WorldWideScience

Sample records for excretory tube growth

  1. Cell Wall Composition, Biosynthesis and Remodeling during Pollen Tube Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude Mollet

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The pollen tube is a fast tip-growing cell carrying the two sperm cells to the ovule allowing the double fertilization process and seed setting. To succeed in this process, the spatial and temporal controls of pollen tube growth within the female organ are critical. It requires a massive cell wall deposition to promote fast pollen tube elongation and a tight control of the cell wall remodeling to modify the mechanical properties. In addition, during its journey, the pollen tube interacts with the pistil, which plays key roles in pollen tube nutrition, guidance and in the rejection of the self-incompatible pollen. This review focuses on our current knowledge in the biochemistry and localization of the main cell wall polymers including pectin, hemicellulose, cellulose and callose from several pollen tube species. Moreover, based on transcriptomic data and functional genomic studies, the possible enzymes involved in the cell wall remodeling during pollen tube growth and their impact on the cell wall mechanics are also described. Finally, mutant analyses have permitted to gain insight in the function of several genes involved in the pollen tube cell wall biosynthesis and their roles in pollen tube growth are further discussed.

  2. Sporophytic control of pollen tube growth and guidance in maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lausser, Andreas; Kliwer, Irina; Srilunchang, Kanok-orn; Dresselhaus, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Pollen tube germination, growth, and guidance (progamic phase) culminating in sperm discharge is a multi-stage process including complex interactions between the male gametophyte as well as sporophytic tissues and the female gametophyte (embryo sac), respectively. Inter- and intra-specific crossing barriers in maize and Tripsacum have been studied and a precise description of progamic pollen tube development in maize is reported here. It was found that pollen germination and initial tube growth are rather unspecific, but an early, first crossing barrier was detected before arrival at the transmitting tract. Pollination of maize silks with Tripsacum pollen and incompatible pollination of Ga1s/Ga1s-maize silks with ga1-maize pollen revealed another two incompatibility barriers, namely transmitting tract mistargeting and insufficient growth support. Attraction and growth support by the transmitting tract seem to play key roles for progamic pollen tube growth. After leaving transmitting tracts, pollen tubes have to navigate across the ovule in the ovular cavity. Pollination of an embryo sac-less maize RNAi-line allowed the role of the female gametophyte for pollen tube guidance to be determined in maize. It was found that female gametophyte controlled guidance is restricted to a small region around the micropyle, approximately 50–100 μm in diameter. This area is comparable to the area of influence of previously described ZmEA1-based short-range female gametophyte signalling. In conclusion, the progamic phase is almost completely under sporophytic control in maize. PMID:19926683

  3. Changing indications for excretory urography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, R.; Schreiber, M.H.

    1985-01-01

    Most individuals suspected of having renovascular hypertension, men with benign prostatic enlargement, women with recurrent infections of the urinary tract or urinary stress incontinence, women undergoing hysterectomy, uremic and diabetic patients, and patients with renal transplant or adult polycystic kidney disease should not, as a rule, undergo routine excretory urography (EU). Possible morbidity and mortality and unwarranted cost do not justify the study, since the majority of individuals in any of these situations do not benefit from the information obtained from the study. Excretory urography must be performed selectively, rather than routinely, in such persons. As the authors emphasize, modified EU, often using only two to three films, may be performed under many clinical situations to reduce radiation exposure, toxic effects, and cost to the patient

  4. Irradiation creep and growth of zircaloy-4 tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lansiart, S.; Darchis, L.; Pelchat, J.

    1990-01-01

    The influence of temperature and fast neutron flux on irradiation creep and growth of stress relieved zircaloy-4 pressurized tubes has been derived from experimental irradiations in NaK, performed up to 2.5 10 25 n.m -2 in the temperature range [280, 350] 0 C. A significant influence of temperature on axial growth has been observed: at 280 0 C the elongation can no longer be expressed as a linear function of fluence as for the 350 0 C irradiation temperature; diametral growth, on the other hand, always appears negligible. Irradiation creep obviously depends on temperature too; the diametral strain (including thermal part) has been modelled as a sum of primary and secondary terms, the former being independent of fluence. For the tubing considered it is observed that the ranking of the different batches, with respect to diametral creep resistance, is the same before and under irradiation. Concerning axial creep strain the stress relieved material behaves as does an isotropic tube. This is not the case of recrystallized zircaloy-4 F, which shows a non negligible axial deformation, related to the diametral creep one, even though this diametral irradiation creep strain is strongly reduced comparatively to that of the stress relieved material. The comparison of the two materials growth rates is more complex since their dependence on temperature and flux differs

  5. Time-dependent crack growth in steam generator tube leakage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, H.D.; Lee, J.H.; Park, Y.W.; Choi, Y.H.

    2006-01-01

    In general, cracks found in steam generator tubes have semi-elliptical shapes and it is assumed to be rectangular shape for conservatism after crack penetration. Hence, the leak and crack growth behavior has not been clearly understood after the elliptical crack penetrates the tube wall. Several experimental results performed by Argonne Nation Laboratory exhibited time-dependent crack growth behavior of rectangular flaws as well as trapezoidal flaws under constant pressure. The crack growth faster than expected was observed in both cases, which is likely attributed to time-dependent crack growth accompanied by fatigue sources such as the interaction between active jet and crack. The stress intensity factor, K 1 , is necessary for the prediction of the observed fatigue crack growth behavior. However, no K 1 solution is available for a trapezoidal flaw. The objective of this study is to develop the stress intensity factor which can be used for the fatigue analysis of a trapezoidal crack. To simplify the analysis, the crack is assumed to be a symmetric trapezoidal shape. A new K 1 formula for axial trapezoidal through-wall cracks was proposed based on the FEM results. (author)

  6. Arabidopsis COBRA-LIKE 10, a GPI-anchored protein, mediates directional growth of pollen tubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, S.; Ge, F.R.; Xu, M.; Zhao, X.Y.; Huang, G.Q.; Zhou, L.Z.; Wang, J.G.; Kombrink, A.; McCormick, S.; Zhang, X.S.; Zhang, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Successful reproduction of flowering plants requires constant communication between female tissues and growing pollen tubes. Female cells secrete molecules and peptides as nutrients or guidance cues for fast and directional tube growth, which is executed by dynamic changes of intracellular

  7. Renal malignancies with normal excretory urograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kass, D.A.; Hricak, H.; Davidson, A.J.

    1983-01-01

    Four patients with malignant renal masses showed no abnormality of excretory urograms with tomography. Of the four lesions, two were primary renal cell carcinomas, one was a metastatic focus from a contralateral renal cell carcinoma, and one was a metastatic lesion from rectal adenocarcinoma. A normal excretory urogram should not be considered sufficient to exclude a clinically suspected malignant renal mass. In such an instance, diagnostic evaluation should be pursued using a method capable of topographic anatomic display, such as computed tomography or sonography

  8. Ion Implantation Hampers Pollen Tube Growth and Disrupts Actin Cytoskeleton Organization in Pollen Tubes of Pinus thunbergii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guoping; Yang Lusheng; Huang Qunce; Qin Guangyong

    2008-01-01

    Pollen grains of Pinus thunbergii Parl. (Japanese black pine) were implanted with 30 keV nitrogen ion beams and the effects of nitrogen ion implantation on pollen tube growth in vitro and the organization of actin cytoskeleton in the pollen tube cell were investigated using a confocal laser scanning microscope after fluorescence labeling. Treatment with ion implantation significantly blocked pollen tube growth. Confocal microscopy showed that ion implantation disrupted actin filament cytoskeleton organization in the pollen tube. It was found that there was a distinct correlation between the inhibition of pollen tube growth and the disruption of actin cytoskeleton organization, indicating that an intact actin cytoskeleton is essential for continuous pollen tube elongation in Pinus thunbergii. Although the detailed mechanism for the ion-implantation-induced bioeffect still remains to be elucidated, the present study assumes that the cytoskeleton system in pollen grains may provide a key target in response to ion beam implantation and is involved in mediating certain subsequent cytological changes.

  9. Calculation of vapour bubble growth on the lower generatrix of horizontal tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chajka, V.D.

    1987-01-01

    The known models of vapour bubble growth are compared with experimental data. Cinematographic study of vapour formation during water boiling was carried out with elements of horizontal tubes of copper 10, 16, 24, 34 and 70 mm in diameter under the pressure of 100 kPa and specific thermal loadings of 20 and 40 kW/m 2 . According to the experimental data the main volume of vapour phase is occupied by vapour bubbles from the lower part of the horizontal tube. Five stages of vapour bubble growth on the lower generatrix of the horizontal tube: nucleation, growth to the point of breaking off from nucleate centre, the breaking off from the nucleate centre, the tube surface flowing around during floating up, the breaking off from the tube surface, were singled out. The shape of vapour volume varied during the whole period of the bubble growth and it was mainly determined by the horizontal tube diameter. The change of vapour bubble radius in time is the function of the horizontal tube diameter. Comparison of the experimental data with the known models of vapour bubble growth has shown, that every stage of vapour bubble growth on the lower generatrix of the tube is determined by the complex of thermal and hydrodynamic conditions, the effect of which depends on the horizontal tube diameter

  10. Calreticulin is required for calcium homeostasis and proper pollen tube tip growth in Petunia

    OpenAIRE

    Suwi?ska, Anna; Was?g, Piotr; Zakrzewski, Przemys?aw; Lenartowska, Marta; Lenartowski, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Main conclusion Calreticulin is involved in stabilization of the tip-focused Ca 2+ gradient and the actin cytoskeleton arrangement and function that is required for several key processes driving Petunia pollen tube tip growth. Although the precise mechanism is unclear, stabilization of a tip-focused calcium (Ca2+) gradient seems to be critical for pollen germination and pollen tube growth. We hypothesize that calreticulin (CRT), a Ca2+-binding/buffering chaperone typically residing in the lum...

  11. Boron toxicity causes multiple effects on Malus domestica pollen tube growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kefeng eFang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Boron is an essential micronutrient for plants. However, boron is also toxic to cells at high concentrations, although the mechanism of this stress is not known. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of boron stress on Malus domestica pollen tube growth and its possible regulatory pathway. Our results show that a high concentration of boron inhibited pollen germination and tube growth and led to the morphological abnormality of pollen tubes. Fluorescent labeling coupled with a scanning ion-selective electrode technique detected that boron stress could decrease [Ca2+]c and induce the disappearance of the [Ca2+]c gradient, which are critical for pollen tube polar growth. Actin filaments were therefore altered by boron stress. Immuno-localization and fluorescence labeling, together with Fourier-transform infrared analysis (FTIR, suggested that boron stress influenced the accumulation and distribution of callose, de-esterified pectins, esterified pectins and arabinogalactan proteins in pollen tubes. All of the above results provide new insights into the regulatory role of boron in pollen tube development. In summary, boron likely plays a structural and regulatory role in relation to [Ca2+]c, actin cytoskeleton and cell wall components and thus regulates Malus domestica pollen germination and tube polar growth.

  12. Boron Toxicity Causes Multiple Effects on Malus domestica Pollen Tube Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Kefeng; Zhang, Weiwei; Xing, Yu; Zhang, Qing; Yang, Liu; Cao, Qingqin; Qin, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Boron is an important micronutrient for plants. However, boron is also toxic to cells at high concentrations, although the mechanism of this toxicity is not known. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of boron toxicity on Malus domestica pollen tube growth and its possible regulatory pathway. Our results showed that a high concentration of boron inhibited pollen germination and tube growth and led to the morphological abnormality of pollen tubes. Fluorescent labeling coupled with a scanning ion-selective electrode technique detected that boron toxicity could decrease [Ca(2+)]c and induce the disappearance of the [Ca(2+)]c gradient, which are critical for pollen tube polar growth. Actin filaments were therefore altered by boron toxicity. Immuno-localization and fluorescence labeling, together with fourier-transform infrared analysis, suggested that boron toxicity influenced the accumulation and distribution of callose, de-esterified pectins, esterified pectins, and arabinogalactan proteins in pollen tubes. All of the above results provide new insights into the regulatory role of boron in pollen tube development. In summary, boron likely plays a structural and regulatory role in relation to [Ca(2+)]c, actin cytoskeleton and cell wall components and thus regulates Malus domestica pollen germination and tube polar growth.

  13. Calreticulin is required for calcium homeostasis and proper pollen tube tip growth in Petunia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwińska, Anna; Wasąg, Piotr; Zakrzewski, Przemysław; Lenartowska, Marta; Lenartowski, Robert

    2017-05-01

    Calreticulin is involved in stabilization of the tip-focused Ca 2+ gradient and the actin cytoskeleton arrangement and function that is required for several key processes driving Petunia pollen tube tip growth. Although the precise mechanism is unclear, stabilization of a tip-focused calcium (Ca 2+ ) gradient seems to be critical for pollen germination and pollen tube growth. We hypothesize that calreticulin (CRT), a Ca 2+ -binding/buffering chaperone typically residing in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of eukaryotic cells, is an excellent candidate to fulfill this role. We previously showed that in Petunia pollen tubes growing in vitro, CRT is translated on ER membrane-bound ribosomes that are abundant in the subapical zone of the tube, where CRT's Ca 2+ -buffering and chaperone activities might be particularly required. Here, we sought to determine the function of CRT using small interfering RNA (siRNA) to, for the first time in pollen tubes growing in vitro, knockdown expression of a gene. We demonstrate that siRNA-mediated post-transcriptional silencing of Petunia hybrida CRT gene (PhCRT) expression strongly impairs pollen tube growth, cytoplasmic zonation, actin cytoskeleton organization, and the tip-focused Ca 2+ gradient. Moreover, reduction of CRT alters the localization and disturbs the structure of the ER in abnormally elongating pollen tubes. Finally, cytoplasmic streaming is inhibited, and most of the pollen tubes rupture. Our data clearly show an interplay between CRT, Ca 2+ gradient, actin-dependent cytoplasmic streaming, organelle positioning, and vesicle trafficking during pollen tube elongation. Thus, we suggest that CRT functions in Petunia pollen tube growth by stabilizing Ca 2+ homeostasis and acting as a chaperone to assure quality control of glycoproteins passing through the ER.

  14. Control of Cell Wall Extensibility during Pollen Tube Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Hepler, Peter K.; Rounds, Caleb M.; Winship, Lawrence J.

    2013-01-01

    Tip-growing pollen tubes achieve rapid elongation while maintaining cell wall integrity by balancing local expansion, controlled by local changes in wall viscosity, against exocytosis, influenced by the activity of the actin cytoskeleton, cellular energetics, and calcium and proton physiology.

  15. FIMBRIN1 is involved in lily pollen tube growth by stabilizing the actin fringe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hui; Zhu, Jinsheng; Cai, Chao; Pei, Weike; Wang, Jiaojiao; Dong, Huaijian; Ren, Haiyun

    2012-11-01

    An actin fringe structure in the subapex plays an important role in pollen tube tip growth. However, the precise mechanism by which the actin fringe is generated and maintained remains largely unknown. Here, we cloned a 2606-bp full-length cDNA encoding a deduced 77-kD fimbrin-like protein from lily (Lilium longiflorum), named FIMBRIN1 (FIM1). Ll-FIM1 was preferentially expressed in pollen and concentrated at actin fringe in the subapical region, as well as in longitudinal actin-filament bundles in the shank of pollen tubes. Microinjection of Ll-FIM1 antibody into lily pollen tubes inhibited tip growth and disrupted the actin fringe. Furthermore, we verified the function of Ll-FIM1 in the fim5 mutant of its closest relative, Arabidopsis thaliana. Pollen tubes of fim5 mutants grew with a larger diameter in early stages but could recover into normal forms in later stages, despite significantly slower growth rates. The actin fringe of the fim5 mutants, however, was impaired during both early and late stages. Impressively, stable expression of fim5pro:GFP:Ll-FIM1 rescued the actin fringe and the growth rate of Arabidopsis fim5 pollen tubes. In vitro biochemical analysis showed that Ll-FIM1 could bundle actin filaments. Thus, our study has identified a fimbrin that may stabilize the actin fringe by cross-linking actin filaments into bundles, which is important for proper tip growth of lily pollen tubes.

  16. Perturbation Analysis of Calcium, Alkalinity and Secretion during Growth of Lily Pollen Tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winship, Lawrence J; Rounds, Caleb; Hepler, Peter K

    2016-12-30

    Pollen tubes grow by spatially and temporally regulated expansion of new material secreted into the cell wall at the tip of the tube. A complex web of interactions among cellular components, ions and small molecule provides dynamic control of localized expansion and secretion. Cross-correlation studies on oscillating lily ( Lilium formosanum Wallace) pollen tubes showed that an increase in intracellular calcium follows an increase in growth, whereas the increase in the alkaline band and in secretion both anticipate the increase in growth rate. Calcium, as a follower, is unlikely to be a stimulator of growth, whereas the alkaline band, as a leader, may be an activator. To gain further insight herein we reversibly inhibited growth with potassium cyanide (KCN) and followed the re-establishment of calcium, pH and secretion patterns as growth resumed. While KCN markedly slows growth and causes the associated gradients of calcium and pH to sharply decline, its removal allows growth and vital processes to fully recover. The calcium gradient reappears before growth restarts; however, it is preceded by both the alkaline band and secretion, in which the alkaline band is slightly advanced over secretion. Thus the pH gradient, rather than the tip-focused calcium gradient, may regulate pollen tube growth.

  17. Perturbation Analysis of Calcium, Alkalinity and Secretion during Growth of Lily Pollen Tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence J. Winship

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pollen tubes grow by spatially and temporally regulated expansion of new material secreted into the cell wall at the tip of the tube. A complex web of interactions among cellular components, ions and small molecule provides dynamic control of localized expansion and secretion. Cross-correlation studies on oscillating lily (Lilium formosanum Wallace pollen tubes showed that an increase in intracellular calcium follows an increase in growth, whereas the increase in the alkaline band and in secretion both anticipate the increase in growth rate. Calcium, as a follower, is unlikely to be a stimulator of growth, whereas the alkaline band, as a leader, may be an activator. To gain further insight herein we reversibly inhibited growth with potassium cyanide (KCN and followed the re-establishment of calcium, pH and secretion patterns as growth resumed. While KCN markedly slows growth and causes the associated gradients of calcium and pH to sharply decline, its removal allows growth and vital processes to fully recover. The calcium gradient reappears before growth restarts; however, it is preceded by both the alkaline band and secretion, in which the alkaline band is slightly advanced over secretion. Thus the pH gradient, rather than the tip-focused calcium gradient, may regulate pollen tube growth.

  18. Inhibition of Microbial Growth by Fatty Amine Catalysts from Polyurethane Foam Test Tube Plugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, John A.; Wnuk, Richard J.; Martin, Delano G.

    1975-01-01

    When polyurethane foam test tube plugs are autoclaved, they release volatile fatty amines that inhibit the growth of some microorganisms. The chemical structures of these amines were determined by the use of a gas chromatographmass spectrometer. They are catalysts used to produce the foam. The problem of contaminating growth media with toxic substances released from polymeric materials is discussed. PMID:1096816

  19. Effects of fluorides and sulphur dioxide on pollen germination and growth of the pollen tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Mejnartowicz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The action of fluorides and sulphur dioxides from emissions from a phosphate fertilizer factory significantly reduced the germination of Scots pine pollen grains. The pollen tube length indicated that its growth is uninhibited even though the pollen was collected under conditions of air-pollution. There are statistically significant differences showing longer tubes in the sensitive trees pollen grains. l he ageing of pollen from the sensitive trees occurs probably more rapidly than in the tolerant trees.

  20. Liver excretory function in patients with inflammatory diseases of the bile duct as reflected by radioimmunoassays of choleglycine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buyanov, V.M.; Orduyan, S.L.; Gidzev, M.Sh.; Kasimov, A.O.

    1989-01-01

    Radioimmunoassays of holeglycine in 41 healthy donors, 37 patients with gastroduodenal diseases and 41 ones with inflammatory diseases of the bile ducts have revealed that impaired excretory function of the liver is associated with a reduced coefficient of the bile acid extraction and a decreased bactericidal activity of the bile. The latter fact is conductive to active growth of microorganisms in the bile and thus promotes postoperative septic complications. Early detection of cholestasis resultant froom impaired excretory function with the use of choleglycine radioimmunoassays permits administration of early measures to restore the bile passage and of rational antibacterial therapy to prevent postoperative pyoseptic complications

  1. Excretory urogramm with angiotomography: Imaging of the renal arteries by excretory urogramm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binder, G.

    1982-01-01

    Excretory urography permits imaging of the renal arteries up to the intrarenal ramification if the contrast medium is injected as a bolus and the time of circulation between arm vein and abdominal aorta is determined with sufficient accuracy. Imaging of the vessel phase is done using simultaneous tomography. In the experimental part of the paper phantom tests are carried through to establish the contrast medium concentration to be expected in the renal arteries by means of microdensitometry. With the aid of 100 computerized tomograms of the abdomen the layer thickness required was determined to 4.5 cm; further phantom tests provided the necessary layer distances to image renal arteries that do not run in parallel to the plain of the film. The circulation time between arm vein and abdominal aorta was measured in 180 patients using the radioisotope method. It ranges between 9 and 22 seconds. Comparisons with the Decholin-method were made. 739 renal arteries were seen during the evaluation of 343 excretory urographies with angiotomograms, in 83 per cent of the cases these arteries were presented entirely. Provided perfect execution, simultaneous tomography is a very informative method. For 212 patients the side-effects of the bolar contrast medium injection were recorded. The importance of excretory urography with combined angiotomography for the diagnosis of arterial hypertension is discussed. (orig.) [de

  2. Gibberellin regulates pollen viability and pollen tube growth in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhun, Tory; Aya, Koichiro; Asano, Kenji; Yamamoto, Eiji; Morinaka, Yoichi; Watanabe, Masao; Kitano, Hidemi; Ashikari, Motoyuki; Matsuoka, Makoto; Ueguchi-Tanaka, Miyako

    2007-12-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) play many biological roles in higher plants. We collected and performed genetic analysis on rice (Oryza sativa) GA-related mutants, including GA-deficient and GA-insensitive mutants. Genetic analysis of the mutants revealed that rice GA-deficient mutations are not transmitted as Mendelian traits to the next generation following self-pollination of F1 heterozygous plants, although GA-insensitive mutations are transmitted normally. To understand these differences in transmission, we examined the effect of GA on microsporogenesis and pollen tube elongation in rice using new GA-deficient and GA-insensitive mutants that produce semifertile flowers. Phenotypic analysis revealed that the GA-deficient mutant reduced pollen elongation1 is defective in pollen tube elongation, resulting in a low fertilization frequency, whereas the GA-insensitive semidominant mutant Slr1-d3 is mainly defective in viable pollen production. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that GA biosynthesis genes tested whose mutations are transmitted to the next generation at a lower frequency are preferentially expressed after meiosis during pollen development, but expression is absent or very low before the meiosis stage, whereas GA signal-related genes are actively expressed before meiosis. Based on these observations, we predict that the transmission of GA-signaling genes occurs in a sporophytic manner, since the protein products and/or mRNA transcripts of these genes may be introduced into pollen-carrying mutant alleles, whereas GA synthesis genes are transmitted in a gametophytic manner, since these genes are preferentially expressed after meiosis.

  3. [Clinical application of high-pitch excretory phase images during dual-source CT urography with stellar photon detector].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hao; Xue, Hua-dan; Jin, Zheng-yu; Wang, Xuan; Chen, Yu; He, Yong-lan; Zhang, Da-ming; Zhu, Liang; Wang, Yun; Qi, Bing; Xu, Kai; Wang, Ming

    2014-10-01

    To retrospectively evaluate the clinical feasibility of high-pitch excretory phase images during dual-source CT urography with Stellar photon detector. Totally 100 patients received dual-source CT high-pitch urinary excretory phase scanning with Stellar photon detector [80 kV, ref.92 mAs, CARE Dose 4D and CARE kV, pitch of 3.0, filter back projection reconstruction algorithm (FBP)] (group A). Another 100 patients received dual-source CT high-pitch urinary excretory phase scanning with common detector(100 kV, ref.140 mAs, CARE Dose 4D, pitch of 3.0, FBP) (group B). Quantitative measurement of CT value of urinary segments (Hounsfield units), image noise (Hounsfield units), and effective radiation dose (millisievert) were compared using independent-samples t test between two groups. Urinary system subjective opacification scores were compared using Mann-Whitney U test between two groups. There was no significant difference in subjective opacification score of intrarenal collecting system and ureters between two groups (all P>0.05). The group A images yielded significantly higher CT values of all urinary segments (all P0.05). The effective radiation dose of group A (1.1 mSv) was significantly lower than that of group B (3.79 mSv) (Ppitch low-tube-voltage during excretory phase dual-source CT urography with Stellar photon detector is feasible, with acceptable image noise and lower radiation dose.

  4. Integrated probabilistic assessment for DHC initiation, growth and leak-before-break of PHWR pressure tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Young-Jin [Power Engineering Research Institute, KEPCO Engineering and Construction, 188 Gumi-dong, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 463-870 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Yoon-Suk, E-mail: yschang@khu.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyung Hee University, 1732 Deogyeong-daero, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • We develop an integrated approach for probabilistic assessment of PHWR pressure tube. • We examine probabilities of DHC initiation, growth, penetration and LBB failure. • The proposed approach is helpful to calculate rupture probabilities in reactor flaws even in the case of very low rupture probability. - Abstract: A few hundred zirconium alloy pressure tubes in a pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR) serve as the nuclear fuel channel, as well as the reactor coolant pressure boundary. The pressure tubes are inspected periodically and a fitness-for-service assessment (FFSA) must be conducted if any flaw is detected in the inspection. A Canadian standard provides FFSA procedures of PHWR pressure tubes, which include probabilistic assessment for flaws considering delayed hydride cracking (DHC) and leak-before-break (LBB). In the present study, an integrated approach with detailed stepwise calculation procedures and integration methodology for probabilistic assessment of pressure tube was developed. In the first step of this approach, a probability of the DHC initiation, growth and penetration for single initial flaw is calculated. In the next step, a probability of LBB failure, which means tube rupture, for single through-wall crack (TWC) is calculated. Finally, a rupture probability for all initial flaws in a reactor can be calculated using the penetration probability for single flaw and the LBB failure probability for single TWC, as well as the predicted total number of initial flaw in the reactor.

  5. Integrated probabilistic assessment for DHC initiation, growth and leak-before-break of PHWR pressure tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Young-Jin; Chang, Yoon-Suk

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We develop an integrated approach for probabilistic assessment of PHWR pressure tube. • We examine probabilities of DHC initiation, growth, penetration and LBB failure. • The proposed approach is helpful to calculate rupture probabilities in reactor flaws even in the case of very low rupture probability. - Abstract: A few hundred zirconium alloy pressure tubes in a pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR) serve as the nuclear fuel channel, as well as the reactor coolant pressure boundary. The pressure tubes are inspected periodically and a fitness-for-service assessment (FFSA) must be conducted if any flaw is detected in the inspection. A Canadian standard provides FFSA procedures of PHWR pressure tubes, which include probabilistic assessment for flaws considering delayed hydride cracking (DHC) and leak-before-break (LBB). In the present study, an integrated approach with detailed stepwise calculation procedures and integration methodology for probabilistic assessment of pressure tube was developed. In the first step of this approach, a probability of the DHC initiation, growth and penetration for single initial flaw is calculated. In the next step, a probability of LBB failure, which means tube rupture, for single through-wall crack (TWC) is calculated. Finally, a rupture probability for all initial flaws in a reactor can be calculated using the penetration probability for single flaw and the LBB failure probability for single TWC, as well as the predicted total number of initial flaw in the reactor

  6. A microfluidic platform for the investigation of elongation growth in pollen tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agudelo, C G; Sanati, A; Ghanbari, M; Packirisamy, M; Geitmann, A

    2012-01-01

    Pollen tubes are an excellent model for the investigation of plant cell growth: they elongate at very high rates and are easily cultured in vitro. One major constraint in the study of pollen tube growth has been the difficulty in providing an in vitro testing environment that physically resembles the in vivo conditions. This work presents the development of a microfluidic platform for the study and manipulation of individual pollen tubes. The platform is fabricated from polydimethylsiloxane using a Silicon/SU-8 mold and makes use of microfluidics to distribute pollen grains to serially arranged microchannels into which the tubes grow to allow for individual testing. A 2D finite element fluid analysis is done to assist optimization of the architectural design. Validation of the device is carried out by growing Camellia japonica pollen. Results show that pollen tube germination and growth rate within the microfluidic network are similar to those obtained in conventional plate or batch assays. The microfluidic network allows for specific testing of a variety of structural features as demonstrated with a simple collision test, and it permits the straightforward integration of further single-cell test assays. (paper)

  7. A caudal proliferating growth center contributes to both poles of the forming heart tube

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, G.; Abu-Issa, R.; de Boer, B.A.; Hutson, M.R.; de Boer, P.A.J.; Soufan, A.T.; Ruijter, J.M.; Kirby, M.L.; van den Hoff, M.J.B.; Moorman, A.F.M.

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the primary heart tube continues to grow by addition of cells from the coelomic wall. This growth occurs concomitantly with embryonic folding and formation of the coelomic cavity, making early heart formation morphologically complex. A scarcity of data on localized

  8. The effects of irradiation and temperature on the growth of Zircaloy-4 tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendoush, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    The growth strain was measured after irradiation for 16 Zircaloy-4 tubes of the recrystallised and stress relieved types. The operating temperature during irradiation ranged between 317 and 344 0 C. The average fast neutron fluence was 9.6x10 20 n/cm 2 . Experimental results indicated the dependence of the growth on the irradiation temperature. The stress relieved result was compared with data of the literature. (orig.)

  9. Generation and growth rates of nonlinear distortions in a traveling wave tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woehlbier, John G.; Dobson, Ian; Booske, John H.

    2002-01-01

    The structure of a steady state multifrequency model of a traveling wave tube amplifier is exploited to describe the generation of intermodulation frequencies and calculate their growth rates. The model describes the evolution of Fourier coefficients of circuit and electron beam quantities and has the form of differential equations with quadratic nonlinearities. Intermodulation frequencies are sequentially generated by the quadratic nonlinearities in a series solution of the differential equations. A formula for maximum intermodulation growth rates is derived and compared to simulation results

  10. Effects of X-rays on seed setting and pollen tube growth in self-incompatible petunia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilissen, L.J.W.

    1978-01-01

    The high sensitivity of seed setting and the relative insensitivity of pollen tube growth in the style to X-irradiation of pollen of Petunia hybrida L. indicated that pollen tube growth is independent of activities of the pollen genome. The S-specificity of the pollen grain in relation to incompatibility must, therefore, have built up during maturation of the pollen grain. X-irradiation of styles caused changes in some enzymes essential for basic metabolism, without affecting the pattern of compatible or incompatible pollen tube growth. Compatible and incompatible pollen tube growth in the style appeared to be independent of the metabolic state of the stylar cells and their simultaneous gene-activity. It is suggested that the S-specificity of the style, which is responsible for pollen tube growth regulation, is expressed at a very young stage of flower development. (Auth.)

  11. Substrate engineering for Ni-assisted growth of carbon nano-tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolahdouz, Z.; Kolahdouz, M. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Nano-electronic Laboratory, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghanbari, H. [Tarbiat Modarres University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohajerzadeh, S. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Nano-electronic Laboratory, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Naureen, S. [School of Information and Communication Technology, KTH (Royal Institute of Technology) Kista (Sweden); Radamson, H.H., E-mail: rad@kth.se [School of Information and Communication Technology, KTH (Royal Institute of Technology) Kista (Sweden)

    2012-10-01

    The growth of carbon multi-walled nano-tubes (MWCNTs) using metal catalyst (e.g. Ni, Co, and Fe) has been extensively investigated during the last decade. In general, the physical properties of CNTs depend on the type, quality and diameter of the tubes. One of the parameters which affects the diameter of a MWCNT is the size of the catalyst metal islands. Considering Ni as the metal catalyst, the formed silicide layer agglomerates (island formation) after a thermal treatment. One way to decrease the size of Ni islands is to apply SiGe as the base for the growth. In this study, different methods based on substrate engineering are proposed to change/control the MWCNT diameters. These include (i) well-controlled oxide openings containing Ni to miniaturize the metal island size, and (ii) growth on strained or partially relaxed SiGe layers for smaller Ni silicide islands.

  12. Overview of TANGENT (Tandem Aerosol Nucleation and Growth ENvironment Tube) 2017 IOP Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiszenkel, L.

    2017-12-01

    New particle formation consists of two steps: nucleation and growth of nucleated particles. However, most laboratory studies have been conducted under conditions where these two processes are convoluted together, thereby hampering the detailed understanding of the effect of chemical species and atmospheric conditions on two processes. The objective of the Tandem Aerosol Nucleation and Growth ENvironment Tube (TANGENT) laboratory study is to investigate aerosol nucleation and growth properties independently by separating these two processes in two different flow tubes. This research is a collaboration between the University of Alabama in Huntsville and the University of Delaware. In this poster we will present the experimental setup of TANGENT and summarize the key results from the first IOP (intense observation period) experiments undertaken during Summer 2017. Nucleation takes place in a temperature- and RH-controlled fast flow reactor (FT-1) where sulfuric acid forms from OH radicals and sulfur dioxide. Sulfuric acid and impurity base compounds are detected with chemical ionization mass spectrometers (CIMS). Particle sizes and number concentrations of newly nucleated particles are measured with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and particle size magnifier (PSM), providing concentrations of particles between 1-100 nm. The nucleation particles are transferred directly to the growth tube (FT-2) where oxidants and biogenic organic precursors are added to grow nucleated nanoparticles. Sizes of particles after growth are analyzed with an additional SMPS and elemental chemical composition of 50 nm and above particles detected with a nano-aerosol mass spectrometer (NAMS). TANGENT provides the unique ability to conduct experiments that can monitor and control reactant concentrations, aerosol size and aerosol chemical composition during nucleation and growth. Experiments during this first IOP study have elucidated the effects of sulfur dioxide, particle size

  13. Gene expression profile indicates involvement of NO in Camellia sinensis pollen tube growth at low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Junting; Wang, Weidong; Li, Dongqin; Shu, Zaifa; Ye, Xiaoli; Chang, Pinpin; Wang, Yuhua

    2016-10-18

    Nitric oxide (NO) functions as a critical signaling molecule in the low-temperature stress responses in plants, including polarized pollen tube growth in Camellia sinensis. Despite this, the potential mechanisms underlying the participation of NO in pollen tube responses to low temperature remain unclear. Here, we investigate alterations to gene expression in C. sinensis pollen tubes exposed to low-temperature stress and NO using RNA-Seq technology, in order to find the potential candidate genes related to the regulation of pollen tube elongation by NO under low-temperature stress. Three libraries were generated from C. sinensis cv. 'Longjingchangye' pollen tubes cultured at 25 °C (CsPT-CK) and 4 °C (CsPT-LT) or with 25 μM DEA NONOate (CsPT-NO). The number of unigenes found for the three biological replications were 39,726, 40,440 and 41,626 for CsPT-CK; 36,993, 39,070 and 39,439 for CsPT-LT; and 39,514, 38,298 and 39,061 for CsPT-NO. A total of 36,097 unique assembled and annotated sequences from C. sinensis pollen tube reads were found in a BLAST search of the following databases: NCBI non-redundant nucleotide, Swiss-prot protein, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes, Cluster of Orthologous Groups of proteins, and Gene Ontology. The absolute values of log 2 Ratio > 1 and probability > 0.7 were used as the thresholds for significantly differential gene expression, and 766, 497 and 929 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were found from the comparison analyses of the CK-VS-LT, CK-VS-NO and LT-VS-NO libraries, respectively. Genes related to metabolism and signaling pathways of plant hormones, transcription factors (TFs), vesicle polarized trafficking, cell wall biosynthesis, the ubiquitination machinery of the ubiquitin system and species-specific secondary metabolite pathways were mainly observed in the CK-VS-LT and CK-VS-NO libraries. Differentially expressed unigenes related to the inhibition of C. sinensis pollen tube growth under low

  14. Messenger RNas : their utilization and degradation during pollen germination and tube growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph P. Mascarenhas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During pollen germination and tube growth at least 230 new proteins are synthesized, as determined by 35S-methionime labeling and two dimensional gel electrophoretic analysis of the labeled proteins. The same number and pattern of protein spots is seen whether or not actinomycin D is included in the, medium, indicating that the mRNAs present in the unger-minated pollen grain and those newly synthesized code for the same proteins. The genetic program during at least the latter part of pollen maturation prior to anthesis and that during pollen germination and tube growth thus appears to be similar if not identical. During the first hour of pollen tube growth about 500/0 of the protein synthesis that occurs utilizes previously synthesized mRNAs. The remaining 50% occurs on newly made mRNAs. The ungerminated mature pollen grain contains 196 pg of RNA and approximately 6 X 106 molecules of poly(A+ RNA, i.e. mRNAs. The rate of protein synthesis corrected for internal pool changes in the labeled amino acid used (3H-leucine is highest during the first 15 min of pollen tube growth. The rate decreases rapidly thereafter for the next 45 min. Concurrent with the reduction in rate of protein synthesis there is a reduction in the poly(A content of the pollen RNA and in the amount of poly(A per pollen, grain. The total RNA per pollen grain, however, appears not to change during this period.

  15. Emerging roles for microtubules in angiosperm pollen tube growth highlight new research cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra eMoscatelli

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In plants, actin filaments have an important role in organelle movement and cytoplasmic streaming. Otherwise microtubules have a role in restricting organelles to specific areas of the cell and in maintaining organelle morphology. In somatic plant cells, microtubules also participate in cell division and morphogenesis, allowing cells to take their definitive shape in order to perform specific functions. In the latter case, microtubules influence assembly of the cell wall, controlling the delivery of enzymes involved in cellulose synthesis and of wall modulation material to the proper sites.In angiosperm pollen tubes, organelle movement is generally attributed to the acto-myosin system, the main role of which is in distributing organelles in the cytoplasm and in carrying secretory vesicles to the apex for polarized growth. Recent data on membrane trafficking suggests a role of microtubules in fine delivery and repositioning of vesicles to sustain pollen tube growth. This review examines the role of microtubules in secretion and endocytosis, highlighting new research cues regarding cell wall construction and pollen tube-pistil crosstalk, that help unravel the role of microtubules in polarized growth.

  16. Silencing of the pollen-specific gene NTP303 and its family members in tobacco affects in vivo pollen tube growth and results in male sterile plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de P.; Weterings, K.; Been, de M.; Wittink, F.; Hulzink, R.; Custers, J.B.M.; Herpen, van T.W.J.M.; Wullems, G.

    2004-01-01

    In seed plants, successful fertilization requires correct regulation of pollen tube growth. At germination and during growth, the pollen tube interacts with tissues from the pistil while the pollen tube extends via tip growth. Despite the fact that much research has been devoted to the mechanisms

  17. Pollen tube growth test (PTGT) in environmental biomonitoring and predictive radiation biology studies: problem and prospect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, Devi D.

    2012-01-01

    In Environmental and Human Bio monitoring studies of Hazardous xenobiotics over living system particularly at cell level, it is desirable to have easy and sensitive test system like Cell Viability assay, MNT, Cell Culture photo toxicity Test, PTGT etc. Out of these the PTGT quite better than other because the in vitro culture of pollen grain can provides a sensitive indication of toxicity at cellular level, since germination and growth of pollen tube will inhibited in presence of toxic substance like DDT, Heavy metal, even Radionuclide's. This test system is easy, economical and widely accepted through out world. In PTGT pollen tube never containing Chloroplast or other plastids so pollen tube resembles animals more than a plant organ and is therefore also a suitable as model for Genotoxicity Assessment of compounds harmful to animal and humans. Lack of plastids in PT, PTGT will not identify the toxic effect of compounds that targets Non cyclic and cyclic photoposphorylation of photosynthesis. This test system valid in International Toxicity Testing Protocol. But this method is time consuming and problem in measurement of pollen tube growing in a culture medium became usually bent and make measurement difficult. Other disadvantage of this method is requirement of DMSO to dissolve test substance of low water suitability in culture medium. DMSO shown to have no effect on PTG at Concentration not more than 1% but some extent interfere with results. Values of PTG are quantified in ED50/IC50 that is the concentration of test compounds that reduces pollen tube growth to 50% of control. So PTGT could be very sensitive and easy to assess in common lab in International way. (author)

  18. A plant plasma membrane Ca2+ pump is required for normal pollen tube growth and fertilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøtt, Morten; Romanowsky, Shawn M; Bækgaard, Lone

    2004-01-01

    Ca(2+) signals are thought to play important roles in plant growth and development, including key aspects of pollen tube growth and fertilization. The dynamics of a Ca(2+) signal are largely controlled by influx (through channels) and efflux (through pumps and antiporters). The Arabidopsis genome...... and a high frequency of aborted fertilization, resulting in a >80% reduction in seed set. These findings identify a plasma membrane Ca(2+) transporter as a key regulator of pollen development and fertilization in flowering plants.......Ca(2+) signals are thought to play important roles in plant growth and development, including key aspects of pollen tube growth and fertilization. The dynamics of a Ca(2+) signal are largely controlled by influx (through channels) and efflux (through pumps and antiporters). The Arabidopsis genome......-inducing) plasmid that is transferred to plant cells] gene disruptions of ACA9 were found to result in partial male sterility. Complementation was observed by using a ACA9-yellow fluorescence protein (YFP) fusion that displayed plasma membrane localization. Mutant aca9 pollen displayed a reduced growth potential...

  19. Male-female crosstalk during pollen germination, tube growth and guidance, and double fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresselhaus, Thomas; Franklin-Tong, Noni

    2013-07-01

    Sperm cells of flowering plants are non-motile and thus require transportation to the egg apparatus via the pollen tube to execute double fertilization. During its journey, the pollen tube interacts with various sporophytic cell types that support its growth and guide it towards the surface of the ovule. The final steps of tube guidance and sperm delivery are controlled by the cells of the female gametophyte. During fertilization, cell-cell communication events take place to achieve and maximize reproductive success. Additional layers of crosstalk exist, including self-recognition and specialized processes to prevent self-fertilization and consequent inbreeding. In this review, we focus on intercellular communication between the pollen grain/pollen tube including the sperm cells with the various sporophytic maternal tissues and the cells of the female gametophyte. Polymorphic-secreted peptides and small proteins, especially those belonging to various subclasses of small cysteine-rich proteins (CRPs), reactive oxygen species (ROS)/NO signaling, and the second messenger Ca(2+), play center stage in most of these processes.

  20. Oxide growth and exfoliation of materials in steam tubing. Lesson 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooley, R. Barry; Bursik, Albert

    2011-04-15

    University 101 courses are typically designed to help incoming first-year undergraduate students to adjust to the university, develop a better understanding of the college environment, and acquire essential academic success skills. Why are we offering a special Boiler and HRSG Tube Failures PPChem 101? The answer is simple, yet very conclusive: - There is a lack of knowledge on the identification of tube failure mechanisms and for the implementation of adequate counteractions in many power plants, particularly at industrial power and steam generators. - There is a lack of knowledge to prevent repeat tube failures. The vast majority of BTF/HTF have been, and continue to be, repeat failures. It is hoped that the information about the failure mechanisms of BTF supplied in this course will help to put plant engineers and chemists on the right track. The major goal of this course is the avoidance of repeat BTF. This ninth lesson is focused on Oxide Growth and Exfoliation of Materials in Steam Tubing. (orig.)

  1. Segmentation of Pollen Tube Growth Videos Using Dynamic Bi-Modal Fusion and Seam Carving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambo, Asongu L; Bhanu, Bir

    2016-05-01

    The growth of pollen tubes is of significant interest in plant cell biology, as it provides an understanding of internal cell dynamics that affect observable structural characteristics such as cell diameter, length, and growth rate. However, these parameters can only be measured in experimental videos if the complete shape of the cell is known. The challenge is to accurately obtain the cell boundary in noisy video images. Usually, these measurements are performed by a scientist who manually draws regions-of-interest on the images displayed on a computer screen. In this paper, a new automated technique is presented for boundary detection by fusing fluorescence and brightfield images, and a new efficient method of obtaining the final cell boundary through the process of Seam Carving is proposed. This approach takes advantage of the nature of the fusion process and also the shape of the pollen tube to efficiently search for the optimal cell boundary. In video segmentation, the first two frames are used to initialize the segmentation process by creating a search space based on a parametric model of the cell shape. Updates to the search space are performed based on the location of past segmentations and a prediction of the next segmentation.Experimental results show comparable accuracy to a previous method, but significant decrease in processing time. This has the potential for real time applications in pollen tube microscopy.

  2. Pectin and the role of the physical properties of the cell wall in pollen tube growth of Solanum chacoense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parre, Elodie; Geitmann, Anja

    2005-02-01

    The cell wall is one of the structural key players regulating pollen tube growth, since plant cell expansion depends on an interplay between intracellular driving forces and the controlled yielding of the cell wall. Pectin is the main cell wall component at the growing pollen tube apex. We therefore assessed its role in pollen tube growth and cytomechanics using the enzymes pectinase and pectin methyl esterase (PME). Pectinase activity was able to stimulate pollen germination and tube growth at moderate concentrations whereas higher concentrations caused apical swelling or bursting in Solanum chacoense Bitt. pollen tubes. This is consistent with a modification of the physical properties of the cell wall affecting its extensibility and thus the growth rate, as well as its capacity to withstand turgor. To prove that the enzyme-induced effects were due to the altered cell wall mechanics, we subjected pollen tubes to micro-indentation experiments. We observed that cellular stiffness was reduced and visco-elasticity increased in the presence of pectinase. These are the first mechanical data that confirm the influence of the amount of pectins in the pollen tube cell wall on the physical parameters characterizing overall cellular architecture. Cytomechanical data were also obtained to analyze the role of the degree of pectin methyl-esterification, which is known to exhibit a gradient along the pollen tube axis. This feature has frequently been suggested to result in a gradient of the physical properties characterizing the cell wall and our data provide, for the first time, mechanical support for this concept. The gradient in cell wall composition from apical esterified to distal de-esterified pectins seems to be correlated with an increase in the degree of cell wall rigidity and a decrease of visco-elasticity. Our mechanical approach provides new insights concerning the mechanics of pollen tube growth and the architecture of living plant cells.

  3. FIMBRIN1 Is Involved in Lily Pollen Tube Growth by Stabilizing the Actin Fringe[C][W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hui; Zhu, Jinsheng; Cai, Chao; Pei, Weike; Wang, Jiaojiao; Dong, Huaijian; Ren, Haiyun

    2012-01-01

    An actin fringe structure in the subapex plays an important role in pollen tube tip growth. However, the precise mechanism by which the actin fringe is generated and maintained remains largely unknown. Here, we cloned a 2606-bp full-length cDNA encoding a deduced 77-kD fimbrin-like protein from lily (Lilium longiflorum), named FIMBRIN1 (FIM1). Ll-FIM1 was preferentially expressed in pollen and concentrated at actin fringe in the subapical region, as well as in longitudinal actin-filament bundles in the shank of pollen tubes. Microinjection of Ll-FIM1 antibody into lily pollen tubes inhibited tip growth and disrupted the actin fringe. Furthermore, we verified the function of Ll-FIM1 in the fim5 mutant of its closest relative, Arabidopsis thaliana. Pollen tubes of fim5 mutants grew with a larger diameter in early stages but could recover into normal forms in later stages, despite significantly slower growth rates. The actin fringe of the fim5 mutants, however, was impaired during both early and late stages. Impressively, stable expression of fim5pro:GFP:Ll-FIM1 rescued the actin fringe and the growth rate of Arabidopsis fim5 pollen tubes. In vitro biochemical analysis showed that Ll-FIM1 could bundle actin filaments. Thus, our study has identified a fimbrin that may stabilize the actin fringe by cross-linking actin filaments into bundles, which is important for proper tip growth of lily pollen tubes. PMID:23150633

  4. Interfacing VPSC with finite element codes. Demonstration of irradiation growth simulation in a cladding tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patra, Anirban [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tome, Carlos [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-23

    This Milestone report shows good progress in interfacing VPSC with the FE codes ABAQUS and MOOSE, to perform component-level simulations of irradiation-induced deformation in Zirconium alloys. In this preliminary application, we have performed an irradiation growth simulation in the quarter geometry of a cladding tube. We have benchmarked VPSC-ABAQUS and VPSC-MOOSE predictions with VPSC-SA predictions to verify the accuracy of the VPSCFE interface. Predictions from the FE simulations are in general agreement with VPSC-SA simulations and also with experimental trends.

  5. Fatigue crack growth behaviour of 21/4Cr1Mo steel tube at elevated temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulloch, J.H.; Buchanan, L.W.

    1987-01-01

    The fatigue crack growth characteristics of 21/4Cr1Mo steel tube have been examined at 588 0 C over the frequency range 0.02-20 Hz and dwell time range 10-960 min. All tests were conducted under load control in laboratory air at an R-ratio of 0.5. The elevated temperature fatigue crack growth characteristics were adequately described in terms of the stress intensity range ΔKAPPA. The continuous cyclic test data exhibited a significant effect of frequency that agreed well with predicted effects using a simple mathematical model of the high temperature fatigue process. With the dwell time range of 10-100 min there was a significant dwell time effect on the critical ΔKAPPA level for creep-fatigue interactive growth. At dwell times > 100 min the dwell time effect saturates. When creep-fatigue interactive growth occurs, growth rates reside above the maximum for continuum-controlled fatigue crack growth, and exhibit a da/dN varies as ΔKAPPA 10 dependence; failure is then intergranular in nature. (author)

  6. Dissecting the regulation of pollen tube growth by modelling the interplay of hydrodynamics, cell wall and ion dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junli eLiu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Hydrodynamics, cell wall and ion dynamics are all important properties that regulate pollen tube growth. Currently, the two main pollen tube growth models, the cell wall model and the hydrodynamic model do not appear to be reconcilable. Here we develop an integrative model for pollen tube growth and show that our model reproduces key experimental observations: 1 that the hypertonic condition leads to a much longer oscillatory period and that the hypotonic condition halves the oscillatory period; 2 that oscillations in turgor are experimentally undetectable; 3 that increasing the extracellular calcium concentration or decreasing the pH decreases the growth oscillatory amplitude; 4 that knockout of Raba4d, a member of the Rab family of small GTPase proteins, decreases pollen tube length after germination for 24 hours. Using the model generated here, we reveal that 1 when cell wall extensibility is large, pollen tube may sustain growth at different volume changes and maintain relatively stable turgor; 2 turgor increases if cell wall extensibility decreases; 3 increasing turgor due to decrease in osmolarity in the media, although very small, increases volume change . However, increasing turgor due to decrease in cell wall extensibility decreases volume change. In this way regulation of pollen tube growth by turgor is context dependent. By changing the osmolarity in the media, the main regulatory points are extracellular osmolarity for water flow and turgor for the volume encompassed by the cell wall. However, if the viscosity of cell wall changes, the main regulatory points are turgor for water flow and wall extensibility for the volume encompassed by the cell wall. The novel methodology developed here reveals the underlying context-dependent regulatory principle of pollen tube growth.

  7. Growth of carbon fibres, sheets and tubes on diamond films under high power plasma etching conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villalpando, I. [Centro de Investigacion de los Recursos Naturales, Antigua Normal Rural, Salaices, Lopez, Chihuahua (Mexico); John, P.; Wilson, J. I. B., E-mail: isaelav@hotmail.com [School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Riccarton, Edinburgh, EH14-4AS (United Kingdom)

    2017-11-01

    The application of diamond as a plasma facing material for fusion reactors can be limited by unknown reactions between diamond and the chamber materials transported by the plasma. Transformation of diamond to other structures can cause problems such as contamination of the plasma with loose particles or retention of gases. We have seen that diamond thin films are eroded under hydrogen plasma etching, but if silicon is present the growth of various carbon structures on diamond films is observed. We have produced carbon with different morphologies on diamond films including fibres, sheets with flower-like shapes and tubes and proposed growth mechanisms based on the results of scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Sample surfaces contain silicon and are oxidised having COO and CO groups as seen by XP S analysis. Raman analyses revealed a spectrum typical for graphite combined with that from diamond that remains on the surface after hydrogen bombardment. The results of this sturdy show the experimental conditions in which carbon fibres, sheets and tubes are produced under high-power hydrogen etching of diamond films and open the possibility to other applications such as catalysts, sensors and the production of electrodes. (Author)

  8. Growth of carbon fibres, sheets and tubes on diamond films under high power plasma etching conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villalpando, I.; John, P.; Wilson, J. I. B.

    2017-01-01

    The application of diamond as a plasma facing material for fusion reactors can be limited by unknown reactions between diamond and the chamber materials transported by the plasma. Transformation of diamond to other structures can cause problems such as contamination of the plasma with loose particles or retention of gases. We have seen that diamond thin films are eroded under hydrogen plasma etching, but if silicon is present the growth of various carbon structures on diamond films is observed. We have produced carbon with different morphologies on diamond films including fibres, sheets with flower-like shapes and tubes and proposed growth mechanisms based on the results of scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Sample surfaces contain silicon and are oxidised having COO and CO groups as seen by XP S analysis. Raman analyses revealed a spectrum typical for graphite combined with that from diamond that remains on the surface after hydrogen bombardment. The results of this sturdy show the experimental conditions in which carbon fibres, sheets and tubes are produced under high-power hydrogen etching of diamond films and open the possibility to other applications such as catalysts, sensors and the production of electrodes. (Author)

  9. Crack growth of throughwall flaw in Alloy 600 tube during leak testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahn, Chi Bum; Majumdar, Saurin

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A series of leak testing was conducted at a constant pressure and room temperature. • The time-dependent increase in the leak rate was observed. • The fractography revealed slip offsets and crystallographic facets. • Time-dependent plasticity at the crack tip caused the slip offsets. • Fatigue by jet/structure interaction caused the crystallographic facets. - Abstract: We examined the issue of whether crack growth in a full thickness material can occur in a leaking crack. A series of leak tests was conducted at a room temperature and constant pressure (17.3 MPa) with Alloy 600 tube specimens containing a tight rectangular throughwall axial fatigue crack. To exclude a potential pulsation effect by a high pressure pump, the test water was pressurized by using high pressure nitrogen gas. Fractography showed that crack growth in the full thickness material can occur in the leaking crack by two mechanisms: time-dependent plasticity at the crack tip and fatigue induced by jet/structure interaction. The threshold leak rate at which the jet/structure interaction was triggered was between 1.3 and 3.3 L/min for the specific heat of the Alloy 600 tube tested

  10. The apical actin fringe contributes to localized cell wall deposition and polarized growth in the lily pollen tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rounds, Caleb M; Hepler, Peter K; Winship, Lawrence J

    2014-09-01

    In lily (Lilium formosanum) pollen tubes, pectin, a major component of the cell wall, is delivered through regulated exocytosis. The targeted transport and secretion of the pectin-containing vesicles may be controlled by the cortical actin fringe at the pollen tube apex. Here, we address the role of the actin fringe using three different inhibitors of growth: brefeldin A, latrunculin B, and potassium cyanide. Brefeldin A blocks membrane trafficking and inhibits exocytosis in pollen tubes; it also leads to the degradation of the actin fringe and the formation of an aggregate of filamentous actin at the base of the clear zone. Latrunculin B, which depolymerizes filamentous actin, markedly slows growth but allows focused pectin deposition to continue. Of note, the locus of deposition shifts frequently and correlates with changes in the direction of growth. Finally, potassium cyanide, an electron transport chain inhibitor, briefly stops growth while causing the actin fringe to completely disappear. Pectin deposition continues but lacks focus, instead being delivered in a wide arc across the pollen tube tip. These data support a model in which the actin fringe contributes to the focused secretion of pectin to the apical cell wall and, thus, to the polarized growth of the pollen tube. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Chronic pyelonephritis as false interpretation in the excretory urogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieden, K.; Weber, M.

    1985-01-01

    Chronic pyelonephritis, which is largely diagnosed via imaging procedures, is characterised by defined parenchymal scars that become manifest in the excretory urogram as contour recessions of the kidney and result in deformations of the calyces and papillae. The authors describe other renal diseases, dysplasias, variations from the standard, and artifacts resulting in similar signs on X-ray film, thus leading to the wrong diagnosis of chronic pyelonephritis. The essential differential diagnostic criteria are explained. (orig.) [de

  12. The evaluation of kidney scan: On comparison with excretory urography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, Yong Kyu; Kim, Chung Kyu; Choi, Byung Sook [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1970-10-15

    The kidney scan and the excretory urography of 21 cases in kidney disease proved clinically or pathologically at Yonsei University, Severance Hospital were reviewed and analysed briefly. Following were the results: 1. In all except 2 cases of pyelonephritis, changes on the kidney scan were noted with generalized motted density and cold area in the kidney, and with diffuse poor or non uptake density and various size or shape of the kidney. 2. On the excretory urogram, the demonstrable findings in the kidney parenchyma were discribed on the only 7 of 21 cases, hypernephroma, tuberculosis kidney, necrotizing papillits, medullary sponge kidney, and stenosis of renal artery. 3. Three of all cases, renal carbuncle, retroperitoneal hematoma with aberrant vessel and angiolipomyoma were no appreciable finding on the pyelography, but on the view of kidney scanning, there were apparently demonstrated abnormal cold area and some enlargement of kidney size. We concluded that the close correlation of the two techniques, kidney scanning and excretory urography on the kidney disease leads to more improved diagnostic accuracy.

