WorldWideScience

Sample records for excluding ventilation services

  1. 42 CFR 409.49 - Excluded services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... HOSPITAL INSURANCE BENEFITS Home Health Services Under Hospital Insurance § 409.49 Excluded services. (a... individual's dialysis, are excluded from coverage under the Medicare home health benefit. (f) Prosthetic... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Excluded services. 409.49 Section 409.49 Public...

  2. 42 CFR 403.768 - Excluded services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... a RNHCI. (c) A nurse who is not providing RNHCI home nursing services under arrangement with a RNHCI... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Excluded services. 403.768 Section 403.768 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL...

  3. 42 CFR 460.96 - Excluded services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE... service, unless it is an emergency service. (b) In an inpatient facility, private room and private duty... team as part of the participant's plan of care). (c) Cosmetic surgery, which does not include surgery...

  4. Respiratory induced heart rate variability during slow mechanical ventilation Marker to exclude brain death patients

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurák, Pavel; Halámek, Josef; Vondra, Vlastimil; Kružliak, P.; Šrámek, V.; Cundrle, I.; Leinveber, P.; Adamek, M.; Zvoníček, V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 129, 7-8 (2017), s. 251-258 ISSN 0043-5325 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP103/11/0933; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01; GA MZd NS10105 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : critical illness * sedation * brain death * respiratory rate variability * heart rate variability * mechanical ventilation Subject RIV: FS - Medical Facilities ; Equipment OBOR OECD: Medical engineering Impact factor: 0.974, year: 2016

  5. 42 CFR 411.15 - Particular services excluded from coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 411.15 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... exclusion encompasses all devices irrespective of their size, form, or technological features that use one..., occupational, or speech-language therapy services, regardless of whether the services are furnished by (or...

  6. The accuracy of Gram stain of respiratory specimens in excluding Staphylococcus aureus in ventilator-associated pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottesman, Tamar; Yossepowitch, Orit; Lerner, Evgenia; Schwartz-Harari, Orna; Soroksky, Arie; Yekutieli, Daniel; Dan, Michael

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate the Gram stain of deep tracheal aspirate as a tool to direct empiric antibiotic therapy, and more specifically as a tool to exclude the need for empiric antibiotic coverage against Staphylococcus aureus in ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). A prospective, single-center, observational, cohort study. All wards at a community hospital. Adult patients requiring mechanical ventilation, identified as having VAP in a 54-month prospective surveillance database. Sampling of lower airway secretions by deep endotracheal aspiration was taken from each patient who developed VAP. Samples were sent immediately for Gram stain and qualitative bacterial cultures. Demographic and relevant clinical data were collected; Gram stain, culture, and antibiotic susceptibility results were documented; and outcome was followed prospectively. The analysis included 114 consecutive patients with 115 episodes of VAP from June 2007 to January 2012. Sensitivity of Gram stain compared with culture was 90.47% for gram-positive cocci, 69.6% for gram-negative rods, and 50% for sterile cultures. Specificity was 82.5%, 77.8%, and 79%, respectively. Negative predictive value was high for gram-positive cocci (97%) and sterile cultures (96%) but low for gram-negative rods (20%). Acinetobacter baumanii (45%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (38 %) were the prevailing isolates. S aureus was found in 18.3% of the patients. Most isolates were multiresistant. Absence of gram-positive bacteria on Gram stain had a high negative predictive value. These data can be used to narrow the initial empiric antibiotic regimen and to avoid unnecessary exposure of patients to vancomycin and other antistaphyloccocal agents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Toke Rammer; Svendsen, Sv Aa Højgaard

    1999-01-01

    The note concerns ventilation in residential buildings. Describes components in ventilation systems, electric energy consumption and different ventilation systems with heat exchanger.......The note concerns ventilation in residential buildings. Describes components in ventilation systems, electric energy consumption and different ventilation systems with heat exchanger....

  8. 9 CFR 130.19 - User fees for other veterinary diagnostic services or materials provided at NVSL (excluding FADDL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false User fees for other veterinary... User fees for other veterinary diagnostic services or materials provided at NVSL (excluding FADDL). (a) User fees for other veterinary diagnostic services or materials available from NVSL (excluding FADDL...

  9. Ventilation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gossler

    1980-01-01

    The present paper deals with - controlled area ventilation systems - ventilation systems for switchgear-building and control-room - other ventilation systems for safety equipments - service systems for ventilation systems. (orig./RW)

  10. 29 CFR 1471.135 - May the Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service exclude a person who is not currently...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May the Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service exclude....135 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) General § 1471.135 May the Federal Mediation and...

  11. 26 CFR 31.3121(c)-1 - Included and excluded services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT... enrolled and is regularly attending classes at a university, to perform domestic service for the club and...

  12. [Anesthesia ventilators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otteni, J C; Beydon, L; Cazalaà, J B; Feiss, P; Nivoche, Y

    1997-01-01

    To review anaesthesia ventilators in current use in France by categories of ventilators. References were obtained from computerized bibliographic search. (Medline), recent review articles, the library of the service and personal files. Anaesthesia ventilators can be allocated into three groups, depending on whether they readminister expired gases or not or allow both modalities. Contemporary ventilators provide either constant volume ventilation, or constant pressure ventilation, with or without a pressure plateau. Ventilators readministering expired gases after CO2 absorption, or closed circuit ventilators, are either of a double- or a single-circuit design. Double-circuit ventilators, or pneumatical bag or bellows squeezers, or bag-in-bottle or bellows-in-bottle (or box) ventilators, consist of a primary, or driving circuit (bottle or box) and a secondary or patient circuit (including a bag or a bellows or membrane chambers). Bellows-in-bottle ventilators have either standing bellows ascending at expiration, or hanging bellows, descending at expiration. Ascending bellows require a positive pressure of about 2 cmH2O throughout exhalation to allow the bellows to refill. The expired gas volume is a valuable indicator for leak and disconnection. Descending bellows generate a slight negative pressure during exhalation. In case of leak or disconnection they aspirate ambient air and cannot act therefore as an indicator for integrity of the circuit and the patient connection. Closed circuit ventilators with a single-circuit (patient circuit) include a insufflating device consisting either in a bellows or a cylinder with a piston, operated by a electric or pneumatic motor. As the hanging bellows of the double circuit ventilators, they generate a slight negative pressure during exhalation and aspirate ambient air in case of leak or disconnection. Ventilators not designed for the readministration of expired gases, or open circuit ventilators, are generally stand

  13. : ventilators for noninvasive ventilation

    OpenAIRE

    Fauroux , Brigitte; Leroux , Karl; Desmarais , Gilbert; Isabey , Daniel; Clément , Annick; Lofaso , Frédéric; Louis , Bruno

    2008-01-01

    International audience; The aim of the present study was to evaluate the performance characteristics of all the ventilators proposed for home noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation in children in France. The ventilators (one volume-targeted, 12 pressure-targeted and four dual) were evaluated on a bench which simulated six different paediatric ventilatory patterns. For each ventilator, the quality of the inspiratory and expiratory trigger and the ability to reach and maintain the preset pre...

  14. Cost of treating ventilator-associated pneumonia post cardiac surgery in the National Health Service: Results from a propensity-matched cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckraz, Heyman; Manga, Na'ngono; Senanayake, Eshan L; Abdelaziz, Mahmoud; Gopal, Shameer; Charman, Susan C; Giri, Ramesh; Oppong, Raymond; Andronis, Lazaros

    2018-05-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia is associated with significant morbidity, mortality and healthcare costs. Most of the cost data that are available relate to general intensive care patients in privately remunerated institutions. This study assessed the cost of managing ventilator-associated pneumonia in a cardiac intensive care unit in the National Health Service in the United Kingdom. Propensity-matched study of prospectively collected data from the cardiac surgical database between April 2011 and December 2014 in all patients undergoing cardiac surgery (n = 3416). Patients who were diagnosed as developing ventilator-associated pneumonia, as per the surveillance definition for ventilator-associated pneumonia (n = 338), were propensity score matched with those who did not (n = 338). Costs of treating post-op cardiac surgery patients in intensive care and cost difference if ventilator-associated pneumonia occurred based on Healthcare Resource Group categories were assessed. Secondary outcomes included differences in morbidity, mortality and cardiac intensive care unit and in-hospital length of stay. There were no significant differences in the pre-operative characteristics or procedures between the groups. Ventilator-associated pneumonia developed in 10% of post-cardiac surgery patients. Post-operatively, the ventilator-associated pneumonia group required longer ventilation (p < 0.01), more respiratory support, longer cardiac intensive care unit (8 vs 3, p < 0.001) and in-hospital stay (16 vs 9) days. The overall cost for post-operative recovery after cardiac surgery for ventilator-associated pneumonia patients was £15,124 compared to £6295 for non-ventilator-associated pneumonia (p < 0.01). The additional cost of treating patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia was £8829. Ventilator-associated pneumonia was associated with significant morbidity to the patients, generating significant costs. This cost was nearer to the lower end for

  15. Mechanical Ventilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ventilation is a life support treatment. A mechanical ventilator is a machine that helps people breathe when ... to breathe enough on their own. The mechanical ventilator is also called a ventilator , respirator, or breathing ...

  16. Anaesthesia ventilators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajnish K Jain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaesthesia ventilators are an integral part of all modern anaesthesia workstations. Automatic ventilators in the operating rooms, which were very simple with few modes of ventilation when introduced, have become very sophisticated with many advanced ventilation modes. Several systems of classification of anaesthesia ventilators exist based upon various parameters. Modern anaesthesia ventilators have either a double circuit, bellow design or a single circuit piston configuration. In the bellows ventilators, ascending bellows design is safer than descending bellows. Piston ventilators have the advantage of delivering accurate tidal volume. They work with electricity as their driving force and do not require a driving gas. To enable improved patient safety, several modifications were done in circle system with the different types of anaesthesia ventilators. Fresh gas decoupling is a modification done in piston ventilators and in descending bellows ventilator to reduce th incidence of ventilator induced volutrauma. In addition to the conventional volume control mode, modern anaesthesia ventilators also provide newer modes of ventilation such as synchronised intermittent mandatory ventilation, pressure-control ventilation and pressure-support ventilation (PSV. PSV mode is particularly useful for patients maintained on spontaneous respiration with laryngeal mask airway. Along with the innumerable benefits provided by these machines, there are various inherent hazards associated with the use of the ventilators in the operating room. To use these workstations safely, it is important for every Anaesthesiologist to have a basic understanding of the mechanics of these ventilators and breathing circuits.

