridos em relação aos genitores. Os melhores genitores quanto à capacidade geral de combinação foram CMS 454, CMS 474 e ZQP 103 (dentados e o CMS 453, BR 473, CMS 463, CMS 458 e ZQP 102 (duros. Tais genótipos são os potencialmente indicados para formação de compostos QPM com alto teor de proteína.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Zea mays; proteína; qualidade nutricional; QPM; dialelo.

    Corn is employed in animal feed as an energy source, but as a protein source it is deficient in lysine and triptophan. Thus, the present study evaluated open pollinated populations of

  20. SWEET SECRETS OF A THERAPEUTIC WORM: MASS SPECTROMETRIC N-GLYCOMIC ANALYSIS OF TRICHURIS SUIS

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Iain B. H.; Paschinger, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    Trichuris suis, a nematode parasite of pigs, has attracted attention as its eggs have been administered to human patients as a potential therapy for inflammatory diseases. However, the immunomodulatory factors remain molecularly uncharacterised, but in vitro studies suggest that glycans on the parasite excretory/secretory proteins may have a role. Using an off-line LC-MS approach in combination with chemical and enzymatic treatments, we have examined the N-linked oligosaccharides of T. suis. ...

  1. y la perdedora es...

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Ramos Escobedo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo aborda la relación entre la aplicación de la ley en el caso del divorcio por mutuo consentimiento, las diferencias de género y la justicia para la mujer de un sector popular de Guadalajara, Jalisco, México. Se describen testimonios de mujeres, abogados y jueces que muestran que en términos económicos y materiales la aplicación de la ley no necesariamente significa justicia para la mujer. Los testimonios presentados corresponden a la experiencia de mujeres, así como a abogados y jueces encargados de llevar los casos de divorcio. El artículo es producto del proyecto general acerca del estudio de la toma de decisiones en el divorcio.

  2. El Futuro es Hoy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Latiff Conde

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available

    En ninguna otra época de la historia como en la nuestra se ha producido una transición tan rápida hacia el futuro, en el campo de la medicina.

    Lo que había sido una centuria de evolución desde la era Industrial a la era de la Informática, en la pasada década se ha convertido en una revolución.

    La cirugía laparoscopica que ha constituído el despertar a la edad de la informática como la tecnología lider es considerada ahora un standard en la práctica médica. En la actualidad tecnologias más avanzadas prometen mayores progresos en la medicina.

    La mayor revolución médica ocurrió en la cirugía en las postrimerias del siglo diecinueve cuando algunos gigantes de la medicina todavía caminaban sobre la tierra. Estos visionarios comprendieron la magnitud del cambio y dieron nacimiento a la nueva disciplina de la cirugía. Entre ellos estaban Bilroth, Lister, Virchow y Morton.

    Nunca trabajaron juntos, pero la integración espontánea de sus investigaciones y sus habilidades clínicas hicieron posible la nueva cirugía. Fue la convergencia de sus visiones y sus tecnologias las que dieron un vuelco a la cirugía. Bilroth aportó nuevas técnicas y nuevos instrumentos Lister aportó la asepsia, Virchow la patología y Morton la anestesia.

    Los antiguos mitos y muchos hechos empiricos hicieron creer por miles de años en la inviolabilidad del cuerpo humano. Las herramientas científicas de la Era Industrial convirtieron en realidad lo imposible y la ciencia dio nacimiento a la moderna cirugía. En un corto periodo de tiempo se establecieron los fundamentos de una cirugía que permitiría a las siguientes generaciones liderar nuevos avances y tecnologias.

    Nada estremeció más los fundamentos de la medicina como esta explosión de la cirugía. Comprender el shock, la cirugía cardiaca y coronaria, los trasplantes, tuvieron un enorme impacto que conmocionó la medicina. Es obvio que los cambios producidos

  3. R-ES-ONANCEI

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    clearance of pathogens and to modulate inflammatory responses. SP-Aand SP-D have recently been identified as participants of host defense mechanism against infection and inflammation [3]. Tijese are the members of collectin protein family, which have an N- terminal collagen-like region and a C-terminal lectin domain ...

  4. El sedentarismo es...

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Branco Fraga

    Full Text Available Resumen En este artículo se hizo un análisis crítico del sentido de sedentarismo/sedentario que circula en la literatura pertinente al campo de la actividad física y la salud. Destaca dos "familias" distintas de sedentarios surgidas en dos momentos históricos específicos: el sedentario "cooperiano", oriundo de los preceptos de la aptitud física difundidos en Brasil al principio de los años 1970 por Kenneth Cooper; el sedentario "agitoniano", proveniente de las recomendaciones de actividad física moderada de mediados de los años 1990, propagadas de modo más evidente en Brasil por el programa Agita São Paulo. Entre tantas acepciones posibles, prevalece la noción de que el sedentarismo es agente catalizador de muchas características "malas", una plaga silenciosa, que lentamente envenena el cuerpo y debilita el alma.

  5. Purifikasi Imunoglobulin Yolk Pada Ayam yang Divaksin terhadap Ekskretori/Sekretori Stadium L3 Ascaridia galli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darmawi Darmawi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Purification yolk immunoglobulin of hens vaccinated against excretory/secretory Ascaridia galli L3 larvae stage ABSTRACT. The main immunoglobulin fraction of poultry is called IgY, in order to distinguish it from the mammalian IgG. This article focus on purification yolk immunoglobulin of hens vaccinated against excretory/secretory Ascaridia galli larvae to obtained purity IgY. Active vaccinations with excretory/secretory antigen were applied intra muscularly of chickens with an initial dose of 80 μg. The vaccinations were repeated three times with dose of each 60 μg with an interval of one week. The first vaccinations were excretory/secretory antigen mixed with Fruend Adjuvant Complete and subsequently mixed with Freund Adjuvant Incomplete. Antibody response in yolk was detected at weekly intervals by agar gel precipitation test (AGPT. The chicken’s eggs were collected from 49 day after vaccinations. IgY was extracted from egg yolks by means of ammonium sulphate and purified using fast performance liquid chromatography (FPLC. The purity of anti-ekscretory/secretory IgY protein was determined by Bradford method (λ = 280 nm. The result showed that antibody in yolk was begun detect with AGPT at four weeks after vaccination. IgY concentration after purification was 0,875 ± 0.251 mg/ml. This study has shown that the product released in vitro by L3 stage A. galli is capable of stimulating humoral immunity by mean of producing antibody through yolk as biologic manufacturer could be a good choice.

  6. The Anisakis simplex Ani s 7 major allergen as an indicator of true Anisakis infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anadón, A M; Romarís, F; Escalante, M; Rodríguez, E; Gárate, T; Cuéllar, C; Ubeira, F M

    2009-01-01

    Ani s 7 is currently the most important excretory/secretory (ES) Anisakis simplex allergen, as it is the only one recognized by 100% of infected patients. The allergenicity of this molecule is due mainly to the presence of a novel CX17–25CX9–22CX8CX6 tandem repeat motif not seen in any previously reported protein. In this study we used this allergen as a model to investigate how ES allergens are recognized during Anisakis infections, and the usefulness of a recombinant fragment of Ani s 7 allergen (t-Ani s 7) as a marker of true Anisakis infections. The possible antigenic relationship between native Ani s 7 (nAni s 7) from Anisakis and Pseudoterranova decipensantigens was also investigated. Our results demonstrate that nAni s 7 is secreted and recognized by the immune system of rats only when the larvae are alive (i.e. during the acute phase of infection), and that this molecule is not present in, or is antigenically different from, Pseudoterranova allergens. The t-Ani s 7 polypeptide is a useful target for differentiating immunoglobulin E antibodies induced by true Anisakis infections from those induced by other antigens that may cross-react with Anisakis allergens, including P. decipiens. The results also support the hypothesis that the Ani s 7 major allergen does not participate in maintaining the antigenic stimulus during chronic infections. PMID:19438600

  7. Efficacy of Dot-ELISA using different antigens in detecting anti-schistosome antibodies among bovines in field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmanan, Bindu; Devada, K; Joseph, Siju; Binu, M B; Kuttan, Karthik

    2016-03-01

    Schistosomosis has been recognised as one of the major parasitic diseases of livestock and human beings. Schistosoma spindale is the major cause of visceral schistosomosis among bovines of Kerala State. Besides pathology in animals, it has been long known that cercariae of S. spindale are a common cause of dermatitis in human beings in Asia. However, detection of this disease based on coprology has underestimated the prevalence of this economically important disease among cattle of the State. An efficient diagnostic tool providing unequivocal evidence of infection in living animals is perhaps, the key to formulate and deliver control measures to the target population. It is also crucial for an enhanced understanding of parasite epidemiology. The utility of excretory-secretory proteins as diagnostic and vaccine candidates for schistosomosis has been a focus of medical research since long. There exists a paucity of information with regard to analysis of ES proteins of S. spindale and their incorporation to develop sensitive and specific serodiagnostic tool. Hence a study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of Dot-ELISA incorporating different antigens of S. spindale and to validate the test under field conditions.

  8. Why do proteins aggregate? “Intrinsically insoluble proteins” and “dark mediators” revealed by studies on “insoluble proteins” solubilized in pure water [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/z0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxing Song

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2008, I reviewed and proposed a model for our discovery in 2005 that unrefoldable and insoluble proteins could in fact be solubilized in unsalted water. Since then, this discovery has offered us and other groups a powerful tool to characterize insoluble proteins, and we have further addressed several fundamental and disease-relevant issues associated with this discovery. Here I review these results, which are conceptualized into several novel scenarios. 1 Unlike 'misfolded proteins', which still retain the capacity to fold into well-defined structures but are misled to 'off-pathway' aggregation, unrefoldable and insoluble proteins completely lack this ability and will unavoidably aggregate in vivo with ~150 mM ions, thus designated as 'intrinsically insoluble proteins (IIPs' here. IIPs may largely account for the 'wastefully synthesized' DRiPs identified in human cells. 2 The fact that IIPs including membrane proteins are all soluble in unsalted water, but get aggregated upon being exposed to ions, logically suggests that ions existing in the background play a central role in mediating protein aggregation, thus acting as 'dark mediators'. Our study with 14 salts confirms that IIPs lack the capacity to fold into any well-defined structures. We uncover that salts modulate protein dynamics and anions bind proteins with high selectivity and affinity, which is surprisingly masked by pre-existing ions. Accordingly, I modified my previous model. 3 Insoluble proteins interact with lipids to different degrees. Remarkably, an ALS-causing P56S mutation transforms the β-sandwich MSP domain into a helical integral membrane protein. Consequently, the number of membrane-interacting proteins might be much larger than currently recognized. To attack biological membranes may represent a common mechanism by which aggregated proteins initiate human diseases. 4 Our discovery also implies a solution to the 'chicken-and-egg paradox' for the origin of primitive

  9. Extracellular vesicles secreted by Schistosoma mansoni contain protein vaccine candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotillo, Javier; Pearson, Mark; Potriquet, Jeremy; Becker, Luke; Pickering, Darren; Mulvenna, Jason; Loukas, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Herein we show for the first time that Schistosoma mansoni adult worms secrete exosome-like extracellular vesicles ranging from 50 to 130nm in size. Extracellular vesicles were collected from the excretory/secretory products of cultured adult flukes and purified by Optiprep density gradient, resulting in highly pure extracellular vesicle preparations as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and Nanosight tracking analysis. Extracellular vesicle proteomic analysis showed numerous known vaccine candidates, potential virulence factors and molecules implicated in feeding. These findings provide new avenues for the exploration of host-schistosome interactions and offer a potential mechanism by which some vaccine antigens exert their protective efficacy. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Searching for a placental derived ES-62-like molecule to explain rheumatoid arthritis amelioration in pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Craig D. Scoville; Devon Rasmussen

    2014-01-01

    The majority of women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) experience disease amelioration during pregnancy for unclear reasons. One possible explanation pursued and described here is whether the placenta produces a protein similar to the immunomodulating protein, ES-62, excreted by filarial nematodes. This protein has also been shown to reduce disease activity in animal models of RA. Eleven human placentas were prepared and a polyclonal anti-ES-62 antiserum was used to identify if any ES-62-like m...

  11. es

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Bernal Valls

    Full Text Available El uso de ejercicios en el tratamiento de pacientes con déficit vestibular crónico está incrementándose de forma notable, lo que evidencia que se trata de un procedimiento que resulta beneficioso para este tipo de pacientes. Los buenos resultados que se obtienen sugieren que los ejercicios vestibulares dan lugar a una estabilidad postural y a una disminución de la sensación de desequilibrio.

  12. Sepúlveda es arte

    OpenAIRE

    García Poza, Almudena

    2017-01-01

    Uno de los principales contenidos en la formación y educación de los niños, es el conocimiento de su pasado más cercano. Partiendo de esta idea fundamental es casi una exigencia como docentes, ofrecer a los alumnos los contenidos y las herramientas necesarias para que conozcan su pasado histórico y las manifestaciones artísticas que expresaron su cultura. Conocer, comprender y valorar nuestro pasado va a convertir la práctica educativa en un aprendizaje empírico donde los conocimientos tengan...

  13. Antigen recognition by IgG4 antibodies in human trichinellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinelli E.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The antibody isotype response to Trichinella spiralis excretory/secretory (ES products of muscle larva was examined using sera from patients with confirmed trichinellosis. Using Western blots we identify components of the ES antigen that are recognized by IgM and IgG antibodies. A 45 kDa component was strongly recognized by different antibody classes and subclasses. We observed a 45 kDa-specific lgG4 response that was detected exclusively using sera of patients with trichinellosis and not of patients with echinococcosis, filariasis, cysticercosis, ascariasis, strongyloidiasis or toxocariasis. These results are relevant for the diagnosis of human trichinellosis.

  14. Los manatíes

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    Los manatíes pueden vivir en ríos de aguas tranquilas, canales, en bahías de agua salada y en el océano. El manatí de las Indias Occidentales, llamado científicamente Trichechus manatus, habita en la cuenca del Caribe, desde la Florida hasta Brasil.

  15. Colombia es una cosa penetrable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Loaiza Cano

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Colombia es una cosa impenetrable. Raíces de la intolerancia y otros ensayos sobre historia política y vida intelectual. Juan Guillermo Gómez García. Bogotá, Diente de León, 2006, 454 pág.

  16. The effect of MEP pathway and other inhibitors on the intracellular localization of a plasma membrane-targeted, isoprenylable GFP reporter protein in tobacco BY-2 cells [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/yx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Hartmann

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We have established an in vivo visualization system for the geranylgeranylation of proteins in a stably transformed tobacco BY-2 cell line, based on the expression of a dexamethasone-inducible GFP fused to the carboxy-terminal basic domain of the rice calmodulin CaM61, which naturally bears a CaaL geranylgeranylation motif (GFP-BD-CVIL. By using pathway-specific inhibitors it was demonstrated that inhibition of the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP pathway with known inhibitors like oxoclomazone and fosmidomycin, as well as inhibition of the protein geranylgeranyltransferase type 1 (PGGT-1, shifted the localization of the GFP-BD-CVIL protein from the membrane to the nucleus. In contrast, the inhibition of the mevalonate (MVA pathway with mevinolin did not affect the localization. During the present work, this test system has been used to examine the effect of newly designed inhibitors of the MEP pathway and inhibitors of sterol biosynthesis such as squalestatin, terbinafine and Ro48-8071. In addition, we also studied the impact of different post-prenylation inhibitors or those suspected to affect the transport of proteins to the plasma membrane on the localization of the geranylgeranylable fusion protein GFP-BD-CVIL.

  17. DRIED WHEY AND FISH MEAL + LACTOSE IN DIETS WITH TWO PROTEIN LEVELS FOR STARTER PIGLETS SORO DE LEITE EM PÓ E FARINHA DE PEIXE+LACTOSE EM RAÇÕES COM DOIS NÍVEIS DE PROTEÍNA PARA LEITÕES NA FASE INICIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romão da Cunha Nunes

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available One experiment was carried out to evaluate protein sources and levels, and lactose in starter diets, for piglets weaned at 21 days of age. The animals were allotted in a completely randomized design in a factorial 2 x 2 x 2, with type of diets ( dried whey and fish meal + lactose, levels of crude protein (20 and 24% and piglet weight at weaning (?6.0 and > 6.0kg, in a total of eight treatments and four replications with 14 piglets (7 males and 7 females each. In the experimental conditions, it can be concluded that among the protein sources tested, the performance of 21 day-age weaned piglets fed fish meal + lactose (FG 1.81 compared was better to dried whey(FG 1.93m. The level of 24% crude protein was more efficient, mainly in the fish meal + lactose diets (WG 8.91kg x 7.93kg. It is concluded also that the type of diets studied did not influence histologycal parameters and the villous height is a direct funcion of piglets weight. KEY-WORDS: Pancreas weight, performance, villous height. Desenvolveu-se um experimento para avaliar fontes e níveis de proteína e de lactose em rações iniciais para leitões desmamados aos 21 dias de idade. Utilizou-se um delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 2 x 2 x 2, para estudo dos tipos de dieta (soro de leite em pó e farinha de peixe+lactose, níveis de proteína bruta (20,0% e 24,0% e pesos dos leitões ao desmame (? 6,0 e > 6,0 kg, totalizando oito tratamentos com quatro repetições de quatorze leitões (sete machos e sete fêmeas cada. Das fontes de proteína estudadas, o desempenho de leitões desmamados aos 21 dias de idade foi superior para rações com farinha de peixe + lactose (CA 1,81, comparados àqueles que consumiram a ração contendo apenas o soro de leite em pó (1,93. Para os níveis de proteína, observou-se que o índice de 24% de proteína bruta nas rações foi mais eficiente, principalmente com a combinação farinha de peixe + lactose (GP 8,91 x 7,93kg. As dietas

  18. Recognition of antigens of three different stages of the Trichinella spiralis by antibodies from pigs infected with T. spiralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bien, Justyna; Cabaj, Wladyslaw; Moskwa, Bozena

    2013-06-01

    Infective muscle larvae (ML), adults (Ad) and new born larvae (NBL) of Trichinella spiralis express many immunogenic proteins which can elicit a host protective response, and may be useful in the diagnosis of Trichinella infected humans and animals. The present study was carried out to identify T. spiralis antigens recognized by antibodies from pigs infected with T. spiralis. To that end, the crude extracts of ML, Ad, NBL and ML excretory-secretory (E-S) and Ad E-S proteins were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polycrystalline gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). To identify antigens of T. spiralis that are recognized by host antibodies, crude extracts and E-S proteins were subjected to immunoblot with antisera derived from pigs experimentally infected with 200 or 20,000 T. spiralis ML. Searching for T. spiralis antigens with diagnostic potential, immunoblots showed that all T. spiralis antisera, regardless of the infective dose, recognized common proteins in each examined life stage with molecular weights around 20-27 kDa, 41 kDa and 197-105 kDa. Interestingly, all the common proteins were detected by T. spiralis sera throughout the infection, from 5 days post infection (dpi) to 60 dpi. These results extend our knowledge of specific antigenic components of T. spiralis. The finding of common components among all T. spiralis life stages may be useful in the preparation of parasite antigens for diagnostic use, as these antigens are relevant regardless of infection phase. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Failure to detect Trichinella spiralis p43 in isolated host nuclei and in irradiated larvae of infected muscle cells which express the infected cell phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasmer, D P; Yao, S; Vassilatis, D; Despommier, D; Neary, S M

    1994-10-01

    Infection by Trichinella spiralis induces host muscle cells to become repositioned within the cell cycle and to lose differentiated skeletal muscle characteristics. Antibodies to a 43-kDa excretory-secretory (ES) protein (p43) also bind to infected host cell nuclei. Neither the identity of these nuclear antigens nor their role in inducing the infected cell phenotype is known. To address these issues, infected cell nuclei were isolated and nuclear antigens analyzed with several antibody preparations to p43. Four antibody preparations to p43 recognized 43-, 45-, 50-, 67- and 71-kDa proteins in ES extracts. The prominent proteins recognized by these antibodies in host nuclear antigen extracts were 71, 79, 86 and 97 kDa. Less prominent proteins of approximately 43 and 45 kDa were detected in nuclear extracts. However, antibodies which specifically recognized p43 failed to bind detectably with in situ and isolated host nuclei and nuclear extracts. Expression of p43 was analyzed in host cells infected by newborn larvae irradiated with 60Co. This treatment prevented expression of detectable levels of p43 in resulting muscle larvae, while infected muscle cells displayed typical infected cell characteristics. However, anti-p43 antibodies which recognized multiple ES and nuclear proteins did stain nuclei of irradiated larva-infected cells, albeit at reduced levels. The results raise doubts that p43 is required for induction of the infected cell phenotype. Nevertheless, nuclear antigens recognized by anti-p53 antibodies remain as candidates for influencing this phenotype.

  20. The Use of Recombinant 31 kDa Antigens of Trichinella spiralis for Serodiagnosis of Experimental Trichinellosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    WANG, Li; TIAN, Xiang Yu; SUN, Ge Ge; LIU, Ruo Dan; LIU, Li Na; ZHANG, Xi; JIANG, Peng; WANG, Zhong Quan; CUI, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Background: We have previously reported that a 31 kDa protein was screened from the excretory-secretory (ES) proteins of Tichinella spiralis muscle larvae (ML) by immunoproteomics using early infection sera, and the gene encoding a 31 kDa protein from T. spiralis was cloned and expressed in an E. coli expression system. In this study, the recombinant 31 kDa antigens were used for detection of anti-Trichinella antibodies in serum of experimentally infected mice by ELISA. Methods: Anti-Trichinella IgG antibodies in sera of mice infected with Trichinella were assayed by ELISA with recombinant 31 kDa antigens, and its sensitivity and specificity were compared with ELISA with ES antigen. Results: The sensitivity and specificity of ELISA with recombinant antigens was 96.67% (29/30) and 96.87% (62/64), compared with 100% (30/30) and 98.44% (63/64) of ELISA with ES antigens was (P>0.05). In heavily, moderately and lightly infected mice (500, 300 and 100 larvae/mouse), anti-Trichinella antibodies were firstly detected by ELISA with recombinant antigens at 8, 12 and 14 dpi, respectively; then increased rapidly with a detection rate of 100% respectively at 28, 22 and 30 dpi. While the antibodies were firstly detected by ELISA with ES antigens at 10, 8 and 10 dpi, respectively, the antibody positive rate reached 100% at 14, 12 and 22 dpi, respectively. Conclusion: The recombinant 31 kDa antigens of T. spirali had a good sensitivity and specificity for detecting anti-Trichinella antibodies and might be the potential diagnostic antigen for trichinellosis. PMID:26246820

  1. The dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitors vildagliptin and K-579 inhibit a phospholipase C: a case of promiscuous scaffolds in proteins [v3; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/51m

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Chakraborty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The long term side effects of any newly introduced drug is a subject of intense research, and often raging controversies. One such example is the dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP4 inhibitor used for treating type 2 diabetes, which is inconclusively implicated in increased susceptibility to acute pancreatitis. Previously, based on a computational analysis of the spatial and electrostatic properties of active site residues, we have demonstrated that phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC from Bacillus cereus is a prolyl peptidase using in vivo experiments. In the current work, we first report the inhibition of the native activity of PI-PLC by two DPP4 inhibitors - vildagliptin (LAF-237 and K-579. While vildagliptin inhibited PI-PLC at micromolar concentrations, K-579 was a potent inhibitor even at nanomolar concentrations. Subsequently, we queried a comprehensive, non-redundant set of 5000 human proteins (50% similarity cutoff with known structures using serine protease (SPASE motifs derived from trypsin and DPP4. A pancreatic lipase and a gastric lipase are among the proteins that are identified as proteins having promiscuous SPASE scaffolds that could interact with DPP4 inhibitors. The presence of such scaffolds in human lipases is expected since they share the same catalytic mechanism with PI-PLC. However our methodology also detects other proteins, often with a completely different enzymatic mechanism, that have significantly congruent domains with the SPASE motifs. The reported elevated levels of serum lipase, although contested, could be rationalized by inhibition of lipases reported here. In an effort to further our understanding of the spatial and electrostatic basis of DPP4 inhibitors, we have also done a comprehensive analysis of all 76 known DPP4 structures liganded to inhibitors till date. Also, the methodology presented here can be easily adopted for other drugs, and provide the first line of filtering in the identification of

  2. Development of an image-based screening system for inhibitors of the plastidial MEP pathway and of protein geranylgeranylation [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/4vt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Hartmann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We have recently established an in vivo visualization system for the geranylgeranylation of proteins in a stably transformed tobacco BY-2 cell line, which involves expressing a dexamethasone-inducible GFP fused to the prenylable, carboxy-terminal basic domain of the rice calmodulin CaM61, which naturally bears a CaaL geranylgeranylation motif (GFP-BD-CVIL. By using pathway-specific inhibitors it was demonstrated that inhibition of the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP pathway with oxoclomazone and fosmidomycin, as well as inhibition of protein geranylgeranyl transferase type 1 (PGGT-1, shifted the localization of the GFP-BD-CVIL protein from the membrane to the nucleus. In contrast, the inhibition of the mevalonate (MVA pathway with mevinolin did not affect this localization. Furthermore, complementation assays with pathway-specific intermediates confirmed that the precursors for the cytosolic isoprenylation of this fusion protein are predominantly provided by the MEP pathway. In order to optimize this visualization system from a more qualitative assay to a statistically trustable medium or a high-throughput screening system, we established new conditions that permit culture and analysis in 96-well microtiter plates, followed by fluorescence microscopy. For further refinement, the existing GFP-BD-CVIL cell line was transformed with an estradiol-inducible vector driving the expression of a RFP protein, C-terminally fused to a nuclear localization signal (NLS-RFP. We are thus able to quantify the total number of viable cells versus the number of inhibited cells after various treatments. This approach also includes a semi-automatic counting system, based on the freely available image processing software. As a result, the time of image analysis as well as the risk of user-generated bias is reduced to a minimum. Moreover, there is no cross-induction of gene expression by dexamethasone and estradiol, which is an important prerequisite for this test

  3. Development of an image-based screening system for inhibitors of the plastidial MEP pathway and of protein geranylgeranylation [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/5p9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Hartmann

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In a preceding study we have recently established an in vivo visualization system for the geranylgeranylation of proteins in a stably transformed tobacco BY-2 cell line, which involves expressing a dexamethasone-inducible GFP fused to the prenylable, carboxy-terminal basic domain of the rice calmodulin CaM61, which naturally bears a CaaL geranylgeranylation motif (GFP-BD-CVIL. By using pathway-specific inhibitors it was there demonstrated that inhibition of the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP pathway with oxoclomazone and fosmidomycin, as well as inhibition of protein geranylgeranyl transferase type 1 (PGGT-1, shifted the localization of the GFP-BD-CVIL protein from the membrane to the nucleus. In contrast, the inhibition of the mevalonate (MVA pathway with mevinolin did not affect this localization. Furthermore, in this initial study complementation assays with pathway-specific intermediates confirmed that the precursors for the cytosolic isoprenylation of this fusion protein are predominantly provided by the MEP pathway. In order to optimize this visualization system from a more qualitative assay to a statistically trustable medium or a high-throughput screening system, we established now new conditions that permit culture and analysis in 96-well microtiter plates, followed by fluorescence microscopy. For further refinement, the existing GFP-BD-CVIL cell line was transformed with an estradiol-inducible vector driving the expression of a RFP protein, C-terminally fused to a nuclear localization signal (NLS-RFP. We are thus able to quantify the total number of viable cells versus the number of inhibited cells after various treatments. This approach also includes a semi-automatic counting system, based on the freely available image processing software. As a result, the time of image analysis as well as the risk of user-generated bias is reduced to a minimum. Moreover, there is no cross-induction of gene expression by dexamethasone and estradiol

  4. The unfolded protein response and its potential role in Huntington ́s disease elucidated by a systems biology approach [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/59e

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kiran Reddy Kalathur

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Huntington ́s disease (HD is a progressive, neurodegenerative disease with a fatal outcome. Although the disease-causing gene (huntingtin has been known for over 20 years, the exact mechanisms leading to neuronal cell death are still controversial. One potential mechanism contributing to the massive loss of neurons observed in the brain of HD patients could be the unfolded protein response (UPR activated by accumulation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. As an adaptive response to counter-balance accumulation of un- or misfolded proteins, the UPR upregulates transcription of chaperones, temporarily attenuates new translation, and activates protein degradation via the proteasome. However, persistent ER stress and an activated UPR can also cause apoptotic cell death. Although different studies have indicated a role for the UPR in HD, the evidence remains inconclusive. Here, we present extensive bioinformatic analyses that revealed UPR activation in different experimental HD models based on transcriptomic data. Accordingly, we have identified 58 genes, including RAB5A, HMGB1, CTNNB1, DNM1, TUBB, TSG101, EEF2, DYNC1H1 and SLC12A5 that provide a potential link between UPR and HD. To further elucidate the potential role of UPR as a disease-relevant process, we examined its connection to apoptosis based on molecular interaction data, and identified a set of 40 genes including ADD1, HSP90B1, IKBKB, IKBKG, RPS3A and LMNB1, which seem to be at the crossroads between these two important cellular processes.

  5. Protein structure quality assessment based on the distance profiles of consecutive backbone Cα atoms [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/2d2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Chakraborty

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Predicting the three dimensional native state structure of a protein from its primary sequence is an unsolved grand challenge in molecular biology. Two main computational approaches have evolved to obtain the structure from the protein sequence - ab initio/de novo methods and template-based modeling - both of which typically generate multiple possible native state structures. Model quality assessment programs (MQAP validate these predicted structures in order to identify the correct native state structure. Here, we propose a MQAP for assessing the quality of protein structures based on the distances of consecutive Cα atoms. We hypothesize that the root-mean-square deviation of the distance of consecutive Cα (RDCC atoms from the ideal value of 3.8 Å, derived from a statistical analysis of high quality protein structures (top100H database, is minimized in native structures. Based on tests with the top100H set, we propose a RDCC cutoff value of 0.012 Å, above which a structure can be filtered out as a non-native structure. We applied the RDCC discriminator on decoy sets from the Decoys 'R' Us database to show that the native structures in all decoy sets tested have RDCC below the 0.012 Å cutoff. While most decoy sets were either indistinguishable using this discriminator or had very few violations, all the decoy structures in the fisa decoy set were discriminated by applying the RDCC criterion. This highlights the physical non-viability of the fisa decoy set, and possible issues in benchmarking other methods using this set. The source code and manual is made available at https://github.com/sanchak/mqap and permanently available on 10.5281/zenodo.7134.

  6. A fragmented alignment method detects a putative phosphorylation site and a putative BRC repeat in the Drosophila melanogaster BRCA2 protein [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/1wc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Chakraborty

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the BRCA2 tumor suppressor protein leave individuals susceptible to breast, ovarian and other cancers. The BRCA2 protein is a critical component of the DNA repair pathways in eukaryotes, and also plays an integral role in fostering genomic variability through meiotic recombination. Although present in many eukaryotes, as a whole the BRCA2 gene is weakly conserved. Conserved fragments of 30 amino acids (BRC repeats, which mediate interactions with the recombinase RAD51, helped detect orthologs of this protein in other organisms. The carboxy-terminal of the human BRCA2 has been shown to be phosphorylated by checkpoint kinases (Chk1/Chk2 at T3387, which regulate the sequestration of RAD51 on DNA damage. However, apart from three BRC repeats, the Drosophila melanogaster gene has not been annotated and associated with other functionally relevant sequence fragments in human BRCA2. In the current work, the carboxy-terminal phosphorylation threonine site (E=9.1e-4 and a new BRC repeat (E=17e-4 in D. melanogaster has been identified, using a fragmented alignment methodology (FRAGAL. In a similar study, FRAGAL has also identified a novel half-a- tetratricopeptide (HAT motif (E=11e-4, a helical repeat motif implicated in various aspects of RNA metabolism, in Utp6 from yeast. The characteristic three aromatic residues with conserved spacing are observed in this new HAT repeat, further strengthening my claim. The reference and target sequences are sliced into overlapping fragments of equal parameterized lengths. All pairs of fragments in the reference and target proteins are aligned, and the gap penalties are adjusted to discourage gaps in the middle of the alignment. The results of the best matches are sorted based on differing criteria to aid the detection of known and putative sequences. The source code for FRAGAL results on these sequences is available at https://github.com/sanchak/FragalCode, while the database can be accessed at www.sanchak.com/fragal.html.

  7. Survey on porcine trichinellosis in Ecuador

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chávez-Larrea, M. A.; Dorny, P.; Møller, L. N.

    2004-01-01

    A survey on porcine trichinellosis was organised in Ecuador between 2000 and 2003. Blood samples were taken in slaughterhouses (study 1, n = 2000; study 2, n = 331) and in a remote village where pigs are free roaming (study 3, n = 646) and examined by ELISA using excretory/secretory (E/S) antigens...... that Trichinella is present in Ecuador; however, prevalence and parasite burdens are likely to be very low. The likelihood of detecting trichinellosis are higher in traditional settings than in pigs raised on improved farms...

  8. FeatureViewer, a BioJS component for visualization of position-based annotations in protein sequences [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/38v

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyla Garcia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: FeatureViewer is a BioJS component that lays out, maps, orients, and renders position-based annotations for protein sequences. This component is highly flexible and customizable, allowing the presentation of annotations by rows, all centered, or distributed in non-overlapping tracks. It uses either lines or shapes for sites and rectangles for regions. The result is a powerful visualization tool that can be easily integrated into web applications as well as documents as it provides an export-to-image functionality. Availability: https://github.com/biojs/biojs/blob/master/src/main/javascript/Biojs.FeatureViewer.js; http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.7719

  9. FeatureViewer, a BioJS component for visualization of position-based annotations in protein sequences [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/2u2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyla Garcia

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Summary: FeatureViewer is a BioJS component that lays out, maps, orients, and renders position-based annotations for protein sequences. This component is highly flexible and customizable, allowing the presentation of annotations by rows, all centered, or distributed in non-overlapping tracks. It uses either lines or shapes for sites and rectangles for regions. The result is a powerful visualization tool that can be easily integrated into web applications as well as documents as it provides an export-to-image functionality. Availability: https://github.com/biojs/biojs/blob/master/src/main/javascript/Biojs.FeatureViewer.js; http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.7719

  10. HETEROSIS TO GRAIN PROTEIN CONTENT IN CROSSES AMONG MAIZE POPULATIONS DERIVED FROM COMMERCIAL HYBRIDS HETEROSE PARA TEOR DE PROTEÍNA NO GRÃO EM CRUZAMENTOS ENTRE POPULAÇÕES DE MILHO DERIVADAS DE HÍBRIDOS COMERCIAIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Rodrigues Costa Pinto

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available

    One of the greatest concerns on maize breeding throughout the years has been to increase production without reducing nutritional quality. The present study aims to evaluate F2 maize populations with normal endosperm and their crosses, as related to total grain protein content and determining heterosis and its components. The method used for protein content determination was proposed by AOAC ";Official methods of analysis";, adapted and used by CIMMYT (International Center for Maize and Wheat Breeding. The statistical diallelic analysis of data was carried out through the Gardner and Eberhart's model IV (1966. The fundamental operation for parameter estimation as well as for sums of squares calculation was the ordinary minimum squares. It was observed significance for all effects of the adopted model. For the trait total grain protein content, the best genitors were AG-6690 and ZN-8486, and the best hybrid combination was P30K75 x AG-6016.

    KEY-WORDS: Protein content; corn; normal endosperm; diallel crosses.

    Uma das maiores preocupações do melhoramento genético do milho, ao longo dos anos, foi aumentar sua produção, sem diminuir sua qualidade nutricional. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar populações F2 de milho com endosperma normal e seus cruzamentos, quanto ao teor de proteína total, determinando-se a heterose e seus

  11. IsoCleft Finder – a web-based tool for the detection and analysis of protein binding-site geometric and chemical similarities [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/13y

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalja Kurbatova

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available IsoCleft Finder is a web-based tool for the detection of local geometric and chemical similarities between potential small-molecule binding cavities and a non-redundant dataset of ligand-bound known small-molecule binding-sites. The non-redundant dataset developed as part of this study is composed of 7339 entries representing unique Pfam/PDB-ligand (hetero group code combinations with known levels of cognate ligand similarity. The query cavity can be uploaded by the user or detected automatically by the system using existing PDB entries as well as user-provided structures in PDB format. In all cases, the user can refine the definition of the cavity interactively via a browser-based Jmol 3D molecular visualization interface. Furthermore, users can restrict the search to a subset of the dataset using a cognate-similarity threshold. Local structural similarities are detected using the IsoCleft software and ranked according to two criteria (number of atoms in common and Tanimoto score of local structural similarity and the associated Z-score and p-value measures of statistical significance. The results, including predicted ligands, target proteins, similarity scores, number of atoms in common, etc., are shown in a powerful interactive graphical interface. This interface permits the visualization of target ligands superimposed on the query cavity and additionally provides a table of pairwise ligand topological similarities. Similarities between top scoring ligands serve as an additional tool to judge the quality of the results obtained. We present several examples where IsoCleft Finder provides useful functional information. IsoCleft Finder results are complementary to existing approaches for the prediction of protein function from structure, rational drug design and x-ray crystallography. IsoCleft Finder can be found at: http://bcb.med.usherbrooke.ca/isocleftfinder.

  12. Un cuerpo propio* Performatividad(es) en la(s) identidad(es) infantil(es)

    OpenAIRE

    Bonilla Rodríguez, Hebe

    2015-01-01

    “Un(os) cuerpo(s) propio(s)*. Performatividades en la identidades infantiles” es una reflexión sobre la infancia. Esta etnografía pretende adoptar una mirada heterodoxa de las personas en edades comprendidas entre los cuatro y los seis años. Para ello, se cuestiona las frecuentes estandarizaciones homogeneizadoras de dichas personas. Dicho cuestionamiento tiene la finalidad de adoptar otra forma de mirar a esas personas; una mirada que nos permita mostrarlas como un grupo vivo ...

  13. Natural(es) remisión de V. ciencias natural(es).

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    [ES] Definición del término Natural(es) remisión de V. ciencias natural(es). en el diccionario Dicter. [EN] Definition of the word Natural(es) remisión de V. ciencias natural(es). in the dictionary Dicter.

  14. Interaction of growth hormone receptor/binding protein gene disruption and caloric restriction for insulin sensitivity and attenuated aging [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/5a7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oge Arum

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The correlation of physiological sensitivity to insulin (vis-à-vis glycemic regulation and longevity is extensively established, creating a justifiable gerontological interest on whether insulin sensitivity is causative, or even predictive, of some or all phenotypes of slowed senescence (including longevity. The growth hormone receptor/ binding protein gene-disrupted (GHR-KO mouse is the most extensively investigated insulin-sensitive, attenuated aging model. It was reported that, in a manner divergent from similar mutants, GHR-KO mice fail to respond to caloric restriction (CR by altering their insulin sensitivity. We hypothesized that maximized insulin responsiveness is what causes GHR-KO mice to exhibit a suppressed survivorship response to dietary (including caloric restriction; and attempted to refute this hypothesis by assessing the effects of CR on GHR-KO mice for varied slow-aging-associated phenotypes. In contrast to previous reports, we found GHR-KO mice on CR to be less responsive than their ad libitum (A.L. counterparts to the hypoglycemia-inducing effects of insulin. Further, CR had negligible effects on the metabolism or cognition of GHR-KO mice. Therefore, our data suggest that the effects of CR on the insulin sensitivity of GHR-KO mice do not concur with the effects of CR on the aging of GHR-KO mice.

  15. Interaction of growth hormone receptor/binding protein gene disruption and caloric restriction for insulin sensitivity and attenuated aging [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/4fk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oge Arum

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The correlation of physiological sensitivity to insulin (vis-à-vis glycemic regulation and longevity is extensively established, creating a justifiable gerontological interest on whether insulin sensitivity is causative, or even predictive, of some or all phenotypes of slowed senescence (including longevity. The growth hormone receptor/ binding protein gene-disrupted (GHR-KO mouse is the most extensively investigated insulin-sensitive, attenuated aging model. It was reported that, in a manner divergent from similar mutants, GHR-KO mice fail to respond to caloric restriction (CR by altering their insulin sensitivity. We hypothesized that maximized insulin responsiveness is what causes GHR-KO mice to exhibit a suppressed survivorship response to dietary (including caloric restriction; and attempted to refute this hypothesis by assessing the effects of CR on GHR-KO mice for varied slow-aging-associated phenotypes. In contrast to previous reports, we found GHR-KO mice on CR to be less responsive than their ad libitum (A.L. counterparts to the hypoglycemia-inducing effects of insulin. Further, CR had negligible effects on the metabolism or cognition of GHR-KO mice. Therefore, our data suggest that the effects of CR on the insulin sensitivity of GHR-KO mice do not concur with the effects of CR on the aging of GHR-KO mice.

  16. Towards delineating functions within the fasciola secreted cathepsin l protease family by integrating in vivo based sub-proteomics and phylogenetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell M Morphew

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available fasciola hepatica, along with Fasciola gigantica, is the causative agent of fasciolosis, a foodborne zoonotic disease affecting grazing animals and humans worldwide. Pathology is directly related to the release of parasite proteins that facilitate establishment within the host. The dominant components of these excretory-secretory (ES products are also the most promising vaccine candidates, the cathepsin L (Cat L protease family.the sub-proteome of Cat L proteases from adult F. hepatica ES products derived from in vitro culture and in vivo from ovine host bile were compared by 2-DE. The individual Cat L proteases were identified by tandem mass spectrometry with the support of an in-house translated liver fluke EST database. The study reveals plasticity within the CL1 clade of Cat L proteases; highlighted by the identification of a novel isoform and CL1 sub-clade, resulting in a new Cat L phylogenetic analysis including representatives from other adult Cat L phylogenetic clades. Additionally, for the first time, mass spectrometry was shown to be sufficiently sensitive to reveal single amino acid polymorphisms in a resolved 2-DE protein spot derived from pooled population samples.we have investigated the sub-proteome at the population level of a vaccine target family using the Cat L proteases from F. hepatica as a case study. We have confirmed that F. hepatica exhibits more plasticity in the expression of the secreted CL1 clade of Cat L proteases at the protein level than previously realised. We recommend that superfamily based vaccine discovery programmes should screen parasite populations from different host populations and, if required, different host species via sub-proteomic assay in order to confirm the relative expression at the protein level prior to the vaccine development phase.