  13. DIAGNOSTICS AND TREATMENT OF EXCRETORY DEFICIENCY OF PANCREAS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Bel’mer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Excretory pancreatic insufficiency is relatively frequent pathology in pediatric and therapeutic practice. It can be divided to primary and secondary, inborn and acquired, absolute and relative one. The causes of primary pancreatic insufficiency are agenesia or hypoplasia of pancreas, cystic fibrosis, Shwachman–Diamond syndrome. Secondary excretory pancreatic insufficiency can be caused by resection of pancreas, pancreatitis, pathology of mucous tunic of small intestine, abnormality of antitrypsinactivation with enterokinase deficiency, inactivation of enzymes by acid of duodenal contents in the presence of gastric hyper secretion and others. Excretory pancreatic deficiency has determined clinical signs and can be relatively easily diagnosed by simple laboratory methods: coprogramm and detection of elastase 1 in stool. The ways of its correction are determined by causes of disease, but modern high-active pancreatic enzymes medications must be necessary component of treatment in all cases.Key words: children, pancreatic insufficiency, celiac disease, pancreatic enzymes medications.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2009;8(2:114-118

  14. The evaluation of kidney scan: On comparison with excretory urography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, Yong Kyu; Kim, Chung Kyu; Choi, Byung Sook

    1970-01-01

    The kidney scan and the excretory urography of 21 cases in kidney disease proved clinically or pathologically at Yonsei University, Severance Hospital were reviewed and analysed briefly. Following were the results: 1. In all except 2 cases of pyelonephritis, changes on the kidney scan were noted with generalized motted density and cold area in the kidney, and with diffuse poor or non uptake density and various size or shape of the kidney. 2. On the excretory urogram, the demonstrable findings in the kidney parenchyma were discribed on the only 7 of 21 cases, hypernephroma, tuberculosis kidney, necrotizing papillits, medullary sponge kidney, and stenosis of renal artery. 3. Three of all cases, renal carbuncle, retroperitoneal hematoma with aberrant vessel and angiolipomyoma were no appreciable finding on the pyelography, but on the view of kidney scanning, there were apparently demonstrated abnormal cold area and some enlargement of kidney size. We concluded that the close correlation of the two techniques, kidney scanning and excretory urography on the kidney disease leads to more improved diagnostic accuracy

  15. Growth and Identification of Bacteria in N-Halamine Dental Unit Waterline Tubing Using an Ultrapure Water Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porteous, Nuala; Luo, Jie; Hererra, Monica; Schoolfield, John; Sun, Yuyu

    2011-01-01

    This study examined bacterial growth and type on biofilm-controlling dental unit waterline (DUWL) tubing (T) and control manufacturer's tubing (C) in a laboratory DUWL model using ultrapure source water that was cycled through the lines. Sections of tubing lines were detached and examined for biofilm growth using SEM imaging at six sampling periods. Bacteria from inside surfaces of T and C, source unit, and reservoir were cultured and enumerated. At six months, organisms were molecularly identified from the alignment matches obtained from the top three BLAST searches for the 16S region. There was a 1–3 log increase in organism growth in a clean, nonsterile reservoir within an hour. Biofilm was established on the inside surfaces of C within three weeks, but not on T. Proteobacteria, and Sphingomonas spp. were identified in the source reservoir and C line, and a variation of the genera was found in T line. PMID:22220171

  16. Influence of Electric Fields and Conductivity on Pollen Tube Growth assessed via Electrical Lab-on-Chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudelo, Carlos; Packirisamy, Muthukumaran; Geitmann, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Pollen tubes are polarly growing plant cells that are able to rapidly respond to a combination of chemical, mechanical, and electrical cues. This behavioural feature allows them to invade the flower pistil and deliver the sperm cells in highly targeted manner to receptive ovules in order to accomplish fertilization. How signals are perceived and processed in the pollen tube is still poorly understood. Evidence for electrical guidance in particular is vague and highly contradictory. To generate reproducible experimental conditions for the investigation of the effect of electric fields on pollen tube growth we developed an Electrical Lab-on-Chip (ELoC). Pollen from the species Camellia displayed differential sensitivity to electric fields depending on whether the entire cell or only its growing tip was exposed. The response to DC fields was dramatically higher than that to AC fields of the same strength. However, AC fields were found to restore and even promote pollen growth. Surprisingly, the pollen tube response correlated with the conductivity of the growth medium under different AC frequencies—consistent with the notion that the effect of the field on pollen tube growth may be mediated via its effect on the motion of ions. PMID:26804186

  17. Interference of the Histone Deacetylase Inhibits Pollen Germination and Pollen Tube Growth in Picea wilsonii Mast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaning Cui

    Full Text Available Histone deacetylase (HDAC is a crucial component in the regulation of gene expression in various cellular processes in animal and plant cells. HDAC has been reported to play a role in embryogenesis. However, the effect of HDAC on androgamete development remains unclear, especially in gymnosperms. In this study, we used the HDAC inhibitors trichostatin A (TSA and sodium butyrate (NaB to examine the role of HDAC in Picea wilsonii pollen germination and pollen tube elongation. Measurements of the tip-focused Ca2+ gradient revealed that TSA and NaB influenced this gradient. Immunofluorescence showed that actin filaments were disrupted into disorganized fragments. As a result, the vesicle trafficking was disturbed, as determined by FM4-64 labeling. Moreover, the distribution of pectins and callose in cell walls was significantly altered in response to TSA and NaB. Our results suggest that HDAC affects pollen germination and polarized pollen tube growth in Picea wilsonii by affecting the intracellular Ca2+ concentration gradient, actin organization patterns, vesicle trafficking, as well as the deposition and configuration of cell wall components.

  18. Measurement and interpretation of growth and evaporation of monodispersed droplets in a shock tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, F.; Paikert, B.

    1994-01-01

    A special gasdynamic shock tube process in combination with a Mie light scattering method is used to study growth and subsequent evaporation of monodispersed droplets carried in argon or air. The droplets are generated by homogeneous nucleation and observed in the micrometer range (0.15-6 micrometer radius). Droplet concentrations range from 10-1000/cu mm. Four different substances, i.e. water, n-propanol, methanol and n-hexane are tested for a wide range of properties. A model covering the entire range between large (Kn much greater than 1) and small Knudsen numbers (K much less than 1) is applied to interpret the experimental data. Excellent agreement is found.

  19. Receptor-like kinases as surface regulators for RAC/ROP-mediated pollen tube growth and interaction with the pistil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yanjiao; Aggarwal, Mini; Zheng, Wen-Guang; Wu, Hen-Ming; Cheung, Alice Y.

    2011-01-01

    Background RAC/ROPs are RHO-type GTPases and are known to play diverse signalling roles in plants. Cytoplasmic RAC/ROPs are recruited to the cell membrane and activated in response to extracellular signals perceived and mediated by cell surface-located signalling assemblies, transducing the signals to regulate cellular processes. More than any other cell types in plants, pollen tubes depend on continuous interactions with an extracellular environment produced by their surrounding tissues as they grow within the female organ pistil to deliver sperm to the female gametophyte for fertilization. Scope We review studies on pollen tube growth that provide compelling evidence indicating that RAC/ROPs are crucial for regulating the cellular processes that underlie the polarized cell growth process. Efforts to identify cell surface regulators that mediate extracellular signals also point to RAC/ROPs being the molecular switches targeted by growth-regulating female factors for modulation to mediate pollination and fertilization. We discuss a large volume of work spanning more than two decades on a family of pollen-specific receptor kinases and some recent studies on members of the FERONIA family of receptor-like kinases (RLKs). Significance The research described shows the crucial roles that two RLK families play in transducing signals from growth regulatory factors to the RAC/ROP switch at the pollen tube apex to mediate and target pollen tube growth to the female gametophyte and signal its disintegration to achieve fertilization once inside the female chamber. PMID:22476487

  20. Effect of gamma-radiation of pollen tube growth and seed set in barley-rye crosses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohilla, J.S.; Khanna, V.K.

    1993-01-01

    One variety of barley and one variety of rye were taken to study the effect of gamma-radiation on pollen germination, pollen tube growth and seed set in barley-rye crosses. There was an increase in pollen germination and pollen tube growth over control at 1 kR dose but it was reduced at higher doses. Seed set was maximum at 1 kR and it was more than control from 1-5 kR. Only seeds of the cross Karan - 4 (1 kR)*MRSP-992 were able to germinate. In these germinated seeds the root growth was arrested after the fourth day of germination and they turned brown. The shoot growth was also very poor and it stopped after a week. (author) 11 refs.; 2 tabs

  1. Overexpression of the tomato pollen receptor kinase LePRK1 rewires pollen tube growth to a blebbling mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    The tubular growth of a pollen tube cell is crucial for the sexual reproduction of flowering plants. LePRK1 is a pollen-specific and plasma membrane–localized receptor-like kinase from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). LePRK1 interacts with another receptor, LePRK2, and with KINASE PARTNER PROTEIN (KPP...

  2. Combination of U.V.-B and ozone reduces pollen tube growth more than either stress alone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feder, W.A.; Shrier, R.

    1990-01-01

    The rate of in vitro Nicotiana tabacum L. “Bel-W3” pollen tube growth was reduced 62 and 44%, respectively, when pollen tubes were exposed to 120 ppb ozone (O 3 ) for 3 hr or 300 μW/cm 2 ultraviolet-B (u.v.-B) radiation for 30 min. Petunia hybrida Vilm. “White Cascade” pollen tube growth was reduced 34 and 59%, respectively, upon exposure to O 3 or u.v.-B at the above doses. The combination of u.v.-B at 300 μW/cm 2 for 30 min, followed by O 3 at 120 ppb for 3 hr, reduced pollen tube growth by 79% for “Bel-W3” and 75% for “White Cascade”. The effect appeared to be additive, implying that different target areas may be affected by the two stressors. In the Northeast, plants are exposed to both u.v.-B and O 3 during the normal growing season. This may result in an unexpectedly higher stress on the reproductive system than had been previously suspected based on these two stressors acting individually. (author)

  3. Exogenous γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) affects pollen tube growth via modulating putative Ca2+-permeable membrane channels and is coupled to negative regulation on glutamate decarboxylase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guang-Hui; Zou, Jie; Feng, Jing; Peng, Xiong-Bo; Wu, Ju-You; Wu, Ying-Liang; Palanivelu, Ravishankar; Sun, Meng-Xiang

    2014-01-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is implicated in pollen tube growth, but the molecular and cellular mechanisms that it mediates are largely unknown. Here, it is shown that exogenous GABA modulates putative Ca2+-permeable channels on the plasma membranes of tobacco pollen grains and pollen tubes. Whole-cell voltage-clamp experiments and non-invasive micromeasurement technology (NMT) revealed that the influx of Ca2+ increases in pollen tubes in response to exogenous GABA. It is also demonstrated that glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), the rate-limiting enzyme of GABA biosynthesis, is involved in feedback controls of Ca2+-permeable channels to fluctuate intracellular GABA levels and thus modulate pollen tube growth. The findings suggest that GAD activity linked with Ca2+-permeable channels relays an extracellular GABA signal and integrates multiple signal pathways to modulate tobacco pollen tube growth. Thus, the data explain how GABA mediates the communication between the style and the growing pollen tubes. PMID:24799560

  4. Thermal fatigue crack growth on a thick wall tube containing a semi elliptical circumferential crack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deschanels, H.; Wakai, T.; Lacire, M.H.; Michel, B.

    2001-01-01

    In order to check the ability of the simplified assessment procedure (A16 guide) to predict fatigue crack growth, a benchmark problem was conducted. This work is carried out under the project ''agreement on the Exchange of Information and Collaboration in the field of Research and Development of Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) between Europe (EU) and Japan''. Experimental work is conducted by PNC using Air cooled Thermal transient Test Facility (ATTF). Specimen is a thick wall tube containing a semi elliptical (3-D) circumferential crack and subjected to cyclic thermal transients. The constitutive material is the 304 austenitic stainless steel type SUS304. Due to thermal shock (650 C-300 C) the stress distribution through the wall is non-linear and well approximated using a 3 rd order polynomial. When comparing computations and tests data we observe a good agreement for the crack propagation in length. In crack depth, accurate results are obtained in the first part of the test, but on the later stage of the experiment the computations slightly underestimate the propagation (deep crack). In addition, we notice the importance of good evaluation of fracture mechanics parameters for non-linear stress distribution through the wall. At present A16 guide handbook gives stress intensity factor solutions for non-linear stress distribution through the wall. (author)

  5. Water Assisted Growth of C60 Rods and Tubes by Liquid–Liquid Interfacial Precipitation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheuk-Wai Tai

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available C60 nanorods with hexagonal cross sections are grown using a static liquid–liquid interfacial precipitation method in a system of C60/m-dichlorobenzene solution and ethanol. Adding water to the ethanol phase leads instead to C60 tubes where both length and diameter of the C60 tubes can be controlled by the water content in the ethanol. Based on our observations we find that the diameter of the rods/tubes strongly depends on the nucleation step. We propose a liquid-liquid interface growth model of C60 rods and tubes based on the diffusion rate of the good C60 containing solvent into the poor solvent as well as on the size of the crystal seeds formed at the interface between the two solvents. The grown rods and tubes exhibit a hexagonal solvate crystal structure with m-dichlorobenzene solvent molecules incorporated into the crystal structure, independent of the water content. An annealing step at 200 °C at a pressure < 1 kPa transforms the grown structures into a solvent-free face centered cubic structure. Both the hexagonal and the face centered cubic structures are very stable and neither morphology nor structure shows any signs of degradation after three months of storage.

  6. Pretreatment of clinical specimens with sodium dodecyl (lauryl) sulfate is not suitable for the mycobacteria growth indicator tube cultivation method.

    OpenAIRE

    Pfyffer, G E; Welscher, H M; Kissling, P

    1997-01-01

    When using the Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT), pretreatment of clinical specimens with N-acetyl-L-cysteine-NaOH is recommended by the manufacturer. Processing of clinical specimens (n = 1,000) with sodium dodecyl (lauryl) sulfate-NaOH resulted in both poor recovery and delayed mean time to detection of acid-fast bacilli. Values were comparable to those obtained on solid media.

  7. Post-pollination mechanisms in Nicotiana longiflora and N. plumbaginifolia: pollen tube growth rate, offspring paternity and hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-Castro, Dulce M; Holtsford, Timothy P

    2009-09-01

    In natural populations where interfertile species coexist, conspecific and heterospecific pollen can be delivered to the stigmas. Post-pollination mechanisms might determine the seed siring success of different pollen donors within species as well as the chances for hybridization between species. Nicotiana longiflora and N. plumbaginifolia occur in sympatry in Northwest Argentina, where they have overlapping flowering seasons and share floral visitors. We explored (1) pollen tube growth rates for outcross versus self pollen in single-donor pollinations; (2) siring success of self versus outcross pollen donors in competitive pollinations, and (3) possibilities for hybridization by performing two- (outcross conspecific vs. heterospecific) and three-pollen donor (self vs. outcross vs. heterospecific) crosses. In N. longiflora, both pollen tube growth rate and siring success favored outcross pollen over self pollen and strong rejection of heterospecific pollen. In N. plumbaginifolia, pollen tube growth rate was similar for self and outcross pollen, self pollen sired similar numbers of offspring than outcross pollen and heterospecific pollen sired roughly the same number of progeny than self pollen. Results suggest that in natural sympatric populations, interspecific crosses would likely lead to unidirectional hybridization with N. plumbaginifolia as the seed parent.

  8. Re-thinking the unimpeded tube-well growth under the depleting groundwater resources in the Punjab, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watto, Muhammad Arif; Mugera, Amin W.; Kingwell, Ross; Saqab, Muhammad Mudasar

    2018-04-01

    Groundwater resources are crucial in sustaining agro-ecosystems and ensuring food security in many parts of the world, including Pakistan. However, the sustainability of groundwater resources is subject to a number of challenges, including over-extraction, deterioration in quality, and vulnerability to the impacts of climate change and population growth. Given the current state of groundwater resources in Pakistan, policymakers seek to manage groundwater resources by limiting groundwater extraction. To achieve this goal on a national scale, it is important to understand the determinants of the decisions made by local farmers in respect of tube-well adoption. This study investigates smallholder farmers' decisions to adopt tube-well technology in the face of dwindling groundwater resources and falling water tables. Analysis is based on a cross-sectional survey of 200 rural households from the arid to semi-arid predominantly groundwater-irrigated plains of the Punjab province, Pakistan. It is found that farmers will adopt tube-well technology in pursuit of reliable irrigation water supplies to hedge against production risks but not against the risk associated with unfavourable extreme events (downside risk) such as total crop failure. This suggests that the adoption decision is influenced by the expected long-term rather than the short-term benefits. This paper draws attention to the need to regulate groundwater resource exploitation by requiring the use of tube-well technology to be accompanied by irrigation water-efficient techniques and technologies.

  9. Antigenic analyses of tissues and excretory and secretory products from Strongylus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynne, E; Slocombe, J O; Wilkie, B N

    1981-07-01

    Rabbit antisera were prepared against veronal buffered saline extracts of L4 and L5 Strongylus vulgaris, adult S. vulgaris and adult Strongylus equinus retrieved from naturally infected horses. In agar gel diffusion with these antisera, adult S vulgaris and S. equinus each appeared to have at least one unique antigen; larval S. vulgaris appeared to have two species-specific and two stage-specific antigens. There were several common antigens. Excretory and secretory products were collected also from L4 and L5 an maintained over several days in tissue culture fluid. In agar gel diffusion against the above rabbit antisera, a stage-specific antigen was found also in excretory and secretory products. In addition, excretory and secretory products had three antigens in common with adult and larval S. vulgaris, but only one of these was common to adult S. equinus. The excretory and secretory products appear, therefore, to have two species-specific and one stage-specific antigens.

  10. Expression of an isoflavone reductase-like gene enhanced by pollen tube growth in pistils of Solanum tuberosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eldik, G J; Ruiter, R K; Colla, P H; van Herpen, M M; Schrauwen, J A; Wullems, G J

    1997-03-01

    Successful sexual reproduction relies on gene products delivered by the pistil to create an environment suitable for pollen tube growth. These compounds are either produced before pollination or formed during the interactions between pistil and pollen tubes. Here we describe the pollination-enhanced expression of the cp100 gene in pistils of Solanum tuberosum. Temporal analysis of gene expression revealed an enhanced expression already one hour after pollination and lasts more than 72 h. Increase in expression also occurred after touching the stigma and was not restricted to the site of touch but spread into the style. The predicted CP100 protein shows similarity to leguminous isoflavone reductases (IFRs), but belongs to a family of IFR-like NAD(P)H-dependent oxidoreductases present in various plant species.

  11. Nitric oxide participates in cold-inhibited Camellia sinensis pollen germination and tube growth partly via cGMP in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hua Wang

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO plays essential roles in many biotic and abiotic stresses in plant development procedures, including pollen tube growth. Here, effects of NO on cold stress inhibited pollen germination and tube growth in Camellia sinensis were investigated in vitro. The NO production, NO synthase (NOS-like activity, cGMP content and proline (Pro accumulation upon treatment with NO scavenger cPTIO, NOS inhibitor L-NNA, NO donor DEA NONOate, guanylate cyclase (GC inhibitor ODQ or phosphodiesterase (PDE inhibitor Viagra at 25°C (control or 4°C were analyzed. Exposure to 4°C for 2 h reduced pollen germination and tube growth along with increase of NOS-like activity, NO production and cGMP content in pollen tubes. DEA NONOate treatment inhibited pollen germination and tube growth in a dose-dependent manner under control and reinforced the inhibition under cold stress, during which NO production and cGMP content promoted in pollen tubes. L-NNA and cPTIO markedly reduced the generation of NO induced by cold or NO donor along with partly reverse of cold- or NO donor-inhibited pollen germination and tube growth. Furthermore, ODQ reduced the cGMP content under cold stress and NO donor treatment in pollen tubes. Meanwhile, ODQ disrupted the reinforcement of NO donor on the inhibition of pollen germination and tube growth under cold condition. Additionally, Pro accumulation of pollen tubes was reduced by ODQ compared with that receiving NO donor under cold or control condition. Effects of cPTIO and L-NNA in improving cold-treated pollen germination and pollen tube growth could be lowered by Viagra. Moreover, the inhibitory effects of cPTIO and L-NNA on Pro accumulation were partly reversed by Viagra. These data suggest that NO production from NOS-like enzyme reaction decreased the cold-responsive pollen germination, inhibited tube growth and reduced Pro accumulation, partly via cGMP signaling pathway in C. sinensis.

  12. Statistical prediction of AVB wear growth and initiation in model F steam generator tubes using Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Bong; Park, Jae Hak; Kim, Hong Deok; Chung, Han Sub; Kim, Tae Ryong

    2005-01-01

    The growth of AVB wear in Model F steam generator tubes is predicted using the Monte Carlo Method and statistical approaches. The statistical parameters that represent the characteristics of wear growth and wear initiation are derived from In-Service Inspection (ISI) Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) data. Based on the statistical approaches, wear growth model are proposed and applied to predict wear distribution at the End Of Cycle (EOC). Probabilistic distributions of the number of wear flaws and maximum wear depth at EOC are obtained from the analysis. Comparing the predicted EOC wear flaw data with the known EOC data the usefulness of the proposed method is examined and satisfactory results are obtained

  13. Statistical prediction of AVB wear growth and initiation in model F steam generator tubes using Monte Carlo method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Bong; Park, Jae Hak [Chungbuk National Univ., Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hong Deok; Chung, Han Sub; Kim, Tae Ryong [Korea Electtric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    The growth of AVB wear in Model F steam generator tubes is predicted using the Monte Carlo Method and statistical approaches. The statistical parameters that represent the characteristics of wear growth and wear initiation are derived from In-Service Inspection (ISI) Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) data. Based on the statistical approaches, wear growth model are proposed and applied to predict wear distribution at the End Of Cycle (EOC). Probabilistic distributions of the number of wear flaws and maximum wear depth at EOC are obtained from the analysis. Comparing the predicted EOC wear flaw data with the known EOC data the usefulness of the proposed method is examined and satisfactory results are obtained.

  14. Grow tubes reduce root and crown growth but not early production during establishment of highbush blueberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    In blueberry, grow tubes have been used by some growers to establish new plantings and to replace plants within older plantings. We conducted two experiments at a commercial northern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) farm over three years using four cultivars (Aurora, Elliott, Liberty, Oz...

  15. Effect of dose rate and exposure time on the stimulation effect of tube growth of Pinus sylvestris pollen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelles, L.; Fendrik, I.; Technische Univ. Hannover

    1975-01-01

    The stimulating effect of ionizing radiation in respect to dose rate and exposure time was studied using the tube growth of Pinus silvestris pollen. Stimulation was registered with a small dose (50 rad) supplied at low dose rates (0.5; 1.0; 3.0 and 5.0 rad/sec) and with higher doses (300; 800 and 1,400 rad) supplied at higher dose rates (10; 40 and 50 rad/sec). This suggests that only the exposure time is of importance for radiation-induced stimulation provided that the exposure time does not exceed 100 sec. (orig.) [de

  16. Quantitative parameters of seminiferous epithelium in secretory and excretory oligoazoospermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francavilla, S; Martini, M; Properzi, G; Cordeschi, G

    1990-01-01

    Testicular biopsy specimens from infertile men (sperm count, less than 10(6)/ml) were evaluated on 1-micron thick sections, and counts of stem cells and differentiated spermatogonia, primary spermatocytes, early and late spermatids, and Sertoli cells were compared to counts in six fertile men. Biopsy specimens were also compared for the appearance of seminiferous tubule wall, blood vessels, and interstitium. Infertile men were grouped according to the following diagnoses: hypospermatogenesis (n = 5), spermatocyte arrest of spermatogenesis (n = 5), and obstruction of the genital tract (n = 7). A low productivity of spermatogenesis in cases of hypospermatogenesis appeared to be due to an exaggerated degeneration of primary spermatocytes and to a yield of abnormal spermatids. A block of meiosis in spermatocyte arrest was associated with a degeneration of primary spermatocytes and with a reduced number of staminal spermatogonia. Abnormal spermiogenesis was observed in cases of obstruction of the genital tract and was associated with an increase in stem cell spermatogonia. A thickening of seminiferous tubule and blood vessel walls could be responsible for the limited functional capacity of Sertoli cells, causing altered spermiogenesis in cases of excretory azoospermia. A severe primitive failure of Sertoli cells in secretory oligoazoospermia could account for a deranged maturation and degeneration of premeiotic and postmeiotic germ cells.

  17. Power spectrum, growth velocities and cross-correlations of longitudinal and transverse oscillations of individual Nicotiana tabacum pollen tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haduch-Sendecka, Aleksandra; Pietruszka, Mariusz; Zajdel, Paweł

    2014-08-01

    We report on our results concerning growth rate and oscillation modes of the individual pollen tube apex. The observed volumetric growth and growth rate periodicity in the longitudinal (axial) direction are accompanied by transverse oscillations with similar frequencies but higher energies than the axial modes. Examination of the time-domain coherence between oscillations in mutually perpendicular directions revealed minimal energy dissipation in the unperturbed (isotonic) case, opposite to the two remaining cases (hypertonic, hypotonic) with notable correlations. We conjecture that the minimal energy loss is therefore optimal in the natural growth conditions. The longitudinal growth velocity is also found to be the fastest in the unperturbed case. As a result, the isolated system (pollen tube tip) is conserving energy by transforming it from elastic potential energy of extending apical wall to the kinetic energy of periodical motion. The energy dissipation is found to be about 20 % smaller in axial direction than in lateral one, indicating that the main energy consumption is dedicated to the elongation. We further observe that the hypertonic spectrum is shifted towards lower and the hypotonic towards higher frequencies with respect to the isotonic spectrum. In consequence, the turgor pressure inside the growing cell influences monotonically the frequency of both modes of oscillations. The calculated power spectrum seen as a measure of the overall energy efficiency of tip growth under hypertonic, hypotonic and isotonic conditions implies that the biochemistry has been fine tuned to be optimal under normal growth conditions, which is the developmental implication of this work. A simple theoretical extension of the Ortega equation is derived and analysed with respect to its contribution to power spectrum. We show that the plastic term, related to the effective turgor pressure, with maximum contribution at frequency f = 0 is responsible for the steady growth. In turn

  18. Filarial excretory-secretory products induce human monocytes to produce lymphangiogenic mediators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany Weinkopff

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The nematodes Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia spp. infect over 120 million people worldwide, causing lymphedema, elephantiasis and hydrocele, collectively known as lymphatic filariasis. Most infected individuals appear to be asymptomatic, but many exhibit sub-clinical manifestations including the lymphangiectasia that likely contributes to the development of lymphedema and elephantiasis. As adult worm excretory-secretory products (ES do not directly activate lymphatic endothelial cells (LEC, we investigated the role of monocyte/macrophage-derived soluble factors in the development of filarial lymphatic pathology. We analyzed the production of IL-8, IL-6 and VEGF-A by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC from naïve donors following stimulation with filarial ES products. ES-stimulated PBMCs produced significantly more IL-8, IL-6 and VEGF-A compared to cells cultured in medium alone; CD14(+ monocytes appear to be the primary producers of IL-8 and VEGF-A, but not IL-6. Furthermore, IL-8, IL-6 and VEGF-A induced in vitro tubule formation in LEC Matrigel cultures. Matrigel plugs supplemented with IL-8, IL-6, VEGF-A, or with supernatants from ES-stimulated PBMCs and implanted in vivo stimulated lymphangiogenesis. Collectively, these data support the hypothesis that monocytes/macrophages exposed to filarial ES products may modulate lymphatic function through the secretion of soluble factors that stimulate the vessel growth associated with the pathogenesis of filarial disease.

  19. Using maize as a model to study pollen tube growth and guidance, cross-incompatibility and sperm delivery in grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresselhaus, Thomas; Lausser, Andreas; Márton, Mihaela L

    2011-09-01

    In contrast to animals and lower plants such as mosses and ferns, sperm cells of flowering plants (angiosperms) are immobile and require transportation to the female gametes via the vegetative pollen tube cell to achieve double fertilization. The path of the pollen tube towards the female gametophyte (embryo sac) has been intensively studied in many intra- and interspecific crossing experiments with the aim of increasing the gene pool of crop plants for greater yield, improved biotic and abiotic stress resistance, and for introducing new agronomic traits. Many attempts to hybridize different species or genotypes failed due to the difficulty for the pollen tubes in reaching the female gametophyte. Detailed studies showed that these processes are controlled by various self-incompatible (intraspecific) and cross-incompatible (interspecific) hybridization mechanisms. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of crossing barriers is therefore of great interest in plant reproduction, evolution and breeding research. In particular, pre-zygotic hybridization barriers related to pollen tube germination, growth, guidance and sperm delivery, which are considered the major hybridization controls in nature and thus also contribute to species isolation and speciation, have been intensively investigated. Despite this general interest, surprisingly little is known about these processes in the most important agronomic plant family, the Gramineae, Poaceae or grasses. Small polymorphic proteins and their receptors, degradation of sterility locus proteins and general compounds such as calcium, γ-aminobutyric acid or nitric oxide have been shown to be involved in progamic pollen germination, adhesion, tube growth and guidance, as well as sperm release. Most advances have been made in the Brassicaceae, Papaveraceae, Linderniaceae and Solanaceae families including their well-understood self-incompatibility (SI) systems. Grass species evolved similar mechanisms to control the penetration

  20. Sustained release of growth hormone and sodium nitrite from biomimetic collagen coating immobilized on silicone tubes improves endothelialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi-Nik, Nasim; Malaie-Balasi, Zahra; Amoabediny, Ghassem; Banikarimi, Seyedeh Parnian; Zandieh-Doulabi, Behrouz; Klein-Nulend, Jenneke

    2017-08-01

    Biocompatibility of biomedical devices can be improved by endothelialization of blood-contacting parts mimicking the vascular endothelium's function. Improved endothelialization might be obtained by using biomimetic coatings that allow local sustained release of biologically active molecules, e.g. anti-thrombotic and growth-inducing agents, from nanoliposomes. We aimed to test whether incorporation of growth-inducing nanoliposomal growth hormone (nGH) and anti-thrombotic nanoliposomal sodium nitrite (nNitrite) into collagen coating of silicone tubes enhances endothelialization by stimulating endothelial cell proliferation and inhibiting platelet adhesion. Collagen coating stably immobilized on acrylic acid-grafted silicone tubes decreased the water contact angle from 102° to 56°. Incorporation of 50 or 500nmol/ml nNitrite and 100 or 1000ng/ml nGH into collagen coating decreased the water contact angle further to 48°. After 120h incubation, 58% nitrite and 22% GH of the initial amount of sodium nitrite and GH in nanoliposomes were gradually released from the nNitrite-nGH-collagen coating. Endothelial cell number was increased after surface coating of silicone tubes with collagen by 1.6-fold, and with nNitrite-nGH-collagen conjugate by 1.8-3.9-fold after 2days. After 6days, endothelial cell confluency in the absence of surface coating was 22%, with collagen coating 74%, and with nNitrite-nGH-collagen conjugate coating 83-119%. In the absence of endothelial cells, platelet adhesion was stimulated after collagen coating by 1.3-fold, but inhibited after nNitrite-nGH-collagen conjugate coating by 1.6-3.7-fold. The release of anti-thrombotic prostaglandin I 2 from endothelial cells was stimulated after nNitrite-nGH-collagen conjugate coating by 1.7-2.2-fold compared with collagen coating. Our data shows improved endothelialization and blood compatibility using nNitrite-nGH-collagen conjugate coating on silicone tubes suggesting that these coatings are highly suitable

  1. Interactions between Type III receptor tyrosine phosphatases and growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases regulate tracheal tube formation in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mili Jeon

    2012-04-01

    The respiratory (tracheal system of the Drosophila melanogaster larva is an intricate branched network of air-filled tubes. Its developmental logic is similar in some ways to that of the vertebrate vascular system. We previously described a unique embryonic tracheal tubulogenesis phenotype caused by loss of both of the Type III receptor tyrosine phosphatases (RPTPs, Ptp4E and Ptp10D. In Ptp4E Ptp10D double mutants, the linear tubes in unicellular and terminal tracheal branches are converted into bubble-like cysts that incorporate apical cell surface markers. This tube geometry phenotype is modulated by changes in the activity or expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (Egfr tyrosine kinase (TK. Ptp10D physically interacts with Egfr. Here we demonstrate that the Ptp4E Ptp10D phenotype is the consequence of the loss of negative regulation by the RPTPs of three growth factor receptor TKs: Egfr, Breathless and Pvr. Reducing the activity of any of the three kinases by tracheal expression of dominant-negative mutants suppresses cyst formation. By competing dominant-negative and constitutively active kinase mutants against each other, we show that the three RTKs have partially interchangeable activities, so that increasing the activity of one kinase can compensate for the effects of reducing the activity of another. This implies that SH2-domain downstream effectors that are required for the phenotype are likely to be able to interact with phosphotyrosine sites on all three receptor TKs. We also show that the phenotype involves increases in signaling through the MAP kinase and Rho GTPase pathways.

  2. Silencing of the pollen-specific gene NTP303 and its family members in tobacco affects in vivo pollen tube growth and results in male sterile plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Peter; Weterings, Koen; de Been, Mark; Wittink, Floyd; Hulzink, Raymond; Custers, Jan; van Herpen, Marinus; Wullems, George

    2004-07-01

    In seed plants, successful fertilization requires correct regulation of pollen tube growth. At germination and during growth, the pollen tube interacts with tissues from the pistil while the pollen tube extends via tip growth. Despite the fact that much research has been devoted to the mechanisms regulating pollen tube growth, many aspects are currently unknown. Previously, we have isolated a pollen-specific gene from tobacco--NTP303--that probably functions during pollen tube growth. NTP303 is part of a family of five members. Its expression is regulated both at the transcriptional and at the translational level. While NTP303 transcripts accumulate to high levels between early bi-cellular and mature pollen stages, NTP303 protein is hardly detectable until germination and pollen tube growth. In order to elucidate the role and function of NTP303 in the pollen tube, we studied the effect of NTP303 gene silencing on pollen function. Therefore, we have transformed tobacco plants with NTP303 co-suppression and anti-sense gene constructs. In these plants, the kanamycin resistance trait--which was linked to the NTP303-silencing gene--was not transmitted through the male gametophyte. This indicated that lowering the transcript level of NTP303 and/or its family members interferes with pollen function. Because we could not find a readily distinguishable phenotype in pollen from the hemizygous anti-sense and co-suppression plants, we rescued the defective pollen to produce doubled haploid plants that were homozygous for the NTP303 anti-sense gene. We found that in pollen from these plants the transcript levels of all NTP303 family members were reduced. Although pollen and pollen tubes from these plants appeared completely normal in vitro, the pollen tubes showed slower growth rates in vivo and arrested in the style before they reached the ovary, so that fertilization failed. These data demonstrate that NTP303 and its family members are essential for normal pollen tube growth

  3. The Apical Actin Fringe Contributes to Localized Cell Wall Deposition and Polarized Growth in the Lily Pollen Tube1[W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rounds, Caleb M.; Hepler, Peter K.; Winship, Lawrence J.

    2014-01-01

    In lily (Lilium formosanum) pollen tubes, pectin, a major component of the cell wall, is delivered through regulated exocytosis. The targeted transport and secretion of the pectin-containing vesicles may be controlled by the cortical actin fringe at the pollen tube apex. Here, we address the role of the actin fringe using three different inhibitors of growth: brefeldin A, latrunculin B, and potassium cyanide. Brefeldin A blocks membrane trafficking and inhibits exocytosis in pollen tubes; it also leads to the degradation of the actin fringe and the formation of an aggregate of filamentous actin at the base of the clear zone. Latrunculin B, which depolymerizes filamentous actin, markedly slows growth but allows focused pectin deposition to continue. Of note, the locus of deposition shifts frequently and correlates with changes in the direction of growth. Finally, potassium cyanide, an electron transport chain inhibitor, briefly stops growth while causing the actin fringe to completely disappear. Pectin deposition continues but lacks focus, instead being delivered in a wide arc across the pollen tube tip. These data support a model in which the actin fringe contributes to the focused secretion of pectin to the apical cell wall and, thus, to the polarized growth of the pollen tube. PMID:25037212

  4. Demonstration of a Porous Tube Hydroponic System to Control Plant Moisture and Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreschel, T. W.; Hall, C. R.; Foster, T. E.

    2003-01-01

    Accurate remote detection of plant health indicators such as moisture, plant pigment concentrations, photosynthetic flux, and other biochemicals in canopies is a major goal in plant research. Influencing factors include complex interactions between wavelength dependent absorbing and scattering features from backgrounds as well as canopy biochemical and biophysical constituents. Accurately controlling these factors in outdoor field studies is difficult. Early testing of a porous tube plant culture system has indicated that plant biomass production, biomass partitioning, and leaf moisture of plants can be controlled by precisely managing the root water potential. Managing nutrient solution chemistry can also control plant pigments, biochemical concentrations, plant biomass production, and photosynthetic rates. A test bed was developed which utilized the porous tube technology with the intent of evaluating remote sensing systems, spectral analyses procedures, gas-exchange, and fluorescence measurements for their ability to detect small differences in plant water status. Spectral analysis was able to detect small differences in the mean leaf water content between the treatments. However these small differences were not detectable in the gas-exchange or fluorescence measurements.

  5. Particle propagation, wave growth and energy dissipation in a flaring flux tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, S. M.; Melrose, D. B.; Dulk, G. A.

    1986-01-01

    Wave amplification by downgoing particles in a common flare model is investigated. The flare is assumed to occur at the top of a coronal magnetic flux loop, and results in the heating of plasma in the flaring region. The hot electrons propagate down the legs of the flux tube towards increasing magnetic field. It is simple to demonstrate that the velocity distributions which result in this model are unstable to both beam instabilities and cyclotron maser action. An explanation is presented for the propagation effects on the distribution, and the properties of the resulting amplified waves are explored, concentrating on cyclotron maser action, which has properties (emission in the z mode below the local gyrofrequency) quite different from maser action by other distributions considered in the context of solar flares. The z mode waves will be damped in the coronal plasma surrounding the flaring flux tube and lead to heating there. This process may be important in the overall energy budget of the flare. The downgoing maser is compared with the loss cone maser, which is more likely to produce observable bursts.

  6. Study on the PWSCC Crack Growth Rate for Steam Generator Tubing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Shin Hoo; Hwang, Il Soon; Lim, Jun; Lee, Seung Gi; Ryu, Kyung Ha

    2008-03-01

    Using in-situ Raman spectroscopy and crack growth rate lest system in simulated PWR primary water environment, the relationship between the oxide film chemistry and the PWSCC growth rate has been studied. We used I/2T compact tension specimen and disk specimen made of Alloy 182 and Alloy 600 for crack growth rate test and in-situ Raman spectroscopy measurement. Test was made in a refreshed autoclave with 30 cc STP / kg of dissolved hydrogen concentration. Conductivity, pH, dissolved hydrogen and oxygen concentration were continuously monitored at the outlet. The crack growth rate was measured by using switching DCPD technique under cyclinc triangular loading and at the same time oxide phase was determined by using in-situ Raman spectra at the elevation of the temperature. Additionally Raman spectroscopy was achieved for oxide phase transition of Alloy 600 according to the temperature and dissolved hydrogen concentration, 2 and 30cc STP / kg

  7. Exocyst SEC3 and Phosphoinositides Define Sites of Exocytosis in Pollen Tube Initiation and Growth

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bloch, D.; Pleskot, Roman; Pejchar, Přemysl; Potocký, Martin; Trpkošová, Pavlína; Cwiklik, Lukasz; Vukašinović, Nemanja; Sternberg, H.; Yalovsky, S.; Žárský, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 172, č. 2 (2016), s. 980-1002 ISSN 0032-0889 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-19073S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 ; RVO:61388955 Keywords : polar cell-growth * arabidopsis-thaliana * plasma-membrane * vesicle trafficking * affects endocytosis * subunit sec3 * force-field * tip growth * complex * tobacco Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology; CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry (UFCH-W) Impact factor: 6.456, year: 2016

  8. Shaped crystal growth of PbTe by the open tube technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimakow, A.M.; Hoefer, C.

    1984-01-01

    The possibility of growing shaped A/sup IV/B/sup VI/ crystals from the vapour phase by the open tube technique was investigated on PbTe. The thermodynamic conditions to reproducible prepare several habits of PbTe crystals - whiskers, tetrahedral prisms and cubes, platelets (a), dendrites, cubic and octahedral skeletons (b) as well as their properties were examined. The crystalline habits (a) are characterized by perfectly mirror-like (100) surfaces and low dislocation densities. The type and concentration of charge carriers are mainly determined by the vapour composition within the crystallization zone and very from n = 3 x 10 17 to p = 1 x 10 19 cm -3 . These properties are the reason of the interest in shaped PbTe crystals for the aim of IR optoelectronic devices. (author)

  9. Efficacy of the excretory urogram in the staging of gynecologic malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillman, B.J.; Clark, R.L.; Babbitt, G.

    1984-01-01

    It is common for patients suspected of having a gynecologic malignancy to be referred for excretory urography as part of their preoperative staging evaluation. This study investigated the efficacy of this practice using prospective and experimental retrospective interpretations of 88 urograms obtained for this clinical indication. The results indicate that excretory urography reliably depicts the ureters in most cases. However, the urogram is quite insensitive in demonstrating the extention of malignancy. The excretory urogram is useful for locating the position of the ureters and demonstrating the presence of obstruction or unsuspected urinary tract abnormalities. Nonetheless, this information also may be obtained by computed tomography, which can more accurately assess the primary mass and indicate the presence of malignant extension

  10. Comprehensive renal scintillation procedures in spinal cord injury: comparison with excretory urography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, L.K.; Dubovsky, E.V.; Bueschen, A.J.; Witten, D.M.; Scott, J.W.; Kuhlemeier, K.; Stover, S.L.

    1981-01-01

    A 131 iodine orthoiodohippurate comprehensive renal scintillation procedure was performed and compared to results of excretory urography in 200 spinal cord injury patients. No severe urographic abnormalities were undetected by the comprehensive renal scintillation procedure. Only 1.4 per cent of renal units had greater than minimal pyelocaliectasis or ureterectasis in the presence of a normal radionuclide examination. A relatively large number of abnormalities were detected on the renal scintillation procedure when the excretory urogram was normal. Serial followup will be required to determine the significance of these findings but present data suggest that a comprehensive renal scintillation procedure and a plain film of the kidneys, ureters and bladder may be used for screening upper urinary tract abnormalities in lieu of an excretory urogram. This is particularly advantageous for the spinal cord injury population, since there have been no toxic or allergic reactions reported, no bowel preparation or dehydration is required and there is relatively low radiation exposure

  11. Delayed hydride cracking velocity and crack growth measurement using DCPD technique in Zr-2.5Nb pressure tube material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, R.N.; Kishore, R.; Roychaudhury, S.; Unnikrishnan, M.; Sinha, T.K.; De, P.K.; Banerjee, S.; Kumar, Santosh

    2000-12-01

    Nuclear structural materials have to perform under most demanding and exotic environmental conditions. Due to its unique properties dilute zirconium alloys are the only choice for in-core structural materials in water cooled nuclear reactors. Hydrogen related problems have been recognized as the life-limiting factor for the core components of Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWR). Delayed Hydride Cracking (Dhc) is one of them. In this study, Dhc crack growth has been monitored using Direct Current Potential Drop (Dcp) technique. Calibration curve between normalized Dcp output and normalized crack length was established at different test temperatures. Dhc velocity was measured along the axial direction of the Zirconium-2.5Niobium pressure tube material at 203 and 250 degree C. (author)

  12. The Juxtamembrane and carboxy-terminal domains of Arabidopsis PRK2 are critical for ROP-induced growth in pollen tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polarized growth of pollen tubes is a critical step for successful reproduction in angiosperms and is controlled by ROP GTPases. Spatiotemporal activation of ROP (Rho GTPases of plants) necessitates a complex and sophisticated regulatory system, in which guanine nucleotide exchange factors (RopGEFs)...

  13. Elastic cavitation, tube hollowing, and differential growth in plants and biological tissues

    KAUST Repository

    Goriely, A.

    2010-07-01

    Elastic cavitation is a well-known physical process by which elastic materials under stress can open cavities. Usually, cavitation is induced by applied loads on the elastic body. However, growing materials may generate stresses in the absence of applied loads and could induce cavity opening. Here, we demonstrate the possibility of spontaneous growth-induced cavitation in elastic materials and consider the implications of this phenomenon to biological tissues and in particular to the problem of schizogenous aerenchyma formation. Copyright © EPLA, 2010.

  14. [Peculiarities of ultrastructure of excretory system in Bothrioplana semperi (Platyhelminthes, Turbellaria)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornakova, E E

    2010-01-01

    Ultrastructural study of morphology of cirtocytes and excretory channels was performed in the free living turbellaria Bothrioplana semperi (Turbellaria, Seriata). It has been shown that cirtocytes of this species are formed by two cells--the terminal and the proximal cells of the channel. The fan is composed of two rod rows. The external row goes out from the terminal cell, the internal one is a derivate of the channel proximal cell. Inside each rod of the external row there runs a bundle of microfilaments; it originates in the cytoplasm of the channel proximal cell distal to bases of the external rods. On the internal rod membranes there are noted small electrondense granules disposed separately or fused in the solid layer continuing into a dense "membrane" connecting rods of the external and internal rows. Rare internal leptotrichiae go out from the cirtocyte cavity bottom. External leptotrichiae are absent. The septate desmosome at the level of the terminal cell is absent, but is present in the channel proximal cell at the level of terminal of cilia. The apical surface of the channel cell carries rare short microvilli. The basement membrane of cells of excretory channels forms deep invaginations almost reaching the apical membrane. Epithelium of excretory channels is deprived of cilia. Ultrastructure of cirtocytes and excretory channels of B. semperi is similar to those in representatives of the suborder Proseriata (Seriata). The significance of ultrastructure of the Proseriata cirtocytes, especially of the order of formation of versh, for construction of phylogeny of Platyhelminthes is discussed.

  15. Gd-BOPTA-enhanced excretory MR urography without administration of diuretics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allkemper, T.; Tombach, B.; Heindel, W.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and clinical utility of Gd-BOPTA enhanced excretory magnetic resonance urography without additional administration of diuretics in correlation with conventional urography. Method: 15 preoperative patients with pelvic tumors were examined at 1.5 T using a breath-hold high-resolution 3D-FLASH sequence during first-pass as well as 5, 10, 15 minutes after iv. injection of 0.05 mmol/kg BW Gd-BOPTA (MultiHance trademark ) without administration of diuretics. Post-processed coronal and multiplanar MIP reconstructions were compared to conventional excretory urography with regard to morphologic accuracy, anatomic variability, filling defects, cause and level of obstruction or compression, tumor visibility, and time-effectiveness by two independent radiologists. Results: Visualization of the urinary tract by MRU was comparable to conventional excretory urography in 14 of 15 cases. Caliceal fornices were better delineated on conventional urographies, whereas MRU was considered superior in the assessment of the inferior ureter sections, the urinary bladder and obstructive tumors, whose extents could be clearly marked out. Examination times of both techniques were comparable. Conclusion: These first results show that non-diuretic Gd-BOPTA enhanced MRU is comparable to conventional excretory urography for the preoperative diagnosis of pelvic tumors. Further improvements of this technique seem possible by optimization of examination intervals and injection doses. (orig.) [de

  16. Analysis of the effect of renal excretory system cooling during thermal radiofrequency ablation in an animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Meireles

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Analysis of renal excretory system integrity and efficacy of radiofrequency ablation with and without irrigation with saline at 2 o C (SF2. Materials and Methods: The median third of sixteen kidneys were submitted to radiofrequency (exposition of 1 cm controlled by intra-surgical ultrasound, with eight minutes cycles and median temperature of 90 o C in eight female pigs. One excretory renal system was cooled with SF2, at a 30ml/min rate, and the other kidney was not. After 14 days of post-operatory, the biggest diameters of the lesions and the radiological aspects of the excretory system were compared by bilateral ascending pyelogram and the animals were sacrificed in order to perform histological analysis. Results: There were no significant differences between the diameters of the kidney lesions whether or not exposed to cooling of the excretory system. Median diameter of the cooled kidneys and not cooled kidneys were respectively (in mm: anteroposterior: 11.46 vs. 12.5 (p = 0.23; longitudinal: 17.94 vs. 18.84 (p = 0.62; depth: 11.38 vs. 12.25 (p = 0.47. There was no lesion of the excretory system or signs of leakage of contrast media or hydronephrosis at ascending pyelogram. Conclusion: Cooling of excretory system during radiofrequency ablation does not significantly alter generated coagulation necrosis or affect the integrity of the excretory system in the studied model.

  17. Effect of cultural conditions on the seed-to-seed growth of Arabidopsis and Cardamine - A study of growth rates and reproductive development as affected by test tube seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshizaki, T.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of test tube seals on the growth, flowering, and seed pod formation of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh., mouse ear cress, and Cardamine oligosperma Nutt, bitter cress, are studied in order to assess the conditions used in weightlessness experiments. Among other results, it is found that the growth (height) and flowering (date of bud appearance) were suppressed in mouse ear cress in tubes sealed with Saran. Seed pod formation which occurred by day 45 in open-to-air controls, was still lacking in the sealed plants even up to day 124. The growth and flowering of bitter cress were also suppressed by the Saran seal, although up to day 55 the Saran-sealed plants were taller. It is suggested that atmospheric composition was the cause of the suppression of growth, flowering, and seed pod development in these plants, since the mouse ear cress renewed their growth and then set seed pods after the Saran seal was ruptured.

  18. Evolution of grain boundary character distributions in alloy 825 tubes during high temperature annealing: Is grain boundary engineering achieved through recrystallization or grain growth?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Qin; Zhao, Qing; Xia, Shuang; Wang, Baoshun; Zhou, Bangxin; Su, Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Grain boundary engineering (GBE) of nickel-based alloy 825 tubes was carried out with different cold drawing deformations by using a draw-bench on a factory production line and subsequent annealing at various temperatures. The microstructure evolution of alloy 825 during thermal-mechanical processing (TMP) was characterized by means of the electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique to study the TMP effects on the grain boundary network and the evolution of grain boundary character distributions during high temperature annealing. The results showed that the proportion of ∑ 3 n coincidence site lattice (CSL) boundaries of alloy 825 tubes could be increased to > 75% by the TMP of 5% cold drawing and subsequent annealing at 1050 °C for 10 min. The microstructures of the partially recrystallized samples and the fully recrystallized samples suggested that the proportion of low ∑ CSL grain boundaries depended on the annealing time. The frequency of low ∑ CSL grain boundaries increases rapidly with increasing annealing time associating with the formation of large-size highly-twinned grains-cluster microstructure during recrystallization. However, upon further increasing annealing time, the frequency of low ∑ CSL grain boundaries decreased markedly during grain growth. So it is concluded that grain boundary engineering is achieved through recrystallization rather than grain growth. - Highlights: •The grain boundary engineering (GBE) is applicable to 825 tubes. •GBE is achieved through recrystallization rather than grain growth. •The low ∑ CSL grain boundaries in 825 tubes can be increased to > 75%.

  19. Comparison of manual mycobacteria growth indicator tube and epsilometer test with agar proportion method for susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Karabulut

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Antimycobacterial susceptibility tests take weeks, and delayed therapy can lead to spread of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Therefore, rapid, accurate and cost-effective methods are required for proper therapy selection. In this study, the Mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT and epsilometer test (Etest methods were compared to the agar proportion method for susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Materials and Methods: The susceptibility tests against isoniazid (INH, rifampin (RIF, streptomycin (STM and ethambutol (ETM of 51 M. tuberculosis complex isolates were analyzed by the MGIT, Etest and agar proportion methods. Results: The concordance between MGIT/Etest and agar proportion methods was 98% for INH and 100% for RIF, STM, ETM. There were not statistically significant differences in results of the susceptibility tests between MGIT/Etest and the reference agar proportion method. Conclusion: The results have shown that MGIT and Etest methods can be used instead of the agar proportion method, because these two methods are more rapid and easier than the agar proportion method.

  20. UV dosimetry in pollen of Pinus silvestris and stimulation studies of pollen tube growth after irradiation with UV and ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seibold, H.W.

    1976-01-01

    Pollen tube growth after exposure to UV- and ionizing radiation was investigated in Pinus silvestris as a function of different parameters. The preconditions for this are an exact UV dosimetry and the conversion of the UV dose of [erg] into [rad]. In spite of the fact that the calculation methods are theoretically already well known, the experimental determination of the absorbed energy dose, in particular the absorption factors, was complicated by the morphological structure of the pollen. The total-irradiation experiments showed that the stimulation and inhibition of pollen tube growth is highly dependent on the dose/dose rate region chosen. Stimulation is highly dependent on the dose rate after UV irradiation as well as after exposure to ionizing radiation. When the dose rates are very small, the values are practically the same as in non-irradiated controls; with increasing doses rate, stimulation increases, whereas at very high dose rates only growth inhibition is observed. After exposure to ionizing radiation, the quantum energy or wavelength of the radiation has no effect on tube growth; after UV irradiation, on the other hand, there is hardly any stimulation at short wavelengths. As these observations were not sufficient for drawing conclusions on the site of the stimulatory action, partial UV exposure with separate irradiation of the two nuclei and the cytoplasm was also carried out. Stimulation was found in each of the three irradiation sites; although nuclei and cytoplasma react differently and also differ in the initial reaction stages, there is always an anhancement of pollen tube growth. These findings are compared with some of the current hypotheses for an explanation of the stimulatory effect. (orig.) [de

  1. Role of vegetative nervous system in regulation of excretory function of irradiated dog stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostesha, N.Ya.

    1989-01-01

    Dogs and rats were exposed to γ/neutron- and X-radiation. The anterior part of dog's stomach was exposed to 10 Gy and 13 Gy respectively; rats were subjected to whole-body irradiation with absolutely lethal doses. Prior to irradiation, various parts of the vegetative nervous system of both types of animals were switched off pharmocologically. In addition to clinical investigation of radiation sickness the excretory function of the stomach was studied by the excretion of intravenously injected neutral red. The switching-off of the parasympathetic nervous system prior to irradiation stabilized the excretory processes in the stomach, increased the resistance of animals, and, vice wersa, the switching-off of the sympathetic nervous system destabilized the excetory processes and decreased the resistance of the organism

  2. Comparison of Excretory-Secretory and Somatic Antigens of Ornithobilharzia turkestanicum in Agar Gel Diffusion Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Miranzadeh

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ornithobilharziosis as one of the parasitic infections may give rise to serious economic problems in animal husbandry. The Aim of the study was to prepare and compare the somatic and excretory-secretory (ES antigens of O. tur­kestanicum in gel diffusion test. Methods: Excretory-secretory (ES and somatic antigens of Ornithobilharzia turkestanicum were prepared from collected worms from mesentric blood vessels of infected sheep. The laboratory bred rabbits were immunized with antigens and then antisera were prepared. The reaction of antigens and antisera was observed in gel diffusion test. Results: ES antigens of this species showed positive reaction with antisera raised against ES and also somatic antigens. Somatic antigens also showed positive reaction with antisera raised against somatic and also ES antigens. Conclusion: The antigenicity of O. turkestanicum ES and somatic antigens is the same in gel diffusion test.

  3. Antigenic analyses of tissues and excretory and secretory products from Strongylus vulgaris.

    OpenAIRE

    Wynne, E; Slocombe, J O; Wilkie, B N

    1981-01-01

    Rabbit antisera were prepared against veronal buffered saline extracts of L4 and L5 Strongylus vulgaris, adult S. vulgaris and adult Strongylus equinus retrieved from naturally infected horses. In agar gel diffusion with these antisera, adult S vulgaris and S. equinus each appeared to have at least one unique antigen; larval S. vulgaris appeared to have two species-specific and two stage-specific antigens. There were several common antigens. Excretory and secretory products were collected als...

  4. Cadmium-induced neural tube defects and fetal growth restriction: Association with disturbance of placental folate transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Gui-Bin; Wang, Hua; Hu, Jun; Guo, Min-Yin; Wang, Ying; Zhou, Yan; Yu, Zhen; Fu, Lin; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Xu, De-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies found that maternal Cd exposure on gestational day (GD)9 caused forelimb ectrodactyly and tail deformity, the characteristic malformations. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether maternal Cd exposure on GD8 induces fetal neural tube defects (NTDs). Pregnant mice were intraperitoneally injected with CdCl 2 (2.5 or 5.0 mg/kg) on GD8. Neither forelimb ectrodactyly nor tail deformity was observed in mice injected with CdCl 2 on GD8. Instead, maternal Cd exposure on GD8 resulted in the incidence of NTDs. Moreover, maternal Cd exposure on GD8 resulted in fetal growth restriction. In addition, maternal Cd exposure on GD8 reduced placental weight and diameter. The internal space of maternal and fetal blood vessels in the labyrinth layer was decreased in the placentas of mice treated with CdCl 2 . Additional experiment showed that placental PCFT protein and mRNA, a critical folate transporter, was persistently decreased when dams were injected with CdCl 2 on GD8. Correspondingly, embryonic folate content was markedly decreased in mice injected with CdCl 2 on GD8, whereas Cd had little effect on folate content in maternal serum. Taken together, these results suggest that maternal Cd exposure during organogenesis disturbs transport of folate from maternal circulation to the fetuses through down-regulating placental folate transporters. - Highlights: • Maternal Cd exposure during organogenesis causes NTDs and FGR. • Maternal Cd exposure during organogenesis impairs placental development. • Cd disturbs transport of folate by down-regulating placental folate transporters.

  5. Cadmium-induced neural tube defects and fetal growth restriction: Association with disturbance of placental folate transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Gui-Bin; Wang, Hua, E-mail: wanghuadev@126.com; Hu, Jun; Guo, Min-Yin; Wang, Ying; Zhou, Yan; Yu, Zhen; Fu, Lin; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Xu, De-Xiang, E-mail: xudex@126.com

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies found that maternal Cd exposure on gestational day (GD)9 caused forelimb ectrodactyly and tail deformity, the characteristic malformations. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether maternal Cd exposure on GD8 induces fetal neural tube defects (NTDs). Pregnant mice were intraperitoneally injected with CdCl{sub 2} (2.5 or 5.0 mg/kg) on GD8. Neither forelimb ectrodactyly nor tail deformity was observed in mice injected with CdCl{sub 2} on GD8. Instead, maternal Cd exposure on GD8 resulted in the incidence of NTDs. Moreover, maternal Cd exposure on GD8 resulted in fetal growth restriction. In addition, maternal Cd exposure on GD8 reduced placental weight and diameter. The internal space of maternal and fetal blood vessels in the labyrinth layer was decreased in the placentas of mice treated with CdCl{sub 2}. Additional experiment showed that placental PCFT protein and mRNA, a critical folate transporter, was persistently decreased when dams were injected with CdCl{sub 2} on GD8. Correspondingly, embryonic folate content was markedly decreased in mice injected with CdCl{sub 2} on GD8, whereas Cd had little effect on folate content in maternal serum. Taken together, these results suggest that maternal Cd exposure during organogenesis disturbs transport of folate from maternal circulation to the fetuses through down-regulating placental folate transporters. - Highlights: • Maternal Cd exposure during organogenesis causes NTDs and FGR. • Maternal Cd exposure during organogenesis impairs placental development. • Cd disturbs transport of folate by down-regulating placental folate transporters.

  6. Excretory urography and ultrasonography in the diagnosis of bilateral ectopic ureters in a foal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blikslager, A.T.; Green, E.M.; MacFadden, K.E.; Fagin, B.; Johnson, G.C.

    1992-01-01

    A 7-week-old Appaloosa filly was admitted for persistent urinary incontinence since birth. Vaginal speculum examination revealed urine flowing from an opening in the right vaginal wall. Cytoscopy demonstrated that the ureters did not terminate at the bladder. The endoscope passed easily from the vagina directly into a dilated right ureter. An excretory urogram confirmed the vaginal termination of at least one ureter, based upon extensive filling of the vagina with contrast media in the absence of bladder filling. Bilateral hydroureter and dilated renal pelves were demonstrated both by excretory urography and by urtrasonography. Euthanasia was required by the owner in lieu of attempted surgical correction. At necroscopy, it was confirmed that the right ureter entered the vagina and the left ureter terminated at the urethra. The diagnosis of bilateral ectopic ureter in this foal was suggested by this history and clinical signs, supported by endoscopy and ultrasonography, and confirmed by excretory urography and necropsy. This case establishes the value of diagnostic imaging techniques in the antemortem diagnosis of ectopic ureter

  7. Diagnostic value of combined static-excretory MR Urography in children with hydroneph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally Emad-Eldin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility, accuracy and diagnostic potential of combined static-excretory MR Urography in children with sonographically detected hydronephrosis. We prospectively evaluated 28 children (11 girls and 17 boys, mean age 8.3 years (range 2 months–16 years. Static-excretory MR Urography was performed in all cases. The results of MR Urography were compared with the results of other imaging modalities, cystoscopy and surgery. In 28 children, 61 renal units were evaluated by MR Urography (the renal unit is the kidney and its draining ureter. The final diagnoses included: normal renal units (n = 23; uretropelvic junction obstruction (n = 14; megaureter (n = 8; midureteric stricture (n = 1, complicated duplicated systems (n = 5, post ESWL non-obstructive dilation (n = 2, extrarenal pelvis (n = 4, dysplastic kidney (n = 4. Complex pathology and more than one disease entity in were found in 7 children. The MRI diagnosis correlated with the final diagnosis in 57 units, with diagnostic accuracy 93.4%. In conclusions static and excretory MRU give both morphological and functional information in a single examination without exposure to ionizing radiation and iodinated contrast agent. It is a valuable imaging technique for children with upper urinary tract dilatation; especially in cases of complex congenital pathologies and severely hydronephrotic kidney.