  17. Anaesthesia ventilators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Rajnish K; Swaminathan, Srinivasan

    2013-09-01

    Anaesthesia ventilators are an integral part of all modern anaesthesia workstations. Automatic ventilators in the operating rooms, which were very simple with few modes of ventilation when introduced, have become very sophisticated with many advanced ventilation modes. Several systems of classification of anaesthesia ventilators exist based upon various parameters. Modern anaesthesia ventilators have either a double circuit, bellow design or a single circuit piston configuration. In the bellows ventilators, ascending bellows design is safer than descending bellows. Piston ventilators have the advantage of delivering accurate tidal volume. They work with electricity as their driving force and do not require a driving gas. To enable improved patient safety, several modifications were done in circle system with the different types of anaesthesia ventilators. Fresh gas decoupling is a modification done in piston ventilators and in descending bellows ventilator to reduce th incidence of ventilator induced volutrauma. In addition to the conventional volume control mode, modern anaesthesia ventilators also provide newer modes of ventilation such as synchronised intermittent mandatory ventilation, pressure-control ventilation and pressure-support ventilation (PSV). PSV mode is particularly useful for patients maintained on spontaneous respiration with laryngeal mask airway. Along with the innumerable benefits provided by these machines, there are various inherent hazards associated with the use of the ventilators in the operating room. To use these workstations safely, it is important for every Anaesthesiologist to have a basic understanding of the mechanics of these ventilators and breathing circuits.

  18. Anaesthesia ventilators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Rajnish K; Swaminathan, Srinivasan

    2013-01-01

    Anaesthesia ventilators are an integral part of all modern anaesthesia workstations. Automatic ventilators in the operating rooms, which were very simple with few modes of ventilation when introduced, have become very sophisticated with many advanced ventilation modes. Several systems of classification of anaesthesia ventilators exist based upon various parameters. Modern anaesthesia ventilators have either a double circuit, bellow design or a single circuit piston configuration. In the bellows ventilators, ascending bellows design is safer than descending bellows. Piston ventilators have the advantage of delivering accurate tidal volume. They work with electricity as their driving force and do not require a driving gas. To enable improved patient safety, several modifications were done in circle system with the different types of anaesthesia ventilators. Fresh gas decoupling is a modification done in piston ventilators and in descending bellows ventilator to reduce th incidence of ventilator induced volutrauma. In addition to the conventional volume control mode, modern anaesthesia ventilators also provide newer modes of ventilation such as synchronised intermittent mandatory ventilation, pressure-control ventilation and pressure-support ventilation (PSV). PSV mode is particularly useful for patients maintained on spontaneous respiration with laryngeal mask airway. Along with the innumerable benefits provided by these machines, there are various inherent hazards associated with the use of the ventilators in the operating room. To use these workstations safely, it is important for every Anaesthesiologist to have a basic understanding of the mechanics of these ventilators and breathing circuits. PMID:24249886

  19. Anaesthesia ventilators

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Rajnish K; Swaminathan, Srinivasan

    2013-01-01

    Anaesthesia ventilators are an integral part of all modern anaesthesia workstations. Automatic ventilators in the operating rooms, which were very simple with few modes of ventilation when introduced, have become very sophisticated with many advanced ventilation modes. Several systems of classification of anaesthesia ventilators exist based upon various parameters. Modern anaesthesia ventilators have either a double circuit, bellow design or a single circuit piston configuration. In the bello...

  20. Multifamily Ventilation Retrofit Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, K. [Building Science Corporation (BSC), Somerville, MA (United States); Lstiburek, J. [Building Science Corporation (BSC), Somerville, MA (United States); Bergey, D. [Building Science Corporation (BSC), Somerville, MA (United States)

    2012-12-01

    In multifamily buildings, central ventilation systems often have poor performance, overventilating some portions of the building (causing excess energy use), while simultaneously underventilating other portions (causing diminished indoor air quality). BSC and Innova Services Corporation performed a series of field tests at a mid-rise test building undergoing a major energy audit and retrofit, which included ventilation system upgrades.

  1. Paid carers' experiences of caring for mechanically ventilated children at home: implications for services and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, Christina; Pontin, David

    2013-06-01

    UK survival rates for long-term mechanically ventilated children have increased and paid carers are trained to care for them at home, however there is limited literature on carers' training needs and experience of sharing care. Using a qualitative abductive design, we purposively sampled experienced carers to generate data via diaries, semi-structured interviews, and researcher reflexive notes. Research ethics approval was granted from NHS and University committees. Five analytical themes emerged - Parent as expert; Role definition tensions; Training and Continuing Learning Needs; Mixed Emotions; Support Mechanisms highlighting the challenges of working in family homes for carers and their associated learning needs. Further work on preparing carers to share feelings with parents, using burnout prevention techniques, and building confidence is suggested. Carers highlight the lack of clinical supervision during their night-working hours. One solution may be to provide access to registered nurse support when working out-of-office hours.

  2. Displacement ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosonen, Risto; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Mundt, Elisabeth

    The aim of this Guidebook is to give the state-of-the art knowledge of the displacement ventilation technology, and to simplify and improve the practical design procedure. The Guidebook discusses methods of total volume ventilation by mixing ventilation and displacement ventilation and it gives...... insights of the performance of the displacement ventilation. It also shows practical case studies in some typical applications and the latest research findings to create good local micro-climatic conditions....

  3. Being Included and Excluded

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korzenevica, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Following the civil war of 1996–2006, there was a dramatic increase in the labor mobility of young men and the inclusion of young women in formal education, which led to the transformation of the political landscape of rural Nepal. Mobility and schooling represent a level of prestige that rural...... politics. It analyzes how formal education and mobility either challenge or reinforce traditional gendered norms which dictate a lowly position for young married women in the household and their absence from community politics. The article concludes that women are simultaneously excluded and included from...... community politics. On the one hand, their mobility and decision-making powers decrease with the increase in the labor mobility of men and their newly gained education is politically devalued when compared to the informal education that men gain through mobility, but on the other hand, schooling strengthens...

  4. VENTILATION MODEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    V. Chipman

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the Ventilation Model is to simulate the heat transfer processes in and around waste emplacement drifts during periods of forced ventilation. The model evaluates the effects of emplacement drift ventilation on the thermal conditions in the emplacement drifts and surrounding rock mass, and calculates the heat removal by ventilation as a measure of the viability of ventilation to delay the onset of peak repository temperature and reduce its magnitude. The heat removal by ventilation is temporally and spatially dependent, and is expressed as the fraction of heat carried away by the ventilation air compared to the fraction of heat produced by radionuclide decay. One minus the heat removal is called the wall heat fraction, or the remaining amount of heat that is transferred via conduction to the surrounding rock mass. Downstream models, such as the ''Multiscale Thermohydrologic Model'' (BSC 2001), use the wall heat fractions as outputted from the Ventilation Model to initialize their postclosure analyses

  5. Ventilation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaaret, Eimund

    Calculation procedures, used in the design of ventilating systems, which are especially suited for displacement ventilation in addition to linking it to mixing ventilation, are addressed. The two zone flow model is considered and the steady state and transient solutions are addressed. Different methods of supplying air are discussed, and different types of air flow are considered: piston flow, plane flow and radial flow. An evaluation model for ventilation systems is presented.

  6. Industrial ventilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodfellow, H. D.

    Industrial ventilation design methodology, using computers and using fluid dynamic models, is considered. It is noted that the design of a ventilation system must be incorporated into the plant design and layout at the earliest conceptual stage of the project. A checklist of activities concerning the methodology for the design of a ventilation system for a new facility is given. A flow diagram of the computer ventilation model shows a typical input, the initialization and iteration loop, and the output. The application of the fluid dynamic modeling techniques include external and internal flow fields, and individual sources of heat and contaminants. Major activities for a ventilation field test program are also addressed.

  7. Mine ventilation engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, C.J.

    1981-01-01

    This book on mine ventilation covers psychometrics, airflow through roadways and ducts, natural ventilation, fans, instruments, ventilation surveys, auxiliary ventilation, air quality, and planning and economics.

  8. Noninvasive ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabatin, J T; Gay, P C

    1999-08-01

    Noninvasive ventilation refers to the delivery of assisted ventilatory support without the use of an endotracheal tube. Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) can be delivered by using a volume-controlled ventilator, a pressure-controlled ventilator, a bilevel positive airway pressure ventilator, or a continuous positive airway pressure device. During the past decade, there has been a resurgence in the use of noninvasive ventilation, fueled by advances in technology and clinical trials evaluating its use. Several manufacturers produce portable devices that are simple to operate. This review describes the equipment, techniques, and complications associated with NPPV and also the indications for both short-term and long-term applications. NPPV clearly represents an important addition to the techniques available to manage patients with respiratory failure. Future clinical trials evaluating its many clinical applications will help to define populations of patients most apt to benefit from this type of treatment.

  9. Ventilation effectiveness

    CERN Document Server

    Mathisen, Hans Martin; Nielsen, Peter V; Moser, Alfred

    2004-01-01

    Improving the ventilation effectiveness allows the indoor air quality to be significantly enhanced without the need for higher air changes in the building, thereby avoiding the higher costs and energy consumption associated with increasing the ventilation rates. This Guidebook provides easy-to-understand descriptions of the indices used to mesure the performance of a ventilation system and which indices to use in different cases.

  10. Displacement Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    Displacement ventilation is an interesting new type of air distribution principle which should be considered in connection with design of comfort ventilation in both smal1 and large spaces. Research activities on displacement ventilation are large all over the world and new knowledge of design...... methods appears continuously. This book gives an easy introduction to the basis of displacement ventilation and the chapters are written in the order which is used in a design procedure. The main text is extended by five appendices which show some of the new research activities taking place at Aalborg...

  11. Demand Controlled Ventilation and Classroom Ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mendell, Mark J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Davies, Molly [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Eliseeva, Ekaterina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Faulkner, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hong, Tienzen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sullivan, Douglas P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-05-01

    This document summarizes a research effort on demand controlled ventilation and classroom ventilation. The research on demand controlled ventilation included field studies and building energy modeling.

  12. Demand controlled ventilation and classroom ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mendell, Mark J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Davies, Molly [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Eliseeva, Ekaterina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Faulkner, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hong, Tienzen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sullivan, Douglas P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-01-06

    This document summarizes a research effort on demand controlled ventilation and classroom ventilation. The research on demand controlled ventilation included field studies and building energy modeling.

  13. Radioaerosol ventilation imaging in ventilator-dependent patients. Technical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vezina, W.; Chamberlain, M.; Vinitski, S.; King, M.; Nicholson, R.; Morgan, W.K.