  17. Religions mondialisées.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Fath

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available « Dès le début de l’histoire, les croyances religieuses manifestent une tendance à ne pas se renfermer dans une société politique étroitement délimitée : il y a en elles comme une aptitude naturelle à passer par-dessus les frontières, à se diffuser, à s’internationaliser ». Ces réflexions d’Émile Durkheim, extraites des Formes élémentaires de la vie religieuse , sont placées en exergue de l’ouvrage d’Ariel Colonomos consacré aux « Églises en réseau ». ...

  18. Pensées intimes

    CERN Document Server

    Einstein, Albert

    2000-01-01

    A quelqu'un qui lui demandant pourquoi les hommes pouvaient découvrir les atomes, mais pas les moyens de les contrôler, Einstein répondit : " C'est simple, mon ami : parce que la politique est plus difficile que la physique ". Albert Einstein était un écrivain prolifique dont l'œuvre abonde en aphorismes. Les 550 citations de ce recueil, tirées des quelque 40 000 documents des Archives Einstein, nous font découvrir le Einstein de la légende, l'ami des écoliers et des étudiants fauchés, le philosophe de la vie quotidienne, doux et ironique, mais aussi la face plus sombre, parfois désespérée, de ce grand génie de l'ère moderne. Qu'il s'exprime sur des sujets aussi variés que l'Amérique et les Américains, l'Allemagne et les Allemands, les Juifs et le sionisme, la guerre et le pacifisme, la politique, la religion et la science, ou sur des thèmes plus personnels, tels que l'amour et le mariage, la jeunesse et la vieillesse l'avortement ou l'homosexualité, ses propos restent toujours mordants,...

  19. PHYSIC QUALITY OF THE GRAIN IN HIGH QUALITY PROTEIN MAIZE POPULATIONS AND THEIR CROSSES QUALIDADE FÍSICA DO GRÃO EM POPULAÇÕES DE MILHO DE ALTA QUALIDADE PROTÉICA E SEUS CRUZAMENTOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaison Pereira de Oliveira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available

    This study evaluated open pollinated populations of high quality protein maize (QPM and their crosses for weight of grains, grain density, and coloration, determining the heterosis and its components as subsidy for the improvement of these populations. The analyses were carried out on 96 hybrids, derived from eight populations of dent grains and thirteen of flint grains, including their parents in a partial diallel intergroup design. A chromatic scale used for classification of egg yolks was adapted to determine grain colorations. The coefficients of variation for the three variables were small, being 3.41% for the density, 6.23% for weight of 100 grains, and 7.03% for grain coloration. Except for specific heterosis of the real density, all effects analyzed were significant. The real density means of dent and flint groups were 1.27g mL-1 and 1.16g mL-1, with average heterosis of 3.53%. The parents CMS 474 (29.92 g and CMS 471 (34.28 g outstood for grain weight with larger means and heterosis of 3.61%. For grain coloration, the mean of flint group was 11.77 points and of the dent group 10.53 points, with average heterosis of 3.84%. Parents ZQP 101 and ZQP 103 are recommended for the formation of a composite of dent grains, and the genotypes CMS 458, CMS 472, CMS 453 and BR 473 as parental populations in the formation of a composite of flint grains.

    KEY-WORDS: Zea mays; grain density; grain weight; grain coloration.

    O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar populações de polinização aberta de milho de alta qualidade protéica e seus cruzamentos, quanto ao peso, densidade real e coloração dos grãos, determinando-se a heterose e seus componentes, como subsídio para o melhoramento destas populações. As análises foram executadas em 96 híbridos e seus genitores, provenientes de

  20. Immunological evaluation of some antigens of Lucilia sericata larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Hoda S; Fahmy, Magdy M; Attia, Marwa M; El Khateeb, Rabab M; Shalaby, Hatem A; Mohamed, Mai A

    2017-12-01

    The present study aimed to select an antigen of Lucilia sericata larvae showing both high antigenicity and cross-reactive binding abilities with other related antigens of L. sericata larvae for obtaining a promising candidate vaccine antigen. The ELISA results primary concluded that among the excretory secretory (ES) and midgut (MG) antigens of the different larval instars of L. sericata, MGL2 could be characterized as antigen which was able to reflect the highest level of antigenicity and cross-reactivity with the other tested L. sericata antigens. The results were extended to spot the light on the relation between different protein bands in MGL2 and rabbit hyper- immune sera (HIS) raised against the other tested antigens using SDS-PAGE and Western blot technique. Analysis by SDS-PAGE of ES and MG antigens of the different larval instars of L. sericata revealed common protein bands at molecular weights of about 10, 12, 16, 20, 28, 33 and 46 kDa. Western blotting of MGL2 antigen transferred to nitrocellulose sheet revealed reaction by MGL2 HIS to five polypeptide bands; 20, 28, 33, 46 and 63 kDa. Three bands of 28, 33 and 63 kDa were the most prominent bands detected whereas; there was a weak reaction with bands of 20 and 46 kDa. But what was apparent in Western blot was a strong reaction of all tested HIS with a polypeptide band of 63 kDa. This band might be considered to be the main cause of cross reactive binding ability of MGL2 antigen that had been recorded previously in ELISA technique.

  1. Enamel matrix proteins associated with GTR and bioactive glass in the treatment of class III furcation in dogs Proteína da matriz do esmalte associada a R.T.G. e vidro bioativo no tratamento de furca grau III em cães

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Marcos Alves Fernandes

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated, both histologically and histometrically, the efficacy of enamel matrix derived proteins (EMD associated with bioactive glass (BG and an absorbable membrane in the treatment of class III furcation defects in mongrel dogs. After surgical defect creation and chronification, the lesions were randomly divided into three groups according to the treatment employed: Test Group 1 - EMD + BG + membrane, Test Group 2 - EMD + membrane and Control Group - BG + membrane. After a 90-day healing period, the dogs were sacrificed. The descriptive analysis and the histometric data showed similar results for the experimental groups in all studied parameters (MANOVA, p > 0.05. The association of Emdogain® with bioglass and GTR, or with GTR only, showed similar results when compared with the ones obtained with bioglass associated with membrane in the treatment of class III furcation defects in dogs. The three modalities of treatment showed partial filling of the furcations, with bone and cementum regeneration limited to the apical portion of the defects.Este estudo investigou, histológica e histometricamente, a eficácia da proteína derivada da matriz de esmalte (EMD associada com vidro bioativo (BG e membrana absorvível, no tratamento de defeitos de furcas classe III em cães. Após criação cirúrgica e cronificação dos defeitos, as lesões foram divididas aleatoriamente em três grupos de acordo com o tratamento proposto: Grupo Teste 1 - EMD + BG + membrana, Grupo Teste 2 - EMD + membrana e Grupo Controle - BG + membrana. Após 90 dias do período de cicatrização, os cães foram sacrificados. A análise descritiva e os dados histométricos mostraram resultados similares para os grupos experimentais em todos os parâmetros estudados (MANOVA, p > 0,05. As associações de Emdogain com vidro bioativo e RTG, ou somente com RTG, mostraram resultados similares quando comparadas ao vidro bioativo associado à membrana no tratamento de

  2. Surface-displayed glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase and galectin from Dirofilaria immitis enhance the activation of the fibrinolytic system of the host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Miguel, Javier; Morchón, Rodrigo; Siles-Lucas, Mar; Oleaga, Ana; Simón, Fernando

    2015-05-01

    Cardiopulmonary dirofilariosis is a cosmopolitan disease caused by Dirofilaria immitis, a filaroid parasite whose adult worms live for years in the vascular system of its host. Previous studies have shown that D. immitis can use their excretory/secretory (ES) and surface antigens to enhance fibrinolysis, which could limit the formation of clots in its surrounding environment. Moreover, several isoforms of the glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and galectin (GAL) were identified in both antigenic extracts as plasminogen-binding proteins. The aim of this work is to study the interaction of the GAPDH and GAL of D. immitis with the fibrinolytic system of the host. This study includes the cloning, sequencing and expression of the recombinant forms of the GAPDH and GAL of D. immitis (rDiGAPDH and rDiGAL) and the analysis of their capacity as plasminogen-binding proteins. The results indicate that rDiGAPDH and rDiGAL are able to bind plasminogen and stimulate plasmin generation by tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). This interaction needs the involvement of lysine residues, many of which are located externally in both proteins as have been shown by the molecular modeling of their secondary structures. In addition, we show that rDiGAPDH and rDiGAL enhance the expression of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) on canine endothelial cells in culture and that both proteins are expressed on the surface of D. immitis in close contact with the blood of the host. These data suggest that D. immitis could use the associated surface GAPDH and GAL as physiological plasminogen receptors to shift the fibrinolytic balance towards the generation of plasmin, which might constitute a survival mechanism to avoid the clot formation in its intravascular habitat. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. El mundo es un paisaje sonoro

    OpenAIRE

    Rezza, Sol

    2009-01-01

    El sonido es movimiento, sin movimiento no hay sonido. Nuestras vidas cotidianas están plagadas de sonidos, el mundo es un mundo sonoro. Soundscape, paisajes sonoros, postales sonoras, ambientes sonoros son algunos de los nombres con los que se define al sonido o a la combinación de sonidos que conforman un entono específico, es decir un ambiente sonoro.

  4. Redução da expressão astrocitária de proteína glial fibrilar ácida em cães tratados com dexametasona Decrease in the astrocytic expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein in dogs treated with dexamethasone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Fernandes Bondan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A proteína glial fibrilar ácida (GFAP constitui o principal marcador dos astrócitos, as células gliais mais numerosas do tecido nervoso e que exibem receptores a diversos hormônios esteroidais, os quais exercem aparente influência sobre a expressão gênica das mesmas. O objetivo do presente estudo foi o de avaliar se a administração de dexametasona (DX em protocolos terapêuticos para cães seria capaz de afetar a expressão astrocitária dessa proteína. Para tal, amostras da ponte e da medula espinhal torácica de cães, tratados (n=6 ou não (n=6 com DX, foram submetidas à marcação imuno-histoquímica para a GFAP e a reatividade astrocitária foi determinada por colorimetria em um sistema computacional de análise de imagens. Diferença estatisticamente significativa foi constatada para as médias das áreas marcadas para GFAP na ponte de cães tratados e não-tratados com DX, assim como na medula espinhal torácica dos que haviam recebido previamente o corticoide ou não, com clara tendência, induzida pela droga, de redução da expressão astrocitária da proteína. Além disso, a expressão de GFAP na medula espinhal foi maior que na ponte, independentemente do emprego de DX ou não.Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP is the most important marker of astrocytes, that are the major glial cells in the nervous tissue and exhibit receptors to several steroid hormones, which have an apparent influence in their genic expression. The aim of this study was to evaluate if dexamethasone (DX administration in therapeutic protocols to dogs would be capable of affecting the astrocytic expression of the protein. Samples from the pons and the spinal cord of dogs, treated (n=6 or not (n=6 with DX, were submitted to GFAP immunohistochemical staining and astrocytic reactivity was determined by colorimetry in a computer system for image analysis. Difference statistically significant was noted for the mean areas stained with GFAP in the pons of

  5. Draft genome of neurotropic nematode parasite Angiostrongylus cantonensis, causative agent of human eosinophilic meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Hoi-Sen; Eamsobhana, Praphathip; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Razali, Rozaimi; Aziz, Farhanah Abdul; Rosli, Nurul Shielawati Mohamed; Poole-Johnson, Johan; Anwar, Arif

    2015-08-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a bursate nematode parasite that causes eosinophilic meningitis (or meningoencephalitis) in humans in many parts of the world. The genomic data from A. cantonensis will form a useful resource for comparative genomic and chemogenomic studies to aid the development of diagnostics and therapeutics. We have sequenced, assembled and annotated the genome of A. cantonensis. The genome size is estimated to be ∼260 Mb, with 17,280 genomic scaffolds, 91X coverage, 81.45% for complete and 93.95% for partial score based on CEGMA analysis of genome completeness. The number of predicted genes of ≥300 bp was 17,482. A total of 7737 predicted protein-coding genes of ≥50 amino acids were identified in the assembled genome. Among the proteins of known function, kinases are the most abundant followed by transferases. The draft genome contains 34 excretory-secretory proteins (ES), a minimum of 44 Nematode Astacin (NAS) metalloproteases, 12 Homeobox (HOX) genes, and 30 neurotransmitters. The assembled genome size (260 Mb) is larger than those of Pristionchus pacificus, Caenorhabditis elegans, Necator americanus, Caenorhabditis briggsae, Trichinella spiralis, Brugia malayi and Loa loa, but smaller than Haemonchus contortus and Ascaris suum. The repeat content (25%) is similar to H. contortus. The GC content (41.17%) is lower compared to P. pacificus (42.7%) and H. contortus (43.1%) but higher compared to C. briggsae (37.69%), A. suum (37.9%) and N. americanus (40.2%) while the scaffold N50 is 42,191. This draft genome will facilitate the understanding of many unresolved issues on the parasite and the disorder it causes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Production and characterization of a monoclonal antibody specific to 16 kDa antigen of Paramphistomum gracile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuracpreeda, Panat; Watthanadirek, Amaya; Chawengkirttikul, Runglawan; Sobhon, Prasert

    2017-01-01

    A number of monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) against the 16 kDa antigen of Paramphistomum gracile (16 kDaAgPg) were produced in vitro by hybridoma technique. Reactivity and specificity of these MoAbs were evaluated by ELISA and immunoblotting assays. Seven MoAb clones were selected from the stable hybridoma clones, namely 1D10, 2D7, 3B10, 3D9, 4F1, 4G4, and 5G12. It was found to be IgM and kappa light chain isotypes. By immunoblotting and ELISA, all MoAbs reacted with purified 16 kDaAgPg at molecular weight (MW) of 16 kDa and with the native 16 kDa antigen at MW of 16 kDa in the whole body (WB) and excretory-secretory (ES) fractions, but not with tegumental antigens (TA) of adult fluke. All of these MoAbs showed no cross-reactions with antigens of other parasites commonly found in ruminants, including Eurytrema pancreaticum, Gigantocotyle explanatum, Schistosoma spindale, Moniezia benedeni, Avitellina centripunctata, Haemonchus placei, Trichuris sp., and Setaria labiato-papillosa. Localization and distribution of the native 16 kDaAg in adult P. gracile by immunohistochemistry, using MoAbs as probes, showed that the native 16 kDaAg was present in high concentration in the cytoplasm of vitelline cells, eggshell globules, and the shells of eggs, but not in the tegument, muscle, parenchymal cells, and cecum of adult fluke. This finding indicated that the 16 kDaAg is a copiously expressed parasite protein that is released into the ES; thus, 16 kDaAg and its MoAb could be a good candidate for immunodiagnosis of paramphistomosis in ruminants.

  7. Resolving the paradox for protein aggregation diseases: NMR structure and dynamics of the membrane-embedded P56S-MSP causing ALS imply a common mechanism for aggregation-prone proteins to attack membranes [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/3zl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haina Qin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Paradoxically, aggregation of specific proteins is characteristic of many human diseases and aging, yet aggregates have increasingly been found to be unnecessary for initiating pathogenesis. Here we determined the NMR topology and dynamics of a helical mutant in a membrane environment transformed from the 125-residue cytosolic all-β MSP domain of vesicle-associated membrane protein-associated protein B (VAPB by the ALS-causing P56S mutation. Despite its low hydrophobicity, the P56S major sperm protein (MSP domain becomes largely embedded in the membrane environment with high backbone rigidity. Furthermore it is composed of five helices with amphiphilicity comparable to those of the partly-soluble membrane toxin mellitin and α-synuclein causing Parkinson's disease. Consequently, the mechanism underlying this chameleon transformation becomes clear: by disrupting the specific tertiary interaction network stabilizing the native all-β MSP fold to release previously-locked amphiphilic segments, the P56S mutation acts to convert the classic MSP fold into a membrane-active protein that is fundamentally indistinguishable from mellitin and α-synuclein which are disordered in aqueous solution but spontaneously partition into membrane interfaces driven by hydrogen-bond energetics gained from forming α-helix in the membrane environments. As segments with high amphiphilicity exist in all proteins, our study successfully resolves the paradox by deciphering that the proteins with a higher tendency to aggregate have a stronger potential to partition into membranes through the same mechanism as α-synuclein to initially attack membranes to trigger pathogenesis without needing aggregates. This might represent the common first step for various kinds of aggregated proteins to trigger familiar, sporadic and aging diseases. Therefore the homeostasis of aggregated proteins in vivo is the central factor responsible for a variety of human diseases including aging

  8. Karakteristik Es Krim Bengkuang Dengan Menggunakan Beberapa Jenis Susu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Failisnur Failisnur

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ice cream is a frozen dairy solid product with the addition of other materials that are made through the process of freezing and agitation. The principle of its making to form a cavity of air in the mixture of ice cream ingredients to produce a volume that made the development of the ice cream into a lighter, less dense and has a soft texture. The purposed of the research to see influence the use of a variety of milk to the physical properties, chemical properties and organoleptic to the bengkoang ice cream produced. Research carried out by treatment type of milk used that were fullcream milk, sweetened condensed milk, soy milk powder, green bean powder, and soy milk liquid. The ice cream produced was tested the physics of overrun and melting speed, chemical analysis of protein content, fat and organoleptic of taste and texture. Research results showed that the best treatment was the use of soy milk powder where the value of overrun 37.2%, melting speed 10.1 minutes, protein content 6.9%, fat 13.08%, and organoleptic of  taste and texture was preferred.ABSTRAKEs krim merupakan produk olahan susu beku berbentuk padat dengan penambahan  bahan lain yang dibuat melalui proses pembekuan dan agitasi.  Prinsip pembuatan es krim adalah membentuk suatu rongga udara pada campuran bahan-bahan es krim sehingga dihasilkan pengembangan volume yang membuat es krim menjadi lebih ringan, tidak terlalu padat dan mempunyai tekstur yang lembut. Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk melihat pengaruh dari penggunaan beberapa jenis susu terhadap sifat fisik, kimia dan organoleptik es krim bengkuang yang dihasilkan.  Penelitian dilakukan dengan perlakuan  penggunaan susu fullcream, susu kental manis, susu kedelai bubuk, kacang hijau bubuk, dan susu kedelai cair.  Es krim yang dihasilkan dilakukan uji fisika overrun dan kecepatan meleleh, analisis kimia kadar protein, lemak dan uji organoleptik rasa dan tekstur. Hasil penelitan menunjukkan bahwa penggunaan susu kedelai

  9. stockées Ephestia kuehniella (Lepidoptera)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PR BOKO

    herba alba, sur la population d'insectes ravageurs des denrées stockées Ephestia kuehniella (Lepidoptera). Le bio-pesticide agit avec un double mécanisme d'action. Administré chez les adultes, l'huile essentielle provoque un taux de mortalité significatif par rapport aux témoins. Alors que son administration sur les.

  10. EFFECTS OF FLUNIXIN MEGLUMINE CONJUNCTIVAL SHOT OVER THE HUMOR AQUEOUS PROTEIN OF DOGS SUBMITTED TO THE PARACENTESIS OF THE ANTERIOR CHAMBER AVALIAÇÃO DOS EFEITOS DA FLUNIXINA MEGLUMINA, POR VIA SUBCONJUNTIVAL, SOBRE A CONCENTRAÇÃO E PADRÃO PROTEICO DO HUMOR AQUOSO DE CÃES SUBMETIDOS À PARACENTESE DA CÂMARA ANTERIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Diniz Galera

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Flunixin meglumine effects, over aqueous humor proteins of eyes on dogs who were submitted to paracentesis of the anterior chamber, were evaluated. To ten adult dogs clinically healthy were given a subconjunctival shot with flunixin meglumine (1.1mg/Kg on the right eye and sterilized saline solution 0.9% on the left eye, with the same volume. After general anesthesia, were submitted to two paracentesis of the both eyes to collect 0.2mL of first and second aqueous. The samples were submitted to Bradford test, wich proteins concentrations were  15.98mg/dL ± 4.48 e 11.46mg/dL ± 2.72 for the right and the left eyes, respectively, on the first paracentesis and 119.8mg/dL ± 6.74 e 120.63mg/dL ± 22.4 for the right and the left eyes, on the second paracentesis. There was no significant statistically differences between the protein values of the treated eyes in comparison with the control one. When compared, the proteins concentrations between the first and second paracentesis of the right and left eyes, statistic differences were found between these two moments (p<0.001. SDS-PAGE showed differences in the protein patterns of aqueous humor in result of the paracentesis.

    KEY WORDS: Aqueous humor, eye, flunixin meglumine, paracentesis, proteíns.

    Avaliaram-se os efeitos da flunixina meglumina, pela via subconjuntival, sobre as proteínas do humor aquoso de olhos de cães submetidos à paracentese da câmara anterior. Dez animais adultos, clinicamente sadios, receberam, por aplicação subconjuntival, flunixina meglumina (1,1mg/kg no olho direito e solução salina estéril a 0,9% no olho esquerdo, em igual volume. Mediante anestesia geral, foram submetidos a duas paracenteses de ambos os olhos para coleta de 0,2mL de aquoso primário e secundário, respectivamente. As amostras foram submetidas ao Teste de Bradford, cujas concentrações proteicas (média e desvio-padrão obtidas foram de 15

  11. Determinação do valor nutritivo de alimentos energéticos e protéicos utilizados em rações para cães adultos Evaluation of nutritive value of energy and protein feeds in adult dogs diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula de Melo Cavalari

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram realizados para avaliar a digestibilidade aparente da EB, MS e PB em alimentos energéticos e protéicos utilizados para cães adultos. Foram utilizados quatro cães adultos (13,1 ± 2,0 kg, dois machos e duas fêmeas, sem raça definida, na avaliação de cada alimento. Os animais receberam a mesma quantidade de ração por unidade de peso metabólico. No experimento 1, foi determinado o valor nutritivo dos alimentos energéticos e, no experimento 2, os coeficientes de digestibilidade dos alimentos protéicos. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade da EB do milho extrusado (ME, do milho gelatinizado (MG, da gordura de coco e do óleo de soja, em dois níveis de inclusão (OS1 e OS2, e da gordura suína foram, respectivamente, 85,1; 84,4; 92,5; 92,1; 96,2 e 98,6%. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade da MS e PB do ME e MG foram, respectivamente, 84,2 e 65,3 e 84,5 e 65,0%. Na soja integral extrusada e nas farinhas de carne, de carne extrusada, de vísceras, de vísceras extrusada, de peixe extrusada e de pena extrusada, foram obtidos, respectivamente, os seguintes coeficientes de digestibilidade: 80,0; 73,3; 80,7; 87,6; 91,2; 91,1 e 79,8% da EB; 80,0; 68,4; 87,8; 86,7; 88,1; 85,2 e 76,0% da MS; e 83,7; 74,7; 82,3; 88,0; 88,9; 91,9 e 82,3% da PB.Two trials were conducted to evaluate the apparent digestibility of GE, DM and CP in energy and high protein feedstuffs for adult dogs. Four adult mongrel dogs (two males and two females averaging of 13.1 ± 2.0 kg were used in both trials, to evaluate each feedstuff. The animals were fed the same amount of food per metabolic weight. The nutritive value of energy feedstuffs was evaluated in the trial 1. In the trial 2, the digestibility coefficients of protein feedstuffs were evaluated. The digestibility coefficients of GE in extruded corn (EC, gelatinized corn (GC, coconut oil, and soybean oil, in two levels of inclusion (5%-OS1 and 12%-OS2 and swine fat were respectively of 85.1, 84

  12. Preparation of colloidal gold immunochromatographic strip for detection of Paragonimiasis skrjabini.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Wang, Lifang; Zhang, Jianwei; Wang, Guangxi; Chen, Wenbi; Chen, Lin; Zhang, Xilin

    2014-01-01

    Paragonimiasis is a food-borne trematodiasis, a serious public health issue and a neglected tropical disease. Paragonimus skrjabini is a unique species found in China. Unlike paragonimiasis westermani, it is nearly impossible to make a definitive diagnosis for paragonimiasis skrjabini by finding eggs in sputum or feces. Immunodiagnosis is the best choice to detect paragonimiasis skrjabini. There is an urgent need to develop a novel, rapid and simple immunoassay for large-scale screening patients in endemic areas. To develop a rapid, simple immunodiagnostic assay for paragonimiasis, rabbit anti-human IgG was conjugated to colloidal gold particles and used to detect antibodies in the sera of paragonimiasis patients. The synthesis and identification of colloidal gold particles and antibody-colloidal gold conjugates were performed. The size of colloidal gold particles was examined using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The average diameter of colloidal gold particles was 17.46 nm with a range of 14.32-21.80 nm according to the TEM images. The formation of antibody-colloidal gold conjugates was monitored by UV/Vis spectroscopy. Excretory-secretory (ES) antigen of Paragonimus skrjabini was coated on nitrocellulose membrane as the capture line. Recombinant Staphylococcus protein A was used to prepare the control line. This rapid gold immunochromatographic strip was assembled in regular sequence through different accessories sticked on PVC board. The relative sensitivity and specificity of the strip was 94.4% (51/54) and 94.1% (32/34) respectively using ELISA as the standard method. Its stability and reproducibility were quite excellent after storage of the strip at 4°C for 6 months. Immunochromatographic strip prepared in this study can be used in a rapid one-step immunochromatographic assay, which is instantaneous and convenient.

  13. Preparation of colloidal gold immunochromatographic strip for detection of Paragonimiasis skrjabini.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Paragonimiasis is a food-borne trematodiasis, a serious public health issue and a neglected tropical disease. Paragonimus skrjabini is a unique species found in China. Unlike paragonimiasis westermani, it is nearly impossible to make a definitive diagnosis for paragonimiasis skrjabini by finding eggs in sputum or feces. Immunodiagnosis is the best choice to detect paragonimiasis skrjabini. There is an urgent need to develop a novel, rapid and simple immunoassay for large-scale screening patients in endemic areas. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To develop a rapid, simple immunodiagnostic assay for paragonimiasis, rabbit anti-human IgG was conjugated to colloidal gold particles and used to detect antibodies in the sera of paragonimiasis patients. The synthesis and identification of colloidal gold particles and antibody-colloidal gold conjugates were performed. The size of colloidal gold particles was examined using a transmission electron microscope (TEM. The average diameter of colloidal gold particles was 17.46 nm with a range of 14.32-21.80 nm according to the TEM images. The formation of antibody-colloidal gold conjugates was monitored by UV/Vis spectroscopy. Excretory-secretory (ES antigen of Paragonimus skrjabini was coated on nitrocellulose membrane as the capture line. Recombinant Staphylococcus protein A was used to prepare the control line. This rapid gold immunochromatographic strip was assembled in regular sequence through different accessories sticked on PVC board. The relative sensitivity and specificity of the strip was 94.4% (51/54 and 94.1% (32/34 respectively using ELISA as the standard method. Its stability and reproducibility were quite excellent after storage of the strip at 4°C for 6 months. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Immunochromatographic strip prepared in this study can be used in a rapid one-step immunochromatographic assay, which is instantaneous and convenient.

  14. Monoclonal antibody against recombinant Fasciola gigantica cathepsin L1H could detect juvenile and adult cathepsin Ls of Fasciola gigantica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongwairot, Sirima; Kueakhai, Pornanan; Changklungmoa, Narin; Jaikua, Wipaphorn; Sansri, Veerawat; Meemon, Krai; Songkoomkrong, Sineenart; Riengrojpitak, Suda; Sobhon, Prasert

    2015-01-01

    Cathepsin Ls (CatLs), the major cysteine protease secreted by Fasciola spp., are important for parasite digestion and tissue invasion. Fasciola gigantica cathepsin L1H (FgCatL1H) is the isotype expressed in the early stages for migration and invasion. In the present study, a monoclonal antibody (MoAb) against recombinant F. gigantica cathepsin L1H (rFgCatL1H) was produced by hybridoma technique using spleen cells from BALB/c mice immunized with recombinant proFgCatL1H (rproFgCatL1H). This MoAb is an immunoglobulin (Ig)G1 with κ light chain isotype. The MoAb reacted specifically with rproFgCatL1H, the native FgCatL1H at a molecular weight (MW) 38 to 48 kDa in the extract of whole body (WB) of metacercariae and newly excysted juvenile (NEJ) and cross-reacted with rFgCatL1 and native FgCatLs at MW 25 to 28 kDa in WB of 2- and 4-week-old juveniles, adult, and adult excretory-secretory (ES) fractions by immunoblotting and indirect ELISA. It did not cross-react with antigens in WB fractions from other parasites, including Gigantocotyle explanatum, Paramphistomum cervi, Gastrothylax crumenifer, Eurytrema pancreaticum, Setaria labiato-papillosa, and Fischoederius cobboldi. By immunolocalization, MoAb against rFgCatL1H reacted with the native protein in the gut of metacercariae and NEJ and also cross-reacted with CatL1 in 2- and 4-week-old juveniles and adult F. gigantica. Therefore, FgCatL1H and its MoAb may be used for immunodiagnosis of both early and late fasciolosis in ruminants and humans.

  15. ¿Es la Internet un derecho?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Villanueva Mansilla

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Internet ha sido declarado como derecho, lo que hace que su acceso, uso y penetración sean considerados como prioritarios en todas las zonas del planeta. La intención de este ensayo es esbozar cuáles serían estos efectos. El derecho al Internet es simplemente la garantía de poder participar de la vida en sociedad sea como ciudadano o como consumidor sin restricción alguna. El acceso al Internet no es simple ni barato, implica un conjunto de acciones que requieren intervención del Estado, de varios actores económicos y del propio ciudadano. Asume el tratamiento de las complejidades de este derecho y el desafío para Latinoamérica.

  16. Bernardo Guimarães, social thinker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Mendes de Faria Filho

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Bernardo Guimarães, literary work synthesizes more a disorganized and incoherent complex of themes, projects and visions of world that were part of the intellectual, political and cultural environments experienced by the author than an organized project. In this study, I will devote an effort aiming at elucidating how Bernardo Guimarães presents his narrators and characters establishing their routines and refl ecting about major and minor political and social concerns that surrounded him, such as violence, family relationships, slavery, indigenous and civility problematics and the relationships between the urban area and rural area.

  17. ULCERA GASTRODUODENAL EM CÃES

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    Francisco Assis Uma Costa

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available As ulcerações no sistema digestivo de cães são consideradas raras. São descritos dois casos de úlcera gastroduodenal em cães. O primeiro animal apresentou úlcera no duodeno próxima!. O segundo mostrou úlcera perfurada na região pilórica do estômago. Nenhum dos animais apresentou evidências de sangramento, mas as lesões eram profundas e arredondadas. Não houve evidência de patologias concorrentes.

  18. Searching for a placental derived ES-62-like molecule to explain rheumatoid arthritis amelioration in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig D. Scoville

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The majority of women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA experience disease amelioration during pregnancy for unclear reasons. One possible explanation pursued and described here is whether the placenta produces a protein similar to the immunomodulating protein, ES-62, excreted by filarial nematodes. This protein has also been shown to reduce disease activity in animal models of RA. Eleven human placentas were prepared and a polyclonal anti-ES-62 antiserum was used to identify if any ES-62-like molecule exists from human placental tissues. Any bands identified were then excised from the gel and sent for mass spectrometry and protein identification. The anti-serum showed consistent cross reactivity with the heavy chain from immunoglobulin G (IgG from the eleven human placentas by mass spectrometry. No primary sequence homology between the heavy chain of IgG and ES-62 was identified. The placenta does not produce an ES-62-like molecule. However the binding of the antiserum to the Fc region of IgG suggests that this may be a possible mechanism for rheumatoid factor production in some patients with chronic filarial infections.

  19. Green vegetable supply in Dar es Salaam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegerif, M.C.A.

    2015-01-01

    This article constructs a picture of green vegetable growing and supply in Dar es Salaam by looking at the lives and work of a small trader and an urban farmer. It reveals the importance of a range of distribution and trade networks and the integration of a wider city region, alongside urban and

  20. ES Review: Selections from 2008 & 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiles, Robin, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This third edition of the "ES Review" brings together, in one setting, some of the best work from 2008-09. It features: (1) K-12 Accountability (Measuring Skills for the 21st Century (Elena Silva); Beyond the Bubble: Technology and the Future of Student Assessment (Bill Tucker); Testing the Limits (Bill Tucker); Changing the Game: The…

  1. University of Dar es Salaam Library Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The University of Dar es Salaam Library Journal publishes articles on all aspects of Library and Information Science. These include organization and dissemination of information, library education and training, information technology and its application in libraries, book reviews and short communications. Authors are in ...

  2. Excreta Disposal in Dar-es-salaam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaggu, E.; Mashouri, D.; Buuren, van J.C.L.; Sanders, W.T.M.; Lettinga, G.

    2002-01-01

    The sociocultural and socioeconomic situation of sanitation in Dar-es-Salaam (Dsm), Tanzania, was studied with explicit emphasis on pit-latrines. Without considering the sociocultural conditions, the so-called best solution might not be the right one. Therefore, in order to achieve the intended

  3. Documenting CMIP6 with ES-DOC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Mark

    2017-04-01

    The Earth System Documentation (ES-DOC) project is an international effort aiming to deliver a robust earth system model inter-comparison project documentation infrastructure. Such infrastructure both simplifies & standardizes the process of documenting (in detail) projects, experiments, models, forcings & simulations. In support of CMIP6, ES-DOC has upgraded its eco-system of tools, web-services & web-sites. The upgrade consolidates the existing infrastructure (built for CMIP5) and extends it with the introduction of new capabilities. The strategic focus of the upgrade is improvements in the documentation experience and broadening the range of scientific use-cases that the archived documentation may help deliver. Whether it is highlighting dataset errors, exploring experimental protocols, comparing forcings across ensemble runs, understanding sub-mip objectives, reviewing citations, exploring component properties of configured models, visualizing inter-model relationships, scientists involved in CMIP6 will find the ES-DOC infrastructure helpful. During this PICO session scientists will be walked through demonstrations of various aspcects of the ES-DOC eco-system. Documentation will be created & published, viewed and compared. Following the walk-throughs scientitists will realize that documenting their work has been greatly simplified and provides concrete benefits.

  4. oils marketed in dar es salaam

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). ... METHODS. Seven brands of locally produced edible vegetable oils (Table 1) were randomly collected off the shelf around Dar es Salaam. Table 1: Edible oils, their brand and manufacturer names, ... in the Sealed bottles Were similarly analyzed for peroxide value over 60 days. 50 ...

  5. Dar es Salaam city in Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Engineering geological mapping of Dar es Salaam city in Tanzania has been carried out using desk studies supplemented by field reconnaissance as well as limited laboratory tests. Desk studies involved interpretation of medium to large-scale topographical maps,. Landsat imagery and sequential aerial ...

  6. Zfp322a Regulates mouse ES cell pluripotency and enhances reprogramming efficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Ma

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic stem (ES cells derived from the inner cell mass (ICM of blastocysts are characterised by their ability to self-renew and their potential to differentiate into many different cell types. Recent studies have shown that zinc finger proteins are crucial for maintaining pluripotent ES cells. Mouse zinc finger protein 322a (Zfp322a is expressed in the ICM of early mouse embryos. However, little is known regarding the role of Zfp322a in the pluripotency maintenance of mouse ES cells. Here, we report that Zfp322a is required for mES cell identity since depletion of Zfp322a directs mES cells towards differentiation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP and dual-luciferase reporter assays revealed that Zfp322a binds to Pou5f1 and Nanog promoters and regulates their transcription. These data along with the results obtained from our ChIP-seq experiment showed that Zfp322a is an essential component of mES cell transcription regulatory network. Targets which are directly regulated by Zfp322a were identified by correlating the gene expression profile of Zfp322a RNAi-treated mES cells with the ChIP-seq results. These experiments revealed that Zfp322a inhibits mES cell differentiation by suppressing MAPK pathway. Additionally, Zfp322a is found to be a novel reprogramming factor that can replace Sox2 in the classical Yamanaka's factors (OSKM. It can be even used in combination with Yamanaka's factors and that addition leads to a higher reprogramming efficiency and to acceleration of the onset of the reprogramming process. Together, our results demonstrate that Zfp322a is a novel essential component of the transcription factor network which maintains the identity of mouse ES cells.

  7. Expression and Characterization of α-Methylacyl CoA Racemase from Anisakis simplex Larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bong Jin; Kim, Sun Mi; Cho, Min Kyung; Yu, Hak Sun; Lee, Yong Seok; Cha, Hee Jae

    2012-01-01

    Larval excretory-secretory products of Anisakis simplex are known to cause allergic reactions in humans. A cDNA library of A. simplex 3rd-stage larvae (L3) was immunoscreened with polyclonal rabbit serum raised against A. simplex L3 excretory-secretory products to identify an antigen that elicits the immune response. One cDNA clone, designated as α-methylacyl CoA racemase (Amacr) contained a 1,412 bp cDNA transcript with a single open reading frame that encoded 418 amino acids. A. simplex Amacr showed a high degree of homology compared to Amacr orthologs from other species. Amacr mRNA was highly and constitutively expressed regardless of temperature (10-40℃) and time (24-48 hr). Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that Amacr was expressed mainly in the ventriculus of A. simplex larvae. The Amacr protein produced in large quantities from the ventriculus is probably responsible for many functions in the development and growth of A. simplex larvae. PMID:22711931

  8. ES7, encoding a ferredoxin-dependent glutamate synthase, functions in nitrogen metabolism and impacts leaf senescence in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Yingxin; Wu, Weixun; Zhan, Xiaodeng; Yu, Ning; Xu, Tingting; Liu, Qunen; Li, Zhi; Shen, Xihong; Chen, Daibo; Cheng, Shihua; Cao, Liyong

    2017-06-01

    Glutamate synthase (GOGAT) is a key enzyme for nitrogen metabolism and ammonium assimilation in plants. In this study, an early senescence 7 (es7) mutant was identified and characterized. The leaves of the es7 mutant begin to senesce at the tillering stage about 60day after sowing, and become increasingly senescent as the plants develop at the heading stage. When es7 plants are grown under photorespiration-suppressed conditions (high CO2), the senescence phenotype and chlorophyll content are rescued. qRT-PCR analysis showed that senescence- associated genes were up-regulated significantly in es7. A map-based cloning strategy was used to identify ES7, which encodes a ferredoxin-dependent glutamate synthase (Fd-GOGAT). ES7 was expressed constitutively, and the ES7 protein was localized in chloroplast. qRT-PCR analysis indicated that several genes related to nitrogen metabolism were differentially expressed in es7. Further, we also demonstrated that chlorophyll synthesis-associated genes were significantly down-regulated in es7. In addition, when seedlings are grown under increasing nitrogen concentrations (NH4NO3) for 15days, the contents of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll were significantly lower in es7. Our results demonstrated that ES7 is involved in nitrogen metabolism, effects chlorophyll synthesis, and may also associated with photorespiration, impacting leaf senescence in rice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Myxococcus xanthus DK1622 Coordinates Expressions of the Duplicate groEL and Single groES Genes for Synergistic Functions of GroELs and GroES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue-zhong Li

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Chaperonin GroEL (Cpn60 requires cofactor GroES (Cpn10 for protein refolding in bacteria that possess single groEL and groES genes in a bicistronic groESL operon. Among 4,861 completely-sequenced prokaryotic genomes, 884 possess duplicate groEL genes and 770 possess groEL genes with no neighboring groES. It is unclear whether stand-alone groEL requires groES in order to function and, if required, how duplicate groEL genes and unequal groES genes balance their expressions. In Myxococcus xanthus DK1622, we determined that, while duplicate groELs were alternatively deletable, the single groES that clusters with groEL1 was essential for cell survival. Either GroEL1 or GroEL2 required interactions with GroES for in vitro and in vivo functions. Deletion of groEL1 or groEL2 resulted in decreased expressions of both groEL and groES; and ectopic complementation of groEL recovered not only the groEL but also groES expressions. The addition of an extra groES gene upstream groEL2 to form a bicistronic operon had almost no influence on groES expression and the cell survival rate, whereas over-expression of groES using a self-replicating plasmid simultaneously increased the groEL expressions. The results indicated that M. xanthus DK1622 cells coordinate expressions of the duplicate groEL and single groES genes for synergistic functions of GroELs and GroES. We proposed a potential regulation mechanism for the expression coordination.

  10. The novel elicitor AsES triggers a defense response against Botrytis cinerea in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hael-Conrad, V; Abou-Mansour, E; Díaz-Ricci, J-C; Métraux, J-P; Serrano, M

    2015-12-01

    AsES (Acremonium strictum Elicitor and Subtilisin) is a novel extracellular elicitor protein produced by the avirulent isolate SS71 of the opportunist strawberry fungal pathogen A. strictum. Here we describe the activity of AsES in the plant-pathogen system Arabidopsis thaliana-Botrytis cinerea. We show that AsES renders A. thaliana plants resistant to the necrotrophic pathogen B. cinerea, both locally and systemically and the defense response observed is dose-dependent. Systemic, but not local resistance is dependent on the length of exposure to AsES. The germination of the spores in vitro was not inhibited by AsES, implying that protection to B. cinerea is due to the induction of the plant defenses. These results were further supported by the findings that AsES differentially affects mutants impaired in the response to salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and ethylene, suggesting that AsES triggers the defense response through these three signaling pathways. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. ¿Qué es conducta?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteve Freixa i Baqué

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available La definición de la Psicología como ciencia de la conducta adoptada por el Conductismo supone e implica a su vez una conceptualización clara y unívoca de dicho concepto. Pero tal definición se enfrenta con una serie de malentendidos tenaces que dificultan no sólo la comprensión de dicho concepto básico sino también, en consecuencia, la propia conceptualización conductista. El propósito del presente trabajo es intentar exponer algunos de estos malentendidos, entre los que destacan los errores categoriales groseros, los procesos de reificación abusiva, los razonamientos tautológicos disfrazados, la generalización imprudente del modelo médico al ámbito de la conducta y la confusión nefasta entre un fenómeno y su conceptualización. Para ello, y con un tono más didáctico que académico, se recurre a una serie de metáforas de la vida cotidiana: la parte escondida del iceberg no es más que iceberg, las piedras no caen por su propio peso, los hombres y las mujeres no mueren porque son mortales, el bacilo de Koch existe y la máscara no es el rostro.

