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Sample records for excretion

  1. Nickel Dermatitis - Nickel Excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menné, T.; Thorboe, A.

    1976-01-01

    Nickel excretion in urine in four females -sensitive to nickel with an intermittent dyshidrotic eruption was measured with flameless atomic absorption. Excretion of nickel was found to be increased in association with outbreaks of vesicles. The results support the idea that the chronic condition...... was maintained by ingestion of nickel in food....

  2. Acidosis and Urinary Calcium Excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, R Todd; Cordat, Emmanuelle; Chambrey, Régine

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis is associated with increased urinary calcium excretion and related sequelae, including nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis. The increased urinary calcium excretion induced by metabolic acidosis predominantly results from increased mobilization of calcium out of bone and inhibi...

  3. Increased urinary orosomucoid excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, M S; Iversen, K; Larsen, C T

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In a previous study, urinary orosomucoid excretion rate (UOER) independently predicted cardiovascular mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes. The aim of the present study was to determine whether increased UOER is associated with cardiovascular risk factors such as inflammation......, impaired left ventricular function and endothelial dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study of 41 patients with type 2 diabetes (17 patients with normal UOER and 24 with increased UOER) with no history of cardiovascular disease and 21 healthy...... with type 2 diabetes, UOER was independently associated with increasing values of IL-6 (1.43 (1.06-1.93)) and tPA (1.82 (1.20-2.77)). Measurements by echocardiography showed no signs of cardiac dysfunction. CONCLUSIONS: Asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes and increased UOER displayed signs of chronic...

  4. Iodine excretion in school children in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone B; Kirkegaard-Klitbo, Ditte Marie; Laurberg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Studies of dietary habits show a high iodine intake in children in Denmark. Iodine excretion in children has not previously been assessed. Iodine excretion in adults is below the recommended threshold, and it is therefore being discussed to increase the fortification level. The main...

  5. Iodine excretion in school children in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone B.; Kirkegaard-Klitbo, Ditte Marie; Laurberg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Studies of dietary habits show a high iodine intake in children in Denmark. Iodine excretion in children has not previously been assessed. Iodine excretion in adults is below the recommended threshold, and it is therefore being discussed to increase the fortification level. The main...... objective of this study was to assess iodine excretion in children living in Copenhagen to establish whether a moderate increase in iodine fortification would lead to excess iodine intake in this group. METHODS: Children in first and fifth grade were recruited through schools in Copenhagen. In total, 244...... children de-ivered a urine sample. Urine samples were analysed for iodine and creatinine, and the results were expressed as urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and as estimated 24-h iodine excretion. Iodine excretion in children was also compared with that of adults living in the same area, investigated...

  6. Iodine excretion in school children in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone B; Kirkegaard-Klitbo, Ditte Marie; Laurberg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    children de-ivered a urine sample. Urine samples were analysed for iodine and creatinine, and the results were expressed as urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and as estimated 24-h iodine excretion. Iodine excretion in children was also compared with that of adults living in the same area, investigated...... according to grade. The UIC was higher in children than in adults from the same area. CONCLUSIONS: The iodine excretion among schoolchildren in Copenhagen, an area with a relatively high iodine content in tap water, was within the recommended range as assessed by the UIC. An increased iodine fortification...

  7. Asymptomatic deer excrete infectious prions in feces

    OpenAIRE

    Tamg?ney, G?ltekin; Miller, Michael W.; Wolfe, Lisa L.; Sirochman, Tracey M.; Glidden, David V.; Palmer, Christina; Lemus, Azucena; DeArmond, Stephen J.; Prusiner, Stanley B.

    2009-01-01

    Infectious prion diseases 1 ? scrapie of sheep 2 and chronic wasting disease (CWD) of several species in the deer family 3,4 ? are transmitted naturally within affected host populations. Although several possible sources of contagion have been identified in excretions and secretions from symptomatic animals 5?8 , the biological importance of these sources in sustaining epidemics remains unclear. Here we show that asymptomatic CWD-infected mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) excrete CWD prions in ...

  8. Asymptomatic deer excrete infectious prions in faeces

    OpenAIRE

    Tamgüney, G; Miller, MW; Wolfe, LL; Sirochman, TM; Glidden, DV; Palmer, C; Lemus, A; Dearmond, SJ; Prusiner, SB

    2009-01-01

    Infectious prion diseasesĝ€"scrapie of sheep and chronic wasting disease (CWD) of several species in the deer familyĝ€" are transmitted naturally within affected host populations. Although several possible sources of contagion have been identified in excretions and secretions from symptomatic animals, the biological importance of these sources in sustaining epidemics remains unclear. Here we show that asymptomatic CWD-infected mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) excrete CWD prions in their faeces...

  9. Low-dose probenecid selectively inhibits urinary excretion of phenolsulfonphthalein in rats without affecting biliary excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yong-Jun; Lee, Joo Hyun; Oh, Ju-Hee; Lee, Young-Joo

    2013-06-01

    Renal organic anion transport systems play an important role in the excretion of anionic drugs and toxic compounds. Probenecid has been used as a potent inhibitor of urinary and biliary excretion of anionic compounds mediated by transporters such as organic anion transporters and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2). The purpose of this study was to optimize the dose of probenecid required for selective inhibition of urinary excretion of anionic compounds in rats, without inhibition of biliary excretion. Phenolsulfonphthalein (PSP), a model anionic compound that is excreted in urine and bile, was intravenously administered to rats after intraperitoneal injection of different doses of probenecid (0, 0.2, 2, 10, 100, 200 and 400 mg kg(-1) ). Treatment with 100, 200 or 400 mg kg(-1) probenecid decreased both renal clearance (CLr ) and biliary clearance (CLb ) of PSP, whereas 0.2 mg kg(-1) probenecid did not have any effect. Probenecid administered at doses of 2 and 10 mg kg(-1) decreased only CLr . The median effective doses of probenecid for inhibiting CLr and CLb were 0.925 and 23.9 mg kg(-1) , respectively. These data suggest that a low dose of probenecid selectively inhibits urinary excretion of PSP that may be mediated by organic anion transporters, without affecting biliary excretion that may be mediated by Mrp2. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Power Functions Relating Excretion to Body Burden

    CERN Document Server

    Sanders, S M J

    2003-01-01

    Formulae necessary to relate the quantity of radionuclides excreted to that assimilated in exposures that are acute and those that are multiple or continuous are derived from power function relationships. Particular attention is given to providing equations having variables for which the bioassayer can easily derive numerical values. This paper presents this data.

  11. Asymptomatic deer excrete infectious prions in faeces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamgüney, Gültekin; Miller, Michael W; Wolfe, Lisa L; Sirochman, Tracey M; Glidden, David V; Palmer, Christina; Lemus, Azucena; DeArmond, Stephen J; Prusiner, Stanley B

    2009-09-24

    Infectious prion diseases-scrapie of sheep and chronic wasting disease (CWD) of several species in the deer family-are transmitted naturally within affected host populations. Although several possible sources of contagion have been identified in excretions and secretions from symptomatic animals, the biological importance of these sources in sustaining epidemics remains unclear. Here we show that asymptomatic CWD-infected mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) excrete CWD prions in their faeces long before they develop clinical signs of prion disease. Intracerebral inoculation of irradiated deer faeces into transgenic mice overexpressing cervid prion protein (PrP) revealed infectivity in 14 of 15 faecal samples collected from five deer at 7-11 months before the onset of neurological disease. Although prion concentrations in deer faeces were considerably lower than in brain tissue from the same deer collected at the end of the disease, the estimated total infectious dose excreted in faeces by an infected deer over the disease course may approximate the total contained in a brain. Prolonged faecal prion excretion by infected deer provides a plausible natural mechanism that might explain the high incidence and efficient horizontal transmission of CWD within deer herds, as well as prion transmission among other susceptible cervids.

  12. Asymptomatic deer excrete infectious prions in feces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamgüney, Gültekin; Miller, Michael W.; Wolfe, Lisa L.; Sirochman, Tracey M.; Glidden, David V.; Palmer, Christina; Lemus, Azucena; DeArmond, Stephen J.; Prusiner, Stanley B.

    2011-01-01

    Infectious prion diseases 1 – scrapie of sheep 2 and chronic wasting disease (CWD) of several species in the deer family 3,4 – are transmitted naturally within affected host populations. Although several possible sources of contagion have been identified in excretions and secretions from symptomatic animals 5–8, the biological importance of these sources in sustaining epidemics remains unclear. Here we show that asymptomatic CWD-infected mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) excrete CWD prions in their feces long before they develop clinical signs of prion disease. Intracerebral (i.c.) inoculation of irradiated deer feces into transgenic (Tg) mice overexpressing cervid PrP revealed infectivity in 14 of 15 fecal samples collected from 5 deer at 7–11 months before the onset of neurological disease. Although prion concentrations in deer feces were considerably lower than in brain tissue from the same deer collected at the disease terminus, the estimated total infectious dose excreted in feces by an infected deer over the disease course may approximate the total contained in brain tissue. Prolonged fecal prion excretion by infected deer provides a plausible natural mechanism that might explain the high incidence and efficient horizontal transmission of CWD within deer herds 3,4,9, as well as prion transmission between susceptible deer species. PMID:19741608

  13. Urinary growth hormone excretion in acromegaly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K M; Lindholm, J; Vandeweghe, M

    1993-01-01

    The biochemical assessment of disease activity in acromegaly still presents a problem, especially in treated patients with mild clinical symptoms. We therefore examined the diagnostic value of the measurement of urinary growth hormone (GH) excretion in seventy unselected patients with acromegaly...

  14. Fecal selenium excretion is regulated by dietary selenium intake1

    OpenAIRE

    Pedrosa,Lucia Fatima Campos; Motley, Amy K.; Stevenson, Teri D.; Hill, Kristina E.; Burk, Raymond F.

    2012-01-01

    Whole-body selenium is regulated by excretion of the element. Reports of studies carried out using isotopic tracers have led to the conclusion that urinary selenium excretion is regulated by selenium intake but that fecal excretion is not. Because of the limitations of tracer studies, we measured urinary and fecal selenium excretion by mice with selenium intakes ranging from deficient to almost toxic. Tissue and whole-body selenium concentrations increased sharply between deficient and adequa...

  15. Excretion of polyamines by children with Beckwith's syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Barlow, G B

    1980-01-01

    The urinary excretion of the polyamines--putrescine, spermidine, and spermine--was measured in 7 children with Beckwith's syndrome. Putrescine excretion was raised and spermidine excretion reduced. The raised putrescine and the low spermidine ratios were highly significant. These results are consistent with a disturbance in a metabolic pathway under growth hormone-like regulation.

  16. Urine alkalization facilitates uric acid excretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyama Issei

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increase in the incidence of hyperuricemia associated with gout as well as hypertension, renal diseases and cardiovascular diseases has been a public health concern. We examined the possibility of facilitated excretion of uric acid by change in urine pH by managing food materials. Methods Within the framework of the Japanese government's health promotion program, we made recipes which consist of protein-rich and less vegetable-fruit food materials for H+-load (acid diet and others composed of less protein but vegetable-fruit rich food materials (alkali diet. Healthy female students were enrolled in this consecutive 5-day study for each test. From whole-day collected urine, total volume, pH, organic acid, creatinine, uric acid and all cations (Na+,K+,Ca2+,Mg2+,NH4+ and anions (Cl-,SO42-,PO4- necessary for the estimation of acid-base balance were measured. Results Urine pH reached a steady state 3 days after switching from ordinary daily diets to specified regimens. The amount of acid generated ([SO42-] +organic acid-gut alkai were linearly related with those of the excretion of acid (titratable acidity+ [NH4+] - [HCO3-], indicating that H+ in urine is generated by the metabolic degradation of food materials. Uric acid and excreted urine pH retained a linear relationship, where uric acid excretion increased from 302 mg/day at pH 5.9 to 413 mg/day at pH 6.5, despite the fact that the alkali diet contained a smaller purine load than the acid diet. Conclusion We conclude that alkalization of urine by eating nutritionally well-designed food is effective for removing uric acid from the body.

  17. Postoperative elevated cortisol excretion is not associated with suppression of 6-sulfatoxymelatonin excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derenzo, J; Macknight, B; DiVittore, N A; Bonafide, C P; Cronin, A J

    2005-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that elevated postoperative excretion of cortisol is associated with suppression of the nocturnal excretion of 6-sulfatoxymelatonin, the chief metabolite of the circadian hormone, melatonin. Postoperative patients demonstrate circadian rhythm disturbances and suppression of nocturnal melatonin plasma concentration. Since the nocturnal surge in melatonin concentration in normal volunteers is time-locked to the circadian nadir of cortisol concentration, perhaps the attenuation of the nocturnal melatonin surge in postoperative patients results from prolonged elevation in the plasma cortisol concentration. In this observational study performed in 21 patients having unilateral hip or knee arthroplasty, urine was collected every 4 h for the first 48 h after surgery for measurement of urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (EIA) and free cortisol (RIA) excretion. The total (P cortisol nadir preceded the 6-sulfatoxymelatonin surge in 20% of the subjects on night 1 and in 75% of the subjects on night 2. The lack of a consistent relationship between the magnitude or timing of cortisol excretion and 6-sulfatoxymelatonin excretion suggests that cortisol does not mediate postoperative 6-sulfatoxymelatonin suppression.

  18. Renal energy excretion of horses depends on renal hippuric acid and nitrogen excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipp, B; Südekum, K-H; Zeyner, A; Goren, G; Kienzle, E

    2018-02-01

    The prediction of renal energy excretion is crucial in a metabolizable energy system for horses. Phenolic acids from forage cell walls may affect renal energy losses by increasing hippuric acid excretion. Therefore, the relationships were investigated between renal energy, nitrogen (N) and hippuric acid excretion of four adult ponies (230-384 kg body weight (BW)) consuming diets based on fresh grass, grass silage, grass cobs (heat-dried, finely chopped, pressed grass), alfalfa hay, straw, extruded straw and soybean meal. Feed intake was measured; urine and faeces were quantitatively collected for three days. Feed was analysed for crude nutrients, gross energy, amino acids and neutral-detergent-insoluble crude protein (CP); faeces were analysed for crude nutrients and cross energy; urine was analysed for N, hippuric acid, creatinine and gross energy. Renal energy excretion (y; kJ/kg BW 0.75 ) correlated with renal N excretion (x 1 ; g/kg BW 0.75 ) and renal hippuric acid excretion (x 2 ; g/kg BW 0.75 ): y = 14.4 + 30.2x 1 +20.7x 2 (r = .95; n = 30; p energy losses per gram CP intake: (i) protein supplements (e.g., soybean meal): 4.2-4.9 kJ/g CP intake (ii) alfalfa hay, grains, dried sugar beet pulp: 6.4 kJ/g CP intake, (iii) hay, preserved grass products, straw: 5.2-12.3 kJ/g CP intake (mean 8) and (iv) fresh grass. For group (iii) a negative relationship was observed between renal energy losses per gram of CP and the content of CP or neutral-detergent-insoluble CP in dry matter. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Nickel Excretion in Urine after Oral Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menne, T.; Mikkelsen, H. I.; Solgaard, Per Bent

    1978-01-01

    In recent years the importance of internal exposure to nickel in patients with recurrent hand eczema and nickel allergy has become evident. The present study was performed in order to investigate the value of urinary nickel determinations as an index of oral nickel intake. After oral administration...... of 5.6 mg nickel (as the sulfate), increased nickel excretion was found over the following 2-3 days. We conclude that consecutive urinary nickel determinations are able to disclose variations in oral intake of nickel....

  20. Biliary excretion of intravenous (/sup 14/C) omeprazole in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lind, T.; Andersson, T.; Skanberg, I.O.; Olbe, L.

    1987-11-01

    We have studied the biliary excretion of (/sup 14/C) omeprazole in humans. The study was performed in eight healthy subjects and the technique used was based on multiple marker dilution principles with double-lumen tubes placed in both the stomach and intestine. The results obtained show a 16% biliary excretion of (/sup 14/C) omeprazole. These data suggest a minimal spillover of omeprazole from the gastric mucosa into the gastric lumen in humans. The results also agree with previous data of the fecal recovery of radiolabeled omeprazole that suggest that the fecal excretion of intravenous omeprazole in humans is entirely accounted for by biliary excretion.

  1. Calcium excretion in feces of ungulates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schryver, H F; Foose, T J; Williams, J; Hintz, H F

    1983-01-01

    1. Fecal excretion of calcium was examined in 122 individual ungulates representing 7 species of Equidae, 3 species of Tapiridae, 3 species of Rhinocerotidae, 2 species of Elephantidae, 2 species of Hippopotamidae, 12 species of Bovidae, 2 species of Cervidae, 3 species of Camellidae and 1 species of Giraffidae. 2. Animals were fed timothy hay, a low calcium diet or alfalfa hay, a high calcium diet. 3. In a few cases oat straw or prairie hay was used instead of timothy hay. 4. Samples of feces were obtained from individuals daily for 4 days following a 20 day dietary equilibration period. 5. Feces of equids, tapirs, rhinoceros and elephants had a lower calcium concentration and a lower Ca/P ratio than feces of ruminants when the animals were fed diets of equivalent calcium content. 6. The findings suggest that the non-ruminant ungulate equids, tapirs, rhinoceros and elephants absorb a larger proportion of dietary calcium than ruminants do.

  2. Can the excretion of metabolites by bacteria be manipulated?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konings, Wil N.; Poolman, Bert; Driessen, Arnold J.M.

    Bacteria can release metabolites into the environment by various mechanisms. Excretion may occur by passive diffusion or by the reversal of the uptake process when the internal concentration of the metabolite exceeds the thermodynamic equilibrium level. In other cases, solutes are excreted against

  3. The effect of disulfiram on excretion of catecholamine alcoholic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of disulfiram on excretion of catecholamine alcoholic males the urinary metabolites. A. H. ROBINS, J. L. BARRON. Summary. The urinary-excretion of vanillylma"ndelic aeid. (VMA), homovanillic acid (HVA) and total meta- nephrines (TMNs) was studied in a group of White male alcoholic patients under three ...

  4. Excretal Near Infrared Reflectance Spectrometry to monitor the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feeding systems in which young ostriches feed on pasture but have access to concentrates provide better welfare than confined systems but are sustainable only if nutrition is carefully controlled. This study was conducted to evaluate the potential of "excretal NIRS", a methodology that associates excretal spectral ...

  5. Urinary, biliary and faecal excretion of rocuronium in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Proost, JH; Eriksson, LI; Mirakhur, RK; Wierda, JMKH

    2000-01-01

    The excretion of rocuronium and its potential metabolites was studied in 38 anaesthetized patients, ASA I-III and 21-69 yr old. Rocuronium bromide was administered as an i.v. bolus dose of 0.3 or 0.9 mg kg(-1). in Part A of the study, the excretion into urine and bile, and the liver content were

  6. Dietary intake and urinary excretion of lignans in Finnish men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nurmi, Tarja; Mursu, Jaakko; Peñalvo, José L

    2010-01-01

    /d, of which lariciresinol and pinoresinol covered 78 %. Almost half (47 %) of the intake of lignans was explained by the intake of rye products, berries, coffee, tea and roots. The urinary excretion of plant lignans corresponded to 17 % and enterolignans to 92 % of the intake of lignans. The urinary excretion......Intake of lignans has been assessed in different study populations, but so far none of the studies has compared the daily intake of lignans and the urinary excretion of plant and enterolignans. We assessed the intake of lariciresinol, pinoresinol, secoisolariciresinol and matairesinol in 100...... Finnish men consuming their habitual omnivorous diet, and measured the 24 h urinary excretion of plant and enterolignans to compare the intake and metabolism. Dietary determinants of lignan intake and their urinary excretion were also determined. The mean intake of lignans was 1224 (sd 539) mug...

  7. Urinary sodium and potassium excretion, mortality, and cardiovascular events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Martin; Mente, Andrew; Rangarajan, Sumathy; McQueen, Matthew J; Wang, Xingyu; Liu, Lisheng; Yan, Hou; Lee, Shun Fu; Mony, Prem; Devanath, Anitha; Rosengren, Annika; Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio; Diaz, Rafael; Avezum, Alvaro; Lanas, Fernando; Yusoff, Khalid; Iqbal, Romaina; Ilow, Rafal; Mohammadifard, Noushin; Gulec, Sadi; Yusufali, Afzal Hussein; Kruger, Lanthe; Yusuf, Rita; Chifamba, Jephat; Kabali, Conrad; Dagenais, Gilles; Lear, Scott A; Teo, Koon; Yusuf, Salim

    2014-08-14

    The optimal range of sodium intake for cardiovascular health is controversial. We obtained morning fasting urine samples from 101,945 persons in 17 countries and estimated 24-hour sodium and potassium excretion (used as a surrogate for intake). We examined the association between estimated urinary sodium and potassium excretion and the composite outcome of death and major cardiovascular events. The mean estimated sodium and potassium excretion was 4.93 g per day and 2.12 g per day, respectively. With a mean follow-up of 3.7 years, the composite outcome occurred in 3317 participants (3.3%). As compared with an estimated sodium excretion of 4.00 to 5.99 g per day (reference range), a higher estimated sodium excretion (≥ 7.00 g per day) was associated with an increased risk of the composite outcome (odds ratio, 1.15; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02 to 1.30), as well as increased risks of death and major cardiovascular events considered separately. The association between a high estimated sodium excretion and the composite outcome was strongest among participants with hypertension (P=0.02 for interaction), with an increased risk at an estimated sodium excretion of 6.00 g or more per day. As compared with the reference range, an estimated sodium excretion that was below 3.00 g per day was also associated with an increased risk of the composite outcome (odds ratio, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.12 to 1.44). As compared with an estimated potassium excretion that was less than 1.50 g per day, higher potassium excretion was associated with a reduced risk of the composite outcome. In this study in which sodium intake was estimated on the basis of measured urinary excretion, an estimated sodium intake between 3 g per day and 6 g per day was associated with a lower risk of death and cardiovascular events than was either a higher or lower estimated level of intake. As compared with an estimated potassium excretion that was less than 1.50 g per day, higher potassium excretion was

  8. Excretion of drugs in human breast milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, R.M.; Findlay, J.W.

    1981-01-01

    The present report briefly discusses some of the morphological, physiological, and compositional aspects of animal and human breast milk and how these characteristics might be important for the accumulation of drugs and foreign compounds. In addition, a study is described confirming the presence of caffeine, codeine, morphine, phenacetin, acetaminophen, and salicylic acid in the breast milk of a lactating mother following oral administration of a combination analgesic containing aspirin, phenacetin, caffeine, and codeine. Although the study is limited to one subject, it has provided critically needed data on the rates of appearance in, and elimination of these drugs from, breast milk. A similar amount of information is presented on phenacetin, also a component of the analgesic mixture, which has not been previously reported to enter human milk. The distribution of these drugs between the slightly more acidic breast milk and the relatively neutral plasma is consistent with their weakly basic, acidic, or relatively neutral properties. In general, the study shows that codeine and morphine milk concentrations are higher than, salicylic acid milk levels are much lower than, and phenacetin, caffeine, and acetaminophen milk concentrations are relatively similar to their respective plasma levels. It is projected, from estimated steady-state milk concentrations of the drugs and their metabolites studied, that very low percentages of the therapeutic dosages (less than 0.7%) would be excreted in mother's milk, too low an amount to be clinically significant to the infant.

  9. Urinary growth hormone excretion in 657 healthy children and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K; Philips, M; Jørgensen, M

    1991-01-01

    .0001) with maximum values in Tanner stage 3 for girls and 4 for boys. This corresponded to a peak in u-GH excretion between 11.5-14.5 years in girls and 12.5-16 years in boys. Additionally, u-GH excretion in adults was significantly higher than in prepubertal children (p less than 0.001). The day/night ratio of u......-GH excretion (pg/h) was significantly higher in females than in males (p less than 0.01). In Tanner stages 1-4, u-GH excretion during the day was lower than that at night, whereas the opposite was true in late puberty and in adult women. The interindividual variation of u-GH excretion within the same Tanner......Urinary growth hormone (u-GH) excretion was measured in 547 healthy children and 110 adults by ELISA with a detection limit of 1.1 ng/l u-GH after prior concentration of the urine samples (20- to 30-fold). u-GH excretion values were significantly dependent on the pubertal stage (p less than 0...

  10. Dietary intake and urinary excretion of lignans in Finnish men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nurmi, Tarja; Mursu, Jaakko; Peñalvo, José L

    2010-01-01

    Finnish men consuming their habitual omnivorous diet, and measured the 24 h urinary excretion of plant and enterolignans to compare the intake and metabolism. Dietary determinants of lignan intake and their urinary excretion were also determined. The mean intake of lignans was 1224 (sd 539) mug...... % by the intake of lariciresinol. Although the assessed intake of lignans corresponded well with the urinary excretion of lignans, the enterolactone production in the human body depended more on the dietary sources of lignans than the absolute intake of lignans....

  11. Excretion of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in Sweat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huestis, Marilyn A.; Scheidweiler, Karl B.; Saito, Takeshi; Fortner, Neil; Abraham, Tsadik; Gustafson, Richard A.; Smith, Michael L.

    2008-01-01

    Sweat testing is a noninvasive technique for monitoring drug exposure over a 7-day period in treatment, criminal justice, and employment settings. We evaluated Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) excretion in 11 daily cannabis users after cessation of drug use. PharmChek® sweat patches worn for 7 days were analyzed for THC by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The limit of quantification (LOQ) for the method was 0.4 ng THC/patch. Sweat patches worn the first week of continuously monitored abstinence had THC above the United States Substance Abuse Mental Health Services Administration’s proposed cutoff concentration for federal workplace testing of 1 ng THC/patch. Mean ± S.E.M. THC concentrations were 3.85 ± 0.86 ng THC/patch. Eight of 11 subjects had negative patches the second week and one produced THC positive patches for four weeks of monitored abstinence. We also tested daily and weekly sweat patches from 7 subjects who were administered oral doses of up to 14.8 mg THC/day for five consecutive days. In this oral THC administration study, no daily or weekly patches had THC above the LOQ; concurrent plasma THC concentrations were all less than 6.1 μg/L. In conclusion, using proposed federal cutoff concentrations, most daily cannabis users will have a positive sweat patch in the first week after ceasing drug use and a negative patch after subsequent weeks, although patches may remain positive for four weeks or more. Oral ingestion of up to 14.8 mg THC daily does not produce a THC positive sweat patch test. PMID:17481836

  12. [Urinary electrolyte excretion in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, V; Iordanova, P; Penkova, S

    1991-01-01

    In 33 patients with autosomal dominant renal polycystosis the urine excretion of the electrolytes sodium and potassium was examined and analyzed in relation to the renal function and the arterial pressure. The clearances, the urine ratio and the excreted fractions of both electrolytes were calculated. It was established that by normal renal function and without arterial hypertension there were no significant differences in the parameters studied between the patients and the healthy controls. In the patients with arterial hypertension and preserved renal function the sodium clearance and urine excretion were lower, but the differences with the normotensive patients were not statistically significant. In the patients with chronic renal failure (when diuretic was applied) higher mean values of the excreted fractions of sodium and potassium were established. The results support the thesis that hypertension in renal polycystosis is of volumetric character.

  13. Relation of urinary calcium and magnesium excretion to blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesteloot, Hugo; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Brown, Ian J

    2011-01-01

    Data indicate an inverse association between dietary calcium and magnesium intakes and blood pressure (BP); however, much less is known about associations between urinary calcium and magnesium excretion and BP in general populations. The authors assessed the relation of BP to 24-hour excretion...... of calcium and magnesium in 2 cross-sectional studies. The International Study of Macro- and Micro-Nutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP) comprised 4,679 persons aged 40-59 years from 17 population samples in China, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States, and the International Cooperative Study......) of higher urinary calcium excretion (associations were smaller for diastolic BP) in INTERMAP. Qualitatively similar associations were observed in INTERSALT analyses. Associations between magnesium excretion and BP were small and nonsignificant for most of the models examined. The present data suggest...

  14. Salivary Glucose Concentration and Excretion in Normal and Diabetic Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Jurysta, Cedric; Bulur, Nurdan; Oguzhan, Berrin; Satman, Ilhan; Yilmaz, Temel M.; Malaisse, Willy J.; Sener, Abdullah

    2009-01-01

    The present report aims mainly at a reevaluation of salivary glucose concentration and excretion in unstimulated and mechanically stimulated saliva in both normal and diabetic subjects. In normal subjects, a decrease in saliva glucose concentration, an increase in salivary flow, but an unchanged glucose excretion rate were recorded when comparing stimulated saliva to unstimulated saliva. In diabetic patients, an increase in salivary flow with unchanged salivary glucose concentration and gluco...

  15. [Fluoride urinary excretion in Mexico City's preschool children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez-López, María Lilia Adriana; Hernández-Guerrero, Juan Carlos; Jiménez-Farfán, Dolores; Molina-Frechero, Nelly; Murrieta-Pruneda, Francisco; López-Jiménez, Georgina

    2008-01-01

    The assessment of urinary fluoride excretion during dental developing stage has been reported for different countries with community fluoride programs. Also, one of the factors that could influence on retention and excretion of fluoride is the deficient nutrition so the aim of this study was to determine fluoride urinary excretion by a group of preschool children with and without malnutrition. Urinary samples from 24 hours were collected from 60 preschool children selected by convenience from Iztapalapa area of Mexico City, 30 with malnutrition and 30 with standard nutritrional status by weight for age. The samples were analyzed by fluoride especific electrode. Orion 720A. The average concentration of fluoride in urine from preschool children with and without malnutrition were 0.89 +/- 0.4 mg/L and 0.80 +/- 0.3 mg/L, respectively. The mean of 24 hours total fluoride excreted were 367 +/- 150 microg/24 hrs. in malnutrition children and 355 +/- 169 microg/24 hrs. for those with standard nutritional status. There were no differences statistically significant between groups. The urinary fluoride excretion for children with and without malnutrition were in the optimal range of fluoridation for the prevention of caries decay. Malnutrition was no associated with changes on fluoride orine concentration and excretion rates.

  16. Influence of colectomy on hydrogen excretion in breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casellas, Francesc; Torrejón, A; Vilaseca, J; Aparici, A; Casaus, M; Rodríguez, P; Guarner, F

    2010-04-01

    Hydrogen breath test is the most commonly used method to analyze carbohydrate absorption and diagnose carbohydrate malabsorption. The result of the H(2) breath test is influenced by different factors, which are mostly related to quantitative or qualitative aspects of colonic flora. A scarcely studied variable is the effect of colonic anatomical integrity on H(2) excretion in breath. The present study aims to determine whether loss of colonic integrity reduces H(2) excretion capacity after an oral load of an unabsorbable carbohydrate. An observational study was conducted in three patient groups: controls with preserved colon, patients with partial colectomy, and patients with complete colectomy and ileostomy. H(2) concentration in breath was measured by gas chromatography every 10 min for 3 h after oral lactulose administration. Twenty-two patients with partial colectomy, 18 controls with preserved colon, and seven patients with ileostomy were included. H(2) excretion after lactulose did not differ between patients with partial colectomy and controls (basal excretion = 8.5 vs 4 ppm; delta increase = 50.0 vs 47.5 ppm; area under the curve = 4,480.0 vs 4,710.5 ppm/min). In contrast, H(2) excretion was significantly lower in the ileostomy group. Partial colectomy does not influence the capacity for H(2) excretion after oral unabsorbable carbohydrate administration.

  17. Ammonia excretion in the freshwater planarian Schmidtea mediterranea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weihrauch, Dirk; Chan, Ainsely C; Meyer, Heiko; Döring, Carmen; Sourial, Mary; O'Donnell, Michael J

    2012-09-15

    In aquatic invertebrates, metabolic nitrogenous waste is excreted predominately as ammonia. Very little is known, however, of the underlying mechanisms of ammonia excretion, particularly in freshwater species. Our results indicate that in the non-parasitic freshwater planarian Schmidtea mediterranea, ammonia excretion depends on acidification of the apical unstirred layer of the body surface and consequent ammonia trapping. Buffering of the environment to a pH of 7 or higher decreased the excretion rate. Inhibitor experiments suggested further that the excretion mechanism involves the participation of the V-type H(+)-ATPase and carbonic anhydrase and possibly also the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and Na(+)/H(+) exchangers. Alkalinization (pH 8.5, 2 days) of the environment led to a 1.9-fold increase in body ammonia levels and to a downregulation of V-ATPase (subunit A) and Rh-protein mRNA. Further, a 2 day exposure to non-lethal ammonia concentrations (1 mmol l(-1)) caused a doubling of body ammonia levels and led to an increase in Rh-protein and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (α-subunit) mRNA expression levels. In situ hybridization studies indicated a strong mRNA expression of the Rh-protein in the epidermal epithelium. The ammonia excretion mechanism proposed for S. mediterranea reveals striking similarities to the current model suggested to function in the gills of freshwater fish.

  18. Changes in urinary potassium excretion in patients with chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichiro Ueda

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: This study demonstrated that urinary potassium excretion decreased with reductions in renal function. Furthermore, urinary potassium excretion was mainly affected by urinary sodium excretion and estimated glomerular filtration rate in patients with CKD, whereas the presence of diabetes mellitus and use of renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system inhibitors were not associated with urinary potassium excretion in this study.

  19. Manure nutrient excretion by Jersey and Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlton, K F; Wilkerson, V A; Casper, D P; Mertens, D R

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate feces, urine, and N excretion by Jersey and Holstein cows. Sixteen multiparous cows (n=8 per breed) were fed 2 experimental rations at calving in a switchback experimental design. Diets were 50% forage and based on corn meal (control) or whole cottonseed. Half the cows in each breed started on the control diet and half started on the whole cottonseed diet. Cows were switched to the other diet at 60 d in milk and switched back to their original diet at 165 d in milk. Pairs of cows were moved into open-circuit respiration chambers on d 49, 154, and 271 of lactation for 7-d measurement periods. While in the chambers, total collection of feed refusals, milk, recovered hair, feces, and urine was conducted. No effect of the interaction of diet and breed was observed for measures of nutrient digestibility and manure excretion. Total daily manure excretion was lower in Jersey cows than in Holstein cows, with reductions generally proportional to changes in feed intake. Jersey cows consumed 29% less feed and excreted 33% less wet feces and 28% less urine than Holstein cows. Intake, fecal, and urinary N were reduced by 29, 33, and 24%, respectively, in Jersey cows compared with Holstein cows. Equations from American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers underpredicted observed values for all manure measures evaluated (urine, manure solids, N, wet manure), and breed bias was observed in equations predicting excretion of urine, N, and wet manure. Although these equations include animal and dietary factors, intercepts of regression of observed values on predicted values differed between Holsteins and Jerseys for those 3 measures. No breed bias was observed in the prediction of manure solids excretion, however, making that equation equally appropriate for Jerseys and Holsteins. The effect of breed on manure and nutrient excretion has significant nutrient management implications. Copyright 2010 American Dairy Science

  20. Ammonia excretion in the marine polychaete Eurythoe complanata (Annelida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Daniel; Hugenschütt, Maja; Meyer, Heiko; Paululat, Achim; Quijada-Rodriguez, Alex R; Purschke, Günter; Weihrauch, Dirk

    2017-02-01

    Ammonia is a toxic waste product from protein metabolism and needs to be either converted into less toxic molecules or, in the case of fish and aquatic invertebrates, excreted directly as is. In contrast to fish, very little is known regarding the ammonia excretion mechanism and the participating excretory organs in marine invertebrates. In the current study, ammonia excretion in the marine burrowing polychaete Eurythoe complanata was investigated. As a potential site for excretion, the 100-200 µm long, 30-50 µm wide and up to 25 µm thick dentrically branched, well ventilated and vascularized branchiae (gills) were identified. In comparison to the main body, the branchiae showed considerably higher mRNA expression levels of Na + /K + -ATPase, V-type H + -ATPase, cytoplasmic carbonic anhydrase (CA-2), a Rhesus-like protein, and three different ammonia transporters (AMTs). Experiments on the intact organism revealed that ammonia excretion did not occur via apical ammonia trapping, but was regulated by a basolateral localized V-type H + -ATPase, carbonic anhydrase and intracellular cAMP levels. Interestingly, the V-type H + -ATPase seems to play a role in ammonia retention. A 1 week exposure to 1 mmol l -1 NH 4 Cl (HEA) did not cause a change in ammonia excretion rates, while the three branchial expressed AMTs showed a tendency to be down-regulated. This indicates a shift of function in the branchial ammonia excretion processes under these conditions. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. Urinary excretion of epidermal growth factor and Tamm-Horsfall protein in three rat models with increased renal excretion of urine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thulesen, J; Jørgensen, P E; Torffvit, O

    1997-01-01

    were examined in three groups of rats with increased renal excretion of urine: uninephrectomy, non-osmotic polyuria and diabetic osmotic polyuria. Twenty-four hour urine samples were obtained after 7, 14 and 21 days. The urinary volume per kidney was doubled in uninephrectomy when compared to controls......-80% of that of the controls, whereas THP excretion was unchanged, indicating that EGF excretion varied with renal tissue mass. Non-osmotic polyuria caused a five-fold increase in THP excretion but no change in EGF excretion. THP excretion in the diabetic rats was increased three-fold after 21 days when compared to controls......, whereas EGF excretion was decreased when expressed per kidney weight. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that EGF and THP were colocalized in the thick ascending limbs of Henle's loops and distal tubules in all five groups of rats. In conclusion, the EGF excretion appears to follow renal tissue mass...

  2. Quantitative studies of human urinary excretion of uropontin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, W; Shiraga, H; Chalko, C; Goldfarb, S; Krishna, G G; Hoyer, J R

    1998-01-01

    Uropontin is the urinary form of osteopontin, an aspartic acid-rich phosphorylated glycoprotein. Uropontin has been previously shown to be a potent inhibitor of the nucleation, growth and aggregation of calcium oxalate crystals and the binding of these crystals to renal epithelial cells. Quantitative data defining the excretion of this protein are necessary to determine its role in urinary stone formation. In the present studies, we determined uropontin excretion rates of normal humans. Urine samples were obtained under conditions of known dietary intake from young adult human volunteers with no history, radiographic or laboratory evidence of renal disease. Urinary concentrations of uropontin were measured by a sensitive ELISA employing an affinity purified polyclonal antiserum to uropontin. Thirteen normal subjects ingested a constant diet providing 1 gram of calcium, 1 gram of phosphorus, 150 mEq of sodium and 1 gram of protein per kilogram of body wt per day during an eight day study period. The relationship of urinary volume to uropontin excretion was assessed by varying fluid intake on the last four days of the study to change the mean urine volume/24 hr by > 500 ml. Urine collected in six hour aliquots for eight days was analyzed for uropontin by ELISA, and for calcium, and creatinine. Daily uropontin excretion of 13 individual subjects was 3805 +/- 1805 micrograms/24 hr (mean +/- 1 SD). The mean urinary levels (1.9 micrograms/ml) detected in the present study are sufficient for inhibition of crystallization; our previous studies have demonstrated that the nucleation, growth and aggregation of calcium oxalate crystals and their binding to renal cells in vitro are inhibited by this concentration of purified uropontin. In contrast to the regular pattern of diurnal variation of calcium excretion seen in most subjects, uropontin excretion showed no regularity of diurnal variation and was not directly related to either calcium or creatinine excretion or changes in

  3. Salivary glucose concentration and excretion in normal and diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurysta, Cedric; Bulur, Nurdan; Oguzhan, Berrin; Satman, Ilhan; Yilmaz, Temel M; Malaisse, Willy J; Sener, Abdullah

    2009-01-01

    The present report aims mainly at a reevaluation of salivary glucose concentration and excretion in unstimulated and mechanically stimulated saliva in both normal and diabetic subjects. In normal subjects, a decrease in saliva glucose concentration, an increase in salivary flow, but an unchanged glucose excretion rate were recorded when comparing stimulated saliva to unstimulated saliva. In diabetic patients, an increase in salivary flow with unchanged salivary glucose concentration and glucose excretion rate were observed under the same experimental conditions. Salivary glucose concentration and excretion were much higher in diabetic patients than in control subjects, whether in unstimulated or stimulated saliva. No significant correlation between glycemia and either glucose concentration or glucose excretion rate was found in the diabetic patients, whether in unstimulated or stimulated saliva. In the latter patients, as compared to control subjects, the relative magnitude of the increase in saliva glucose concentration was comparable, however, to that of blood glucose concentration. The relationship between these two variables was also documented in normal subjects and diabetic patients undergoing an oral glucose tolerance test.

  4. Association of urinary sodium and potassium excretion with blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mente, Andrew; O'Donnell, Martin J; Rangarajan, Sumathy; McQueen, Matthew J; Poirier, Paul; Wielgosz, Andreas; Morrison, Howard; Li, Wei; Wang, Xingyu; Di, Chen; Mony, Prem; Devanath, Anitha; Rosengren, Annika; Oguz, Aytekin; Zatonska, Katarzyna; Yusufali, Afzal Hussein; Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio; Avezum, Alvaro; Ismail, Noorhassim; Lanas, Fernando; Puoane, Thandi; Diaz, Rafael; Kelishadi, Roya; Iqbal, Romaina; Yusuf, Rita; Chifamba, Jephat; Khatib, Rasha; Teo, Koon; Yusuf, Salim

    2014-08-14

    Higher levels of sodium intake are reported to be associated with higher blood pressure. Whether this relationship varies according to levels of sodium or potassium intake and in different populations is unknown. We studied 102,216 adults from 18 countries. Estimates of 24-hour sodium and potassium excretion were made from a single fasting morning urine specimen and were used as surrogates for intake. We assessed the relationship between electrolyte excretion and blood pressure, as measured with an automated device. Regression analyses showed increments of 2.11 mm Hg in systolic blood pressure and 0.78 mm Hg in diastolic blood pressure for each 1-g increment in estimated sodium excretion. The slope of this association was steeper with higher sodium intake (an increment of 2.58 mm Hg in systolic blood pressure per gram for sodium excretion >5 g per day, 1.74 mm Hg per gram for 3 to 5 g per day, and 0.74 mm Hg per gram for 55 years of age, 2.43 mm Hg per gram at 45 to 55 years of age, and 1.96 mm Hg per gram at <45 years of age; P<0.001 for interaction). Potassium excretion was inversely associated with systolic blood pressure, with a steeper slope of association for persons with hypertension than for those without it (P<0.001) and a steeper slope with increased age (P<0.001). In this study, the association of estimated intake of sodium and potassium, as determined from measurements of excretion of these cations, with blood pressure was nonlinear and was most pronounced in persons consuming high-sodium diets, persons with hypertension, and older persons. (Funded by the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Ontario and others.).

  5. Prediction model for manure zinc excretion in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, K M; Vargas-Jurado, N; Purdum, S E

    2017-10-25

    The objective of this research trial was to compare 2 sources of zinc and different levels of supplementation on manure zinc excretion in laying hens. Bovan White Leghorn hens were used in this study and fed one of 6 dietary treatments. Treatments were in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement with 2 sources of zinc (zinc sulfate or Availa®Zn) and 3 levels (40, 80, or 120 ppm) and were randomly assigned to 48 cages with 5 hens/cage and 8 replicates/treatment. Hens were housed in a tiered manure-belt housing system providing 627.1 cm2/hen and were given access to 110 g/hen/d of feed. Manure samples were collected, and manure zinc content was calculated at 10-week intervals. Data were analyzed using the Glimmix procedure in SAS. There was a significant overall effect of source (P < 0.0001) for zinc content, such that hens fed zinc sulfate had lower amounts of zinc excretion. There was also a significant level effect (P < 0.0001) in which hens fed 120 ppm zinc excreted the greatest amount of zinc. A significant source by level interaction was observed (P < 0.0001) for both the overall and individual analyses, such that 120 ppm Availa®Zn showed the highest zinc excretion, and both 40 ppm zinc sulfate and Availa®Zn showed the lowest zinc excretion. Based on these results, a prediction equation was written for an estimated amount of zinc excretion based on the amount of zinc provided in the diet. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  6. Utilization of Chicken Excretions as Compost Manure in Bolu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihat Kütük

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Turkish agricultural soils are insufficient with regard to organic matter content. Likewise, organic matter amounts in agricultural areas of Bolu are low. The benefits of organic matter to physical, chemical and biologic properties of soils are known for very long time. On the other hand, huge amount of chicken excretions are produced in Turkey with increased chicken production recently, and this result in substantial health and environmental problems. Amount of chicken excretions are estimated about 10 000 000 tons in Turkey. In Bolu, these amounts of chicken excretions are 300 000 tons per year. The most appropriate way to solve this question is to transform chicken excretions to organic manure and apply to agricultural fields. Composting is basic process for transforming of chicken excretions to organic manure. Composting is the aerobic decomposition of organic materials in the thermophilic temperature range of 40-65 °C. There are two essential methods in composting. One of them is traditional method taking much time and producing low grade manure. Another is rapid composting method taking less time and producing high grade manure under more controlled conditions. Rapid composting methods which are more acceptable as commercially in the world are windrow, rectangular agitated beds and rotating drum, respectively Selection of appropriate method is depending on composting material, environmental and economical conditions. Chicken excretions occurring large amounts in Bolu must be transformed to organic manure by means of a suitable composting method and used in agriculture. Because, chicken manure is an important resource for sustainable agriculture in Turkey and it should be evaluated.

  7. Acidosis and Urinary Calcium Excretion: Insights from Genetic Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, R Todd; Cordat, Emmanuelle; Chambrey, Régine; Dimke, Henrik; Eladari, Dominique

    2016-12-01

    Metabolic acidosis is associated with increased urinary calcium excretion and related sequelae, including nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis. The increased urinary calcium excretion induced by metabolic acidosis predominantly results from increased mobilization of calcium out of bone and inhibition of calcium transport processes within the renal tubule. The mechanisms whereby acid alters the integrity and stability of bone have been examined extensively in the published literature. Here, after briefly reviewing this literature, we consider the effects of acid on calcium transport in the renal tubule and then discuss why not all gene defects that cause renal tubular acidosis are associated with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  8. Felinine excretion in domestic cat breeds: a preliminary investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagen-Plantinga, E.A.; Bosch, G.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine possible differences in felinine excretion between domesticated cat breeds. For this purpose, urine was collected from a total of 83 privately owned entire male cats from eight different breeds in the Netherlands during the period of November 2010 till November

  9. Felinine excretion in domestic cat breeds: a preliminary investigation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagen - Plantinga, Esther; Hendriks, Wouter; Bosch, Guido

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine possible differences in felinine excretion between domesticated cat breeds. For this purpose, urine was collected from a total of 83 privately owned entire male cats from eight different breeds in the Netherlands during the period of November 2010 till November

  10. Regulation of direct transintestinal cholesterol excretion in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde, Astrid E.; Vrins, Carlos L. J.; van den Oever, Karin; Seemann, Ingar; Elferink, Ronald P. J. Oude; van Eck, Miranda; Kuipers, Folkert; Groen, Albert K.

    2008-01-01

    Biliary secretion is generally considered to be an obligate step in the pathway of excess cholesterol excretion from the body. We have recently shown that an alternative route exists. Direct transintestinal cholesterol efflux ( TICE) contributes significantly to cholesterol removal in mice. Our aim

  11. Ammonia emissions from cattle urine and dung excreted on pasture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laubach, J; Taghizadeh-Toosi, Arezoo; Gibbs, S J

    2013-01-01

    Twelve cattle were kept for three days in a circular area of 16 m radius on short pasture and fed with freshly-cut pasture. Ammonia (NH3) emissions from the urine and dung excreted by the cattle were measured with a micrometeorological mass-balance method, during the cattle presence and for 10 su...

  12. INFLUENCE OF DIETARY ARSENIC ON URINARY ARSENIC METABOLITE EXCRETION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Influence of Dietary Arsenic on Urinary Arsenic Metabolite ExcretionCara L. Carty, M.S., Edward E. Hudgens, B.Sc., Rebecca L. Calderon, Ph.D., M.S.P.H., Richard Kwok, M.S.P.H., Epidemiology and Biomarkers Branch/HSD, NHEERL/US EPA; David J. Thomas, Ph.D., Pharmacokinetics...

  13. Campylobacter infections in fattening pigs; excretion pattern and genetic diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijtens, M.J.B.M.; Reinders, R.D.; Urlings, H.A.P.; Plas, van der J.

    1999-01-01

    The excretion of campylobacter by eight individually housed fattening pigs was monitored during 15 weeks. Rectal faeces samples were collected six times from these pigs and twice from their mothers (seven sows). Campylobacter was cultured from these samples on Preston medium. In some pigs, samples

  14. Campylobacter infections in fattening pigs; Excretion pattern and genetic diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijtens, M.J.B.M.; Reinders, R.D.; Urlings, H.A.P.; Plas, J. van der

    1999-01-01

    The excretion of campylobacter by eight individually housed fattening pigs was monitored during 15 weeks. Rectal faeces samples were collected six times from these pigs and twice from their mothers (seven sows). Campylobacter was cultured from these samples on Preston medium. In some pigs, samples

  15. Renal Regulation of Acid-Base Balance: Ammonia Excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, George A.

    1984-01-01

    Describes an experiment which demonstrates changes in ammonia excretion and urine pH that occur in response to metabolic acidosis (induced by ammonium chloride ingestion) or metabolic alkalosis (produced by sodium bicarbonate ingestion). List of materials needed and background information are included. Typical results are provided and discussed.…

  16. Protein excretion in urine during Schistosoma haematobium infection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An epidemiological survey of protein excretion in the urine of people living in Schstosoma haematobium endemic area around Atavu stream in Amagunze, Enugu State, Nigeria was conducted between 1994 and 1995. A verification of the endemicity of the diseases revealed differences in prevalence rate ranged from 46.66 ...

  17. Urinary calcium excretion in children with monosymptomatic enuresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniecka-Kozerska, A; Porowski, T; Wasilewska, A; Stefanowicz, M

    2015-12-01

    Among many factors predisposing to monosymptomatic enuresis (MNE) disturbances in urinary electrolites excretion play an important role. Because of many controversies in this field there is a need to debate the role of hypercalciuria in MNE. The aim of our study was to determine the urinary calcium in children with MNE. The investigation was conducted on 204 children (83 MNE children and 121 reference group). Urinary calcium excretion (in 24-h collection and per kg of body mass), Ca/creatinine ratio, Ca(2+) in urine sample and in 24-h collection of urine were estimated. Hypercalciuria in MNE group was diagnosed in 18/83 (21.69%) patients. We found statistically significant differences between children with MNE in Ca(2+) in urine sample and 24-h collection and Ca/creat. ratio. Median urinary calcium excretion (mg/kg/24-h and mmol/24-h) was significantly higher in hypercalciuric enuretic patients. The urinary total calcium (mmol/24-h), urinary bound calcium and urinary calcium concentration (mmol/L) demonstrated a significant positive correlation with height, weight and age in reference group but not in MNE group. Urinary calcium excretion was significantly disturbed and further studies are needed to assess the role of hypercalciuria in the pathogenesis of MNE.

  18. The effect of disulfiram on the urinary excretion of catecholamine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The urinary -excretion of vanillylmandelic acid (VMA), homovanillic acid (HVA) and total metanephrines (TMNs) was studied in a group of White male alcoholic patients under three experimental conditions - onadmission and prior to treatment, after 7 days of administration of a placebo, and after 9 days of administration of ...

  19. Circadian urinary citrate excretion in a rat model of exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuñez, Paula; Diaz, Irene; Perillan, Carmen; Arguelles, Juan; Diaz, Elena

    2017-01-15

    Circadian rhythms are the approximate 24h biological cycles that function to prepare an organism for daily environmental changes. Circadian rhythms unquestionably play critical roles in metabolic homeostasis and the exercise has emerged as a strong non-photic time cue or zeitgeber in animal models and humans. Numerous studies about the effects of exercise on the citrate synthase activity have been published. Citrate is used to assess energy production or expenditure because it is a substrate of the Krebs Cycle, a cycle for oxidative energy production. We tested the existence of a rhythmic urinary citrate excretion in a rat model that is made to exercise at six different points during the day. The data obtained by the enzyme assays were fitted to a mathematical model (Fourier series), showing for the first time, the existence of a distinct ultradian rhythm in the urinary citrate excretion. The aerobic exercise led to the increase in the period length of the ultradian rhythm and raised the acrophase value of the urinary citrate excretion. Therefore, the urinary citrate excretion pattern changed after exercise, showing a clear circadian rhythm fitted to the mathematical model. The citrate urine samples could provide accurate data for ranking an individual's metabolic status. Using exercise to maintain the circadian clock at an appropriate phase and amplitude might be effective to prevent cardiometabolic disease development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The excretion of urea by dogs following a meat meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, W J; Summerill, R A

    1976-01-01

    1. After a meal of meat (10g/kg), urea excretion in dogs increased by about 200%, plasma urea by 60% and exogenous creatinine clearance by 40% in comparison with control experiments. 2. Urea, given by stomach tube in doses producing the same increase in plasma urea, caused urea excretion to increase by only 90%, with no increase in creatinine clearance. With the increased glomerular filtration rate after meat there was added excretion of urea. 3. In control experiments and after urea, the rate of excretion of urea was directly proportional to plasma urea. The ratio urea clearance/creatinine clearance, was 0-45. 4. After meat, urea clearance increased more than creatinine clearance, the ratio increasing to 0-55, i.e. a smaller fraction of the filtered urea was re-absorbed after meat. 5. After meat, 10g/kg, the rate of urea production rose to 230-600 mumole/min for 4-6 hr. PMID:933071

  1. Urinary calcium excretion in treated and untreated essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quereda, C; Orte, L; Sabater, J; Navarro-Antolin, J; Villafruela, J J; Ortuño, J

    1996-07-01

    A high prevalence of hypercalciuria has been reported in patients with essential hypertension. Nevertheless, the clinical and therapeutic implications of this finding have scarcely been studied. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of hypercalciuria in an unselected population with essential hypertension and to analyze the relationship between the urinary calcium and the clinical and therapeutic status of these patients. This article presents a prospective study of 112 patients with essential hypertension and 49 healthy normotensive control subjects. Urinary excretion rates of calcium, sodium, chloride, potassium, urinary calcium/creatinine index, the fractional excretion of sodium, potassium and uric acid, the creatinine clearance and serum values of creatinine, urea, uric acid, electrolytes, total proteins, parathormone (intact molecule), plasma renin activity, aldosterone, glucose, and insulin (fasting and after an oral glucose load) were performed in every patient and control subject. Untreated hypertensive patients had a higher prevalence of hypercalciuria (35% had a urinary calcium/creatinine ratio > 0.20 versus 20% of treated hypertensives and 2% of control subjects; P < 0.001). Patients on thiazide or beta-blocker monotherapy had lower urinary excretion rates of calcium and urate than patients on calcium-antagonist monotherapy or untreated patients. Urinary calcium, sodium, and urate correlated positively both in treated and untreated essential hypertension patients. Patients with the higher urinary calcium levels also had higher excretion rates of sodium and urate, higher creatinine clearance rates, and lower serum creatinine and serum uric acid levels. It was concluded that hypercalciuria is a frequent finding of untreated essential hypertension. The association of high urinary calcium levels with high urinary urate excretion rates in the same patient may predispose to development of lithiasis in patients with essential hypertension

  2. Renal albumin excretion: twin studies identify influences of heredity, environment, and adrenergic pathway polymorphism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rao, Fangwen; Wessel, Jennifer; Wen, Gen

    2007-01-01

    hydroxylase, chromogranin A, and sorting nexin 13. Dopamine D1 receptor polymorphism showed pleiotropic effects on both albumin and dopamine excretion. These studies establish new roles for heredity and environment in albumin excretion. Urinary excretions of albumin and catecholamines are highly heritable...

  3. Uric acid excretion predicts increased aggression in urban adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrug, Sylvie; Mrug, Michal

    2016-09-01

    Elevated levels of uric acid have been linked with impulsive and disinhibited behavior in clinical and community populations of adults, but no studies have examined uric acid in relation to adolescent aggression. This study examined the prospective role of uric acid in aggressive behavior among urban, low income adolescents, and whether this relationship varies by gender. A total of 84 adolescents (M age 13.36years; 50% male; 95% African American) self-reported on their physical aggression at baseline and 1.5years later. At baseline, the youth also completed a 12-h (overnight) urine collection at home which was used to measure uric acid excretion. After adjusting for baseline aggression and age, greater uric acid excretion predicted more frequent aggressive behavior at follow up, with no significant gender differences. The results suggest that lowering uric acid levels may help reduce youth aggression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Low urinary albumin excretion in astronauts during space missions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirillo, Massimo; De Santo, Natale G; Heer, Martina

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Physiological changes occur in man during space missions also at the renal level. Proteinuria was hypothesized for space missions but research data are missing. METHODS: Urinary albumin, as an index of proteinuria, and other variables were analyzed in 4 astronauts during space missions...... and on the ground. CONCLUSIONS: Urinary albumin excretion is low during space mission compared to data on the ground before or after mission. Low urinary albumin excretion could be another effect of exposure to weightlessness (microgravity)....... onboard the MIR station and on the ground (control). Mission duration before first urine collection in the four astronauts was 4, 26, 26, and 106 days, respectively. On the ground, data were collected 2 months before mission in two astronauts, 6 months after in the other astronauts. A total of twenty...

  5. [Ultrasonic effect on synthesis and excretion of porphyrines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beleva-Staĭkova, R; Pisanets, M; Dzhermakian, A

    1977-01-01

    A ten-fold sequential action of supersound on rats results in disturbances in synthesis of protoporphyrine IX and its excretion respectively; the level of protoporphyrine in erythrocytes and feces is reduced. Redistribution of porphyrines in erythrocytes is detected; the control level of coproporphyrines being retained; a higher initial content of protoporphyrine IX drops due to an increase in a relatively low level of porphyrines.

  6. Ammonia emissions from cattle urine and dung excreted on pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Laubach

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Twelve cattle were kept for three days in a circular area of 16 m radius on short pasture and fed with freshly-cut pasture. Ammonia (NH3 emissions from the urine and dung excreted by the cattle were measured with a micrometeorological mass-balance method, during the cattle presence and for 10 subsequent days. Daily-integrated emission rates peaked on Day 3 of the experiment (last day of cattle presence and declined steadily for five days thereafter. Urine patches were the dominant sources for these emissions. On Day 9, a secondary emissions peak occurred, with dung pats likely to be the main sources. This interpretation is based on simultaneous observations of the pH evolution in urine patches and dung pats created next to the circular plot. Feed and dung samples were analysed to estimate the amounts of nitrogen (N ingested and excreted. Total N volatilised as NH3 was 19.8 (± 0.9% of N intake and 22.4 (± 1.3% of N excreted. The bimodal shape of the emissions time series allowed to infer separate estimates for volatilisation from urine and dung, respectively, with the result that urine accounted for 88.6 (± 2.6% of the total NH3 emissions. The emissions from urine represented 25.5 (± 2.0% of the excreted urine-N, while the emissions from dung amounted to 11.6 (± 2.7% of the deposited dung-N. Emissions from dung may have continued after Day 13 but were not resolved by the measurement technique. A simple resistance model shows that the magnitude of the emissions from dung is controlled by the resistance of the dung crust.

  7. The absorption, distribution and excretion of 1- and 2-.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, D J; Howes, D; Earl, L K

    2001-07-01

    Human breast milk is rich in 2-palmitoyl 1,3 unsaturated triacyglycerols and during the neonatal period, when milk is the sole source of nutrients, their role could be particularly important. Betapol is a novel triacylglycerol mix resembling human breast milk in its high palmitic acid content and positional distribution. The total fat absorption from Betapol has been shown to be higher than fat from conventional infant milk formulas and closer to human breast milk in infants. However, the relative fate of purified palmitic acid esterified to glycerol in the 1-, 3- and 2-positions in neonatal and young animals has not previously been established. Therefore, the fate of orally administered 1-[1-14C]palmitoyl, 2,3 dioleoyl glycerol ([14C]POO) and 1,3 dioleoyl,2-[1-14C]palmitoyl glycerol (O[14C]PO) was investigated in suckling and weanling rats using liquid scintillation counting of tissues and expired air and whole-body autoradiography. The results obtained indicate that orally administered [14C]POO and O[14C]PO are extensively absorbed from the gut, probably either as palmitic acid or as a palmitoyl glyceride in both suckling and weanling rats. Radioactivity initially concentrated in brown fat with apparent migration to the white fat of weanling rats by 96 h. Levels of 14C were low in blood, brain and other tissues. Excretion of 14C was mainly by expiration of CO(2) (approximately 72% in 96 h), indicating beta-oxidation as a major route of metabolism. Urine and faeces accounted for only approximately 6% of the excreted radioactivity. The design and size of the experiment did not allow tests of statistical significance between the absorption and excretion of OPO and POO to be conducted. However, the absorption, distribution, beta-oxidation and excretion appeared to be similar.

  8. The daily water, sodium and potassium excretion in urine of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The daily water, sodium and potassium excretion in urine of. Ghanaian children aged 5 to 12 years. *E. 0. Badoe, W. Appeadu-Mensah, Afua Hesse and S. 0. Maddy. Depart111ent r~f S11rge1y and Chemical Pathology, 1 University r!f' Ghana. Medical School, Accra, Ghana. Summary. Aim: The aim of the study was to ...

  9. Effect of probenecid on the biliary excretion of belotecan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namkoong, Eun-Mi; Kim, In-Wha; Kim, Dae-Duk; Chung, Suk-Jae; Shim, Chang-Koo

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of probenecid, an inhibitor of the MRP2/ ABCC transporter, on the pharmacokinetics and transport of belotecan (7-[2-(N-isopropylamino)ethyl]-(20S)-camptothecin). The effect of probenecid on the pharmacokinetics of belotecan was studied in rats. When belotecan was injected as a bolus dose of 5 mg/kg after probenecid was infused at a rate of 42.8 mg/2 mL/h/kg, the cumulative biliary excretion amounts and biliary clearance (CL(b)) of belotecan decreased (28.29 +/- 2.83 versus 19.96 +/- 1.45% of dose and 161.01 +/- 26.95 versus 92.66 +/- 1.45 mL/min/kg), whereas the systemic pharmacokinetics did not change. This indicates that the MRP2 transporter is involved in the biliary excretion of belotecan. The involvement of MRP2 in the secretory transport was further characterized using Caco-2 cell monolayers expressing MRP2. The apparent permeability across Caco-2 cell monolayers from basolateral to apical was 2.3 times greater than that from the apical to the basolateral side at the 50 microM belotecan. In addition, probenecid significantly decreased the basolateral-to-apical transport of belotecan (52.9%). These results indicate that MRP2 is involved in the secretory transport of belotecan in biliary excretion.

  10. Quantitative aspects of phosphorus absorption and excretion in horses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bueno, Ives Claudio da Silva; Abdalla, Adibe Luiz; Vitti, Dorinha Miriam Silber Schmidt [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Nutricao Animal]. E-mails: icsbueno@cena.usp.br; abdalla@cena.usp.br; dovitti@cena.usp.br; Furtado, Carlos Eduardo [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Zootecnia]. E-mail: cefurtado@uem.br

    2007-07-01

    Phosphorus (P) is one of the most polluting nutrients because of high husbandry concentrations in restricted areas. The present study compiles data from previous studies dealing with true digestibility of different P levels in diets for horses. Database consisted of results from two experiments carried out at the Centre for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture (CENA/USP), using horses fed different levels of P (n=28). True absorption of phosphorus was determined by isotopic dilution technique, using {sup 32}P as tracer. All parameters (P{sub ING}: ingested P; P{sub ABS}: absorbed P; P{sub FECTOT}: total faecal P excretion; P{sub FECENDO}: endogenous faecal P; P{sub URI}: total urinary excretion; and P{sub RET}: retained P) were normalized according to body weight (BW) and linear and quadratic regressions between P{sub ING} and the other parameters were tested. No quadratic effect was observed. P{sub ING} ranged from 41 to 264 mg/kg BW. Faecal P excretion was affected by intake, analysing by total (P{sub FECTOT} = 0.888 (S.E. 0.058) P{sub ING} - 29.40 (S.E. 8.14) (P<0.0001; RMSE=20.37; R{sup 2}=0.90) or by endogenous fraction (P{sub FECENDO} = 0.095 (S.E. 0.029) P{sub ING} + 12.10 (S.E. 4.16) (P=0.0034; RMSE=10.41; {sup R}2=0.29). Urinary P excretion was not affected by intake (P=0.35), although ranging from 0.06 to 59.20 mg/kg BW. The same occurred for P{sub RET} (P=0.25) ranging from -13.69 to 88.78 mg/kg BW. P absorption also was affect by P intake (P{sub ABS} = 0.195 (S.E. 0.060) P{sub ING} + 42.19 (S.E. 8.45) (P=0.0031; RMSE=21.15; R{sup 2}=0.29). The present study showed that only a small part of ingested P was absorbed, i.e. most of ingested P was excreted via faeces, contributing for environmental pollution. (author)

  11. Iron excretion in iron dextran-overloaded mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musumeci, Marco; Maccari, Sonia; Massimi, Alessia; Stati, Tonino; Sestili, Paola; Corritore, Elisa; Pastorelli, Augusto; Stacchini, Paolo; Marano, Giuseppe; Catalano, Liviana

    2014-10-01

    Iron homeostasis in humans is tightly regulated by mechanisms aimed to conserve iron for reutilisation, with a negligible role played by excretory mechanisms. In a previous study we found that mice have an astonishing ability to tolerate very high doses of parenterally administered iron dextran. Whether this ability is linked to the existence of an excretory pathway remains to be ascertained. Iron overload was generated by intraperitoneal injections of iron dextran (1 g/kg) administered once a week for 8 weeks in two different mouse strains (C57bl/6 and B6D2F1). Urinary and faecal iron excretion was assessed by inductively coupling plasma-mass spectrometry, whereas cardiac and liver architecture was evaluated by echocardiography and histological methods. For both strains, 24-hour faeces and urine samples were collected and iron concentration was determined on days 0, 1 and 2 after iron administration. In iron-overloaded C57bl/6 mice, the faecal iron concentration increased by 218% and 157% on days 1 and 2, respectively (piron excreted represented a loss of 14% of total iron administered. Similar but smaller changes was also found in B6D2F1 mice. Conversely, we found no significant changes in the concentration of iron in the urine in either of the strains of mice. In both strains, histological examination showed accumulation of iron in the liver and heart which tended to decrease over time. This study indicates that mice have a mechanism for removal of excess body iron and provides insights into the possible mechanisms of excretion.

  12. Iron excretion in iron dextran-overloaded mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musumeci, Marco; Maccari, Sonia; Massimi, Alessia; Stati, Tonino; Sestili, Paola; Corritore, Elisa; Pastorelli, Augusto; Stacchini, Paolo; Marano, Giuseppe; Catalano, Liviana

    2014-01-01

    Background Iron homeostasis in humans is tightly regulated by mechanisms aimed to conserve iron for reutilisation, with a negligible role played by excretory mechanisms. In a previous study we found that mice have an astonishing ability to tolerate very high doses of parenterally administered iron dextran. Whether this ability is linked to the existence of an excretory pathway remains to be ascertained. Materials and methods Iron overload was generated by intraperitoneal injections of iron dextran (1 g/kg) administered once a week for 8 weeks in two different mouse strains (C57bl/6 and B6D2F1). Urinary and faecal iron excretion was assessed by inductively coupling plasma-mass spectrometry, whereas cardiac and liver architecture was evaluated by echocardiography and histological methods. For both strains, 24-hour faeces and urine samples were collected and iron concentration was determined on days 0, 1 and 2 after iron administration. Results In iron-overloaded C57bl/6 mice, the faecal iron concentration increased by 218% and 157% on days 1 and 2, respectively (p<0.01). The iron excreted represented a loss of 14% of total iron administered. Similar but smaller changes was also found in B6D2F1 mice. Conversely, we found no significant changes in the concentration of iron in the urine in either of the strains of mice. In both strains, histological examination showed accumulation of iron in the liver and heart which tended to decrease over time. Conclusions This study indicates that mice have a mechanism for removal of excess body iron and provides insights into the possible mechanisms of excretion. PMID:24960657

  13. Quantitative estimation of urinary protein excretion by refractometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S; Visweswaran, K; Sobha, A; Sarasa, G; Nampoory, M R

    1992-09-01

    Quantitative estimation of proteinuria done by the refractometric method was compared with that done by the sulphosalycilic acid method and biuret method in 102 urine samples. The analysis of results by students' t test showed no statistically significant difference between the three methods. It is concluded that quantitative estimation of urinary protein excretion by refractometric method is a simple cheap and reliable method and can be performed easily in the outpatient clinic. The instrument is quite handy and can be carried in the pocket.