    1985-01-01

    The differentiation of pulmonary embolism (PE) from regional ventilatory abnormalities accompanied by reduced perfusion requires contemporary perfusion and ventilation studies. Distinguishing these conditions in ventilator-dependent patients is aided by administering a Tc-99m aerosol to characterize regional ventilation, and by performing a conventional Tc-99m MAA perfusion study. The technique uses a simple in-house constructed apparatus. Simple photographic techniques suffice, but computer subtraction of perfusion from the combined perfusion-ventilation image renders interpretation easier if aerosol administration follows perfusion imaging. Multiple defects can be examined in a single study. Excluding normal or near-normal perfusion studies, PE was thought to be present in eight of 16 patients after perfusion imaging alone, but in only one of eight after added aerosol imaging. Angiography confirmed the diagnosis in that patient. Of the eight patients who had abnormal perfusion but were thought unlikely to have PE from the perfusion study alone, two had normal ventilation, and subsequently were shown to have PE by angiography. Because angiography was only performed on patients who were thought to have a high probability of PE on sequential perfusion-ventilation imaging, the true incidence of PE may have been higher. Aerosol ventilation imaging is a useful adjunct to perfusion imaging in patients on ventilators. It requires an efficient delivery system, particularly if aerosol administration follows perfusion imaging, as it does in this study

  14. Ventilation Effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mundt, M.; Mathisen, H. M.; Moser, M.

    Improving the ventilation effectiveness allows the indoor air quality to be significantly enhanced without the need for higher air changes in the building, thereby avoiding the higher costs and energy consumption associated with increasing the ventilation rates. This Guidebook provides easy-to-un...

  15. Behovstyret ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afshari, Alireza; Heiselberg, Per; Reinhold, Claus

    2010-01-01

    I en nylig afsluttet undersøgelse er der udført en række målinger på otte udvalgte børneinstitutioner. Fire af disse med mekanisk ventilation og fire med naturlig ventilation. Formålet er at udvide den erfaringsbaserede viden om funktionen af naturlige og mekaniske ventilationsløsninger i...

  16. Ventilation Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, H.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis and model report (AMR) for the Ventilation Model is to analyze the effects of pre-closure continuous ventilation in the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) emplacement drifts and provide heat removal data to support EBS design. It will also provide input data (initial conditions, and time varying boundary conditions) for the EBS post-closure performance assessment and the EBS Water Distribution and Removal Process Model. The objective of the analysis is to develop, describe, and apply calculation methods and models that can be used to predict thermal conditions within emplacement drifts under forced ventilation during the pre-closure period. The scope of this analysis includes: (1) Provide a general description of effects and heat transfer process of emplacement drift ventilation. (2) Develop a modeling approach to simulate the impacts of pre-closure ventilation on the thermal conditions in emplacement drifts. (3) Identify and document inputs to be used for modeling emplacement ventilation. (4) Perform calculations of temperatures and heat removal in the emplacement drift. (5) Address general considerations of the effect of water/moisture removal by ventilation on the repository thermal conditions. The numerical modeling in this document will be limited to heat-only modeling and calculations. Only a preliminary assessment of the heat/moisture ventilation effects and modeling method will be performed in this revision. Modeling of moisture effects on heat removal and emplacement drift temperature may be performed in the future

  17. Liquid Ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qutaiba A. Tawfic

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mammals have lungs to breathe air and they have no gills to breath liquids. When the surface tension at the air-liquid interface of the lung increases, as in acute lung injury, scientists started to think about filling the lung with fluid instead of air to reduce the surface tension and facilitate ventilation. Liquid ventilation (LV is a technique of mechanical ventilation in which the lungs are insufflated with an oxygenated perfluorochemical liquid rather than an oxygen-containing gas mixture. The use of perfluorochemicals, rather than nitrogen, as the inert carrier of oxygen and carbon dioxide offers a number of theoretical advantages for the treatment of acute lung injury. In addition, there are non-respiratory applications with expanding potential including pulmonary drug delivery and radiographic imaging. The potential for multiple clinical applications for liquid-assisted ventilation will be clarified and optimized in future. Keywords: Liquid ventilation; perfluorochemicals; perfluorocarbon; respiratory distress; surfactant.

  18. Ventilative Cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Kolokotroni, Maria

    This report, by venticool, summarises the outcome of the work of the initial working phase of IEA ECB Annex 62 Ventilative Cooling and is based on the findings in the participating countries. It presents a summary of the first official Annex 62 report that describes the state-of-the-art of ventil......This report, by venticool, summarises the outcome of the work of the initial working phase of IEA ECB Annex 62 Ventilative Cooling and is based on the findings in the participating countries. It presents a summary of the first official Annex 62 report that describes the state......-of-the-art of ventilative cooling potentials and limitations, its consideration in current energy performance regulations, available building components and control strategies and analysis methods and tools. In addition, the report provides twenty six examples of operational buildings using ventilative cooling ranging from...

  19. Office of Inspector General List of Excluded Individuals and Entities

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The objective is to ensure that providers who bill Federal health care programs do not submit claims for services furnished, ordered or prescribed by an excluded...

  20. Healthcare Technology Management (HTM) of mechanical ventilators by clinical engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Jun; Nakane, Masaki; Kawamae, Kaneyuki

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical ventilator failures expose patients to unacceptable risks, and maintaining mechanical ventilator safety is an important issue. We examined the usefulness of maintaining mechanical ventilators by clinical engineers (CEs) using a specialized calibrator. These evaluations and the ability to make in-house repairs proved useful for obviating the need to rent ventilators which, in turn, might prove faulty themselves. The CEs' involvement in maintaining mechanical ventilators is desirable, ensures prompt service, and, most importantly, enhances safe management of mechanical ventilators.

  1. ASME N511-19XX, Standard for periodic in-service testing of nuclear air treatment, heating, ventilating and air conditioning systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    A draft version of the Standard is presented in this document. The Standard covers the requirements for periodic in-service testing of nuclear safety-related air treatment, heating, ventilating, and air conditioning systems in nuclear facilities. The Standard provides a basis for the development of test programs and does not include acceptance criteria, except in cases where the results of one test influence the performance of other tests. The Standard covers general inspection and test requirements, reference values, inspection and test requirements, generic tests, acceptance criteria, in-service test requirements, testing following an abnormal incident, corrective action requirements, and quality assurance. Mandatory appendices provide a visual inspection checklist and four test procedures. Non-mandatory appendices provide additional information and guidance on mounting frame pressure leak test procedure, corrective action, challenge gas substitute selection criteria, and test program development. 8 refs., 10 tabs.

  2. ASME N511-19XX, Standard for periodic in-service testing of nuclear air treatment, heating, ventilating and air conditioning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    A draft version of the Standard is presented in this document. The Standard covers the requirements for periodic in-service testing of nuclear safety-related air treatment, heating, ventilating, and air conditioning systems in nuclear facilities. The Standard provides a basis for the development of test programs and does not include acceptance criteria, except in cases where the results of one test influence the performance of other tests. The Standard covers general inspection and test requirements, reference values, inspection and test requirements, generic tests, acceptance criteria, in-service test requirements, testing following an abnormal incident, corrective action requirements, and quality assurance. Mandatory appendices provide a visual inspection checklist and four test procedures. Non-mandatory appendices provide additional information and guidance on mounting frame pressure leak test procedure, corrective action, challenge gas substitute selection criteria, and test program development. 8 refs., 10 tabs

  3. Liquid ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Suman; Paswan, Anil; Prakas, S

    2014-01-01

    Human have lungs to breathe air and they have no gills to breath liquids like fish. When the surface tension at the air-liquid interface of the lung increases as in acute lung injury, scientists started to think about filling the lung with fluid instead of air to reduce the surface tension and facilitate ventilation. Liquid ventilation (LV) is a technique of mechanical ventilation in which the lungs are insufflated with an oxygenated perfluorochemical liquid rather than an oxygen-containing gas mixture. The use of perfluorochemicals, rather than nitrogen as the inert carrier of oxygen and carbon dioxide offers a number of advantages for the treatment of acute lung injury. In addition, there are non-respiratory applications with expanding potential including pulmonary drug delivery and radiographic imaging. It is well-known that respiratory diseases are one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in intensive care unit. During the past few years several new modalities of treatment have been introduced. One of them and probably the most fascinating, is of LV. Partial LV, on which much of the existing research has concentrated, requires partial filling of lungs with perfluorocarbons (PFC's) and ventilation with gas tidal volumes using conventional mechanical ventilators. Various physico-chemical properties of PFC's make them the ideal media. It results in a dramatic improvement in lung compliance and oxygenation and decline in mean airway pressure and oxygen requirements. No long-term side-effect reported.

  4. Personalized ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2004-01-01

    microenvironment. Furthermore, HVAC systems should be designed to protect occupants from airborne transmission of infectious agents that may be present in exhaled air. Personalized ventilation is a new development in the field of HVAC and has the potential to fulfill the above requirements. This paper reviews...... existing knowledge on performance of personalized ventilation (PV) and on human response to it. The airflow interaction in the vicinity of the human body is analyzed and its impact on thermal comfort and inhaled air quality is discussed together with control strategies and the application of PV in practice...

  5. TS LOOP ALCOVE VENTILATION ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T.M. Lahnalampi

    2000-01-01

    The scope of this analysis is to examine the existing, constructor installed, physical ventilation installations located in each of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Topopah Springs (TS) Loop Alcoves No.1, No.2, No.3, No.4, No.6, and No.7. Alcove No.5 is excluded from the scope of this analysis since it is an A/E design system. Each ventilation installation will be analyzed for the purpose of determining if requirements for acceptance into the A/E design technical baseline have been met. The ventilation installations will be evaluated using Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standards and Exploratory Studies Facility Design Requirements (ESFDR) (YMP 1997) requirements. The end product will be a technical analysis that will define ventilation installation compliance issues, any outstanding field changes, and use-as-is design deviations that are required to bring the ventilation installations into compliance with requirements for acceptance into the A/E design technical baseline. The analysis will provide guidance for alcove ventilation component design modifications to be developed to correct any deficient components that do not meet minimum requirements and standards

  6. Displacement Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Erik; Mattsson, Magnus; Sandberg, Mats

    Full-scale experiments were made in a displacement ventilated room with two breathing thermal manikins to study the effect of movements and breathing on the vertical contaminant distribution, and on the personal exposure of occupants. Concentrations were measured with tracer gas equipment...

  7. Mixing Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kandzia, Claudia; Kosonen, Risto; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    In this guidebook most of the known and used in practice methods for achieving mixing air distribution are discussed. Mixing ventilation has been applied to many different spaces providing fresh air and thermal comfort to the occupants. Today, a design engineer can choose from large selection...