  8. The effects of design and operating factors on the frost growth and thermal performance of a flat plate fin-tube heat exchanger under the frosting condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kwan Soo; Kim, Woo Seung

    1999-01-01

    An experimental study of the effects of various factors(fin pitch, fin arrangement, air temperature, air humidity, and air velocity) on the frost growth and thermal performance of a fin-tube heat exchanger has been conducted under the frosting condition. It is found that the thermal performance of a heat exchanger is closely related to the blockage ratio of the air flow passages due to the frost growth. The maximum allowable blockage ratio is used to determine the criteria for the optimal operating conditions of a fin-tube heat exchanger. It is also shown that heat transfer rate of heat exchanger with staggered fin arrangement increases about 17% and the time required for heat transfer rate to reach a maximum value becomes longer, compared with those of an inline fin-tube heat exchanger under the frosting condition. The energy transfer resistance between the air and coolant decreases with the increase of inlet air temperature and velocity and with decreasing inlet air humidity

  9. Nutritional status and ion uptake response of Gynura bicolor DC. between Porous-tube and traditional hydroponic growth systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Minjuan; Fu, Yuming; Liu, Hong

    2015-08-01

    Hydroponic culture has traditionally been used for Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSS) because the optimal environment for roots supports high growth rates. Recent developments in Porous-tube Nutrient Delivery System (PTNDS) also offer high control of the root environment which is designed to provide a means for accurate environmental control and to allow for two-phase flow separation in microgravity. This study compared the effects of PTNDS and traditional hydroponic cultures on biomass yield, nutritional composition and antioxidant defense system (T-AOC, GSH, H2O2 and MDA) of G. bicolor, and ionic concentration (NH4+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, NO3-, H2 PO4-, SO42-) of nutrient solution during planting period in controlled environment chambers. The results indicated that the biomass production and yield of G. bicolor grown in PTNDS were higher than in hydroponic culture, although Relative water content (RWC), leaf length and shoot height were not significantly different. PTNDS cultivation enhanced calories from 139.5 to 182.3 kJ/100 g dry matter, and carbohydrate from 4.8 to 7.3 g/100 g dry matter and reduced the amount of protein from 7.3 to 4.8 g/100 g dry matter and ash from 1.4 to1.0 g/100 g dry matter, compared with hydroponic culture. PTNDS cultivation accumulated the nutrition elements of Ca, Cu, Fe and Zn, and reduced Na concentration. T-AOC and GSH contents were significantly lower in PTNDS than in hydroponic culture in the first harvest. After the first harvest, the contents of MDA and H2O2 were significantly higher in PTNDS than in hydroponic culture. However, the activity of T-AOC and GSH and H2O2 and MDA contents had no significant differences under both cultures after the second and third harvest. Higher concentrations of K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+ were found in nutrient solution of plants grown in hydroponics culture compared to PTNDS, wherein lower concentrations of NO3-, H2 PO4- and SO42- occurred. Our results demonstrate that PTNDS culture has more

  10. High-speed growth of TiO2 nanotube arrays with gradient pore diameter and ultrathin tube wall under high-field anodization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiaoliang; Zheng, Maojun; Ma, Li; Shen, Wenzhong

    2010-10-01

    Highly ordered TiO2 nanotubular arrays have been prepared by two-step anodization under high field. The high anodizing current densities lead to a high-speed film growth (0.40-1.00 µm min - 1), which is nearly 16 times faster than traditional fabrication of TiO2 at low field. It was found that an annealing process of Ti foil is an effective approach to get a monodisperse and double-pass TiO2 nanotubular layer with a gradient pore diameter and ultrathin tube wall (nearly 10 nm). A higher anodic voltage and longer anodization time are beneficial to the formation of ultrathin tube walls. This approach is simple and cost-effective in fabricating high-quality ordered TiO2 nanotubular arrays for practical applications.

  11. High-speed growth of TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays with gradient pore diameter and ultrathin tube wall under high-field anodization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan Xiaoliang; Zheng Maojun; Shen Wenzhong [Key Laboratory of Artificial Structures and Quantum Control, Ministry of Education, Department of Physics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Ma Li, E-mail: mjzheng@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2010-10-08

    Highly ordered TiO{sub 2} nanotubular arrays have been prepared by two-step anodization under high field. The high anodizing current densities lead to a high-speed film growth (0.40-1.00 {mu}m min{sup -1}), which is nearly 16 times faster than traditional fabrication of TiO{sub 2} at low field. It was found that an annealing process of Ti foil is an effective approach to get a monodisperse and double-pass TiO{sub 2} nanotubular layer with a gradient pore diameter and ultrathin tube wall (nearly 10 nm). A higher anodic voltage and longer anodization time are beneficial to the formation of ultrathin tube walls. This approach is simple and cost-effective in fabricating high-quality ordered TiO{sub 2} nanotubular arrays for practical applications.

  12. Asymmetric localization of Arabidopsis SYP124 syntaxin at the pollen tube apical and sub-apical zones is involved in tip growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Pedro

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The continuous polarized vesicle secretion in pollen tubes is essential for tip growth but the location of endo- and exocytic sub-domains remains however controversial. In this report we aimed to show that Arabidopsis thaliana syntaxins are involved in this process and contribute to spatially define exocytosis and membrane recycling. Results Using GFP-fusion constructs, we imaged the distribution of pollen-specific (AtSYP124 and non-pollen syntaxins (AtSYP121 and AtSYP122 in transiently transformed Nicotiana tabacum pollen tubes. All three proteins associate with the plasma membrane and with apical vesicles indicating a conserved action mechanism for all SYPs. However, the GFP tagged SYP124 showed a specific distribution with a higher labelling at the plasma membrane flanks, 10-25 μm behind the apex. This distribution is affected by Ca2+ fluxes as revealed by treatment with Gd3+ (an inhibitor of extracellular Ca2+ influx and TMB-8 (an inhibitor of intracellular Ca2+ release. Both inhibitors decreased growth rate but the distribution of SYP124 at the plasma membrane was more strongly affected by Gd3+. Competition with a related dominant negative mutant affected the specific distribution of SYP124 but not tip growth. In contrast, co-expression of the phosphatidylinositol-4-monophosphate 5-kinase 4 (PIP5K4 or of the small GTPase Rab11 perturbed polarity and the normal distribution of GFP-SYP but did not inhibit the accumulation in vesicles or at the plasma membrane. Conclusions The results presented suggest that in normal growing pollen tubes, a net exocytic flow occurs in the flanks of the tube apex mediated by SYP124. The specific distribution of SYP124 at the plasma membrane is affected by changes in Ca2+ levels in agreement with the importance of this ion for exocytosis. Apical growth and the specific localization of SYP124 were affected by regulators of membrane secretion (Ca2+, PIP5K4 and Rab11 but competition with a

  13. Hidronefrosis prenatal en doble sistema excretor Prenatal hydronephrosis in double excretory system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandalio Durán Álvarez

    2007-12-01

    hydronephrosis were studied. The maternofetal ultrasound showed a double excretory system. To this end, all the newborns and infants with prenatally detected hydronephrosis and double excretory system diagnosed before or after birth were followed up by evolutive renal ultrasonography, micturition urethrocystography, static or dynamic scintigraphy and, in some cases, by excretory urogram. Double excretory system was found in 7 of the 182 patients (3.8 % with abnormalities of the urinary tract diagnosed before birth. Diagnosis was prenatal in just one of the fetuses (31 weeks of pregnancy. Hydronephrotic dilatation was mild in two fetuses and severe in five. Hydronephrosis had different causes. Upper polar nephrectomy was performed in those cases of ureteral ectopy and obstructed upper ureter, reimplantation in one ureterocele, whereas in another it was confirmed the spontaneous rupture by endoscopy. The rest of the patients were symptomatically treated. The hydronephrosis detected before birth by maternofetal ultrasonography may be associated with a double excretory system. Hydronephrotic dilatation associated with a double excretory system may have different causes, and it is necessary to study carefully and systematically these children and to treat them adequately, since each of them may need a different conduct.

  14. AEROSOL NUCLEATION AND GROWTH DURING LAMINAR TUBE FLOW: MAXIMUM SATURATIONS AND NUCLEATION RATES. (R827354C008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    An approximate method of estimating the maximum saturation, the nucleation rate, and the total number nucleated per second during the laminar flow of a hot vapour–gas mixture along a tube with cold walls is described. The basis of the approach is that the temperature an...

  15. Turnover of phosphatidic acid through distinct signaling pathways affects multiple aspects of pollen tube growth in tobacco

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pleskot, Roman; Pejchar, Přemysl; Bezvoda, R.; Lichtscheidl, I.K.; Wolters-Arts, M.; Marc, J.; Žárský, Viktor; Potocký, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 54 (2012) ISSN 1664-462X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA601110916; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06034 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : phosphatidic acid * pollen tube * phospholipase D Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  16. Tube plug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafred, P. R.

    1985-01-01

    The tube plug comprises a one piece mechanical plug having one open end and one closed end which is capable of being inserted in a heat exchange tube and internally expanded into contact with the inside surface of the heat exchange tube for preventing flow of a coolant through the heat exchange tube. The tube plug also comprises a groove extending around the outside circumference thereof which has an elastomeric material disposed in the groove for enhancing the seal between the tube plug and the tube

  17. Gastrostomy Tube (G-Tube)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... any of these problems: a dislodged tube a blocked or clogged tube any signs of infection (including redness, swelling, or warmth at the tube site; discharge that's yellow, green, or foul-smelling; fever) excessive bleeding or drainage from the tube site severe abdominal pain lasting ...

  18. The diagnostic effectiveness of contrast media in the excretory urography in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velesova, M.; Ledecky, V.

    2005-01-01

    A clinical study was conducted to investigate the use of four different positive contrast media, Omnipaque (Nycomed Imaging As.), Optiray (Maliincrodt Medical GmbH), Ultravist (Schering AG), and Urografin (Schering AG) in normograde excretory urography. Investigations were carried out on thirteen dogs. Each group of dogs was administered a different contrast medium. Radiographs were obtained immediately after the administration of contrast media and after a lapse of 5, 10 and 15 minutes. The effectiveness of the application was evaluated by assessing the radiographs of abdominal cavities in ventro-dorsal and latero-lateral positions. None of the dogs showed pronounced side effect after the application of contrast media. Ectopic ureter was diagnosed in three and a prostate cyst in one of the patients. Our results showed that Omnipaque and Ultravist were the contrast agents most suitable for the examination of the urinary apparatus by intravenous contrast excretory urography. Their advantage is that visualisation of the kidneys and ureters achieved by these media are sufficiently long and contrastive

  19. Comparison of excretory phase, helical computed tomography with intravenous urography in patients with painless haematuria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Malley, M.E.; Hahn, P.F.; Yoder, I.C.; Gazelle, G.S.; McGovern, F.J.; Mueller, P.R.

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To compare excretory phase, helical computed tomography (CT) with intravenous (IV) urography for evaluation of the urinary tract in patients with painless haematuria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-one out-patients had IV urography followed by helical CT limited to the urinary tract. Both IV urograms and CT images were evaluated for abnormalities of the urinary tract in a blinded, prospective manner. The clinical significance of abnormalities was scored subjectively and receiver operator characteristic curve analysis was performed. RESULTS: In 69 of 91 patients (76%), no cause of haematuria was identified. In 22 of 91 patients (24%), the cause of haematuria was identified as follows: transitional cell cancer of the bladder (n=15), urinary tract stones (n=3), cystitis (n=2), haemorrhagic pyelitis (n=1) and benign ureteral stricture (n=1). With IV urography, there were 15 true-positive, seven false-negative and three false-positive interpretations. With CT, there were 18 true-positive, four false-negative and two false-positive interpretations. There was no significant difference between IV and CT urography for the significance of the positive interpretations (n=0.47). CONCLUSION: Excretory phase CT urography was comparable with IV urography for evaluation of the urinary tract in patients with painless haematuria. However, the study population did not include any upper tract cancers. O'Malley M. E. et al. (2003). Clinical Radiology 58, 294-300

  20. Ga N nano wires and nano tubes growth by chemical vapor deposition method at different NH{sub 3} flow rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, P.; Liu, Y.; Meng, X. [Wuhan University, School of Physics and Technology, Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro and Nanostructures of Ministry of Education, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2016-11-01

    Ga N nano wires and nano tubes have been successfully synthesized via the simple chemical vapor deposition method. NH{sub 3} flow rate was found to be a crucial factor in the synthesis of different type of Ga N which affects the shape and the diameter of generated Ga N nano structures. X-ray diffraction confirms that Ga N nano wires grown on Si(111) substrate under 900 degrees Celsius and with NH{sub 3} flow rate of 50 sc cm presents the preferred orientation growth in the (002) direction. It is beneficial to the growth of nano structure through catalyst annealing. Transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to measure the size and structures of the samples. (Author)

  1. Radiation-induced pollen germination, tube growth, its localized cytochemical constituents, fruit set and fruit size in alkaloid yielding species Solanum torvum L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauhan, Y.S.; Katiyar, S.R.

    1990-01-01

    The volume of pollen, total number of pollen/flower, the percent of pollen germination and tube growth of long-styled flower were higher than the short-styled flowers in S. torvum. In addition, the pollination studies were conducted among the four selected sets for optimum fruit set investigation. Fruit set was not seen in both the first and second sets (female shorts-short male and female short-long male). However, the maximum fruit set was obtained in the fourth set (female long-male long). Pollen grains of long-styled flowers irradiated with 1-800 krad were germinated in the basal medium. The percent of pollen germination and the tube growth was stimulated over the control with 1 and 50 krad dose exposures, but increasing dose rates inhibited both the above processes. Utilization of insoluble polysaccharides, and the synthesis of RNA and protein were enhanced over the control with the effect of 50 krad. The higher (800 krad) dose exposures inhibited all the above cytochemical constituents. Various dose-treated pollens were used to pollinate the stigma surface of the long-styled flowers. The fruit set, fruit volume, fresh and dry weight of fruits, and the number of seed set/fruit, were enhanced over the control by 1 and 50 krad, while the higher doses caused inhibitory effect. Interestingly, the fruit set was not caused by radiation doses 400 krad and above. (author)

  2. Dynamic 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate-synthase and -oxidase transcript accumulation patterns during pollen tube growth in tobacco styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weterings, Koen; Pezzotti, Mario; Cornelissen, Marc; Mariani, Celestina

    2002-11-01

    In flowering plants, pollination of the stigma sets off a cascade of responses in the distal flower organs. Ethylene and its biosynthetic precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) play an important role in regulating these responses. Because exogenous application of ethylene or ACC does not invoke the full postpollination syndrome, the pollination signal probably consists of a more complex set of stimuli. We set out to study how and when the pollination signal moves through the style of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) by analyzing the expression patterns of pistil-expressed ACC-synthase and -oxidase genes. Results from this analysis showed that pollination induces high ACC-oxidase transcript levels in all cells of the transmitting tissue. ACC-synthase mRNA accumulated only in a subset of transmitting tract cells and to lower levels as compared with ACC-oxidase. More significantly, we found that although ACC-oxidase transcripts accumulate to uniform high levels, the ACC-synthase transcripts accumulate in a wave-like pattern in which the peak coincides with the front of the ingrowing pollen tube tips. This wave of ACC-synthase expression can also be induced by incongruous pollination and (partially) by wounding. This indicates that wounding-like features of pollen tube invasion might be part of the stimuli evoking the postpollination response and that these stimuli are interpreted differently by the regulatory mechanisms of the ACC-synthase and -oxidase genes.

  3. 99mtechnetium-dimercapto-succinic acid renal scanning and excretory urography in diagnosis of renal scars in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLorie, G.A.; Aliabadi, H.; Churchill, B.M.; Ash, J.M.; Gilday, D.L.

    1989-01-01

    We compared the ability of excretory urography (without tomography) and 99mtechnetium-dimercapto-succinic acid renal scanning to detect renal scars in 32 children with primary vesicoureteral reflux. These children did not have hydronephrosis, renal failure or urinary tract obstruction. In all cases both studies were conducted within a 10-month period. The findings from both modalities were in agreement for 51 of the 64 renal units evaluated (80%). Evaluation of the excretory urogram indicated 6 cases of diffuse and 2 of focal scarring that were not detected by evaluation of the renal scan. The sensitivity of excretory urography to detect renal scars was 84% and the specificity was 83%. The 99mtechnetium-dimercapto-succinic acid renal scan showed 5 cases of focal renal scarring not detected by excretory urography. The sensitivity of the renal scan to detect renal scars was 77% and the specificity was 75%. We conclude that neither study alone could effectively replace the other for the detection of renal scars, and recommend that both be included in the initial evaluation and followup of patients with renal scars

  4. In vivo thermoluminescent dosimetry in studies of helicoid computed tomography and excretory urogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz C, D.; Azorin N, J.; Saucedo A, V.M.; Barajas O, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    The dosimetry is the field of measurement of the ionizing radiations. It final objective is to determine the 'absorbed dose' for people. The dosimetry is vital in the radiotherapy, the radiological protection and the treatment technologies by irradiation. Presently work, we develop 'In vivo' dosimetry, in exposed patients to studies of helical computed tomography and excretory urogram. The dosimetry 'in vivo' was carried out in 20 patients selected aleatorily, for each medical study. The absorbed dose was measured in points of interest located in crystalline, thyroid, chest and abdomen of each patient, by means of thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLD) LiF: Mg,Cu,P + Ptfe of national fabrication. Also it was quantified the dose in the working area. (Author)

  5. Trichinella britovi human infection in Spain : antibody response to surface, excretory/secretory and somatic antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Osorio M.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A third outbreak of Trichinella britovi with 140 people involved, occurred in Granada Spain (December 1998. The source of infection was sausage made from uninspected wild boar meat. Fifty-two patients agreed to participated in this study. An elevated eosinophil level (> 5 % was detected in 59.6 % of patients, and persisted in most of these cases for two months. A moderate IgG response was observed. At the onset of symptoms, Western blot (WB test detected more positive cases than Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and indirect immunofluorescence (IIF. Six months from infection, ELISA revealed fewer positive cases than the other two tests. It would appear that the response to somatic antigens starts earlier than those to cuticular and excretory/secretory (ES antigens and that the response to ES antigens is the first to decrease.

  6. Excretory urography by subcutaneous injection of iodixanol in Persian squirrel (Sciurus anomalous)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veshkini, A.; Tavana, M.; Haghdost, I.S.; Masouleh, M.N.; Savojbolaghi, S.H.

    2011-01-01

    There are many indications for excretory urography in humans and animals. Intravenous urography (IVU) is the most practical method about other urography techniques are used because of difficulties for finding veins in IVU, due to small size of the patients. This study was performed to evaluate the feasibility of subcutaneous injection of iodixanol in providing a safe and diagnostic urogram in Persian squirrel. Twelve clinically healthy adult Persian squirrels were prepared and kept for two weeks prior to study. Blood tests were performed 7 days prior to the study. After eighteen hour fasting, animals were sedated by using xylazine/diazepam cocktail (xylazine 5mg/kg, diazepam 30mg/kg). Lateral and ventrodorsal control radiographs were taken. Thirteen hundred and 1800 mg iodine per kilogram body weight of iodixanol was injected subcutaneously over shoulder area in Persian squirrels (each dose for six Persian squirrels). Lateral and ventrodorsal radiographs were taken every 5 m

  7. Ethanol-induced impairment of polyamine homeostasis – A potential cause of neural tube defect and intrauterine growth restriction in fetal alcohol syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haghighi Poodeh, Saeid; Alhonen, Leena; Salonurmi, Tuire; Savolainen, Markku J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Polyamine pools in embryonic and extraembryonic tissues are developmentally regulated. • Alcohol administration perturbs polyamine levels in the tissues with various patterns. • Total absence of polyamines in the embryo head at 9.5 dpc is critical for development. • The deficiency is associated with reduction in endothelial cell sprouting in the head. • Retarded migration of neural crest cells may cause development of neural tube defect. - Abstract: Introduction: Polyamines play a fundamental role during embryogenesis by regulating cell growth and proliferation and by interacting with RNA, DNA and protein. The polyamine pools are regulated by metabolism and uptake from exogenous sources. The use of certain inhibitors of polyamine synthesis causes similar defects to those seen in alcohol exposure e.g. retarded embryo growth and endothelial cell sprouting. Methods: CD-1 mice received two intraperitoneal injections of 3 g/kg ethanol at 4 h intervals 8.75 days post coitum (dpc). The fetal head, trunk, yolk sac and placenta were collected at 9.5 and 12.5 dpc and polyamine concentrations were determined. Results: No measurable quantity of polyamines could be detected in the embryo head at 9.5 dpc, 12 h after ethanol exposure. Putrescine was not detectable in the trunk of the embryo at that time, whereas polyamines in yolk sac and placenta were at control level. Polyamine deficiency was associated with slow cell growth, reduction in endothelial cell sprouting, an altered pattern of blood vessel network formation and consequently retarded migration of neural crest cells and growth restriction. Discussion: Our results indicate that the polyamine pools in embryonic and extraembryonic tissues are developmentally regulated. Alcohol administration, at the critical stage, perturbs polyamine levels with various patterns, depending on the tissue and its developmental stage. The total absence of polyamines in the embryo head at 9.5 dpc may explain why this

  8. Ethanol-induced impairment of polyamine homeostasis – A potential cause of neural tube defect and intrauterine growth restriction in fetal alcohol syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haghighi Poodeh, Saeid, E-mail: saeid.haghighi@oulu.fi [Institute of Clinical Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, and Biocenter Oulu, University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland); Medical Research Center, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu (Finland); Alhonen, Leena [Department of Biotechnology and Molecular Medicine, A.I. Virtanen Institute for Molecular Sciences, Kuopio (Finland); School of Pharmacy, Biocenter Kuopio, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio (Finland); Salonurmi, Tuire; Savolainen, Markku J. [Institute of Clinical Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, and Biocenter Oulu, University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland); Medical Research Center, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu (Finland)

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • Polyamine pools in embryonic and extraembryonic tissues are developmentally regulated. • Alcohol administration perturbs polyamine levels in the tissues with various patterns. • Total absence of polyamines in the embryo head at 9.5 dpc is critical for development. • The deficiency is associated with reduction in endothelial cell sprouting in the head. • Retarded migration of neural crest cells may cause development of neural tube defect. - Abstract: Introduction: Polyamines play a fundamental role during embryogenesis by regulating cell growth and proliferation and by interacting with RNA, DNA and protein. The polyamine pools are regulated by metabolism and uptake from exogenous sources. The use of certain inhibitors of polyamine synthesis causes similar defects to those seen in alcohol exposure e.g. retarded embryo growth and endothelial cell sprouting. Methods: CD-1 mice received two intraperitoneal injections of 3 g/kg ethanol at 4 h intervals 8.75 days post coitum (dpc). The fetal head, trunk, yolk sac and placenta were collected at 9.5 and 12.5 dpc and polyamine concentrations were determined. Results: No measurable quantity of polyamines could be detected in the embryo head at 9.5 dpc, 12 h after ethanol exposure. Putrescine was not detectable in the trunk of the embryo at that time, whereas polyamines in yolk sac and placenta were at control level. Polyamine deficiency was associated with slow cell growth, reduction in endothelial cell sprouting, an altered pattern of blood vessel network formation and consequently retarded migration of neural crest cells and growth restriction. Discussion: Our results indicate that the polyamine pools in embryonic and extraembryonic tissues are developmentally regulated. Alcohol administration, at the critical stage, perturbs polyamine levels with various patterns, depending on the tissue and its developmental stage. The total absence of polyamines in the embryo head at 9.5 dpc may explain why this

  9. Gadolinium-enhanced excretory MR urography: comparison with MR urography using HASTE technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Gong Yong; Lee, Jeong Min; Han, Young Min; Cheong, Gyung Ho; Oh, Hee Sul; Kim, Chong Soo; Park, Sung Kwang; Kim, Young Gon

    2000-01-01

    To compare the feasibility of gadolinium-enhanced excretory MR urography (GEMRU) and conventional MR urography using the half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo spin-echo (HASTE) sequence in patients with hydronephrosis or non-visualized kidney. Fifteen patients with hydronephrosis or non-visualized kidney, as demonstrated by ultrasonography or intravenous urography, were enrolled in this study. Nine were men and six were women, and their age ranged from 18 to 77 (mean, 60.6) years. For all MR examinations, a 1.5T MR unit was employed. For breath-hold MR urography, the HASTE technique (MRU) was used, and reconstruction involved the use of a maximum intensity-projection (MIP) algorithm. For gadolinium-enhanced excretory MR urography, the fast low angle shot (FLASH) 3-D method was used and images were obtained at 5, 10, 20, and 30 minutes, and reconstruction again involved the use of MIP algorithm. In some cases, additional GEMRU was obtained 24 hour after contrast material injection, and an MIP algorithm was used for reconstruction. MRU and GEMRU were independently interpreted by two radiologists who for quantitative analysis compared SNR with CNR, and at each anatomic level qualitatively analyzed morphologic accuracy and diagnostic value of the lesions. In quantitative analysis, SNR and CNR differences between the two sequences at the renal pelvis and the level of the ureter were not significant (p greater than 0.05). In qualitative analysis, GEMRU was superior to MRU for the assessment of evaluated ureter at each level (p less than 0.05), anatomic anomaly and intrinsic tumor. Ureteral stones, however, were more easily diagnosed with MRU. For assessment of the ureter GEMRU is superior to MRU and has the advantage of evaluating renal function. We believe that for evaluation of the urinary tract, especially the distal ureter, GEMRU may be a valuable adjunct to routine MR urography. (author)

  10. On the structure of fish gill, with special reference to its absorptive and excretory function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguri, Mikio

    1981-01-01

    The gill of fish is not only the respiratory organ, but also the absorptive and excretory one of various substances, such as pesticides, anesthetics and minerals including radionuclides. Branchial absorption of Ca, Cr, Zn, Sr and Hg, and dieldrin (a pesticide) has been demonstrated by the gill-perfusion experiments using eel and rainbow trout. Also, branchial excretion of Cl, Ca and Sr has been ascertained by the same method using eel. Therefore, the gill is an important organ in relation to the accumulation and metabolism of radionuclides in fishes. Compared with the kidney, another excretory organ in fish, the structure of fish gill is rather simple. Histologically, the gill lamella, main functional portion of gill, is enveloped with simple squamous epithelium on each side. Between these two thin layers, pilaster cells and lacuna of branchial capillary are recognized as tissue components. In the gills of marine fishes, well-developed salt-secreting cells are detectable at the basal area of gill lamella. The cytoplasm of these cells are acidophilic and abundant in mitochondria and tubular endoplasmic reticulum. The cells are also called chloride cells and said to be involved in the extra-renal excretion of Na and Cl took in by marine fishes. The important problem is whether the salt-secreting cells in marine fishes are also concerned with the branchial excretion of another minerals such as Ca, Sr, I and so on, or these minerals are excreted across the ordinal epithelial cells of gill lamella. To elucidate this, detailed investigatios are awaited with interest. (author)

  11. Diagnostic potential of low molecular weight excretory secretory proteins of Paramphistomum epiclitum for caprine amphistomosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Amit Kumar; Shanker, Daya; Sudan, Vikrant; Singh, Amit

    2018-06-15

    In the present study, the 75% alcoholic fractionation of excretory-secretory (ES) antigen isolated from 200 to 300 live P. epiclitum was assessed for its diagnostic potential for the detection of caprine amphistomosis by using antibody detection enzyme immunoassay. Prior to enzyme immunoassay, 75% alcoholic fractionation of excretory-secretory (ES) antigen was subjected to SDS- PAGE and western blot analysis for the presence of immunoreactive polypeptides. SDS-PAGE analysis of ES antigen resolved a total 7 polypeptides bands of size 56, 27, 25, 22.5, 12, 11 and 10 kDa. Western blot analysis revealed only two immunoreactive polypeptides (11 kDa and 12 kDa) when polypeptides resolved in SDS-PAGE were probed with known positive pooled serum. None of the polypeptides showed reactions with pooled known negative serum. The working dilutions of antigen, sera and conjugates were determined by checkerboard titration for employing ELISA and cut-off O.D. was calculated 0.616 by using the mean absorbance value of 11 negative kid sera. The sensitivity and specificity of ELISA was found to be 100% and 86.76%, respectively. As per kappa value estimation, the strength of agreement was found to be good. Antibodies to 75% alcoholic fractionation of ES antigen was detected in 20% goats (n = 160) of either sex, although faecal examination detected 10.6% goats to be infected with amphistomosis. The study confirmed that 75% alcoholic fractionation of ES antigen of P. epiclitum based ELISA had good value for serodiagnosis of caprine amphistomosis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Anther response to high-temperature stress during development and pollen thermotolerance heterosis as revealed by pollen tube growth and in vitro pollen vigor analysis in upland cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guicheng; Wang, Miaomiao; Zeng, Bin; Zhang, Jing; Jiang, Chenliang; Hu, Qirui; Geng, Guangtao; Tang, Canming

    2015-05-01

    Pollen tube growth in styles was strongly inhibited by temperature above 35 °C, and the yield of cotton decreased because of the adverse effect of high temperatures during square development. High-temperature stress during flowering influences the square development of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and cotton yield. Although it is well known that square development is sensitive to high temperature, high-temperature sensitive stages of square development and the effects of high temperature on pollen tube growth in the styles are unknown. The effect of high temperature on anther development corresponding to pollen vigor is unknown during anther development. The objectives of this study were to identify the stages of square development that are sensitive to high temperatures (37/30 and 40/34 °C), to determine whether the abnormal development of squares influenced by high temperature is responsible for the variation in the in vitro germination percent of pollen grains at anthesis, to identify the effect of high temperature on pollen germination in the styles, and to determine pollen thermotolerance heterosis. Our results show that the stages from the sporogenous cell to tetrad stage (square length styles was strongly inhibited by temperature above 35 °C, and the yield of cotton decreased because of the effect of high temperature during square development. The thermotolerance of hybrid F1 pollen showed heterosis, and pollen viability could be used as a criterion for screening for high-temperature tolerance cultivars. These results can be used in breeding to develop new cotton cultivars that can withstand high-temperature conditions, particularly in a future warmer climate.

  13. Cediranib, an oral inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor kinases, is an active drug in recurrent epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, and peritoneal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matulonis, Ursula A; Berlin, Suzanne; Ivy, Percy; Tyburski, Karin; Krasner, Carolyn; Zarwan, Corrine; Berkenblit, Anna; Campos, Susana; Horowitz, Neil; Cannistra, Stephen A; Lee, Hang; Lee, Julie; Roche, Maria; Hill, Margaret; Whalen, Christin; Sullivan, Laura; Tran, Chau; Humphreys, Benjamin D; Penson, Richard T

    2009-11-20

    Angiogenesis is important for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) growth, and blocking angiogenesis can lead to EOC regression. Cediranib is an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) -1, VEGFR-2, VEGFR-3, and c-kit. We conducted a phase II study of cediranib for recurrent EOC or peritoneal or fallopian tube cancer; cediranib was administered as a daily oral dose, and the original dose was 45 mg daily. Because of toxicities observed in the first 11 patients, the dose was lowered to 30 mg. Eligibility included 16 weeks, or CA-125 nonprogression > 16 weeks), which was the primary end point, was 30%; eight patients (17%; 95% CI, 7.6% to 30.8%) had a PR, six patients (13%; 95% CI, 4.8% to 25.7%) had SD, and there were no CRs. Eleven patients (23%) were removed from study because of toxicities before two cycles. Grade 3 toxicities (> 20% of patients) included hypertension (46%), fatigue (24%), and diarrhea (13%). Grade 2 hypothyroidism occurred in 43% of patients. Grade 4 toxicities included CNS hemorrhage (n = 1), hypertriglyceridemia/hypercholesterolemia/elevated lipase (n = 1), and dehydration/elevated creatinine (n = 1). No bowel perforations or fistulas occurred. Median PFS was 5.2 months, and median OS has not been reached; median follow-up time is 10.7 months. Cediranib has activity in recurrent EOC, tubal cancer, and peritoneal cancer with predictable toxicities observed with other TKIs.

  14. Comparison of excretory urographic contrast effects of dimeric and monomeric non-ionic iodinated contrast media in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishimoto, M.; Yamada, K.; Watanabe, A.; Miyamoto, K.; Iwasaki, T.; Miyake, Y.

    2007-01-01

    In excretory urography, the osmolarity of contrast media has rarely been treated as important in veterinary medicine. In this study, the contrast effect of two contrast media (monomeric iohexol and dimeric iodixanol) in the renal cortex and aorta were compared using computed tomography (CT). Five beagle dogs were used and the study employed a cross-over method for each contrast media. The results showed that there was no difference between the media in the aorta, but iodixanol showed higher CT value and a longer contrast effect than iohexol in the renal cortex, in spite of having the same iodine dosage. It is believed that iodixanol, with its low osmolarity, is diluted less by osmotic diuresis than monomeric iohexol. It is important to consider the osmolarity of the contrast media when evaluating the contrast effect, and it is essential to use the same contrast media for each examination, or the renal excretory speed will be under/overestimated

  15. Excretory MR urography using breathhold three-dimensional FISP: comparison with MR urography using HASTE technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Won Kue; Lee, Jeong Min; Jin, Kong Young; Hwang, Ho keung; Han, Young Min [Chonbuk Narional University Hospital, Chonju (Korea, Republic of); Ym, Seong Hee [Namwon Medical Center, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-09-01

    To compare the usefulness of gadolinium-enhanced excretory MR urography using breath-hold three-dimensional fast imaging with steady state precession (3-D FISP) with conventional MR urography using the half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo spin-echo (HASTE) sequence in the evaluation of obstructive uropathy. Twenty-three patients in whom ultrasonography (US) and/or intravenous urography (IVU) revealed signs of urinary obstruction were enrolled in this study. Fifteen were men and eight were women, and their mean age was 54 (range, 21-80) years. All MR images were obtained using a 1.5T MR unit. MR urography using the HASTE technique (MRU) and gadolinium-enhanced excretory MR urography using the 3D-FISP technique were performed, and in all cases, reconstructions involved maximum intensity projection. For contrast-enhanced MR urography(CEMRU), images were obtained 3, 5, 20, and 30 minutes after the administration of intravenous contrast media, and for selected cases, additional images were obtained until 24 hours after contrast media injection. For qualitative analysis, two experienced radiologists compared CEMRU and MRU in terms of their diagnostic value as regards the level and cause of urinary obstruction, and morphologic accuracy. In addition, signal to noise ration(SNR) and contrast to noise ration (CNR) of the urinary tract at each anatomic level were quantitatively analysed. Quantitative analysis showed that in terms of SNR and CNR of the urinary tract at the level of the mid and distal ureter, CEMRU using 3-D FISP was better than MRU using HASTE (p less than 0.05). Qualitative analysis indicated that for the depiction of the whole length of normal ureter, and detection of the level of obstruction, anatomic anomalies and intrinsic tumors, 3-D FISP was superior to HASTE. There was, however, no difference between these two modalities in the diagnosis of ureteral stone and the degree of hydronephrosis. In addition, 3-D FISP was better than HASTE for the

  16. Excretory MR urography using breathhold three-dimensional FISP: comparison with MR urography using HASTE technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Won Kue; Lee, Jeong Min; Jin, Kong Young; Hwang, Ho keung; Han, Young Min; Ym, Seong Hee

    2000-01-01

    To compare the usefulness of gadolinium-enhanced excretory MR urography using breath-hold three-dimensional fast imaging with steady state precession (3-D FISP) with conventional MR urography using the half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo spin-echo (HASTE) sequence in the evaluation of obstructive uropathy. Twenty-three patients in whom ultrasonography (US) and/or intravenous urography (IVU) revealed signs of urinary obstruction were enrolled in this study. Fifteen were men and eight were women, and their mean age was 54 (range, 21-80) years. All MR images were obtained using a 1.5T MR unit. MR urography using the HASTE technique (MRU) and gadolinium-enhanced excretory MR urography using the 3D-FISP technique were performed, and in all cases, reconstructions involved maximum intensity projection. For contrast-enhanced MR urography(CEMRU), images were obtained 3, 5, 20, and 30 minutes after the administration of intravenous contrast media, and for selected cases, additional images were obtained until 24 hours after contrast media injection. For qualitative analysis, two experienced radiologists compared CEMRU and MRU in terms of their diagnostic value as regards the level and cause of urinary obstruction, and morphologic accuracy. In addition, signal to noise ration(SNR) and contrast to noise ration (CNR) of the urinary tract at each anatomic level were quantitatively analysed. Quantitative analysis showed that in terms of SNR and CNR of the urinary tract at the level of the mid and distal ureter, CEMRU using 3-D FISP was better than MRU using HASTE (p less than 0.05). Qualitative analysis indicated that for the depiction of the whole length of normal ureter, and detection of the level of obstruction, anatomic anomalies and intrinsic tumors, 3-D FISP was superior to HASTE. There was, however, no difference between these two modalities in the diagnosis of ureteral stone and the degree of hydronephrosis. In addition, 3-D FISP was better than HASTE for the

  17. Anatomical study of the renal excretory system in pigs. A review of its characteristics as compared to its human counterpart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, F A; Ballesteros, L E; Estupiñán, H Y

    2017-01-01

    Despite the importance of the pyelocalyceal system in the pig as an experimental model, there is little information about this particular anatomical subject. We determined the morphological characteristics of the renal excretory system in pigs. This descriptive cross-sectional study evaluated 130 pairs of kidneys of pigs destined to slaughter. The pyelocalyceal system was subjected to injection technique - corrosion by infusion of polyester resin (85% Palatal and 15% Styrene) and subsequent infusion in potassium hydroxide (KOH) for 10 days. The significance level used was p renal excretory system is characterised by the presence of type A major cranial and caudal calyxes seen in 34.3% of the kidneys (type A1 in 30% and type A2 in 4.3%). type B calyxes, corresponding to minor calyxes draining directly into the renal pelvis, were present in 65.7% of the specimens (type B1 59.2%; type B2 6.5% of the cases). The number of minor calyxes in the collector system was 7.9 ± 2.27 with statistically significant differences in side (p = 0.0047). The morphometric characteristics of the kidneys in this study are slightly smaller than reported in humans. Similarly, the incidence of type A renal excretory system distribution is highest in humans and lowest in pigs. Due to its few morphological differences, the pig kidney is an excellent model for teaching- -learning processes, for research purposes, and for training of urologic applications.

  18. Characterization of the effects of erythromycin estolate and erythromycin base on the excretory function of the isolated rat liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaeta, G.B.; Utili, R.; Adinolfi, L.E.; Abernathy, C.O.; Giusti, G.

    1985-01-01

    To investigate the mechanisms of erythromycin cholestasis, the effects of erythromycin estolate (EE) on the excretory function of the isolated perfused rat liver and on liver plasma membrane (LM) preparations were studied and compared to those of erythromycin base (EB) and lauryl sulfate (LS), added alone or in combination. EE (at 125 to 200 microM) caused dose-dependent reductions of bile and perfusate flows, bile acid (BA) excretion, and biliary BA concentration. The alterations of the excretory function were only in part due to the decreased perfusate flow. In contrast, both 200 and 300 microM concentrations of EB elicited similar choleretic responses, which were presumably related to the osmotic activity of the drug excreted in the bile. LS did not affect hepatic excretory functions. However, the simultaneous addition of EB and LS resulted in a rate of bile flow lower than that observed with EB alone. EE, but not EB, increased canalicular permeability to [ 14 C]sucrose as measured by bile to plasma (B:P) ratio. Neither drugs altered [ 14 C]erythritol B:P ratio. In LM preparations both Na+,K+- and Mg2+-ATPase activities were inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by EE, but not by EB. The data suggest that EE could affect bile flow by inhibiting cotransport of Na+ and BA and by altering LM permeability and support the view that the effect of erythromycins on the liver may be related to their surface activity

  19. Effects of cryopreservation on excretory function, cellular adhesion molecules and vessel lumen formation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Guoping; Lai, Binbin; Hong, Huaxing; Lin, Peng; Chen, Weifu; Zhu, Zhong; Chen, Haixiao

    2017-07-01

    Cryopreservation is widely used in regenerative medicine for tissue preservation. In the present study, the effects of cryopreservation on excretory function, cellular adhesion molecules and vessel lumen formation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were investigated. After 0, 4, 8, 12 or 24 weeks of cryopreservation in liquid nitrogen, the HUVECs were thawed. The excretory functions markers (endothelin‑1, prostaglandin E1, von Willebrand factor and nitric oxide) of HUVECs were measured by ELISA assay. The expression of intercellular adhesion molecule‑1 (ICAM‑1) in HUVECs was analyzed using flow cytometry. An angiogenesis assay was used to determine the angiogeneic capabilities of the thawed HUVECs. The results demonstrated that cryopreserved/thawed and recultivated HUVECs were unsuitable for tissue‑engineered microvascular construction. Specifically, the excretory function of the cells was significantly decreased in the post‑cryopreserved HUVECs at 24 weeks. In addition, the level of ICAM‑1 in HUVECs was significantly upregulated from the fourth week of cryopreservation. Furthermore, the tube‑like structure‑forming potential was weakened with increasing cryopreservation duration, and the numbers of lumen and the length of the pipeline were decreased in the thawed HUVECs, in a time‑dependent manner. In conclusion, the results of the present study revealed that prolonged cryopreservation may lead to HUVEC dysfunction and did not create stable cell lines for tissue‑engineered microvascular construction.

  20. Feeding Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... feeding therapies have been exhausted. Please review product brand and method of placement carefully with your physician ... Total Parenteral Nutrition. Resources: Oley Foundation Feeding Tube Awareness Foundation Children’s Medical Nutrition Alliance APFED’s Educational Webinar ...

  1. Characterisation of proteolytic activity of excretory-secretory products from adult Strongylus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffrey, C R; Ryan, M F

    1994-04-01

    An excretory-secretory (ES) preparation derived from adult Strongylus vulgaris in vitro was assessed for proteolytic activity using azocasein and synthetic, fluorogenic, peptide substrates. Fractionation was by molecular sieve fast protein liquid chromatography (molecular sieve FPLC) and resolution by gelatin-substrate sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (gelatin-substrate SDS-PAGE). The cysteine proteinase activator, dithiothreitol (DTT), enhanced azocaseinolysis and hydrolysis of carbobenzoxy-phenylalanyl-arginine-7-amido-4-methylcoumarin (Z-Phe-Arg-NMec) by the ES preparation and was a requirement for the detection of carbobenzoxy-arginyl-arginine-7-amido-4-methylcoumarin (Z-Arg-Arg-NMec) hydrolysis. Assays of FPLC-eluted fractions, with DTT, detected a broad peak of azocaseinolytic activity (22-24 kDa) and two peaks (24 and 18 kDa) of hydrolysis using the synthetic substrates. Hydrolysis by these peaks of Z-Phe-Arg-NMec was 50-fold greater than that of Z-Arg-Arg-NMec suggesting that their specificities are more like papain or cathepsin L rather than cathepsin B. In gelatin-substrate SDS-PAGE, DTT was required to detect proteolysis by the ES preparation which was optimal at pH 6.0 and resolved into eight bands (87-29 kDa). Cysteine proteinase inhibitors were the most effective in all assays. Collectively, these data indicate that cysteine-class proteolytic activity predominates in the ES preparation of adult S. vulgaris.

  2. Renal ultrasound and excretory urography in infants and young children with urinary tract infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenda, R.; Kenig, T.; Silc, M.; Zupancic, Z.

    1989-01-01

    The main purpose of the study was to see whether excretory urography (EU) can be safely replaced by ultrasound (US) in children with urinary tract infection (UTI) younger than 6 years. 101 hospitalised children were admitted to the prospective study. They were all diagnosed as having UTI and were treated accordingly. All children had voiding cystography (VCU), EU and US done. US and EU correlated well in 94% of the cases. In all 6 cases with discrepancy between EU and US, the VCU was abnormal. Our results confirm the data from other authors, that VCU and US should be sufficient as an initial work-up on children with UTI, while EU should be done only in the cases with abnormal findings on either one or both of the former investigations. However, it should be kept in mind that some cases of parenchymal involvement or mild subpelvic stenosis can be missed using this protocol. If EU is obtained only in the cases with abnormal US and/or VCU, only 55 children (54%) in our group would have had an EU done. (orig.)

  3. Studies on the influence on the excretory kinetics of 125I-Adipiodon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, H.

    1982-01-01

    The possibility of influencing distribution and elimination of 125 I-Adipiodon ( 125 I-iodipamide meglumine) by a preceding administration of Falignost (iomeglamic acid) as well as by dose-time variants of the mechanic intravenous application of contrast medium was tested in 55 anicteric and 2 icteric patients within clinically indicated cholegraphic examination with the aim of methodical optimization. For the detection of principal regularities comparative studies with 125 I-Adipiodon and Falignost in rats as well as examinations of protein binding of 125 I-Adipiodon in the plasm of rats and in the plasm and in mixed serum (application in vitro) of patients by gel filtration with Epidex B 2 coarse and batch operation on more than 1,200 samples were additionally carried out. For combined cholecystography with intravenous infusion of Adipiodon in immediate temporal connection with the administration of Falignost a reduced visibility of the biliary tract in the X-ray picture is not to be expected as the consequence of the mutual influence of the contrast media. For intact excretory function of liver and kidneys the combined cholecystography can be recommended. The effects of a dose increase, of protracted infusion of Adipiodon and of the intravenous administration of 0.01 g metroclopramide on the demonstration of the biliary tract in the intravenous cholegram are outlined. (author)

  4. MDCT urography: experience with a bi-phasic excretory phase examination protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meindl, Thomas; Coppenrath, Eva; Degenhart, Christoph; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Mueller-Lisse, Ullrich G.; Mueller-Lisse, Ulrike L.

    2007-01-01

    The benefit of multidetector computed tomographic urography (MDCTU) for visualising early and late excretory phase (EP) upper urinary tract (UUT) opacification has been studied. UUT opacification was retrospectively evaluated in 45 bi-phasic four-row MDCTU examinations. The UUT was divided into intrarenal collecting system (IRCS), proximal, middle and distal ureter. Two independent readers rated opacification: 1, none; 2, partial; 3, complete. Numbers of segments and percentages of UUTs at each score were calculated for each EP and two EPs combined. Results of a single EP and of combined EPs were compared by Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks. IRCS and proximal ureter were at least partially opacified in each EP in >95%. The middle ureter was at least partially opacified in the early and late EP in 85% and 93%, respectively. The distal ureter was opacified in 65% (49/75) in the early EP and in 78% (59/75) in the late EP. Combining two EPs, non-opacified distal segments decreased to 9% (7/75). Significant improvement between a single EP and combining two EPs were found for the middle and distal ureter (P < 0.03). Bi-phasic MDCTU substantially improved opacification of the middle and distal ureter. IRCS and proximal ureter are reliably opacified with one EP. (orig.)

  5. Development of indirect sandwich ELISA for determination of excretory-secretory antigens of Fasciola hepatica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libertad Alzamora-Gonzales

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Fasciolosis is a cosmopolitan parasitosis medical-veterinary importance caused by Fasciola hepatica, which affects sheep, goats and cattle; and it affects man accidentally causing an epidemic-endemic infection difficult to diagnose. The aim was to develop an indirect sandwich ELISA with 3 antibodies for detecting excretory-secretory antigens of Fasciola hepatica (ESFh. For the development of indirect sandwich ELISA were used, as capture antibody, mouse polyclonal antibodies anti ESFh and polyclonal antibodies rabbit anti-ESFh as detection antibody, at the concentrations of 10 and 5 µg/mL respectively. The conjugate used was mouse monoclonal anti- total immunoglobulins rabbit linked to peroxidase (1/1000. Were analized 31 sheep fecal samples, and the results were compared with those obtained by direct coproparasitological examination (DC and counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIEP. The detection limit obtained for indirect sandwich ELISA was 100 ng/mL. The test had a 100% sensitivity, 96.6% specificity, positive and negative predictive values of 50% and 96.6% respectively, in relation to DC test. Comparing with CIEP the specificity obtained for indirect sandwich ELISA was 93.5% and a negative predictive value of 100%. We concluded that indirect sandwich ELISA designed is able to detect metabolic antigens in ovine feces samples and can be used for Fasciola hepatica diagnosis.

  6. Effect of Fasciola gigantica excretory secretory antigen on rat hematological indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganga, G.; Sharma, R. L.

    2006-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of Fasciola gigantica excretory secretory antigen (Fg-ESA) on rat hematological indices. Fg-ESA was prepared by keeping thoroughly washed 40 F. gigantica flukes in 100 ml phosphate buffer saline (PBS) for 2 h at 37℃, and centrifuging the supernatant at 12,000 g at 4℃ for 30 min. The protein content of Fg-ESA was adjusted to 1.8 mg/ml. The rats were randomly divided into two groups of six rats each. Rats in group A received 0.5 ml of Fg-ESA intraperitoneally (i.p.) for 7 days, whereas control rats in group B received 0.5 ml of PBS i.p. for 7 days. Hemograms of both groups were studied initially and on days 0, 2, 4, 14 and 21 after the final injection of Fg-ESA or PBS. Progressive and significant (p 0.05) changes in the values of mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, or mean corpuscular volume in group A. Thus, we conclude that Fg-ESA induces normocytic normochromic anemia in rats. PMID:16645335

  7. Diagnostic value of diuretic-enhanced excretory MR urography in patients with obstructive uropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karabacakoglu, Aydin E-mail: radaydin@hotmail.com; Karakose, Serdar; Ince, Ozlem; Cobankara, Osman Ege; Karalezli, Giray

    2004-12-01

    Purpose: Ultrasonography and conventional intravenous urography are most common methods in diagnosis of obstructive uropathies. The disadvantage of ultrasonography is inability of visualizing middle and lower one thirds of ureter, while intravenous urography is using radiation, also functionally extra loading effect on kidneys. In this study, the diagnostic value of MR urography on obstructive uropathy were investigated. Materials and methods: Forty five patients who were suffered from obstructive uropathy examined by ultrasonography, intravenous urography and diuretic-enhanced excretory MR urography by using MR-contrast-agent. Results: MR urography established accuracy rate of 92.8% for stone diseases which formed the largest group in this study, however, in other causes of obstructive uropathy, MR urography provide 100% correct diagnosis. Conclusion: MR urography provide high quality images for diagnosing and determining causes of urinary obstruction defining position and severity of dilatations as well as showing localization of the pathology. We think that MR urography should be a primary investigation in patients with obstructive uropathy who have contrast agent and X-ray contrindication.

  8. Diagnostic value of diuretic-enhanced excretory MR urography in patients with obstructive uropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karabacakoglu, Aydin; Karakose, Serdar; Ince, Ozlem; Cobankara, Osman Ege; Karalezli, Giray

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: Ultrasonography and conventional intravenous urography are most common methods in diagnosis of obstructive uropathies. The disadvantage of ultrasonography is inability of visualizing middle and lower one thirds of ureter, while intravenous urography is using radiation, also functionally extra loading effect on kidneys. In this study, the diagnostic value of MR urography on obstructive uropathy were investigated. Materials and methods: Forty five patients who were suffered from obstructive uropathy examined by ultrasonography, intravenous urography and diuretic-enhanced excretory MR urography by using MR-contrast-agent. Results: MR urography established accuracy rate of 92.8% for stone diseases which formed the largest group in this study, however, in other causes of obstructive uropathy, MR urography provide 100% correct diagnosis. Conclusion: MR urography provide high quality images for diagnosing and determining causes of urinary obstruction defining position and severity of dilatations as well as showing localization of the pathology. We think that MR urography should be a primary investigation in patients with obstructive uropathy who have contrast agent and X-ray contrindication

  9. Steam generator tube extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delorme, H.

    1985-05-01

    To enable tube examination on steam generators in service, Framatome has now developed a process for removing sections of steam generator tubes. Tube sections can be removed without being damaged for treating the tube section expanded in the tube sheet

  10. Hematopoietic stem cell cytokines and fibroblast growth factor-2 stimulate human endothelial cell-pericyte tube co-assembly in 3D fibrin matrices under serum-free defined conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie O Smith

    Full Text Available We describe a novel 3D fibrin matrix model using recombinant hematopoietic stem cell cytokines under serum-free defined conditions which promotes the assembly of human endothelial cell (EC tubes with co-associated pericytes. Individual ECs and pericytes are randomly mixed together and EC tubes form that is accompanied by pericyte recruitment to the EC tube abluminal surface over a 3-5 day period. These morphogenic processes are stimulated by a combination of the hematopoietic stem cell cytokines, stem cell factor, interleukin-3, stromal derived factor-1α, and Flt-3 ligand which are added in conjunction with fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2 into the fibrin matrix. In contrast, this tube morphogenic response does not occur under serum-free defined conditions when VEGF and FGF-2 are added together in the fibrin matrices. We recently demonstrated that VEGF and FGF-2 are able to prime EC tube morphogenic responses (i.e. added overnight prior to the morphogenic assay to hematopoietic stem cell cytokines in collagen matrices and, interestingly, they also prime EC tube morphogenesis in 3D fibrin matrices. EC-pericyte interactions in 3D fibrin matrices leads to marked vascular basement membrane assembly as demonstrated using immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, we show that hematopoietic stem cell cytokines and pericytes stimulate EC sprouting in fibrin matrices in a manner dependent on the α5β1 integrin. This novel co-culture system, under serum-free defined conditions, allows for a molecular analysis of EC tube assembly, pericyte recruitment and maturation events in a critical ECM environment (i.e. fibrin matrices that regulates angiogenic events in postnatal life.

  11. Triclabendazole Effect on Protease Enzyme Activity in the Excretory- Secretory Products of Fasciola hepatica in Vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosef Shrifi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fasciola hepatica is one of the most important helminthes parasites and triclabendazole (TCBZ is routinely used for treatment of infected people and animals. Secreted protease enzymes by the F. hepatica plays a critical role in the invasion, migration, nutrition and the survival of parasite and are key targets for novel drugs and vaccines. The aim of study was to determine the protease activity of excretory- secretory products (ESP of F. hepatica in the presence of TCBZ anthelmintic.F. hepatica helminthes were collected and cultured within RPMI 1640 [TCBZ treated (test and untreated (control] for 6 h at 37 °C. ESP of treated and control were collected, centrifuged and supernatants were stored at -20°C. Protein concentrations were measured according to Bradford method. Protease enzymes activities of ESP samples were estimated by using sigma's non-specific protease activity assay. ESP protein bands were detected by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE.Mean protein concentrations in control and treated of ESP samples were determined 196.1 ±14.52 and 376.4 ±28.20 μg/ml, respectively. Mean protease enzymes activities in control and treated were 0.37 ±0.1 and 0.089 ±0.03 U/ml, respectively. Significant difference between proteins concentrations and protease enzymes activities of two groups was observed (P<0.05. SDS-PAGE showed different patterns of protein bands between treated and control samples.The TCBZ reduced secreted protease enzymes activities and possibly effects on invasion, migration, nutrition and particularly survival of the parasite in the host tissues.

  12. Immunolocalization and immunodetection of the excretory/secretory (ES) antigens of Fasciola gigantica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M A Hannan; Ullah, Rizwan; Rehman, Abdur; Rehman, Lubna; P A, Ahammed Shareef; Abidi, S M A

    2017-01-01

    The digenetic trematode Fasciola gigantica is a parasite of great agricultural and economic importance. Along with Fasciola hepatica, F. gigantica incurs huge economic losses to the agricultural sector. Because of unavailability of an effective and commercial vaccine, the earliest diagnosis of the disease is the only way to control the disease. The conventional coprological techniques are able to detect the disease only after the parasites get matured and starts releasing their eggs with the faeces of host, therefore prepatent infection remain undiagnosed. The alternative method is by serological tests that uses circulatory antigens. Despite high sensitivity, their reliability is quite low because of the common antigens shared between different helminth parasites. To overcome this, investigation was shifted to identify the copro-antigens which could be more sensitive and reliable. In the present study, we tried to identify some of the immunodominant proteins from the Excretory Secretory (ES) product of F. gigantica which can be further characterized and used for early detection of infection and also as drug and vaccine candidates. The ES products of F. gigantica were collected and used for raising the polyclonal antibody in rabbit. The polypeptide profile was generated as well as immunogenic polypeptides were identified. The Source of ES antigen was immunolocalized using confocal microscopy and dot blot assay was performed to diagnose field infection. The polypeptide profile of ES products revealed a total of 24 polypeptides out of which 12 immunogenic polypeptides were identified by western blotting. Confocal micrographs showed the immunolocalization of antigens in the intestinal caecae, vitalline glands, gonads as well as in the tegument of the worm. The dot blot assay confirmed the utility of ES products for the detection of field infection. Subsequently, cross reactivity was found negative with Gigantocotyle explanatum; an amphitome parasite of same habitat

  13. Immunolocalization and immunodetection of the excretory/secretory (ES antigens of Fasciola gigantica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M A Hannan Khan

    Full Text Available The digenetic trematode Fasciola gigantica is a parasite of great agricultural and economic importance. Along with Fasciola hepatica, F. gigantica incurs huge economic losses to the agricultural sector. Because of unavailability of an effective and commercial vaccine, the earliest diagnosis of the disease is the only way to control the disease. The conventional coprological techniques are able to detect the disease only after the parasites get matured and starts releasing their eggs with the faeces of host, therefore prepatent infection remain undiagnosed. The alternative method is by serological tests that uses circulatory antigens. Despite high sensitivity, their reliability is quite low because of the common antigens shared between different helminth parasites. To overcome this, investigation was shifted to identify the copro-antigens which could be more sensitive and reliable. In the present study, we tried to identify some of the immunodominant proteins from the Excretory Secretory (ES product of F. gigantica which can be further characterized and used for early detection of infection and also as drug and vaccine candidates. The ES products of F. gigantica were collected and used for raising the polyclonal antibody in rabbit. The polypeptide profile was generated as well as immunogenic polypeptides were identified. The Source of ES antigen was immunolocalized using confocal microscopy and dot blot assay was performed to diagnose field infection. The polypeptide profile of ES products revealed a total of 24 polypeptides out of which 12 immunogenic polypeptides were identified by western blotting. Confocal micrographs showed the immunolocalization of antigens in the intestinal caecae, vitalline glands, gonads as well as in the tegument of the worm. The dot blot assay confirmed the utility of ES products for the detection of field infection. Subsequently, cross reactivity was found negative with Gigantocotyle explanatum; an amphitome parasite

  14. Biochemical and immunological characterization of annexin B30 from Clonorchis sinensis excretory/secretory products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lei; Ren, Mengyu; Chen, Xueqing; Wang, Xiaoyun; Li, Shan; Lin, Jinsi; Liang, Chi; Liang, Pei; Hu, Yue; Lei, Huali; Bian, Meng; Huang, Yan; Wu, Zhongdao; Li, Xuerong; Yu, Xinbing

    2014-07-01

    Clonorchis sinensis has been classified as group I biological carcinogen for cholangiocarcinoma by the World Health Organization. Biological studies on excretory/secretory products (ESPs) enabled us to understand the pathogenesis mechanism of C. sinensis and develop new strategies for the prevention of clonorchiasis. In this study, sequence analysis showed that annexin B30 from C. sinensis (CsANXB30) is composed of four annexin repeats which were characterized by type II and III Ca(2+)-binding sites or KGD motif with the capability of Ca(2+)-binding. In addition, immunoblot assay revealed that recombinant CsANXB30 (rCsANXB30) could be recognized by the sera from rats infected with C. sinensis and the sera from rats immunized by CsESPs. Real-time PCR showed that its transcriptional level was the highest at the stage of metacercaria. Immunofluorescence assay was employed to confirm that CsANXB30 was distributed in the tegument, intestine, and egg of adult worms, as well as the tegument and vitellarium of metacercaria. rCsANXB30 was able to bind phospholipid in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner and human plasminogen in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, cytokine and antibody measurements indicated that rats subcutaneously immunized with rCsANXB30 developed a strong IL-10 production in spleen cells and a high level of IgG1 isotype, indicating that rCsANXB30 could trigger specific humoral and cellular immune response in rats. The present results implied that CsANXB30 might be involved in a host-parasite interaction and affected the immune response of the host during C. sinensis infection.