  14. Gastrointestinal osmoreceptors and renal sodium excretion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L J; Skram, Thomas Ulrik; Bestle, M H

    2000-01-01

    by a nasogastric tube as isotonic or hypertonic saline (850 mM). In additional experiments, salt loading was replaced by oral water loading (3.5% of total body water). Plasma sodium concentration increased after hypertonic saline (+3.1 +/- 0.7 mM), decreased after water loading (-3.8 +/- 0.8 mM), and remained....../min) and water loading (88 +/- 11 to 304 +/- 28 micromol/min). Plasma ANG II decreased to 22 +/- 6, 35 +/- 6, and 47 +/- 5% of baseline after isotonic saline, hypertonic saline, and water loading, respectively. Plasma atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) concentrations and urinary excretion rates of endothelin-1...

  15. Urinary excretion of MPTP and its primary metabolites in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, Y.S.; Crampton, J.M.; Wilson, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    Mice were injected with single doses of MPTP containing one ..mu..Ci of (/sup 3/H)methyl-MPTP. Approximately 42% of the total injected (/sup 3/H) was detected in the urine within 3 hours after drug administration. The early urine samples were analyzed using high pressure liquid chromatography. MPTP N-oxide was identified as a major metabolite, with trace amounts of MPP/sup +/ and MPTP also detected. The urinary volume and excretion of MPTP metabolites were inhibited by pretreating the animals with probenecid. The results indicate that large amounts of injected MPTP are rapidly metabolized in the periphery by liver enzymes to form MPTP N-oxide.

  16. Urinary albumin excretion. An independent predictor of ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch-Johnsen, K; Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Strandgaard, S

    1999-01-01

    ischemic heart disease (IHD) in a population-based cohort. In 1983, urinary albumin and creatinine levels were measured, along with the conventional atherosclerotic risk factors, in 2085 consecutive participants without IHD, renal disease, urinary tract infection, or diabetes mellitus. The participants......Cross-sectional studies suggest that an increased urinary albumin excretion rate is associated with cardiovascular disease, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. The purpose of this study was to analyze prospectively whether the urinary albumin-to -creatinine (A/C) ratio can independently predict......, 1.3 to 3.9, P=0.002), and the 10-year disease-free survival decreased from 97% to 91% (P

  17. Sup(123)I excretion in breast milk - additional data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawes, S.C. (Queen' s Medical Centre, Nottingham (United Kingdom))

    1992-07-01

    A woman with a suspected sublingual thyroid was referred for thyroid imaging with {sup 123}I-sodium iodide. On attending it was ascertained that she was currently breastfeeding her 3-month-old baby. Reference to the available literature showed little information regarding the excretion of {sup 123}I-sodium iodide in human breast milk apart from one single case. It was felt therefore that this would be an ideal opportunity to collect some useful data. Originally the presence of impurities in the radiopharmaceutical administered had been discounted as being of little significance. However, after consideration, a review of the contribution of any impurity was undertaken. (author).

  18. The effect of allopurinol on oxypurine excretion in xanthinuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salti, I S; Kattuah, N; Alam, S; Wehby, V; Frayha, R

    1976-06-01

    In a patient with xanthine urolithiasis secondary to hereditary xanthinuria (xanthine oxidase deficiency), allopurinol administration resulted in a 20 per cent increase in oxypurine excretion and an elevation of the urinary xanthine/hypoxanthine ratio from 4.08 to 6.53. The rise in this ratio suggests that residual xanthine oxidase activity may have been present. It is possible that the excessive re-utilization of hypoxanthine and xanthine in this disease prevents the allopurinol-induced inhibition of de novo purine biosynthesis that is seen in normal subjects.

  19. High Salt Diet Affects Renal Sodium Excretion and ERRα Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Wang, Yang; Liu, Fu-Qiang; Yuan, Zu-Yi; Mu, Jian-Jun

    2016-04-01

    Kidneys regulate the balance of water and sodium and therefore are related to blood pressure. It is unclear whether estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα), an orphan nuclear receptor and transcription factor highly expressed in kidneys, affects the reabsorption of water and sodium. The aim of this study was to determine whether changes in the expressions of ERRα, Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase and epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) proteins affected the reabsorption of water and sodium in kidneys of Dahl salt-sensitive (DS) rats. SS.13BN rats, 98% homologous to the DS rats, were used as a normotensive control group. The 24 h urinary sodium excretion of the DS and SS.13BN rats increased after the 6-week high salt diet intervention, while sodium excretion was increased in DS rats with daidzein (agonist of ERRα) treatment. ERRα expression was decreased, while β- and γ-ENaC mRNA expressions were increased upon high sodium diet treatment in the DS rats. In the chromatin immunoprecipitation (CHIP) assay, positive PCR signals were obtained in samples treated with anti-ERRα antibody. The transcriptional activity of ERRα was decreased upon high salt diet intervention. ERRα reduced the expressions of β- and γ-ENaC by binding to the ENaC promoter, thereby increased Na+ reabsorption. Therefore, ERRα might be one of the factors causing salt-sensitive hypertension.

  20. Krill excretion boosts microbial activity in the Southern Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Arístegui

    Full Text Available Antarctic krill are known to release large amounts of inorganic and organic nutrients to the water column. Here we test the role of krill excretion of dissolved products in stimulating heterotrophic bacteria on the basis of three experiments where ammonium and organic excretory products released by krill were added to bacterial assemblages, free of grazers. Our results demonstrate that the addition of krill excretion products (but not of ammonium alone, at levels expected in krill swarms, greatly stimulates bacteria resulting in an order-of-magnitude increase in growth and production. Furthermore, they suggest that bacterial growth rate in the Southern Ocean is suppressed well below their potential by resource limitation. Enhanced bacterial activity in the presence of krill, which are major sources of DOC in the Southern Ocean, would further increase recycling processes associated with krill activity, resulting in highly efficient krill-bacterial recycling that should be conducive to stimulating periods of high primary productivity in the Southern Ocean.

  1. Oxalic acid excretion after intravenous ascorbic acid administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robitaille, Line; Mamer, Orval A.; Miller, Wilson H.; Levine, Mark; Assouline, Sarit; Melnychuk, David; Rousseau, Caroline; Hoffer, L. John

    2012-01-01

    Ascorbic acid is frequently administered intravenously by alternative health practitioners and, occasionally, by mainstream physicians. Intravenous administration can greatly increase the amount of ascorbic acid that reaches the circulation, potentially increasing the risk of oxalate crystallization in the urinary space. To investigate this possibility, we developed gas chromatography mass spectrometry methodology and sampling and storage procedures for oxalic acid analysis without interference from ascorbic acid and measured urinary oxalic acid excretion in people administered intravenous ascorbic acid in doses ranging from 0.2 to 1.5 g/kg body weight. In vitro oxidation of ascorbic acid to oxalic acid did not occur when urine samples were brought immediately to pH less than 2 and stored at –30°C within 6 hours. Even very high ascorbic acid concentrations did not interfere with the analysis when oxalic acid extraction was carried out at pH 1. As measured during and over the 6 hours after ascorbic acid infusions, urinary oxalic acid excretion increased with increasing doses, reaching approximately 80 mg at a dose of approximately 100 g. We conclude that, when studied using correct procedures for sample handling, storage, and analysis, less than 0.5% of a very large intravenous dose of ascorbic acid is recovered as urinary oxalic acid in people with normal renal function. PMID:19154961

  2. RENAL CLEARANCE AND URINARY EXCRETION OF CIPROFLOXACIN IN GOATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. IQBAL, I. JAVED, B. ASLAM, F. MUHAMMAD AND I. U. JAN

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The renal clearance and urinary excretion of ciprofloxacin were investigated in eight healthy female goats. In each animal, ciprofloxacin was administered intramuscularly at the rate of 5 mg/kg body weight. Following drug administration, blood and urine samples were collected at different time intervals and analyzed for ciprofloxacin and creatinine. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used to determine the drug concentration in the plasma and urine. The value of diuresis after single administration of ciprofloxacin was 0.073 ± 0.014 ml/min/kg. Mean (± SE values for renal clearance of creatinine and ciprofloxacin were 1.870 ± 0.385 and 0.982 ± 0.166 ml/min/kg, respectively. The ratio between the renal clearance of ciprofloxacin and that of creatinine remained less than one, which was indicative of back diffusion. The mean (± SE value for the cumulative percent of ciprofloxacin dose excreted at 10 hours following its intramuscular administration was 13.03 ± 2.07. Based on these results, it was evident that besides glomerular filtration, renal handling of drug involved back diffusion also. It was concluded that in local goats glomerular filtration rate (GFR was lower than that reported for their foreign counterparts.

  3. [Basic mechanisms: absorption and excretion of cholesterol and other sterols].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cofan Pujol, Montserrat

    2014-01-01

    Cholesterol is of vital importance for vertebrate cell membrane structure and function. It is obvious that adequate regulation of cholesterol homeostasis is essential. Hypercholesterolemia promotes atherosclerosis and thereby represents a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The liver has been considered the major site of control in maintenance of cholesterol homeostasis. The liver facilitates clearance of (very) low density lipoprotein particles and cholesterol-containing chylomicron remnants, synthesizes cholesterol, synthesizes and secretes (nascent) high density lipoprotein particles, secretes cholesterol and bile salts to bile, and is involved in reverse cholesterol transport. In recent years, however, the importance of the intestine in many aspects of cholesterol physiology is increasingly recognized. It has become apparent that direct secretion of cholesterol from the blood compartment into the intestine, or transintestinal cholesterol excretion, plays a major role in disposal of cholesterol via the feces. This review will discuss current knowledge on the physiology of cholesterol homeostasis, with emphasis on cholesterol absorption, cholesterol synthesis and fecal excretion, and therapeutic options for hypercholesterolemia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEA. All rights reserved.

  4. Correcting for tissue nitrogen excretion in multiple breath washout measurements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mica Kane

    Full Text Available Nitrogen excreted from body tissues impacts the calculation of multiple breath nitrogen washout (MBWN2 outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of tissue N2 on MBWN2 outcomes in both healthy subjects and patients with CF and to assess whether it is possible to correct for tissue N2. The contribution of tissue N2 to MBWN2 outcomes was estimated by comparing MBWN2-derived functional residual capacity (FRCN2 to FRC measured by body plethysmography (FRCpleth and by comparing MBW outcome measures derived from MBWN2 and sulfur hexafluoride MBW (MBWSF6. Compared to plethysmography and MBWSF6, MBWN2 overestimated FRC and lung clearance index (LCI. Application of mathematical tissue N2 corrections reduced FRCN2 values closer to FRCpleth in health and reduced LCIN2 in both health and CF, but did not explain all of the differences observed between N2-dependent and -independent techniques. Use of earlier washout cut-offs could reduce the influence of tissue N2. Applying tissue N2 corrections to LCIN2 measurements did not significantly affect the interpretation of treatment effects reported in a previously published interventional trial. While tissue N2 excretion likely has an impact on MBWN2 outcomes, better understanding of the nature of this phenomenon is required before routine correction can be implemented into current MBWN2 protocols.

  5. Absorption and excretion of cranberry-derived phenolics in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengjun; Zuo, Yuegang; Vinson, Joe A; Deng, Yiwei

    2012-06-01

    Absorption and excretion of twenty cranberry-derived phenolics were studied following the consumption of cranberry juice, sauces, and fruits by healthy human volunteers. Plasma and urine samples were collected and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was employed for analysing urinary creatinine, which was used as a normalisation agent. Significant increases in the sum of plasma phenolics were observed with different concentration peaks (between 0.5 and 2h) for individual subjects. Some of the phenolics, such as trans-cinnamic, vanillic, p-coumaric acids, and catechin showed second plasma concentration peaks. All of cranberry-derived phenolics increased significantly in urine samples after the intake of each cranberry product. The high molecular weight quercetin and myricetin, which were abundant in cranberry foodstuffs, were not found in either plasma or urine samples. This study provided the fundamental information for understanding the absorption and excretion of phenolics in the human gastrointestinal system after dietary intake of cranberry products. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Biochemical indicators of condition, nutrition and nitrogen excretion in caribou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray Case

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary urea nitrogen to creatinine ratios, urinary Nt-methylhistidine to creatinine ratios, serum urea nitrogen concentrations (SUN mg/dl, and serum Nt-methylhistidine concentrations were compared with physical measures of body composition in adult female barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus from the Bathurst and Southampton Island herds during late winter. Body weight and UUC were used to estimate urinary urea nitrogen (urea-N excretion in free ranging caribou. Only mean UUC reflected differences in fat reserves between populations. None of the biochemical indicators were directly related to body composition. However, elevated UUC were only observed in caribou with depleted fat reserves as demonstrated by low kidney fat index (KFK40 and/or reduced femur marrow fat (FMF<80. UUC greater than 0.25 were indicative of undernourished animals with depleted fat reserves. SUN and UN -MHC showed no clear relationship with fat reserves. The mean estimated daily urea-N excretion for adult female caribou in late winter was extremely low (0.11+0.01SE g urea-N/day, n=76, range=0.011-0.510. The results of my study suggest that UUC can be used to detect nutritionally stressed caribou with depleted fat reserves on lichen winter ranges.

  7. An investigation of glycolate excretion in two species of blue-green algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, K H; Miller, A G; Colman, B

    1972-06-01

    The amount of (14)C-glycolate excreted by Oscillatoria sp. and Anabaena flos-aquae is less than 1% of the (14)C fixed by the algae during photosynthesis. Transfer of cells grown on 5% CO2 in air to a medium of low bicarbonate concentration or treatment of the cells with isonicotinyl hydrazide (INH) during photosynthesis, caused little increase in glycolate excretion. α-Hydroxysulfonates failed to stimulate massive excretion of glycolate. Although these blue-green algae excreted little glycolate, a significant proportion of the photosynthetically fixed carbon was excreted in the form of basic, neutral and acidic compounds, and such excretion was greater in 5% CO2-grown cells than in air-grown cells.

  8. Energy loss via nonfaecal and faecal excretion in the marine elasmobranch Rhinobatos annulatus (Muller & Henle, 1841

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. H. du Preez

    1990-07-01

    Full Text Available The nonfaecal and faecal excretion of the sandshark Rhinobatos annulatus were investigated at 15° C and 20° C. Nonfaecal nitrogen excreted by starved and fed sandsharks consisted mainly of ammonia-N (60% and urea-N (36%. Ammonia-N ex­cretion rates were temperature independent with the excretion rate of fed sandsharks significantly higher than those of starved sandsharks.

  9. Urinary excretion of retinol in patients with multiple myeloma: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilov, Vladimir; Yermiahu, Tikva; Gorodischer, Rafael

    2003-11-01

    Urinary excretion of vitamin A was studied in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). Eight of the 12 patients studied excreted retinol in urine; only one of them had elevated serum creatinine (115-150 micromol/L). There was a highly significant correlation between urinary retinol and serum creatinine (P urine protein (P excretion may be an early manifestation of renal dysfunction in MM patients. The effect of urinary retinol excretion on vitamin A homeostasis in MM deserves further study. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Colestilan decreases weight gain by enhanced NEFA incorporation in biliary lipids and fecal lipid excretion[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto-Kawabata, Kanami; Shimada, Hiroshi; Sakai, Kaoru; Suzuki, Kazuo; Kelder, Thomas; Pieterman, Elsbet J.; Cohen, Louis H.; Havekes, Louis M.; Princen, Hans M.; van den Hoek, Anita M.

    2013-01-01

    Bile acid sequestrants (BASs) are cholesterol-lowering drugs that also affect hyperglycemia. The mechanism by which BASs exert these and other metabolic effects beyond cholesterol lowering remains poorly understood. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of a BAS, colestilan, on body weight, energy expenditure, and glucose and lipid metabolism and its mechanisms of action in high-fat-fed hyperlipidemic APOE*3 Leiden (E3L) transgenic mice. Mildly insulin-resistant E3L mice were fed a high-fat diet with or without 1.5% colestilan for 8 weeks. Colestilan treatment decreased body weight, visceral and subcutaneous fat, and plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels but increased food intake. Blood glucose and plasma insulin levels were decreased, and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp analysis demonstrated improved insulin sensitivity, particularly in peripheral tissues. In addition, colestilan decreased energy expenditure and physical activity, whereas it increased the respiratory exchange ratio, indicating that colestilan induced carbohydrate catabolism. Moreover, kinetic analysis revealed that colestilan increased [3H]NEFA incorporation in biliary cholesterol and phospholipids and increased fecal lipid excretion. Gene expression analysis in liver, fat, and muscle supported the above findings. In summary, colestilan decreases weight gain and improves peripheral insulin sensitivity in high-fat-fed E3L mice by enhanced NEFA incorporation in biliary lipids and increased fecal lipid excretion. PMID:23434610

  11. Pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and excretion of salidroside in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Li, Liqun; Lin, Li; Liu, Jianxun; Zhang, Zaohua; Xu, Dongjin; Xiang, Feijun

    2013-10-01

    The present study investigated the pharmacokinetics, excretion, and tissue distribution of salidroside, a main active constituent in the roots of Rhodiola species. The plasma concentration declined rapidly following the intravenous dosing at 7.5, 15, and 30 mg/kg with a short half-life time of about 1 h. The mean values of area under the concentration-time curve (300.48 ± 36.73, 514.51 ± 134.99, and 1036.64 ± 101.67 mg · min/L), total body clearance (0.025 ± 0.003, 0.031 ± 0.008, and 0.029 ± 0.003 L/min/kg), and distribution value (2.02 ± 0.80, 2.47 ± 1.09 and 2.58 ± 0.68 L/kg) suggested linear pharmacokinetics between the three doses. After intravenous injection of salidroside at 15 mg/kg, the total cumulative recovery of salidroside in urine was 53.67 ± 12.03 % over 48 h, but only 0.09 ± 0.03 % and 0.18 ± 0.18 % of the dosage was excreted in bile and feces. Concentrations of salidroside in 12 tissues as well as plasma were evaluated at 15, 40, and 120 min after dosing. At all time points, no higher concentration of salidroside was detected in tissues than that in plasma, with the lowest concentration of salidroside being observed in the brain, liver, fat, and skeletal muscle were tissues with a higher concentration of salidroside. A better distribution was also observed in the ovary and testis than that in the kidney and spleen. This finding demonstrated that salidroside is eliminated from plasma rapidly mainly by kidney clearance and conspicuously penetrated well into the skeletal muscle, fat, ovary and testis. A total recovered salidroside of about 54 % from excretion routes suggested that the metabolism was likely to take an important role in its elimination. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Variability of urinary salt excretion estimated by spot urine in treated hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Kimika; Sakaki, Minako; Sakata, Satoko; Oniki, Hideyuki; Tominaga, Mitsuhiro; Tsuchihashi, Takuya

    2015-01-01

    Among the several methods used to assess salt intake, estimating 24 h urinary salt excretion by spot urine seems appropriate for clinical practice. In this study, we investigated variability in urinary salt excretion using spot urine in hypertensive outpatients. Participants included 200 hypertensive patients who underwent spot urinary salt excretion at least three times during the observation period. Mean urinary salt excretion and the coefficient of the variation were 8.62 ± 1.96 g/day and 19.0 ± 10.2%, respectively. In the analysis of participants who underwent assessment of urinary salt excretion at least eight times (n = 54), a significant reduction in mean urinary salt excretion was found at the 5th measurement. On the contrary, the coefficient of the variation of urinary salt excretion continued to increase until the 5th measurement, and became stable thereafter. Mean urinary salt excretion was positively correlated with mean clinic diastolic blood pressure (r = 0.27, p Clinic diastolic blood pressure in the high urinary salt excretion group (≥ 10 g/day) was significantly higher than that of the low group (76.2 ± 7.5 vs 73.4 ± 8.3 mmHg, p < 0.05). Mean urinary salt excretion in summer was significantly lower than that of the other seasons (7.75 ± 1.94 vs 9.09 ± 2.68 (spring), 8.72 ± 2.12 (autumn), 8.92 ± 2.17 (winter) g/day, p < 0.01). In conclusion, repeated measurements of urinary salt excretion using spot urine are required to assess daily salt intake of hypertensive patients.

  13. Attenuation by phenylbutazone of the renal effects and excretion of frusemide in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyke, T M; Hinchcliff, K W; Sams, R A

    1999-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of phenylbutazone premedication on the pharmacokinetics and urinary excretion of frusemide in horses; and on frusemide-induced changes in urinary electrolyte excretion. Six Standardbred mares were used in a 3-way crossover design. The pharmacokinetics and renal effects of frusemide (1 mg/kg bwt i.v.) were studied with and without phenylbutazone premedication (8.8 mg/kg bwt per os 24 h before, followed by 4.4 mg/kg bwt i.v. 30 min before frusemide administration). A control (saline) treatment was also studied. Administration of frusemide without phenylbutazone led to diuresis, natriuresis, kaliuresis and chloruresis, and altered the ratio of sodium:chloride excretion from 0.4 to 1.0 in the first hour of diuresis. When frusemide and phenylbutazone were administered, sodium and chloride excretion in the first hour were significantly (Pphenylbutazone. The fractional clearance of sodium and chloride was also significantly reduced. Potassium excretion, potassium fractional clearance and the ratio of sodium to chloride excretion were not affected by administration of phenylbutazone. During peak diuresis, phenylbutazone did not affect the efficiency of frusemide with respect to electrolyte excretion. The plasma disposition of frusemide was not affected by phenylbutazone. However, the renal excretion of frusemide decreased by approximately 25%. We conclude that the decreased urinary excretion of frusemide by phenylbutazone led to an attenuation of frusemide-induced increases in urinary excretion of sodium and chloride. Since the efficiency of frusemide was not affected by phenylbutazone, we conclude that phenylbutazone attenuates the renal excretion of frusemide without inhibiting the intrarenal activity of frusemide in horses.

  14. Excretion of ciprofloxacin in sweat and multiresistant Staphylococcus epidermidis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høiby, N; Jarløv, J O; Kemp, M

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus epidermidis develops resistance to ciprofloxacin rapidly. That this antibiotic is excreted in apocrine and eccrine sweat of healthy individuals might be the reason for the development of such resistance. We assessed whether S epidermidis isolated from the axilla and nasal...... flora of healthy people could develop resistance to ciprofloxacin after a 1-week course of this antibiotic. METHODS: The concentration of ciprofloxacin in sweat was measured in seven volunteers after oral administration of 750 mg ciprofloxacin twice daily for 7 days, and the development of resistance...... in S epidermidis from axilla and nostrils was monitored during and 2 months after the treatment. Genotyping of S epidermidis was done by restriction fragment length polymorphism. FINDINGS: The mean concentration of ciprofloxacin in sweat increased during the 7 days of treatment-from 2.2 micrograms/mL 2...

  15. A role for excreted quinones in extracellular electron transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Dianne K.; Kolter, Roberto

    2000-05-01

    Respiratory processes in bacteria are remarkable because of their ability to use a variety of compounds, including insoluble minerals, as terminal electron acceptors. Although much is known about microbial electron transport to soluble electron acceptors, little is understood about electron transport to insoluble compounds such as ferric oxides. In anaerobic environments, humic substances can serve as electron acceptors and also as electron shuttles to ferric oxides. To explore this process, we identified mutants in Shewanella putrefaciens that are unable to respire on humic substances. Here we show that these mutants contain disruptions in a gene that is involved in the biosynthesis of menaquinone. During growth, the wild type releases a menaquinone-related redox-active small molecule into the medium that complements the mutants. This finding raises the possibility that electron transfer to a variety of oxidants, including poorly soluble minerals, may be mediated by microbially excreted quinones that have yet to be identified.

  16. Amphetamine enantiomer excretion profile following administration of Adderall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody, John T; Valtier, Sandra; Nelson, Stephen L

    2003-10-01

    Amphetamine remains a widely abused drug throughout the world. It is also used therapeutically for weight loss, narcolepsy, and attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity (ADHD). ADHD has grown dramatically recently both in terms of diagnosis and treatment. Increasingly, older individuals are diagnosed and treated for ADHD, and treatment often continues into adulthood. Of the available treatments for ADHD, Adderall is widely prescribed. Despite its widespread use, there are no published data regarding the expected amphetamine excretion profile following its use. This is problematic because, in this case, medical review officers (MRO) and forensic toxicologists are asked to assess results in terms of use pursuant to valid medical prescription without specific data on which to base a sound decision. To address this situation, a study to determine the concentration and enantiomer composition of amphetamine excretion following administration of Adderall was undertaken. Adderall (20 mg) was administered to five healthy subjects with all subsequent ad lib urine samples (total urine void) collected for seven days. Adderall is a 3:1 mixture of d- and l-enantiomers of amphetamine salts. Peak amphetamine concentrations ranged from 2645 to 5948 ng/mL. Samples containing > or = 500 ng/mL of amphetamine (the administrative cutoff for a positive result by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) were seen up to 47:30 h post dose. The number of samples that contained amphetamine concentrations of > or = 500 ng/mL ranged among individuals from 7 to 13. As anticipated, analysis showed the d-enantiomer to be in excess of the l-enantiomer, with the proportion of l-enantiomer increasing over time. Because of the mixture of enantiomers, not all samples that contained > or = 500 ng/mL of amphetamine were positive when tested by immunoassay. The drug concentration profiles were quite variable within and between subjects because of dilution and fluctuations in pH of the samples. These

  17. Urinary excretion of parabens in pregnant Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, Sayaka; Suzuki, Yayoi; Yoshinaga, Jun; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Mizumoto, Yoshifumi

    2013-01-01

    Urinary excretion of free and total (free plus conjugated) forms of methyl, ethyl, n-propyl and n-butyl parabens (MP, EP, PP and BP, respectively) and their metabolite p-hydroxybenzoic acid were measured for 111 pregnant Japanese women. Frequent detection of parabens and their metabolite indicated that exposure takes place daily for pregnant Japanese women. The estrogenic potency of PP was 20 times higher than those of the other 3 parabens for the present subjects when both abundance in the urine and the relative estrogenic activity of each compound was considered. Detection of free parabens suggested dermal exposure, probably from their inclusion in personal care products. No statistical association was found between the anogenital index (birth weight-adjusted AGD) of male offspring and the concentrations of any parabens in the urine of the mothers suggesting that the parabens were not apparently estrogenically active at the exposure level of the present subjects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Protein digestibility and ammonia excretion in catfish Clarias gariepinus culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Gunadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A series of experiments was performed to analyze protein digestibility, ammonia excretion, and also heterothropic bacteria and phytoplankton dynamics in the catfish Clarias gariepinus culture. In the digestibility experiment, catfish with an individual initial size of 43.67±0.83 g were stocked into 120 L conical fiberglass tanks at a density of 20 fish per tank. Fish were fed on with commercial diet supplemented with Cr2O3 indicator at a concentration of 1%. In the ammonia excretion experiment, catfish with an individual size of 111.6±9.5 and 40.6±3.4 g, respectively,  were placed into a 10 L chamber filled with 8 L of water. Total ammonia nitrogen (TAN in the chambers were monitored every hour for six consecutive hours. In the bacteria and phytoplankton dynamics experiment, catfish were stocked in the 25 m2 concrete tanks which was divided into two compartments (catfish 10 m2, and heterotrof compartments 15 m2. Catfish with individual size of 42,5±0 g were stocked into the tanks at a density of 100 fish per tank. Water was recirculated from catfish compartments to heterotrophic compartments. Fish were fed with floating feed. Molasses as carbon source for heterotrophic bacteria was applied daily. The experiment was conducted for six weeks. The results showed that the protein digestibility was 61.97±7.24%. Larger fish (size of 111.6 g excreted ammonia at a rate of 0.008±0.003 mg TAN/g fish-weight/hour, which was lower than that of the smaller catfish (size of 40.6 g, i.e. 0.012±0.004 mg TAN/g fish-weight/hour. Keywords: protein digestibility, ammonia excretion, catfish  ABSTRAK Serangkaian penelitian telah dilakukan untuk menganalisis ketercernaan pakan dan protein, ekskresi amonia, serta dinamika bakteri dan fitoplankton pada budidaya ikan lele (Clarias gariepinus. Pada penelitian ketercernaan pakan, ikan lele berukuran 43,67±0,83 g/ekor dipelihara dalam bak fiberglas berbentuk corong berukuran 120 L dengan kepadatan 20

  19. LOW FRACTIONAL EXCRETION OF UREA IN HYPOTHYROIDISM INDUCED HYPONATREMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Algranati L

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN:El hipotiroidismo puede causar alteraciones del metabolismo del agua, los electrolitos, la hemodinamia e histología renales, siendo la hiponatremia y la reducción del filtrado glomerular sus consecuencias más significativas, pero poco prevalentes. Todos estos cambios son corregibles con el suministro de hormona tiroidea exógena.La excreción fraccional de urea (EFU es un índice útil en la evaluación de la hiponatremia, pero no se ha descripto aun el valor que este índice alcanza en la hiponatremia inducida por hipotiroidismo. En el presente reporte mostramos que la EFU y excreción fraccional de sodio (EFNa fueron baja (EFU: 29% y alta (EFNa: 2.2% respectivamente en un paciente que padecía hipotiroideo severo. El tratamiento con hormona tiroidea normalizó el valor de ambos índices.ABSTRACTHypothyroidism can cause disturbance of renal hemodinamics, kidney histology, water and electrolyte metabolism, being hyponatremia and glomerular filtration reduction their low prevalent but most significant consequences. All these changes are largely corrected by substitution of exogenous thyroid hormone.Fractional excretion of urea (FEU is a useful index in the evaluation of hyponatremia. However, it was not still reported in the literature the FEU value in hyponatremia induced by hypothyroidism. Because of that we presented a case report showing that the value of FEU and fractional excretion of sodium (FENa were low (FEU: 29% and high (FENa: 2.2 % respectively in a severe hypothyroid patient. Treatment based on thyroid hormone normalized both indeces.

  20. QSAR analysis of drug excretion into human breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meskin, M S; Lien, E J

    1985-09-01

    Breast feeding has increased by approximately 25% in the United States during the past decade and this trend appears to be continuing. The number of drugs available to lactating women is also growing at a rapid pace. The excretion of drugs into breast-milk presents a potential danger to infants. In spite of this, little is known about the excretion of drugs into breast-milk. The ability to predict which drugs are potential hazards would be very useful in the clinical setting. This study quantitatively correlates the human milk to plasma concentration ratio of various basic and acidic drugs (log M/P) with the square root of the molecular weight, the partition coefficient (log P) and the degree of dissociation (log U/D). For basic drugs there is a negative-dependence on both log P and log U/D. High lipophilicity favours protein binding and reduces the amount of drug available for diffusion into milk. Therefore, as log P increases, the log M/P decreases. The negative-dependence on log U/D indicates that the higher the degree of dissociation of the base in plasma, the greater the log M/P will be. This fits well with the concept of ion-trapping. A strong base is more likely to be transferred and then trapped in milk which has a lower pH than plasma. For acidic drugs there is a negative-dependence on both square root (MW) and log P. The negative-dependence on square root (MW) suggests that large molecules are less likely to be able to diffuse into the milk. A negative-dependence on log P appears to hold true for bases and acids. Log M/P decreases as log P increases. This is probably due to increased protein binding by lipophilic drugs through non-specific hydrophobic interaction with plasma protein.

  1. Ammonia production, excretion, toxicity, and defense in fish: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Y K Ip

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Many fishes are ammonotelic but some species can detoxify ammonia to glutamine or urea. Certain fish species can accumulate high levels of ammonia in the brain or defense against ammonia toxicity by enhancing the effectiveness of ammonia excretion through active NH4+ transport, manipulation of ambient pH, or reduction in ammonia permeability through the branchial and cutaneous epithelia. Recent reports on ammonia toxicity in mammalian brain reveal the importance of permeation of ammonia through the blood-brain barrier and passages of ammonia and water through transporters in the plasmalemma of brain cells. Additionally, brain ammonia toxicity could be related to the passage of glutamine through the mitochondrial membranes into the mitochondrial matrix. On the other hand, recent reports on ammonia excretion in fish confirm the involvement of Rhesus glycoproteins in the branchial and cutaneous epithelia. Therefore, this review focuses on both the earlier literature and the up-to-date information on the problems and mechanisms concerning the permeation of ammonia, as NH3, NH4+ or proton-neutral nitrogenous compounds, across mitochondrial membranes, the blood-brain barrier, the plasmalemma of neurons, and the branchial and cutaneous epithelia of fish. It also addresses how certain fishes with high ammonia tolerance defend against ammonia toxicity through the regulation of the permeation of ammonia and related nitrogenous compounds through various types of membranes. It is hoped that this review would revive the interests in investigations on the passage of ammonia through the mitochondrial membranes and the blood-brain barrier of ammonotelic fishes and fishes with high brain ammonia-tolerance, respectively.

  2. A study on urinary protein excretion as an index of physical exertion Part 2: Changes in the excretion of urinary protein during and after Kendo exercise

    OpenAIRE

    泉,武寛

    1982-01-01

    In the present study, the author selected Kendo among many sports because of the lack of information on the health administration of the Kendo athlete, in spite of the increase in this sport. The present study is specifically concerned with the changes in the excretion of urinary protein as an index of physical exertion during and after Kendo exercise. (1) The longer the duration of exercise was, the more urinary protein that was excreted. The increase was logarithmic against the duration. (2...

  3. Effect of low-dose heparin on urinary albumin excretion in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Myrup, B.; Hansen, P.M.; Jensen, T.; Kofoed-Enevoldsen, A.; Feldt-Rasmussen, B.; Gram, J.; Kluft, C.; Jespersen, J.; Deckert, T.

    1995-01-01

    We investigated the effect of heparin on urinary albumin excretion in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. 39 patients with persistent urinary albumin excretion of 30-300 mg/24 h were randomly treated for 3 months with subcutaneous injections twice daily of isotonic saline, 5000 IU

  4. Dietary strategies to reducing N excretion from cattle: implications for methane emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, J.; Oenema, O.; Bannink, A.

    2011-01-01

    Ruminants turn human inedible into human edible products, but at a cost of excretion of various pollutants. Implications of dietary measures for cattle to reduce faecal and urinary nitrogen losses on methane emissions are reviewed. Reducing the dietary protein content decreases nitrogen excretion in

  5. The effect of dietary hydroxyproline and dietary oxalate on urinary oxalate excretion in cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijcker, J.C.; Plantinga, E.A.; Thomas, D.G.; Queau, Y.; Biourge, V.C.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2014-01-01

    In humans and rodents, dietary hydroxyproline (hyp) and oxalate intake affect urinary oxalate (Uox) excretion. Whether Uox excretion occurs in cats was tested by feeding diets containing low oxalate (13 mg/100g DM) with high (Hhyp-Lox), moderate (Mhyp-Lox), and low hyp (Lhyp-Lox) concentrations

  6. The effect of dietary hydroxyproline and dietary oxalate on urinary oxalate excretion in cats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijcker, Judith; Hagen - Plantinga, Esther; Thomas, D.G.; Queau, Yann; Hendriks, Wouter; Biourge, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    In humans and rodents, dietary hydroxyproline (hyp) and oxalate intake affect urinary oxalate (Uox) excretion. Whether Uox excretion occurs in cats was tested by feeding diets containing low oxalate (13 mg/100 g DM) with high (Hhyp-Lox), moderate (Mhyp-Lox), and low hyp (Lhyp-Lox) concentrations

  7. Urinary adiponectin excretion rises with increasing albuminuria in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorsal, Anders; Petersen, Emilie Hein; Tarnow, Lise

    2013-01-01

    AIM: Urinary adiponectin (u-adiponectin) excretion has been suggested to reflect early glomerular damage. Inspired by this, we studied the levels of u-adiponectin in type 1 diabetic patients with different levels of urinary albumin excretion (UAE). METHODS: U-adiponectin was analysed by ELISA in ...

  8. Low melatonin excretion during mechanical ventilation in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisk, Ulla; Olsson, Joel; Nylén, Per; Hahn, Robert G

    2004-07-01

    Biochemical markers for the circadian rhythm were studied in patients treated at the ICU (intensive care unit) of two regional hospitals. A normal rhythm is characterized by a relatively higher melatonin and a lower cortisol excretion at night. Disturbances affect sleep, mood and cognitive performance. All urine excreted between 07:00 and 22:00 hours (day) and between 22:00 and 07:00 hours (night) was collected and sampled throughout the entire ICU period (median, 10 days) in 16 patients for the excretion of 6-SMT (6-sulphatoxymelatonin), which is a metabolite of melatonin, and free cortisol. The overall excretion of 6-SMT was slightly lower and the cortisol excretion higher than reported for healthy reference populations. Mechanical ventilation was associated with a markedly lower 6-SMT excretion (median, 198 ng/h) compared with periods without such help (555 ng/h; Pmelatonin excretion for 24 h or more. The diurnal rhythms were consistently or periodically disturbed in 65% and 75% of the patients. These alterations cannot be explained by excessive exposure to light at night. In conclusion, there was hyposecretion of melatonin during mechanical ventilation, an overall high cortisol excretion and a disturbed diurnal rhythm of both of these hormones in most patients treated in two ICU departments.

  9. Production and excretion of secondary metabolites by plant cell cultures of Tagetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitelaar, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    In this thesis, the results are presented of several approaches to improve the production and excretion of thiophenes by cell cultures or hairy roots of Tagetes spp.

    In chapter one, most of the techniques to improve the production and/or excretion of secondary

  10. Clinical relevancy of nonurinary nitrogen excretion in newborns and infants after digestive tract surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, MJIJ; Steyerberg, EW; Tibboel, D

    2003-01-01

    Background: Whether the contribution of nonurinary nitrogen excretion (N(2)nu) to total nitrogen excretion (N(2)tot) is clinically relevant has not been tested in children in an intensive care unit. Particularly after digestive tract surgery, fecal nitrogen losses, and losses via nasogastric tubes,

  11. Sodium and potassium excretion are related to bone mineral density in women with coeliac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Kirsty M; Clifton, Peter M; Keogh, Jennifer B

    2015-04-01

    Women with coeliac disease may have a lower bone mineral density due to the malabsorption of calcium before diagnosis. A high sodium excretion is associated with increased calcium and bone loss. Our aim was to describe the bone mineral density (BMD) and sodium excretion in women with coeliac disease. In a cross-sectional study BMD of the lumbar spine and hip was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Sodium, potassium and calcium excretion were measured from a 24 h urine collection. In 33 women (51 ± 16 yr) BMD was 1.14 ± 0.19 g/cm(2) and 0.94 ± 0.14 g/cm(2) at the lumbar spine and hip respectively. Age matched Z-scores were -0.1 ± 1.2 and -0.3 ± 1.1 at lumbar spine and hip respectively. Sodium excretion was 107 ± 51 mmol/d; 14 (42%) had a sodium excretion >100 mmol Na/d (145 ± 45 mmol/d). Potassium and calcium excretion were 87 ± 25 mmol/d and 4.1 ± 2.0 mmol/d respectively. In women with Na excretion >100 mmol Na/d, Ca excretion was significantly greater than those with women without coeliac disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  12. Urinary excretion of Tamm-Horsfall protein and epidermal growth factor in chronic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torffvit, O; Jørgensen, P E; Kamper, A L

    1998-01-01

    Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) are both synthesized by tubular cells in the distal part of the nephron and excreted with the urine. The present study examines the urinary excretion rates of the two peptides in relation to functional tubular markers in patients with ...

  13. Influence of gender on the correlation between plasma growth hormone profiles and urinary growth hormone excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K M; Jansson, C; Skakkebak, N

    1997-01-01

    A lot of interest has been directed towards the measurement of urinary growth hormone (GH) excretion instead of plasma GH profiles or provocation tests. We investigated the factors influencing the relationship between 24- and 3-hour plasma GH profiles and urinary GH excretion in a cohort of 113...

  14. Increased urinary orosomucoid excretion predicts preeclampsia in pregnant women with pregestational type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, MS; Hesse, D; Ekbom, P

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the urinary orosomucoid excretion (UOE) as a biomarker of preeclampsia and preterm delivery in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes.......We evaluated the urinary orosomucoid excretion (UOE) as a biomarker of preeclampsia and preterm delivery in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes....

  15. Urinary excretion of epidermal growth factor in living human kidney donors and their recipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, P E; Kamper, A L; Munck, O

    1995-01-01

    . The present study examined the urinary EGF excretion after uninephrectomy and transplantation among relatives. The urinary EGF excretion rate and the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were followed for 26-54 days in 16 healthy kidney donors and nine recipients. After uninephrectomy the median urinary EGF...... in the donors. This might reflect ischaemic and drug-induced damage of the transplanted kidneys. The present study demonstrated a compensatory increase of around 30% in urinary EGF excretion from the remaining kidney after uninephrectomy in healthy humans. Whether EGF plays a role in the adaptive processes...... excretion rate in the donors was not 50% of the pre-operative value, but around 65% (95% confidence limits of the median on the fifth post-operative day: 59-72%). This suggests that there is a compensatory increase in the EGF excretion rate from the remaining kidney of around 30% after uninephrectomy...

  16. Effects of water deprivation on renal hydroelectrolytic excretion in chronically Trypanosoma cruzi-infected rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.T. Rosa

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of an 8 hour-period of water deprivation on fluid and electrolyte renal excretion was investigated in male Wistar rats infected with the strain São Felipe (12SF of Trypanosoma cruzi, in comparison with age and sex matched non-infected controls. The median percent reductions in the urinary flow (-40% v -63% and excretion ofsodium (-57% v-79% were smaller in chagasic than in control rats, respectively. So, chagasic rats excreted more than controls. On the other hand, the median percent decrement in the clearance of creatinine was higher in chagasic (-51% than in controls (-39%. Thus, chagasic rats showed some disturbed renal hydroelectrolytic responses to water deprivation, expressed by smaller conservation, or higher excretion of water and sodium in association with smaller glomerularfiltration rate. This fact denoted an elevation in the fractional excretion of sodium and water.

  17. The Effect of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract (GSPE on Urinary Sodium Excretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulsum Ozkan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: While various hormones and mediators reduce the urinary excretion of Na, other mediators such as nitric oxide (NO increase Na excretion. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE is a molecule that has an antioxidant effect by increasing NO levels. Our study was intended to evaluate the effect of GSPE on Na excretion. Material and Method: Fourteen rats were divided into control and GSPE groups. The control group was given 1 cm3 milk by gavage for one week, while the GSPE group was given 100 mg/kg GSPE. Seventh-day urines were collected from rats monitored over 24 h in a metabolic cage. Urinary Na excretion at the end of 24 h was investigated and the experiment concluded. Results: There was no difference between the control and GSPE groups in terms of weight, solid and liquid food intake and urine volumes. 24-hour urinary Na excretion was higher in the GSPE group (1.43±0.30 g/day compared to the control group (1.37±0.29 g/day, although the difference was not statistically significant. Na excretion was positively correlated with solid food intake (p=0.029, r=0.583  and urine volume (p<0.001, r=0.806. Discussion: Our study shows, for the first time in the literature, that GSPE increases  urinary Na excretion in healthy rats,  though not to a statistically significant extent, and that solid food intake and urine volume affect Na excretion. We think that it will be useful for the effect of GSPE on urinary Na excretion in hypertensive rats with impaired Na excretion and balance to be evaluated in future studies.

  18. Effect of Patiromer on Urinary Ion Excretion in Healthy Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, David M.; Gross, Coleman; Benton, Wade W.; Fogli, Jeanene; Hill Gallant, Kathleen M.; Du Mond, Charles; Block, Geoffrey A.; Weir, Matthew R.; Pitt, Bertram

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives Patiromer is a nonabsorbed potassium-binding polymer that uses calcium as the counterexchange ion. The calcium released with potassium binding has the potential to be absorbed or bind phosphate. Because binding is not specific for potassium, patiromer can bind other cations. Here, we evaluate the effect of patiromer on urine ion excretion in healthy adults, which reflects gastrointestinal ion absorption. Design, setting, participants, & measurements We analyzed the effect of patiromer on urine potassium, sodium, magnesium, calcium, and phosphate in two studies. Healthy adults on controlled diets in a clinical research unit were given patiromer up to 50.4 g/d divided three times a day for 8 days (dose-finding study) or 25.2 g/d in a crossover design as daily or divided (two or three times a day) doses for 18 days (dosing regimen study). On the basis of 24-hour collections, urinary ion excretion during the baseline period (days 5–11) was compared with that during the treatment period (days 13–19; dose-finding study), and the last 4 days of each period were compared across regimens (dosing regimen study). Results In the dose-finding study, patiromer induced a dose-dependent decrease in urine potassium, urine magnesium, and urine sodium (P<0.01 for each). Patiromer at 25.2 g/d decreased urine potassium (mean±SD) by 1140±316 mg/d, urine magnesium by 45±1 mg/d, and urine sodium by 225±145 mg/d. Urine calcium increased in a dose-dependent manner, and urine phosphate decreased in parallel (both P<0.01). Patiromer at 25.2 g/d increased urine calcium by 73±23 mg/d and decreased urine phosphate by 64±40 mg/d. Urine potassium, urine sodium, and urine magnesium were unaffected by dosing regimen, whereas the increase in urine calcium was significantly lower with daily compared with three times a day dosing (P=0.01). Urine phosphate also decreased less with daily compared with two or three times a day dosing (P<0.05). Conclusions In healthy

  19. Urine L-carnitine excretion in hypertensive adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kępka, A; Kuroczycka-Saniutycz, E; Chojnowska, S; Fiłonowicz, R; Korzeniecka-Kozerska, A; Wasilewska, A

    2015-03-01

    This study was performed to test the hypothesis that urinary levels of L-carnitine and its derivatives are enhanced in children and adolescents with hypertension and also check if analyzed parameters may serve as early markers of subclinical renal damage. The study included 112 children and adolescents (67 males and 45 females) aged median 10-18 years. Participants were divided into two groups: HT-64 subjects with confirmed primary hypertension and R-reference group-48 subjects with white-coat hypertension. Urinary Free and Total L-carnitine were determined by the enzymatic method of Cederblad. The L-carnitine levels were expressed as urinary ratio in micromole per gram creatinine (μmol/g). The urinary excretion of Total and Free L-carnitine was significantly higher in hypertensive adolescents in comparison to reference group-white coat hypertension. Other important findings were positive correlations between Free L-carnitine/cr., Total L-carnitine/cr. ratio and serum uric acid level, serum cholesterol level and systolic blood pressure. The results of this study do not explain the increased urine levels of L-carnitine. The most likely reason for excessive urinary loss was disturbed renal tubular reabsorption. It is possible to hypothesize that in hypertensive adolescents subclinical kidney dysfunction occurs. It is proposed that studies examining the concurrent plasma and urine concentration of L-carnitine and correlation with acknowledged proximal tubular markers are needed.

  20. Hair chromium concentration and chromium excretion in tannery workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saner, G; Yüzbasiyan, V; Cigdem, S

    1984-01-01

    Hair and urine samples were collected from 34 male tannery workers and from 12 normal adults. Eighteen of the workers dealt directly with chromium and the remaining 16 (controls) worked in the offices and kitchen of the same factory. All were found to be clinically healthy. Chromium was determined by flameless atomic absorption spectroscopy. When compared with normal adult values, urinary chromium concentration, Cr/Creatinine ratio, daily chromium excretion, and hair chromium, concentrations were significantly higher and urinary beta 2-microglobulin/Cre ratios significantly lower in both tannery workers and in controls. A significant negative correlation was found between urinary beta 2-microglobulin/Cre and Cr/Cre ratios of tannery workers and controls. A significant positive correlation was shown between hair chromium and urinary Cr/Cre values in all workers. No correlations between the duration of exposure to chromium and hair and urinary chromium values were found. Nevertheless, high values observed in workers with short exposures show that chromium is readily absorbed through the respiratory system. PMID:6372853

  1. Reduction of urinary uric acid excretion in patients with proteinuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Huiqing; Xiang, Mingfeng; Ye, Xinming; Xiong, Yuanzhen; Xie, Baogang; Shao, Jianghua

    2015-12-01

    Serum uric acid (UA) concentration is positively associated with proteinuria. However, the relationship between proteinuria and urinary metabolites of purine metabolism remains unknown. This study developed a hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC)-based HPLC method with ultraviolet detection (UV) to quantify creatinine (Cr), UA, xanthine, and hypoxanthine in human urine simultaneously. The urinary concentrations of UA and Cr obtained by our method are consistent with those measured by an autoanalyzer. The HPLC-HILIC-UV method was validated as selective and robust with simple sample preparation for measuring UA, xanthine, hypoxanthine and Cr, which is suitable for large clinical studies. The UA/Cr ratios in random urine samples were 5.5 times lower in proteinuria patients (0.077±0.008) than in healthy individuals (0.424±0.037). Moreover, the UA/hypoxanthine ratio in proteinuria patients was approximately 10 times lower than that in healthy individuals. Our findings revealed a reduced urinary UA excretion, which is one of the factors leading to increased serum UA in proteinuria patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Increased urinary excretion rates of serotonin and metabolites during bedrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platen, Petra; Lebenstedt, Marion; Schneider, Myriam; Boese, Andrea; Heer, Martina

    2005-05-01

    Astronauts are often on a voluntarily reduced energy intake during space missions, possibly caused by a metabolic or emotional stress response with involvement of the central serotonergic system (SES). We investigated 24 h urinary excretion (24 h-E) of serotonin (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindol acidic acid as indicators of the SES in healthy males under two different normocaloric conditions: normal physical activity (NPA) and -6∘ head-down-tilt (HDT). HDT or NPA were randomly arranged with a recovery period of 6 months in between. 24 h-E of hormones varied widely among individuals. Values were higher in HDT compared to NPA. Assuming that the 24 h-E values are, beside being indicators for alterations in the number and metabolism of platelets, Also indicators of central SES, HDT condition seems to activate central SES in a higher degree compared to NPA. Therefore, changes in central SES might be involved in the mechanisms associated with space flight or microgravity, including possible maladaptations such as voluntary undernutrition.

  3. Distribution and excretion of mercury compounds after single injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swensson, A.; Lundgren, K.D.; Lindstroem, O.

    1959-11-01

    A study has been made of the distribution and excretion of mercuric nitrate, phenyl mercuric acetate, and methyl mercuric hydroxide after intravenous injection of small doses in rats and dogs. Immediately after injection the mercury content of the blood was very high, but it fell rapidly and after 5-10 minutes reached a level below which it decreased very slowly and approximately the same for all three substances. The two organic compounds were to a large extent bound erythrocytes, whereas the inorganic compound was transported in the plasma. The presence of mercury was demonstrated in the urine immediately after injection in the case of all three compounds. After single injections of small doses all three compounds were deposited in the central nervous system to but a small extent. No systematic differences between the substances were evident. Mercuric nitrate and phenyl mercuric acetate were deposited chiefly in the kidneys, whereas the methyl mercuric hydroxide appeared to be distributed more uniformly throughout the body. The supply of mercuric nitrate gave a high content of mercury in the colon wall.

  4. Comparative Study on Trace Element Excretions between Nonanuric and Anuric Patients Undergoing Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siyun Xiang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have been reported on alterations of trace elements (TE in peritoneal dialysis patients. Our objective was to investigate and assess the characteristics of daily TE excretions in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD patients. This cross-sectional study included 61 CAPD patients (nonanuric/anuric: 45/16 and 11 healthy subjects in Wuhan, China between 2013 and 2014. The dialysate and urine of patients and urine of healthy subjects were collected. The concentrations of copper (Cu, zinc (Zn, selenium (Se, molybdenum (Mo, and arsenic (As in dialysate and urine were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS. Various clinical variables were obtained from automatic biochemical analyzer. Daily Cu, Zn, Se, and Mo excretions in nonanuric patients were higher than healthy subjects, while arsenic excretion in anuric patients was lower. A strong and positive correlation was observed between Se and Mo excretion in both dialysate (β = 0.869, p < 0.010 and urine (β = 0.968, p < 0.010. Furthermore, the clinical variables associated with Se excretion were found to be correlated with Mo excretion. Our findings indicated that nonanuric CAPD patients may suffer from deficiency of some essential TEs, while anuric patients are at risk of arsenic accumulation. A close association between Se and Mo excretion was also found.

  5. Evaluation of the impact of alveolar nitrogen excretion on indices derived from multiple breath nitrogen washout.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niklas Nielsen

    Full Text Available A large body of evidence has now accumulated describing the advantages of multiple breath washout tests over conventional spirometry in cystic fibrosis (CF. Although the majority of studies have used exogenous sulphur hexafluoride (SF6 as the tracer gas this has also led to an increased interest in nitrogen washout tests, despite the differences between these methods. The impact of body nitrogen excreted across the alveoli has previously been ignored.A two-compartment lung model was developed that included ventilation heterogeneity and dead space (DS effects, but also incorporated experimental data on nitrogen excretion. The model was used to assess the impact of nitrogen excretion on washout progress and accuracy of functional residual capacity (FRC and lung clearance index (LCI measurements.Excreted nitrogen had a small effect on accuracy of FRC (1.8% in the healthy adult model. The error in LCI calculated with true FRC was greater (6.3%, and excreted nitrogen contributed 21% of the total nitrogen concentration at the end of the washout. Increasing DS and ventilation heterogeneity both caused further increase in measurement error. LCI was increased by 6-13% in a CF child model, and excreted nitrogen increased the end of washout nitrogen concentration by 24-49%.Excreted nitrogen appears to have complex but clinically significant effects on washout progress, particularly in the presence of abnormal gas mixing. This may explain much of the previously described differences in washout outcomes between SF6 and nitrogen.

  6. Evaluation of the Impact of Alveolar Nitrogen Excretion on Indices Derived from Multiple Breath Nitrogen Washout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Niklas; Nielsen, Jorgen G.; Horsley, Alex R.

    2013-01-01

    Background A large body of evidence has now accumulated describing the advantages of multiple breath washout tests over conventional spirometry in cystic fibrosis (CF). Although the majority of studies have used exogenous sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) as the tracer gas this has also led to an increased interest in nitrogen washout tests, despite the differences between these methods. The impact of body nitrogen excreted across the alveoli has previously been ignored. Methods A two-compartment lung model was developed that included ventilation heterogeneity and dead space (DS) effects, but also incorporated experimental data on nitrogen excretion. The model was used to assess the impact of nitrogen excretion on washout progress and accuracy of functional residual capacity (FRC) and lung clearance index (LCI) measurements. Results Excreted nitrogen had a small effect on accuracy of FRC (1.8%) in the healthy adult model. The error in LCI calculated with true FRC was greater (6.3%), and excreted nitrogen contributed 21% of the total nitrogen concentration at the end of the washout. Increasing DS and ventilation heterogeneity both caused further increase in measurement error. LCI was increased by 6–13% in a CF child model, and excreted nitrogen increased the end of washout nitrogen concentration by 24–49%. Conclusions Excreted nitrogen appears to have complex but clinically significant effects on washout progress, particularly in the presence of abnormal gas mixing. This may explain much of the previously described differences in washout outcomes between SF6 and nitrogen. PMID:24039916

  7. Organic acid excretion in Penicillium ochrochloron increases with ambient pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela eVrabl

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite being of high biotechnological relevance, many aspects of organic acid excretion in filamentous fungi like the influence of ambient pH are still insufficiently understood. While the excretion of an individual organic acid may peak at a certain pH value, the few available studies investigating a broader range of organic acids indicate that total organic acid excretion rises with increasing external pH.We hypothesized that this phenomenon might be a general response of filamentous fungi to increased ambient pH. If this is the case, the observation should be widely independent of the organism, growth conditions or experimental design and might therefore be a crucial key point in understanding the function and mechanisms of organic acid excretion in filamentous fungi.In this study we explored this hypothesis using ammonium limited chemostat cultivations (pH 2-7, and ammonium or phosphate limited bioreactor batch cultivations (pH 5 and 7. Two strains of Penicillium ochrochloron were investigated differing in the spectrum of excreted organic acids.Confirming our hypothesis, the main result demonstrated that organic acid excretion in P. ochrochloron was enhanced at high external pH levels compared to low pH levels independent of the tested strain, nutrient limitation and cultivation method. We discuss these findings against the background of three hypotheses explaining organic acid excretion in filamentous fungi, i.e. overflow metabolism, charge balance and aggressive acidification hypothesis.

  8. The influence of urinary flow rate on mercury excretion in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trachtenberg, Felicia; Barregård, Lars; McKinlay, Sonja

    2010-01-01

    There is limited literature concerning the effect of urinary flow rate on mercury excretion at low-level exposure. The aim of the present study is to examine the influence of urinary flow rate on mercury excretion in children. Also of interest is the influence of flow rate on creatinine excretion and creatinine-corrected mercury, which arisearises with spot urine samples. A substudy of the New England Children's Amalgam Trial collected pairs of urine samples from children aged 10-16 years: a timed overnight collection and a spot daytime sample collected the following day. These samples were analyzed for mercury and creatinine concentration. Regression analysis was used to model the effect of urinary flow rate in the timed overnight samples. A paired t-test compared concentrations and creatinine-corrected mercury between overnight and daytime samples. Creatinine excretion rate (mg/h) increased significantly with urinary flow rate (mL/h), whereas creatinine concentration (g/L) decreased with flow rate. We found a non-significant increase in mercury excretion rate (ng/h) with flow rate, and mercury concentration decreased with flow rate. Mercury and creatinine concentrations were significantly higher in the overnight compared to daytime samples. For creatinine-corrected mercury, no significant impact of urinary flow rate was found. Although the creatinine excretion rate, and probably the mercury excretion rate, increased with urinary flow rate, the mercury/creatinine ratio seemed relatively unaffected by urinary flow rate. Copyright 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Variation of {sup 210}Po daily urinary excretion for male subjects at environmental level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoelgye, Z.; Hyza, M.; Mihalik, J.; Rulik, P.; Skrkal, J. [National Radiation Protection Institute, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2015-05-15

    {sup 210}Po was determined in 24-h urine of seven healthy males from Prague, Czech Republic, for ten consecutive days. The results show that for each volunteer, the urinary excretion of {sup 210}Po changed only little from day to day in the studied time period. For two volunteers, the difference in the daily excreted {sup 210}Po activity for two consecutive days was not significant, given the 95 % confidence interval (two sigma) of the activity measurements. The same is valid for the excretion data of the other volunteers, except for some days where the differences were slightly higher. The range of daily urinary excretion of {sup 210}Po of each volunteer in the studied time period was quite narrow. Among the volunteers, the maximum daily urinary excretion value of {sup 210}Po was at most about a factor of 2.5 higher than the lowest excretion value. An attempt to explain the observed small inter-individual variability of {sup 210}Po excretion in daily urine is made. (orig.)

  10. Megalin dependent urinary cystatin C excretion in ischemic kidney injury in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Jensen

    Full Text Available Cystatin C, a marker of kidney injury, is freely filtered in the glomeruli and reabsorbed by the proximal tubules. Megalin and cubilin are endocytic receptors essential for reabsorption of most filtered proteins. This study examines the role of these receptors for the uptake and excretion of cystatin C and explores the effect of renal ischemia/reperfusion injury on renal cystatin C uptake and excretion in a rat model.Binding of cystatin C to megalin and cubilin was analyzed by surface plasmon resonance analysis. ELISA and/or immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry were used to study the urinary excretion and tubular uptake of endogenous cystatin C in mice. Furthermore, renal uptake and urinary excretion of cystatin C was investigated in rats exposed to ischemia/reperfusion injury.A high affinity binding of cystatin C to megalin and cubilin was identified. Megalin deficient mice revealed an increased urinary excretion of cystatin C associated with defective uptake by endocytosis. In rats exposed to ischemia/reperfusion injury urinary cystatin C excretion was increased and associated with a focal decrease in proximal tubule endocytosis with no apparent change in megalin expression.Megalin is essential for the normal tubular recovery of endogenous cystatin C. The increase in urinary cystatin C excretion after ischemia/reperfusion injury is associated with decreased tubular uptake but not with reduced megalin expression.

  11. EFFECT OF CASEIN-BASED SEMISYNTHETIC FOOD ON RENAL ACID EXCRETION AND ACID-BASE STATE OF BLOOD IN DOGS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZIJLSTRA, WG; LANGBROEK, AJM; KRAAN, J; RISPENS, P; NIJMEIJER, A

    1995-01-01

    Urinary acid excretion and blood acid-base stare were determined in dogs fed a casein-based semi-synthetic food (SSF), to which different amounts of salts had been added, in comparison with feeding normal dog food. Net acid excretion (NAE) and inorganic acid excretion (IAE) increased during SSF

  12. Determinants of renal potassium excretion in critically ill patients: the role of insulin therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekstra, Miriam; Yeh, Lu; Lansink, Annemieke Oude; Vogelzang, Mathijs; Stegeman, Coen A; Rodgers, Michael G G; van der Horst, Iwan C C; Wietasch, Götz; Zijlstra, Felix; Nijsten, Maarten W N

    2012-03-01

    Insulin administration lowers plasma potassium concentration by augmenting intracellular uptake of potassium. The effect of insulin administration on renal potassium excretion is unclear. Some studies suggest that insulin has an antikaliuretic effect although plasma potassium levels were poorly controlled. Since the introduction of glycemic control in the intensive care unit, insulin use has increased. We examined the relation between administered insulin and renal potassium excretion in critically ill patients under computer-assisted glucose and potassium regulation. Prospective observational study. Twelve-bed surgical intensive care unit of a university teaching hospital. Consecutive intensive care unit patients. Potassium and glucose levels were regulated by a computer-assisted decision support system. Both potassium and insulin were continuously administered by syringe pump. Renal potassium excretion was measured daily in the 24-hr urine collections. The 24-hr urinary samples of patients with kidney failure or on renal replacement therapy were excluded. Multivariate analysis with potassium excretion as the dependent variable was performed. In 178 consecutive patients, 1,456 24-hr urinary samples, were analyzed. Mean ± SD plasma potassium was 4.2 ± 0.3 mmol/L, with 79 ± 46 mmol/d of potassium administered and a mean insulin dose of 53 ± 38 U/day. Renal potassium excretion was 126 ± 51 mmol/day. After multivariate analysis correcting for relevant variables (including diuretics, pH, potassium levels and renal sodium excretion), insulin administration was independently and positively associated with renal potassium excretion. Other significant variables were potassium levels, potassium administration, renal sodium and chloride excretion, creatinine clearance, diuretic therapy, pH, known diabetes and intensive care unit admission day (R = .52; p <. 001). Insulin administration is associated with an increase in the renal potassium excretion in critically ill

  13. Effect of low-dose heparin on urinary albumin excretion in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myrup, B; Hansen, P M; Jensen, T

    1995-01-01

    We investigated the effect of heparin on urinary albumin excretion in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. 39 patients with persistent urinary albumin excretion of 30-300 mg/24 h were randomly treated for 3 months with subcutaneous injections twice daily of isotonic saline, 5000 IU...... unfractionated heparin, or 2000 anti-Xa IU low-molecular-weight heparin. Unfractionated and low-molecular-weight heparin induced a significant reduction in urinary albumin excretion (p = 0.04 and p = 0.004). The mechanism and clinical relevance is unknown but deserve further attention....

  14. Concentration compared with total urinary excretion of 11,17-DOA in cynomolgus monkey urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hau, Jann; Royo, F

    2009-08-01

    Strees sensitive molecules exhibit great variation in concentration in the circulation and it may often be advantageous to quantify these in urine or feces rather than in serum or plasma. We advocate that all urine-or feces-should be collected, and that excretion of stress sensitive molecules should be expressed as amounts excreted per time unit per kg body-weight, rather than being expressed as concentrations in samples. Urine and feces excretion varies significantly within and between animals over time, which may render simple concentration measures of molecules of little biological relevance.

  15. Urinary excretion of Tamm-Horsfall protein and epidermal growth factor in chronic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torffvit, O; Jørgensen, P E; Kamper, A L

    1998-01-01

    rate (GFR) as an indicator for the general renal function, lithium clearance (C(Li)) as an indicator for proximal tubular function, and absolute distal reabsorption of sodium (ADR(Na)) as an indicator for distal tubular function. The excretion rate of EGF was rather closely correlated with GFR, C...... analyses, the excretion rates of the two peptides were still associated with ADR(Na) but not with C(Li). In conclusion, the urinary excretion rates of especially EGF but also those of THP were correlated with renal function and distal tubular reabsorption of sodium in patients with chronic nephropathy....

  16. Systematic review focusing on the excretion and protection roles of sweat in the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yan; Cui, Xiao; Liu, Yanhua; Li, Yaoyin; Liu, Jian; Cheng, Biao

    2014-01-01

    The skin excretes substances primarily through sweat glands. Several conditions have been demonstrated to be associated with diminished sweating. However, few studies have concentrated on the metabolism and excretion of sweat. This review focuses on the relationship between temperature and the thermoregulatory efficacy of sweat, and then discusses the excretion of sweat, which includes the metabolism of water, minerals, proteins, vitamins as well as toxic substances. The potential role of sweat secretion in hormone homeostasis and the effects on the defense system of the skin are also clarified. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Plasma levels and urinary excretion of prostaglandins in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laitinen, O; Seppalä, E; Nissilä, M; Vapaatalo, H

    1983-12-01

    No significant differences were found in plasma concentrations and urinary excretion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), 6-keto-prostaglandin-F1 alpha (6-keto-PGF1 alpha) and thromboxane B2 (TxB2), between rheumatoid arthritis patients and controls. However, urinary excretion of PGEe and 6-keto-PGF1 alpha tended to be greater and plasma levels of TxB2 lower in rheumatoid arthritis. Plasma concentrations and urinary excretion showed no marked circadian variation, although night or morning values were slightly lower. Plasma and urine prostaglandins do not correlate with clinical symptomatology in rheumatoid arthritis.

  18. Urinary excretion of biomarkers of oxidatively damaged DNA and RNA in hereditary hemochromatosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broedbaek, Kasper; Poulsen, Henrik E; Weimann, Allan

    2009-01-01

    , and after phlebotomy treatment the excretion of the RNA oxidation product 8-oxoGuo returned to control values and the excretion of the DNA product 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine was reduced by 30%. In patients with hereditary hemochromatosis oxidative stress on nucleic acids is an important feature...... as a classical case-control study of 21 newly diagnosed, never treated hereditary hemochromatosis patients and 21 matched controls. We found that at baseline the urinary excretion of the RNA oxidation product 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine (8-oxoGuo) was 2.5-fold increased in patients compared with controls...

  19. Dissolved Compounds Excreted by Copepods Reshape the Active Marine Bacterioplankton Community Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina P. Valdés

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Copepods are important suppliers of bioreactive compounds for marine bacteria through fecal pellet production, sloppy feeding, and the excretion of dissolved compounds. However, the interaction between copepods and bacteria in the marine environment is poorly understood. We determined the nitrogen and phosphorus compounds excreted by copepods fed with two natural size-fractionated diets (<20- and 20–150-μm in the upwelling zone of central/southern Chile in late summer and spring. We then assessed the biogeochemical response of the bacterial community and its structure, in terms of total and active cells, to enrichment by copepod-excreted dissolved compounds. Results revealed that copepods actively excreted nitrogen and phosphorus compounds, mainly in the form of ammonium and dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP, reaching excretion rates of 2.6 and 0.05 μmol L−1h−1, respectively. In both periods, the maximum excretion rates were associated with the 20–150-μm size fraction, but particularly during spring, when a higher organic matter quality was observed in excretion products compared to late summer. There were higher excretion rates of dissolved free amino acids (DFAAs from copepods fed with the <20-μm size fraction, mainly histidine (HIS in late summer and glutamic acid (GLU in spring. A shift in the composition of the active bacterial community was observed between periods and treatments, which was associated with the response of the common seawater surface phyla Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. The specific bacterial activity (16S rRNA:rDNA suggested a different response to the two size-fractionated diets. In late summer, Betaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were stimulated by the treatment enriched with excretion products derived from the 20–150-μm and <20-μm size fractions, respectively. In spring, Alphaproteobacteria were active in the treatment enriched with the excretion products of copepods fed with the <20-μm size

  20. Nitrogen excretion in rats on a protein-free diet and during starvation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chwalibog, André; Sawosz, Ewa; Niemiec, Tomasz

    2008-01-01

    excretion in urine (UN), corresponding to endogenous UN, during feeding and subsequent starvation periods. The rats fed the protein free-diet had almost the same excretion of urinary N during feeding and starvation (165 and 157 mg/kg W(0.75)), while it was 444 mg/kg W(0.75) in rats previously fed...... with protein, demonstrating a major influence of protein content in a diet on N excretion during starvation. Consequently, the impact of former protein supply on N losses during starvation ought to be considered when evaluating minimum N requirement necessary to sustain life....