  8. Low-energy mechanical ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Claus Wessel; Hviid, Christian Anker

    2014-01-01

    and with as little energy consumption as 41.1 kWh/m2/year including heating and all building services with no use of renewable energy such as PVcells or solar heating. One of the key means of reaching the objectives was to implement mechanical ventilation with low pressure loss and therefore low energy consumption....... The project consists of two buildings, building one is 6 stories high, and building two is 4 stories high. The buildings have a gross area of 50,500 m2 including underground parking. The ventilation and indoor climate concept was to use mechanical ventilation together with mechanical cooling and fanassisted......, with an average of 1.1 kJ/m3. The yearly mean SFP based on estimated runtime is approx. 0.8 kJ/m3. The case shows the unlocked potential that lies within mechanical ventilation for nearzero energy consuming buildings....

  9. Ventilator-driven xenon ventilation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chilcoat, R.T.; Thomas, F.D.; Gerson, J.I.

    1984-01-01

    A modification of a common commercial Xe-133 ventilation device is described for mechanically assisted ventilation imaging. The patient's standard ventilator serves as the power source controlling the ventilatory rate and volume during the xenon study, but the gases in the two systems are not intermixed. This avoids contamination of the ventilator with radioactive xenon. Supplemental oxygen and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) are provided if needed. The system can be converted quickly for conventional studies with spontaneous respiration

  10. 21 CFR 868.5935 - External negative pressure ventilator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false External negative pressure ventilator. 868.5935 Section 868.5935 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... ventilator. (a) Identification. An external negative pressure ventilator (e.g., iron lung, cuirass) is a...

  11. Diffuse Ceiling Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Yu, Tao; Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    with conventional ventilation systems (mixing or displacement ventilation), diffuse ceiling ventilation can significantly reduce or even eliminate draught risk in the occupied zone. Moreover, this ventilation system presents a promising opportunity for energy saving, because of the low pressure loss, extended free...

  12. Diffuse ceiling ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen

    Diffuse ceiling ventilation is an innovative ventilation concept where the suspended ceiling serves as air diffuser to supply fresh air into the room. Compared with conventional ventilation systems, diffuse ceiling ventilation can significantly reduce or even eliminate draught risk due to the low...

  13. Variable mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontela, Paula Caitano; Prestes, Renata Bernardy; Forgiarini, Luiz Alberto; Friedman, Gilberto

    2017-01-01

    To review the literature on the use of variable mechanical ventilation and the main outcomes of this technique. Search, selection, and analysis of all original articles on variable ventilation, without restriction on the period of publication and language, available in the electronic databases LILACS, MEDLINE®, and PubMed, by searching the terms "variable ventilation" OR "noisy ventilation" OR "biologically variable ventilation". A total of 36 studies were selected. Of these, 24 were original studies, including 21 experimental studies and three clinical studies. Several experimental studies reported the beneficial effects of distinct variable ventilation strategies on lung function using different models of lung injury and healthy lungs. Variable ventilation seems to be a viable strategy for improving gas exchange and respiratory mechanics and preventing lung injury associated with mechanical ventilation. However, further clinical studies are necessary to assess the potential of variable ventilation strategies for the clinical improvement of patients undergoing mechanical ventilation.

  14. VENTILATION NEEDS DURING CONSTRUCTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C.R. Gorrell

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to determine ventilation needs during construction and development of the subsurface repository and develop systems to satisfy those needs. For this analysis, construction is defined as pre-emplacement excavation and development is excavation that takes place simultaneously with emplacement. The three options presented in the ''Overall Development and Emplacement Ventilation Systems'' analysis (Reference 5.5) for development ventilation will be applied to construction ventilation in this analysis as well as adding new and updated ventilation factors to each option for both construction and development. The objective of this analysis is to develop a preferred ventilation system to support License Application Design. The scope of this analysis includes: (1) Description of ventilation conditions; (2) Ventilation factors (fire hazards, dust control, construction logistics, and monitoring and control systems); (3) Local ventilation alternatives; (4) Global ventilation options; and (5) Evaluation of options

  15. 24 CFR 3280.7 - Excluded structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excluded structures. 3280.7 Section... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS General § 3280.7 Excluded structures. Certain structures may be excluded from these Standards as modular homes under 24 CFR 3282.12. [52 FR 4581, Feb. 12...

  16. Variation in Definition of Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Louise; McGinlay, Michael; Amin, Reshma; Burns, Karen Ea; Connolly, Bronwen; Hart, Nicholas; Jouvet, Philippe; Katz, Sherri; Leasa, David; Mawdsley, Cathy; McAuley, Danny F; Schultz, Marcus J; Blackwood, Bronagh

    2017-10-01

    Consistency of definitional criteria for terminology applied to describe subject cohorts receiving mechanical ventilation within ICU and post-acute care settings is important for understanding prevalence, risk stratification, effectiveness of interventions, and projections for resource allocation. Our objective was to quantify the application and definition of terms for prolonged mechanical ventilation. We conducted a scoping review of studies (all designs except single-case study) reporting a study population (adult and pediatric) using the term prolonged mechanical ventilation or a synonym. We screened 5,331 references, reviewed 539 full-text references, and excluded 120. Of the 419 studies (representing 38 countries) meeting inclusion criteria, 297 (71%) reported data on a heterogeneous subject cohort, and 66 (16%) included surgical subjects only (46 of those 66, 70% cardiac surgery). Other studies described COPD (16, 4%), trauma (22, 5%), neuromuscular (17, 4%), and sepsis (1, 0.2%) cohorts. A total of 741 terms were used to refer to the 419 study cohorts. The most common terms were: prolonged mechanical ventilation (253, 60%), admission to specialized unit (107, 26%), and long-term mechanical ventilation (79, 19%). Some authors (282, 67%) defined their cohorts based on duration of mechanical ventilation, with 154 studies (55%) using this as the sole criterion. We identified 37 different durations of ventilation ranging from 5 h to 1 y, with > 21 d being the most common (28 of 282, 7%). For studies describing a surgical cohort, minimum ventilation duration required for inclusion was ≥ 24 h for 20 of 66 studies (30%). More than half of all studies (237, 57%) did not provide a reason/rationale for definitional criteria used, with only 28 studies (7%) referring to a consensus definition. We conclude that substantial variation exists in the terminology and definitional criteria for cohorts of subjects receiving prolonged mechanical ventilation. Standardization of

  17. 48 CFR 52.247-7 - Freight Excluded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Freight Excluded. 52.247-7... AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.247-7 Freight... contracts for transportation or for transportation-related services when any commodities or types of...

  18. Patient-Ventilator Dyssynchrony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira-Markela Antonogiannaki

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In mechanically ventilated patients, assisted mechanical ventilation (MV is employed early, following the acute phase of critical illness, in order to eliminate the detrimental effects of controlled MV, most notably the development of ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction. Nevertheless, the benefits of assisted MV are often counteracted by the development of patient-ventilator dyssynchrony. Patient-ventilator dyssynchrony occurs when either the initiation and/or termination of mechanical breath is not in time agreement with the initiation and termination of neural inspiration, respectively, or if the magnitude of mechanical assist does not respond to the patient’s respiratory demand. As patient-ventilator dyssynchrony has been associated with several adverse effects and can adversely influence patient outcome, every effort should be made to recognize and correct this occurrence at bedside. To detect patient-ventilator dyssynchronies, the physician should assess patient comfort and carefully inspect the pressure- and flow-time waveforms, available on the ventilator screen of all modern ventilators. Modern ventilators offer several modifiable settings to improve patient-ventilator interaction. New proportional modes of ventilation are also very helpful in improving patient-ventilator interaction.

  19. Mechanical ventilator - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007240.htm Mechanical ventilator - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A mechanical ventilator is a machine that assists with breathing. ...

  20. Learning about ventilators

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000458.htm Learning about ventilators To use the sharing features on this page, ... fixed or changed. How Does Being on a Ventilator Feel? A person receives medicine to remain comfortable ...

  1. VENTILATION TECHNOLOGY SYSTEMS ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a project to develop a systems analysis of ventilation technology and provide a state-of-the-art assessment of ventilation and indoor air quality (IAQ) research needs. (NOTE: Ventilation technology is defined as the hardware necessary to bring outdoor ...

  2. Ventilation of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    In this work an examination is made of ventilation problems in nuclear installations, of the fuel cycle or the handling of radioactive compounds. The study covers the detection of radioactive aerosols, purification, iodine trapping, ventilation equipment and its maintenance, engineering, safety of ventilation, fire efficiency, operation, regulations and normalization [fr

  3. 7 CFR 58.137 - Excluded milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excluded milk. 58.137 Section 58.137 Agriculture... Milk § 58.137 Excluded milk. A plant shall not accept milk from a producer if: (a) The milk has been in...) Three of the last five milk samples have exceeded the maximum bacterial estimate of 500,000 per ml...

  4. 75 FR 49528 - Freescale Semiconductor, Inc., Networking and Multimedia Group (“NMG”) Excluding the Multimedia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... services for chips used in networking and multimedia products. The company reports that workers leased from... Multimedia Applications Division, including on-site workers of Synergy Services, Craftcorp, Directions..., Inc., Networking and Multimedia Group (``NMG'') Excluding the Multimedia Applications Division...

  5. 7 CFR 1794.21 - Categorically excluded proposals without an ER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES AND PROCEDURES... or the substitution of one fuel combustion technology with another is excluded from this... providing service to customers or facilities such as stock tanks and irrigation pumps. (26) New bulk...