  12. Transcriptome analysis of the Cryptocaryon irritans tomont stage identifies potential genes for the detection and control of cryptocaryonosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Kiew-Lian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cryptocaryon irritans is a parasitic ciliate that causes cryptocaryonosis (white spot disease in marine fish. Diagnosis of cryptocaryonosis often depends on the appearance of white spots on the surface of the fish, which are usually visible only during later stages of the disease. Identifying suitable biomarkers of this parasite would aid the development of diagnostic tools and control strategies for C. irritans. The C. irritans genome is virtually unexplored; therefore, we generated and analyzed expressed sequence tags (ESTs of the parasite to identify genes that encode for surface proteins, excretory/secretory proteins and repeat-containing proteins. Results ESTs were generated from a cDNA library of C. irritans tomonts isolated from infected Asian sea bass, Lates calcarifer. Clustering of the 5356 ESTs produced 2659 unique transcripts (UTs containing 1989 singletons and 670 consensi. BLAST analysis showed that 74% of the UTs had significant similarity (E-value -5 to sequences that are currently available in the GenBank database, with more than 15% of the significant hits showing unknown function. Forty percent of the UTs had significant similarity to ciliates from the genera Tetrahymena and Paramecium. Comparative gene family analysis with related taxa showed that many protein families are conserved among the protozoans. Based on gene ontology annotation, functional groups were successfully assigned to 790 UTs. Genes encoding excretory/secretory proteins and membrane and membrane-associated proteins were identified because these proteins often function as antigens and are good antibody targets. A total of 481 UTs were classified as encoding membrane proteins, 54 were classified as encoding for membrane-bound proteins, and 155 were found to contain excretory/secretory protein-coding sequences. Amino acid repeat-containing proteins and GPI-anchored proteins were also identified as potential candidates for the development of

  13. The Epigenetic Paradox of Pluripotent ES Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festuccia, Nicola; Gonzalez, Inma; Navarro, Pablo

    2017-05-19

    The propagation and maintenance of gene expression programs are at the foundation of the preservation of cell identity. A large and complex set of epigenetic mechanisms enables the long-term stability and inheritance of transcription states. A key property of authentic epigenetic regulation is being independent from the instructive signals used for its establishment. This makes epigenetic regulation, particularly epigenetic silencing, extremely robust and powerful to lock regulatory states and stabilise cell identity. In line with this, the establishment of epigenetic silencing during development restricts cell potency and maintains the cell fate choices made by transcription factors (TFs). However, how more immature cells that have not yet established their definitive fate maintain their transitory identity without compromising their responsiveness to signalling cues remains unclear. A paradigmatic example is provided by pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells derived from a transient population of cells of the blastocyst. Here, we argue that ES cells represent an interesting "epigenetic paradox": even though they are captured in a self-renewing state characterised by extremely efficient maintenance of their identity, which is a typical manifestation of robust epigenetic regulation, they seem not to heavily rely on classical epigenetic mechanisms. Indeed, self-renewal strictly depends on the TFs that previously instructed their undifferentiated identity and relies on a particular signalling-dependent chromatin state where repressive chromatin marks play minor roles. Although this "epigenetic paradox" may underlie their exquisite responsiveness to developmental cues, it suggests that alternative mechanisms to faithfully propagate gene regulatory states might be prevalent in ES cells. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. ¿Es posible objetivar el dolor?

    OpenAIRE

    DR. S. Mario Campero

    2014-01-01

    El dolor es una experiencia cognitiva como resultado de la activación de nociceptores o descritas en esos términos. El estímulo nociceptivo desencadena la activación de redes neuronales que procesan la información en forma paralela y distribuida, con un componente discriminativo en el tálamo y corteza primaria contra lateral y otro afectivo en la corteza del cíngulo anterior y prefrontal dorsolateral. El dolor como experiencia psíquica solo puede ser objetivado en sus aspectos de activación d...

  15. ¿Es usted socialmente responsable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonel Mosquera

    2016-06-01

    El objetivo de este ensayo es dar a conocer no solo a la comunidad laica sino a la sociedad que nuestra propuesta incluye un cambio de actitud, una revolución de prácticas sociales que serán plasmadas con toda la información detallada de la realización del proyecto antes mencionado y por consiguiente, se realizará la ejecución de un Manual de procedimientos con indicadores de prácticas sociales de la Universidad Laica Vicente Rocafuerte de Guayaquil

  16. ¿Es posible el capitalismo sostenible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James O´Connor

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available ¿Es posible el capitalismo sostenible? En este artículo se analiza una evidencia relativa a esta pregunta, haciendo énfasis en algunos de los diferentes conceptos de "sostenibilidad" planteados por los verdes y por el sector empresarial. Se hace un breve recuento de las condiciones de sostenibilidad económica y se discute la "primera" contradicción del capitalismo y la naturaleza de la acumulación capitalista, además de un breve examen del proceso de formación de una crisis mundial en la década de los ochenta.

  17. Administrando governos, governando administra????es

    OpenAIRE

    Mintzberg, Henry

    1998-01-01

    O artigo enfoca a necessidade de se alcan??ar um equil??brio entre os setores p??blico e privado, na caracteriza????o dos papeis da Administra????o P??blica. Parte-se da discuss??o sobre a natureza dos servi??os prestados ao p??blico, que dependendo da situa????o pode assumir a forma de consumidores, clientes, cidad??os e s??ditos. Considerando, tais distin????es e desafios no provimento dos servi??os, o texto discute como deveriam ser administradas as v??rias atividades governamentais e apr...

  18. ¿Qué es calidad?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo Flórez Baratto

    1988-04-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN El mundo cada día más complejo de los negocios, debido al sinnúmero de productos que a diario salen al mercado, obligan a quienes lo dirigen, a conocer las técnicas, métodos y herramientas para logar un mejor nivel de calidad que satisfaga las expectativas que el usuario se hace de los bienes y/o servicios que se le ofrecen. Es mi propósito presentar en una forma sencilla y clara algunos conceptos de CALIDAD y sus implicaciones en el desempeño general  de toda actividad empresarial.

  19. [Fourcroy and the "Lycĕes"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viel, Claude

    2011-04-01

    In XVIIIth century on Encyclopaedists influence, the study of Sciences arouse a real passion. Many courses are proposed. Two private institutions are opened which are called "Lycées": "Lycée de la rue de Valois" and "Lycée des Arts". Fourcroy and Lavoisier have been influential members of these two. Problems come to "Lycée de la rue de Valois", lead to the "purge ballot" and to Lavoisier's eviction. In France, it is the "Terror" and Lavoisier few months after was guillotined as "Fermier general". The historic events exonerate Fourcroy, member of the Convention, to the accusation that he has no made steps to save Lavoisier. This important historic event is a part of this study. As we show in this study "Lycées" are been small universities and have contributed to maintenance bonds between French scientists at the Revolution. The "Musée de Paris" and the "Société Philomathique de Paris" are also evoked.

  20. ¿Qué es el neozapatismo?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xóchitl Leyva Solano

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available El levantamiento chiapaneco del primero de enero de 1994 descencadenó la movilización de varios sectores de la sociedad mexicana. Del repudio unánime a la guerra nació un amplio movimiento ciudadano y popular que –sin compartir los medios tácticos de la lucha armada– convergió con el Ejército Zapatista de Liberación Nacional (EZLN en sus aspiraciones sociales y políticas: la lucha por la democracia, la justicia y la libertad. Por ser él, resulta pertinente calificarlo con el término de neozapatismo civil. Si sumamos a este conjunto de movilizaciones ciudadanas y populares el propio zapatismo armado – advirtiendo su carácter «socio-políticomilitar »– obtendremos el neozapatismo en su sentido más amplio. Otra forma de entender el neozapatismo –que desarrollaremos en la presente reflexión– es como un proceso dinámico constituido por una pluralidad de intereses, voluntades e identidades, que lo inscriben dentro de un campo de contradicciones y de tensiones no resueltas. Como primera premisa podemos apuntar que el neozapatismo no es ni homogéneo ni mucho menos monolítico, sino que, como lo mostraremos a continuación, tiene una naturaleza multifacética, polisémica y fluídica.

  1. Un guijarro no es un canto rodado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coronado Castillo, Ángel

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The sense or meaning of a word resides in thought and only manifests itself when the word is used. Yet the sense conveyed can be equivocal if the word is taken out of its context, spatial as well as temporal. Considering the present time then, we are dealing with the determination of a space, with exploring around the contextual area. The study that resulted in this paper involves geography, but is no geographical research; at most research on human geography. Although it involves speech, its direct object is not language. Neither it is, in strictness, ethnography nor cultural anthropology. But it concerns all of these fields and, therefore, cannot stay away from any of them. Only one concept, perhaps, overrides the whole undertaking and meets the double condition of being simple and complex at the same time: the concept of elementary area. This concept rests upon the seminal idea of taking the sense and meaning of something (in this case, a name or a noun as the use given to such something (such name or noun in a particular space: a here and a now. One word or signifier, one single meaning; that is all there is. Yet it is this extreme simplification that which allows freedom of speculation, clear and refined.

    El sentido de una palabra está en el pensamiento y sólo se hace manifiesto a través de dicha palabra. Pero la información que conlleva la misma es equívoca si hacemos abstracción de un lugar y de un tiempo. Sea el tiempo actual. Se trata, pues, de la determinación de un lugar, de indagar acerca del territorio. El estudio propuesto trata, pues, de geografía, pero no es geografía; acaso geografía humana. Concierne al habla, pero su objeto directo no es la lengua. No es tampoco, en sentido estricto, etnografía ni antropología cultural. Pero siendo un poco todo ello, no puede prescindir de nada. Sólo uno de sus conceptos, quizá, presida todo el conjunto y reúna la doble condición de ser complejo y a la vez simple:

  2. PHOEBE: PHysics Of Eclipsing BinariEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prsa, Andrej; Matijevic, Gal; Latkovic, Olivera; Vilardell, Francesc; Wils, Patrick

    2011-06-01

    PHOEBE (PHysics Of Eclipsing BinariEs) is a modeling package for eclipsing binary stars, built on top of the widely used WD program (Wilson & Devinney 1971). This introductory paper overviews most important scientific extensions (incorporating observational spectra of eclipsing binaries into the solution-seeking process, extracting individual temperatures from observed color indices, main-sequence constraining and proper treatment of the reddening), numerical innovations (suggested improvements to WD's Differential Corrections method, the new Nelder & Mead's downhill Simplex method) and technical aspects (back-end scripter structure, graphical user interface). While PHOEBE retains 100% WD compatibility, its add-ons are a powerful way to enhance WD by encompassing even more physics and solution reliability.

  3. MIELOGRAFIA EM CÃES COM IOHEXOL

    OpenAIRE

    Silva Adelina Maria da; Fialho Sérgio Amaro Guimarães

    1991-01-01

    RESUMO Iohexol, um novo meio de contraste hidrossolúvel não iônico, foi utilizado na realização de mielografias em seis cães, cinco dos quais normais. O sexto animal, atropelado por uma motocicleta, apresentava paralisia espástica dos membros torácicos e paralisia flácida dos membros pélvicos. Na mielografia desse cão, o meio de contraste não progrediu além de T11 e o exame macroscópico confirmou a fratura do corpo vertebral de T11. A qualidade das mielografias foi excelente pois o iohexol pr...

  4. Proteomic analysis of adult Ascaris suum fluid compartments and secretory products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chehayeb, James F; Robertson, Alan P; Martin, Richard J; Geary, Timothy G

    2014-06-01

    Strategies employed by parasites to establish infections are poorly understood. The host-parasite interface is maintained through a molecular dialog that, among other roles, protects parasites from host immune responses. Parasite excretory/secretory products (ESP) play major roles in this process. Understanding the biology of protein secretion by parasites and their associated functional processes will enhance our understanding of the roles of ESP in host-parasite interactions. ESP was collected after culturing 10 adult female Ascaris suum. Perienteric fluid (PE) and uterine fluid (UF) were collected directly from adult females by dissection. Using SDS-PAGE coupled with LC-MS/MS, we identified 175, 308 and 274 proteins in ESP, PE and UF, respectively. Although many proteins were shared among the samples, the protein composition of ESP was distinct from PE and UF, whereas PE and UF were highly similar. The distribution of gene ontology (GO) terms for proteins in ESP, PE and UF supports this claim. Comparison of ESP composition in A. suum, Brugia malayi and Heligmosoides polygyrus showed that proteins found in UF were also secreted by males and by larval stages of other species, suggesting that multiple routes of secretion may be used for homologous proteins. ESP composition of nematodes is both phylogeny- and niche-dependent. Analysis of the protein composition of A. suum ESP and UF leads to the conclusion that the excretory-secretory apparatus and uterus are separate routes for protein release. Proteins detected in ESP have distinct patterns of biological functions compared to those in UF. PE is likely to serve as the source of the majority of proteins in UF. This analysis expands our knowledge of the biology of protein secretion from nematodes and will inform new studies on the function of secreted proteins in the orchestration of host-parasite interactions.

  5. ¿Es posible objetivar el dolor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DR. S. Mario Campero

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available El dolor es una experiencia cognitiva como resultado de la activación de nociceptores o descritas en esos términos. El estímulo nociceptivo desencadena la activación de redes neuronales que procesan la información en forma paralela y distribuida, con un componente discriminativo en el tálamo y corteza primaria contra lateral y otro afectivo en la corteza del cíngulo anterior y prefrontal dorsolateral. El dolor como experiencia psíquica solo puede ser objetivado en sus aspectos de activación de las áreas de la así llamada matriz de dolor, mediante la técnica de resonancia magnética funcional. Con el registro de la actividad de nociceptores en sujetos despiertos y en pacientes con dolor neuropático mediante microneurografía se puede relacionar la actividad anormal en estos receptores con la sensación evocada.

  6. La convivencia no es tan obvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia García-Dalmás

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available La promoción de una mejor convivencia a través de la generación o mejora de espacios públicos, básicamente plazas y parques, sigue siendo una de las principales propuestas con las que las políticas públicas, por lo menos en Uruguay, buscan dar respuesta a lo que identifican como “problemas sociales acuciantes”: la violencia, la inseguridad. El presente artículo toma como base una propuesta, la Estrategia por la Vida y la Convivencia, impulsada por el gobierno nacional que, entre otros aspectos, plantea que “el pacto de convivencia es un pacto de obviedad”. Desde la comunicación propone aproximaciones y preguntas que buscan desnaturalizar lo obvio, profundizar en cómo se construyen vínculos y sentidos en relación a los territorios y la cotidianidad de quienes los habitan.

  7. Linfossarcoma em cães

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fighera Rafael Almeida

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O linfossarcoma é uma neoplasia linfóide que se origina em órgão sólido e que, em cães, não tem ainda uma etiologia determinada. O diagnóstico dessa neoplasia pode ser feito tanto por citologia como por histopatologia, embora, muitas vezes, sua diferenciação de leucemia linfóide seja difícil. Vários sinais clínicos são associados com o linfossarcoma canino, a maioria deles relacionada ao órgão na qual o tumor se localiza. Uma manifestação comum é a linfadenopatia generalizada que deve ser diferenciada de outras enfermidades que causam aumento de volume dos linfonodos. Algumas síndromes paraneoplásicas complicam casos de linfossarcoma e, muitas vezes, são responsáveis pela morte do animal. Neste trabalho, são revisados os aspectos clínicos, laboratoriais, as alterações de necropsia e histopatologia do linfossarcoma canino.

  8. ¿Es tolerable la tolerancia religiosa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savater, Fernando

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Tolerance is a basic value of our democracies, when it applies to life attitudes and to symbolic interpretations of our experience. However, usually there is no tolerance about statements of fact offered without scientific basis or from assumptions that proved to be false. Religions have a symbolic and poetic dimension which is not only tolerable, but even also fruitful for the interpretation of our life, but they also tend to present themselves as explanations of facts in competition with scientific explanations. It can be argued whether complete tolerance of this second use of religious ideology should be encouraged.

    La tolerancia es un valor básico de nuestras democracias, en cuanto se refiere a actitudes vitales y a interpretaciones simbólicas de nuestra experiencia. No suele haber tolerancia, en cambio, sobre las cuestiones de hecho presentadas sin base científica o desde presupuestos comprobadamente falsos. Las religiones tienen una dimensión poética y simbólica no sólo tolerable sino hasta enriquecedora de nuestra interpretación vital, pero casi siempre pretenden presentarse también como explicaciones de los hechos en competencia con la de los científicos. Puede cuestionarse si debe haber plena tolerancia para este segundo uso de la ideología religiosa.

  9. MIELOGRAFIA EM CÃES COM IOHEXOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Adelina Maria da

    1991-04-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Iohexol, um novo meio de contraste hidrossolúvel não iônico, foi utilizado na realização de mielografias em seis cães, cinco dos quais normais. O sexto animal, atropelado por uma motocicleta, apresentava paralisia espástica dos membros torácicos e paralisia flácida dos membros pélvicos. Na mielografia desse cão, o meio de contraste não progrediu além de T11 e o exame macroscópico confirmou a fratura do corpo vertebral de T11. A qualidade das mielografias foi excelente pois o iohexol proporcionou uma opacificação adequada e homogênea do espaço subaracnóideo. O iohexol deslocou-se de maneira satisfatória e mielografias das regiões torácica e lombar puderam ser obtidas pela punção cisternal. Não foi registrado nenhum caso de convulsão, confirmando a menor neurotoxicidade desse novo meio de contraste.

  10. La ciudad es un libro abierto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Carrión M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A nivel urbano se producen cambios en la relación comunicación y ciudad que se expresan en las nuevas formas de articulación interurbana, población-ciudad, gobierno local-sociedad y redes sociales. El autor señala las características que hacen de la ciudad un medio de comunicación y enfatiza en la necesidad de que los municipios trabajen por el fortalecimiento de la articulación social de mediación de lo público. Compara al libro y la ciudad como textos abiertos. Señala que las ciudades tienen una nomenclatura que obliga a ser leídas. La estructura simbólica de la ciudad está compuesta por un conjunto de signos que facilitan el establecimiento de contactos entre la sociedad y el espacio que la contiene, así como la apertura de ámbitos de relación entre la cultura y la naturaleza. La ciudad es un foro de comunicación e información, porque en ella confluye la mayor densidad de medios de comunicación y usuarios; abarca la mayor concentración de lugares de socialización; posee el mayor cúmulo de información concentrada y tiene acumuladas la mayor cantidad de manifestaciones simbólicas.

  11. Advanced boundary electrode modeling for tES and parallel tES/EEG

    CERN Document Server

    Agsten, Britte; Pursiainen, Sampsa; Wolters, Carsten H

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores advanced electrode modeling in the context of separate and parallel transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) and electroencephalography (EEG) measurements. We focus on boundary condition based approaches that do not necessitate adding auxiliary elements, e.g. sponges, to the computational domain. In particular, we investigate the complete electrode model (CEM) which incorporates a detailed description of the skin-electrode interface including its contact surface, impedance and normal current distribution. The CEM can be applied for both tES and EEG electrodes which is advantageous when a parallel system is used. In comparison to the CEM, we test two important reduced approaches: the gap model (GAP) and the point electrode model (PEM). We aim to find out the differences of these approaches for a realistic numerical setting based on the stimulation of the auditory cortex. The results obtained suggest, among other things, that GAP and GAP/PEM are sufficiently accurate for the practical appli...

  12. ¿ES FACTIBLE EL PROGRESO SOCIAL CUANDO DIEZ MENOS UNO ES IGUAL A CERO?

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Miller

    2009-01-01

    Este artículo analiza las opiniones de dieciséis académicos caribeños sobre el progreso social y concluye que tal cosa es en realidad inalcanzable en el Caribe, donde las metanarrativas diezman las masas y mantienen las posiciones de poder de unas pocas elites. Een vista de esto, un paso importante hacia el avance social en Eel Caribe sería la evisceración de las metanarrativas europeas atrincheradas.

  13. The effect of MEP pathway and other inhibitors on the intracellular localization of a plasma membrane-targeted, isoprenylable GFP reporter protein in tobacco BY-2 cells [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/2af

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Hartmann

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We have established an in vivo visualization system for the geranylgeranylation of proteins in a stably transformed tobacco BY-2 cell line, based on the expression of a dexamethasone-inducible GFP fused to the carboxy-terminal basic domain of the rice calmodulin CaM61, which naturally bears a CaaL geranylgeranylation motif (GFP-BD-CVIL. By using pathway-specific inhibitors it was demonstrated that inhibition of the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP pathway with known inhibitors like oxoclomazone and fosmidomycin, as well as inhibition of the protein geranylgeranyltransferase type 1 (PGGT-1, shifted the localization of the GFP-BD-CVIL protein from the membrane to the nucleus. In contrast, the inhibition of the mevalonate (MVA pathway with mevinolin did not affect the localization. During the present work, this test system has been used to examine the effect of newly designed inhibitors of the MEP pathway and inhibitors of sterol biosynthesis such as squalestatin, terbinafine and Ro48-8071. In addition, we also studied the impact of different post-prenylation inhibitors or those suspected to affect the transport of proteins to the plasma membrane on the localization of the geranylgeranylable fusion protein GFP-BD-CVIL.

  14. Bases de données en biologie

    OpenAIRE

    Vignal, Alain

    2000-01-01

    Les bases de données en biologie doivent permettre le stockage d’une quantité croissante d’informations dont la nature est hétérogène. Des entités parfois très différentes sont à représenter, ainsi que leurs relations. De plus, les techniques variées utilisées pour générer les données doivent être prises en compte. De ce fait, il existe un foisonnement de bases de données spécialisées, dont nous décrivons ici les principales, ainsi que leurs interrelations.

  15. ¿ES FACTIBLE EL PROGRESO SOCIAL CUANDO DIEZ MENOS UNO ES IGUAL A CERO?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Miller

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza las opiniones de dieciséis académicos caribeños sobre el progreso social y concluye que tal cosa es en realidad inalcanzable en el Caribe, donde las metanarrativas diezman las masas y mantienen las posiciones de poder de unas pocas elites. Een vista de esto, un paso importante hacia el avance social en Eel Caribe sería la evisceración de las metanarrativas europeas atrincheradas.

  16. Penetapan Strategi Bisnis pada PT. Pabrik Es Siantar, Pematangsiantar

    OpenAIRE

    Pakpahan, Vovi Novita

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to identify the types of strategies used dan analyze the internal environment PT. Pabrik Es Siantar related strenghts and weaknesses and the external environment related opportunities and threats to determine the right strategy and the way it is applied in PT. Pabrik Es Siantar in the face of competition. The type of strategy adopted PT. Pabrik Es Siantar classified as a defensive strategy. The input stage of business strategy include matrix EFE,IFE and CPM. The total ...

  17. iDESWEB: Usabilidad: qué es

    OpenAIRE

    Luján Mora, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Qué es la usabilidad, definiciones en ISO 9241 (usuario, objetivo, contexto) e ISO/IEC 9126 (funcionalidad, fiabilidad, usabilidad, eficiencia, mantenibilidad, portabilidad), definición de Jakob Nielsen: "La usabilidad es un atributo de calidad que mide lo fácil que son de usar los interfaces de usuario", componentes de la usabilidad: facilidad de aprendizaje, eficiencia, memorabilidad, errores, satisfacción. Sitio web del curso: http://idesweb.es/

  18. Marcação imunoistoquímica da expressão astrocitária de proteína glial fibrilar ácida e de vimentina no sistema nervoso central de cães com cinomose Immunohistochemical staining of the astrocytic expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein and vimentin in the central nervous system of dogs with canine distemper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloísa Orsini

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Uma vez que muitos dos aspectos envolvidos na patogenia dos processos desmielinizantes do sistema nervoso central (SNC são ainda pouco esclarecidos e que os astrócitos parecem estar envolvidos na mediação de tais processos, este estudo analisou morfologicamente a participação astrocitária na desmielinização do SNC por meio da marcação imunoistoquímica de duas proteínas dos filamentos intermediários astrocitários - a proteína glial fibrilar ácida (GFAP e a vimentina (VIM -, comparando amostras de cerebelo e de tronco encefálico de oito cães com cinomose e de dois cães normais, de diferentes raças e com idades entre um e quatro anos. Cortes histológicos dos tecidos foram submetidos à marcação pelo método indireto da avidina-biotina-peroxidase (ABC e a reatividade astrocitária, observada em microscopia de luz, foi quantificada em um sistema computacional de análise de imagens. Observou-se, na maioria dos cortes de animais doentes, a presença de lesões degenerativas compatíveis com desmielinização. A marcação para a GFAP e para a VIM foi mais intensa nos animais com cinomose do que nos animais normais, especialmente nas regiões circunventriculares e nas adjacentes às áreas de degeneração tecidual. Não houve diferença significativa entre a imunomarcação (GFAP e VIM dos animais com cinomose com e sem infiltração inflamatória da substância branca do cerebelo. O aumento da imunorreatividade dos astrócitos para a GFAP e a reexpressão de VIM nas áreas lesionais indicam o envolvimento astrocitário na resposta do tecido nervoso às lesões desmielinizantes induzidas pelo vírus da cinomose (CDV no SNC.Considering that many aspects involved in the pathogenesis of the central nervous system (CNS demyelinating diseases are still poorly understood and that astrocytes seem to mediate such processes, this study analyzed the participation of astrocytes in the demyelinating processes of CNS by using

  19. Human ES cells: starting culture from frozen cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trish, Erin; Dimos, John; Eggan, Kevin

    2006-11-09

    Here we demonstrate how our lab begins a HuES human embryonic stem cell line culture from a frozen stock. First, a one to two day old ten cm plate of approximately one (to two) million irradiated mouse embryonic fibroblast feeder cells is rinsed with HuES media to remove residual serum and cell debris, and then HuES media added and left to equilibrate in the cell culture incubator. A frozen vial of cells from long term liquid nitrogen storage or a -80 C freezer is sourced and quickly submerged in a 37 C water bath for quick thawing. Cells in freezing media are then removed from the vial and placed in a large volume of HuES media. The large volume of HuES media facilitates removal of excess serum and DMSO, which can cause HuES human embryonic stem cells to differentiate. Cells are gently spun out of suspension, and then re-suspended in a small volume of fresh HuES media that is then used to seed the MEF plate. It is considered important to seed the MEF plate by gently adding the HuES cells in a drop wise fashion to evenly disperse them throughout the plate. The newly established HuES culture plate is returned to the incubator for 48 hrs before media is replaced, then is fed every 24 hours thereafter.

  20. Nutritional status of HIV-infected women with tuberculosis in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakari, M; Wamsele, J; MacKenzie, T; Maro, I; Kimario, J; Ali, S; Dowla, S; Hendricks, K; Lukmanji, Z; Neke, N M; Waddell, R; Matee, M; Pallangyo, K; von Reyn, C F

    2013-09-21

    Tuberculosis (TB) treatment clinics in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. To quantify anthropometrics and intake of en-ergy and protein among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive women with TB. HIV-positive women with newly diagnosed TB were assessed on their anthropometric characteristics and dietary intake. Energy and protein intake were determined using Tanzania food composition tables and compared with standard recommendations. Patients were re-evaluated after 4-6 months of anti-tuberculosis treatment. Among 43 women, the baseline median CD4 count was 209 cells/µl (range 8-721); 19 (44%) had a CD4 count of HIV-positive women with TB have substantial 24-h deficits in energy and protein intake, report significant food insecurity and gain minimal weight on anti-tuberculosis treatment. Enhanced dietary education together with daily supplementation of 1000 kcal with 40 g protein may be required.

  1. Filarial parasites in the postgenomic era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specht, Sabine; Hoerauf, Achim

    2009-03-01

    Filarial parasites are able to survive for many years in their host, with suppression of the host's immune response being one major survival strategy of the parasite. However, knowledge on molecules that induce these pathways is limited. Additionally, molecules that induce inflammation, thereby leading to severe pathology, such as elephantiasis, are also not fully identified. This article assesses the findings of a recently published analysis of stage-specific excretory-secretory proteins by sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in combination with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In total, 228 proteins with known and unknown functions were identified and compared with genomic, expressed sequence tags and proteomic databases. We discuss the key findings of this article for implications on filarial parasitism, as well as for a potential use for new therapeutics.

  2. Microbiota conjuntival em cães clinicamente sadios e cães com ceratoconjuntivite seca

    OpenAIRE

    Oria,Arianne Pontes; Pinna,Melissa Hanzen; Furtado,Miucha Almeida; Pinheiro,Ana Carla Oliveira; Gomes Junior,Deusdete Conceicao; Costa Neto,Joao Moreira

    2013-01-01

    Este trabalho objetivou determinar os microrganismos bacterianos no saco conjuntival de cães clinicamente normais e cães com ceratoconjuntivite seca (CCS), atendidos no Hospital de Medicina Veterinária da Universidade Federal da Bahia. Foram incluídos na pesquisa 30 animais sadios e 28 com CCS. Foi observado crescimento bacteriano em 60% das amostras oculares dos cães sadios e em 89,29% dos cães com CCS. Houve predomínio de espécies Gram positivas em ambos os grupos. Nos animais normais as ba...

  3. Design challenges facing urban development in Dar es Salaam City ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper aims at discussing building design challenges facing the city of Dar es Salaam. Information and data used for this paper were drawn from the study conducted in the city of Dar es Salaam and literature survey. The major concern is the negative effects associated with designs, construction activities and ...

  4. BMP4 and FGF strongly induce differentiation of mouse ES cells into oral ectoderm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Ochiai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available During embryonic development, oral ectoderm differentiates into the adenohypophysis, dental epithelia, salivary glands, and nasal pit. Few reports exist concerning the induction of oral ectoderm from embryonic stem (ES cells. Generally, any lot differences in fetal bovine serum (FBS and serum replacer may affect the induction of ES cell-differentiation. Using a previously established culture strategy for differentiation, the proportion of cell aggregates containing Pitx1+ oral ectoderm varied widely between 9–36% when several different lots of FBS or serum replacer were used. We therefore tried to enhance the differentiation method. We found that bone morphogenetic protein (BMP 4 and fibroblast growth factor (FGF treatments improved oral ectoderm induction. Such treatment also improved the differentiation of oral ectoderm into the adenohypophysis. Furthermore, increased BMP4 treatment induced dental epithelium and mesenchyme. Such differentiation suggests that the Pitx1+ layer displays similar properties to oral ectoderm, as found in vivo. Differentiation of ES cells into oral ectoderm using different lots of FBS and serum replacer increased 78–90% after treatment with BMP4 and FGF. In summary, we have established a robust strategy for the induction of oral ectoderm differentiation from mouse ES cells.

  5. Analyse automatique des données scripturales prétraitées par des outils de visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bécotte-Boutin Hélène-Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Plusieurs méthodes pour analyser le processus d’écriture ont été utilisés afin de comprendre les stratégies des scripteurs. L’outil principal pour analyser le processus d’écriture est le fichier log, qui contient de façon exhaustive et détaillée l’ensemble des opérations effectuées par le scripteur lors de la rédaction d’un texte. Les données qui y sont emmagasinées sont de quantité considérable et lorsqu’elles ne sont pas préalablement traitées, elles sont hostiles à être analysées par l’humain. Parmi les outils d’analyse utilisés, les représentations du processus d’écriture permettent l’agrégation des données grâce à un pré-traitement. Les structures sous-jacentes des données ainsi représentées sont généralement plus propices à l’analyse que les données brutes. Cet article vise à démontrer différentes méthodes d’analyse automatique pouvant être appliquées à ces structures afin de trouver ou confirmer des structures et tendances à travers les données.

  6. Production and characterization of a monoclonal antibody against recombinant cathepsin L1 of Fasciola gigantica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuracpreeda, Panat; Srirakam, Thippawan; Pandonlan, Sudarat; Changklungmoa, Narin; Chotwiwatthanakun, Charoonroj; Tinikul, Yotsawan; Poljaroen, Jaruwan; Meemon, Krai; Sobhon, Prasert

    2014-08-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) against a recombinant cathepsin L1 of Fasciola gigantica (rFgCatL1) were produced in vitro by fusion of BALB/c mice spleen cells immunized with rFgCatL1 and mouse myeloma cells. Reactivity and specificity of these MoAbs were evaluated by indirect ELISA and immunoblotting techniques. Seven MoAb clones were selected from the stable hybridoma clones, namely 1E10, 1F5, 3D11, 4B10, 4D3, 4E3 and 5E7. Clones 1E10, 1F5 and 3D11 were IgM, whereas clones 4B10, 4D3, 4E3 and 5E7 were IgG1. All MoAbs had kappa light chain isotypes. All MoAbs reacted with rCatL1 at molecular weight (MW) 30kDa and with the native CatL1 at MW 27kDa in whole body (WB) extracts of metacercariae (Met), newly excysted juveniles (NEJ), 1, 3, 5-week-old juveniles (Ju), adult WB and adult excretory-secretory (ES) fractions, but not with adult tegumental antigens (TA). All of these MoAbs showed no cross-reactions with antigens of other parasites commonly found in ruminants and human, including Paramphistomum cervi, Eurytrema pancreaticum, Gigantocotyle explanatum, Schistosoma spindale, Schistosoma mansoni, Moniezia benedeni, Avitellina centripunctata, Trichuris sp., Haemonchus placei and Setaria labiato-papillosa. Localization of CatL1 in each developmental stages of F. gigantica by immunoperoxidase technique, using these MoAbs as probes, indicated that CatL1 was present at high concentration in the caecal epithelium and caecal lumen of metacercariae, NEJ, 1, 3, 5-week-old juveniles and adult fluke. This finding indicated that CatL1 is a copiously expressed parasite protein that is released into the ES, thus CatL1 and its MoAb could be a good candidate for immunodiagnosis of fasciolosis in ruminant and human. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Substances bioactives élaborées par des cyanobactéries isolées de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AKA BOKO

    Substances bioactives élaborées par des cyanobactéries isolées de certains écosystèmes aquatiques marocains. Khalid OUFDOU* et Brahim OUDRA. Equipe de Microbiologie et Toxicologie Environnementales, Laboratoire de Biologie et de Biotechnologie des Microorganismes, Faculté des Sciences Semlalia Marrakech ...

  8. Proteases secreted by Gnathostoma binucleatum degrade fibronectin and antibodies from mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibanco-Pérez N.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Gnathostomiasis is a prevalent zoonosis in humans in some regions of the world. The genus Gnathostoma is considered an accidental parasite for humans; G. binucleatum is the endemic species in Nayarit, Mexico. This work was designed to determine the proteolytic activity of the excretory-secretory products (ESP of advanced third-stage larvae (ADVL3 of Gnathostoma binucleatum against human fibronectin and antibodies from human and sheep. Our findings showed protease activity against human fibronectin as well as sheep and human gamma globulins of the ESP at molecular weights of 80 and 56 kDa. The proteases found in the ESP of G. binucleatum are thus candidate molecules for consideration as pathogenic elements, owing to the fact that they destroy proteins of the host tissue, which probably allows them to migrate through those tissues and degrade molecules involved in the humoral immune response.

  9. Human ES cells: Starting Culture from Frozen Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Trish, Erin; Dimos, John; Eggan, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    Here we demonstrate how our lab begins a HuES human embryonic stem cell line culture from a frozen stock. First, a one to two day old ten cm plate of approximately one (to two) million irradiated mouse embryonic fibroblast feeder cells is rinsed with HuES media to remove residual serum and cell debris, and then HuES media added and left to equilibrate in the cell culture incubator. A frozen vial of cells from long term liquid nitrogen storage or a -80C freezer is sourced and quickly submer...

  10. Diccionarios monolingües de ELE vs. diccionarios normativos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villarrubia Zúñiga, Marisol

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available En el artículo analizamos diferentes lemas en el Diccionario Salamanca y los comparamos con los de varios diccionarios normativos del español, como por ejemplo, el DRAE. Nuestro propósito es ver cómo están construidos para evidenciar, cuál de estos es más útil para un estudiante que está aprendiendo el español como segunda lengua y por qué lo es.

  11. Com es poden trobar les patents, setembre 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Bonich, Mònica; Cervera-Farré, Albert; Santos-Hermosa, Gema

    2010-01-01

    Com es poden trobar les patents: què són les patents?, què es pot patentar?, qui assigna les patents? i com es poden trobar patents? Cómo encontrar patentes: ¿qué son las patentes?, ¿qué se puede patentar?, ¿quién asigna las patentes? y ¿cómo se pueden encontrar patentes? How to find patents: what are patents?, what can be patented?, who awards the patents? and how can patents be found?

  12. Protein Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Protein Foods Foods high in protein such as fish, ... for the vegetarian proteins, whether they have carbohydrate. Protein Choices Plant-Based Proteins Plant-based protein foods ...

  13. Adventistid sõjaväes / Tanis Kulp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kulp, Tanis

    2009-01-01

    Lühike ülevaade asendusteenistuse korraldusest Eestis, adventkoguduse seisukoht sõjaväes teenimise osas, vestlus sõjaväeosas ja asendusteenistuses teeninud adventkoguduste noormeestega, soovitusi toimimiseks kui tehakse valik asendusteenistuse kasuks

  14. Sobre el problema ¿qué es un problema?

    OpenAIRE

    Federici Casa, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    Unos de los problemas a los cuales tiene que enfrentarse elmaestro son los que pueden enunciarse con las tres preguntas :¿ Que es un problema?¿ Por que se resuelve un problema?¿ Como se resuelve un problema?

  15. Home Performance with Energy Star (HPwES) Program Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes the Department’s review of comments received on the HPwES v2 proposal and presents a multi-year action plan to both address Department goals and incorporate industry feedback.

  16. Dar es Salaam Land Use and Informal Settlement Data Set

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Dar es Salaam Land Use and Informal Settlement Data Set represents urban land use and consolidation of informal settlements for the years 1982, 1992, 1998, and...

  17. Final Technical Report: Electronic Structure Workshop (ES13)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Shiwei [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States)

    2015-02-26

    The 25th Annual Workshop on Recent Developments in Electronic Structure Methods (ES2013) was successfully held at the College of William & Mary in Williamsburg VA on June 11-14, 2013. The workshop website is at http://es13.wm.edu/ , which contains updated information on the workshop and a permanent archive of the scientific contents. DOE's continued support has been instrumental to the success of the workshop.

  18. Assessment of the diagnostic efficacy of enolase as an indication of active infection of Schistosoma japonicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hong; Xiao, Di; Song, Lijun; Zhang, Wei; Shen, Shuang; Yin, Xuren; Wang, Jie; Ke, Xuedan; Yu, Chuanxin; Zhang, Jianzhong

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a common zoonoses affecting humans. The atypical clinical symptoms, low morbidity, and low degree of infection impede diagnosis and assessment of epidemics. Detecting circulating antigens from adult worms in patients' body fluids should be diagnostically superior to examining eggs in feces. Herein, the excretory-secretory proteins of adult worms were analyzed by using 2-D protein electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. The Schistosoma japonicum enolase (Sj enolase) was identified as the most abundant excretory-secretory antigen. Purified recombinant Sj enolase was prepared, and specific monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies were raised against it. A sandwich enzyme-linked immunoassay (sandwich ELISA) was established that used the monoclonal antibody as a capture antibody and the polyclonal antibody as a detection antibody. The linear detection range was 0.7-1000 ng/ml (minimum 700 pg/ml). Sj enolase could be detected in the sera of infected rabbits and disappeared rapidly postpraziquantel treatment. The sensitivity and specificity of this sandwich ELISA to detect field serum samples of schistosomiasis were 84.61 and 95.83 %, respectively. The cross-reaction rates for clonorchiasis and paragonimiasis were 3.33 and 5 %, respectively. This ELISA assay was used to test 45 matching sera of schistosomiasis patients before treatment and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months posttreatment. Among the sera, 88.89 % were positive before treatment. At 3, 6, 9, and 12 months postpraziquantel treatment, 93.33, 97.78, 100, and 100 % tested negative, respectively. Therefore, Sj enolase can be used to indicate active Schistosoma infection, and detecting serum Sj enolase is important for diagnosis and evaluating treatment effect.

  19. ¿De quién es la ciudad?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Lira Olmo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Hay varias posiciones teóricas respecto a qué es la ciudad. Algunos insinúan que es un resultado único del devenir histórico. En esa ciudad, la concatenación de las acciones en el tiempo y las leyes de causa y efecto produjeron el resultado actual y como tal es único en el tiempo y el espacio. Otros dicen que la ciudad es la arena para el conflicto que se suscita por la apropiación de las plusvalías generadas en ella. Es la visión del eterno conflicto entre capital, trabajo y ciudadanía. Allí, la tensión social constante que es la que genera el entorno en que vive la especie. Aún otros la definen como el espacio principal para la producción de nuestra cultura, o de los bienes económicos o del habitar y cada uno de estas producciones implica formas de asentamiento, actitudes y relaciones de sus habitantes.

  20. 'El 'vos' es el dialecto que inventamos nosotros, la forma correcta es el 'tú''

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ane Christiansen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nicaragua es un país con un nivel de escolarización relativamente bajo y el contexto material y social en las escuelas hace que la enseñanza de la lengua materna esté dominada por métodos de memorización y ejercicios de gramática del tipo “rellenar espacios”. Las formas de tratamiento escritas que se utilizan en contextos pedagógicos son únicamente el tú y el usted, a pesar de ser Nicaragua una zona voseante. El presente artículo pretenderá mostrar, a través de referencias a estudios sobre las formas de tratamiento en Nicaragua, análisis del uso de los tratamientos en la escritura, ejemplos de entrevistas de actitudes lingüísticas y de análisis de documentos pedagógicos, que hay una discrepancia entre la norma escrita y la norma hablada en cuanto a las formas de tratamiento tú y vos en Nicaragua. Esta discrepancia se puede explicar con las creencias en torno a las diferentes formas de tratamiento, pero también al revés: el uso contradictorio de parte de las autoridades educativas influirá en las creencias del pueblo en general acerca de las formas de tratamiento y así crece un clima de inseguridad de la corrección de su propia habla. En última instancia tal contradicción puede ser un obstáculo para la enseñanza de la lengua materna y el prestigio lingüístico del habla local.

  1. Detected Timing for Exoplanet TrES-5b. Possible Existence of Exoplanet TrES-5c

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokov, E. N.; Sokova, I. A.; Dyachenko, V. V.; Rastegaev, D. A.; Rusov, S. A.