  1. Urinary excretion of copper and zinc among cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Safty, I A; Shouman, A E

    1997-01-01

    The urinary levels of cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) were measured among 11 adult male non-smokers and 38 adult male cigarette smokers to investigate the effect of cigarette smoking on the urinary excretion of Zn and Cu in relation to urinary Cd level. The results indicated that among non-smokers, the urinary levels of Cd, Zn, and Cu were: 1.17-5.24 (3.73 +/- 1.23) microg Cd/gm urinary creatinine, 66.73-156.13 (109.28 +/- 30.27) microg Zn/gm urinary creatinine, 83.17-195.65 (126.72 +/- 41.46) microg Cu/gm urinary creatinine, respectively. The cigarette smokers were classified into two groups according to the level of urinary Cd. The first group contains 13 cases with urinary Cd levels within the normal range of non-smokers, and the urinary levels of both Zn and Cu were observed to be also within the normal range of non-smokers (2.14-4.98 (3.85 +/- 0.97) microg Cd/gm urinary creatinine, 69.40-150.59 (97.61 +/- 21.39) microg Zn/gm urinary creatinine, 85.33-137.42 (96.11 +/- 13.60) microg Cu/gm urinary creatinine, respectively]. The second group contains 25 cases with elevated urinary Cd levels (5.44-40.37 (14.08 +/- 9.69 microg Cd/gm urinary creatinine]. The latter group was further subdivided into two subgroups according to the urinary levels of Zn and Cu. The first subgroup contains 15 cases with urinary levels of both Zn and Cu within the normal range of non-smokers [5.44-13.58 (7.74 +/- 2.11) microg Cd/gm urinary creatinine, 69.54-133.46 (96.95 +/- 22.91) microg Zn/gm urinary creatinine, 93.06-191.90 (133.7 +/- 32.80) microg Cu/gm urinary creatinine, respectively]. The second subgroup contains 10 cases with elevated urinary levels of Zn and/or Cu [13.81-40.37 (23.57 +/- 8.74) microg Cd/gm urinary creatinine, 141.53-511.11 (284.76 +/- 132.45) microg Zn/gm urinary creatinine, 193.06-705.48 (388.49 +/- 158.66) microg Cu/gm urinary creatinine, respectively). In the latter subgroup it was noted that only one case showed elevated levels of urinary Cd and Zn

  2. Felinine excretion in domestic cat breeds: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen-Plantinga, E A; Bosch, G; Hendriks, W H

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine possible differences in felinine excretion between domesticated cat breeds. For this purpose, urine was collected from a total of 83 privately owned entire male cats from eight different breeds in the Netherlands during the period of November 2010 till November 2011. In the collected samples, free felinine and creatinine concentrations were measured. Free felinine concentrations were expressed relative to the urinary creatinine concentration to compensate for possible variations in renal output. The mean (±SD) felinine:creatinine (Fel:Cr) ratio as measured over all cats was 0.702 (±0.265). Both the Abyssinian and Sphynx breeds showed the highest Fel:Cr ratio (0.878 ± 0.162 and 0.878 ± 0.341 respectively) which significantly differed from the ratios of the British Shorthairs (0.584 ± 0.220), Birmans (0.614 ± 0.266), Norwegian Forest cats (0.566 ± 0.296) and Siberian cats (0.627 ± 0.124). The Fel:Cr ratios of the Persians (0.792 ± 0.284) and Ragdolls (0.673 ± 0.256) showed no statistical difference with either of the other breeds. A significant proportion of the observed variation between the different feline breeds could be explained by hair growth, as both hair growth and felinine production compete for available cysteine. Shorthaired and hairless cat breeds generally showed a higher Fel:Cr ratio compared to longhaired cat breeds, with the exception of Persian cats. Further research is warranted to more closely study the effect of hair growth on felinine production. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. 24-hour urine phosphorus excretion and mortality and cardiovascular events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomino, Heather L; Rifkin, Dena E; Anderson, Cheryl; Criqui, Michael H; Whooley, Mary A; Ix, Joachim H

    2013-07-01

    Higher morning serum phosphorus has been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with or without CKD. In patients with CKD and a phosphorous level >4.6 mg/dl, the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes guidelines recommend dietary phosphorus restriction. However, whether phosphorus restriction influences serum phosphorus concentrations and whether dietary phosphorus is itself associated with CVD or death are uncertain. Among 880 patients with stable CVD and normal kidney function to moderate CKD, 24-hour urine phosphorus excretion (UPE) and serum phosphorus were measured at baseline. Participants were followed for a median of 7.4 years for CVD events and all-cause mortality. Mean ± SD age was 67±11 years, estimated GFR (eGFR) was 71±22 ml/min per 1.73 m(2), and serum phosphorus was 3.7±0.6 mg/dl. Median UPE was 632 (interquartile range, 439, 853) mg/d. In models adjusted for demographic characteristics and eGFR, UPE was weakly and nonsignificantly associated with serum phosphorus (0.03 mg/dl higher phosphorus per 300 mg higher UPE; P=0.07). When adjusted for demographics, eGFR, and CVD risk factors, each 300-mg higher UPE was associated with 17% lower risk of CVD events. The association of UPE with all-cause mortality was not statistically significant (hazard ratio, 0.93; 95% confidence interval, 0.82 to 1.05). Results were similar irrespective of CKD status (P interactions > 0.87). Among outpatients with stable CVD, the magnitude of the association of UPE with morning serum phosphorus is modest. Greater UPE is associated with lower risk for CVD events. The association was similar for all-cause mortality but was not statistically significant.

  4. 24-Hour Urine Phosphorus Excretion and Mortality and Cardiovascular Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomino, Heather L.; Rifkin, Dena E.; Anderson, Cheryl; Criqui, Michael H.; Whooley, Mary A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Higher morning serum phosphorus has been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with or without CKD. In patients with CKD and a phosphorous level >4.6 mg/dl, the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes guidelines recommend dietary phosphorus restriction. However, whether phosphorus restriction influences serum phosphorus concentrations and whether dietary phosphorus is itself associated with CVD or death are uncertain. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Among 880 patients with stable CVD and normal kidney function to moderate CKD, 24-hour urine phosphorus excretion (UPE) and serum phosphorus were measured at baseline. Participants were followed for a median of 7.4 years for CVD events and all-cause mortality. Results Mean ± SD age was 67±11 years, estimated GFR (eGFR) was 71±22 ml/min per 1.73 m2, and serum phosphorus was 3.7±0.6 mg/dl. Median UPE was 632 (interquartile range, 439, 853) mg/d. In models adjusted for demographic characteristics and eGFR, UPE was weakly and nonsignificantly associated with serum phosphorus (0.03 mg/dl higher phosphorus per 300 mg higher UPE; P=0.07). When adjusted for demographics, eGFR, and CVD risk factors, each 300-mg higher UPE was associated with 17% lower risk of CVD events. The association of UPE with all-cause mortality was not statistically significant (hazard ratio, 0.93; 95% confidence interval, 0.82 to 1.05). Results were similar irrespective of CKD status (P interactions > 0.87). Conclusions Among outpatients with stable CVD, the magnitude of the association of UPE with morning serum phosphorus is modest. Greater UPE is associated with lower risk for CVD events. The association was similar for all-cause mortality but was not statistically significant. PMID:23539231

  5. Excretion/secretion products from Schistosoma mansoni adults, eggs and schistosomula have unique peptidase specificity profiles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvořák, Jan; Fajtová, P.; Ulrychová, L.; Leontovyc, A.; Rojo-Arreola, L.; Suzuki, B.M.; Horn, M.; Mareš, M.; Craik, C. S.; Caffrey, C. R.; O'Donoghue, A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 122, MAR (2016), s. 99-109 ISSN 0300-9084 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : parasite * fluke * secretion * excretion * protease * inhibitor Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.112, year: 2016

  6. Impaired aerobic work capacity in insulin dependent diabetics with increased urinary albumin excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T; Richter, Erik; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo

    1988-01-01

    To assess whether decreased aerobic work capacity was associated with albuminuria in insulin dependent diabetics aerobic capacity was measured in three groups of 10 patients matched for age, sex, duration of diabetes, and degree of physical activity. Group 1 comprised 10 patients with normal...... urinary albumin excretion (less than 30 mg/24 h), group 2 comprised 10 with incipient diabetic nephropathy (urinary albumin excretion 30-300 mg/24 h, and group 3 comprised 10 with clinical diabetic nephropathy (urinary albumin excretion greater than 300 mg/24 h). Ten non-diabetic subjects matched for sex...... were not explained by differences in metabolic control or the degree of autonomic neuropathy. Thus the insulin dependent diabetics with only slightly increased urinary albumin excretion had an appreciably impaired aerobic work capacity which could not be explained by autonomic neuropathy...

  7. Elevated urinary albumin excretion is associated with impaired arterial dilatory capacity in clinically healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P; Jensen, J S; Jensen, G

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Elevated urinary albumin excretion (UAE) predicts atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. It is hypothesized that elevated UAE is associated with a generalized vascular dysfunction. This study tested this hypothesis for conduit arteries. METHODS AND RESULTS: Clinically healthy subject...

  8. Impaired left-ventricular function in insulin-dependent diabetic patients with increased urinary albumin excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelbaek, H; Jensen, T; Feldt-Rasmussen, B

    1991-01-01

    Cardiac function was studied in 30 patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Three groups, matched for age and diabetes duration, were defined as: group I (n = 10), normal urinary albumin excretion less than 30 mg 24 h-1; group II (n = 10), incipient diabetic nephropathy (urinary albumin...... excretion in the range of 30-300 mg 24 h-1); and group III (n = 10), clinical diabetic nephropathy (urinary albumin excretion greater than 300 mg 24 h-1). Ten non-diabetic subjects matched for sex and age served as controls. The left-ventricular end-diastolic volume measured by radionuclide cardiography was...... of coronary heart disease. Our results might suggest that insulin-dependent diabetic patients with slightly but persistently elevated urinary albumin excretion have reduced diastolic compliance of the left-ventricle leading to impaired cardiac performance.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)...

  9. Cheese intake lowers plasma cholesterol concentrations without increasing bile acid excretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie B. Hjerpsted

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: We were not able to confirm the hypothesis that calcium from cheese increases the excretion of fecal bile acids. Therefore, the mechanisms responsible for the lowering of cholesterol concentrations with cheese compared to butter intake remains unresolved.

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL FOOTPRINT OF PHARMACEUTICALS - THE SIGNIFICANCE OF FACTORS BEYOND DIRECT EXCRETION TO SEWERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The combined excretion of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) via urine and feces is considered the primary route by which APIs from human pharmaceuticals enter the environment. Disposal of unwanted, leftover medications by flushing into sewers has been considered a secondar...

  11. Stoichiometry of excreta and excretion rates of a stream-dwelling plethodontid salamander

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Stoichiometry of excreta and excretion rates of a stream-dwelling plethodontid salamander in Cincinnati, OH, USA. This dataset is associated with the following...

  12. The impact of gender and puberty on reference values for urinary growth hormone excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K M; Jarden, M; Angelo, L

    1994-01-01

    Some recent studies have indicated that measurement of urinary GH (U-GH) excretion may be a useful tool for the evaluation of GH insufficiency in children with growth disorders, although some investigators are skeptical about the diagnostic value of U-GH. Most current assays are only available...... for specific laboratories or require time-intensive pretreatments of the specimens. This limits the possibility for many centers to compare their patients' data with others or to establish their own reference ranges for U-GH excretion. Therefore, we investigated the performance of a commercially available kit....... Short collection periods (time effect disappeared if U-GH excretion was expressed as picograms per h. If U-GH was related to creatinine output, there was a decrease in U-GH excretion during prepuberty, a blunting...

  13. Determinants of renal potassium excretion in critically ill patients : The role of insulin therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Miriam; Yeh, Lu; Oude Lansink, Annemieke; Vogelzang, Mathijs; Stegeman, Coen A.; Rodgers, Michael G. G.; van der Horst, Iwan C. C.; Wietasch, Gotz; Zijlstra, Felix; Nijsten, Maarten W. N.

    Objectives: Insulin administration lowers plasma potassium concentration by augmenting intracellular uptake of potassium. The effect of insulin administration on renal potassium excretion is unclear. Some studies suggest that insulin has an antikaliuretic effect although plasma potassium levels were

  14. Renal kallikrein excretion and epigenetics in human acute kidney injury: Expression, mechanisms and consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolwani Ashita

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Renal kallikrein (KLK1 synthesis and urinary excretion are reportedly diminished during AKI (acute kidney injury in animal models, and provision of kallikrein abrogates renal injury in this setting, but data in human AKI is limited. Therefore we first examined KLK1 renal excretion in human AKI, and then probed potential endocrine and epigenetic mechanisms for its alterations. Methods KLK1 enzymatic activity excretion was evaluated in urine from patients with established or incipient AKI, versus healthy/non-hospital as well as ICU controls. Endocrine control of KLK1 excretion was then probed by catecholamine and aldosterone measurements in established AKI versus healthy controls. To examine epigenetic control of KLK1 synthesis, we tested blood and urine DNA for changes in promoter CpG methylation of the KLK1 gene, as well as LINE-1 elements, by bisulfite sequencing. Results Patients with early/incipient AKI displayed a modest reduction of KLK1 excretion, but unexpectedly, established AKI displayed substantially elevated urine KLK1 excretion, ~11-fold higher than healthy controls, and ~3-fold greater than ICU controls. We then probed potential mechanisms of the change. Established AKI patients had lower SBP, higher heart rate, and higher epinephrine excretion than healthy controls, though aldosterone excretion was not different. Promoter KLK1 CpG methylation was higher in blood than urine DNA, while KLK1 methylation in blood DNA was significantly higher in established AKI than healthy controls, though KLK1 methylation in urine tended to be higher in AKI, directionally consistent with earlier/incipient but not later/established changes in KLK1 excretion in AKI. On multivariate ANOVA, AKI displayed coordinate changes in KLK1 excretion and promoter methylation, though directionally opposite to expectation. Control (LINE-1 repetitive element methylation in blood and urine DNA was similar between AKI and controls. Conclusions

  15. Urinary Angiotensinogen and Renin Excretion are Associated with Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annett Juretzko

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Several studies sought to identify new biomarkers for chronic kidney disease (CKD. As the renal renin-angiotensin system is activated in CKD, urinary angiotensinogen or renin excretion may be suitable candidates. We tested whether urinary angiotensinogen or renin excretion is elevated in CKD and whether these parameters are associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR. We further tested whether urinary angiotensinogen or renin excretion may convey additional information beyond that provided by albuminuria. Methods: We measured urinary and plasma angiotensinogen, renin, albumin and creatinine in 177 CKD patients from the Greifswald Approach to Individualized Medicine project and in 283 healthy controls from the Study of Health in Pomerania. The urinary excretion of specific proteins is given as protein-to-creatinine ratio. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves, spearman correlation coefficients and linear regression models were calculated. Results: Urinary angiotensinogen [2,511 (196-31,909 vs. 18.6 (8.3-44.0 pmol/g, *P<0.01] and renin excretion [0.311 (0.135-1.155 vs. 0.069 (0.045-0.148 pmol/g, *P<0.01] were significantly higher in CKD patients than in healthy controls. The area under the ROC curve was significantly larger when urinary angiotensinogen, renin and albumin excretion were combined than with urinary albumin excretion alone. Urinary angiotensinogen (ß-coefficient -2.405, standard error 0.117, P<0.01 and renin excretion (ß-coefficient -0.793, standard error 0.061, P<0.01 were inversely associated with eGFR. Adjustment for albuminuria, age, sex, systolic blood pressure and body mass index did not significantly affect the results. Conclusion: Urinary angiotensinogen and renin excretion are elevated in CKD patients. Both parameters are negatively associated with eGFR and these associations are independent of urinary albumin excretion. In CKD patients urinary angiotensinogen and renin excretion may

  16. Prediction of excretion of manure and nitrogen by Holstein dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkerson, V A; Mertens, D R; Casper, D P

    1997-12-01

    A compilation of N balance data (n = 1801) was partitioned into four groups to define the mean excretion of manure and N and to develop empirical equations to estimate these excretions from Holstein herds. Mean excretion of manure for cows that averaged 29 kg/d of milk production was 3 kg/d per 1000 kg of body weight (BW) more than the value for dairy cows reported by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers; N excretion was 0.09 kg/d per 1000 kg of BW higher than the value reported by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers. Mean excretion of manure and N for cows that averaged 14 kg/d of milk production and that for nonlactating cows were substantially lower than the values reported by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers. Growing and replacement cattle excreted 10 kg/d per 1000 kg of BW more manure and 0.11 kg/d per 1000 kg of BW more N than was reported by the American Society for Agricultural Engineers for beef cattle. Estimation of manure and N excretion was more accurate than mean values when using regression equations that included variables for milk production, concentration of crude protein and neutral detergent fiber in the diet, BW, days in milk, and days of pregnancy. Equations that contained intake variables did not significantly affect predictions of manure and N excretion, and the use of such equations is discouraged unless dry matter intake is measured and not estimated. Accurate estimates of excreta output could improve the planning of storage and handling systems for manure and the calculation of nutrient balances on dairy farms.

  17. K+ excretion: the other purpose for puddling behavior in Japanese Papilio butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Takashi A; Ito, Tetsuo; Hagiya, Hiroshi; Hata, Tamako; Asaoka, Kiyoshi; Yokohari, Fumio; Niihara, Kinuko

    2015-01-01

    To elucidate the purpose of butterfly puddling, we measured the amounts of Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ that were absorbed or excreted during puddling by male Japanese Papilio butterflies through a urine test. All of the butterflies that sipped water with a Na+ concentration of 13 mM absorbed Na+ and excreted K+, although certain butterflies that sipped solutions with high concentrations of Na+ excreted Na+. According to the Na+ concentrations observed in naturally occurring water sources, water with a Na+ concentration of up to 10 mM appears to be optimal for the health of male Japanese Papilio butterflies. The molar ratio of K+ to Na+ observed in leaves was 43.94 and that observed in flower nectars was 10.93. The Na+ amount in 100 g of host plant leaves ranged from 2.11 to 16.40 mg, and the amount in 100 g of flower nectar ranged from 1.24 to 108.21 mg. Differences in host plants did not explain the differences in the frequency of puddling observed for different Japanese Papilio species. The amounts of Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ in the meconium of both male and female butterflies were also measured, and both males and females excreted more K+ than the other three ions. Thus, the fluid that was excreted by butterflies at emergence also had a role in the excretion of the excessive K+ in their bodies. The quantities of Na+ and K+ observed in butterfly eggs were approximately 0.50 μg and 4.15 μg, respectively; thus, female butterflies required more K+ than male butterflies. Therefore, female butterflies did not puddle to excrete K+. In conclusion, the purpose of puddling for male Papilio butterflies is not only to absorb Na+ to correct deficiencies but also to excrete excessive K+.

  18. Urinary Sodium and Potassium Excretion and Dietary Sources of Sodium in Maputo, Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Ana; Damasceno, Albertino; Jessen, Neusa; Novela, Célia; Moreira, Pedro; Lunet, Nuno; Padrão, Patrícia

    2017-08-03

    This study aimed to evaluate the urinary excretion of sodium and potassium, and to estimate the main food sources of sodium in Maputo dwellers. A cross-sectional evaluation of a sample of 100 hospital workers was conducted between October 2012 and May 2013. Sodium and potassium urinary excretion was assessed in a 24-h urine sample; creatinine excretion was used to exclude unlikely urine values. Food intake in the same period of urine collection was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. The Food Processor Plus(®) was used to estimate sodium intake corresponding to naturally occurring sodium and sodium added to processed foods (non-discretionary sodium). Salt added during culinary preparations (discretionary sodium) was computed as the difference between urinary sodium excretion and non-discretionary sodium. The mean (standard deviation) urinary sodium excretion was 4220 (1830) mg/day, and 92% of the participants were above the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations. Discretionary sodium contributed 60.1% of total dietary sodium intake, followed by sodium from processed foods (29.0%) and naturally occurring sodium (10.9%). The mean (standard deviation) urinary potassium excretion was 1909 (778) mg/day, and 96% of the participants were below the WHO potassium intake recommendation. The mean (standard deviation) sodium to potassium molar ratio was 4.2 (2.4). Interventions to decrease sodium and increase potassium intake are needed in Mozambique.

  19. Adaptations in urea ammonium excretion in metabolic acidosis in the rat: a reinterpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, J; Bourke, E

    1975-06-01

    1. The effects of oral hydrochloric acid, ammonium chloride, sodium bicarbonate and ammonium bicarbonate on urea and ammonium excretion in rats on a constant diet were studied. 2. Hydrochloric acid acidosis significantly reduced urea excretion in the rat, with an equimolar increase in NH+4 excretion and no change in their sum. In ammonium chloride acidosis, most of the additional nitrogen intake is excreted as NH+4 and a small percentage as urea. The converse holds true after administration of ammonium bicarbonate. The physiological significance of this is discussed. 3. The shift in nitrogen excretion from urea to NH+4 in acidosis is interpreted on the basis of bicarbonate production and utilization. Urea formation utilizes HCO-3. For amino acid sources, this utilization is offset by the metabolism of the carbon skeleton, which gives rise to HCO-3. When waste nitrogen is excreted as NH+4, no bicarbonate is utilized and the new HCO-3, generated by the carbon skeleton, hels to maintain hydrogen ion homeostasis.

  20. Controlled exercise effects on chromium excretion of trained and untrained runners consuming a constant diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R.A.; Bryden, N.A.; Polansky, M.M.; Deuster, P.A.

    1986-03-05

    To determine if degree of training effects urinary Cr losses, Cr excretion of 8 adult trained and 5 untrained runners was determined on rest days and following exercise at 90% of maximal oxygen uptake on a treadmill to exhaustion with 30 second exercise and 30 second rest periods. Subjects were fed a constant daily diet containing 9 ..mu..g of Cr per 1000 calories to minimize changes due to diet. Maximal oxygen consumption of the trained runners was in the good or above range based upon their age and that of the untrained runners was average or below. While consuming the control diet, basal urinary Cr excretion of subjects who exercise regularly was significantly lower than that of the sedentary control subjects, 0.09 +/- 0.01 and 0.21 +/- 0.03 ..mu..g/day (mean +/- SEM), respectively. Daily urinary Cr excretion of trained subjects was significantly higher on the day of a single exercise bout at 90% of maximal oxygen consumption compared to nonexercise days, 0.12 +/- 0.02 and 0.09 +/- 0.01 ..mu..g/day, respectively. Urinary Cr excretion of 5 untrained subjects was not altered following controlled exercise. These data demonstrate that basal urinary Cr excretion and excretion in response to exercise are related to maximal oxygen consumption and therefore degree of fitness.

  1. Urinary Sodium and Potassium Excretion and Dietary Sources of Sodium in Maputo, Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Queiroz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the urinary excretion of sodium and potassium, and to estimate the main food sources of sodium in Maputo dwellers. A cross-sectional evaluation of a sample of 100 hospital workers was conducted between October 2012 and May 2013. Sodium and potassium urinary excretion was assessed in a 24-h urine sample; creatinine excretion was used to exclude unlikely urine values. Food intake in the same period of urine collection was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. The Food Processor Plus® was used to estimate sodium intake corresponding to naturally occurring sodium and sodium added to processed foods (non-discretionary sodium. Salt added during culinary preparations (discretionary sodium was computed as the difference between urinary sodium excretion and non-discretionary sodium. The mean (standard deviation urinary sodium excretion was 4220 (1830 mg/day, and 92% of the participants were above the World Health Organization (WHO recommendations. Discretionary sodium contributed 60.1% of total dietary sodium intake, followed by sodium from processed foods (29.0% and naturally occurring sodium (10.9%. The mean (standard deviation urinary potassium excretion was 1909 (778 mg/day, and 96% of the participants were below the WHO potassium intake recommendation. The mean (standard deviation sodium to potassium molar ratio was 4.2 (2.4. Interventions to decrease sodium and increase potassium intake are needed in Mozambique.

  2. Screening of alginate lyase-excreting microorganisms from the surface of brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingpeng; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Zhaojie; Wang, Xuejiang; Qin, Song; Yan, Peisheng

    2017-12-01

    Alginate lyase is a biocatalyst that degrades alginate to produce oligosaccharides, which have many bioactive functions and could be used as renewable biofuels. Here we report a simple and sensitive plate assay for screening alginate lyase-excreting microorganisms from brown algae. Brown algae Laminaria japonica, Sargassum horneri and Sargassum siliquatrum were cultured in sterile water. Bacteria growing on the surface of seaweeds were identified and their capacity of excreting alginate lyase was analyzed. A total of 196 strains were recovered from the three different algae samples and 12 different bacterial strains were identified capable of excreting alginate lyases. Sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene revealed that these alginate lyase-excreting strains belong to eight genera: Paenibacillus (4/12), Bacillus (2/12), Leclercia (1/12), Isoptericola (1/12), Planomicrobium (1/12), Pseudomonas (1/12), Lysinibacillus (1/12) and Sphingomonas (1/12). Further analysis showed that the LJ-3 strain (Bacillus halosaccharovorans) had the highest enzyme activity. To our best knowledge, this is the first report regarding alginate lyase-excreting strains in Paenibacillus, Planomicrobium and Leclercia. We believe that our method used in this study is relatively easy and reliable for large-scale screening of alginate lyase-excreting microorganisms.

  3. Associations of ambulatory blood pressure with urinary caffeine and caffeine metabolite excretions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guessous, Idris; Pruijm, Menno; Ponte, Belén; Ackermann, Daniel; Ehret, Georg; Ansermot, Nicolas; Vuistiner, Philippe; Staessen, Jan; Gu, Yumei; Paccaud, Fred; Mohaupt, Markus; Vogt, Bruno; Pechère-Bertschi, Antoinette; Pechère-Berstchi, Antoinette; Martin, Pierre-Yves; Burnier, Michel; Eap, Chin B; Bochud, Murielle

    2015-03-01

    Intake of caffeinated beverages might be associated with reduced cardiovascular mortality possibly via the lowering of blood pressure. We estimated the association of ambulatory blood pressure with urinary caffeine and caffeine metabolites in a population-based sample. Families were randomly selected from the general population of Swiss cities. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was conducted using validated devices. Urinary caffeine, paraxanthine, theophylline, and theobromine excretions were measured in 24 hours urine using ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. We used mixed models to explore the associations of urinary excretions with blood pressure although adjusting for major confounders. The 836 participants (48.9% men) included in this analysis had mean age of 47.8 and mean 24-hour systolic and diastolic blood pressure of 120.1 and 78.0 mm Hg. For each doubling of caffeine excretion, 24-hour and night-time systolic blood pressure decreased by 0.642 and 1.107 mm Hg (both P values theobromine excretion was not associated with blood pressure. Anti-hypertensive therapy, diabetes mellitus, and alcohol consumption modify the association of caffeine urinary excretion with systolic blood pressure. Ambulatory systolic blood pressure was inversely associated with urinary excretions of caffeine and other caffeine metabolites. Our results are compatible with a potential protective effect of caffeine on blood pressure. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Urea and Ammonia Metabolism and the Control of Renal Nitrogen Excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, I David; Mitch, William E; Sands, Jeff M

    2015-08-07

    Renal nitrogen metabolism primarily involves urea and ammonia metabolism, and is essential to normal health. Urea is the largest circulating pool of nitrogen, excluding nitrogen in circulating proteins, and its production changes in parallel to the degradation of dietary and endogenous proteins. In addition to serving as a way to excrete nitrogen, urea transport, mediated through specific urea transport proteins, mediates a central role in the urine concentrating mechanism. Renal ammonia excretion, although often considered only in the context of acid-base homeostasis, accounts for approximately 10% of total renal nitrogen excretion under basal conditions, but can increase substantially in a variety of clinical conditions. Because renal ammonia metabolism requires intrarenal ammoniagenesis from glutamine, changes in factors regulating renal ammonia metabolism can have important effects on glutamine in addition to nitrogen balance. This review covers aspects of protein metabolism and the control of the two major molecules involved in renal nitrogen excretion: urea and ammonia. Both urea and ammonia transport can be altered by glucocorticoids and hypokalemia, two conditions that also affect protein metabolism. Clinical conditions associated with altered urine concentrating ability or water homeostasis can result in changes in urea excretion and urea transporters. Clinical conditions associated with altered ammonia excretion can have important effects on nitrogen balance. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  5. Alkaline environmental pH has no effect on ammonia excretion in the mudskipper Periophthalmodon schlosseri but inhibits ammonia excretion in the related species Boleophthalmus boddaerti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, S F; Hong, L N; Wilson, J M; Randall, D J; Ip, Y K

    2003-01-01

    Experiments were performed to evaluate the effects of alkaline environmental pH on urea and ammonia excretion rates and on tissue urea, ammonia, and free amino acid concentrations in two mudskippers, Periophthalmodon schlosseri and Boleophthalmus boddaerti. Periophthalomodon schlosseri is known to be capable of actively excreting ammonia. The rate of ammonia excretion in B. boddaerti exposed to 50% seawater (brackish water, BW) at pH 9 decreased significantly during the first 2 d of exposure when compared with that of specimens exposed to pH 7 or 8. This suggested that B. boddaerti was dependent on NH(3) diffusion for ammonia excretion, as in most fishes. It was incapable of detoxifying the accumulating endogenous ammonia to urea but could store and tolerate high concentrations of ammonia in the muscle, liver, and plasma. It did not undergo reductions in proteolysis and/or amino acid catabolism in alkaline water, probably because the buildup of endogenous ammonia was essential for the recovery of the normal rate of ammonia excretion by the third day of exposure to a pH 9 medium. Unlike B. boddaerti, P. schlosseri did not accumulate ammonia in the body at an alkaline pH (i.e., pH 9) because it was capable of actively excreting ammonia. Periophthalmodon schlosseri did not undergo partial amino acid catabolism (no accumulation of alanine) either, although there might be a slight reduction in amino acid catabolism in general. The significant decrease in blood pCO(2) in B. boddaerti at pH 9 might lead to respiratory alkalosis in the blood. In contrast, P. schlosseri was able to maintain its blood pH in BW at pH 9 despite a decrease in pCO(2) in the blood. With 8 mM NH(4)Cl in BW at pH 7, both mudskippers could actively excrete ammonia, although not to the same extent. Only P. schlosseri could sustain ammonia excretion against 8 mM NH(4)Cl in BW at pH 8. In BW containing 8 mM NH(4)Cl at pH 9, both mudskippers died within a short period of time. Boleophthalmus boddaerti

  6. Nitrogen and phosphorus retention and excretion in late-gestation dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, S R; Knowlton, K F; James, R E; Pearson, R E; Bethard, G L; Pence, K J

    2007-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of limit feeding diets containing concentrates or by-products in place of forages on manure and nutrient excretion in growing, gravid heifers. Eighteen Holstein heifers confirmed pregnant were grouped by due date and fed 1 of 3 diets (n = 6 per treatment) for the last 14 wk of pregnancy. Diets were high forage, fed ad libitum (HF); by-product based (BP), fed at the same rate as HF-fed heifers; or low forage (LF), fed at 86% of the HF diet. Diets were designed to supply equal quantities of P, N, and metabolizable energy. Total collection of feces and urine was conducted in wk 14, 10, 6, and 2 prepartum. The HF ration was 90.7% forage, 13.7% crude protein (CP), and contained orchardgrass hay, corn silage, corn grain, soybean meal 44%, and a vitamin-mineral premix. The BP diet was 46.2% forage and 14.0% CP, with 70% of the grain mix space replaced with soybean hulls and cottonseed hulls in a 1:1 ratio, with intake limited to 93% of the dry matter intake (DMI) of HF. The LF ration was 45.3% forage and 17.8% CP, with intake limited to 86% of the DMI of HF. The effect of diet was analyzed with repeated measures, using preplanned contrasts to compare HF with BP and LF with HF and BP. As designed, heifers fed HF and BP had greater DMI than the heifers limit-fed LF, and there was no effect of diet on average daily gain or BW. Intake and digestibility of N were lower, and fecal N excretion was higher, in heifers fed HF and BP than heifers fed LF. Mean feces excretion on both a wet and dry basis was greater for HF heifers compared with BP heifers and less for LF heifers than for HF and BP heifers. Despite differences in urinary output, diet had no effect on urea N excretion, but there was a trend for heifers fed HF and BP rations to excrete less urinary N compared with those fed LF. Compared with HF and BP heifers, LF heifers tended to have lower fecal P excretion and had higher urinary P excretion. Measured manure and

  7. Diagnostic Value of the Cobalt ({sup 58}Co) Excretion Test in Iron Deficiency Anemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sihn, Hyun Chung; Hong, Kee Suck; Cho, Kyung Sam; Song, In Kyung; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Mun Ho [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1976-03-15

    The diagnosis of iron deficiency rests upon the correct evaluation of body iron stores. Morphological interpretation of blood film and the red cell indices are not reliable and often absent in mild iron deficiency. Serum iron levels and iron-binding capacity are more sensitive indices of iron deficiency, but they are often normal in iron depletion and mild iron deficiency anemia. They are also subject ro many variables which may introduce substantial errors and influenced by many pathologic and physiologic states. Examination of the bone marrow aspirate for stainable iron has been regarded as one of the most sensitive and reliable diagnostic method for detecting iron deficiency, but this also has limitations. Thus, there is still need for a more practical, but sensitive and reliable substitute as a screening test of iron deficiency. Pollack et al. (1965) observed that the intestinal absorption of cobalt was raised in iron, deficient rats and Valberg et al. (1969) found that cobalt absorption was elevated in patients with iron deficiency. A direct correlation was demonstrated between the amounts of radioiron and radiocobalt absorbed. Unlike iron, excess cobalt was excreted by the kidney, the percentage of radioactivity in the urine being directly related to the percentage absorbed from the gastro-intestinal tract. Recently a test based on the urinary excretion of an oral dose of {sup 57}Co has been proposed as a method for detecting iron deficiency. To assess the diagnostic value of urinary cobalt excretion test cobaltous chloride labelled with 1 muCi of {sup 58}Co was given by mouth and the percentage of the test dose excreted in the urine was measured by a gamma counter. The mean 24 hour urinary cobalt excretion in control subjects with normal iron stores was 6.1%(1.9-15.2%). Cobalt excretion was markedly increased in patients with iron deficiency and excreted more than 29% of the dose. In contrast, patients with anemia due to causes other than iron deficiency

  8. Factors altering pyruvate excretion in a glycogen storage mutant of the cyanobacterium, Synechococcus PCC7942

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phoebe J Benson

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Interest in the production of carbon commodities from photosynthetically fixed CO2 has focused attention on cyanobacteria as a target for metabolic engineering and pathway investigation. We investigated the redirection of carbon flux in the model cyanobacterial species, Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, under nitrogen deprivation, for optimised production of the industrially desirable compound, pyruvate. Under nitrogen limited conditions, excess carbon is naturally stored as the multi-branched polysaccharide, glycogen, but a block in glycogen synthesis, via knockout mutation in the gene encoding ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (glgC, results in the accumulation of the organic acids, pyruvate and 2-oxoglutarate, as overflow excretions into the extracellular media. The ∆glgC strain, under 48 hours of N-deprivation was shown to excrete pyruvate for the first time in this strain. Additionally, by increasing culture pH, to pH 10, it was possible to substantially elevate excretion of pyruvate, suggesting the involvement of an unknown substrate/proton symporter for export. The ∆glgC mutant was also engineered to express foreign transporters for glucose and sucrose, and then grown photomixotrophically with exogenous organic carbon supply, as added 5 mM glucose or sucrose during N- deprivation. Under these conditions we observed a four-fold increase in extracellular pyruvate excretion when glucose was added, and a smaller increase with added sucrose. Although the magnitude of pyruvate excretion did not correlate with the capacity of the ∆glgC strain for bicarbonate-dependent photosynthetic O2 evolution, or with light intensity, there was, however, a positive correlation observed between the density of the starter culture prior to N-deprivation and the final extracellular pyruvate concentration. The factors that contribute to enhancement of pyruvate excretion are discussed, as well as consideration of whether the source of carbon for pyruvate

  9. Factors Altering Pyruvate Excretion in a Glycogen Storage Mutant of the Cyanobacterium, Synechococcus PCC7942.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Phoebe J; Purcell-Meyerink, Diane; Hocart, Charles H; Truong, Thy T; James, Gabriel O; Rourke, Loraine; Djordjevic, Michael A; Blackburn, Susan I; Price, G D

    2016-01-01

    Interest in the production of carbon commodities from photosynthetically fixed CO2 has focused attention on cyanobacteria as a target for metabolic engineering and pathway investigation. We investigated the redirection of carbon flux in the model cyanobacterial species, Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, under nitrogen deprivation, for optimized production of the industrially desirable compound, pyruvate. Under nitrogen limited conditions, excess carbon is naturally stored as the multi-branched polysaccharide, glycogen, but a block in glycogen synthesis, via knockout mutation in the gene encoding ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (glgC), results in the accumulation of the organic acids, pyruvate and 2-oxoglutarate, as overflow excretions into the extracellular media. The ΔglgC strain, under 48 h of N-deprivation was shown to excrete pyruvate for the first time in this strain. Additionally, by increasing culture pH, to pH 10, it was possible to substantially elevate excretion of pyruvate, suggesting the involvement of an unknown substrate/proton symporter for export. The ΔglgC mutant was also engineered to express foreign transporters for glucose and sucrose, and then grown photomixotrophically with exogenous organic carbon supply, as added 5 mM glucose or sucrose during N- deprivation. Under these conditions we observed a fourfold increase in extracellular pyruvate excretion when glucose was added, and a smaller increase with added sucrose. Although the magnitude of pyruvate excretion did not correlate with the capacity of the ΔglgC strain for bicarbonate-dependent photosynthetic O2 evolution, or with light intensity, there was, however, a positive correlation observed between the density of the starter culture prior to N-deprivation and the final extracellular pyruvate concentration. The factors that contribute to enhancement of pyruvate excretion are discussed, as well as consideration of whether the source of carbon for pyruvate excretion might be derived from

  10. Genetic variation underlying renal uric acid excretion in Hispanic children: the Viva La Familia Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittoor, Geetha; Haack, Karin; Mehta, Nitesh R; Laston, Sandra; Cole, Shelley A; Comuzzie, Anthony G; Butte, Nancy F; Voruganti, V Saroja

    2017-01-17

    Reduced renal excretion of uric acid plays a significant role in the development of hyperuricemia and gout in adults. Hyperuricemia has been associated with chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease in children and adults. There are limited genome-wide association studies associating genetic polymorphisms with renal urate excretion measures. Therefore, we investigated the genetic factors that influence the excretion of uric acid and related indices in 768 Hispanic children of the Viva La Familia Study. We performed a genome-wide association analysis for 24-h urinary excretion measures such as urinary uric acid/urinary creatinine ratio, uric acid clearance, fractional excretion of uric acid, and glomerular load of uric acid in SOLAR, while accounting for non-independence among family members. All renal urate excretion measures were significantly heritable (p <2 × 10(-6)) and ranged from 0.41 to 0.74. Empirical threshold for genome-wide significance was set at p <1 × 10(-7). We observed a strong association (p < 8 × 10(-8)) of uric acid clearance with a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in zinc finger protein 446 (ZNF446) (rs2033711 (A/G), MAF: 0.30). The minor allele (G) was associated with increased uric acid clearance. Also, we found suggestive associations of uric acid clearance with SNPs in ZNF324, ZNF584, and ZNF132 (in a 72 kb region of 19q13; p <1 × 10(-6), MAFs: 0.28-0.31). For the first time, we showed the importance of 19q13 region in the regulation of renal urate excretion in Hispanic children. Our findings indicate differences in inherent genetic architecture and shared environmental risk factors between our cohort and other pediatric and adult populations.

  11. Relationship between glucose and sodium excretion in the new-born dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Jeffrey T.; Kleinman, Leonard I.

    1974-01-01

    1. The relationship between renal glucose and sodium excretion was studied in thirty-three new-born dogs aged 1-14 days and in ten adult dogs. 2. Glucose was infused into the animals at rates sufficient to produce an amount of filtered glucose at least 1·5 times the tubular transport of glucose (saturating glucose load). In both puppies and adults tubular glucose reabsorption at saturating glucose loads varied directly with the glomerular filtration rate (r = 0·54 and 0·73 respectively, P puppies. Although mean (TG/GFR)m was greater in the adult than in the puppy (P puppies had CNa/CIn similar to that for adults, they had (TG/GFR)m values equivalent to that for the adult. 4. There was excellent correlation between glucose excretion and water excretion for both adult and new-born dogs (r = 0·93 and 0·87, respectively). However, for any glucose loss, water loss was greater in the puppy than in the adult (P period total sodium excretion (per gram kidney) and CNa/CIn were similar in the new-born and adult dog. However, during glucose loading, the puppies excreted more sodium and had a higher CNa/CIn than did the adult, although glucose excretion was greater in the adult than in the puppy (P sensitivity of the neonatal proximal tubule to the osmotic effect of glucose. When presented with a glucose osmotic load the new-born dog diminishes net proximal sodium reabsorption more than does the adult and thus depresses tubular glucose reabsorption to a greater extent. The lower values of maximal glucose transport rates found in new-born animals may be related, therefore, to the higher fractional sodium excretion rates during glucose diuresis rather than to a diminished intrinsic glucose transport capacity in the new-born kidney. PMID:4449064

  12. Renal excretion of water-soluble contrast media after enema in the neonatal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Sun; Je, Bo-Kyung; Cha, Sang Hoon; Choi, Byung Min; Lee, Ki Yeol; Lee, Seung Hwa

    2014-08-01

    When abdominal distention occurs or bowel obstruction is suspected in the neonatal period, a water-soluble contrast enema is helpful for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. The water-soluble contrast medium is evacuated through the anus as well as excreted via the kidneys in some babies. This study was designed to evaluate the incidence of renal excretion after enemas using water-soluble contrast media and presume the causes. Contrast enemas using diluted water-soluble contrast media were performed in 23 patients under 2 months of age. After the enema, patients were followed with simple abdominal radiographs to assess the improvement in bowel distention, and we could also detect the presence of renal excretion of contrast media on the radiographs. Reviewing the medical records and imaging studies, including enemas and consecutive abdominal radiographs, we evaluated the incidence of renal excretion of water-soluble contrast media and counted the stay duration of contrast media in urinary tract, bladder, and colon. Among 23 patients, 12 patients (52%) experienced the renal excretion of water-soluble contrast media. In these patients, stay-in-bladder durations of contrast media were 1-3 days and stay-in-colon durations of contrast media were 1-10 days, while stay-in-colon durations of contrast media were 1-3 days in the patients not showing renal excretion of contrast media. The Mann-Whitney test for stay-in-colon durations demonstrated the later evacuation of contrast media in the patients with renal excretion of contrast media (p = 0.07). The review of the medical records showed that 19 patients were finally diagnosed as intestinal diseases, including Hirschsprung's disease, meconium ileum, meconium plug syndrome, and small bowel atresia or stenosis. Fisher's exact test between the presence of urinary excretion and intestinal diseases indicated a statistically significant difference (p = 0.04). The intestinal diseases causing bowel obstruction may increase the

  13. Evaluation of nutrient excretion and retention in broilers submitted to different nutritional strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AL Graña

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of different nutritional strategies on nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P and calcium (Ca balance and on copper (Cu, manganese (Mn and zinc (Zn excretion in broilers during the periods of 1 to 21 days and 1 to 46 days of age. Four hundred male Cobb-500 broilers were used. A randomized block experimental design was applied, including five treatments with eight replicates of 10 birds each. A five-phase feeding program was adopted (1-8, 9-21, 22-33, 34-40 and 41-46 days of age. Treatments consisted of a control diet (C with typical protein level and low amino acid supplementation; a reduced-protein diet supplemented with synthetic amino acids formulated on ideal protein concept (IP; C with phytase (C+PHY supplementation; C with inorganic-organic mineral supplementation (C+MIN; and a diet formulated on ideal protein (IP basis, and supplemented with phytase and organic and inorganic minerals (IP+PHY+MIN. IP and IP+PHY+MIN diets reduced nitrogen excretion in 13.6 and 13.1% respectively, and promoted the same nitrogen retention (g/bird and retention efficiency as compared to the diet with typical crude protein level. C+PHY and IP+PHY+MIN reduced phosphorus, calcium and manganese excretion, and improved phosphorus retention. C+MIN and IP+PHY+MIN reduced manganese excretion, but did not influence copper or zinc excretion.

  14. Submandibular sialolithiasis with CT and scintigraphy: CT values and salivary gland excretion in the submandibular glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Ichiro; Hayama, Kazuhide; Sue, Mikiko; Oda, Takaaki; Sasaki, Yoshihiko

    2017-12-01

    Sialolithiasis is one of the most prevalent large obstructive disorders of the submandibular glands. The aim of this study was to investigate submandibular sialolithiasis with computed tomography (CT) and scintigraphy, with a particular focus on the relationship between CT values of the submandibular glands and their excretion rate. Fifteen patients with submandibular sialolithiasis who underwent CT and salivary gland scintigraphy were included in this study. The relationship between the CT values of submandibular glands with and without sialoliths and salivary gland excretion measured using salivary gland scintigraphy was statistically analyzed. Dynamic images were recorded on the computer at 1 frame per 20 seconds. The salivary gland excretion fraction was defined as A (before stimulation test [counts/frame]) / B(after stimulation test [counts/frame]) using time-activity curves. The CT values in the submandibular glands with and without sialoliths was 9.9±44.9 Hounsfield units (HU) and 34.2±21.8 HU, respectively (P=.233). Regarding the salivary gland excretion fraction using scintigraphy, the A/B value in the submandibular glands with sialoliths (1.09±0.23) was significantly lower than in the submandibular glands without sialoliths (1.99±0.57, P=.000). Assessments of the CT values and the salivary gland excretion fraction using scintigraphy in the submandibular glands seem to be useful tools evaluating submandibular sialolithiasis.

  15. Plasma levels and urinary excretion of amino acids by subjects with renal calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanassova, Stoyanka Slavcheva; Panchev, P; Ivanova, M

    2010-05-01

    Plasma levels and urinary amino acid excretions were estimated by high-performance liquid chromatography in 15 control subjects and 36 stone formers (SFs) classified according to the stone type: (1) 22 cases with calcium oxalate stones; (2) four cases with pure uric acid stones; (3) 10 cases with magnesium-ammonium phosphate stones, either pure or mixed with apatite. Some types of stones (namely oxalate and uric acid calculi) are mainly formed as a result of a metabolic deficiency that may affect the amino acid metabolism, and thus may be reflected in the urinary amino acid pattern. Data demonstrated clearly that there is a general tendency towards decreased amino acid excretions in all SFs with all types of stones. As a whole, one can observe a higher percentage of patients with calcium oxalate and phosphate calculosis, who have low urine excretions of amino acids; about 50% are the SFs with lower urine excretion of serine, glycine, taurine and i-leucine; the high percentage of patients with CaOX calculi shows lower urine excretions of tyrosine and ornithine.

  16. Investment in boney defensive traits alters organismal stoichiometry and excretion in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sabaawi, Rana W; Warbanski, Misha L; Rudman, Seth M; Hovel, Rachel; Matthews, Blake

    2016-08-01

    Understanding how trait diversification alters ecosystem processes is an important goal for ecological and evolutionary studies. Ecological stoichiometry provides a framework for predicting how traits affect ecosystem function. The growth rate hypothesis of ecological stoichiometry links growth and phosphorus (P) body composition in taxa where nucleic acids are a significant pool of body P. In vertebrates, however, most of the P is bound within bone, and organisms with boney structures can vary in terms of the relative contributions of bones to body composition. Threespine stickleback populations have substantial variation in boney armour plating. Shaped by natural selection, this variation provides a model system to study the links between evolution of bone content, elemental body composition, and P excretion. We measure carbon:nitrogen:P body composition from stickleback populations that vary in armour phenotype. We develop a mechanistic mass-balance model to explore factors affecting P excretion, and measure P excretion from two populations with contrasting armour phenotypes. Completely armoured morphs have higher body %P but excrete more P per unit body mass than other morphs. The model suggests that such differences are driven by phenotypic differences in P intake as well as body %P composition. Our results show that while investment in boney traits alters the elemental composition of vertebrate bodies, excretion rates depend on how acquisition and assimilation traits covary with boney trait investment. These results also provide a stoichiometric hypothesis to explain the repeated loss of boney armour in threespine sticklebacks upon colonizing freshwater ecosystems.

  17. Urinary excretion of isomers of biliverdin after destruction in vivo of haemoproteins and haemin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirota, K; Yamamoto, S; Itano, H A

    1985-01-01

    The amount and isomeric composition of urinary biliverdin in rabbits were analysed by h.p.l.c. Physiological values were maintained after the injection of haemin. On the other hand, when haemoglobins from several mammalian species were injected into rabbits, the excretion of biliverdin-IX alpha and biliverdin-IX beta were increased 6-18-fold and 32-66-fold respectively over physiological excretion. Injection of myoglobin resulted in a 44-fold increase in excretion of the IX alpha-isomer. Coupled oxidation with ascorbate of haemoglobin and myoglobin by oxygen produced mainly the IX alpha- and IX beta-isomers from haemoglobin and the IX alpha-isomer from myoglobin. The destruction of part of the haem from injected haemoproteins by non-enzymic chemical degradation would account for the observed respective increases in the excretion of biliverdin isomers. The excretion of biliverdin isomers after the injection of phenylhydrazine into rabbits was similar to that after the injection of haemoglobin. PMID:4038276

  18. Amount of urinary iodine excretion in residents of Taipei City--a hospital-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, H D; Lo, J G; Ching, K N

    1991-07-01

    The amount of urinary iodine excretion was measured by neutron activation analysis in 87 residents of Taipei City. The mean +/- SE of urinary iodine excretion expressed as ug iodine/g creatinine was 337.2 +/- 33.3 (335.3 +/- 59.5 for males and 338.4 +/- 40.6 for females). For each 10-year age group, from 20-29 to greater than or equal to 70, they were 396.6 +/- 106.1, 396.5 +/- 127.6, 306.5 +/- 116.7, 326.4 +/- 40.4, 338.1 +/- 64.3 and 222.9 +/- 100.6, respectively. Although there were no significant differences in sex and age, the amount of urinary iodine excretion was distributed in a very wide range from 38.6 to 1,526 ug iodine/g creatinine. Only 3% of the subjects excreted less than 50 ug iodine/g creatinine but 42.7% of our subjects excreted more than 300 ug iodine/g creatine. Iodine deficiency is not a real problem in Taipei City. However, about half of the Taipei City residents may take more than the suggested optimum amount of iodine.

  19. DIETARY PROTEIN INTAKE IS INDEPENDENTLY ASSOCIATED WITH THE URINARY EXCRETION OF PHOSPHATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Dobronravov

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Decrease of urinary phosphate (P excretion and P retention triggers activation of phosphotonins and subsequent development of secondary hyperparathyroidism in progressing of chronic kidney disease (CKD. The main source of P is dietary protein. No large studies are presented to-date to evaluate the relationship between dietary protein intake and parameters of P metabolism in CKD patients. This was a goal of the cross-sectional cohort study .11315 CKD patients were entered (males 43%. Median (10th-90th percentile of age and estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR were 46 (24-69 and 64 (24-104. The analyzed data were: age, gender, body mass index (BMI serum albumin, creatinine, calcium and phosphate; 24-h urine creatinine, phosphate (P,proteinuria (DP. Estimated parameters includes: eGFR, fractional P excretion (FEP, 24-h P excretion (24-h UP, and P clearance (CP. Dietary protein intake (DPI was based on 24-h urinary urea excretion. No significant differences in serum phosphate were found in groups with various DPI. FEP, 24-h UP and CP were significantly higher in higher DPI range. DPI was positively associated with 24-h UP (β=0,287, p<0.000001 in multivariate model adjusted for age, gender, DP, eGFR, serum P, FEP, BMI, and Ca. Thus, DPI is considered to be the independent factor influencing urinary P excretion and hence contributing to progression of mineral and bone disease in renal dysfunction.

  20. Urinary Excretion of Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Said Arellano-Buendía

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that tubular damage precedes glomerular damage in the progression of diabetic nephropathy. Therefore, we evaluated oxidative stress and urinary excretion of tubular proteins as markers of tubular dysfunction. Methods. Diabetes was induced in rats by streptozotocin administration (50 mg/kg. Oxidative stress was assessed by measuring the activity of catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, and superoxide dismutase (SOD; additionally, expression levels of 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT, 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE, and oxidized protein (OP were quantified. Whole glomerular filtration rate (GFR was measured. Urinary excretion of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL, osteopontin (uOPN, and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (uNAG was also determined. Results. Diabetic rats showed an increase in uNGAL excretion 7 days following induction of diabetes. Diuresis, proteinuria, albuminuria, creatinine clearance, and GFR were significantly increased by 30 days after induction. Furthermore, there was an increase in both CAT and SOD activity, in addition to 3-NT, 4-HNE, and OP expression levels. However, GPx activity was lower. Serum levels of NGAL and OPN, as well as excretion levels of uNGAL, uOPN, and uNAG, were increased in diabetics. Tubular damage was observed by 7 days after diabetes induction and was further aggravated by 30 days after induction. Conclusion. The tubular dysfunction evidenced by urinary excretion of NGAL precedes oxidative stress during diabetes.

  1. Patterns of 1-hydroxypyrene excretion in volunteers exposed to pyrene by the dermal route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viau, C.; Vyskocil, A. [University of Montreal, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    1995-02-24

    The urinary excretion profiles following exposure to pyrene were established in one psoriasic patient under treatment with a coal tar-based shampoo and in two other volunteers exposed to a single dose of 100{mu}1 creosote and, in a separate experiment, to five consecutive daily dermal applications of 500{mu}g pyrene on 200 cm{sup 2} of the inner face of the forearms. Timed micturitions were collected for up to 48 h following exposure. Both in the psoriasic patient and in the volunteers exposed to creosote, the excretion peaks between 10 and 15 h after application and first-order apparent half lives of 11.5-15 h can be calculated for the elimination phase. Compatible with these observations, repeated exposure to pyrene in the volunteers causes an increase in peak and trough urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) values for the first few days following the first exposure. These results suggest that the difference between beginning-of-shift/beginning of work week and beginning-of-shift/end of work week 1-OHP excretion should reflect the average exposure of the week in workers having a constant exposure to pyrene. The difference between the beginning and end-of-shift excretion values of a given day should reflect the exposure of that day but the maximum excretion would be attained a few hours after termination of exposure.

  2. Urinary Excretion of Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin in Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano-Buendía, Abraham Said; García-Arroyo, Fernando Enrique; Cristóbal-García, Magdalena; Loredo-Mendoza, María Lilia; Tapia-Rodríguez, Edilia; Sánchez-Lozada, Laura Gabriela; Osorio-Alonso, Horacio

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that tubular damage precedes glomerular damage in the progression of diabetic nephropathy. Therefore, we evaluated oxidative stress and urinary excretion of tubular proteins as markers of tubular dysfunction. Methods. Diabetes was induced in rats by streptozotocin administration (50 mg/kg). Oxidative stress was assessed by measuring the activity of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and superoxide dismutase (SOD); additionally, expression levels of 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT), 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), and oxidized protein (OP) were quantified. Whole glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was measured. Urinary excretion of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL), osteopontin (uOPN), and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (uNAG) was also determined. Results. Diabetic rats showed an increase in uNGAL excretion 7 days following induction of diabetes. Diuresis, proteinuria, albuminuria, creatinine clearance, and GFR were significantly increased by 30 days after induction. Furthermore, there was an increase in both CAT and SOD activity, in addition to 3-NT, 4-HNE, and OP expression levels. However, GPx activity was lower. Serum levels of NGAL and OPN, as well as excretion levels of uNGAL, uOPN, and uNAG, were increased in diabetics. Tubular damage was observed by 7 days after diabetes induction and was further aggravated by 30 days after induction. Conclusion. The tubular dysfunction evidenced by urinary excretion of NGAL precedes oxidative stress during diabetes. PMID:25243053

  3. Urinary excretion of sialic acid-containing saccharides in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maury, C P; Sjöblom, C; Wegelius, O

    1981-09-01

    Urinary sialic acid-containing trisaccharides, total sialic acid, and serum sialic acid were studied in 17 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and in 15 healthy controls. The urinary excretion of sialyllactose, measured by a gas chromatographic method, was significantly greater in patients with SLE (37.4 +/- 21.4 mg/24 hours, SD) than in the control subjects (13.7 +/- 3.8 mg/24 hours, p less than 0.001). The mean excretion of sialyl-N-acetyllactosamine (16.6 +/- 8.5 mg/24 hours) and total sialic acid (82.5 +/- 29.4 mg/24 hours) was also greater in the SLE group than in the controls (8.7 +/- 2.8 and 58.0 +/- 16.0 mg/24 hours, respectively; p less than 0.01). Serum levels of sialic acid were correspondingly higher in the SLE patients (84.4 +/- 20.4 mg/100 ml) than in the controls (63.7 +/- 6.5 mg/100 ml, p less than 0.001). Urinary excretion of sialyl-lactose correlated positively with clinical disease activity (p less than 0.001) and with anti-DNA antibody levels (p less than 0.05). On the average, patients with moderate or severe disease excreted three times more sialyl-lactose than did those with mild or inactive disease. Our results suggest that the excretion of sialyl-oligosaccharides reflects disease activity in SLE.

  4. Different pathways for copper sulphate and copper nitrate antioxidation and organic acid excretion in Typha latifolia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubenova L.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The major topic of the present experiment was the investigation of the antioxidative enzymes and the root exudate excretion after plant exposure to copper. The copper was added for each treatment as copper sulphate and copper nitrate in the concentrations of 10 μM, 50 μM and 100 μM, respectively. The plant species chosen for the study was Typha latifolia. The experiment gives insight into the plant responses to different copper supplies during the same conditions of exposure. Remarkable results were obtained during the time course about the excretion of organic acids from Typha latifolia roots during one week of copper exposure. Oxalic acid, malic acid, acetic acid and lactic acid were detected. Interestingly, not all organic acids are excreted from the roots in the first hours after copper addition.

  5. Day and nighttime excretion of 6-sulphatoxymelatonin in adolescents and young adults with autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tordjman, Sylvie; Anderson, George M; Bellissant, Eric; Botbol, Michel; Charbuy, Henriette; Camus, Françoise; Graignic, Rozenn; Kermarrec, Solenn; Fougerou, Claire; Cohen, David; Touitou, Yvan

    2012-12-01

    Several reports indicate that nocturnal production of melatonin is reduced in autism. Our objective was to examine whether melatonin production is decreased during the whole 24-h cycle, whether the melatonin circadian rhythm is inverted, and whether the reduction in melatonin production is related to the severity of autistic behavioral impairments. Day and nighttime urinary excretion of 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (6-SM) was examined during a 24-h period in post-pubertal individuals with autism (N=43) and typically developing controls (N=26) matched for age, sex and pubertal stage. Low 6-SM excretion (mean ± SEM) was observed in autism, both at daytime (0.16 ± 0.03 vs. 0.36 ± 0.05 μg/h, pautistic disorder, especially in individuals with severe autistic impairment and/or low urinary 6-SM excretion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Longitudinal study of the excretion patterns of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in young pet dogs in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Pedersen, Karl; Wainø, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The Campylobacter excretion patterns of 26 domestic pet dogs were described in a longitudinal study. The dogs entered the study between 3 and 8 months of age and were monitored until 2 years of age. They were tested monthly for Campylobacter carriage in stool samples that were cultured.......7% Campylobacter coli, and 2.8% Campylobacter spp. Isolates were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to elucidate the strain excretion pattern. All study dogs excreted Campylobacter spp. during the study period. At 3 months of age, 60% of the dogs carried Campylobacter, increasing to nearly 100......% carriers at 1 year of age, whereafter the carriage rate decreased to 67% at 24 months of age. The PFGE types showed that individual dogs were often colonized by unique strains of C. upsaliensis for several months, up to 21 months or longer. These C. upsaliensis strains were either clonal (or underwent...

  7. Metabolism and excretion of anabolic steroids in doping control--new steroids and new insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eenoo, Peter; Delbeke, Frans T

    2006-11-01

    The use of anabolic steroids in sports is prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency. Until the 1990s, anabolic steroids were solely manufactured by pharmaceutical companies, albeit sometimes on demand from national sports agencies as part of their doping program. Recently the list of prohibited anabolic steroids in sports has grown due to the addition of numerous steroids that have been introduced on the market by non-pharmaceutical companies. Moreover, several designer steroids, specifically developed to circumvent doping control, have also been detected. Because anabolic steroids are most often intensively subjected to phase I metabolism and seldom excreted unchanged, excretion studies need to be performed in order to detect their misuse. This review attempts to summarise the results of excretion studies of recent additions to the list of prohibited steroids in sports. Additionally an update and insight on new aspects for "older" steroids with respect to doping control is given.

  8. Pre-symptomatic increase in urine-orosomucoid excretion in pre-eclamptic women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg, Camilla S; Allen, Jim; Vittinghus, Erik

    2007-01-01

    evaluated urine excretion and plasma levels of orosomucoid and albumin longitudinally in healthy and pre-eclamptic pregnancies. Orosomucoid is an acute phase protein involved in inflammation and protection of the endothelium. METHODS: From a prospective, longitudinal cohort study consisting of 1,631 women...... for early markers of evolving disease. We evaluated urine excretion and plasma levels of orosomucoid and albumin longitudinally in healthy and pre-eclamptic pregnancies. Orosomucoid is an acute phase protein involved in inflammation and protection of the endothelium. METHODS: From a prospective....... This long pre-symptomatic latency period has led to intensive research for early markers of evolving disease. We evaluated urine excretion and plasma levels of orosomucoid and albumin longitudinally in healthy and pre-eclamptic pregnancies. Orosomucoid is an acute phase protein involved in inflammation...

  9. Urinary estrogen excretion and concentration of serum human placental lactogen in pregnancies following legally induced abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, E B; Madsen, Mette

    1980-01-01

    concentration of hPL in serum were no lower in this group than in women without previous induced abortion. Neither was the frequency of a low 24-hour excretion of estrogens in urine or low concentration of hPL in serum (values less than mean - 1.96 s) found to be increased. This study could not demonstrate......Feto-placental function was assessed by 24-hour excretion of estrogen in urine and by the concentration of human Placental Lactogen (hPL) in serum in pregnant women whose previous pregnancy was terminated by legally induced abortion. The mean 24-hour excretion of estrogens in urine and the mean...... an increased frequency of dysfunction of the feto-placental unit during the last part of pregnancy in women with previous legally induced abortion. These findings indicate that legal abortion does not seem to increase the frequency of retarded intrauterine growth in a subsequent pregnancy....

  10. Urinary estrogen excretion and concentration of serum human placental lactogen in pregnancies following legally induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obel, E B; Madsen, M

    1980-01-01

    Feto-placental function was assessed by 24-hour excretion of estrogen in urine and by the concentration of human Placental Lactogen (hPL) in serum in pregnant women whose previous pregnancy was terminated by legally induced abortion. The mean 24-hour excretion of estrogens in urine and the mean concentration of hPL in serum were no lower in this group than in women without previous induced abortion. Neither was the frequency of a low 24-hour excretion of estrogens in urine or low concentration of hPL in serum (values less than mean - 1.96 s) found to be increased. This study could not demonstrate an increased frequency of dysfunction of the feto-placental unit during the last part of pregnancy in women with previous legally induced abortion. These findings indicate that legal abortion does not seem to increase the frequency of retarded intrauterine growth in a subsequent pregnancy.

  11. Examining the Proportion of Dietary Phosphorus From Plants, Animals, and Food Additives Excreted in Urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Jules, David E; Jagannathan, Ram; Gutekunst, Lisa; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Sevick, Mary Ann

    2017-03-01

    Phosphorus bioavailability is an emerging topic of interest in the field of renal nutrition that has important research and clinical implications. Estimates of phosphorus bioavailability, based on digestibility, indicate that bioavailability of phosphorus increases from plants to animals to food additives. In this commentary, we examined the proportion of dietary phosphorus from plants, animals, and food additives excreted in urine from four controlled-feeding studies conducted in healthy adults and patients with chronic kidney disease. As expected, a smaller proportion of phosphorus from plant foods was excreted in urine compared to animal foods. However, contrary to expectations, phosphorus from food additives appeared to be incompletely absorbed. The apparent discrepancy between digestibility of phosphorus additives and the proportion excreted in urine suggests a need for human balance studies to determine the bioavailability of different sources of phosphorus. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Cheese intake lowers plasma cholesterol concentrations without increasing bile acid excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjerpsted, Julie Bousgaard; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Tholstrup, Tine

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Cheese is a dairy product with high calcium content. It has been suggested that calcium intake may increase fecal excretion of bile acids that would cause a regeneration of bile acids from hepatic cholesterol and thereby result in a lowering of plasma cholesterol concentrations. We aimed...... with 13% energy from cheese or butter. Results After 6 weeks of intervention cheese resulted in higher amounts of calcium excreted in feces compared to butter. However, no difference was observed in fecal bile acid output despite lower serum total, LDL and HDL cholesterol concentrations observed...... with cheese intake. Conclusion We were not able to confirm the hypothesis that calcium from cheese increases the excretion of fecal bile acids. Therefore, the mechanisms responsible for the lowering of cholesterol concentrations with cheese compared to butter intake remains unresolved....

  13. Excretion of Aflatoxin M1 in milk of goats fed diet contaminated by Aflatoxin B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianni Battacone

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to study the excretion of aflatoxin M1(AFM1 in milk of three goats fed a single dose (0.8mg/head of pure aflatoxin B1 (AFB1. The values of AFM1 concentration excreted in milk was highly variable among goats, even if the pattern of excretion over time was very similar among the three animals. AFM1 was first detected at the milking performed 1h after the AFB1 administration. The highest values of AFM1 concentration in milk were reached 3 and 6h after the AFB1 intake. The trend of clearance of AFM1 in milk over time was expressed by a decreasing exponential equation. AFM1 concentration was below the EU maximum allowed level (50 ng/L in milk collected 36 h after the AFB1 administration.

  14. Energy and nutrient deposition and excretion in the reproducing sow: model development and evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, A V; Strathe, A B; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2014-01-01

    emission, manure carbon excretion, and manure production. The model was evaluated using independent data sets from the literature using root mean square prediction error (RMSPE) and concordance correlation coefficients. The gestation module predicted body fat gain better than body protein gain, which...... excretion and composition and methane emissions on a daily basis. The model was structured to contain gestation and lactation modules, which can be run separately or sequentially, with outputs from the gestation module used as inputs to the lactation module. In the gestating module, energy and protein...... production, and maternal growth with body tissue losses constrained within biological limits. Global sensitivity analysis showed that nonlinearity in the parameters was small. The model outputs considered were the total protein and fat deposition, average urinary and fecal N excretion, average methane...