  6. Iatrogenic pneumothorax related to mechanical ventilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chien-Wei; Sun, Shu-Fen

    2014-01-01

    Pneumothorax is a potentially lethal complication associated with mechanical ventilation. Most of the patients with pneumothorax from mechanical ventilation have underlying lung diseases; pneumothorax is rare in intubated patients with normal lungs. Tension pneumothorax is more common in ventilated patients with prompt recognition and treatment of pneumothorax being important to minimize morbidity and mortality. Underlying lung diseases are associated with ventilator-related pneumothorax with pneumothoraces occurring most commonly during the early phase of mechanical ventilation. The diagnosis of pneumothorax in critical illness is established from the patients’ history, physical examination and radiological investigation, although the appearances of a pneumothorax on a supine radiograph may be different from the classic appearance on an erect radiograph. For this reason, ultrasonography is beneficial for excluding the diagnosis of pneumothorax. Respiration-dependent movement of the visceral pleura and lung surface with respect to the parietal pleura and chest wall can be easily visualized with transthoracic sonography given that the presence of air in the pleural space prevents sonographic visualization of visceral pleura movements. Mechanically ventilated patients with a pneumothorax require tube thoracostomy placement because of the high risk of tension pneumothorax. Small-bore catheters are now preferred in the majority of ventilated patients. Furthermore, if there are clinical signs of a tension pneumothorax, emergency needle decompression followed by tube thoracostomy is widely advocated. Patients with pneumothorax related to mechanical ventilation who have tension pneumothorax, a higher acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II score or PaO2/FiO2 < 200 mmHg were found to have higher mortality. PMID:24834397

  7. Ventilation and ventilation/perfusion ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valind, S.O.

    1989-01-01

    The thesis is based on five different papers. The labelling of specific tracer compounds with positron emitting radionuclides enables a range of structural, physiological and biochemical parameters in the lung to be measured non-invasively, using positron emission tomography. This concept affords a unique opportunity for in vivo studies of different expressions of pulmonary pathophysiology at the regional level. The present thesis describes the application of positron emission tomography to the measurements of ventilation and ventilation/perfusion ratios using inert gas tracers, neon-19 and nitrogen-13 respectively. The validity of the methods applied was investigated with respect to the transport of inert gas tracers in the human lung. Both ventilation and the ventilation/perfusion ratio may be obtained with errors less than 10 % in the normal lung. In disease, however, errors may increase in those instances where the regional ventilation is very low or the intra-regional gas flow distribution is markedly nonuniform. A 2-3 fold increase in ventilation was demonstrated in normal nonsmoking subjects going from ventral to dorsal regions in the supine posture. These large regional differences could be well explained by the intrinsic elastic properties of lung tissue, considering the gravitational gradient in transpulmonary pressure. In asymptomatic smokers substantial regional ventilatroy abnormalities were found whilst the regional gas volume was similar in smokers and nonsmokers. The uncoupling between ventilation and gas volume probably reflects inflammatory changes in the airways. The regional differences in dV/dt/dQ/dt were relatively small and blood flow was largely matched to ventilation in the supine posture. However, small regions of lung with very low ventilation, unmatched by blood flow commonly exists in the most dependent parts of the lung in both smokers and nonsmokers. (29 illustrations, 7 tables, 113 references)

  8. Excluded Volume Effects in Gene Stretching

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, Pui-Man

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the effects excluded volume on the stretching of a single DNA in solution. We find that for small force F, the extension h is not linear in F but proportion to F^{\\chi}, with \\chi=(1-\

  9. Complications of mechanical ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drašković Biljana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical ventilation of the lungs, as an important therapeutic measure, cannot be avoided in critically ill patients. However, when machines take over some of vital functions there is always a risk of complications and accidents. Complications associated with mechanical ventilation can be divided into: 1 airway-associated complications; 2 complications in the response of patients to mechanical ventilation; and 3 complications related to the patient’s response to the device for mechanical ventilation. Complications of artificial airway may be related to intubation and extubation or the endotracheal tube. Complications of mechanical ventilation, which arise because of the patient’s response to mechanical ventilation, may primarily cause significant side effects to the lungs. During the last two decades it was concluded that mechanical ventilation can worsen or cause acute lung injury. Mechanical ventilation may increase the alveolar/capillary permeability by overdistension of the lungs (volutrauma, it can exacerbate lung damage due to the recruitment/derecruitment of collapsed alveoli (atelectrauma and may cause subtle damages due to the activation of inflammatory processes (biotrauma. Complications caused by mechanical ventilation, beside those involving the lungs, can also have significant effects on other organs and organic systems, and can be a significant factor contributing to the increase of morbidity and mortality in critically ill of mechanically ventilated patients. Complications are fortunately rare and do not occur in every patient, but due to their seriousness and severity they require extensive knowledge, experience and responsibility by health-care workers.

  10. Evaluation of ventilators for mouthpiece ventilation in neuromuscular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khirani, Sonia; Ramirez, Adriana; Delord, Vincent; Leroux, Karl; Lofaso, Frédéric; Hautot, Solène; Toussaint, Michel; Orlikowski, David; Louis, Bruno; Fauroux, Brigitte

    2014-09-01

    Daytime mouthpiece ventilation is a useful adjunct to nocturnal noninvasive ventilation (NIV) in patients with neuromuscular disease. The aims of the study were to analyze the practice of mouthpiece ventilation and to evaluate the performance of ventilators for mouthpiece ventilation. Practice of mouthpiece ventilation was assessed by a questionnaire, and the performance of 6 home ventilators with mouthpiece ventilation was assessed in a bench test using 24 different conditions per ventilator: 3 mouthpieces, a child and an adult patient profile, and 4 ventilatory modes. Questionnaires were obtained from 30 subjects (mean age 33 ± 11 y) using NIV for 12 ± 7 y. Fifteen subjects used NIV for > 20 h/day, and 11 were totally ventilator-dependent. The subject-reported benefits of mouthpiece ventilation were a reduction in dyspnea (73%) and fatigue (93%) and an improvement in speech (43%) and eating (27%). The bench study showed that none of the ventilators, even those with mouthpiece ventilation software, were able to deliver mouthpiece ventilation without alarms and/or autotriggering in each condition. Alarms and/or ineffective triggering or autotriggering were observed in 135 of the 198 conditions. The occurrence of alarms was more common with a large mouthpiece without a filter compared to a small mouthpiece with a filter (P ventilator. Subjects are satisfied with mouthpiece ventilation. Alarms are common with home ventilators, although less common in those with mouthpiece ventilation software. Improvements in home ventilators are needed to facilitate the expansion of mouthpiece ventilation. Copyright © 2014 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  11. Protective garment ventilation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, R. (Inventor)

    1970-01-01

    A method and apparatus for ventilating a protective garment, space suit system, and/or pressure suits to maintain a comfortable and nontoxic atmosphere within is described. The direction of flow of a ventilating and purging gas in portions of the garment may be reversed in order to compensate for changes in environment and activity of the wearer. The entire flow of the ventilating gas can also be directed first to the helmet associated with the garment.

  12. Ventilation rates and health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundell, Jan; Levin, H; Nazaroff, W W

    2011-01-01

    and health effects to inform the relationship. Consistency was found across multiple investigations and different epidemiologic designs for different populations. Multiple health endpoints show similar relationships with ventilation rate. There is biological plausibility for an association of health outcomes...... studies of the relationship between ventilation rates and health, especially in diverse climates, in locations with polluted outdoor air and in buildings other than offices. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Ventilation with outdoor air plays an important role influencing human exposures to indoor pollutants...

  13. Ventilation of uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francois, Y.; Pradel, J.; Zettwoog, P.; Dumas, M.

    1975-01-01

    In the first part of the paper the authors describe the ventilation of French mines in terms of the primary ventilation system, which brings the outside air close to the working places using the overall structure of the mine to form the airways, and the secondary ventilation system, which is for the distribution of the primary air or for the ventilation of the development drifts and blind tunnels. Brief mention is made of the French regulations on the ventilation of mines in general and uranium mines in particular. The authors describe the equipment used and discuss the installed capacities and air flow per man and per working place. The difficulties encountered in properly ventilating various types of working places are mentioned, such as sub-level development drifts, reinforced stopes, and storage chambers with an artificial crown. The second part of the paper is devoted to computer calculations of the primary ventilation system. It is explained why the Commissariat a l'energie atomique has found it necessary to make these calculations. Without restating the mathematical theories underlying the methods employed, the authors demonstrate how simple measuring instruments and a small-size computer can be used to solve the ventilation problems arising in French mines. Emphasis is given to the layout of the ventilation system and to air flow and negative pressure measurements at the base of the mine. The authors show how calculations can be applied to new heading operations, a change in resistance, the replacement or addition of a ventilator, and a new air inlet or outlet. The authors come to the conclusion that since ventilation is at present the most reliable way of avoiding the pollution of mines, a thorough knowledge of the capabilities in this respect can often help improve working conditions. Despite the progress made, however, constant surveillance of the ventilation systems in uranium mines by a separate team with no responsibility for production problems is

  14. Ventilation of uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francois, Y.; Pradel, J.; Zettwoog, P.; Dumas, M.

    1975-01-01

    In the first part of the paper the authors describe the ventilation of French mines in terms of the primary ventilation system, which brings the outside air close to the working places using the overall structure of the mine to form the airways, and the secondary ventilation system, which is for the distribution of the primary air or for the ventilation of the development drifts and blind tunnels. Brief mention is made of the French regulations on the ventilation of mines in general and uranium mines in particular. The authors describe the equipment used and discuss the installed capacities and air flow per man and per working place. The difficulties encountered in properly ventilating various types of working places are mentioned, such as sublevel development drifts, reinforced stopes, and storage chambers with an artificial crown. The second part of the paper is devoted to computer calculations of the primary ventilation system. It is explained why the Commissariat a l'energie atomique has found it necessary to make these calculations. Without restating the mathematical theories underlying the methods employed, the authors demonstrate how simple measuring instruments and a small-size computer can be used to solve the ventilation problems arising in French mines. Emphasis is given to the layout of the ventilation system and to air flow and negative pressure measurements at the base of the mine. The authors show how calculations can be applied to new heading operations, a change in resistance, the replacement or addition of a ventilator, and a new air inlet or outlet. The authors come to the conclusion that since ventilation is at present the most reliable way of avoiding the pollution of mines, a thorough knowledge of the capabilities in this respect can often help improve working conditions. Despite the progress made, however, constant surveillance of the ventilation systems in uranium mines by a separate team with no responsibility for production problems is

  15. Design Principles for Hybrid Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per

    For many years mechanical and natural ventilation systems have developed separately. Naturally, the next step in this development is the development of ventilation concepts that utilize and combine the best features from each system to create a new type of ventilation system -Hybrid Ventilation. ....... The hybrid ventilation concepts, design challenges and - principles are discussed and illustrated by four building examples....

  16. Natural Ventilation in Atria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svidt, Kjeld; Heiselberg, Per; Hendriksen, Ole Juhl

    This case study comprises a monitoring programme as well as a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis of a natural ventilated atrium. The purpose has been to analyse the performance of a typical natural ventilation system in Denmark under both summer and winter conditions.......This case study comprises a monitoring programme as well as a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis of a natural ventilated atrium. The purpose has been to analyse the performance of a typical natural ventilation system in Denmark under both summer and winter conditions....

  17. What is the Right to Exclude Immigrants?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2010-01-01

    It is normally taken for granted that states have a right to control immigration into their territory. When immigration is raised as a normative issue two questions become salient, one about what the right to exclude is, and one about whether and how it might be justified. This paper considers...... the first question. The paper starts by noting that standard debates about immigration have not addressed what the right to exclude is. Standard debates about immigration furthermore tend to result either in fairly strong cases for open borders or in denials that considerations of justice apply...... to immigration at all, which results in state discretion positions. This state of debate is both theoretically unsatisfactory and normatively implausible. The paper therefore explores an alternative approach to the right to exclude immigrants from the perspective of recent debates about the territorial rights...