  15. Excretory/secretory products from Trichinella spiralis adult worms ameliorate DSS-induced colitis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodi Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many evidences show the inverse correlation between helminth infection and allergic or autoimmune diseases. Identification and characterization of the active helminth-derived products responsible for the beneficial effects on allergic or inflammatory diseases will provide another feasible approach to treat these diseases. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Colitis was induced in C57BL/6 mice by giving 3% DSS orally for 7 days. During this period, the mice were treated daily with the excretory/secretory products from T. spiralis adult worms (AES intraperitoneally. The severity of colitis was monitored by measuring body weight, stool consistency or bleeding, colon length and inflammation. To determine the T. spiralis AES product-induced immunological response, Th1, Th2, Th17 and regulatory cytokine profiles were measured in lymphocytes isolated from colon, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN, and the spleen of treated mice. The CD4+ CD25+ FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs were also measured in the spleens and MLN of treated mice. Mice treated with AES significantly ameliorated the severity of the DSS-induced colitis indicated by the reduced disease manifestations, improved macroscopic and microscopic inflammation correlated with the up-regulation of Treg response (increased regulatory cytokines IL-10, TGF-beta and regulatory T cells and down-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-gamma, IL-6 and IL-17 in the spleens, MLN and colon of treated mice. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide direct evidences that T. spiralis AES have a therapeutic potential for alleviating inflammatory colitis in mice. This effect is possibly mediated by the immunomodulation of regulatory T cells to produce regulatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines and inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokines.

  16. Biliary copper excretion by hepatocyte lysosomes in the rat. Major excretory pathway in experimental copper overload

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, J.B. Jr.; Myers, B.M.; Kost, L.J.; Kuntz, S.M.; LaRusso, N.F.

    1989-01-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that lysosomes are the main source of biliary copper in conditions of hepatic copper overload. We used a rat model of oral copper loading and studied the relationship between the biliary output of copper and lysosomal hydrolases. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given tap water with or without 0.125% copper acetate for up to 36 wk. Copper loading produced a 23-fold increase in the hepatic copper concentration and a 30-65% increase in hepatic lysosomal enzyme activity. Acid phosphatase histochemistry showed that copper-loaded livers contained an increased number of hepatocyte lysosomes; increased copper concentration of these organelles was confirmed directly by both x ray microanalysis and tissue fractionation. The copper-loaded rats showed a 16-fold increase in biliary copper output and a 50-300% increase in biliary lysosomal enzyme output. In the basal state, excretory profiles over time were similar for biliary outputs of lysosomal enzymes and copper in the copper-loaded animals but not in controls. After pharmacologic stimulation of lysosomal exocytosis, biliary outputs of copper and lysosomal hydrolases in the copper-loaded animals remained coupled: injection of colchicine or vinblastine produced an acute rise in the biliary output of both lysosomal enzymes and copper to 150-250% of baseline rates. After these same drugs, control animals showed only the expected increase in lysosomal enzyme output without a corresponding increase in copper output. We conclude that the hepatocyte responds to an increased copper load by sequestering excess copper in an increased number of lysosomes that then empty their contents directly into bile. The results provide direct evidence that exocytosis of lysosomal contents into biliary canaliculi is the major mechanism for biliary copper excretion in hepatic copper overload

  17. Stage- and gender-specific proteomic analysis of Brugia malayi excretory-secretory products.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yovany Moreno

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: While we lack a complete understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which parasites establish and achieve protection from host immune responses, it is accepted that many of these processes are mediated by products, primarily proteins, released from the parasite. Parasitic nematodes occur in different life stages and anatomical compartments within the host. Little is known about the composition and variability of products released at different developmental stages and their contribution to parasite survival and progression of the infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To gain a deeper understanding on these aspects, we collected and analyzed through 1D-SDS PAGE and LC-MS/MS the Excretory-Secretory Products (ESP of adult female, adult male and microfilariae of the filarial nematode Brugia malayi, one of the etiological agents of human lymphatic filariasis. This proteomic analysis led to the identification of 228 proteins. The list includes 76 proteins with unknown function as well as also proteins with potential immunoregulatory properties, such as protease inhibitors, cytokine homologues and carbohydrate-binding proteins. Larval and adult ESP differed in composition. Only 32 proteins were shared between all three stages/genders. Consistent with this observation, different gene ontology profiles were associated with the different ESP. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A comparative analysis of the proteins released in vitro by different forms of a parasitic nematode dwelling in the same host is presented. The catalog of secreted proteins reflects different stage- and gender-specific related processes and different strategies of immune evasion, providing valuable insights on the contribution of each form of the parasite for establishing the host-parasite interaction.

  18. Ear Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the ear drum or eustachian tube, Down Syndrome, cleft palate, and barotrauma (injury to the middle ear caused by a reduction of air pressure, ... specialist) may be warranted if you or your child has experienced repeated ... fluid in the middle ear, barotrauma, or have an anatomic abnormality that ...

  19. In Vitro Evaluation of Linezolid and Meropenem Against Clinical Isolates of Multi Drug Resistant Tuberculosis By Mycobacterial Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) 960

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirza, I. A.; Satti, L.; Khan, F. A.; Khan, K. A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the in vitro effectiveness of multiple breakpoint concentrations of newer antituberculosis agents (Linezolid and Meropenem) against Multi Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB) isolates. Study Design: Adescriptive cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Microbiology Department, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP), Rawalpindi, from September 2011 to August 2013. Methodology: Atotal of 100 MDR-TB isolates recovered during the study period were subjected to susceptibility testing against multiple breakpoint concentrations of Linezolid (LZD) and Meropenem (MER). The breakpoint concentration used for LZD were 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 micro g/ml, while for MER were 4.0, 8.0 and 16 micro g/ml. Mycobacterial Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) 960 system was used to carry out drug susceptibility testing as per recommended protocol. Results: At break point concentration of 0.5 micro g/ml, 80 out of 100 (80%) MDR-TB isolates were susceptible to LZD while at breakpoint concentration of 1.0 micro g/ml and 2.0 micro g/ml, 96/100, (96%) of MDR-TB isolates were susceptible. For MER, at breakpoint concentrations of 4.0 micro g/ml no MDR-TB isolate was susceptible, while at 8.0 micro g/ml 3/100, (3%) and at 16.0 micro g/ml 11/100, (11%) of MDR-TB isolates were susceptible. Conclusion: LZD was found to have excellent in vitroefficacy as 96% of MDR-TB isolates were susceptible at breakpoint concentration of 1.0 micro g/ml or more. In case of MER it was found that in vitrosusceptibility improved as the break point concentrations were increased. (author)

  20. Germanium Nanowires-in-Graphite Tubes via Self-Catalyzed Synergetic Confined Growth and Shell-Splitting Enhanced Li-Storage Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yong; Jin, Shuaixing; Yang, Guowei; Wang, Jing; Wang, Chengxin

    2015-04-28

    Despite the high theoretical capacity, pure Ge has various difficulties such as significant volume expansion and electron and Li(+) transfer problems, when applied as anode materials in lithium ion battery (LIB), for which the solution would finally rely on rational design like advanced structures and available hybrid. Here in this work, we report a one-step synthesis of Ge nanowires-in-graphite tubes (GNIGTs) with the liquid Ge/C synergetic confined growth method. The structure exhibits impressing LIB behavior in terms of both cyclic stability and rate performance. We found the semiclosed graphite shell with thickness of ∼50 layers experience an interesting splitting process that was driven by electrolyte diffusion, which occurs before the Ge-Li alloying plateau begins. Two types of different splitting mechanism addressed as "inside-out"/zipper effect and "outside-in" dominate this process, which are resulted from the SEI layer growing longitudinally along the Ge-graphite interface and the lateral diffusion of Li(+) across the shell, respectively. The former mechanism is the predominant way driving the initial shell to split, which behaves like a zipper with SEI layer as invisible puller. After repeated Li(+) insertion/exaction, the GNIGTs configuration is finally reconstructed by forming Ge nanowires-thin graphite strip hybrid, both of which are in close contact, resulting in enormous enchantment to the electrons/Li(+) transport. These features make the structures perform well as anode material in LIB. We believe both the progress in 1D assembly and the structure evolution of this Ge-C composite would contribute to the design of advanced LIB anode materials.

  1. Electron tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyama, Motohiro [Hamamatsu, JP; Fukasawa, Atsuhito [Hamamatsu, JP; Arisaka, Katsushi [Los Angeles, CA; Wang, Hanguo [North Hills, CA

    2011-12-20

    An electron tube of the present invention includes: a vacuum vessel including a face plate portion made of synthetic silica and having a surface on which a photoelectric surface is provided, a stem portion arranged facing the photoelectric surface and made of synthetic silica, and a side tube portion having one end connected to the face plate portion and the other end connected to the stem portion and made of synthetic silica; a projection portion arranged in the vacuum vessel, extending from the stem portion toward the photoelectric surface, and made of synthetic silica; and an electron detector arranged on the projection portion, for detecting electrons from the photoelectric surface, and made of silicon.

  2. Chest tube insertion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chest drainage tube insertion; Insertion of tube into chest; Tube thoracostomy; Pericardial drain ... Be careful there are no kinks in your tube. The drainage system should always sit upright and be placed ...

  3. Diuretic-enhanced gadolinium excretory MR urography: comparison of conventional gradient-echo sequences and echo-planar imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolte-Ernsting, C.C.A.; Tacke, J.; Adam, G.B.; Haage, P.; Guenther, R.W. [Univ. of Technology, Aachen (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology; Jung, P.; Jakse, G. [Univ. of Technology, Aachen (Germany). Dept. of Urology

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the utility of different gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted gradient-echo techniques in excretory MR urography. In 74 urologic patients, excretory MR urography was performed using various T1-weighted gradient-echo (GRE) sequences after injection of gadolinium-DTPA and low-dose furosemide. The examinations included conventional GRE sequences and echo-planar imaging (GRE EPI), both obtained with 3D data sets and 2D projection images. Breath-hold acquisition was used primarily. In 20 of 74 examinations, we compared breath-hold imaging with respiratory gating. Breath-hold imaging was significantly superior to respiratory gating for the visualization of pelvicaliceal systems, but not for the ureters. Complete MR urograms were obtained within 14-20 s using 3D GRE EPI sequences and in 20-30 s with conventional 3D GRE sequences. Ghost artefacts caused by ureteral peristalsis often occurred with conventional 3D GRE imaging and were almost completely suppressed in EPI sequences (p < 0.0001). Susceptibility effects were more pronounced on GRE EPI MR urograms and calculi measured 0.8-21.7% greater in diameter compared with conventional GRE sequences. Increased spatial resolution degraded the image quality only in GRE-EPI urograms. (orig.)

  4. Simple and versatile turbidimetric monitoring of bacterial growth in liquid cultures using a customized 3D printed culture tube holder and a miniaturized spectrophotometer: application to facultative and strictly anaerobic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida R. G. Maia

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Here we introduce a novel strategy for turbidimetric monitoring of bacterial growth in liquid culture. The instrumentation comprises a light source, a customized 3D printed culture tube holder and a miniaturized spectrophotometer, connected through optical cables. Due to its small footprint and the possibility to operate with external light, bacterial growth was directly monitored from culture tubes in a simple and versatile fashion. This new portable measurement technique was used to monitor the growth of facultative (Escherichia coli ATCC/25922, and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC/29213 and strictly (Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens JW11, Butyrivibrio proteoclasticus P18, and Propionibacterium acnes DSMZ 1897 anaerobic bacteria. For E. coli and S. aureus, the growth rates calculated from normalized optical density values were compared with those ones obtained using a benchtop spectrophotometer without significant differences (P = 0.256. For the strictly anaerobic species, a high precision (RSD < 3.5% was observed between replicates up to 48 h. Regarding its potential for customization, this manifold could accommodate further developments for customized turbidimetric monitoring, such as the use of light-emitting diodes as a light source or flow cells.

  5. Simple and Versatile Turbidimetric Monitoring of Bacterial Growth in Liquid Cultures Using a Customized 3D Printed Culture Tube Holder and a Miniaturized Spectrophotometer: Application to Facultative and Strictly Anaerobic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Margarida R G; Marques, Sara; Cabrita, Ana R J; Wallace, R John; Thompson, Gertrude; Fonseca, António J M; Oliveira, Hugo M

    2016-01-01

    Here we introduce a novel strategy for turbidimetric monitoring of bacterial growth in liquid culture. The instrumentation comprises a light source, a customized 3D printed culture tube holder and a miniaturized spectrophotometer, connected through optical cables. Due to its small footprint and the possibility to operate with external light, bacterial growth was directly monitored from culture tubes in a simple and versatile fashion. This new portable measurement technique was used to monitor the growth of facultative (Escherichia coli ATCC/25922, and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC/29213) and strictly (Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens JW11, Butyrivibrio proteoclasticus P18, and Propionibacterium acnes DSMZ 1897) anaerobic bacteria. For E. coli and S. aureus, the growth rates calculated from normalized optical density values were compared with those ones obtained using a benchtop spectrophotometer without significant differences (P = 0.256). For the strictly anaerobic species, a high precision (relative standard deviation < 3.5%) was observed between replicates up to 48 h. Regarding its potential for customization, this manifold could accommodate further developments for customized turbidimetric monitoring, such as the use of light-emitting diodes as a light source or flow cells.

  6. photomultiplier tubes

    CERN Multimedia

    photomultiplier tubes. A device to convert light into an electric signal (the name is often abbreviated to PM). Photomultipliers are used in all detectors based on scintillating material (i.e. based on large numbers of fibres which produce scintillation light at the passage of a charged particle). A photomultiplier consists of 3 main parts: firstly, a photocathode where photons are converted into electrons by the photoelectric effect; secondly, a multiplier chain consisting of a serie of dynodes which multiply the number of electron; finally, an anode, which collects the resulting current.

  7. photomultiplier tube

    CERN Multimedia

    photomultiplier tubes. A device to convert light into an electric signal (the name is often abbreviated to PM). Photomultipliers are used in all detectors based on scintillating material (i.e. based on large numbers of fibres which produce scintillation light at the passage of a charged particle). A photomultiplier consists of 3 main parts: firstly, a photocathode where photons are converted into electrons by the photoelectric effect; secondly, a multiplier chain consisting of a serie of dynodes which multiply the number of electron; finally, an anode, which collects the resulting current.

  8. Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Jones; George A. Schier

    1985-01-01

    This chapter considers aspen growth as a process, and discusses some characteristics of the growth and development of trees and stands. For the most part, factors affecting growth are discussed elsewhere, particularly in the GENETICS AND VARIATION chapter and in chapters in PART 11. ECOLOGY. Aspen growth as it relates to wood production is examined in the WOOD RESOURCE...

  9. The roles of supernatant of macrophage treated by excretory-secretory products from muscle larvae of Trichinella spiralis on the differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    The excretory-secretory products (ESPs) released by the muscle-larvae (ML) stage of Trichinella spiralis have been suggested to be involved in nurse cell formation. However, the molecular mechanisms by which ML-ESPs modulate nurse cell formation remain unclear. Macrophages exert either beneficial or...

  10. Diagnostic value of 64-slice spiral computed tomography imaging of the urinary tract during the excretory phase for urinary tract obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, De-Li; Jia, Guang-Sheng; Chen, Peng; Liu, Xin-Ding; Shu, Sheng-Jie; Ling, Zai-Sheng; Fan, Ting-Ting; Shen, Xiu-Fen; Zhang, Jin-Ling

    2017-11-01

    The present study aimed to assess the diagnostic value of 64-slice spiral computed tomography (CT) imaging of the urinary tract during the excretory phase for urinary tract obstruction. CT imaging of the urinary tract during the excretory phase was performed in 46 patients that had been diagnosed with urinary tract obstruction by B-mode ultrasound imaging or clinical manifestations. It was demonstrated that out of the 46 patients, 18 had pelvic and ureteral calculi, 12 cases had congenital malformations, 3 had ureteral stricture caused by urinary tract infection and 13 cases had malignant tumors of the urinary tract. The average X-ray dose planned for the standard CT scan of the urinary tract group 1 was 14.11±5.45 mSv, while the actual X-ray dose administered for the CT scan during the excretory phase group 2 was 9.01±4.56 mSv. The difference between the two groups was statistically significant (t=15.36; Purinary tract during the excretory phase has a high diagnostic value for urinary tract obstruction.

  11. Effect of mammals’ excretory function on aspartate aminotransferase activity in Glechoma hederacea leaves in conditions of Cd pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Vasilyuk

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper includes analysis of research of Cd impact on the activity of the enzyme of aspartate aminotransferase (AST nitrogen metabolism and the content of water-soluble protein fraction (albumin in Glechoma hederacea L. leaves, which dominated in the research area (in natural floodplain oak forest with Stellaria holostea L.. Cd was introduced in the form of salts of Cd(NO32 in the range of concentrations of: 0.25, 1.25, 2.5 g/m2, equivalent to the inclusion of Cd in 1, 5, 10 doses of MAC. Increase (P < 0.05 in the activity of AST 2.6–3.0 times (with adding Cd salts at a dose of 1 and 5 МAС and albumin content by 37% (with adding Cd salts at a dose of 10 МAС compared to control (the area without Cd pollution and excretory activity of mammals was shown. Using of excreta of some representatives of mammals (for example, Capreolus capreolus L. contributed to reduction of Cd toxic effects and restoring of the functional metabolic activity of AST by 23% (with Cd 1 МAС and by 34% (Cd 5 МAС. It is the evidence of protective function of mammals and their normalization effect at the above concentrations of Cd. Whereas the adding of Cd salts at a dose of 10 МAС led to 3 times’ inhibition of AST activity, the toxic effect of metal by excretory function of mammals was not reduced. Observations revealed the albumin content normalization by 22% in the presence of Cd 1MAC respectively (with the introduction of C. capreolus excreta and to the control level (the area without Cd pollution and excretory activity of mammals with the excreta of Sus scrofa L. in the setting of Cd 10 MAC. It proves the need to use the different mammal species for integrated and comprehensive normalization of ecosystems under conditions of uncontrolled anthropogenic pollution.

  12. Clinical Usefulness of a One-Tube Nested Reverse Transcription Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay for Evaluating Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 mRNA Overexpression in Formalin-Fixed and Paraffin-Embedded Breast Cancer Tissue Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hye-Young; Ahn, Sungwoo; Park, Sunyoung; Kim, SeungIl; Lee, Hyeyoung

    2017-01-01

    Currently, the two main methods used to analyze human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) amplification or overexpression have a limited accuracy and high costs. These limitations can be overcome by the development of complementary quantitative methods. In this study, we analyzed HER2 mRNA expression in clinical formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples using a one-tube nested reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assay. We measured expression relative to 3 reference genes and compared the results to those obtained by conventional immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assays with 226 FFPE breast cancer tissue samples. The one-tube nested RT-qPCR assay proved to be highly sensitive and specific based on comparisons with IHC (96.9 and 97.7%, respectively) and FISH (92.4 and 92.9%, respectively) obtained with the validation set. Comparisons with clinicopathological data revealed significant associations between HER2 overexpression and TNM stage (p < 0.01), histological type (p < 0.01), ER status (p < 0.001), PR status (p < 0.05), HER2 status (p < 0.001), and molecular subtypes (p < 0.001). Based on these findings, our one-tube nested RT-qPCR assay is a potentially useful and complementary screening tool for the detection of HER2 mRNA overexpression. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Gd-BOPTA-enhanced excretory MR urography without administration of diuretics; Gd-BOPTA-gestuetzte MR-Ausscheidungsurographie ohne Diuretikagabe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allkemper, T.; Tombach, B.; Heindel, W. [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie

    2001-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and clinical utility of Gd-BOPTA enhanced excretory magnetic resonance urography without additional administration of diuretics in correlation with conventional urography. Method: 15 preoperative patients with pelvic tumors were examined at 1.5 T using a breath-hold high-resolution 3D-FLASH sequence during first-pass as well as 5, 10, 15 minutes after iv. injection of 0.05 mmol/kg BW Gd-BOPTA (MultiHance {sup trademark}) without administration of diuretics. Post-processed coronal and multiplanar MIP reconstructions were compared to conventional excretory urography with regard to morphologic accuracy, anatomic variability, filling defects, cause and level of obstruction or compression, tumor visibility, and time-effectiveness by two independent radiologists. Results: Visualization of the urinary tract by MRU was comparable to conventional excretory urography in 14 of 15 cases. Caliceal fornices were better delineated on conventional urographies, whereas MRU was considered superior in the assessment of the inferior ureter sections, the urinary bladder and obstructive tumors, whose extents could be clearly marked out. Examination times of both techniques were comparable. Conclusion: These first results show that non-diuretic Gd-BOPTA enhanced MRU is comparable to conventional excretory urography for the preoperative diagnosis of pelvic tumors. Further improvements of this technique seem possible by optimization of examination intervals and injection doses. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Abschaetzung der Durchfuehrbarkeit und des klinischen Nutzens der Gd-BOPTA-gestuetzten MR-Ausscheidungsurographie (MRU) ohne zusaetzliche Diuretikagabe im Vergleich zur konventionellen Ausscheidungsurographie. Methoden: 15 Patienten mit Beckentumoren wurden praeoperativ an einem 1.5 T-Ganzkoerpersystem mit Hilfe einer atemgehaltenen, hochaufloesenden 3D-FLASH-Sequenz unmittelbar nach intra-venoeser Applikation von 0,05 mmol/kg KG Gd-BOPTA (MultiHance {sup

  14. Effects of excretory/secretory products from Anisakis simplex (Nematoda) on immune gene expression in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahlool, Qusay Zuhair Mohammad; Skovgaard, Alf; Kania, Per Walter

    2013-01-01

    Excretory/secretory (ES) products are molecules produced by parasitic nematodes, including larval Anisakis simplex, a parasite occurring in numerous marine fish hosts. The effects of these substances on host physiology have not been fully described. The present work elucidates the influence of ES...... substances on the fish immune system by measuring immune gene expression in spleen and liver of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) injected intraperitoneally with ES products isolated from A. simplex third stage larvae. The overall gene expression profile of exposed fish showed a generalized down....... This type of hydrolytic enzyme activity may play a role in nematode penetration of host tissue. In addition, based on the notion that A. simplex ES products may have an immune-depressive effect (by minimizing immune gene expression) it could also be suggested that worm enzymes directly target host immune...

  15. Comparative Assay of Glutathione S- Transferase (GSTs Activity of Excretory-Secretory Materials and Somatic Extract of Fasciola spp Parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heshmatollah Alirahmi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Fascioliasis is a worldwide parasitic disease in human and domestic animals. The causative agents of fascioliasis are Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. In the recent years, fasciola resistance to drugs has been reported in the many of publications. Fasciola spp has detoxification system including GST enzyme which may be responsible for its resistance. Therefore , the aim of the study was to assay of GST enzyme activity in fasciola parasites. Fasciola gigantica and Fasciola hepatica helminths were collected from abattoir as a live and cultured in buffer media for 4 h at 37 °C. Excretory-Secretory products were collected and stored in -80◦C. F. gigantica and Fasciola hepatica were homogenized with homogenizing buffer in a glass homogenizer to prepare of somatic extract. Suspension was then centrifuged and supernatant was stored at -80°C. In order to assay the enzyme activity, excretory-secretory and somatic extracts in the form of cocktails (potassium phosphate buffer, reduced glutathione and 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene substrates were prepared and their absorbance recorded for 5 minutes at 340 nm. The total and specific GST activity of F. gigantica somatic and ES products were obtained as 2916.00, 272.01 micromole/minute and 1.33, 1.70 micromole/minute/mg protein, respectively. Fasciola hepatica also showed 2705.00, 276.86 micromole/minute and 1.33, 1.52 micromole/minute/mg protein, respectively. These results are important for analysis of parasite survival / resistance to drugs which use for treatment of fascioliasis.

  16. Comparative Assay of Glutathione S- Transferase (GSTs Activity of Excretory-Secretory Materials and Somatic Extract of Fasciola spp Parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taghi Golmohamadi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Fascioliasis is a worldwide parasitic disease in human and domestic animals. The causative agents of fascioliasis are Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. In the recent years, fasciola resistance to drugs has been reported in the many of publications. Fasciola spp has detoxification system including GST enzyme which may be responsible for its resistance. Therefore , the aim of the study was to assay of GST enzyme activity in fasciola parasites. Fasciola gigantica and Fasciola hepatica helminths were collected from abattoir as a live and cultured in buffer media for 4 h at 37 °C. Excretory-Secretory products were collected and stored in -80◦C. F. gigantica and Fasciola hepatica were homogenized with homogenizing buffer in a glass homogenizer to prepare of somatic extract. Suspension was then centrifuged and supernatant was stored at -80°C. In order to assay the enzyme activity, excretory-secretory and somatic extracts in the form of cocktails (potassium phosphate buffer, reduced glutathione and 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene substrates were prepared and their absorbance recorded for 5 minutes at 340 nm. The total and specific GST activity of F. gigantica somatic and ES products were obtained as 2916.00, 272.01 micromole/minute and 1.33, 1.70 micromole/minute/mg protein, respectively. Fasciola hepatica also showed 2705.00, 276.86 micromole/minute and 1.33, 1.52 micromole/minute/mg protein, respectively. These results are important for analysis of parasite survival / resistance to drugs which use for treatment of fascioliasis.

  17. Eustachian tube patency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eustachian tube patency refers to how much the eustachian tube is open. The eustachian tube runs between the middle ear and the throat. It controls the pressure behind the eardrum and middle ear space. This helps keep ...

  18. Feeding tube - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007235.htm Feeding tube - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A feeding tube is a small, soft, plastic tube placed ...

  19. Performance comparison between the mycobacteria growth indicator tube system and Löwenstein-Jensen medium in the routine detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis at public health care facilities in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: preliminary results of a pragmatic clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Adriana da Silva Rezende; Huf, Gisele; Vieira, Maria Armanda; Fonseca, Leila; Ricks, Monica; Kritski, Afrânio Lineu

    2013-01-01

    In view of the fact that the World Health Organization has recommended the use of the mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT) 960 system for the diagnosis of tuberculosis and that there is as yet no evidence regarding the clinical impact of its use in health care systems, we conducted a pragmatic clinical trial to evaluate the clinical performance and cost-effectiveness of the use of MGIT 960 at two health care facilities in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, where the incidence of tuberculosis is high. Here, we summarize the methodology and preliminary results of the trial. (ISRCTN.org Identifier: ISRCTN79888843 [http://isrctn.org/]) In view of the fact that the World Health Organization has recommended the use of the mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT) 960 system for the diagnosis of tuberculosis and that there is as yet no evidence regarding the clinical impact of its use in health care systems, we conducted a pragmatic clinical trial to evaluate the clinical performance and cost-effectiveness of the use of MGIT 960 at two health care facilities in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, where the incidence of tuberculosis is high. Here, we summarize the methodology and preliminary results of the trial. (ISRCTN.org Identifier: ISRCTN79888843 [http://isrctn.org/]).

  20. Tube holding system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, R.C.

    1978-01-01

    A tube holding rig is described for the lateral support of tubes arranged in tight parcels in a heat exchanger. This tube holding rig includes not less than two tube supporting assemblies, with a space between them, located crosswise with respect to the tubes, each supporting assembly comprising a first set of parallel components in contact with the tubes, whilst a second set of components is also in contact with the tubes. These two sets of parts together define apertures through which the tubes pass [fr

  1. Comparative proteomic analysis reveals a dynamic pollen plasma membrane protein map and the membrane landscape of receptor-like kinases and transporters important for pollen tube growth and interaction with pistils in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ning; Wang, Tai

    2017-01-05

    The coordination of pollen tube (PT) growth, guidance and timely growth arrest and rupture mediated by PT-pistil interaction is crucial for the PT to transport sperm cells into ovules for double fertilization. The plasma membrane (PM) represents an important interface for cell-cell interaction, and PM proteins of PTs are pioneers for mediating PT integrity and interaction with pistils. Thus, understanding the mechanisms underlying these events is important for proteomics. Using the efficient aqueous polymer two-phase system and alkali buffer treatment, we prepared high-purity PM from mature and germinated pollen of rice. We used iTRAQ quantitative proteomic methods and identified 1,121 PM-related proteins (PMrPs) (matched to 899 loci); 192 showed differential expression in the two pollen cell types, 119 increased and 73 decreased in abundance during germination. The PMrP and differentially expressed PMrP sets all showed a functional skew toward signal transduction, transporters, wall remodeling/metabolism and membrane trafficking. Their genomic loci had strong chromosome bias. We found 37 receptor-like kinases (RLKs) from 8 kinase subfamilies and 209 transporters involved in flux of diversified ions and metabolites. In combination with the rice pollen transcriptome data, we revealed that in general, the protein expression of these PMrPs disagreed with their mRNA expression, with inconsistent mRNA expression for 74% of differentially expressed PMrPs. This study identified genome-wide pollen PMrPs, and provided insights into the membrane profile of receptor-like kinases and transporters important for pollen tube growth and interaction with pistils. These pollen PMrPs and their mRNAs showed discordant expression. This work provides resource and knowledge to further dissect mechanisms by which pollen or the PT controls PMrP abundance and monitors interactions and ion and metabolite exchanges with female cells in rice.

  2. Bender/Coiler for Tubing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltzfus, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Easy-to-use tool makes coils of tubing. Tubing to be bend clamped with stop post. Die positioned snugly against tubing. Operator turns handle to slide die along tubing, pushing tubing into spiral groove on mandrel.

  3. Clonorchis sinensis excretory-secretory products regulate migration and invasion in cholangiocarcinoma cells via extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2/nuclear factor-κB-dependent matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, Jhang Ho; Shin, Jimin; Song, In-Sung; Shim, Sungbo; Jang, Sung-Wuk

    2017-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-9 plays an important role in the invasion and metastasis of various types of cancer cells. We have previously reported that excretory-secretory products from Clonorchis sinensis increases matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression. However, the regulatory mechanisms through which matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression affects cholangiocarcinoma development remain unclear. In the current study, we examined the potential role of excretory-secretory products in regulating the migration and invasion of various cholangiocarcinoma cell lines. We demonstrated that excretory-secretory products significantly induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression and activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Reporter gene and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that excretory-secretory products induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression by enhancing the activity of nuclear factor-kappa B. Moreover, excretory-secretory products induced the degradation and phosphorylation of IκBα and stimulated nuclear factor-kappa B p65 nuclear translocation, which was regulated by extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2. Taken together, our findings indicated that the excretory-secretory product-dependent enhancement of matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity and subsequent induction of IκBα and nuclear factor-kappa B activities may contribute to the progression of cholangiocarcinoma. Copyright © 2016 Australian Society for Parasitology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Development, prevention, and treatment of feeding tube dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krom, Hilde; de Winter, J Peter; Kindermann, Angelika

    2017-06-01

    Enteral nutrition is effective in ensuring nutritional requirements and growth. However, when tube feeding lasts for a longer period, it can lead to tube dependency in the absence of medical reasons for continuation of tube feeding. Tube-dependent children are unable or refuse to start oral activities and they lack oral skills. Tube dependency has health-, psychosocial-, and economy-related consequences. Therefore, the transition to oral feeding is of great importance. However, this transition can be very difficult and needs a multidisciplinary approach. Most studies for treatment of tube dependency are based on behavioral interventions, such as family therapy, individual behavior therapy, neuro-linguistic programming, and parental anxiety reduction. Furthermore, oral motor therapy and nutritional adjustments can be helpful in tube weaning. The use of medication has been described in the literature. Although mostly chosen as the last resort, hunger-inducing methods, such as the Graz-model and the Dutch clinical hunger provocation program, are also successful in weaning children off tube feeding. The transition from tube to oral feeding is important in tube-dependent children but can be difficult. We present an overview for the prevention and treatment of tube dependency. What is known: • Longer periods of tube feeding can lead to tube dependency. • Tube weaning can be very difficult. What is new: • Weaning as soon as possible and therefore referral to a multidisciplinary team are recommended. • An overview of treatment options for tube dependency is presented in this article.

  5. Ultrasonic measurement of gap between calandria tube and liquid injection shutdown system tube in PHWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Ryong; Sohn, Seok Man; Lee, Jun Shin; Lee, Sun Ki; Lee, Jong Po

    2001-01-01

    Sag of CT or liquid injection shutdown system tubes in pressurized heavy water reactor is known to occur due to irradiation creep and growth during plant operation. When the sag of CT is big enough, the CT tube possibly comes in contact with liquid injection shutdown system tube (LIN) crossing beneath the CT, which subsequently may prevent the safe operation. It is therefore necessary to check the gap between the two tubes in order to confirm no contacts when using a proper measure periodically during the plant life. An ultrasonic gap measuring probe assembly which can be fed through viewing port installed on the calandria was developed and utilized to measure the sags of both tubes in a pressurized heavy water reactor in Korea. It was found that the centerlines of CT and LIN can be precisely detected by ultrasonic wave. The gaps between two tubes were easily obtained from the relative distance of the measured centerline elevations of the tubes. But the measured gap data observed at the viewing port were actually not the data at the crossing point of CT and LIN. To get the actual gap between two tubes, mathematical modeling for the deflection curves of two tubes was used. The sags of CT and LIN tubes were also obtained by comparison of the present centerlines with the initial elevations at the beginning of plant operation. The gaps between two tubes in the unmeasurable regions were calculated based on the measurement data and the channel power distribution

  6. Serum Symmetric Dimethylarginine as an Early Marker of Excretory Dysfunction in Canine Leishmaniosis (L. infantum Induced Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Torrent

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the study were to determine whether symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA was increased in dogs with leishmaniosis and to assess its relationship with creatinine concentration and urinary protein : creatinine ratio (UPC to determine its utility as a marker of early excretory dysfunction. Fifty-three dogs with leishmaniosis classified according to the LeishVet clinical staging (stage I, n=5, stage II, n=30; stage III, n=12; stage IV, n=6 were selected and compared with 41 clinically healthy dogs. Thirty-nine dogs with leishmaniosis were also followed up for six months. SDMA concentrations on the day of diagnosis were significantly higher in dogs with leishmaniosis with respect to control dogs and in dogs from LeishVet stage IV when compared with the other stages. Increased UPC (>0.5, SDMA (>19 μg/dL, and creatinine concentrations (≥1.4 mg/dL were found in 47.1%, 15.1%, and 9.4% of dogs with leishmaniosis, respectively. SDMA concentration was increased in 24% of proteinuric dogs, in 7% of nonproteinuric dogs, and in four of five dogs with increased creatinine. SDMA concentration ≥ 25 μg/dL was associated with clinical chronic kidney disease (CKD after six months. Our results did not demonstrate advantages in using SDMA concentration as an early marker of CKD when compared to creatinine and UPC in canine leishmaniosis.

  7. Proteinases in excretory-secretory products of Toxocara canis second-stage larvae: zymography and modeling insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Páez, Gonzalo Ernesto; Alba-Hurtado, Fernando; García-Tovar, Carlos Gerardo; Argüello-García, Raúl

    2014-01-01

    Components released in excretory-secretory products of Toxocara canis larvae (TES) include phosphatidylethanolamine-binding proteins (TES26), mucins (TES120, MUC2-5), and C-type lectins (TES32, TES70) and their biochemical, immunological, and diagnostic properties have been extensively studied albeit proteinase activities towards physiological substrates are almost unknown. Proteolytic activities in TES samples were first analyzed by gel electrophoresis with gelatin as substrate. Major activities of ~400, 120, and 32 kDa in TES were relatively similar over a broad pH range (5.5-9.0) and all these were of the serine-type as leupeptin abolished gelatinolysis. Further, the ~400 kDa component degraded all physiological substrates tested (laminin, fibronectin, albumin, and goat IgG) and the 120 kDa component degraded albumin and goat IgG while proteinases of lower MW (45, 32, and 26 kDa) only degraded laminin and fibronectin, preferentially at alkaline pH (9.0). By protein modeling approaches using the known sequences of TES components, only TES26 and MUC4 displayed folding patterns significantly related to reference serine proteinases. These data suggest that most of serine proteinase activities secreted in vitro by infective larvae of T. canis have intriguing nature but otherwise help the parasite to affect multiple components of somatic organs and bodily fluids within the infected host.

  8. Genome analysis of Excretory/Secretory proteins in Taenia solium reveals their Abundance of Antigenic Regions (AAR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Sandra; Adalid-Peralta, Laura; Palafox-Fonseca, Hector; Cantu-Robles, Vito Adrian; Soberón, Xavier; Sciutto, Edda; Fragoso, Gladis; Bobes, Raúl J; Laclette, Juan P; Yauner, Luis del Pozo; Ochoa-Leyva, Adrián

    2015-05-19

    Excretory/Secretory (ES) proteins play an important role in the host-parasite interactions. Experimental identification of ES proteins is time-consuming and expensive. Alternative bioinformatics approaches are cost-effective and can be used to prioritize the experimental analysis of therapeutic targets for parasitic diseases. Here we predicted and functionally annotated the ES proteins in T. solium genome using an integration of bioinformatics tools. Additionally, we developed a novel measurement to evaluate the potential antigenicity of T. solium secretome using sequence length and number of antigenic regions of ES proteins. This measurement was formalized as the Abundance of Antigenic Regions (AAR) value. AAR value for secretome showed a similar value to that obtained for a set of experimentally determined antigenic proteins and was different to the calculated value for the non-ES proteins of T. solium genome. Furthermore, we calculated the AAR values for known helminth secretomes and they were similar to that obtained for T. solium. The results reveal the utility of AAR value as a novel genomic measurement to evaluate the potential antigenicity of secretomes. This comprehensive analysis of T. solium secretome provides functional information for future experimental studies, including the identification of novel ES proteins of therapeutic, diagnosis and immunological interest.

  9. Toll-Like Receptor-Mediated Free Radical Generation in Clonorchis sinensis Excretory-Secretory Product-Treated Cholangiocarcinoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahk, Young Yil; Pak, Jhang Ho

    2016-10-01

    Clonorchiasis, caused by direct contact with Clonorchis sinensis worms and their excretory-secretory products (ESPs), is associated with chronic inflammation, malignant changes in bile ducts, and even cholangiocarcinogenesis. Our previous report revealed that intracellular free radicals enzymatically generated by C. sinensis ESPs cause NF-κB-mediated inflammation in human cholangiocarcinoma cells (HuCCT1). Therefore, the present study was conducted to examine the role of upstream Toll-like receptors (TLRs) on the initial host innate immune responses to infection. We found that treatment of HuCCT1 cells with native ESPs induced changes in TLR mRNA levels in a time-dependent manner, concomitant with the generation of free radicals. ESP-mediated free radical generation was markedly attenuated by preincubation of the cells with TLR1-4-neutralizing antibodies, indicating that at least TLR1 through 4 participate in stimulation of the host innate immune responses. These findings indicate that free radicals triggered by ESPs are critically involved in TLR signal transduction. Continuous signaling by this pathway may function in initiating C. sinensis infection-associated inflammation cascades, a detrimental event leading to progression to more severe hepatobiliary diseases.

  10. Proteomic analysis of the excretory/secretory products and antigenic proteins of Echinococcus granulosus adult worms from infected dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Xiao, Di; Shen, Yujuan; Han, Xiuming; Zhao, Fei; Li, Xiaohong; Wu, Weiping; Zhou, Hejun; Zhang, Jianzhong; Cao, Jianping

    2015-05-21

    Cystic echinococcosis, which is caused by Echinococcus granulosus, is one of the most widespread zoonotic helminth diseases that affects humans and livestock. Dogs, which harbor adult worms in their small intestines, are a pivotal source of E. granulosus infection in humans and domestic animals. Therefore, novel molecular approaches for the prevention and diagnosis of this parasite infection in dogs need to be developed. In this study, we performed proteomic analysis to identify excretory/secretory products (ES) and antigenic proteins of E. granulosus adult worms using two-dimensional electrophoresis, tandem matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF), and Western blotting of sera from infected dogs. This study identified 33 ES product spots corresponding to 9 different proteins and 21 antigenic protein spots corresponding to 13 different proteins. Six antigenic proteins were identified for the first time. The present study extended the existing proteomic data of E. granulosus and provides further information regarding host-parasite interactions and survival mechanisms. The results of this study contribute to vaccination and immunodiagnoses for E. granulosus infections.

  11. X-ray tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    A form of x-ray tube is described which provides satisfactory focussing of the electron beam when the beam extends for several feet from gun to target. Such a tube can be used for computerised tomographic scanning. (UK)

  12. Pressure tube type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komada, Masaoki.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To increase the safety of pressure tube type reactors by providing an additional ECCS system to an ordinary ECCS system and injecting heavy water in the reactor core tank into pressure tubes upon fractures of the tubes. Constitution: Upon fractures of pressure tubes, reduction of the pressure in the fractured tubes to the atmospheric pressure in confirmed and the electromagnetic valve is operated to completely isolate the pressure tubes from the fractured portion. Then, the heavy water in the reactor core tank flows into and spontaneously recycles through the pressure tubes to cool the fuels in the tube to prevent their meltdown. By additionally providing the separate ECCS system to the ordinary ECCS system, fuels can be cooled upon loss of coolant accidents to improve the safety of the reactors. (Moriyama, K.)

  13. Gastrostomy feeding tube - bolus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeding - gastrostomy tube - bolus; G-tube - bolus; Gastrostomy button - bolus; Bard Button - bolus; MIC-KEY - bolus ... KEY, 3 to 8 weeks after surgery. These feedings will help your child grow strong and healthy. ...

  14. Feeding tube insertion - gastrostomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002937.htm Feeding tube insertion - gastrostomy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A gastrostomy feeding tube insertion is the placement of a feeding ...

  15. Neural Tube Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neural tube defects are birth defects of the brain, spine, or spinal cord. They happen in the ... that she is pregnant. The two most common neural tube defects are spina bifida and anencephaly. In ...

  16. Determination of Immunogenic Relevant Antigens in the Excretory-Secretory (ES Products and the Lysates of Ascaridia galli Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Saffi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ascaridia galli, the largest nematode of small intestine of birds, especially the native poultry, may give rise to serious illness, pathological defects and economical losses even in modern poultry production systems. Although various measures have been undertaken to vaccinate poultry against A.galli, no satisfactory results were obtained so far. However, there is no report on the efficacy of excretory-secretory (ES proteins of A.galli larvae in immunization of poultry. Thus, the aim of the present research project was based on the use of the ES products of the larvae, in order to find the protective anti­gens.Methods: Five hundred native poultry were autopsied and adult A.galli was removed form their intestines. The eggs were harvested form the uterus of female worms and cultured at 25 ˚C in water containing 0.1 N sulphuric acid for almost a fort­night. The larvae were then freed mechanically and kept in Earl's salt solution for a few days. The supernatant solution of alive larvae containing the ES products of the larvae, as well as the sonicated alive and dead larvae, was analyzed by SDS-PAGE.Result: Many protein fractions of 15 kDa up to 200 kDa were demonstrated in lysate of these larvae. Using the serum of a hen, infected with a high numbers of A.galli, an immunogenic antigen was identified between 55 kDa to 72 kDa by Western blotting procedure.Conclusion: Finding the protein band between 55 and 72 kDa can be promising for preparation of vaccine, though more investigations are needed to prove the protective ability of this antigen.

  17. Bacterial diversity of bacteriomes and organs of reproductive, digestive and excretory systems in two cicada species (Hemiptera: Cicadidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhou; Wang, Dandan; He, Hong; Wei, Cong

    2017-01-01

    Cicadas form intimate symbioses with bacteria to obtain nutrients that are scarce in the xylem fluid they feed on. The obligate symbionts in cicadas are purportedly confined to specialized bacteriomes, but knowledge of bacterial communities associated with cicadas is limited. Bacterial communities in the bacteriomes and organs of reproductive, digestive and excretory systems of two cicada species (Platypleura kaempferi and Meimuna mongolica) were investigated using different methods, and the bacterial diversity and distribution patterns of dominant bacteria in different tissues were compared. Within each species, the bacterial communities of testes are significantly different from those of bacteriomes and ovaries. The dominant endosymbiont Candidatus Sulcia muelleri is found not only in the bacteriomes and reproductive organs, but also in the "filter chamber + conical segment" of both species. The transmission mode of this endosymbiont in the alimentary canal and its effect on physiological processes merits further study. A novel bacterium of Rhizobiales, showing ~80% similarity to Candidatus Hodgkinia cicadicola, is dominant in the bacteriomes and ovaries of P. kaempferi. Given that the genome of H. cicadicola exhibits rapid sequence evolution, it is possible that this novel bacterium is a related endosymbiont with beneficial trophic functions similar to that of H. cicadicola in some other cicadas. Failure to detect H. cicadicola in M. mongolica suggests that it has been subsequently replaced by another bacterium, a yeast or gut microbiota which compensates for the loss of H. cicadicola. The distribution of this novel Rhizobiales species in other cicadas and its identification require further investigation to help establish the definition of the bacterial genus Candidatus Hodgkinia and to provide more information on sequence divergence of related endosymbionts of cicadas. Our results highlight the complex bacterial communities of cicadas, and are informative for

  18. Bacterial diversity of bacteriomes and organs of reproductive, digestive and excretory systems in two cicada species (Hemiptera: Cicadidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Zheng

    Full Text Available Cicadas form intimate symbioses with bacteria to obtain nutrients that are scarce in the xylem fluid they feed on. The obligate symbionts in cicadas are purportedly confined to specialized bacteriomes, but knowledge of bacterial communities associated with cicadas is limited. Bacterial communities in the bacteriomes and organs of reproductive, digestive and excretory systems of two cicada species (Platypleura kaempferi and Meimuna mongolica were investigated using different methods, and the bacterial diversity and distribution patterns of dominant bacteria in different tissues were compared. Within each species, the bacterial communities of testes are significantly different from those of bacteriomes and ovaries. The dominant endosymbiont Candidatus Sulcia muelleri is found not only in the bacteriomes and reproductive organs, but also in the "filter chamber + conical segment" of both species. The transmission mode of this endosymbiont in the alimentary canal and its effect on physiological processes merits further study. A novel bacterium of Rhizobiales, showing ~80% similarity to Candidatus Hodgkinia cicadicola, is dominant in the bacteriomes and ovaries of P. kaempferi. Given that the genome of H. cicadicola exhibits rapid sequence evolution, it is possible that this novel bacterium is a related endosymbiont with beneficial trophic functions similar to that of H. cicadicola in some other cicadas. Failure to detect H. cicadicola in M. mongolica suggests that it has been subsequently replaced by another bacterium, a yeast or gut microbiota which compensates for the loss of H. cicadicola. The distribution of this novel Rhizobiales species in other cicadas and its identification require further investigation to help establish the definition of the bacterial genus Candidatus Hodgkinia and to provide more information on sequence divergence of related endosymbionts of cicadas. Our results highlight the complex bacterial communities of cicadas, and

  19. Low tube voltage computed tomography urography using low-concentration contrast media: Comparison of image quality in conventional computed tomography urography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Inpyeong; Cho, Jeong Yeon; Kim, Sang Youn; Oh, Seung-June; Ku, Ja Hyeon; Lee, Joongyup; Kim, Seung Hyup

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the feasibility and image quality of excretory CT urography performed using low iodine-concentration contrast media and low tube voltage. This prospective study enrolled 63 patients who undergoing CT urography. The subjects were randomized into two groups of an excretory phase CT urography protocol and received either 240 mg I/mL of contrast media and 80 kVp of tube voltage (low-concentration protocol, n=32) or 350 mg I/mL and 120 kVp (conventional protocol, n=31). Two readers qualitatively evaluated images for sharpness of the urinary tract, image noise, streak artifact and overall diagnostic acceptability. The mean attenuation, signal-to-noise ratio, contrast-to-noise ratio and figure of merit were measured in the urinary tract. The non-inferiority test assessed the diagnostic acceptability between the two protocol groups. The low-concentration protocol showed a significantly lower effective radiation dose (3.44 vs. 5.70 mSv, Pcontrast-to-noise ratio and figure of merit were significantly higher in the low-concentration protocol along the entire urinary tract (Pcontrast media, 80 kVp tube voltage and an iterative reconstruction algorithm is beneficial to reduce radiation dose and iodine load, and its objective image quality and subjective diagnostic acceptability is not inferior to that of conventional CT urography. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. 21 CFR 868.5800 - Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff. 868.5800 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5800 Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff. (a) Identification. A tracheostomy tube and tube cuff is a device intended to be placed into a...

  1. Heat exchanger tube tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gugel, G.

    1976-01-01

    Certain types of heat-exchangers have tubes opening through a tube sheet to a manifold having an access opening offset from alignment with the tube ends. A tool for inserting a device, such as for inspection or repair, is provided for use in such instances. The tool is formed by a flexible guide tube insertable through the access opening and having an inner end provided with a connector for connection with the opening of the tube in which the device is to be inserted, and an outer end which remains outside of the chamber, the guide tube having adequate length for this arrangement. A flexible transport hose for internally transporting the device slides inside of the guide tube. This hose is long enough to slide through the guide tube, into the heat-exchanger tube, and through the latter to the extent required for the use of the device. The guide tube must be bent to reach the end of the heat-exchanger tube and the latter may be constructed with a bend, the hose carrying anit-friction elements at interspaced locations along its length to make it possible for the hose to negotiate such bends while sliding to the location where the use of the device is required

  2. Computation and measurement of calandria tube sag in PHWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Ryong; Sohn, Seok Man

    2003-01-01

    Calandria tubes and liquid injection shutdown system (LISS) tubes in a pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR) is known to sag due to irradiation creep and growth during plant operation. When the sag of calandria tube becomes bigger, the calandria tube possibly comes in contact with LISS tube crossing beneath and calandria tube. The contact subsequently may cause the damage on the calandria tube resulting in unpredicted outage of the plant. It is therefore necessary to check the gap between the two tubes in order to periodically confirm no contact by using a proper measure during the plant life. An ultrasonic gap measuring probe assembly which can be inserted into two viewing ports of the calandria was developed in Korea and utilized to measure the sags of both tubes in the PHWR. It was found that the centerlines of calandria tubes and liquid injection shutdown system tubes can be precisely detected by ultrasonic wave. The gaps between two tubes were easily obtained from the relative distance of the measured centerline elevations of the tubes. Based on the irradiation creep equation and the measurement data, a computer program to calculate the sags was also developed. With the computer program, the sag at the end of plant life was predicted. (author)

  3. Intercostal drainage tube or intracardiac drainage tube?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Anitha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although insertion of chest drain tubes is a common medical practice, there are risks associated with this procedure, especially when inexperienced physicians perform it. Wrong insertion of the tube has been known to cause morbidity and occasional mortality. We report a case where the left ventricle was accidentally punctured leading to near-exsanguination. This report is to highlight the need for experienced physicians to supervise the procedure and train the younger physician in the safe performance of the procedure.

  4. Intercostal drainage tube or intracardiac drainage tube?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitha, N; Kamath, S Ganesh; Khymdeit, Edison; Prabhu, Manjunath

    2016-01-01

    Although insertion of chest drain tubes is a common medical practice, there are risks associated with this procedure, especially when inexperienced physicians perform it. Wrong insertion of the tube has been known to cause morbidity and occasional mortality. We report a case where the left ventricle was accidentally punctured leading to near-exsanguination. This report is to highlight the need for experienced physicians to supervise the procedure and train the younger physician in the safe performance of the procedure.

  5. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... YouTube Videos » NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia Listen NEI YouTube Videos YouTube Videos Home Age-Related Macular Degeneration ... Retinopathy of Prematurity Science Spanish Videos Webinars NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia Embedded video for NEI YouTube Videos: ...

  6. Crescimento vegetativo e produtividade de cafeeiros Conilon propagados por estacas em tubetes Vegetative growth and productivity of Conilon coffee-trees proceeding from seedlings produced of deep-rooted cuttings in plastic tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto Teixeira do Amaral

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar o crescimento vegetativo e a produtividade de cafeeiros conilon (Coffea canephora Pierre ex Froehner, oriundos de mudas produzidas por estacas plantadas inicialmente em tubetes plásticos de 50 cm³ de capacidade. O experimento foi constituído de cinco tratamentos, que corresponderam aos tempos de permanência das estacas nos tubetes: 0; 15; 30; 45 e 60 dias. Transcorridos esses tempos as mudas foram, sucessivamente, transplantadas para sacos de polietileno, contendo mistura de terra, esterco de curral e adubo químico, enviveiradas em um viveiro coberto com sombrite (50%, provido de micro aspersão automática. As mudas permaneceram no viveiro com micro aspersão automática por 150 dias, quando então foram transferidas para o viveiro de aclimatação, onde ficaram por mais 30 dias. Após esse período, em setembro de 1999, as mudas foram plantadas em condições de campo, na área experimental do CCA-UFES, em Alegre, Sul do Estado do Espírito Santo. Foram feitas as seguintes medições: crescimento de ramos ortotrópicos e plagiotrópicos no segundo ano após o plantio e as quatro primeiras colheitas. A produção inicial de mudas de café conilon em tubetes não afetou o crescimento vegetativo, tampouco a produção de frutos.The objective of this work was to evaluate the vegetative growth and productivity of conilon coffee-tree (Coffea canephora Pierre ex Froehner, proceeding from seedlings produced of deep-rooted cuttings initially in plastic tubes with capacity of 50 cm³. The treatments were constituted of permanence period in plastic tube for 0; 15; 30; 45 and 60 days. After these periods the plants were transplanted for polyethylene bags filled with substrate (soil + sand + manure bovine and chemical fertilization maintained on the greenhouse with environment under shading canvas (50% and automatic micro aspersion during 150 days. After this time the plants were maintained during 30 days in

  7. Biocompatibility of Tygon® tubing in microfluidic cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiao; Jeffries, Rex E; Acosta, Miguel A; Tikunov, Andrey P; Macdonald, Jeffrey M; Walker, Glenn M; Gamcsik, Michael P

    2015-02-01

    Growth of the MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line in microfluidic channels was inhibited when culture media was delivered to the channels via microbore Tygon® tubing. Culture media incubated within this tubing also inhibited growth of these cells in conventional 96-well plates. These detrimental effects were not due to depletion of critical nutrients due to adsorption of media components onto the tubing surface. A pH change was also ruled out as a cause. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the cell growth media before and after incubation in the tubing confirmed no detectable loss of media components but did detect the presence of additional unidentified signals in the aliphatic region of the spectrum. These results indicate leaching of a chemical species from microbore Tygon® tubing that can affect cell growth in microfluidic devices.

  8. Comparison of excretory-secretory antigen and positive faecal supernatant antigen in the detection of Echinococcus granulosus infection in dogs by CIEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. Prathiush

    Full Text Available Coproantigen detection of Echinococcosis in dogs by counter immunoelectrophoresis was standardized. Adult Echinococcus granulosus worms were obtained from intestine of a necropsied positive dog. Excretory-secretory antigen was prepared by culturing adult worms in Medium 199 (pH 7.4. Faeces of positive dog were collected and fecal supernatant was prepared and used for coproantigen detection. CIEP was carried out using tris-borate buffer (pH 8.0 at a constant current of 8mA/slide for 60 minutes. CIEP detected infection with both the antigens. [Vet World 2009; 2(11.000: 421-422

  9. Pediatric cuffed endotracheal tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neerja Bhardwaj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Endotracheal intubation in children is usually performed utilizing uncuffed endotracheal tubes for conduct of anesthesia as well as for prolonged ventilation in critical care units. However, uncuffed tubes may require multiple changes to avoid excessive air leak, with subsequent environmental pollution making the technique uneconomical. In addition, monitoring of ventilatory parameters, exhaled volumes, and end-expiratory gases may be unreliable. All these problems can be avoided by use of cuffed endotracheal tubes. Besides, cuffed endotracheal tubes may be of advantage in special situations like laparoscopic surgery and in surgical conditions at risk of aspiration. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scans in children have found the narrowest portion of larynx at rima glottides. Cuffed endotracheal tubes, therefore, will form a complete seal with low cuff pressure of <15 cm H 2 O without any increase in airway complications. Till recently, the use of cuffed endotracheal tubes was limited by variations in the tube design marketed by different manufacturers. The introduction of a new cuffed endotracheal tube in the market with improved tracheal sealing characteristics may encourage increased safe use of these tubes in clinical practice. A literature search using search words "cuffed endotracheal tube" and "children" from 1980 to January 2012 in PUBMED was conducted. Based on the search, the advantages and potential benefits of cuffed ETT are reviewed in this article.

  10. In Situ Growth of MnO2 Nanosheets on N-Doped Carbon Nanotubes Derived from Polypyrrole Tubes for Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Xu; Li, Qi; Xu, Dan; Guo, Jiangna; Yan, Feng

    2018-03-02

    Nitrogen-doped porous carbon nanotubes@MnO 2 (N-CNTs@MnO 2 ) nanocomposites are prepared through the in situ growth of MnO 2 nanosheets on N-CNTs derived from polypyrrole nanotubes (PNTs). Benefiting from the synergistic effects between N-CNTs (high conductivity and N doping level) and MnO 2 nanosheets (high theoretical capacity), the as-prepared N-CNTs@MnO 2 -800 nanocomposites show a specific capacitance of 219 F g -1 at a current density of 1.0 A g -1 , which is higher than that of pure MnO 2 nanosheets (128 F g -1 ) and PNTs (42 F g -1 ) in 0.5 m Na 2 SO 4 solution. Meanwhile, the capacitance retention of 86.8 % (after 1000 cycles at 10 A g -1 ) indicates an excellent electrochemical performance of N-CNTs@MnO 2 prepared in this work. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Lunar Lava Tube Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Cheryl Lynn; Walden, Bryce; Billings, Thomas L.; Reeder, P. Douglas

    1992-01-01

    Large (greater than 300 m diameter) lava tube caverns appear to exist on the Moon and could provide substantial safety and cost benefits for lunar bases. Over 40 m of basalt and regolith constitute the lava tube roof and would protect both construction and operations. Constant temperatures of -20 C reduce thermal stress on structures and machines. Base designs need not incorporate heavy shielding, so lightweight materials can be used and construction can be expedited. Identification and characterization of lava tube caverns can be incorporated into current precursor lunar mission plans. Some searches can even be done from Earth. Specific recommendations for lunar lava tube search and exploration are (1) an Earth-based radar interferometer, (2) an Earth-penetrating radar (EPR) orbiter, (3) kinetic penetrators for lunar lava tube confirmation, (4) a 'Moon Bat' hovering rocket vehicle, and (5) the use of other proposed landers and orbiters to help find lunar lava tubes.

  12. Categorising YouTube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Thomas Mosebo

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a genre analytical approach to creating a typology of the User Generated Content (UGC) of YouTube. The article investigates the construction of navigation processes on the YouTube website. It suggests a pragmatic genre approach that is expanded through a focus on YouTube......’s technological affordances. Through an analysis of the different pragmatic contexts of YouTube, it is argued that a taxonomic understanding of YouTube must be analysed in regards to the vacillation of a user-driven bottom-up folksonomy and a hierarchical browsing system that emphasises a culture of competition...... and which favours the already popular content of YouTube. With this taxonomic approach, the UGC videos are registered and analysed in terms of empirically based observations. The article identifies various UGC categories and their principal characteristics. Furthermore, general tendencies of the UGC within...