  15. Alteration of renal excretion pathways in gentamicin-induced renal injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yan-Rong; Luo, Xuan; Wu, Yan-Fang; Zhang, Tiffany; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Wu, Xin-An

    2018-02-20

    The kidney plays a major part in the elimination of many drugs and their metabolites, and drug-induced kidney injury commonly alters either glomerular filtration or tubular transport, or both. However, the renal excretion pathway of drugs has not been fully elucidated at different stages of renal injury. This study aimed to evaluate the alteration of renal excretion pathways in gentamicin (GEN)-induced renal injury in rats. Results showed that serum cystatin C, creatinine and urea nitrogen levels were greatly increased by the exposure of GEN (100 mg kg -1 ), and creatinine concentration was increased by 39.7% by GEN (50 mg kg -1 ). GEN dose-dependently upregulated the protein expression of rOCT1, downregulated rOCT2 and rOAT1, but not affected rOAT2. Efflux transporters, rMRP2, rMRP4 and rBCRP expressions were significantly increased by GEN(100), and the rMATE1 level was markedly increased by GEN(50) but decreased by GEN(100). GEN(50) did not alter the urinary excretion of inulin, but increased metformin and furosemide excretion. However, GEN(100) resulted in a significant decrease of the urinary excretion of inulin, metformin and p-aminohippurate. In addition, urinary metformin excretions in vivo were significantly decreased by GEN(100), but slightly increased by GEN(50). These results suggested that GEN(50) resulted in the induction of rOCTs-rMATE1 and rOAT3-rMRPs pathway, but not changed the glomerular filtration rate, and GEN(100)-induced acute kidney injury caused the downregulated function of glomerular filtration -rOCTs-rMATE1 and -rOAT1-rMRPs pathway. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Nitrogen excretion factors of livestock in the European Union: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velthof, Gerard L; Hou, Yong; Oenema, Oene

    2015-12-01

    Livestock manures are major sources of nutrients, used for the fertilisation of cropland and grassland. Accurate estimates of the amounts of nutrients in livestock manures are required for nutrient management planning, but also for estimating nitrogen (N) budgets and emissions to the environment. Here we report on N excretion factors for a range of animal categories in policy reports by member states of the European Union (EU). Nitrogen excretion is defined in this paper as the total amount of N excreted by livestock per year as urine and faeces. We discuss the guidelines and methodologies for the estimation of N excretion factors by the EU Nitrates Directive, the OECD/Eurostat gross N balance guidebook, the EMEP/EEA Guidebook and the IPCC Guidelines. Our results show that N excretion factors for dairy cattle, other cattle, pigs, laying hens, broilers, sheep, and goats differ significantly between policy reports and between countries. Part of these differences may be related to differences in animal production (e.g. production of meat, milk and eggs), size/weight of the animals, and feed composition, but partly also to differences in the aggregation of livestock categories and estimation procedures. The methodologies and data used by member states are often not well described. There is a need for a common, harmonised methodology and procedure for the estimation of N excretion factors, to arrive at a common basis for the estimation of the production of manure N and N balances, and emissions of ammonia (NH3 ) and nitrous oxide (N2 O) across the EU. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Urinary fluoride excretion by children 4-6 years old in a south Texas community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baez Ramon J.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated urinary fluoride excretion by school children 4-6 years old who were living in a south Texas rural community that had concentrations of fluoride in drinking water supplies generally around the optimal level. We took supervised collections of urine samples in the morning and afternoon at school, and parents of the participating students collected nocturnal samples. We recorded the beginning and end times of the three collection periods and then determined the urinary volume and urinary flow for each of the periods. We measured urinary fluoride concentrations and calculated the urinary excretion rate per hour. The children had breakfast and lunch provided at the school, where the drinking water contained 1.0-1.3 milligrams/liter (mg/L fluoride. Fluoride concentrations in the tested household water supplies, from wells, ranged from 0.1 to 3.2 mg/L fluoride. The children's average urinary fluoride concentrations found for the day were similar to those for the night, with means ranging from 1.26 mg/L to 1.42 mg/L. Average excretion was 36.4 µg/h in the morning, 45.6 µg/h in the afternoon, and 17.5 µg/h at night. The lower nocturnal excretion rates are easily explained by low urinary flow at night. Based on the 15 hours of urine collected, the extrapolated 24-hour fluoride excretion was 749 µg. In conjunction with similar studies, the data from this study will help in developing upper limits for urinary fluoride excretion that are appropriate for avoiding unsightly fluorosis while providing optimal protection against dental decay.

  18. Endogenous Cholesterol Excretion Is Negatively Associated With Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaobo; Racette, Susan B; Ma, Lina; Wallendorf, Michael; Dávila-Román, Victor G; Ostlund, Richard E

    2017-12-01

    Epidemiological studies strongly suggest that lipid factors independent of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol contribute significantly to cardiovascular disease risk. Because circulating lipoproteins comprise only a small fraction of total body cholesterol, the mobilization and excretion of cholesterol from plasma and tissue pools may be an important determinant of cardiovascular disease risk. Our hypothesis is that fecal excretion of endogenous cholesterol is protective against atherosclerosis. Cholesterol metabolism and carotid intima-media thickness were quantitated in 86 nondiabetic adults. Plasma cholesterol was labeled by intravenous infusion of cholesterol-d 7 solubilized in a lipid emulsion and dietary cholesterol by cholesterol-d 5 and the nonabsorbable stool marker sitostanol-d 4 . Plasma and stool samples were collected while subjects consumed a cholesterol- and phytosterol-controlled metabolic kitchen diet and were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Carotid intima-media thickness was negatively correlated with fecal excretion of endogenous cholesterol ( r =-0.426; P cholesterol ( r =-0.472; P ≤0.0001), and daily percent excretion of cholesterol from the rapidly mixing cholesterol pool ( r =-0.343; P =0.0012) and was positively correlated with percent cholesterol absorption ( r =+0.279; P =0.0092). In a linear regression model controlling for age, sex, systolic blood pressure, hemoglobin A1c, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and statin drug use, fecal excretion of endogenous cholesterol remained significant ( P =0.0008). Excretion of endogenous cholesterol is strongly, independently, and negatively associated with carotid intima-media thickness. The reverse cholesterol transport pathway comprising the intestine and the rapidly mixing plasma, and tissue cholesterol pool could be an unrecognized determinant of cardiovascular disease risk not reflected in circulating lipoproteins. Further work is needed to relate measures of

  19. Beta-2-microglobulin excretion: an indicator of long term nephrotoxicity during cis-platinum treatment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, P G; Nissen, Mogens Holst; Groth, S

    1985-01-01

    To evaluate the value of beta-2-microglobulin as an indicator of acute and long-term cis-platinum-induced nephrotoxicity, 51Cr-EDTA clearance and serum concentration and urinary excretion of beta-2-microglobulin were measured in 18 patients treated with a regimen including cis-platinum. Before......-microglobulin remained unchanged. The decrease in 51Cr-EDTA clearance was not correlated to either the peak increase in the beta-2-microglobulin excretion or to the time of occurrence of the peak (R = 0.3). Thus, it is not possible to predict the long-term nephrotoxicity of cis-platinum by measuring the beta-2...

  20. The impact of gender and puberty on reference values for urinary growth hormone excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K M; Jarden, M; Angelo, L

    1994-01-01

    on pubertal maturation (P 0.3). Peak values occurred in Tanner stages 3 and 4 (369 and 391 pg/h in females; 503 and 882 pg/h in males), corresponding to an age interval of 11-18 yr in boys and 9-15 yr in girls...... conclude that the assay was suitable for measurement of U-GH excretion in virtually all healthy volunteers. Sex and pubertal stage as well as urinary volume and clock times for collection periods should be registered when establishing a reference range for U-GH excretion and applying it for clinical...

  1. Excretion pattern of aflatoxins in buffalo milk and carry-over in mozzarella cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gualla

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Some raw materials, used in animal feeding, can be contaminated by aflatoxins (AF. All the mammals that ingest AFB1, excrete small amounts of the hydroxylated metabolite aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 in their milk (Wood 1991. In the case of cow’s milk, the percentage excreted is 1-3% of that ingested (Veldman et al. 1992. AFM1 has been categorised as a class 2B, possible human carcinogen. AFM1 is associated with the protein fraction of milk and hence it is carried-over to cheese and to other milk products (Brackett and Marth, 1982....

  2. Refining the excretion factors of methadone and codeine for wastewater analysis - Combining data from pharmacokinetic and wastewater studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, Phong K; Lai, Foon Yin; Bruno, Raimondo; van Dyken, Emma; Hall, Wayne; O'Brien, Jake; Prichard, Jeremy; Mueller, Jochen F

    2016-09-01

    Analysing drug residues in wastewater (wastewater analysis) to monitor the consumption of those drugs in the population has become a complementary method to epidemiological surveys. In this method, the excretion factor of a drug (or the percentage of drug metabolites excreted through urine) is a critical parameter for the back-estimation of the consumption of a drug. However, this parameter is usually derived from a small database of human pharmacokinetic studies. This is true for methadone and codeine, the two most commonly used opioids and also common substances of abuse. Therefore, we aimed to refine the current excretion factors used for estimating methadone and codeine by analysing published data from the literature on the excretion of methadone, its main metabolite, 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP), and codeine. Our review included both human drug pharmacokinetic studies and wastewater analysis studies. We found that while the commonly used excretion factor of methadone (~27.5%) was relatively accurate, the excretion factor of EDDP, a better biomarker for methadone consumption in sewer epidemiology, should be twice that of methadone (i.e. 55%) instead of the current equal or half values. For codeine, the excretion factor should be ~30% instead of 63.5% or 10% as previously used in wastewater analysis studies. Data from wastewater analysis studies could be used in this way to refine the excretion factors of the drugs of interest. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of dairy calcium from cheese and milk on fecal fat excretion, blood lipids, and appetite in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karina Vejrum; Thorning, Tanja Kongerslev; Astrup, Arne

    2014-01-01

    Calcium from different dairy sources might affect blood lipids and fecal fat excretion differently because of differences in the food matrix and nutritional composition.......Calcium from different dairy sources might affect blood lipids and fecal fat excretion differently because of differences in the food matrix and nutritional composition....

  4. A biphasic response of urinary prostaglandin E2 excretion to water deprivation in conscious diabetes insipidus Brattleboro rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanters, J K; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Christensen, P

    1989-01-01

    -15 h., IV: 24-28 h. and V: 32-36 h. after removal of water and food. It was found that the PGE2 excretion rate changed in a biphasic pattern. During the first 2 experimental periods it increased. Thereafter it decreased towards the control value. There was an increase in PGE2 excretion with urinary...

  5. Distribution and time course of corticosterone excretion in faeces and urine of female mice with varying systemic concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalliokoski, Otto; Hau, Jann; Jacobsen, Kirsten R

    2010-01-01

    distribution and time course of corticosterone excretion, after intravenous injection of varying corticosterone concentrations, was investigated in female mice. Female BALB/c mice excreted 60% of all corticosterone in the urine with an approximate delay of 5h from tail vein administration. The remaining 40...

  6. Ammonia excretion at different life stages of silver catfish - 10.4025/actascianimsci.v34i1.11898

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Baldisserotto

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examined ammonia excretion at different life stages (eggs, larvae and juveniles in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen and determined the influence of fasting time on ammonia excretion. Eggs and larvae were collected from incubators at different times after fecundation and placed in chambers. Juveniles were separated into two weight classes (2–50 g and 150-320 g and placed in individual chambers after feeding. Water was collected from each chamber to determine ammonia excretion. Ammonia excretion by the eggs was low, but when hatching began approximately 28h after fecundation, excretion increased until 48h after fecundation. In fasting silver catfish juveniles, there was a significant negative correlation between ammonia excretion and weight. Moreover, ammonia excretion decreased significantly after 12 and 48h of fasting (compared to 6h fasting in the smallest and largest specimens, respectively. Consequently, during incubation of silver catfish eggs, water renovation must be increased at hatching time to avoid a build-up in the concentration of ammonia. In addition, as ammonia excretion in this species increases after feeding, feed must be discontinued when ammonia levels in the tanks are high to avoid a further increase of this metabolite and consequent mortality of silver catfish.

  7. Inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometric determination of platinum in excretion products of client-owned pet dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, T.; Brouwers, E. E M; de Vos, J.P.; de Vries, N.; Schellens, J. H M; Beijnen, J. H.

    2015-01-01

    Residues of antineoplastic drugs in canine excretion products may represent exposure risks to veterinary personnel, owners of pet dogs and other animal care-takers. The aim of this study was to measure the extent and duration of platinum (Pt) excretion in pet dogs treated with carboplatin. Samples

  8. Short communication: Urinary oxalate and calcium excretion by dogs and cats diagnosed with calcium oxalate urolithiasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijcker, J.C.; Kummeling, A.; Hagen-Plantinga, E.A.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Urine concentrations of oxalate and calcium play an important role in calcium oxalate (CaOx) urolith formation in dogs and cats, with high excretions of both substances increasing the chance of CaOx urolithiasis. In 17 CaOx-forming dogs, urine calcium:creatinine ratio (Ca:Cr) was found

  9. Cholesterol Transport Revisited: A New Turbo Mechanism to Drive Cholesterol Excretion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Jan Freark; Kuipers, Folkert; Groen, Albert K.

    2017-01-01

    A fine-tuned balance between cholesterol uptake and excretion by the body is pivotal to maintain health and to remain free from the deleterious consequences of cholesterol accumulation such as cardiovascular disease. The pathways involved in intracellular and extracellular cholesterol transport are

  10. Urinary prostaglandin E and vasopressin excretion in essential fatty acid-deficient rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.

    1983-01-01

    Three groups of weanling male rats were fed on a fat-free diet for 13 weeks. One group received only the fat-free diet (FF rats), the other 2 groups received the fat-free diet and a daily supplement of 2 energy% ethyl linoleate ([n-6] rats), or 2 energy% ethyl linolenate ([n-3] rats). Urinary...... excretion of prostaglandin E (PGE), immunoreactive arginine vasopressin (iA VP), and kallikrein were determined. PGE was quantitated with a radioimmunoassay having 4.9% cross-reactivity with prostaglandin E (PGE). After 4 weeks on the diet, water consumption and urinary iAVP excretion increased...... significantly in the FF rats and the (n-3) rats compared with the (n-6) rats. Urinary PGE excretion was the same for all 3 groups during the first 10 weeks; thereafter it decreased in FF rats and (n-3) rats compared with the (n-6) rats. There was no difference in urinary PGE excretion between the FF rats...

  11. Endothelial haemostatic factors are associated with progression of urinary albumin excretion in clinically healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P; Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Jensen, G

    1999-01-01

    A slightly elevated urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER), above 5-10 microgram/min, is a predictor of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Endothelial dysfunction is an important early feature of atherosclerosis. The plasma concentration of von Willebrand factor (vWF), a potential marker of e...

  12. Excretion/secretion products from Schistosoma mansoni adults, eggs and schistosomula have unique peptidase specificity profiles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvořák, Jan; Fajtová, Pavla; Ulrychová, L.; Leontovyč, Adrian; Rojo-Arreola, L.; Suzuki, B.M.; Horn, Martin; Mareš, Michael; Craik, C. S.; Caffrey, C. R.; O'Donoghue, A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 122, Mar (2016), s. 99-109 ISSN 0300-9084 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP302/11/1481; GA MŠk LO1302 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : parasite * fluke * secretion * excretion * protease * inhibitor Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.112, year: 2016

  13. Excretion/secretion products from Schistosoma mansoni adults, eggs and schistosomula have unique peptidase specificity profiles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvořák, Jan; Fajtová, P.; Ulrychová, Lenka; Leontovyc, A.; Rojo-Arreola, L.; Suzuki, B.M.; Horn, M.; Mareš, M.; Craik, C. S.; Caffrey, C. R.; O'Donoghue, A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 122, jaro (2016), s. 99-109 ISSN 0300-9084 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP302/11/1481; GA MŠk LO1302 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Parasite * Fluke * Secretion * Excretion * Protease * Inhibitor Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.112, year: 2016

  14. Nitrogen excretion at different stages of growth and its association with production traits in growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shirali, M.; Doeschl-Wilson, A.; Knap, P.W.; Duthie, C.; Kanis, E.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Roehe, R.

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine nitrogen loss at different stages of growth and during the entire growing period and to investigate the associations between nitrogen excretion and production traits in growing pigs. Data from 315 pigs of an F-2 population which originated from crossing

  15. Absorption and excretion of black currant anthocyanins in human and Watanabe Heritable Hyperlipidemic rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, I. L.. F.; Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Dragsted, L. O.

    2003-01-01

    Anthocyanins are thought to protect against cardiovascular diseases. Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbits are hypercholesterolemic and used as a model of the development of atherosclerosis. To compare the uptake and excretion of anthocyanins in humans and WHHL rabbits, single-dose bla...... as Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity and ferruc reducing ability of plasma....

  16. Study of the Assessment Method for N Excretion in Sustainable Heavy Pigs Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Kaijun; Liu, Fenghua; Xu, Xiaolong; Xu, Jianqin; Zoccarato, Ivo

    Italian heavy pigs, with an average slaughtering body weight of 150-170 kg, are world-wide famous for its Parma ham production. Because the requirement of market diversity, producers are interested in ham production following the procedure of Italian pork industry. However, with ever growing public concern about nitrogen (N) pollution in the environment, it is necessary to determine a suitable method to measure N excretion from heavy pig production. The N retention was calculated by factorial method and compared with estimations of other methods available in literature. The results showed that the N percentage of heavy pigs is 2.43% ± 0.07% on body weight basis and the percentage of N excretion was approximately 69.62% ± 0.20 of N intake. Regarding the N excretion of estimation methods, the proposal of Xiccato et al. was closer to reality of the heavy pig production than other methods and could be used as a standard way to calculate the N excretion. Besides the overall standard, it is opportune to make a N balance sheet for every individual farm under specific conditions. Only in this way, the farmers can realize their deficiencies and will voluntarily follow the Good Management Practice (GMP) indications so as to guarantee a sustainable development of pig production.

  17. Progesterone increases glomerular filtration rate, urinary kallikrein excretion and uric acid clearance in normal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atallah, A N; Guimarães, J A; Gebara, M; Sustovich, D R; Martinez, T R; Camano, L

    1988-01-01

    In pregnancy there is a rise in glomerular filtration rate (GFR), plasma aldosterone levels, uric acid clearance and urinary kallikrein excretion. In toxemia all the above parameters tend to decrease. Progesterone has a diuretic effect which is usually related to aldosterone antagonism. We administered progesterone to normal women and observed that GFR, uric acid clearance and kallikrein excretion increased significantly, GFR from 103.0 +/- 13.7 ml/min to 118.0 +/- 18.0 ml/min (P less than 0.01), uric acid clearance from 9.0 +/- 3.6 ml/min to 14.3 +/- 4.0 ml/min (P less than 0.01), and urinary kallikrein excretion from 165 +/- 156 mU to 432 +/- 220 mU (P less than 0.01). Natriuresis and potassium excretion also increased from 15.9 +/- 6.4 mEq to 33.4 +/- 10.9 mEq (P less than 0.01) and from 7.6 +/- 2.7 mEq to 14.0 +/- 5.4 mEq, (P less than 0.01), respectively, suggesting that in this situation aldosterone antagonism is not relevant to explain the diuretic effects of progesterone.

  18. Urinary excretion of liver fatty acid-binding protein in health-check participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimitsu, Toshihiko; Ohta, Satoshi; Saito, Mayumi; Teranishi, Megumi; Inada, Hideki; Yoshii, Masayoshi; Minami, Junichi; Ono, Hidehiko; Hikawa, Akihisa; Shibata, Norio; Sugaya, Takeshi; Kamijo, Atsuko; Kimura, Kenjiro; Ohrui, Masami; Matsuoka, Hiroaki

    2005-03-01

    Messenger RNA of liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) is expressed in proximal tubules of the kidney, and a certain amount is excreted into urine. We analyzed factors relating to the urinary L-FABP excretion in health-check participants. We measured L-FABP in the first morning urine by ELISA in 715 men and 193 women 30-79 years of age who entered a 2-day hospitalized health checkup program. In addition to the routine physical examination and laboratory tests, plasma high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (HSCRP) was assayed. In 150 healthy subjects, urinary L-FABP averaged 3.6 +/- 0.2 microg/g creatinine, whereas the values were significantly increased in patients with hypertension (5.2 +/- 0.4, P = 0.010), diabetes mellitus (5.5 +/- 0.5, P excretion was significantly greater in women than in men when the value was related to creatinine. In regression analysis in men, urinary L-FABP was positively correlated with fasting plasma glucose (r = 0.103, P = 0.033) and plasma HSCRP (r = 0.135, P = 0.006). It is suggested that renal production and urinary excretion of L-FABP are increased in situations in which arteriosclerosis is promoted, such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular inflammation.

  19. Urinary excretion of dietary maillard reaction products in healthy adult female cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooijen, van C.; Bosch, G.; Butre, C.I.; Poel, van der A.F.B.; Wierenga, P.A.; Alexander, L.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2016-01-01

    Download »Citation Alerts »Sign up for TOC email alerts Share »Email this content »Recommend to librarian Facebook Twitter doi:10.2527/jas.2015-9550 Urinary excretion of dietary Maillard reaction products in healthy adult female cats12 C. van Rooijen*, G. Bosch 3*, C. I. Butré†, A. F. B. van der

  20. Increased urinary excretion of platelet activating factor in mice with lupus nephritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macconi, D.; Noris, M.; Benfenati, E.; Quaglia, R.; Pagliarino, G. (Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research, Bergamo (Italy)); Remuzzi, G. (Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research, Bergamo (Italy) Ospedali Riuniti di Bergamo (Italy))

    1991-01-01

    Platelet activating factor (PAF) is present in urine from humans and experimental animals in normal conditions. Very little is known about changes in PAF urinary excretion under pathologic conditions and no data are available about the origin of PAF in the urine. In the present study we explored the possibility that immunologic renal disease is associated with an increase in PAF urinary excretion using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technique. To clarify the renal or extrarenal origin of urinary PAF we evaluated whether exogenously administered PAF (1-(1{prime},2{prime}-{sup 3}H)alkyl) is filtered through the glomerulus and excreted in the urine. The results show that: (1) urine from mice with lupus nephritis in the early phase of the disease contained amounts of PAF comparable to those excreted in normal mouse urine, (2) PAF levels increased when animals started to develop high grade proteinuria, (3) after intravenous injection of ({sup 3}H) PAF In nephritic mice, a negligible amount of ({sup 3}H) ether lipid, corresponding to ({sup 3}H)1-alkyl -2-acyl-3-phosphocholine (alkyl-2-acyl-GPC), was recovered from the 24 h urine extract.

  1. Fractional excretion as a new marker of tubular damage in children with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musiał, Kinga; Zwolińska, Danuta

    2018-02-06

    Vitamin D-binding protein (VDBP), retinol-binding protein (RBP)4, and heat shock proteins (hsp) are markers of tubular function and apoptosis, accompanying chronic kidney disease (CKD) from its earliest stages. Fractional excretion of proteins with urine is a marker of tubular damage. The aim of study was to assess the usefulness of fractional excretion (FE) of VDBP, RBP4, HSF1 and Hsp27 as markers of tubular damage in the course of CKD. The study group consisted of 70 children with CKD stages 1-5, treated conservatively, and 12 age-matched controls with normal kidney function. The serum and urine concentrations of VDBP, RBP4, HSF1 and Hsp27 were assessed by ELISA. The fractional excretion of analyzed parameters was calculated according to the formula: ([parameter urine concentration] × [creatinine serum concentration]) / ([parameter serum concentration] × [creatinine urine concentration])×100%. The FE values of all parameters exceeded 1% in CKD stage 2. However, the values of FE have raised significantly versus control group no sooner than CKD stage 2 (RBP4 and HSF1), stage 3 (VDBP) or stage 4 (Hsp27). Fractional excretion of RBP4 and HSF1 with urine may become a valuable marker, assessing the damage of tubular cells in children with CKD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Urinary fluoride excretion after application of fluoride varnish and use of fluoride toothpaste in young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lockner, Frida; Twetman, Svante; Stecksén-Blicks, Christina

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The efficacy and safety of combined use of topical fluoride products are essential issues that must be monitored. AIM: To assess urinary excretion of fluoride after application of two different dental varnishes containing 2.26% fluoride in 3- to 4-year-old children and to compare the ...

  3. Cultivable Alginate Lyase-Excreting Bacteria Associated with the Arctic Brown Alga Laminaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Zhong Zhang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Although some alginate lyases have been isolated from marine bacteria, alginate lyases-excreting bacteria from the Arctic alga have not yet been investigated. Here, the diversity of the bacteria associated with the brown alga Laminaria from the Arctic Ocean was investigated for the first time. Sixty five strains belonging to nine genera were recovered from six Laminaria samples, in which Psychrobacter (33/65, Psychromonas (10/65 and Polaribacter (8/65 were the predominant groups. Moreover, 21 alginate lyase-excreting strains were further screened from these Laminaria-associated bacteria. These alginate lyase-excreting strains belong to five genera. Psychromonas (8/21, Psedoalteromonas (6/21 and Polaribacter (4/21 are the predominant genera, and Psychrobacter, Winogradskyella, Psychromonas and Polaribacter were first found to produce alginate lyases. The optimal temperatures for the growth and algiante lyase production of many strains were as low as 10–20 °C, indicating that they are psychrophilic bacteria. The alginate lyases produced by 11 strains showed the highest activity at 20–30 °C, indicating that these enzymes are cold-adapted enzymes. Some strians showed high levels of extracellular alginate lyase activity around 200 U/mL. These results suggest that these algiante lyase-excreting bacteria from the Arctic alga are good materials for studying bacterial cold-adapted alginate lyases.

  4. Treatment with Potassium Bicarbonate Lowers Calcium Excretion and Bone Resorption in Older Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicarbonate has been implicated in bone health in older subjects on acid-producing diets in short-term studies. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of potassium bicarbonate and its components on changes in bone resorption and calcium excretion over 3 months in older men and wom...

  5. Surface binding properties of aged and fresh (recently excreted) Toxoplasma gondii oocysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    The surface properties of aged (stored for 10 years) and fresh (recently excreted) oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii were investigated using monoclonal antibody (mAb) and lectin-binding assays. Fresh oocysts bound a wall-specific mAb labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate while aged oocysts did not. In ...

  6. Urinary sulphate excretion and progression of diabetic nephropathy in Type1 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andresdottir, G.; Bakker, S. J. L.; Hansen, H. P.; Parving, H-H; Rossing, P.

    Aims Hydrogen sulphide levels are reduced in many disease states, including diabetes and end-stage renal disease. We aimed to determine whether urinary sulphate excretion, as a proxy for hydrogen sulphide, was associated with progression of diabetic nephropathy. Methods We conducted a post-hoc study

  7. Tolvaptan suppresses monocyte chemotactic protein-1 excretion in autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grantham, Jared J.; Chapman, Arlene B.; Blais, Jaime; Czerwiec, Frank S.; Devuyst, Olivier; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Higashihara, Eiji; Krasa, Holly; Zhou, Wen; Ouyang, John; Perrone, Ronald D.; Torres, Vicente E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is characterized by multitudes of expanding renal cysts associated with mononuclear interstitial infiltrates. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 is produced in the kidneys and excreted in the urine (uMCP1) of these patients in increased

  8. Heme oxygenase induction and biliverdin excretion: implications for the bile fluorescence biomarker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hurk, Peter

    2006-07-01

    The measurement of bile fluorescence has become a popular biomarker to demonstrate the exposure of fish to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Conflicting data have been published on how to normalize bile fluorescence. To investigate if normalization to biliverdin is a suitable method, experiments were performed to study the mechanisms related to biliverdin excretion in fish. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were dosed with mixtures of benzo[a]pyrene and cadmium, chlorinated phenols or borneol. The results showed that under increasing toxicant stress, more biliverdin was excreted per amount of protein. To investigate if the increased biliverdin excretion was related to increased heme degradation, enzymatic activity of heme oxygenase (HO) was measured in liver homogenates. The fish dosed with chemical mixtures had significantly higher HO activity than the control fish, and a significant correlation was observed between HO activity and biliverdin concentration in the bile. It is concluded that chemical mixtures of environmental pollutants can induce HO activity and that this chemical stress leads to increased biliverdin excretion. The elucidation of this mechanistic pathway warrants that bile fluorescence is better expressed per amount of bile protein than per biliverdin absorption.

  9. Bile fluorescence, heme oxygenase induction, and increased biliverdin excretion by mixtures of environmental toxicants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurk, Peter van den [Department of Biological Sciences, Institute of Environmental Toxicology, Clemson University, Pendleton, SC (United States)]. E-mail: pvdhurk@clemson.edu

    2006-05-01

    The measurement of bile fluorescence has become a popular biomarker to demonstrate the exposure of fish to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Conflicting data has been published on how to normalize bile fluorescence. To investigate if normalization to biliverdin is a suitable method, experiments were performed to study the mechanisms related to biliverdin excretion in fish. In two separate experiments channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were dosed with mixtures of benzo[a]pyrene with cadmium, chlorinated phenols or borneol. The results showed linear relationships between bile protein and biliverdin for each treatment group, but the slope of this relationship was significantly increased when fish received more chemical stress. Thus, under increasing toxicant stress, more biliverdin was excreted per amount of protein. To investigate if the increased biliverdin excretion was related to increased heme degradation, enzymatic activity of heme oxygenase (HO) was measured in liver homogenates of the dosed fish. The fish dosed with chemical mixtures had a significantly higher HO activity than the control fish, and in both experiments a significant correlation was observed between HO activity and biliverdin concentration in the bile. It is concluded that mixtures of environmental pollutants can induce HO activity and that this chemical stress leads to increased biliverdin excretion. The elucidation of this mechanistic pathway warrants that bile fluorescence should not be expressed per biliverdin absorption, and that expression per bile protein would be a more reliable method.

  10. Bile fluorescence, heme oxygenase induction, and increased biliverdin excretion by mixtures of environmental toxicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hurk, Peter

    2006-05-01

    The measurement of bile fluorescence has become a popular biomarker to demonstrate the exposure of fish to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Conflicting data has been published on how to normalize bile fluorescence. To investigate if normalization to biliverdin is a suitable method, experiments were performed to study the mechanisms related to biliverdin excretion in fish. In two separate experiments channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were dosed with mixtures of benzo[a]pyrene with cadmium, chlorinated phenols or borneol. The results showed linear relationships between bile protein and biliverdin for each treatment group, but the slope of this relationship was significantly increased when fish received more chemical stress. Thus, under increasing toxicant stress, more biliverdin was excreted per amount of protein. To investigate if the increased biliverdin excretion was related to increased heme degradation, enzymatic activity of heme oxygenase (HO) was measured in liver homogenates of the dosed fish. The fish dosed with chemical mixtures had a significantly higher HO activity than the control fish, and in both experiments a significant correlation was observed between HO activity and biliverdin concentration in the bile. It is concluded that mixtures of environmental pollutants can induce HO activity and that this chemical stress leads to increased biliverdin excretion. The elucidation of this mechanistic pathway warrants that bile fluorescence should not be expressed per biliverdin absorption, and that expression per bile protein would be a more reliable method.

  11. Splanchnic and peripheral release of 3-methylhistidine in relation to its urinary excretion in human infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjölin, J; Stjernström, H; Henneberg, S

    1989-01-01

    The present investigation was undertaken in order to determine the release of 3-methylhistidine (3MH) from the splanchnic region and from the leg, and the contributions these make to the increase in urinary 3MH excretion in infection. Thirteen febrile patients with infection were investigated. Af...

  12. Viscous Food Matrix Influences Absorption and Excretion but Not Metabolism of Blackcurrant Anthocyanins in Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walton, M.C.; Hendriks, W.H.; Broomfield, A.M.; McGhie, T.K.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of a simultaneous intake of food and anthocyanins (ACNs) on ACN absorption, metabolism, and excretion. Blackcurrant ACNs (BcACNs) were dissolved in water with or without the addition of oatmeal and orally administered to rats, providing

  13. Excretion of purine base derivatives after intake of bacterial protein meal in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Skrede, A.

    2007-01-01

    increased with increasing dietary content of BPM. No differences in fasting plasma concentration of uric acid, xanthine and hypoxanthine were observed. It can therefore be concluded that increasing levels of dietary BPM maintained protein accretion and led to changes in excretion of purine detrivatices...

  14. Influence of orocaecal transit time on hydrogen excretion after carbohydrate malabsorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J; Hamberg, O; Gudmand-Høyer, E

    1989-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether changes in orocaecal transit time (OCTT) affect the magnitude of the breath hydrogen (H2) excretion after ingestion of unabsorbable carbohydrate. We studied eight healthy subjects by interval sampling of end expiratory H2 concentration for 12...

  15. Effects of changes in body weight on carbohydrate metabolism, catecholamine excretion, and thyroid function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, M; Hirsch, J; Murphy, E; Leibel, R L

    2000-06-01

    Weight gain and loss increases and decreases energy expenditure, respectively, out of proportion to changes in metabolic mass. We hypothesized that changes in energy expenditure associated with weight gain or loss were due in part to changes in catecholamine release, thyroid hormones, carbohydrate utilization, or a combination thereof. Urinary catecholamine excretion, serum thyroid hormone concentrations, and results of 3-h oral-glucose-tolerance tests were examined in obese and never-obese subjects at their usual weights, during weight loss or gain, and at stable weights 10-20% below or 10% above usual. Urinary norepinephrine excretion decreased significantly during and after weight loss and increased during and after weight gain. Serum concentrations of reverse triiodothyronine increased significantly during and after weight loss, whereas serum concentrations of triiodothyronine increased significantly (by approximately 0%) during and after weight gain. Serum insulin and glucose concentrations during the oral-glucose-tolerance test increased significantly after weight gain in obese subjects. The percentage change in urinary norepinephrine excretion and in serum concentrations of triiodothyronine were significantly correlated with percentage changes in energy expenditure and with each other. Changes in body weight were associated with changes in catecholamine excretion and thyroid hormones, which might-by virtue of the effects on energy expenditure-have favored a return to usual body weight. Weight gain induced more apparent insulin resistance in the obese than the never-obese subjects, suggesting a threshold effect of total body fat on this phenomenon.

  16. Evidence of de novo synthesis of maltose excreted by the endosymbiotic Chlorella from Paramecium bursaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziesenisz, E; Reisser, W; Wiessner, W

    1981-12-01

    The endosymbiotic Chlorella sp. from Paramecium bursaria excretes maltose both in the light and in the dark. Experiments on photosynthetic (14)CO2 fixation and (14)CO2 pulse-chase experiments show that maltose is synthesized in the light directly from compounds of the Calvin cycle, whereas in the dark it results from starch degradation.

  17. Urinary excretion reflects lung deposition of aminoglycoside aerosols in cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dequin, P F; Faurisson, F; Lemarié, E; Delatour, F; Marchand, S; Valat, C; Boissinot, E; de Gialluly, C; Diot, P

    2001-08-01

    Using nebulization to deliver aminoglycosides may be of benefit in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients colonized by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. However, one problem with this route is the absence of clinical parameters allowing estimation of the mass of drug deposited in the lungs (MDL). The aim of this study was to assess whether aminoglycoside excretion in the urine reflects the MDL. Fourteen studies were performed in seven CF patients. Amikacin was mixed with albumin labelled with 99mTc and nebulized with an ultrasonic nebulizer. The MDL was determined by the mass-balance technique. Urine was collected during the 24 h following inhalation and was assayed for amikacin by fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA). The mean+/-SEM MDL was 14.0+/-2.2% of the nebulizer charge. The mean+/-SEM amount of amikacin excreted in the urine was 20.9+/-4.5 mg and correlated with the MDL (r=0.93; p=0.0001). There was, however, wide intersubject variability in both deposition and excretion in the urine. Monitoring excretion of aminoglycosides in the urine allows noninvasive estimation of the mass of drug deposited in the lung in cystic fibrosis patients, which might be useful to assess the dose-response relationship in groups of patients, but intersubject variability prevents its use for individual follow-up.

  18. Phyto-oestrogen excretion and rate of bone loss in postmenopausal women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kardinaal, A.F.M.; Morton, M.S.; Brüggemann-Rotgans, I.E.M.; Beresteijn, E.C.H. van

    1998-01-01

    Objective: The hypothesis was tested that the rate of postmenopausal bone loss is inversely associated with long-term urinary excretion of phyto-oestrogens, as a marker of habitual dietary intake. Design: Secondary analysis of a 10-year follow-up study (1979-1989) among postmenopausal women in the

  19. Evaluation of using spot urine to replace 24 h urine sodium and potassium excretions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooft Van Huysduynen, E.J.C.; Hulshof, P.J.M.; Lee, van L.; Geelen, A.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Veer, van 't P.; Woerkum, van C.M.J.; Vries, de J.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The most accurate method to estimate Na and K intakes is to determine 24 h urinary excretions of these minerals. However, collecting 24 h urine is burdensome. Therefore it was studied whether spot urine could be used to replace 24 h urine samples. Design Participants collected 24 h urine

  20. Identification of factors associated with increased excretion of foot-and-mouth disease virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bravo De Rueda, C.; Dekker, A.; Eble, P.L.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated which variables possibly influence the amount of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) shed in secretions and excretions by FMDV infected animals, as it is likely that the amount of FMDV shed is related to transmission risk. First, in a separate analysis of laboratory data, we showed

  1. Salmonella fecal excretion control in broiler chickens by organic acids and essential oils blend feed added

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Borsoi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Salmonellosis is an important disease with economic impact as it may affect animal performance and may result in foodborne disease in humans through the eggs and carcass contamination. Regarding the Salmonella control, it is possible to decrease its fecal excretion and the contamination of chicken carcasses by adding organic acids to the feed or drinking water at appropriate times. The aim of this study was to test a blend of organic acids and essential oils in broilers challenged with Salmonella Enteritidis (SE, and to verify the fecal excretion of Salmonella. Sixty broilers were placed in four groups. One group was the negative control. Another group was orally inoculated at 1 day-old with 10(5 CFU/mL of SE as a positive SE control. Two groups (T3 and T4 were orally inoculated at 1 day-old with 10(5 CFU/mL of SE and their feed was separately treated with 0.5 and 1% of organic acids and essential oils, respectively. To assess the fecal excretion of SE, cloacal swabs were collected from all birds at 2, 6, 13 and 20 days after inoculation. The T3 and T4 groups showed a reduction in fecal excretion of SE at 6 and 20 days after inoculation.

  2. Urinary albumin excretion and the renin-angiotensin system in cardiovascular risk management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Wal, R. M. A.; Voors, A. A.; Gansevoort, R. T.

    2006-01-01

    Microalbuminuria has been shown to be a strong predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in diabetic and hypertensive patients, but also in the general population. Moreover, several reports suggest that reduction of urinary albumin excretion (UAE) is associated with improvement of

  3. Twenty-four hour urinary urea excretion and 9-year risk of hypertension: The PREVEND study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielemans, S.M.A.J.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Baak, M.A. van; Engberink, M.F.; Brink, E.J.; Jong, P.E. de; Gansevoort, R.T.; Bakker, S.J.L.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: It is not yet clear whether dietary protein could help maintaining a healthy blood pressure (BP). We investigated the association between total protein intake, estimated from 24-h urinary urea excretion, and incident hypertension in Dutch men and women. METHODS: We analyzed data of 3997

  4. Urinary acidification and urinary excretion of calcium and citrate in women with bilateral medullary sponge kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Mathiasen, Helle; Hansen, A B

    1994-01-01

    Urinary acidification ability, acid-base status and urinary excretion of calcium and citrate were evaluated in 10 women with bilateral medullary sponge kidney (MSK) and in 10 healthy women. Patients with MSK had higher fasting urine pH compared to normal controls (p ... in the mechanism of hypercalciuria and hypocitraturia in patients with medullary sponge kidney.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)...

  5. The effects of temperature on specific dynamic action and ammonia excretion in pikeperch (Sander lucioperca)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisk, Michael; Steffensen, John Fleng; Skov, Peter Vilhelm

    2013-01-01

    for pikeperch ranges between 11°C and 27°C. The aim of the present study was to investigate the thermal biology of pikeperch, by examining how specific dynamic action (SDA) and total ammonia nitrogen excretion (TAN) are affected by temperature, within this optimal temperature range.From oxygen consumption rate...

  6. Urinary excretion of furosemide in rats with HgCl sub 2 -induced acute renal damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimura, Akio; Sudoh, Toshiaki; Ohashi, Kyoichi; Ebihara, Akio (Jichi Medical School, Tochigi (Japan))

    1992-01-01

    To examine the influence of mercuric chloride (HgCl{sub 2})-induced acute renal damage on urinary excretion of furosemide, HgCl{sub 2} or its vehicle along was given intraperitoneally to Wistar rats. The following two experiments were done. Study 1: three percent body weight (b.w.) of 1% NaCl solution or furosemide in 3% b.w. of 1% NaCl solution was given orally before and after HgCl{sub 2} treatment, and an 8-hour urine was collected. Study 2: furosemide was given orally, and blood samples were obtained at 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8 hours after administration. Urinary excretion of N-acetyl-{beta}-D-glucosaminidase increased, and urine volume and urinary excretions of furosemide and sodium decreased in the HgCl{sub 2}-treated rats. There were significant correlations between the urinary furosemide and its diuretic effects. Regression lines after HgCl{sub 2} were significantly different from those before treatment. The values of absorption as well as elimination rate constant were smaller, while the time to maximum concentration and the elimination half-life were longer in the HgCl{sub 2}-treated rats compared to vehicle-treated animals. These results suggest that the urinary excretion of furosemide and the responsiveness of renal tubular cells to this agent are impaired in rats with HgCl{sub 2}-induced acute renal damage.

  7. Association between urinary excretion of cortisol and markers of oxidatively damaged DNA and RNA in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Joergensen

    Full Text Available Chronic psychological stress is associated with accelerated aging, but the underlying biological mechanisms are not known. Prolonged elevations of the stress hormone cortisol is suspected to play a critical role. Through its actions, cortisol may potentially induce oxidatively generated damage to cellular constituents such as DNA and RNA, a phenomenon which has been implicated in aging processes. We investigated the relationship between 24 h excretion of urinary cortisol and markers of oxidatively generated DNA and RNA damage, 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine, in a sample of 220 elderly men and women (age 65-83 years. We found a robust association between the excretion of cortisol and the oxidation markers (R(2 = 0.15, P<0.001 for both markers. Individuals in the highest quartile of cortisol excretion had a 57% and 61% higher median excretion of the DNA and RNA oxidation marker, respectively, than individuals in the lowest quartile. The finding adds support to the hypothesis that cortisol-induced damage to DNA/RNA is an explanatory factor in the complex relation between stress, aging and disease.

  8. Association between Urinary Excretion of Cortisol and Markers of Oxidatively Damaged DNA and RNA in Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joergensen, Anders; Broedbaek, Kasper; Weimann, Allan

    2011-01-01

    to cellular constituents such as DNA and RNA, a phenomenon which has been implicated in aging processes. We investigated the relationship between 24 h excretion of urinary cortisol and markers of oxidatively generated DNA and RNA damage, 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine...

  9. Aflatoxin excretion in children with kwashiorkor or marasmic kwashiorkor--a clinical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, H R; Maxwell, S M; Hendrickse, R G

    1990-04-01

    A group of five children with kwashiorkor, seven with marasmic kwashiorkor and one underweight child were given an aflatoxin-free diet consisting of maize meal and milk powder. Blood specimens were collected on admission; on day 4 and 10, 24 hour urine and stool samples were collected for the first ten days. Serum, urine and stool samples were analysed for aflatoxins using high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescent detection, after various extraction and clean-up procedures. The children with kwashiorkor and marasmic kwashiorkor excreted aflatoxins in stools for up to 9 and 6 days after admission respectively. No aflatoxins were detected in the stools or urine of the underweight child. In kwashiorkor, urinary excretion ceased after 2 days, while in marasmic kwashiorkor urinary excretion persisted for 4 days. In stools, B1 was the type of aflatoxin detected most frequently in kwashiorkor and least frequently in marasmic kwashiorkor. Aflatoxin M2 was frequently detected in the stools of both groups of children. Estimates of the total amount of aflatoxin excreted by kwashiorkor and marasmic kwashiorkor indicate that these children were harbouring up to 4 micrograms/kg body weight at the time of admission. These findings establish that aflatoxins accumulate in body fluids and tissues in kwashiorkor and marasmic kwashiorkor which is only slowly eliminated.

  10. Excretion of Schistosoma mattheei eggs from man, baboons and cattle living in their normal environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitchford, R J; Visser, P S

    1975-06-01

    Egg excretion of S. mattheei was studied for about a year from man, baboons and cattle living in their normal environment. Although the excretory pattern was not unequivocal from man, there was a tendency of egg counts to decline with time: the baboons showed a seasonal pattern and the cattle a stable pattern throughout the year.

  11. Complexing activity and excretion of 2,3-dimercapto-1-propane sulfonate in rat kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klotzbach, J.M.; Diamond, G.L.

    1988-06-01

    The renal handling of the heavy metal complexing agent, 2,3-dimercapto-1-propane sulfonate (DMPS), was examined in the isolated perfused rat kidney (IPRK). Net tubular secretion of DMPS was saturable and blocked by p-aminohippuric acid (PAH) and probenecid (PRB), indicating involvement of carrier-mediated transport in the excretion of DMPS. DMPS was oxidized to a disulfide form (DMPSS) in perfusate and reduced to a sulfhydryl form (DMPSH) in kidney. In kidneys isolated from rats pretreated with HgCl/sub 2/, DMPS produced a dose-dependent decrease in retention of inorganic mercury, an increase in urinary excretion of mercury, and an increase in the amount of mercury transferred from kidney into venous perfusate. At a maximally effective dose, 40% of the renal mercury content was excreted in urine during 30 min of perfusion. Urinary excretion of mercury induced by DMPS was completely blocked by concentrations of PRB that blocked tubular secretion of DMPS and decreased uptake of DMPS in kidney. Thus tubular secretion of DMPS and reduction of DMPSS to DMPSH are important in the renal handling of DMPS and may contribute to the activity of DMPS as a complexing agent for renal mercury.

  12. Dietary protein affects nitrogen excretion and ammonia emission from slurry of growing-finishing pigs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canh, T.T.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Schutte, J.B.; Sutton, A.L.; Langhout, D.J.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of dietary protein on nitrogen excretion and ammonia emission from slurry of growing–finishing pigs were studied both in vitro and in a pig house. The three diets had similar contents of NE, minerals, vitamins and ileal digestible lysine, methionine cystine, threonine and tryptophan, but

  13. Dietary protein affects nitrogen excretion and ammonia emission from slurry of growing-finishing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canh, T.T.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Schutte, J.B.; Sutton, A.; Langhout, D.J.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of dietary protein on nitrogen excretion and ammonia emission from slurry of growing-finishing pigs were studied both in vitro and in a pig house. The three diets had similar contents of NE, minerals, vitamins and ileal digestible lysine, methionine + cystine, threonine and tryptophan,

  14. Urinary excretion of arbutin metabolites after oral administration of bearberry leaf extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintus, Joachim; Kovar, Karl-Artur; Link, Peter; Hamacher, Harald

    2005-02-01

    An HPLC assay with fluorimetric detection of the arbutin metabolites hydroquinone glucuronide (2) and hydroquinone sulphate (6) in urine was developed and validated. Methylarbutin (4) and 6 were synthesised as reference substances. Compound 2 was prepared enzymatically from hydroquinone and uridine 5'-diphosphoglucuronic acid using the glucosyltransferase system of rat liver microsomes and enriched by two liquid-liquid and an additional solid phase extraction. Compound 2 as the main component of this purified product was identified by UV and fluorescence spectroscopy, by HPLC-MS, and by enzymatic hydrolysis to hydroquinone (5). The assay yields precise and accurate urine levels of 2, 5 and 6 in the concentration range expected after oral administration of recommended therapeutic doses of bearberry leaf extract. In a preliminary pharmacokinetic study on 3 volunteers the time-dependent renal excretion of arbutin metabolites 2, 5 and 6 was investigated after ingestion of an aqueous bearberry leaf extract containing an arbutin dose recommended by the German Kommission E. More than half of the administered dose of arbutin was excreted within 4 hours mainly in form of the metabolites 2 and 6 and more than 75 % of the total applied arbutin was excreted within 24 h. The elimination of 5 was negligible in 2 out of 3 volunteers. The excretion of this metabolite in the third test person reached 5.6 % of the total administered arbutin dose. The preliminary pharmacokinetic results confirm that renal elimination of toxicologically critical concentrations of the metabolite 5 will not be expected.

  15. Automatic measurement of water uptake and weeping sap excretion by root system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Czerski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An apparatus is described which allows continuous recording of water uptake by a plant. The elements of this apparatus serve at the same time for measurement of root pressure. The size of the recorded portion of uptaken water and of weeping sap excreted by the plant root can be regulated.

  16. [Antimicrobial factors of hemolymph and excretion of larvae Lucilia sericata (meigen) (diptera, calliphoridae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruglikova, A A

    2011-01-01

    The present study deals with molecular nature and peculiarities of functioning of two main protective systems of larvae Lucilia sericata--the antimicrobial compounds of hemolymph and of the excretion released by feeding larvae into environmental. There are identified a number of inducible antibacterial peptides including defensins (3844, 4062, and 4117 Da), P-peptide (3043 Da), and four new polypeptides (3235, 3702, 3746, and 3768 Da) In hemolymph of the larvae submitted to bacterial infestation, by the chromatomasspectrometry methods. The excretion of larvae Lucilia sericata contains peptides analogous or identical to hemolymph antibacterial peptides (diptericins: 8882 Da and 9025 Da), high molecular compounds of peptide nature (6466 Da, 6633 Da, 5772 Da, 8631 Da, etc.) differing from the known hemolymph components and low molecular compounds (130-700 Da). Spectrum of excretion bactericidal activity includes various groups of bacterial including the most actual pathogen from medical point of view--the meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, unlike the hemolymph that does not have antistaphylococcal activity. The excretion components suppressing growth and development of this staphylococcus are represented by substances of the low molecular nature (from 160 to 1020 Da). The performed studies characterize the strategies used by "surgical maggots" for protection from pathogens and for suppression of microbial competitors and allow better understanding of molecular mechanisms of larval therapy of purulent infectious diseases. These studies in perspective can serve the basis for creation of the principally new drugs for struggle with usual and antibiotics-resistant bacterial infections.

  17. Cholesterol Transport Revisited: A New Turbo Mechanism to Drive Cholesterol Excretion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Jan Freark; Kuipers, Folkert; Groen, Albert K.

    2018-01-01

    A fine-tuned balance between cholesterol uptake and excretion by the body is pivotal to maintain health and to remain free from the deleterious consequences of cholesterol accumulation such as cardiovascular disease. The pathways involved in intracellular and extracellular cholesterol transport are

  18. Urinary excretion of oxidative metabolites of bilirubin in subjects with Gilbert syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vítek, Libor; Kráslová, Ivana; Muchová, Lucie; Novotný, Ladislav; Yamaguchi, Tokio

    2007-06-01

    Bilirubin is a potent endogenous antioxidant substance. Recent data suggest a direct relationship exists between urinary excretion of biopyrrins, a novel group of bilirubin oxidative metabolites, and severity of oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate urinary excretion of biopyrrins in subjects with Gilbert syndrome. The study included patients with Gilbert syndrome (n = 33) and healthy blood donors (n = 25). In all subjects complete biochemical tests were conducted along with analysis of urinary excretion of biopyrrins. Linear and logistic regression analyses were used for multiple adjustments of possible confounders/modifiers. As expected, high serum bilirubin levels were found in the Gilbert syndrome group as compared to controls (27.8 +/- 9.7 vs 9.9 +/- 3.0 micromol/L, P Gilbert syndrome group as compared to normobilirubinemic control subjects (19.9 +/- 26.0 vs 90.2 +/- 139.1 U/g urinary creatinine, P Gilbert syndrome group also had very low prevalence odds ratios for urinary biopyrrins above the median of the control values even after adjustment for possibly confounding factors (odds ratio 0.18, 95% confidence interval 0.33-0.94; P = 0.042). An inverse relationship was demonstrated between serum bilirubin level and urinary excretion of biopyrrins, which is presumably due to antioxidative effects of elevated serum bilirubin levels in Gilbert syndrome.

  19. Effect of tolvaptan on renal water and sodium excretion and blood pressure during nitric oxide inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therwani, Safa Al; Rosenbæk, Jeppe Bakkestrøm; Mose, Frank Holden

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tolvaptan is a selective vasopressin receptor antagonist. Nitric Oxide (NO) promotes renal water and sodium excretion, but the effect is unknown in the nephron's principal cells. In a dose-response study, we measured the effect of tolvaptan on renal handling of water and sodium and sy...

  20. Excessive urinary oxalate excretion after combined renal and hepatic transplantation for correction of hyperoxaluria type 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruder, H.; Otto, G.; Schutgens, R. B.; Querfeld, U.; Wanders, R. J.; Herzog, K. H.; Wölfel, P.; Pomer, S.; Schärer, K.; Rose, G. A.

    1990-01-01

    A 4.5-year-old boy received a combined liver and kidney transplant for correction of hyperoxaluria type 1. Both organs were from the same donor and functioned primarily. Three months after transplantation, urine oxalate excretion reached a maximum of 10,500 mumol/24 h and remained above 2300

  1. Influence of sympathectomy in humans on the rhythmicity of 6-sulphatoxymelatonin urinary excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Morten; Osgaard, Ole; Grønbech-Jensen, Michael

    2006-01-01

    , stimulating the melatonin secretion in the pineal gland in humans, vary between individuals. An increase in daytime melatonin excretion was observed in the patients responding to the sympathectomy with an abolished 6-sulphatoxymelatonin rhythm. This increase could indicate that the final sympathetic neurons...... innervating the pineal gland might have a both stimulatory and inhibitory function....

  2. The absorption, tissue distribution and excretion of di-n-octyltin dichloride in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penninks, A.H.; Hilgers, L.; Seinen, W.

    In this study the absorption, tissue distribution and excretion of 14C-labeled di-n-octyltin dichloride ([14C]DOTC) in rats were investigated after oral and intravenous (i.v.) administration. Although after i.v. administration with 1.2 mg [14C]DOTC/kg body weight the tissue radioactivity was about

  3. Pattern of Salmonella excretion in amphibians and reptiles in a vivarium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfleger, Silvia; Benyr, Gerald; Sommer, Regina; Hassl, Andreas

    2003-01-01

    During a period of about three years the faeces of five species of amphibians (35 individuals) and of 23 species of reptiles (103 individuals) living in one vivarium with terrariums imitating different types of ecosystems were examined for salmonellae. From 54 out of 376 faecal samples Salmonella spp. was isolated (= 14%). Twenty-one different Salmonella strains were found. Salmonellae could be isolated about twice as often from animals kept under arid or mesic conditions than from animals living in humid or aquatic environments although this was not statistically significant. Statistically significant for the rate of Salmonella excretion was the animals' diet and the class the animals are belonging to. Animals feeding on mice (p = 0.04) and reptiles in general (p = 0.04) were more commonly excreting Salmonella. Duration of stay was also a significant factor (p = 0.0005), whereby the relative risk for Salmonella excretion increased with the factor 2.91 per year during the investigation period. Salmonella strains were not necessarily transferred among animals living in the same terrarium or among the inhabitants of different terrariums. The pattern of Salmonella excretion was generally fragmentary. The outsides as well as the insides of the walls of the terrariums were also tested for salmonellae several times, but salmonellae have never been isolated.

  4. Urinary albumin and beta 2-microglobulin excretion rates in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parving, H H; Sørensen, S F; Mogensen, C E

    1980-01-01

    prednisone, 5-20 mg/day. None of the patients had proteinuria as judged by the "Albustix" test, and all had normal serum creatinine. The daily urinary albumin and beta 2-microglobulin excretion rates were nearly the same as those previously found by us in 27 adult control subjects with a mean age of 44 years...

  5. Estimating 24-hour urinary sodium excretion from casual urinary sodium concentrations in Western populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Ian J; Dyer, Alan R; Chan, Queenie

    2013-01-01

    the utility of casual (spot) urine specimens in estimating 24-hour urinary sodium excretion as a marker of sodium intake in the International Cooperative Study on Salt, Other Factors, and Blood Pressure. There were 5,693 participants recruited in 1984-1987 at the ages of 20-59 years from 29 North American...

  6. Predicting urinary creatinine excretion and its usefulness to identify incomplete 24h urine collections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyzer, de W.; Huybrechts, I.; Dekkers, A.L.M.; Geelen, A.; Crispim, S.P.; Hulshof, P.J.M.; Andersen, L.F.; Rehurkova, I.; Ruprich, J.; Volatier, J.L.; Maele, van G.; Slimani, N.; Veer, van 't P.; Boer, de E.; Henauw, de S.

    2012-01-01

    Studies using 24 h urine collections need to incorporate ways to validate the completeness of the urine samples. Models to predict urinary creatinine excretion (UCE) have been developed for this purpose; however, information on their usefulness to identify incomplete urine collections is limited. We

  7. Concentration compared with total urinary excretion of 11,17-DOA in cynomolgus monkey urine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hau, Jann; Royo, F

    2008-01-01

    Strees sensitive molecules exhibit great variation in concentration in the circulation and it may often be advantageous to quantify these in urine or feces rather than in serum or plasma. We advocate that all urine-or feces-should be collected, and that excretion of stress sensitive molecules sho...

  8. Urinary Urea Excretion and Long-Term Outcome After Renal Transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deetman, Petronella E.; Said, M. Yusof; Kromhout, Daan; Dullaart, Robin P. F.; Kootstra-Ros, Jenny E.; Sanders, Jan-Stephan F.; Seelen, Marc A. J.; Gans, Rijk O. B.; Navis, Gerjan; Joosten, Michel M.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about optimal protein intake after transplantation. The aim of this study was to prospectively investigate associations of urinary urea excretion, a marker for protein intake, with graft failure and mortality in renal transplant recipients (RTR) and potential effect

  9. Urinary Urea excretion and Long-Term outcome after renal transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deetman, P.E.; Said, M.Y.; Kromhout, D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Little is known about optimal protein intake after transplantation. The aim of this study was to prospectively investigate associations of urinary urea excretion, a marker for protein intake, with graft failure and mortality in renal transplant recipients (RTR) and potential effect

  10. Twenty-four hour urinary urea excretion and 9-year risk of hypertension: the PREVEND study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielemans, S.M.A.J.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Baak, van M.A.; Engberink, M.F.; Brink, E.J.; Jong, P.E.; Gansevoort, R.T.; Bakker, S.J.A.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES:: It is not yet clear whether dietary protein could help maintaining a healthy blood pressure (BP). We investigated the association between total protein intake, estimated from 24-h urinary urea excretion, and incident hypertension in Dutch men and women. METHODS:: We analyzed data of

  11. Twenty-four hour urinary urea excretion and 9-year risk of hypertension : the PREVEND study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielemans, Susanne M. A. J.; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; van Baak, Marleen A.; Engberink, Marielle F.; Brink, Elizabeth J.; de Jong, Paul E.; Gansevoort, Ronald T.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.

    Objectives:It is not yet clear whether dietary protein could help maintaining a healthy blood pressure (BP). We investigated the association between total protein intake, estimated from 24-h urinary urea excretion, and incident hypertension in Dutch men and women.Methods:We analyzed data of 3997 men

  12. [Studies on distribution and excretion of squalane in dogs administered for 2 weeks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, H; Fuchigami, K; Inoue, H; Kodama, R; Yoshimura, H

    1991-05-01

    In the previous papers, we demonstrated, by using rats, that squalane (2,6,10,15,19, 23-hexamethyltetracosane) could stimulate the fecal excretion of 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran, the most important etiologic agent of Yusho, which was accumulated in the body of rat. We also reported that, in rats and dogs, squalane did not show any appreciable toxic signs during 3-month treatment, though a part of squalane was absorbed from gastrointestinal tract of dogs. In the present paper, we have investigated the elimination of absorbed squalane in beagle dogs. During the treatment with squalane orally at a dose of 1200 mg/kg/day for 14 days, the fecal excretion of squalane per day was 65-90% of the daily dose. After the treatment (on the day 14), squalane levels in blood and hair were about 30 ppm and 14640 ppm, respectively. On the day 56 after the first dosing, squalane was not detected in blood. On the day 70, squalane level in hair was reduced to about 1% of that on the day 14. Squalane levels in skin, liver, adipose tissue and small intestine on the day 70 were also reduced compared with that on the day 42. Moreover, small amount of squalane was still excreted into feces from the day 15 to the day 70. These results suggested that absorbed squalane was gradually excreted through feces and skin in dogs.

  13. Urinary excretion of N-acetyl-S-allyl-L-cystein upon garlic consumption by human volunteers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Rooij, B.M.; Boogaard, P.J.; Rijksen, D.A.; Commandeur, J.N.M.; Vermeulen, N.P.E.

    1996-01-01

    N-Acetyl-S-allyl-L-cysteine (allylmercapturic acid, ALMA) was previously detected in urine from humans consuming garlic. Exposure of rats to allyl halides is also known to lead to excretion of ALMA in urine. ALMA is a potential biomarker for exposure assessment of workers exposed to allyl halides.

  14. The impact of hormonal contraceptives on blood pressure, urinary albumin excretion and glomerular filtration rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atthobari, Jarir; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Visser, Sipke T.; de Jong, Paul E.; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje T. W.

    Aim In short-term studies, hormonal contraceptives (HC) have been suggested to induce a rise in blood pressure (BP) and urinary albumin excretion (UAE), while the effect of HC in renal function (GFR) is still under debate. Data on long-term and withdrawal effects of HC use on these outcomes are,

  15. Nitrogen excretion at different stages of growth and its association with production traits in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirali, M; Doeschl-Wilson, A; Knap, P W; Duthie, C; Kanis, E; van Arendonk, J A M; Roehe, R

    2012-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine nitrogen loss at different stages of growth and during the entire growing period and to investigate the associations between nitrogen excretion and production traits in growing pigs. Data from 315 pigs of an F(2) population which originated from crossing Pietrain sires with a commercial dam line were used. Nitrogen retention was derived from protein retention as measured using the deuterium dilution technique during different stages of growth (60 to 90 kg, 90 to 120 kg, and 120 to 140 kg). Pigs were fed ad libitum with 2 pelleted diets containing 17% (60 to 90 kg) and 16.5% (90 to 120 and 120 to 140 kg) CP. Average daily nitrogen excretion (ADNE) within each stage of growth was calculated on the basis of the accumulated difference between average daily nitrogen intake (ADNI) and average daily nitrogen retention (ADNR). Least ADNE, nitrogen excretion per BW gain (NEWG) and total nitrogen excretion (TNE) were observed during growth from 60 to 90 kg. In contrast, the greatest ADNE, NEWG, and TNE were found during growth from 120 to 140 kg. Statistical analyses indicated that gender, housing type, the ryanodine receptor 1 (RYR1) gene, and batch influenced nitrogen excretion (P feed conversion ratio (FCR; feed:gain) and lipid:protein gain ratio. Single-housed pigs showed reduced nitrogen excretion compared with group-housed pigs (P residual correlations indicated that NEWG and TNE have large positive correlations with FCR (r = 0.99 and 0.91, respectively) and moderate negative correlations with ADG (r = -0.53 and -0.48, respectively), for the entire growing period. Improvement in FCR, increase in ADG and reduction in lipid:protein gain ratio by 1 phenotypic SD reduced TNE per pig by 709 g, 307 g, and 211 g, respectively, over the entire growing period. The results indicate that nitrogen excretion changes substantially during growth, and it can be reduced most effectively by improvement of feed efficiency and to a lesser

  16. Sodium Excretion and the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Katherine T.; Chen, Jing; Yang, Wei; Appel, Lawrence J.; Kusek, John W.; Alper, Arnold; Delafontaine, Patrice; Keane, Martin G.; Mohler, Emile; Ojo, Akinlolu; Rahman, Mahboob; Ricardo, Ana C.; Soliman, Elsayed Z.; Steigerwalt, Susan; Townsend, Raymond; He, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared with the general population. Prior studies have produced contradictory results on the association of dietary sodium intake with risk of CVD, and this relationship has not been investigated in patients with CKD. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the association between urinary sodium excretion and clinical CVD events among patients with CKD. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A prospective cohort study of patients with CKD from 7 locations in the United States enrolled in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study and followed up from May 2003 to March 2013. EXPOSURES The cumulative mean of urinary sodium excretion from three 24-hour urinary measurements and calibrated to sex-specific mean 24-hour urinary creatinine excretion. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES A composite of CVD events defined as congestive heart failure, stroke, ormyocardial infarction. Events were reported every 6 months and confirmed by medical record adjudication. RESULTS Among 3757 participants (mean age, 58 years; 45% women), 804 composite CVD events (575 heart failure, 305 myocardial infarction, and 148 stroke) occurred during a median 6.8 years of follow-up. From lowest (<2894 mg/24 hours) to highest (≥4548 mg/24 hours) quartile of calibrated sodium excretion, 174, 159, 198, and 273 composite CVD events occurred, and the cumulative incidence was 18.4%, 16.5%, 20.6%, and 29.8% at median follow-up. In addition, the cumulative incidence of CVD events in the highest quartile of calibrated sodium excretion compared with the lowest was 23.2% vs 13.3% for heart failure, 10.9% vs 7.8% for myocardial infarction, and 6.4% vs 2.7% for stroke at median follow-up. Hazard ratios of the highest quartile compared with the lowest quartile were 1.36 (95% CI, 1.09–1.70; P = .007) for composite CVD events, 1.34 (95% CI, 1.03–1.74; P = .03) for heart failure, and 1.81 (95% CI, 1.08–3.02; P = .02) for

  17. Evaluation of solids, nitrogen, and phosphorus excretion models for lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollmann, M; Knowlton, K F; Hanigan, M D

    2008-03-01

    Monitoring or accurately predicting manure quantities and nutrient concentrations is important for dairy farms facing strict environmental regulations. The objectives of this project were to determine the daily out-flow of manure nutrients from a free-stall barn using mass balance and to compare results with published excretion models. The project was conducted at the free-stall facility housing the lactating cow herd of the Virginia Tech Dairy Center in 2005. The herd consisted of 142 (+/-8.9) Holstein and Jersey cows with a mean body weight of 568 (+/-6.2) kg and average milk yield of 29.8 (+/-1.7) kg/d with 3.18% (+/-0.07) true protein and 3.81% (+/-0.13) milk fat on 18 sampling days. The intakes of dry matter (DM), N, and P were estimated from the formulated ration. Daily consumption averaged 21.7 (+/-0.27) kg of DM with 17.7% (+/-0.26) crude protein and 0.46% (+/-0.03) P. Approximately 110 (+/- 27.9) kg/d of sawdust was used as bedding; its contribution to manure flow was subtracted. The alleys in the free-stall barn were flushed every 6 h with recycled wastewater, and the slurry was collected. On 18 sampling days the volumes and constituents of the flushwater and the flushed manure were determined for a 6-h flush cycle and extrapolated to daily values. Net daily flow of solids and nutrients in manure were calculated as the differences between masses in flushed slurry and flushwater. Nitrogen and P excretion were also calculated from dietary inputs and milk output. The flow was compared with the American Society of Agricultural Engineers' (ASAE) standards. Each cow produced 5.80 kg/d of total solids (remainder after drying at 105 degrees C). The ASAE standard predicted DM (remainder after drying at 60 degrees C) excretion of 8.02 to 8.53 kg/d per cow. Recovery of P amounted to 74.8 g/d per cow. Overall, 102% of intake P was recovered; 75.1% in the manure outflow and 26.9% in milk. About 285 g/d and 148 g/d of N per cow were recaptured in manure and milk

  18. Q Fever in Pregnant Goats: Pathogenesis and Excretion of Coxiella burnetii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roest, Hendrik-Jan; van Gelderen, Betty; Dinkla, Annemieke; Frangoulidis, Dimitrios; van Zijderveld, Fred; Rebel, Johanna; van Keulen, Lucien

    2012-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii is an intracellular bacterial pathogen that causes Q fever. Infected pregnant goats are a major source of human infection. However, the tissue dissemination and excretion pathway of the pathogen in goats are still poorly understood. To better understand Q fever pathogenesis, we inoculated groups of pregnant goats via the intranasal route with a recent Dutch outbreak C. burnetii isolate. Tissue dissemination and excretion of the pathogen were followed for up to 95 days after parturition. Goats were successfully infected via the intranasal route. PCR and immunohistochemistry showed strong tropism of C. burnetii towards the placenta at two to four weeks after inoculation. Bacterial replication seemed to occur predominantly in the trophoblasts of the placenta and not in other organs of goats and kids. The amount of C. burnetii DNA in the organs of goats and kids increased towards parturition. After parturition it decreased to undetectable levels: after 81 days post-parturition in goats and after 28 days post-parturition in kids. Infected goats gave birth to live or dead kids. High numbers of C. burnetii were excreted during abortion, but also during parturition of liveborn kids. C. burnetii was not detected in faeces or vaginal mucus before parturition. Our results are the first to demonstrate that pregnant goats can be infected via the intranasal route. C. burnetii has a strong tropism for the trophoblasts of the placenta and is not excreted before parturition; pathogen excretion occurs during birth of dead as well as healthy animals. Besides abortions, normal deliveries in C. burnetii-infected goats should be considered as a major zoonotic risk for Q fever in humans. PMID:23152826

  19. Influence of irbesartan on the urinary excretion of cytokines in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Jie; Huang, Hai-Quan; Lü, Lin-Li; Zheng, Min; Liu, Bi-Cheng

    2012-03-01

    The non-hemodynamic effects of angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) in the delay of progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the influence of irbesartan on the urinary excretion of cytokines in patients with CKD. In this randomized perspective clinical trial, different doses of irbesartan (150 mg/d and 300 mg/d) were given to two groups of patients in a cross-over design. Blood pressure (BP), creatinine clearance (Ccr) and 24-hour proteinuria were examined. Urinary excretion of cytokines was determined by human inflammatory cytokine antibody array. A two-fold change in spot intensity was considered significant. Urinary excretion of cytokines (granulocyte colony stimulating factor (GCSF), intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), interferon γ (IFN-γ), interleukin 1β (IL-1b), IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-11, IL-15 and macrophage inflammatory protein 1d (MIP-1d)) in group B (irbesartan 300 mg/d) was significantly decreased in comparison to group A (irbesartan 150 mg/d) after 8-week treatment. In group A, 8 weeks of treatment induced a two- to nine-fold reduction in urinary cytokine levels (GCSF, GM-CSF, IFN-γ, IL-1a, IL-11, IL-12p40, MCP-2, MIP-1a), while increasing the dosage to 300 mg/d further decreased the excretion of GCSF, GM-CSF, IL-12p40, MCP-2 and MIP-1a by week 18. There was no significant difference in BP or Ccr between the two groups. However, 24-hour proteinuria was significantly reduced in both groups, and in group A the reduction was dose dependent. Irbesartan offers additional renoprotection in a dose-dependent manner by reducing pro-inflammatory cytokines excretion in the urine of CKD patients.