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we present timing variations detected for the TrES-5b exoplanet. To obtain necessary photometric data for this exoplanet, we have organized an international campaign for exoplanet searching based on the Transit Timing Variation (TTV) method. We managed to collect N light curves for TrEs-5b. On the basis of the obtained data, we detected timing variations with the period P ≍ 100 days. We carried out the N-body modelling by means of the three-body problem. We detected a perturbation of TrES-5b which can be caused by a second exoplanet in the TrES-5 system. We calculated possible masses and resonances of the objects: M ˜ 0.24 Mjup on the 1:2 Resonance and M ˜ 3.15 Mjup on the 1:3 Resonance.

  2. Rendre l'invisible visible : sexospécificité, données et données ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Rendre l'invisible visible : sexospécificité, données et données probantes pour le développement. Chaitali Sinha. 30 novembre 2017. Photo: PHAD | Nguyen Thi Thanh ... Cet article est adapté d'un billet de blogue publié sur le site Web du Global Digital Health Forum. Le CRDI commandite cette conférence et organisera la ...

  3. Effect of Brugia malayi on the growth and proliferation of endothelial cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, U R; Zometa, C S; Vickery, A C; Kwa, B H; Nayar, J K; Sutton, E T

    1996-08-01

    Athymic mice (C3H/HeN) parasitized by Brugia malayi develop massively dilated lymphatics. The lymphatic endothelial lining is perturbed, and numerous mononuclear and giant cells are closely apposed to the endothelium. The hyperplastic endothelial cells and low opening pressure of the lymphatics suggest abnormal multiplication of these cells may be important in the dilation. We studied the in vitro growth rate of human umbilical vein endothelial cells cultured with adult worms and microfilariae of B. malayi. The tetrazolium salt reduction assays were used to quantify possible direct mitogenic or inhibitory effects. The growth factor-induced proliferation of endothelial cells was significantly suppressed by 44-51% on day 1, 46-81% on day 3, and 45-79% on day 5 in cultures containing adult female worms, which had greater suppressor activity on endothelial cell proliferation than male worms, microfilariae, or soluble adult worm extract. Culture supernatant containing female worm excretory-secretory products significantly inhibited the growth and multiplication of cells, suggesting that adult female worms release antigens or proteins that have inhibitory activity on growth factors necessary for endothelial cell proliferation in vitro. Excess human recombinant epidermal growth factor and bovine brain extract partly reversed the inhibitory activity of worms in culture and restored the endothelial cell proliferation when incubated with worm culture supernatant. Indomethacin and BW 775Hcl failed to restore normal endothelial proliferation in the presence of female worms, suggesting that parasite-derived prostanoids and cyclooxygenase products did not cause the inhibition. Lymph from dilated lymphatics, but not serum from infected mice, increased the proliferation of cells in vitro. Together, these data demonstrate that excretory-secretory products of B. malayi parasites suppress vascular endothelial proliferation in vitro. Furthermore, increases in the number of these cells

  4. miRNA regulatory circuits in ES cells differentiation: a chemical kinetics modeling approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zijun Luo

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs play an important role in gene regulation for Embryonic Stem cells (ES cells, where they either down-regulate target mRNA genes by degradation or repress protein expression of these mRNA genes by inhibiting translation. Well known tables TargetScan and miRanda may predict quite long lists of potential miRNAs inhibitors for each mRNA gene, and one of our goals was to strongly narrow down the list of mRNA targets potentially repressed by a known large list of 400 miRNAs. Our paper focuses on algorithmic analysis of ES cells microarray data to reliably detect repressive interactions between miRNAs and mRNAs. We model, by chemical kinetics equations, the interaction architectures implementing the two basic silencing processes of miRNAs, namely "direct degradation" or "translation inhibition" of targeted mRNAs. For each pair (M,G of potentially interacting miRMA gene M and mRNA gene G, we parameterize our associated kinetic equations by optimizing their fit with microarray data. When this fit is high enough, we validate the pair (M,G as a highly probable repressive interaction. This approach leads to the computation of a highly selective and drastically reduced list of repressive pairs (M,G involved in ES cells differentiation.

  5. The Earth System Documentation (ES-DOC) Software Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, M. A.; Murphy, S.; Treshansky, A.; DeLuca, C.; Guilyardi, E.; Denvil, S.

    2013-12-01

    Earth System Documentation (ES-DOC) is an international project supplying high-quality tools & services in support of earth system documentation creation, analysis and dissemination. It is nurturing a sustainable standards based documentation eco-system that aims to become an integral part of the next generation of exa-scale dataset archives. ES-DOC leverages open source software, and applies a software development methodology that places end-user narratives at the heart of all it does. ES-DOC has initially focused upon nurturing the Earth System Model (ESM) documentation eco-system and currently supporting the following projects: * Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5); * Dynamical Core Model Inter-comparison Project (DCMIP); * National Climate Predictions and Projections Platforms Quantitative Evaluation of Downscaling Workshop. This talk will demonstrate that ES-DOC implements a relatively mature software development process. Taking a pragmatic Agile process as inspiration, ES-DOC: * Iteratively develops and releases working software; * Captures user requirements via a narrative based approach; * Uses online collaboration tools (e.g. Earth System CoG) to manage progress; * Prototypes applications to validate their feasibility; * Leverages meta-programming techniques where appropriate; * Automates testing whenever sensibly feasible; * Streamlines complex deployments to a single command; * Extensively leverages GitHub and Pivotal Tracker; * Enforces strict separation of the UI from underlying API's; * Conducts code reviews.

  6. Transcriptome analysis of chicken ES, blastodermal and germ cells reveals that chick ES cells are equivalent to mouse ES cells rather than EpiSC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Jean

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pluripotent Embryonic Stem cell (ESC lines can be derived from a variety of sources. Mouse lines derived from the early blastocyst and from primordial germ cells (PGCs can contribute to all somatic lineages and to the germ line, whereas cells from slightly later embryos (EpiSC no longer contribute to the germ line. In chick, pluripotent ESCs can be obtained from PGCs and from early blastoderms. Established PGC lines and freshly isolated blastodermal cells (cBC can contribute to both germinal and somatic lineages but established lines from the former (cESC can only produce somatic cell types. For this reason, cESCs are often considered to be equivalent to mouse EpiSC. To define these cell types more rigorously, we have performed comparative microarray analysis to describe a transcriptomic profile specific for each cell type. This is validated by real time RT-PCR and in situ hybridisation. We find that both cES and cBC cells express classic pluripotency-related genes (including cPOUV/OCT4, NANOG, SOX2/3, KLF2 and SALL4, whereas expression of DAZL, DND1, DDX4 and PIWIL1 defines a molecular signature for germ cells. Surprisingly, contrary to the prevailing view, our results also suggest that cES cells resemble mouse ES cells more closely than mouse EpiSC.

  7. ¿Es posible matizar el individualismo de John Locke?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego A. Fernández Peychaux

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available El interrogante del que este artículo pretende dar cuenta es si el individualismo de John Locke responde a la radicalidad con la que la corriente de interpretación más difundida intenta caracterizarlo. La conclusión que se alcanza luego de una amplia presentación de pruebas textuales, es que la necesaria matización del individualismo se deriva de la insistencia del autor en justificar el origen divino de los derechos y deberes. De este modo, en la medida en que se niegue que los hombres disponen de un derecho irrefrenable a seguir su deseo de autopreservación, es posible concluir que el Estado no existe para resguardar esos presuntos derechos individuales, sino para restaurar la ley de naturaleza que ya no sirve, como debería, para determinar los derechos y deberes de los hombres.

  8. ¿Es posible matizar el individualismo de John Locke?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego A. Fernández Peychaux

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El interrogante del que este artículo pretende dar cuenta es si el individualismo de John Locke responde a la radicalidad con la que la corriente de interpretación más difundida intenta caracterizarlo. La conclusión que se alcanza luego de una amplia presentación de pruebas textuales, es que la necesaria matización del individualismo se deriva de la insistencia del autor en justificar el origen divino de los derechos y deberes. De este modo, en la medida en que se niegue que los hombres disponen de un derecho irrefrenable a seguir su deseo de autopreservación, es posible concluir que el Estado no existe para resguardar esos presuntos derechos individuales, sino para restaurar la ley de naturaleza que ya no sirve, como debería, para determinar los derechos y deberes de los hombres.

  9. Puntos sobre las íes en la literatura colombiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Vidales

    1965-10-01

    Full Text Available I- LA TRANSCULTURACIÓN A mayor edad, menos acuerdo me asiste con esta forma de crítica para la cual el desenvolvimiento de nuestra literatura, en el tiempo, fue y es, una especie de idilio. Tengo para mí que la literatura colombiana nació del resplandor de una gran lucha, habida cuenta de que cronistas y poetas contribuyeron, como conquistadores también, a la destrucción de las civilizaciones indianas, y con estas, de su cultura. A la sombra del nuevo idioma y los modos nuevos, que surgen del alumbramiento de las fundaciones, lo indiano acaba por ser solo un recuerdo. Y cuando el aborigen canta, es para dolerse de los símbolos europeos de la invasión. Los testimomos escasean. Pero, ¿no es suficiente acaso con esta cuarteta?

  10. Autism: the empathizing-systemizing (E-S) theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2009-03-01

    The mind-blindness theory of autism spectrum conditions has been successful in explaining the social and communication difficulties that characterize these conditions but cannot explain the nonsocial features (the narrow interests, need for sameness, and attention to detail). A new theory, the empathizing-systemizing (E-S) theory, is summarized, which argues two factors are needed to explain the social and nonsocial features of the condition. This is related to other cognitive theories such as the weak central coherence theory and the executive dysfunction theory. The E-S theory is also extended to the extreme male brain theory as a way of understanding the biased sex ratio in autism. Etiological predictions are discussed, as are the clinical applications arising from the E-S theory.

  11. Mouse ES cell culture system as a model of development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Hitoshi

    2010-04-01

    Mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells are pluripotent stem cells derived from pre-implantation embryos. They are regarded as an essential tool for studying mouse development, as they provide a means for generating knock-out mouse lines. This, however, is not the sole utility of the mES cell system. They undergo differentiation in culture, mimicking the morphological differentiation of peri-implantation embryos from epiblast to egg-cylinder stage. Moreover, they retain the capacity to respond to triggers of differentiation toward trophectoderm and primitive endoderm by forced activation. For these reasons, mES cells can be regarded as a useful tool for analyzing molecular mechanisms underlying early mouse development.

  12. Adolescent Girls with illegally Induced Abortion in Dar es Salaam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, V; Silberschmidt, Margrethe; Mchumvu, Y

    2000-01-01

    This article reports on a study of induced abortion among adolescent girls in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, who were admitted to a district hospital in Dar es Salaam because of an illegally induced abortion in 1997. In the quantitative part of the study, 197 teenage girls (aged 14-19) were asked...... that gave them the right to seek family planning services and in practice these services are not being provided. There is a need for youth-friendly family planning services and to make abortion safe and legal, in order to reduce unwanted pregnancies and abortion-related complications and deaths among...

  13. El agua es vida… ¡Cuídala!

    OpenAIRE

    Lobón Olmedo, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Mi intención con este proyecto sobre el agua: “EL AGUA ES VIDA…¡¡ CUÍDALA!!” es que los niños y niñas, mediante esas cualidades innatas a su edad, como son la curiosidad, la observación y la experimentación, sean capaces de apreciar la importancia de hacer un uso racional del agua, por lo tanto que sean capaces de “amar al agua” al ser un elemento tan cotidiano y cercano en su vida diaria. Grado en Educación Infantil

  14. Débora Arango: qué dificil es vivir!

    OpenAIRE

    García Moreno, Beatriz; Arango, Débora, 1910-2005

    1997-01-01

    Al contemplar la pintura de Débora Arango no es posible dejar de sentir un hondo dolor acompañado de una cierta serenidad o mejor de algo que podría catalogarse como resignación a vivir, asombro ante el hecho de estar vivo, asombro ante un mundo extraño con el cual no parecería haber punto de contacto, impotencia ante un mundo hostil y violento, un mundo donde la muerte parece estar presente, un mundo donde vivir es una tarea muy difícil. Pero en este mundo, a través de grietas, florecen las...

  15. AÇÕES EDUCATIVAS PARA TERCEIRA IDADE

    OpenAIRE

    Rejane Millions Viana Meneses; Rafael Tavares Silveira Silva; Rafaela Fernandes de Carvalho; Ana Paula de Oliveira Bezerra Souza Santos; Jamilly Arita Veras de Almeida; Angélica Teresa Nascimento de Medeiros

    2013-01-01

    En el proceso del envejecimiento, anciano se enfrentan a la aparición de enfermedades crónicas que muchas veces reflejan en dificultades para el mantenimiento de la salud. En este contexto, es importante el trabajo con la tercera edad para promover la mejora del consiguiente estilo de vida. Este trabajo es un relato de experiencia de la ejecución de un proyecto de investigación de la Universidad Federal de Rio Grande do Norte , que lleva acciones educativas a la Asociación Inaraí (Natal/RN), ...

  16. Specification Section 01065S ES&H for Service Contracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirsch, Greg C. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Section Includes: Requirements and guidelines in performance of work concerning protection of environment and property, and the safety and health of Contractors, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Department of Energy (DOE) employees, visitors to SNL, and members of the public. This Section is applicable only to Service Contracts that do not involve construction or construction-like activities. Construction and construction-like activities are covered by Section 01065, Environment, Safety and Health (ES&H) for Construction Contracts. The entire ES&H program shall focus on safe-by-design intent, understanding the technical basis for the work, identifying and controlling energy sources, unacceptable consequences, risk assessments, and positive verification.

  17. EsGLUT4 and CHHBP are involved in the regulation of glucose homeostasis in the crustacean Eriocheir sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Glucose is an essential energy source for both vertebrates and invertebrates. In mammals, glucose uptake is mediated primarily by glucose transporters (GLUTs, members of the major facilitator superfamily (MFS of passive transporters. Among the GLUTs, GLUT4 is the main glucose transporter in muscles and adipocytes. In skeletal muscle cells, GLUT4 interacts with the lipid raft protein flotillin to transport glucose upon stimulation by insulin. Although several studies have examined GLUT4 function in mammals, few have been performed in crustaceans, which also use glucose as their main energy source. Crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH is a multifunctional neurohormone found only in arthropods, and one of its roles is to regulate glucose homeostasis. However, the molecular mechanism that underlies CHH regulation and whether GLUT4 is involved in its regulation in crustaceans remain unclear. In the present study, we identified a full-length GLUT4 cDNA sequence (defined herein as EsGLUT4 from the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis and analyzed its tissue distribution and cellular localization. By the ForteBio Octet system, two large hydrophilic regions within EsGLUT4 were found to interact with the CHH binding protein (CHHBP, an E. sinensis flotillin-like protein. Interestingly, live-cell imaging indicated that EsGLUT4 and CHHBP responded simultaneously upon stimulation by CHH, resulting in glucose release. In contrast to insulin-dependent GLUT4, however, EsGLUT4 and CHHBP were present within cytoplasmic vesicles, both translocating to the plasma membrane upon CHH stimulation. In conclusion, our results provide new evidence for the involvement of EsGLUT4 and CHHBP in the regulation of glucose homeostasis in crustacean carbohydrate metabolism.

  18. Protein-protein interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byron, Olwyn; Vestergaard, Bente

    2015-01-01

    Responsive formation of protein:protein interaction (PPI) upon diverse stimuli is a fundament of cellular function. As a consequence, PPIs are complex, adaptive entities, and exist in structurally heterogeneous interplays defined by the energetic states of the free and complexed protomers. The bi...

  19. ¿Qué es la CIE y por qué es importante en la psicología?

    OpenAIRE

    Geoffrey M. Reed; Celia Anaya; Spencer C. Evans

    2012-01-01

    La Clasificación Internacional de las Enfermedades (CIE) de la Organización Mundial de Salud (OMS) es muy poco conocida en el ámbito de la psicología en España, y existe la falsa percepción de que su importancia es escasa en el campo de la salud mental. El propósito de este artículo es familiarizar a los psicólogos y otros profesionales en salud mental con el sistema de clasificación CIE, algo especialmente relevante al encontrarse actualmente en proceso de revisión. La OMS está haciendo un g...

  20. ¿Es la asistencia sexual un derecho?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael De Asís Roig

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo voy a reflexionar sobre la cuestión de la asistencia sexual y su posible configuración como derecho. La contestación a la pregunta sobre si la asistencia sexual es un derecho puede variar dependiendo del marco en el que nos desenvolvamos. Así, podemos estar hablando desde un marco estrictamente jurídico, desde un marco ético, o desde un marco a caballo entre ambos como es el de los derechos humanos. A partir de aquí, la pregunta sobre si la asistencia sexual es un derecho dependerá de la pregunta sobre qué es la asistencia sexual. La justificación de la asistencia sexual en relación con personas que no pueden realizar actividad sexual sobre su propio cuerpo puede encontrar una justificación ética de la mano de la teoría de las necesidades o de la mano de las Actividades Básicas de la Vida Diaria, e igualmente puede formar parte de los derechos sexuales o del derecho a elegir una forma de vida.

  1. Coastal Marine Pollution in Dar es Salaam (Tanzania) relative to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Levels of microbial pollution in urban coastal waters off Dar es Salaam were excessive, indicating that water within the port channel was not safe for contact recreation. Seafood from areas adjacent to Msimbazi Creek and the Ocean Road sewer outfall was unfit for human consumption. Conversely, the water quality of Ras ...

  2. University of Dar es Salaam Library Journal: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. The University of Dar es Salaam Library Journal publishes articles on all aspects of library and information science. These include organization and dissemination of information, library education and training, information technology and its application in libraries, book reviews and short communications.

  3. The Pattern of Mortality in Dar es Salaam

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vihar

    compared to females but gradually the situation has reversed with time despite the constant general population ratio in Dar es Salaam. Conclusion: Mortality was found to be high in underfives and people aged 20 to 49 years. The distribution pattern of deaths tally with the distribution pattern of deaths caused by Malaria and ...

  4. The Earth System Documentation (ES-DOC) project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, S.; Greenslade, M. A.; Treshansky, A.; DeLuca, C.; Guilyardi, E.; Denvil, S.

    2013-12-01

    Earth System Documentation (ES-DOC) is an international project supplying high quality tools and services in support of Earth system documentation creation, analysis and dissemination. It is nurturing a sustainable standards based documentation ecosystem that aims to become an integral part of the next generation of exa-scale dataset archives. ES-DOC leverages open source software, and applies a software development methodology that places end-user narratives at the heart of all it does. ES-DOC has initially focused upon nurturing the Earth System Model (ESM) documentation eco-system. Within this context ES-DOC leverages the emerging Common Information Model (CIM) metadata standard, which has supported the following projects: ** Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5); ** Dynamical Core Model Inter-comparison Project (DCMIP-2012); ** National Climate Predictions and Projections Platforms (NCPP) Quantitative Evaluation of Downscaling Workshop (QED-2013). This presentation will introduce the project to a wider audience and will demonstrate the current production level capabilities of the eco-system: ** An ESM documentation Viewer embeddable into any website; ** An ESM Questionnaire configurable on a project by project basis; ** An ESM comparison tool reusable across projects; ** An ESM visualization tool reusable across projects; ** A search engine for speedily accessing published documentation; ** Libraries for streamlining document creation, validation and publishing pipelines.

  5. (IMTU) PO BOX 77594, Dar es salaam Tan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-07-06

    Jul 6, 2015 ... HEALTH SERVICES PROVISION TO ELDERLY PEOPLE AT TANDALE DISPENSARY,. KINONDONI MUNICIPALITY, DAR ES SALAAM TANZANIA. 1Rose Temu, 2Dr. Richard K, Arap Towett , 3Fariji Mtango. The majority (84%) were unemployed, while 96% had no pension. A majority of health workers.

  6. Business Case Development for Inter-Organizational ES Implementations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eckartz, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes my PhD research on the development of business case guidelines that can be used for complex information system implementations, such as inter-organizational enterprise systems (ES). I identify problems and solutions related to the issue of estimating the costs and benefits of

  7. Dar es Salaam City and Challenges in Solid Waste Management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The focus of this paper is on challenges facing solid waste management in. Manzese and Sinza wards, in Dar es Salaam city. In this paper different ways of generating, disposing waste and the associated problems are surveyed. About 102 people were interviewed. Different methods were employed in data collection which ...

  8. Polyethylene glycol-electrolyte solution (PEG-ES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ES is in a class of medications called osmotic laxatives. It works by causing watery diarrhea so that -the stool can be emptied from the colon. The medication also contains electrolytes to prevent dehydration and other serious side effects that may be ...

  9. Stereotyping in "Damals war es Friedrich" and "Brandstiftung."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffit, Gisela

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the use of young adult books in teaching high school and college-level German, particularly "Damals war es Friedrich" and "Brandstiftung." The didactic intentions of these books are to inform younger adults about the Nazi periods of the past and the Neo-nazi resurgence of the present, encourage them to confront the issues, and to take a…

  10. Assessment on Vulnerable Youths Integration to Dar es Salaam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment on Vulnerable Youths Integration to Dar es Salaam Solid Waste Management for Improvement: Kinondoni Municipality Case. ... Thus, questionnaires and in-depth study were interchangeably employed to probe different stakeholder institutions involved in decentralized MSWM system on general performance in ...

  11. Abeja o miel, ¿es la saudade?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Cortés Ahumada

    1961-05-01

    Full Text Available ¿Por qué existen hombres solitarios, melacólicos, infinitamente angustiados, es decir, patéticos, grises y pluviosos? ¿Por qué hay pueblos enteros que, concicliando lo irreconciliable, mezclan su angustia inefable, su idealismo doliente con una carcajada clara y buída?

  12. I:\\AA-TYPESET\\CHEM\\2005\\Van Es.vp

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    an alkyl halide), S-acetylation (with acetic anhydride), hydrogenolysis (Raney nickel) with removal of sulphur, and acid-catalysed ...... dissociation (to component 2 and amine) might occur on warming in. DMSO. 12 T. van Es and B. Staskun, S. Afr. J. Chem., 2002, 55, 13. 13 R. Albrecht, Prog. Drug Res., 1977, 21, 9.

  13. Pulmonary aspergilloma: A 15 years experience in Dar es Salaam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a paucity of literature on the prevalence and surgical treatment of pulmonary aspergilloma in African countries. This was a retrospective review of cases managed at the Thoracic Surgical Unit of Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, over a 15-year period from June 1986 to May 2000. Ten patients ...

  14. Suicidal ideation among school-attending adolescents in Dar es ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Suicidal ideation is an understudied risk factor for suicidal intent. The present study investigates the patterns and risk factors for suicidal ideation among a sample of school-attending adolescents in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods: This study examined secondary data collected in 2006 through the Global ...

  15. Scientific Review: Morning After Pill | Nuhu | Dar Es Salaam Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dar Es Salaam Medical Students' Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 18, No 1 (2011) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Scientific Review: Morning After Pill. Z Nuhu. Abstract.

  16. Noise induced hearing loss among industrial workers in Dar es ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Industrial area A and B randomly selected from among industries in Dar es Salaam. Subjects: One hundred and fifty workers from area A and fifty two employees from area B. Method: A questionnaire was filled and had their hearing thresholds measured by a pure tone audiometer ...

  17. Aloe; Beyond use as cosmetics | Pili | Dar Es Salaam Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dar Es Salaam Medical Students' Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 15, No 1 (2008) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should load ...

  18. History of diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases | Lubinza | Dar Es ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dar Es Salaam Medical Students' Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 19, No 2 (2012) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should load ...

  19. Coastal Marine Pollution in Dar es Salaam (Tanzania) relative to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The lack of sufficient wastewater treatment facilities is the main cause of current levels of some pollution in the coastal marine environment off Dar es Salaam. The implementation of industrial and municipal wastewater management would greatly improve this situation. The results ..... (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides.

  20. Early specification of dopaminergic phenotype during ES cell differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Meng

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding how lineage choices are made during embryonic stem (ES cell differentiation is critical for harnessing strategies for controlled production of therapeutic somatic cell types for cell transplantation and pharmaceutical drug screens. The in vitro generation of dopaminergic neurons, the type of cells lost in Parkinson's disease patients' brains, requires the inductive molecules sonic hedgehog and FGF8, or an unknown stromal cell derived inducing activity (SDIA. However, the exact identity of the responding cells and the timing of inductive activity that specify a dopaminergic fate in neural stem/progenitors still remain elusive. Results Using ES cells carrying a neuroepithelial cell specific vital reporter (Sox1-GFP and FACS purification of Sox1-GFP neural progenitors, we have investigated the temporal aspect of SDIA mediated dopaminergic neuron specification during ES cell differentiation. Our results establish that SDIA induces a dopaminergic neuron fate in nascent neural stem or progenitor cells at, or prior to, Sox1 expression and does not appear to have further instructive role or neurotrophic activity during late neuronal differentiation of neural precursors. Furthermore, we show that dopaminergic neurons could be produced efficiently in a monolayer differentiation paradigm independent of SDIA activity or exogenous signalling molecules. In this case, the competence for dopaminergic neuron differentiation is also established at the level of Sox1 expression. Conclusion Dopaminergic neurons are specified early during mouse ES cell differentiation. The subtype specification seems to be tightly linked with the acquisition of a pan neuroectoderm fate.

  1. Treatment Options and Outcomes of Urethral Stricture in Dar Es ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Length, patient's age and co morbid factors play significant roles in the choice of treatment. Therefore ... (cic) were adopted as modes of treatment of patients with urethral stricture seeking urological services at Muhimbili National hospital and Tumaini hospital in Dar es Salaam, DVIU being the commonest mode treatment.

  2. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Commercial Drivers in Dar es ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Purpose: The objective of this study was, first, to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of commercial drivers in Dar es Salaam with regard to medicines that impair driving, and second, to evaluate the adequacy of antihistamine label information. Methods: Drivers were interviewed using a questionnaire after obtaining ...

  3. OpenGL ES 3.0 cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Parminder

    2015-01-01

    If you are new to OpenGL ES or have some experience in 3D graphics, then this book will be extremely helpful in raising your expertise level from a novice to professional. The book implements more than 90 recipes to solve everyday challenges, helping you transition from a beginner to a professional.

  4. Accessibility, Congestion and Travel Delays in Dar es Salaam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melbye, Dea Christine; Møller-Jensen, Lasse; Andreasen, Manja Hoppe

    2015-01-01

    on to present a review of research into travel speed levels and congestion in Dar es Salaam. A set of city-wide maps of accessibility and delay levels are constructed based on available speed data and road network data obtained from the OpenStreetMap project and the findings are discussed with respect...

  5. SAChES: Scalable Adaptive Chain-Ensemble Sampling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swiler, Laura Painton [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ray, Jaideep [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Ebeida, Mohamed Salah [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Huang, Maoyi [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hou, Zhangshuan [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bao, Jie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ren, Huiying [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-08-01

    We present the development of a parallel Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method called SAChES, Scalable Adaptive Chain-Ensemble Sampling. This capability is targed to Bayesian calibration of com- putationally expensive simulation models. SAChES involves a hybrid of two methods: Differential Evo- lution Monte Carlo followed by Adaptive Metropolis. Both methods involve parallel chains. Differential evolution allows one to explore high-dimensional parameter spaces using loosely coupled (i.e., largely asynchronous) chains. Loose coupling allows the use of large chain ensembles, with far more chains than the number of parameters to explore. This reduces per-chain sampling burden, enables high-dimensional inversions and the use of computationally expensive forward models. The large number of chains can also ameliorate the impact of silent-errors, which may affect only a few chains. The chain ensemble can also be sampled to provide an initial condition when an aberrant chain is re-spawned. Adaptive Metropolis takes the best points from the differential evolution and efficiently hones in on the poste- rior density. The multitude of chains in SAChES is leveraged to (1) enable efficient exploration of the parameter space; and (2) ensure robustness to silent errors which may be unavoidable in extreme-scale computational platforms of the future. This report outlines SAChES, describes four papers that are the result of the project, and discusses some additional results.

  6. Aloe; Beyond use as cosmetics | Pili | Dar Es Salaam Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dar Es Salaam Medical Students' Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 15, No 1 (2008) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Aloe; Beyond use as cosmetics. K Pili. Abstract. No Abstract ...

  7. [Cross-cultural adaptation to the European Portuguese of the questionnaire "Patient Knowledge about their Medications" (CPM-ES-ES)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmerón Rubio, Joaquín; Iglésias-Ferreira, Paula; García Delgado, Pilar; Mateus-Santos, Henrique; Martínez-Martínez, Fernando

    2013-12-01

    The scope of this work is to conduct the cross-cultural adaptation from Spanish to European Portuguese of a questionnaire to measure the degree of "Patient Knowledge about their Medications" (CPM-ES-ES). A method based on six steps was applied: 1. Translation into Portuguese, 2. Elaboration of the first consensus version in Portuguese; 3.Back-translation into Spanish; 4. Elaboration of the second consensus version (cultural equivalency); 5. Conducting the pre-test; 6. Evaluation of the overall results. A cross-culturally adapted questionnaire in European Portuguese that measures the degree of "Patient Knowledge about their Medications" is proposed. The pre-test confirmation obtained 100% agreement with the corrected version of the second consensus version after pre-testing. The methodology selected made it possible to cross-culturally adapt the Spanish version of the CPM-ES-ES questionnaire to the Portuguese version. Further studies should demonstrate the equivalence of the psychometric properties of the cross-cultural translation into Portuguese with the original version.

  8. Cloning of ES cells and mice by nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakayama, Sayaka; Kishigami, Satoshi; Wakayama, Teruhiko

    2009-01-01

    We have been able to develop a stable nuclear transfer (NT) method in the mouse, in which donor nuclei are directly injected into the oocyte using a piezo-actuated micromanipulator. Although the piezo unit is a complex tool, once mastered it is of great help not only in NT experiments, but also in almost all other forms of micromanipulation. Using this technique, embryonic stem (ntES) cell lines established from somatic cell nuclei can be generated relatively easily from a variety of mouse genotypes and cell types. Such ntES cells can be used not only for experimental models of human therapeutic cloning but also as a means of preserving mouse genomes instead of preserving germ cells. Here, we describe our most recent protocols for mouse cloning.

  9. [Characterization of bubble size distribution in ES-DAF unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fu-tai; Zuo, Hua; Li, Jiu-yi; Fan, Zheng-hong; Luan, Zhao-kun

    2004-01-01

    ES-DAF unit was introduced and studied in this paper. Without a costly air saturator, ES-DAF consists of an ejector and a static mixer between the pressure side and suction side of the recycle rotary pump. The bubble size distribution in this novel unit was studied by using a CCD imagination through a microscope. The bubble size decreased with the increase of cycle ratio or the decrease of superficial air-water ratio. These results suggest that smaller bubbles would be formed when the initial number of nucleation sites increase by enhancing the turbulence intensity in the saturation system. The bubble size distribution became lower and wider with the increase of saturation pressure because of more frequent bubble collision and coalescence.

  10. ¿El beber café es salud?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Del Rosario Alvarez-Ramirez

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available El café es una bebida universal responsable de levantar a muchos cada mañana. El uso continuo de bebidas con cafeína también produce efectos a largo plazo. Los cuales aumentan su riesgo a 120% si bebe diariamente 6 o más tazas de café. La cafeína también puede causar úlceras en el estómago, producir alergias, insomnios, irritabilidad, palpitaciones, fiebre y otros síntomas como: aumentar los niveles de noradrenalina (neurotransmisor que produce un estado de alerta. Por las mismas razones que el café aumenta el estado de alerta y estimula el rendimiento mental, una taza de café es una forma ideal de comenzar el día.

  11. Defensin-like ZmES4 mediates pollen tube burst in maize via opening of the potassium channel KZM1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suseno Amien

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to animals and lower plant species, sperm cells of flowering plants are non-motile and are transported to the female gametes via the pollen tube, i.e. the male gametophyte. Upon arrival at the female gametophyte two sperm cells are discharged into the receptive synergid cell to execute double fertilization. The first players involved in inter-gametophyte signaling to attract pollen tubes and to arrest their growth have been recently identified. In contrast the physiological mechanisms leading to pollen tube burst and thus sperm discharge remained elusive. Here, we describe the role of polymorphic defensin-like cysteine-rich proteins ZmES1-4 (Zea mays embryo sac from maize, leading to pollen tube growth arrest, burst, and explosive sperm release. ZmES1-4 genes are exclusively expressed in the cells of the female gametophyte. ZmES4-GFP fusion proteins accumulate in vesicles at the secretory zone of mature synergid cells and are released during the fertilization process. Using RNAi knock-down and synthetic ZmES4 proteins, we found that ZmES4 induces pollen tube burst in a species-preferential manner. Pollen tube plasma membrane depolarization, which occurs immediately after ZmES4 application, as well as channel blocker experiments point to a role of K(+-influx in the pollen tube rupture mechanism. Finally, we discovered the intrinsic rectifying K(+ channel KZM1 as a direct target of ZmES4. Following ZmES4 application, KZM1 opens at physiological membrane potentials and closes after wash-out. In conclusion, we suggest that vesicles containing ZmES4 are released from the synergid cells upon male-female gametophyte signaling. Subsequent interaction between ZmES4 and KZM1 results in channel opening and K(+ influx. We further suggest that K(+ influx leads to water uptake and culminates in osmotic tube burst. The species-preferential activity of polymorphic ZmES4 indicates that the mechanism described represents a pre-zygotic hybridization

  12. Guide des bases de données du CRDI

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    informatique, etc. Conseils utiles. •. Bien que les bases de données commerciales aient également une interface en français ou en espagnol, leur contenu est surtout en anglais ou a été indexé en anglais. Pour obtenir de meilleurs résultats, il vous faudra donc aussi effectuer vos recherches en utilisant les termes anglais.

  13. What is effective is fair Lo eficaz es justo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Mouël Jacques

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available In this text, which comes from Chapter 3 of his book, Jacques Le Mouel completes the philosophical reflection about the entrepreneurial myth of effectiveness founded in the sophism: "What is effective is true. What is true is faie. Therefore, what is effective is fair". The fact that management is elevated to the category of paradigm for the economic model of Western society and the collapse of the economies of the East has led to neglect that, now, we ourselves are the modelo His analysis of the supposed neutrality of science and of the differences between ethics and morality, in the framework of the firm and its relations with society, lead him to conclude that it is not true that what is effective is fair, and that the firm cannot serve as a model for contemporary society, since the end does not justify the means.En este texto, que corresponde al capitulo 3 de su libro, Jaques Le Mouël completa la reflexión filosófica sobre el mito empresarial de la eficacia funadado en el sofisma: "Lo eficaz es verdadero. Lo verdadero es justo. Luego, lo eficaz es justo". El hecho de elevar la administración a la categoría de paradigma del modelo económico de la sociedad occidental y el hundimiento de las economías del Este han llevado a ignorar que, ahora, el modelo somos nosotros mismos. Su análisis de la pretendida neutralidad de la ciencia y las diferencias entre ética y moral, en el marco de la empresa y en sus relaciones con la sociedad, lo lleva a concluir que no es cierto que lo eficaz sea justo y que la empresa no puede servir de modelo a la sociedad contemporánea, pues el fin no justifica los medios.

  14. Conception de bases de données avec UML

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, Gilles

    2007-01-01

    De l'analyse à la conception, cet ouvrage accorde une importance prédominante au modèle conceptuel de données et propose des règles, des techniques, des astuces et des mises en garde qui doivent guider le modélisateur dans la réalisation d'un bon modèle conceptuel.

  15. Population distribution in coastal of Linhares-ES

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe Pinto Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    The article analyzes the distribution of population in the coastal districts of the municipality of Linhares-ES. At first, the coastal quota is contextualized in relation to the total population. Then, a retrospective of the peopling of the districts is presented. Finally, from the analysis of orthophotos, field observations and statistical data, are characterized forms of organization of housing and areas of population distribution. It is observed that most of the population is loca...

  16. POLITIQUES ÉCLAIRÉES Des politiques judicieuses favorisent le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les télécentres, moteurs d'évolution des politiques au Mozambique. Entrée des jeunes dans l'arène politique au Brésil. Une saine concurrence augmente le montant des envois d'argent reçus par les Ouzbeks. DES EFFETS DURABLES > POLITIQUES ÉCLAIRÉES. Related content. IDRC research partners recognized as ...

  17. POLITIQUES ÉCLAIRÉES Des politiques judicieuses favorisent le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    La valeur des travaux de recherche que le CRDI subventionne depuis 1970 réside dans les améliorations apportées aux conditions de vie. Ces travaux entraînent des changements dans les lois et les attitudes; par example, ils permettent aux pauvres de se faire entendre, augmentent les ressources financières et rendent ...

  18. Etude ethnobotanique de quelques lavandes marocaines spontanées

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... L. pedunculata Mill, L. multifida L, L. dentata L, L. maroccana Murb respectivement au plateau central « Oulmès, et Aguelmous » et au moyen atlas central « Ait Amro Ouali », la plaine de Sais « Ain Jerri », et en haut atlas occidental « bassin versant d'Ourika ». Les enquêtes ethnobotaniques menées auprès d'herboristes ...

  19. Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems -- Energy Storage (SEGIS-ES).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanley, Charles J.; Ton, Dan T. (U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.); Boyes, John D.; Peek, Georgianne Huff

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes the concept for augmenting the SEGIS Program (an industry-led effort to greatly enhance the utility of distributed PV systems) with energy storage in residential and small commercial applications (SEGIS-ES). The goal of SEGIS-ES is to develop electrical energy storage components and systems specifically designed and optimized for grid-tied PV applications. This report describes the scope of the proposed SEGIS-ES Program and why it will be necessary to integrate energy storage with PV systems as PV-generated energy becomes more prevalent on the nation's utility grid. It also discusses the applications for which energy storage is most suited and for which it will provide the greatest economic and operational benefits to customers and utilities. Included is a detailed summary of the various storage technologies available, comparisons of their relative costs and development status, and a summary of key R&D needs for PV-storage systems. The report concludes with highlights of areas where further PV-specific R&D is needed and offers recommendations about how to proceed with their development.

  20. El cuerpo tambien es historia local: un enfoque interdisciplinario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Arias Calero

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available ¿Cuerpo separado o cuerpo formado? Disciplina somática en la empresa Ma-nuelita S.A. 1927 – 1965 es el titulo de la tesis escrita por el autor, y a partir de la cual en este artículo ventila sus herramientas conceptúales y los contenidos sucintos de su experiencia investigativa interdisciplinar. El hilo conductor desde una perspectiva analítica y temática es el tema del cuerpo, el concepto de Disci-plina Somática y la historia local; ejes centrales para explorar los cambios que produjeron la agroindustrialización y los cambios administrativos en la empresa Manuelita S. A., localizada en el Departamento del Valle del Cauca durante el periodo 1927-1965. El propósito del autor es mostrar cómo a pesar de la im-plementación de modelos administrativos, políticos, sociales y culturales mo-dernos propios de la industrialización agrícola, éstos son combinados con mo-delos coloniales, si se quiere, premodernos para construir y fortalecer la empresa en términos de mano de obra permanente, sentidos de pertenencia, niveles de confianza, familiaridad y una ética laboral que permiten resultados en la pro-ducción agrícola.

  1. Static facial suspension with Surgisis ES (Enhanced Strength) sling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventhal, Douglas D; Pribitkin, Edmund A

    2008-01-01

    Static suspension procedures stabilize and support paralyzed facial muscles and enhance facial symmetry, appearance, mastication, and speech production in patients with facial palsy. A variety of autografts and allografts have been used for static facial suspension, but each has its limitations, and few studies document the efficacy or benefit of one substance over another. Xenograft tissue scaffoldings potentially offer both the compatibility of autografts and the convenience of allografts. Pilot study to evaluate efficacy of Surgisis ES (Enhanced Strength) static facial suspension in a series of six patients with facial paralysis. Retrospective chart review, illustrative case series, and review of the literature. Six patients with facial paralysis were treated with the Surgisis ES facial sling procedure. Four patients achieved satisfactory results after the initial procedure. One patient was displeased with the esthetic outcome and required a revision procedure to increase the tautness of the implant. In the initial four cases, the sling was tunneled subcutaneously and sutured to the muscle. In two cases, the sling was tunneled subcutaneously and subperiosteally, thereby suspending all the soft tissue in the midface. Static facial suspension with Surgisis ES improved cosmesis and function in this limited pilot study. In particular, a two-plane dissection technique provided excellent results. Further studies need to be conducted to evaluate the ongoing benefit over time.

  2. [History of the Journées Dermatologiques de Paris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilles, G

    2013-12-01

    Founded in 1801 at the Hôpital Saint-Louis, Paris, under Jean-Louis Alibert, the French School of Dermatology was initially structured around the French Society of Dermatology (1889) and the organization of two world congresses (Paris 1889, 1900). After World War I, the creation of dermatological societies in the provinces infused French dermatology with new energy. In 1922, the first congress of the French-speaking dermatologists further contributed to the public profile of dermatologists in France. The "Journées de Mars" were initiated in 1961 at the Hôpital Saint-Louis, and in 1975 they went on to become the "Journées dermatologiques de Paris". Pr. Jean Civatte played a key role in their creation and in their organization for 30 years. After 1979, since actual patients could no longer be presented, the organizers of the congress had to change the content of the meeting from clinical presentations to post-graduate teaching and clinical research. From its origins in the form of meetings of French dermatologists in an intimate setting at the Hôpital Saint-Louis, the "Journées dermatologiques de Paris" grew within the ensuing decades into a major scientific event of the French-speaking dermatological community, bringing together more than 4000 participants in December each year. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Analizadores Multilingües en FreeLing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluís Padró

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available FreeLing es una librería de código abierto para el procesamiento multilíngüe automático, que proporciona una amplia gama de servicios de análisis lingüístico para diversos idiomas. FreeLing ofrece a los desarrolladores de aplicaciones de Procesamiento del Lenguaje Natural funciones de análisis y anotación lingüística de textos, con la consiguiente reducción del coste de construcción de dichas aplicaciones. FreeLing es personalizable y ampliable, y está fuertemente orientado a aplicaciones del mundo real en términos de velocidad y robustez. Los desarrolladores pueden utilizar los recursos lingüísticos por defecto (diccionarios, lexicones, gramáticas, etc, ampliarlos, adaptarlos a dominios particulares, o –dado que la librería es de código abierto– desarrollar otros nuevos para idiomas específicos o necesidades especiales de las aplicaciones. Este artículo presenta los principales cambios y mejoras incluidos en la versión 3.0 de FreeLing, y resume algunos proyectos industriales relevantes en los que se ha utilizado.