  13. Steam generator tube performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatone, O.S.; Pathania, R.S.

    1983-08-01

    A review of the performance of steam generator tubes in 110 water-cooled nuclear power reactors showed that tubes were plugged at 46 (42 percent) of the reactors. The number of tubes removed from service increased from 1900 (0.14 percent) in 1980 to 4692 (0.30 percent) in 1981. The leading causes of tube failures were stress corrosion cracking from the primary side, stress corrosion cracking (or intergranular attack) from the secondary side and pitting corrosion. The lowest incidence of corrosion-induced defects from the secondary side occurred in reactors that used all-volatile treatment since start-up. At one reactor a large number of degraded tubes were repaired by sleeving which is expected to become an important method of tube repair in the future

  14. Excretory/secretory-products of Echinococcus multilocularis larvae induce apoptosis and tolerogenic properties in dendritic cells in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Komguep Nono

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alveolar echinococcosis, caused by Echinococcus multilocularis larvae, is a chronic disease associated with considerable modulation of the host immune response. Dendritic cells (DC are key effectors in shaping the immune response and among the first cells encountered by the parasite during an infection. Although it is assumed that E.multilocularis, by excretory/secretory (E/S-products, specifically affects DC to deviate immune responses, little information is available on the molecular nature of respective E/S-products and their mode of action. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We established cultivation systems for exposing DC to live material from early (oncosphere, chronic (metacestode and late (protoscolex infectious stages. When co-incubated with Echinococcus primary cells, representing the invading oncosphere, or metacestode vesicles, a significant proportion of DC underwent apoptosis and the surviving DC failed to mature. In contrast, DC exposed to protoscoleces upregulated maturation markers and did not undergo apoptosis. After pre-incubation with primary cells and metacestode vesicles, DC showed a strongly impaired ability to be activated by the TLR ligand LPS, which was not observed in DC pre-treated with protoscolex E/S-products. While none of the larvae induced the secretion of pro-inflammatory IL-12p70, the production of immunosuppressive IL-10 was elevated in response to primary cell E/S-products. Finally, upon incubation with DC and naïve T-cells, E/S-products from metacestode vesicles led to a significant expansion of Foxp3+ T cells in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report on the induction of apoptosis in DC by cestode E/S-products. Our data indicate that the early infective stage of E. multilocularis is a strong inducer of tolerance in DC, which is most probably important for generating an immunosuppressive environment at an infection phase in which the parasite is highly vulnerable to host attacks. The

  15. Rectangular drift tube characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisov, D.S.; Musienko, Yu.V.

    1985-01-01

    Results on the study of the characteristics of a 50 x 100 mm aluminium drift tube are presented. The tube was filled with argon-methane and argon-isobutane mixtures. With 16 per cent methane concentration the largest deviation from a linear relation between the drift time and the drift path over 50 mm is less than 2 mm. The tube filled with argon-isobutane mixture is capable of operating in a limited streamer mode

  16. Categorising YouTube

    OpenAIRE

    Simonsen, Thomas Mosebo

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a genre analytical approach to creating a typology of the User Generated Content (UGC) of YouTube. The article investigates the construction of navigation processes on the YouTube website. It suggests a pragmatic genre approach that is expanded through a focus on YouTube’s technological affordances. Through an analysis of the different pragmatic contexts of YouTube, it is argued that a taxonomic understanding of YouTube must be analysed in regards to the vacillation of a...

  17. Pressure tube reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susuki, Akira; Murata, Shigeto; Minato, Akihiko.

    1993-01-01

    In a pressure tube reactor, a reactor core is constituted by arranging more than two units of a minimum unit combination of a moderator sealing pipe containing a calandria tube having moderators there between and a calandria tube and moderators. The upper header and a lower header of the calandria tank containing moderators are communicated by way of the moderator sealing tube. Further, a gravitationally dropping mechanism is disposed for injecting neutron absorbing liquid to a calandria gas injection portion. A ratio between a moderator volume and a fuel volume is defined as a function of the inner diameter of the moderator sealing tube, the outer diameter of the calandria tube and the diameter of fuel pellets, and has no influence to intervals of a pressure tube lattice. The interval of the pressure tube lattice is enlarged without increasing the size of the pressure tube, to improve production efficiency of the reactor and set a coolant void coefficient more negative, thereby enabling to improve self controllability and safety. Further, the reactor scram can be conducted by injecting neutron absorbing liquid. (N.H.)

  18. Heated Tube Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Heated Tube Facility at NASA GRC investigates cooling issues by simulating conditions characteristic of rocket engine thrust chambers and high speed airbreathing...

  19. Steam generator tube performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatone, O.S.; Pathania, R.S.

    1984-10-01

    A review of the performance of steam generator tubes in 116 water-cooled nuclear power reactors showed that tubes were plugged at 54 (46 percent) of the reactors. The number of tubes removed from service decreased from 4 692 (0.30 percent) in 1981 to 3 222 (0.20 percent) in 1982. The leading causes of tube failures were stress corrosion cracking from the primary side, stress corrosion cracking (or intergranular attack) from the secondary side and pitting corrosion. The lowest incidence of corrosion-induced defects from the secondary side occurred in reactors that have used only volatile treatment, with or without condensate demineralization

  20. Steam generator tube performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatone, O.S.; Tapping, R.L.; Stipan, L.

    1992-03-01

    A survey of steam generator operating experience for 1986 has been carried out for 184 pressurized water and pressurized heavy-water reactors, and 1 water-cooled, graphite-moderated reactor. Tubes were plugged at 75 of the reactors (40.5%). In 1986, 3737 tubes were plugged (0.14% of those in service) and 3148 tubes were repaired by sleeving. A small number of reactors accounted for the bulk of the plugged tubes, a phenomenon consistent with previous years. For 1986, the available tubesheet sludge data for 38 reactors has been compiled into tabular form, and sludge/deposit data will be incorporated into all future surveys

  1. Circumferential buckling instability of a growing cylindrical tube

    KAUST Repository

    Moulton, D.E.

    2011-03-01

    A cylindrical elastic tube under uniform radial external pressure will buckle circumferentially to a non-circular cross-section at a critical pressure. The buckling represents an instability of the inner or outer edge of the tube. This is a common phenomenon in biological tissues, where it is referred to as mucosal folding. Here, we investigate this buckling instability in a growing elastic tube. A change in thickness due to growth can have a dramatic impact on circumferential buckling, both in the critical pressure and the buckling pattern. We consider both single- and bi-layer tubes and multiple boundary conditions. We highlight the competition between geometric effects, i.e. the change in tube dimensions, and mechanical effects, i.e. the effect of residual stress, due to differential growth. This competition can lead to non-intuitive results, such as a tube growing to be thinner and yet buckle at a higher pressure. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Control rod guide tube of nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suda, Yoshitaka; Ito, Kenji; Matsumoto, Kunio.

    1994-01-01

    Zr having a residual tensile stress of 3 to 10kg/mm 2 in a circumferential direction is used for the main ingredient of a control guide tube of a nuclear reactor. For this purpose, an appropriate correction method such as a roll-correction, tension-correction and press-correction method is applied to an existent Zr-base alloy tube with no substantial residual stress. If the residual tensile stress in the circumferential direction is smaller than 3kg/mm 2 , an effect sufficient to suppress irradiation growth is not obtainable, if it exceeds 10kg/mm 2 , dimensional changes, cracks or the like occurs locally since the wall thickness of the control rod guide tube is small and, accordingly, this often results in failed products as the control guide tube. (N.H.)

  3. Early report: Comparison of breath-hold MR excretory urography, Doppler ultrasound and isotope renography in evaluation of symptomatic hydronephrosis in pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, J.A.; Tomlinson, A.J.; Weston, M.J.; Lloyd, S.N.

    2000-01-01

    AIM: To compare assessment by MR excretory urography (MREU), Doppler ultrasound and isotope renography of women with symptomatic hydronephrosis in pregnancy and to define its cause. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eleven women at 19-34 weeks of gestation were studied prospectively with gadolinium-enhanced breath-hold gradient echo MREU and transabdominal Doppler ultrasound compared with a 'gold standard' of isotope renography employing frusemide challenge. All studies were performed within 24 h, were reported independently in a blinded fashion and employed clearly defined criteria. Obstetric and infant outcomes were obtained. RESULTS: There were no adverse reactions to gadolinium administration in pregnancy and no adverse obstetric or infant outcomes. Three of the 11 women were unable to tolerate the complete MREU protocol. Ultrasound indices could not be used to predict ureteric obstruction as shown by isotope renography. MREU agreed with renographic findings in five of the six cases with obstruction and in two without obstruction. MREU directly demonstrated hydronephrosis to result from extrinsic compression of the ureter between the gravid uterus and iliopsoas muscle. CONCLUSION: MR excretory urography is a promising technique which affords equivalent functional and additional anatomical information to isotope renography. It is more accurate than Doppler ultrasound in the assessment of ureteric obstruction in pregnancy. Spencer, J. A. (2000)

  4. Steam generator tube failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, P.E.; Shah, V.N.; Ward, L.W.; Ellison, P.G.

    1996-04-01

    A review and summary of the available information on steam generator tubing failures and the impact of these failures on plant safety is presented. The following topics are covered: pressurized water reactor (PWR), Canadian deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor, and Russian water moderated, water cooled energy reactor (VVER) steam generator degradation, PWR steam generator tube ruptures, the thermal-hydraulic response of a PWR plant with a faulted steam generator, the risk significance of steam generator tube rupture accidents, tubing inspection requirements and fitness-for-service criteria in various countries, and defect detection reliability and sizing accuracy. A significant number of steam generator tubes are defective and are removed from service or repaired each year. This wide spread damage has been caused by many diverse degradation mechanisms, some of which are difficult to detect and predict. In addition, spontaneous tube ruptures have occurred at the rate of about one every 2 years over the last 20 years, and incipient tube ruptures (tube failures usually identified with leak detection monitors just before rupture) have been occurring at the rate of about one per year. These ruptures have caused complex plant transients which have not always been easy for the reactor operators to control. Our analysis shows that if more than 15 tubes rupture during a main steam line break, the system response could lead to core melting. Although spontaneous and induced steam generator tube ruptures are small contributors to the total core damage frequency calculated in probabilistic risk assessments, they are risk significant because the radionuclides are likely to bypass the reactor containment building. The frequency of steam generator tube ruptures can be significantly reduced through appropriate and timely inspections and repairs or removal from service

  5. Method for shaping polyethylene tubing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, R. C.

    1981-01-01

    Method forms polyethylene plastic tubing into configurations previously only possible with metal tubing. By using polyethylene in place of copper or stain less steel tubing inlow pressure systems, fabrication costs are significantly reduced. Polyethylene tubing can be used whenever low pressure tubing is needed in oil operations, aircraft and space applications, powerplants, and testing laboratories.

  6. Pyrotechnic Tubing Connector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Thomas J.; Yang, Robert A.

    1988-01-01

    Tool forms mechanical seal at joint without levers or hydraulic apparatus. Proposed tool intended for use in outer space used on Earth by heavily garbed workers to join tubing in difficult environments. Called Pyrotool, used with Lokring (or equivalent) fittings. Piston slides in cylinder when pushed by gas from detonating pyrotechnic charge. Impulse of piston compresses fittings, sealing around butting ends of tubes.

  7. Molybdenum Tube Characterization report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaux II, Miles Frank [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Usov, Igor Olegovich [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-07

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques have been utilized to produce free-standing molybdenum tubes with the end goal of nuclear fuel clad applications. In order to produce tubes with properties desirable for this application, deposition rates were lowered requiring long deposition durations on the order of 50 hours. Standard CVD methods as well as fluidized-bed CVD (FBCVD) methods were applied towards these objectives. Characterization of the tubes produced in this manner revealed material suitable for fuel clad applications, but lacking necessary uniformity across the length of the tubes. The production of freestanding Mo tubes that possess the desired properties across their entire length represents an engineering challenge that can be overcome in a next iteration of the deposition system.

  8. Influence of drugs with antioxidant properties on the state of the sperm antioxidant system in men with excretory-toxic forms of infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.K. Onufrovych

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the development of many disorders of the reproductive function in men involves processes of free radical oxidation, the purpose of this study was to form an evaluation of the pro- and antioxidant status of sperm and to restore its biological usefulness in men with excretory-toxic forms of infertility by using drugs with antioxidant properties. It is shown that excretory-toxic forms of infertility in men are mostly caused by such infectious agents as Chlamydia (22%, Chlamydia + Ureaplasma (16%, Chlamydia + Trichomonas (13%, Ureaplasma (10%. This reduces the total number of sperm in the ejaculate by 2.7 times, and motility by 1.8 times. The number of abnormal forms increases by 1.75 times. With the development of chronic inflammation of the male sex organs sperm lipid peroxidation increases by 1.3 times while the activity of glutathione peroxidase decreases (by 2.3 times and that of glutathione reductase (by 1.7 times. We observed a close correlation between the low biological quality of sperm (low concentration, low number and motility of sperm in the ejaculate with activation of lipid peroxidation and inhibition of activity of the glutathione antioxidant system. In the case of superoxide dismutase, the negative impact of reactive oxygen species on this enzyme was not observed. A course of drugs with antioxidant properties – vitamin E, vitamin C and zinc sulfate leads to improvement in the indicators on the spermagram (mostly sperm mobility and morphology, to reduction of the number of peroxide compounds and activation of the glutathione antioxidant system. In this case, the activity of glutathione peroxidase is increased by 1.5 times and the activity of glutathione reductase by 1.3 times. The activity of superoxide dismutase at the same time approaches the norm for zoospermia. The data obtained show that one of the pathogenic factors of the chronic inflammation of male sex organs, considered as a main developmental reason for infertility

  9. Automation in tube finishing bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatnagar, Prateek; Satyadev, B.; Raghuraman, S.; Syama Sundara Rao, B.

    1997-01-01

    Automation concept in tube finishing bay, introduced after the final pass annealing of PHWR tubes resulted in integration of number of sub-systems in synchronisation with each other to produce final cut fuel tubes of specified length, tube finish etc. The tube finishing bay which was physically segregated into four distinct areas: 1. tube spreader and stacking area, 2. I.D. sand blasting area, 3. end conditioning, wad blowing, end capping and O.D. wet grinding area, 4. tube inspection, tube cutting and stacking area has been studied

  10. Helically coiled tube heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, A.M.

    1981-01-01

    In a heat exchanger such as a steam generator for a nuclear reactor, two or more bundles of helically coiled tubes are arranged in series with the tubes in each bundle integrally continuing through the tube bundles arranged in series therewith. Pitch values for the tubing in any pair of tube bundles, taken transverse to the path of the reactor coolant flow about the tubes, are selected as a ratio of two unequal integers to permit efficient operation of each tube bundle while maintaining the various tube bundles of the heat exchanger within a compact envelope. Preferably, the helix angle and tube pitch parallel to the path of coolant flow are constant for all tubes in a single bundle so that the tubes are of approximately the same length within each bundle

  11. Steam generator tube performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatone, O.S.; Pathania, R.S.

    1982-04-01

    The performance of steam generator tubes in water-cooled nuclear power reactors has been reviewed for 1980. Tube defects occurred at 38% of the 97 reactors surveyed. This is a marginal improvement over 1979 when defects occurred at 41% of the reactors. The number of failed tubes was also lower, 0.14% of the tubes in service in 1980 compared with 0.20% of those in service in 1979. Analysis of the causes of these failures indicates that stress corrosion cracking was the leading failure mechanism. Reactors that used all-volatile treatment of secondary water, with or without full-flow condensate demineralization since start-up showed the lowest incidence of corrosion-related defects

  12. X-ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webley, R.S.

    1975-01-01

    The object of the invention described is to provide an X-ray tube providing a scanned X-ray output which does not require a scanned electron beam. This is obtained by an X-ray tube including an anode which is rotatable about an axis, and a source of a beam of energy, for example an electron beam, arranged to impinge on a surface of the anode to generate X-radiation substantially at the region of incidence on the anode surface. The anode is rotatable about the axis to move the region of incidence over the surface. The anode is so shaped that the rotation causes the region of incidence to move in a predetermined manner relative to fixed parts of the tube so that the generated X-radiation is scanned in a predetermined manner relative to the tube. (UK)

  13. Fuel assembly guide tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabsen, F.S.

    1979-01-01

    This invention is directed toward a nuclear fuel assembly guide tube arrangement which restrains spacer grid movement due to coolant flow and which offers secondary means for supporting a fuel assembly during handling and transfer operations

  14. Bull Moose Tube Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA is providing notice of a proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against the Bull Moose Tube Company, a business located at 1819 Clarkson Road, Chesterfield, MO, 63017, for alleged violations at the facility located at 406 East Industrial Drive,

  15. Tracheostomy tube - eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trach - eating ... take your first bites. Certain factors may make eating or swallowing harder, such as: Changes in the ... easier to swallow. Suction the tracheostomy tube before eating. This will keep you from coughing while eating, ...

  16. In vivo thermoluminescent dosimetry in studies of helicoid computed tomography and excretory urogram; Dosimetria termoluminiscente In vivo en estudios de tomografia computada helicoidal y urograma excretor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz C, D.; Azorin N, J. [UAM-I, 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Saucedo A, V.M.; Barajas O, J.L. [Unidad de Especialidades Medicas, Secretaria de la Defensa Nacional, 11500 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The dosimetry is the field of measurement of the ionizing radiations. It final objective is to determine the 'absorbed dose' for people. The dosimetry is vital in the radiotherapy, the radiological protection and the treatment technologies by irradiation. Presently work, we develop 'In vivo' dosimetry, in exposed patients to studies of helical computed tomography and excretory urogram. The dosimetry 'in vivo' was carried out in 20 patients selected aleatorily, for each medical study. The absorbed dose was measured in points of interest located in crystalline, thyroid, chest and abdomen of each patient, by means of thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLD) LiF: Mg,Cu,P + Ptfe of national fabrication. Also it was quantified the dose in the working area. (Author)

  17. Streak tube development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinrichs, C.K.; Estrella, R.M.

    1979-01-01

    A research program for the development of a high-speed, high-resolution streak image tube is described. This is one task in the development of a streak camera system with digital electronic readout, whose primary application is for diagnostics in underground nuclear testing. This program is concerned with the development of a high-resolution streak image tube compatible with x-ray input and electronic digital output. The tube must be capable of time resolution down to 100 psec and spatial resolution to provide greater than 1000 resolution elements across the cathode (much greater than presently available). Another objective is to develop the capability to make design changes in tube configurations to meet different experimental requirements. A demountable prototype streak tube was constructed, mounted on an optical bench, and placed in a vacuum system. Initial measurements of the tube resolution with an undeflected image show a resolution of 32 line pairs per millimeter over a cathode diameter of one inch, which is consistent with the predictions of the computer simulations. With the initial set of unoptmized deflection plates, the resolution pattern appeared to remain unchanged for static deflections of +- 1/2-inch, a total streak length of one inch, also consistent with the computer simulations. A passively mode-locked frequency-doubled dye laser is being developed as an ultraviolet pulsed light source to measure dynamic tube resolution during streaking. A sweep circuit to provide the deflection voltage in the prototype tube has been designed and constructed and provides a relatively linear ramp voltage with ramp durations adjustable between 10 and 1000 nsec

  18. Researching YouTube

    OpenAIRE

    Arthurs, Jane; Drakopoulou, Sophia; Gandini, Alessandro

    2018-01-01

    ‘Researching YouTube’ introduces the special issue of Convergence which arose out of an international academic conference on YouTube that was held in London at Middlesex University in September 2016. The conference aimed to generate a robust overview of YouTube’s changing character and significance after its first ten years of development by creating a productive dialogue between speakers from different disciplines and cultures, and between YouTube-specific research and wider debates in media...

  19. Tubing crimping pliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindholm, G.T.

    1981-02-27

    The disclosure relates to pliers and more particularly to pliers for crimping two or more pieces of copper tubing together prior to their being permanently joined by brazing, soldering or the like. A die containing spring-loaded pins rotates within a cammed ring in the head of the pliers. As the die rotates, the pins force a crimp on tubing held within the pliers.

  20. Demonstration for the Applicability of the EPRI ETSS on the SG Tube Wear Defects Formed at the Tube Support Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Ki Seok; Cheon, Keun Young; Nam, Min Woo; Min, Kyong Mahn

    2013-01-01

    of domestic OPR-1000 were found by Eddy Current Testing(ECT) and those abnormally greater defects were not expected considering the known growth rate of the wear defects. To obtain the precise depth and profile of the wear defect, specific wear scar standard tube containing a variety of wear depth was fabricated and Bobbin coils and MRPC R (Motorized Rotating Pancake Coils) were applied to the STD tube and subsequently the SG tubes were examined by those probes

  1. Demonstration for the Applicability of the EPRI ETSS on the SG Tube Wear Defects Formed at the Tube Support Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Ki Seok; Cheon, Keun Young; Nam, Min Woo [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. Ltd, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Min, Kyong Mahn [Universal Monitoring and Inspection Inc., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    tubes of domestic OPR-1000 were found by Eddy Current Testing(ECT) and those abnormally greater defects were not expected considering the known growth rate of the wear defects. To obtain the precise depth and profile of the wear defect, specific wear scar standard tube containing a variety of wear depth was fabricated and Bobbin coils and MRPC{sup R} (Motorized Rotating Pancake Coils) were applied to the STD tube and subsequently the SG tubes were examined by those probes.

  2. Three types of gall-bladder motility at men with chronic cholecystitis and pyelonephritis and accompanying their parameters of kidney excretory function as well as metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana M Ivanyts’ka

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Previously it has been shown that balneotherapy in the spa Truskavets’ (Ukraїna in men with chronic cholecystitis combined with pyelonephritis causes changes in gall-bladder motility. This is combined with changes in diurese and urinary excretion of metabolites.Individual analysis revealed not only quantitative but also qualitative differences in the postprandial motility of the gall-bladder. The purpose of this study is to identify the parameters of kidney excretory function as well as metabolism under which three types of the gall-bladdermotility skills differ significantly from each other. Materialandmethods. The object of observationwere the same ones 22men aged24-70 years old,who cameto the spaTruskavets’ for the treatment of chronic cholecystitiscombined withpyelonephritis inremission. On thetone and motility of gall-bladder judged byits fasting and postprandial volume (echocamera “Radmir”. In the daily  determined content of oxalate and nitrogen metabolites: creatinine, urea and uric acid, electrolytes: phosphates, chloride, calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium. Nitrogenous metabolites in plasma of venous blood were determined also. The survey was conducted twice, before and after balneotherapy. Results. The method of cluster analysis has formed three homogeneous cholekinetics groups, namely:normokinesia as well as hypertonic-hyperkinetic and hyperkinetic-hypertonic dyskinesia.The method of discriminatory analysis revealed 13 parameters of daily urine and three parameters of blood, as well as body weight and height, electrokinetic index and Kerdoe’s index, in the totality of which three types of cholekinetics are clearly delineated.Conclusion. The type of postprandial cholekinetics is naturally associated with a number of parameters of the excretory renal function and metabolism.

  3. Comparative assay of glutathione S-transferase (GSTs) activity of excretory-secretory materials and somatic extract of Fasciola spp parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alirahmi, Heshmatollah; Farahnak, Ali; Golmohamadi, Taghi; Esharghian, Mohammad Reza

    2010-01-01

    Fascioliasis is a worldwide parasitic disease in human and domestic animals. The causative agents of fascioliasis are Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. In the recent years, fasciola resistance to drugs has been reported in the many of publications. Fasciola spp has detoxification system including GST enzyme which may be responsible for its resistance. Therefore , the aim of the study was to assay of GST enzyme activity in fasciola parasites. Fasciola gigantica and Fasciola hepatica helminths were collected from abattoir as a live and cultured in buffer media for 4 h at 37 °C. Excretory-Secretory products were collected and stored in -80◦C. F. gigantica and Fasciola hepatica were homogenized with homogenizing buffer in a glass homogenizer to prepare of somatic extract. Suspension was then centrifuged and supernatant was stored at -80°C. In order to assay the enzyme activity, excretory-secretory and somatic extracts in the form of cocktails (potassium phosphate buffer, reduced glutathione and 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene substrates) were prepared and their absorbance recorded for 5 minutes at 340 nm. The total and specific GST activity of F. gigantica somatic and ES products were obtained as 2916.00, 272.01 micromole/minute and 1.33, 1.70 micromole/minute/mg protein, respectively. Fasciola hepatica also showed 2705.00, 276.86 micromole/minute and 1.33, 1.52 micromole/minute/mg protein, respectively. These results are important for analysis of parasite survival / resistance to drugs which use for treatment of fascioliasis.

  4. Pressure tube reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Osamu; Kumasaka, Katsuyuki.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To remove the heat of reactor core using a great amount of moderators at the periphery of the reactor core as coolants. Constitution: Heat of a reactor core is removed by disposing a spontaneous recycling cooling device for cooling moderators in a moderator tank, without using additional power driven equipments. That is, a spontaneous recycling cooling device for cooling the moderators in the moderator tank is disposed. Further, the gap between the inner wall of a pressure tube guide pipe disposed through the vertical direction of a moderator tank and the outer wall of a pressure tube inserted through the guide pipe is made smaller than the rupture distortion caused by the thermal expansion upon overheating of the pressure tube and greater than the minimum gap required for heat shiels between the pressure tube and the pressure tube guide pipe during usual operation. In this way, even if such an accident as can not using a coolant cooling device comprising power driven equipment should occur in the pressure tube type reactor, the rise in the temperature of the reactor core can be retarded to obtain a margin with time. (Kamimura, M.)

  5. Tube spacer grid for a heat-exchanger tube bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheidl, H.

    1976-01-01

    A tube spacer grid for a heat-exchanger tube bundle is formed by an annular grid frame having a groove formed in its inner surface in which the interspaced grid bars have their ends positioned and held in interspaced relationship by short sections of tubes passed through holes axially formed in the grid frame so that the tubes are positioned between the ends of the grid bars in the grooves. The tube sections may be cut from the same tubes used to form the tube bundle. 5 claims, 3 drawing figures

  6. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... search for current job openings visit HHS USAJobs Home >> NEI YouTube Videos >> NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia Listen NEI YouTube Videos YouTube Videos Home Age-Related Macular Degeneration Amblyopia Animations Blindness Cataract ...

  7. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... search for current job openings visit HHS USAJobs Home » NEI YouTube Videos » NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia Listen NEI YouTube Videos YouTube Videos Home Age-Related Macular Degeneration Amblyopia Animations Blindness Cataract ...

  8. Tube plug removal machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    In a nuclear steam generator wherein some faulty tubes have been isolated by mechanical plugging, to remove a selected plug without damaging the associated tube, a plug removal machine is used. The machine drills into a plug portion with a tap drill bit having a drill portion a tap portion and a threaded portion, engaging that plug portion with the threaded portion after the drilled hole has been threaded by the tap portion thereof, and removing a portion of the plug in the tube with a counterbore drill bit mounted concentrically about the tap drill bit. A trip pin and trip spline disengage the tap drill bit from the motor. The counterbore drill bit is thereafter self-centered with respect to the tube and plug about the now stationary tap drill bit. After a portion of the plug has been removed by the counterbore drill bit, pulling on the top drill bit by grippers on slots will remove the remaining plug portion from the tube. (author)

  9. Categorising YouTube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Mosebo Simonsen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a genre analytical approach to creating a typology of the User Generated Content (UGC of YouTube. The article investigates the construction of navigationprocesses on the YouTube website. It suggests a pragmatic genre approach that is expanded through a focus on YouTube’s technological affordances. Through an analysis of the different pragmatic contexts of YouTube, it is argued that a taxonomic understanding of YouTube must be analysed in regards to the vacillation of a user-driven bottom-up folksonomy and a hierarchical browsing system that emphasises a culture of competition and which favours the already popular content of YouTube. With this taxonomic approach, the UGC videos are registered and analysed in terms of empirically based observations. The article identifies various UGC categories and their principal characteristics. Furthermore, general tendencies of the UGC within the interacting relationship of new and old genres are discussed. It is argued that the utility of a conventional categorical system is primarily of analytical and theoretical interest rather than as a practical instrument.

  10. Measuring of tube expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogeleer, J. P.

    1985-01-01

    The expansion of the primary tubes or sleeves of the steam generator of a nuclear reactor plant are measured while the tubes or sleeves are being expanded. A primary tube or sleeve is expanded by high pressure of water which flows through a channel in an expander body. The water is supplied through an elongated conductor and is introduced through a connector on the shank connected to the conductor at its outer end. A wire extends through the mandrel and through the conductor to the end of the connector. At its inner end the wire is connected to a tapered pin which is subject to counteracting forces produced by the pressure of the water. The force on the side where the wire is connected to the conductor is smaller than on the opposite side. The tapered pin is moved in the direction of the higher force and extrudes the wire outwardly of the conductor. The tapered surface of the tapered pin engages transverse captive plungers which are maintained in engagement with the expanding tube or sleeve as they are moved outwardly by the tapered pin. The wire and the connector extend out of the generator and, at its outer end, the wire is connected to an indicator which measures the extent to which the wire is moved by the tapered pin, thus measuring the expansion of the tube or sleeve as it progresses

  11. The effect of intracellular calcium level regulators on the synthesis of pollen tube callose in Oenothera biennis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Bednarska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that callose synthesis in the Oenothera biennis pollen tube is regulated by the endogenous Ca2+ level. Calcium antagonists reduced the amount of callose in the wall above the tip of the pollen tube (Verapamil - calcium channels blocker and at the tube tip after stopping tube growth (La3+ - a Ca2+ substitute. Ruthenium red and ionophore A 23187, which raise the Ca 21 level in the cytoplasm, induced callose synthesis at the tip of pollen tube.

  12. ANL/CANTIA code for steam generator tube integrity assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revankar, S.T.; Wolf, B.; Majumdar, S.; Riznic, J.R.

    2009-01-01

    Steam generator (SG) tubes have an important safety role in CANDU type reactors and Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) because they constitute one of the primary barriers between the radioactive and non-radioactive sides of the nuclear plant. The SG tubes are susceptible to corrosion and damage. A failure of a single steam generator tube, or even a few tubes, would not be a serious safety-related event in a CANDU reactor. The leakage from a ruptured tube is within makeup capacity of the primary heat transport system, so that as long as the operator takes the correct actions, the off-site consequences will be negligible. A sufficient safety margin against tube rupture used to be the basis for a variety of maintenance strategies developed to maintain a suitable level of plant safety and reliability. Several through-wall flaws may remain in operation and potentially contribute to the total primary-to-secondary leak rate. Assessment of the conditional probabilities of tube failures, leak rates, and ultimately risk of exceeding licensing dose limits has been used for steam generator tube fitness-for-service assessment. The advantage of this type of analysis is that it avoids the excessive conservatism typically present in deterministic methodologies. However, it requires considerable effort and expense to develop all of the failure, leakage, probability of detection, and flaw growth distributions and models necessary to obtain meaningful results from a probabilistic model. The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) recently developed the CANTIA methodology for probabilistic assessment of inspection strategies for steam generator tubes as a direct effect on the probability of tube failure and primary-to-secondary leak rate Recently Argonne National Laboratory has developed tube integrity and leak rate models under Integrated Steam Generator Tube Integrity Program (ISGTIP-2). These models have been incorporated in the ANL/CANTIA code. This paper presents the ANL

  13. Structural and leakage integrity assessment of WWER steam generator tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Splichal, K.; Otruba, J. [Nuclear Research Inst., Rez (Switzerland)

    1997-12-31

    The integrity of heat exchange tubes may influence the life-time of WWER steam generators and appears to be an important criterion for the evaluation of their safety and operational reliability. The basic requirement is to assure a very low probability of radioactive water leakage, preventing unstable crack growth and sudden tube rupture. These requirements led to development of permissible limits for primary to secondary leak evolution and heat exchange tubes plugging based on eddy current test inspection. The stress corrosion cracking and pitting are the main corrosion damage of WWER heat exchange tubes and are initiated from the outer surface. They are influenced by water chemistry, temperature and tube wall stress level. They take place under crevice corrosion condition and are indicated especially (1) under the tube support plates, where up to 90-95 % of defects detected by the ECT method occur, and (2) on free spans under tube deposit layers. Both the initiation and crack growth cause thinning of the tube wall and lead to part thickness cracks and through-wall cracks, oriented above all in the axial direction. 10 refs.

  14. Structural and leakage integrity assessment of WWER steam generator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Splichal, K.; Otruba, J.

    1997-01-01

    The integrity of heat exchange tubes may influence the life-time of WWER steam generators and appears to be an important criterion for the evaluation of their safety and operational reliability. The basic requirement is to assure a very low probability of radioactive water leakage, preventing unstable crack growth and sudden tube rupture. These requirements led to development of permissible limits for primary to secondary leak evolution and heat exchange tubes plugging based on eddy current test inspection. The stress corrosion cracking and pitting are the main corrosion damage of WWER heat exchange tubes and are initiated from the outer surface. They are influenced by water chemistry, temperature and tube wall stress level. They take place under crevice corrosion condition and are indicated especially (1) under the tube support plates, where up to 90-95 % of defects detected by the ECT method occur, and (2) on free spans under tube deposit layers. Both the initiation and crack growth cause thinning of the tube wall and lead to part thickness cracks and through-wall cracks, oriented above all in the axial direction

  15. Structural and leakage integrity assessment of WWER steam generator tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Splichal, K; Otruba, J [Nuclear Research Inst., Rez (Switzerland)

    1998-12-31

    The integrity of heat exchange tubes may influence the life-time of WWER steam generators and appears to be an important criterion for the evaluation of their safety and operational reliability. The basic requirement is to assure a very low probability of radioactive water leakage, preventing unstable crack growth and sudden tube rupture. These requirements led to development of permissible limits for primary to secondary leak evolution and heat exchange tubes plugging based on eddy current test inspection. The stress corrosion cracking and pitting are the main corrosion damage of WWER heat exchange tubes and are initiated from the outer surface. They are influenced by water chemistry, temperature and tube wall stress level. They take place under crevice corrosion condition and are indicated especially (1) under the tube support plates, where up to 90-95 % of defects detected by the ECT method occur, and (2) on free spans under tube deposit layers. Both the initiation and crack growth cause thinning of the tube wall and lead to part thickness cracks and through-wall cracks, oriented above all in the axial direction. 10 refs.

  16. Advanced evacuated tube collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schertz, W. W.; Hull, J. R.; Winston, R.; Ogallagher, J.

    1985-04-01

    The essence of the design concept for these new collectors is the integration of moderate levels of nonimaging concentration inside the evacuated tube itself. This permanently protects the reflection surfaces and allows the use of highly reflecting front surface mirrors with reflectances greater than 95%. Previous fabrication and long term testing of a proof-of-concept prototype has established the technical success of the concept. Present work is directed toward the development of a manufacturable unit that will be suitable for the widest possible range of applications. Design alternatives include scaling up the original prototype's tube diameter from 5 cm to 10 cm, using an internal shaped metal concentrating reflector, using a variety of profile shapes to minimize so-called gap losses and accommodate both single ended and double-ended flow geometries, and allowing the use of heat pipes for the absorber tube.

  17. Square through tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akita, Junji; Honma, Toei.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To provide a square through tube involving thermal movement in pipelines such as water supply pump driving turbine exhaust pipe (square-shaped), which is wide in freedom with respect to shape and dimension thereof for efficient installation at site. Structure: In a through tube to be airtightly retained for purpose of decontamination in an atomic power plant, comprising a seal rubber plate, a band and a bolt and a nut for securing said plate, the seal rubber plate being worked into the desired shape so that it may be placed in intimate contact with the concrete floor surface by utilization of elasticity of rubber, thereby providing airtightness at a corner portion of the square tube. (Kamimura, M.)

  18. SG tube identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoogstraten, P. van

    1994-01-01

    A ''Tracker'' system is described which is designed to identify any tube in a reactor steam generator quickly and safely. Occupational radiation doses to maintenance workers are reduced by using a Tracker and emergency down times are shortened. The system employs a television camera and light source in a stainless steel box with a large window. Both the camera and spotlight can be panned and tilted to reach any point on the tubesheet and are remotely controlled. An operator at a safe working distance can identify any tube visible on a real time video by comparison with the tubesheet pattern stored earlier in the computer memory. The identified tube can then be spotlighted and dealt with quickly by a maintenance worker inside the channel head. (UK)

  19. PRODUCTION OF URANIUM TUBING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creutz, E.C.

    1958-04-15

    The manufacture of thin-walled uranium tubing by the hot-piercing techique is described. Uranium billets are preheated to a temperature above 780 d C. The heated billet is fed to a station where it is engaged on its external surface by three convex-surfaced rotating rollers which are set at an angle to the axis of the billet to produce a surface friction force in one direction to force the billet over a piercing mandrel. While being formed around the mandrel and before losing the desired shape, the tube thus formed is cooled by a water spray.

  20. Guide tube sleeve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attix, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    The invention increases the operating capacity of a nuclear reactor by causing a modification in the flow pattern of the coolant which enhances the coolant's effectiveness. The apparatus provides a thin-walled tubular sleeve closely surrounding but not attached to the exterior surface of a guide tube in a fuel assembly. The wall of the sleeve has tabs projecting outwardly into adjacent flow channels. The sleeve is attached to the wall of a cellular void through which passes the guide tube associated with said sleeve. The tabs increase the flow of water in the channel and thus increase the heat transfer

  1. Pressure tube type research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Hiroshi.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To prevent excessive heat generation due to radiation of a pressure tube vessel. Structure: A pressure tube encasing therein a core comprises a dual construction comprising inner and outer tubes coaxially disposed. High speed cooling water is passed through the inner tube for cooling. In addition, in the outer periphery of said outer tube there is provided a forced cooling tube disposed coaxially thereto, into which cooling fluid, for example, such as moderator or reflector is forcibly passed. This forced cooling tube has its outer periphery surrounded by the vessel into which moderator or reflector is fed. By the provision of the dual construction of the pressure tube and the forced cooling tube, the vessel may be prevented from heat generation. (Ikeda, J.)

  2. Fracture of longitudinally cracked ductile tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, H.; Bernard, J.

    1978-01-01

    Various bulging factor and plasticity correction factor formulations are discussed and a new plasticity correction factor leading to a simple failure law is proposed. Failure stresses predicted by the usual Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics formula corrected for plasticity are shown to be identical with the Dowling and Townley two-criteria approach if the relevant parameters are chosen in a suitable manner. Burst tests on AISI 304 stainless steel tubes performed at the Joint Research Centre, Ispra are described. The strengthening effect of the sealing patch was taken into account by replacing the Folias bulging factor by a smaller empirical factor determined by Bernard and Henry from fatigue crack growth tests. A flow stress sigma and a toughness Ksub(c) were derived which apply to the prediction of the onset of stable crack growth in 304 stainless steel tubes at room temperature. For other ductile materials and temperatures tentative formulae are proposed. (author)

  3. Double wall steam generator tubing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padden, T.R.; Uber, C.F.

    1983-01-01

    Double-walled steam generator tubing for the steam generators of a liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactor prevents sliding between the surfaces due to a mechanical interlock. Forces resulting from differential thermal expansion between the outer tube and the inner tube are insufficient in magnitude to cause shearing of base metal. The interlock is formed by jointly drawing the tubing, with the inside wall of the outer tube being already formed with grooves. The drawing causes the outer wall of the inner tube to form corrugations locking with the grooves. (author)

  4. Status of the tube elongation problem as of June 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, W.K.

    1976-01-01

    It was discovered in May of 1971 that the N Reactor process tubes had apparently increased in length by as much as one inch. Preliminary observations and measurements led to the tentative conclusion that this observed elongation was linear with accumulated tube exposure and also that it was related in some manner to the tube fabrication process. It appeared that the observed elongation was approximately proportional to the degree of cold work retained in the finished tubes. This latter conclusion was based on the observation that those tubes with approximately 17-18 percent cold work had elongated only about half as much as the standard 30-percent-cold-worked tubes. It was immediately recognized that if such elongation was to continue unchecked it could pose a limit to reactor life since total possible tube expansion, from all causes, is limited to 1.75 inches by nozzle design considerations as shown in Figure 1. Thermal and hydraulic expansion were calculated to total approximately 0.75 inches which left only one inch available to accommodate tube growth or creep. Since discovery of this phenomenon, an extensive measurements program has been carried out to evaluate the extent and rate of tube elongation. Two corrective approaches have been developed and a small number of tubes were modified by each method during the 1976 summer outage. During the 1974, 1975 and 1976 Summer Outages, measurements were made on all tubes to determine the clearance remaining between the nozzle keys and the gas packing ring. These readings not only give an overall picture of the extent of elongation, but also provide immediate data indicating which tubes are about out of clearance. The report presents an evaluation of the measurements taken to date

  5. Tube-dwelling invertebrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hölker, Franz; Vanni, Michael J.; Kuiper, Jan J.; Meile, Christof; Grossart, Hans Peter; Stief, Peter; Adrian, Rita; Lorke, Andreas; Dellwig, Olaf; Brand, Andreas; Hupfer, Michael; Mooij, Wolf M.; Nützmann, Gunnar; Lewandowski, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    There is ample evidence that tube-dwelling invertebrates such as chironomids significantly alter multiple important ecosystem functions, particularly in shallow lakes. Chironomids pump large water volumes, and associated suspended and dissolved substances, through the sediment and thereby compete

  6. Cladding tube manufacturing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, R.; Jeong, Y. H.; Baek, B. J.; Kim, K. H.; Kim, S. J.; Choi, B. K.; Kim, J. M.

    1999-04-01

    This report gives an overview of the manufacturing routine of PWR cladding tubes. The routine essentially consists of a series of deformation and annealing processes which are necessary to transform the ingot geometry to tube dimensions. By changing shape, microstructure and structure-related properties are altered simultaneously. First, a short overview of the basics of that part of deformation geometry is given which is related to tube reducing operations. Then those processes of the manufacturing routine which change the microstructure are depicted, and the influence of certain process parameters on microstructure and material properties are shown. The influence of the resulting microstructure on material properties is not discussed in detail, since it is described in my previous report A lloy Development for High Burnup Cladding . Because of their paramount importance still up to now, and because manufacturing data and their influence on properties for other alloys are not so well established or published, the descriptions are mostly related to Zry4 tube manufacturing, and are only in short for other alloys. (author). 9 refs., 46 figs

  7. Thoughts on accelerator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, J.D.

    1978-01-01

    A brief, subjective review is given of mechanisms that may be limiting electrostatic accelerator tubes to present levels of performance. Suggestions are made for attacking these limitations with the purpose of stimulating the thinking of designers and users of electrostatic accelerators

  8. Tracheostomy tube - speaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with others. However, you can learn how to speak with a tracheostomy tube. It just takes practice. There ... If it is hard to speak with a trach in place, special devices can help you learn to create sounds. One-way valves, called speaking valves, are placed ...

  9. Thoughts of accelerator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, J.D.

    1977-01-01

    A brief, subjective review is given of mechanisms that may be limiting electrostatic accelerator tubes to present levels of performance. Suggestions are made for attacking these limitations with the purpose of stimulating the thinking of designers and users of electrostatic accelerators

  10. Cladding tube manufacturing technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, R. [Kraftwerk Union AG, Mulheim (Germany); Jeong, Y.H.; Baek, B.J.; Kim, K.H.; Kim, S.J.; Choi, B.K.; Kim, J.M. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-04-01

    This report gives an overview of the manufacturing routine of PWR cladding tubes. The routine essentially consists of a series of deformation and annealing processes which are necessary to transform the ingot geometry to tube dimensions. By changing shape, microstructure and structure-related properties are altered simultaneously. First, a short overview of the basics of that part of deformation geometry is given which is related to tube reducing operations. Then those processes of the manufacturing routine which change the microstructure are depicted, and the influence of certain process parameters on microstructure and material properties are shown. The influence of the resulting microstructure on material properties is not discussed in detail, since it is described in my previous report 'Alloy Development for High Burnup Cladding.' Because of their paramount importance still up to now, and because manufacturing data and their influence on properties for other alloys are not so well established or published, the descriptions are mostly related to Zry4 tube manufacturing, and are only in short for other alloys. (author). 9 refs., 46 figs.

  11. Deformation of in-service pressure tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarce, A.L.

    1993-01-01

    Candu type nuclear reactor pressure tubes suffer deformations during operation. This are consequences of irradiation growth and creep. By means of a computer code which takes into account the material microstructure, the above mentioned deformations are calculated, and results are compared with corresponding values measured at Embalse nuclear power plant. The calculations make explicit inclusion of intergranular stresses caused by an isotropy in the material. (author). 1 ref

  12. Orientation of Germ Tubes of Puccinia hordei on the Hordeum chilense Leaf Surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaz Patto, M.C.; Niks, R.E.

    2000-01-01

    The directional growth of urediospores germ tubes along the transverse axis of a cereal's leaf is considered to be a response to stimuli from the plant surface. In order to find out if the germ tube growth is directed towards stomata, and if the cuticular wax layer plays a role in this orientated

  13. Excretory products of the cestode, Schistocephalus solidus, modulate in vitro responses of leukocytes from its specific host, the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharsack, Jörn Peter; Gossens, Anabel; Franke, Frederik; Kurtz, Joachim

    2013-12-01

    Helminth parasites have evolved remarkable strategies to manipulate the immune system of their hosts. During infections of three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) with the cestode Schistocephalus solidus prominent immunological changes occur, presumably due to manipulative activity of the parasite. We hypothesise that excretory/secretory products of the parasite are involved in the manipulation of the stickleback's immune system and that this may depend on the individual parasite and its origin. We therefore produced S. solidus conditioned cell culture media (SSCM) with parasites from different origins (Norway, Spain and Germany) and exposed head kidney leukocytes (HKL) from un-infected sticklebacks in cell cultures to SSCM. After in vitro culture, HKL were subjected to differential cell counts (granulocytes/lymphocytes) by means of flow cytometry. Leukocyte sub-populations were analysed for cell viability and changes in cell morphology. The respiratory burst activity was measured with a luminescence assay. Exposure of HKL to SSCM induced an up-regulation of respiratory burst activity after already 1 h, which was still elevated at 24 h, but which was in some cases significantly down-regulated after 96 h. Respiratory burst was positively correlated with the number of live granulocytes in the culture, suggesting that the respiratory burst activity was changed by SSCM effects on granulocyte viability. After 1 h and 24 h of HKL culture, no lymphocyte responses to SSCM were detectable, but after 96 h lymphocyte viability was significantly decreased with SSCM from Spanish S. solidus. In these cultures, residual lymphocytes increased in size, suggesting that cell death and activation might have occurred in parallel. The highest respiratory burst activity was induced by SSCM from Spanish parasites, in particular when they were grown in sympatric sticklebacks. The in vitro HKL responses to SSCM depended on the individual parasite and its population of origin

  14. 3D integrated HYDRA simulations of hohlraums including fill tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinak, M. M.; Milovich, J.; Hammel, B. A.; Macphee, A. G.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Kerbel, G. D.; Sepke, S.; Patel, M. V.

    2017-10-01

    Measurements of fill tube perturbations from hydro growth radiography (HGR) experiments on the National Ignition Facility show spoke perturbations in the ablator radiating from the base of the tube. These correspond to the shadow of the 10 μm diameter glass fill tube cast by hot spots at early time. We present 3D integrated HYDRA simulations of these experiments which include the fill tube. Meshing techniques are described which were employed to resolve the fill tube structure and associated perturbations in the simulations. We examine the extent to which the specific illumination geometry necessary to accommodate a backlighter in the HGR experiment contributes to the spoke pattern. Simulations presented include high resolution calculations run on the Trinity machine operated by the Alliance for Computing at Extreme Scale (ACES) partnership. This work was performed under the auspices of the Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, (LLNS) under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  15. Drift tubes of Linac 2

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service

    1977-01-01

    Being redied for installation, those at the right are for tank 1, those on the left for tank 2. Contrary to Linac 1, which had drift-tubes supported on stems, here the tubes are suspended, for better mechanical stability.

  16. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... YouTube Videos: Amblyopia Embedded video for NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia ... *PDF files require the free Adobe® Reader® software for viewing. This website is maintained by the ...

  17. Tubing For Sampling Hydrazine Vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Josh; Taffe, Patricia S.; Rose-Pehrsson, Susan L.; Wyatt, Jeffrey R.

    1993-01-01

    Report evaluates flexible tubing used for transporting such hypergolic vapors as those of hydrazines for quantitative analysis. Describes experiments in which variety of tubing materials, chosen for their known compatibility with hydrazine, flexibility, and resistance to heat.

  18. Prospects for stronger calandria tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ells, C.E.; Coleman, C.E.; Hosbons, R.R.; Ibrahim, E.F.; Doubt, G.L.

    1990-12-01

    The CANDU calandria tubes, made of seam welded and annealed Zircaloy-2, have given exemplary service in-reactor. Although not designed as a system pressure containment, calandria tubes may remain intact even in the face of pressure tube rupture. One such incident at Pickering Unit 2 demonstrated the economic advantage of such an outcome, and a case can be made for increasing the probability that other calandria tubes would perform in a similar fashion. Various methods of obtaining stronger calandria tubes are available, and reviewed here. When the tubes are internally pressurized, the weld is the weak section of the tube. Increasing the oxygen concentration in the starting sheet, and thickening the weld, are promising routes to a stronger tube

  19. Structural evaluation of electrosleeved tubes under severe accident transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, S.

    1999-01-01

    A flow stress model was developed for predicting failure of Electrosleeved PWR steam generator tubing under severe accident transients. The Electrosleeve, which is nanocrystalline pure nickel, loses its strength at temperatures greater than 400 C during severe accidents because of grain growth. A grain growth model and the Hall-Petch relationship were used to calculate the loss of flow stress as a function of time and temperature during the accident. Available tensile test data as well as high temperature failure tests on notched Electrosleeved tube specimens were used to derive the basic parameters of the failure model. The model was used to predict the failure temperatures of Electrosleeved tubes with axial cracks in the parent tube during postulated severe accident transients

  20. Expansion lyre-shaped tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andro, Jean.

    1973-01-01

    The invention relates the expansion lyre-shaped tube portions formed in dudgeoned tubular bundles between two bottom plates. An expansion lyre comprises at least two sets of tubes of unequal lengths coplanar and symmetrical with respect to the main tube axis, with connecting portions between the tubes forming said sets. The invention applies to apparatus such as heat exchangers, heaters, superheaters or breeders [fr

  1. Chest tube insertion - series (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chest tubes are inserted to drain blood, fluid, or air and allow full expansion of the lungs. The tube is placed in the pleural space. The area where the tube will be inserted is numbed (local anesthesia). The patient may also be sedated. The chest ...

  2. Tube Length and Water Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Ruktantichoke

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study water flowed through a straight horizontal plastic tube placed at the bottom of a large tank of water. The effect of changing the length of tubing on the velocity of flow was investigated. It was found that the Hagen-Poiseuille Equation is valid when the effect of water entering the tube is accounted for.

  3. Tubing cutter for tight spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girala, A. S.

    1980-01-01

    Cutter requires few short swings of handle to rotate its cutting edge full 360 around tube. It will cut tubing installed in confined space that prevents free movement of conventional cutter. Cutter is snapped onto tube and held in place by spring-loaded clamp. Screw ratchet advances cutting wheel.

  4. Heat Exchanger Tube to Tube Sheet Joints Corrosion Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Iancu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Paper presents the studies made by the authors above the tube to tube sheet fittings of heat exchanger with fixed covers from hydrofining oil reforming unit. Tube fittings are critical zones for heat exchangers failures. On a device made from material tube and tube sheet at real joints dimensions were establish axial compression force and traction force at which tube is extracted from expanded joint. Were used two shapes joints with two types of fittings surfaces, one with smooth hole of tube sheet and other in which on boring surface we made a groove. From extracted expanded tube zones were made samples for corrosion tests in order to establish the corrosion rate, corrosion potential and corrosion current in working mediums such as hydrofining oil and industrial water at different temperatures. The corrosion rate values and the temperature influence are important to evaluate joints durability and also the results obtained shows that the boring tube sheet shape with a groove on hole tube shape presents a better corrosion behavior then the shape with smooth hole tube sheet.

  5. Proteomic analysis of Fasciola hepatica excretory and secretory products (FhESPs) involved in interacting with host PBMCs and cytokines by shotgun LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing; Huang, Si-Yang; Yue, Dong-Mei; Wang, Jin-Lei; Wang, Yujian; Li, Xiangrui; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2017-02-01

    Fasciola hepatica is a helminth parasite with a worldwide distribution, which can cause chronic liver disease, fasciolosis, leading to economic losses in the livestock and public health in many countries. Control is mostly reliant on the use of drugs, and as a result, drug resistance has now emerged. The identification of F. hepatica genes involved in interaction between the parasite and host immune system is utmost important to elucidate the evasion mechanisms of the parasite and develop more effective strategies against fasciolosis. In this study, we aimed to identify molecules in F. hepatica excretory and secretory products (FhESPs) interacting with the host peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), Th1-like cytokines (IL2 and IFN-γ), and Th17-like cytokines (IL17) by Co-IP combined with tandem mass spectrometry. The results showed that 14, 16, and 9 proteins in FhESPs could bind with IL2, IL17, and IFN-γ, respectively, which indicated that adult F. hepatica may evade the host immune responses through directly interplaying with cytokines. In addition, nine proteins in FhESPs could adhere to PBMCs. Our findings provided potential targets as immuno-regulators, and will be helpful to elucidate the molecular basis of host-parasite interactions and search for new potential proteins as vaccine and drug target candidates.

  6. Excretory/secretory products from two Fasciola hepatica isolates induce different transcriptional changes and IL-10 release in LPS-activated bovine "BOMA" macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bąska, Piotr; Norbury, Luke James; Zawistowska-Deniziak, Anna; Wiśniewski, Marcin; Januszkiewicz, Kamil

    2017-10-01

    Fasciola hepatica are trematodes that reside in the bile ducts of mammals. Infection causes US$3 billion in losses annually in animal production and is considered a zoonosis of growing importance. An under-represented area in F. hepatica research has been the examination of the different immunomodulatory abilities of various parasite isolates on the host immune system. In this paper, this issue was explored, with the bovine macrophage cell line "BOMA". The cells were matured by LPS treatment and stimulated with excretory/secretory antigens (ES) from two Fasciola hepatica isolates: a laboratory isolate "Weybridge" (Fh-WeyES) and a wild isolate (Fh-WildES). As expected, stimulation with antigen mixtures with highly similar compositions resulted in mild transcriptomic differences. However, there were significant differences in cytokine levels. Compared to Fh-WeyES, exposure to Fh-WildES upregulated 27 and downregulated 30 genes. Fh-ES from both isolates diminished the release of TNF-α, whereas only Fh-WildES decreased IL-10 secretion. Neither Fh-WeyES nor Fh-WildES had an impact on IL-12 release. Our results indicate that various isolates can have different immunomodulatory abilities and impacts on the bovine immune system.

  7. Clonorchis sinensis excretory-secretory products promote the migration and invasion of cholangiocarcinoma cells by activating the integrin β4-FAK/Src signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, Jhang Ho; Bashir, Qudsia; Kim, In Ki; Hong, Sung-Jong; Maeng, Sejung; Bahk, Young Yil; Kim, Tong-Soo

    2017-06-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a slow-growing but highly metastatic cancer. Its metastatic potential largely explains its high mortality rate. A recognized risk factor for CCA development is infection with the liver flukes Opisthorchis viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis. We previously reported that the excretory-secretory products (ESPs) of C. sinensis promoted the three-dimensional aggregation and invasion of CCA cells. In the present study, a quantitative real-time PCR array of extracellular matrix (ECM) and adhesion molecules was used to examine the regulatory mechanism of ESP-mediated CCA cell migration and invasion. In particular, the expression levels of integrin α isoforms and β4 were upregulated in response to ESPs. Increased expression of integrin β4 was probably correlated with activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and the steroid receptor coactivator (Src) family kinase and the subsequent activation of two downstream focal adhesion molecules, paxillin and vinculin. Moreover, inhibition of FAK/Src activation reduced paxillin and vinculin phosphorylation and attenuated ESP-induced CCA cell migration and invasion. These findings suggest that the integrin β4-FAK/Src signaling axis may play a crucial role in clonorchiasis-associated CCA metastasis during tumor progression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Molecular characterization of cathepsin B from Clonorchis sinensis excretory/secretory products and assessment of its potential for serodiagnosis of clonorchiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Chenhui

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cathepsin cysteine proteases play multiple roles in the life cycle of parasites such as food uptake, immune invasion and pathogenesis, making them valuable targets for diagnostic assays, vaccines and drugs. The purpose of this study was to identify a cathepsin B of Clonorchis sinensis (CsCB and to investigate its diagnostic value for human helminthiases. Results The predicted amino acid sequence of the cathepsin B of C. sinensis shared 63%, 52%, 50% identity with that of Schistosoma japonicum, Homo sapiens and Fasciola hepatica, respectively. Sequence encoding proenzyme of CsCB was overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Reverse transcription PCR experiments revealed that CsCB transcribed in both adult worm and metacercaria of C. sinensis. CsCB was identified as a C. sinensis excretory/secretory product by immunoblot assay, which was consistent with immunohistochemical localization showing that CsCB was especially expressed in the intestine of C. sinensis adults. Both ELISA and western blotting analysis showed recombinant CsCB could react with human sera from clonorchiasis and other helminthiases. Conclusions Our findings revealed that secreted CsCB may play an important role in the biology of C. sinensis and could be a diagnostic candidate for helminthiases.

  9. Conservation of a microRNA cluster in parasitic nematodes and profiling of miRNAs in excretory-secretory products and microvesicles of Haemonchus contortus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Y Gu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available microRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that are important regulators of gene expression in a range of animals, including nematodes. We have analysed a cluster of four miRNAs from the pathogenic nematode species Haemonchus contortus that are closely linked in the genome. We find that the cluster is conserved only in clade V parasitic nematodes and in some ascarids, but not in other clade III species nor in clade V free-living nematodes. Members of the cluster are present in parasite excretory-secretory products and can be detected in the abomasum and draining lymph nodes of infected sheep, indicating their release in vitro and in vivo. As observed for other parasitic nematodes, H. contortus adult worms release extracellular vesicles (EV. Small RNA libraries were prepared from vesicle-enriched and vesicle-depleted supernatants from both adult worms and L4 stage larvae. Comparison of the miRNA species in the different fractions indicated that specific miRNAs are packaged within vesicles, while others are more abundant in vesicle-depleted supernatant. Hierarchical clustering analysis indicated that the gut is the likely source of vesicle-associated miRNAs in the L4 stage, but not in the adult worm. These findings add to the growing body of work demonstrating that miRNAs released from parasitic helminths may play an important role in host-parasite interactions.

  10. Ancylostoma ceylanicum Excretory-Secretory Protein 2 Adopts a Netrin-Like Fold and Defines a Novel Family of Nematode Proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K Kucera; L Harrison; M Cappello; Y Modis

    2011-12-31

    Hookworms are human parasites that have devastating effects on global health, particularly in underdeveloped countries. Ancylostoma ceylanicum infects humans and animals, making it a useful model organism to study disease pathogenesis. A. ceylanicum excretory-secretory protein 2 (AceES-2), a highly immunoreactive molecule secreted by adult worms at the site of intestinal attachment, is partially protective when administered as a mucosal vaccine against hookworm anemia. The crystal structure of AceES-2 determined at 1.75 {angstrom} resolution shows that it adopts a netrin-like fold similar to that found in tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteases (TIMPs) and in complement factors C3 and C5. However, recombinant AceES-2 does not significantly inhibit the 10 most abundant human matrix metalloproteases or complement-mediated cell lysis. The presence of a highly acidic surface on AceES-2 suggests that it may function as a cytokine decoy receptor. Several small nematode proteins that have been annotated as TIMPs or netrin-domain-containing proteins display sequence homology in structurally important regions of AceES-2's netrin-likefold. Together, our results suggest that AceES-2 defines a novel family of nematode netrin-like proteins, which may function to modulate the host immune response to hookworm and other parasites.

  11. YouTube Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riendeau, Diane

    2012-09-01

    To date, this column has presented videos to show in class, Don Mathieson from Tulsa Community College suggested that YouTube could be used in another fashion. In Don's experience, his students are not always prepared for the mathematic rigor of his course. Even at the high school level, math can be a barrier for physics students. Walid Shihabi, a colleague of Don's, decided to compile a list of YouTube videos that his students could watch to relearn basic mathematics. I thought this sounded like a fantastic idea and a great service to the students. Walid graciously agreed to share his list and I have reproduced a large portion of it below.