  20. Circadian urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin, cortisol excretion and locomotor activity in airline pilots during transmeridian flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tresguerres, J A; Ariznavarreta, C; Granados, B; Martín, M; Villanúa, M A; Golombek, D A; Cardinali, D P

    2001-08-01

    Airline pilots divided into two groups of age (over and under 50 years) were studied before, during and after westbound (Madrid-Mexico City-Madrid, n = 12) and eastbound (Madrid-Tokyo-Madrid, n = 21) flights. A group of 10 age-matched people staying in Madrid were submitted to the same tests and served as a control group. Changes in urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (6-aMTs) and free cortisol excretion (determined in 6-hr intervals) were measured by radioimmunoassay. Using wrist actigraphy, the circadian locomotor activity rhythm (LAR) was also monitored. Maximal baseline excretion of 6-aMTs occurred between 00:00 and 12:00 hr and maximal excretion of cortisol took place between 6:00 and 12:00 hr in the control group. Analysed globally, older pilots exhibited significantly lower values of 6-aMTs than younger ones. In both flight directions, pilots maintained the pattern of excretion of 6-aMTs, corresponding to baseline. The return flight to Madrid from Mexico and Tokyo coincided with a maximum in 6-aMTs excretion. Pilots kept the cortisol pattern found in the control group, with those over 50 years of age exhibiting significantly lower cortisol values than the younger ones. A 7-hr delay in acrophase of LAR after 2 days in Mexico City was found after cosinor analysis, and similar pre-flight values were found after returning to Madrid. An 8-9-hr acrophase advance of LAR was observed after arriving in Tokyo, with acrophase on the post-return flight day still being advanced 3 4 hr as compared to pre-flight values. Decreases in the amplitude of LAR in older pilots were found at Mexico City, as well as at Tokyo stopover and on post-flight day. Data confirm the occurrence of internal desynchronization in airline crewmembers after transmeridian flights.

  1. Uric Acid Excretion Predicts Increased Blood Pressure Among American Adolescents of African Descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrug, Sylvie; Mrug, Michal; Morris, Anjana Madan; Reynolds, Nina; Patel, Anita; Hill, Danielle C; Feig, Daniel I

    2017-04-01

    Hyperuricemia predicts the incidence of hypertension in adults and its treatment has blood pressure (BP)-lowering effects in adolescents. To date, no studies have examined the predictive usage of hyperuricemia or urinary uric acid excretion on BP changes in adolescents. Mechanistic models suggest that uric acid impairs both endothelial function and vascular compliance, which would potentially exacerbate a myriad of hypertensive mechanisms, yet little is known about interaction of uric acid and other hypertension risk factors. The primary study was aimed at the effects of stress on BP in adolescents. A community sample of 84 low-income, urban adolescents (50% male, 95% African American, mean age = 13.36 ± 1 years) was recruited from public schools. Youth completed a 12-hour (overnight) urine collection at home and their BP was measured during rest and in response to acute psychosocial stress. Seventy-six of the adolescents participated in a follow-up visit at 1.5 years when their resting BP was reassessed. In this substudy, we assessed the relationship of renal urate excretion and BP reactivity. After adjusting for resting BP levels at baseline and other covariates, higher levels of uric acid excretion predicted greater BP reactivity to acute psychosocial stress and higher resting BP at 18 months. Urinary excretion of uric acid can serve as an alternative, noninvasive measure of serum uric acid levels that are predictive of BP changes. As hyperuricemia-associated hypertension is treatable, urban adolescents may benefit from routine screening for hyperuricemia or high uric acid excretion. Copyright © 2017 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Excretion pathways and ruminal disappearance of glyphosate and its degradation product aminomethylphosphonic acid in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Soosten, D; Meyer, U; Hüther, L; Dänicke, S; Lahrssen-Wiederholt, M; Schafft, H; Spolders, M; Breves, G

    2016-07-01

    From 6 balance experiments with total collection of feces and urine, samples were obtained to investigate the excretion pathways of glyphosate (GLY) in lactating dairy cows. Each experiment lasted for 26d. The first 21d served for adaptation to the diet, and during the remaining 5d collection of total feces and urine was conducted. Dry matter intake and milk yield were recorded daily and milk and feed samples were taken during the sampling periods. In 2 of the 6 experiments, at the sampling period for feces and urine, duodenal contents were collected for 5d. Cows were equipped with cannulas at the dorsal sac of the rumen and the proximal duodenum. Duodenal contents were collected every 2h over 5 consecutive days. The daily duodenal dry matter flow was measured by using chromium oxide as a volume marker. All samples (feed, feces, urine, milk and duodenal contents were analyzed for GLY and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA). Overall, across the 6 experiments (n=32) the range of GLY intake was 0.08 to 6.67mg/d. The main proportion (61±11%; ±SD) of consumed GLY was excreted with feces; whereas excretion by urine was 8±3% of GLY intake. Elimination via milk was negligible. The GLY concentrations above the limit of quantification were not detected in any of the milk samples. A potential ruminal degradation of GLY to AMPA was derived from daily duodenal GLY flow. The apparent ruminal disappearance of GLY intake was 36 and 6%. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that the gastrointestinal absorption of GLY is of minor importance and fecal excretion represents the major excretion pathway. A degradation of GLY to AMPA by rumen microbes or a possible retention in the body has to be taken into account. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Pharmacokinetics, metabolism, and excretion of torcetrapib, a cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitor, in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalvie, Deepak; Chen, Weichao; Zhang, Chenghong; Vaz, Alfin D; Smolarek, Teresa A; Cox, Loretta M; Lin, Jian; Obach, R Scott

    2008-11-01

    The pharmacokinetics, metabolism, and excretion of torcetrapib, a selective inhibitor of human cholesteryl ester transfer protein, were investigated in healthy human male volunteers after oral administration of [(14)C]torcetrapib (120-mg dose). The total mean recovery of radiolabeled dose after 21 days was 75.7%, and most of the dose (63%) was excreted in the urine. The total circulating radioactivity and unchanged torcetrapib plasma concentrations increased over the first 6 h and then declined slowly with mean terminal elimination half-lives of 373 and 211 h. Metabolism of torcetrapib was extensive in humans. Only 5.2% of the total dose constituted unchanged torcetrapib in the feces, whereas no parent was excreted unchanged in the urine. Similarly, pharmacokinetic analysis of total radioactivity and unchanged torcetrapib revealed that the area under the concentration versus time curve from zero to infinity of torcetrapib accounted for approximately 7.0% of the circulating radioactivity. Torcetrapib was metabolized to numerous metabolites via oxidation. The primary metabolic pathway involved initial oxidative decarbamoylation followed by extensive further oxidation, resulting in the formation of bistrifluoromethylbenzoic acid (M1) and quinaldic acid (M4) metabolites. A mean 40% of the total dose was excreted in the urine as M4 (and its glucuronide and urea conjugates), whereas 7.0% of the total dose was excreted as M1. In vitro studies using human subcellular fractions suggested that the initial metabolism of torcetrapib proceeds via CYP3A-mediated decarbamoylation. Subsequent oxidations lead to the major circulating and excretory metabolites M1 and M4.

  4. Excretion and toxicity evaluation of (131)I-Sennoside A as a necrosis-avid agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhiqi; Sun, Lidan; Jin, Qiaomei; Song, Shaoli; Feng, Yuanbo; Liao, Hong; Ni, Yicheng; Zhang, Jian; Liu, Wei

    2017-11-01

    1. Sennoside A (SA) is a newly identified necrosis-avid agent that shows capability for imaging diagnosis and tumor necrosis targeted radiotherapy. As a water-soluble compound, (131)I-Sennoside A ((131)I-SA) might be excreted predominately through the kidneys with the possibility of nephrotoxicity. 2. To further verify excretion pathway and examine nephrotoxicity of (131)I-SA, excretion and nephrotoxicity were appraised. The pharmacokinetics, hepatotoxicity and hematotoxicity of (131)I-SA were also evaluated to accelerate its possible clinical translation. All these studies were conducted in mice with ethanol-induced muscular necrosis following a single intravenous administration of 131I-SA at 18.5 MBq/kg or 370 MBq/kg. 3. Excretion data revealed that (131)I-SA was predominately (73.5% of the injected dose (% ID)) excreted via the kidneys with 69.5% ID detected in urine within 72 h post injection. Biodistribution study indicated that (131)I-SA exhibited initial high distribution in the kidneys but subsequently a fast renal clearance, which was further confirmed by the results of autoradiography and single-photon emission computed tomography-computed tomography (SPECT-CT) imaging. The maximum necrotic to normal muscle ratio reached to 7.9-fold at 48 h post injection, which further verified the necrosis avidity of (131)I-SA. Pharmacokinetic parameters showed that (131)I-SA had fast blood clearance with an elimination half-life of 6.7 h. Various functional indexes were no significant difference (p > 0.05) between before administration and 1 d, 8 d, 16 d after administration. Histopathology showed no signs of tissue damage. 4. These data suggest (131)I-SA is a safe and promising necrosis-avid agent applicable in imaging diagnosis and tumor necrosis targeted radiotherapy.

  5. Urinary Porphyrin Excretion in Children is Associated with Exposure to Organochlorine Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunyer, Jordi; Alvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; To-Figueras, Jordi; Ribas-Fitó, Núria; Grimalt, Joan O.; Herrero, Carmen

    2008-01-01

    Background Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and other organochlorines induce porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT) in animal studies. Evidence in humans, however, is contradictory. In neonates and adults from a population historically highly exposed to HCB (Flix, Catalonia, Spain), no relation with PCT or with porphyrin excretion was found. Objectives We aimed to analyze the association between urinary porphyrin excretion and exposure to HCB and other organochlorinated compounds in children 4 years of age. Methods Our birth cohort included all newborns from Flix and the five surrounding towns (where no airborne pollution occurred). Among the 68 children with porphyrins we measured in cord blood, 52 children 4 years of age provided blood to measure organochlorine compounds, hair for methylmercury, and urine for porphyrin excretion pattern. Results Quantitative porphyrin excretion was within the normal values. However, total porphyrins, coproporphyrin I (CPI), and coproporphyrin III (CPIII) adjusted to creatinine excretion increased with increasing levels of HCB, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p′-DDE), 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p′-DDT), and polychlorinated biphenyl congener 153 (PCB-153). We found no association with methylmercury. When we fitted multiple pollutant models, p,p′-DDE had the strongest association. We found these associations in children from both Flix and other towns, and they were independent of breast-feeding and of organochlorine and porphyrin levels at birth. Conclusion HCB at current levels did not induce porphyria or increase uroporphyrins. However, the increase of urinary coproporphyrins suggests an incipient toxic effect of the organochlorines, especially for p,p′-DDE, on the hepatic heme-synthesis pathway that differs from the major effects seen in PCT. PMID:18941586

  6. Effect of probenecid on renal excretion of three renal radiopharmaceuticals at 15 and 30 minutes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antar, M.A.; Jones, A.N.

    1985-05-01

    The authors have developed and reported new renal TC-99m labeled agents (e.g. Tc-R-VII, a complex of Tc-99m and cystine) as potential replacements for I-131-orthoiodohippuran (OIH), which is the only radiopharmaceutical in routine use for evaluation of renal tubular function, but which has distinct limitations. The new agents have better renal uptake and faster excretion than the Tc-99m-DTPA in current use. To test whether Tc-R-VII is tubularly secreted, they studied the effect of the tubular inhibitor probenecid (P) on it, Tc-99m-DTPA, and OIH in male rabbits at 15 and 30 minutes. After i/v administration of buffered probenecid (100 mg/kg) over 20 minutes , or the buffer for control (C) animals, the radiotracer was intravenously injected. Mean urinary excretion as % dose was assayed. At 15 minutes, P showed no inhibition of DTPA excretion (P: 30.42 +- 8.00 and C: 27.5 +- 2.90). However, P inhibited Tc-R-VII excretion by 37%, which was similar to the inhibition demonstrated for OIH (33%). The inhibition for both compounds was significant at P<0.01. At 30 minutes, probenecid affected neither OIH nor DTPA excretion, while TC-R-VII was inhibited by 30%. These findings indicate that while the newly developed Tc-99m compound is secreted by renal tubules is a manner similar to I-131-OIH and has a promise as a renal radiopharmaceutical, the two compounds have some differences in their renal characteristics and require further study to elucidate the transport mechanisms involved.

  7. A decrease in aquaporin 2 excretion is associated with bed rest induced high calciuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamma, Grazia; Di Mise, Annarita; Ranieri, Marianna; Svelto, Maria; Pisot, Rado; Bilancio, Giancarlo; Cavallo, Pierpaolo; De Santo, Natale G; Cirillo, Massimo; Valenti, Giovanna

    2014-05-19

    Exposure to microgravity or immobilization results in alterations of renal function, fluid redistribution and bone loss, which couples to a rise of urinary calcium excretion. We recently demonstrated that high calcium delivery to the collecting duct reduces local Aquaporin-2 (AQP2) mediated water reabsorption under vasopressin action, thus limiting the maximal urinary concentration and reducing calcium saturation. To investigate renal water balance adaptation during bed rest, a model to mimic the effects of microgravity on earth, the effect of changes in urinary calcium on urinary AQP2 excretion were assessed. Ten healthy men (aged 21-28 years) participated in the experiment. Study design included 7 days of adaptation and 35 days of continuous bed rest (days -6 to 0 and 1 to 35, respectively) under controlled diet. Food records and 24-hour urine samples were collected daily from day -3 to 35. Changes in blood hematocrit were used as an indirect index of plasma volume changes. AQP2 excretion was measured by ELISA. Bed rest induced bone demineralization and a transient increase in urinary calcium followed by transient decrease in AQP2 excretion, which can reduce the urine concentrating ability causing plasma volume reduction. The return of calciuria to baseline was followed by a recovery of AQP2 excretion, which allows for a partial restoration of plasma volume. These results further support the view that urinary calcium can modulate the vasopressin-dependent urine concentration through a down-regulation of AQP2 expression/trafficking. This mechanism could have a key role in the prevention of urine super-saturation due to hypercalciuria.

  8. Excretion is Faster Than Diagenesis for Nutrient Recycling in Lake Michigan Benthos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, C.; Cuhel, R. L.

    2013-12-01

    Regeneration of phytoplankton growth nutrients including ammonium (NH4+) and phosphate (HPO4=) occurs in aquatic systems worldwide through biogeochemical processes of diagenesis. Organic matter falling to the bottom accumulates in sediments, and bacterial decomposition removes oxygen from the sub-surface. Anaerobic metabolism is energetically inefficient, and bacteria a few cm below the surface respire or ferment organic matter into carbon dioxide or organic acids, excreting nitrogen (NH4+) or phosphorus inorganic 'waste'. Subsurface production of bacterial metabolic products often leads to sharp gradients in porewater concentrations of NH4+ and HPO4=, which drive diffusive flux out of the sediments into overlying water. Aquatic systems with totally aerobic water overlying anoxic sediment (e.g., Lake Michigan) have muted efflux of certain inorganic nutrients arising from organic matter decomposition. For example, NH4+ is oxidized to nitrate in the upper few mm of surficial sediments by nitrifying bacteria. Strong subsurface porewater gradients, especially of redox- or geochemically-reactive compounds, often decline to low values well below the sediment-water interface, indicating transformation by sediment bacterial populations, or by purely geochemical processes such as calcium hydroxyphosphate (apatite) precipitation. For these, little flux to the water column occurs. In Lake Michigan, neither NH4+ nor HPO4= escapes substantially from the biogeochemical barriers between their diagenetic sources and overlying waters, either before or after ecosystem alteration by invasive quagga mussels (QM). Silicate and total CO2 evade unimpeded in the same cores. The organic matter deposited from the water column is also the nutrition of benthic bivalve filter feeders such as QM in Lake Michigan, or the Asian Clam in San Francisco Bay. In animal metabolism for energy production, only the carbon component is oxidized through respiration, with NH4+ (from protein) and HPO4= (from

  9. Response of urinary purine derivatives excretion to different levels of ruminal glucose infusion in heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickhoefer, Uta; Ahnert, Sandra; Schoof, Hartwig; Moritz, Niels; Susenbeth, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the response of urinary purine derivatives (PD) excretion to increasing levels of intraruminal glucose infusion to evaluate how well this indicator reflects induced changes in microbial crude protein flow. Four rumen-cannulated heifers (482 ± 25 kg body weight) were fed at maintenance energy level with a basal diet (on fresh matter basis) of 4 kg/d hay, 1.5 kg/d concentrate and 60 g/d minerals in two equal meals. The trial comprised a control period (Control I) without glucose infusion followed by four consecutive periods in which all animals received 125 g, 250 g, 500 g or 1000 g/d of glucose, respectively. For this, daily dosages of glucose and urea (90 g/d during all periods) were divided into three portions that were dissolved in water and directly administered into the rumen during morning and afternoon feedings and once during noon. After the highest glucose dosage, a second control period was carried out (Control II). Urinary PD excretion increased with glucose infusion of 125 g/d (71.4 mmol/d) and 1000 g/d (74.2 mmol/d) over the level at Control I (53.9 mmol/d (standard error of the mean (SEM) 3.4; p = 0.012). After withdrawing glucose infusion, PD excretion (79.0 mmol/d) did not return to Control I level (p = 0.001). In contrast, faecal nitrogen (N) excretions linearly increased with incremental glucose infusion (p < 0.001) from 33.9 g/d at Control I to 39.7 g/d (SEM 0.5) at 1000 g/d of glucose and were similar in Control I and II (p = 0.086). The contradicting responses in the excretions of faecal N and urinary PD to increasing glucose infusions highlight the limited accuracy of the PD excretion as a non-invasive indicator when incremental dosages of rapidly fermentable carbohydrates are supplied.

  10. Measurement of urinary copper excretion after 48-h d-penicillamine cessation as a compliance assessment in Wilson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzieżyc, Karolina; Litwin, Tomasz; Chabik, Grzegorz; Członkowska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of Wilson's disease (WD) with anti-copper agents is effective in most compliant patients. During long-term treatment with chelating agents, a two-day interruption of the treatment should result in normal urinary copper concentrations (copper excretion analysis 48 h after interruption of chelating therapy. Thirty-two patients were enrolled. After DPA cessation, normalization of copper excretion was observed in 91% of reportedly compliant patients. The specificity and sensitivity values of this test were 87% and 77%, respectively. Measurement of 24-h urinary copper excretion after a 48-h interruption of DPA therapy in patients with WD is a reliable method for confirming patients' compliance.

  11. Urinary albumin excretion in hospitalized patients with acute myocardial infarction. Prevalence of microalbuminuria and correlation to left ventricle wall thickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taskiran, M; Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Jensen, G B

    1998-01-01

    was independent of blood pressure, body weight, smoking, diabetes mellitus, renal disease, and thrombolytic treatment. There was a positive correlation between urinary albumin excretion and thickness of the left ventricle wall (R = 0.28; p = 0.001) which was independent of blood pressure. Follow-up examination......Microalbuminuria, a subclinical rise in the urinary albumin excretion, is a risk indicator of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to measure the urinary albumin excretion in patients with acute myocardial infarction, and to correlate this with known atherosclerotic...

  12. Urinary albumin excretion in hospitalized patients with acute myocardial infarction. Prevalence of microalbuminuria and correlation to left ventricle wall thickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taskiran, M; Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Jensen, G B

    1998-01-01

    Microalbuminuria, a subclinical rise in the urinary albumin excretion, is a risk indicator of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to measure the urinary albumin excretion in patients with acute myocardial infarction, and to correlate this with known atherosclerotic r...... risk factors. One-hundred-and-twenty-six patients and 56 healthy controls matched for age and sex were studied. The albumin/creatinine concentration ratio in morning urine specimens was calculated as an index of the albumin excretion. Microalbuminuria was defined as a urinary albumin...

  13. Patterns of nitrogenous waste excretion and gill urea transporter mRNA expression in various species of marine fish

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, P J; Wang, Y.; Campbell, C. E.; De Boeck, G; Wood, C M

    2001-01-01

    Many prior studies of nitrogenous waste excretion in marine fish have examined excretion patterns for short time periods, and with relatively coarse sampling schemes (e.g., an initial and a final sample point). Recent studies of a ureotelic marine fish (the gulf toadfish, Opsanus beta) have demonstrated that urea excretion in this species occurs in brief but massive bursts, lasting from 0.5 to 3 h, and often only once per day. The present study sought to determine if prior sampling protocols ...

  14. From consumption to harvest: Environmental fate prediction of excreted ionizable trace organic chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polesel, Fabio; Plósz, Benedek G.; Trapp, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Excreted trace organic chemicals, e.g., pharmaceuticals and biocides, typically undergo incomplete elimination in municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and are released to surface water via treated effluents and to agricultural soils through sludge amendment and/or irrigation...... consumption/excretion up to the accumulation in soil and plant, following field amendment with sewage sludge or irrigation with river water (assuming dilution of WWTP effluent). The simulation tool combines the SimpleTreat model modified for fate prediction of ionizable chemicals in a generic WWTP...... and a recently developed dynamic soil-plant uptake model. The simulation tool was tested using country-specific (e.g., consumption/emission rates, precipitation and temperature) input data. A Monte Carlo-based approach was adopted to account for the uncertainty associated to physico-chemical and biokinetic model...

  15. Excretion, distribution and metabolism of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Akira; Sato, Michio; Tsuchiya, Toshie; Adachi, Tohru; Niimura, Toshio; Yamaha, Tsutomu

    1986-07-01

    1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene (TCB) labeled with C-14 was given perorally to rats at a dosage of 50 mg/kg for excretion and distribution studies. About 66% and 17% of the oral dose was excreted in the urine and feces, respectively, within 7 days. Trapped radioactivity in the expired air amounted to 2.1% of the dose, but production of labeled carbon dioxide was negligible. Tissue residues were evenly distributed throughout the organs and tissues examined, except for the adipose tissue which consistently had a little higher concentration. The urinary, fecal and expiratory metabolites were identified. Free 2,4,5- and 2,3,5-trichlorophenol (TCP) and their conjugates were mainly detected in the urine. 5- or 6-sulfhydryl, methylthio, methylsulfoxide and methylsulfone derivatives of TCB were also detected as minor metabolites. Dichlorobenzenes and unchanged TCB were confirmed in the expired air. Reductive dechlorination seems to be catalysed by intestinal microflora enzymes.

  16. Comparison of the absorption, excretion, and metabolism of suxibuzone and phenylbutazone in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Y; Shindo, T; Mitani, N; Ishida, N; Oono, F; Kageyama, T

    1982-05-01

    The absorption, excretion, and metabolism of a single oral dose of suxibuzone, a new nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent, in healthy male volunteers were compared with those of phenylbutazone. After oral administration of either suxibuzone or phenylbutazone, phenylbutazone, oxyphenbutazone, and gamma-hydroxyphenylbutazone were found in the plasma; phenylbutazone was the main metabolite of suxibuzone and phenylbutazone. In the urine, p-gamma-dihydroxyphenylbutazone and several glucuronide conjugates also were found. Spectrometric and/or enzymatic analysis showed that these glucuronide conjugates were suxibuzone glucuronide, 4-hydroxymethylphenylbutazone glucuronide, 4-hydroxymethyloxyphenbutazone glucuronide, oxyphenbutazone glucuronide, and phenylbutazone glucuronides (two types: O-glucuronide and C-4-glucuroxide) after suxibuzone administration, and oxyphenbutazone glucuronide and phenylbutazone glucuronide after phenylbutazone administration. The conjugates specific to suxibuzone administration, suxibuzone glucuronide, 4-hydroxymethylphenylbutazone glucuronide, and 4-hydroxymethyloxyphenbutazone glucuronide, were excreted in the first 6 hr urine. These findings and the pharmacokinetics of these metabolites in the plasma and urine show that suxibuzone is a prodrug of phenylbutazone.

  17. Differential circadian pattern of water and Na excretion rates in the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fezeu, Leopold; Bankir, Lise; Hansel, Boris; Guerrot, Dominique

    2014-08-01

    This study comparatively investigated the chronobiology of water and Na excretion rates (W-ExcR and Na-ExcR) in 46 non-diabetic metabolic syndrome (MS) patients. The circadian pattern of W-ExcR was independently associated with the nocturnal dipping of systolic blood pressure (β = -3.1). During oral glucose tolerance test, the rise in plasma insulin (β = 34.0) and the insulinogenic index (β = 4.1) were independently associated with the day/night ratio of W-ExcR. The circadian pattern of Na-ExcR was not significantly associated with the latter variables. This study strongly suggests that the chronobiology of mechanisms involved in the regulation of water excretion may be more specifically altered in the MS.

  18. Testosterone increases urinary calcium excretion and inhibits expression of renal calcium transport proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hsu, Yu-Juei; Dimke, Henrik Anthony; Schoeber, Joost P H

    2010-01-01

    Although gender differences in the renal handling of calcium have been reported, the overall contribution of androgens to these differences remains uncertain. We determined here whether testosterone affects active renal calcium reabsorption by regulating calcium transport proteins. Male mice had...... higher urinary calcium excretion than female mice and their renal calcium transporters were expressed at a lower level. We also found that orchidectomized mice excreted less calcium in their urine than sham-operated control mice and that the hypocalciuria was normalized after testosterone replacement...... calcium transport. Thus, our study shows that gender differences in renal calcium handling are, in part, mediated by the inhibitory actions of androgens on TRPV5-mediated active renal calcium transport....

  19. Pharmacokinetic, tissue distribution and excretion of ginsenoside-Rd in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dong; Wang, Bing; Shi, Ming; Zhang, Yun-Xia; Zhou, Lin-Fu; Liu, Zhi-Rong; Wu, Zhong-Liang; Jiang, Wen; Han, Jun-Liang; Xiong, Li-Ze; Zhao, Gang

    2012-02-15

    Ginsenoside-Rd (GS-Rd) is one of the major active components of Panax ginseng, and was shown to have the protective effects against several insults. However, we still lack some basic knowledge of GS-Rd, including its pharmacokinetic, tissue distribution and excretion in vivo in experimental animal, such as mice and rats. In this study, HPLC and radioactive tracer assays were performed to determine pharmacokinetic, tissue distribution and excretion of GS-Rd in rodents. After intravascular administration with 20, 50 or 150 mg/kg GS-Rd, the dynamic changes of GS-Rd concentrations in plasma were consistent with a two-compartment model while the concentration of ³H-labeled GS-Rd was rapidly reached the peak in plasma, and distributed to various tissues, among which the highest concentration was observed in the lung. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Urinary calcium excretion in healthy children and children with primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamperis, Konstantinos; Hagstrøm, Søren; Rittig, Søren

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: We investigated the role of urinary Ca excretion in monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis, and defined normality and intra-individual variability in Ca excretion in healthy children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included 46 Danish children with desmopressin resistant nocturnal enuresis and 96...... healthy controls. We performed fractional urine collections at home during 2 days in controls or during hospitalization in children with enuresis. Urine volume, osmolality, and Ca and creatinine measurements were performed and Ca-to-creatinine ratios were calculated and compared between groups. Based...... on nocturnal urine output children with enuresis were characterized as having polyuria (nocturnal urine volume greater than 130% of expected bladder capacity) or not having polyuria. RESULTS: We did not find any differences in controls compared with children with enuresis who did not and did have nocturnal...

  1. The urinary excretion of bacterial amino-acid metabolites by rats fed saccharin in the diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrie, C A; Renwick, A G; Sims, J

    1985-01-01

    Administration of a diet containing 7.5% saccharin to adult male rats for 40 days caused a three- to four-fold increase in the daily excretion of indican and rho-cresol. Indican is formed from indole which is a microbial metabolite of tryptophan, whilst rho-cresol is formed by the gut flora from tyrosine. The excretion of phenol, which is also a microbial metabolite of tyrosine, was abolished by saccharin administration for 40 days. Analysis of urines collected at 13, 18 and 24 months during a two-generation cancer bioassay showed that these changes occur throughout the life of saccharin-treated rats. These data indicate that saccharin changes the metabolism of amino acids by the gut flora, leading to an increased formation of products known to have promoting or co-carcinogenic properties.

  2. Effect of candesartan on microalbuminuria and albumin excretion rate in diabetes: three randomized trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilous, Rudy; Chaturvedi, Nish; Sjølie, Anne Katrin

    2009-01-01

    candesartan compared with placebo affects microalbuminuria incidence or rate of change in albuminuria in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: 3 randomized trials of the DIRECT (Diabetic Retinopathy Candesartan Trials) Program. SETTING: 309 secondary care centers. PATIENTS: 3326 and 1905 patients with type 1...... and type 2 diabetes, respectively. Most were normotensive, and all had normoalbuminuria (median urinary albumin excretion rate, 5.0 microg/min). INTERVENTION: Candesartan, 16 mg/d increasing to 32 mg/d, versus placebo. Assignment was done centrally using an interactive voice-response system. Patients...... further collections were done. The primary end point was new microalbuminuria (3 or 4 collections of urinary albumin excretion rate >or=20 microg/min). The secondary end point was rate of change in albuminuria. RESULTS: Individual and pooled results of the 3 trials showed that candesartan had little...

  3. Elevated salivary potassium in paediatric CKD patients, a novel excretion pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidovich, Esti; Davidovits, Miriam; Peretz, Benny; Shapira, Joseph; Aframian, Doron J

    2011-05-01

    Hyperkalaemia is one of the complications of chronic renal failure. Gastrointestinal excretion and cellular uptake are two adaptive mechanisms for extra-renal potassium (K) disposal in these patients. The salivary glands' secretion system can actively excrete K into the oral cavity. We examined salivary K levels in four groups of paediatric chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients: 25 pre-dialytic (PreD) patients, 18 patients on maintenance dialysis (D), and 31 transplanted patients with a functioning graft (T), compared with 32 healthy children (C). Salivary K levels were significantly higher in the D and PreD groups than the C group (P = 0.03 and P = 0.0004, respectively). Interestingly, a significant negative correlation was found between glomerular filtration rate and salivary K in PreD and T patients. We suggest an extension of the gastrointestinal adaptive K pathway via salivary gland secretion in patients suffering from hyperkalaemia.

  4. Urinary excretion levels of water-soluble vitamins in pregnant and lactating women in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Katsumi; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Sasaki, Satoshi; Sano, Mitsue; Suzuki, Kahoru; Hiratsuka, Chiaki; Aoki, Asami; Nagai, Chiharu

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the urinary excretion levels of water-soluble vitamins can be used as biomarkers for the nutritional status of these vitamins. To determine changes in the urinary excretion levels of water-soluble vitamins during pregnant and lactating stages, we surveyed and compared levels of nine water-soluble vitamins in control (non-pregnant and non-lactating women), pregnant and lactating women. Control women (n=37), women in the 2nd (16-27 wk, n=24) and 3rd trimester of pregnancy (over 28 wk, n=32), and early- (0-5 mo, n=54) and late-stage lactating (6-11 mo, n=49) women took part in the survey. The mean age of subjects was ~30 y, and mean height was ~160 cm. A single 24-h urine sample was collected 1 d after the completion of a validated, self-administered comprehensive diet history questionnaire to measure water-soluble vitamins or metabolites. The average intake of each water-soluble vitamin was ≍ the estimated average requirement value and adequate intake for the Japanese Dietary Reference Intakes in all life stages, except for vitamin B6 and folate intakes during pregnancy. No change was observed in the urinary excretion levels of vitamin B2, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, biotin or vitamin C among stages. Urine nicotinamide and folate levels were higher in pregnant women than in control women. Urine excretion level of vitamin B1 decreased during lactation and that of pantothenic acid decreased during pregnancy and lactation. These results provide valuable information for setting the Dietary Reference Intakes of water-soluble vitamins for pregnant and lactating women.

  5. Urinary albumin and beta 2-microglobulin excretion rates in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parving, H H; Sørensen, S F; Mogensen, C E

    1980-01-01

    prednisone, 5-20 mg/day. None of the patients had proteinuria as judged by the "Albustix" test, and all had normal serum creatinine. The daily urinary albumin and beta 2-microglobulin excretion rates were nearly the same as those previously found by us in 27 adult control subjects with a mean age of 44 years....... Our study shows that SLE patients without clinical proteinuria have a completely normal renal glomerular and tubular protein handling, irrespective of the duration of the disease....

  6. Effects of chronic ethanol intake on mobilization and excretion of cholesterol in baboons.

    OpenAIRE

    KARSENTY, C.; Baraona, E.; Savolainen, M J; Lieber, C S

    1985-01-01

    To investigate the effects of chronic ethanol administration on the mobilization and excretion of cholesterol, turnover and balance studies were carried out in baboons pair-fed cholesterol-free diets containing 50% of energy either as ethanol or as additional carbohydrate for several years. Ethanol feeding increased free cholesterol in all plasma lipoprotein fractions, and esterified cholesterol in very low density lipoprotein, intermediate density lipoprotein, and high density lipoprotein (H...

  7. Pharmacokinetics, metabolism and excretion of [14C]-lenalidomide following oral administration in healthy male subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Nianhang; Wen, Lian; Lau, Henry; Surapaneni, Sekhar; Kumar, Gondi

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Assessment of the absorption, metabolism and excretion of [14C]-lenalidomide in healthy male subjects following a single oral dose. Methods Six healthy male subjects were administered a single 25 mg oral suspension dose of [14C]-lenalidomide. Blood (plasma), semen and excreta were collected. Mass balance assessments were done by radioactivity measurements. Metabolite profiling and quantitation were accomplished using liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric and radiochemical dete...

  8. Plasma prolactin, LH, FSH and estrogen excretion patterns in gilts during sexual development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camous, S; Prunier, A; Pelletier, J

    1985-05-01

    Plasma prolactin (PRL), luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) were measured by radioimmunoassay in groups of eight gilts sampled every 20 min for 6 h at about 2-wk intervals between 15 and 192 d of age. The PRL levels were high at 15 and 28 d, declined at 40 d just after weaning and then rose slowly until 192 d of age. The number of LH pulses during 6 h was higher between 83 and 125 d than at the other periods. Magnitude of LH pulses was highest at 15 d, constant from 54 to 125 d, fell at 137 d and remained low until 192 d. Plasma FSH was high from 15 to 125 d, with a maximum at 54 d. It declined slowly until 168 d and did not change thereafter. Estrogen excretion was estimated from urine excretion of estrone (E1; conjugated plus nonconjugated E1) per 24 h from 40 d until puberty in three gilts and at 156 and 174 d in two other animals. The E1 excretion increased with age and four levels were described before peak values with the onset of first estrus. The first increase in E1 excretion occurred between 68 and 110 d, when antral follicles appeared in the ovaries. It was subsequent to the highest levels of FSH and concomitant with the increased frequency of LH pulses. The drop in levels of both gonadotropins after 125 d probably corresponded to the development of the negative feedback as a result of greater ovarian activity in these gilts.

  9. Sodium and potassium urinary excretion and dietary intake: a cross-sectional analysis in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Gonçalves

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypertension is the leading cause for heart disease and stroke, for mortality and morbidity worldwide, and a high sodium-to-potassium intake ratio is considered a stronger risk factor for hypertension than sodium alone. Objective: This study aims to evaluate sodium and potassium urinary excretion, and assess the food sources of these nutrients in a sample of Portuguese adolescents. Design: A cross-sectional study with a sample of 250 Portuguese adolescents. Sodium and potassium excretion were measured by one 24-h urinary collection, and the coefficient of creatinine was used to validate completeness of urine collections. Dietary sources of sodium and potassium were assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. Results: Valid urine collections were provided by 200 adolescents (118 girls with a median age of 14.0 in both sexes (p=0.295. Regarding sodium, the mean urinary excretion was 3,725 mg/day in boys and 3,062 mg/day in girls (p<0.01, and 9.8% of boys and 22% of girls met the World Health Organization (WHO recommendations for sodium intake. Concerning potassium, the mean urinary excretion was 2,237 mg/day in boys and 1,904 mg/day in girls (p<0.01, and 6.1% of boys and 1.7% of girls met the WHO recommendations for potassium intake. Major dietary sources for sodium intake were cereal and cereal products (41%, meat products (16%, and milk and milk products (11%; and for potassium intake, main sources were milk and milk products (21%, meat products (17%, and vegetables (15%. Conclusions: Adolescents had a high-sodium and low-potassium diet, well above the WHO recommendations. Health promotion interventions are needed in order to decrease sodium and increase potassium intake.

  10. Cheese intake lowers plasma cholesterol concentrations without increasing bile acid excretion

    OpenAIRE

    Hjerpsted, Julie Bousgaard; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Tholstrup, Tine

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Cheese is a dairy product with high calcium content. It has been suggested that calcium intake may increase fecal excretion of bile acids that would cause a regeneration of bile acids from hepatic cholesterol and thereby result in a lowering of plasma cholesterol concentrations. We aimed to test this hypothesis by assessing bile acid and calcium concentrations in fecal samples from humans after intake of cheese and butter. Methods The study was a randomized, 2 × 6 weeks crossover, die...

  11. Urinary excretion of phthalates and paraben after repeated whole-body topical application in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjua, Nadeem Rezaq; Frederiksen, Hanne; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Wulf, Hans Christian; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2008-04-01

    Diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and butyl paraben (BP) are man-made chemicals used in personal care products, such as lotions and creams. Exposure to these chemicals causes a variety of adverse reproductive outcomes in animal studies. Humans can be exposed to these chemicals through dermal absorption, but there are no published data on absorption, metabolism, and excretion after dermal application. This study investigates urinary concentrations of BP and metabolites of DEP and DBP after topical application. In a 2-week single-blinded study, 26 healthy Caucasian male subjects were given a whole body topical application of basic cream 2 mg/cm(2) (control week) and then a cream containing 2% (w/w) of DEP, DBP and BP each (treatment week) daily. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected. Urinary total, and unconjugated BP, monoethyl phthalate (MEP) and monobutyl phthalate (MBP) metabolites were analysed by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS). All 26 subjects showed increased excretion of MEP, MBP and BP following topical application. Total MEP, MBP and BP (mean +/- SEM) excreted in urine in the treatment week were, respectively, 41 +/- 1.9, 11.8 +/- 0.6 and 2.6 +/- 0.1 mg/24 h. On average 5.79, 1.82 and 0.32%, respectively, of the applied DEP, DBP and BP could be recovered in urine as MEP, MBP and BP. The concentration of the compounds peaked in urine 8-12 h after application. The fractions of unconjugated MEP, MBP, and BP were 78, 8.0 and 2.1%, respectively. Absorption of DEP, DBP and BP through skin could potentially contribute to adverse health effects. The three chemicals are systemically absorbed, metabolized and excreted in urine following application on the skin in a cream preparation. More DEP than DBP was absorbed, presumably because of a faster absorption rate for DEP.

  12. The effect of probenecid on the renal tubular excretion of benzylpenicillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overbosch, D; Van Gulpen, C; Hermans, J; Mattie, H

    1988-01-01

    1 The aim of this study was to establish whether the renal tubular excretion of benzylpenicillin is saturable and whether the effect of probenecid on the tubular excretion of benzylpenicillin is dose-dependent. 2 Each of four volunteers underwent three experiments. In each experiment benzylpenicillin was administered by continuous infusion, such that three different consecutive concentration levels were reached. In the first experiment no probenecid was given; in the second and third experiments, probenecid was administered by continuous infusion at a low and higher rate, respectively. 3 Plasma and urinary concentrations of benzylpenicillin were determined at 30 min intervals by high performance liquid chromatography. 4 By fitting the equation Rtub = Rtub,max.Cp/(EC50 + Cp) to the values of the tubular excretion rate found for benzylpenicillin (Rtub) vs the free plasma concentration (Cp), the values of Rtub,max and EC50 could be calculated: 3350 (+/- 606) mg h-1 for Rtub,max and 48.0 (+/- 17.8) mg l-1 for EC50 (in the absence of probenecid). 5 The EC50 for benzylpenicillin increased significantly with increasing doses of probenecid. 6 The dose of probenecid at which 50% of the excretory system is occupied by probenecid in the absence of benzylpenicillin (ED50) ranged from 13.2 to 108.5 mg h-1. 7 The EC50 of probenecid in one subject could actually be measured: 52.3 mg l-1. 8 Extrapolating these results to the clinical situation, the commonly used daily dose of 2 g of probenecid is likely to be close to the maximal effective dose for inhibition of the tubular excretion of benzylpenicillin. PMID:3370192

  13. Effect of fruit juice intake on urinary quercetin excretion and biomarkers of antioxidative status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, J. F.; Nielsen, S. E.; Haraldsdottir, J.

    1999-01-01

    excreted in urine was 0.29-0.47%. Plasma quercetin did not change with juice inter vention, Plasma ascorbate increased during intervention because of the ascorbate in the juice. Total plasma malondialdehyde decreased with time during the 1500-mL juice intervention, indicating reduced lipid oxidation...... glutathione peroxidase activity, whereas lipid oxidation in plasma seemed to decrease. These effects might be related to several components of the juice and cannot be attributed solely to its quercetin content....

  14. Side effects in the neonate from psychotropic agents excreted through breast-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananth, J

    1978-07-01

    Neuroleptics, antidepressants, lithium, anxiolytics, and hypnotics may be excreted in breast milk. Because of the danger to the neonate, drugs such as diazepam, lithium, bromides, reserpine, and opium alkaloids should not be given to lactating women, and barbiturates, haloperidol, and penfluridol should be administered with caution. The side effects produced as a result of breast-feeding of the infant by mothers consuming psychotropic drugs are reviewed and possible preventive measures are discussed.

  15. Influence of a mixed and a vegetarian diet on urinary magnesium excretion and concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siener, R; Hesse, A

    1995-05-01

    Urinary Mg is suggested to be an effective inhibitor of the formation and growth of calcium oxalate stones. In order to examine the influence of variations in dietary Mg on urinary Mg excretion, ten healthy male subjects were kept on two different standard diets for 5 d each. In the course of the test period, 24 h urine samples were collected. Diets 1 and 2 were calculated according to the dietary recommendations of the German Society of Nutrition (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Ernährung, 1986). Diet 1 was established as a model of a balanced mixed diet, whereas diet 2 represented an ovo-lacto-vegetarian meal plan. Diets 1 and 2 were isoenergetic with equal amounts of the main nutrients, estimated from food tables, and a constant fluid intake. In contrast to the content of Mg (336 mg) and dietary fibre (28 g) of diet 1, diet 2 was rich in Mg (553 mg) and dietary fibre (52 g). On the ingestion of diet 1, renal Mg excretion was 5.09 (SEM 0.35) mmol on the control day and increased slightly but not significantly to 5.40 (SEM 0.52) mmol on the corresponding day on diet 2. Urinary Mg excretion as a percentage of estimated dietary intake was about double on the balanced mixed diet (37%) than on the Mg-rich vegetarian diet (24%). As both diets contained equal amounts of most nutrients, these results indicate a lower excretion rate of Mg from the vegetarian diet than from the mixed diet.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. No Evidence of Rat Hepatitis E Virus Excretion in Urine Samples of Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tian-Cheng; Yoshizaki, Sayaka; Ami, Yasushi; Suzaki, Yuriko; Johne, Reimar; Wakita, Takaji

    2017-05-24

    To investigate whether rat hepatitis E virus (rat HEV) is excreted in the urine of HEV-infected rats, we infected 3 Wistar and 6 nude rats with rat HEV and examined the rat-HEV RNA in serum, fecal, and urine samples. We detected rat-HEV RNA in the serum and fecal samples of all 9 rats but not in any of the urine samples. Our results suggest that in rats, rat HEV is not transmitted via urine.

  17. Urea and Ammonia Metabolism and the Control of Renal Nitrogen Excretion

    OpenAIRE

    Weiner, I. David; Mitch, William E.; Sands, Jeff M.

    2014-01-01

    Renal nitrogen metabolism primarily involves urea and ammonia metabolism, and is essential to normal health. Urea is the largest circulating pool of nitrogen, excluding nitrogen in circulating proteins, and its production changes in parallel to the degradation of dietary and endogenous proteins. In addition to serving as a way to excrete nitrogen, urea transport, mediated through specific urea transport proteins, mediates a central role in the urine concentrating mechanism. Renal ammonia excr...

  18. Urinary iron excretion induced by intravenous infusion of deferoxamine in ß-thalassemia homozygous patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boturão-Neto E.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to identify noninvasive methods to evaluate the severity of iron overload in transfusion-dependent ß-thalassemia and the efficiency of intensive intravenous therapy as an additional tool for the treatment of iron-overloaded patients. Iron overload was evaluated for 26 ß-thalassemia homozygous patients, and 14 of them were submitted to intensive chelation therapy with high doses of intravenous deferoxamine (DF. Patients were classified into six groups of increasing clinical severity and were divided into compliant and non-compliant patients depending on their adherence to chronic chelation treatment. Several methods were used as indicators of iron overload. Total gain of transfusion iron, plasma ferritin, and urinary iron excretion in response to 20 to 60 mg/day subcutaneous DF for 8 to 12 h daily are useful to identify iron overload; however, urinary iron excretion in response to 9 g intravenous DF over 24 h and the increase of urinary iron excretion induced by high doses of the chelator are more reliable to identify different degrees of iron overload because of their correlation with the clinical grades of secondary hemochromatosis and the significant differences observed between the groups of compliant and non-compliant patients. Finally, the use of 3-9 g intravenous DF for 6-12 days led to a urinary iron excretion corresponding to 4.1 to 22.4% of the annual transfusion iron gain. Therefore, continuous intravenous DF at high doses may be an additional treatment for these patients, as a complement to the regular subcutaneous infusion at home, but requires individual planning and close monitoring of adverse reactions.

  19. Diurnal fluctuations in nematode egg excretion in naturally and in experimentally infected chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongrak, Kalyakorn; Gauly, Matthias; Daş, Gürbüz

    2015-03-15

    We investigated whether nematode egg excretion through feces of naturally or experimentally infected chickens follow certain patterns within a day, which may allow determining the most appropriate sampling time for the highest parasite egg concentration. Feces samples (n=864) from chickens (n=36) with naturally occurring mixed nematode infections (trials N1, N2) or with an experimental Ascaridia galli infection (E) were collected quantitatively every 4h for four consecutive days. Number of eggs per gram of feces (EPG) was determined, and accumulative egg output (AEO) at each sampling time as well as total number of eggs excreted within 24h (eggs per day, EPD) were then estimated. At the end of the collection period, the hens were necropsied and their worm burdens determined. Naturally infected hens harbored Heterakis gallinarum (100%), Capillaria spp. (95.7%) and A. galli (91.3%). The experimental A. galli infection produced patent infections in all the birds. In general, both fecal egg concentration (EPG) and the amount of feces increased (P0.05) between effects of sampling hours and days on EPG and AEO, suggesting the existence of repeatable diurnal fluctuations within each day. Although an association between climatic parameters (e.g., ambient temperature and relative humidity) and the nematode egg excretion was quantified, a causal relationship could not be demonstrated. We conclude that nematode egg excretion through chicken feces in both natural and experimental infections shows repeatable diurnal fluctuations, which may indicate adaptive strategies by nematodes and eventually favor parasite spread. Since analytic sensitivity of fecal egg counts suffers from low egg concentrations in feces, samples taken during the daytime have a higher diagnostic value. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Lactoferrin interacts with bile acids and increases fecal cholesterol excretion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kanae; Morishita, Satoru; Ono, Tomoji; Murakoshi, Michiaki; Sugiyama, Keikichi; Kato, Hisanori; Ikeda, Ikuo; Nishino, Hoyoku

    2017-02-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) is a multifunctional cationic protein (pI 8.2-8.9) in mammalian milk. We previously reported that enteric-LF prevented hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis in a diet-induced atherosclerosis model using Microminipig, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Because LF is assumed to electrostatically interact with bile acids to inhibit intestinal cholesterol absorption, LF could promote cholesterol excretion. In this study, we assessed the interaction between LF and taurocholate in vitro, and the effect of LF on cholesterol excretion in rats. The binding rate of taurocholate to LF was significantly higher than that to transferrin (pI 5.2-6.3). When rats were administered a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) containing 5% LF, LF was detected using ELISA in the upper small intestine from 7.5 to 60 min after the administration. Rats were fed one of the following diets: control, HCD, or HCD + 5% LF for 21 days. Fecal neutral steroids and hepatic cholesterol levels in the HCD group were significantly higher than those in the control group. The addition of LF to a HCD significantly increased fecal neutral steroids levels (22% increase, p cholesterol levels (17% decrease, p cholesterol excretion via interactions with bile acids.

  1. Pyridoxic acid excretion during low vitamin B-6 intake, total fasting, and bed rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coburn, S. P.; Thampy, K. G.; Lane, H. W.; Conn, P. S.; Ziegler, P. J.; Costill, D. L.; Mahuren, J. D.; Fink, W. J.; Pearson, D. R.; Schaltenbrand, W. E.

    1995-01-01

    Vitamin B-6 metabolism in 10 volunteers during 21 d of total fasting was compared with results from 10 men consuming a diet low only in vitamin B-6 (1.76 mumol/d) and with men consuming a normal diet during bed rest. At the end of the fast mean plasma concentrations of vitamin B-6 metabolites and urinary excretion of 4-pyridoxic acid tended to be higher in the fasting subjects than in the low-vitamin B-6 group. The fasting subjects lost approximately 10% of their total vitamin B-6 pool and approximately 13% of their body weight. The low-vitamin B-6 group lost only approximately 4% of their vitamin B-6 pool. Compared with baseline, urinary excretion of pyridoxic acid was significantly increased during 17 wk of bed rest. There was no increase in pyridoxic acid excretion during a second 15-d bed rest study. These data suggest the possibility of complex interactions between diet and muscle metabolism that may influence indexes that are frequently used to assess vitamin B-6 status.

  2. Comparison of 24-hour urinary citrate excretion in stone formers and healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Goodarzi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Low urinary citrate excretion is a risk factor in stone formers (SF. This study aimed to measure the urinary citrate excretion in SF and healthy volunteers at our center from 12 June 2008 to 20 August 2009. There were 28 SF patients (18 males and ten females and 27 (18 males and nine females age-matched healthy adult volunteers who participated in this study. Both groups had a similar living environment, extrinsic factors, diet and genetic descent. After collecting 24-h urine, citrate was measured using an enzymatic kit. Routine urinalysis and 24-h creatinine and uric acid were also performed. There was a significant difference in urinary citrate excretion level among SF (mean 310, SD 260 mg/L and normal volunteer subjects (mean 800, SD 300 mg/L. By applying the previously defined normal values (320 mg/24 h of urinary citrate in the local population, 43% of the SF in our study group was hypocitric, and none among the controls. We conclude that prevalence of hypocitraturia in stone formers was higher than that in healthy volunteers in our population.

  3. Effects of porcine hemoglobin on serum lipid content and fecal lipid excretion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosomi, Ryota; Fukunaga, Kenji; Nishiyama, Toshimasa; Yoshida, Munehiro

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effects of dietary hemoglobin on serum and liver lipid contents in rats, and the ability of hemoglobin hydrolysates to disrupt lipid absorption. After rats had been fed on casein- or porcine hemoglobin-containing diets for 4 weeks, their serum and liver lipid contents and fecal cholesterol, bile acid, and nitrogen excretion were measured. To elucidate the mechanism of lipid absorption by dietary hemoglobin, we also examined lipase activity, micellar solubility of cholesterol, and bile acid binding activity in the presence of hemoglobin hydrolysates. Dietary hemoglobin decreased serum and liver triglyceride and cholesterol contents and increased fecal fatty acid, cholesterol, and bile acid excretion. In addition, hemoglobin hydrolysates inhibited lipase activity compared with casein hydrolysates in an in vitro study. These results suggested that the hypolipidemic effect of hemoglobin is mediated by increased fecal lipid excretion, and that decreased lipase activity by hemoglobin is at least partially responsible for this result. The observed effects were documented with an 8 g/kg hemoglobin diet, which is lower than in other studies; therefore. hemoglobin may be useful in the prevention of lifestyle-related diseases.

  4. Metabolism and excretion of anacetrapib, a novel inhibitor of the cholesteryl ester transfer protein, in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Tan, Eugene Y; Hartmann, Georgy; Biddle, Zachary; Bergman, Arthur J; Dru, James; Ho, Jonathan Z; Jones, Allen N; Staskiewicz, Steve J; Braun, Matthew P; Karanam, Bindhu; Dean, Dennis C; Gendrano, Isaias Noel; Graves, Mark W; Wagner, John A; Krishna, Rajesh

    2010-03-01

    Anacetrapib is a novel cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitor being developed for the treatment of primary hypercholesterolemia and mixed dyslipidemia. The absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of anacetrapib were investigated in an open-label study in which six healthy male subjects received a single oral dose of 150 mg and 165 microCi of [(14)C]anacetrapib. Plasma, urine, and fecal samples were collected at predetermined times for up to 14 days postdose and were analyzed for total radioactivity, the parent compound, and metabolites. The majority of the administered radioactivity (87%) was eliminated by fecal excretion, with negligible amounts present in urine (0.1%). The peak level of radioactivity in plasma (approximately 2 microM equivalents of [(14)C]anacetrapib) was achieved approximately 4 h postdose. The parent compound was the major radioactive component (79-94% of total radioactivity) in both plasma and feces. Three oxidative metabolites, M1, M2, and M3, were detected in plasma and feces and were identified as the O-demethylated species (M1) and two secondary hydroxylated derivatives of M1 (M2 and M3). Each metabolite was detected at low levels, representing excretion of metabolites by the biliary-fecal route.

  5. Dynamics of metal uptake by charged soft biointerphases: impacts of depletion, internalisation, adsorption and excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Jérôme F L; Rotureau, Elise

    2014-04-28

    A comprehensive theory is elaborated for the dynamics of metal ion uptake by charged spherical microorganisms. The formalism integrates the interplay over time between bulk metal depletion, metal adsorption, metal excretion (efflux) and transport of metals by conductive diffusion toward the metal-consuming biomembrane. The model further involves the basic physicochemical features of the microbial interphase in terms of size, distribution of electrostatic charges and thickness of peripheral soft surface appendage. A generalization of the Best equation is proposed and leads to the expression of the time-dependent concentration of metal ions at the active membrane surface as a function of bulk metal concentration. Combination of this equation with the metal conservation condition over the sample volume allows a full evaluation of bulk metal depletion kinetics and the accompanying time-dependent uptake and excretion fluxes as a function of metal-microorganism electrostatic interaction, microbe concentration and relevant biophysicochemical features of the interphase. Practically tractable expressions are derived in the limit where the Biotic Ligand Model (BLM) is obeyed and in situations where conductive diffusion transport of metals significantly determines the rate of biouptake. In particular, the plateau value reached at sufficiently long times by bulk metal concentration is rigorously expressed in terms of the key parameters pertaining to the adsorption process and to the kinetics of metal uptake and excretion. The theory extends and unifies previous approximate models where the impacts of extracellular metal transport and/or metal efflux on the overall rate of uptake were ignored.

  6. Stereoselectivity in bioaccumulation and excretion of epoxiconazole by mealworm beetle (Tenebrio molitor) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xiaotian; Liu, Chen; Li, Yaobin; Gao, Yongxin; Wang, Huili; Li, Jianzhong; Guo, Baoyuan

    2014-09-01

    Stereoselectivity in bioaccumulation and excretion of stereoisomers of epoxiconazole by mealworm beetle (Tenebrio molitor) larvae through dietary exposure was investigated. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method that use a ChiralcelOD-3R[cellulosetris-Tris-(3, 5-dichlorophenyl-carbamate)] chromatography column was applied to carry out chiral separation of the stereoisomers. Wheat bran was spiked with racemic epoxiconazole at two dose levels of 20mg/kg and 2mg/kg (dry weight) to feed T. molitor larvae. The results showed that both the doses of epoxiconazole were taken up by Tenebrio molitor larvae rapidly at the initial stages. There was a significant trend of stereoselective bioaccumulation in the larvae with a preferential accumulation of (-)-epoxiconazole in the 20mg/kg dose. The stereoselectivity in bioaccumulation in the 2mg/kg dosage was not obvious compared to the 20mg/kg group. Results of excretion indicated an active excretion is an important pathway for the larvae to eliminate epoxiconazole which was a passive transport process with non stereoselectivity. The faster elimination might be the reason for the low accumulation of epoxiconazole, as measured by bioaccumulation factor (BAF). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of spironolactone on diuresis and urine sodium and potassium excretion in healthy dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeunesse, E; Woehrle, F; Schneider, M; Lefebvre, H P

    2007-11-01

    To document the diuretic effect of different oral doses of spironolactone (SP) in healthy dogs. SP is currently mentioned as a diuretic agent in the dog. However, the recommended doses were empirically defined and their corresponding diuretic effect has never been documented in dogs. Eight adult Beagle dogs were used for two separate 2*2 cross-over designs. In the first cross-over, 4 dogs received SP orally for 8 days at 1 and 2mg/kg per day. In the second cross-over the 4 other dogs received SP similarly, but at 4 and 8 mg/kg per day. Dogs were weighed on the first and last day of each period. Plasma SP and canrenone (the main active metabolite of SP) were assayed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Daily water consumption, urine weight, urine specific gravity, and urine excretion of sodium and potassium were measured during the SP treatment. Two hours after SP administration, SP was metabolized into canrenone. A significant 14 and 22% decrease in urine potassium excretion was observed at 1 and 2mg/kg, respectively, but not at the two other dose levels. Daily water consumption, urine weight, urine specific gravity, and urine excretion of sodium were not significantly altered by the SP treatment regardless of dose. Repeated oral administration of SP at 1, 2, 4 or 8 mg/kg for 8 days had no effect on water and sodium diuresis in healthy dogs.

  8. Blood pressure, obesity and urine cation excretion in two populations of the Cook Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, K; Yamauchi, T; Hiraiwa, K

    1990-02-01

    As part of a physical anthropological and linguistic research in the Cook Islands, blood pressure levels, the degree of obesity, and urine cation excretion were measured in the residents of Rarotonga (the most westernized) and Mangaia (a less westernized island) in 1986. The rise of blood pressure with age was observed in both sexes in each island, with the mean systolic pressures of the oldest male group (155.8 vs. 137.3 mmHg) significantly higher, and those of older female groups (137.4 vs. 127.1 and 154.7 vs. 145.9 mmHg) relatively higher in Rarotonga than in Mangaia. The mean body mass index was much the same between the two islands, but mean skinfolds at triceps and subscapular sites were thicker in Rarotonga than in Mangaia in each sex and age group. The mean sodium to potassium excretion ratio fell with age (2.97 to 0.94 in males, 2.24 to 1.09 in females) in Rarotonga, and was consistently low (1.09 to 0.73) in Mangaia. Body mass index correlated with both systolic and diastolic pressures in each sex and island group but indeces of sodium excretion did not. Obesity was considered a more important risk factor for hypertension than sodium-intake in the surveyed population, and skinfolds, related to daily physical activity, probably associated with the difference in blood pressure levels observed between the two islands.

  9. Recent advances in understanding trans-epithelial acid-base regulation and excretion mechanisms in cephalopods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Marian Y; Hwang, Pung-Pung; Tseng, Yung-Che

    2015-01-01

    Cephalopods have evolved complex sensory systems and an active lifestyle to compete with fish for similar resources in the marine environment. Their highly active lifestyle and their extensive protein metabolism has led to substantial acid-base regulatory abilities enabling these organisms to cope with CO2 induced acid-base disturbances. In convergence to teleost, cephalopods possess an ontogeny-dependent shift in ion-regulatory epithelia with epidermal ionocytes being the major site of embryonic acid-base regulation and ammonia excretion, while gill epithelia take these functions in adults. Although the basic morphology and excretory function of gill epithelia in cephalopods were outlined almost half a century ago, modern immunohistological and molecular techniques are bringing new insights to the mechanistic basis of acid-base regulation and excretion of nitrogenous waste products (e.g. NH3/NH4 (+)) across ion regulatory epithelia of cephalopods. Using cephalopods as an invertebrate model, recent findings reveal partly conserved mechanisms but also novel aspects of acid-base regulation and nitrogen excretion in these exclusively marine animals. Comparative studies using a range of marine invertebrates will create a novel and exciting research direction addressing the evolution of pH regulatory and excretory systems.

  10. High Prolactin Excretion in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus and Impaired Renal Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triebel, Jakob; Moreno-Vega, Aura Ileana; Vázquez-Membrillo, Miguel; Nava, Gabriel; García-Franco, Renata; López-Star, Ellery; Baldivieso-Hurtado, Olivia; Ochoa, Daniel; Macotela, Yazmín; Bertsch, Thomas; Martinez de la Escalera, Gonzalo; Clapp, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    The metabolic clearance of prolactin (PRL) is partially executed by the kidney. Here, we investigate the urine excretion of PRL in patients with Diabetes Mellitus and renal impairment. Serum and urine samples were collected from male, mestizo patients in central Mexico employing a cross-sectional study design. Ninety-eight individuals had either no diabetes and normal renal function (control), diabetes and normal renal function, or diabetes with impaired renal function. PRL was determined by a chemiluminescent immunometric assay; protein, albumin, and creatinine were evaluated using quantitative colorimetric assays. The results were analyzed using ANOVA-testing. Patients with Diabetes Mellitus and renal impairment had significantly higher urine PRL levels than patients with Diabetes Mellitus and normal renal function and control patients. Higher urine PRL levels were associated with lower glomerular filtration rates, higher serum creatinine, and higher urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratios (UACR). Urine PRL levels correlated positively with UACR. Serum PRL levels were similar among groups. Patients with Diabetes Mellitus and impaired renal function demonstrate a high urinary PRL excretion. Urinary PRL excretion in the context of proteinuria could contribute to PRL dysregulation in renal impairment.

  11. Renal excretion profiles of psilocin following oral administration of psilocybin: a controlled study in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasler, Felix; Bourquin, Daniel; Brenneisen, Rudolf; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2002-09-05

    In a clinical study eight volunteers received psilocybin (PY) in psychoactive oral doses of 212+/-25 microg/kg body weight. To investigate the elimination kinetics of psilocin (PI), the first metabolite of PY, urine was collected for 24 h and PI concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with column switching and electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD). Sample workup included protection of the unstable PI with ascorbic acid, freeze-drying, and extraction with methanol. Peak PI concentrations up to 870 microg/l were measured in urine samples from the 2-4 h collection interval. The PI excretion rate in this period was 55.5+/-33.8 microg/h. The limit of quantitation (10 microg/L) was usually reached 24 h after drug administration. Within 24 h, 3.4+/-0.9% of the applied dose of PY was excreted as free PI. Addition of beta-glucuronidase to urine samples and incubation for 5 h at 40 degrees C led to twofold higher PI concentrations, although 18+/-7% of the amount of unconjugated PI was decomposed during incubation. We conclude that in humans PI is partially excreted as PI-O-glucuronide and that enzymatic hydrolysis extends the time of detectability for PI in urine samples.

  12. Biological Monitoring of Human Exposure to Neonicotinoids Using Urine Samples, and Neonicotinoid Excretion Kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kouji H; Tanaka, Keiko; Sakamoto, Hiroko; Imanaka, Mie; Niisoe, Tamon; Hitomi, Toshiaki; Kobayashi, Hatasu; Okuda, Hiroko; Inoue, Sumiko; Kusakawa, Koichi; Oshima, Masayo; Watanabe, Kiyohiko; Yasojima, Makoto; Takasuga, Takumi; Koizumi, Akio

    2016-01-01

    Neonicotinoids, which are novel pesticides, have entered into usage around the world because they are selectively toxic to arthropods and relatively non-toxic to vertebrates. It has been suggested that several neonicotinoids cause neurodevelopmental toxicity in mammals. The aim was to establish the relationship between oral intake and urinary excretion of neonicotinoids by humans to facilitate biological monitoring, and to estimate dietary neonicotinoid intakes by Japanese adults. Deuterium-labeled neonicotinoid (acetamiprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, and imidacloprid) microdoses were orally ingested by nine healthy adults, and 24 h pooled urine samples were collected for 4 consecutive days after dosing. The excretion kinetics were modeled using one- and two-compartment models, then validated in a non-deuterium-labeled neonicotinoid microdose study involving 12 healthy adults. Increased urinary concentrations of labeled neonicotinoids were observed after dosing. Clothianidin was recovered unchanged within 3 days, and most dinotefuran was recovered unchanged within 1 day. Around 10% of the imidacloprid dose was excreted unchanged. Most of the acetamiprid was metabolized to desmethyl-acetamiprid. Spot urine samples from 373 Japanese adults were analyzed for neonicotinoids, and daily intakes were estimated. The estimated average daily intake of these neonicotinoids was 0.53-3.66 μg/day. The highest intake of any of the neonicotinoids in the study population was 64.5 μg/day for dinotefuran, and this was <1% of the acceptable daily intake.