  18. Styret naturlig ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morsing, S.; Strøm, J.S.

    Publikationen præsenterer et generelt dimensioneringsgrundlag for naturlig ventilation i husdyrstalde. Det er kontrolleret ved forsøg i slagtesvinestalde, hvor det ligeledes er undersøgt hvilken temperaturstabilitet, der kan opnås ved naturlig ventilation, samt produktions- og adfærdsmæssige...

  19. Diffuse Ceiling Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Heiselberg, Per; Nielsen, Peter V.

    2014-01-01

    As a novel air distribution system, diffuse ceiling ventilation combines the suspended acoustic ceiling with ventilation supply. Due to the low-impulse supply from the large ceiling area, the system does not generate draught when supplying cold air. However, heat sources play an important role...

  20. Our grandmothers, excluded from history, preservers and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our grandmothers, excluded from history, preservers and transmitters of indegenous values: ecomaternalistic approach. ... Journal of Religion and Human Relations ... It further calls for the retrieval of the said hidden histories of women which would hopefully be a lesson for the contemporary and future women.

  1. 21 CFR 1310.08 - Excluded transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excluded transactions. 1310.08 Section 1310.08 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RECORDS AND REPORTS OF LISTED...) Colombia (6) Ecuador (7) French Guiana (8) Guyana (9) Panama (10) Paraguay (11) Peru (12) Suriname (13...

  2. Pulmonary perfusion ''without ventilation''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, C.N.; Sziklas, J.J.; Spencer, R.P.; Rosenberg, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    An 88-yr-old man, with prior left upper lobectomy and phrenic nerve injury, had a ventilation/perfusion lung image. Both wash-in and equilibrium ventilation images showed no radioactive gas in the left lung. Nevertheless, the left lung was perfused. A similar result was obtained on a repeat study 8 days later. Delayed images, during washout, showed some radioactive gas in the left lung. Nearly absent ventilation (but continued perfusion) of that lung might have been related to altered gas dynamics brought about by the prior lobectomy, a submucosal bronchial lesion, phrenic nerve damage, and limited motion of the left part of the diaphragm. This case raises the issue of the degree of ventilation (and the phase relationship between the lungs) required for the entry of radioactive gas into a diseased lung, and the production of a ''reversed ventilation/perfusion mismatch.''

  3. Realtime mine ventilation simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDaniel, K.H.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a Windows based, interactive mine ventilation simulation software program at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). To enhance the operation of the underground ventilation system, Westinghouse Electric Corporation developed the program called WIPPVENT. While WIPPVENT includes most of the functions of the commercially available simulation program VNETPC and uses the same subroutine to calculate airflow distributions, the user interface has been completely rewritten as a Windows application with screen graphics. WIPPVENT is designed to interact with WIPP ventilation monitoring systems through the sitewise Central monitoring System. Data can be continuously collected from the Underground Ventilation Remote Monitoring and Control System (e.g., air quantity and differential pressure) and the Mine Weather Stations (psychrometric data). Furthermore, WIPPVENT incorporates regulator characteristic curves specific to the site. The program utilizes this data to create and continuously update a REAL-TIME ventilation model. This paper discusses the design, key features, and interactive capabilities of WIPPVENT

  4. 21 CFR 1.362 - What records are excluded from this subpart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What records are excluded from this subpart? 1.362 Section 1.362 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... Requirements § 1.362 What records are excluded from this subpart? The establishment and maintenance of records...

  5. NNDSS - Table II. Salmonellosis (excluding typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever) to Shigellosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Salmonellosis (excluding typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever) to Shigellosis - 2018. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable...

  6. Excluding joint probabilities from quantum theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahverdyan, Armen E.; Danageozian, Arshag

    2018-03-01

    Quantum theory does not provide a unique definition for the joint probability of two noncommuting observables, which is the next important question after the Born's probability for a single observable. Instead, various definitions were suggested, e.g., via quasiprobabilities or via hidden-variable theories. After reviewing open issues of the joint probability, we relate it to quantum imprecise probabilities, which are noncontextual and are consistent with all constraints expected from a quantum probability. We study two noncommuting observables in a two-dimensional Hilbert space and show that there is no precise joint probability that applies for any quantum state and is consistent with imprecise probabilities. This contrasts with theorems by Bell and Kochen-Specker that exclude joint probabilities for more than two noncommuting observables, in Hilbert space with dimension larger than two. If measurement contexts are included into the definition, joint probabilities are not excluded anymore, but they are still constrained by imprecise probabilities.

  7. Clean Water Act (excluding Section 404)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-15

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Clean Water Act (excluding Section 404) and those regulations that implement the statutes and appear to be most relevant to US Department of Energy (DOE) activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Updates that include important new requirements will be provided periodically. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, EH-231 (202/586-2609).

  8. Extended Excluded Volume: Its Origin and Consequences

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nezbeda, Ivo; Rouha, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 85, č. 1 (2013), s. 201-210 ISSN 0033-4545. [International Conference on Solution Chemistry (ICSC-32) /32./. La Grande Motte, 28.08.2011-02.09.2011] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400720802 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : excluded volume * partial molar volume * primitive models Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.112, year: 2013

  9. Ventilating Air-Conditioner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Khanh

    1994-01-01

    Air-conditioner provides ventilation designed to be used alone or incorporated into cooling or heating system operates efficiently only by recirculating stale air within building. Energy needed to operate overall ventilating cooling or heating system slightly greater than operating nonventilating cooling or heating system. Helps to preserve energy efficiency while satisfying need for increased forced ventilation to prevent accumulation of undesired gases like radon and formaldehyde. Provides fresh treated air to variety of confined spaces: hospital surgeries, laboratories, clean rooms, and printing shops and other places where solvents used. In mobile homes and portable classrooms, eliminates irritant chemicals exuded by carpets, panels, and other materials, ensuring healthy indoor environment for occupants.

  10. Ventilator associated pneumonia among patients on mechanical ventilation at tertiary care centres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafiq, M.Y.; Ikram, A.; Ayyub, M.

    2018-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) among patients on mechanical ventilation, and to identify the causative bacterial pathogens and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of isolated microorganisms in intensive care units of tertiary care settings. Study Design: Descriptive cross sectional. Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted at Microbiology Department, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP), Rawalpindi, from Dec 2014 to Aug 2015. Material and Methods: A total of 176 patients on mechanical ventilation were included in the study; patients having respiratory tract infection before putting on ventilator were excluded. Endotracheal aspirate (ETA) and Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples were collected aseptically from patients on mechanical ventilation on day zero i.e. the day on which the patient was put on ventilator to rule out any previous respiratory tract infection and then after 48 hours to observe the development of VAP. Samples were processed in the laboratory by standard culture techniques, pathogens were identified and their antibiotic susceptibility was performed as per CLSI guidelines. Results: Out of 176 patients on mechanical ventilation, 59 (33.5%) developed VAP. Acinetobacter baumanii being the predominant pathogen isolated from 32 (54.2%) patients followed by MRSA 11 (18.6%), Klebsiella pneumoniae 9 (15.2%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa 5 (8.47%) and Stenotrophomonas maltophila from 2 (3.38%) patients. Conclusion: Frequency of VAP is quite high in our setup, identification of causative bacterial pathogensand their antibiotic susceptibility pattern will not only help in providing effective treatment to the patients but will also help in the formulation of antibiogram according to local resistance patterns for empirical therapy and to reduce the morbidity and mortality. (author)

  11. Meeting Residential Ventilation Standards Through Dynamic Control of Ventilation Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Sherman, Max H.

    2011-01-01

    Existing ventilation standards, including American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 62.2, specify continuous operation of a defined mechanical ventilation system to provide minimum ventilation, with time-based intermittent operation as an option. This requirement ignores several factors and concerns including: other equipment such as household exhaust fans that might incidentally provide ventilation, negative impacts of ventilation when outd...

  12. Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of a ventilation and air conditioning system for the ECN3 experimental area and the TCC8 and GHN300 service tunnels and for the dismantling of the existing system

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of a ventilation and air conditioning system for the ECN3 experimental area and the TCC8 and GHN300 service tunnels and for the dismantling of the existing system

  13. Why We Ventilate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logue, Jennifer M.; Sherman, Max H.; Price, Phil N.; Singer, Brett C.

    2011-09-01

    It is widely accepted that ventilation is critical for providing good indoor air quality (IAQ) in homes. However, the definition of"good" IAQ, and the most effective, energy efficient methods for delivering it are still matters of research and debate. This paper presents the results of work done at the Lawrence Berkeley National Lab to identify the air pollutants that drive the need for ventilation as part of a larger effort to develop a health-based ventilation standard. First, we present results of a hazard analysis that identified the pollutants that most commonly reach concentrations in homes that exceed health-based standards or guidelines for chronic or acute exposures. Second, we present results of an impact assessment that identified the air pollutants that cause the most harm to the U.S. population from chronic inhalation in residences. Lastly, we describe the implications of our findings for developing effective ventilation standards.

  14. What Is a Ventilator?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... who are on ventilators for shorter periods. The advantage of this tube is that it can be ... other disease or condition. VAP is treated with antibiotics. You may need special antibiotics if the VAP ...

  15. Uranium mine ventilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katam, K.; Sudarsono

    1982-01-01

    Uranium mine ventilation system aimed basically to control and decreasing the air radioactivity in mine caused by the radon emanating from uranium ore. The control and decreasing the air ''age'' in mine, with adding the air consumption volume, increasing the air rate consumption, closing the mine-out area; using closed drainage system. Air consumption should be 60m 3 /minute for each 9m 2 uranium ore surfaces with ventilation rate of 15m/minute. (author)

  16. Fire, safety and ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindle, D.

    1999-02-01

    Correct ventilation in tunnel environments is vital for the comfort and safety of the people passing through. This article gives details of products from several manufacturers of safety rescue and fire fighting equipment, fire and fume detection equipment, special fire resistant materials, fire resistant hydraulic oils and fire dampers, and ventilation systems. Company addresses and fax numbers are supplied. 4 refs., 5 tabs., 10 photos.