  12. Neutron image intensifier tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verat, M.; Rougeot, H.; Driard, B.

    1983-01-01

    The most frequently used techniques in neutron radiography employ a neutron converter consisting of either a scintillator or a thin metal sheet. The radiation created by the neutrons exposes a photographic film that is in contact with the converter: in the direct method, the film is exposed during the time that the object is irradiated with neutrons; in the transfer method, the film is exposed after the irradiation of the object with neutrons. In industrial non-destructive testing, when many identical objects have to be checked, these techniques have several disadvantages. Non-destructive testing systems without these disadvantages can be constructed around neutron-image intensifier tubes. A description and the operating characteristics of neutron-image intensifier tubes are given. (Auth.)

  13. Tube coupling device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, William N. (Inventor); Hein, Leopold A. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A first annular ring of a tube coupling device has a keyed opening sized to fit around the nut region of a male coupling, and a second annular ring has a keyed opening sized to fit around the nut of a female coupling. Each ring has mating ratchet teeth and these rings are biased together, thereby engaging these teeth and preventing rotation of these rings. This in turn prevents the rotation of the male nut region with respect to the female nut. For tube-to-bulkhead locking, one facet of one ring is notched, and a pin is pressed into an opening in the bulkhead. This pin is sized to fit within one of the notches in the ring, thereby preventing rotation of this ring with respect to the bulkhead.

  14. PEG Tube Placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saptarshi Biswas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG has been used for providing enteral access to patients who require long-term enteral nutrition for years. Although generally considered safe, PEG tube placement can be associated with many immediate and delayed complications. Buried bumper syndrome (BBS is one of the uncommon and late complications of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG placement. It occurs when the internal bumper of the PEG tube erodes into the gastric wall and lodges itself between the gastric wall and skin. This can lead to a variety of additional complications such as wound infection, peritonitis, and necrotizing fasciitis. We present here a case of buried bumper syndrome which caused extensive necrosis of the anterior abdominal wall.

  15. Unusual behavior of growing pollen tubes in the ovary of plum culture (Prunus domestica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Milena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Unusual behavior of growing pollen tubes in different combinations of pollination was observed in the ovary of the plum (Prunus domestica L. cv 'Čačanska Lepotica'. It primarily refers to several issues, i.e. the curling up of pollen tubes within the micropyle, the growth of two pollen tubes into the nucellus of an ovule, the occurrence of a bundle above the nucellar cap and fluorescence of the part of the embryo sac containing the egg apparatus. Upon the growth of pollen tubes into the nucellus of the ovule, subsequently penetrating pollen tubes form a bundle either above the micropyle entrance or above the nucellus. Branching and bending of pollen tubes by 180o upon their growth into the micropyle was also observed.

  16. Recurrent inspection of tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, S.

    1984-01-01

    Recommendations concerning the selection of areas for the inspection of tubes have been outlined. The aim is to focus the control on the regions which are important for the safety and where damage is supposed to take place. The number of zones will depend on the risk factors as judged by experts. The localizing will be based upon probable damaging mechanisms. A certain number of areas should be chosen at random. (G.B.)

  17. Cathode ray tube screens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cockayne, B.; Robbins, D.J.; Glasper, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    An improved cathode ray tube screen is described which consists of a single- or a poly-crystalline slice of a material such as yttrium aluminium garnet in which dopants such as Tb 3 + , Eu 3 + , Ce 3 + or Tm 3 + are ion implanted to different depths or in different areas of the screen. Annealing the screen removes lattice damage caused by the ion implanting and assists the diffusion of the dopant into the crystal. (U.K.)

  18. Cathode ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    A cathode ray tube comprises two electron lens means in combination to crossover the electron beam at a second crossover between the two electron lens means with one of the two lens means having a variable voltage applied thereto to control the location of the beam crossover in order to focus the beam onto a display screen at any location away from the screen center. (Auth.)

  19. Fabrication of seamless calandria tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saibaba, N.; Phanibabu, C.; Bhaskara Rao, C.V.; Kalidas, R.; Ganguly, C.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Calandria tube is a large diameter, thin walled zircaloy-4 tube and is an important structural component of PHWR type of reactors. These tubes are lifetime components and remain during the full life of the reactor. Calandria tubes are classified as extremely thin walled tubes with a diameter to wall thickness ratio of around 96. Such thin walled tubes are conventionally produced by seam welded route comprising of extrusion of slabs followed by a series of hot and rolling passes, shaping into O-shape and eventual welding. An alternative and superior method of fabricating the calandria tubes, the seamless route, has been developed, which involves hot extrusion of mother blanks followed by three successive cold pilger reductions. Eccentricity correction of the extruded blanks is carried out on a special purpose grinding equipment to bring the wall thickness variation within permissible limits. Predominant wall thickness reductions are given during cold pilgering to ensure high Q-factor values. The texture in the finished tubes could be closely, controlled with an average f r value of 0.65. Pilgering parameters and tube guiding system have been specially designed to facilities rolling of thin walled tubes. Seamless calandria tubes have distinct advantages over welded tubes. In addition to the absence of weld, they are dimensionally more stable, lighter in weight and possess uniform grains with superior grain size. The cycle time from billet to finished product is substantially reduced and the product is amenable to high level of quality assurance. The most significant feature of the seamless route is its material recovery over welded route. Residual stresses measured in the tubes indicate that these are negligible and uniform along the length of the tube. In view of their superior quality, the first charge of seamless calandria tubes will be rolled into the first 500 MWe Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor at Tarapur

  20. Stress-Assisted Corrosion in Boiler Tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preet M Singh; Steven J Pawel

    2006-05-27

    A number of industrial boilers, including in the pulp and paper industry, needed to replace their lower furnace tubes or decommission many recovery boilers due to stress-assisted corrosion (SAC) on the waterside of boiler tubes. More than half of the power and recovery boilers that have been inspected reveal SAC damage, which portends significant energy and economic impacts. The goal of this project was to clarify the mechanism of stress-assisted corrosion (SAC) of boiler tubes for the purpose of determining key parameters in its mitigation and control. To accomplish this in-situ strain measurements on boiler tubes were made. Boiler water environment was simulated in the laboratory and effects of water chemistry on SAC initiation and growth were evaluated in terms of industrial operations. Results from this project have shown that the dissolved oxygen is single most important factor in SAC initiation on carbon steel samples. Control of dissolved oxygen can be used to mitigate SAC in industrial boilers. Results have also shown that sharp corrosion fatigue and bulbous SAC cracks have similar mechanism but the morphology is different due to availability of oxygen during boiler shutdown conditions. Results are described in the final technical report.

  1. CRL X-ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolchevsky, N.N.; Petrov, P.V.

    2015-01-01

    A novel types of X-ray tubes with refractive lenses are proposed. CRL-R X-ray tube consists of Compound Refractive Lens- CRL and Reflection X-ray tube. CRL acts as X-ray window. CRL-T X-ray consists of CRL and Transmission X-ray tube. CRL acts as target for electron beam. CRL refractive lens acts as filter, collimator, waveguide and focusing lens. Properties and construction of the CRL X-ray tube are discussed. (authors)

  2. Microdischarges in DC accelerator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eastham, D.A.; Thorn, R.

    1978-07-01

    Voltage tests on the Daresbury ceramic/titanium accelerator tube have shown that microdischarges play an important role in the conditioning process. It has been found that the voltage onset for microdischarges in a tube is dependent on the surface contamination of the electrodes and the tube geometry (in particular the tube length). This geometrical effect can be related to the trajectories of secondary ions emitted from the electrode surfaces. Sensitive diagnostic techniques have been developed to study the mass and energy distribution of ions emitted along the axis of the tube during these predischarges. The energy distribution of protons (and H - ions) can be related to the origins of the discharges in the tube. Detailed results are presented for a particular tube geometry. (author)

  3. Measurement and computation for sag of calandria tube due to irradiation creep in PHWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, S. M.; Lee, W. R.; Lee, S. K.; Lee, J. S.; Kim, T. R.; Na, B. K.; Namgung I.

    2003-01-01

    Calandria tubes and Liquid Injection Shutdown System(LISS) tubes in a Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor(PHWR) are to sag due to irradiation creep and growth during plant operation. When the sag of calandria tube becomes bigger, the calandria tube possibly comes in contact with LISS tube crossing beneath the calandria tube. The contact subsequently may cause the damage on the calandria tube resulting in unpredicted outage of the plant. It is therefore necessary to check the gap between the two tubes in order to periodically confirm no contact by using a proper measure during the plant life. An ultrasonic gap measuring probe assembly which can be inserted into two viewing ports of the calandria was developed in Korea and utilized to measure the sags of both tubes in the PHWR. It was found that the centerlines of calandria tubes and liquid injection shutdown system tubes can be precisely detected by ultrasonic wave. The gaps between two tubes were easily obtained from the relative distance of the measured centerline elevations of the tubes. Based on the irradiation creep equation and the measurement data, a computer program to calculate the sags was also developed. With the computer program, the sag at the end of plant life was predicted

  4. Ultrasonic inspection of tube to tube plate welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telford, D.W.; Peat, T.S.

    1985-01-01

    To monitor the deterioration of a weld between a tube and tube plate which has been repaired by a repair sleeve inside the tube and brazed at one end to the tube, ultrasound from a crystal at the end of a rod is launched, in the form of Lamb-type waves, into the tube through the braze and allowed to travel along the tube to the weld and be reflected back along the tube. The technique may also be used for the type of heat exchanger in which, during construction, the tubes are welded to the tube plate via external sleeves in which case the ultrasound is used in a similar manner to inspect the sleeve/tube plate weld. an electromagnetic transducer may be used to generate the ultrasound. The ultrasonic head comprising the crystal and an acoustic baffle is mounted on a Perspex (RTM) rod which may be rotated by a stepping motor. Echo signals from the region of deterioration may be isolated by use of a time gate in the receiver. The device primarily detects circumferentially orientated cracks, and may be used in heat exchangers in nuclear power plants. (author)

  5. Liquid-Nitrogen Test for Blocked Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, W. R.

    1984-01-01

    Nondestructive test identifies obstructed tube in array of parallel tubes. Trickle of liquid nitrogen allowed to flow through tube array until array accumulates substantial formation of frost from moisture in air. Flow stopped and warm air introduced into inlet manifold to heat tubes in array. Tubes still frosted after others defrosted identified as obstructed tubes. Applications include inspection of flow systems having parallel legs.

  6. Tubing misconnections: normalization of deviance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Debora; Symes, Lene; Guenter, Peggi; Graves, Krisanne

    2011-06-01

    Accidental connection of an enteral system to an intravenous (IV) system frequently results in the death of the patient. Misconnections are commonly attributed to the presence of universal connectors found in the majority of patient care tubing systems. Universal connectors allow for tubing misconnections between physiologically incompatible systems. The purpose of this review of case studies of tubing misconnections and of current expert recommendations for safe tubing connections was to answer the following questions: In tubing connections that have the potential for misconnections between enteral and IV tubing, what are the threats to safety? What are patient outcomes following misconnections between enteral and IV tubing? What are the current recommendations for preventing misconnections between enteral and IV tubing? Following an extensive literature search and guided by 2 models of threats and errors, the authors analyzed case studies and expert opinions to identify technical, organizational, and human errors; patient-related threats; patient outcomes; and recommendations. A total of 116 case studies were found in 34 publications. Each involved misconnections of tubes carrying feedings, intended for enteral routes, to IV lines. Overwhelmingly, the recommendations were for redesign to eliminate universal connectors and prevent misconnections. Other recommendations were made, but the analysis indicates they would not prevent all misconnections. This review of the published case studies and current expert recommendations supports a redesign of connectors to ensure incompatibility between enteral and IV systems. Despite the cumulative evidence, little progress has been made to safeguard patients from tubing misconnections.

  7. Sealed ion accelerator tubes (survey)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voitsik, L.R.

    1985-01-01

    The first publications on developing commercial models of small-scale sealed accelerator tubes in which neutrons are generated appeared in the foreign press in 1954 to 1957; they were very brief and were advertising-oriented. The tubes were designed for neutron logging of oil wells instead of ampule neutron sources (Po + Be, Ra + Be). Later, instruments of this type began to be called neutron tubes from the resulting neutron radiation that they gave off. In Soviet Union a neutron tube was developed in 1958 in connection with the development of the pulsed neutron-neutron method of studying the geological profile of oil wells. At that time the tube developed was intended, in the view of its inventors, to replace standard isotope sources with constant neutron yield. A fairly detailed survey of neutron tubes was made in the studies. 8 refs., 8 figs

  8. Steam generator tube integrity program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dierks, D.R.; Shack, W.J.; Muscara, J.

    1996-01-01

    A new research program on steam generator tubing degradation is being sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at Argonne National Laboratory. This program is intended to support a performance-based steam generator tube integrity rule. Critical areas addressed by the program include evaluation of the processes used for the in-service inspection of steam generator tubes and recommendations for improving the reliability and accuracy of inspections; validation and improvement of correlations for evaluating integrity and leakage of degraded steam generator tubes, and validation and improvement of correlations and models for predicting degradation in steam generator tubes as aging occurs. The studies will focus on mill-annealed Alloy 600 tubing, however, tests will also be performed on replacement materials such as thermally-treated Alloy 600 or 690. An overview of the technical work planned for the program is given

  9. Free compression tube. Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Ioan

    2012-11-01

    During the flight of vehicles, their propulsion energy must overcome gravity, to ensure the displacement of air masses on vehicle trajectory, to cover both energy losses from the friction between a solid surface and the air and also the kinetic energy of reflected air masses due to the impact with the flying vehicle. The flight optimization by increasing speed and reducing fuel consumption has directed research in the aerodynamics field. The flying vehicles shapes obtained through studies in the wind tunnel provide the optimization of the impact with the air masses and the airflow along the vehicle. By energy balance studies for vehicles in flight, the author Ioan Rusu directed his research in reducing the energy lost at vehicle impact with air masses. In this respect as compared to classical solutions for building flight vehicles aerodynamic surfaces which reduce the impact and friction with air masses, Ioan Rusu has invented a device which he named free compression tube for rockets, registered with the State Office for Inventions and Trademarks of Romania, OSIM, deposit f 2011 0352. Mounted in front of flight vehicles it eliminates significantly the impact and friction of air masses with the vehicle solid. The air masses come into contact with the air inside the free compression tube and the air-solid friction is eliminated and replaced by air to air friction.

  10. Tube leak detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Bunji; Takamura, Koichi; Matsuda, Shigehiro; Kiyosawa, Shun-ichi; Asami, Toru; Yamada, Hiroshi; Naruse, Shin-ichi.

    1995-01-01

    The device of the present invention detects occurrence of leakage in a steam generator, a steam heating tube, or a heat exchanger of a nuclear power plant. Namely, an vibration sensor is disposed at the rear end of a rod-like supersonic resonance member. A node portion for the vibrations of the resonance member is held by a holding member and attached to a wall surface of a can such as a boiler. With such a constitution, the resonance member is resonated by supersonic waves generated upon leakage of the tube. The vibrations are measured by the vibration sensor at the rear end. Presence of leakage is detected by utilizing one or more of resonance frequencies. Since the device adopts a resonance phenomenon, a conduction efficiency of the vibrations is high, thereby enabling to detect leakage at high sensitivity. In addition, the supersonic wave resonance member has its top end directly protruded into a pressure vessel such as a boiler by using a metal or a ceramic which is excellent in heat and pressure resistance. Accordingly, the sound of leak can be detected efficiently. (I.S.)

  11. Shock tube Multiphase Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlebrooks, John; Allen, Roy; Paudel, Manoj; Young, Calvin; Musick, Ben; McFarland, Jacob

    2017-11-01

    Shock driven multiphase instabilities (SDMI) are unique physical phenomena that have far-reaching practical applications in engineering and science. The instability is present in high energy explosions, scramjet combustors, and supernovae events. The SDMI arises when a multiphase interface is impulsively accelerated by the passage of a shockwave. It is similar in development to the Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instability however, particle-to-gas coupling is the driving mechanism of the SDMI. As particle effects such as lag and phase change become more prominent, the SDMI's development begins to significantly deviate from the RM instability. We have developed an experiment for studying the SDMI in our shock tube facility. In our experiments, a multiphase interface is created using a laminar jet and flowed into the shock tube where it is accelerated by the passage of a planar shockwave. The interface development is captured using CCD cameras synchronized with planar laser illumination. This talk will give an overview of new experiments conducted to examine the development of a shocked cylindrical multiphase interface. The effects of Atwood number, particle size, and a second acceleration (reshock) of the interface will be discussed.

  12. Pressure tube reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natori, Hisahide.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the electrical power generation efficiency in a pressure tube reactor in which coolants and moderators are separated by feedwater heating with heat generated in heavy water and by decreasing the amount of steams to be extracted from the turbine. Constitution: A heat exchanger and a heavy water cooler are additionally provided to a conventional pressure tube reactor. The heat exchanger is disposed at the pre-stage of a low pressure feedwater heater series. High temperature heavy water heated in the core is passed through the primary side of the exchanger, while feedwater is passed through the secondary side. The cooler is disposed on the downstream of the heat exchanger in the flowing direction of the heavy water, in which heavy water from the heat exchanger is passed through the primary side and the auxiliary equipment cooling water is sent to the secondary side thereof. Accordingly, since extraction of heating steams is no more necessary, the steam can be used for the rotation of the turbine, and the electrical power generation efficiency can be improved. (Seki, T.)

  13. Anti-inflammatory Potentials of Excretory/Secretory (ES and Somatic Products of Marshallagia marshalli on Allergic Airway Inflammation in BALB/c Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima PARANDE SHIRVAN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inverse relationship between helminths infection and immune-mediated diseases has inspired researchers to investigate therapeutic potential of helminths in allergic asthma. Helminth unique ability to induce immunoregulatory responses has already been documented in several experimental studies. This study was designed to investigate whether excretory/secretory (ES and somatic products of Marshallagia marshalli modulate the development of ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation in a mouse model.Methods: This study was carried out at the laboratories of Immunology and Parasitology of Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran during spring and summer 2015. Allergic airway inflammation was induced in mice by intraperitoneal (IP injection with ovalbumin (OVA. The effects of ES and somatic products of M. marshalli were analyzed by inflammatory cell infiltration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF, pathological changes and IgE response.Results: Treatment with ES and somatic products of M. marshalli decreased cellular infiltration into BALF when they were administered during sensitization with allergen. Pathological changes were decreased in helminth-treated group, as demonstrated by reduced inflammatory cell infiltration, goblet cell hyperplasia, epithelial lesion and smooth muscle hypertrophy. However, no significant differences were observed in IgE serum levels, cytokines and eosinophil counts between different groups.Conclusion: This study provides new insights into anti-inflammatory effects of ES and somatic products of M. marshalli, during the development of non-eosinophilic model of asthma. Further study is necessary to characterize immunomodulatory molecules derived from M. marshalli as a candidate for the treatment of airway inflammation.

  14. The excretory-secretory products of Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces directly regulate the differentiation of B10, B17 and Th17 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wei; Hao, Wen-Ting; Shen, Yu-Juan; Li, Xiang-Yang; Wang, Yan-Juan; Sun, Fen-Fen; Yin, Jian-Hai; Zhang, Jing; Tang, Ren-Xian; Cao, Jian-Ping; Zheng, Kui-Yang

    2017-07-21

    Excretory-secretory products (ESPs) released by helminths are well-known to regulate T cell responses in the host. However, their direct influence in the differentiation of naïve T cells, and especially B cells, remains largely unknown. This study investigated the effects of Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces ESPs (EgPSC-ESPs) on the differentiation of IL-10-producing B cells (B10), IL-17A-producing B cells (B17) and Th17 cells. BALB/c mice injected with EgPSC were used to evaluate the in vivo profiles of B10, B17 and Th17 cells. In vitro purified CD19 + B and naïve CD4 + T cells were cultured in the presence of native, heat-inactivated or periodate-treated EgPSC-ESPs, and the differentiation of these cell subsets were compared. In contrast to the control group, infected mice showed higher frequencies of B10, B17 and Th17 cells, and higher levels of IL-10 and IL-17A in the sera. Interestingly, B17 cells were first identified to express CD19 + CD1d high . In vitro, B cells cultured with native ESPs exhibited a higher percentage of B10 cells but lower percentage of B17 and Th17 cells compared to the PBS group. Moreover, the relative expression of IL-10 and IL-17A mRNA were consistent with the altered frequencies. However, ESPs subjected to heat-inactivation or periodate treatment exhibited an inverse effect on the induction of these cell subsets. Our findings indicate that ESPs released by EgPSC can directly regulate the differentiation of B10, B17 and Th17 cells, which appear to be heat-labile and carbohydrate-dependent.

  15. Predictive value of excretory urography, ultrasonography, computerized tomography, and liver and bone scan in the staging of bilharzial bladder cancer in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanash, K.A.; Bissada, N.K.; Abla, A.; Esmail, D.; Dowling, A.

    1984-01-01

    The role of ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT), and radioisotopic scanning in the staging of bilharzial bladder cancer has not been reported previously. Forty patients with invasive bladder cancer seen at the King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre between January 1978 and June 1981 underwent complete preoperative workup for staging of their tumors prior to radical cystectomy. The preoperative radiologic investigations included excretory urography (IVP), ultrasonography (US), CT of the pelvis, and liver and bone scans. The results of these investigations were compared with the operative and pathologic staging. Ninety-three percent of the patients with bilharzial cancer had evidence of ureteric obstruction on IVP compared with 22% of the nonbilharzial cancer patients. The presence of ureteric obstruction in these patients did not correlate with the stage of the disease with 83% of the patients with superficial tumors (T1 and T2) having hydroureteronephrosis. Ultrasonography and CT had an 83% accuracy in the staging of superficial tumors. Stage T3 tumors were understaged in 14% of the cases. Ultrasonography did not differentiate Stages T3 and T4 tumors while CT scan differentiated these two stages in 57% of the cases. Bone scan failed to reveal evidence of metastatic disease in any of the bilharzial cancer patients. Liver scan was suspicious for liver metastases in two patients with bilharzial cancers in whom open liver biopsy revealed only hepatic bilharziasis. Of all the radiographic studies, US or preferably CT scan seem to be of some value in the staging of bilharzial tumors localized to the bladder. Bone and liver scans are probably of no cost effective benefit

  16. Diagnostic efficacy of monoclonal antibody based sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for detection of Fasciola gigantica excretory/secretory antigens in both serum and stool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoheiry Mona K

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This research was carried out to develop a reliable monoclonal antibody (MoAb-based sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for the diagnosis of active Fasciola gigantica infection in both serum and stool for comparative purposes. Methods From a panel of MoAbs raised against F. gigantica excretory/secretory antigens (ES Ags, a pair (12B/11D/3F and 10A/9D/10G was chosen due to its high reactivity and strict specificity to F. gigantica antigen by indirect ELISA. Results The two MoAbs were of the IgG1 and IgG2a subclasses, respectively. Using SDS-PAGE and EITB, the selected MoAbs recognized 83, 64, 45 and 26 kDa bands of ES Ags. The lower detection limit of ELISA assay was 3 ng/ml. In stool, the sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic efficacy of ELISA was 96%, 98.2 and 97.1%; while in serum they were 94%, 94.6% and 94.3%, respectively. Moreover, a positive correlation was found between ova count in stool of F. gigantica infected patients and the OD readings of ELISA in both stool and serum samples (r = 0.730, p Conclusions These data showed that the use of MoAb-based sandwich ELISA for the detection of F. gigantica coproantigens in stool specimens was superior to serum samples; it provides a highly efficient, non-invasive technique for the diagnosis of active F. gigantica infection.

  17. Molecular characterization of severin from Clonorchis sinensis excretory/secretory products and its potential anti-apoptotic role in hepatocarcinoma PLC cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueqing Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clonorchiasis, caused by the infection of Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis, is a kind of neglected tropical disease, but it is highly related to cholangiocarcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. It has been well known that the excretory/secretory products of C. sinensis (CsESPs play key roles in clonorchiasis associated carcinoma. From genome and transcriptome of C. sinensis, we identified one component of CsESPs, severin (Csseverin, which had three putative gelsolin domains. Its homologues are supposed to play a vital role in apoptosis resistance of tumour cell. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: There was significant similarity in tertiary structures between human gelsolin and Csseverin by bioinformatics analysis. We identified that Csseverin expressed at life stage of adult worm, metacercaria and egg by the method of quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting. Csseverin distributed in vitellarium and intrauterine eggs of adult worm and tegument of metacercaria by immunofluorence assay. We obtained recombinant Csseverin (rCsseverin and confirmed that rCsseverin could bind with calciumion in circular dichroism spectrum analysis. It was demonstrated that rCsseverin was of the capability of actin binding by gel overlay assay and immunocytochemistry. Both Annexin V/PI assay and mitochondrial membrane potential assay of human hepatocarcinoma cell line PLC showed apoptosis resistance after incubation with different concentrations of rCsseverin. Morphological analysis, apoptosis-associated changes of mitochondrial membrane potential and Annexin V/PI apoptosis assay showed that co-incubation of PLC cells with rCsseverin in vitro led to an inhibition of apoptosis induced by serum-starved for 24 h. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Collectively, the molecular properties of Csseverin, a molecule of CsESPs, were characterized in our study. rCsseverin could cause obvious apoptotic inhibition in human HCC cell line. Csseverin might exacerbate the

  18. Molecular Characterization of Severin from Clonorchis sinensis Excretory/Secretory Products and Its Potential Anti-apoptotic Role in Hepatocarcinoma PLC Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lei; Wang, Xiaoyun; Liang, Pei; Chen, Wenjun; Bian, Meng; Ren, Mengyu; Lin, Jinsi; Liang, Chi; Xu, Jin; Wu, Zhongdao; Li, Xuerong; Huang, Yan; Yu, Xinbing

    2013-01-01

    Background Clonorchiasis, caused by the infection of Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis), is a kind of neglected tropical disease, but it is highly related to cholangiocarcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). It has been well known that the excretory/secretory products of C. sinensis (CsESPs) play key roles in clonorchiasis associated carcinoma. From genome and transcriptome of C. sinensis, we identified one component of CsESPs, severin (Csseverin), which had three putative gelsolin domains. Its homologues are supposed to play a vital role in apoptosis resistance of tumour cell. Methodology/Principal Findings There was significant similarity in tertiary structures between human gelsolin and Csseverin by bioinformatics analysis. We identified that Csseverin expressed at life stage of adult worm, metacercaria and egg by the method of quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting. Csseverin distributed in vitellarium and intrauterine eggs of adult worm and tegument of metacercaria by immunofluorence assay. We obtained recombinant Csseverin (rCsseverin) and confirmed that rCsseverin could bind with calciumion in circular dichroism spectrum analysis. It was demonstrated that rCsseverin was of the capability of actin binding by gel overlay assay and immunocytochemistry. Both Annexin V/PI assay and mitochondrial membrane potential assay of human hepatocarcinoma cell line PLC showed apoptosis resistance after incubation with different concentrations of rCsseverin. Morphological analysis, apoptosis-associated changes of mitochondrial membrane potential and Annexin V/PI apoptosis assay showed that co-incubation of PLC cells with rCsseverin in vitro led to an inhibition of apoptosis induced by serum-starved for 24 h. Conclusions/Significance Collectively, the molecular properties of Csseverin, a molecule of CsESPs, were characterized in our study. rCsseverin could cause obvious apoptotic inhibition in human HCC cell line. Csseverin might exacerbate the process of HCC

  19. Excretory function of salivary gland during static salivary scintigraphy using technetium-99m pertechnetate: a correlation study with salivary flow rate in sjogrens syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, S. J.; Lee, W. W.; Lee, Y. J.; So, Y.; Jeong, J. G.; Lee, M. C.; Kim, S. E.

    2005-01-01

    Salivary scintigraphy is useful in the evaluation of xerostomia. To identify the relevant and clinically applicable parameter for the evaluation of xerostomia, we performed static salivary scintigraphy using Tc-99m and compared it with salivary flow rate in patients with xerostomia. Twenty-three female patients (age 51.2±10.4 years) who suffered from xerostomia were investigated. Nine patients were classified as Sjogrens syndrome (SS) by clinical criteria, and 14 patients were classified as non-Sjogrens syndrome. Un-stimulated salivary flow rate and simulated salivary flow rate were checked. Salivary scintigraphy was performed with injection of 25 mCi Tc-99m pertechnetate after injection anterior static image was obtained over face as basal uptake. ROIs were drawn over each salivary gland with background subtraction by square ROI drawn over skull. We used the mean data of right and left salivary glands for analysis. Percent excretion of salivary gland was calculated. Un-stimulated salivary flow rates(SFR) were different between groups (p 0.05): 5.88±4.07 ml/15 min in SS, and 10.31±6.49 ml/15 min in non-SS. The uptake value in submandibular gland revealed significant difference between the groups. The percent excretion of submandibular gland had positive correlation with un-stimulated salivary flow rate (r=0.534, p=0.009), and that of parotid gland was also positive correlation (r=0.437, p=0.037). The result of multiple regression analysis revealed only percent excretion of submandibular gland was single determinant of unstimulated SFR. Percent excretion of submandibular gland had positive correlation with un-stimulated SFR. Thus, excretory function of submandibular gland assessed by salivary scintigraphy appears more related with xerostomia than parotid gland

  20. Dietary creatine supplementation during pregnancy: a study on the effects of creatine supplementation on creatine homeostasis and renal excretory function in spiny mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellery, Stacey J; LaRosa, Domenic A; Kett, Michelle M; Della Gatta, Paul A; Snow, Rod J; Walker, David W; Dickinson, Hayley

    2016-08-01

    Recent evidence obtained from a rodent model of birth asphyxia shows that supplementation of the maternal diet with creatine during pregnancy protects the neonate from multi-organ damage. However, the effect of increasing creatine intake on creatine homeostasis and biosynthesis in females, particularly during pregnancy, is unknown. This study assessed the impact of creatine supplementation on creatine homeostasis, body composition, capacity for de novo creatine synthesis and renal excretory function in non-pregnant and pregnant spiny mice. Mid-gestation pregnant and virgin spiny mice were fed normal chow or chow supplemented with 5 % w/w creatine for 18 days. Weight gain, urinary creatine and electrolyte excretion were assessed during supplementation. At post mortem, body composition was assessed by Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, or tissues were collected to assess creatine content and mRNA expression of the creatine synthesising enzymes arginine:glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT) and guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT) and the creatine transporter (CrT1). Protein expression of AGAT and GAMT was also assessed by Western blot. Key findings of this study include no changes in body weight or composition with creatine supplementation; increased urinary creatine excretion in supplemented spiny mice, with increased sodium (P < 0.001) and chloride (P < 0.05) excretion in pregnant dams after 3 days of supplementation; lowered renal AGAT mRNA (P < 0.001) and protein (P < 0.001) expressions, and lowered CrT1 mRNA expression in the kidney (P < 0.01) and brain (P < 0.001). Creatine supplementation had minimal impact on creatine homeostasis in either non-pregnant or pregnant spiny mice. Increasing maternal dietary creatine consumption could be a useful treatment for birth asphyxia.

  1. Multidetector computed tomography has replaced conventional intravenous excretory urography in imaging of the kidneys: A scoping review of multidetector computed tomography findings in renal tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ntombizakhona B.A. Mthalane

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tuberculosis (TB is a worldwide infectious disease burden, especially in non-developed countries, with increased morbidity and mortality among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected patients. Extrapulmonary TB is rare and renal TB is one of the commonest manifestations. The end result of renal TB is end-stage renal disease; however, this can be avoided if the diagnosis is made early. The diagnosis of renal TB is challenging because of the non-specific presentation and low sensitivity of clinical tests. Although the sequel of TB infection in the kidney causes varying manifestations depending on the stage of the disease, multidetector computed tomography (MDCT is capable of demonstrating early findings. We performed a 20-year scoping review of MDCT findings in renal TB to promote awareness. Aim: To identify specific MDCT imaging characteristics of renal TB, promote early diagnosis and increase awareness of the typical imaging features. Methods and material: We searched published and unpublished literature from 1997 to 2017 using a combination of search terms on electronic databases. We followed the Joanna Briggs Institute guidelines. Results: A total of 150 articles were identified, of which 145 were found through electronic search engines and 5 were obtained from grey literature. Seventy-nine articles that fulfilled our inclusion criteria were reviewed. These included original research, case reports, literature review, organisational reports and grey literature. Conclusion: Multidetector computed tomography can reproduce images comparable with intravenous excretory urography; together with advantages of being able to better assess the renal parenchyma and surrounding spaces, it is important in suggesting the diagnosis of renal TB and clinicians should consider including MDCT when investigating patients with recurrent urinary tract infection not responding to usual antimicrobial therapy.

  2. Serum IgE and IgG4 against muscle larva excretory-secretory products during the early and late phases of human trichinellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcagno, Marcela A; Forastiero, María A; Saracino, María P; Vila, Cecilia C; Venturiello, Stella M

    2017-11-01

    In human trichinellosis, the relevance of the presence and persistence of specific serum IgE and IgG4 during the early and late phases of infection is still controversial.The aim of this work was to determine the percentage of human sera presenting IgE and IgG4 against Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae excretory-secretory products as well as their levels during the early and late phases of the infection. The antigen recognition pattern by serum total immunoglobulins (IgGAM), IgE, and IgG4 was assessed over time. Serum samples during early and late phases were analyzed by ELISA and immunoelectrotransfer blot (IETB).Results showed that (a)-IgE and IgG4 are present at constant levels in both phases; (b)-IgE recognized the glycoproteins of ~ 45 and ~ 55 kDa and IgG4 only the ~ 45 kDa; (c)-in the late phase, the percentage of specific IgE positive sera was higher than that of specific IgG4 by IETB; while in serum samples taken during the early phase, no differences were found between both isotypes; (d)-both isotypes displayed different glycoprotein recognition patterns: the pattern corresponding to IgE was coincident with that of IgGAM, comprising seven glycoproteins (ranging from ~ 116 to ~ 29 kDa), whereas IgG4 revealed four glycoproteins (ranging from ~ 97 to ~ 45 kDa), showing a different sera recognition percentage depending on the phase studied.In conclusion, IgE and IgG4 cannot be considered exclusive isotypes of neither the early nor the late phase of infection and they are as useful as the detection of total antibodies in the early diagnosis.

  3. "Purification and evaluation of somatic, excretory-secretory and Cysteine proteinase antigens of Fasciola Hepatica using IgG-ELISA in diagnosing Fascioliasis "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Rokni MB

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Fasciolosis, or liver fluke disease, caused by parasites of the genus Fasciola is emerging as an important disease in man and animals, in the world and Iran, particularly in nortern parts. The economical losses in domestic animals are considerable. In the recent decade there were two major outbreaks of human fasciolosis in the Caspian region, northern part of Iran with 7000-10000 infected cases. Sicne it is impossible to diagnose fasciolosis in acute phase using coprological methods and even in chronic phases its sensitivity is low, evaluating and establishing a reliable and cost-effetive test is indispensable and notewortly.In the present survey, we produced and examined the sensitivity and specificity of liver fluke homogenate (LFH , excretory-secetory (ES and cysteine proteinase (CP antigens of F. hepatica using IgG-ELISA test. A 25-27 kilo Dalton coomassie blue-stained band was observed and using of specific inhibitors indicated that this antigen belongs to the class of cysteine proteinase. The sensitivity of LFH, ES and CP antigen in IgG-ELISa was 100% for each, while their specificity was 97.8%, 98.8% and 98.8% respectively. There was a significant difference in mean OD values between cases of proven fasciolosis and other true negative cases, including healthy control individuals and patients with other parasitic diseases.This present report is the first to demonstrate the purification and evaluation of F. hepatica cysteine proteinase antigen by IgG-ELISA test for the diagnosis of fasciolosis in Iran. In conclusion, the IgG-ELISa using ES and CP show high sensitivity and specificity and would be a valuable tool to diagnose human fasciolosis in Iran, particularly in endemic areas.

  4. Production of Monoclonal Antibody Against Excretory-Secretory Antigen of Fasciola hepatica and Evaluation of Its Efficacy in the Diagnosis of Fascioliasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdolahi Khabisi, Samaneh; Sarkari, Bahador; Moshfe, Abdolali; Jalali, Sedigheh

    2017-02-01

    Parasitological methods are not helpful for the diagnosis of fascioliasis in acute and invasive periods of the disease. Detection of coproantigens seems to be a suitable alternative approach in the diagnosis of fascioliasis. The present study aimed to develop a reliable antigen detection system, using monoclonal antibodies raised against excretory-secretory (ES) antigen of Fasciola hepatica, for the diagnosis of fascioliasis. Fasciola adult worms were collected from the bile ducts of infected animals. Species of the fluke was determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP-PCR). ES antigen of F. hepatica was prepared. For production of monoclonal antibodies, mice were immunized with ES antigens of F. hepatica. Spleen cells from the immunized mice were fused with NS-1 myeloma cells, using polyethylene glycol. Hybridoma cells secreting specific antibody were expanded and cloned by limiting dilution. Moreover, polyclonal antibody was produced against F. hepatica ES antigen in rabbits. A capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system, using produced monoclonal antibody, was designed and stool samples of infected animals along with control samples were tested by the system. The capture ELISA detected the coproantigen in 27 of 30 (90%) parasitologically confirmed fascioliasis cases, while 4 of 39 (10.25%) samples infected with other parasitic infections showed a positive reaction in this system. No positive reactivity was found with healthy control samples. Accordingly, sensitivity of 90% and specificity of 94.2% were obtained for the capture ELISA system. The results were compared with those obtained with commercial BIO-X ELISA, and a very good (kappa = 0.9) agreement was found between the commercial kit and the developed capture ELISA. Findings of this study showed that the produced monoclonal antibody has appropriate performance for the detection of Fasciola coproantigen in stool samples and can be appropriately

  5. Differences in the gene expression profiles of haemocytes from schistosome-susceptible and -resistant biomphalaria glabrata exposed to Schistosoma mansoni excretory-secretory products.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahida Zahoor

    Full Text Available During its life cycle, the helminth parasite Schistosoma mansoni uses the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata as an intermediate host to reproduce asexually generating cercariae for infection of the human definitive host. Following invasion of the snail, the parasite develops from a miracidium to a mother sporocyst and releases excretory-secretory products (ESPs that likely influence the outcome of host infection. To better understand molecular interactions between these ESPs and the host snail defence system, we determined gene expression profiles of haemocytes from S. mansoni-resistant or -susceptible strains of B. glabrata exposed in vitro to S. mansoni ESPs (20 μg/ml for 1 h, using a 5K B. glabrata cDNA microarray. Ninety-eight genes were found differentially expressed between haemocytes from the two snail strains, 57 resistant specific and 41 susceptible specific, 60 of which had no known homologue in GenBank. Known differentially expressed resistant-snail genes included the nuclear factor kappa B subunit Relish, elongation factor 1α, 40S ribosomal protein S9, and matrilin; known susceptible-snail specific genes included cathepsins D and L, and theromacin. Comparative analysis with other gene expression studies revealed 38 of the 98 identified genes to be uniquely differentially expressed in haemocytes in the presence of ESPs, thus identifying for the first time schistosome ESPs as important molecules that influence global snail host-defence cell gene expression profiles. Such immunomodulation may benefit the schistosome, enabling its survival and successful development in the snail host.

  6. Measurements of electrically exploded tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shearer, J.W.; Hartman, C.W.; Munger, R.H.; Gullickson, R.L.; Trimble, D.O.; Cheng, D.Y.

    1975-01-01

    The dynamics of electrically exploded tubes were investigated, principally by means of current measurements and flash x-ray pictures. The pinch effect was observed on the tube motion. Pileup of the imploding tube metal was seen on axis. An approximate analytical model can be roughly fitted to the data, but a more complete fit can be obtained with detailed numerical codes. Application of the results to the planning of future gas-embedded Z-pinch experiments is discussed. (U.S.)

  7. Beam tube vacuum in future superconducting proton colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, W.

    1994-10-01

    The beam tube vacuum requirements in future superconducting proton colliders that have been proposed or discussed in the literature -- SSC, LHC, and ELN -- are reviewed. The main beam tube vacuum problem encountered in these machines is how to deal with the magnitude of gas desorption and power deposition by synchrotron radiation while satisfying resistivity, impedance, and space constraints in the cryogenic environment of superconducting magnets. A beam tube vacuum model is developed that treats photodesorption of tightly bound H, C, and 0, photodesorption of physisorbed molecules, and the isotherm vapor pressure of H 2 . Experimental data on cold tube photodesorption experiments are reviewed and applied to model calculations of beam tube vacuum performance for simple cold beam tube and liner configurations. Particular emphasis is placed on the modeling and interpretation of beam tube photodesorpiion experiments at electron synchrotron light sources. The paper also includes discussion of the constraints imposed by beam image current heating, the growth rate of the resistive wall instability, and single-bunch instability impedance limits

  8. Structural and leakage integrity assessment of WWER steam generator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Splichal, K.; Otruba, J.; Keilova, E.; Krhounek, V.; Turek, J.

    1996-01-01

    The leakage and plugging limits were derived for WWER steam generators based on leak and burst tests using tubes with axial part-through and through-wall defects. The following conclusions were arrived at: (i) The permissible primary-to-secondary leak rate with respect to the permissible through-wall defect size of WWER-440 and WWER-1000 steam generator tubes is 8 l/h. (ii) The primary-to-secondary leak rate is reduced by the blocking of the tube cracks by corrosion product particles and other substances. (iii) The rate of crack penetration through the tube wall is higher than the crack widening. (iv) The validity of the criterion of instability for tubes with through-wall cracks was confirmed experimentally. For the WWER-440 and WWER-1000 steam generators, the critical size of axial through-wall cracks, for the threshold primary-to-secondary pressure difference, is 13.8 and 12.0 mm, respectively. (v) The calculated leakage for the rupture of one tube and for the assumed extreme defects is two orders and one order of magnitude, respectively, higher than the proposed primary water leakage limit of 8 l/h. (vi) The experiments gave evidence that the use of the permissible thinning limit of 80% for the heat exchange tube plugging does not bring about uncontrollable leakage or unstable crack growth. This is consistent with experience gained at WWER-440 type nuclear power plants. 4 tabs., 5 figs., 9 refs

  9. R&D of CuCrZr tubes for W/Cu monoblock components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Sixiang, E-mail: sxzhao@impcas.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (ASIPP), P.O. Box 1126, Hefei 230031 (China); Ma, Linsheng [State Nuclear Bao Ti Zirconium Industry Company, 206 Hi-Tech Avenue, Baoji 721013 (China); Peng, Lingjian [Advanced Technology & Materials Co., Ltd. - AT& M, Beijing 100081 (China); Gao, Bo [State Nuclear Bao Ti Zirconium Industry Company, 206 Hi-Tech Avenue, Baoji 721013 (China); Li, Chun [Laboratory of Advanced materials, School of Materials Science & Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Li, Qiang; Wang, Wanjing; Wei, Ran; Xu, Yuping [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (ASIPP), P.O. Box 1126, Hefei 230031 (China); Pan, Ningjie; Qin, Sigui; Shi, Yingli; Liu, Guohui; Wang, Tiejun [Advanced Technology & Materials Co., Ltd. - AT& M, Beijing 100081 (China); Luo, Guang-Nan, E-mail: gnluo@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (ASIPP), P.O. Box 1126, Hefei 230031 (China); Hefei Center for Physical Science and Technology, Hefei 230031 (China); Hefei Science Center of CAS, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • CuCrZr tubes with excellent HIP performance and good resistance to grain growth have been developed. • A circumferential ductility testing manner for small-diameter tubes has been utilized in this study. • The evolution of microstructures has been revealed throughout the new tube forming processes. - Abstract: In order to avoid the occurrence of two types of longitudinal defects (strain localization and folding flaws), which were observed in the CuCrZr tubes of EAST W/Cu upper divertor components, in the future manufacturing of monoblock components using hot isostatic pressing (HIP), a new CuCrZr tube forming protocol is proposed. The evolution of Cu grains and Cr-rich particles is monitored by scanning electron microscopy throughout the new tube forming processes. The final microstructures of the newly developed tubes are totally different from those of the EAST project previously chosen tubes and the elongation of Cr-rich precipitates has been substantially suppressed by using the new tube forming protocol. The newly developed tubes show better HIP performance than the EAST previously chosen ones. Since circumferential mechanical properties, especially ductility, are of great importance, a circumferential ductility testing manner for small-diameter tubes, which might be a supplement to longitudinal tensile testing, has been utilized and the preliminary testing results are given. The recrystallization behavior of the newly developed tubes is also investigated.

  10. Tube Formation in Nanoscale Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Chenglin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The formation of tubular nanostructures normally requires layered, anisotropic, or pseudo-layered crystal structures, while inorganic compounds typically do not possess such structures, inorganic nanotubes thus have been a hot topic in the past decade. In this article, we review recent research activities on nanotubes fabrication and focus on three novel synthetic strategies for generating nanotubes from inorganic materials that do not have a layered structure. Specifically, thermal oxidation method based on gas–solid reaction to porous CuO nanotubes has been successfully established, semiconductor ZnS and Nb2O5nanotubes have been prepared by employing sacrificial template strategy based on liquid–solid reaction, and an in situ template method has been developed for the preparation of ZnO taper tubes through a chemical etching reaction. We have described the nanotube formation processes and illustrated the detailed key factors during their growth. The proposed mechanisms are presented for nanotube fabrication and the important pioneering studies are discussed on the rational design and fabrication of functional materials with tubular structures. It is the intention of this contribution to provide a brief account of these research activities.

  11. Failure analysis of boiler tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehmood, K.; Siddiqui, A.R.

    2007-01-01

    Boiler tubes are energy conversion components where heat energy is used to convert water into high pressure superheated steam, which is then delivered to a turbine for electric power generation in thermal power plants or to run plant and machineries in a process or manufacturing industry. It was reported that one of the tubes of a fire-tube boiler used in a local industry had leakage after the formation of pits at the external surface of the tube. The inner side of the fire tube was working with hot flue gasses with a pressure of 10 Kg/cm/sup 2/ and temperature 225 degree C. The outside of the tube was surrounded by feed water. The purpose of this study was to determine the cause of pits developed at the external surface of the failed boiler tube sample. In the present work boiler tube samples of steel grade ASTM AI61/ASTM A192 were analyzed using metallographic analysis, chemical analysis, and mechanical testing. It was concluded that the appearance of defects on the boiler tube sample indicates cavitation type corrosion failure. Cavitation damage superficially resembled pitting, but surface appeared considerably rougher and had many closely spaced pits. (author)

  12. Radiation-resistant camera tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwahata, Takao; Manabe, Sohei; Makishima, Yasuhiro

    1982-01-01

    It was a long time ago that Toshiba launched on manufacturing black-and-white radiation-resistant camera tubes employing nonbrowning face-plate glass for ITV cameras used in nuclear power plants. Now in compliance with the increasing demand in nuclear power field, the Company is at grips with the development of radiation-resistant single color-camera tubes incorporating a color-stripe filter for color ITV cameras used under radiation environment. Herein represented are the results of experiments on characteristics of materials for single color-camera tubes and prospects for commercialization of the tubes. (author)

  13. YouTube and 'psychiatry'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Robert; Miller, John; Collins, Noel

    2015-12-01

    YouTube is a video-sharing website that is increasingly used to share and disseminate health-related information, particularly among younger people. There are reports that social media sites, such as YouTube, are being used to communicate an anti-psychiatry message but this has never been confirmed in any published analysis of YouTube clip content. This descriptive study revealed that the representation of 'psychiatry' during summer 2012 was predominantly negative. A subsequent smaller re-analysis suggests that the negative portrayal of 'psychiatry' on YouTube is a stable phenomenon. The significance of this and how it could be addressed are discussed.

  14. Bacterial Biofilms in Jones Tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Eric S; Hauck, Matthew J; Kirk Harris, Jonathan; Robertson, Charles E; Dailey, Roger A

    To investigate the presence and microbiology of bacterial biofilms on Jones tubes (JTs) by direct visualization with scanning electron microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of representative JTs, and to correlate these findings with inflammation and/or infection related to the JT. In this study, prospective case series were performed. JTs were recovered from consecutive patients presenting to clinic for routine cleaning or recurrent irritation/infection. Four tubes were processed for scanning electron microscopy alone to visualize evidence of biofilms. Two tubes underwent PCR alone for bacterial quantification. One tube was divided in half and sent for scanning electron microscopy and PCR. Symptoms related to the JTs were recorded at the time of recovery. Seven tubes were obtained. Five underwent SEM, and 3 out of 5 showed evidence of biofilms (60%). Two of the 3 biofilms demonstrated cocci and the third revealed rods. Three tubes underwent PCR. The predominant bacteria identified were Pseudomonadales (39%), Pseudomonas (16%), and Staphylococcus (14%). Three of the 7 patients (43%) reported irritation and discharge at presentation. Two symptomatic patients, whose tubes were imaged only, revealed biofilms. The third symptomatic patient's tube underwent PCR only, showing predominantly Staphylococcus (56%) and Haemophilus (36%) species. Two of the 4 asymptomatic patients also showed biofilms. All symptomatic patients improved rapidly after tube exchange and steroid antibiotic drops. Bacterial biofilms were variably present on JTs, and did not always correlate with patients' symptoms. Nevertheless, routine JT cleaning is recommended to treat and possibly prevent inflammation caused by biofilms.

  15. Grooved tube plug rolls in

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krausser, P.

    1991-01-01

    The removable plugs used to date by the Power Generation Group (KWU) of Siemens to seal defective steam generator tubes have a good track record. Their sealing principle is based on the elastic tensioning of three seal disks against the inside wall of the tube. Now a further removable plug is available -a roll-in plug with a metal-coated surface. It is particularly suitable for use in the roller-expanded zone of the tubes at the tube sheet. The plugs can be used in both Siemens-KWU steam generators and in steam generators manufactured in compliance with the guidelines of the ASME Code. (author)

  16. WWER steam generator tube structural and leakage integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Splichal, K.; Krhounek, Vl.; Otruba, J.; Ruscak, M.

    1998-01-01

    The integrity of heat exchange tubes may influence the lifetime of WWER steam generators and appears to be an important criterion for the evaluation of their safety and operational reliability. The basic requirements are to assure very low probability of radioactive water leakage, preventing unstable crack growth and sudden tube rupture. These requirements led to development of permissible limits for primary to secondary leak evaluation and heat exchange tubes plugging. The stress corrosion cracking and pitting are the main corrosion damages of WWER heat exchange tubes and are initiated from the outer surface. Both the initiation and crack growth cause thinning of the tube wall and lead to part thickness cracks and through wall cracks, oriented preferentially in the axial direction. The paper presents the leakage and plugging limits for WWER steam generators, which have been determined from leak tests and burst tests. The tubes with axial part-through and through-wall defects have been used. The permissible value of primary to secondary leak rate was evaluated with respect to permissible axial through-wall defect size of WWER 440 and 1000 steam generator tubes. Blocking of the tube cracks by corrosion product particles and other compounds reduces the primary to secondary leak rate. The plugging limits involve the following factors: permissible tube wall thickness which determine further operation of the tubes with defects and assures their integrity under operating conditions and permissible size of a through-wall crack which is sufficiently stable under normal and accident conditions in relation to the critical crack length. For the evaluation of burst test of heat exchange tubes with longitudinal through-wall defects the instability criterion has been used and the dependence of the normalised burst pressure on the normalised length of an axial through-wall defect has been determined. The validity of the criterion of instability for WWER tubes with through

  17. Learning from YouTube [Video Book

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhasz, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    YouTube is a mess. YouTube is for amateurs. YouTube dissolves the real. YouTube is host to inconceivable combos. YouTube is best for corporate-made community. YouTube is badly baked. These are a few of the things Media Studies professor Alexandra Juhasz (and her class) learned about YouTube when she set out to investigate what actually happens…

  18. UVC fluencies for preventative treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa contaminated polymer tubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Jimmy; Ladefoged, Søren D; Begovic, Tanja

    2010-01-01

    Exposing Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm grown on the inner surface of Teflon and silicone tubes to UVC light (265 nm) from light emitting diodes (LED) has previously been shown to substantially reduce biofilm growth. Smaller UVC fluencies were required to disinfect Teflon tubes compared to silicone...... tubes. Light propagation enhancement in tubes can be obtained if the refractive index of the intra-luminal saline solution is higher than that of the polymer. This condition is achieved by using Teflon tubes with a low refractive index (1.34) instead of the polymers with a high refractive index (1...... is demonstrated to be a preventative disinfection treatment on tubes made of Teflon, which enhances the UVC light propagation, and on tubes made of a softer material, ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), which is suitable for catheters but much less suitable for UVC light propagation. Simulating an aseptic breach (~10...

  19. Process for forming seamless tubing of zirconium or titanium alloys from welded precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabol, G.P.; Barry, R.F.

    1987-01-01

    A process is described for forming seamless tubing of a material selected from zirconium, zirconium alloys, titanium, and titanium alloys, from welded precursor tubing of the material, having a heterogeneous structure resulting from the welding thereof. The process consists of: heating successive axial segments of the welded tubing, completely through the wall thereof, including the weld, to uniformly transform the heterogeneous, as welded, material into the beta phase; quenching the beta phase tubing segments, the heating and quenching effected sufficiently rapid enough to produce a fine sized beta grain structure completely throughout the precursor tubing, including the weld, and to prevent growth of beta grains within the material larger than 200 micrometers in diameter; and subsequently uniformly deforming the quenched precursor tubing by cold reduction steps to produce a seamless tubing of final size and shape

  20. Effects of gintonin on the proliferation, migration, and tube formation of human umbilical-vein endothelial cells: involvement of lysophosphatidic-acid receptors and vascular-endothelial-growth-factor signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Hee Hwang

    2016-10-01

    Conclusion: The gintonin-mediated proliferation, migration, and vascular-endothelial-growth-factor release in HUVECs via LPA-receptor activation may be one of in vitro mechanisms underlying ginseng-induced angiogenic and wound-healing effects.

  1. Methodologies for assessment of the service life of pressure tubes in Indian PHWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, R.K.; Sharma, A.; Madhusoodanan, K.; Sinha, S.K.; Malshe, U.D.

    1997-01-01

    For estimating safe service life of pressure tubes in Indian PHWRs, analytical methodologies have been developed to evaluate creep deformation, deuterium pick-up rate, blister growth at cold spot, and operating domain required for achieving leak-before-break. The paper provides an overview of these methodologies, and results of some studies carried out towards evolution of proposed fitness-for-service criteria for a pressure tube in contact with its calandria tube. (author)

  2. Tube to tube excursive instability - sensitivities and transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M.; Layland, M.W.

    1980-01-01

    A simple basic analysis of excursive instability in a boiler tube shows how it depends upon operating conditions and physical properties. A detailed mathematical model of an AGR boiler is used to conduct a steady state parameter sensitivity survey. It is possible from this basis to anticipate the effects of changes in operating conditions and changes in design parameters upon tube to tube stability. Dynamic responses of tubes operating near the stability threshold are examined using a mathematical model. Simulated excursions are triggered by imparting small abrupt pressure changes on the boiler inlet pressure. The influences of the magnitude of the pressure change, waterside friction factor and gas side coupling between tubes are examined. (author)

  3. Jose Cabrera (Zorita) tube examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchirka, P.J.

    1986-01-01

    Jose Cabrera (Zorita) tube examination procedures are discussed. This plant continues to use phosphate water chemistry (sodium/phosphate ratio = 2.1). Three hot leg tube segments were pulled from the Jose Cabera (Zorita) plant in 1985. One tube had a field EC indication on the OD at the first tube support plate and the other two had field EC indications on their ID about 3 inches above the bottom of the tube sheet. All three tubes were initially sent to Battelle for preliminary NDE and decontamination. Segments of two tubes were sent to Westinghouse for destructive examination. The results of the laboratory eddy current and radiographic examinations are given. The results of the visual examinations are also given. The tube with OD indications was destructively examined and shallow intergranular pitting and intergranular attack, up to 2 mils deep, were found on the OD in the tube sheet region. Local areas of IGA, up to 5 mils deep, were found on the OD within the tube support plate region. A summary of this information together with supporting micrographs is given. It was hypothesized that a caustic crevice environment was the cause of this mild degradation. Shallow areas of thinning or wastage, up to 3 mils, were found just above the top of the tube sheet in the sludge pile region. Even more shallow wastage was found at the edges of support plate locations. This wastage is believed to be the remnant of early plant chemistry when a higher sodium/phosphate ratio and higher phosphate concentration were allowed

  4. Tube for irradiation equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goehrich, K.; Vogt, H.

    1979-01-01

    This patent describes a tube for irradiation equipment for limiting an emergent beam, with a baseplate, possessing a central aperture, intended for attaching to the equipment, as well as four carrier plates, each of which possesses a limiting edge and a sliding edge located at right angles thereto. The carrier plates are located parallel to the baseplate, the limiting edge of each carrier plate resting against the sliding edge of the adjacent carrier plate and each of the two mutually opposite pairs of carrier plates being displaceable, parallel to the direction of its sliding edges and symmetrically to the center of the transmission aperture, for the purpose of continuously varying the transmission aperture defined by the limiting edges, during which displacement each of the displaced carrier plates carries with it the carrier plate, resting against the limiting edge of the former plate, parallel to the direction of the limiting edge of the latter plate. 8 claims

  5. Primary Fallopian Tube Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad K Shetty

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary Fallopian Tube Carcinoma (PFTC is rare and accounts for about 0.3% of all gynecologic cancers. Less than 1500 cases have been reported in the literature. It arises in postmenopausal women and typically presents with abdominal pelvic pain, vaginal bleeding and watery discharge. However, a correct diagnosis is rarely achieved preoperative, and in many cases, the diagnosis is made after incidental surgery for unrelated conditions commonly being ovarian carcinoma . Compared with ovarian carcinoma, PFTC more often presents at early stages, but it has a worse prognosis. PFTC is usually managed in the same manner as ovarian cancer. We report a case of Left PFTC that presented as Left ovarian mass, and we briefly review the literature.

  6. Pressure tube reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Tomoyuki; Fujino, Michihira.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To equalize heavy water flow distribution by providing a nozzle for externally injecting heavy water from a vibration preventive plate to the upper portion to feed the heavy water in a pressure tube reactor and swallowing up heavy water in a calandria tank to supply the heavy water to the reactor core above the vibration preventive plate. Constitution: A moderator injection nozzle is mounted on the inner wall of a calandria tank. Heavy water is externally injected above the vibration preventive plate, and heavy water in the calandria tank is swallowed up to supply the heavy water to the core reactor above the vibration preventive plate. Therefore, the heavy water flow distribution can be equalized over the entire reactor core, and the distribution of neutron absorber dissolved in the heavy water is equalized. (Yoshihara, H.)

  7. A New Resonance Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Alan

    2017-12-01

    The measurement of the speed of sound in air with the resonance tube is a popular experiment that often yields accurate results. One approach is to hold a vibrating tuning fork over an air column that is partially immersed in water. The column is raised and lowered in the water until the generated standing wave produces resonance: this occurs at the point where sound is perceived to have maximum loudness, or at the point where the amplitude of the standing wave has maximum value, namely an antinode. An antinode coincides with the position of the tuning fork, beyond the end of the air column, which consequently introduces an end correction. One way to minimize this end correction is to measure the distance between consecutive antinodes.

  8. Improper tube fixation causing a leaky cuff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Babita

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaking endotracheal tube cuffs are common problems in intensive care units. We report a case wherein the inflation tube was damaged by the adhesive plaster used for tube fixation and resulted in leaking endotracheal tube cuff. We also give some suggestions regarding the tube fixation and some remedial measures for damaged inflation system.

  9. Characterization of tube support alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaia, A.R.

    1985-01-01

    The involvement and relationship of carbon steel corrosion products in the tube denting phenomenon promoted an intensive research effort to: 1) understand, reproduce, and arrest the denting process, and 2) evaluate alternative tube support materials to provide additional corrosion resistance. The paper summarizes a corrosion testing program for the verification of type 405 stainless steel under acid or all volatile treatment conditions

  10. Radioisotope study of Eustachian tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Rossi, G.; Campioni, P.; Vaccaro, A.