  13. Biological Monitoring of Human Exposure to Neonicotinoids Using Urine Samples, and Neonicotinoid Excretion Kinetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouji H Harada

    Full Text Available Neonicotinoids, which are novel pesticides, have entered into usage around the world because they are selectively toxic to arthropods and relatively non-toxic to vertebrates. It has been suggested that several neonicotinoids cause neurodevelopmental toxicity in mammals. The aim was to establish the relationship between oral intake and urinary excretion of neonicotinoids by humans to facilitate biological monitoring, and to estimate dietary neonicotinoid intakes by Japanese adults.Deuterium-labeled neonicotinoid (acetamiprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, and imidacloprid microdoses were orally ingested by nine healthy adults, and 24 h pooled urine samples were collected for 4 consecutive days after dosing. The excretion kinetics were modeled using one- and two-compartment models, then validated in a non-deuterium-labeled neonicotinoid microdose study involving 12 healthy adults. Increased urinary concentrations of labeled neonicotinoids were observed after dosing. Clothianidin was recovered unchanged within 3 days, and most dinotefuran was recovered unchanged within 1 day. Around 10% of the imidacloprid dose was excreted unchanged. Most of the acetamiprid was metabolized to desmethyl-acetamiprid. Spot urine samples from 373 Japanese adults were analyzed for neonicotinoids, and daily intakes were estimated. The estimated average daily intake of these neonicotinoids was 0.53-3.66 μg/day. The highest intake of any of the neonicotinoids in the study population was 64.5 μg/day for dinotefuran, and this was <1% of the acceptable daily intake.

  14. Polyphenols from alcoholic apple cider are absorbed, metabolized and excreted by humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuPont, M Susan; Bennett, Richard N; Mellon, Fred A; Williamson, Gary

    2002-02-01

    We determined the uptake and excretion of low doses of polyphenols in six subjects who each consumed 1.1 L of an alcoholic cider beverage. Over a 24-h period, no phloretin was detected in plasma (detection limit = 0.036 micromol/L), but 21 +/- 5% of the dose (4.8 mg) was excreted in the urine. In contrast, from a low dose of 1.6-mg quercetin equivalents, no quercetin was found in urine or plasma, but 3'-methyl quercetin was detected in plasma [C(max) (maximum concentration) = 0.14 +/- 0.19 micromol/L; range: 0 to 0.44 micromol/L]. No flavanol monomers (dose of free (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin = 3.5 mg) were detected in urine or plasma (detection limit: 0.01 micromol/L). Caffeic acid (total dose including esters = 11 mg) was detected only in plasma within 2 h, with C(max) = 0.43 +/- 0.3 micromol/L (range: 0.18 to 0.84 micromol/L). An almost 3-fold increase in hippuric acid was detected in 24-h urine (74 +/- 29 micromol/L; range: 38-116 micromol/L), compared with a prestudy value of 19 +/- 9 micromol/L. These data show that polyphenols are taken up from cider, that phloretin is excreted in the urine and suggest that low doses of quercetin are extensively methylated in humans.

  15. Effect of nitrendipine, nimodipine and nisoldipine on water and electrolytes excretion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, J; Kaur, A H; Bansal, S; Lal, H

    1996-01-01

    In water loaded (5 ml/100 g) unanesthetized rats. nitrendipine (NT), nimodipine (NM) and nisoldipine (NS) (5 mg/ kg, i.p.) caused significant (P < 0.01) increase in water and Na+ excretion. However, there was no significant increase in K+ excretion after NT, NM and NS administration. NS was more potent in increasing excretion of water load as compared to NT and NM. The glomerular filtration rate as assessed by creatinine clearance, was significantly (P < 0.01) increased in NT, NM and NS (5 mg/kg, i.p.) treated groups as compared to control. The mean creatinine clearance values after NT, NM and NS were 26.95 +/- 0.35, 22.11 +/- 0.72 and 28.13 +/- 0.95 respectively as compared to 22.19 +/- 0.51, 18.77 +/- 0.42 and 22.97 +/- 0.60 in corresponding control groups. The results of the study suggest that in addition to other effects, NT, NM and NS have a selective inhibitory effect on Na+ handling mechanisms in the nephron.

  16. Metabolism, excretion and avoidance of cyanogenic glucosides in insects with different feeding specialisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentzold, Stefan; Zagrobelny, Mika; Bjarnholt, Nanna; Kroymann, Juergen; Vogel, Heiko; Olsen, Carl Erik; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Bak, Søren

    2015-11-01

    Cyanogenic glucosides (CNglcs) are widespread plant defence compounds releasing toxic hydrogen cyanide when hydrolysed by specific β-glucosidases after plant tissue damage. In contrast to specialist herbivores that have mechanisms to avoid toxicity from CNglcs, it is generally assumed that non-adapted herbivores are negatively affected by CNglcs. Recent evidence, however, implies that the defence potential of CNglcs towards herbivores may not be as effective as previously anticipated. Here, performance, metabolism and excretion products of insects not adapted to CNglcs were analysed, including species with different degrees of dietary specialisation (generalists, specialists) and different feeding modes (leaf-snipping lepidopterans, piercing-sucking aphids). Insects were reared either on cyanogenic or acyanogenic plants or on an artificial cyanogenic diet. Lepidopteran generalists (Spodoptera littoralis, Spodoptera exigua, Mamestra brassicae) were compared to lepidopteran glucosinolate-specialists (Pieris rapae, Pieris brassicae, Plutella xylostella), and a generalist aphid (Myzus persicae) was compared to an aphid glucosinolate-specialist (Lipaphis erysimi). All insects were tolerant to cyanogenic plants; in lepidopterans tolerance was mainly due to excretion of intact CNglcs. The two Pieris species furthermore metabolized aromatic CNglcs to amino acid conjugates (Cys, Gly, Ser) and derivatives of these, which is similar to the metabolism of benzylglucosinolates in these species. Aphid species avoided uptake of CNglcs during feeding. Our results imply that non-adapted insects tolerate plant CNglcs either by keeping them intact for excretion, metabolizing them, or avoiding uptake. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Collagen cross-link excretion during space flight and bed rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S. M.; Nillen, J. L.; Leblanc, A.; Lipton, A.; Demers, L. M.; Lane, H. W.; Leach, C. S.; LeBlanc, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Extended exposure to weightlessness results in bone loss. However, little information exists as to the precise nature or time course of this bone loss. Bone resorption results in the release of collagen breakdown products, including N-telopeptide and the pyridinium (PYD) cross-links, pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline. Urinary pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline are known to increase during bed rest. We assessed excretion of PYD cross-links and N-telopeptide before, during, and after long (28-day, 59-day, and 84-day) Skylab missions, as well as during short (14-day) and long (119-day) bed-rest studies. During space flight, the urinary cross-link excretion level was twice those observed before flight. Urinary excretion levels of the collagen breakdown products were also 40-50% higher, during short and long bed rest, than before. These results clearly show that the changes in bone metabolism associated with space flight involve increased resorption. The rate of response (i.e. within days to weeks) suggests that alterations in bone metabolism are an early effect of weightlessness. These studies are important for a better understanding of bone metabolism in space crews and in those who are bedridden.

  18. Three-Dimensional Culture Reduces Cell Size By Increasing Vesicle Excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Miaohua; Zhou, Ying; Li, Sen; Wu, Yaojiong

    2018-02-01

    Our previous study has shown that three-dimensional (3D) culture decreases mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) size, leading to enhanced trafficking ability and reduced lung vascular obstructions. However, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. In this study, we proposed that 3D culture reduces MSC size by increasing vesicle excretion. Scanning electron microscope showed that 3D culture markedly increased the amount of membrane-bound vesicles on the cell surface. In consistence, tunable resistive pulse sensing quantifying analysis of vesicles in the culture medium indicated that there were higher levels of vesicles in the 3D culture MSC medium. 3D culture significantly lowered the level of actin polymerization (F-actin), suggestive of lowering actin skeleton tension may facilitate vesicle excretion. Indeed, treatment of MSCs with Cytochalasin D or functional blockade of integrin β1 caused increased vesicle secretion and decreased cell sizes. Thus, our results suggest that 3D culture reduces MSC size by increasing vesicle excretion which is likely mediated by lowering cytoskeleton tension. Stem Cells 2018;36:286-292. © 2017 AlphaMed Press.

  19. Predicting nutrient excretion of aquatic animals with metabolic ecology and ecological stoichiometry: a global synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanni, Michael J; McIntyre, Peter B

    2016-12-01

    The metabolic theory of ecology (MTE) and ecological stoichiometry (ES) are both prominent frameworks for understanding energy and nutrient budgets of organisms. We tested their separate and joint power to predict nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) excretion rates of ectothermic aquatic invertebrate and vertebrate animals (10,534 observations worldwide). MTE variables (body size, temperature) performed better than ES variables (trophic guild, vertebrate classification, body N:P) in predicting excretion rates, but the best models included variables from both frameworks. Size scaling coefficients were significantly lower than predicted by MTE (trophic guild, and vertebrate classification are sufficient to make general estimates of nutrient excretion rates for any animal taxon or aquatic ecosystem. Nonetheless, dramatic interspecific variation in size-scaling coefficients and counter-intuitive patterns with respect to diet and body composition underscore the need for field data on consumption and egestion rates. Together, MTE and ES provide a powerful conceptual basis for interpreting and predicting nutrient recycling rates of aquatic animals worldwide. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  20. Estimation of the renal net acid excretion by adults consuming diets containing variable amounts of protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remer, T; Manz, F

    1994-06-01

    The object of this study was to determine whether it is possible to reliably estimate the renal net acid excretion (NAE) produced by adults consuming different amounts of dietary protein. A physiologically based calculation model that corrects for intestinal absorption of minerals and sulfur-containing protein and assumes a rate of urinary excretion of organic acids proportional to body surface area was used to estimate NAE. Urinary excretion of different minerals and NAE was measured during the last 48 h of each of four separate 5-d diet periods in six healthy adults. On the basis of food tables, the four nearly isoenergetic diets (one lacto-vegetarian and one high- and two moderate-protein diets) were estimated to yield the following NAE values: 3.7, 117.5, 62.2, and 102.2 mEq/d, respectively. The analytically determined urinary NAE (24.1 +/- 10.7, 135.5 +/- 16.4, 69.7 +/- 21.4, and 112.6 +/- 10.9 mEq/d) corresponded reasonably well to these estimates, suggesting that the calculation model is appropriate to predict the renal NAE from nutrient intake and anthropometric data.

  1. Bioaccumulation and excretion of enantiomers of myclobutanil in Tenebrio molitor larvae through dietary exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xiaotian; Liu, Chen; Li, Yaobin; Gao, Yongxin; Guo, Baoyuan; Wang, Huili; Li, Jianzhong

    2013-12-01

    The bioaccumulation and excretion of enantiomers of myclobutanil in Tenebrio molitor larvae through dietary exposure under laboratory conditions were investigated using high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) based on a ChiralcelOD-3R [cellulosetris-tris-(3, 5-dichlorophenyl-carbamate)] column. The wheat bran fed to Tenebrio molitor larvae was spiked with racemic myclobutanil at two dose levels of 20 mg/kg and 2 mg/kg (dry weight). The results showed that there was a significant trend of enantioselective bioaccumulation in the larvae with a preferential accumulation of (-)-myclobutanil in 20 mg/kg dose exposure, but it was not obviously observed in the 2 mg/kg dose group. A kinetic model considering enantiomerization between the two enantiomers based on first-order reactions was built and the rate constants were estimated to discuss the kinetic reason for the different concentrations of individual enantiomers in the larvae. The approximations implied an inversion between the two enantiomers with a relatively higher rate of the inversion from (-)-myclobutanil to (+)-myclobutanil. Meanwhile, analysis of data of excretion samples suggested the active excretion is probably an important pathway for the insect to eliminate myclobutanil rapidly with nonenantioselectivity as a passive transport process, which was consistent with the low accumulation efficiency of myclobutanil measured by BAF (bioaccumulation factor). © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. In vivo studies of biliary ceftriaxone excretion and solubility in guinea pig hepatic bile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdum, P P; Shiffman, M L; Moore, E W

    1992-10-01

    Ceftriaxone (CFTX), a third-generation cephalosporin, has occasionally been reported to produce biliary sludge composed of its calcium salt. We performed studies in guinea pigs to (1) investigate the hepatic route of CFTX excretion, (2) determine ceftriaione's effects on bile flow and composition, and (3) quantify the solubility and metastability of the calcium salt as a function of administered dose. Our results show that even at high doses ceftriaxone has only minimal effects on bile flow and biliary electrolyte secretion, either alone or in combination with bile salt (taurocholate) infusion. A significant increase in total calcium concentration was observed without change in free Ca2+ concentration, this is compatible with formation of a soluble calcium salt of ceftriaxone, as previously demonstrated in vitro. Ion products of Ca2+ and ceftriaxone as high as 3.5 times the solubility product constant without crystal formation were observed, confirming the presence of a metastable state for the calcium salt of ceftriaxone in the living animal. Biliary excretion of ceftriaxone inhibited excretion of indocyanine green, suggesting that ceftriaxone and indocyanine green share a common anionic excretory pathway in this species.

  3. Influence of microbial bile salt desulfation upon the fecal excretion of bile salts in gnotobiotic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyssen, H; Van Eldere, J; Parmentier, G; Huijghebaert, S; Mertens, J

    1985-04-01

    The fecal excretion of intraperitoneally injected 24-14C-labeled taurocholate (TCA), taurolithocholate (TLCA) and the respective 3-sulfate esters (TCA-3-S; TLCA-3-S), were compared in germfree (GF) rats, conventional (CV) rats, and in gnotobiotic rats associated with Clostridium Cl-8 or this same strain Cl-8 plus the bile desulfating Clostridium S1, respectively. TCA and TLCA were about two times more rapidly excreted by CV animals than by GF animals; the time required for 50% excretion of total label injected (t 1/2) was 6.6 days vs 14.9 for TCA, and 4.4 vs 8.9 for TLCA. In GF and in CV animals, TCA-3-S and TLCA-3-S were excreted more rapidly than their nonsulfated analogues; the t 1/2 values of TCA-3-S and TCA were 2.7 days vs 14.9 in GF rats, and 3.1 vs 6.6 days in CV animals. The t 1/2 values of TLCA-3-S and TLCA were 2.7 days vs 8.9 in GF rats, and 1.5 vs 4.4 days in CV rats. In gnotobiotic rats associated with Clostridium strains S1 + Cl-8, fecal bile salts were nearly 100% deconjugated and desulfated and the 50% excretion times of TCA-3-S and TLCA-3-S approximated to those of TCA and TLCA in GF animals. T 1/2 of TCA-3-S in gnotobiotic S1 + Cl-8 animals was 12.2 days vs 14.9 for TCA in GF animals. In gnotobiotic S1 + Cl-8 animals the t 1/2 of TLCA and TLCA-3-S was 12.5 and 11.0 days, respectively. These results illustrate clearly the important effect the intestinal microflora has upon the metabolic half-life of bile salts. Moreover, they demonstrate that desulfation of bile salts by the intestinal microflora takes place in intestinal segments from where a certain degree of reabsorption is still possible, and thus point to the fact that microbial desulfation is an important variable in the overall elimination of bile salts.

  4. Daily urinary excretion of uranium in members of the public of Southwest Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoellriegl, Vera, E-mail: vera.hoellriegl@helmholtz-muenchen.de [Helmholtz Center Muenchen, Research Unit Medical Radiation Physics and Diagnostics, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Arogunjo, Adeseye M., E-mail: amarogunjo@futa.edu.ng [Helmholtz Center Muenchen, Research Unit Medical Radiation Physics and Diagnostics, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Giussani, Augusto, E-mail: agiussani@bfs.de [Helmholtz Center Muenchen, Research Unit Medical Radiation Physics and Diagnostics, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Michalke, Bernhard, E-mail: bernhard.michalke@helmholtz-muenchen.de [Helmholtz Center Muenchen, Research Unit BioGeoChemistry and Analytics, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Oeh, Uwe, E-mail: uwe.oeh@helmholtz-muenchen.de [Helmholtz Center Muenchen, Research Unit Medical Radiation Physics and Diagnostics, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    The main aim of this study was to determine and evaluate urinary excretion values of uranium in members of the public of Southwest Nigeria living in areas of low environmental uranium. As several uranium mines are running in Nigeria and the operations could be a risk of contamination for the workers as well as for the members of the public, biomonitoring of urine could provide information about the exposure to uranium for the subjects. Therefore, baseline values of uranium in urine are needed from subjects living in areas without mining activities. Volunteers of both genders (age range 3 to 78 years) were asked to collect 24 h-urine samples. The concentration measurements of uranium in urine were performed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). In addition, urinary creatinine values were determined for normalization of the renal uranium relative to the creatinine concentrations. The urinary uranium concentrations and their creatinine normalized values ranged from < 10.4 to 150 ng L{sup -1} (median 13.8 ng L{sup -1}) and from 2.52 to 252.7 ng g{sup -1} creatinine (median 33.4 ng g{sup -1} creatinine), respectively, for adult subjects above 15 years of both genders. An increased uranium excretion value of 61.6 ng L{sup -1} (median), and of 76.0 ng g{sup -1} creatinine, respectively, were found in young subjects below 15 years. The median of daily excreted uranium was estimated to be 14.2 ng d{sup -1} for adults and of 45.1 ng d{sup -1} for children, respectively. The uranium excretion from males and females living in Nigeria in a non-mining area was comparable to reference values reported from other countries with low level of environmental uranium. The data can be considered as baseline values of urinary uranium in unexposed subjects in Nigeria. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Evaluation of urinary uranium excretion in Nigerian volunteers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Data correspond to baseline values known for unexposed persons. Black

  5. Digestibility and postprandial ammonia excretion in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed diets containing different oilseed by-products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obirikorang, Kwasi Adu; Amisah, Stephen; Fialor, Simon Cudjoe

    2015-01-01

    the trial period. The inclusions of the plant proteins caused a reduction in ammonia excretion rates with the palm kernel meal diet recording the lowest mean excretion rates of 117 mg kg(-1) day(-1) which was twofold lower than the highest mean daily ammonia excretion rate of the fish group fed the fishmeal-based....... A fishmeal-based diet served as control against three test diets in which 30 % of each of the oilseed by-products was included. Diets were randomly assigned to triplicate groups of fish (similar to 1 kg bulk weight) for the digestibility trials which spanned a total of 9 days. The partial inclusion...... control diets. Overall, the study confirmed the potential of using copra and palm kernel meals to partially replace fishmeal in Nile tilapia diets based on their effects on short-term growth and feed utilization, nutrient digestibilities and lower ammonia excretion rates, while soybean meal...

  6. Benzene exposure assessed by metabolite excretion in Estonian oil shale mineworkers: influence of glutathione s-transferase polymorphisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette; Poole, Jason; Autrup, Herman

    2004-01-01

    at an oil shale mine were compared with the excretion in workers engaged in various production assignments above ground. In addition, possible modifying effects of genetic polymorphisms in glutathione S-transferases T1 (GSTT1), M1 (GSTM1), and P1 (GSTP1) on the excretion of S-PMA and t,t-MA were......-PMA excretion were significantly higher in smokers compared with nonsmokers. Subjects carrying the GSTT1 wild-type excreted higher concentrations of S-PMA than subjects carrying the null genotype, suggesting that it is a key enzyme in the glutathione conjugation that leads to S-PMA. The results support the use...... of benzene metabolites as biomarkers for assessment of exposure at modest levels and warrant for further investigations of health risks of occupational benzene exposure in shale oil mines....

  7. High urinary excretion of kidney injury molecule-1 is an independent predictor of graft loss in renal transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Timmeren, Mirjan M.; Vaidya, Vishal S.; van Ree, Rutger M.; Oterdoom, Leendert H.; de Vries, Aiko P. J.; Gans, Reinold O. B.; van Goor, Harry; Stegeman, Coen A.; Bonventre, Joseph V.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.

    2007-01-01

    Background. Chronic transplant dysfunction is characterized by renal function decline and proteinuria. Kidney injury molecule (KIM)-1, a transmembrane tubular protein with unknown function, is undetectable in normal kidneys, but markedly induced after injury. Urinary KIM-1 excretion has been

  8. Prolonged excretion of a low-pathogenicity H5N2 avian influenza virus strain in the Pekin duck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza-Flores, José Manuel; Padilla-Noriega, Luis; Loza-Rubio, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    H5N2 strains of low-pathogenicity avian influenza virus (LPAIV) have been circulating for at least 17 years in some Mexican chicken farms. We measured the rate and duration of viral excretion from Pekin ducks that were experimentally inoculated with an H5N2 LPAIV that causes death in embryonated chicken eggs (A/chicken/Mexico/2007). Leghorn chickens were used as susceptible host controls. The degree of viral excretion was evaluated with real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR) using samples from oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs. We observed prolonged excretion from both species of birds lasting for at least 21 days. Prolonged excretion of LPAIV A/chicken/Mexico/2007 is atypical. PMID:23820212

  9. The Multifunctional Fish Gill: Dominant Site of Gas Exchange, Osmoregulation, Acid-Base Regulation, and Excretion of Nitrogenous Waste

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    David H. Evans; Peter M. Piermarini; Keith P. Choe

    2005-01-01

    The fish gill is a multipurpose organ that, in addition to providing for aquatic gas exchange, plays dominant roles in osmotic and ionic regulation, acid-base regulation, and excretion of nitrogenous wastes...

  10. Physiological and molecular ontogeny of branchial and extra-branchial urea excretion in posthatch rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zimmer, Alex M; Wood, Chris M

    2016-01-01

    All teleost fish produce ammonia as a metabolic waste product. In embryos, ammonia excretion is limited by the chorion, and fish must detoxify ammonia by synthesizing urea via the ornithine urea cycle (OUC...

  11. Urine 24-Hour Sodium Excretion Decreased between 1953 and 2014 in Japan, but Estimated Intake Still Exceeds the WHO Recommendation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uechi, Ken; Sugimoto, Minami; Kobayashi, Satomi; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2017-03-01

    Background: Accurate monitoring of sodium intake is necessary for evaluating strategies used to reduce sodium intake. However, no repeat survey has been conducted in representative populations in Japan to examine trends in sodium intake with the use of 24-h urinary sodium excretion, a standard evaluation method for sodium intake monitoring.Objective: The objective of this study was to examine potential trends in sodium intake by examining previous reports of 24-h urinary sodium excretion in healthy Japanese adult populations.Methods: We systematically searched for reports of 24-h urinary sodium excretion in healthy Japanese adult populations (mean age range: 18-69 y). We searched PubMed and Web of Science for English-language articles and hand-searched 7 Japanese scientific journals for Japanese-language articles. Trends in urinary sodium excretion were examined with the use of weighted linear regression and random-effects meta-regression analyses, with adjustment or stratification to address study characteristics (population mean age, percentage of men, and sample size) and study assessment for completeness of urine collection.Results: We identified 68 reports of urinary sodium excretion from 53 articles published from 1953 through 2014 that showed high rates of urinary sodium excretion in healthy Japanese adult populations (weighted mean: 4900 mg/d). The rate of urinary sodium excretion significantly decreased between 1953 and 2014, by 4350 mg/d (P < 0.001); however, the rate of reduction in urinary sodium excretion was variable and decreased with time (P-linear trend <0.001 and P-quadratic trend <0.001). In the random-effects meta-regression analysis of studies that assessed completeness of urine collection with creatinine excretion, no significant relation between urinary sodium excretion and year was observed from 1978 to 2014 (β = -16, P = 0.40).Conclusion: Despite a decrease in urinary sodium excretion in healthy Japanese adult populations between 1953 and

  12. The Oral ?-Lactamase SYN-004 (Ribaxamase) Degrades Ceftriaxone Excreted into the Intestine in Phase 2a Clinical Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Kokai-Kun, John F.; Roberts, Tracey; Coughlin, Olivia; Sicard, Eric; Rufiange, Marianne; Fedorak, Richard; Carter, Christian; Adams, Marijke H.; Longstreth, James; Whalen, Heidi; Sliman, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT SYN-004 (ribaxamase) is a ?-lactamase designed to be orally administered concurrently with intravenous ?-lactam antibiotics, including most penicillins and cephalosporins. Ribaxamase's anticipated mechanism of action is to degrade excess ?-lactam antibiotic that is excreted into the small intestine. This enzymatic inactivation of excreted antibiotic is expected to protect the gut microbiome from disruption and thus prevent undesirable side effects, including secondary infections such...

  13. Excretion of putrescine by the putrescine-ornithine antiporter encoded by the potE gene of Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Kashiwagi, K; Miyamoto, S; Suzuki, F; Kobayashi, H; Igarashi, K

    1992-01-01

    Excretion of putrescine from Escherichia coli was assessed by measuring its uptake into inside-out membrane vesicles. The vesicles were prepared from wild-type E. coli or E. coli transformed with plasmids containing one of the three polyamine transport systems. The results indicate that excretion of putrescine is catalyzed by the putrescine transport protein, encoded by the potE gene located at 16 min on the E. coli chromosome. Loading of ornithine (or lysine) inside the vesicles was essentia...

  14. Physiological and molecular ontogeny of branchial and extra-branchial urea excretion in posthatch rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmer, Alex M.; Wood, Chris M.

    2015-01-01

    All teleost fish produce ammonia as a metabolic waste product. In embryos, ammonia excretion is limited by the chorion, and fish must detoxify ammonia by synthesizing urea via the ornithine urea cycle (OUC). Although urea is produced by embryos and larvae, urea excretion (Jurea) is typically low until yolk sac absorption, increasing thereafter. The aim of this study was to determine the physiological and molecular characteristics of Jurea by posthatch rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Foll...

  15. Effect of sodium chloride intake on urine volume, urinary urea excretion, and milk urea concentration in lactating dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spek, J.W.; Bannink, A.; Gort, G.; Hendriks, W.H.; Dijkstra, J.

    2012-01-01

    Milk urea nitrogen (MUN; mg of N/dL) has been shown to be related to excretion of urinary urea N (UUN; g of N/d) and total excretion of urinary N (UN; g of N/d) in dairy cows. In the present experiment, it was hypothesized that MUN and the relationship between MUN and UUN or UN is affected by urine

  16. Urinary albumin excretion and 24-hour blood pressure as predictors of pre-eclampsia in Type I diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekbom, P; Damm, P; Nøgaard, K

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the value of 24-h blood pressure monitoring compared to office blood pressure and urinary albumin excretion in predicting pre-eclampsia in Type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus.......To evaluate the value of 24-h blood pressure monitoring compared to office blood pressure and urinary albumin excretion in predicting pre-eclampsia in Type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus....

  17. Selective in vivo effect of chitosan on fatty acid, neutral sterol and bile acid excretion: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santas, Jonathan; Espadaler, Jordi; Mancebo, Remedios; Rafecas, Magda

    2012-09-15

    Chitosan, a deacetylated form of chitin, is a dietary fibre known for its hypolipidemic properties, which are mainly attributed to its unique cationic characteristics. We studied the selective in vivo effect of chitosan on fat excretion in order to elucidate its hypolipidemic mechanism. A 4-week longitudinal study was conducted in guinea pigs and the effect of chitosan on fat-absorption was compared to that of a soluble fibre: digestion-resistant maltodextrin. Animals were fed with high-fat isocaloric diets containing 12/100g of cellulose, digestion-resistant maltodextrin or chitosan. Subsequently, the excretion of fatty acids, neutral sterols and bile acids was determined. Chitosan selectively reduced fat absorption in comparison to digestion-resistant maltodextrin. The excretion of lauric, myristic and palmitic fatty acids of animals fed with chitosan was more than 10-, 5- and 2-fold higher, respectively, than in the cellulose group, whereas stearic acid excretion was not significantly altered. Oleic, linoleic and α-linolenic acid excretion were also significantly higher (Pacid excretion was only increased by chitosan. Nevertheless, chitosan inhibited the intestinal bioconversion of cholesterol and primary bile acids to secondary metabolites. Hence, these results reveal that chitosan and digestion resistant maltodextrin exert their hypolipidemic activity by different mechanisms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Bilary and urinary excretion of five cardiac glycosides and its correlation with their physical and chemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzo, A; Ghirardi, P

    1977-05-01

    Biliary and urinary excretion of five tritium-labelled cardiac glycosides, i.e. Ouabain, K-strophanthoside, Digoxin, Digitoxin and Deslanatoside C, were investigated in anaesthetized guinea-pigs 5 h after i.v. or enteral administration. Urinary excretion is the main route of elimination in the case of Ouabain and Deslanatoside C. Conversely, biliary excretion is predominant in the case of Digoxin and Digitoxin. K-strophanthoside is excreted both via bile and urine. In conscious guinea-pigs treated i.v. with the same cardiac glycosides the highest levels were observed in urine, bile, kidneys and liver. The relative values of those levels were in agreement with the excretion pattern observed in anaesthetized animals. An inverse linear relation (P less than 0.05) was encountered between biliary excretion rate and polarity of glycoside molecula. This correlation has been previously observed by other authors in other species, but not in the rabbit. This suggests that the correlation may not be considered generally applicable at present.

  19. Human urinary excretion profile after smoking and oral administration of ( sup 14 C)delta 1-tetrahydrocannabinol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, E.; Gillespie, H.K.; Halldin, M.M. (BMC, Uppsala (Sweden))

    1990-05-01

    The urinary excretion profiles of delta 1-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta 1-THC) metabolites have been evaluated in two chronic and two naive marijuana users after smoking and oral administration of ({sup 14}C)delta 1-THC. Urine was collected for five days after each administration route and analyzed for total delta 1-THC metabolites by radioactivity determination, for delta 1-THC-7-oic acid by high-performance liquid chromatography, and for cross-reacting cannabinoids by the EMIT d.a.u. cannabinoid assay. The average urinary excretion half-life of {sup 14}C-labeled delta 1-THC metabolites was calculated to be 18.2 +/- 4.9 h (+/- SD). The excretion profiles of delta 1-THC-7-oic acid and EMIT readings were similar to the excretion profile of {sup 14}C-labeled metabolites in the naive users. However, in the chronic users the excretion profiles of delta 1-THC-7-oic acid and EMIT readings did not resemble the radioactive excretion due to the heavy influence from previous Cannabis use. Between 8-14% of the radioactive dose was recovered in the urine in both user groups after oral administration. Lower urinary recovery was obtained both in the chronic and naive users after smoking--5 and 2%, respectively.

  20. Inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometric determination of platinum in excretion products of client-owned pet dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, T; Brouwers, E E M; de Vos, J P; de Vries, N; Schellens, J H M; Beijnen, J H

    2015-06-01

    Residues of antineoplastic drugs in canine excretion products may represent exposure risks to veterinary personnel, owners of pet dogs and other animal care-takers. The aim of this study was to measure the extent and duration of platinum (Pt) excretion in pet dogs treated with carboplatin. Samples were collected before and up to 21 days after administration of carboplatin. We used validated, ultra-sensitive, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry assays to measure Pt in canine urine, faeces, saliva, sebum and cerumen. Results showed that urine is the major route of elimination of Pt in dogs. In addition, excretion occurs via faeces and saliva, with the highest amounts eliminated during the first 5 days. The amount of excreted Pt decreased over time but was still quantifiable at 21 days after administration of carboplatin. In conclusion, increased Pt levels were found in all measured excretion products up to 21 days after administration of carboplatin to pet dogs, with urine as the main route of excretion. These findings may be used to further adapt current veterinary guidelines on safe handling of antineoplastic drugs and treated animals. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. The association of knowledge, attitudes and behaviours related to salt with 24-hour urinary sodium excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, Mary-Anne; Webster, Jacqui; Christoforou, Anthea; Johnson, Claire; Trevena, Helen; Hodgins, Frances; Chalmers, John; Woodward, Mark; Barzi, Federica; Smith, Wayne; Flood, Victoria; Jeffery, Paul; Nowson, Caryl; Neal, Bruce

    2014-04-04

    Salt reduction efforts usually have a strong focus on consumer education. Understanding the association between salt consumption levels and knowledge, attitudes and behaviours towards salt should provide insight into the likely effectiveness of education-based programs. A single 24-hour urine sample and a questionnaire describing knowledge, attitudes and behaviours was obtained from 306 randomly selected participants and 113 volunteers from a regional town in Australia. Mean age of all participants was 55 years (range 20-88), 55% were women and mean 24-hour urinary salt excretion was 8.8(3.6) g/d. There was no difference in salt excretion between the randomly selected and volunteer sample. Virtually all participants (95%) identified that a diet high in salt can cause serious health problems with the majority of participants (81%) linking a high salt diet to raised blood pressure. There was no difference in salt excretion between those who did 8.7(2.1) g/d and did not 7.5(3.3) g/d identify that a diet high in salt causes high blood pressure (p=0.1). Nor was there a difference between individuals who believed they consumed "too much" 8.9(3.3) g/d "just the right amount" 8.4(2.6) g/d or "too little salt" 9.1(3.7) g/d (p=0.2). Likewise, individuals who indicated that lowering their salt intake was important 8.5(2.9) g/d vs. not important 8.8(2.4) g/d did not have different consumption levels (p=0.4). The absence of a clear association between knowledge, attitudes and behaviours towards salt and actual salt consumption suggests that interventions focused on knowledge, attitudes and behaviours alone may be of limited efficacy.

  2. Urinary Sodium Excretion and Dietary Sources of Sodium Intake in Chinese Postmenopausal Women with Prehypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao-min; Ho, Suzanne C.; Tang, Nelson; Chan, Ruth; Chen, Yu-ming; Woo, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Background Reducing salt intake in communities is one of the most effective and affordable public health strategies to prevent hypertension, stroke and renal disease. The present study aimed to determine the sodium intake in Hong Kong Chinese postmenopausal women and identify the major food sources contributing to sodium intake and urine excretion. Methods This was a cross-sectional study among 655 Chinese postmenopausal women with prehypertension who were screened for a randomized controlled trial. Data collection included 24 h urine collection for the measurement of sodium, potassium and creatinine, 3-day dietary records, anthropometric measures and questionnaire survey on demographic data and dietary habits. Results The average salt intake estimated from urinary excretion was 7.8±3.2 g/d with 82.1% women above WHO recommendation of 5 g/day. Food groups as soup (21.6%), rice and noodles (13.5%), baked cereals (12.3%), salted/preserved foods (10.8%), Chinese dim sum (10.2%) and sea foods (10.1%) were the major contributors of non-discretionary salt. Discretionary salt use in cooking made a modest contribution to overall intake. Vegetable and fruit intake, age, sodium intake from salted foods, sea foods and soup were the independent determinants of urinary sodium excretion. Conclusions Our data revealed a significant room for reduction of the sodium intake. Efforts to reduce sodium from diets in Hong Kong Chinese postmenopausal women should focus on both processed foods and discretionary salt during cooking. Sodium reduction in soup and increase in fruit intake would be potentially effective strategy for reducing sodium. PMID:25083775

  3. RENAL CLEARANCE AND URINARY EXCRETION OF KANAMYCIN IN DOMESTIC RUMINANT SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. JAVED, Z. U. RAHMAN, F. H. KHAN, F. MUHAMMAD, Z. IQBAL AND B. ASLAM

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Species dependent geonetical differences in renal clearance and urinary excretion of kanamycin were investigated in adult female buffaloes, cows, sheep and goats. The drug was administered as a single intravenous dose (5 mg/kg b.wt. Blood and urine samples were collected at various time intervals after drug administration. The plasma and urine concentrations of the drug were determined using the microbiological assay. The mean (± SE values for endogenous creatinine clearance (an index of glomerular filtration rate were 0.77 ± 0.05, 0.49 ± 0.07, 0.81 ± 0.07 and 0.98 ± 0.13 ml/min.kg in buffaloes, cows, sheep and goats, respectively. Experiments regarding kidney handling of kanamycin in these ruminant species revealed respective values of renal clearance as 0.08 ± 0.01, 0.07 ± 0.01, 0.19 ± 0.02 and 0.23 ± 0.04 ml/min.kg. Besides glomerular filtration, kanamycin was reabsorbed from the renal tubules of all ruminant species and actively secreted into the renal tubules of buffaloes and goats. The cumulative percentages of intravenous dose of kanamycin excreted through urine during 12 hours in buffaloes, cows, sheep and goats were 4.31 ± 0.37, 2.53 ± 0.30, 11.0 ± 1.04 and 15.8 ± 2.22, respectively. This species variation in the percentage of urinary excretion in these domestic ruminants coincides with their respective glomerular filtration rates, being the highest in goats, lowest in cows and intermediate in sheep and buffaloes.

  4. [Temporally Relationship between Renal Local Clock System and Circadian Rhythm of the Water Electrolyte Excretion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui-Yu; Mou, Li-Jun; Li, Xue-Mei; Li, Xue-Wang; Qin, Yan

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the relationship of the circadian rhythm of the urine volume and urine electrolytes excretion rate and the daily expression pattern of the clock genes and clock-controlled genes with the water electrolyte transportation circadian pattern in rat kidneys. Male adult SD rats were exposed to in a light:dark (12:12) cycles. We collected two period urine from zeitgeber time (ZT)00:00-ZT12:00 (light time,rest period) and ZT12:00-24:00 (dark time,activity period) and then compared the urinary excretion rates of volume, sodium, potassium, and chloride at light time with those at dark time. Rats were sacrificed every 4 hours throughout a 24-hour day-night cycle. Circadian clock gene CLOCK, BMAL1,Per1,Per2,Cry1,Cry2 and kidney specific clock-controlled gene NHE3,αENaC、NCC,Ptges,V1aR,V2R expression were profiled by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Data were analysed by a partial Fourier analysis and a stepwise regression technique. Urine volume and urine potassium excretion rate displayed high level at dark time and low at light time in SD rats (P0.05).Clock gene CLOCK,BMAL1,Per1,Per2,Cry1,Cry2(Pclock-controlled gene NHE3, αENaC, NCC, Ptges, V1aR, V2R (Pclock and clock-controlled genes associated with water electrolyte transportation in rats kidney.

  5. Enhanced Stilbene Production and Excretion in Vitis vinifera cv Pinot Noir Hairy Root Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo-Paul Tisserant

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Stilbenes are defense molecules produced by grapevine in response to stresses including various elicitors and signal molecules. Together with their prominent role in planta, stilbenes have been the center of much attention in recent decades due to their pharmaceutical properties. With the aim of setting up a cost-effective and high purity production of resveratrol derivatives, hairy root lines were established from Vitis vinifera cv Pinot Noir 40024 to study the organ-specific production of various stilbenes. Biomass increase and stilbene production by roots were monitored during flask experiments. Although there was a constitutive production of stilbenes in roots, an induction of stilbene synthesis by methyl jasmonate (MeJA after 18 days of growth led to further accumulation of ε-viniferin, δ-viniferin, resveratrol and piceid. The use of 100 µM MeJA after 18 days of culture in the presence of methyl-β-cyclodextrins (MCDs improved production levels, which reached 1034µg/g fresh weight (FW in roots and 165 mg/L in the extracellular medium, corresponding to five-and 570-foldincrease in comparison to control. Whereas a low level of stilbene excretion was measured in controls, addition of MeJA induced excretion of up to 37% of total stilbenes. The use of MCDs increased the excretion phenomenon even more, reaching up to 98%. Our results demonstrate the ability of grapevine hairy roots to produce various stilbenes. This production was significantly improved in response to elicitation by methyl jasmonate and/or MCDs. This supports the interest of using hairy roots as a potentially valuable system for producing resveratrol derivatives.

  6. Requirements for a high rate of potassium excretion in rats consuming a low electrolyte diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheema-Dhadli, Surinder; Lin, Shih-Hua; Keong-Chong, Chee; Kamel, Kamel S; Halperin, Mitchell L

    2006-04-15

    Control mechanisms for potassium (K(+)) excretion in humans developed in Palaeolithic times when diets were sodium poor and episodically K(+) rich. Nevertheless, our understanding of the regulation of K(+) excretion comes from experiments in rats with large sodium and K(+) intakes. Our objective was to identify how K(+) excretion was regulated when rats consumed a low NaCl diet to reflect Palaeolithic conditions. Rats that were given mineralocorticoids plus either NaCl, mannitol, or NaHCO(3) had a small kaliuresis. In contrast, KCl load induced a large kaliuresis and a near-maximal luminal [K(+)] in the terminal cortical collecting duct ([K(+)](CCD)). The time course of events was important. The rise in the [K(+)](CCD) was prompt, but the initial kaliuresis was only modest. Over the next 4 h, kaliuresis increased markedly due solely to a higher calculated distal flow rate, which appeared to be due to diminished reabsorption of NaCl in the loop of Henle; of note, the measured papillary [K(+)] rose. In summary, the increase in the [K(+)](CCD) in rats given KCl is likely to be due to an increase in the number of luminal K(+) channels rather than to mechanisms that are known to induce a lumen-negative voltage in cortical distal nephron segments. The higher distal flow rate might be due to a higher interstitial [K(+)], which inhibited NaCl reabsorption in the loop of Henle. Thus, to understand which of the potential control mechanisms are operating, one must look very closely at the conditions imposed by the experimental setting.

  7. Adult sea lamprey tolerates biliary atresia by altering bile salt composition and renal excretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Shi-Ying; Lionarons, Daniël A.; Hagey, Lee; Soroka, Carol J.; Mennone, Albert; Boyer, James L.

    2012-01-01

    The sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) is a genetically programmed animal model for biliary atresia as it loses its bile ducts and gallbladder during metamorphosis. However, in contrast to patients with biliary atresia or other forms of cholestasis who develop progressive disease, the post-metamorphosis lampreys grow normally to adult size. To understand how the adult lamprey thrives without the ability to secrete bile, we examined bile salt homeostasis in larval and adult lampreys. Adult livers were severely cholestatic with levels of bile salts >1 mM, but no evidence of necrosis, fibrosis, or inflammation. Interestingly, both larvae and adults had normal plasma levels (~10 μM) of bile salts. In larvae, petromyzonol sulfate (PZS) was the predominant bile salt, whereas the major bile salts in adult liver were sulfated C27 bile alcohols. Cytotoxicity assays revealed that PZS was highly toxic. Pharmacokinetic studies in free-swimming adults revealed that ~35% of intravenously injected bromosulfophthalein (BSP) was eliminated over a 72 hr period. Collection of urine and feces demonstrated that both endogenous and exogenous organic anions, including biliverdin, bile salts and BSP, were predominantly excreted via the kidney with minor amounts also detected in feces. Gene expression analysis detected marked up-regulation of orthologs of known organic anion and bile salt transporters in the kidney with lesser effects in the intestine and gills in adults compared to larvae. These findings indicate that adult lampreys tolerate cholestasis by altering hepatic bile salt composition, while maintaining normal plasma bile salt levels predominantly through renal excretion of bile products. Therefore, we conclude that strategies to accelerate renal excretion of bile salt and other toxins should be beneficial for patients with cholestasis. PMID:23175353

  8. Pharmacokinetics, metabolism, and routes of excretion of intravenous irofulven in patients with advanced solid tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paci, Angelo; Rezai, Keyvan; Deroussent, Alain; De Valeriola, Dominique; Re, Micheline; Weill, Sophie; Cvitkovic, Esteban; Kahatt, Carmen; Shah, Ajit; Waters, Stephen; Weems, Gary; Vassal, Gilles; Lokiec, François

    2006-11-01

    Irofulven is currently in Phase 2 clinical trials against a wide variety of solid tumors and has demonstrated activity in ovarian, prostate, gastrointestinal, and non-small cell lung cancer. The objectives of this study were to determine its pharmacokinetics and route of excretion and to characterize its metabolites in human plasma and urine samples after a 30-min i.v. infusion at a dose of 0.55 mg/kg in patients with advanced solid tumors. Three patients were administered i.v. 100 microCi of [14C]irofulven over a 30-min infusion on day 1 of cycle 1. Serial blood and plasma samples were drawn at 0 (before irofulven infusion) and up to 144 h after the start of infusion. Urine and fecal samples were collected for up to 144 h after the start of infusion. The mean urinary and fecal excretion of radioactivity up to 144 h were 71.2 and 2.9%, respectively, indicating renal excretion was the major route of elimination of [14C]irofulven. The C(max), AUC(0-infinity), and terminal half-life values for total radioactivity were 1130 ng-Eq/ml, 24,400 ng-Eq . h/ml, and 116.5 h, respectively, and the corresponding values for irofulven were 82.7 ng/ml, 65.5 ng . h/ml, and 0.3 h, respectively, suggesting that the total radioactivity in human plasma was a result of the metabolites. Twelve metabolites of irofulven were detected in human urine and plasma by electrospray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry. Among these metabolites, the cyclopropane ring-opened metabolite (M2) of irofulven was found, and seven others were proposed as glucuronide and glutathione conjugates.

  9. Novel role of insulin in the regulation of glucose excretion by mourning doves (Zenaida macroura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweazea, Karen L; Braun, Eldon J; Sparr, Richard

    2017-06-01

    In mammals, insulin primarily lowers plasma glucose (P Glu ) by increasing its uptake into tissues. Studies have also shown that insulin lowers P Glu in mammals by modulating glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Birds have naturally high P Glu and, although insulin administration significantly decreases glucose concentrations, birds are resistant to insulin-mediated glucose uptake into tissues. Since prior work has not examined the effects of insulin on GFR in birds, the purpose of the present study was to assess whether insulin can augment renal glucose excretion and thereby lower P Glu . Therefore, the hypothesis of the present study was that insulin lowers P Glu in birds by augmenting GFR, as estimated by inulin clearance (C In ). Adult mourning doves (Zenaida macroura) were used as experimental animals. Doves were anesthetized and the brachial vein was cannulated for administration of [ 14 C]-inulin and insulin and the brachial artery was cannulated for blood collections. Ureteral urine was collected via a catheter inserted into the cloaca. Ten minutes following administration of exogenous insulin (400μg/kg body mass, i.v.) plasma glucose was significantly decreased (p=0.0003). Twenty minutes following insulin administration, increases in GFR (p=0.016) were observed along with decreases in urine glucose concentrations (p=0.008), glucose excretion (p=0.028), and the fractional excretion of glucose (p=0.003). Urine flow rate (p=0.051) also tended to increase after administration of insulin. These data demonstrate a significant role for insulin in modulating GFR in mourning doves, which may in part explain the lower P Glu measured following insulin administration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Manipulation of dietary methionine+cysteine and threonine in broilers significantly decreases environmental nitrogen excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, D C Z; Sakomura, N K; Silva, E P; Troni, A R; Vargas, L; Guagnoni, M A N; Meda, B

    2016-06-01

    The intensification of livestock have increased the emission of pollutants to the environment, leading to a growing interest in seeking strategies that minimise these emissions. Studies have shown that it is possible to manipulate diets by reducing CP levels and thus reducing nitrogen (N) excretion, without compromising performance. However, there is no knowledge of any study that has focused on reducing N excretion and relating this reduction to individual amino acids. This study investigated the effect of dietary methionine+cysteine (MC) and threonine (THR), the two most limiting amino acids for broiler production, on nitrogen excretion (NE) and nitrogen deposition (ND) and determined the efficiency of utilisation of both amino acids for protein deposition. Six trials were conducted to measure the NE and ND in broiler chickens during three rearing phases in response to dietary amino acid. The efficiency of utilisation of the amino acids was calculated by linear regression of body protein deposition and the amino acid intake. Despite the differences between sexes and phases, the efficiency of utilisation was the same, being 0.60 and 0.59 for MC and THR, respectively. The rate of NE behaved exponentially, increasing with amino acid intake, and can exceed 50% of N intake, being higher than ND. On average, for a reduction in intake of each unit of MC or THR (mg) there is a reduction of 0.5% of NE. Although this reduction seems low, considering that it corresponds to changes in one amino acid only, the impact on a large scale would be significant. Knowledge of how animals respond to NE and ND/protein deposition according to amino acid dietary content may represent new efforts towards reducing the impact on environment.

  11. Absorption, distribution and excretion of inhaled hydrogen fluoride in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, J.B.

    1979-01-01

    Rats were subjected to whole body HF exposure for 6 hrs or to nose-only HF exposure for 1 hr. Total and/or ionic fluoride concentrations in selected tissues were determined at various times following exposure. In rats sacrificed 6 hrs after whole body exposure, dose-dependent increases in lung, plasma, and kidney total and ionic fluoride concentration occurred. Rats excreted more fluoride in the urine after whole body exposure than could be explained by the amount of HF inhaled. Considerable evidence suggests that airborne HF deposits on fur and is then ingested due to preening activity. Urinary fluoride excretion was increased by nose-only exposure. The urinary fluoride excretion accounted for approximately twice the fluoride estimated to be inhaled during exposure. Tissue fluoride concentrations were elevated immediately after nose-only exposure. Fluoride concentrations in lung and kidney returned to control levels within 12 hrs. Plasma fluoride concentration was slightly elevated 24 hrs after the start of the 1 hr exposure but was at control levels at 96 hrs. Immediately following nose-only exposure, lung ionic fluoride concentrations were less than plasma ionic fluoride concentrations suggesting that the fluoride in the lung had reached that site via plasma transport rather than by inhalation. A dose-dependent increase in plasma ionic fluoride concentration occurred after upper respiratory tract HF exposure providing strong evidence that fluoride is absorbed systemically from that site. The plasma ionic fluoride concentration after upper respiratory tract exposure was of sufficient magnitude to account for the plasma fluoride concentrations observed in intact nose-only exposed rats. (ERB)

  12. Effect of dietary phosphorus content on milk production and phosphorus excretion in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong; Liu, Zhen; Wang, Diming; Liu, Jianxin; Liu, Hongyun; Wu, Zhiguo

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) supplementation is costly and can result in excess P excretion. This study investigated the effects of reducing dietary P on milk production and P excretion in dairy cows over a full lactation. Forty-five multiparous Holstein dairy cows were divided into 15 blocks according to expected calving date and previous milk yield, and assigned randomly to one of the three dietary treatments: 0.37, 0.47, and 0.57% P (DM basis); these P levels represent the NRC recommendations, Chinese recommendations, and the amount of dietary P commonly fed by Chinese dairy farmers, respectively. Average daily feed intake was calculated from monthly data on feed offered and refused. Milk yields of individual cows were recorded weekly, and milk samples were taken for analysis of protein, fat, solids-not-fat, lactose, and somatic cell count. Blood samples were collected on days -6, -3, 0, 3, 6 relative to calving, and then monthly throughout lactation, and analyzed for P and Ca concentrations. Spot samples of feces and urine were collected for 3 consecutive d during weeks 12, 24, and 36, and P concentrations were analyzed. Reproduction and health data were recorded. Dietary P did not affect dry matter intake or milk yield (P > 0.10). Milk fat content was slightly higher in cows fed 0.37% P than in cows fed 0.47% P (P = 0.05). Serum concentrations of P and Ca did not reflect dietary P content (P > 0.10). Fecal and urinary P both declined linearly (P  0.05). Lowering dietary P from 0.57 to 0.37% did not negatively affect milk production, but did significantly reduce P excretion into environment.

  13. The effect of ACTH upon faecal glucocorticoid excretion in the koala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Nicole; Gillett, Amber; McAlpine, Clive; Seabrook, Leonie; Baxter, Greg; Lunney, Daniel; Bradley, Adrian

    2013-10-01

    Environmental changes result in physiological responses of organisms, which can adversely affect population dynamics and reduce resistance to disease. These changes are expressed in chronic levels of stress. The measurement of glucocorticoid (GC) concentrations in faeces is a non-invasive method for monitoring stress in wildlife. The metabolism and excretion of steroids differ significantly between species and, as a consequence, non-invasive methods must be physiologically validated for each species. Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) are declining in numbers through much of their range. The role of chronic stress in koala populations has not been identified. Prior to the assessment of faecal GC concentrations in wild koala populations, the excretion timing and concentrations of GCs need to be determined. In this study, we assessed a method for identifying and measuring the concentrations of GC metabolites in faecal pellets of captive koalas following ACTH treatment. The results show that an elevation of plasma cortisol concentrations, using sustained release of ACTH, results in elevated concentrations of faecal cortisol/cortisol metabolites. Taking into account the excretion time lag, an increase in faecal cortisol metabolite concentrations corresponds to the release of GCs from the adrenal cortex as early as 36 h before faecal pellet collection. The calculations of steroid partitioning of plasma cortisol showed that the ACTH-stimulated values were significantly different from the control values for the concentrations of free, corticosteroid-binding globulin-bound and albumin-bound cortisol. This study validates the use of faecal cortisol analysis to assess the activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis in freshly collected koala faecal pellets and indicates that the method should be suitable to assess the adrenocortical status of koalas in wild populations.

  14. Nocturnal 6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate excretion in female workers exposed to magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juutilainen, J (Kuopio, University of); Stevens, Richard G.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Anderson, Larry E.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Hansen, Norman H.(WAVEID); Kilpelainen, M (Kuopio, University of); Kumlin, T (Kuopio, University of); Laitinen, J T.(Kuopio, University of); Sobell, Eugene (Southern California, Univ Of); Wilson, Bary W.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

    2000-03-15

    The objective of this study was to determine whether daytime occupational exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields (MFs) suppresses nocturnal melatonin production. Sixty female volunteers were recruited. Thirty-nine worked in a garment factory, and 21 office workers served as a reference group. Exposure assessment was based on the type of sewing machine used and MF measurements around each type of machine. Eye-level MF flux density was used to classify the operators to higher (> 1 microT) and lower (0.3-1 microT) exposure categories. A third group of factory workers had diverse MF exposures from other sources. The reference group had average exposure of about 0.15 microT. Urine samples were collected on Friday and Monday for three consecutive weeks. Melatonin production was assessed as urinary 6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate (6-OHMS) excretion. The ratio of Friday morning/Monday morning 6-OHMS was used to test the hypothesis that melatonin production is suppressed after 4 days of occupational MF exposure with significant recovery during the weekend. Possible chronic suppression of melatonin production was evaluated by studying exposure-related differences in the Friday values by multivariate regression analysis. The Monday/Friday ratios were close to 1.0, suggesting that there is no increase in melatonin production over the weekend. The average 6-OHMS excretion on Friday was lower among the factory workers than in the reference group, but no monotonous dose-response was observed. Multivariate regression analysis identified MF exposure, smoking, and age as significant explanatory variables associated with decreased 6-OHMS excretion.

  15. The effect of zinc supplementation on the urinary excretion of elements in female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskici, Gunay; Gunay, Mehmet; Baltaci, Abdulkerim Kasim; Mogulkoc, Rasim

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to find out how oral zinc supplementation to elite athletes affects the element changes in the urine. The study registered 10 female athletes who were on the women's volleyball team of Gazi University Sports Club and whose mean age, weight, and height were 14.2±0.42 years, 59.8±7.79kg and 173.6±6.15 cm. The study protocol was approved by the local ethics committee. The athletes who continued their daily routine training sessions (6 days/week) were supplemented with 220mg/day oral zinc sulfate for 4 weeks. In order to induce exhaustion, the subjects were put to a 20-meter shuttle run test before and after supplementation. A total, 7 times urine samples were collected follows as pre and post exercise before the start of the experiment and at the end (4 times), at the end of first, second and third week (3 times). Urinary levels of magnesium, phosphorus, and calcium (mg/dl), as well as zinc, copper, and selenium (μg/dl) were analyzed in the atomic emission device (ICP-MS). Arithmetic means and standard errors of the data were calculated. Kruskal Wallis test was used to determine differences between weeks. Values for which psupplementation (psupplementation exercise resulted in reduced urinary zinc excretion (psupplementation increased urinary zinc excretion in one-week intervals over the course of 4 weeks (psupplemented to athletes, the relation between the duration and dose of supplementation is important. The results of the study indicated that zinc does not have any negative effect on the urinary excretion of the concerned elements. It can thus be concluded that athletes may benefit from zinc support.

  16. Excretion of (3H)prednisolone in clinically normal and experimentally infected bovine udders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geleta, J.N.; Shimoda, W.; Mercer, H.D.

    1984-08-01

    The excretion rate of (3H)prednisolone from clinically normal and experimentally infected udders of 10 lactating cows was studied. Each quarter of 6 cows was injected with a single dose of (3H)prednisolone mixed with non-radioactive prednisolone equivalent to 10 mg in 10 ml of peanut oil base. Each of the remaining 4 cows was given 40 mg of nonradioactive prednisolone and (3H)prednisolone in 60% ethanol IV. Control and postadministration samples of blood, milk, and urine were examined for radioactivity. The effects of (3H)prednisolone were evaluated in the same cows, first in clinically normal udders, then 2 weeks later in udders experimentally infected with Streptococcus agalactiae. Absorption and elimination of prednisolone were the same before and after induced infection. Within 3 hours after intramammary injection, 95% of the labeled prednisolone was absorbed systemically, less than 5% of this dose was recovered in milk, and 29% was excreted in urine. After IV injection of (3H)prednisolone, less than 0.2% of the total radioactivity was recovered in milk and less than 46% was excreted in urine. Clinical mastitis induced by S agalactiae was moderate. Circulating blood leukocytes and somatic cells in the milk of normal cows remained essentially unchanged. The leukocyte response to induced infection was rapid in blood and milk. Large numbers of leukocytes were noticed in the milk and a severe leukopenia occurred. Prednisolone treatment did not alter the number of somatic cells in milk or reduce the inflammatory response of experimentally infected cows.

  17. Excretion of [3H]prednisolone in clinically normal and experimentally infected bovine udders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geleta, J N; Shimoda, W; Mercer, H D

    1984-08-01

    The excretion rate of [3H]prednisolone from clinically normal and experimentally infected udders of 10 lactating cows was studied. Each quarter of 6 cows was injected with a single dose of [3H]prednisolone mixed with non-radioactive prednisolone equivalent to 10 mg in 10 ml of peanut oil base. Each of the remaining 4 cows was given 40 mg of nonradioactive prednisolone and [3H]prednisolone in 60% ethanol IV. Control and postadministration samples of blood, milk, and urine were examined for radioactivity. The effects of [3H]prednisolone were evaluated in the same cows, first in clinically normal udders, then 2 weeks later in udders experimentally infected with Streptococcus agalactiae. Absorption and elimination of prednisolone were the same before and after induced infection. Within 3 hours after intramammary injection, 95% of the labeled prednisolone was absorbed systemically, less than 5% of this dose was recovered in milk, and 29% was excreted in urine. After IV injection of [3H]prednisolone, less than 0.2% of the total radioactivity was recovered in milk and less than 46% was excreted in urine. Clinical mastitis induced by S agalactiae was moderate. Circulating blood leukocytes and somatic cells in the milk of normal cows remained essentially unchanged. The leukocyte response to induced infection was rapid in blood and milk. Large numbers of leukocytes were noticed in the milk and a severe leukopenia occurred. Prednisolone treatment did not alter the number of somatic cells in milk or reduce the inflammatory response of experimentally infected cows.

  18. Enhanced Stilbene Production and Excretion in Vitis vinifera cv Pinot Noir Hairy Root Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisserant, Leo-Paul; Aziz, Aziz; Jullian, Nathalie; Jeandet, Philippe; Clément, Christophe; Courot, Eric; Boitel-Conti, Michèle

    2016-12-10

    Stilbenes are defense molecules produced by grapevine in response to stresses including various elicitors and signal molecules. Together with their prominent role in planta, stilbenes have been the center of much attention in recent decades due to their pharmaceutical properties. With the aim of setting up a cost-effective and high purity production of resveratrol derivatives, hairy root lines were established from Vitis vinifera cv Pinot Noir 40024 to study the organ-specific production of various stilbenes. Biomass increase and stilbene production by roots were monitored during flask experiments. Although there was a constitutive production of stilbenes in roots, an induction of stilbene synthesis by methyl jasmonate (MeJA) after 18 days of growth led to further accumulation of ε-viniferin, δ-viniferin, resveratrol and piceid. The use of 100 µM MeJA after 18 days of culture in the presence of methyl-β-cyclodextrins (MCDs) improved production levels, which reached 1034µg/g fresh weight (FW) in roots and 165 mg/L in the extracellular medium, corresponding to five-and 570-foldincrease in comparison to control. Whereas a low level of stilbene excretion was measured in controls, addition of MeJA induced excretion of up to 37% of total stilbenes. The use of MCDs increased the excretion phenomenon even more, reaching up to 98%. Our results demonstrate the ability of grapevine hairy roots to produce various stilbenes. This production was significantly improved in response to elicitation by methyl jasmonate and/or MCDs. This supports the interest of using hairy roots as a potentially valuable system for producing resveratrol derivatives.

  19. Lithium increases ammonium excretion leading to altered urinary acid-base buffer composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trepiccione, Francesco; Altobelli, Claudia; Capasso, Giovambattista; Christensen, Birgitte Mønster; Frische, Sebastian

    2017-11-24

    Previous reports identify a voltage dependent distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) secondary to lithium (Li + ) salt administration. This was based on the inability of Li + -treated patients to increase the urine-blood (U-B) pCO 2 when challenged with NaHCO 3 and, the ability of sodium neutral phosphate or Na 2 SO 4 administration to restore U-B pCO 2 in experimental animal models. The underlying mechanisms for the Li + -induced dRTA are still unknown. To address this point, a 7 days time course of the urinary acid-base parameters was investigated in rats challenged with LiCl, LiCitrate, NaCl, or NaCitrate. LiCl induced the largest polyuria and a mild metabolic acidosis. Li + -treatment induced a biphasic response. In the first 2 days, proper urine volume and acidification occurred, while from the 3rd day of treatment, polyuria developed progressively. In this latter phase, the LiCl-treated group progressively excreted more NH 4 + and less pCO 2 , suggesting that NH 3 /NH 4 + became the main urinary buffer. This physiological parameter was corroborated by the upregulation of NBCn1 (a marker of increased ammonium recycling) in the inner stripe of outer medulla of LiCl treated rats. Finally, by investigating NH 4 + excretion in ENaC-cKO mice, a model resistant to Li + -induced polyuria, a primary role of the CD was confirmed. By definition, dRTA is characterized by deficient urinary ammonium excretion. Our data question the presence of a voltage-dependent Li + -induced dRTA in rats treated with LiCl for 7 days and the data suggest that the alkaline urine pH induced by NH 3 /NH 4 + as the main buffer has lead to the interpretation dRTA in previous studies.

  20. Urinary sodium excretion and dietary sources of sodium intake in Chinese postmenopausal women with prehypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao-Min; Ho, Suzanne C; Tang, Nelson; Chan, Ruth; Chen, Yu-Ming; Woo, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Reducing salt intake in communities is one of the most effective and affordable public health strategies to prevent hypertension, stroke and renal disease. The present study aimed to determine the sodium intake in Hong Kong Chinese postmenopausal women and identify the major food sources contributing to sodium intake and urine excretion. This was a cross-sectional study among 655 Chinese postmenopausal women with prehypertension who were screened for a randomized controlled trial. Data collection included 24 h urine collection for the measurement of sodium, potassium and creatinine, 3-day dietary records, anthropometric measures and questionnaire survey on demographic data and dietary habits. The average salt intake estimated from urinary excretion was 7.8 ± 3.2 g/d with 82.1% women above WHO recommendation of 5 g/day. Food groups as soup (21.6%), rice and noodles (13.5%), baked cereals (12.3%), salted/preserved foods (10.8%), Chinese dim sum (10.2%) and sea foods (10.1%) were the major contributors of non-discretionary salt. Discretionary salt use in cooking made a modest contribution to overall intake. Vegetable and fruit intake, age, sodium intake from salted foods, sea foods and soup were the independent determinants of urinary sodium excretion. Our data revealed a significant room for reduction of the sodium intake. Efforts to reduce sodium from diets in Hong Kong Chinese postmenopausal women should focus on both processed foods and discretionary salt during cooking. Sodium reduction in soup and increase in fruit intake would be potentially effective strategy for reducing sodium.

  1. A waterborne chemical cue from Gulf toadfish, Opsanus beta, prompts pulsatile urea excretion in conspecifics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Jeremy; LeMoine, Christophe M R; Bucking, Carol; Brix, Kevin V; Walsh, Patrick J; McDonald, M Danielle

    2017-03-15

    The Gulf toadfish (Opsanus beta) has a fully functional ornithine urea cycle (O-UC) that allows it to excrete nitrogenous waste in the form of urea. Interestingly, urea is excreted in a pulse across the gill that lasts 1-3h and occurs once or twice a day. Both the stress hormone, cortisol, and the neurotransmitter, serotonin (5-HT) are involved in the control of pulsatile urea excretion. This and other evidence suggests that urea pulsing may be linked to toadfish social behavior. The hypothesis of the present study was that toadfish urea pulses can be triggered by waterborne chemical cues from conspecifics. Our findings indicate that exposure to seawater that held a donor conspecific for up to 48h (pre-conditioned seawater; PC-SW) induced a urea pulse within 7h in naïve conspecifics compared to a pulse latency of 20h when exposed to seawater alone. Factors such as PC-SW intensity and donor body mass influenced the pulse latency response of naïve conspecifics. Fractionation and heat treatment of PC-SW to narrow possible signal candidates revealed that the active chemical was both water-soluble and heat-stable. Fish exposed to urea, cortisol or 5-HT in seawater did not have a pulse latency that was significantly different than seawater alone; however, ammonia, perhaps in the form of NH4Cl, was found to be a factor in the pulse latency response of toadfish to PC-SW and could be one component of a multi-component cue used for chemical communication in toadfish. Further studies are needed to fully identify the chemical cue as well as determine its adaptive significance in this marine teleost fish. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Maggot excretions/secretions are differentially effective against biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Plas, Mariena J A; Jukema, Gerrolt N; Wai, Sin-Wen

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Lucilia sericata maggots are successfully used for treating chronic wounds. As the healing process in these wounds is complicated by bacteria, particularly when residing in biofilms that protect them from antibiotics and the immune system, we assessed the effects of maggot excretions....../secretions (ES) on Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms, the clinically most relevant species. METHODS: We assessed the effects of ES on biofilms using microtitre plate assays, on bacterial viability using in vitro killing and radial diffusion assays, and on quorum sensing systems using...

  3. Methane and carbon dioxide ratio in excreted air for quantification of the methane production from ruminants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jørgen; Bjerg, Bjarne Schmidt; Hvelplund, Torben

    2010-01-01

    This technical note presents a simple, fast, reliable and cheap method to estimate the methane (CH4) production from animals by using the CH4 and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations in air near the animals combined with an estimation of the total CO2 production from information on intake...... of metabolizable energy or heat producing units. By using portable equipment to analyse the air in stables or near individual animals it is possible to calculate the proportion of the carbon that is not metabolized to CO2, but excreted as the greenhouse gas CH4. The CH4/CO2 proportion in itself gives useful...

  4. Modelling and sensitivity analysis of urinary platinum excretion in anticancer chemotherapy for the recovery of platinum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folens, Karel; Mortier, Séverine Thérèse F C; Baeten, Janis

    2016-01-01

    are toxic for aquatic organisms. Therefore, efforts should be made to recover the Pt. The urinary excretion of Pt from two antineoplastics are taken under consideration, i.e. cisplatin and carboplatin. Using these reference compounds, a scenario analysis based on administration statistics from Ghent....... A one-compartment model is used for cisplatin, which is calibrated using the experimental data of six patients. In contrast, a two-compartment model with parameters from literature is used for carboplatin. A Global Sensitivity Analysis revealed kel, the rate constant of elimination, is the most...

  5. Impaired left-ventricular function in insulin-dependent diabetic patients with increased urinary albumin excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelbaek, H; Jensen, T; Feldt-Rasmussen, B

    1991-01-01

    of coronary heart disease. Our results might suggest that insulin-dependent diabetic patients with slightly but persistently elevated urinary albumin excretion have reduced diastolic compliance of the left-ventricle leading to impaired cardiac performance.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)...... in group II (p less than 0.05). Stroke volume was also lower in group II and III than in controls (p less than 0.05), but not so in group I. These differences could not be explained by differences in metabolic control, blood pressure, blood volume status, degree of autonomic neuropathy or frequency...

  6. Day-to-day and within-day variation in urinary iodine excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Ovesen, L.; Christiansen, E.

    1999-01-01

    our Institute. Subjects: Study 1: Ten healthy subjects (seven females and three males) aged 30-46 y. Study 2. Twenty-two healthy subjects (9 males and 13 females) aged 30-55 y. Methods: Study 1: 24-h urine samples were collected for four consecutive days. Study 2. Each urine voided over 24 h......Objective: To examine the day-to-day and within-day variation in urinary iodine excretion and the day-to-day variation in iodine intake. Design: Collection of consecutive 24-h urine samples and casual urine samples over 24 h. Setting: The study population consisted of highly motivated subjects from...