  17. Daytime Mouthpiece for Continuous Noninvasive Ventilation in Individuals With Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bédard, Marie-Eve; McKim, Douglas A

    2016-10-01

    Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) is commonly used to provide ventilatory support for individuals with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Once 24-h ventilation is required, the decision between invasive tracheostomy ventilation and palliation is often faced. This study describes the use and outcomes of daytime mouthpiece ventilation added to nighttime mask ventilation for continuous NIV in subjects with ALS as an effective alternative. This was a retrospective study of 39 subjects with ALS using daytime mouthpiece ventilation over a 17-y period. Thirty-one subjects were successful with mouthpiece ventilation, 2 were excluded, 2 stopped because of lack of motivation, and 4 with bulbar subscores of the Revised Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale (b-ALSFRS-R) between 0 and 3 physically failed to use it consistently. No subject in the successful group had a b-ALSFRS-R score of NIV and mouthpiece ventilation were 648 (176-2,188) and 286 (41-1,769) d, respectively. Peak cough flow with lung-volume recruitment >180 L/min at initiation of mouthpiece ventilation was associated with a longer survival (637 ± 468 vs 240 ± 158 d (P = .01). Mouthpiece ventilation provides effective ventilation and prolonged survival for individuals with ALS requiring full-time ventilatory support and maintaining adequate bulbar function. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  18. Demand Controlled Ventilation in a Combined Ventilation and Radiator System

    OpenAIRE

    Hesaraki, Arefeh; Holmberg, Sture

    2013-01-01

    With growing concerns for efficient and sustainable energy treatment in buildings there is a need for balanced and intelligent ventilation solutions. This paper presents a strategy for demand controlled ventilation with ventilation radiators, a combined heating and ventilation system. The ventilation rate was decreased from normal requirements (per floor area) of 0.375 l·s-1·m-2 to 0.100 l·s-1·m-2 when the residence building was un-occupied. The energy saving potential due to decreased ventil...

  19. Clinical challenges in mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goligher, Ewan C; Ferguson, Niall D; Brochard, Laurent J

    2016-04-30

    Mechanical ventilation supports gas exchange and alleviates the work of breathing when the respiratory muscles are overwhelmed by an acute pulmonary or systemic insult. Although mechanical ventilation is not generally considered a treatment for acute respiratory failure per se, ventilator management warrants close attention because inappropriate ventilation can result in injury to the lungs or respiratory muscles and worsen morbidity and mortality. Key clinical challenges include averting intubation in patients with respiratory failure with non-invasive techniques for respiratory support; delivering lung-protective ventilation to prevent ventilator-induced lung injury; maintaining adequate gas exchange in severely hypoxaemic patients; avoiding the development of ventilator-induced diaphragm dysfunction; and diagnosing and treating the many pathophysiological mechanisms that impair liberation from mechanical ventilation. Personalisation of mechanical ventilation based on individual physiological characteristics and responses to therapy can further improve outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Spatial variability of mixing ratios of ammonia and tracer gases in a naturally ventilated dairy cow barn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mendes, Luciano B.; Edouard, Nadège; Ogink, Nico W.M.; Dooren, van Hendrik Jan C.; Fátima F. TinÔco, de Ilda; Mosquera Losada, Julio

    2015-01-01

    The use of the tracer gas ratio method to estimate emissions from naturally ventilated (NV) livestock barns excludes the need of monitoring ventilation rates. However, it requires accurate measurement of tracer release rate (QT) and a representative estimate of the mixing ratio between

  1. Ventilation of radioactive enclosures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caminade, F.; Laurent, H.

    1957-01-01

    Mechanical, physical and chemical manipulations on radioactive products must be carried out in properly ventilated enclosed places. The air extracted can only be discharged into the atmosphere after a correct filtration. The power of the ventilation systems is a function of the dimensions and purpose of the enclosure? The choice of types of filter is determined by the physical state and chemical nature of the radioactive materials to be manipulated. This study deals with the individual equipment of small installations: glove boxes, manipulation boxes with outside control and, if necessary, production chambers (maximum useful volume: 5 m 3 ). The performances of three types of 'ventilators', and the modifications provided by the addition of filters, are measured and compared. (author) [fr

  2. Mechanical ventilation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keszler, Martin

    2017-08-01

    Although only a small proportion of full term and late preterm infants require invasive respiratory support, they are not immune from ventilator-associated lung injury. The process of lung damage from mechanical ventilation is multifactorial and cannot be linked to any single variable. Atelectrauma and volutrauma have been identified as the most important and potentially preventable elements of lung injury. Respiratory support strategies for full term and late preterm infants have not been as thoroughly studied as those for preterm infants; consequently, a strong evidence base on which to make recommendations is lacking. The choice of modalities of support and ventilation strategies should be guided by the specific underlying pathophysiologic considerations and the ventilatory approach must be individualized for each patient based on the predominant pathophysiology at the time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Ventilator associated pneumonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellani, S; Nesci, M; Celotto, S; Lampati, L; Lucchini, A

    2003-04-01

    Ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) is a nosocomial lower respiratory tract infection that ensues in critically ill patients undergoing mechanical ventilation. The reported incidence of VAP varies between 9% and 68% with a mortality ranging between 33% and 71%. Two key factors are implicated in the pathogenesis of VAP: bacterial colonization of the upper digestive-respiratory tract and aspiration of oral secretions into the trachea. Preventive measurements are advocated to reduce the incidence of VAP, such as selective decontamination of the digestive tract (SDD), supraglottic aspiration and positioning. Prompt recognition and treatment of established VAP has also been demostrated to affect outcome. Therefore, the knowledge of risk factors associated with the development of VAP and the implementation of strategies to prevent, diagnose and treat VAP are mainstems in the nursing of mechanically ventilated patients.

  4. CFD and Ventilation Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Y.; Nielsen, Peter V.

    2011-01-01

    There has been a rapid growth of scientific literature on the application of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in the research of ventilation and indoor air science. With a 1000–10,000 times increase in computer hardware capability in the past 20 years, CFD has become an integral part...... of scientific research and engineering development of complex air distribution and ventilation systems in buildings. This review discusses the major and specific challenges of CFD in terms of turbulence modelling, numerical approximation, and boundary conditions relevant to building ventilation. We emphasize...... the growing need for CFD verification and validation, suggest on-going needs for analytical and experimental methods to support the numerical solutions, and discuss the growing capacity of CFD in opening up new research areas. We suggest that CFD has not become a replacement for experiment and theoretical...

  5. Auxiliary mine ventilation manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Workplace Safety North

    2010-01-01

    An adequate ventilation system is needed for air quality and handling in a mine and is comprised of many different pieces of equipment for removing contaminated air and supplying fresh air and thereby provide a satisfactory working environment. This manual highlights auxiliary ventilation systems made up of small fans, ducts, tubes, air movers, deflectors and additional air flow controls which distribute fresh air delivered by the primary system to all areas. A review of auxiliary ventilation is provided. Design, operation and management issues are discussed and guidelines are furnished. This manual is limited to underground hard rock operations and does not address directly other, specific auxiliary systems, either in underground coal mines or uranium mines.

  6. Auxiliary mine ventilation manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Workplace Safety North

    2010-07-01

    An adequate ventilation system is needed for air quality and handling in a mine and is comprised of many different pieces of equipment for removing contaminated air and supplying fresh air and thereby provide a satisfactory working environment. This manual highlights auxiliary ventilation systems made up of small fans, ducts, tubes, air movers, deflectors and additional air flow controls which distribute fresh air delivered by the primary system to all areas. A review of auxiliary ventilation is provided. Design, operation and management issues are discussed and guidelines are furnished. This manual is limited to underground hard rock operations and does not address directly other, specific auxiliary systems, either in underground coal mines or uranium mines.

  7. Ventilation with heat recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Svendsen, Svend

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the experiences from the use of ventilation with heat recovery in several experimental single-family houses developed and built within the last four years to meet the new Danish energy requirements of 2005. Included are descriptions of the ventilation system components...... and the main functional demands as well as measurements of the thermal efficiency, electricity consumptions and building air tightness. The paper addresses the aspects of minimizing the heat loss from the duct system and the heat recovery unit (when placed in an unheated attic space) in order to obtain...

  8. Behovstyret ventilation til enfamiliehuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Toke Rammer; Drivsholm, Christian; Hansen, Mads Peter Rudolph

    Muligheden for behovsstyret ventilation i enfamiliehuse er undersøgt. To strategier er afprøvet i praksis: En relativ simpel og billig strategi og en relativ avanceret og dyr strategi. Den simple strategi regulerer luftskiftet ensartet for alle rum mellem et lavt eller højt niveau. Den avancerede...... ventilation efter gældende krav. Desuden kræver den simple regulering kun få sensorer og er således væsentlig billigere og enklere at implementere end den avancerede strategi....

  9. Bench performance of ventilators during simulated paediatric ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, M A J; Freebairn, R C; Gomersall, C D

    2013-05-01

    This study compares the accuracy and capabilities of various ventilators using a paediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome lung model. Various compliance settings and respiratory rate settings were used. The study was done in three parts: tidal volume and FiO2 accuracy; pressure control accuracy and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) accuracy. The parameters set on the ventilator were compared with either or both of the measured parameters by the test lung and the ventilator. The results revealed that none of the ventilators could consistently deliver tidal volumes within 1 ml/kg of the set tidal volume, and the discrepancy between the delivered volume and the volume measured by the ventilator varied greatly. The target tidal volume was 8 ml/kg, but delivered tidal volumes ranged from 3.6-11.4 ml/kg and the volumes measured by the ventilator ranged from 4.1-20.6 ml/kg. All the ventilators maintained pressure within 20% of the set pressure, except one ventilator which delivered pressures of up to 27% higher than the set pressure. Two ventilators maintained PEEP within 10% of the prescribed PEEP. The majority of the readings were also within 10%. However, three ventilators delivered, at times, PEEPs over 20% higher. In conclusion, as lung compliance decreases, especially in paediatric patients, some ventilators perform better than others. This study highlights situations where ventilators may not be able to deliver, nor adequately measure, set tidal volumes, pressure, PEEP or FiO2.

  10. Feasibility of Protective Ventilation During Elective Supratentorial Neurosurgery: A Randomized, Crossover, Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggieri, Francesco; Beretta, Luigi; Corno, Laura; Testa, Valentina; Martino, Enrico A; Gemma, Marco

    2017-06-30

    Traditional ventilation approaches, providing high tidal volumes (Vt), produce excessive alveolar distention and lung injury. Protective ventilation, employing lower Vt and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), is an attractive alternative also for neuroanesthesia, when prolonged mechanical ventilation is needed. Nevertheless, protective ventilation during intracranial surgery may exert dangerous effects on intracranial pressure (ICP). We tested the feasibility of a protective ventilation strategy in neurosurgery. Our monocentric, double-blind, 1:1 randomized, 2×2 crossover study aimed at studying the effect size and variability of ICP in patients undergoing elective supratentorial brain tumor removal and alternatively ventilated with Vt 9 mL/kg-PEEP 0 mm Hg and Vt 7 mL/kg-PEEP 5 mm Hg. Respiratory rate was adjusted to maintain comparable end-tidal carbon dioxide between ventilation modes. ICP was measured through a subdural catheter inserted before dural opening. Forty patients were enrolled; 8 (15%) were excluded after enrollment. ICP did not differ between traditional and protective ventilation (11.28±5.37, 11 [7 to 14.5] vs. 11.90±5.86, 11 [8 to 15] mm Hg; P=0.541). End-tidal carbon dioxide (28.91±2.28, 29 [28 to 30] vs. 28.00±2.17, 28 [27 to 29] mm Hg; Pprotective ventilation. Blood pressure, heart rate, and body temperature did not differ between ventilation modes. Dural tension was "acceptable for surgery" in all cases. ICP differences between ventilation modes were not affected by ICP values under traditional ventilation (coefficient=0.067; 95% confidence interval, -0.278 to 0.144; P=0.523). Protective ventilation is a feasible alternative to traditional ventilation during elective neurosurgery.