    1988-01-01

    Radioisotope studies of Eustachian tube are suggested in the preoperative phase of tympanoplasty, in order to assess tubal drainage and secretion. The use of gamma camera fitted to a computer allowed the AA, to calculate some semi-quantitative parameters for an exact assessment of the radioactivity transit from the tympanic cass up to the pharyngeal cavity, throughout the Eustachian tube. (orig.) [de

  11. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Amblyopia Listen NEI YouTube Videos YouTube Videos Home Age-Related Macular Degeneration Amblyopia Animations Blindness Cataract Convergence ... is maintained by the NEI Office of Science Communications, Public Liaison, and Education. Technical questions about this ...

  12. Tubing Cutter is Activated Hydraulically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcsmith, D. G.; Richardson, J. I.

    1983-01-01

    Hydraulically-actuated tubing cutter severs tubing when operator squeezes handle grip. "Gooseneck" extension enables cutter to be used in areas where accessiblity is limited. Cutter has potential as flight-line tool and is useful in automobile and fire rescue work.

  13. Flaming on YouTube

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moor, Peter J.; Heuvelman, A.; Verleur, R.

    2010-01-01

    In this explorative study, flaming on YouTube was studied using surveys of YouTube users. Flaming is defined as displaying hostility by insulting, swearing or using otherwise offensive language. Three general conclusions were drawn. First, although many users said that they themselves do not flame,

  14. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Amaurosis Low Vision Refractive Errors Retinopathy of Prematurity Science Spanish Videos Webinars NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia Embedded video for NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia NEI Home Contact Us A-Z Site Map NEI on Social Media Information in Spanish (Información en español) Website, ...

  15. Flowmeter with silicon flow tube

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Dijkstra, Marcel; Haneveld, J.; Lötters, Joost Conrad

    2009-01-01

    A flowmeter comprising a system chip with a silicon substrate provided on a carrier, in an opening whereof at least one silicon flow tube is provided for transporting a medium whose flow rate is to be measured, said tube having two ends that issue via a wall of the opening into channels coated with

  16. Improved guide tube bulge tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaill, R.E.; Phillips, W.D.

    1979-01-01

    A guide tube bulge tool for securing control rod guide tubes to a fuel assembly grid, includes a cylinder having several flexible tines each of which is equipped with a semispherical radially outwardly extending projection. A tapered ram fits into the cylinder so as to force the tines outwardly when the ram is pulled into the cylinder while supporting the other tines. (UK)

  17. Growth hormone (GH) treatment increases serum insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3, bone isoenzyme alkaline phosphatase and forearm bone mineral content in young adults with GH deficiency of childhood onset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Pedersen, S A; Sørensen, S

    1994-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that growth hormone (GH)-deficient adults have a markedly decreased bone mineral content compared to healthy adults. However, there are conflicting results regarding the effects of GH treatment on bone mineral content in GH-deficient adults. Therefore, we evaluated...... the effect of GH treatment on a marker of bone formation (bone alkaline phosphatase), hepatic excretory function and distal forearm bone mineral content in GH-deficient adults. Growth hormone was administered subcutaneously in 21 adults (13 males and 8 females) with GH deficiency of childhood onset for 4...

  18. Effects of homogeneous condensation in compressible flows: Ludwieg-tube experiments and simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, X.; Lamanna, G.; Holten, A.P.C.; Dongen, van M.E.H.

    2007-01-01

    Effects of homogeneous nucleation and subsequent droplet growth in compressible flows in humid nitrogen are investigated numerically and exptl. A Ludwieg tube is employed to produce expansion flows. Corresponding to different configurations, three types of expt. are carried out in such a tube.

  19. De novo post-pollen mitosis II tobacco pollen tube transcriptome

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hafidh, Said; Breznenová, Katarína; Honys, David

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 8 (2012), s. 918-921 ISSN 1559-2316 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP501/11/P321; GA ČR GA522/09/0858 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : de novo pollen tube transcriptome * male gametophyte development * pollen tube growth Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  20. Plant Reproduction and the Pollen Tube Journey--How the Females Lure the Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorbiecke, Rene

    2012-01-01

    The growth of pollen tubes is one of the most characteristic events in angiosperm reproduction. This article describes an activity for visualizing the journey and guidance of pollen tubes in the reproductive structures of a flowering plant. The activity uses a semi-in vivo system with rapid-cycling "Brassica rapa," also known as Fast Plants.…

  1. HF electronic tubes. Technologies, grid tubes and klystrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemoine, Th.

    2009-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the basic technologies of electronic tubes: cathodes, electronic optics, vacuum and high voltage. Then the grid tubes, klystrons and inductive output tubes (IOT) are introduced. Content: 1 - context and classification; 2 - electronic tube technologies: cathodes, electronic optics, magnetic confinement (linear tubes), periodic permanent magnet (PPM) focussing, collectors, depressed collectors; 3 - vacuum technologies: vacuum quality, surface effects and interaction with electrostatic and RF fields, secondary emission, multipactor effect, thermo-electronic emission; 4 - grid tubes: operation of a triode, tetrodes, dynamic operation and classes of use, 'common grid' and 'common cathode' operation, ranges of utilisation and limitations, operation of a tetrode on unadjusted load, lifetime of a tetrode, uses of grid tubes; 5 - klystrons: operation, impact of space charge, multi-cavity klystrons, interaction efficiency, extended interaction klystrons, relation between interaction efficiency, perveance and efficiency, ranges of utilization and power limitations, multi-beam klystrons and sheet beam klystrons, operation on unadjusted load, klystron band pass and lifetime, uses; 6 - IOT: principle of operation, ranges of utilisation and limitations, interaction efficiency and depressed collector IOT, IOT lifetime and uses. (J.S.)

  2. Water nucleation : wave tube experiments and theoretical considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holten, V.

    2009-01-01

    This work is an experimental and theoretical study of the condensation of water. Condensation consists of nucleation – the formation of droplets – and the subsequent growth of those droplets. In our expansion tube setup, these processes are separated in time with the nucleation pulse principle, in

  3. Gas pressure in bubble attached to tube circular outlet

    OpenAIRE

    Salonen, A; Gay, Cyprien; Maestro, A; Drenckhan, W; Rio, Emmanuelle

    2016-01-01

    In the present Supplementary notes to our work ``Arresting bubble coarsening: A two-bubble experiment to investigate grain growth in presence of surface elasticity'' (accepted in EPL), we derive the expression of the gas pressure inside a bubble located above and attached to the circular outlet of a vertical tube.

  4. CT urography in the urinary bladder: To compare excretory phase images using a low noise index and a high noise index with adaptive noise reduction filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeyama, Nobuyuki; Hayashi, Takaki; Ohgiya, Yoshimitsu

    2011-01-01

    Background: Although CT urography (CTU) is widely used for the evaluation of the entire urinary tract, the most important drawback is the radiation exposure. Purpose: To evaluate the effect of a noise reduction filter (NRF) using a phantom and to quantitatively and qualitatively compare excretory phase (EP) images using a low noise index (NI) with those using a high NI and postprocessing NRF (pNRF). Material and Methods: Each NI value was defined for a slice thickness of 5 mm, and reconstructed images with a slice thickness of 1.25 mm were assessed. Sixty patients who were at high risk of developing bladder tumors (BT) were divided into two groups according to whether their EP images were obtained using an NI of 9.88 (29 patients; group A) or an NI of 20 and pNRF (31 patients; group B). The CT dose index volume (CTDI vol ) and the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the bladder with respect to the anterior pelvic fat were compared in both groups. Qualitative assessment of the urinary bladder for image noise, sharpness, streak artifacts, homogeneity, and the conspicuity of polypoid or sessile-shaped BTs with a short-axis diameter greater than 10 mm was performed using a 3-point scale. Results: The phantom study showed noise reduction of approximately 40% and 76% dose reduction between group A and group B. CTDI vol demonstrated a 73% reduction in group B (4.6 ± 1.1 mGy) compared with group A (16.9 ± 3.4 mGy). The CNR value was not significantly different (P = 0.60) between group A (16.1 ± 5.1) and group B (16.6 ± 7.6). Although group A was superior (P < 0.01) to group B with regard to image noise, other qualitative analyses did not show significant differences. Conclusion: EP images using a high NI and pNRF were quantitatively and qualitatively comparable to those using a low NI, except with regard to image noise

  5. Comparative analysis of excretory-secretory antigens of Trichinella spiralis and Trichinella britovi muscle larvae by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bien, Justyna; Näreaho, Anu; Varmanen, Pekka; Gozdzik, Katarzyna; Moskwa, Bozena; Cabaj, Wladyslaw; Nyman, Tuula A; Savijoki, Kirsi

    2012-02-11

    Trichinellosis is a zoonotic disease in humans caused by Trichinella spp. The present study was undertaken to discover excretory-secretory (E-S) proteins from T. spiralis and T. britovi muscle larvae (ML) that hold promise for species-specific diagnostics. To that end, the purified E-S proteins were analyzed by fluorescent two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) coupled with protein identification by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). To search for immunoreactive proteins that are specifically recognized by host antibodies the E-S proteins were subjected to two-dimensional (2-DE) immunoblotting with antisera derived from pigs experimentally infected with T. spiralis or T. britovi. According to 2-D DIGE analysis, a total of twenty-two proteins including potentially immunogenic proteins and proteins produced only by one of the two Trichinella species were subjected to LC-MS/MS for protein identification. From these proteins seventeen could be identified, of which many were identified in multiple spots, suggesting that they have undergone post-translational modification, possibly involving glycosylation and/or proteolysis. These proteins included 5'-nucleotidase, serine-type protease/proteinase, and p43 glycoprotein (gp43) as well as 49 kDa E-S protein (p49). Our findings also suggest that some of the commonly identified proteins were post-translationally modified to different extents, which in certain cases seemed to result in species-specific modification. Both commonly and specifically recognized immunoreactive proteins were identified by 2-DE immunoblotting; shared antigens were identified as gp43 and different protease variants, whereas those specific to T. britovi included multiple isoforms of the 5'-nucleotidase. Both 2-D DIGE and 2-DE immunoblotting approaches indicate that T. spiralis and T. britovi produce somewhat distinctive antigen profiles, which contain E-S antigens with potential as species-specific diagnostic

  6. Water-storage-tube systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemker, P.

    1981-12-24

    Passive solar collection/storage/distribution systems were surveyed, designed, fabricated, and mechanically and thermally tested. The types studied were clear and opaque fiberglass tubes, metal tubes with plastic liners, and thermosyphoning tubes. (MHR)

  7. Conditioning and breakdown phenomena in accelerator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skorka, S.J.

    1979-01-01

    Important breakdown mechanisms in accelerator tubes are reviewed, and discharge phenomena in NEC tubes are deduced from the surface appearance of the electrodes and insulators of a used tube. Microphotos of these surfaces are shown

  8. Flux tubes at finite temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cea, Paolo [INFN, Sezione di Bari,Via G. Amendola 173, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica dell’Università di Bari,Via G. Amendola 173, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Cosmai, Leonardo [INFN, Sezione di Bari,Via G. Amendola 173, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Cuteri, Francesca; Papa, Alessandro [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università della Calabria & INFN-Cosenza,Ponte Bucci, cubo 31C, I-87036 Rende (Cosenza) (Italy)

    2016-06-07

    The chromoelectric field generated by a static quark-antiquark pair, with its peculiar tube-like shape, can be nicely described, at zero temperature, within the dual superconductor scenario for the QCD confining vacuum. In this work we investigate, by lattice Monte Carlo simulations of the SU(3) pure gauge theory, the fate of chromoelectric flux tubes across the deconfinement transition. We find that, if the distance between the static sources is kept fixed at about 0.76 fm ≃1.6/√σ and the temperature is increased towards and above the deconfinement temperature T{sub c}, the amplitude of the field inside the flux tube gets smaller, while the shape of the flux tube does not vary appreciably across deconfinement. This scenario with flux-tube “evaporation” above T{sub c} has no correspondence in ordinary (type-II) superconductivity, where instead the transition to the phase with normal conductivity is characterized by a divergent fattening of flux tubes as the transition temperature is approached from below. We present also some evidence about the existence of flux-tube structures in the magnetic sector of the theory in the deconfined phase.

  9. Pressure tube reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanazawa, Nobuhiro; Kaneto, Kunikazu.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To attain uniform fluid poison distribution in a calandria tank by downwardly projecting, at an equal distance to the reactor core, a spacer wall from the periphery of an anti-vibration plate in the vicinity of a heavy water flow passage in the periphery of the anti-vibration plate, thereby decrease the amount of heavy water flowing into the heavy water flow passage. Constitution: A projecting wall concentrical with a calandria tank is suspended vertically from the boundary side at the peripheral portion of an anti-vibration plate to a water heavy flow passage in the periphery of the anti-vibration plate. The projecting wall has such a vertical length as about equal to the width of the heavy water flow passage, prevents heavy water flowing through apertures of a control rod guide tube from entering into the heavy water passage and increases the ratio of heavy water that flows through the heavy water flow passage in the anti-vibration plate. Consequently, if the liquid poison density in heavy water is varied, the ununiform poison density in the calandria tank can be prevented. (Seki, T.)

  10. Integrity evaluation of Alloy 600 RV head penetration tubes in Korean PWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Young Hwan; Park, Sung Ho; Hong, Sung Yull; Choi, Kwang Hee

    1995-01-01

    The structural integrity assessment of Alloy 600 RV head penetration tubes has been an important issue for the economical and reliable operation of power plants. In this paper, an overview of the integrity evaluation program for the RV head penetration tubes in Korean nuclear power plants is presented. Since the crack growth mechanism of the penetration tube is due to the primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) which is mainly related to the stress at the tube, the present paper consists of three primary activities: the stress evaluation, the flaw evaluation, and data generation through material and mechanical tests. (author). 5 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  11. Internal heat exchange tubes for industrial furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoetzl, M.; Lingle, T.M.

    1992-05-26

    This patent describes a method for cooling the work within an industrial furnace. It comprises providing a longitudinally extending outer tube which extends into the furnace having a closed axial end and an open axial end; providing a preformed inner tube open at both ends within the outer tube; injecting a coolant into the inner tube so that the coolant flows from one axial end of the tube out the opposite end adjacent the closed end of the outer tube, and from the closed end of the outer tube to the open end thereof; circulating a gas within the furnace against the outer tube to effect heat transfer therewith.

  12. Patient identification and tube labelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dongen-Lases, Edmée C; Cornes, Michael P; Grankvist, Kjell

    2016-01-01

    of phlebotomy procedures with the CLSI H3-A6 guideline was unacceptably low, and that patient identification and tube labelling are amongst the most critical steps in need of immediate attention and improvement. The process of patient identification and tube labelling is an essential safety barrier to prevent...... patient identity mix-up. Therefore, the EFLM Working Group aims to encourage and support worldwide harmonisation of patient identification and tube labelling procedures in order to reduce the risk of preanalytical errors and improve patient safety. With this Position paper we wish to raise awareness...... and provide recommendations for proper patient and sample identification procedures....

  13. PEG tubes: dealing with complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhi, Hardip; Thompson, Rosie

    A percutaneous endoscopic gastronomy tube can be used to deliver nutrition, hydration and medicines directly into the patient's stomach. Patients will require a tube if they are unable to swallow safely, putting them at risk of aspiration of food, drink and medicines into their lungs. It is vital that nurses are aware of the complications that may arise when caring for a patient with a PEG tube. It is equally important that nurses know how to deal with these complications or from where tc seek advice. This article provides a quick troubleshooting guide to help nurses deal with complications that can arise with PEG feeding.

  14. Applications of liquid scintillation tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broga, D.W.

    1977-01-01

    A new cocktail containing device for liquid scintillation counting, the scintillation tube, consists of a two-layered plastic bag which is heatsealed after the cocktail and sample have been placed in it. It is then placed in a carrying vial and counted in a conventional liquid scintillation counter. These tubes have proved to be a practical and economical alternative to vials. Some of their advantages are elimination of absorption problems, transparency, lower background and higher counting efficiency, low breakage danger and savings in waste disposal costs. Two applications for which the tubes are particularly suitable are the counting of laboratory swipes and urine analysis. (author)

  15. Sequential hepato-biliary scintigraphy of the patients with constitutional jaundices and ICG excretory defect disease with sup(99m)Tc-HIDA and sup(99m)Tc-PI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Hideo; Asahara, Akira; Hishinuma, Sanpei; Toogin, Masayuki; Takagi, Masao

    1979-01-01

    The hepato-biliary scintigraphy with sup(99m)Tc-HIDA and sup(99m)Tc-PI and the measurement of hepatic clearance have been studied on constitutional hyperbilirubinemia and ICG excretory defect disease. The results obtained are as follows: 1) In Dubin-Johnson's syndrome cases, the hepatic uptake of sup(99m)Tc-HIDA was faster, but the excretion was extremely slower than in normal cases. 2) Hepatic uptake and excretion of sup(99m)Tc-PI were both almost normal in Dubin-Johnson's syndrome. 3) In Rotor's disease, hepatic uptake of sup(99m)Tc-HIDA was very poor, showing almost no hepatic image. 4) In Gilbert's disease and ICG excretory defect disease, hepatic uptake and excretion of sup(99m)Tc-HIDA were both within normal limit. From these results it can be presumed that Dubin-Johnson's syndrome and Rotor's disease differ in morbid condition. Dubin-Johnson's syndrome, Rotor's disease and Gilbert's disease show the different patterns between hepatic uptake and excretion on sup(99m)Tc-HIDA hepatoscintigraphy and the patterns contribute to the differential diagnosis of constitutional jaundice. (author)

  16. Condenser tube buckling within tube-tubesheet joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willertz, L.E.; Kalnins, A.; Updike, D.P.

    1991-01-01

    The problem of the appearance of protrusions, or bumps, in the interior of roller-expanded tubes within a tubesheet is addressed. Such bumps have been observed in condensers of power plants. A brief history of the reported occurrences of the bumps is given. The hypothesis is advanced that the mechanics of the formation of the bumps is similar to a buckling problem that has 'bifurcation at infinity'. Following this hypothesis, a two-dimensional physical model is developed, and the application of this model to study a three-dimensional bump is proposed. It is proposed in this paper that an initial deviation from the circular shape of the tube required to produce a bump. It is shown that without such a deviation the tubes cannot buckle. An experiment with short tube segments has been performed that verifies some of the features of the observed condenser tube bumps. Exactly what force produced the initial deviation for the observed bumps is still unknown. Available evidence implicates the hydro-laser jet that is used in the cleaning of tubes and tubesheets. A scenario of how a bump could have been produced by the hydro-laser jet is proposed. (author)

  17. Vertical steam generator with slab-type tube-plate with even tube bundle washing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manek, O.; Masek, V.; Motejl, V.; Quitta, R.

    1980-01-01

    A shielding plate supporting the tubes attached to the tube plate of a vertical steam generator is mounted above the tube plate. Tube sleeves are designed with a dimensional tolerance relative to the heat transfer tubes and the sleeve end and the tube plate end. A separate space is thus formed above the tube plate in which circulation or feed water is introduced to flow between the branch and the heat transfer tube. This provides intensive washing of heat transfer tubes at a critical point and prevents deposit formation, thus excluding heat transfer tube failures. (J.B.)

  18. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Disease Dilated Eye Exam Dry Eye For Kids Glaucoma Healthy Vision Tips Leber Congenital Amaurosis Low Vision Refractive Errors Retinopathy of Prematurity Science Spanish Videos Webinars NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia Embedded ...

  19. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Aging Program African American Program Training and Jobs Fellowships NEI Summer Intern Program Diversity In Vision ... DIVRO) Student Training Programs To search for current job openings visit HHS USAJobs Home >> NEI YouTube Videos >> ...

  20. Technique for joining metal tubing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, H. W.

    1976-01-01

    Uniform wall thickness and uninterrupted heat transfer is achieved by using shaped metal insert as wall material for joint. Insert acts as support during brazing, after which excess material is ground away to bring joint to original tubing size.

  1. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... questions Clinical Studies Publications Catalog Photos and Images Spanish Language Information Grants and Funding Extramural Research Division ... Low Vision Refractive Errors Retinopathy of Prematurity Science Spanish Videos Webinars NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia Embedded video ...

  2. Cuffed endotracheal tubes in paediatrics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cuffed endotracheal tubes (CETTs) in children who are younger than eight years old. Most paediatric ... the smallest functional part of the infant airway, because the ... During the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak in ...

  3. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disease Education Program Glaucoma Education Program Low Vision Education Program Hispanic/Latino ... To search for current job openings visit HHS USAJobs Home » NEI YouTube ...

  4. Investigation of impingement attack mechanism of copper alloy condenser tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukumura, Takuya; Nakajima, Nobuo; Arioka, Koji; Totsuka, Nobuo; Nakagawa, Tomokazu [Institute of Nuclear Safety System Inc., Mihama, Fukui (Japan)

    2001-09-01

    In order to investigate generation and growth mechanisms of impingement attacks of sea water against copper alloy condenser tubes used in condensers of nuclear power plants, we took out condenser tubes from actual condensers, cut them into several pieces and carried out several material tests mainly for impinged spots. In addition water flow inside of a pit was analyzed. From the results of the investigation, it was found that all of impingement attacks were found in the marks left by sessile organisms and none were found in downstream of the marks as frequently proposed so far. At the pits generated inside the marks, iron coating was striped and zinc content was deficient in some cases. Combining these data and the result of flow analysis, we considered the following mechanism of the impingement attacks: sessile organisms clinging to the surface of the condenser tube and growth, occlusion of the tube, extinction and decomposition of sessile organisms, pollution corrosion under the organisms and cavity formation, occlusion removal by the cleaning, generation of impingement attacks by flow collision inside the cavity, growth of the impingement attacks. (author)

  5. Eddy current tube testing unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufayet, J.P.; Duret, G.

    1975-01-01

    The unit described can check a wide variety of tubes in quick succession and its modular design gives it a high degree of versability. Suitably defined working conditions and specific fittings enable most of the faults encountered in the manufacture of a tube to be detected. By appropriate means of selection based on signal amplitude, phase and frequency analyses it is possible to adapt selection criteria to the seriousness of the different categories of defect [fr

  6. The YouTube reader

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    YouTube has come to epitomize the possibilities of digital culture. With more than seventy million unique users a month and approximately eighty million videos online, this brand-name video distribution platform holds the richest repository of popular culture on the Internet. As the fastest growing site in the history of the Web, YouTube promises endless new opportunities for amateur video, political campaigning, entertainment formats, and viral marketing—a clip culture that has seemed to out...

  7. Gasification in a revolving tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speicher, R.F.

    1981-01-01

    The concept of a method for allothermal coal gasification is to refine raw lignite from the Rhine area to high-quality synthesis gas or reduction gas without extracting the water utilizing nuclear process heat in a heated revolving bundle of tubes. Computational models are described for the macroscopic course of events in parallel flow gasification. In the design of the test plant, the principle of drag-in and transport of the tube drier was applied. (DG) [de

  8. Electronics for proportional drift tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fremont, G.; Friend, B.; Mess, K.H.; Schmidt-Parzefall, W.; Tarle, J.C.; Verweij, H.; CERN-Hamburg-Amsterdam-Rome-Moscow Collaboration); Geske, K.; Riege, H.; Schuett, J.; CERN-Hamburg-Amsterdam-Rome-Moscow Collaboration); Semenov, Y.; CERN-Hamburg-Amsterdam-Rome-Moscow Collaboration)

    1980-01-01

    An electronic system for the read-out of a large number of proportional drift tubes (16,000) has been designed. This system measures deposited charge and drift-time of the charge of a particle traversing a proportional drift tube. A second event can be accepted during the read-out of the system. Up to 40 typical events can be collected and buffered before a data transfer to a computer is necessary. (orig.)

  9. Evaluation of hydride blisters in zirconium pressure tube in CANDU reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheong, Y. M.; Kim, Y. S.; Gong, U. S.; Kwon, S. C.; Kim, S. S.; Choo, K.N.

    2000-09-01

    When the garter springs for maintaining the gap between the pressure tube and the calandria tube are displaced in the CANDU reactor, the sagging of pressure tube results in a contact to the calandria tube. This causes a temperature difference between the inner and outer surface of the pressure tube. The hydride can be formed at the cold spot of outer surface and the volume expansion by hydride dormation causes the blistering in the zirconium alloys. An incident of pressure tube rupture due to the hydride blisters had happened in the Canadian CANDU reactor. This report describes the theoretical development and models on the formation and growth of hydride blister and some experimental results. The evaluation methodology and non-destructive testing for hydride blister in operating reactors are also described

  10. Evaluation of hydride blisters in zirconium pressure tube in CANDU reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, Y M; Kim, Y S; Gong, U S; Kwon, S C; Kim, S S; Choo, K N

    2000-09-01

    When the garter springs for maintaining the gap between the pressure tube and the calandria tube are displaced in the CANDU reactor, the sagging of pressure tube results in a contact to the calandria tube. This causes a temperature difference between the inner and outer surface of the pressure tube. The hydride can be formed at the cold spot of outer surface and the volume expansion by hydride dormation causes the blistering in the zirconium alloys. An incident of pressure tube rupture due to the hydride blisters had happened in the Canadian CANDU reactor. This report describes the theoretical development and models on the formation and growth of hydride blister and some experimental results. The evaluation methodology and non-destructive testing for hydride blister in operating reactors are also described.

  11. Tube-in-shell heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, J.

    1976-01-01

    Tube-in-shell heat exchangers normally comprise a bundle of parallel tubes within a shell container, with a fluid arranged to flow through the tubes in heat exchange with a second fluid flowing through the shell. The tubes are usually end supported by the tube plates that separate the two fluids, and in use the tube attachments to the tube plates and the tube plates can be subject to severe stress by thermal shock and frequent inspection and servicing are required. Where the heat exchangers are immersed in a coolant such as liquid Na such inspection is difficult. In the arrangement described a longitudinally extending central tube is provided incorporating axially spaced cylindrical tube plates to which the opposite ends of the tubes are attached. Within this tube there is a tubular baffle that slidably seals against the wall of the tube between the cylindrical tube plates to define two co-axial flow ducts. These ducts are interconnected at the closed end of the tube by the heat exchange tubes and the baffle comprises inner and outer spaced walls with the interspace containing Ar. The baffle is easily removable and can be withdrawn to enable insertion of equipment for inspecting the wall of the tube and tube attachments and to facilitate plugging of defective tubes. Cylindrical tube plates are believed to be superior for carrying pressure loads and resisting the effects of thermal shock. Some protection against thermal shock can be effected by arranging that the secondary heat exchange fluid is on the tube side, and by providing a thermal baffle to prevent direct impingement of hot primary fluid on to the cylindrical tube plates. The inner wall of the tubular baffle may have flexible expansible region. Some nuclear reactor constructions incorporating such an arrangement are described, including liquid metal reactors. (U.K.)

  12. Dermatology on YouTube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyers, Lindsay N; Quest, Tyler; Karimkhani, Chante; Connett, Jessica; Dellavalle, Robert P

    2014-06-15

    YouTube, reaches upwards of six billion users on a monthly basis and is a unique source of information distribution and communication. Although the influence of YouTube on personal health decision-making is well established, this study assessed the type of content and viewership on a broad scope of dermatology related content on YouTube. Select terms (i.e. dermatology, sun protection, skin cancer, skin cancer awareness, and skin conditions) were searched on YouTube. Overall, the results included 100 videos with over 47 million viewers. Advocacy was the most prevalent content type at 24% of the total search results. These 100 videos were "shared" a total of 101,173 times and have driven 6,325 subscriptions to distinct YouTube user pages. Of the total videos, 35% were uploaded by or featured an MD/DO/PhD in dermatology or other specialty/field, 2% FNP/PA, 1% RN, and 62% other. As one of the most trafficked global sites on the Internet, YouTube is a valuable resource for dermatologists, physicians in other specialties, and the general public to share their dermatology-related content and gain subscribers. However, challenges of accessing and determining evidence-based data remain an issue.

  13. Silicone tube micro extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiss, Antje; Fomsgaard, Inge S.; Mathiassen, Solvejg Kopp

    Benzoxazinoids are secondary plant metabolites highly abundant in the Poaceae, including the grain crops wheat, triticale and rye. Benzoxazinoids have been shown to be phytotoxic to a range of weed species and suppress the growth of soil fungi, such as Gaeumannomyces graminis, the cause of the take......-all disease in cereals. Hence, an improved knowledge on the prevalence and temporal distribution of benzoxazinoids in the root zone is of major interest. In this trial, four cultivars of winter rye, winter triticale and winter wheat were sown at the end of September and mid of October 2015 in the presence...

  14. External application of gametophyte-specific ZmPMEI1 induces pollen tube burst in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woriedh, Mayada; Wolf, Sebastian; Márton, Mihaela L; Hinze, Axel; Gahrtz, Manfred; Becker, Dirk; Dresselhaus, Thomas

    2013-09-01

    Regulated demethylesterification of homogalacturonan, a major component of plant cell walls, by the activity of pectin methylesterases (PMEs), plays a critical role for cell wall stability and integrity. Especially fast growing plant cells such as pollen tubes secrete large amounts of PMEs toward their apoplasmic space. PME activity itself is tightly regulated by its inhibitor named as PME inhibitor and is thought to be required especially at the very pollen tube tip. We report here the identification and functional characterization of PMEI1 from maize (ZmPMEI1). We could show that the protein acts as an inhibitor of PME but not of invertases and found that its gene is strongly expressed in both gametophytes (pollen grain and embryo sac). Promoter reporter studies showed gene activity also during pollen tube growth toward and inside the transmitting tract. All embryo sac cells except the central cell displayed strong expression. Weaker signals were visible at sporophytic cells of the micropylar region. ZmPMEI1-EGFP fusion protein is transported within granules inside the tube and accumulates at the pollen tube tip as well as at sites where pollen tubes bend and/or change growth directions. The female gametophyte putatively influences pollen tube growth behavior by exposing it to ZmPMEI1. We therefore simulated this effect by applying recombinant protein at different concentrations on growing pollen tubes. ZmPMEI1 did not arrest growth, but destabilized the cell wall inducing burst. Compared with female gametophyte secreted defensin-like ZmES4, which induces burst at the very pollen tube tip, ZmPMEI1-induced burst occurs at the subapical region. These findings indicate that ZmPMEI1 secreted by the embryo sac likely destabilizes the pollen tube wall during perception and together with other proteins such as ZmES4 leads to burst and thus sperm release.

  15. Tubing vs. buckets: a cost comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil K. Huyler

    1975-01-01

    Equipment investment for tubing-vacuum systems was significantly less than that for bucket systems. Tubing-vacuum systems required about 22 percent less labor input, the major labor input being completed before sap-flow periods. Annual cost of operation was less for tubing-vacuum than the bucket system. Small tubing-vacuum operations showed more profit potential than...

  16. Expander for Thin-Wall Tubing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessin, R.

    1983-01-01

    Tool locally expands small-diameter tubes. Tube expander locally expands and deforms tube: Compressive lateral stress induced in elastomeric sleeve by squeezing axially between two metal tool parts. Adaptable to situations in which tube must have small bulge for mechanical support or flow control.

  17. Cross-talk in straw tube chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marzec, J. E-mail: janusz.marzec@ire.pw.edu.pl

    2003-05-11

    An analytical model of the signal transmission between neighboring straw tubes with resistive cathodes (cross-talk) is presented. The dependence of the cross-talk level on the cathode resistance, tube length, particle detection point, the distance of the tube from the shielding planes, and termination of the tube ends is analyzed.

  18. Cross-talk in straw tube chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marzec, J.

    2003-01-01

    An analytical model of the signal transmission between neighboring straw tubes with resistive cathodes (cross-talk) is presented. The dependence of the cross-talk level on the cathode resistance, tube length, particle detection point, the distance of the tube from the shielding planes, and termination of the tube ends is analyzed

  19. Free Piston Double Diaphragm Shock Tube

    OpenAIRE

    OGURA, Eiji; FUNABIKI, Katsushi; SATO, Shunichi; ABE, Takashi; 小倉, 栄二; 船曳, 勝之; 佐藤, 俊逸; 安部, 隆士

    1997-01-01

    A free piston double diaphragm shock tube was newly developed for generation of high Mach number shock wave. Its characteristics was investigated for various operation parameters; such as a strength of the diaphragm at the end of the comparession tube, an initial pressure of low pressure tube, an initial pressure of medium pressure tube and the volume of compression tube. Under the restriction of fixed pressures for the driver high pressure tube (32×10^5Pa) and the low pressure tube (40Pa) in...

  20. PWR steam generator tubing sample library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    In order to compile the tubing sample library, two approaches were employed: (a) tubing sample replication by either chemical or mechanical means, based on field tube data and metallography reports for tubes already destructively examined; and (b) acquisition of field tubes removed from operating or retired steam generators. In addition, a unique mercury modeling concept is in use to guide the selection of replica samples. A compendium was compiled that summarizes field observations and morphologies of steam generator tube degradation types based on available NDE, destructive examinations, and field reports. This compendium was used in selecting candidate degradation types that were manufactured for inclusion in the tube library

  1. Pump element for a tube pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The invention relates to a tube pump comprising a tube and a pump element inserted in the tube, where the pump element comprises a rod element and a first and a second non-return valve member positioned a distance apart on the rod element. The valve members are oriented in the same direction...... relative to the rod element so as to allow for a fluid flow in the tube through the first valve member, along the rod element, and through the second valve member. The tube comprises an at least partly flexible tube portion between the valve members such that a repeated deformation of the flexible tube...... portion acts to alternately close and open the valve members thereby generating a fluid flow through the tube. The invention further relates to a pump element comprising at least two non-return valve members connected by a rod element, and for insertion in an at least partly flexible tube in such tube...

  2. Managing a chest tube and drainage system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durai, Rajaraman; Hoque, Happy; Davies, Tony W

    2010-02-01

    Intercostal drainage tubes (ie, chest tubes) are inserted to drain the pleural cavity of air, blood, pus, or lymph. The water-seal container connected to the chest tube allows one-way movement of air and liquid from the pleural cavity. The container should not be changed unless it is full, and the chest tube should not be clamped unnecessarily. After a chest tube is inserted, a nurse trained in chest-tube management is responsible for managing the chest tube and drainage system. This entails monitoring the chest-tube position, controlling fluid evacuation, identifying when to change or empty the containers, and caring for the tube and drainage system during patient transport. This article provides an overview of indications, insertion techniques, and management of chest tubes. Copyright 2010 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Analysis of forming limit in tube hydroforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chan Il; Yang, Seung Hang; Kim, Young Suk

    2013-01-01

    The automotive industry has shown increasing interest in tube hydroforming. Despite many automobile structural parts being produced from cylindrical tubes, failures frequently occur during tube hydroforming under improper forming conditions. These problems include wrinkling, buckling, folding back, and bursting. We perform analytical studies to determine forming limits in tube hydroforming and demonstrate how these forming limits are influenced by the loading path. Theoretical results for the forming limits of wrinkling and bursting are compared with experimental results for an aluminum tube.

  4. Factors affecting in-core dimensional stability of Zircaloy-2 calandria tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fidleris, V.; Causey, A.R.; Holt, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    In CANDU PHW reactors, the heavy water moderator is contained in a cylindrical vessel (calandria) which is penetrated by 380 horizontal fuel channel assemblies. The outer Zircaloy-2 tube of each assembly (the calandria tube) is rolled into the end shields to seal the calandria. The calandria tubes operate at ≅340 K with axial stresses that range from -10 to +40 MPa and experience fast neutron fluxes as large as 3 x 10 17 n m -2 s -1 , E > 1.0 MeV. In this environment tubes elongate and sag due to irradiation-induced creep and growth. Our understanding of these irradiation effects is based on creep, stress relaxation and irradiation growth experiments on calandria tube materials irradiated to neutron fluences of 7 x 10 25 n m -2 , E > 1.0 MeV. Both creep and growth strains decrease with the proportion of grains that have basal plane normals in the direction of testing. Cold work increases the creep rate but appears to introduce a negative component of growth in the working direction due to neutron induced stress relief that persists up to at least 7 x 10 25 n m -2 . Thermal stress relief restores the positive growth rate in the working direction. There is little effect of grain size in the range 10 TO 30 μm. This information can be used to select fabrication routes that will minimize dimensional changes of tubes during service

  5. YouTube as a source of clinical skills education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Ian; Yarwood-Ross, Lee; Haigh, Carol

    2013-12-01

    YouTube may be viewed as a great 'time waster' but a significant amount of educative material can be found if the user is carefully selective. Interestingly, the growth of educational video on YouTube is closely associated to video viewership which increased from 22% to 38% between 2007 and 2009. This paper describes the findings of a study undertaken to assess the quality of clinical skills videos available on the video sharing site YouTube. This study evaluated 100 YouTube sites, approximately 1500 min or 25 h worth of content across 10 common clinical skill related topics. In consultation with novice practitioners, nurses in the first year of their university diploma programme, we identified ten common clinical skills that typically students would explore in more detail or would wish to revisit outside of the formal teaching environment. For each of these topics, we viewed each of the first 10 videos on the YouTube website. The videos were evaluated using a modification of the criteria outlined in Evaluation of Video Media Guideline. The topic with the biggest number of both postings and views was cardiopulmonary resuscitation and more specialist, nursing or health related topics such as managing a syringe driver or undertaking a pain assessment had less video content and lower numbers of viewers. Only one video out of the 100 analysed could be categorised as 'good' and that was the one in the Cannulation section. 60% of the CPR and venepuncture content was categorised as 'satisfactory'. There is a clear need for the quality of YouTube videos to be subjected to a rigorous evaluation. Lecturers should be more proactive in recommending suitable YouTube material as supplementary learning materials after appropriately checking for quality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Analysis of autofrettaged metal tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, M. Afzaal; Khan, Muddasar; Rashid, Badar; Khushnood, Shahab

    2007-01-01

    Thick-walled cylinders are widely used as compressor cylinders, pump cylinders, high pressure tubing, process reactors and vessels, nuclear reactors, isostatic vessels and gun barrels. In practice, cylinders are generally subjected to sudden and frequently drastic pressure fluctuations, such as the pressure generated in a gun barrel upon the firing of the weapon, pressure reversals in pump cylinders or in process reactors employing high-pressure piping, necessitating enhanced strength of such cylinders. A process for enhancing the strength of thick-walled cylinders has been in service, and is referred to as 'autofrettage'. It extends the service life of the cylinder. The autofrettage is achieved by increasing elastic strength of a cylinder with various methods such as hydraulic pressurization, mechanical swaging, or by utilizing the pressure of a powder gas. This research work deals with the hydraulic and mechanical autofrettage of metal tubes with the objective to attain enhanced strength. Five metal tubes are taken randomly for analysis purpose. The experimental data for five metal tubes is obtained to analyze the behavior of different parameters used during, before, and after autofrettage process. For this research, two-stage autofrettage is taken into consideration. The modeling of the metal tube is carried out in WildFire-ProEngineering, and for analysis purpose, finite element software ANSYS7 and COSMOS are used. The graphical analysis of swage autofrettage is carried out using MATLAB7. The results are validated using available experimental and numerical data. (author)

  7. Physics of magnetic flux tubes

    CERN Document Server

    Ryutova, Margarita

    2015-01-01

    This book is the first account of the physics of magnetic flux tubes from their fundamental properties to collective phenomena in an ensembles of flux tubes. The physics of magnetic flux tubes is absolutely vital for understanding fundamental physical processes in the solar atmosphere shaped and governed by magnetic fields. High-resolution and high cadence observations from recent space and  ground-based instruments taken simultaneously at different heights and temperatures not only show the ubiquity of filamentary structure formation but also allow to study how various events are interconnected by system of magnetic flux tubes. The book covers both theory and observations. Theoretical models presented in analytical and phenomenological forms are tailored for practical applications. These are welded with state-of-the-art observations from early decisive ones to the most recent data that open a new phase-space for exploring the Sun and sun-like stars. Concept of magnetic flux tubes is central to various magn...

  8. Development of delayed hydride cracking resistant-pressure tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Suk; Kwon, Sang Chul; Kim, S. S.; Yim, K. S

    2000-10-01

    For the first time, we demonstrate that the pattern of nucleation and growth of a DHC crack is governed by the precipitation of hydrides so that the DHC velocity and K{sub IH} are determined by an angle of the cracking plane and the hydride habit plane 10.7. Since texture controls the distribution of the 10.7 habit plane in Zr-2.5Nb pressure tube, we draw a conclusion that a textural change in Zr-2.5Nb tube from a strong tangential texture to the radial texture shall increase the threshold stress intensity factor, K{sub IH}, and decrease the delayed hydride cracking velocity. This conclusion is also verified by a complimentary experiment showing a linear dependence of DHCV and K{sub IH} with an increase in the basal component in the cracking plane. On the basis of the study on the DHC mechanism and the effect of manufacturing processes on the properties of Zr-2.5Nb tube, we have established a manufacturing procedure to make pressure tubes with improved DHC resistance. The main features of the established manufacturing process consist in the two step-cold pilgering process and the intermediate heat treatment in the {alpha} + {beta} phase for Zr-2.5Nb alloy and in the {alpha} phase for Zr-1Nb-1.2Sn-0.4Fe alloy. The manufacturing of DHC resistant-pressure tubes of Zr-2.5Nb and Zr-1N-1.2Sn-0.4Fe was made in the ChMP zirconium plant in Russia under a joint research with Drs. Nikulina and Markelov in VNIINM (Russia). Zr-2.5Nb pressure tube made with the established manufacturing process has met all the specification requirements put by KAERI. Chracterization tests have been jointly conducted by VNIINM and KAERI. As expected, the Zr-2.5Nb tube made with the established procedure has improved DHC resistance compared to that of CANDU Zr-2.5Nb pressure tube used currently. The measured DHC velocity of the Zr-2.5Nb tube meets the target value (DHCV <5x10{sup -8} m/s) and its other properties also were equivalent to those of the CANDU Zr-2.5Nb tube used currently. The Zr-1Nb-1

  9. A pollen-specific RALF from tomato that regulates pollen tube elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covey, Paul A; Subbaiah, Chalivendra C; Parsons, Ronald L; Pearce, Gregory; Lay, Fung T; Anderson, Marilyn A; Ryan, Clarence A; Bedinger, Patricia A

    2010-06-01

    Rapid Alkalinization Factors (RALFs) are plant peptides that rapidly increase the pH of plant suspension cell culture medium and inhibit root growth. A pollen-specific tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) RALF (SlPRALF) has been identified. The SlPRALF gene encodes a preproprotein that appears to be processed and released from the pollen tube as an active peptide. A synthetic SlPRALF peptide based on the putative active peptide did not affect pollen hydration or viability but inhibited the elongation of normal pollen tubes in an in vitro growth system. Inhibitory effects of SlPRALF were detectable at concentrations as low as 10 nm, and complete inhibition was observed at 1 mum peptide. At least 10-fold higher levels of alkSlPRALF, which lacks disulfide bonds, were required to see similar effects. A greater effect of peptide was observed in low-pH-buffered medium. Inhibition of pollen tube elongation was reversible if peptide was removed within 15 min of exposure. Addition of 100 nm SlPRALF to actively growing pollen tubes inhibited further elongation until tubes were 40 to 60 mum in length, after which pollen tubes became resistant to the peptide. The onset of resistance correlated with the timing of the exit of the male germ unit from the pollen grain into the tube. Thus, exogenous SlPRALF acts as a negative regulator of pollen tube elongation within a specific developmental window.

  10. Drift tubes of Linac 2

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1977-01-01

    With the advent of the 800 MeV PS Booster in 1972, the original injector of the PS, a 50 MeV Alvarez-type proton linac, had reached its limits, in terms of intensity and stability. In 1973 one therefore decided to build a new linac (Linac 2), also with a drift-tube Alvarez structure and an energy of 50 MeV. It had a new Cockcroft-Walton preinjector with 750 keV, instead of the previous one with 500 keV. Linac 2 was put into service in 1980. The old Linac 1 was then used for the study of, and later operation with, various types of ions. This picture shows Linac 2 drift-tubes, suspended on stems coming from the top, in contrast to Linac 1, where the drift-tubes stood on stems coming from the bottom.

  11. On hydraulics of capillary tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.G. Aloyan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the laws of motion of water in the capillary tubes, taken as a model for flowing well, on the analogical net count device. For capillary tube the lower limit value of flow rate is empirically determined above which the total hydraulic resistance of the capillary is practically constant. The specificity of the phenomenon is that the regime of motion, by a Reynolds number, for a given flow rate still remains laminar. This circumstance can perplex the specialists, so the author invites them to the scientific debate on the subject of study. Obviously, to identify the resulting puzzle it is necessary to conduct a series of experiments using capillaries of different lengths and diameters and with different values of overpressure. The article states that in tubes with very small diameter the preliminary magnitude of capillary rise of water in the presence of flow plays no role and can be neglected.

  12. Tubing and cable cutting tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcsmith, D. D.; Richardson, J. I. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A hand held hydraulic cutting tool was developed which is particularly useful in deactivating ejection seats in military aircraft rescue operations. The tool consists primarily of a hydraulic system composed of a fluid reservoir, a pumping piston, and an actuator piston. Mechanical cutting jaws are attached to the actuator piston rod. The hydraulic system is controlled by a pump handle. As the pump handle is operated the actuator piston rod is forced outward and thus the cutting jaws are forced together. The frame of the device is a flexible metal tubing which permits easy positioning of the tool cutting jaws in remote and normally inaccessible locations. Bifurcated cutting edges ensure removal of a section of the tubing or cable to thereby reduce the possibility of accidental reactivation of the tubing or cable being severed.

  13. The relative impact of sizing errors on steam generator tube failure probability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cizelj, L.; Dvorsek, T.

    1998-01-01

    The Outside Diameter Stress Corrosion Cracking (ODSCC) at tube support plates is currently the major degradation mechanism affecting the steam generator tubes made of Inconel 600. This caused development and licensing of degradation specific maintenance approaches, which addressed two main failure modes of the degraded piping: tube rupture; and excessive leakage through degraded tubes. A methodology aiming at assessing the efficiency of a given set of possible maintenance approaches has already been proposed by the authors. It pointed out better performance of the degradation specific over generic approaches in (1) lower probability of single and multiple steam generator tube rupture (SGTR), (2) lower estimated accidental leak rates and (3) less tubes plugged. A sensitivity analysis was also performed pointing out the relative contributions of uncertain input parameters to the tube rupture probabilities. The dominant contribution was assigned to the uncertainties inherent to the regression models used to correlate the defect size and tube burst pressure. The uncertainties, which can be estimated from the in-service inspections, are further analysed in this paper. The defect growth was found to have significant and to some extent unrealistic impact on the probability of single tube rupture. Since the defect growth estimates were based on the past inspection records they strongly depend on the sizing errors. Therefore, an attempt was made to filter out the sizing errors and to arrive at more realistic estimates of the defect growth. The impact of different assumptions regarding sizing errors on the tube rupture probability was studied using a realistic numerical example. The data used is obtained from a series of inspection results from Krsko NPP with 2 Westinghouse D-4 steam generators. The results obtained are considered useful in safety assessment and maintenance of affected steam generators. (author)

  14. Flash photolysis-shock tube studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael, J.V. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Even though this project in the past has concentrated on the measurement of thermal bimolecular reactions of atomic species with stable molecules by the flash or laser photolysis-shock tube (FP- or LP-ST) method using atomic resonance absorption spectrometry (ARAS) as the diagnostic technique, during the past year the authors have concentrated on studies of the thermal decompositions of selected chlorocarbon molecules. These studies are necessary if the degradation of chlorine containing organic molecules by incineration are to be understood at the molecular level. Clearly, destruction of these molecules will not only involve abstraction reactions, when possible, but also thermal decomposition followed by secondary reactions of the initially formed atoms and radicals. Studies on the thermal decomposition of CH{sub 3}Cl are complete, and the curve-of-growth for Cl-atom atomic resonance absorption has been determined. The new thermal decomposition studies are similar to those already reported for CH{sub 3}Cl.

  15. Biocompatibility of Different Nerve Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stang, Felix; Keilhoff, Gerburg; Fansa, Hisham

    2009-01-01

    Bridging nerve gaps with suitable grafts is a major clinical problem. The autologous nerve graft is considered to be the gold standard, providing the best functional results; however, donor site morbidity is still a major disadvantage. Various attempts have been made to overcome the problems of autologous nerve grafts with artificial nerve tubes, which are “ready-to-use” in almost every situation. A wide range of materials have been used in animal models but only few have been applied to date clinically, where biocompatibility is an inevitable prerequisite. This review gives an idea about artificial nerve tubes with special focus on their biocompatibility in animals and humans.

  16. Working session 3: Tubing integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cueto-Felgueroso, C.; Strosnider, J.

    1997-01-01

    Twenty-three individuals representing nine countries (Belgium, Canada, the Czech Republic, France, Japan, the Slovak Republic, Spain, the UK, and the US) participated in the session on tube integrity. These individuals represented utilities, vendors, consultants and regulatory authorities. The major subjects discussed by the group included overall objectives of managing steam generator tube degradation, necessary elements of a steam generator degradation management program, the concept of degradation specific management, structural integrity evaluations, leakage evaluations, and specific degradation mechanisms. The group's discussions on these subjects, including conclusions and recommendations, are summarized in this article

  17. The Sealed Tube Neutron Generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunnell, L.N.; Beyerle, A.; Durkee, R.; Headley, G.; Hurley, P.

    1992-01-01

    A Sealed Tube Neutron Generator (STNG) has been designed and tested at Special Technologies Laboratories (STL) in Santa Barbara, California. Unlike similar tubes that have been used for years in other applications, e.g., by the oil well logging industry, the present device was designed primarily to be part of the Associated Particle Imaging (API) system. Consequently, the size and quality of the neutron spot produced by the STNG is of primary importance. Results from initial measurements indicate that performance goals are satisfied

  18. YouTube and Facebook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robertson, Scott P.; Vatrapu, Ravi; Medina, Richard

    This paper examines the links to YouTube from the Facebook “walls” of Barack Obama, Hillary Clinton, and John McCain over two years prior to the 2008 U.S. Presidential election. User-generated linkage patterns show how participants in these politically-related social networking dialogues used...... online video to make their points. We show a strong integration of the Web 2.0 and new media technologies of social networking and online video. We argue that political discussion in social networking environments can no longer be viewed as primarily textual, and that neither Facebook nor YouTube can...

  19. Core barrel inner tube lifter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffers, J P

    1968-07-16

    A core drill with means for selectively lifting a core barrel inner tube consists of a lifting means connected to the core barrel inner tube assembly. It has a closable passage to permit drilling fluid normally to pass through it. The lifting means has a normally downward facing surface and a means to direct drilling fluid pressure against that surface so that on closure of the passage to fluid flow, the pressure of the drilling fluid is caused to act selectively on it. This causes the lifting means to rise and lift the core barrel. (7 claims)

  20. Opposed slant tube diabatic sorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Donald C.

    2004-01-20

    A sorber comprised of at least three concentric coils of tubing contained in a shell with a flow path for liquid sorbent in one direction, a flow path for heat transfer fluid which is in counter-current heat exchange relationship with sorbent flow, a sorbate vapor port in communication with at least one of sorbent inlet or exit ports, wherein each coil is coiled in opposite direction to those coils adjoining it, whereby the opposed slant tube configuration is achieved, with structure for flow modification in the core space inside the innermost coil.

  1. The FINUDA straw tube detector

    CERN Document Server

    Zia, A; Bertani, M; Bianco, S; Fabbri, Franco Luigi; Gianotti, P; Giardoni, M; Lucherini, V; Mecozzi, A; Pace, E; Passamonti, L; Qaiser, N; Russo, V; Tomassini, S; Sarwar, S; Serdyouk, V

    2001-01-01

    An array of 2424 2.6- m-long, 15- mm-diameter mylar straw tubes, arranged in two axial and four stereo layers, has been assembled at National Laboratories of Frascati of INFN for the FINUDA experiment. The array covers a cylindrical tracking surface of 18 m sup 2 and provides coordinate measurement in the drift direction and along the wire with a resolution of the order of 100 and 300 mu m, respectively. The array has finished the commissioning phase and tests with cosmic rays are underway. The status straw tubes array and a very preliminary result from cosmic rays test are summarized in this work.

  2. The FINUDA straw tube detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zia, A.; Benussi, L.; Bertani, M.; Bianco, S.; Fabbri, F.L.; Gianotti, P.; Giardoni, M.; Lucherini, V.; Mecozzi, A.; Pace, E.; Passamonti, L.; Qaiser, N.; Russo, V.; Tomassini, S.; Sarwar, S.; Serdyouk, V.

    2001-01-01

    An array of 2424 2.6- m-long, 15- mm-diameter mylar straw tubes, arranged in two axial and four stereo layers, has been assembled at National Laboratories of Frascati of INFN for the FINUDA experiment. The array covers a cylindrical tracking surface of 18 m 2 and provides coordinate measurement in the drift direction and along the wire with a resolution of the order of 100 and 300 μm, respectively. The array has finished the commissioning phase and tests with cosmic rays are underway. The status straw tubes array and a very preliminary result from cosmic rays test are summarized in this work

  3. The FINUDA straw tube detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia, A.; Benussi, L.; Bertani, M.; Bianco, S.; Fabbri, F. L.; Gianotti, P.; Giardoni, M.; Lucherini, V.; Mecozzi, A.; Pace, E.; Passamonti, L.; Qaiser, N.; Russo, V.; Tomassini, S.; Sarwar, S.; Serdyouk, V.

    2001-04-01

    An array of 2424 2.6- m-long, 15- mm-diameter mylar straw tubes, arranged in two axial and four stereo layers, has been assembled at National Laboratories of Frascati of INFN for the FINUDA experiment. The array covers a cylindrical tracking surface of 18 m 2 and provides coordinate measurement in the drift direction and along the wire with a resolution of the order of 100 and 300 μm, respectively. The array has finished the commissioning phase and tests with cosmic rays are underway. The status straw tubes array and a very preliminary result from cosmic rays test are summarized in this work.

  4. Control rod guide tube assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabsen, F.S.

    1979-01-01

    A nuclear fuel assembly including sleeves telescoped over end portions of control rod guide tubes which bear against internal shoulders of the sleeves. Upper ends of the sleeves protrude beyond a control rod guide tube spider and are locked in place by means of a resilient cellular lattice or lock that is seated in mating grooves in the outer surfaces of the sleeves. A grapple is provided for disengaging the entire lock structure spider and associated washers, springs and a grill from the end of the fuel assembly in order to enable these components to be removed and subsequently replaced on the fuel assembly after inspection and repair. (UK)

  5. Molecular evidence that rough endoplasmic reticulum is the site of calreticulin translation in Petunia pollen tubes growing in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwińska, Anna; Lenartowski, Robert; Smoliński, Dariusz Jan; Lenartowska, Marta

    2015-07-01

    In germinating pollen grains and growing pollen tubes, CRT is translated on ER membrane-bound ribosomes in the regions where its activity is required for stabilization of tip-focused Ca (2+) gradient. Pollen tube growth requires coordination of signaling, exocytosis, and actin cytoskeletal organization. Many of these processes are thought to be controlled by finely tuned regulation of cytoplasmic Ca(2+) in discrete regions of the tube cytoplasm. Most notably, a mechanism must function to maintain a steep gradient of Ca(2+) that exists at the tip of growing pollen tube. Several pieces of evidence point to calreticulin (CRT) as a key Ca(2+)-binding/-buffering protein involved in pollen germination and pollen tube growth. We previously hypothesized that in germinating pollen and growing tubes, CRT is translated on the ribosomes associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in the regions where its activity might be required. In this report, we have addressed this idea by identifying the sites where CRT mRNA, CRT protein, 18S rRNA, and rough ER are localized in Petunia pollen tubes. We observed all four components in the germinal aperture of pollen grains and in subapical regions of elongating tubes. These results seem to support our idea that CRT is translated on ER membrane-bound ribosomes during pollen germination and pollen tube growth. In elongated pollen tubes, we found CRT mainly localized in the subapical zone, where ER and Golgi stacks are abundant. In eukaryotic cells, these organelles serve as mobile intracellular stores of easily releasable Ca(2+), which can be buffered by proteins such as CRT. Therefore, we postulate that subapical-localized CRT is involved in pollen tube growth by maintaining the stable tip-focused Ca(2+) gradient and thus modulating local Ca(2+) concentration within the tube cytoplasm.

  6. Sequential hepatobiliary scintigraphy of the patients with constitutional jaundice, ICG excretory defect disease and hepatocellular carcinoma with 99mTc-PI, 99mTc-HIDA and 99mTc-EHIDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitani, Tsuyoshi

    1987-01-01

    Sequential 2 min scintiphotos were obtained with a scintilation camera after intravenous injection of 3 mCi of 99m Tc-HIDA or 99m Tc-PI. Digital matrix images were simultaneously recorded with computer. Sequential samples for the blood clearance of 99m Tc-HIDA or 99m Tc-PI were obtained for 120 min following injection to the patient of constitutional hyperbilirubinemia and ICG excretory defect disease. In Dubin-Johnson syndrome, the hepatic uptake of 99m Tc-HIDA was faster or normal but the excretion was extremely slower than in normal cases. Both hepatic uptake and excretion of 99m Tc-PI were almost normal. In Rotor's disease, hepatic uptake of 99m Tc-HIDA or 99m Tc-PI was very poor, showing almost no hepatic images in all time. In Gilbert's disease and ICG excretory defect disease, hepatic uptake and excretion of 99m Tc-HIDA or 99m Tc-PI were within normal limit. From these results, Dubin-Johnson syndrome, Rotor's disease and Gilbert's disease show the different patterns between hepatic uptake and excretion of 99m Tc-HIDA and 99m Tc-PI hepatobiliary scintigraphy and these patterns contribute to the differential diagnosis of constitutional jaundice. The usefulness of hepatobiliary imaging with 99m Tc-EHIDA in diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma was studied in 15 patients with histologically verified HCC. In 15 patients, 3 patients (20 %) showed increased radioactivity with 99m Tc-EHIDA image, where liver scan with 99m Tc-Sn colloid showed filling defect. These results indicate that use of 99m Tc-EHIDA scan and 67 Ga-citrate imaging is useful for positive visualization of HCC. (author)

  7. Delineation of upper urinary tract segments at MDCT urography in patients with extra-urinary mass lesions: retrospective comparison of standard and low-dose protocols for the excretory phase of imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller-Lisse, Ulrike L. [University of Munich, Department of Urology, Munich (Germany); University of Munich Medical School, Department of Urology, Muenchen (Germany); Coppenrath, Eva M.; Meindl, Thomas; Degenhart, Christoph; Scherr, Michael K.; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Mueller-Lisse, Ullrich G. [University of Munich, Department of Radiology, Munich (Germany); Stief, Christian G. [University of Munich, Department of Urology, Munich (Germany)

    2011-02-15

    Excretory-phase CT urography (CTU) may replace excretory urography in patients without urinary tumors. However, radiation exposure is a concern. We retrospectively compared upper urinary tract (UUT) delineation in low-dose and standard CTU. CTU (1-2 phases, 120 KV, 4 x 2.5 mm, pitch 0.875, i.v. non-ionic contrast media, iodine 36 g) was obtained with standard (14 patients, n = 27 UUTs, average 175.6 mAs/slice, average delay 16.8 min) or low-dose (26 patients, n = 86 UUTs, 29 mAs/slice, average delay 19.6 min) protocols. UUT was segmented into intrarenal collecting system (IRCS), upper, middle, and lower ureter (UU,MU,LU). Two independent readers (R1,R2) graded UUT segments as 1-not delineated, 2-partially delineated, 3-completely delineated (noisy margins), 4-completely delineated (clear margins). Chi-square statistics were calculated for partial versus complete delineation and complete delineation (clear margins), respectively. Complete delineation of UUT was similar in standard and low-dose CTU (R1, p > 0.15; R2, p > 0.2). IRCS, UU, and MU clearly delineated similarly often in standard and low-dose CTU (R1, p > 0.25; R2, p > 0.1). LU clearly delineated more often in standard protocols (R1, 18/6 standard, 38/31 low-dose, p > 0.1; R2 18/6 standard, 21/48 low-dose, p < 0.05). Low-dose CTU sufficiently delineated course of UUT and may locate obstruction/dilation, but appears unlikely to find intraluminal LU lesions. (orig.)