  4. Estudo comparativo entre as osteossínteses com placas e osteossínteses com placas associadas a enxertos de proteína morfogenética óssea (Gen-Tech® em fraturas distais de rádio-ulna em cães com menos de 6 quilos A comparative study of osteosynthesis with plates and plates associated with grafts of bone morphogenic proteins (Gen-Tech® in distal radio-ulna fractures in dogs with less than 6 quilograms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassio R.A. Ferrigno

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Sabe-se que Bone morphogenic proteins (BMP são promotores de osteogênese, mas pesquisas ainda estão sendo feitas no intuito de descobrir sua atuação clínica na reparação de fraturas. As dificuldades inerentes da reparação de fraturas de rádio-ulna de cães abaixo de 6 quilos são conhecidas, principalmente, com a ocorrência freqüente de não-união óssea devido a pouca vascularização da porção distal do radio. Tendo em vista esta realidade objetivou-se a comparação da velocidade de formação de calo ósseo entre o tratamento com placas e parafusos e tratamento com placas e parafusos associados a BMP. Foram realizadas 33 osteossinteses de regiões distais de rádio-ulna de cães, sendo 17 animais do grupo controle (tratamento com placas e parafusos e 16 animais do grupo BMP (tratamento com placas e parafusos com adição de proteína morfogenética óssea BMP. Avaliou-se, comparativa-mente, o tempo de formação de calo ósseo, por exames radiográficos, aos 30, 60, 90,120, 180 e 210 dias de pós-operatório. Foi encontrada a média de tempo de cicatrização de 127,5 +/- 34,15 dias no grupo controle e, no grupo tratado com a proteína morfogenética óssea, a média foi de 32 +/- 15 dias. Com isto pode-se concluir que as fraturas distais de rádio e ulna, em cães menos de 6 kg, tratadas com proteína morfogenética óssea sofreram redução significativa do tempo de formação de calo ósseo.It is well known that bone morphogenic proteins (BMP cause osteogenesis, yet clinical research must be performed in order to really show their benefits. Animals weighing less than 6 kg show well known difficulties regarding radius and ulna fracture repair mainly with bone non-union, due to poor vascularization of the distal portion of the radius. Therefore this study aimed to compare the velocity of bone callus formation in the treatment of fracture repair with plates and screws alone or with plates and screws plus BMP. Thirty three

  5. Secretory products of helminth parasites as immunomodulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnett, William

    2014-07-01

    Parasitic helminths release molecules into their environment, which are generally referred to as excretory-secretory products or ES. ES derived from a wide range of nematodes, trematodes and cestodes have been studied during the past 30-40 years, their characterization evolving from simple biochemical procedures such as SDS-PAGE in the early days to sophisticated proteomics in the 21st century. Study has incorporated investigation of ES structure, potential as vaccines, immunodiagnostic utility, functional activities and immunomodulatory properties. Immunomodulation by ES is increasingly the area of most intensive research with a number of defined helminth products extensively analyzed with respect to the nature of their selective effects on cells of the immune system as well as the molecular mechanisms, which underlie these immunomodulatory effects. As a consequence, we are now beginning to learn the identities of the receptors that ES employ and are increasingly acquiring detailed knowledge of the signalling pathways that they interact with and subvert. Such information is contributing to the growing idea that the anti-inflammatory properties of a number of ES products makes them suitable starting points for the development of novel drugs for treating human inflammatory disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. ¿Qué es la CIE y por qué es importante en la psicología?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey M. Reed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La Clasificación Internacional de las Enfermedades (CIE de la Organización Mundial de Salud (OMS es muy poco conocida en el ámbito de la psicología en España, y existe la falsa percepción de que su importancia es escasa en el campo de la salud mental. El propósito de este artículo es familiarizar a los psicólogos y otros profesionales en salud mental con el sistema de clasificación CIE, algo especialmente relevante al encontrarse actualmente en proceso de revisión. La OMS está haciendo un gran esfuerzo para crear una clasificación de trastornos mentales global, multicultural y multidisciplinar, centrándose en mejorar su utilidad clínica. Además, en la actual revisión de la CIE, la OMS ha adoptado el español como segunda lengua de trabajo, lo que da una gran oportunidad a los profesionales de la salud mental de España y otros países hispanohablantes de implicarse activamente en el desarrollo de la próxima versión de la clasificación. Es importante que los psicólogos de países hispanohablantes conozcan la CIE y entiendan los grandes beneficios que pueden aportarles su conocimiento y utilización para integrarse plenamente como profesión sanitaria oficial, así como para equipararse en la práctica de la psicología al resto de Europa y de todo el mundo en términos de diagnóstico y clasificación de los trastornos mentales.

  7. R-ES-ONANCE--I--O-ct-O-be-r

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    evolving vaccine producing plants as it enables high level of protein production. Also there is the possibility of producing multiple proteins using polycistronic mRNAs. Transgene expression is more stable in transplastomic plants than in nuclear transformants because transgenes are integrated into chloroplast genomes by.

  8. Chaperonin GroEL/GroES Over-Expression Promotes Aminoglycoside Resistance and Reduces Drug Susceptibilities in Escherichia coli Following Exposure to Sublethal Aminoglycoside Doses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goltermann, Lise; Sarusie, Menachem V; Bentin, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is an increasing challenge to modern healthcare. Aminoglycoside antibiotics cause translation corruption and protein misfolding and aggregation in Escherichia coli. We previously showed that chaperonin GroEL/GroES depletion and over-expression sensitize and promote short...

  9. Histoire des forêts du versant nord des Pyrénées au cours des 30000 dernières années

    OpenAIRE

    Jalut, Guy; Galop, Didier; Belet, Jean-Marc; Aubert, Sandrine; Esteban Amat, A.; Bouchette, A.; Dedoubat, Jean-Jacques; Fontugne, Michel

    1998-01-01

    Les recherches playnologiques réalisées dans le versant nord des Pyrénées ainsi que les données anthracologiques disponibles et les études de macrorestes végétaux permettent de décrire les étapes de la mise en place des principales essences forestières au cours des 30000 dernières années. Dans les Pyrénées centrales, avant 30000 BP, l'épicéa était bien développé. Les données anthracologiques permettent de penser qu'il a disparu des Pyrénées vers 18000-17000 BP. Entre 11000 BP et 10000 BP, l'u...

  10. Lignes directrices simplifiées sur les lipides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, G. Michael; Lindblad, Adrienne J.; Comeau, Ann; Coppola, John; Hudson, Brianne; Mannarino, Marco; McMinis, Cindy; Padwal, Raj; Schelstraete, Christine; Zarnke, Kelly; Garrison, Scott; Cotton, Candra; Korownyk, Christina; McCormack, James; Nickel, Sharon; Kolber, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Produire un guide de pratique clinique comportant une approche simplifiée à la prévention primaire des maladies cardiovasculaires (MCV), en insistant sur l’estimation du risque de MCV et la prise en charge des profils lipidiques à l’intention des cliniciens de soins primaires et leurs équipes; nous avons recherché la contribution de professionnels des soins primaires qui n’avaient que peu ou pas de conflits d’intérêts et nous nous sommes concentrés sur les données probantes de la plus haute qualité accessibles. Méthodes Neuf professionnels de la santé (4 médecins de famille, 2 internistes, 1 infirmière praticienne, 1 infirmière autorisée et 1 pharmacienne) et 1 membre non votant (pharmacienne gestionnaire de projet) formaient le comité principal appelé le Lipid Pathway Committee (le comité). La sélection des membres s’est fondée sur la profession, le milieu de pratique et son emplacement. Les membres ont divulgué tous leurs conflits d’intérêts potentiels ou réels. Le processus d’élaboration des lignes directrices était itératif et s’appuyait sur des affichages en ligne, une révision détaillée des données probantes, des réunions par téléphone et en ligne. Le comité a cerné 12 questions prioritaires à répondre. Le groupe de révision des données probantes a répondu à ces questions. À la suite d’un examen des réponses, les principales recommandations ont été formulées par consensus du comité. Nous avons produit une ébauche des lignes directrices qui a ensuite été peaufinée, distribuée à un groupe de cliniciens (médecins de famille, autres spécialistes, pharmaciens, infirmières et infirmières praticiennes) et à des patients pour obtenir de la rétroaction, la réviser en conséquence et le comité l’a ensuite finalisée. Recommandations Des recommandations sont présentées concernant le dépistage et les analyses, les évaluations du risque, le suivi, de même que le r

  11. SN2002es-like Supernovae from Different Viewing Angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yi; Kulkarni, S. R.; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Papadogiannakis, S.; Nugent, P. E.; Masci, Frank J.; Bue, Brian D.

    2016-11-01

    In this article, we compare optical light curves of two SN2002es-like Type Ia supernovae (SNe), iPTF14atg and iPTF14dpk, from the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory. Although the two light curves resemble each other around and after maximum, they show distinct early-phase rise behavior in the r-band. On the one hand, iPTF14atg revealed a slow and steady rise that lasted for 22 days with a mean rise rate of 0.2-0.3 mag day-1, before it reached the R-band peak (-18.05 mag). On the other hand, iPTF14dpk rose rapidly to -17 mag within a day of discovery with a rise rate \\gt 1.8 {{mag}} {{{day}}}-1, and then rose slowly to its peak (-18.19 mag) with a rise rate similar to iPTF14atg. The apparent total rise time of iPTF14dpk is therefore only 16 days. We show that emission from iPTF14atg before -17 days with respect to its maximum can be entirely attributed to radiation produced by collision between the SN and its companion star. Such emission is absent from iPTF14dpk probably because of an unfavored viewing angle, provided that SN2002es-like events arise from the same progenitor channel. We further show that an SN2002es-like SN may experience a dark phase after the explosion but before its radioactively powered light curve becomes visible. This dark phase may be lit by radiation from supernova-companion interaction.

  12. ¿la responsabilidad es solo de los medios?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blasco Fernando Checa Montúfar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La información ambiental y, la generación de una opinión pública favorable a la causa, es ¿responsabilidad exclusiva de los medios y periodistas?, ¿Son éstos los únicos que deben obtener información, procesarla y presentarle adecuadamente al público?, ¿De ellos depende la optimización de flujos informativos sobre el medio ambiente, en todas las instancias del proceso que ese flujo implica? Estas interrogantes son analizadas en base a un breve diagnóstico realizado por los organismos ambientalistas del Ecuador.

  13. ¿El beber café es salud?

    OpenAIRE

    María Del Rosario Alvarez-Ramirez

    2005-01-01

    El café es una bebida universal responsable de levantar a muchos cada mañana. El uso continuo de bebidas con cafeína también produce efectos a largo plazo. Los cuales aumentan su riesgo a 120% si bebe diariamente 6 o más tazas de café. La cafeína también puede causar úlceras en el estómago, producir alergias, insomnios, irritabilidad, palpitaciones, fiebre y otros síntomas como: aumentar los niveles de noradrenalina (neurotransmisor que produce un estado de alerta). Por las mismas raz...

  14. Actitud de enfermer??a ante pacientes marroqu??es

    OpenAIRE

    S??nchez-Ojeda, Mar??a Angustias

    2015-01-01

    Debido al reparto desigual de la riqueza en el mundo se ha producido un incremento de los movimientos migratorios, motivados, en su mayor parte, por la necesidad de la poblaci??n de buscar un futuro, e incluso, un presente mejor. Una de las consecuencias que se producen por este fen??meno es una creciente diversidad cultural en nuestra sociedad. Para los profesionales de la salud este incremento de diversidad cultural supone un reto, sobre todo para el personal de enfermer??a debido a la cerc...

  15. Acoustic investigations into the later acquisition of syllabic -es plurals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mealings, Kiri T; Cox, Felicity; Demuth, Katherine

    2013-08-01

    Children acquire /-z/ syllabic plurals (e.g., bus es) later than /-s, -z/ segmental plurals (e.g., cat s, dog s). In this study, the authors explored whether increased syllable number or segmental factors best explains poorer performance with syllabic plurals. An elicited imitation experiment was conducted with 14 two-year-olds involving 8 familiar disyllabic target plural nouns, half with syllabic plurals (e.g., bus → bus es) and half with segmental plurals (e.g., letter → letter s). Children saw pictures of the target items on a computer and repeated prerecorded 3-word-utterances with the target word in utterance-medial position (e.g., "The buses come") and utterance-final position (e.g., "Hear the buses"). Acoustic analysis determined the presence or absence of the plural morpheme and its duration. Children had more trouble producing syllabic plurals compared with segmental plurals. Errors were especially evident in the utterance-medial position, where there was less time for the child to perceive/produce the word in the absence of phrase-final lengthening and where planning for the following word was still required. The results suggested that articulatory difficulties-rather than a word length effect-explain later acquisition of syllabic plurals relative to segmental plurals. These findings have implications for the nature of syllabic plural acquisition in children with hearing impairments and specific language impairment.

  16. AÇÕES EDUCATIVAS PARA TERCEIRA IDADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejane Millions Viana Meneses

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En el proceso del envejecimiento, anciano se enfrentan a la aparición de enfermedades crónicas que muchas veces reflejan en dificultades para el mantenimiento de la salud. En este contexto, es importante el trabajo con la tercera edad para promover la mejora del consiguiente estilo de vida. Este trabajo es un relato de experiencia de la ejecución de un proyecto de investigación de la Universidad Federal de Rio Grande do Norte , que lleva acciones educativas a la Asociación Inaraí (Natal/RN, con objetivo de divulgar actividades, así estimulando la formación de los grupos a que tienen como objetivo la promoción a salud de ancianos . Para desarrollar las acciones, según la informaciones recogidas en el perfil epidemiológico llevado previamente en la Asociación, por medio de reuniones semanales con anciano s, se buscó estimular buenos hábitos de vida , para llevar a cabo posible la mejora de lo estilo de vida y por lo tanto, promover salud de ese grupo.

  17. ¿Es la Pedagogía una ciencia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Moreno Castillo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se intenta demostrar que la pedagogía no es una ciencia, sino que es un lenguaje sin significado, un discurso vacío. Los argumentos que apoyan esta tesis son fundamentalmente cuatro. El primero, la resistencia de la pedagogía a usar el método científico: si un sistema de enseñanza no funciona, o se niegan los hechos, o se buscan las causas en cir- cunstancias sociales, pero no se cuestiona el sistema. El segundo, la multiplicación de palabras, dando nuevos nombres a cosas que ya tenían uno, para así ocultar la falta de ideas bajo la capa de una jerga supuestamente científica. El tercero, en la utilización de un lenguaje vacío (y se aportarán algunos textos en los que se hacen explícitos algunos mecanismos para vaciar el len- guaje. El cuarto, la multiplicación de tonterías que chocan contra el buen sentido de cualquier profesor.

  18. La educación inclusiva es nuestra tarea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meybol Calderón

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available La educación inclusiva es un tema que se ha venido trabajando desde hace relativamente pocos años en el Perú, pero en otros países se viene realizando desde hace muchos años. Por ello esta investigación busca dar a conocer todos aquellos elementos que son necesarios para lograr una inclusión adecuada de los niños, tomando como centro al niño, reconociéndolo como un ser humano integral que no solo aprende conceptos, sino también aprende a convivir e interactuar con su medio. Es aquí donde debemos tomar en cuenta el respeto a la diversidad que se debe dar en el aula, ya que al convivir se comparten experiencias con personas diferentes, como pueden ser los niños con necesidades especiales o simplemente con las de un niño regular. En esta investigación hemos querido resaltar la importancia de los roles de los agentes educativos para el buen desarrollo de la inclusión de los niños, siendo estos indispensables para lograrlo.

  19. TER HANSENIASE: PERCEPÇÕES DE PESSOAS EM TRATAMENTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOYCE MAZZA NUNES

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La lepra es una enfermedad milenaria, caracterizada como un problema de salud pública. Desarrollamos este estudio con el objetivo de conocer la percepción sobre su enfermedad de las personas en tratamiento para lepra. Se trata de un estudio con planteo cualitativo, desarrollado a través de un grupo focal en el mes de agosto de 2005 con ocho personas en tratamiento para lepra multibacilar en la Unidad Básica de Salud en Sobral-CE. Las declaraciones señalaron que la lepra es vista como una enfermedad mala, que trae tristeza, miedo, vergüenza y discriminación. Ser portador de lepra ocasionó sufrimiento psíquico y sentimientos de impotencia, hombres y mujeres tuvieron sus roles sociales amenazados. Sugerimos que se idealicen alternativas que atiendan no sólo la eliminación de la lepra como un problema de salud pública, sino también, como un rescate de la ciudadanía y del respeto por esas personas.

  20. ¿Qué es el Open Journal System?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia I. Osorio Curbelo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ¿Qué es el Open Journal System (OJS? Es un  software de código abierto. ¿Qué significa  “Código Abierto“? El acceso abierto (en inglés, open access es el acceso inmediato, sin requerimientos de registro, suscripción o pago, es decir sin restricciones, a material digital educativo, académico, científico o de cualquier otro tipo, principalmente artículos de investigación científica de revistas especializadas con peer review (revisión por pares. Significa que cualquier usuario individual pueda leer, descargar, copiar, distribuir, imprimir, buscar o enlazar los textos completos de los artículos científicos, y usarlos con cualquier otro propósito legítimo, como hacer minería de datos de su contenido digital, sin otras barreras económicas, legales o técnicas que las que suponga Internet en sí misma. Es decir, es una manera gratuita y abierta de acceder a la literatura científica. Para qué sirve? Permite controlar todo el proceso de publicación:- El envío de los manuscritos, por parte de los autores. - Selección de los revisores, por parte de los editores. - La revisión, por parte de los revisores primero y luego por los autores mismos. - La corrección de estilos y de sintaxis. - La diagramación/maquetación. - La publicación misma del artículo. - Lectura (con herramientas de lectura. - Indexación en bases de datos y buscadores.Características de OJS- Se instala y se controla de manera local en un servidor Web propio. - Los editores pueden configurar los requisitos, secciones, el proceso de revisión, etc. - Todos los contenidos se envían y se gestionan online. - Permite el envío por e-mail de los artículos y la inserción de comentarios por parte de los lectores. - Cuenta con un módulo de suscripción, con la opción de pasar los artículos a libre acceso, pasado un tiempo. - Cuenta con herramientas de lectura, basadas en la configuración proporcionada por el editor. - Como parte del sistema, cuenta con la

  1. Matrix Metalloproteinase-3 in Odontoblastic Cells Derived from Ips Cells: Unique Proliferation Response as Odontoblastic Cells Derived from ES Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiyama, Taiki; Ozeki, Nobuaki; Mogi, Makio; Yamaguchi, Hideyuki; Kawai, Rie; Nakata, Kazuhiko; Kondo, Ayami; Nakamura, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    We previously reported that matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3 accelerates wound healing following dental pulp injury. In addition, we reported that a proinflammatory cytokine mixture (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and interferon-γ) induced MMP-3 activity in odontoblast-like cells derived from mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells, suggesting that MMP-3 plays a potential unique physiological role in wound healing and regeneration of dental pulp in odontoblast-like cells. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that upregulation of MMP-3 activity by IL-1β promotes proliferation and apoptosis of purified odontoblast-like cells derived from induced pluripotent stem (iPS) and ES cells. Each odontoblast-like cell was isolated and incubated with different concentrations of IL-1β. MMP-3 mRNA and protein expression were assessed using RT-PCR and western blotting, respectively. MMP-3 activity was measured using immunoprecipitation and a fluorescence substrate. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were determined using ELISA for BrdU and DNA fragmentation, respectively. siRNA was used to reduce MMP-3 transcripts in these cells. Treatment with IL-1β increased MMP-3 mRNA and protein levels, and MMP-3 activity in odontoblast-like cells. Cell proliferation was found to markedly increase with no changes in apoptosis. Endogenous tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 and TIMP-2 were constitutively expressed during all experiments. The exocytosis inhibitor, Exo1, potently suppressed the appearance of MMP-3 in the conditioned medium. Treatment with siRNA against MMP-3 suppressed an IL-1β-induced increase in MMP-3 expression and activity, and also suppressed cell proliferation, but unexpectedly increased apoptosis in these cells (PiPS cells and ES cells. This siRNA-mediated increase in apoptosis could be reversed with exogenous MMP-3 stimulation (PiPS and ES cells. PMID:24358294

  2. INTERPRETAÇÕES ACERCA DA INFLUÊNCIA DAS INFORMAÇÕES NUTRICIONAIS NA ESCOLHA DE ALIMENTOS INFANTIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Pais Moreira Lopes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Diversos estudos têm demonstrado que, nas últimas décadas, mudanças nos hábitos alimentares vêm ocorrendo e que a proliferação de alimentos com diferentes finalidades passou a exigir do consumidor um alto nível de informação. Este artigo tem por objetivo principal investigar os fatores que influenciam a compra de alimentos infantis, observando especialmente os significados atribuídos por mães às informações nutricionais. Foram entrevistadas mães de diferentes níveis de escolaridade, renda, profissão e bairro de residência na cidade do Rio de Janeiro. O tratamento dos dados coletados ocorreu por meio da análise de conteúdo e, ao longo das entrevistas, foram questionados, por exemplo, quais fatores as mães entrevistadas consideravam importantes ao comprar alimentos para seus filhos e se tinham o costume de consultar as tabelas nutricionais dos alimentos no supermercado quando os estavam comprando. Adicionalmente, buscamos compreender o que, na perspectiva das mães, significam “alimentos pouco saudáveis” e qual conceito tinham sobre alimentos “nutritivos” e “saudáveis” - investigando se seriam sinônimos ou não. A partir de tais procedimentos, os resultados mostram que os três principais fatores que influenciam a compra de alimentos para os filhos são: i preço; ii marca; e iii a influência dos filhos. As interpretações a respeito das informações nutricionais puderam ser agrupadas em cinco categorias, quais sejam: 1 comprando besteira; 2 nutritivo versus saudável; 3 comer bem; 4 fatores importantes ao comprar alimentos para os filhos; e 5 informações nutricionais na intenção de compra.

  3. Qué es y qué no es violencia de género para los estudiantes universitarios

    OpenAIRE

    Rosser Limiñana, Ana; Suriá Martínez, Raquel; García Teruel, Antonio; Villegas-Castrillo, Esther

    2015-01-01

    Las investigaciones sobre el género ponen de relieve la coexistencia de formas tradicionales y nuevas de sexismo. Estas últimas pueden ser más difíciles de erradicar por su naturaleza más sutil (Moya y Expósito, 2001). Teniendo en cuenta que el sexismo, o las conductas discriminatorias hacia hombres o mujeres por el simple hecho de serlo son el principal factor que subyace a la violencia de género (Cuadrado, 2007), es importante conocer qué entienden los estudiantes universitarios por conduct...

  4. Eletrocardiografia computadorizada em cães: estudo comparativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lídia S. Oliveira

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available O método de eletrocardiografia computadorizada (ECG-C vem sendo crescentemente difundido na medicina veterinária, havendo atualmente diversas marcas e modelos de eletrocardiógrafos disponíveis no mercado. Diante da possibilidade de diferenças na sensibilidade e na reprodutibilidade das medidas obtidas nos traçados, o presente estudo teve como objetivo comparar os parâmetros eletrocardiográficos de cães, obtidos por dois sistemas. Foram avaliados dois diferentes softwares computadorizados, o Wincardio Micromed® (WIN e o modelo TEB ECGPC® (TEB. Quarenta e dois cães hígidos, de diferentes raças (Cocker Spaniel, Daschund, Labrador, Pinscher, Pit Bull Terrier Poodle, Schnauzer, Shit Tzu, Yorkshire e sem raça definida, machos e fêmeas e com idade entre 4 meses e 16 anos foram agrupados segundo o peso e examinados pelos dois sistemas. As medidas eletrocardiográficas dos diferentes traçados foram analisadas na derivação DII. Os resultados indicaram que o sistema TEB apresentou maior sensibilidade na obtenção das medidas de duração da onda P e do complexo QRS, enquanto o sistema WIN foi mais sensível para determinar as medidas de amplitude dos mesmos parâmetros. Os animais de maior porte (26-37kg apresentaram maior variância nas medidas de duração e amplitude de onda P e duração do complexo QRS em comparação aos cães de médio (14-25kg e pequeno (1-13kg porte. O achado de diferenças entre os sistemas testados deve ser levado em consideração ao se empregar os diversos equipamentos para diagnóstico por meio de ECG-C na rotina clínica, de modo a evitarem-se divergências na interpretação dos exames entre diferentes prestadores de serviços veterinários.

  5. Postmodernidad y personalidad heroica, cuando el sufrimiento es placentero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Korstanje

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente ensayo examina no solo como se forma el miedo moderno y su relación con la tragedia, sino las diversas formas culturales de vivirla respecto al futuro. Se antepone la figura de la personalidad heroica como una construcción moderna centrada en la necesidad de sentir placer por la pérdida. Esta tendencia lleva a las personas a sentirse únicas respecto a otras. Si el héroe es aquel que no se doblega ante el destino, también es un ser que lleva tras sí una historia de dolor y sufrimiento. Ahora bien, tanto los países de raigambre cultural latino como los germánicos han elaborado diferentes formas de vivir lo trágico; lo cierto es que el futuro, como construcción social, juega un rol importante en dichos procesos. Mien- tras para los anglosajones el futuro se mantiene como una entidad inmutable que no puede ser modificada, para los latinos el futuro se construye solo desde el presente. Abstract This essay aims to review how to form not only the modern man’s fear and its relationship with tragedy but also the way to live it according to the future. Heroic per- sonality is chosen as a modern figure focused on the need of pleasure feeling by the loss. This trend makes people to consider themselves unique related to others. If the hero is that one who does not bow down to the fate, it is also a human being who has a pain and suffering story behind him. Now, in those countries of deep seated Latin cultural roots such as German countries have established differ- ent ways of living. One thing is true, the future as social construction plays an important role in those processes. While English speaking countries the future is kept as immutable entity which can not be modified . For Latin people future is built only based on the present. 

  6. Bioinformatics and moonlighting proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio eHernández

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Multitasking or moonlighting is the capability of some proteins to execute two or more biochemical functions. Usually, moonlighting proteins are experimentally revealed by serendipity. For this reason, it would be helpful that Bioinformatics could predict this multifunctionality, especially because of the large amounts of sequences from genome projects. In the present work, we analyse and describe several approaches that use sequences, structures, interactomics and current bioinformatics algorithms and programs to try to overcome this problem. Among these approaches are: a remote homology searches using Psi-Blast, b detection of functional motifs and domains, c analysis of data from protein-protein interaction databases (PPIs, d match the query protein sequence to 3D databases (i.e., algorithms as PISITE, e mutation correlation analysis between amino acids by algorithms as MISTIC. Programs designed to identify functional motif/domains detect mainly the canonical function but usually fail in the detection of the moonlighting one, Pfam and ProDom being the best methods. Remote homology search by Psi-Blast combined with data from interactomics databases (PPIs have the best performance. Structural information and mutation correlation analysis can help us to map the functional sites. Mutation correlation analysis can only be used in very specific situations –it requires the existence of multialigned family protein sequences - but can suggest how the evolutionary process of second function acquisition took place. The multitasking protein database MultitaskProtDB (http://wallace.uab.es/multitask/, previously published by our group, has been used as a benchmark for the all of the analyses.

  7. Immunosorbent assay using gold colloid cluster technology for determination of IgEs in patients’ sera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifa Al-Dubai

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Haifa Al-Dubai1, Irene Lichtscheidl2, Martina Strobl1, Gisela Pittner1, Fritz Pittner11Department of Biochemistry, Max F Perutz Laboratories, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria; 2Institute of Cell Imaging and Ultrastructure Research, Vienna, AustriaAbstract: This study focuses on the development of a sensitive and simple cluster-linked immunosorbent assay (CLISA using gold colloidal cluster labeling for determination of proteins such as antigens (Ags or antibodies (Abs. Abs for detection can be labeled with gold colloid clusters (GCCs. The Fc domain of the Abs binds to the clusters, and the Fab domain to the Ag on a nitrocellulose membrane or a microtiter plate as a support for dot-blotting. The signal of positive interaction between GCC-labeled Abs and its dotted Ag is detectable by the naked eye and can be quantified by comparison to a color scale prepared from a dilution series of known sample concentrations. The colored reaction product is stable for prolonged periods and does not fade, making this method a simple, fast, and convenient means for detection of Ag or Ab biorecognitions and an alternative to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Several interactions between different Ags or Abs (eg, ß-lactoglobulin and solutions avoiding gold colloidal cluster flocculation (eg, using protein G were studied. CLISA was tested for other analytical purposes such as detection of IgEs in patients’ sera.Keywords: ELISA, allergen, patient sera, CLISA, immunoassay, ß-lactoglobulin

  8. Chaperonin GroEL/GroES over-expression promotes multi-drug resistance in E. coli following exposure to aminoglycoside antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lise eGoltermann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance is an increasing challenge to modern healthcare. Aminoglycoside antiobiotics cause translation corruption and protein misfolding and aggregation in Escherichia coli. We previously showed that chaperonin GroEL/GroES depletion and overexpression sensitize and promote short-term tolerance, respectively, to this drug class. Here we show that chaperonin GroEL/GroES over-expression accelerates acquisition of aminoglycoside resistance and multi-drug resistance following sub-lethal aminoglycoside antibiotic exposure. Chaperonin buffering could provide a novel mechanism for antibiotic resistance and multi-drug resistance development.

  9. Plantes alimentaires d'intérêt médicinal utilisées par les Pygmées ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 35% pour les feuilles et 24,32% pour les écorces). Les pathologies associées à l'utilisation de ces plantes alimentaires fréquemment citées sont : les parasitoses, l'inflammation, les maux de ventre, les dermatoses et la toux. Mots clés : Plantes alimentaires, plantes médicinales, Pygmées, République Centrafricaine.

  10. La tasa de cambio: ¿es gerenciable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elbar Ramírez

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available El estudio “La tasa de cambio: ¿Es gerenciable?” define el tipo de cambio como el precio de una moneda en función de otra, señalando su influencia en los mercados, al formar los precios. Son los regímenes cambiarios fijo, flotante y administrado, los empleados para orientar la política cambiaria, pudiéndose predecir el tipo de cambio mediante la observación analítica de diez factores esenciales, herramienta que le permite al administrador, pronosticar la tasa de cambio y decidir sus operaciones comerciales con visión gerencial.

  11. Hérnia perineal em cães

    OpenAIRE

    Mortari Ana Carolina; Rahal Sheila Canevese

    2005-01-01

    A hérnia perineal acomete mais freqüentemente cães machos de meia idade e idosos, sexualmente intactos, podendo ser uni ou bilateral. Por tratar-se de afecção com altos índices de recidiva e complicações pós-operatórias, o trabalho tem por objetivo abordar os sinais clínicos, métodos diagnósticos, com ênfase aos tratamentos cirúrgicos. Entre as técnicas mais efetivas de reconstrução do diafragma pélvico, estão as transposições musculares únicas ou combinadas, tais como as do músculo obturador...

  12. ¿Es fundamental la hermenéutica?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Falque

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se interroga el fundamento de la hermenéutica del texto y lo que significa retomarla a la letra en filosofía y en teología. Una hermenéutica es fundamental si se afinca en un modo de existencia adecuado a su propósito, de modo que se diferencie mejor y sea identificada claramente. La hermenéutica protestante del sentido del texto y lav hermenéutica judía del cuerpo de la letra serán sustituidas aquí por una hermenéutica católica del texto del cuerpo, en una tentativa al menos programática.

  13. ¿Qué es la justicia global?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Pogge

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El uso generalizado de la expresión “justicia global” indica un cambio en la estructura del discurso moral. Tradicionalmente, las relaciones internacionales se consideraban como algo distinto de la justicia nacional. Antes se centraban en las interacciones entre los Estados, y luego se consideró el diseño del orden institucional nacional a la luz de sus efectos sobre los ciudadanos. Ese análisis moral institucional se empieza a aplicar a los arreglos institucionales supranacionales, hoy más influyentes e importantes en la vida de las personas. La perspectiva tradicional sugería acuerdos justos entre los Estados. La nueva perspectiva muestra que el orden institucional global es injusto pues enriquece a las élites de los países ricos y pobres, y perpetúa la opresión y el empobrecimiento de las mayorías.

  14. ¿Es la consciencia un tema de ciencia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Peralta-Fabi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La percepción que tenemos de nosotros mismos, la consciencia, parece vinculada esencialmente a la posibilidad de hacer preguntas y buscar las respuestas. En décadas recientes su caracterización y comprensión empiezan a ser objeto del esfuerzo científico, la estrategia más exitosa que hemos encontrado para hacer comprensible nuestro entorno, a partir de la evidencia, y en contraposición con la revelación o la especulación. Todo sugiere que la consciencia es resultado de la actividad extendida y armónica de distintas áreas del cerebro, aunque estamos lejos de sucomprensión.

  15. ¿Es redundante la prueba de selectividad?.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rúa Vieytes, Antonio.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Como consecuencia de la futura reforma en las pruebas de acceso a la universidad española, en donde la principal novedad será la eliminación de la prueba de conjunto o selectividad, cabe reflexionar sobre tan controvertida prueba y preguntarnos si realmente dicha prueba ha servido para algo y su aplicación ha sido efectiva en el rendimiento del alumno una vez dentro de la universidad o, por el contrario, si se trata de una prueba redundante. A partir del expediente académico y de las notas de selectividad de una muestra de 2.500 alumnos durante siete años, se llevará a cabo un análisis econométrico del grado de explicación que estas notas tienen sobre la prueba de conjunto y se constatará si dicha prueba es efectiva o redundante.

  16. ES&H development activities for the W89 warhead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pretzel, C.W.

    1995-08-01

    Environmental, Safety and Health (ES&H) issues became an important design consideration during the development of the W89 warhead for the SRAM 11 (Short-Range Attack Missile) missile. An action plan was developed to handle these issues at all the production agencies and at both the system and the component level. The main thrust was in the area of solvent substitution, in particular for solder flux removal. The cleaner d-limonene followed by an isopropyl alcohol rinse was selected for applications were the traditional cleaners were 1,1,1 trichloroethane or trichloroethylene. Compatibility testing rather than efficacy testing dominated the development effort. In addition to other solvent substitution applications, organic materials that were free of toluene diisocynate (TDI), and methylene dianiline (MDA) were explored for use in the W89.

  17. Urban agriculture and Anopheles habitats in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Dongus

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional survey of agricultural areas, combined with routinely monitored mosquito larval information, was conducted in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, to investigate how agricultural and geographical features may influence the presence of Anopheles larvae. Data were integrated into a geographical information systems framework, and predictors of the presence of Anopheles larvae in farming areas were assessed using multivariate logistic regression with independent random effects. It was found that more than 5% of the study area (total size 16.8 km2 was used for farming in backyard gardens and larger open spaces. The proportion of habitats containing Anopheles larvae was 1.7 times higher in agricultural areas compared to other areas (95% confidence interval = 1.56-1.92. Significant geographic predictors of the presence of Anopheles larvae in gardens included location in lowland areas, proximity to river, and relatively impermeable soils. Agriculture-related predictors comprised specific seedbed types, mid-sized gardens, irrigation by wells, as well as cultivation of sugar cane or leafy vegetables. Negative predictors included small garden size, irrigation by tap water, rainfed production and cultivation of leguminous crops or fruit trees. Although there was an increased chance of finding Anopheles larvae in agricultural sites, it was found that breeding sites originated by urban agriculture account for less than a fifth of all breeding sites of malaria vectors in Dar es Salaam. It is suggested that strategies comprising an integrated malaria control effort in malaria-endemic African cities include participatory involvement of farmers by planting shade trees near larval habitats.

  18. Urban agriculture and Anopheles habitats in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongus, Stefan; Nyika, Dickson; Kannady, Khadija; Mtasiwa, Deo; Mshinda, Hassan; Gosoniu, Laura; Drescher, Axel W; Fillinger, Ulrike; Tanner, Marcel; Killeen, Gerry F; Castro, Marcia C

    2009-05-01

    A cross-sectional survey of agricultural areas, combined with routinely monitored mosquito larval information, was conducted in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, to investigate how agricultural and geographical features may influence the presence of Anopheles larvae. Data were integrated into a geographical information systems framework, and predictors of the presence of Anopheles larvae in farming areas were assessed using multivariate logistic regression with independent random effects. It was found that more than 5% of the study area (total size 16.8 km2) was used for farming in backyard gardens and larger open spaces. The proportion of habitats containing Anopheles larvae was 1.7 times higher in agricultural areas compared to other areas (95% confidence interval = 1.56-1.92). Significant geographic predictors of the presence of Anopheles larvae in gardens included location in lowland areas, proximity to river, and relatively impermeable soils. Agriculture-related predictors comprised specific seedbed types, mid-sized gardens, irrigation by wells, as well as cultivation of sugar cane or leafy vegetables. Negative predictors included small garden size, irrigation by tap water, rainfed production and cultivation of leguminous crops or fruit trees. Although there was an increased chance of finding Anopheles larvae in agricultural sites, it was found that breeding sites originated by urban agriculture account for less than a fifth of all breeding sites of malaria vectors in Dar es Salaam. It is suggested that strategies comprising an integrated malaria control effort in malaria-endemic African cities include participatory involvement of farmers by planting shade trees near larval habitats.

  19. ¿Oriente es Oriente? Feminismo e Islamismo en Marruecos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramírez Fernández, Ángeles

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses some women' s movements in Morocco. It intends to demonstrate that the usual model that is used to explain women' s movements in the Arab World is not valid This model considers two kinds of women's movements: on the one hand, Western feminist movements, occidentalists, and on the other, Islamist movements, which are theoretically more authentic but also more repressive. Through the analysis of the positions adopted by Islamist and Feminist groups toward juridical changes of Mudawana, as well as the constructions of "womanhood" in these groups, the article shows how this dichotomous model oversimplifies the explanation of these processes. Furthermore, the use of this model in the research is not neutral. It has political consequences, such as the primitivization of the other. Ethnography makes possible other approaches to the topic and allows us to build a more nuanced interpretation.

    El presente artículo analiza los movimientos de mujeres en Marruecos, confrontándolos a lo que viene siendo el esquema habitual de tratamiento: movimientos feministas, de tipo occidental, frente a movimientos islamistas, más "auténticos", pero de carácter represivo. A través de un análisis de los cambios jurídicos en Marruecos, así como de los modelos de "mujer" que defiende cada movimiento, el artículo muestra que el esquema explicativo de la dicotomía de islamismo frente a feminismo para explicar la cuestión no es válido. Su uso no es neutro, y en ocasiones puede tener consecuencias perversas, que primitivizan al "otro". En cambio, el estudio de estos movimientos en el contexto social y político marroquí, puede arrojar luz sobre un problema que estimula, en ocasiones, y bloquea, en otras, el cambio en Marruecos.

  20. Es falseable la teoria mimetica?: Girard, popper, y la muerte de Simon Bolivar

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Andrade Campo, Gabriel Ernesto

    2010-01-01

    La teoria de Girard sobre los mitos es claramente verificable: abundan mitos en los que, en medio de una crisis sacrificial, una victima es ejecutada, la paz social se restablece, y la victima surge como un dios...

  1. New insights on serodiagnosis of trichinellosis during window period: early diagnostic antigens from Trichinella spiralis intestinal worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhong-Quan; Shi, Ya-Li; Liu, Rou-Dan; Jiang, Peng; Guan, Ya-Yi; Chen, Ying-Dan; Cui, Jing

    2017-02-20

    The clinical diagnosis of trichinellosis is difficult because its clinical manifestations are nonspecific. Detection of anti-Trichinella IgG by ELISA using T. spiralis muscle larval excretory-secretory (ES) antigens is the most commonly used serological method for diagnosis of trichinellosis, but the main disadvantage is false negativity during the early stage of infection. There is an obvious window period between Trichinella infection and antibody positivity.During the intestinal stage of Trichinella infection, the ES antigens of intestinal worms (intestinal infective larvae and adults) are exposed to host's immune system at the earliest time and elicit the production of specific anti-Trichinella antibodies. Anti-Trichinella IgG antibodies in infected mice were detectable by ELISA with ES antigens of intestinal worms as soon as 8-10 days post infection (dpi), but ELISA with muscle larval ES antigens did not permit detection of infected mice before 12 dpi. Therefore, the new early antigens from T. spiralis intestinal worms should be screened, identified and characterized for early serodiagnosis of trichinellosis.

  2. Uso do adesivo de fibrina na anastomose esôfago-esofágica cervical, em cães

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Ribeiro Prado Filho

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar os efeitos da associação do adesivo cirúrgico de fibrina à técnica operatória da invaginação submucosa, em anastomoses esofagianas. MÉTODO: Trinta e dois cães submetidos à anastomose esôfago-esofágica foram alocados em dois grupos: I com sutura em doze pontos e II com sutura em quatro pontos e vedação com adesivo de fibrina. Os animais foram avaliados no sétimo e décimo-quarto dias de pós-operatório. Foram analisados: a evolução ponderal, o índice de estenose, a incidência de deiscências e fístulas, a presença de secreções na tela subcutânea, a presença de líquido intersticial, matriz protêica, celularidade, fibroblastos, fibras de colágeno e concentração de hidroxiprolina. RESULTADOS: O índice de estenose foi menor para os animais do grupo I no sétimo dia de observação. Nos animais do grupo II a incidência de deiscências, secreção serosa e purulenta foram signitivamente maiores aos sete e quatorze dias, enquanto a presença de fístulas foi maior no sétimo dia. Quanto à concentração tecidual de hidroxiprolina não houve diferença estatística entre os grupos. Os fibroblastos e fibras de colágeno tiveram presença mais acentuada no grupo II no décimo-quarto dia. Ocorreram quatro óbitos em animais do grupo II. CONCLUSÕES: A anastomose por invaginação submucosa-mucosa com vedação com adesivo de fibrina apresentou piores resultados que a anastomose convencional de doze pontos circunferenciais.