  7. Faecal excretion of brush border membrane enzymes in patients with clostridium difficile diarrhoea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katyal R

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To look for the presence of intestinal brush border membrane (BBM enzymes in the faecal samples of patients with Clostridium difficile association. METHODS: One hundred faecal samples were investigated for C.difficile toxin (CDT. Simultaneous assays for faecal excretion of intestinal BBM enzymes viz., disaccharidases, alkaline phosphatase (AP and leucine aminopeptidase (LAP were also done. RESULTS: C.difficile toxin was detected in 25 (25% of the samples with a titre ranging from 10 to 160. No significant difference (p>0.05 was seen between the CDT positive and negative groups with any of the disaccharidases studied. However, significant increase (pC.difficile diarrhoea.

  8. Splanchnic and peripheral release of 3-methylhistidine in relation to its urinary excretion in human infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjölin, J; Stjernström, H; Henneberg, S

    1989-01-01

    . After an overnight fast, hepatic vein, femoral vein, and radial artery catheterizations were performed. Splanchnic and leg blood flows were determined by dye dilution technique. Plasma 3MH was analyzed by a modified HPLC method. The release of 3MH from the leg was 0.064 +/- 0.007 mumol/min (+/- SE......:Cr), the relative contribution to urinary excretion from the leg was increased (individual increase, P = 0.08; 3MH:Cr, P less than 0.01). Since this contribution was not decreased in the more catabolic patients, as would have been expected if the increase in urinary 3MH originated elsewhere, it is concluded...

  9. [Studies on distribution, excretion and subacute toxicity of squalane in dogs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, H; Koga, N; Oguri, K; Yoshimura, H; Inoue, H; Sato, K; Ohkubo, M

    1989-05-01

    In the previous papers, we demonstrated, by using rats, that squalane (2,6,10,15,19,23-hexamethyltetracosane) could stimulate the fecal excretion of 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran, which was regarded as the most important etiologic agent of yusho among PCB and PCDF congeners found in the causal rice oil. We also reported that, in rats, squalane was not essentially absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, and did not show any appreciable side effects during the 3-month treatment. In the present paper, we have investigated the distribution, excretion and subacute toxicity of squalane in beagle dogs. The fecal excretion of squalane accounted for about 83% of dose during the initial 2 days after administration at a single oral dose of 1,200 mg/kg to male dogs. On day 3, absorbed squalane was mostly distributed to the hair and the skin, and the concentrations in these tissues were decreased on day 6. These results suggested that most of squalane administered orally was not absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, but a part was absorbed and excreted through the hair. In addition, squalane distributed into the liver was found to be eliminated rather slowly. A long-term (13-week) treatments with squalane orally at doses of 400 mg/kg/day or 1,200 mg/kg/day in male and female dogs, resulted also in accumulation of squalane in the liver at a level of about 3% (400 mg/kg) or about 6% (1,200 mg/kg) of the daily dose. This accumulation of squalane in the liver was highest among all the tissues. Nevertheless, no appreciable toxic signs were observed in the serum biochemical tests and the hepatic functional test for squalane groups. Therefore, squalane accumulating in the liver, did not seem to disturb the hepatic physiological functions. It was suggested also in a long-term treatment that the skin and the hair played the most important role in the elimination of squalane. In conclusion, the present studies on subacute toxicity tests suggested that squalane did not give any

  10. Experimental infection of specific pathogen-free pigs with Campylobacter: excretion in faeces and transmission to non-inoculated pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc Maridor, Mily; Denis, Martine; Lalande, Françoise; Beaurepaire, Bernard; Cariolet, Roland; Fravalo, Philippe; Federighi, Michel; Seegers, Henri; Belloc, Catherine

    2008-10-15

    Campylobacter species are leading agents of human bacterial gastroenteritis and consumption of food of animal origin is a major source of infection. Although pigs are known to frequently exhibit high counts of Campylobacter in their faeces, more information is needed about the dynamics of this excretion. An experimental trial was conducted to evaluate the faecal excretion of Campylobacter by 7-week-old specific pathogen-free piglets inoculated per os with three Campylobacter strains (one C. coli isolated from a pig, one C. coli and one C. jejuni from chickens) alone or simultaneously (5x10(7)CFU/strain). Non-inoculated pigs were housed in adjacent pens. Pigs were monitored for 80 days for clinical signs and by bacteriological analysis of faeces. Pigs inoculated with porcine C. coli or with a mix of the three strains excreted from 10(3) to 10(6)CFU/g of faeces with a slight decrease at the end of the trial. Animals inoculated with poultry C. coli or C. jejuni strain excreted a lower quantity and some of them stopped excreting. At the end of the trial, only C. coli was detected in the faeces of pigs inoculated simultaneously with the three bacteria. Moreover, the transmission of Campylobacter was noticed between pens for the two C. coli strains and all the neighbouring animals became shedders with a level of excretion similar to the inoculated pigs. Intermittence in the Campylobacter excretion was also observed. Finally, our study highlighted a host preference of Campylobacter, namely C. coli seems to have a higher colonization potential for pigs than C. jejuni.

  11. Development and Validation of a UPLC-MS/MS Method to Monitor Cephapirin Excretion in Dairy Cows following Intramammary Infusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Partha; Knowlton, Katharine F.; Shang, Chao; Xia, Kang

    2014-01-01

    Cephapirin, a cephalosporin antibiotic, is used by the majority of dairy farms in the US. Fecal and urinary excretion of cephapirin could introduce this compound into the environment when manure is land applied as fertilizer, and may cause development of bacterial resistance to antibiotics critical for human health. The environmental loading of cephapirin by the livestock industry remains un-assessed, largely due to a lack of appropriate analytical methods. Therefore, this study aimed to develop and validate a cephapirin quantification method to capture the temporal pattern of cephapirin excretion in dairy cows following intramammary infusion. The method includes an extraction with phosphate buffer and methanol, solid-phase extraction (SPE) clean-up, and quantification using ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The LOQ values of the developed method were 4.02 µg kg−1 and 0.96 µg L−1 for feces and urine, respectively. This robust method recovered >60% and >80% cephapirin from spiked blank fecal and urine samples, respectively, with acceptable intra- and inter-day variation (dairy cow feces, and cephapirin in urine was detected at very high concentrations (133 to 480 µg L−1). Cephapirin was primarily excreted via urine and its urinary excretion was influenced by day (P = 0.03). Peak excretion (2.69 mg) was on day 1 following intramammary infusion and decreased sharply thereafter (0.19, 0.19, 0.08, and 0.17 mg on day 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively) reflecting a quadratic pattern of excretion (Quadratic: P = 0.03). The described method for quantification of cephapirin in bovine feces and urine is sensitive, accurate, and robust and allowed to monitor the pattern of cephapirin excretion in dairy cows. This data will help develop manure segregation and treatment methods to minimize the risk of antibiotic loading to the environment from dairy farms. PMID:25375097

  12. Urinary potassium excretion and risk of developing hypertension: the prevention of renal and vascular end-stage disease study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieneker, Lyanne M; Gansevoort, Ron T; Mukamal, Kenneth J; de Boer, Rudolf A; Navis, Gerjan; Bakker, Stephan J L; Joosten, Michel M

    2014-10-01

    Previous prospective cohort studies on the association between potassium intake and risk of hypertension have almost exclusively relied on self-reported dietary data, whereas repeated 24-hour urine excretions, as estimate of dietary uptake, may provide a more objective and quantitative estimate of this association. Risk of hypertension (defined as blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg or initiation of blood pressure-lowering drugs) was prospectively studied in 5511 normotensive subjects aged 28 to 75 years not using blood pressure-lowering drugs at baseline of the Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-Stage Disease (PREVEND) study. Potassium excretion was measured in two 24-hour urine specimens at baseline (1997-1998) and midway during follow-up (2001-2003). Baseline median potassium excretion was 70 mmol/24 h (interquartile range, 57-85 mmol/24 h), which corresponds to a dietary potassium intake of ≈91 mmol/24 h. During a median follow-up of 7.6 years (interquartile range, 5.0-9.3 years), 1172 subjects developed hypertension. The lowest sex-specific tertile of potassium excretion (men: risk of hypertension after multivariable adjustment (hazard ratio, 1.20; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.37), compared with the upper 2 tertiles (Pnonlinearity=0.008). The proportion of hypertension attributable to low potassium excretion was 6.2% (95% confidence interval, 1.7%-10.9%). No association was found between the sodium to potassium excretion ratio and risk of hypertension after multivariable adjustment. Low urinary potassium excretion was associated with an increased risk of developing hypertension. Dietary strategies to increase potassium intake to the recommended level of 90 mmol/d may have the potential to reduce the incidence of hypertension. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Hypocholesterolemic effect of capsaicinoids by increased bile acids excretion in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Zhou, Min; Fang, Guoshan; Tang, Yan; Chen, Zongdao; Liu, Xiong

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated the interaction of dietary capsaicinoids with the mRNA and protein expressions of key receptors and enzymes involved in cholesterol metabolism in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to sham operation or ovariectomy. The sham group and OVX control group were fed with high-cholesterol diets, whereas the treatment group (control diet containing 0.01% capsaicinoids) was fed with high-cholesterol plus 0.01% capsaicinoids diet for 21 days. Capsaicinoids significantly decreased the body weight gain, plasma total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triacylglycerol without affecting the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the OVX rats. The change in plasma lipoprotein profile was accompanied by a greater excretion of total bile acid in feces and small intestinal contents. Western blot and real-time PCR analyses revealed that capsaicinoids significantly enhanced the expressions of hepatic cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase and transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 but did not affect the expression of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase in the OVX rats. Capsaicinoids have cholesterol-lowering effects in OVX rats. The hypocholesterolemic activity of capsaicinoids is caused by the stimulating conversion of cholesterol to bile acids by upregulation of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase expression and the increase in fecal total bile acid excretion. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Correlation Between Bile Reflux Gastritis and Biliary Excreted Contrast Media in the Stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Jong Jin; Yeom, Suk Keu; Shim, Euddeum; Cha, Jaehyung; Choi, Inyoung; Lee, Seung Hwa; Chung, Hwan Hoon; Cha, Sang Hoon; Lee, Chang Hee

    This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between biliary excreted contrast media in the stomach and the presence of bile reflux gastritis. Consecutive 111 patients who underwent both gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance cholangiography (gadoxetic MRC) and gastric endoscopy were included in this study. We performed a review of the gadoxetic-MRC image sets acquired 60 minutes after intravenous injection of contrast media and endoscopic images. We recorded amount of contrast media in the stomach. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of duodenogastric bile reflux diagnosis were evaluated for the gadoxetic MRC. Statistical analysis was performed using the Fisher exact test and the linear-by-linear association test. Among the 111 patients, 39 had 60-minute delayed images showing the presence of contrast media in the stomach. Of these 39 patients, 13 had bile reflux gastritis and 5 showed bile in the stomach without evidence of erythematous gastritis. Of the 72 patients who did not show contrast media in the stomach, none had bile reflux gastritis and 2 patients showed bile staining in the stomach without evidence of erythematous gastritis. Bile reflux gastritis was significantly more frequent in patients with contrast media in the stomach on gadoxetic MRC than in those without. Patients with high-grade extension of contrast media in the stomach had significantly frequent bile reflux gastritis than did those with low-grade extension. Biliary excreted contrast media in the stomach on 60-minute delayed gadoxetic MRC has a correlation with the presence of bile reflux gastritis on endoscopic examination.

  15. Effect of vitamin A supplementation on the urinary retinol excretion in very low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiedchen, Bettina; Longardt, Ann Carolin; Loui, Andrea; Bührer, Christoph; Raila, Jens; Schweigert, Florian J

    2016-03-01

    Despite high-dose vitamin A supplementation of very low birth weight infants (VLBW, supplementation on the urinary vitamin A excretion in VLBW infants was investigated. Sixty-three VLBW infants were treated with vitamin A (5000 IU intramuscular, 3 times/week for 4 weeks); 38 untreated infants were classified as control group. On days 3 and 28 of life, retinol, retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), glomerular filtration rate, proteinuria, and Tamm-Horsfall protein were quantified in urine. On day 3 of life, substantial retinol and RBP4 losses were found in both groups, which significantly decreased until day 28. Notwithstanding, the retinol excretion was higher (P supplementation as compared to infants of the control group. On day 28 of life, the urinary retinol concentrations were predictive for serum retinol concentrations in the vitamin A treated (P supplementation efficacy in VLBW infants. Advanced age and thus postnatal kidney maturation seems to be an important contributor in the prevention of urinary retinol losses.

  16. Low plasma tryptophan in carcinoid patients is associated with increased urinary cortisol excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanke, Marit A C; Kema, Ido P; Dijck-Brouwer, Janneke; Doornbos, Bennard; De Vries, Elisabeth G E; Korf, Jakob

    2008-10-01

    Previously we observed in patients suffering from a metastatic carcinoid tumor that irritability, aggression and lack of impulse control are associated with low levels of plasma tryptophan and presumably with low brain serotonin function. In rats we showed that a diet of low tryptophan resulted in higher stress responses and higher corticosterone production. Here we tested in carcinoid patients whether tryptophan depletion due to tumor 5-HT overproduction is associated with high cortisol production. Urinary excretion of cortisol, serotonin, 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (the main metabolite of serotonin a marker of tumor activity), plasma levels of tryptophan and platelet content of serotonin (index of peripheral serotonin synthesis) were determined in metastatic midgut carcinoid patients. Patients (N = 25) were divided into two groups based on their plasma tryptophan levels ( or = 49 micromol/l, n = 13). Carcinoid patients with low plasma tryptophan levels had significantly higher urinary excretion of free cortisol (p < 0.01), independent of tumor activity. The inter-individual differences in the low tryptophan group, however, were substantial. In a subgroup of the patients suffering from metastatic carcinoid disease the cerebral access of plasma tryptophan is impaired, thus rendering cerebral serotonin neurotransmission suboptimal and leading to hypercortisolism. The present study provides further support to the idea that low serotonergic function is a risk for developing stress-associated psychopathology.

  17. Neurotransmitters excreted in the urine as biomarkers of nervous system activity: validity and clinical applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marc, David T; Ailts, Joseph W; Campeau, Danielle C Ailts; Bull, Michael J; Olson, Kelly L

    2011-01-01

    Strategies for managing the nervous system are numerous while methods of evaluating the nervous system are limited. Given the physiological importance of neurotransmitters as signaling molecules in the nervous system, the measurement of neurotransmitters has significant potential as a clinical tool. Of all the biological fluids that can be utilized, urinary neurotransmitter testing, due to its stability, sensitivity, and non-invasiveness, is the desired method to analyze nervous system function. Increasing use of this technology in a clinical setting demands a review of its feasibility, utility, and clinical value. We review the current body of literature pertaining to the mechanism of neurotransmitter transport across the blood-brain barrier as well as neurotransmitter filtration and excretion by the kidneys. In addition, this review summarizes the historical use of urinary neurotransmitter assessment to diagnose pheochromocytoma. Early research also correlated urinary assessment of neurotransmitters to various clinical symptoms and treatments of which we present research only for depression, ADHD, and inflammation because of the abundant amount of research in these areas. Finally, we review the limitations and challenges of urinary neurotransmitter testing. Taken together, evidence suggests that neurotransmitters excreted in the urine may have a place in clinical practice as a biomarker of nervous system function to effectively assess disturbances and monitor treatment efficacy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Iodine Intakes of Victorian Schoolchildren Measured Using 24-h Urinary Iodine Excretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey Beckford

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Mandatory fortification of bread with iodized salt was introduced in Australia in 2009, and studies using spot urine collections conducted post fortification indicate that Australian schoolchildren are now replete. However an accurate estimate of daily iodine intake utilizing 24-h urinary iodine excretion (UIE μg/day has not been reported and compared to the estimated average requirement (EAR. This study aimed to assess daily total iodine intake and status of a sample of primary schoolchildren using 24-h urine samples. Victorian primary school children provided 24-h urine samples between 2011 and 2013, from which urinary iodine concentration (UIC, μg/L and total iodine excretion (UIE, μg/day as an estimate of intake was determined. Valid 24-h urine samples were provided by 650 children, mean (SD age 9.3 (1.8 years (n = 359 boys. The mean UIE of 4–8 and 9–13 year olds was 94 (48 and 111 (57 μg/24-h, respectively, with 29% and 26% having a UIE below the age-specific EAR. The median (IQR UIC was 124 (83,172 μg/L, with 36% of participants having a UIC < 100 μg/L. This convenience sample of Victorian schoolchildren were found to be iodine replete, based on UIC and estimated iodine intakes derived from 24-h urine collections, confirming the findings of the Australian Health Survey.

  19. Intestinal distribution and excretion of sesaminol and its tetrahydrofuranoid metabolites in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Kuo-Ching; Ku, Kuo-Lung; Chu, Yan-Hwa; Hwang, Lucy Sun; Ho, Chi-Tang

    2011-04-13

    Sesame seeds (Sesamum indicum L.) are unique because of potent and various physiological activities imparted by their bioactive lignans. This investigation studied the intestinal distribution and excretion of sesaminol in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. To investigate the distribution of sesaminol (per oral 220 mg/kg), the changes in concentration of sesaminol and its metabolites were determined in the intestines and plasma within the 24 h period after tube feeding of sesaminol to SD rats. Results show that the epimerization of sesaminol appeared to be catalyzed by acid in the simulated gastric fluids. The major sesaminol epimer was characterized as 2-episesaminol using 2D-NMR. These findings indicate that sesame sesaminol and its epimer are poorly absorbed prior to reaching the rectum and that substantial amounts pass from the small to the large intestine, where they are metabolized by the colonic microflora to tetrahydrofuranoid metabolites. Sesaminol in plasma was largely present as phase II conjugates, and the seven metabolites were detected as the 2-episesaminol, sesaminol-6-catechol, methylated sesaminol-catechol, R,R-hydroxymethylsesaminol-tetrahydrofuran, S,R-hydroxymethylsesaminol-tetrahydrofuran, enterolactone, and enterodiol. Excretions of sesaminol in urine and feces within the 24 h period were equivalent to 0.02 and 9.33% of the amount ingested, respectively.

  20. Absorption, tissue distribution, and excretion of tritium-labeled ivermectin in cattle, sheep, and rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, Shuething Lee; Green, M.L.; Baylis, F.P.; Eline, D.; Rosegay, A.; Meriwether, H.; Jacob, T.A. (Merck Sharp and Dohme Research Laboratories, Rahway, NJ (USA))

    1990-11-01

    Tritium-labeled ivermectin was studied in cattle, sheep, and rat for absorption, tissue residue distribution, and excretion at doses of 0.3 mg/kg of body weight. The drug was absorbed by various dosing routes. By intraruminal and subcutaneous dosing routes, highest tissue residues were present in fat and liver of cattle, with half-lives of 6-8 and 4-5 days, respectively. Shorter half-lives (1-2 days) were observed in sheep and rat. The tissue residue distribution pattern was essentially the same for all species studied and similar in male and female rats. With doses of tritium-labeled avermectin B{sub 1a} ranging from 0.06 to 7.5 mg/kg of body weight, plasma and tissue residue concentrations increased proportionally with the dose. When ivermectin was administered by various routes (ip, sc, iv, oral, and intraruminal), blood residue levels converged to 20-50 ppb 4 h after dosing and then depleted at similar rate regardless of the dosing route. Ivermectin was excreted primarily in the feces, with only less than 2% of the doses being eliminated in the urine in all three species studied.

  1. Increased Urinary Erythropoietin Excretion in Severe Sleep Apnea-Hipoapnea Syndrome: The Effect of CPAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félez, Miquel; Grau, Nuria; Ruiz, Antonia; Guardiola, Encarna; Sanjuas, Carles; Estirado, Cristina; Navarro-Muñoz, Maribel; Pascual, Antoni; Orozco-Levi, Mauricio; Gea, Joaquim

    2017-12-04

    Tissue hypoxia stimulates the production of erythropoietin (EPO), the main effect of which is, in turn, to stimulate erythropoiesis. Sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (SAHS) is an entity characterized by repeated episodes of hypoxemia during sleep. To analyze whether hypoxemia stimulated increased urinary excretion of EPO, and if so, to evaluate if treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) can inhibit this phenomenon. We studied 25 subjects with suspected SAHS who underwent a polysomnography study (PSG). EPO levels in first morning urine (uEPO) and blood creatinine and hemoglobin were determined in all patients. Patients with severe SAHS repeated the same determinations after CPAP treatment. Twelve subjects were diagnosed with severe SAHS (mean ± SD, AHI 53.1 ± 22.7). Creatinine and hemoglobin levels were normal in all subjects. uEPO was 4 times higher in the SAHS group than in the control group (1.32 ± 0.83 vs. 0.32 ± 0.35 UI/l, p <.002). CPAP treatment reduced uEPO to 0.61 ± 0.9 UI/l (p <.02), levels close to those observed in healthy subjects. No dose-response relationship was observed between severity of PSG changes and uEPO values. Patients with severe SAHS show increased uEPO excretion, but this normalizes after treatment with CPAP. Copyright © 2017 SEPAR. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of immunizing gilts against zearalenone on height of vaginal epithelium and urinary excretion of zearalenone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDougald, O A; Thulin, A J; Weldon, W C; Pestka, J J; Fogwell, R L

    1990-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted to develop a vaginal epithelium bioassay for zearalenone (Z) and to determine whether immunization against Z would prevent Z mycotoxicosis. Eleven gilts were ovariectomized and allotted by weight to dietary doses of 50, 150 or 350 micrograms Z/kg BW daily for 3 d. All doses of Z increased height of the vaginal epithelium. Height of the vaginal epithelium in gilts fed 150 or 350 micrograms Z/kg BW increased more than that in gilts fed 50 micrograms Z/kg BW. Twenty-four gilts then were ovariectomized and allotted to be immunized or not immunized. A Z-bovine serum albumin conjugate was injected into gilts to achieve immunization. Ten weeks after initial immunization, antibodies to Z were detected after a 1:10(7) dilution at greater than .1 absorbance units using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and gilts were allotted by weight to diets with no Z or 150 micrograms Z/kg BW daily for 3 d. Immunization alone had no effect on height of vaginal epithelium, but after 3 and 10 d, immunized gilts fed Z had higher vaginal epithelium than did nonimmunized gilts fed Z. Immunized gilts excreted a larger percentage of ingested Z than nonimmunized gilts did. Therefore, immunizing gilts against Z potentiated both the estrogenic effects of Z and urinary excretion of Z equivalents.

  3. Differences in protein binding and excretion of Triapine and its Fe(III) complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelivan, Karla; Miklos, Walter; van Schoonhoven, Sushilla; Koellensperger, Gunda; Gille, Lars; Berger, Walter; Heffeter, Petra; Kowol, Christian R; Keppler, Bernhard K

    2016-07-01

    Triapine has been investigated as anticancer drug in multiple clinical phase I/II trials. Although promising anti-leukemic activity was observed, Triapine was ineffective against solid tumors. The reasons are currently widely unknown. The biological activity of Triapine is strongly connected to its iron complex (Fe-Triapine) which is pharmacologically not investigated. Here, novel analytical tools for Triapine and Fe-Triapine were developed and applied for cell extracts and body fluids of treated mice. Triapine and its iron complex showed a completely different behavior: for Triapine, low protein binding was observed in contrast to fast protein adduct formation of Fe-Triapine. Notably, both drugs were rapidly cleared from the body (serum half-life time <1h). Remarkably, in contrast to Triapine, where (in accordance to clinical data) basically no renal excretion was found, the iron complex was effectively excreted via urine. Moreover, no Fe-Triapine was detected in serum or cytosolic extracts after Triapine treatment. Taken together, our study will help to further understand the biological behavior of Triapine and its Fe-complex and allow the development of novel thiosemicarbazones with pronounced activity against solid tumor types. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Excretion of FDG into saliva and its significance for PET imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahl, A.; Dzewas, B.; Schwaiger, M.; Weber, W.A. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany)

    2002-10-01

    Aim: Assessment of the salivary excretion of FDG and its significance during PET imaging. Methods: Salivary samples from 16 patients were obtained during the first three hours after FDG injection and their activity concentrations were measured. Furthermore, regional FDG accumulations in whole body PET scans (60 min p.i., ROI technique) were determined in the following locations: vestibulum oris, floor of the mouth, hypopharynx, parotid gland, submandibular gland. This ROI analysis was repeated after drinking water (0.2 l) and a second scan (120 min p.i.). Results: The salivary FDG concentrations (SUV) at the first, second and third hour p.i. were 0.2 {+-} 0.1, 0.4 {+-} 0.2, and 0.3 {+-} 0.2, respectively. The FDG uptake in the investigated cranial and cervical sites ranged from SUV 1.2 {+-} 0.5 in the major salivary glands to 2.1 {+-} 0.5 in the floor of the mouth. These values remained unchanged after drinking of water. Conclusion: The salivary FDG concentration is higher than expected from the low physiologic content of glucose. This may - similarly to renal excretion - reflect a different behavior of FDG and glucose during reabsorption processes. Nevertheless, the salivary concentration of FDG is so low that no relevant influence on PET imaging is to be expected. Accordingly, the drinking of water prior to the scan is of no benefit for FDG PET imaging of the head and the neck. (orig.)

  5. Excretion of FDG into saliva and its significance for PET imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, A; Dzewas, B; Schwaiger, M; Weber, W A

    2002-10-01

    Assessment of the salivary excretion of FDG and its significance during PET imaging. Salivary samples from 16 patients were obtained during the first three hours after FDG injection and their activity concentrations were measured. Furthermore, regional FDG accumulations in whole body PET scans (60 min p.i., ROI technique) were determined in the following locations: vestibulum oris, floor of the mouth, hypopharynx, parotid gland, submandibular gland. This ROI analysis was repeated after drinking water (0.2 l) and a second scan (120 min p.i.). The salivary FDG concentrations (SUV) at the first, second and third hour p.i. were 0.2 +/- 0.1, 0.4 +/- 0.2, and 0.3 +/- 0.2, respectively. The FDG uptake in the investigated cranial and cervical sites ranged from SUV 1.2 +/- 0.5 in the major salivary glands to 2.1 +/- 0.5 in the floor of the mouth. These values remained unchanged after drinking of water. The salivary FDG concentration is higher than expected from the low physiologic content of glucose. This may--similarly to renal excretion--reflect a different behavior of FDG and glucose during reabsorption processes. Nevertheless, the salivary concentration of FDG is so low that no relevant influence on PET imaging is to be expected. Accordingly, the drinking of water prior to the scan is of no benefit for FDG PET imaging of the head and the neck.

  6. Evaluating the enantioselective distribution, degradation and excretion of epoxiconazole in mice following a single oral gavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dezhen; Qiu, Jing; Zhu, Wentao; Zhang, Ping; Deng, Nian; Wang, Xinru; Wang, Yao; Zhou, Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    1. The enantiomeric enrichment or degradation of epoxiconazole has been reported in grape, soil, tubifex and mealworm beetle. But, little is known about its enantioselective behaviors in mammals. 2. To further understand differences in the distribution, degradation and excretion of epoxiconazole enantiomers in vivo, male CD-1 mice were selected as the test model to investigate the enantioselective behaviors after a single oral gavage. Mice were sacrificed after 1 h, 3 h, 7 h, 12 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h treatment, blood, tissues and excretions were collected for epoxiconazole analysis by LC-MS/MS. 3. On the Lux-Cellulose-1 chiral column, an enrichment of the second eluting (+)-epoxiconazole was generally observed, and feces and urine showed similar EF with major tissues. 4. To elucidate the potential role of intestinal bacterial flora in stereospecific degradation of epoxiconazole, mice fecal flora were cultured in vitro and incubated with epoxiconazole for 48 h. Results showed that (-)-epoxiconazole was preferentially degraded by intestinal bacterial. 5. These results may provide useful information for risk assessment of epoxiconazole on non-target animals.

  7. Tissue distribution and urinary excretion of 14C-ethion in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosha, R D

    1991-07-01

    Tissue concentration and elimination and urinary excretion were followed after intravenous injection of 14C-ethion in 12 goats. Tissue levels were determined in two goats after 8 hr and on each of days 1, 3, 7, 14 and 28 after exposure. During the four-week period plasma and all tissues examined (liver, kidney, fat, muscle, lung, heart and brain) had detectable 14C-residues, the highest values being found in liver, kidney and fat. Elimination of 14C-residues was faster in the first 3 days than in the later part of the experiment, where the elimination half-life for most tissues was approximately 2 weeks. During the first two weeks after exposure, 77% of the administered dose was eliminated in urine (55%) and faeces (22%). TLC of urine collected over the first 15 hr after exposure showed at least 8 bands of metabolites, five of which accounted for about two thirds of the dose excreted in urine.

  8. Inclusion of Yucca schidigera and zeolite in dog feed: influence on mineral excretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P.F. Santos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of adding Yucca schidigera and zeolite (Clinoptilolite to feed (super premium and standard for adult dogs on the apparent indigestibility coefficient of minerals. In the first assessment, 21 dogs were used, with average weight of 12.5kg±1.46 in seven treatments in two periods (super premium diet referred to as control and control with the addition of 125, 250, 375ppm Yucca schidigera and 0.5%, 0.75% and 1.0% zeolite. The second assessment was conducted with standard feed, using 21 experimental plots distributed in three treatments (standard diet referred to as control and control with the addition of 375ppm of Yucca schidigera and 1.0% zeolite. The additives did not affect the acceptability of feed and fecal characteristics in both assessments (P>0.05. With the exception of calcium, no minerals were affected by the inclusion of additives (P>0.05 in the experiment with super premium feed. In the assessment with standard feed, calcium as phosphorus and magnesium presented decreased excretion (P<0.05 with the inclusion of additives. It is possible to conclude that the inclusion of additives in the tested concentrations may interfere with the excretion of some minerals in the diet.

  9. Effect of penicillin on fatty acid synthesis and excretion in Streptococcus mutans BHT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brissette, J.L.; Pieringer, R.A.

    1985-03-01

    Treatment of exponentially growing cultures of Streptococcus mutans BHT with growth-inhibitory concentrations (0.2 microgram/ml) of benzylpenicillin stimulates the incorporation of (2-/sup 14/C) acetate into lipids excreted by the cells by as much as 69-fold, but does not change the amount of /sup 14/C incorporated into intracellular lipids. At this concentration of penicillin cellular lysis does not occur. The radioactive label is incorporated exclusively into the fatty acid moieties of the glycerolipids. During a 4-hr incubation in the presence of penicillin, the extracellular fatty acid ester concentration increases 1.5 fold, even though there is no growth or cellular lysis. An indication of the relative rate of fatty acid synthesis was most readily obtained by placing S. mutans BHT in a buffer containing /sup 14/C-acetate. Under these nongrowing conditions free fatty acids are the only lipids labeled, a factor which simplifies the assay. The addition of glycerol to the buffer causes all of the nonesterified fatty acids to be incorporated into glycerolipid. The cells excrete much of the lipid whether glycerol is present or not. Addition of penicillin to the nongrowth supporting buffer system does not stimulate the incorporation of (/sup 14/C)-acetate into fatty acids.

  10. ANDROGYNAE, 17 KETOSTEROID EXCRETION AND M-f PROFILE IN MENTAL ILLNESS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, S B; Valdiya, P S

    1980-10-01

    For centuries it has been a common belief that any abnormality of physique is an accompaniment of mental illness. Recently interest has been focussed on the degree of masculinity or conversely feminity in the constitution. An index of this parameter called 'androgynae' can be derived from Taner's formula. Physique acts as a manifestation of the gene complex mediated possibly through endocrines and hence should reflect on the excretion pattern of 17 ketosteroids. Personality being a constitutional variation, it ought to be related to physique and in turn to the androgenic activities. M-f profile of the MMPI should locate such variation in that case. Present work was planned to find out implication of each of these parameters and to see if there is any correlation between them. It was seen that the psychiatric patients had low androgynae scores than the normals but the 17 ketosteroid excretion was higher. This was unexpected. M-f profile of the patients did not show any significant difference from the control. Results are discussed in the light of available literature.

  11. Pharmacokinetics, Tissue Distribution, Excretion and Plasma Protein Binding Studies of Wogonin in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer Talbi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Wogonin is a natural anticancer candidate. The purpose of this study was to explore the pharmacokinetic profiles, tissue distribution, excretion and plasma protein binding of wogonin in Sprague—Dawley rats. A rapid, sensitive, and specific LC-MS/MS method has been developed for the determination of wogonin in different rat biological samples. After i.v. dosing of wogonin at different levels (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg the elimination half-life was approximately 14 min, the AUC0-∞ increased in a dose disproportional manner from 112.13 mg/L·min for 10 mg/kg to 758.19 mg/L·min for 40 mg/kg, indicating a non linear pharmacokinetic profile. After i.g. dosing at 100 mg/kg, plasma levels of wogonin peaked at 28 min with a Cmax value of 300 ng/mL and a very low oral bioavailability (1.10%. Following i.v. single dose (20 mg/kg, wogonin was detected in all examined tissues (including testis with the highest levels in kidney and liver. Approximately 21% of the administered dose was excreted as unchanged drug (mainly via non-biliairy fecal route (16.33%. Equilibrium dialysis was used to evaluate plasma protein binding of wogonin at three concentrations (0.1, 0.5 and 2 µg/mL. Results indicated a very high protein binding degree (over 90%, reducing substantially the free fraction of the compound.

  12. Comparison of different measures of urinary protein excretion for prediction of renal events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J; Gansevoort, Ron T; Brenner, Barry M

    2010-01-01

    ratio (ACR) from a first-morning void in predicting renal events. The primary outcome measure was the time to a doubling of serum creatinine or end-stage renal disease. During follow-up, 202 events occurred. The hazard ratios for the risk of a renal outcome (95% CIs) associated with 1-SD increment...... of Endpoints in Non Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus with the Angiotensin II Antagonist Losartan (RENAAL) trial to compare the ability of urinary protein excretion (UPE) and urinary albumin excretion (UAE) from a 24-hour urine collection and urinary albumin concentration (UAC) and the albumin:creatinine...... in the log-transformed measures were 3.16 (2.60 to 3.86) for UAE, 3.02 (2.53 to 3.62) for UPE, 3.23 (2.67 to 3.91) for UAC, and 4.36 (3.50 to 5.45) for ACR. The area under the ROC curve was significantly higher for ACR compared with the other measures. In conclusion, measurement of the albumin:creatinine...

  13. Absorption and excretion of mercury in man. VI. Significance of mercury in urine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, M.B.; Ladd, A.C.; Goldwater, L.J.

    1964-10-01

    The recent literature dealing with mercury in urine of humans has been reviewed and some new data have been developed. On a group basis, there appears to be good correlation between levels of mercury exposure and levels of urinary excretion. This relationship does not always hold for an individual. There is no clear-cut evidence that workers presumed to have unchanged conditions of exposure will show either an increase or decrease in urinary mercury as duration of exposure increases. Levels of mercury in the urine show little or no correlation with manifestation of poisoning. There appears to be no level above which symptoms cannot occur. The empirical use of arbitrary levels in control programs may result in the imposition of unnecessary restrictions. Present evidence suggests that mercury can be found in 20% of ''normal'' urines. Concentrations up to 100..mu..g/liter or more have been found but rarely is the figure greater than 50..mu..g/liter. Wide fluctuations in the hourly and daily excretion of mercury in urine are common in exposed persons. Present knowledge does not justify the application of specific gravity corrections to mercury in urine.

  14. Effect of water deprivation, desmopressin (DDAVP) infusion, and oral loads of water, Na+ and NH4+ on urinary excretion of epidermal growth factor in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, P E; Poulsen, Steen Seier; Nexø, Ebba

    1993-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is synthesized in the kidneys and excreted in urine. Administration of exogenous EGF modulates the reabsorption of Na+ and the vasopressin stimulated reabsorption of water in the collecting tubules. In order to clarify whether this reflects a physiological role...... for urinary EGF we examined the effects of changes in the oral loads of water, Na+ and NH4+ as well as the effect of infusion of the vasopressin analogue, desmopressin (DDAVP) on the endogenous urinary EGF excretion in the rat. Water deprivation for 48 h reduced the urinary excretion of EGF by 25......% and the urinary EGF/creatinine ratio by 8%. Also, urinary volume, Na+ excretion, and urinary pH were reduced by water deprivation. Infusion of DDAVP, low plasma vasopressin induced by polydipsia, and changes in the renal excretion of Na+ and H+ did not affect the urinary excretion of EGF. In conclusion: it seems...

  15. High Dietary Sodium Intake Assessed by Estimated 24-h Urinary Sodium Excretion Is Associated with NAFLD and Hepatic Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Ji Hye; Lee, Kyong Joo; Lim, Jung Soo; Lee, Mi Young; Park, Hong Jun; Kim, Moon Young; Kim, Jae Woo; Chung, Choon Hee; Shin, Jang Yel; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Kwon, Sang Ok; Baik, Soon Koo

    2015-01-01

    Although high sodium intake is associated with obesity and hypertension, few studies have investigated the relationship between sodium intake and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We evaluated the association between sodium intake assessed by estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion and NAFLD in healthy Koreans. We analyzed data from 27,433 participants in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2008-2010). The total amount of sodium excretion in 24-h urine was estimated using Tanaka's equations from spot urine specimens. Subjects were defined as having NAFLD when they had high scores in previously validated NAFLD prediction models such as the hepatic steatosis index (HSI) and fatty liver index (FLI). BARD scores and FIB-4 were used to define advanced fibrosis in subjects with NAFLD. The participants were classified into three groups according to estimated 24-h urinary excretion tertiles. The prevalence of NAFLD as assessed by both FLI and HSI was significantly higher in the highest estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion tertile group. Even after adjustment for confounding factors including body fat and hypertension, the association between higher estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion and NAFLD remained significant (Odds ratios (OR) 1.39, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26-1.55, in HSI; OR 1.75, CI 1.39-2.20, in FLI, both P sodium values. High sodium intake was independently associated with an increased risk of NAFLD and advanced liver fibrosis.

  16. Effect of dietary supplementation of essential oils mixture on performance, eggshell quality, hatchability, and mineral excretion in quail breeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olgun, Osman; Yıldız, Alp Önder

    2014-12-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of six different levels (0, 50, 100, 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg) of phytogenic feed additive containing a mixture essential oils from thyme, black cumin, fennel, anise and rosemary on performance, eggshell quality, reproductive traits, and mineral excretion in quail breeders. In this trial, a total of 60 male and 120 female quails, 91 days old, were randomly distributed in six experimental groups. During the 60-day experiment period, birds were fed with six treatment diets. Performances, eggshell qualities, hatchability, and mineral excretion data were evaluated at the end of the experiment. Results showed that the different dietary levels of essential oil mixture had no significant effect on performance parameters, damaged eggs, eggshell weight, fertility, hatchability of fertile eggs, hatchability of set eggs, and lead and boron excretion. On the other hand, 50 mg/kg supplementation of essential oil mixture (EOM) significantly improved egg-breaking strength and eggshell thickness, and ash, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, manganese, zinc, and cadmium excretion was significantly depressed in quail breeders supplemented with the two higher doses (400 or 600 mg/kg) of EOM. These results concluded that supplementing diets with EOM improved egg-breaking strength and decreased excretion of minerals in breeder quails.

  17. Continuous Excretion ofLeptospira borgpeterseniiBallum in Mice Assessed by Viability Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soupé-Gilbert, Marie-Estelle; Bierque, Emilie; Geroult, Sophie; Teurlai, Magali; Goarant, Cyrille

    2017-10-01

    Rodents are the main reservoir animals of leptospirosis. In this study, we characterized and quantified the urinary excretion dynamics of Leptospira by Mus musculus infected with 2 × 10 8 virulent Leptospira borgpetersenii serogroup Ballum. Each micturition was collected separately in metabolic cages, at 12 time points from 7 to 117 days post-infection (dpi). We detected Leptospira in all urine samples collected (up to 8 per time point per mouse) proving that Leptospira excretion is continuous with ca. 90% live L. borgpetersenii Ballum, revealed by viability quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Microscopic visualization by Live/Dead fluorescence confirmed this high proportion of live bacteria and demonstrated that L. borgpetersenii Ballum are excreted, at least partly, as bacterial aggregates. We observed two distinct phases in the excretion dynamics, first an increase in Leptospira concentration shed in the urine between 7 and 63 dpi followed by a plateau phase from 63 dpi onward, with up to 3 × 10 7 Leptospira per mL of urine. These two phases seem to correspond to progressive colonization of renal tubules first, then to stable cell survival and maintenance in kidneys. Therefore, chronically infected adult mice are able to contaminate the environment via urine at each micturition event throughout their lifetime. Because Leptospira excretion reached its maximum 2 months after infection, older rodents have a greater risk of contaminating their surrounding environment.

  18. Excretion of N-mononitrosopiperazine after low level exposure to piperazine in air: effects of dietary nitrate and ascorbate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellander, T.; Osterdahl, B.G.; Hagmar, L.

    1988-04-01

    The secondary amine piperazine may be nitrosated in vivo, following oral intake or occupational exposure by inhalation. The suspected carcinogen N-mononitrosopiperazine could be formed in the human stomach, and in part excreted in the urine. In this study, 0.4 microgram N-mononitrosopiperazine, determined by gas chromatography-Thermal Energy Analysis, was observed in the urine in one of four volunteers, at an experimental exposure by inhalation of 0.3 mg piperazine/m3. The intake of spinach and beetroot caused an increased nitrosation of piperazine, and up to 1.7 microgram N-mononitrosopiperazine was excreted in the urine in the four individuals. This excretion indicates that about 5% of the absorbed piperazine dose was converted to N-mononitrosopiperazine. With the same nitrate-rich diet, but with the addition of citrus fruits and fresh vegetables, the highest excretion was 0.6 microgram N-mononitrosopiperazine. The excretion was significantly correlated with the ratio between the maximum level of nitrite in saliva and the ascorbate level in plasma. There was also a significant interindividual variation. N,N'-Dinitrosopiperazine was not found in any sample of urine.

  19. Prolonged Excretion of Poliovirus among Individuals with Primary Immunodeficiency Disorder: An Analysis of the World Health Organization Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Macklin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with primary immunodeficiency disorder may excrete poliovirus for extended periods and will constitute the only remaining reservoir of virus after eradication and withdrawal of oral poliovirus vaccine. Here, we analyzed the epidemiology of prolonged and chronic immunodeficiency-related vaccine-derived poliovirus cases in a registry maintained by the World Health Organization, to identify risk factors and determine the length of excretion. Between 1962 and 2016, there were 101 cases, with 94/101 (93% prolonged excretors and 7/101 (7% chronic excretors. We documented an increase in incidence in recent decades, with a shift toward middle-income countries, and a predominance of poliovirus type 2 in 73/101 (72% cases. The median length of excretion was 1.3 years (95% confidence interval: 1.0, 1.4 and 90% of individuals stopped excreting after 3.7 years. Common variable immunodeficiency syndrome and residence in high-income countries were risk factors for long-term excretion. The changing epidemiology of cases, manifested by the greater incidence in recent decades and a shift to from high- to middle-income countries, highlights the expanding risk of poliovirus transmission after oral poliovirus vaccine cessation. To better quantify and reduce this risk, more sensitive surveillance and effective antiviral therapies are needed.

  20. Increased excretion of two sialic acid-containing trisaccharides in the urine of patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maury, P

    1978-12-01

    The urinary excretion of sialic acid-containing trisaccharides in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis was studied. Sialyl-lactose and sialyl-N-acetyllactosamine were identified and their excretion patterns studied by thin layer and gas chromatography. The urinary output of sialyl-lactose was greater in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (48.2 +/- 6.1 mg/24 h, SEM, n = 6) than in healthy subjects (19.8 +/- 3.7 mg/24 h, SEM, n = 5; P less than 0.01). The excretion of sialyl-N-acetyllactosamine was also higher in the rheumatoid group (18.5 +/- 2.1 mg/24 h, SEM, n = 6) than in the controls (11.1 +/- 1.2 mg/24 h, SEM, n = 5; P less than 0.05). The qualitative excretion patterns of the sialyl-oligosaccharide fraction were similar for the two groups as judged from the thin layer chromatograms. Correlating the results with the clinical state of the patients with rheumatoid arthritis suggests that the urinary level of the sialyl-oligosaccharides reflects the activity of the disease. A proposed mechanism for the increased excretion of sialic acid-containing trisaccharides in rheumatoid arthritis is presented.

  1. Enteric methane emission, diet digestibility, and nitrogen excretion from beef heifers fed sainfoin or alfalfa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Y-H; Mc Geough, E J; Acharya, S; McAllister, T A; McGinn, S M; Harstad, O M; Beauchemin, K A

    2013-10-01

    Effects of plant-bound condensed tannin (CT)-containing sainfoin vs. CT-free alfalfa (or low-CT alfalfa-sainfoin mixture), plant stage of maturity, and their interaction on enteric methane (CH4) emissions, diet digestibility, and N excretion were studied, using 8 ruminally cannulated beef heifers in 2 sequential short-term experiments (Exp. 1 and 2). In Exp. 1, first growth legumes were harvested daily and offered fresh to heifers. Heifers were assigned to 100% sainfoin or 80% alfalfa:20% sainfoin (as-fed basis). Responses were measured at early (late vegetative to early bud; stage 2 to 3) and late (early flower; stage 5) stage of maturity. In Exp. 2, the same legumes were harvested from second growth (late bud; stage 4) and offered to heifers as hay; 100% sainfoin or 100% alfalfa. In both experiments, heifers were fed once daily at 1× maintenance. When fed as fresh forage (Exp. 1), sainfoin, compared with the alfalfa-sainfoin blend, had greater digestibility of OM (74.7 vs. 70.9%; P = 0.02), yet tended to have lower CP digestibility (73.2 vs. 77.1%; P = 0.059). There was no difference between fresh legumes for CH4 emissions [25.9 g/kg DMI ± 4.02 SE; 8.5% of gross energy intake (GEI) ± 1.26 SE; or 36.8 g/kg digested OM ± 1.75 SE]. The fresh legumes were more digestible at early, rather than at late, maturity and, consequently, enteric CH4 (27.4 vs. 24.4 g/kg DMI; P < 0.004; 8.9 vs. 8.1% GEI; P < 0.008) was greater at early, rather than at later, growth. When fed as hay (Exp. 2), sainfoin, compared with alfalfa, had greater digestibility of OM (60.5 vs. 50.3%; P = 0.007), lower digestibility of CP (64.2 vs. 68.8%; P = 0.004), yet there was no difference between the legume hays for CH4 emissions (22.4 g/kg DMI ± 1.29 SD and 7.1% GEI ± 0.40 SD). However, on the basis of OM digested, CH4 emissions were lower for sainfoin than alfalfa hay (44.3 vs. 59.0 g/kg; P = 0.008). Percentage of total N excretion in urine was less for sainfoin compared with alfalfa, both for

  2. The effects of milk as a food matrix for polyphenols on the excretion profile of cocoa (-)-epicatechin metabolites in healthy human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roura, Elena; Andrés-Lacueva, Cristina; Estruch, Ramon; Lourdes Mata Bilbao, M; Izquierdo-Pulido, Maria; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M

    2008-10-01

    The effect of different food matrices on the metabolism and excretion of polyphenols is uncertain. The objective of the study was to evaluate the possible effect of milk on the excretion of (2)-epicatechin metabolites from cocoa powder after its ingestion with and without milk. Twenty-one volunteers received the following three test meals each in a randomised cross-over design with a 1-week interval between meals: (1) 250 ml whole milk as a control; (2) 40 g cocoa powder dissolved in 250 ml whole milk (CC-M); (3) 40 g cocoa powder dissolved in 250 ml water (CC-W). Urine was collected before consumption and during the 0-6, 6-12 and 12-24 h periods after consumption. (2)-Epicatechin metabolite excretion was measured using liquid chromatography-MS. One (2)-epicatechin glucuronide and three (2)-epicatechin sulfates were detected in urine excreted after the intake of the two cocoa beverages (CC-M and CC-W). The results show that milk does not significantly affect the total amount of metabolites excreted in urine. However, differences in metabolite excretion profiles were observed; there were changes in the glucuronide and sulfate excretion rates, and the sulfation position between the period of excretion and the matrix. The matrix in which polyphenols are consumed can affect their metabolism and excretion, and this may affect their biological activity. Thus, more studies are needed to evaluate the effect of these different metabolite profiles on the body.

  3. Digestibility, protein retention rate and ammonia excretion in juvenile fat snook (Centropomus parallelus fed with different protein levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Araci Grapiuna de Carvalho

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the level of dietary crude protein (CP (480, 400, 440, 520 and 560g kg-1 in rations for juvenile II fat snook (Centropomus parallelus that best promotes protein absorption and lower excretion of nitrogenous products. Three experiments were conducted: the first assessed the protein retention rate; the second evaluated ammonia excretion; and the third determined the best digestibility coefficient. The estimated protein retention rate showed a positive quadratic response to dietary CP with maximum retention at the 510.20g kg-1 protein level, and increasing levels of protein resulted in a greater total ammonia excretion rate in water. The mean apparent protein digestibility coefficient values increased with increasing levels of dietary protein up to 520g kg-1, where they stabilized. As determined by regression, the level of dietary CP that promotes the best digestibility was 495.62g kg-1.

  4. Cohort study of predictive value of urinary albumin excretion for atherosclerotic vascular disease in patients with insulin dependent diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deckert, T; Yokoyama, H; Mathiesen, E

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether slightly elevated urinary albumin excretion precedes development of atherosclerotic vascular disease in patients with insulin dependent diabetes independently of conventional atherogenic risk factors and of diabetic nephropathy. DESIGN: Cohort study with 11 year follow......, smoking habits, and serum concentrations of total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, sialic acid, and von Willebrand factor. END POINT: atherosclerotic vascular disease assessed by death certificates, mailed questionnaires, and hospital records. RESULTS: Thirty patients developed...... atherosclerotic vascular disease during follow up of 2457 person year. Elevated urinary albumin excretion was significantly predictive of atherosclerotic vascular disease (hazard ratio 1.06 (95% confidence interval 1.02 to 1.18) per 5 mg increase in 24 hour urinary albumin excretion, P = 0.002). Predictive effect...

  5. Germination, growth, and sporulation of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis in excreted food vacuoles of the protozoan Tetrahymena pyriformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manasherob, R; Ben-Dov, E; Zaritsky, A; Barak, Z

    1998-05-01

    Spores of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis and their toxic crystals are bioencapsulated in the protozoan Tetrahymena pyriformis, in which the toxin remains stable. Each T. pyriformis cell concentrates the spores and crystals in its food vacuoles, thus delivering them to mosquito larvae, which rapidly die. Vacuoles containing undigested material are later excreted from the cells. The fate of spores and toxin inside the food vacuoles was determined at various times after excretion by phase-contrast and electron microscopy as well as by viable-cell counting. Excreted food vacuoles gradually aggregated, and vegetative growth of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis was observed after 7 h as filaments that stemmed from the aggregates. The outgrown cells sporulated between 27 and 42 h. The spore multiplication values in this system are low compared to those obtained in carcasses of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis-killed larvae and pupae, but this bioencapsulation represents a new possible mode of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis recycling in nontarget organisms.

  6. In vivo transport and excretion of corrosion products from accelerated anodic corrosion of porous coated F75 alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, S A; Zhang, K; Merritt, K; Payer, J H

    1993-08-01

    Corrosion of porous coated cobalt chromium specimens surgically implanted subcutaneously in hamsters was accelerated by application of a fixed anodic potential. Corrosion current measurements were utilized for prediction of metal ion release based on Faraday's law. Daily urine samples were collected pre- and post-stimulation, and, at animal sacrifice, organs and blood samples were taken for chemical analysis. By using in vitro release data from previous studies, and efficiency correction factors, the amount of metal ion release was calculated. The results demonstrated rapid and complete excretion of nickel and molybdenum. Most of the cobalt was excreted, with elevation of cobalt levels in liver, kidney, and lung. Chromium excretion was much lower due to significant red cell binding and in vivo storage, especially in the kidney and spleen.

  7. Fractional excretions of albumin and IgG are the best predictors of progression in primary glomerulonephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuarrie, Emily P; Shakerdi, Loai; Jardine, Alan G; Fox, Jonathan G; Mackinnon, Bruce

    2011-05-01

    Proteinuria is the most sensitive predictor of development of progressive renal insufficiency, with increasing focus on the composition of proteinuria, particularly high molecular weight proteins such as immunoglobulin G (IgG) (molecular weight 150 kDa). Differing methods of assessing excretion of proteinuria molecules have limited interpretation of results. We aimed to assess the utility of available indices of IgG, total proteinuria and albumin excretions as predictors of chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression in patients with primary glomerulonephritis. We recruited 97 patients with primary glomerulonephritis and measured 24-h urinary protein excretion, 24-h urinary albumin excretion, selectivity index, albumin:creatinine ratio, urinary IgG:creatinine ratio, fractional excretion of albumin (FE Alb) and fractional excretion of IgG (FE IgG) at baseline. The composite endpoint was developing stage 5 CKD, requiring RRT or death. Receiver operating characteristics curve analysis was used to assess the value of each measure in predicting outcome. From this analysis, high- and low-risk patient groups according to each measure were established. These were then tested using Kaplan-Meier and Cox survival analysis. During a median follow-up of 7.07 years, 23 patients developed the primary endpoint. FE IgG and FE Alb were the most sensitive predictive tests. The hazard ratios (HR) of developing the primary endpoint using FE IgG [HR 37.1 (95% CI 8.6-158.8)] and FE Alb [HR 35.2 (95% CI 8.2-150.8)] cut-offs were double those using the other measures. FE IgG and FE Alb are superior to conventional measures of proteinuria in predicting outcome in patients with primary glomerulonephritis, possibly because they are more accurate indicators of impairment of glomerular permselectivity. FE Alb should be used, in conjunction with other measures of proteinuria, in future studies of prediction of CKD progression.

  8. Viral excretion and antibody titers in children infected with hepatitis A virus from an orphanage in western India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundekar, Supriya; Thorat, Neeta; Gurav, Yogesh; Lole, Kavita

    2015-12-01

    Hepatitis A is endemic in India and mainly causes sporadic infections. However, children in childcare centers, schools and orphanages are vulnerable to common-source outbreaks as they have naive hosts. To investigate hepatitis A outbreak in an orphanage from Pune, India. Monitoring of virus excretion and anti-HAV antibody levels in hepatitis A virus (HAV) infected children. The orphanage housed 93 children of the age 1 month-6.5 years. Analysis of the collected serum (n=78) and stool samples (n=63) revealed 20 children to be either positive for anti-HAV IgM antibodies or excreting HAV, 14 being symptomatic and 6 asymptomatic, while 32 were already anti-HAV IgG positive either due to past HAV exposure (n=7, mean log antibody titers: 2.96) or maternal antibodies (n=25, mean log antibody titers: 1.13). Serum samples, taken 4 weeks apart, did not show any significant difference in the IgM and IgG antibody levels either. However, virus excretion decreased significantly after 15 days in symptomatic children (mean log HAV RNA copies/ml 1.03+0.30), while asymptomatic children continued to excrete higher viral loads, at constant levels (mean log HAV RNA copies/ml 2.33+0.33), for up to 90 days. Though virus excretion continued up to 90 days in all HAV infected children, asymptomatic children excreted higher viral loads for longer period and hence can contribute significantly in person-to-person virus transmission. All children should be vaccinated in such set ups. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Advantage of multiple spot urine collections for estimating daily sodium excretion: comparison with two 24-h urine collections as reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uechi, Ken; Asakura, Keiko; Ri, Yui; Masayasu, Shizuko; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2016-02-01

    Several estimation methods for 24-h sodium excretion using spot urine sample have been reported, but accurate estimation at the individual level remains difficult. We aimed to clarify the most accurate method of estimating 24-h sodium excretion with different numbers of available spot urine samples. A total of 370 participants from throughout Japan collected multiple 24-h urine and spot urine samples independently. Participants were allocated randomly into a development and a validation dataset. Two estimation methods were established in the development dataset using the two 24-h sodium excretion samples as reference: the 'simple mean method' estimated by multiplying the sodium-creatinine ratio by predicted 24-h creatinine excretion, whereas the 'regression method' employed linear regression analysis. The accuracy of the two methods was examined by comparing the estimated means and concordance correlation coefficients (CCC) in the validation dataset. Mean sodium excretion by the simple mean method with three spot urine samples was closest to that by 24-h collection (difference: -1.62  mmol/day). CCC with the simple mean method increased with an increased number of spot urine samples at 0.20, 0.31, and 0.42 using one, two, and three samples, respectively. This method with three spot urine samples yielded higher CCC than the regression method (0.40). When only one spot urine sample was available for each study participant, CCC was higher with the regression method (0.36). The simple mean method with three spot urine samples yielded the most accurate estimates of sodium excretion. When only one spot urine sample was available, the regression method was preferable.

  10. Stimulation of the faecal excretion of 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl in rats by squalane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, E; Schäfer, S G; Fichtl, B

    1983-06-01

    Faecal excretion of 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (6-CB) was followed for 19 weeks in rats fed a control diet, or a squalane-supplemented diet, for up to 17 weeks. In 3 d after a single oral dose of 8 mg/kg of 6-CB, 20% dose was excreted in faeces as unchanged 6-CB, which probably represents that not-absorbed. From day 4 to 133 only an additional 2-4% dose was excreted in faeces by control animals. Addition of 8% squalane to the diet 2, 6 and 15 weeks after dosing resulted in a five-fold increase of daily 6-CB excretion in faeces independent of the time of beginning the treatment. Total excretion of 6-CB in faeces from day 4 to 133 was 3.6, 6-7 and 9.3% dose after 4, 13 and 17 weeks of squalane treatment, respectively. No adverse effects of long-term squalane treatment on body-weight gain, feed efficiency and organ weights were observed. Plasma cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly lowered. Independent of the duration of treatment, the livers of rats fed the squalane-supplemented diet contained 40-50 micrograms/g squalane. Within the limits of detection no squalane could be found in lungs, kidneys, abdominal fat, spleen and blood. It is concluded that 6-CB elimination can be enhanced by oral treatment with squalane even a long time after uptake of the poison. As there was no alteration in the tissue distribution of 6-CB, the 6-CB excreted after squalane treatment probably originates from all tissues.

  11. Effect of sequential feeding on nitrogen excretion, productivity, and meat quality of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirri, F; Meluzzi, A

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this trial was to investigate the effect of a 24-h cycle sequential feeding program on nitrogen excretion, incidence of foot pad lesions, productive performance, quality traits, and chemical composition of broiler chicken breast meat. In total, 1,320 one-day-old male Cobb 700 chicks were split into 2 groups of 6 replicates each. From 1 to 10 d of age, all of the chickens received the same prestarter diet (ME 3,058 kcal/kg; CP 226 g/kg). The control group (CON) received 1 of 3 diets for 24-h cycles: starter (ME 3,162 kcal/kg; CP 205 g/kg), grower (ME 3,224 kcal/kg; CP 192 g/kg), and finisher diets (ME 3,242 kcal/kg; CP 184 g/kg) from d 11 to 18, 19 to 38, and 39 to 44 of age, respectively. The sequential feeding group (SF) received the same diets as the CON birds for half of the day, and then low-protein and isoenergetic diets for the remaining half of the day. Birds submitted to the SF program showed better utilization of dietary nitrogen compared with the CON birds (45.0 vs. 46.1% of N excreted/N ingested, respectively; P birds had lower nitrogen excretion compared with the CON birds (24.8 vs. 25.9 N g/kg of BW, respectively; P birds exhibited a significantly lower incidence (7 vs. 13%) of foot pad lesions and consumed 70 g of feed/bird more than the CON birds. The SF birds also had a significantly higher feed conversion rate compared with that of the CON birds (1.84 vs. 1.78, respectively). The SF breast meat exhibited a significantly lower ultimate pH, a higher cook loss, and a lower lipid content compared with the values found for the CON group. The SF approach in poultry husbandry had positive repercussions on environmental and animal welfare aspects, but adversely affected feed efficiency, and altered some meat traits (mainly pH and cook loss).

  12. Human metabolism and excretion kinetics of aniline after a single oral dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modick, Hendrik; Weiss, Tobias; Dierkes, Georg; Koslitz, Stephan; Käfferlein, Heiko Udo; Brüning, Thomas; Koch, Holger Martin

    2016-06-01

    Aniline is an important source material in the chemical industry (e.g., rubber, pesticides, and pharmaceuticals). The general population is known to be ubiquitously exposed to aniline. Thus, assessment of aniline exposure is of both occupational and environmental relevance. Knowledge on human metabolism of aniline is scarce. We orally dosed four healthy male volunteers (two fast and two slow acetylators) with 5 mg isotope-labeled aniline, consecutively collected all urine samples over a period of 2 days, and investigated the renal excretion of aniline and its metabolites by LS-MS/MS and GC-MS. After enzymatic hydrolysis of glucuronide and sulfate conjugates, N-acetyl-4-aminophenol was the predominant urinary aniline metabolite representing 55.7-68.9 % of the oral dose, followed by the mercapturic acid conjugate of N-acetyl-4-aminophenol accounting for 2.5-6.1 %. Acetanilide and free aniline were found only in minor amounts accounting for 0.14-0.36 % of the dose. Overall, these four biomarkers excreted in urine over 48 h post-dose represented 62.4-72.1 % of the oral aniline dose. Elimination half-times were 3.4-4.3 h for N-acetyl-4-aminophenol, 4.1-5.5 h for the mercapturic acid conjugate, and 1.3-1.6 and 0.6-1.2 h for acetanilide and free aniline, respectively. Urinary maximum concentrations of N-acetyl-4-aminophenol were reached after about 4 h and maximum concentrations of the mercapturic acid conjugate after about 6 h, whereas concentrations of acetanilide and free aniline peaked after about 1 h. The present study is one of the first to provide reliable urinary excretion factors for aniline and its metabolites in humans after oral dosage, including data on the predominant urinary metabolite N-acetyl-4-aminophenol, also known as an analgesic under the name paracetamol/acetaminophen.

  13. Close correlation between urinary sodium excretion and response to tolvaptan in liver cirrhosis patients with ascites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uojima, Haruki; Kinbara, Takeshi; Hidaka, Hisashi; Sung, Ji Hyun; Ichida, Masachika; Tokoro, Shinnosuke; Masuda, Sakue; Takizawa, Satoshi; Sasaki, Akiko; Koizumi, Kazuya; Egashira, Hideto; Kako, Makoto

    2017-03-01

    To assess the correlation between response to tolvaptan and treatment-related factors in liver cirrhosis patients. This single-center retrospective study was carried out at Shonan Kamakura General Hospital in Kanagawa, Japan, between October 2013 and September 2015. Forty-three liver cirrhosis patients (mean age, 65.7 years) with insufficient responses to conventional diuretics for at least 7 days were enrolled. All patients received oral tolvaptan (7.5 mg/day for 7 days) and guideline-directed medical therapy including sodium intake restrictions. A responder to tolvaptan was defined as a patient having a ≥2-kg decrease in body weight 1 week after commencing drug treatment, and a non-responder was defined as a patient not losing ≥2 kg in body weight 1 week after commencing treatment. We investigated the correlation of change in body weight for 1 week after drug administration compared to baseline clinical characteristics. The mean body weight change from the baseline on the final dosing day was -2.47 ± 3.34 kg (P tolvaptan. Urinary sodium and volume excretion was higher in responders than in non-responders (108.2 ± 70.5 vs 42.6 ± 36.7, P = 0.0003; 1462.8 ± 625.7 vs 960.9 ± 600.6, P = 0.0073). Logistic regression analyses for responders to tolvaptan were carried out, and independent correlation of the responders was urinary sodium excretion (P = 0.0114; hazard ratio, 0.9418; 95% confidence interval, 0.8768-0.9896) in the multivariate analyses. In decompensated liver cirrhosis patients, urinary excretion sodium showed good correlation with tolvaptan response. © 2016 The Authors. Hepatology Research published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japan Society of Hepatology.

  14. Absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of selenium following oral administration of elemental selenium nanoparticles or selenite in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löschner, Katrin; Hadrup, Niels; Hansen, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    the controls. This suggested that the natural metabolic pathways of Se were exhausted when given the high dose of elemental Se or selenite resulting in a non-metabolized pool of elemental Se. Both dosage forms of Se were bioavailable as demonstrated by the blood biomarker selenoprotein P, which was equally up......-regulated in the high-dose animals for both dosage forms of Se. Finally, the excretion of Se in urine and its occurrence as Se-methylseleno-N-Acetyl-galactosamine and trimethylselenonium-ion demonstrated that both dosage forms were metabolized and excreted. The results of the study showed that both forms of Se were...

  15. Metabolism of illudin S, a toxic substance of Lampteromyces japonicus: urinary excretion of mercapturic acids in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K; Inoue, T; Tezuka, Y; Kikuchi, T

    1996-03-01

    1. The urinary excretion of the mercapturic acids of illudin S after oral administration to rat has been studied. 2. From lc-ms/ms analysis of methanolic extracts of lyophilized rat urine, stereo-isomeric mercapturic acids were detected. 3. The mercapturic acids excreted 3 days following administration amounted to approximately 0.39-0.73% of the administered dose. 4. In vitro glutathione conjugation of illudin S by subcellular fractions was also examined. 5. No significant increases in the formation of glutathione adducts were observed in any subcellular fractions examined.

  16. Metabolism of illudin S, a toxic substance of Lampteromyces japonicus. IV. Urinary excretion of an illudin S metabolite in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K; Inoue, T; Kanai, M; Kikuchi, T

    1994-12-01

    1. The urinary excretion of a metabolite of illudin S after oral administration to rat has been studied. 2. From an ethyl acetate extract of urine, metabolite 1, a cyclopropane ring-cleavage compound, was identified by liquid chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis 3. A hplc method for determination of the metabolite in rat urine was developed with extraction using Sep-Pak C18 cartridge followed by liquid-liquid extraction. 4. The metabolite excreted during 3 days after administration of illudin S to rat amounted to approximately 10-19% of the dose as free form and 3-5% of the dose as glucuronide.

  17. Dietary iodine intake and urinary iodine excretion in a Danish population: effect of geography, supplements and food choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Ovesen, L.; Bulow, I.

    2002-01-01

    I deficiency diseases remain a health problem even in some developed countries. Therefore, measurement of I intake and knowledge about food choice related to I intake is important. We examined I intake in 4649 randomy selected participants from two cities in Denmark (Copenhagen and Aalborg......) with an expected difference in I intake. I intake was assessed both by a food frequency questionnaire and by measuring I in casual urine samples. I excretion was expressed as a concentration and as estimated 24-h I excretion. Further, subgroups with low I intake were recognized. I intake was lower in Aalborg than...

  18. Models to quantify excretion of dry matter, nitrogen, phosphorus and carbon in growing pigs fed regional diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henry; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard; Prapaspongsa, Trakarn

    2013-01-01

    used in a digestibility and balance experiment. Excretion of dry matter (DM), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and carbon (C) of the experimental diets were determined. Due to the highest dietary fibre content, VN had the lowest digestibility of N, P and C (73, 49, and 73%, respectively) compared...... with the DK and TH pig diets. From the known diet composition using standard table values on chemical and nutrient digestibly, high accuracy (bias) and low variation was found and the results could be used for prediction on chemical composition and excretion in faeces and urine in growing pigs. Calculation...