  8. Propidium iodide competes with Ca(2+) to label pectin in pollen tubes and Arabidopsis root hairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rounds, Caleb M; Lubeck, Eric; Hepler, Peter K; Winship, Lawrence J

    2011-09-01

    We have used propidium iodide (PI) to investigate the dynamic properties of the primary cell wall at the apex of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) root hairs and pollen tubes and in lily (Lilium formosanum) pollen tubes. Our results show that in root hairs, as in pollen tubes, oscillatory peaks in PI fluorescence precede growth rate oscillations. Pectin forms the primary component of the cell wall at the tip of both root hairs and pollen tubes. Given the electronic structure of PI, we investigated whether PI binds to pectins in a manner analogous to Ca(2+) binding. We first show that Ca(2+) is able to abrogate PI growth inhibition in a dose-dependent manner. PI fluorescence itself also relies directly on the amount of Ca(2+) in the growth solution. Exogenous pectin methyl esterase treatment of pollen tubes, which demethoxylates pectins, freeing more Ca(2+)-binding sites, leads to a dramatic increase in PI fluorescence. Treatment with pectinase leads to a corresponding decrease in fluorescence. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that PI binds to demethoxylated pectins. Unlike other pectin stains, PI at low yet useful concentration is vital and specifically does not alter the tip-focused Ca(2+) gradient or growth oscillations. These data suggest that pectin secretion at the apex of tip-growing plant cells plays a critical role in regulating growth, and PI represents an excellent tool for examining the role of pectin and of Ca(2+) in tip growth.

  9. Study on antioxidant experiment on forged steel tube sheet and tube hole for steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zong Hai; Wang Detai; Ding Yang

    2012-01-01

    Antioxidant experiment on forged steel tube sheet and tube hole for steam generator was studied and the influence of different simulated heat treatments on the antioxidant performance of tube sheet and tube hole was made. The influence of different antioxidant methods on the size of tube hole was drawn. Furthermore, the change of size and weight of 18MnD5 forged steel tube sheet on the condition of different simulated heat treatments was also studied. The analytical results have proved reference information for the use of 18MnD5 material and for key processes of processing tube hole and wearing and expanding U-style tube. (authors)

  10. Bradycardia after Tube Thoracostomy for Spontaneous Pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yomi Fashola

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of an elderly patient who became bradycardic after chest tube insertion for spontaneous pneumothorax. Arrhythmia is a rare complication of tube thoracostomy. Unlike other reported cases of chest tube induced arrhythmias, the bradycardia in our patient responded to resuscitative measures without removal or repositioning of the tube. Our patient, who had COPD, presented with shortness of breath due to spontaneous pneumothorax. Moments after tube insertion, patient developed severe bradycardia that responded to Atropine. In patients requiring chest tube insertion, it is important to be prepared to provide cardiopulmonary resuscitative therapy in case the patient develops a life-threatening arrhythmia.

  11. Welding the CNGS decay tube

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    3.6 km of welds were required for the 1 km long CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso (CNGS) decay tube, in which particles produced in the collision with a proton and a graphite target will decay into muons and muon neutrinos. Four highly skilled welders performed this delicate task.

  12. Tube in shell heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayden, O.; Willby, C.R.; Sheward, G.E.; Ormrod, D.T.; Firth, G.F.

    1980-01-01

    An improved tube-in-shell heat exchanger to be used between liquid metal and water is described for use in the liquid metal coolant system of fast breeder reactors. It is stated that this design is less prone to failures which could result in sodium water reactions than previous exchangers. (UK)

  13. Working session 1: Tubing degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharshafdjian, G.; Turluer, G.

    1997-01-01

    A general introductory overview of the purpose of the group and the general subject area of SG tubing degradation was given by the facilitator. The purpose of the session was described as to open-quotes develop conclusions and proposals on regulatory and technical needs required to deal with the issues of SG tubing degradation.close quotes Types, locations and characteristics of tubing degradation in steam generators were briefly reviewed. The well-known synergistic effects of materials, environment, and stress and strain/strain rate, subsequently referred to by the acronym open-quotes MESSclose quotes by some of the group members, were noted. The element of time (i.e., evolution of these variables with time) was emphasized. It was also suggested that the group might want to consider the related topics of inspection capabilities, operational variables, degradation remedies, and validity of test data, and some background information in these areas was provided. The presentation given by Peter Millet during the Plenary Session was reviewed; Specifically, the chemical aspects and the degradation from the secondary side of the steam generator were noted. The main issues discussed during the October 1995 EPRI meeting on secondary side corrosion were reported, and a listing of the potential SG tube degradations was provided and discussed

  14. Kundt's Tube Experiment Using Smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parolin, Sara Orsola; Pezzi, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    This article deals with a modern version of Kundt's tube experiment. Using economic instruments and a couple of smartphones, it is possible to "see" nodes and antinodes of standing acoustic waves in a column of vibrating air and to measure the speed of sound.

  15. OurTube / David Talbot

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Talbot, David

    2009-01-01

    USA California Ülikooli töötajate Abram Stern'i ja Michael Dale'i poolt 2005. a. algatatud USA kongressis peetud kõnede videoremiksidest ja nende poolt loodud veebisaidist Metavid.org. Ka YouTube keskkonnast ja wikipedia katsetustest muuta oma keskkond multimeedialisemaks

  16. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Program Vision and Aging Program African American Program Training and Jobs Fellowships NEI Summer Intern Program Diversity In Vision Research & Ophthalmology (DIVRO) Student Training Programs To search for current job openings visit HHS USAJobs Home >> NEI YouTube Videos >> ...

  17. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Aging Program African American Program Training and Jobs Fellowships NEI Summer Intern Program Diversity In Vision ... DIVRO) Student Training Programs To search for current job openings visit HHS USAJobs Home » NEI YouTube Videos » ...

  18. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Macular Degeneration Amblyopia Animations Blindness Cataract Convergence Insufficiency Diabetic Eye Disease Dilated Eye Exam Dry Eye For Kids Glaucoma Healthy Vision Tips Leber Congenital Amaurosis Low Vision Refractive Errors Retinopathy of Prematurity Science Spanish Videos Webinars NEI YouTube ...

  19. Thermodynamical aspects of pulse tubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waele, de A.T.A.M.; Steijaert, P.P.; Gijzen, J.

    1997-01-01

    The cooling power of cryocoolers is determined by the work done by the compressor and the entropy produced by the irreversible processes in the various components of the system. In this paper we discuss the thermodynamics of pulse tubes, but many of the relationships are equally valid for other

  20. Mechanical support for straw tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joestlein, H.

    1990-01-01

    A design is proposed for mounting a large number of straw tubes to form an SSC central tracking chamber. The assembly is precise and of very low mass. The fabrication is modular and can be carried out with a minimum of tooling and instrumentation. Testing of modules is possible prior to the final assembly. 4 figs

  1. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Program Vision and Aging Program African American Program Training and Jobs Fellowships NEI Summer Intern Program Diversity In Vision Research & Ophthalmology (DIVRO) Student Training Programs To search for current job openings visit HHS USAJobs Home » NEI YouTube Videos » ...

  2. Impulse generation by detonation tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Marcia Ann

    Impulse generation with gaseous detonation requires conversion of chemical energy into mechanical energy. This conversion process is well understood in rocket engines where the high pressure combustion products expand through a nozzle generating high velocity exhaust gases. The propulsion community is now focusing on advanced concepts that utilize non-traditional forms of combustion like detonation. Such a device is called a pulse detonation engine in which laboratory tests have proven that thrust can be achieved through continuous cyclic operation. Because of poor performance of straight detonation tubes compared to conventional propulsion systems and the success of using nozzles on rocket engines, the effect of nozzles on detonation tubes is being investigated. Although previous studies of detonation tube nozzles have suggested substantial benefits, up to now there has been no systematic investigations over a range of operating conditions and nozzle configurations. As a result, no models predicting the impulse when nozzles are used exist. This lack of data has severely limited the development and evaluation of models and simulations of nozzles on pulse detonation engines. The first experimental investigation measuring impulse by gaseous detonation in plain tubes and tubes with nozzles operating in varying environment pressures is presented. Converging, diverging, and converging-diverging nozzles were tested to determine the effect of divergence angle, nozzle length, and volumetric fill fraction on impulse. The largest increases in specific impulse, 72% at an environment pressure of 100 kPa and 43% at an environment pressure of 1.4 kPa, were measured with the largest diverging nozzle tested that had a 12° half angle and was 0.6 m long. Two regimes of nozzle operation that depend on the environment pressure are responsible for these increases and were first observed from these data. To augment this experimental investigation, all data in the literature regarding

  3. Improving the calandria tubes for CANDU reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, C.E.; Fong, R.W.L.; Doubt, G.L.

    1997-01-01

    CANDU calandria tubes are made from annealed Zircaloy-2 sheet formed into a cylinder and welded along its length to make the tube. The current calandria tubes have given exemplary service for many years. With more stringent regulations and the need to accommodate warm cooling water in tropical countries, we started a development program to increase the margins for failure during postulated accidents. These improvements involve increasing the tube strength and optimising the heat-transfer from an excessively hot fuel channel to the cool moderator. If the postulated accident involves a pressure tube break, it would be desirable if the calandria tube withstood the full pressure of the heat-transport system. The weakest link in current calandria tubes is the weld. Thickening the weld can increase the strength by 20% while seamless tubes can be 45% stronger than current tubes. The latter tubes can hold full system pressure for many hours without failure. If during the postulated accident the fuel and pressure tube become excessively hot but do not touch the calandria tube, the radiant heat loss must be maximised. Current calandria tubes have an absorptivity (emissivity) of about 0.2. To protect the fuel and the fuel channel we have devised a finish to the inside surface of the calandria tube that increases the emissivity to 0.7. If during the postulated accident the hot pressure tube touches the cool calandria tube, the contact conductance and the critical heat flux must be optimised to ensure nucleate boiling of the moderator at the outside surface of the calandria tube and therefore efficient exploitation of the moderator as a heat sink. In laboratory tests small ridges on the inside surface and roughening of the outside surface have been shown to increase the margins against failure and increase the possible moderator temperatures thus providing the opportunity to decrease the cost of the moderator heat-exchange system and remove restrictions on reactor operation in

  4. Rejection index for pressure tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, A.B.; Meneley, D.

    1989-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to establish a set of criteria (or Rejection Index) which could be used to decide whether a zirconium-2 1/2 w/o niobium pressure tube in a CANDU reactor should be removed from service due to in-service degradation. A critique of key issues associated with establishing a realistic rejection index was prepared. Areas of uncertainty in available information were identified and recommendations for further analysis and laboratory testing made. A Rejection Index based on the following limits has been recommended: 1) Limits related to design intent and normal operation: any garter spring must remain within the tolerance band specified for its design location; the annulus gas system must normally be operated in a circulating mode with a procedure in place for purging to prevent accumulation of deuterium. It must remain sensitive to leaks into any part of the systems; and pressure tube dimensions and distortions must be limited to maintain the fuel channels within the original design intent; 2) Limits related to defect tolerance: adequate time margins between occurrence of a leaking crack and unstable failure must be demonstrated for all fuel channels; long lap-type flaws are unacceptable; crack-like defects of any size are unacceptable; and score marks, frat marks and other defects with contoured profiles must fall below certain depth, length and stress intensity limits; and 3) Limits related to property degradation: at operating temperature each pressure tube must be demonstrated to have a critical length in excess of a stipulated value; the maximum equivalent hydrogen level in any pressure tube should not exceed a limit which should be defined taking into account the known history of that tube; the maximum equivalent hydrogen level in any rolled joint should not exceed a limit which is presently recommended as 200 ppm equivalent hydrogen; and the maximum diametral creep strain should be limited to less than 5%

  5. Schizophrenia on YouTube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nour, Matthew M; Nour, Murraih H; Tsatalou, Olga-Maria; Barrera, Alvaro

    2017-01-01

    YouTube ( www.youtube.com ) is the most popular video-sharing Web site on the Internet and is used by medical students as a source of information regarding mental health conditions, including schizophrenia. The accuracy and educational utility of schizophrenia presentations on YouTube are unknown. The purpose of this study was to analyze the accuracy of depictions of psychosis in the context of a diagnosis of schizophrenia (referred to in this article as "acute schizophrenia") on YouTube and to assess the utility of these videos as educational tools for teaching medical students to recognize the clinical features of acute schizophrenia. YouTube was searched for videos purporting to show acute schizophrenia. Eligible videos were independently rated by two consultant psychiatrists on two separate occasions 22 days apart for diagnostic accuracy, psychopathology, and educational utility. Videos (N=4,200) were assessed against predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. The majority were not eligible for further analysis, mostly because they did not claim to show a patient with schizophrenia (74%) or contained duplicated content (11%). Of 35 videos that met the eligibility and adequacy criteria, only 12 accurately depicted acute schizophrenia. Accurate videos were characterized by persecutory delusions (83%), inappropriate affect (75%), and negative symptoms (83%). Despite the fact that 83% of accurate videos were deemed to have good educational utility compared with 15% of inaccurate videos, accurate and inaccurate videos had similar view counts (290,048 versus 186,124). Schizophrenia presentations on YouTube offer a distorted picture of the condition.

  6. The C-terminal hypervariable domain targets Aradopsis ROP9 to the invaginated pollen tube plasma membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rop9 is a small GTPase of the Type II class, whereas the often studied type I Rops play roles during pollen tube growth. In pollen, Rop9 is located at the invaginated plasma membrane that surrounds the sperm cells, whereas type I Rops are located at the apical membrane of the pollen tube. The C-ter...

  7. Evaluation of the residual stress field in a steam generator end tube after hydraulic expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiel, F.; Kang, S.; Chabrerie, J.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a finite element elastoplastic model of a nuclear steam generator end tube, used to evaluate the residual stress field existing after hydraulic expansion of the tube into the tubesheet of the heat exchanger. This model has been tested against an experimental hydraulic expansion, carried out on full scale end tubes. The operation was monitored thanks to strain gages localized on the outer surface of the tubes, subjected to elastoplastic deformations. After a presentation of the expansion test and the description of the numerical model, the authors compare the stress fields issues from the gages and from the model. The comparison shows a good agreement. These results allow them to calculate the stress field resulting from normal operating conditions, while taking into account a correct initial state of stress. Therefore the authors can improve the understanding of the behavior of a steam generator end tube, with respect to stress corrosion cracking and crack growth

  8. Boiling and condensation in microfin tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlager, Lynn M.

    A general overview of microfin tubes and their applications is presented. Manufacturing processes, commercial availability, experimental heat transfer, and pressure drop data for various refrigerants (including alternative refrigerants and refrigerant-oil mixtures), physical mechanisms of enhancement, and the incorporation of microfin tubes in common heat exchanger configurations are discussed. Microfin tubes, also known by various trade names, are characterized by numerous small fins which typically spiral down the inside wall of tubes at angles ranging from 10 to 30 degrees. The number of fins ranges from 48 to 70 with typical fin heights of 0.12 to 0.30 mm (fin height generally less than 3 percent of the inside diameter of the tube). Fin shapes may vary and the inside surface area of microfin tubes is 10 to 70 percent greater than the area of equivalent smooth tubes. Heat transfer can be enhanced by up to a factor of three with microfin tubes.

  9. X-ray tube current control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuis, W.A.; Resnick, T.A.

    1982-01-01

    A closed loop feedback system for controlling the current output of an x-ray tube. The system has circuitry for improving the transient response and stability of the x-ray tube current over a substantial nonlinear portion of the tube current production characteristic. The system includes a reference generator for applying adjustable step function reference signals representing desired tube currents. The system also includes means for instantaneous sensing of actual tube current. An error detector compares the value of actual and reference tube current and produces an error signal as a function of their difference. The system feedback loop includes amplification circuitry for controlling x-ray tube filament dc voltage to regulate tube current as a function of the error signal value. The system also includes compensation circuitry, between the reference generator and the amplification circuitry, to vary the loop gain of the feedback control system as a function of the reference magnitude

  10. In service inspection for steam generator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comby, R.; Eyrolles, Ph.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper the authors show the means putting in place for examination of steam generators tubes. These means (eddy current probes, ultrasonic testing) associated with a knowledge on degradation phenomena allow mapping controlled tubes and limiting undesirable obturations [fr

  11. Chemical cleaning specification: few tube test model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hampton, L.V.; Simpson, J.L.

    1979-09-01

    The specification is for the waterside chemical cleaning of the 2 1/4 Cr - 1 Mo steel steam generator tubes. It describes the reagents and conditions for post-chemical cleaning passivation of the evaporator tubes

  12. Prestressed Carbon Fiber Composite Overwrapped Gun Tube

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Littlefield, Andrew; Hyland, Edward

    2006-01-01

    .... Using composite materials not only directly removes weight from the gun tube but, by better balancing the tube, allows the use of smaller drive systems, thus further enhancing the system weight loss...

  13. Operational experience with the Daresbury accelerator tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aitken, T.W.; Eastham, D.A.; Joy, T.; Leese, J.M.; Tait, N.R.S.; Thorn, R.

    1986-01-01

    Operational experience with the Daresbury MKI accelerator tube is reviewed with particular attention to conditioning and high voltage performance. The effects of surges and transients on the tube are described and lines of future development are discussed. (orig.)

  14. Conceptual optimization using genetic algorithms for tube in tube structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pârv, Bianca Roxana; Hulea, Radu; Mojolic, Cristian

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to optimize the tube in tube structural systems for tall buildings under the horizontal wind loads. It is well-known that the horizontal wind loads is the main criteria when choosing the structural system, the types and the dimensions of structural elements in the majority of tall buildings. Thus, the structural response of tall buildings under the horizontal wind loads will be analyzed for 40 story buildings and a total height of 120 meters; the horizontal dimensions will be 30m × 30m for the first two optimization problems and 15m × 15m for the third. The optimization problems will have the following as objective function the cross section area, as restrictions the displacement of the building< the admissible displacement (H/500), and as variables the cross section dimensions of the structural elements

  15. Manufacturing process optimization of nuclear fuel guide tube using HANA alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Yong Hwan; Park, S. Y.; Choi, B. K.; Park, J. Y.; Kim, H. G.; Jeong, Y. I.; Park, D. J.; Lim, J. K.

    2010-08-01

    From this project, the advanced manufacturing parameters which were contained of heat-treatment, reduction rate, and new process (2 step) were considered to increase the guide tube performance of HANA material. It was obtained that the strength and corrosion resistance of HANA material were improved by applying the improve manufacturing parameters when compared to the commercial guide tube material. · Manufacturing parameter study to increase mechanical property -Tensile strength increase of 30% by manufacturing parameter setup when compared to the guide tube specification · Manufacturing parameter study to decrease irradiation growth -Theoretical study of the texture effect on sample specimens related to the irradiation growth · Manufacturing parameter study to increase corrosion resistance -Corrosion resistance increase of 30% by manufacturing parameter setup when compared to the commercial guide tube

  16. Models for Automated Tube Performance Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunkhorst, C.

    2002-01-01

    High power radio-frequency systems, as typically used in fusion research devices, utilize vacuum tubes. Evaluation of vacuum tube performance involves data taken from tube operating curves. The acquisition of data from such graphical sources is a tedious process. A simple modeling method is presented that will provide values of tube currents for a given set of element voltages. These models may be used as subroutines in iterative solutions of amplifier operating conditions for a specific loading impedance

  17. PROBLEMS IN THE TUBING/PACKER SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Davorin Matanović; Mario Livaja

    1993-01-01

    When gas and oil wells are completed and produced or treated through the tubing connected to packer, there is a great number of problems to be solved. Changes in temperatures and pressures that occure during various operations ussually result in changes in tubing lengths or tubing to packer forces, depending on tubing to packer connections. This paper summarises some earlier papers and explains partly elaborated details. It also gives a complete approach to solve problems in uniform strings r...

  18. Operating performance of CANDU pressure tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheadle, B.A.; Price, E.G.

    1989-04-01

    The performance of Zircaloy-2 and Zr-2.5 Nb pressure tubes in CANDU reactors is reviewed. The accelerated hydriding of Zircaloy-2 in reducing water chemistries can lower the toughness of this material and it is essential that defect-initiating phenomena, such as hydride blister formation from pressure tube to calandria tube contact, be prevented. Zr-2.5 Nb pressure tubes are performing well with low rates of hydrogen pick-up and good retention of material properties

  19. Preparation of antibody coated tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robles Berrueta, A.M.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: 1. Purification of IgG: 2-4 ml serum at pH 8 with Buffer tris 1M pH 8. Let serum pass through the column of Sepharose Prot. A (1-2 ml). Wash with: a) Buffer tris 0.1M pH 8; b) Buffer tris 0.01M pH 8. Elute with Glycine 0.1M pH 3 adding eluant at 0.5 ml fractions and collect in eppendorf tubes containing 50μ1 Buffer tris 1M pH 8 to neutralize. 20 fractions are collected. Absorbency at 280nm is measured in each fraction. Pool is formed with protein factions. Dialysis against water is done during 48 hours changing water twice during that lapse. Regenerate column for future use with 1 wash Urea 2M, second with LiCl 1M and third wash with Glycine 0.1 M pH 2.5. 2. Antibody Immobilization on an Activated Solid Phase: NUNC maxisorp, Star tube 75x12 mm is trade mark for polystyrene tubes from Pharmacia with less than 5% CV% inhomogeneity in adsorption of IgG and less than 10% for random bias of any result from mean value. They are kept closed until use. They are not reusable. The antibody is diluted to a working dilution with buffer carbonate-bi carbonate 0.1M, pH 9.6 (BCBic). Adequate volume is pipetted into maxisorb NUNC tubes paying attention not to produce droplets (1/200 dilution and 0.3 ml/tube are used for TSH assays). An incubation overnight is enough to get maximum IgG binding. Antibody solution is recovered for further use (after mixing with additional antibody). Solid phase is subject to washing with phosphate buffer with non-Ionic detergent (1 ml PB.5 + 0.5% Tween 20) and then with pure water. Tubes are left two hours upside down and kept tightly closed with dissicant at - 20 deg. C

  20. Boiling heat transfer on horizontal tube bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    Nucleate boiling heat transfer characteristics for a tube in a bundle differ from that for a single tube in a pool and this difference is known as 'tube bundle effect.' There exist two bundle effects, positive and negative. The positive bundle effect enhances heat transfer due to convective flow induced by rising bubbles generated from the lower tubes, while the negative bundle effect deteriorates heat transfer due to vapor blanketing caused by accumulation of bubbles. Staggered tube bundles tested and found that the upper tubes in bundles have higher heat transfer coefficients than the lower tubes. The effects of various parameters such as pressure, tube geometry and oil contamination on heat transfer have been examined. Some workers attempted to clarify the mechanism of occurrence of 'bundle effect' by testing tube arrangements of small scale. All reported only enhancement in heat transfer but results showed the symptom of heat transfer deterioration at higher heat fluxes. As mentioned above, it has not been clarified so far even whether the 'tube bundle effect' should serve as enhancement or deterioration of heat transfer in nucleate boiling. In this study, experiments are performed in detail by using bundles of small scale, and effects of heat flux distribution, pressure and tube location are clarified. Furthermore, some consideration on the mechanisms of occurrence of 'tube bundle effect' is made and a method for prediction of heat transfer rate is proposed

  1. Caring for Your Percutaneous Nephrostomy Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to the nephrostomy tube for 15 seconds. 5. Disconnect the drainage bag from the tube. 6. Put the used bag aside. 7. With a new alcohol pad, swab the open end of the nephrostomy tube for 15 seconds. 8. Connect a new bag. 9. Secure the drainage bag ...

  2. The Fuge Tube Diode Array Spectrophotometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arneson, B. T.; Long, S. R.; Stewart, K. K.; Lagowski, J. J.

    2008-01-01

    We present the details for adapting a diode array UV-vis spectrophotometer to incorporate the use of polypropylene microcentrifuge tubes--fuge tubes--as cuvettes. Optical data are presented validating that the polyethylene fuge tubes are equivalent to the standard square cross section polystyrene or glass cuvettes generally used in…

  3. 21 CFR 868.5975 - Ventilator tubing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ventilator tubing. 868.5975 Section 868.5975 Food... DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5975 Ventilator tubing. (a) Identification. Ventilator tubing is a device intended for use as a conduit for gases between a ventilator and a patient...

  4. Strong, corrosion-resistant aluminum tubing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, M. W.; Adams, F. F.

    1980-01-01

    When aluminum tubing having good corrosion resistance and postweld strength is needed, type 5083 alloy should be considered. Chemical composition is carefully controlled and can be drawn into thin-wall tubing with excellent mechanical properties. Uses of tubing are in aircraft, boats, docks, and process equipment.

  5. Inspection tool for butt-welded tubing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horman, D. P.

    1977-01-01

    Inspection tool for tubing consists of metal casing housing elastic collar. Collar is clamped around weld site under test. Leakage through weld is contained within chamber and is bled to detector via tubing attached to fitting. Tool, originally designed to detect fluid leakage in tubing, can be used to detect gas leaks.

  6. Tube temperature rise limits: Boiling considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanderwater, R.G.

    1952-03-26

    A revision of tube power limits based on boiling considerations was presented earlier. The limits were given on a basis of tube power versus header pressure. However, for convenience of operation, the limits have been converted from tube power to permissible water temperature rise. The permissible {triangle}t`s water are given in this document.

  7. 21 CFR 872.6570 - Impression tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6570 Impression tube. (a) Identification. An impression tube is a device consisting of a hollow copper tube intended to take an impression of a single tooth...) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from the premarket notification procedures in...

  8. Numerical simulation of pulse-tube refrigerators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyulina, I.A.; Mattheij, R.M.M.; Tijsseling, A.S.; Waele, de A.T.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    A new numerical model has been introduced to study steady oscillatory heat and mass transfer in the tube section of a pulse-tube refrigerator. Conservation equations describing compressible gas flow in the tube are solved numerically, using high resolution schemes. The equation of conservation of

  9. N Reactor pressure tube 1350 postirradiation examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, D.J.

    1977-01-01

    The N Reactor pressure tubes were fabricated from Zircaloy-2 primarily due to the excellent corrosion resistance, low neutron absorption, and high strength properties of this alloy. Irradiation damage mechanisms increase the strength and decrease the ductility of the Zircaloy-2. Irradiation data available at the time the tubes were installed indicated that fast neutron irradiation damage mechanisms would not decrease the ductility to unacceptable levels over the estimated plant life of 25 to 30 years. However, because the tubes are a primary coolant system component and only limited data are available on irradiation effects at high fluences, a Postirradiation Examination (PIE) program was developed to assure that service factors do not compromise pressure tube integrity essential to reactor safety. The PIE program requires that a pressure tube be periodically removed from the reactor for destructive testing. The N Reactor Technical Specifications specify that the frequency of pressure tube removal and examination be based upon the previous PIE test results. Four pressure tubes were examined before tube 1350, and the test results were summarized in individual reports. PIE results on tube 1350 were summarized along with the test results on the previous four tubes in a previous report. The purpose of this report is to present in detail the results on PIE of pressure tube 1350, and, in particular, document the technique by which the fracture toughness of the pressure tube was determined

  10. Spring/dimple instrument tube restraint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeMario, E.E.; Lawson, C.N.

    1993-01-01

    A nuclear fuel assembly for a pressurized water nuclear reactor has a spring and dimple structure formed in a non-radioactive insert tube placed in the top of a sensor receiving instrumentation tube thimble disposed in the fuel assembly and attached at a top nozzle, a bottom nozzle, and intermediate grids. The instrumentation tube thimble is open at the top, where the sensor or its connection extends through the cooling water for coupling to a sensor signal processor. The spring and dimple insert tube is mounted within the instrumentation tube thimble and extends downwardly adjacent the top. The springs and dimples restrain the sensor and its connections against lateral displacement causing impact with the instrumentation tube thimble due to the strong axial flow of cooling water. The instrumentation tube has a stainless steel outer sleeve and a zirconium alloy inner sleeve below the insert tube adjacent the top. The insert tube is relatively non-radioactivated inconel alloy. The opposed springs and dimples are formed on diametrically opposite inner walls of the insert tube, the springs being formed as spaced axial cuts in the insert tube, with a web of the insert tube between the cuts bowed radially inwardly for forming the spring, and the dimples being formed as radially inward protrusions opposed to the springs. 7 figures

  11. Delayed hydride cracking and elastic properties of Excel, a candidate CANDU-SCWR pressure tube material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Z.L.

    2010-01-01

    Excel, a Zr alloy which contains 3.5%Sn, 0.8%Nb and 0.8%Mo, shows high strength, good corrosion resistance, excellent creep-resistance and dimension stability and thus is selected as a candidate pressure tube material for CANDU-SCWR. In the present work, the delayed hydride cracking properties (K IH and the DHC growth rates), the hydrogen solubility and elastic modulus were measured in the irradiated and unirradiated Excel pressure tube material. (author)

  12. The biofilm-controlling functions of rechargeable antimicrobial N-halamine dental unit waterline tubing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porteous, Nuala; Schoolfield, John; Luo, Jie; Sun, Yuyu

    2011-01-01

    A study was conducted to test the biofilm-controlling functions of N-halamine tubing over an eight-month period. A laboratory system, simulating a teaching dental clinic, was used to test rechargeable N-halamine tubing (T) compared to an untreated control (C) using the unit manufacturer's tubing. For the long-term study, a recharged tubing (RC) treated with bleach was used to compare with the test (T) and the control (C) tubing. Source tap water was cycled through the lines at 1.4 mL/minute, five minutes on and 25 minutes off, eight hours/day, five days/week. Every three weeks, samples of effluent, recovered adherent bacteria from inside tubing surfaces, and SEM images were examined for bacterial and biofilm growth. After sampling, a recharging solution of chlorine bleach (1 : 10 dilution) was run through T and RC lines, left overnight, and rinsed out the next morning. One-way ANOVAs and Spearman correlations were performed to detect significant differences for T, RC, and C, and determine significance with time period and source water, respectively. Mean log CFU/mL for C effluent > T (p = 0.028), and C tubing > T (p = 0.035). Spearman correlations were significant between effluent and source water level for T (rho = 0.817), and T tubing (0.750); between RC tubing and source water level (rho = 0.836), and time (rho = 0.745); and between C and time (rho = 0.873). SEM imaging confirmed the presence of biofilm inside RC and C, but not inside T. N-halamine tubing completely inhibited biofilm formation without negatively affecting the physical properties of the effluent water. Further research on N-halamine tubing using a pure water source is recommended, as T effluent bacterial levels reflected the source tap water quality and proliferation of planktonic bacteria with no biofilm activity.

  13. Control rod guide tube assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabsen, F.S.

    1982-01-01

    An improved fuel assembly is described as consisting of a sleeve that engages one end of a control rod guide tube essentially fixing the guide tube to one of the fuel assembly end structures. The end of the sleeve protrudes above the surface of the end fitting. The outer surface of the sleeve has a peripheral groove that engages the resilient sides of a cellular grid or lattice shaped lock. This lock fixes the sleeve in position between the various elements that comprise the end fitting, thereby eliminating a profusion of costly and potentially troublesome nuts, threaded studs and the like that are frequently employed in the fuel assemblies that are presently in use

  14. ATLAS Muon Drift Tube Electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arai, Y [KEK, High Energy Accelerator Research Organisation, Tsukuba (Japan); Ball, B; Chapman, J W; Dai, T; Ferretti, C; Gregory, J [University of Michigan, Department of Physics, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Beretta, M [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati (Italy); Boterenbrood, H; Jansweijer, P P M [Nikhef National Institute for Subatomic Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Brandenburg, G W; Fries, T; Costa, J Guimaraes da; Harder, S; Huth, J [Harvard University, Laboratory for Particle Physics and Cosmology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Ceradini, F [INFN Roma Tre and Universita Roma Tre, Dipartimento di Fisica, Roma (Italy); Hazen, E [Boston University, Physics Department, Boston, MA (United States); Kirsch, L E [Brandeis University, Department of Physics, Waltham, MA (United States); Koenig, A C [Radboud University Nijmegen/Nikhef, Dept. of Exp. High Energy Physics, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Lanza, A [INFN Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Mikenberg, G [Weizmann Institute of Science, Department of Particle Physics, Rehovot (Israel)], E-mail: brandenburg@physics.harvard.edu (and others)

    2008-09-15

    This paper describes the electronics used for the ATLAS monitored drift tube (MDT) chambers. These chambers are the main component of the precision tracking system in the ATLAS muon spectrometer. The MDT detector system consists of 1,150 chambers containing a total of 354,000 drift tubes. It is capable of measuring the sagitta of muon tracks to an accuracy of 60 {mu}m, which corresponds to a momentum accuracy of about 10% at p{sub T}= 1 TeV. The design and performance of the MDT readout electronics as well as the electronics for controlling, monitoring and powering the detector will be discussed. These electronics have been extensively tested under simulated running conditions and have undergone radiation testing certifying them for more than 10 years of LHC operation. They are now installed on the ATLAS detector and are operating during cosmic ray commissioning runs.

  15. ATLAS Muon Drift Tube Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Arai, Y; Beretta, M; Boterenbrood, H; Brandenburg, G W; Ceradini, F; Chapman, J W; Dai, T; Ferretti, C; Fries, T; Gregory, J; Guimarães da Costa, J; Harder, S; Hazen, E; Huth, J; Jansweijer, P P M; Kirsch, L E; König, A C; Lanza, A; Mikenberg, G; Oliver, J; Posch, C; Richter, R; Riegler, W; Spiriti, E; Taylor, F E; Vermeulen, J; Wadsworth, B; Wijnen, T A M

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the electronics used for the ATLAS monitored drift tube (MDT) chambers. These chambers are the main component of the precision tracking system in the ATLAS muon spectrometer. The MDT detector system consists of 1,150 chambers containing a total of 354,000 drift tubes. It is capable of measuring the sagitta of muon tracks to an accuracy of 60 microns, which corresponds to a momentum accuracy of about 10% at pT = 1 TeV. The design and performance of the MDT readout electronics as well as the electronics for controlling, monitoring and powering the detector will be discussed. These electronics have been extensively tested under simulated running conditions and have undergone radiation testing certifying them for more than 10 years of LHC operation. They are now installed on the ATLAS detector and are operating during cosmic ray commissioning runs.

  16. Origami interleaved tube cellular materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, Kenneth C; Tachi, Tomohiro; Calisch, Sam; Miura, Koryo

    2014-01-01

    A novel origami cellular material based on a deployable cellular origami structure is described. The structure is bi-directionally flat-foldable in two orthogonal (x and y) directions and is relatively stiff in the third orthogonal (z) direction. While such mechanical orthotropicity is well known in cellular materials with extruded two dimensional geometry, the interleaved tube geometry presented here consists of two orthogonal axes of interleaved tubes with high interfacial surface area and relative volume that changes with fold-state. In addition, the foldability still allows for fabrication by a flat lamination process, similar to methods used for conventional expanded two dimensional cellular materials. This article presents the geometric characteristics of the structure together with corresponding kinematic and mechanical modeling, explaining the orthotropic elastic behavior of the structure with classical dimensional scaling analysis. (paper)

  17. Origami interleaved tube cellular materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Kenneth C.; Tachi, Tomohiro; Calisch, Sam; Miura, Koryo

    2014-09-01

    A novel origami cellular material based on a deployable cellular origami structure is described. The structure is bi-directionally flat-foldable in two orthogonal (x and y) directions and is relatively stiff in the third orthogonal (z) direction. While such mechanical orthotropicity is well known in cellular materials with extruded two dimensional geometry, the interleaved tube geometry presented here consists of two orthogonal axes of interleaved tubes with high interfacial surface area and relative volume that changes with fold-state. In addition, the foldability still allows for fabrication by a flat lamination process, similar to methods used for conventional expanded two dimensional cellular materials. This article presents the geometric characteristics of the structure together with corresponding kinematic and mechanical modeling, explaining the orthotropic elastic behavior of the structure with classical dimensional scaling analysis.

  18. Microwave discharges in capillary tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dervisevic, Emil

    1984-01-01

    This research thesis aims at being a contribution to the study of microwave discharge by a surface wave, and more precisely focusses on the discharge in capillary tubes filled with argon. The author first present theoretical models which describe, on the one hand, the propagation of the surface wave along the plasma column, and, on the other hand, longitudinal and radial profiles of the main discharge characteristics. The second part addresses the study of the influence of parameters (gas pressure and tube radius) on discharge operation and characteristics. Laws of similitude as well as empirical relationships between argon I and argon II emission line intensities, electron density, and electric field in the plasma have been established [fr

  19. Scintillation counter: photomultiplier tube alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, R.E.

    1975-01-01

    A scintillation counter, particularly for counting gamma ray photons, includes a massive lead radiation shield surrounding a sample-receiving zone. The shield is disassembleable into a plurality of segments to allow facile installation and removal of a photomultiplier tube assembly, the segments being so constructed as to prevent straight-line access of external radiation through the shield into the sample receiving zone. Provisions are made for accurately aligning the photomultiplier tube with respect to one or more sample-transmitting bores extending through the shield to the sample receiving zone. A sample elevator, used in transporting samples into the zone, is designed to provide a maximum gamma-receiving aspect to maximize the gamma detecting efficiency. (auth)

  20. Failure analysis of burst tested fuel tube samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padmaprabu, C.; Ramana Rao, S.V.; Srivatsava, R.K.

    2005-01-01

    The Total Circumferential Elongation (TCE) is an important parameter for evaluation of ductility of the Zircaloy-4 fuel tubes for the PHWR reactors. The TCE values of the fuel tubes were obtained using the burst testing technique. In some lots there is a variation in the values of the TCE. To investigate the reasons for such a large variation in the TCE, samples were selected at appropriate intervals and sectioned at the fractured portion. The surface morphology of the fractured surfaces was examined under Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) equipped with Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS). The morphologies show segregation of elements at specific locations. Energy dispersive spectra was obtained from those segregated particles. According to the magnitude of TCE value the samples were classified into low, intermediate and high ductility. Low ductility samples were found to contain large amount of segregations along the thickness direction of the tube. This forms a brittle region and a path for the easy crack growth along thickness direction. In the case of intermediate samples the segregation occurred in fewer locations compared to low ductile samples and also confined to the circumferential direction of the outside surface of the tube. Due to this, probability of crack formation at the surface of the tube could be high. But crack growth would be slower in the ductile matrix along the thickness direction resulting in the enhancement of TCE value compared to the low ductile sample. In the high ductile samples, the segregations were very scarce and found to be isolated and embedded in the ductile matrix. The mode of failure in these types of samples was found to be purely ductile. Cracks were found to originate solely from the micro voids in the material. As the probability of crack formation and its propagation is low, very high TCE values were observed in these samples. Microstructural observations of fractured surfaces and EDAX analysis was able to identify the

  1. Film holder for radiographing tubing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, E.V.; Foster, B.E.

    1976-01-01

    A film cassette is described which may be easily placed about tubing or piping and readily held in place while radiographic inspection is performed. A pair of precurved light-impervious semi-rigid plastic sheets, hinged at one edge, enclose sheet film together with any metallic foils or screens. Other edges are made light-tight with removable caps, and the entire unit is held securely about the object to be radiographed with a releasable fastener such as a strip of Velcro

  2. X-ray tube target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, R.G.

    1980-01-01

    A target with an improved heat emissive surface for use in a rotating anode type x-ray tube is described. The target consists of a body having a first surface portion made of x-ray emissive material and a second surface portion made of a heat emissive material comprising at least one of hafnium boride, hafnium oxide, hafnium nitride, hafnium silicide, and hafnium aluminide. (U.K.)

  3. Film holder for radiographing tubing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Earl V.; Foster, Billy E.

    1976-01-01

    A film cassette is provided which may be easily placed about tubing or piping and readily held in place while radiographic inspection is performed. A pair of precurved light-impervious semi-rigid plastic sheets, hinged at one edge, enclose sheet film together with any metallic foils or screens. Other edges are made light-tight with removable caps, and the entire unit is held securely about the object to be radiographed with a releasable fastener such as a strip of Velcro.

  4. Final report on development evaluation of Task Group 3 pressure tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleck, R.G.; Price, E.G.; Cheadle, B.A.

    1983-11-01

    This report describes the production and evaluation of pressure tubes manufactured to the recommendations of Task Group 3 (TG3) of the Creep Engineering Design Plan. The Zr-2.5 wt percent Nb tubes were manufactured by modified production route to change their metallurgical structure and so reduce the in-service elongation rates. Three modified routes were investigated and a total of twenty-eight tubes produced. There were no difficulties in manufacture and the tubes satisfied the quality assurance and design specifications of reactor grade tubes. Metallurgical evaluation showed that the expected changes in microstructure had occurred but not to the extent anticipated. The TG3 tubes were found to have comparable properties to current tubes when tested for: tensile strength (irradiated and unirradiated); hydride cracking; stress to reorient hydrides; hydrogen diffusion; flaw tolerance; corrosion (irradiated and unirradiated); wear; rolled joint characteristics; irradiation creep and growth. Lower in-service elongation rates are expected for tubes produced by two of the modified routes

  5. Repair technique for steam generator tubes using electroforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Ho; Jeong, Hyun Kyu; Seo, Moon Hong

    2001-07-01

    Pickering B CANDU Unit 5 had experienced leakage at sleeve/tube joint due to severe and local pitting in 1992{delta}1993. One year later, OHT developed electrosleeving techniques for steam generator tube repair which was applied at Pickering B CANDU Unit 5, Oconee Unit 1 and Callaway in 1994, 1995 and 1999 respectively. In the results of electrosleeved tube test, electrosleeve materials were stronger than mother tubes in mechanical properties and corrosion resistance under design criteria. Two analytical models were originally developed for estimating the failure temperature under severe accident transients. Electrosleeve, a structural layer of fine grained nickel is electroformed onto the strike by circulating an aqueous solution of Ni sulfate or sulfamate with NiCO3. The patents published by FTI said that the electrolyte for electroforming the structural layer contains a pinning agent to inhibit growth of metal grains in the electroformed layer. The pinning agent contains phosphoric, phosphorous acid, molybdenum. In localization of electrosleeving, there are some problems like as 1)low plating rate, 2)high residual stress, 3)alloy composition, 4)low material properties at high temperature. Ni-Fe plating exhibit anomalous codeposition; that is less noble metal, Fe, deposits preferentially to the more noble metal, Ni. Ductility decrease and residual stress increase with increase of Fe content in plate layer. Addition of particle size of 10{delta}400{mu}m makes residual stress compressive in plate layer. Composite plating show excellent high temperature properties.

  6. Repair technique for steam generator tubes using electroforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Ho; Jeong, Hyun Kyu; Seo, Moon Hong

    2001-07-01

    Pickering B CANDU Unit 5 had experienced leakage at sleeve/tube joint due to severe and local pitting in 1992δ1993. One year later, OHT developed electrosleeving techniques for steam generator tube repair which was applied at Pickering B CANDU Unit 5, Oconee Unit 1 and Callaway in 1994, 1995 and 1999 respectively. In the results of electrosleeved tube test, electrosleeve materials were stronger than mother tubes in mechanical properties and corrosion resistance under design criteria. Two analytical models were originally developed for estimating the failure temperature under severe accident transients. Electrosleeve, a structural layer of fine grained nickel is electroformed onto the strike by circulating an aqueous solution of Ni sulfate or sulfamate with NiCO3. The patents published by FTI said that the electrolyte for electroforming the structural layer contains a pinning agent to inhibit growth of metal grains in the electroformed layer. The pinning agent contains phosphoric, phosphorous acid, molybdenum. In localization of electrosleeving, there are some problems like as 1)low plating rate, 2)high residual stress, 3)alloy composition, 4)low material properties at high temperature. Ni-Fe plating exhibit anomalous codeposition; that is less noble metal, Fe, deposits preferentially to the more noble metal, Ni. Ductility decrease and residual stress increase with increase of Fe content in plate layer. Addition of particle size of 10δ400μm makes residual stress compressive in plate layer. Composite plating show excellent high temperature properties

  7. Advanced pressure tube sampling tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittich, K.C.; King, J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Deuterium concentration is an important parameter that must be assessed to evaluate the Fitness for service of CANDU pressure tubes. In-reactor pressure tube sampling allows accurate deuterium concentration assessment to be made without the expenses associated with fuel channel removal. This technology, which AECL has developed over the past fifteen years, has become the standard method for deuterium concentration assessment. AECL is developing a multi-head tool that would reduce in-reactor handling overhead by allowing one tool to sequentially sample at all four axial pressure tube locations before removal from the reactor. Four sets of independent cutting heads, like those on the existing sampling tools, facilitate this incorporating proven technology demonstrated in over 1400 in-reactor samples taken to date. The multi-head tool is delivered by AECL's Advanced Delivery Machine or other similar delivery machines. Further, AECL has developed an automated sample handling system that receives and processes the tool once out of the reactor. This system retrieves samples from the tool, dries, weighs and places them in labelled vials which are then directed into shielded shipping flasks. The multi-head wet sampling tool and the automated sample handling system are based on proven technology and offer continued savings and dose reduction to utilities in a competitive electricity market. (author)

  8. Ultrasonic inspection of inpile tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, D.M.; Bossi, H.

    1985-01-01

    The in-service inspection (ISI) of inpile tubes can be performed accurately and safely with a semiautomatic ultrasonic inspection system. The ultrasonic technique uses a set of multiple transducers to detect and size cracks, voids, and laminations radially and circumferentially. Welds are also inspected for defects. The system is designed to inspect stainless steel and Inconel tubes ranging from 53.8 mm (2.12 in.) to 101.6 mm (4 in.) inner diameter with wall thickness on the order of 5 mm. The inspection head contains seven transducers mounted in a surface-following device. Six angle-beam transducers generate shear waves in the tubes. Two of the six are oriented to detect circumferential cracks, and two detect axial cracks. Although each of these four transducers is used in the pulse-echo mode, they are oriented in aligned sets so pitch-catch operation is possible if desired. The remaining angle-beam transducers are angulated to detect flaws that are off axial or circumferential orientation. The seventh transducer is used for longitudinal inspection and detects and sizes laminar-type defects

  9. Small size neutron tube UNG-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bespalov, D.F.; Mints, A.Z.; Shkol'nikov, A.S.

    A tube UNG-1 (universal neutron gas-filled) is designed for the use in the well neutron generators IGN-1 and IGN-1-M (a pulse neutron generator). Their serial production in the USSR has been started in 1963. At the same year, the serial production of the tubes UNG-1 has been started. Thus, this tube is the first serial logging accelerating tube in the USSR. A Penning source, equipped with a hot cathode, was selected as an ion source of the tube

  10. Gastroenteric tube feeding: Techniques, problems and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenstein, Irina; Shastri, Yogesh M; Stein, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Gastroenteric tube feeding plays a major role in the management of patients with poor voluntary intake, chronic neurological or mechanical dysphagia or gut dysfunction, and patients who are critically ill. However, despite the benefits and widespread use of enteral tube feeding, some patients experience complications. This review aims to discuss and compare current knowledge regarding the clinical application of enteral tube feeding, together with associated complications and special aspects. We conducted an extensive literature search on PubMed, Embase and Medline using index terms relating to enteral access, enteral feeding/nutrition, tube feeding, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy/jejunostomy, endoscopic nasoenteric tube, nasogastric tube, and refeeding syndrome. The literature showed common routes of enteral access to include nasoenteral tube, gastrostomy and jejunostomy, while complications fall into four major categories: mechanical, e.g., tube blockage or removal; gastrointestinal, e.g., diarrhea; infectious e.g., aspiration pneumonia, tube site infection; and metabolic, e.g., refeeding syndrome, hyperglycemia. Although the type and frequency of complications arising from tube feeding vary considerably according to the chosen access route, gastrointestinal complications are without doubt the most common. Complications associated with enteral tube feeding can be reduced by careful observance of guidelines, including those related to food composition, administration rate, portion size, food temperature and patient supervision. PMID:25024606

  11. Precision heat forming of tetrafluoroethylene tubing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, W. V.; Thatcher, C. S. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    An invention that provides a method of altering the size of tetrafluoroethylene tubing which is only available in limited combination of wall thicknesses and diameter are discussed. The method includes the steps of sliding the tetrafluoroethylene tubing onto an aluminum mandrel and clamping the ends of the tubing to the mandrel by means of clamps. The tetrafluorethylene tubing and mandrel are then placed in a supporting coil which with the mandrel and tetrafluorethylene tubing are then positioned in a insulated steel pipe which is normally covered with a fiber glass insulator to smooth out temperature distribution therein. The entire structure is then placed in an event which heats the tetrafluorethylene tubing which is then shrunk by the heat to the outer dimension of the aluminum mandrel. After cooling the aluminum mandrel is removed from the newly sized tetrafluorethylene tubing by a conventional chemical milling process.

  12. Tests of compressed geometry NEC acceleration tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raatz, J.E.; Rathmell, R.D.; Stelson, P.H.; Ziegler, N.F.

    1985-01-01

    Tests have been performed in the 3 MV Pelletron test machine at NEC on a compressed geometry tube which increases the insulating length of the tube by eliminating the heated electrode assemblies (approx.2.5 cm thick) at the end of each tube section. Some insert electrodes are changed to provide some trapping of secondary ions. The geometry tested provided an 18% increase in live ceramic in the tube. The compressed geometry tube allowed a terminal voltage of 3.55 MV on the 3 MV column at normal gradients of 30.3 kv/tube gap. The tube was also conditioned to more than 4 MV and remained stable in voltage with few sparks and with low x-ray levels for days at about 4 MV. This same performance could be achieved with or without arc discharge cleaning. 4 refs., 4 figs

  13. Slit/Robo1 signaling regulates neural tube development by balancing neuroepithelial cell proliferation and differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Guang; Li, Yan; Wang, Xiao-yu [Key Laboratory for Regenerative Medicine of The Ministry of Education, Department of Histology and Embryology, School of Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Han, Zhe [Institute of Vascular Biological Sciences, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou 510224 (China); Chuai, Manli [College of Life Sciences Biocentre, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH (United Kingdom); Wang, Li-jing [Institute of Vascular Biological Sciences, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou 510224 (China); Ho Lee, Kenneth Ka [Stem Cell and Regeneration Thematic Research Programme, School of Biomedical Sciences, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin (Hong Kong); Geng, Jian-guo, E-mail: jgeng@umich.edu [Institute of Vascular Biological Sciences, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou 510224 (China); Department of Biologic and Materials Sciences, University of Michigan School of Dentistry, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Yang, Xuesong, E-mail: yang_xuesong@126.com [Key Laboratory for Regenerative Medicine of The Ministry of Education, Department of Histology and Embryology, School of Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)

    2013-05-01

    Formation of the neural tube is the morphological hallmark for development of the embryonic central nervous system (CNS). Therefore, neural tube development is a crucial step in the neurulation process. Slit/Robo signaling was initially identified as a chemo-repellent that regulated axon growth cone elongation, but its role in controlling neural tube development is currently unknown. To address this issue, we investigated Slit/Robo1 signaling in the development of chick neCollege of Life Sciences Biocentre, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, UKural tube and transgenic mice over-expressing Slit2. We disrupted Slit/Robo1 signaling by injecting R5 monoclonal antibodies into HH10 neural tubes to block the Robo1 receptor. This inhibited the normal development of the ventral body curvature and caused the spinal cord to curl up into a S-shape. Next, Slit/Robo1 signaling on one half-side of the chick embryo neural tube was disturbed by electroporation in ovo. We found that the morphology of the neural tube was dramatically abnormal after we interfered with Slit/Robo1 signaling. Furthermore, we established that silencing Robo1 inhibited cell proliferation while over-expressing Robo1 enhanced cell proliferation. We also investigated the effects of altering Slit/Robo1 expression on Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) and Pax7 expression in the developing neural tube. We demonstrated that over-expressing Robo1 down-regulated Shh expression in the ventral neural tube and resulted in the production of fewer HNK-1{sup +} migrating neural crest cells (NCCs). In addition, Robo1 over-expression enhanced Pax7 expression in the dorsal neural tube and increased the number of Slug{sup +} pre-migratory NCCs. Conversely, silencing Robo1 expression resulted in an enhanced Shh expression and more HNK-1{sup +} migrating NCCs but reduced Pax7 expression and fewer Slug{sup +} pre-migratory NCCs were observed. In conclusion, we propose that Slit/Robo1 signaling is involved in regulating neural tube

  14. Iodine induced stress corrosion cracking of zircaloy cladding tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunisholz, L.; Lemaignan, C.

    1984-01-01

    Iodine is considered as one of the major fission products responsible for PCI failure of Zry cladding by stress corrosion cracking (SCC). Usual analysis of SCC involves both initiation and growth as sequential processes. In order to analyse initiation and growth independently and to be able to apply the procedures of fracture mechanics to the design of cladding, with respect to SCC, stress corrosion tests of Zry cladding tubes were undertaken with a small fatigue crack (approx. 200 μm) induced in the inner wall of each tube before pressurization. Details are given on the techniques used to induce the fatigue crack, the pressurization test procedure and the results obtained on stress releaved or recrystallized Zry 4 tubings. It is shown that the Ksub(ISCC) values obtained during these experiments are in good agreement with those obtained from large DCB fracture mechanics samples. Conclusions will be drawn on the applicability of linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) to cladding design and related safety analysis. The work now underway is aimed at obtaining better understanding of the initiation step. It includes the irradiation of Zry samples with heavy ions to simulate the effect of recoil fragments implanted in the inner surface of the cladding, that could create a brittle layer of about 10 μm

  15. CANDU steam generator tubing material service experience and allied development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, A.E.; Lesurf, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    This paper covers the following aspects for the tube materials in CANDU-PHW steam generators: inservice performance with respect to tube leaks and coolant activity attributable to boiler tube corrosion, selection of tube materials for use with non-boiling and boiling primary coolants, supporting development on corrosion, vibration, fretting wear, tube inspection, leak detection and plugging of defective tubes. (author)

  16. Effect of tube-support interaction on the dynamic responses of heat exchanger tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Y.S.; Jendrzejczyk, J.A.; Wambsganss, M.W.

    1977-01-01

    Operating heat exchangers have experienced tube damages due to excessive flow-induced vibration. The relatively small inherent tube-to-baffle hole clearances associated with manufacturing tolerances in heat exchangers affect the tube vibrational characteristics. In attempting a theoretical analysis, questions arise as to the effects of tube-baffle impacting on dynamic responses. Experiments were performed to determine the effects of tube-baffle impacting in vertical/horizontal tube orientation, and in air/water medium on the vibrational characteristics (resonant frequencies, mode shapes, and damping) and displacement response amplitudes of a seven-span tube model. The tube and support conditions were prototypic, and overall length approximately one-third that of a straight tube segment of the steam generator designed for the CRBR. The test results were compared with the analytical results based on the multispan beam with ''knife-edge'' supports

  17. Flame acceleration in the early stages of burning in tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bychkov, Vitaly; Fru, Gordon; Petchenko, Arkady [Institute of Physics, Umeaa University, S-901 87 Umeaa (Sweden); Akkerman, V' yacheslav [Institute of Physics, Umeaa University, S-901 87 Umeaa (Sweden); Nuclear Safety Institute (IBRAE) of Russian Academy of Sciences, B. Tulskaya 52, 115191 Moscow (Russian Federation); Eriksson, Lars-Erik [Department of Applied Mechanics, Chalmers University of Technology, 412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2007-09-15

    Acceleration of premixed laminar flames in the early stages of burning in long tubes is considered. The acceleration mechanism was suggested earlier by Clanet and Searby [Combust. Flame 105 (1996) 225]. Acceleration happens due to the initial ignition geometry at the tube axis when a flame develops to a finger-shaped front, with surface area growing exponentially in time. Flame surface area grows quite fast but only for a short time. The analytical theory of flame acceleration is developed, which determines the growth rate, the total acceleration time, and the maximal increase of the flame surface area. Direct numerical simulations of the process are performed for the complete set of combustion equations. The simulations results and the theory are in good agreement with the previous experiments. The numerical simulations also demonstrate flame deceleration, which follows acceleration, and the so-called ''tulip flames''. (author)

  18. Peptide signalling during the pollen tube journey and double fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Li-Jia; Li, Ling; Lan, Zijun; Dresselhaus, Thomas

    2015-08-01

    Flowering seed plants (angiosperms) have evolved unique ways to protect their gametes from pathogen attack and from drying out. The female gametes (egg and central cell) are deeply embedded in the maternal tissues of the ovule inside the ovary, while the male gametes (sperm cells) are enclosed in the vegetative pollen tube cell. After germination of the pollen tube at the surface of papilla cells of the stigma the two immobile sperm cells are transported deep inside the sporophytic maternal tissues to be released inside the ovule for double fertilization. Angiosperms have evolved a number of hurdles along the pollen tube journey to prevent inbreeding and fertilization by alien sperm cells, and to maximize reproductive success. These pre-zygotic hybridization barriers require intensive communication between the male and female reproductive cells and the necessity to distinguish self from non-self interaction partners. General molecules such as nitric oxide (NO) or gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) therefore appear to play only a minor role in these species-specific communication events. The past 20 years have shown that highly polymorphic peptides play a leading role in all communication steps along the pollen tube pathway and fertilization. Here we review our current understanding of the role of peptides during reproduction with a focus on peptide signalling during self-incompatibility, pollen tube growth and guidance as well as sperm reception and gamete activation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. CFD modeling of a boiler's tubes rupture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahimi, Masoud; Khoshhal, Abbas; Shariati, Seyed Mehdi

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a study on the reason for tubes damage in the superheater Platen section of the 320 MW Bisotoun power plant, Iran. The boiler has three types of superheater tubes and the damage occurs in a series of elbows belongs to the long tubes. A three-dimensional modeling was performed using an in-house computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code in order to explore the reason. The code has ability of simultaneous solving of the continuity, the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations and employing the turbulence, combustion and radiation models. The whole boiler including; walls, burners, air channels, three types of tubes, etc., was modeled in the real scale. The boiler was meshed into almost 2,000,000 tetrahedral control volumes and the standard k-ε turbulence model and the Rosseland radiation model were used in the model. The theoretical results showed that the inlet 18.9 MPa saturated steam becomes superheated inside the tubes and exit at a pressure of 17.8 MPa. The predicted results showed that the temperature of the steam and tube's wall in the long tubes is higher than the short and medium size tubes. In addition, the predicted steam mass flow rate in the long tube was lower than other ones. Therefore, it was concluded that the main reason for the rupture in the long tubes elbow is changing of the tube's metal microstructure due to working in a temperature higher than the design temperature. In addition, the structural fatigue tension makes the last elbow of the long tube more ready for rupture in comparison with the other places. The concluded result was validated by observations from the photomicrograph of the tube's metal samples taken from the damaged and undamaged sections

  20. X-ray tube targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirsch, H.H.

    1980-01-01

    In rotary targets for X-ray tubes warping is a problem which causes X-ray deficiency. A rotary target is described in which warping is reduced by using alloys of molybdenum with 0.05 to 10% iron, silicon, cobalt, tantalum, niobium, hafnium, stable metal oxide or mixture thereof. Suitable mixtures are 0.5 to 10% of tantalum, niobium or hafnium with from 0.5 to 5% yttrium oxide, or 0.05 to 0.3% of cobalt or silicon. Optionally 0.1 to 5% by weight of additional material may be alloyed with the molybdenum, such as tantalum or hafnium carbides. (author)