  3. Proteome changes in the insoluble protein fraction of bovine Longissimus dorsi muscle as a result of low-voltage electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjarnadóttir, Stefanía Guðrún; Hollung, Kristin; Høy, Martin; Veiseth-Kent, Eva

    2011-10-01

    Changes induced by low-voltage electrical stimulation (ES; 0-95 V for 8 s; 95 V for 32 s) in the insoluble protein fraction of bovine longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle at 1 and 24h post-ES were investigated by proteomics. Protein abundance patterns from ten Norwegian Red (NRF) young bulls were compared, and significant changes due to ES were found by rotation test and partial least square (PLS) regression analyses. Five protein spots showed lower abundance in ES samples at both sampling times, and in addition, 10 proteins at 1 h post-ES and 13 proteins at 24 h post-ES changed significantly in abundance due to ES. Reduced abundance of full-length structural proteins in ES samples indicates an accelerated proteolysis due to ES. Moreover, increased abundance of small heat shock proteins indicates earlier initiation of stress responses due to ES. These findings provide a better understanding of the biochemical processes taking place as a result of ES during post mortem storage of meat. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. 76 FR 44906 - Foremost 4809-ES Insect-O-Fog; Amended Cancellation Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... 4809-ES Insect-O-Fog; Amended Cancellation Order AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION...), of an amended cancellation order for the pesticide product Foremost 4809-ES Insect-O-Fog, a pesticide product containing Piperonyl Butoxide and Pyrethrins. The registrant of Foremost 4809-ES Insect-O-Fog...

  5. Regression approach to estimate OF of the E(S 2 ) values for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Regression approach to estimate OF of the E(S2) values for supersaturated designs. CO Todo, JI Mbegbu ... In this light, Bulutoglu and Cheng (2004) constructed some SSD's, and then obtained their corresponding values of E(s2) by explicit computational method. In this paper however, we estimated the values of E(s2) by ...

  6. Differential T-cell recognition of native and recombinant Mycobacterium tuberculosis GroES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkrands, I; Weldingh, K; Ravn, P

    1999-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis GroES was purified from culture filtrate, and its identity was confirmed by immunoblot analysis and N-terminal sequencing. Comparing the immunological recognition of native and recombinant GroES, we found that whereas native GroES elicited a strong proliferative response...

  7. Learn OpenGL ES for mobile game and graphics development

    CERN Document Server

    Mehta, Prateek

    2013-01-01

    One of the first OpenGL ES version 3 books for game app developers doing mobile. Covers Android code and may be useful to iOS game developers too. OpenGL ES 3 is a new significant tech update to OpenGL ES graphics API engine that fuels game apps in both iOS and Android.

  8. Lames Retouchées Magdaléniennes du Morin (Gironde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise de SONNEVILLE-BORDES

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Des lames retouchées, souvent appointées ou tronquées, ont été signalées dans le Magdalénien supérieur par divers auteurs. R. de Saint-Périer notamment en figure plusieurs exemplaires provenant du Magdalénien de la Salle Saint-Martin et surtout du Magdalénien de la Grande Salle d'Isturitz, Basses-Pyrénées, Jude signale dans la couche III de la grotte de Rochereil, Dordogne, avec des lames tronquées, des lames appointées et arquées. M. et Saint-Just Péquart figurent du Magdalénien supérieur de la grotte du Mas-d'Azil, Ariège, des «lames lancéolées» et diverses lames, certaines appointées ou tronquées.Nous étudions ici la morphologie et les traces d'utilisation d'une série de lames retouchées recueillies dans le Magdalénien supérieur VI du gisement du Morin (Gironde par R. Deffarge: elles proviennent du niveau inférieur B I et des niveaux supérieurs A IV et A III.

  9. CONFIGURAÇÕES SUBJETIVAS DA PARTICIPAÇÃO POLÍTICA DE DIRIGENTES DO PSDB/ES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everton Faria Meira

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Este artigo tem por objetivo compreender as configurações subjetivas da participação política de dirigentes partidários do Partido da Social Democracia Brasileira no Espírito Santo - PSDB/ES. Adota-se uma abordagem histórico-cultural, associada à discussão sobre participação política em partidos políticos. Trata-se de um estudo de caso baseado na epistemologia qualitativa de Gonzalez Rey (2003a. Os dados foram obtidos entre abril/2011 e março/2013, por meio de questionário, redação, observação participante, conversações grupais e individuais com dirigentes do PSDB/ES. Os resultados revelam configurações subjetivas da participação política singulares, construídas em torno de aspectos como: o constrangimento em assumir a participação política; sentir-se e não sentir-se dirigente; admirar ou criticar os quadros do partido; decepções com o sistema partidário brasileiro; desejo de adequações na gestão do partido e da política no Brasil. Conclui-se que motivações, barreiras e constrangimentos dos dirigentes geram ambiguidades, levando-os ao dilema entre participar (de maneiras distintas ou não da política.

  10. Albumin-like protein is the major protein constituent of luminal fluid in the human endolymphatic sac.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Huhn Kim

    Full Text Available The endolymphatic sac (ES is an inner ear organ that is connected to the cochleo-vestibular system through the endolymphatic duct. The luminal fluid of the ES contains a much higher concentration of proteins than any other compartment of the inner ear. This high protein concentration likely contributes to inner ear fluid volume regulation by creating an osmotic gradient between the ES lumen and the interstitial fluid. We characterized the protein profile of the ES luminal fluid of patients (n = 11 with enlarged vestibular aqueducts (EVA by proteomics. In addition, we investigated differences in the protein profiles between patients with recent hearing deterioration and patients without hearing deterioration. The mean total protein concentration of the luminal fluid was 554.7±94.6 mg/dl. A total of 58 out of 517 spots detected by 2-DE were analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS. The protein profile of the luminal fluid was different from the profile of plasma. Proteins identified from 29 of the spots were also present in the MARC-filtered human plasma; however, the proteins identified from the other 25 spots were not detected in the MARC-filtered human plasma. The most abundant protein in the luminal fluid was albumin-like proteins, but most of them were not detected in MARC-filtered human plasma. The concentration of albumin-like proteins was higher in samples from patients without recent hearing deterioration than in patients with recent hearing deterioration. Consequently, the protein of ES luminal fluid is likely to be originated from both the plasma and the inner ear and considering that inner ear fluid volumes increase abnormally in patients with EVA following recent hearing deterioration, it is tempting to speculate that albumin-like proteins may be involved in the regulation of inner ear fluid volume through creation of an osmotic gradient during pathological conditions such as endolymphatic hydrops.

  11. Femoral haemostasis with Vasoseal ES: experience in 150 patients; Emostasi femorale mediante Vasoseal ES: esperienza in 150 pazienti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazzera, Carlo; Doriguzzi Breatta, Andrea; Veltri, Andrea; Righi, Dorico; Barbero, Stefano; Balderi, Alberto; Petracchni, Massimo; Gandini, Giovanni [Ospedale San Giovanni Battista, Torino (Italy); Torino Univ., Torino (Italy). Istituto di Radiologia

    2005-02-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness and safety of the use of Vasoseal ES collagen plug in heavenly anti coagulated patients with risk of complications at the vascular access site who had undergone vascular radiological intervention. Materials and methods: Between January 2002 and March 2003 180 consecutive transfemoral arterial accesses in 169 patients subjected to vascular radiological procedures were performed (bilateral access was performed in 11 patients): 140 percutaneous transluminal angioplasties and 40 transarterial chemoembolisations. All the patients who underwent angioplasty were given 3,000 IU of sodic heparin intravenously during the procedure and later a prolonged antiaggregant therapy was undertaken (ticlopidine 500 mg/day and aspirin 150 mg/day). The sheaths were removed at the end of the surgical manoeuvre and two cartridges of collagen were positioned on the external surface of the artery. The mean values of platelets and partial thromboplastin time were 42,000/ml and 170 s, respectively, in cirrhotic patients against 250,000/ml and 200 s in patients with peripheral arteriopathy. The next day a colour Doppler examination was performed at the puncture site. Results: The technique proved successful in 89.4% of cases (161/180). In 19/180 vascular accesses placement of the haemostatic cartridges was not possible owing to the inability to compress the common femoral artery proximal to the release site (4/19), owing to a pre-existing haematoma (5/19) and owing to the limited presence of subcutoma (5/19) and owing to the limited presence of subcutaneous tissue (10/19). The mean time required for the placement of Vasoseal ES was 4 min. The mean time to haemostasis was 6 min. The mean time to mobilisation was 4 hr. Only in two patients was there an onset of a pseudoaneurysm of the right common femoral artery-, the lesions were treated with ultrasonography-guided compression. In addition, 16 small local haematomas were recorded. In

  12. DETERMINATION OF AMINO ACIDS COMPOSITION IN MOLASSES YEAST (Saccharomyces cerevisiae AND FISH MEAL PROTEIN AS INGREDIENTS FOR FRESHWATER FISH RATIONS DETERMINAÇÃO DA COMPOSIÇÃO EM AMINOÁCIDOS DAS PROTEÍNAS DA LEVEDURA DE ÁLCOOL (Saccharomyces cerevisiae SECA E DA FARINHA DE PEIXE COMO INGREDIENTES PARA RAÇÕES DE PEIXES DE ÁGUA DOCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delma Machado Cantisani Pádua

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The possible use of microbial biomass to replace part of the fishmeal in fish diets could be considered an innovate solution. A quantitative determination of the content of aminoacids was made in two protein sources: molasses yeast (S. cerevisiae and fish meal. The chemical score and essential aminoacid index were calculated as a parameter correlated to biological value. The high lysine, threonine and tryptophan content of the protein in the molasses yeast must be emphasized. It reaches an order of magnitude superior to that in fish meal. Further researches, especially in relation to protein digestibility and possible toxicity or antinutritional components in the molasses yeast, are certainly a warranty to access the nutritive value of yeast product for fresh water fishes before the acceptable dietary level of these products can be recommended.

    KEY-WORDS: Molasses yeast; protein; fish; diets.

    Determinaram-se a composição e a qualidade protéica da levedura seca de destilaria alcoólica (S. cerevisiae, comparando-a com a farinha de peixe (FP. Utilizaram-se o escore químico (EQ e o índice de aminoácidos essenciais (IAAE. Estes quocientes indicam, em relação à proteína do ovo, a ordem dos aminoácidos limitantes, estimando assim o valor biológico protéico. Observaram-se elevados índices de lisina (EQ = 120, treonina (EQ = 110 e triptofano (EQ = 100 na levedura, recomendando-se seu balanceamento com cereais deficientes nestes aminoácidos. A proteína da levedura superou a da FP nestes índices de qualidade e satisfez o padrão internacional de qualidade e as exigências em aminoácidos estimados para a carpa e o pacu. Posteriores ensaios acerca de desempenho produtivo, de digestibilidade e de efeitos metabólicos com peixes fornecerão importantes

  13. Total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003483.htm Total protein To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes ...

  14. Advances in SELEX ES infrared detectors for space and astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, P.; Hipwood, L.; Baker, I.; Weller, H.

    2017-11-01

    Selex ES produces a wide range of infrared detectors from mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) and triglycine sulfate (TGS), and has supplied both materials into space programmes spanning a period of over 40 years. Current development activities that underpin potential future space missions include large format arrays for near- and short-wave infrared (NIR and SWIR) incorporating radiation-hard designs and suppression of glow. Improved heterostructures are aimed at the reduction of dark currents and avalanche photodiodes (APDs), and parallel studies have been undertaken for low-stress MCT array mounts. Much of this development work has been supported by ESA, UK Space, and ESO, and some has been performed in collaboration with the UK Astronomy Technology Centre and E2V. This paper focuses on MCT heterostructure developments and novel design elements in silicon read-out chips (ROICs). The 2048 x 2048 element, 17um pitch ROIC for ESA's SWIR array development forms the basis for the largest cooled infrared detector manufactured in Europe. Selex ES MCT is grown by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE), currently on 75mm diameter GaAs substrates. The MCT die size of the SWIR array is 35mm square and only a single array can be printed on the 75mm diameter wafer, utilising only 28% of the wafer area. The situation for 100mm substrates is little better, allowing only 2 arrays and 31% utilisation. However, low cost GaAs substrates are readily available in 150mm diameter and the MCT growth is scalable to this size, offering the real possibility of 6 arrays per wafer with 42% utilisation. A similar 2k x 2k ROIC is the goal of ESA's NIR programme, which is currently in phase 2 with a 1k x 1k demonstrator, and a smaller 320 x 256 ROIC (SAPHIRA) has been designed for ESO for the adaptive optics application in the VLT Gravity instrument. All 3 chips have low noise source-follower architecture and are enabled for MCT APD arrays, which have been demonstrated by ESO to be capable of

  15. ¿Es nuestra cultura un asunto de nuestros genes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crognier, Emile

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Las ciencias sociales y las ciencias de la evolución elaboraron nociones de la cultura, cuyas particularidades respectivas estimularon uno de los debates mas controvertidos de la antropología. Vista por las ciencias sociales, la noción de cultura estuvo en un principio inspirada por la noción de progreso y por la doctrina de la evolución, antes que la naturaleza biológica del hombre llegue a estar disociada de sus realizaciones culturales. Sin embargo permanecen los universales, esas marcas permanentes que transcienden los particularismos culturales que los antropólogos buscan desde los años treinta y que los reencuentra la antropología cognitiva actual bajo otras formas. Ellos no dejan de evocar las sujeciones que implica la tesis de una base genética de los comportamientos. L'etologia constituida como disciplina alrededor de los años 30, habiendo analizado el mecanismo de los comportamientos de comunicación codificados, lanzo las bases de una genética de los "instintos" y se dedico a reconstruir su filigénesis y su ontogénesis. De estas investigaciones nacieron los fundamentos de una teoría de la cultura que toma prestado los mecanismos evolutivos del neo-darwinismo. Esta teoría, la sociobióloga, luego de amplias investigaciones en el dominio de los comportamientos sociales animales, extrapola esos principios y sus teoremas al caso de la evolución humana e interroga a los antropólogos sobre aquello que para ellos es lo mas especifico: los comportamientos culturales humanos. Podemos extrapolar los comportamientos animales a los comportamientos humanos? Investigaciones mas profundas sobre ciertos comportamientos de base como los comportamientos reproductivos, parecen indicar respuestas que varían según las culturas y según los estratos sociales. En todo caso, revocan la noción de comportamientos universales y si no invalidan que existe una especie de "raíz" animal a numerosos comportamientos elementales, estas indican

  16. [es] Los conocimientos en trabajo social: elogio del eclecticismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Deslauriers

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available La ciencia está en el origen del trabajo social. En efecto, el objetivo que perseguía Mary Richmond al conceptualizar la disciplina de trabajo social consistía en reemplazar las creencias religiosas por un enfoque racional. Así pues, el conocimiento científico se inscribe en el corazón del trabajo social desde el principio. Dicho esto, las grandes teorías son menos útiles en la práctica de una profesión cuya finalidad es ayudar a las personas que viven las situaciones más diversas. Esta es la razón por la cual el trabajo social se construye a partir de una base ecléctica: el trabajador social eficaz toma de un vasto conjunto de nociones, en apariencia dispares, aquellas que mejor se adaptan a la situación. Ahora bien, ¿cómo enseñar este conocimiento práctico a los estudiantes de trabajo social? Este artículo trata de estas cuestiones y propone algunas pistas de reflexión. Science is closely related to social work, from its very origin. In fact, with the conceptualization of social work, Mary Richmond’s objective was to replace religious beliefs by a more rational approach. Thus, right from its beginning, the scientific knowledge was at the core of social work. This being said, grand theories are less appropriate to the practice of social work because this profession deals with persons living in particular situations. That is why social work is built upon an eclectic basis : social worker has to draw from a vast array of notions and theories to borrow bits and pieces which will help to explain and attenuate problem experienced by persons. Now, this practical knowledge can be taught to students in social work? This article deals with these questions and proposes some reflections.

  17. Abundant storage protein depletion from tuber proteins using ethanol precipitation method: Suitability to proteomics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye Min; Gupta, Ravi; Kim, Sun Hyung; Wang, Yiming; Rakwal, Randeep; Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Kim, Sun Tae

    2015-05-01

    High-abundance proteins (HAPs) hamper in-depth proteome study necessitating development of a HAPs depletion method. Here, we report a novel ethanol precipitation method (EPM) for HAPs depletion from total tuber proteins. Ethanol showed a dose-dependent effect on depletion of sporamin from sweet potato and patatin from potato tubers, respectively. The 50% ethanol was an optimal concentration. 2DE analysis of EPM-prepared sweet potato proteins also revealed enrichment of storage proteins (SPs) in ethanol supernatant (ES) resulting in detection of new low-abundance proteins in ethanol pellet (EP), compared to total fraction. The ES fraction showed even higher trypsin inhibitor activity than total proteins, further showing the efficacy of EPM in enrichment of sporamin in ES fraction. Application of this method was demonstrated for comparative proteomics of two sweet potato cultivars (Hwang-geum and Ho-bac) and purification of SP (sporamin) in its native form, as examples. Comparative proteomics identified many cultivar specific protein spots and selected spots were confidently assigned for their protein identity using MALDI-TOF-TOF analysis. Overall, the EPM is simple, reproducible, and economical for depletion of SPs and is suitable for downstream proteomics study. This study opens a door for its potential application to other tuber crops or fruits rich in carbohydrates. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. The evolutionally-conserved function of group B1 Sox family members confers the unique role of Sox2 in mouse ES cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Hitoshi; Nakamura, Akira; Urata, Makoto; Shirae-Kurabayashi, Maki; Kuraku, Shigehiro; Russell, Steven; Ohtsuka, Satoshi

    2016-08-31

    In mouse ES cells, the function of Sox2 is essential for the maintenance of pluripotency. Since the Sox-family of transcription factors are well conserved in the animal kingdom, addressing the evolutionary origin of Sox2 function in pluripotent stem cells is intriguing from the perspective of understanding the origin of pluripotency. Here we approach this question using a functional complementation assay in inducible Sox2-null ES cells. Assaying mouse Sox proteins from different Groups, we found that only Group B1 and Group G proteins were able to support pluripotency. Interestingly, invertebrate homologs of mammalian Group B1 Sox proteins were able to replace the pluripotency-associated function of mouse Sox2. Moreover, the mouse ES cells rescued by the Drosophila SoxNeuro protein are able to contribute to chimeric embryos. These data indicate that the function of mouse Sox2 supporting pluripotency is based on an evolutionally conserved activity of the Group B1 Sox family. Since pluripotent stem cell population in developmental process could be regarded as the evolutional novelty in vertebrates, it could be regarded as a co-optional use of their evolutionally conserved function.

  19. Protein Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmus, Elaine Garbarino

    2007-01-01

    Individual students model specific amino acids and then, through dehydration synthesis, a class of students models a protein. The students clearly learn amino acid structure, primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structure in proteins and the nature of the bonds maintaining a protein's shape. This activity is fun, concrete, inexpensive and…

  20. ¿es posible justificar el principio de uniformidad de la naturaleza?

    OpenAIRE

    Ordóñez Pinilla, Camilo Andrés

    2010-01-01

    Una de las tesis que intenta mostrar David Hume con sus argumentos escépticos acerca de la inducción es la imposibilidad de justificar el principio de uniformidad de la naturaleza. En el presente artículo se buscará mostrar: primero, que el argumento que da Hume para tal tesis es inválido. Segundo, que es posible construir un argumento correcto que muestre tal tesis. Tercero, que si bien es imposible justificar con un argumento deductivo el principio de uniformidad de la naturaleza, es posibl...

  1. GRAVIDADE DE INTOXICAÇÕES POR SANEANTES CLANDESTINOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Adrielle Teixeira Santos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo analizar las intoxicaciones por saneantes comercializados clandestinamente, reportadas en el Centro de Control de Intoxicaciones del Hospital Universitario Regional de Maringá. Es un estudio cuantitativo, con análisis retrospectivo de registros epidemiológicos de personas intoxicadas por estos agentes, en el período de enero de 2005 a diciembre de 2009. De los 118 casos reportados, la mayoría (74-62,7% se produjeron en varones, 105 (88,9% necesitaron de asistencia en unidades de atención de emergencia y hospitalización de alta complejidad, en 14 casos (11,8% requirieron de Cuidados Intensivos, y se reportaron cinco óbitos, todos por intoxicación intencional. Los resultados demuestran la gravedad y la letalidad de este tipo de intoxicación, sugieren la necesidad de medidas urgentes de fiscalización y control de la Vigilancia Sanitaria, así como de medidas para la educación de los consumidores, haciendo hincapié en el papel educativo de la Enfermería

  2. La televisión Colombia es de autor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Rincón

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Colombia tiene una marca narrativa en televisión. Somos el país de Yo soy Betty, la fea y Café con aroma de mujer y por eso Fernando Gaitán es nuestro gran contador cultural, así como lo fue antes García Márquez y su realismo mágico o Botero y sus gorditos divertidos. Nuestra marca Colombia de ficción televisiva se caracteriza por ser esa que hace otro melodrama e intenta otras éticas y estéticas, que innova y emociona distinto. Una ficción de autor. Eso comenzó desde el 13 de junio de 1954 cuando se inauguró la pequeña pantalla para conmemorar el primer año de gobierno del general Rojas Pinilla. En la primera emisión El niño del pantano, una breve de ficción adaptada para televisión de un cuento original de Bernardo Romero Lozano, ya marcaba el rumbo. Desde ese primer día la televisión colombiana buscó ser una mezcla entre lo de élite y lo popular, entre el gran drama y la comedia.

  3. VOLTA REDONDA: IMPLICAÇÕES PARA A ENFERMAGEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Emília Cardoso Moraes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio tuvo como objetivo la intervención en la Casa de Saúde Volta Redonda y sus implicaciones para la enfermería psiquiátrica. Las fuentes históricas son documentos escritos y orales. La organización, clasificación y análisis de los datos se hizo según el método histórico, con el apoyo de los conceptos de habitus y campo de Pierre Bourdieu y de la bibliografía sobre la reforma psiquiátrica en Brasil. Los cambios en la política de salud mental exigieron nuevas prácticas y actitudes de acuerdo con el proceso de implementación de la reforma psiquiátrica en aquel municipio, cuyo pilar es la inserción del enfermo psiquiátrico en la comunidad y el rescate de su ciudadanía. Estas medidas forman parte de un proyecto político partidario más amplio, con experiencias en otros municipios brasileños. La Enfermería ha ganado posiciones de poder y visibilidad para asegurar su participación en diferentes espacios decisorios en el ámbito de la asistencia psiquiátrica en el municipio.

  4. La lucidez es la herida mas cercana al sol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan E. Manuel Roca

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La comunicación interpersonal, muchas veces es dejada de lado por los comunicólogos, sin embargo tiene suma gravitación en las relaciones cotidianas entre las personas y en los procesos comunicacionales, toca el lenguaje de los gestos, la (in comunicación política, ceremonial y protocolo, intermediación en la comunicación, los jóvenes se incomunican. Respecto al Periodismo Investigativo señala que a pesar de los riesgos que implica el periodismo investigativo, muchos profesionales de América Latina no dudan en practicarlo, escudriñando muchas veces en temas que de no ser por ellos permanecerían ocultos. En otro artículo se habla de la importante repercusión que tuvo en América Latina el concurso CHASQUI, el que contó con la participación de profesionales de todo el continente. Incluye la entrega de entrevistas a destacados comunicadores de América Latina. Una sección está dedicada a las nuevas tecnologías: red de noticias y transmisiones vía satélite.

  5. ¿Qué es la “Chalandisation”?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Chauvière

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 En este artículo se estudian los procedimientos mediante los cuales el sector social se ve sometido a la llamada “chalandisation”, término francés de difícil traducción al castellano que indica el modo de gestión general de nuestras sociedades tardomodernas, postkeynesianas. Constataremos cómo esta lógica modifica la ordenación del campo de lo social, su modo de financiación, así como el sentido que los actores del terreno dan a su trabajo. Se analizará este proceso general en curso a través de los cambios regulatorios acaecidos en Francia desde los años 80.This article explores the processes by which the social sector i ssubjected to the ‘chandalisation’, the French Word difficult to translate into Spanish that indicates how is the overall management of late-modern societies, Post Keynesian. We’ll see how this changes the spatial logic of the social field, its mode of financing, as well as the sense that actors give to their work site. It Will be analyzed the current general process through regulatory changes that occurred in France since the 80’s.

  6. ¿Qué tan verde es tu mercado?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmar R. Olaya-González

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El mercado de lo verde y lo ecológico es una tendencia indiscutible en nuestro mundo globalizado, que busca de alguna manera resarcir el daño infringido sobre el medio ambiente. Más allá de simple altruismo, la ecología se ha convertido en una moda, de la cual unos y otros toman ventaja a su mejor acomodo, haciendo del mercado de productos y servicios su tribuna; eco-diseño, planes de responsabilidad social y ambiental, campañas por el reciclaje y consumo de productos "más amigables" con el medio ambiente hacen parte del panorama que se intenta describir en esta reseña. Por medio de un estudio de caso, se hará énfasis en cómo la comunicación asume un papel crucial en la verdadera apropiación del concepto de "consumidor verde" y "consumidor responsable", de manera que la propuesta transversal de las tic se convierta en una herramienta no solo tecnológica, sino también de empoderamiento del papel que la sociedad puede representar en el cuidado de los recursos naturales.

  7. INNOVACIÓN: LO SOCIAL LE ES INMANENTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GIOVANNI ARTURO LÓPEZ ISAZA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En el marco del proyecto de investigación doctoral “Emprenderismo/educación, innovación/edu - cación, empleo/educación: lenguajes que atrapan sentidos”, este documento recoge aportes sobre la innovación social, indagando con una ventana de observación 2000-2013, en las bases de in - formación: Science Direct, Scopus, Springer Link, Google books, Google y otros actores ubicados en América y Europa. Dos conclusiones emergen de este documento: (i El hilo conductor de los discursos sobre innovación social, indica que ella es comprendida como proceso social y como fenómeno emergente, en el contexto de prácticas ciudadanas que enfrentan problemas sociales; pri - vilegiando intereses colectivos sobre individuales, fortaleciendo las capacidades de unos y de otros actores sociales. (ii La educación/comunicación abre, penetra y altera mentes; le otorga sentido a la innovación, como constructo y esperanza social; con la participación/conversación de ciudadanos plurales y totales, favorece fusiones creativas que configuran innovación social.

  8. Introducción: ¿Es eficaz el terrorismo?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Muro

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available La cuestión de la eficacia del terrorismo es de gran relevancia política para los perpetradores, las víctimas y la sociedad en general. Evaluar la eficacia de la violencia política requiere analizar con detalle la gama de objetivos de los grupos terroristas y distinguir entre los niveles estratégicos y tácticos. Si bien la mayoría de las organizaciones clandestinas no logra alcanzar sus objetivos a largo plazo, sí consigue algunos éxitos durante el proceso. La capacidad del terrorismo para producir los efectos deseados dependerá también de otras variables y parámetros contextuales. El éxito táctico y estratégico de una campaña violenta depende de: 1 la capacidad y la fuerza de los perpetradores; 2 el tipo de objetivos, y 3la capacidad y la resistencia de la sociedad objetivo. Este artículo presenta el debate teórico sobre la eficacia del terrorismo, analiza los obstáculos metodológicos y proporciona una guía de los argumentos desarrollados este número monográfico.

  9. Hérnia perineal em cães

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mortari Ana Carolina

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A hérnia perineal acomete mais freqüentemente cães machos de meia idade e idosos, sexualmente intactos, podendo ser uni ou bilateral. Por tratar-se de afecção com altos índices de recidiva e complicações pós-operatórias, o trabalho tem por objetivo abordar os sinais clínicos, métodos diagnósticos, com ênfase aos tratamentos cirúrgicos. Entre as técnicas mais efetivas de reconstrução do diafragma pélvico, estão as transposições musculares únicas ou combinadas, tais como as do músculo obturador interno ou músculo glúteo superficial. Em casos de recidivas, podem ser utilizados métodos complementares como a colopexia e cistopexia por fixação dos ductos deferentes, ou procedimentos mais complexos como a transposição do músculo semitendinoso.

  10. Mobilisations collectives et femmes immigrées en France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Thiéblemont-Dollet

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Si nombreuses que soient les études ayant trait à l’immigration en France (et plus particulièrement masculine, aborder l’immigration sous l’angle des femmes immigrées et des processus communicationnels qu'elles ont développés en terre d’accueil est un apport essentiel aux sciences humaines. C’est pourquoi, cet article traite du thème de la mobilisation collective entre 2000 et 2008, par le biais des actions et des processus communicationnels mis en œuvre par des femmes immigrées ou issues de l’immigration, originaires du Maghreb et de l’Afrique de l’Ouest, plus particulièrement à partir de l’exemple du mouvement Ni Putes Ni Soumises. Analyser les réseaux d’interdépendance et de « contagion » entre ces actrices aux origines sociales identiques, faisant que ces femmes expriment un sentiment d’exclusion et associent leur statut social (chômage, profession sous-qualifiée, ethnique (origine maghrébine ou africaine et spatial (cité, banlieue, quartier dit difficile, à un même stigmate les reléguant à un univers discriminatoire, dégager les spécificités de leurs paroles selon les espaces et les temporalités où elles ont été délivrées, saisir leurs manières de s’organiser et leurs possibilités de mobilisation, sont les grands axes de cette réflexion. Suggérer enfin que ces femmes constituent un corps social émergent et mutant est une autre manière de lire ce texte. Émergent, parce qu’il est relativement récent du point de vue de sa visibilité dans la sphère publique et mutant, parce qu’il intègre des femmes qui participent d’un changement en train de se faire dans la société française et qui donnent une nouvelle image d’elles : non pas celle de féministes au sens classique du terme et de ce qui peut s’y rattacher, mais celle qui s’inscrit dans la perspective de comportement de genre à entendre comme mixité et modalités d’interaction entre femmes et hommes. Enfin

  11. The use of a synthetic antigen for the serological diagnosis of human trichinellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruschi F.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Hosts infected with Trichinella produce antibodies specific for an epitope common to the TSL-1 family antigens. This epitope contained uncommon terminal 3, 6-dideoxy-D-arabinohexose (so called tyvelose residues. The disaccharide moiety was synthesized and an immunodiagnostic assay was developed, which was specific and sensitive in swine trichinellosis. We aimed to verify the specificity and sensitivity of this immunodiagnostic test in human trichinellosis. 15 sera from normal subjects, 12 from patients with other parasitic diseases and 50 from trichinellosis patients were tested. Indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for specific IgG and an amplified ELISA for specific IgE were performed using β-tyvelose-GalNAc-bovine serum albumin (BSA disaccharide conjugate or T. spiralis muscle larvae excretory/secretory (E/S products, as antigens. Neither control sera nor other parasitic infection sera resulted positive both for IgG and IgE when synthetic or E/S antigens were used. In trichinellosis patient sera, specific IgG were present in 100 % of cases, irrespective of the antigen used, but whereas specific IgE were detected in 78 % using E/S antigens, a 100% positivity rate was obtained, using the β-tyvelose- BSA conjugate.

  12. Humoral immune response and antigenemia in sheep experimentally infected with Schistosoma bovis. Cross-reactivity with Fasciola hepatica antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Osorio, M; Gómez-García, V; Rojas, J; Ramajo-Martin, V

    1999-06-01

    Circulating antigen level, IgG antibody response to worm antigens and to excretory/secretory products (ES), and specificity to Fasciola hepatica antigens were determined in 6 Schistosoma bovis-infected sheep at weekly intervals for 15 wk. A noninfected control group was included. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) sandwich and a double-antibody ELISA test was used for antibody and antigen detection, respectively. The infection induced an early and relatively low IgG response to adult worm extract. This response was significantly elevated by 3 wk postinfection (PI), reached its maximum level at 9 wk PI, and was followed by a subsequent decrease. The response to ES antigens was slightly higher than that to adult worms, although the response started later, at 8 wk PI, and remained at its maximum level until 15 wk. A remarkable level of cross-reactivity was observed when adult F. hepatica extract was used. However, a low degree of cross-reactivity was found with ES antigen. The ELISA for circulating antigens was performed at weekly intervals for 8 wk. Antigens were detected as early as the first week of infection, although differences were statistically significant from week 5 onward. The highest values were observed at 7 week PI.

  13. IMPLICAÇÕES EMOCIONAIS NA PARTICIPAÇÃO POLÍTICA DE DIRIGENTES DO PSDB/ES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everton Faria Meira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo visa a compreender a dinâmica das emoções que envolvem a participação política de dirigentes do Partido da Social Democracia Brasileira/PSDB no Espírito Santo. Adota-se uma abordagem histórico-cultural, associada à discussão sobre participação política e partidos políticos. Trata-se de um estudo de caso de natureza qualitativa baseado na epistemologia qualitativa de Gonzalez Rey (2005. Os dados foram obtidos entre abril/2011 e março/2013, através de questionário, redação, observação participante, conversações grupais e individuais com quatro dirigentes do PSDB em Vitória/ES. Os resultados revelam que a tristeza e decepção dos sujeitos com o PSDB ajudam a reduzir a intensidade da participação política no partido, produzindo elementos subjetivos em tensão com alguns sentimentos. As considerações finais discutem o contexto político brasileiro e indicam a necessidade de modificar os processos internos de tomada de decisão, bem como a estrutura partidária de um modo geral

  14. CARACTERÍSTICAS DE LESÕES DE PÉ DIABÉTICO E SUAS COMPLICAÇÕES

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    Carla Luiza da Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus es un grupo de enfermedades metabólicas y la tercera causa de morbilidad y mortalidad, con la participación de algunas complicaciones, dejando al paciente vulnerable. Los objetivos fueron determinar la prevalencia de amputaciones de extremidades inferiores debido a las úlceras diabéticas con infección de pacientes de Unidad de Salud Familiar y analizar los cambios fisiológicos detectados durante la evaluación. Investigación retrospectiva y cuantitativa, realizada de mayo a octubre de 2010 con muestra de 40 personas involucradas en actividades. Los pacientes tenían algún tipo de deformidad ósea (30,8% y relativa falta de sensibilidad y sequedad de los pies (46,2%. Profesionales de la salud, especialmente de enfermería, deben realizar el cuidado de estos pacientes, informarle la necesidad de atención y prevención a través de actividades educativas dirigidas a el bienestar personal y social.

  15. quantification of total soluble protein concentration in aeromonas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    urve for protein @wialysis 0f Aumnmnas spa-fies. 6. 5 .1. 3. E Poultry. 2 i! Fish. [:1 Human. 1. U. A. hydrophila A' sobria A. caviae A. salmonicida. Figure 2: Chart showing average proteins of species of. Aeromonas isoloied fishes, poufiry and man ...

  16. ¿Qué es ser profesional docente?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime SARRAMONA LÓPEZ

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: En este trabajo se pretende repensar algunos puntos claves del debate reciente sobre la profesionalización docente, analizando en concreto las tres cuestiones siguientes: ¿Qué es una profesión? ¿Cuáles son los rasgos diferenciales de la misma? ¿En qué medida podemos afirmar que el profesorado cumple los requisitos convencionales de las profesiones? Aunque hay un acuerdo generalizado acerca de la necesidad de mejorar el status profesional de la enseñanza, no hay coincidencia en la forma de conseguirlo. Para entender las diferentes posiciones, se analizan, además, los conceptos de profesionalismo y profesionalización, y se destaca la importancia de la formación como un proceso de desarrollo personal y profesional. Por último se tratan aspectos relacionados con la salud laboral y las enfermedades profesionales.ABSTRACT: This article proposes to rethink some of the key issues of the recent debate about the teaching profession, through the analysis of three specific aspects: What is a profession? What are its distinctive features? To what extent can we say that teachers are satisfying the demands of the profession? Although there is a general agreement about the need to improve the professional quality of teaching, there doesn't seen to be a way to achieve it. In order to understand the different points of view, there will also be an analysis of the notions of professionalism and professionalization, with an emphasis on the importance of formation as professional and personal development process. To conclude, the issues of laboral health and professional illnesses will be dealt with.

  17. ¿Qué es una emoción?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mora Teruel, Francisco

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Gregorio Marañón wrote relatively little about emotion. Nevertheless, he considered emotion to be “one of the most interesting problems of human life.” This article describes the basic brain processes of emotion that motivates living beings to follow patterns of behaviour whose ultimate meaning is the survival of the individual and the species. A description is given here of the emotional processing of sensory information. It is noted that any process of conscious learning and memory is always emotionally coloured. Finally, one of the main conclusions of this article is that there is no rational thought without a previous emotional process in the brain. There is no reason without emotion. This is a conclusion that would probably have amazed Professor Marañón.El Dr. Gregorio Marañón no escribió mucho sobre la emoción. Pero sí es cierto que consideró que se trataba de “uno de los problemas más interesantes de la vida humana”. En este artículo se describen los procesos cerebrales básicos de la emoción que nos alertan y motivan hacia la realización de conductas en cuyo significado último se encuentra la supervivencia del individuo y de la especie. Se describe el procesamiento emocional de la información sensorial. Se señala que todo proceso de aprendizaje y memoria consciente siempre viene coloreado emocionalmente. Y se destaca que el profesor Marañón posiblemente mostraría asombro ante una de las principales conclusiones de este artículo en las que se indica que no hay pensamiento sin una emoción previa que lo alimente. Que no hay razón sin emoción.

  18. Cell-Dock: high-performance protein-protein docking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, Carles; Jiménez-González, Daniel; González-Álvarez, Cecilia; Servat, Harald; Cabrera-Benítez, Daniel; Aguilar, Xavier; Fernández-Recio, Juan

    2012-09-15

    The application of docking to large-scale experiments or the explicit treatment of protein flexibility are part of the new challenges in structural bioinformatics that will require large computer resources and more efficient algorithms. Highly optimized fast Fourier transform (FFT) approaches are broadly used in docking programs but their optimal code implementation leaves hardware acceleration as the only option to significantly reduce the computational cost of these tools. In this work we present Cell-Dock, an FFT-based docking algorithm adapted to the Cell BE processor. We show that Cell-Dock runs faster than FTDock with maximum speedups of above 200×, while achieving results of similar quality. The source code is released under GNU General Public License version 2 and can be downloaded from http://mmb.pcb.ub.es/~cpons/Cell-Dock. djimenez@ac.upc.edu or juanf@bsc.es Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  19. Optimal ELISA antigen for the diagnosis of Ascaris suum infection in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Ayako; Kikuchi, Taisei; Nakagaki, Shiori; Maruyama, Haruhiko

    2016-12-01

    Ascarid nematodes, Ascaris suum, Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati, are the most important causative species of larva migrans syndrome (LMS) in humans. Although the diagnosis of ascarid LMS is generally based on serological tests, specific serological tests for A. suum infection have not been fully developed. In the present study, the sensitivity and specificity of three A. suum antigen preparations, i.e., the somatic adult worm antigen (As-SWAP), larval excretory-secretory (ES) antigens derived from infective L3 (AsiL3-ES) and larval ES from tissue migratory L3 (AsmL3-ES), were evaluated for the serodiagnosis of A. suum infection in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We found that all A. suum antigen preparations showed positive reaction to all sera from A. suum-infected mice, while only AsmL3-ES obtained 100 % detection of anti-A. suum antibodies in human visceral ascarosis patients. Comparing the reactivity of each A. suum antigen, sera from both A. suum-infected mice and human patients bound to AsiL3-ES significantly weaker than As-SWAP and AsmL3-ES. Moreover, the OD450 values of ELISA with the A. suum antigen preparations and T. canis larval ES antigen (TciL3-ES) were compared in order to discriminate between ascarosis and toxocarosis. Linear discriminant analysis showed that diagnosis based on TciL3-ES and AsmL3-ES ELISA gave the most reliable result for the discrimination of infecting species. In conclusion, the application of AsmL3-ES antigen in ELISA can be recommended for the serodiagnosis of A. suum infection in humans.

  20. Bactericidal Permeability-Increasing Proteins Shape Host-Microbe Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangmin Chen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We characterized bactericidal permeability-increasing proteins (BPIs of the squid Euprymna scolopes, EsBPI2 and EsBPI4. They have molecular characteristics typical of other animal BPIs, are closely related to one another, and nest phylogenetically among invertebrate BPIs. Purified EsBPIs had antimicrobial activity against the squid’s symbiont, Vibrio fischeri, which colonizes light organ crypt epithelia. Activity of both proteins was abrogated by heat treatment and coincubation with specific antibodies. Pretreatment under acidic conditions similar to those during symbiosis initiation rendered V. fischeri more resistant to the antimicrobial activity of the proteins. Immunocytochemistry localized EsBPIs to the symbiotic organ and other epithelial surfaces interacting with ambient seawater. The proteins differed in intracellular distribution. Further, whereas EsBPI4 was restricted to epithelia, EsBPI2 also occurred in blood and in a transient juvenile organ that mediates hatching. The data provide evidence that these BPIs play different defensive roles early in the life of E. scolopes, modulating interactions with the symbiont.

  1. Concentra??o nas exporta??es de eletroeletr?nicos do Polo Industrial de Manaus: aspectos quantitativos e percep??es institucionais

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Vitor Cesar Pican?o

    2012-01-01

    Esta disserta??o tem como objetivo principal analisar a evolu??o da concentra??o das exporta??es do Subsetor de Eletroeletr?nicos do Polo Industrial de Manais - PIM, verificando as poss?veis implica??es de tal fen?meno em termos de afeta??o no ?mbito comercial do mesmo. Os dados da pesquisa compreendem dois n?veis: dados secund?rios de com?rcio exterior, provenientes dos sistemas de acompanhamento e controle do fluxo de exporta??es do Minist?rio da Ind?stria e Com?rcio MDIC e Superint...

  2. ¿Cuál es el objetivo principal de la mercadotecnia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Gerardo Barroso Tanoira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hay quienes piensan que el objetivo principal de la mercadotecnia es vender más, o bien, colocar productos y distribuirlos, o que es una herramienta para atraer a los clientes o inclusive para manipularlos. El objetivo del presente ensayo es reflexionar sobre el objetivo principal de esta disciplina, la cual es realmente una filosofía de vida empresarial. Se concluye que dicho objetivo es fomentar el intercambio voluntario entre dos o más partes que tienen algo que interesa a unos y a otros entre sí. El resultado de dicho intercambio, el cual es la clave en el proceso de la mercadotecnia, es lograr más ventas a través de satisfacer a los clientes y conseguir su lealtad mediante la identificación de sus necesidades y deseos, conjuntándolos con productos y servicios de calidad. Otra conclusión es que la satisfacción del cliente y las ventas, que para la empresa son objetivos, para la mercadotecnia son resultados del correcto fomento del intercambio voluntario en la gestión de negocios, el cual es su objetivo como disciplina en sí. Por otra parte, tampoco puede decirse que el mercadólogo sea un creador de necesidades ya que su papel es detectarlas y proponer los satisfactores para las mismas.