  19. Urinary excretion of N-nitroso compounds in rats fed sodium nitrite and/or hot dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lin; Anwar, Muhammad M; Zahid, Muhammad; Shostrom, Valerie; Mirvish, Sidney S

    2014-10-20

    Nitrite-treated meat is a reported risk factor for colon cancer. Mice that ingested sodium nitrite (NaNO2) or hot dogs (a nitrite-treated product) showed increased fecal excretion of apparent N-nitroso compounds (ANC). Here, we investigated for the first time whether rats excrete increased amounts of ANC in their urine after they are fed NaNO2 and/or hot dogs. Rats were treated for 7 days with NaNO2 in drinking water or were fed hot dogs. Their 24 h urine samples were analyzed for ANC by thermal energy analysis on days 1-4 after nitrite or hot dog treatment was stopped. For two rats fed 480 mg NaNO2/L drinking water, mean urinary ANC excretion on days 1-4 was 30, 5.2, 2.5, and 0.8 nmol/day, respectively. For two to eight rats/dose given varied NaNO2 doses, mean urinary ANC output on day 1 increased from 0.9 (for no nitrite) to 37 (for 1000 mg NaNO2/L drinking water) nmol ANC/day. Urine samples of four rats fed 40-60% hot dogs contained 12-13 nmol ANC on day 1. Linear regression analysis showed highly significant correlations between urinary ANC excretion on day 1 after stopping treatment and varied (a) NaNO2 level in drinking water for rats fed semipurified or commercials diet and (b) hot dog levels in the diet. Some correlations remained significant up to 4 days after nitrite treatment was stopped. Urinary output of ANC precursors (compounds that yield ANC after mild nitrosation) for rats fed semipurified or commercial diet was 11-17 or 23-48 μmol/day, respectively. Nitrosothiols and iron nitrosyls were not detected in urinary ANC and ANCP. Excretion of urinary ANC was about 60% of fecal ANC excretion for 1 to 2 days after NaNO2 was fed. Administered NaNO2 was not excreted unchanged in rat urine. We conclude that urinary ANC excretion in humans could usefully be surveyed to indicate exposure to N-nitroso compounds.

  20. Urinary Excretion of N-Nitroso Compounds in Rats Fed Sodium Nitrite and/or Hot Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Lin; Anwar, Muhammad M.; Zahid, Muhammad; Shostrom, Valerie; Mirvish, Sidney S

    2014-01-01

    Nitrite-treated meat is a reported risk factor for colon cancer. Mice that ingested sodium nitrite (NaNO2) or hot dogs (a nitrite-treated product) showed increased fecal excretion of apparent N-nitroso compounds (ANC). Here, we investigated for the first time whether rats excrete increased amounts of ANC in their urine after they are fed NaNO2 and/or hot dogs. Rats were treated for 7 days with NaNO2 in drinking water or were fed hot dogs. Their 24 h urine samples were analyzed for ANC by ther...

  1. Wheat alkylresorcinols reduce micellar solubility of cholesterol in vitro and increase cholesterol excretion in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikawa, Kazumasa; Hashimoto, Chiaki; Kikuchi, Yosuke; Makita, Miki; Fukudome, Shin-Ichi; Okita, Kimiko; Wada, Naoyuki; Oishi, Katsutaka

    2017-03-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that the consumption of whole grains can reduce risk for metabolic disorders. We recently showed that chronic supplementation with wheat alkylresorcinols (ARs) prevents glucose intolerance and insulin resistance with hepatic lipid accumulation induced in mice by a high-fat high-sucrose diet (HFHSD). This study examines the effects of ARs on the micellar solubility of cholesterol in vitro, as well as the effects of transient AR supplementation on faecal lipid excretion and plasma lipid levels in mice. We found that ARs formed bile micelles with taurocholate independently of phospholipids, and dose-dependently decreased the micellar solubility of cholesterol in a biliary micelle model. Transient AR supplementation with HFHSD increased faecal cholesterol and triglyceride contents and decreased plasma cholesterol concentrations. These suggest that one underlying mechanism through which ARs suppress diet-induced obesity is by interfering with the micellar cholesterol solubilisation in the digestive tract, which subsequently decreases cholesterol absorption.

  2. Effects of dopamine on renal haemodynamics tubular function and sodium excretion in normal humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Niels Vidiendal

    1998-01-01

    of critically ill patients with low cardiac output states and/or acute oliguric renal failure. Pharmacological effects of dopamine are dose dependent. Low doses of dopamine predominantly stimulate dopaminergic receptors, but with increasing doses actions secondary to stimulation of adrenergic beta(1) and alpha...... to a decrease in peripheral vascular resistance, independent of effects of beta(1) receptors on cardiac contractility and heart rate. Dose-response studies demonstrated that the dopamine-induced increase in effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) reaches its maximum at 3 micrograms/kg/min. The increase in ERPF...... ranging from 1 to 5 micrograms/kg/min caused about a two-fold increase in sodium excretion. At doses at and above 7.5 micrograms/kg/min which increased mean arterial pressure, dopamine further increased sodium clearance (CNa) while ERPF was decreasing, indicating the contribution of pressure natriuresis...

  3. Pilot CELSS based on a maltose-excreting Chlorella: Concept and overview on the technological developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brechignac, François; Schiller, Peter

    A typical ecosystem is composed of three compartments: photosynthetic producer (anabolizing processes), consumer and decomposer (catabolizing processes). It is still far too much complex, however, to form the basis on which establishing an engineered artificial ecosystem, dedicated to support life (of the consumer) in space. A simpler, two compartments, pilot model to start with has been selected. It is based on a symbiotic Chlorella (strain 241.80), which can be tuned, at low pH, to produce maltose. This feature prevents the accumulation of useless biomass, not readily edible by the consumer. Being excreted, maltose is easily recoverable, and constitutes a direct source of carbon suitable for many consumers. Since they will totally catabolize it back to CO2, the necessity for a decomposer compartment is avoided. The present status of the technological concept designed to support life of small consumers (animals, microorganisms) will be presented, taking into account the space compatibility of the technologies developed.

  4. Studies on Nonoxynol-9. II. Intravaginal absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion in rats and rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chvapil, M; Eskelson, C D; Stiffel, V; Owen, J A; Droegemueller, W

    1980-09-01

    Some pharmacological aspects of Igepal CO-630, used by some pharmaceutical companies as the source of nonylphenoxypoly (ethyleneoxy) ethanol (Nonoxynol-9, N-9) in various spermicidal formulations, were studied. It was found that Igepal CO-630 contains at least 13 components, 70% having molecular weights near that of N-9. After intravaginal administration, the detergent is rapidly and quantitatively absorbed through the vaginal wall into the systemic circulation. The rate of vaginal absorption of N-9 depends on the vehicle in which the detergent is carried. Once in the blood, N-9 is excreted by liver-bile-feces and the kidney-urine routes, the first being more effective in rats, the latter in rabbits. Following intravaginal or intraperitoneal injection of radioactive N-9, the highest content of radioactivity was found in the liver and kidney. The detergent was detected in the milk of lactating rats and the serum of their pups within two hours after the intravaginal dose.

  5. Leptin blockade attenuates sodium excretion in saline-loaded normotensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Daniel; Reams, Garry; Freeman, Ronald; Spear, Robert; Tchoukina, Inna; Samar, Huma

    2006-02-01

    Previous investigations in normotensive animals have demonstrated a marked natriuretic and diuretic response following the acute administration of supraphysiologic doses of synthetic leptin. However, the importance of endogenous leptin in the regulation of renal sodium and water balance is not yet defined. This study examined the hemodynamic and renal excretory effects of circulating leptin blockade with a specific polyclonal antibody in groups of normotensive, chronically saline-loaded Sprague-Dawley rats. In the experimental group (n = 10), leptin antibody significantly decreased urinary sodium excretion and urinary flow by approximately 30% compared to the control rats (n = 10). Mean arterial pressure remained unchanged. Collectively, these results are interpreted to suggest that leptin is an important renal sodium-regulating factor under conditions of mild sodium and volume expansion.

  6. Aspects of excretion of antlion larvae (Neuroptera: myrmeleontidae) during feeding and non-feeding periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Zyl, A; Van Der Westhuizen, M C.; De K Van Der Linde, T C.

    1998-12-01

    The main nitrogenous excretory products were determined for third instar Cueta sp. and Furgella intermedia larvae during periods of food abundance and for F. intermedia during starvation periods. Biochemical analysis indicated that allantoin was the main nitrogenous excretory product, with smaller quantities of ammonia, urea and uric acid. Respectively 9 and 13amino acids of low concentrations (0.005-0.329g/l) were detected by high pressure liquid chromatography in the excreta of Cueta sp. and F. intermedia larvae. The volume of urine produced and concentrations of the nitrogenous excretory products of fed Cueta sp. and fed F. intermedia larvae did not differ. F. intermedia excreted smaller volumes of urine and smaller quantities of nitrogenous excretory products during starvation than during periods of food abundance. Feeding conditions rather than the pitbuilding or non-pitbuilding lifestyles seem to be the major influence on the excretory products of these antlion larvae.

  7. Urinary excretion values in 2-day food-deprived, unrestrained chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcnew, J. J.; Sabbot, I. M.; Hoshizaki, T.; Mandell, A. J.; Spooner, C. E.; Marcus, I.; Adey, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the baseline 24-hr urinary excretion values in the young, unrestrained chimpanzee, and also changes in urinary values, if any, induced by the two-day food deprivation stress. Urine was analyzed for volume, osmolarity, creatinine, creatine, urea nitrogen, 17-hydroxycorticosteroids (17-OHCS), 3-methoxy-4-hydroxymandelic acid (VMA), calcium, and inorganic phosphorus. Significant increases due to food deprivation stress were observed for volume, creatine, urea nitrogen, 17-OHCS, VMA, and phosphorus values, with significant decreases in osmolarity and calcium. All values approached normal levels by the second poststress day. No significant changes were observed in creatinine. A comparison is drawn between human and chimpanzee adaptation to stress.

  8. Effect of candesartan on microalbuminuria and albumin excretion rate in diabetes: three randomized trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilous, Rudy; Chaturvedi, Nish; Sjølie, Anne Katrin

    2009-01-01

    candesartan compared with placebo affects microalbuminuria incidence or rate of change in albuminuria in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: 3 randomized trials of the DIRECT (Diabetic Retinopathy Candesartan Trials) Program. SETTING: 309 secondary care centers. PATIENTS: 3326 and 1905 patients with type 1...... further collections were done. The primary end point was new microalbuminuria (3 or 4 collections of urinary albumin excretion rate >or=20 microg/min). The secondary end point was rate of change in albuminuria. RESULTS: Individual and pooled results of the 3 trials showed that candesartan had little...... normotensive patients or patients with well-controlled hypertension who were at low overall vascular risk, which resulted in a low rate of microalbuminuria. Studies were powered for retinal and not renal end points. CONCLUSION: Candesartan, 32 mg/d, for 4.7 years did not prevent microalbuminuria in mainly...

  9. Urinary excretion of phthalates and paraben after repeated whole-body topical application in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janjua, Nadeem Rezaq; Frederiksen, Hanne; Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2008-01-01

    .1%, respectively. Absorption of DEP, DBP and BP through skin could potentially contribute to adverse health effects. The three chemicals are systemically absorbed, metabolized and excreted in urine following application on the skin in a cream preparation. More DEP than DBP was absorbed, presumably because......Diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and butyl paraben (BP) are man-made chemicals used in personal care products, such as lotions and creams. Exposure to these chemicals causes a variety of adverse reproductive outcomes in animal studies. Humans can be exposed to these chemicals...... were given a whole body topical application of basic cream 2 mg/cm(2) (control week) and then a cream containing 2% (w/w) of DEP, DBP and BP each (treatment week) daily. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected. Urinary total, and unconjugated BP, monoethyl phthalate (MEP) and monobutyl phthalate...

  10. Urinary excretion of flavonoids reflects even small changes in the dietary intake of fruits and vegetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brevik, A.; Rasmussen, Salka Elbøl; Drevon, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Due to the random and systematic measurement errors associated with current dietary assessment instruments, there is a need to develop more objective methods of measuring the intake of foods of importance to human health. Objective: The purpose of this study was to test whether urinary...... excretion of flavonoids could be used to identify subjects who are meeting Norwegian recommendations for fruit and vegetable intake (5 servings per day) from individuals who are consuming the national average amount of fruits and vegetables (2 servings per day). Design: Twenty-four-hour urine samples were...... collected in a strict crossover controlled feeding study. Forty healthy subjects (19-34 years) were included in the study. After a 1-week run-in period, one group was given a controlled diet that included 2 servings (300 g) of fruits and vegetables daily for 14 days, while the other group was given a diet...

  11. Non-classical Protein Excretion Is Boosted by PSMα-Induced Cell Leakage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Ebner

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Release of cytoplasmic proteins into the supernatant occurs both in bacteria and eukaryotes. Because the underlying mechanism remains unclear, the excretion of cytoplasmic proteins (ECP has been referred to as “non-classical protein secretion.” We show that none of the known specific protein transport systems of Gram-positive bacteria are involved in ECP. However, the expression of the cationic and amphipathic α-type phenol-soluble modulins (PSMs, particularly of PSMα2, significantly increase ECP, while PSMβ peptides or δ-toxin have no effect on ECP. Because psm expression is strictly controlled by the accessory gene regulator (agr, ECP is also reduced in agr-negative mutants. PSMα peptides damage the cytoplasmic membrane, as indicated by the release of not only CPs but also lipids, nucleic acids, and ATP. Thus, our results show that in Staphylococcus aureus, PSMα peptides non-specifically boost the translocation of CPs by their membrane-damaging activity.

  12. Urinary excretion of phthalates and paraben after repeated whole-body topical application in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janjua, Nadeem Rezaq; Frederiksen, Hanne; Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2008-01-01

    were given a whole body topical application of basic cream 2 mg/cm(2) (control week) and then a cream containing 2% (w/w) of DEP, DBP and BP each (treatment week) daily. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected. Urinary total, and unconjugated BP, monoethyl phthalate (MEP) and monobutyl phthalate......Diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and butyl paraben (BP) are man-made chemicals used in personal care products, such as lotions and creams. Exposure to these chemicals causes a variety of adverse reproductive outcomes in animal studies. Humans can be exposed to these chemicals.......1%, respectively. Absorption of DEP, DBP and BP through skin could potentially contribute to adverse health effects. The three chemicals are systemically absorbed, metabolized and excreted in urine following application on the skin in a cream preparation. More DEP than DBP was absorbed, presumably because...

  13. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY FOR EXCRETION AND SECRETION OF THE GREENBOTTLE FLY LARVAE LUCILIA SERICATA (MEIGEN) (DIPTERA: CALLIPHORIDAE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Mostafa I; Amer, Mounir S; Hammad, Kotb M; Zidan, Mahmoud M

    2016-04-01

    Sterile larval excretion/secretion (ES) exhibited antibacterial activity against some species of bacteria. They were shown to inhibit the growth of Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis Gram-negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae and Fungi Geotricum candidum and Aspergillus fumigatus thus exhibited limited inhibitory effect towards Gram-positive bacteria Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus epidermidis and Gram-negative Proteous vulgaris and Fungi Syncephalastrum racemosum, Candida albicans, that effect was slowed down when challenged with secretion on a solid media but no zone of complete inhibition was detectqd. Growth inhibiting activity was determined in liquid growth media using the Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacterial and fungal strains as indicator organisms.

  14. Absorption and excretion of mercury in man. X. Dental amalgams as a source of urinary mercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoover, A.W.; Goldwater, L.J.

    1966-04-01

    A study was made of 114 adults of whom 85 had from 1 to 28 amalgam dental fillings. The average number of fillings was ten. None of the 114 subjects was under active dental treatment. One was using a mercurial diuretic. Only six persons in this group showed detectable mercury in the urine. No evidence was found that amalgam fillings which are more than a few weeks old contribute appreciably to urinary mercury. Of 24 persons in the process of having teeth filled, five showed mercury in the urine before and after treatment. The possibility of mercury appearing in the urine of persons undergoing fillings as a result of sources other than amalgam was demonstrated. Dental amalgams do not appear to be an important source of mercury absorption and excretion.

  15. Absorption and excretion of mercury in man. XV. Occupational exposure among dentists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josclow, M.M.; Goldwater, L.J.; Alvarez, A.; Herndon, J.

    1968-07-01

    To evaluate the occupational hazard of the use of mercury by dentists, determinations were made of 1) the total mercury and vapor concentrations in a group of urban dental offices; and 2) the urinary excretion of mercury by the dentists. In a small but significant proportion (14%) of these offices, mercury concentrations were found in excess of the threshold limit value, implying a lack of care in handling mercury. The average total mercury concentration was more than twice the average vapor concentration, clearly inferring that mercury particulates cannot be ignored in assessing the dental work environment. Absorption of mercury was evidenced by higher than normal urinary mercury levels, which correlated well with both the total ambient air concentrations and estimated exposure times. 28 references, 5 tables.

  16. Absorption and excretion of mercury in man. II. Urinary mercury in relation to duration of exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladd, A.C.; Goldwater, L.J.; Jacobs, M.B.

    1963-04-01

    An experimental and analytical study was performed on the relationship between duration of exposure of mercury and its compounds and the urinary excretion of mercury. The human subjects were employed in factories which process a variety of inorganic and organic mercury compounds. The Spearman rank correlation coefficient was used as the principal statistical test. In 3 out of 4 sets of observations there were indications that in those men having the longest exposure the urinary mercury levels are highest. The fourth set of observations was equivocal. At present available data do not show any build-up of mercury in the blood paralleling duration of exposure, at least under the conditions prevailing in the factories studied.

  17. An introduction to drug disposition: the basic principles of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, J; Gardner, I; Swales, N

    1995-01-01

    A knowledge of the fate of a drug, its disposition (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion, known by the acronym ADME) and pharmacokinetics (the mathematical description of the rates of these processes and of concentration-time relationships), plays a central role throughout pharmaceutical research and development. These studies aid in the discovery and selection of new chemical entities, support safety assessment, and are critical in defining conditions for safe and effective use in patients. ADME studies provide the only basis for critical judgments from situations where the behavior of the drug is understood to those where it is unknown: this is most important in bridging from animal studies to the human situation. This presentation is intended to provide an introductory overview of the life cycle of a drug in the animal body and indicates the significance of such information for a full understanding of mechanisms of action and toxicity.

  18. BIOCHEMISTRY CHARACTERIZATION OF EXCRETION / SECRETION PRODUCT OF Cochliomyia hominivorax LARVAE (DIPTERA : CALLIPHORIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Gonçalves Teixeira

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The species Cochliomyia hominivorax, also known as screwworm fly, is an obligate parasite of warm- blooded animals and its geographic range extends thoughout South America, except Chile. This fly causes significant economic losses and has great importance in Brazil. Few studies have focused on the excretion and secretion products of this species, and this research aimed to study the enzymes present in the secretion and excretion (E/S products of the three larval instars of C. hominivorax. The E/S profile of proteins was obtained by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and proteolytic activity was analyzed using gelatin, azocasein and Na-benzoyl-arginine-nitroanilide as substrates.  In E/S products of the three instars, proteins were detected with an apparent molecular weight ranging between 116 and 20 kDa. In the azocasein assay, at different pH ranges, the major proteolytic activity occurred at pH 7.5 for all larval instars. Assays were performed using the same substrates   in which the samples were treated with the inhibitors Benzamidine, Pepstatin A, 4-(2-Aminoethyl benzenesulfonyl fluoride hydrochloride (AEBSF, N-α-tosyl-L-lysine chloromethyl ketone (TLCK, N-α- tosyl-L-phenylalanine chloromethyl ketone (TPCK, Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA, and Leupeptin-trans-Epoxysuccinyl-leucylamido(4-guanidino butane (E-64. Proteinases present in the E/S product of first larvae instar are mostly serine trypsin and chymotrypsin proteases, whereas for second and third instars serine proteases and aspartyl proteases were predominantly observed. Biochemical characterization of E/S products of all larval stages of C. hominivorax helps to improve the understanding of the physiology and the interaction of this parasite with host tissues. Keywords: Enzyme; fly; myiasis; parasites.

  19. Determination of the renal threshold for glucose excretion in Familial Renal Glucosuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aires, Inês; Fila, Marc; Polidori, David; Santos, Ana Rita; Costa, Ana Brito; Calado, Joaquim

    2015-01-01

    Familial Renal Glucosuria (FRG) is characterized by the presence of persistent isolated glucosuria in the absence of hyperglycemia. Mutations in SLC5A2, the gene coding for the sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2), are responsible for FRG. Phenotype/genotype correlations in FRG have mostly relied on the quantification of Urinary Glucose Excretion (UGE), which is dependent on both the filtered glucose load and the renal glucose reabsorptive capacity. In the current work, the renal threshold for glucose excretion (RTG) was determined in an FRG cohort, with the purpose of characterizing the impact of SGLT2 mutations on renal glucose transport. From January to December of 2013, eight FRG individuals with identified SLC5A2 mutations were enrolled. Patients were given a Mixed-Meal Tolerance Test during which blood glucose and UGE were measured over a 4 h period and the data was used to calculate RTG, according to a recently validated protocol. In patients with homozygous mutations, RTG values were very low, with a mean (SD) of 0.95 (1.17) mmol/l, compared to commonly reported values of approximately 10-11.1 mmol/l in healthy subjects. In subjects with heterozygous mutations, mean (SD) RTG values were 4.91 (1.23) mmol/l, which are approximately one-half of the values in subjects without mutations. In FRG, mutations in SLC5A2 lead to reductions in RTG and increases in UGE. Because determination of RTG is not influenced by the filtered glucose load, the calculated RTG values provide a more refined measure of the impact of mutations on renal glucose transport than can be obtained from UGE alone. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Glomerular deposition and urinary excretion of complement factor H in idiopathic membranous nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Morito; Fuke, Yoshinobu; Tamano, Mariko; Hidaka, Mutsuko; Ohsawa, Isao; Fujita, Takayuki; Ohi, Hiroyuki

    2004-01-01

    The complement system plays an important role in the pathogenesis of membranous nephropathy (MN). In order to elucidate the regulatory mechanism of complement activation, we demonstrated glomerular deposition and urinary excretion of complement factor H, which controls the alternative pathway and the amplification loop at the C3 step, in patients with idiopathic MN. Renal biopsy specimens from 20 patients with idiopathic MN were studied immunohistochemically using monoclonal antibodies against complement components including factor H. SDS-PAGE and Western blotting analysis of urine samples were performed, and the urinary excretion of factor H and C5b-9 were measured by quantitative sandwich ELISA. Intense glomerular deposition of factor H was observed with C3b.C3c and C5b-9 at an early stage of the disease. Factor H was detected in Western blots of urine samples, but factor H-like protein 1 (FHL-1) was not. The mean level of urinary factor H was elevated (86.30 +/- 21.93 U/mg urinary creatinine) in comparison to that of normal controls (4.76 +/- 1.03 U/mg urinary creatinine). Urinary factor H level exhibited no correlation with clinical parameters; however, a negative correlation was found between urinary C5b-9/factor H and creatinine clearance (r = 0.662, p 150-kD protein. There was no evidence to suggest that FHL-1 is synthesized at the site of inflammation. The urinary C5b-9 to urinary factor H ratio is indicative of the degree of ongoing complement activation in the glomeruli and complement-mediated renal injury. These findings suggest that factor H contributes to the control mechanism of in situ complement activation and prevents renal damage in idiopathic MN. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  1. Association between urinary albumin excretion and intraocular pressure in type 2 diabetic patients without renal impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin A Choi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To assess the relationship between urinary albumin excretion and intraocular pressure (IOP in type 2 diabetes patients without renal impairment. METHODS: We explored the effects of albuminuria on high IOP in 402 non-glaucomatous type 2 diabetes without renal impairment who participated in the 2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between log-transformed albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR tertiles and an IOP of ≥ 18 mmHg after adjusting for age, gender, hypertension, body mass index, triglycerides, area of residence, and education level. RESULTS: Subjects with a high IOP ≥ 18 mmHg were more likely to be current smokers (P = 0.038, heavy drinkers (P = 0.006, and to have high systolic blood pressure (P = 0.016, triglycerides (P = 0.008, and a higher log-transformed ACR (P = 0.022.In multivariate regression analysis, ACR tertile was associated with the prevalence of high IOP significantly (P = 0.022. The associations between ACR tertiles and high IOP were significant in overweight patients and those with abdominal obesity (P = 0.003 and 0.003, respectively. In contrast, there were no associations in the subgroup of patients who were not overweight and those without abdominal obesity (P = 0.291 and 0.561, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Urinary albumin excretion is associated with high IOP in the type 2 diabetes population without renal insufficiency. The effect of the albuminuria on IOP was evident in a subgroup of patients with components of metabolic syndrome.

  2. Phthalate excretion pattern and testicular function: a study of 881 healthy Danish men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joensen, Ulla Nordström; Frederiksen, Hanne; Blomberg Jensen, Martin; Lauritsen, Mette Petri; Olesen, Inge Ahlmann; Lassen, Tina Harmer; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Jørgensen, Niels

    2012-10-01

    In animals, some phthalates impair male reproductive development and function. Epidemiological studies have reported inconsistent evidence of associations between phthalates and markers of human testicular function. We aimed to provide estimates of the effects of phthalate exposure on reproductive hormone levels and semen quality in healthy men. A total of 881 men gave urine, serum, and semen samples. Serum levels of testosterone, estradiol (E2), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and inhibin-B; semen quality; and urinary concentrations of 14 phthalate metabolites, including metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and diisononyl phthalate (DiNP), were assessed. The proportions of DEHP and DiNP excreted as their respective primary metabolites [mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) and mono-isononyl phthalate (MiNP)] were calculated and expressed as percentages (%MEHP and %MiNP, respectively). The free androgen index was 15% lower [95% confidence interval (CI): -23, -8%] for men in the highest %MiNP quartile compared to the lowest quartile (p < 0.001) after adjusting for confounders, and 9% lower (95% CI: -16, -1%) in the highest %MEHP quartile (p = 0.02). %MEHP and %MiNP were negatively associated with the ratio of testosterone/LH and testosterone/FSH. %MEHP was negatively associated with total testosterone, free testosterone, and ratio of testosterone/E(2). %MiNP was positively associated with SHBG. There was little evidence of associations between urinary phthalate metabolites or sums of phthalates with reproductive hormones or semen quality. Our data suggest that both testosterone production and pituitary-hypothalamic feedback may be compromised in individuals excreting a high proportion of primary metabolites of long-chained phthalates relative to the proportion of secondary metabolites.

  3. Identifying Different Causes of Hyponatremia With Fractional Excretion of Uric Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbriano, Louis J; Mattana, Joseph; Drakakis, James; Maesaka, John K

    2016-10-01

    There is controversy over the prevalence of the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) and cerebral or renal salt wasting (RSW), 2 syndromes with identical common clinical and laboratory parameters but different therapies. The traditional approach to the hyponatremic patient relies on volume assessment, but there are limitations to this method. We used an algorithm that relies on fractional excretion of urate (FEurate) to evaluate patients with hyponatremia and present 4 illustrative cases. Overall, 2 patients had increased FEurate [normal: 4-11%], as is seen in SIADH and RSW. A diagnosis of SIADH was made in 1 patient by correcting the hyponatremia with 1.5% saline and observing a characteristic normalization of an elevated FEurate that is characteristic of SIADH as compared to FEurate being persistently increased in RSW. A patient with T-cell lymphoma had symmetrical leg edema due to lymphomatous obstruction of the inferior vena cava, postural hypotension, pleural effusion, ascites, decreased cardiac output and urine sodium level of 10mmol/L. Saline-induced excretion of dilute urines and undetectable plasma antidiuretic hormone were consistent with RSW. Furosemide, given for presumed heart failure, induced a profound diuresis that required large volumes of fluid resuscitation. A normal FEurate identified a reset osmostat in a transplant patient with a slowly developing pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. A volume-depleted hyponatremic patient with Addison׳s disease had a low FEurate of 1.4%. These illustrative cases suggest that an approach to hyponatremia using FEurate may be a useful alternative to traditional volume-based approaches. Copyright © 2016 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Hepatic uptake and biliary excretion of manganese in the little skate, Leucoraja erinacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madejczyk, Michael S; Boyer, James L; Ballatori, Nazzareno

    2009-05-01

    The liver is a major organ involved in regulating whole body manganese (Mn) homeostasis; however, the mechanisms of Mn transport across the hepatocyte basolateral and canalicular membranes remain poorly defined. To gain insight into these transport steps, the present study measured hepatic uptake and biliary excretion of Mn in an evolutionarily primitive marine vertebrate, the elasmobranch Leucoraja erinacea, the little skate. Mn was rapidly removed from the recirculating perfusate of isolated perfused skate livers in a dose-dependent fashion; however, only a small fraction was released into bile (skate hepatocytes in culture. Mn uptake was inhibited by a variety of divalent metals, but not by cesium. Analysis of the concentration-dependence of Mn uptake revealed of two components, with apparent K(m) values 1.1+/-0.1 microM and 112+/-29 microM. The K(m) value for the high-affinity component was similar to the measured skate blood Mn concentration, 1.9+/-0.5 microM. Mn uptake was reduced by nearly half when bicarbonate was removed from the culture medium, but was unaffected by a change in pH from 6.5 to 8.5, or by substitution of Na with Li or K. Mn efflux from the hepatocytes was also rapid, and was inhibited when cells were treated with 0.5 mM 2,4-dinitrophenol to deplete ATP levels. These data indicate that skate liver has efficient mechanisms for removing Mn from the sinusoidal circulation, whereas overall biliary excretion is low and appears to be mediated in part by an ATP-sensitive mechanism.

  5. Excretion of fetal biliverdin by the rat placenta-maternal liver tandem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briz, Oscar; Macias, Rocio I R; Perez, Maria J; Serrano, Maria A; Marin, Jose J G

    2006-03-01

    Fetal liver immaturity is accompanied by active heme catabolism. Thus fetal biliary pigments must be excreted toward the mother by the placenta. To investigate biliverdin handling by the placenta-maternal liver tandem, biliverdin-IXalpha was administered to 21-day pregnant rats through the jugular vein or the umbilical artery of an in situ perfused placenta. Jugular administration resulted in the secretion into maternal bile of both bilirubin and biliverdin (3:1). However, when biliverdin was administered to the placenta, most of it was transformed into bilirubin before being transferred to the maternal blood. Injecting Xenopus laevis oocytes with mRNA from rat liver or placenta enhanced their ability to take up biliverdin, which was inhibited by estradiol 17beta-d-glucuronide. The expression of three OATP isoforms in this system revealed that they have a varying degrees of ability to transport biliverdin (Oatp1/1a1 > Oatp2/1a4 > Oatp4/1b2). The abundance of their mRNA in rat trophoblast was Oatp1/1a1 > Oatp4/1b2 > Oatp2/1a4. The expression of biliverdin-IXalpha reductase in rat placenta was detected by RT-PCR/sequencing and Western blot analysis. The relative abundance of biliverdin-IXalpha reductase mRNA (determined by real-time quantitative RT-PCR) was fetal liver > placenta > maternal liver. Common bile duct ligation in the last week of pregnancy induced an upregulation of biliverdin-IXalpha reductase in maternal liver but had no effect on fetal liver and placenta. In conclusion, several members of the OATP family may contribute to the uptake of fetal biliverdin by the rat placenta. Before being transferred to the mother, biliverdin is extensively converted into bilirubin by biliverdin-IXalpha reductase, whose expression is maintained even though bilirubin excretion into maternal bile is impaired.

  6. Excretion pattern and metabolism of hexachlorobutadiene in rats. Evidence for metabolic activation by conjugation reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, D; Schütz, S; Metzler, M

    1985-02-15

    Excretion, covalent binding and metabolism of hexachloro-1,3-butadiene (HCBD), a nephrotoxic and nephrocarcinogenic compound, have been studied in female rats. Seventy-two hours after administration of a single oral dose of 1 mg/kg [14C]HCBD, 5.3% of the dose were exhaled as unchanged HCBD and 76.3% were metabolized and excreted in urine and feces or exhaled as 14CO2. After a 50 mg/kg dose of [14C]HCBD, the amount of exhaled parent compound was nearly unchanged at 5.4%. At the higher dose the gastro-intestinal absorption of HCBD appeared to be saturated with the result that unchanged HCBD constituted the major portion of the 69% radioactivity eliminated. Covalent binding to proteins in kidney and liver agreed well with the organ-specific toxicity of HCBD: binding was higher in the kidney, independent of the dose. It increased significantly when the rats were pretreated with phenobarbital, an inducer of monooxygenases; it decreased when the inhibitor piperonyl butoxide was given. Urinary radioactivity in 24 hr urine was separated by column chromatography into four fractions. High performance liquid chromatography, radio gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry were used for further separation and identification. Two major metabolites were identified as pentachlorobutadiene methylthio ether and pentachlorobutadiene carboxymethylthio ether. Their formation is plausibly explained via glutathione conjugation, which appears to be the first step in HCBD metabolism. The mechanism of the conjugation at the olefinic double bond of HCBD is explained by an addition-elimination reaction. This pathway, which appears to lead to a destabilization of the HCBD molecule, could explain the distinct nephrotoxic effects of HCBD.

  7. Human pharmacology of ayahuasca: subjective and cardiovascular effects, monoamine metabolite excretion, and pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riba, Jordi; Valle, Marta; Urbano, Gloria; Yritia, Mercedes; Morte, Adelaida; Barbanoj, Manel J

    2003-07-01

    The effects of the South American psychotropic beverage ayahuasca on subjective and cardiovascular variables and urine monoamine metabolite excretion were evaluated, together with the drug's pharmacokinetic profile, in a double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. This pharmacologically complex tea, commonly obtained from Banisteriopsis caapi and Psychotria viridis, combines N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), an orally labile psychedelic agent showing 5-hydroxytryptamine2A agonist activity, with monoamine oxidase (MAO)-inhibiting beta-carboline alkaloids (harmine, harmaline, and tetrahydroharmine). Eighteen volunteers with prior experience in the use of psychedelics received single oral doses of encapsulated freeze-dried ayahuasca (0.6 and 0.85 mg of DMT/kg of body weight) and placebo. Ayahuasca produced significant subjective effects, peaking between 1.5 and 2 h, involving perceptual modifications and increases in ratings of positive mood and activation. Diastolic blood pressure showed a significant increase at the high dose (9 mm Hg at 75 min), whereas systolic blood pressure and heart rate were moderately and nonsignificantly increased. Cmax values for DMT after the low and high ayahuasca doses were 12.14 ng/ml and 17.44 ng/ml, respectively. Tmax (median) was observed at 1.5 h after both doses. The Tmax for DMT coincided with the peak of subjective effects. Drug administration increased urinary normetanephrine excretion, but, contrary to the typical MAO-inhibitor effect profile, deaminated monoamine metabolite levels were not decreased. This and the negligible harmine plasma levels found suggest a predominantly peripheral (gastrointestinal and liver) site of action for harmine. MAO inhibition at this level would suffice to prevent first-pass metabolism of DMT and allow its access to systemic circulation and the central nervous system.

  8. The effect of different rehydration drinks on post-exercise electrolyte excretion in trained athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouns, F; Kovacs, E M; Senden, J M

    1998-01-01

    Eight well-trained cyclists were dehydrated (median [P25-P75 percentiles]) 3.21 [2.97-3.56]% of body mass by cycling in the heat (28 C). During the first 2 h of recovery, the subjects randomly ingested ad libitum either a caffeinated soft drink (CC), a low Na+ mineral water (MW), or an isotonic carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (CES). Fluid intake and urine loss amounted respectively to 2.77 [2.34-2.85] kg, 1.00 [0.82-1.20] kg for CC, 2.15 [1.86-2.79] kg, 0.96 [0.40-1.49] kg for MW, and 2.86 [2.15-3.58] kg, 1.10 [0.86- 1.50] kg for CES. Electrolyte retention was calculated from electrolyte intake with the drink and loss with the urine. Consumption of CC and MW which were low in electrolytes resulted in marked loss of Na+, K+, Cl-, Mg2+ and Ca2+. Consumption of CES resulted in Na+, Mg2+ and Ca2+ retention while K+ and Cl- loss were not influenced. The significantly lower Na+, Mg2+ and Ca2+ loss with CES compared to both CC and MW may be explained by its higher electrolyte content in CES, compared to CC and MW, which only had minor amounts of these electrolytes. Furthermore, it was shown that CC potentiated urinary Mg2+ and Ca2+ excretion. It is concluded that: 1) Post-exercise MW or CC ingestion results in a negative electrolyte balance, 2) Caffeine containing beverages potentiate Mg2+ and Ca2+ excretion; 3) Consumption of CES containing moderate amounts of Na+, Mg2+ and Ca2+ results in sufficient replacement to compensate for urinary losses.

  9. Origin of increased deoxycytidine excretion into urine of rats bearing Yoshida ascites sarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, M.; Fujimura, S.

    1984-06-01

    The metabolism of deoxycytidine (dCyd) and dCyd nucleotides in Yoshida ascites sarcoma (YS) cells and the host rat liver was investigated with reference to the increased excretion of urinary dCyd. Incorporation of (/sup 14/C)orotic acid into the livers of rats at the fifth day after the transplantation of YS cells, was 2 times higher than that into the normal rat livers. After the injection of (/sup 14/C)orotic acid, the ratio of the specific radioactivity of cytidylate to uridylate moieties of the host liver RNA was measured and found to be higher than that of normal rat liver RNA and to be similar to that of YS cell RNA. When (/sup 14/C)orotic acid was injected into rats followed by the transplantation of YS cells, the radioactivities present in the livers disappeared more rapidly than those in the control rat livers. The activities of pyrimidine de novo synthesis enzymes, such as cytidine triphosphate synthetase and cytidine diphosphate reductase, in YS were higher than those in both rat ascites hepatoma AH 7974 and Walker 256 carcinosarcoma, the transplantations of which did not induce increased excretion of dCyd into urine of the hosts. The activities of dCyd kinase and dCyd deaminase in YS cells were lower than those in the other two tumors investigated. The activities of cytidine triphosphate synthetase and cytidine diphosphate reductase in the livers of YS-bearing rats were elevated compared with those in the livers of rat ascites hepatoma AH 7974- or Walker 256 carcinosarcoma-bearing rats and normal rats, while the activities of dCyd kinase, 5'-nucleotidase, and dCyd deaminase were similar between normal rat livers and tumor-bearing rat livers.

  10. Chronic metabolic acidosis reduces urinary oxalate excretion and promotes intestinal oxalate secretion in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittamore, Jonathan M; Hatch, Marguerite

    2015-11-01

    Urinary oxalate excretion is reduced in rats during a chronic metabolic acidosis, but how this is achieved is not clear. In this report, we re-examine our prior work on the effects of a metabolic acidosis on urinary oxalate handling [Green et al., Am J Physiol Ren Physiol 289(3):F536-F543, 2005], offering a more detailed analysis and interpretation of the data, together with new, previously unpublished observations revealing a marked impact on intestinal oxalate transport. Sprague-Dawley rats were provided with 0.28 M ammonium chloride in their drinking water for either 4 or 14 days followed by 24 h urine collections, blood-gas and serum ion analysis, and measurements of (14)C-oxalate fluxes across isolated segments of the distal colon. Urinary oxalate excretion was significantly reduced by 75% after just 4 days compared to control rats, and this was similarly sustained at 14 days. Oxalate:creatinine clearance ratios indicated enhanced net re-absorption of oxalate by the kidney during a metabolic acidosis, but this was not associated with any substantive changes to serum oxalate levels. In the distal colon, oxalate transport was dramatically altered from net absorption in controls (6.20 ± 0.63 pmol cm(-2) h(-1)), to net secretion in rats with a metabolic acidosis (-5.19 ± 1.18 and -2.07 ± 1.05 pmol cm(-2) h(-1) at 4 and 14 days, respectively). Although we cannot rule out modifications to bi-directional oxalate movements along the proximal tubule, these findings support a gut-kidney axis in the management of oxalate homeostasis, where this shift in renal handling during a metabolic acidosis is associated with compensatory adaptations by the intestine.

  11. Endogenous nitrogen excretion by red kangaroos (Macropus rufus): effects of animal age and forage quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munn, Adam J; Dawson, Terence J; Hume, Ian D

    2006-01-01

    Red kangaroos (Macropus rufus) are large (>20 kg) herbivorous marsupials common to arid and semiarid Australia. The population dynamics of red kangaroos are linked with environmental factors, operating largely through juvenile survival. A crucial period is the young-at-foot (YAF) stage, when juveniles have permanently left the mother's pouch but still take milk from a teat in the pouch. Forage quantity and quality have been implicated in drought-related mortalities of juvenile kangaroos. Here we compared how forage quality affected nitrogen (N) intake and excretion by YAF, weaned, and mature, nonlactating female red kangaroos. On high-quality forage (chopped lucerne hay, Medicago sativa) low in neutral-detergent fiber (43%+/-1%) and high in N (2.9%+/-0.1%), YAF and weaned kangaroos had ideal growth rates and retained 460-570 mg dietary N kg(-0.75) d(-1). But on poor-quality forage (chopped oaten hay, Avena sativa) high in neutral-detergent fiber (64%+/-1%) and low in N (0.9%+/-0.1%), YAF and weaned kangaroos could not sustain growth and were in negative N balance at -103+/-26 mg and -57+/-31 mg N kg(-0.75) d(-1), respectively. Notably, the YAF kangaroos excreted 64% of their truly digestible N intake from forage as nondietary fecal N (NDFN). By weaning age, the situation had improved, but the juveniles still lost 40% of their truly digestible N intake as NDFN compared with only 30% by the mature females. Our findings support field observations that forage quality, and not just quantity, is a major factor affecting the mortality of juvenile red kangaroos during drought.

  12. Biosorption of metal elements by exopolymer nanofibrils excreted from Leptothrix cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunoh, Tatsuki; Nakanishi, Makoto; Kusano, Yoshihiro; Itadani, Atsushi; Ando, Kota; Matsumoto, Syuji; Tamura, Katsunori; Kunoh, Hitoshi; Takada, Jun

    2017-10-01

    Leptothrix species, aquatic Fe-oxidizing bacteria, excrete nano-scaled exopolymer fibrils. Once excreted, the fibrils weave together and coalesce to form extracellular, microtubular, immature sheaths encasing catenulate cells of Leptothrix. The immature sheaths, composed of aggregated nanofibrils with a homogeneous-looking matrix, attract and bind aqueous-phase inorganics, especially Fe, P, and Si, to form seemingly solid, mature sheaths of a hybrid organic-inorganic nature. To verify our assumption that the organic skeleton of the sheaths might sorb a broad range of other metallic and nonmetallic elements, we examined the sorption potential of chemically and enzymatically prepared protein-free organic sheath remnants for 47 available elements. The sheath remnants were found by XRF to sorb each of the 47 elements, although their sorption degree varied among the elements: >35% atomic percentages for Ti, Y, Zr, Ru, Rh, Ag, and Au. Electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, electron and x-ray diffractions, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analyses of sheath remnants that had sorbed Ag, Cu, and Pt revealed that (i) the sheath remnants comprised a 5-10 nm thick aggregation of fibrils, (ii) the test elements were distributed almost homogeneously throughout the fibrillar aggregate, (iii) the nanofibril matrix sorbing the elements was nearly amorphous, and (iv) these elements plausibly were bound to the matrix by ionic binding, especially via OH. The present results show that the constitutive protein-free exopolymer nanofibrils of the sheaths can contribute to creating novel filtering materials for recovering and recycling useful and/or hazardous elements from the environment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Renal excretion of water in men under hypokinesia and physical exercise with fluid and salt supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorbas, Yan G.; Federenko, Youri F.; Togawa, Mitsui N.

    It has been suggested that under hypokinesia (reduced number of steps/day) and intensive physical exercise, the intensification of fluid excretion in men is apparently caused as a result of the inability of the body to retain optimum amounts of water. Thus, to evaluate this hypothesis, studies were performed with the use of fluid and sodium chloride (NaCl) supplements on 12 highly trained physically healthy male volunteers aged 19-24 years under 364 days of hypokinesis (HK) and a set of intensive physical exercises (PE). They were divided into two groups with 6 volunteers per group. The first group of subjects were submitted to HK and took daily fluid and salt supplements in very small doses and the second group of volunteers were subjected to intensive PE and fluid-salt supplements. For the simulation of the hypokinetic effect, both groups of subjects were kept under an average of 4000 steps/day. During the prehypokinetic period of 60 days and under the hypokinetic period of 364 days water consumed and eliminated in urine by the men, water content in blood, plasma volume, rate of glomerular filtration, renal blood flow, osmotic concentration of urine and blood were measured. Under HK, the rate of renal excretion of water increased considerably in both groups. The additional fluid and salt intake failed to normalize water balance adequately under HK and PE. It was concluded that negative water balance evidently resulted not from shortage of water in the diet but from the inability of the body to retain optimum amounts of fluid under HK and a set of intensive PEs.

  14. Metabolism, excretion, and pharmacokinetics of oral brivanib in patients with advanced or metastatic solid tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekhail, Tarek; Masson, Eric; Fischer, Bruce S; Gong, Jiachang; Iyer, Ramaswamy; Gan, Jinping; Pursley, Janice; Patricia, Daniel; Williams, Daphne; Ganapathi, Ram

    2010-11-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics, mass balance, metabolism, routes and extent of elimination, and safety of a single oral dose of (14)C-labeled brivanib alaninate and the safety and tolerability of brivanib after multiple doses in patients with advanced or metastatic solid tumors. This was a two-part, single-center, open-label, single oral-dose (part A) followed by multiple-dose (part B) study in patients with advanced or metastatic solid tumors. In part A, patients received a single dose of [(14)C]brivanib alaninate and in part B patients received 800 mg of nonradiolabeled brivanib alaninate every day. Four patients (two white, two black: two with non-small-cell lung cancer, one with ovarian cancer, and one with renal cell carcinoma) were treated in both parts. The median time to reach the maximal plasma concentration of brivanib was 1 h, geometric mean maximal plasma concentration was 6146 ng/ml, mean terminal half-life was 13.8 h, and geometric mean apparent oral clearance was 14.7 l/h. After a single oral dose of [(14)C]brivanib alaninate, 12.2 and 81.5% of administered radioactivity was recovered in urine and feces, respectively. Brivanib alaninate was completely converted to the active moiety, brivanib, and the predominant route of elimination was fecal. Renal excretion of unchanged brivanib was minimal. Brivanib was well tolerated; fatigue was the most frequent adverse event occurring in all patients and the most frequent treatment-related adverse event in three (75%). The best clinical response in one patient was stable disease; the other three had progressive disease. Brivanib alaninate was rapidly absorbed and extensively metabolized after a single 800-mg oral dose; the majority of drug-related radioactivity was excreted in feces.

  15. Pharmacokinetics and renal excretion of desmopressin after intravenous administration to healthy subjects and renally impaired patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agersø, Henrik; Seiding Larsen, Lotte; Riis, Anders; Lövgren, Ulf; Karlsson, Mats O; Senderovitz, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the influence of renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics of desmopressin. Methods Twenty-four subjects were enrolled in the study, 18 with varying degrees of renal impairment and six healthy volunteers. Each subject received a single intravenous dose of 2 µg desmopressin. Blood and urine samples were collected for 24 h and assayed for desmopressin by radioimmunoassay. Plasma concentrations and the amounts of desmopressin excreted in the urine were analysed simultaneously by use of mixed effects modelling. Results Only mild adverse events were observed. Both the renal and the nonrenal clearance of desmopressin were found to vary with the creatinine clearance (CrCL). A decrease of 1.67% in the CrCL (corresponding to 1 ml min−1 from 60 ml min−1) was found to cause a 1.74% decrease in the renal clearance and a 0.93% decrease in the nonrenal clearance. The fall in renal clearance caused the amount of desmopressin excreted in urine to decrease from 47% in healthy subjects to 21% in the patients with severe renal impairment. The mean systemic clearance of desmopressin was 10 litres h−1 in healthy subjects and 2.9 litres h−1 in patients with severe renal impairment (difference −7.5 litres h−1, 95% CI [−11; −4.3] litres h−1). Correspondingly, the mean terminal half-life, was 3.7 h in healthy subjects and 10 h in patients with severe renal impairment (difference 6.7 h, 95% CI [4.0; 9.4] h). Conclusion Although desmopressin appears to be safe and well-tolerated by patients with impaired renal function, great caution should be exercised when titrating towards an efficient dosage regimen if patients with moderately or severely impaired renal function are to be treated with desmopressin at all. PMID:15373927

  16. Desmopressin accelerates the rate of urinary morphine excretion and attenuates withdrawal symptoms in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saboory, Ehsan; Ghazizadeh, Vahid; Heshmatian, Behnam; Khademansari, Mohammad Hasan

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of desmopressin on morphine withdrawal symptoms and vasopressin level in morphine-dependent subjects. Wistar male rats were injected s.c. with morphine once per day for 5 consecutive days to induce morphine dependence. After morphine use ceased on day 5, an equal number of rats were assigned to one of four groups for either saline or desmopressin by either intraperitoneal (i.p.) or intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection. From days 5 to 10, urine was collected daily and tested for the presence of morphine, and withdrawal symptoms were monitored to assess the effects of desmopressin. Significant weight loss occurred among all morphine-addicted rats during the withdrawal period. With both methods (i.p. and i.c.v.), the period of urinary morphine excretion was shorter for the two groups that were given desmopressin (experimental groups) than the two groups that were not given desmopressin (control groups), and no significant difference in urinary morphine excretion was found between the two experimental groups. During the early stage of withdrawal, the severity of the withdrawal symptoms in the experimental groups was significantly lower than that in the control groups. Desmopressin decreases the extent of morphine withdrawal symptoms, indicating that this agent might be appropriate for treating morphine addiction. Desmopressin appears to reduce withdrawal symptoms not by exerting an anti-diuretic effect but rather by exerting an effect on the central nervous system. © 2012 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2012 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  17. Does Replacing Sodium Excreted in Sweat Attenuate the Health Benefits of Physical Activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Martin J; Avolio, Alberto P

    2016-08-01

    International guidelines suggest limiting sodium intake to 86-100 mmol/day, but average intake exceeds 150 mmol/day. Participants in physical activities are, however, advised to increase sodium intake before, during and after exercise to ensure euhydration, replace sodium lost in sweat, speed rehydration and maintain performance. A similar range of health benefits is attributable to exercise and to reduction in sodium intake, including reductions in blood pressure (BP) and the increase of BP with age, reduced risk of stroke and other cardiovascular diseases, and reduced risk of osteoporosis and dementia. Sweat typically contains 40-60 mmol/L of sodium, leading to approximately 20-90 mmol of sodium lost in one exercise session with sweat rates of 0.5-1.5 L/h. Reductions in sodium intake of 20-90 mmol/day have been associated with substantial health benefits. Homeostatic systems reduce sweat sodium as low as 3-10 mmol/L to prevent excessive sodium loss. "Salty sweaters" may be individuals with high sodium intake who perpetuate their "salty sweat" condition by continual replacement of sodium excreted in sweat. Studies of prolonged high intensity exercise in hot environments suggest that sodium supplementation is not necessary to prevent hyponatremia during exercise lasting up to 6 hr. We examine the novel hypothesis that sodium excreted in sweat during physical activity offsets a significant fraction of excess dietary sodium, and hence may contribute part of the health benefits of exercise. Replacing sodium lost in sweat during exercise may improve physical performance, but may attenuate the long-term health benefits of exercise.

  18. Pharmacokinetics and excretion of (14)C-omacetaxine in patients with advanced solid tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijenhuis, Cynthia M; Hellriegel, Edward; Beijnen, Jos H; Hershock, Diane; Huitema, Alwin D R; Lucas, Luc; Mergui-Roelvink, Marja; Munteanu, Mihaela; Rabinovich-Guilatt, Laura; Robertson, Philmore; Rosing, Hilde; Spiegelstein, Ofer; Schellens, Jan H M

    2016-10-01

    Background Omacetaxine mepesuccinate is indicated in adults with chronic myeloid leukemia resistant and/or intolerant to ≥ 2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatments. This phase I study assessed the disposition, elimination, and safety of (14)C-omacetaxine in patients with solid tumors. Methods The study comprised a 7-days pharmacokinetic assessment followed by a treatment period of ≤ six 28-days cycles. A single subcutaneous dose of 1.25 mg/m(2) (14)C-omacetaxine was administered to six patients. Blood, urine, and feces were collected through 168 h or until radioactivity excreted within 24 h was <1 % of the dose. Total radioactivity (TRA) was measured in all matrices and concentrations of omacetaxine, 4'-desmethylhomoharringtonine (4'-DMHHT), and cephalotaxine were measured in plasma and urine. For each treatment cycle, patients received 1.25 mg/m(2) omacetaxine twice daily for 7 days. Results Mean TRA recovered was approximately 81 % of the dose, with approximately half of the radioactivity recovered in feces and half in urine. Approximately 20 % of the dose was excreted unchanged in urine; cephalotaxine (0.4 % of dose) and 4' DMHHT (9 %) were also present. Plasma concentrations of TRA were higher than the sum of omacetaxine and known metabolites, suggesting the presence of other (14)C-omacetaxine-derived compounds. Fatigue and anemia were common, consistent with the known toxicity profile of omacetaxine. Conclusion Renal and hepatic processes contribute to the elimination of (14)C-omacetaxine-derived radioactivity in cancer patients. In addition to omacetaxine and its known metabolites, other (14)C-omacetaxine-derived materials appear to be present in plasma and urine. Omacetaxine was adequately tolerated, with no new safety signals.

  19. Phosphate Solubilization by Organic Anion Excretion from Rice Growing in Aerobic Soil: Rates of Excretion and Decomposition, Effects on Rhizosphere pH and Effects on Phosphate Solubility and Uptake

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    G. J. D. Kirk; E. E. Santos; M. B. Santos

    1999-01-01

    .... Apparent rates of citrate excretion from the roots, calculated from the quantities in the soil and rates of decomposition calculated with a first order rate constant measured independently, varied from 337-155 nmol g${-1}$ root f. wt h$^{-1...

  20. Effects of Cactus Fiber on the Excretion of Dietary Fat in Healthy Subjects: A Double Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Clinical Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Uebelhack, MD, PhD

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: Cactus fiber has been shown to significantly promote fecal fat excretion in healthy adults. The results of our study support the hypothesis that cactus fiber helps in reducing body weight by binding to dietary fat and increasing its excretion, thus reducing dietary fat available for absorption. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01590667.

  1. Fructose suppresses uric acid excretion to the intestinal lumen as a result of the induction of oxidative stress by NADPH oxidase activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Chihiro; Ogura, Jiro; Sasaki, Shunichi; Okamoto, Keisuke; Kobayashi, Masaki; Kuwayama, Kaori; Narumi, Katsuya; Iseki, Ken

    2017-03-01

    A high intake of fructose increases the risk for hyperuricemia. It has been reported that long-term fructose consumption suppressed renal uric acid excretion and increased serum uric acid level. However, the effect of single administration of fructose on excretion of uric acid has not been clarified. We used male Wistar rats, which were orally administered fructose (5g/kg). Those rats were used in each experiment at 12h after administration. Single administration of fructose suppressed the function of ileal uric acid excretion and had no effect on the function of renal uric acid excretion. Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) predominantly contributes to intestinal excretion of uric acid as an active homodimer. Single administration of fructose decreased BCRP homodimer level in the ileum. Moreover, diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), an inhibitor of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (Nox), recovered the suppression of the function of ileal uric acid excretion and the Bcrp homodimer level in the ileum of rats that received single administration of fructose. Single administration of fructose decreases in BCRP homodimer level, resulting in the suppression the function of ileal uric acid excretion. The suppression of the function of ileal uric acid excretion by single administration of fructose is caused by the activation of Nox. The results of our study provide a new insight into the mechanism of fructose-induced hyperuricemia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Characteristics of dairy farms in the North-Eastern part of Italy: rations, milk yield and nutrients excretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Schiavon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This survey was aimed to evaluate the characteristics of dairy farms in the North- Eastern part of Po valley in terms of ration composition, milk yield and N and P excretions. Eightynine farms, with Italian Holstein Friesian cows, were selected in order to cover different situations in term of farm size and milk yield (MY. MY and quality were obtained from the national database of functional controls. Each farm was visited in order to collect information about ingredients and chemical composition of rations used. Farms were classified in four groups differing for dietary crude protein density (LCP15.3% DM and for MY (LMY30 kg/d. N and P excretions were quantified by following a mass balance approach. Dietary crude protein content (CP was not correlated to milk yield (MY and quality. The estimated amounts of N excreted, discounted for 28% of N losses in atmosphere, were 78.5, 78.2, 87.2 and 89.1 kg/cow/year, and P excreted were 20.2, 18.6, 18.7 and 19.8 kg/cow/year for the LCPLMY, LCPHMY, HCPLMY, HCPHMY groups, respectively. On corn silage and cereals based rations, a dietary CP of 14.3% DM can support 31 kg MY/cow/day.

  3. Association between 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine excretion and risk of lung cancer in a prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loft, Steffen; Svoboda, Peter; Kawai, Kazuaki

    2011-01-01

    in the steady state. The aim of this study was to investigate urinary 8-oxoGua as a risk factor for lung cancer. In a nested case-cohort design we examined associations between urinary excretion of 8-oxoGua and risk of lung cancer as well as potential interaction with the OGG1 Ser326Cys polymorphism...... detection. There was no significant effect of smoking or OGG1 genotype on the excretion of 8-oxoGua. Overall the incidence rate ratio (IRR) (95% confidence interval) of lung cancer was 1.06 (0.97-1.15) per doubling of 8-oxoGua excretion. The association between lung cancer risk and 8-oxoGua excretion...... in a population-based cohort of 25,717 men and 27,972 women aged 50-64 years with 3-7 years follow-up. We included 260 cases with lung cancer and a subcohort of 263 individuals matched on sex, age, and smoking duration for comparison. Urine collected at entry was analysed for 8-oxoGua by HPLC with electrochemical...

  4. Scintigraphic assessment of salivary function and excretion response in radiation-induced injury of the major salivary glands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valdés Olmos, R. A.; Keus, R. B.; Takes, R. P.; van Tinteren, H.; Baris, G.; Hilgers, F. J.; Hoefnagel, C. A.; Balm, A. J.

    1994-01-01

    Both loss of the secretory function and impairment of the excretion may play a role in radiation-induced injury of the major salivary glands after radiotherapy for head and neck malignancies. Therefore, quantitative 99mTc-pertechnetate (99mTc) salivary scintigraphy to assess trapping, secretion, and

  5. Progression risk, urinary protein excretion, and treatment effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in nondiabetic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kent, David M; Jafar, Tazeen H; Hayward, Rodney A

    2007-01-01

    stratified according to their baseline urinary protein excretion, among the subgroup of patients with proteinuria > or =500 mg/d, significant treatment effect was seen across all patients with a measurable outcome risk, including those at relatively low risk (1.7% annualized risk for progression). However......, there was no benefit of ACEI therapy among patients with proteinuria ... with proteinuria

  6. Copper-induced apical trafficking of ATP7B in polarized hepatoma cells provides a mechanism for biliary copper excretion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofsen, H; Wolters, H; Van Luyn, MJA; Miura, N; Kuipers, F; Vonk, RJ

    Background & Aims: Mutations in the ATP7B gene, encoding a copper-transporting P-type adenosine triphosphatase, lead to excessive hepatic copper accumulation because of impaired biliary copper excretion in Wilson's disease. In human liver, ATP7B is predominantly localized to the trans-Golgi network,

  7. A biphasic response of urinary prostaglandin E2 excretion to water deprivation in conscious diabetes insipidus Brattleboro rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanters, J K; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Christensen, P

    1989-01-01

    The effects of water deprivation on the urinary excretion rate of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were examined in conscious Brattleboro rats. In order to study the time course of the changes in the PGE2 excretory rate, urine was collected in 6 periods, Control: 0-1 hour (h.). 1: 3-4.5 h., 8-10 h., III: ...

  8. Daily uranium excretion in German peace-keeping personnel serving on the Balkans compared to ICRP model prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oeh, U.; Li, W.B.; Hoellriegl, V.; Schramel, P.; Roth, P.; Paretzke, H.G. [GSF - National Research Center for Environment and Health, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Giussani, A. [GSF - National Research Center for Environment and Health, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Fisica, and INFN, Sezione di Milano, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2007-07-01

    An investigation was performed to assess a possible health risk of depleted uranium (DU) for residents and German peace-keeping personnel serving on the Balkans. In order to evaluate a possible DU intake, the urinary uranium excretions of volunteers were collected and analysed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). In total, more than 1300 urine samples from soldiers, civil servants and unexposed controls of different genders and ages were analysed to determine uranium excretion parameters. All participating volunteers, aged 3-92 y, were grouped according to their gender and age for evaluation. The results of the investigation revealed no significant difference between the unexposed controls and the peace-keeping personnel. In addition, the geometric means of the daily urinary excretion in peace-keeping personnel, ranging from 3 to 23 ng d{sup -1} for different age groups, fall toward the lower end of renal uranium excretion values published for unexposed populations in literature. The measured data were compared with the International Commission on Radiological Protection prediction for the intake of natural uranium by unexposed members of the public. The two data sets are in good agreement, indicating that no relevant intake of additional uranium, either natural or DU, has appeared for German peace-keeping personnel serving on the Balkans. (authors)

  9. Elevated urinary albumin excretion is not linked to the angiotensin I-converting enzyme gene polymorphism in clinically healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P; Jensen, J S; Borch-Johnsen, K

    2000-01-01

    An elevated urinary albumin excretion (UAE) in non-diabetic subjects without renal or cardiovascular disease has been shown to be predictive of ischaemic heart disease. An insertion (I)/deletion (D) polymorphism in the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) gene has been identified and the D allel...

  10. Effect of dietary crude protein and forage contents on enteric methane emissions and nitrogen excretion from dairy cows simultaneously

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study aimed to examine, simultaneously, the effects of changing dietary forage and crude protein (CP) contents on methane (CH4) emissions and nitrogen (N) excretion from lactating dairy cows. Twelve post-peak lactating Holstein cows were randomly assigned to 4 treatments from a 2×2 factorial arr...

  11. Effect of calcium from dairy and dietary supplements on faecal fat excretion: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, R.; Lorenzen, Janne Kunchel; Svith, Carina Roholm

    2009-01-01

    Observational studies have found that dietary calcium intake is inversely related to body weight and body fat mass. One explanatory mechanism is that dietary calcium increases faecal fat excretion. To examine the effect of calcium from dietary supplements or dairy products on quantitative faecal ...

  12. Normal values for 24-h urinary protein excretion: total and low molecular weight proteins with a sex-related difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, H; Murakami, T; Kajii, T

    1990-05-01

    Urinary excretion of total and low molecular weight (LMW) (less than 40,000) proteins for a 24-h period was determined in 60 normal individuals, 30 men and 30 women, aged 21 to 44 years. 24-h urinary total protein excretion in men was 91.2 +/- 25.1 mg (mean +/- SD) (range: 40.2-146.8 mg), while that in women was 62.5 +/- 23.6 mg (range: 28.4-130.9 mg), as measured by a biuret method using bicinchoninic acid as a reagent. 24-h urinary LMW protein excretion in men was 37.3 +/- 13.6 mg (range: 12.7-62.7 mg), while that in women was 23.2 +/- 11.8 mg (range: 7.2-54.2 mg), as estimated by sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of concentrated urine samples. Thus, a significantly higher (t-test, p less than 0.01) excretion of both the total and LMW proteins was found in men than in women. However, the percentage of the LMW proteins among the total proteins did not differ between the sexes: 40.3 +/- 7.5% (range: 21.7-54.9%) for men and 36.5 +/- 9.9% (range: 20.1-56.7%) for women.

  13. The effect of high-sugar grass on predicted nitrogen excretion and milk yield simulated using a dynamic model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, J.L.; Dijkstra, J.; Bannink, A.; Parsons, A.J.; Rasmussen, S.; Edwards, G.R.; Kebreab, E.; France, J.

    2011-01-01

    High-sugar grass varieties have received considerable attention for their potential to reduce nitrogen (N) excretion and increase milk yield in cattle. However, considerable variation exists in the magnitude of response in published results. The purpose of this study is to explain the variation in

  14. Altered nitrogen balance and decreased urea excretion in male rats fed cafeteria diet are related to arginine availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabater, David; Agnelli, Silvia; Arriarán, Sofía; Fernández-López, José-Antonio; Romero, María del Mar; Alemany, Marià; Remesar, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Hyperlipidic diets limit glucose oxidation and favor amino acid preservation, hampering the elimination of excess dietary nitrogen and the catabolic utilization of amino acids. We analyzed whether reduced urea excretion was a consequence of higher NO x ; (nitrite, nitrate, and other derivatives) availability caused by increased nitric oxide production in metabolic syndrome. Rats fed a cafeteria diet for 30 days had a higher intake and accumulation of amino acid nitrogen and lower urea excretion. There were no differences in plasma nitrate or nitrite. NO(x) and creatinine excretion accounted for only a small part of total nitrogen excretion. Rats fed a cafeteria diet had higher plasma levels of glutamine, serine, threonine, glycine, and ornithine when compared with controls, whereas arginine was lower. Liver carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase I activity was higher in cafeteria diet-fed rats, but arginase I was lower. The high carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase activity and ornithine levels suggest activation of the urea cycle in cafeteria diet-fed rats, but low arginine levels point to a block in the urea cycle between ornithine and arginine, thereby preventing the elimination of excess nitrogen as urea. The ultimate consequence of this paradoxical block in the urea cycle seems to be the limitation of arginine production and/or availability.

  15. Kidney volume in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with normal or increased urinary albumin excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Hegedüs, L; Mathiesen, E R

    1991-01-01

    than 0.05). In a multiple linear regression with HbA1c, urinary albumin excretion, age, diabetes duration and mean blood pressure as independent variables, variations in HbA1c could account for 33% of the variations in kidney volume (n = 47, r = 0.57, p less than 0.01). The other variables played...

  16. Gemcitabine and Epirubicin Plasma Concentration-Related Excretion in Saliva in Patients With Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maring, Jan Gerard; Wachters, Floris M.; Maurer, Marina; Uges, Donald R. A.; de Vries, Elisabeth G. E.; Groen, Harry J. M.

    Aim: The excretion in saliva of gemcitabine and its metabolite 2',2'-difluorodeoxyuridine (dFdU) as well as epirubicin (Epi) and its metabolite epirubicinol (Epi-ol) was studied in patients with non-small cell lung cancer, treated with gemcitabine plus epirubicin. Methods: Patients (n = 12) were

  17. Factors affecting the excretion of GFP Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium by adult house flies (Diptera: Muscidae; Musca domestica L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    House flies harbor and disseminate food-borne pathogens. Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is a zoonotic pathogen shed by livestock that causes gastroenteritis in humans. We previously demonstrated that GFP-S. Typhimurium fed to house flies persist in the digestive for 24h. The excretion dynam...

  18. Dietary and animal-related factors associated with the rate of urinary oxalate and calcium excretion in dogs and cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijcker, J.C.; Hagen-Plantinga, E.A.; Everts, H.; Bosch, G.; Kema, I.P.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a cohort study and randomised clinical trial (RCT) in cross-over design. In the cohort study, the range of urinary oxalate (Uox) and calcium (Uca) excretion was determined within a sample of the Dutch population of dogs and cats, and dietary and animal-related

  19. Dietary and animal-related factors associated with the rate of urinary oxalate and calcium excretion in dogs and cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijcker, J.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/315029412; Hagen-Plantinga, E.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/311469728; Everts, H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073713694; Bosch, Guido; Kema, I.P.; Hendriks, W.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/298620936

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a cohort study and randomised clinical trial (RCT) in crossover design. In the cohort study, the range of urinary oxalate (Uox) and calcium (Uca) excretion was determined within a sample of the Dutch population of dogs and cats, and dietary and animal-related

  20. Nitrate contamination of drinking water: relationship with HPRT variant frequency in lymphocyte DNA and urinary excretion of N-nitrosamines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Maanen, J.M.S.; Welle, I.J.; Hageman, G.J.; Dallinga, J.W.; Mertens, P.L.; Kleinjans, J.C.S.

    1996-01-01

    Nitrate contamination of drinking water: relationship with HPRT variant frequency in lymphocyte DNA and urinary excretion of N-nitrosamines. van Maanen JM, Welle IJ, Hageman G, Dallinga JW, Mertens PL, Kleinjans JC. Department of Health Risk Analysis and Toxicology, University of Limburg,