  3. PADRÕES DE DISTRIBUIÇÕES ESPACIAIS E TEMPORAIS DE TEMPERATURAS ASSOCIADOS AO BIOMA CERRADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicali Bleyer Ferreira dos Santos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La presencia de vegetación es un factor importante en el mantenimiento de los procesos biogeoquímicos de la naturaleza. En el Cerrado, la conversión de la vegetación natural en las áreas de la agricultura y de pastoreo induce cambios en las variables biofísicas tales como la temperatura de superficie, altamente sensible a los cambios en la cubierta terrestre. Así, con el fin de contribuir a la comprensión de la dinámica de causa y efecto del uso y ocupación de la región del Cerrado en variables biofísicas, este estudio pretende analizar, a partir de informaciones procedentes del sensor orbital (producto MOD11 - Land Surface Temperature, la correlación entre la ocupación de la tierra y la variabilidad térmica de la superfície. El estúdio fue hecho para el año 2003 en los meses de mayo y septiembre (principio y fin de la sequía. Con este fin, su investigación ha vinculado las diversas formas de ocupación (expresadas por las categorías de uso del suelo con la temperatura de superficie. El análisis de los datos mostro diferencias térmicas significtivas entre las classes naturales e antropizadas y revelo las dependências espaciales de la temperatura de la superfície, com uma fuerte influencia de la estacionalidad.

  4. Comunicación: entender que ayer no es hoy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Inés Porta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Transcurridos los primeros dieciséis años del siglo veintiuno observamos que las producciones de sentido y los modos de ejercer, distribuir, moldear y almacenar los bienes simbólicos se transforman vertiginosamente. El contexto digital impone velocidad, plasticidad, inmediatez y visibilidad a las narraciones. Los relatos circulan por diversos soportes, mutando sentidos, provocando que el conocimiento, el arte, las informaciones sean apropiadas y resignificadas. Mientras tanto hay resistencias, instituciones que sostienen que las formas tradicionales deben continuar dada su validez comprobada. Así se da una yuxtaposición de intereses y tensiones entre prácticas y sentidos. Observaremos esta tensión para comprenderla, para ver y definir eso que culmina mientras algo nuevo, que aún no tiene una estructura precisa, comienza a surgir ¿Será que estas innovadoras alternativas tecnológicas facilitan la democratización del conocimiento, entendiendo que el uso de las tecnologías responde a fundamentos políticos y pedagógicos? A partir de una perspectiva comunicacional analizaremos la complejidad de la producción social de conocimiento, el uso de las tecnologías, los vínculos entre los sujetos partícipes en estos procesos y las múltiples disputas en juego. Detallar las coordenadas de espacio y tiempo permiten situar la producción y garantiza la comprensión del proceso. Una de las primeras cosas que aprendemos en las aulas de la universidad pública es que el conocimiento se sitúa históricamente. Desde la primera pregunta que se antepone a cualquier investigación comprendemos que las hipótesis son producto de un pensamiento crítico referido a constricciones económicas, políticas y socioculturales de la propia sociedad en la que se vive y se formulan dichas hipótesis. Las innovaciones en formatos y soportes de comunicación exigen resituar y adecuar las estrategias.

  5. Challenges in diagnosing paediatric malaria in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strøm, Gro E A; Haanshuus, Christel G; Fataki, Maulidi; Langeland, Nina; Blomberg, Bjørn

    2013-07-03

    Malaria is a major cause of paediatric morbidity and mortality. As no clinical features clearly differentiate malaria from other febrile illnesses, and malaria diagnosis is challenged by often lacking laboratory equipment and expertise, overdiagnosis and overtreatment is common. Children admitted with fever at the general paediatric wards at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH), Dar es Salaam, Tanzania from January to June 2009 were recruited consecutively and prospectively. Demographic and clinical features were registered. Routine thick blood smear microscopy at MNH was compared to results of subsequent thin blood smear microscopy, and rapid diagnostics tests (RDTs). Genus-specific PCR of Plasmodium mitochondrial DNA was performed on DNA extracted from whole blood and species-specific PCR was done on positive samples. Among 304 included children, 62.6% had received anti-malarials during the last four weeks prior to admission and 65.1% during the hospital stay. Routine thick blood smears, research blood smears, PCR and RDT detected malaria in 13.2%, 6.6%, 25.0% and 13.5%, respectively. Positive routine microscopy was confirmed in only 43% (17/40), 45% (18/40) and 53% (21/40), by research microscopy, RDTs and PCR, respectively. Eighteen percent (56/304) had positive PCR but negative research microscopy. Reported low parasitaemia on routine microscopy was associated with negative research blood slide and PCR. RDT-positive cases were associated with signs of severe malaria. Palmar pallor, low haemoglobin and low platelet count were significantly associated with positive PCR, research microscopy and RDT. The true morbidity attributable to malaria in the study population remains uncertain due to the discrepancies in results among the diagnostic methods. The current routine microscopy appears to result in overdiagnosis of malaria and, consequently, overuse of anti-malarials. Conversely, children with a false positive malaria diagnosis may die because they do not receive

  6. Les plantes médicinales utilisées dans le traitement des diarrhées au Niger. Etude ethnobotanique

    OpenAIRE

    Lawaly Maman Manzo; Idrissa Moussa; Khalid Ikhiri

    2017-01-01

    Au Niger, quelques enquêtes sur les plantes médicinales ont été réalisées par différents chercheurs au cours des missions ethnobotaniques et ethnographiques. Les données concernant l’utilisation des plantes médicinales contre les diarrhées sont extraites à partir des documents publiés et ou rapports de recherche concernant les différentes enquêtes ethno-médicinales conduites au Niger pour synthèse et analyse. Au total, 98 espèces de plantes appartenant à 34 familles sont recensées être utilis...

  7. Sélection optimale de capteurs de référence pour le stockage de données spatialement corrélées

    OpenAIRE

    Criniere, Antoine; ROUMY, Aline; Maugey, Thomas; Kieffer, Michel; Dumoulin, Jean

    2017-01-01

    Les nouvelles politiques urbaines s'intéressent de près aux villes intelligentes hautement instrumentées faisant naître ainsi des problématiques de gestion et stockage d'un large volume de données émanant d'un nombre croissant de sources. Cette étude détaille une méthode de compression par codage prédictif de données multisources spatialement corrélées, basée sur l'expression de sources de références et l'utilisation du Krigeage comme méthode de prédiction

  8. Matrix metalloproteinase-3 in odontoblastic cells derived from ips cells: unique proliferation response as odontoblastic cells derived from ES cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiki Hiyama

    Full Text Available We previously reported that matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-3 accelerates wound healing following dental pulp injury. In addition, we reported that a proinflammatory cytokine mixture (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL-1β and interferon-γ induced MMP-3 activity in odontoblast-like cells derived from mouse embryonic stem (ES cells, suggesting that MMP-3 plays a potential unique physiological role in wound healing and regeneration of dental pulp in odontoblast-like cells. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that upregulation of MMP-3 activity by IL-1β promotes proliferation and apoptosis of purified odontoblast-like cells derived from induced pluripotent stem (iPS and ES cells. Each odontoblast-like cell was isolated and incubated with different concentrations of IL-1β. MMP-3 mRNA and protein expression were assessed using RT-PCR and western blotting, respectively. MMP-3 activity was measured using immunoprecipitation and a fluorescence substrate. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were determined using ELISA for BrdU and DNA fragmentation, respectively. siRNA was used to reduce MMP-3 transcripts in these cells. Treatment with IL-1β increased MMP-3 mRNA and protein levels, and MMP-3 activity in odontoblast-like cells. Cell proliferation was found to markedly increase with no changes in apoptosis. Endogenous tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 were constitutively expressed during all experiments. The exocytosis inhibitor, Exo1, potently suppressed the appearance of MMP-3 in the conditioned medium. Treatment with siRNA against MMP-3 suppressed an IL-1β-induced increase in MMP-3 expression and activity, and also suppressed cell proliferation, but unexpectedly increased apoptosis in these cells (P<0.05. Exogenous MMP-3 was found to induce cell proliferation in odontoblast-like cells derived from iPS cells and ES cells. This siRNA-mediated increase in apoptosis could be reversed with exogenous MMP-3 stimulation (P<0

  9. Découverte des Connaissances dans les Bases de Données: Une ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cet article consiste à extraire automatiquement des connaissances implicites à partir d'une base de données. Ce travail relève du domaine des systèmes de découverte de connaissances dans les bases de données (Knowledge Discovery in Databases), domaine de recherche à l'intersection des bases de données, de ...

  10. Base de données des étoiles doubles et multiples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oblak, E.; Chareton, M.; Dumon, R.; Kurpinska-Winiarska, M.; Kundera, T.

    Les auteurs réalisent à Besançon une base de données de tous les types d'étoiles doubles et multiples. Le traitement des données concerne l'acquisition de nouvelles données, l'examen de celles déjà disponibles, et le développement d'un outil informatique de gestion et d'interrogation à distance de la base.

  11. Generation of Hprt-disrupted rat through mouse←rat ES chimeras

    OpenAIRE

    Ayako Isotani; Kazuo Yamagata; Masaru Okabe; Masahito Ikawa

    2016-01-01

    We established rat embryonic stem (ES) cell lines from a double transgenic rat line which harbours CAG-GFP for ubiquitous expression of GFP in somatic cells and Acr3-EGFP for expression in sperm (green body and green sperm: GBGS rat). By injecting the GBGS rat ES cells into mouse blastocysts and transplanting them into pseudopregnant mice, rat spermatozoa were produced in mouse?rat ES chimeras. Rat spermatozoa from the chimeric testis were able to fertilize eggs by testicular sperm extraction...

  12. Estudo quantitativo e qualitativo dos plexos de Auerbach e Meissner do esôfago de cães inoculados com o Trypanosoma cruzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteia R.O. Caliari

    1996-02-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo quantitativo e qualitativo dos plexos de Auerbach e Meissner do esôfago de quatro cães chagásicos sacrificados na fase aguda da infecção. As ganglionites e periganglionites do plexo de Auerbach variaram de discretas a moderadas, induzindo lesões neuronais significativas, principalmente em dois animais. Os gânglios do plexo de Meissner foram observados em pequeno número, impossibilitando qualquer análise. Miosite discreta ou moderada foi observada principalmente no terço inferior do esôfago, raramente associada a ninhos de amastigotas. A contagem de gânglios e neurônios não demonstrou desnervação. Apesar de em nenhum dos cães ter sido induzida a formação de megaesôfago, relatamos lesões do plexo de Auerbach e de miocélulas do esôfago de animais na fase aguda da infecção chagásica. Este parece ser o primeiro estudo quantitativo e qualitativo sistemático dos plexos de Auerbach e Meissner do esôfago na tripanosomíase cruzi experimental.

  13. Whey Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... protein daily for 2 years does not improve bone density in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Weight loss. Most research suggests that taking whey protein alone, along with diet modifications, or while following an exercise plan does not seem to reduce weight for ...

  14. Protein Extractability

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    limited to high oleic acid oil and water purification property (Katayon et al., 2006; Foid et al., 2001 and. Folkard et al., 1993), whereas it contains up to. 332.5 g of crude protein per kg of sample (Jose et al., 1999). Studies to characterize the interaction effects of pH and salts on the extraction of. PROTEIN EXTRACTABILITY ...

  15. ELECTROPORATION OF CONFLUENT HM-1 ES CELLS LEADS TO HIGHER AMOUNT COLONIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.ALENA BENCSIK

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Electroporation is used to induce homologous recombination in the genome of the murine ES (embryonic stem cells. Routinelly subconfluent ES cells are recommended to be used in such experiments. Electroporation of immunoglobulin specific targeting vectors with different length of homology leads to reduced number of selected colonies. The enrichment of double selected colonies is high and thus the amount of HM-1 ES cell colonies for the analysis is very low. Here we show that the electroporation of confluent HM-1 ES cells leads to an increased amount of simple and double selected colonies.

  16. Tau protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Jette Lautrup Battistini; Kristensen, Kim; Bahl, Jmc

    2011-01-01

    Background: Tau protein has been proposed as biomarker of axonal damage leading to irreversible neurological impairment in MS. CSF concentrations may be useful when determining risk of progression from ON to MS. Objective: To investigate the association between tau protein concentration and 14......-3-3 protein in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with monosymptomatic optic neuritis (ON) versus patients with monosymptomatic onset who progressed to multiple sclerosis (MS). To evaluate results against data found in a complete literature review. Methods: A total of 66 patients with MS and/or ON from...... the Department of Neurology of Glostrup Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, were included. CSF samples were analysed for tau protein and 14-3-3 protein, and clinical and paraclinical information was obtained from medical records. Results: The study shows a significantly increased concentration of tau...

  17. Live cell imaging of the nascent inactive X chromosome during the early differentiation process of naive ES cells towards epiblast stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyochin, Aurélia; Maenner, Sylvain; Chu, Erin Tsi-Jia; Hentati, Asma; Attia, Mikael; Avner, Philip; Clerc, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Random X-chromosome inactivation ensures dosage compensation in mammals through the transcriptional silencing of one of the two X chromosomes present in each female cell. Silencing is initiated in the differentiating epiblast of the mouse female embryos through coating of the nascent inactive X chromosome by the non-coding RNA Xist, which subsequently recruits the Polycomb Complex PRC2 leading to histone H3-K27 methylation. Here we examined in mouse ES cells the early steps of the transition from naive ES cells towards epiblast stem cells as a model for inducing X chromosome inactivation in vitro. We show that these conditions efficiently induce random XCI. Importantly, in a transient phase of this differentiation pathway, both X chromosomes are coated with Xist RNA in up to 15% of the XX cells. In an attempt to determine the dynamics of this process, we designed a strategy aimed at visualizing the nascent inactive X-chromosome in live cells. We generated transgenic female XX ES cells expressing the PRC2 component Ezh2 fused to the fluorescent protein Venus. The fluorescent fusion protein was expressed at sub-physiological levels and located in nuclei of ES cells. Upon differentiation of ES cell towards epiblast stem cell fate, Venus-fluorescent territories appearing in interphase nuclei were identified as nascent inactive X chromosomes by their association with Xist RNA. Imaging of Ezh2-Venus for up to 24 hours during the differentiation process showed survival of some cells with two fluorescent domains and a surprising dynamics of the fluorescent territories across cell division and in the course of the differentiation process. Our data reveal a strategy for visualizing the nascent inactive X chromosome and suggests the possibility for a large plasticity of the nascent inactive X chromosome.

  18. Live cell imaging of the nascent inactive X chromosome during the early differentiation process of naive ES cells towards epiblast stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélia Guyochin

    Full Text Available Random X-chromosome inactivation ensures dosage compensation in mammals through the transcriptional silencing of one of the two X chromosomes present in each female cell. Silencing is initiated in the differentiating epiblast of the mouse female embryos through coating of the nascent inactive X chromosome by the non-coding RNA Xist, which subsequently recruits the Polycomb Complex PRC2 leading to histone H3-K27 methylation. Here we examined in mouse ES cells the early steps of the transition from naive ES cells towards epiblast stem cells as a model for inducing X chromosome inactivation in vitro. We show that these conditions efficiently induce random XCI. Importantly, in a transient phase of this differentiation pathway, both X chromosomes are coated with Xist RNA in up to 15% of the XX cells. In an attempt to determine the dynamics of this process, we designed a strategy aimed at visualizing the nascent inactive X-chromosome in live cells. We generated transgenic female XX ES cells expressing the PRC2 component Ezh2 fused to the fluorescent protein Venus. The fluorescent fusion protein was expressed at sub-physiological levels and located in nuclei of ES cells. Upon differentiation of ES cell towards epiblast stem cell fate, Venus-fluorescent territories appearing in interphase nuclei were identified as nascent inactive X chromosomes by their association with Xist RNA. Imaging of Ezh2-Venus for up to 24 hours during the differentiation process showed survival of some cells with two fluorescent domains and a surprising dynamics of the fluorescent territories across cell division and in the course of the differentiation process. Our data reveal a strategy for visualizing the nascent inactive X chromosome and suggests the possibility for a large plasticity of the nascent inactive X chromosome.

  19. Effects of moisture stress on germination and protein synthesis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 3, 5 triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC), and their abilities to synthesize protein after stress by incorporating L- 4,5-3H leucine into their root tips. Les graines de dolique non pigmentées, TVX 3236 (crème et brune) et IT81S-818 (blanche), étaient exposées aux conditions d'humidité constantes plus stressantes (-0.1 et ...

  20. Patterns and risks of trichinella infection in humans and pigs in northern Laos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James V Conlan

    Full Text Available Several outbreaks of trichinellosis associated with the consumption of raw pork have occurred in Laos since 2004. This cross-sectional study was conducted in four provinces of northern Laos to investigate the seroepidemiology of trichinellosis in the human population and determine the prevalence and species of Trichinella infection in the domestic pig population. Serum samples and questionnaire data were obtained from 1419 individuals. Serum samples were tested for Trichinella antibodies by ELISA using larval excretory-secretory (ES antigens and a subset of 68 positive samples were tested by western blot. The seroprevalence of Trichinella antibodies was 19.1% (95% confidence interval (CI = 17.1-21.1%. The risk of having antibodies detected by ELISA using ES antigens increased with age, being of Lao-Tai ethnicity, living in Oudomxay province and being male. Tongue and diaphragm muscle samples were collected from 728 pigs and tested for Trichinella larvae by the artificial digestion method. Trichinella larvae were isolated from 15 pigs (2.1% of which 13 were identified as T. spiralis by molecular typing; the species of the two remaining isolates could not be determined due to DNA degradation. Trichinella spp. are endemic in the domestic environment of northern Laos and targeted preventative health measures should be initiated to reduce the risk of further outbreaks occurring.

  1. Secretory Products of Trichinella spiralis Muscle Larvae and Immunomodulation: Implication for Autoimmune Diseases, Allergies, and Malignancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofronic-Milosavljevic, Ljiljana; Ilic, Natasa; Pinelli, Elena; Gruden-Movsesijan, Alisa

    2015-01-01

    Trichinella spiralis has the unique ability to make itself “at home” by creating and hiding in a new type of cell in the host body that is the nurse cell. From this immunologically privileged place, the parasite orchestrates a long-lasting molecular cross talk with the host through muscle larvae excretory-secretory products (ES L1). Those products can successfully modulate parasite-specific immune responses as well as responses to unrelated antigens (either self or nonself in origin), providing an anti-inflammatory milieu and maintaining homeostasis. It is clear, based on the findings from animal model studies, that T. spiralis and its products induce an immunomodulatory network (which encompasses Th2- and Treg-type responses) that may allow the host to deal with various hyperimmune-associated disorders as well as tumor growth, although the latter still remains unclear. This review focuses on studies of the molecules released by T. spiralis, their interaction with pattern recognition receptors on antigen presenting cells, and subsequently provoked responses. This paper also addresses the immunomodulatory properties of ES L1 molecules and how the induced immunomodulation influences the course of different experimental inflammatory and malignant diseases. PMID:26114122

  2. Inibição da migração larval em tecidos de camundongos imunizados com antígenos de Toxocara vitulorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Helena Silvestre de Paula

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Three groups of mice were immunized agaisnt three different Toxocara vitulorum antigens: perienteric fluid (Pe of adults and excretory/secretory (ES and soluble extracts (Ex of infective larvae. A group of non-immunized animals was considered the control group. All groups were challenged one week after the third immunization with T. vitulorum infective eggs and necropsied at three different periods after the challenge: seven hours, four and 30 days. Eggs and larvae counts in the feces of mice were accomplished and revealed that Pe immunized group eliminated the highest number of larvae. Small and large intestines, liver, lungs, heart, brain and muscle (diaphragm, tongue e quadriceps femoris were removed, digested by peptical digestion and larvae were identified and counted. The higher number of larvae was found in the large intestine seven hours after the challenge in all examined groups; however, this number was significantly lower in animals of the immunized groups. On day four after the challenge, larvae were more often found in the liver and lungs, and the immunized groups had lower numbers of larvae than in the control groups. On day 30 after the challenge low numbers of larvae were recovered in the brain and muscle. The effective immunization against larval migration based on the rate of reduction of the larvae present in the liver on day four after infection was of 82%, 79% and 58% for Ex, Pe and ES antigen, respectively.

  3. Patterns and risks of trichinella infection in humans and pigs in northern Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlan, James V; Vongxay, Khamphouth; Khamlome, Boualam; Gomez-Morales, Maria Angeles; Pozio, Edoardo; Blacksell, Stuart D; Fenwick, Stanley; Thompson, R C A

    2014-01-01

    Several outbreaks of trichinellosis associated with the consumption of raw pork have occurred in Laos since 2004. This cross-sectional study was conducted in four provinces of northern Laos to investigate the seroepidemiology of trichinellosis in the human population and determine the prevalence and species of Trichinella infection in the domestic pig population. Serum samples and questionnaire data were obtained from 1419 individuals. Serum samples were tested for Trichinella antibodies by ELISA using larval excretory-secretory (ES) antigens and a subset of 68 positive samples were tested by western blot. The seroprevalence of Trichinella antibodies was 19.1% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 17.1-21.1%). The risk of having antibodies detected by ELISA using ES antigens increased with age, being of Lao-Tai ethnicity, living in Oudomxay province and being male. Tongue and diaphragm muscle samples were collected from 728 pigs and tested for Trichinella larvae by the artificial digestion method. Trichinella larvae were isolated from 15 pigs (2.1%) of which 13 were identified as T. spiralis by molecular typing; the species of the two remaining isolates could not be determined due to DNA degradation. Trichinella spp. are endemic in the domestic environment of northern Laos and targeted preventative health measures should be initiated to reduce the risk of further outbreaks occurring.

  4. Molecular and functional characterization of a Schistosoma bovis annexin: fibrinolytic and anticoagulant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre-Escudero, Eduardo; Manzano-Román, Raúl; Siles-Lucas, Mar; Pérez-Sánchez, Ricardo; Moyano, J Carlos; Barrera, Inmaculada; Oleaga, Ana

    2012-02-28

    Annexins belong to an evolutionarily conserved multigene family of proteins expressed throughout the animal and plant kingdoms. Although they are soluble cytosolic proteins that lack signal sequences, they have also been detected in extracellular fluids and have been associated with cell surface membranes, where they could be involved in anti-haemostatic and anti-inflammatory functions. Schistosome annexins have been identified on the parasite's tegument surface and excretory/secretory products, but their functions are still unknown. Here we report the cloning, sequencing, in silico analysis, and functional characterization of a Schistosoma bovis annexin. The predicted protein has typical annexin secondary and tertiary structures. Bioassays with the recombinant protein revealed that the protein is biologically active in vitro, showing fibrinolytic and anticoagulant properties. Finally, the expression of the native protein on the tegument surface of S. bovis schistosomula and adult worms is demonstrated, revealing the possibility of exposure to the host's immune system and thus offering a potential vaccine target for the control of schistosomiasis in ruminants. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Transposon-mediated BAC transgenesis in human ES cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostovskaya, Maria; Fu, Jun; Obst, Mandy; Baer, Isabell; Weidlich, Stefanie; Wang, Hailong; Smith, Andrew J H; Anastassiadis, Konstantinos; Stewart, A Francis

    2012-10-01

    Transgenesis is a cornerstone of molecular biology. The ability to integrate a specifically engineered piece of DNA into the genome of a living system is fundamental to our efforts to understand life and exploit its implications for medicine, nanotechnology and bioprospecting. However, transgenesis has been hampered by position effects and multi-copy integration problems, which are mainly due to the use of small, plasmid-based transgenes. Large transgenes based on native genomic regions cloned into bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) circumvent these problems but are prone to fragmentation. Herein, we report that contrary to widely held notions, large BAC-sized constructs do not prohibit transposition. We also report the first reliable method for BAC transgenesis in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). The PiggyBac or Sleeping Beauty transposon inverted repeats were integrated into BAC vectors by recombineering, followed by co-lipofection with the corresponding transposase in hESCs to generate robust fluorescent protein reporter lines for OCT4, NANOG, GATA4 and PAX6. BAC transposition delivers several advantages, including increased frequencies of single-copy, full-length integration, which will be useful in all transgenic systems but especially in difficult venues like hESCs.

  6. Protein-Protein Interaction Databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szklarczyk, Damian; Jensen, Lars Juhl

    2015-01-01

    of research are explored. Here we present an overview of the most widely used protein-protein interaction databases and the methods they employ to gather, combine, and predict interactions. We also point out the trade-off between comprehensiveness and accuracy and the main pitfall scientists have to be aware...

  7. Whey Protein Supplementation Enhances Whole Body Protein Metabolism and Performance Recovery after Resistance Exercise: A Double-Blind Crossover Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel W. D. West

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available No study has concurrently measured changes in free-living whole body protein metabolism and exercise performance during recovery from an acute bout of resistance exercise. We aimed to determine if whey protein ingestion enhances whole body net protein balance and recovery of exercise performance during overnight (10 h and 24 h recovery after whole body resistance exercise in trained men. In a double-blind crossover design, 12 trained men (76 ± 8 kg, 24 ± 4 years old, 14% ± 5% body fat; means ± standard deviation (SD performed resistance exercise in the evening prior to consuming either 25 g of whey protein (PRO; MuscleTech 100% Whey or an energy-matched placebo (CHO immediately post-exercise (0 h, and again the following morning (~10 h of recovery. A third randomized trial, completed by the same participants, involving no exercise and no supplement served as a rested control trial (Rest. Participants ingested [15N]glycine to determine whole body protein kinetics and net protein balance over 10 and 24 h of recovery. Performance was assessed pre-exercise and at 0, 10, and 24 h of recovery using a battery of tests. Net protein balance tended to improve in PRO (P = 0.064; effect size (ES = 0.61, PRO vs. CHO during overnight recovery. Over 24 h, net balance was enhanced in PRO (P = 0.036 but not in CHO (P = 0.84; ES = 0.69, PRO vs. CHO, which was mediated primarily by a reduction in protein breakdown (PRO < CHO; P < 0.01. Exercise decreased repetitions to failure (REP, maximal strength (MVC, peak and mean power, and countermovement jump performance (CMJ at 0 h (all P < 0.05 vs. Pre. At 10 h, there were small-to-moderate effects for enhanced recovery of the MVC (ES = 0.56, mean power (ES = 0.49, and CMJ variables (ES: 0.27–0.49 in PRO. At 24 h, protein supplementation improved MVC (ES = 0.76, REP (ES = 0.44, and peak power (ES = 0.55. In conclusion, whey protein supplementation enhances whole body anabolism, and may improve acute recovery of

  8. Alterações morfofuncionais renais em cães Golden Retriever Distróficos (GRMD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia J.N. Gonçalves

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A Golden Retriever Muscular Dystrophy (GRMD é geneticamente homóloga à distrofia muscular de Duchenne (DMD que acomete seres humanos. É uma doença genética que gera degeneração progressiva da musculatura esquelética. Considerando-se as intensas alterações musculares, é natural pensar em uma possível lesão renal decorrente da intensa lesão muscular. Foram avaliados seis cães machos da raça Golden Retriever afetados pela distrofia muscular (GRMD e três cães machos clinicamente sadios. A concentração de creatinina foi determinada e as proteínas urinárias foram avaliadas por eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida. Os resultados mostraram que a proteinúria patológica não está diretamente associada à Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne, porém diversos parâmetros apresentaram concentrações aumentadas para animais afetados, como a razão proteína/albumina, que foi maior em cães distróficos, podendo ser indício de microalbuminúria e conseqüente lesão renal precoce. Estes resultados visam embasar avaliações clínicas e futuros estudos considerando-se as patologias decorrentes ou associadas a esta doença genética.

  9. TRANSFORMAÇÕES DO CORPO: Era parabiose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keline da Costa Brito

    2016-07-01

    made if it relates to a normative discourse as the type of food, exercise, and the use of drugs and prostheses to extend the power of bodies. Concomitantly is used genetic engineering enabling alternative of a body enhanced by the use of biotechnological artifacts that aims to extend the natural human form, ie a parabiosis. The Biopower is performed daily, and acts in various ways through the mechanisms of power, these potentiated control of life, without this use physical force to impose their control. What can be fantastic for human evolution, it can also become something unprecedented. Therefore, the body has become an enterprise to be administered, in which, without realizing it, is being transformed and "perfected", resulting in a chimera for philosophy. Keywords: Body; Subjectivity; Control; Biotechnology. TRANSFORMACIÓN DEL CUERPO: Era parabiosis RESUMEN Este artículo tiene como objetivo analizar los cambios que el cuerpo ha sufrido debido a la visión mecanicista que le ha cambiando, y su dimensión biológica, la subjetividad del individuo y su relación con el medio ambiente, como resultado de la adaptación de la biotecnología para cuerpo. Partimos del planteamiento heideggeriano que preocuparnos sobre el uso tecnológico de la persona, y al mismo tiempo vamos a utilizar el análisis de la rentabilidad del cuerpo político de Foucault. Esto hizo que si se refiere a un discurso normativo como el tipo de alimentación, el ejercicio y el uso de medicamentos y prótesis para extender el poder de los cuerpos. Al mismo tiempo se utiliza la ingeniería genética permite alternativa de un cuerpo mejorado por el uso de artefactos biotecnológicos que tiene por objeto ampliar la forma humana natural, es decir, un parabiosis. El biopoder se realiza todos los días, y actúa de diversas maneras a través de los mecanismos de poder, control de éstos potenciada de la vida, sin esta fuerza física utilización de imponer su control. ¿Qué puede ser fantástico para la

  10. A Correlation Study of the Minnesota Teacher Attitude Inventory and Kerlinger's ES-VII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padgett, Harry G.

    The Minnesota Teacher Attitude Inventory (MTAI) and Kerlinger's ES-VII are instruments which examine both the individual's general educational philosophy and his ideas of practice. A study was designed to investigate (1) the common variance in the Difference score of the 150-item MTAI and the D score of Kerlinger's 30-item ES-VII with respect to…

  11. Microbial quality of drinking water in Dar es Salaam and use of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Water borne diseases are alarmingly high in urban areas like Dar es Salaam. Hence the importance of chlorine-based water disinfectant solutions such as Waterguard® that consists of 0.75% sodium hypochlorite. Waterguard® has been in the market in Dar es Salaam for about 4 years. Despite this, prevalence of ...

  12. Anti-diabetic drugs in the private and public sector in Dar es Salaam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To compare availability, cost, affordability and sources of anti-diabetic drugs between private and public health facilities in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Design: Cross sectional descriptive study. Setting: Diabetic clinics in private and public health facilities in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Subjects: Eighty patients ...

  13. 1ES 0033+595 found in a very high state by INTEGRAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassani, L.; Malizia, A.; Chenevez, Jérôme

    2014-01-01

    During recent Galactic Plane Scan survey observations (GPS, PI: A. Bazzano) performed between Dec 2, 2014 (08:47 UTC) and Dec 3, 2014 (00:26 UTC), INTEGRAL detected 1ES 0033+595 with both JEM-X and IBIS/ISGRI instruments. 1ES 0033+595 is a blazar near the Galactic plane belonging to the BL Lac ty...

  14. Etude physico-chimique et parasitologique des eaux usées ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les eaux usées de la commune urbaine de Saknia-Fouarat (Kénitra) sont ... Ces paramètres de pollution ont été relativement faibles, comparativement à la ... de la Santé) relatives aux eaux destinées à l\\'irrigation non restrictive des cultures.

  15. Es'kia Mphahlele – a doyen of African literature | Willemse | Tydskrif ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Es'kia Mphahlele – a doyen of African literature [English] [First paragraph] Es'kia Mphahlele is one of the doyens of African literature. Throughout Africa, Europe and the United States of America he has played a major role in the development, teaching and promotion of African literature. He has written autobiographies, ...

  16. [Methionine metabolism regulates maintenance and differentiation of human ES/iPS cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraki, Nobuaki; Kume, Shoen

    2015-05-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are pluripotent and can give rise to all cell types. ES/iPS cells have a unique transcriptional circuit that sustains the pluripotent state. These cells also possess a characteristically high rate of proliferation as well as an abbreviated G1 phase. These unique molecular properties distinguish ES and iPS cells from somatic cells. Mouse ES/iPS cells are in a high-flux metabolic state, with a high dependence on threonine catabolism. However, little is known about amino acid metabolism in human ES/iPS cells. Recently, we reported that human ES/iPS cells require high amounts of methionine (Met) and express high levels of Met metabolism enzymes (Shriaki N, et al: Cell Metabolism, 2014). Met deprivation results in a rapid decrease in intracellular S-adenosyl-methionine (SAM), triggering the activation of p53 signaling, reducing pluripotent marker gene NANOG expression, and poising human ES/iPS cells for differentiation, follow by potentiated differentiation into all three germ layers. However, when exposed to prolonged Met deprivation, the cells went to apoptosis. In this review, we explain the importance of SAM in Met metabolism and its relationship with pluripotency, cell survival, and differentiation of human ES/iPS cells.

  17. La mise en pratique de solutions éprouvées au Bénin | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    21 avr. 2011 ... L'équipe jouera un rôle important pour que les demandes et les données issues des communes soient bien acheminées à l'échelon national. ... ​Panellists at the July 2015 climate science forum in Paris, Our Common Future Under Climate Change, discussed progress and challenges indeveloping.

  18. Epidemiological Studies on Bovine Mastitis in Smallholder Dairy Herds in the Dar es Salaam Region, Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kivaria, F.M.

    2006-01-01

    Recently the number of milking cows has increased substantially in the Dar es Salaam region due to an increasing demand for fresh milk in this densely populated urban centre. It is estimated that there are 1,765 smallholder dairy herds with 8,233 improved dairy animals in and around the Dar es

  19. De nuevo sobre los aguamaniles cerámicos andalusíes: las tapaderas

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro Palazón, Julio; Jiménez Castillo, Pedro

    1997-01-01

    [ES] En este artículo se presentan las tapaderas que cubrían unos recipientes cerámicos andalusíes cuya función ha sido objeto de discusión durante décadas. Se trata de piletas para abluciones que formaban parte de conjuntos cerámicos de origen oriental.

  20. MODELS FOR MOUSE CHIMERA PRODUCTION: AGGREGATION OF ES CELLS WITH CLEAVAGE STAGE EMBRYOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STANCA CLAUDIA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In a mutant ES cells↔ wild-type embryo chimera, ES cells behave more like epiblastcells. They can contribute to the primitive ectoderm layers, which give rise to all theembryonic tissues and some extraembryonic tissues (Beddington and Robertson,1989, but not to trophectoderm or primitive endoderm. Using transgenic ES celllines, aggregated with cleavage stage host embryo, ES cells can integrate randomlyin the embryo proper. If they will be take part in the formation of ICM (inner cellmass, it will be possible to obtain germline chimera animals. To generate ES cells↔ cleavage stage host embryo chimeras, we used (CD-1 mice as donors of hostembryos as well as recipients of manipulated embryos. For chimera production, weused fluorescent-labeled ES cell line (CD1/EGFP, because in this case we canfollow the fate of ES cells during the embryonic development. We produced thechimers using “aggregation chimera technique”. 8 cells stage zona pellucida free,mouse embryos were aggregated in an aggregation plates, with a clump of ES cells(10 – 15 cells. The chimera embryos were cultivated for 24 hours in the incubator(at 37 °C, 5% CO2 in air. The chimera blastocysts resulted after cultivation, weretransferred to the uterus of the 2.5-dpc pseudo pregnant females.

  1. Dietary Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... because your body doesn't store it the way it stores fats or carbohydrates. How much you need depends on your age, sex, health, and level of physical activity. Most Americans eat enough protein in their diet.

  2. SUBKLONING DAN ISOLASI GEN PENYANDI MIKRONEMA 3 (MIC-3 Toxoplasma gondii ISOLAT LOKAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Indrasanti

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Microneme protein (MIC is one of proteins that belongs to excretory-secretory antigens (ESAs of Toxoplasma gondii. Microneme 3 protein (MIC-3 is the protein that plays an important role in the invasion proccess during cell infection as a mediator attachment parasite to the host cell. The aim of this research is to clone mic3 (gene encoding for MIC-3 of T. gondii from local isolate using recombinant DNA technology by cloning mic3 in an expression vector. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA from T. gondii tachyzoites was amplified by PuRe Taq RTG-PCR Beads using mic3 specific primers. Amplified DNA was double digested using EcoRV and HindIII restriction endonucleases and then purified using EZ-10 spin coloumn purification kit. The mic3 DNA was ligated into pET-32a(+ expression vector and transformated into Escherichia coli BL21. The results showed that recombinant mic3 gene 4.2 kDa has been successfully performed by cloning gene encoding for MIC-3 protein of T. gondii local isolate into pET-32a(+ and transformed to E. coli BL21.

  3. «Magma»: as origens de Guimarães Rosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Cláudio Vieira de Oliveira

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Leitura de Magma, de Guimarães Rosa, com o objetivo de indicar a presença de temas, fragmentos, personagens, expressões e recursos estilísticos ali existentes, em outros textos do autor, cronologicamente posteriores.Palavras-chave: Literatura brasileira; Guimarães Rosa; Magma.Résumé: Lecture de Magma, de Guimarães Rosa, ayant l’objectif de montrer la présence de quelques sujets, fragments, personnages, expressions et traits stylistiques, que y sont présents, et aussi dans autres textes du même auteur, chronologiquement postérieurs.Mots-clés: Littérature brésilienne; Guimarães Rosa; Magma.Keywords: Brazilian literature; Guimarães Rosa; Magma.

  4. CD166(pos) subpopulation from differentiated human ES and iPS cells support repair of acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soh, Boon Seng; Zheng, Dahai; Li Yeo, Julie Su; Yang, Henry He; Ng, Shi Yan; Wong, Lan Hiong; Zhang, Wencai; Li, Pin; Nichane, Massimo; Asmat, Atasha; Wong, Poo Sing; Wong, Peng Cheang; Su, Lin Lin; Mantalaris, Sakis A; Lu, Jia; Xian, Wa; McKeon, Frank; Chen, Jianzhu; Lim, Elaine Hsuen; Lim, Bing

    2012-12-01

    Previous efforts to derive lung progenitor cells from human embryonic stem (hES) cells using embryoid body formation or stromal feeder cocultures had been limited by low efficiencies. Here, we report a step-wise differentiation method to drive both hES and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells toward the lung lineage. Our data demonstrated a 30% efficiency in generating lung epithelial cells (LECs) that expresses various distal lung markers. Further enrichment of lung progenitor cells using a stem cell marker, CD166 before transplantation into bleomycin-injured NOD/SCID mice resulted in enhanced survivability of mice and improved lung pulmonary functions. Immunohistochemistry of lung sections from surviving mice further confirmed the specific engraftment of transplanted cells in the damaged lung. These cells were shown to express surfactant protein C, a specific marker for distal lung progenitor in the alveoli. Our study has therefore demonstrated the proof-of-concept of using iPS cells for the repair of acute lung injury, demonstrating the potential usefulness of using patient's own iPS cells to prevent immune rejection which arise from allogenic transplantation.

  5. CD166pos Subpopulation From Differentiated Human ES and iPS Cells Support Repair of Acute Lung Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soh, Boon Seng; Zheng, Dahai; Li Yeo, Julie Su; Yang, Henry He; Ng, Shi Yan; Wong, Lan Hiong; Zhang, Wencai; Li, Pin; Nichane, Massimo; Asmat, Atasha; Wong, Poo Sing; Wong, Peng Cheang; Su, Lin Lin; Mantalaris, Sakis A; Lu, Jia; Xian, Wa; McKeon, Frank; Chen, Jianzhu; Lim, Elaine Hsuen; Lim, Bing

    2012-01-01

    Previous efforts to derive lung progenitor cells from human embryonic stem (hES) cells using embryoid body formation or stromal feeder cocultures had been limited by low efficiencies. Here, we report a step-wise differentiation method to drive both hES and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells toward the lung lineage. Our data demonstrated a 30% efficiency in generating lung epithelial cells (LECs) that expresses various distal lung markers. Further enrichment of lung progenitor cells using a stem cell marker, CD166 before transplantation into bleomycin-injured NOD/SCID mice resulted in enhanced survivability of mice and improved lung pulmonary functions. Immunohistochemistry of lung sections from surviving mice further confirmed the specific engraftment of transplanted cells in the damaged lung. These cells were shown to express surfactant protein C, a specific marker for distal lung progenitor in the alveoli. Our study has therefore demonstrated the proof-of-concept of using iPS cells for the repair of acute lung injury, demonstrating the potential usefulness of using patient's own iPS cells to prevent immune rejection which arise from allogenic transplantation. PMID:22968480

  6. La Neurociencia Computacional hoy: I. Qué es y por qué es difícil su estudio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Cortés

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La Neurociencia Computacional es una disciplina consolidada, con más de 20 años de desarrollo, y que emplea técnicas muy diversas para entender diferentes computaciones cerebrales. Aquí se introduce brevemente mediante dos artículos. En el primero, “Qué es y por qué es difícil su estudio”, se introducen de forma muy general cuáles son sus objetivos como ciencia y los problemas con los que se encuentra. En el segundo, mediante “Un ejemplo muy representativo en el campo” abordamos su metodología y destacamos la trascendencia que la Neurociencia Computacional está teniendo y tendrá dentro de las Neurociencias.

  7. Caractérisations chimiques et biologiques d’extraits de plantes aromatiques oubliées de Midi-Pyrénées

    OpenAIRE

    El Kalamouni, Chaker

    2010-01-01

    Les plantes aromatiques font parties des richesses naturelles du patrimoine de la région Midi-Pyrénées mais apparaissent cependant de moins en moins valorisées. Dans le cadre de la recherche de nouveaux aromatisants naturels de type WONF, nous avons choisi d'adopter la voie de valorisation des plantes aromatiques médiévales de cette région car elles ont toujours fait l'objet de cueillette à l'état sauvage sans jamais être cultivées. Dans une première étape, une étude bibliographique a été réa...

  8. Ocular alterations in dogs naturally infected by Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi Alterações oculares em cães infectados naturalmente por Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.L.C. Brito

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Ocular conditions, anti-Leishmania antibodies and total protein of the aqueous humor were studied in dogs naturally infected by Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi. Fifty dogs were analyzed and assigned into two groups of 25 animals each. All animals were submitted to routine ophthalmic exam. Results showed that 76% of the affected animals presented ocular signs, being uveitis the predominant. The mean of total protein in the aqueous humor of animals with uveitis was higher (PEstudaram-se as condições oculares, os anticorpos anti-Leishmania e os valores de proteína total no humor aquoso de cães infectados naturalmente por Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi. Analisaram-se 50 cães, divididos em dois grupos de 25 animais. Todos os animais foram submetidos a exame oftálmico rotineiro. Os resultados mostraram que 76% dos cães infectados apresentaram sinais oculares, sendo a uveíte a alteração predominante. A média de proteína total no humor aquoso dos animais com uveíte foi maior (P<0,05, que a dos animais com outros sinais oculares ou sem qualquer sinal. Os valores de anticorpos anti-L. chagasi obtidos no plasma foram estatisticamente superiores aos encontrados no humor aquoso (P<0,05.

  9. Estandarización de la técnica de Western blot para el diagnóstico de la fasciolosis humana utilizando antígenos de excreción-secreción de Fasciola hepática Western blot technique standardization of the diagnosis of human fasciolosis using Fasciola hepatica excreted-secreted antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermes Escalante

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Evaluar la eficacia de la técnica de electroinmunotransferencia (EITB o Western blot utilizando antígenos de excreción-secreción de las formas adultas de Fasciola hepatica (Fh E/S Ag para el diagnóstico de la fasciolosis humana. Materiales y métodos. Los antígenos fueron obtenidos a las 18 horas de incubación en medio Minimum Essential Eagle y preparados a la concentración proteica de 0,15 ug/uL; los cuales, al ser enfrentados con un pool de sueros de pacientes con fasciolosis confirmada por el hallazgo de huevos del parásito en las heces, se detectaron los antígenos de 10, 12, 17, 23, 27, 30, 36, 43, 66 y 136 KDa, con los cuales se desarrolló la técnica de Western blot. La sensibilidad se evaluó empleando sueros de 67 pacientes con fasciolosis, y la especificidad con sueros de 57 pacientes con otras parasitosis y diez sueros de personas no parasitadas. Resultados. De los 67 sueros, 64 reaccionaron con la banda de 23 KDa y 61 con la banda de 17KDa. Estas dos bandas no fueron detectadas por ninguno de los sueros de pacientes con otras parasitosis, ni de personas no parasitadas, siendo por ello consideradas como específicas y diagnósticas. Conclusiones. La sensibilidad de la prueba, utilizando las bandas de 17 y 23 KDa, fue de 95,5 % cuando se presenta reacción positiva en una o en las dos bandas, siendo la especificidad para estos dos antígenos de 100 % con un valor predictivo positivo de 100 % y un valor predictivo negativo de 95,71 %.Objectives. To evaluate the performance of the enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot assay (EITB, Western blot using excretory/secretory antigens from adult forms of Fasciola hepatica (Fh E/S Ag for the diagnosis of human fasciolosis. Materials and methods. Antigens were obtained after 18 hours of incubation in culture medium Minimum Essential Eagle, prepared at a protein concentration of 0.15 ug/uL and run against a pool of sera of patients with proven fasciolosis (confirmed by the

  10. Proteine Bolognese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Cubarsi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se modeliza la penetración de una versión modificada de la proteína verde fluorescente llamada GFP en el citoplasma y el núcleo de una célula de mamífero. El modelo matemático proporciona una primera aproximación al experimento, con una disminución progresiva de la tasa de fluorescencia a medida que la luminosidad total va aumentando hasta saturarse. Sin embargo, se detecta una desviación localizada del modelo propuesto, debida a un proceso que no se realiza de forma totalmente diferenciable. El fenómeno es explicable a partir de la irrupción brusca de GFP en el citoplasma y el núcleo por la debilitación o permeabilización de sus membranas, y por la obstrucción del flujo de GFP por la membrana nuclear. El modelo matemático proporciona pues información relevante sobre la desviación del patrón que se ha adoptado. Con la finalidad de unificar del Espacio Europeo de Educación Superior (EEES, y de acuerdo con las directrices del Proceso de Bolonia, las asignaturas de los nuevos planes de estudios han sufrido una re- visión a fondo de sus contenidos. Para que la nueva metodología de sus frutos, es necesario diseñar un temario muy optimizado, en el que cada tema entronque con temas de otras asignaturas. El  caso  presentado  evidencia  como  la  Modelización  Matemática  es útil para aplicar y revisar los conocimientos adquiridos en diversas asignaturas, de matemáticas y biología en este caso, además de ser una forma eficaz de estimular el aprendizaje, ya que muestra la utilidad de lo que se estudia.

  11. Estudo quantitativo e qualitativo dos plexos de Auerbach e Meissner do esôfago de cães inoculados com o Trypanosoma cruzi

    OpenAIRE

    Caliari,Esteia R.O.; Caliari, Marcelo V.; Marta de Lana; Washington L. Tafuri

    1996-01-01

    Foi realizado um estudo quantitativo e qualitativo dos plexos de Auerbach e Meissner do esôfago de quatro cães chagásicos sacrificados na fase aguda da infecção. As ganglionites e periganglionites do plexo de Auerbach variaram de discretas a moderadas, induzindo lesões neuronais significativas, principalmente em dois animais. Os gânglios do plexo de Meissner foram observados em pequeno número, impossibilitando qualquer análise. Miosite discreta ou moderada foi observada principalmente no terç...

  12. Representa??es sociais da dengue: aproxima??es e afastamentos entre o discurso da comunidade e da m?dia impressa.

    OpenAIRE

    Milani, Miriam Ross

    2012-01-01

    Objetivou-se apreender as representa??es sociais (RS) da dengue elaboradas por moradores de uma zona urbana de risco e das not?cias veiculadas pela m?dia impressa. Utilizou-se a Teoria das Representa??es Sociais como aporte te?rico. A tese foi dividida em duas partes (i) marco te?rico e (ii) estudos emp?ricos: uma pesquisa de campo e outra documental. O primeiro estudo contou com 563 participantes, dos quais 263 s?o estudantes do Ensino M?dio, a maioria do sexo masculino (56%), com idades e...

  13. Protein Crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernov, Alexander A.

    2005-01-01

    Nucleation, growth and perfection of protein crystals will be overviewed along with crystal mechanical properties. The knowledge is based on experiments using optical and force crystals behave similar to inorganic crystals, though with a difference in orders of magnitude in growing parameters. For example, the low incorporation rate of large biomolecules requires up to 100 times larger supersaturation to grow protein, rather than inorganic crystals. Nucleation is often poorly reproducible, partly because of turbulence accompanying the mixing of precipitant with protein solution. Light scattering reveals fluctuations of molecular cluster size, its growth, surface energies and increased clustering as protein ages. Growth most often occurs layer-by-layer resulting in faceted crystals. New molecular layer on crystal face is terminated by a step where molecular incorporation occurs. Quantitative data on the incorporation rate will be discussed. Rounded crystals with molecularly disordered interfaces will be explained. Defects in crystals compromise the x-ray diffraction resolution crucially needed to find the 3D atomic structure of biomolecules. The defects are immobile so that birth defects stay forever. All lattice defects known for inorganics are revealed in protein crystals. Contribution of molecular conformations to lattice disorder is important, but not studied. This contribution may be enhanced by stress field from other defects. Homologous impurities (e.g., dimers, acetylated molecules) are trapped more willingly by a growing crystal than foreign protein impurities. The trapped impurities induce internal stress eliminated in crystals exceeding a critical size (part of mni for ferritin, lysozyme). Lesser impurities are trapped from stagnant, as compared to the flowing, solution. Freezing may induce much more defects unless quickly amorphysizing intracrystalline water.

  14. 79 Influences des rejets des eaux usées domestiques dans les ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PR BOKO

    Résumé. Les cressonnières d'Andravoahangy, situées dans la Commune Urbaine d'Antananarivo sont irriguées par les eaux usées, de nature domestique et biodégradable, riches en N-NH4+, N-NO3-, K+, H2PO4 – , Ca2+,Mg2+. Les effets directs liés à l'usage des eaux en irrigation sont l'acidification du sol, ...

  15. Chirurgie des pertes de subsistances cutanées dans l'ulcère de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La présente étude, portant sur l'évolution post opératoire, après le traitement chirurgical des pertes de substances cutanées dans l'ulcère de Buruli au Bénin, vise essentiellement à déterminer les fréquences des techniques chirurgicales utilisées ainsi que les résultats de ces traitements dans deux centres spécialisées ...

  16. Planification de ressources mutualisées : le cas des infirmiers anesthésistes

    OpenAIRE

    Trilling, Lorraine; Guinet, Alain; Le Magny, Dominique

    2005-01-01

    National audience; Dans un contexte budgétaire restrictif, obligeant les hôpitaux à travailler avec des enveloppes limitées et fermées, la rationalisation des coûts s'impose. L'une des stratégies préconisées est le regroupement de moyens qui se matérialise dans le secteur chirurgical par la création de blocs opératoires pluridisciplianires de grande tailles, appelés également plateaux médico-techniques (PMT). Cette mutualisation des ressources pose de nombreux problèmes organisationnels et op...

  17. Performances bioéconomiques des poulettes alimentées avec des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'efficience des rations alimentaires à base de feuilles séchées de manioc doux a été évaluée en alimentation des poulettes pendant seize semaines. Trois rations contenant 0% (R0), 5% (R5) et 10% (R10) de feuilles séchées de manioc ont été utilisées pour nourrir 225 poussins d'un jour de souche ISA Brown répartis en ...

  18. Analyse de données de campagnes scientifiques relatives à la ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 nov. 2014 ... céphalopodes), poids (en kg). A des fins d'harmonisation, les captures spécifiques côtières et profondes ont été rapportées à des durées uniformes de chalutage de 30 minutes. Du fait de la forte hétérogénéité des données de captures spécifiques Xi (beaucoup de valeurs nulles zéros à côté de quelques ...

  19. Quelles sont les données naturalistes existantes sur les territoires urbains ?

    OpenAIRE

    Vanpeene, S.; Kopf, M

    2012-01-01

    / Analyse de la disponibilité de données concernant les oiseaux et les papillons de jour sur les communautés d’agglomérations de Chambéry Métropole, Grenoble-Alpes Métropole et Saint-Etienne Métropole : · Identifier les sources de données naturalistes. · Évaluer la qualité des données existantes pour réaliser un diagnostic écologique.

  20. Évaluation de la contamination parasitologique des eaux usées ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 sept. 2013 ... RESUME. Objectif : Cette étude a été entreprise afin d'évaluer la contamination parasitologique des eaux usées domestiques collectées et épurées à la station à boue activée de Cambérène. Elle a permis d'une part d'identifier les œufs de différents helminthes et d'autre part de décrire la variation de la ...

  1. La democracia como sociedad donde no solamente es permitido sino exigido el ser persona

    OpenAIRE

    Dos Santos Das Neves, María Joao

    2001-01-01

    El Artículo Gira En Torno A La Definición De Democracia De María Zambrano: «Unasociedad Donde No Sólo Es Permitido Sino Exigido El Ser Persona». En Lafilosofía De Zambrano, Para Llegar A Ser Una Persona Es Una Exigencia Ética Paracada Ser Humano, Y Régimen Democrático, Por Su Respeto Para Con Las Diferencias,La Admisión De Los Espacios De Soledad E Intimidad, La Apertura Esperanzada Alporvenir Y La Posibilidad De Coexistencia De Diversas Formas-Tiemposimultáneamente Es, En El Entender De Zamb...

  2. François Audigier, Pascal Girard, dirs, Se battre pour ses idées. La violence militante en France des années 1920 aux années

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt-Trimborn, Anne-Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Une journée d’études organisée par François Audigier et Pascal Girard, avec le soutien du Centre de recherche universitaire lorrain d’histoire et du ministère de la Défense, s’est tenue à Nancy le 8 juin 2010 avec pour ambition d’appréhender « La violence militante en France des années 1920 aux années 1970 ». Les débats de cette journée ont donné lieu à la publication. D’abord, les organisateurs s’attachent à définir le concept de violence politique qui comprend à la fois les violences physiq...

  3. Hookworm (Necator americanus) Larval Enzymes Disrupt Human Vascular Endothelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souadkia, Nahed; Brown, Alan; Leach, Lopa; Pritchard, David I.

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of the molecular mechanisms used by Necator americanus larvae to penetrate the human skin and the vasculature would aid the development of effective vaccines against this important pathogen. In this work, the impact of N. americanus exsheathing fluid (EF) and excretory/secretory products (ES) on the endothelial barrier was examined using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Cellular responses were assessed by investigating molecular changes at cell–cell junctions and by determining levels of secreted IL-6, IL-8, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the culture medium. It would appear that a repertoire of larval proteases caused a dose-related increase in endothelial permeability as characterized by a decrease in monolayer resistance with increased permeation of tracer-albumin. These barrier changes were associated with disruption of junctional vascular endothelial cadherin (VE-cadherin) and F-actin and an increase in endothelial secretion of IL-6 and IL-8. Our data suggest that larval proteases play an important role in negotiating the endothelium. PMID:20810819

  4. Qualité de la chaîne des données Survey et système de coordonnées CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, M; CERN. Geneva. TS Department

    2005-01-01

    Depuis la constitution des données géométriques théoriques des faisceaux jusqu'à la détermination des positions spatiales réelles des éléments des accélérateurs, en passant, entre autres, par les vérifications de l'instrumentation utilisée, les différentes opérations d'alignement des accélérateurs constituent un processus au cours duquel chaque étape est contrôlée et validée à travers la base de données SURVEY. Toutes les positions des éléments sont définies dans un système de coordonnées unique pour l'ensemble du site, garantissant ainsi une homogénéité et une cohérence des informations. La base de données SURVEY, ainsi que le système de coordonnées du CERN, constituent un maillon incontournable dans la chaîne d'informations des différents projets du CERN. En suivant le parcours d'un élément d'un accélérateur du CERN, nous pourrons percevoir comment sont gérés ces éléments du point de vue géométrique, dès leur conception, et aussi découvrir l'intérêt que pr�...

  5. Transcriptome analysis of the Cryptocaryon irritans tomont stage identifies potential genes for the detection and control of cryptocaryonosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokanathan, Yogeswaran; Mohd-Adnan, Adura; Wan, Kiew-Lian; Nathan, Sheila

    2010-01-29

    Cryptocaryon irritans is a parasitic ciliate that causes cryptocaryonosis (white spot disease) in marine fish. Diagnosis of cryptocaryonosis often depends on the appearance of white spots on the surface of the fish, which are usually visible only during later stages of the disease. Identifying suitable biomarkers of this parasite would aid the development of diagnostic tools and control strategies for C. irritans. The C. irritans genome is virtually unexplored; therefore, we generated and analyzed expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of the parasite to identify genes that encode for surface proteins, excretory/secretory proteins and repeat-containing proteins. ESTs were generated from a cDNA library of C. irritans tomonts isolated from infected Asian sea bass, Lates calcarifer. Clustering of the 5356 ESTs produced 2659 unique transcripts (UTs) containing 1989 singletons and 670 consensi. BLAST analysis showed that 74% of the UTs had significant similarity (E-value irritans. We successfully discovered and examined a large portion of the previously unexplored C. irritans transcriptome and identified potential genes for the development and validation of diagnostic and control strategies for cryptocaryonosis.

  6. Destructive Testing of an ES-3100 Shipping Container at the Savannah River National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loftin, B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Abramczyk, G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-06-09

    Destructive testing of an ES-3100 Shipping Container was completed by the Packaging Technology and Pressurized Systems organization within the Savannah River National Laboratory in order to qualify the ES-3100 as a candidate storage and transport package for applications at various facilities at the Savannah River Site. The testing consisted of the detonation of three explosive charges at separate locations on a single ES-3100. The locations for the placement were chosen based the design of the ES-3100 as well as the most likely places for the package to incur damage as a result of the detonation. The testing was completed at an offsite location, which raised challenges as well as allowed for development of new partnerships for this testing and for potential future testing. The results of the testing, the methods used to complete the testing, and similar, potential future work will be discussed.

  7. Marx y el dinero; ¿cuál es el camino?

    OpenAIRE

    Velásquez Garzón, Iván Darío

    2008-01-01

    El objetivo del presente ensayo es entrar en la discusión sobre de un tema tan especial en la teoría económica como es el dinero. Para esto, se analizará una teoría de vital importancia en el estudio de la economía, es decir, la teoría propuesta por Karl Marx, en la cual el dinero es de gran importancia para entender el desarrollo de la economía. Donde Marx se aparta de los economistas clásicos pues para él ellos se equivocan al tratar de buscar la medida del valor sin incluir el dinero....

  8. Função e integridade renal de cães com diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Andréa Cruvinel Rocha

    2012-01-01

    O diagnóstico precoce do diabetes mellitus (DM) em cães ou o reconhecimento de complicações possibilitam aumentar a taxa de sobrevida dos animais. Em humanos as complicações renais causadas pelo DM estão bem estabelecidas, diferente dos caninos. Este trabalho objetivou verificar se cães com DM desenvolvem alterações que levam à doença renal (DR). Foram estudados 31 cães diabéticos, que foram divididos em três grupos, em que G1 compreendeu os cães sem DR; G2, com infecção do trato urinário (IT...

  9. Errores comunes en el lenguaje periodístico. La pluma es lengua del alma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Rodríguez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available "La calidad de los programas es directamente proporcional a la calidad de los televidentes" sentencia el autor y enumera una serie de errores producidos en programas de televisión.

  10. Sugu kui kvalifitseerija - naised ametikandjatena kirikus ja kaitseväes / Kalmer Marimaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Marimaa, Kalmer

    2013-01-01

    Artiklis antakse ülevaade naisjuhtidest ja naiste ordineerimisest kristluses, naiste osalusest relvajõududes ning võrreldakse sarnaseid tendentse, mis võivad kaasneda naiste teenimisega juhtivates ametites kirikus ja kaitseväes

  11. Evaluation de la qualité de données biométriques

    OpenAIRE

    El-Abed, Mohamad; Hemery, Baptiste; Charrier, Christophe; Rosenberger, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    Numéro spécial "Qualité des Données et des Connaissances / Evaluation des méthodes d'Extraction de Connaissances dans les Données"; National audience; L'évaluation de la qualité des données biométriques est un facteur primordial dans le processus biométrique. Dans cet article, nous proposons une méthode générique pour évaluer la qualité des données biométriques morphologiques. Elle est basée sur l'utilisation conjointe de deux types d'informations: 1) la qualité de l'image, et 2) la qualité d...

  12. Sox7 is dispensable for primitive endoderm differentiation from mouse ES cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Masaki; Shimosato, Daisuke; Yamane, Mariko; Niwa, Hitoshi

    2015-10-16

    Primitive endoderm is a cell lineage segregated from the epiblast in the blastocyst and gives rise to parietal and visceral endoderm. Sox7 is a member of the SoxF gene family that is specifically expressed in primitive endoderm in the late blastocyst, although its function in this cell lineage remains unclear. Here we characterize the function of Sox7 in primitive endoderm differentiation using mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells as a model system. We show that ectopic expression of Sox7 in ES cells has a marginal effect on triggering differentiation into primitive endoderm-like cells. We also show that targeted disruption of Sox7 in ES cells does not affect differentiation into primitive endoderm cells in embryoid body formation as well as by forced expression of Gata6. These data indicate that Sox7 function is supplementary and not essential for this differentiation from ES cells.

  13. Es que vamos hacia una sociedad de la información

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. José Manuel de Pablos Coello

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available En la sociedad de la información que se avecina la transparencia es una de las claves. A través de la pequeña pantalla de la nueva tecnología telefónica, el usuario empieza a disfrutar de un primer estadio de interactividad digital. Otra de las características es la apertura de la tecnología hacia nuevas formas de operaciones y operadores. El temor que expresa el autor es el uso abusivo que las empresas puedan hacer de los datos manifestados de una llamada telefónica. Considera que es ahí donde ha de actuar el legislador para evitar que se haga un uso económico de datos ajenos, pero no impidiendo la glassnot de la sociedad de la información, todavía en etapa infantil y débil.

  14. Etude ethnobotanique des plantes utilisées contre la constipation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cette dénomination a mis en évidence plusieurs démarches utilisées par les Malinké pour nommer les plantes. Les noms des espèces recensées renvoient le plus souvent à l'écologie (29%), à la morphologie et à des anecdotes (22% chacun). Mots clés: Ethnobotanique, constipation, plantes médicinales, guérisseur ...

  15. Le partenariat mondial sur les données ouvertes pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ce projet aidera les gouvernements de pays en développement à élaborer et à gérer des politiques et des pratiques en matière de données ouvertes. .... Le CRDI investit dans des solutions locales aux problèmes auxquels l'Inde est confrontée, comme le stress thermique, la gestion de l'eau et les migrations liées aux ...

  16. Plantes alimentaires spontanées de la région du Fromager (Centre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les familles les plus représentées sont les Sterculiaceae, les Arecaceae et les Solanaceae. L\\'habitat de ces plantes spontanées a été déterminé; il s\\'agit des forêts, des jachères et des vergers de cacaoyers et de caféiers. Les organes les plus consommés sont les fruits (38 %), les feuilles (33 %) et les graines (19 %).

  17. Sur l'origine fongique des galles observées chez les Eucalyptus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectif : Dans la littérature, les galles observées sur les feuilles et les tiges des Eucalyptus sont attribuées à Leptocybe invasa (guêpe à galles) et aux champignons du genre Alternaria (A. tenuis). Dans cette étude, nous avons essayé de préciser si l'isolement des Alternaria à partir des symptômes observés peut induire le ...

  18. Etude ethnobotanique des plantes alimentaires utilisées en période ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Etude ethnobotanique des plantes alimentaires utilisées en période de soudure dans les régions Sud du Mali. ... Parkia biglobosa, Adansonia digitata et Vitellaria paradoxa sont les plantes les plus utilisées soit seules ou dans des plats comme additifs. Certaines de ces plantes servent également comme médicament et ...

  19. Examen de l'incidence que commencent à avoir les données ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ainsi, la réutilisation des données du secteur public dans la zone euro a généré des retombées de 32 milliards d'euros en 2010. ... IDRC's support of BetterEvaluation, an international collaboration to improve evaluation practice and theory, has resulted in an online guide for an often overlooked group of people who greatly ...

  20. Solutions d'adaptation liées aux changements climatiques et à l'eau ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    La gravité des effets des changements climatiques augmente sans cesse partout dans le monde. Les collectivités vulnérables des pays en développement sont les plus menacées. Ce projet vise à faire connaître les solutions d'adaptation concrètes aux changements climatiques découlant de recherches financées par le ...

  1. Infrastructures de données géographiques et flux d’information environnementale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu Noucher

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Les Infrastructures de Données Géographiques (IDG qui se développent à tous les échelons territoriaux depuis les années 90, sont des plateformes qui rassemblent les données, les réseaux informatiques, les normes et standards, les accords organisationnels et les ressources humaines nécessaires pour faciliter et coordonner le partage, l’accès et la gestion des données géographiques sur un territoire et/ou une thématique donnée. Cet article vise à présenter l’intérêt scientifique d’une analyse approfondie des Infrastructures de Données Géographiques qui apparaissent aujourd’hui comme des leviers essentiels dans la diffusion de données institutionnelles. Après avoir présenté les concepts à la base de ce dispositif et leur inscription dans un contexte légal et technique en pleine évolution, une analyse des IDG comme dispositif socio-technique de mise en ordre (en carte du monde permet d’identifier quelques enjeux associés à la question de la production et de la gestion des flux d’information sur l’environnement. Nous proposons ensuite trois pistes de réflexion pour mobiliser les IDG afin d’évaluer les patrimoines de données géographiques aujourd’hui disponibles et d’analyser les recompositions territoriales et informationnelles qu’ils traduisent. L’objectif est de démontrer la pertinence des infrastructures de données géographiques non plus comme un simple outil de recherche mais comme un véritable objet de recherche pour une meilleure compréhension de la circulation de l’information environnementale.

  2. 52. Leiomiosarcoma primario de vena cava inferior: La reconstrucción vascular no es imprescindible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Rodríguez-Caulo

    2012-04-01

    Conclusiones: La cirugía, sola o en combinación con quimioterapia, constituye la única opción de supervivencia a largo plazo. El manejo agresivo con reconstrucciones vasculares es recomendable, a pesar de que la reconstrucción de la continuidad de la VCI y del flujo venoso renal restante no es imprescindible, y debe ser individualizada en cada caso en función de la expansión tumoral.

  3. ¿Quién es el culpable? La semiótica de Eco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Oñate

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo aborda un aspecto por el cual Umberto Eco no se hizo mundialmente famoso, pero que sin lugar a dudas habla de su erudición y sin cuyos antecedentes su novelística no tendría determinadas características que la identifican. Este aspecto es el que fundamentalmente dice que Umberto Eco es un semiólogo.

  4. Another X-ray Flare in TeV-detected blazar 1ES 1959+650

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapanadze, Bidzina

    2017-05-01

    Since 2015 August, the nearby TeV-detected HBL source 1ES 1959+650 (z=0.048) is in a phase of enhanced X-ray activity compared to the previous years (Kapanadze et al. 2016, MNRAS, 461, L26; ATel #8014, #8289, #8342, #8468, #9121, #9205, #9694, #9949, and http://www.swift.psu.edu/monitoring/source.php?source=1ES1959+650 for the historical 0.3-10 keV light curve).

  5. Emergencia dentro de una emergencia: los desplazados internos somalíes

    OpenAIRE

    Noor, Hassan

    2007-01-01

    Los medios de comunicación internacionales informan de que más de 300.000 somalíes han huido de nuevo debido a la lucha en Mogadiscio. El desplazamiento relacionado con el conflicto protagoniza los titulares, pero el número de desplazados por el cambio climático también es enorme. La respuesta internacional sigue siendo totalmente inadecuada.

  6. Examen de l'incidence que commencent à avoir les données ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les citoyens du Brésil, du Népal et du Nigeria ont désormais accès à des données sur le budget gouvernemental, qu'ils peuvent utiliser pour détecter et combattre la corruption. En Amérique latine, en Afrique et en Asie, concepteurs et entrepreneurs peuvent créer des applications Web et mobiles utilisant des données ...

  7. Une chaîne d'applications intégrées

    CERN Document Server

    Guillaume, J C; Oliger, S

    2000-01-01

    Dans leurs phases d'étude, d'installation, de maintenance et de suivi technico-financier des contrats d'appui, les activités du groupe électricité sont largement basées sur l'utilisation d'applications informatiques. Couplées à des bases de données, ces applications CERN étroitement interconnectées, sont développées autour de noyaux informatiques industriels. Toutes les phases d'un projet, tel que le LHC, bénéficient de ces bases de données enrichies par le personnel du CERN et par ses partenaires industriels. Ce document présente le maquettage virtuel des ouvrages du génie-civil et des équipements du CERN. Il traite également de la gestion de ces équipements, de leur câblage, de leur maintenance et du suivi des contrats de sous-traitance.

  8. Connexin expression and gap-junctional intercellular communication in ES cells and iPS cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyamada, Masahito; Takebe, Kumiko; Endo, Aya; Hara, Sachiko; Oyamada, Yumiko

    2013-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells, i.e., embryonic stem (ES) and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, can indefinitely proliferate without commitment and differentiate into all cell lineages. ES cells are derived from the inner cell mass of the preimplantation blastocyst, whereas iPS cells are generated from somatic cells by overexpression of a few transcription factors. Many studies have demonstrated that mouse and human iPS cells are highly similar but not identical to their respective ES cell counterparts. The potential to generate basically any differentiated cell types from these cells offers the possibility to establish new models of mammalian development and to create new sources of cells for regenerative medicine. ES cells and iPS cells also provide useful models to study connexin expression and gap-junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) during cell differentiation and reprogramming. In 1996, we reported connexin expression and GJIC in mouse ES cells. Because a substantial number of papers on these subjects have been published since our report, this Mini Review summarizes currently available data on connexin expression and GJIC in ES cells and iPS cells during undifferentiated state, differentiation, and reprogramming.

  9. Estudo quantitativo e qualitativo dos plexos de Auerbach e Meissner do esôfago de cães inoculados com o Trypanosoma cruzi

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    Esteia R.O. Caliari

    1996-02-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo quantitativo e qualitativo dos plexos de Auerbach e Meissner do esôfago de quatro cães chagásicos sacrificados na fase aguda da infecção. As ganglionites e periganglionites do plexo de Auerbach variaram de discretas a moderadas, induzindo lesões neuronais significativas, principalmente em dois animais. Os gânglios do plexo de Meissner foram observados em pequeno número, impossibilitando qualquer análise. Miosite discreta ou moderada foi observada principalmente no terço inferior do esôfago, raramente associada a ninhos de amastigotas. A contagem de gânglios e neurônios não demonstrou desnervação. Apesar de em nenhum dos cães ter sido induzida a formação de megaesôfago, relatamos lesões do plexo de Auerbach e de miocélulas do esôfago de animais na fase aguda da infecção chagásica. Este parece ser o primeiro estudo quantitativo e qualitativo sistemático dos plexos de Auerbach e Meissner do esôfago na tripanosomíase cruzi experimental.A quantitative and qualitative study was conducted on the Auerbach and Meissner plexuses of the esophagus of four chagasic dogs sacrificed during the acute pbase of infection. Ganglionitis and periganglionitis of the Auerbach plexus ranged from mild to moderate and induced significant neuronal lesions, especially in two animals. The ganglions of the Meissner plexus were obsenvd in small number which did not permit any analysís. Mild or moderate myositis iras obsewed mainly in the lower third of the esophagus and was rarely associated with amastigote nests. Ganglion and neuron connts did not demonstrate denervation. Although the formation of megaesophagus was not induced in any dog, lesions of the Auerbach plexus and myocells of the esophagus were observed during the acute phase of chagasic infection. To our knowledge, this is the first systematic quantitative and qualitative study of the Auerbach and Meissner plexuses of the esophagus in experimental

  10. Es Kynosarges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremmer, Jan

    2000-01-01

    Ancient ruler cult has long been a stumbling-block for classical scholars who were unable to accept the worship of deified men by the enlightened Greeks. Gradually, however, this resistance has been turning into a (sometimes grudging) acceptance, a process much influenced by three factors. Firstly,

  11. Trichinella spiralis shares epitopes with human autoantigens

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    Ivana Radovic

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Like other helminths, Trichinella spiralis has evolved strategies to allow it to survive in the host organism, including the expression of epitopes similar to those present in either expressed or hidden host antigens. To identify T. spiralis-derived antigens that are evolutionarily conserved in the parasite and its host and that could be responsible for its evasion of the host immune response, we examined the reactivity of six different types of autoantibodies to T. spiralis larvae from muscle. T. spiralis antigens that share epitopes with human autoantigens were identified by assessing the cross-reactivity of autoantibody-containing serum samples with T. spiralis antigens in the absence of specific anti-parasite antibodies. Of the 55 autoantibody-containing human serum samples that we analysed by immunohistological screening, 24 (43.6% recognised T. spiralis muscle larvae structures such as the subcuticular region, the genital primordium or the midgut. Using Western blots, we demonstrated that the same sera reacted with 24 protein components of T. spiralis muscle larvae excretory-secretory L1 antigens. We found that the human autoantibodies predominantly bound antigens belonging to the TSL1 group; more specifically, the autoantibody-containing sera reacted most frequently with the 53-kDa component. Thus, this protein is a good candidate for further studies of the mechanisms of T. spiralis-mediated immunomodulation.

  12. Trichomonas vaginalis metalloproteinase induces mTOR cleavage of SiHa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Juan-Hua; Choi, In-Wook; Yang, Jung-Bo; Zhou, Wei; Cha, Guang-Ho; Zhou, Yu; Ryu, Jae-Sook; Lee, Young-Ha

    2014-12-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis secretes a number of proteases which are suspected to be the cause of pathogenesis; however, little is understood how they manipulate host cells. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) regulates cell growth, cell proliferation, cell motility, cell survival, protein synthesis, and transcription. We detected various types of metalloproteinases including GP63 protein from T. vaginalis trophozoites, and T. vaginalis GP63 metalloproteinase was confirmed by sequencing and western blot. When SiHa cells were stimulated with live T. vaginalis, T. vaginalis excretory-secretory products (ESP) or T. vaginalis lysate, live T. vaginalis and T. vaginalis ESP induced the mTOR cleavage in both time- and parasite load-dependent manner, but T. vaginalis lysate did not. Pretreatment of T. vaginalis with a metalloproteinase inhibitor, 1,10-phenanthroline, completely disappeared the mTOR cleavage in SiHa cells. Collectively, T. vaginalis metallopeptidase induces host cell mTOR cleavage, which may be related to survival of the parasite.

  13. Evaluation of Gastrothylax crumenifer antigenic preparation in serodiagnosis of paramphistomiasis in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Tariq; Reshi, Mohammad Latif; Cheshti, M Z; Tanveer, Syed; Shah, Zaffar Amin; Fomada, Bashir Ahmad; Raina, O K

    2014-04-01

    An evaluation of Gastrothylax crumenifer crude antigen preparation viz., Somatic Antigen (SAg), Excretory Secretory Antigen (ESAg) and Egg Antigen (EAg) in serodiagnosis of disease was undertaken. Test sera samples were obtained from 30 Paramphistomiasis Positive and 30 Gastrothylax free sheep slaughtered at Hazratbal Kashmir. The referral antigenic preparation were evaluated against Paramphistomiasis positive sera, via., control negative sera, using double immunodiffusion test (DID), (IEP) Immunoelectrophoretic assay and ELISA. The performance of referral antigens, as assessed from percent sensitivity and specificity, revealed an increasing trend from DID (Double immunodiffusion-An immunological technique used in the detection, identification and quantification of antibodies and antigens) to IEP (immunoelectrophoresis-A general name for a number of biochemical methods for separation and characterization of proteins based on electrophoresis and reaction with antibodies), followed by ELISA, detecting higher number of sheep positive for paramphistomiasis. In ELISA the ESAg and SAg were evaluated as most reactive antigens with no significant difference and EAg was the least antigenic. In IEP, EAg had the higher sensitivity (60%) and analogous specificity of SAg and ESAg. The formation of the preceptin lines in the proximity to EAg containing wells (cathode end) in IEP was suggestive of higher molecular weight of G. crumenifer specific protein molecules with slower rate of migration. Purification and characterization of G. crumenifer and identification of specific antigenic molecules, particularly in EAg has been suggested for qualitative improvement of diagnostic value of the antigens in the tests used here in.

  14. Évaluation de l'incidence des mises en garde illustrées contre les ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    estimer dans quelle mesure les mises en garde illustrées apposées sur les emballages contribuent à diminuer la demande de cigarettes au Vietnam; - prédire les incidences de ces mises en garde illustrées sur la diminution de la morbidité et de la mortalité associées au tabagisme, sur l'économie et sur l'équité sociale au ...

  15. INSTALAÇÕES SANITÁRIAS, EQUIPAMENTOS E ÁREAS DE CIRCULAÇÃO EM HOSPITAIS: ADEQUAÇÕES AOS DEFICIENTES FÍSICOS

    OpenAIRE

    ANTONIA ELIANA DE ARAÚJO ARAGÃO; LORITA MARLENA FREITAG PAGLIUCA; KÁTIA NÊYLA DE FREITAS MACÊDO; PAULO CÉSAR DE ALMEIDA

    2008-01-01

    Estudio descriptivo cuya meta es verificar si los hospitales de la ciudad de Sobral,Ceará, tienen instalaciones sanitarias adecuadas, espacios en auditorios, ascensores, salidas de emergencia y aparcamientos que obedezcan las necesidades de personas portadoras de deficiencia física. Con base en la NBR 9050 de la ABNT con instrumento tipo chequeo de lista. Dados recogidos en mayo de 2004. La muestra abarcó los cuatro hospitales existentes. Dos hospitales poseen instalaciones sanitarias, con ar...

  16. Adaptação intercultural para português europeu do questionário "Conocimiento del Paciente sobre sus Medicamentos" (CPM-ES-ES

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    Joaquín Salmerón Rubio

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é realizar a adaptação intercultural do espanhol para português europeu do questionário para medir o grau do "Conocimiento del Paciente sobre sus Medicamentos" (CPM-ES-ES. Aplicou-se um método baseado em seis etapas: 1. Tradução para português; 2. Preparação da primeira versão de consenso em português; 3. Retroversão para espanhol; 4. Preparação da segunda versão (equivalência cultural de consenso; 5. Realização do pré-teste; 6. Avaliação dos resultados globais. Propõe-se um questionário adaptado culturalmente em português europeu que mede o grau do "conhecimento do doente sobre os seus medicamentos". O pré-teste de confirmação obteve 100% de concordância com a segunda versão de Consenso corrigida após o pré-teste. A metodologia selecionada permitiu adaptar culturalmente a versão em espanhol do questionário CPM-ES-ES para uma versão em português. Estudos adicionais devem demonstrar a equivalência das propriedades psicométricas da tradução intercultural em português do questionário com a versão original.

  17. Contribution à l'étude de la peste au Vietnam : historique et inventaire des puces signalées (Insecta - Siphonaptera en zones anthropisées

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    Beaucournu J.-C.

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Dix espèces de puces sont connues au Vietnam en zones anthropisées. Xenopsylla vexabilis est incluse dans cette liste en raison de son rôle dans d'autres foyers pesteux. La seule puce selvatique connue comme pouvant parasiter des rats synanthropes est Lentistivalius klossi, dont nous mettons en synonymie la sous-espèce bispiniformis (Li et Wang, 195 (syn. nov. décrite de Chine.

  18. Regulation of Pax6 by CTCF during induction of mouse ES cell differentiation.

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    Jie Gao

    Full Text Available Pax6 plays an important role in embryonic cell (ES differentiation during embryonic development. Expression of Pax6 undergoes from a low level to high levels following ES cell differentiation to neural stem cells, and then fades away in most of the differentiated cell types. There is a limited knowledge concerning how Pax6 is regulated in ES cell differentiation. We report that Pax6 expression in mouse ES cells was controlled by CCCTC binding factor (CTCF through a promoter repression mechanism. Pax6 expression was significantly enhanced while CTCF activity was kept in the constant during ES cell differentiation to radial glial cells. Instead, the interaction of CTCF with Pax6 gene was regulated by decreased CTCF occupancy in its binding motifs upstream from Pax6 P0 promoter following the course of ES cell differentiation. Reduced occupancy of CTCF in the binding motif region upstream from the P0 promoter was due to increased DNA methylations in the CpG sites identified in the region. Furthermore, changes in DNA methylation levels in vitro and in vivo effectively altered methylation status of these identified CpG sites, which affected ability of CTCF to interact with the P0 promoter, resulting in increases in Pax6 expression. We conclude that there is an epigenetic mechanism involving regulations of Pax6 gene during ES cell differentiation to neural stem cells, which is through increases or decreases in methylation levels of Pax6 gene to effectively alter the ability of CTCF in control of Pax6 expression, respectively.

  19. AR Variant ARv567es Induces Carcinogenesis in a Novel Transgenic Mouse Model of Prostate Cancer

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    Gang Liu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Androgen deprivation therapy remains the primary treatment modality for patients with metastatic prostate cancer but is uniformly marked by progression to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC after a period of regression. Continued activation of androgen receptor (AR signaling is attributed as one of the most important mechanisms underlying failure of therapy. Recently, the discovery of constitutively active AR splice variants (AR-Vs adds more credence to this idea. Expression of AR-Vs in metastases portends a rapid progression of the tumor. However, the precise role of the AR-Vs in CRPC still remains unknown. ARv567es is one of the two AR variants frequently found in human CRPC xenografts and metastases. Herein, we developed a probasin (Pb promoter-driven ARv567es transgenic mouse, Pb-ARv567es, to evaluate the role of ARv567es in both autonomous prostate growth and progression to CRPC. We found that expression of ARv567es in the prostate results in epithelial hyperplasia by 16 weeks and invasive adenocarcinoma is evident by 1 year of age. The underlying genetic cellular events involved a cell cycle-related transcriptome and differential expression of a spectrum of genes that are critical for tumor initiation and progression. These findings indicate that ARv567es could induce tumorigenesis de novo and signifies the critical role of AR-Vs in CRPC. Thus, the Pb-ARv567es mouse could provide a novel model in which the role of AR variants in prostate cancer progression can be examined.

  20. Near-UV and optical observations of the transiting exoplanet TrES-3b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Jake D.; Smart, Brianna M.; Hardegree-Ullman, Kevin K.; Carleton, Timothy M.; Walker-LaFollette, Amanda M.; Crawford, Benjamin E.; Smith, Carter-Thaxton W.; McGraw, Allison M.; Small, Lindsay C.; Rocchetto, Marco; Cunningham, Kathryn I.; Towner, Allison P. M.; Zellem, Robert; Robertson, Amy N.; Guvenen, Blythe C.; Schwarz, Kamber R.; Hardegree-Ullman, Emily E.; Collura, Daniel; Henz, Triana N.; Lejoly, Cassandra; Richardson, Logan L.; Weinand, Michael A.; Taylor, Joanna M.; Daugherty, Michael J.; Wilson, Ashley A.; Austin, Carmen L.

    2013-01-01

    We observed nine primary transits of the hot Jpiter TrES-3b in several optical and near-UV photometric bands from 2009 June to 2012 April in an attempt to detect its magnetic field. Vidotto, Jardine and Helling suggest that the magnetic field of TrES-3b can be constrained if its near-UV light curve shows an early ingress compared to its optical light curve, while its egress remains unaffected. Predicted magnetic field strengths of Jpiter-like planets should range between 8 G and 30 G. Using these magnetic field values and an assumed B* of 100 G, the Vidotto et al. method predicts a timing difference of 5-11 min. We did not detect an early ingress in our three nights of near-UV observations, despite an average cadence of 68 s and an average photometric precision of 3.7 mmag. However, we determined an upper limit of TrES-3b's magnetic field strength to range between 0.013 and 1.3 G (for a 1-100 G magnetic field strength range for the host star, TrES-3) using a timing difference of 138 s derived from the Nyquist-Shannon sampling theorem. To verify our results of an abnormally small magnetic field strength for TrES-3b and to further constrain the techniques of Vidotto et al., we propose future observations of TrES-3b with other platforms capable of achieving a shorter near-UV cadence. We also present a refinement of the physical parameters of TrES-3b, an updated ephemeris and its first published near-UV light curve. We find that the near-UV planetary radius of Rp = 1.386+ 0.248- 0.144 RJup is consistent with the planet's optical radius.