  11. Demand controlled ventilation; Behovsstyrt ventilasjon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, Henning Holm

    2006-07-01

    The terms CAV and VAV have been known terms for many years in the ventilation business. The terms are also included in building regulations, but the time is now right to focus on demand controlled ventilation (DCV). The new building regulations and the accompanying energy framework underline the need for a more nuanced thinking when it comes to controlling ventilation systems. Descriptions and further details of the ventilation systems are provided (ml)

  12. Battery life of portable home ventilators: effects of ventilator settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falaize, Line; Leroux, Karl; Prigent, Hélène; Louis, Bruno; Khirani, Sonia; Orlikowski, David; Fauroux, Brigitte; Lofaso, Frédéric

    2014-07-01

    The battery life (BL) of portable home ventilator batteries is reported by manufacturers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ventilator mode, breathing frequency, PEEP, and leaks on the BL of 5 commercially available portable ventilators. The effects of the ventilator mode (volume controlled-continuous mandatory ventilation [VC-CMV] vs pressure support ventilation [PSV]), PEEP 5 cm H2O, breathing frequency (10, 15, and 20 breaths/min), and leaks during both volume-targeted ventilation and PSV on the BL of 5 ventilators (Elisée 150, Monnal T50, PB560, Vivo 50, and Trilogy 100) were evaluated. Each ventilator was ventilated with a test lung at a tidal volume of 700 ml and an inspiratory time of 1.2 s in the absence of leaks. Switching from PSV to VC-CMV or the addition of PEEP did not significantly change ventilator BL. The increase in breathing frequency from 10 to 20 breaths/min decreased the BL by 18 ± 11% (P = .005). Leaks were associated with an increase in BL during the VC-CMV mode (18 ± 20%, P = .04) but a decrease in BL during the PSV mode (-13 ± 15%, P = .04). The BL of home ventilators depends on the ventilator settings. BL is not affected by the ventilator mode (VC-CMV or PSV) or the addition of PEEP. BL decreases with an increase in breathing frequency and during leaks with a PSV mode, whereas leaks increase the duration of ventilator BL during VC-CMV. Copyright © 2014 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  13. Hybrid Ventilation Air Flow Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    The scope of this annex is therefore to obtain better knowledge of the use of hybrid ventilation technologies. The annex focus on development of control strategies for hybrid ventilation, on development of methods to predict hybrid ventilation performance in office buildings and on implementation...

  14. Ventilator and viral induced inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennus, M.P.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis expands current knowledge on ventilator induced lung injury and provides insights on the immunological effects of mechanical ventilation during viral respiratory infections. The experimental studies in the first part of this thesis improve our understanding of how mechanical ventilation

  15. How to Plan Ventilation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, John H.

    1963-01-01

    Ventilation systems for factory safety demand careful planning. The increased heat loads and new processes of industry have introduced complex ventilation problems in--(1) ventilation supply, (2) duct work design, (3) space requirements, (4) hood face velocities, (5) discharge stacks, and (6) building eddies. This article describes and diagrams…

  16. Thermal Plumes in Ventilated Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, P.; Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    The main objective of ventilation is to provide good air quality for the occupants. For this purpose the necessary ventilating air change rate must be determined. Within displacement ventilation the estimation is closely related to the air flow rate in the thermal plumes when an air quality based...

  17. The amazing Minivent ventilator

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern African Journal of Anaesthesia and Analgesia is co-published by Medpharm Publications, NISC (Pty) Ltd and Cogent, ... Respiratory rate was obtained by counting the clicking noise ... was appointed as a part-time lecturer to the University of the ... The Minivent became the first of three miniature ventilators that.

  18. Omnidirectional ventilated acoustic barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-long; Zhu, Yi-fan; Liang, Bin; Yang, Jing; Yang, Jun; Cheng, Jian-chun

    2017-11-01

    As an important problem in acoustics, sound insulation finds applications in a great variety of situations. In the existing schemes, however, there has always been a trade-off between the thinness of sound-insulating devices and their ventilating capabilities, limiting their potentials in the control of low-frequency sound in high ventilation environments. Here, we design and experimentally implement an omnidirectional acoustic barrier with a planar profile, subwavelength thickness ( 0.18 λ ), yet high ventilation. The proposed mechanism is based on the interference between the resonant scattering of discrete states and the background scattering of continuous states which induces a Fano-like asymmetric transmission profile. Benefitting from the binary-structured design of the coiled unit and hollow pipe, it maximally simplifies the design and fabrication while ensuring the ventilation for all the non-resonant units with open tubes. The simulated and measured results agree well, showing the effectiveness of our proposed mechanism to block low frequency sound coming from various directions while allowing 63% of the air flow to pass. We anticipate our design to open routes to design sound insulators and to enable applications in traditionally unattainable cases such as those calling for noise reduction and cooling simultaneously.

  19. Mechanical ventilation of mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwarte, L. A.; Zuurbier, C. J.; Ince, C.

    2000-01-01

    Due to growing interest in murine functional genomics research, there is an increasing need for physiological stable in vivo murine models. Of special importance is support and control of ventilation by artificial respiration, which is difficult to execute as a consequence of the small size of the

  20. Lavt elforbrug til ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagemar, L.; Bergsøe, Niels Christian

    Rapporten giver gode råd om mulige energibesparelser og praktiske projekteringshensyn, som er forbundet med udformning af energieffektiv ventilation i ikke blot kontorbygninger, men i alle bygninger med komfortventilationsanlæg. I forbindelse med projektering af ventilationsanlæg har interessen...

  1. Understanding mechanical ventilators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatburn, Robert L

    2010-12-01

    The respiratory care academic community has not yet adopted a standardized system for classifying and describing modes of ventilation. As a result, there is enough confusion that patient care, clinician education and even ventilator sales are all put at risk. This article summarizes a ventilator mode taxonomy that has been extensively published over the last 15 years. Specifically, the classification system has three components: a description of the control variables within breath; a description of the sequence of mandatory and spontaneous breaths; and a specification for the targeting scheme. This three-level specification provides scalability of detail to make the mode description appropriate for the particular need. At the bedside, we need only refer to a mode briefly using the first or perhaps first and second components. To distinguish between similar modes and brand names, we would need to include all components. This taxonomy uses the equation of motion for the respiratory system as the underlying theoretical framework. All terms relevant to describing modes of mechanical ventilation are defined in an extensive appendix.

  2. Human response to ductless personalized ventilation coupled with displacement ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalewski, Mariusz; Veselý, Michal; Melikov, Arsen K.

    2012-01-01

    A human subject experiment was carried out to investigate the extent to which ductless personalized ventilation (DPV) in conjunction with displacement ventilation can improve perceived air quality (PAQ) and thermal comfort at elevated room air temperature in comparison with displacement ventilation...... alone. The experimental conditions comprised displacement ventilation alone (room air temperature of 23 °C, 26 °C, 29 °C) and DPV with displacement ventilation (26 °C, 29 °C), both operating at supply air temperatures 3, 5 or 6K lower than room air temperature, as well as mixing ventilation (23 °C, 3 K......). During one hour exposure participants answered questionnaires regarding PAQ and thermal comfort. PAQ was significantly better with DPV than without DPV at the same background conditions. Thermal comfort improved when DPV was used. Combining DPV with displacement ventilation showed the potential...

  3. Home mechanical ventilation in Canada: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Louise; McKim, Douglas A; Katz, Sherri L; Leasa, David; Nonoyama, Mika; Pedersen, Cheryl; Goldstein, Roger S; Road, Jeremy D

    2015-05-01

    No comprehensive Canadian national data describe the prevalence of and service provision for ventilator-assisted individuals living at home, data critical to health-care system planning for appropriate resourcing. Our objective was to generate national data profiling service providers, users, types of services, criteria for initiation and monitoring, ventilator servicing arrangements, education, and barriers to home transition. Eligible providers delivering services to ventilator-assisted individuals (adult and pediatric) living at home were identified by our national provider inventory and referrals from other providers. The survey was administered via a web link from August 2012 to April 2013. The survey response rate was 152/171 (89%). We identified 4,334 ventilator-assisted individuals: an estimated prevalence of 12.9/100,000 population, with 73% receiving noninvasive ventilation (NIV) and 18% receiving intermittent mandatory ventilation (9% not reported). Services were delivered by 39 institutional providers and 113 community providers. We identified variation in initiation criteria for NIV, with polysomnography demonstrating nocturnal hypoventilation (57%), daytime hypercapnia (38%), and nocturnal hypercapnia (32%) as the most common criteria. Various models of ventilator servicing were reported. Most providers (64%) stated that caregiver competency was a prerequisite for home discharge; however, repeated competency assessment and retraining were offered by only 45%. Important barriers to home transition were: insufficient funding for paid caregivers, equipment, and supplies; a shortage of paid caregivers; and negotiating public funding arrangements. Ventilatory support in the community appears well-established, with most individuals managed with NIV. Although caregiver competency is a prerequisite to discharge, ongoing assessment and retraining were infrequent. Funding and caregiver availability were important barriers to home transition. Copyright © 2015

  4. Education on invasive mechanical ventilation involving intensive care nurses: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilhermino, Michelle C; Inder, Kerry J; Sundin, Deborah

    2018-03-26

    Intensive care unit nurses are critical for managing mechanical ventilation. Continuing education is essential in building and maintaining nurses' knowledge and skills, potentially improving patient outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine whether continuing education programmes on invasive mechanical ventilation involving intensive care unit nurses are effective in improving patient outcomes. Five electronic databases were searched from 2001 to 2016 using keywords such as mechanical ventilation, nursing and education. Inclusion criteria were invasive mechanical ventilation continuing education programmes that involved nurses and measured patient outcomes. Primary outcomes were intensive care unit mortality and in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes included hospital and intensive care unit length of stay, length of intubation, failed weaning trials, re-intubation incidence, ventilation-associated pneumonia rate and lung-protective ventilator strategies. Studies were excluded if they excluded nurses, patients were ventilated for less than 24 h, the education content focused on protocol implementation or oral care exclusively or the outcomes were participant satisfaction. Quality was assessed by two reviewers using an education intervention critical appraisal worksheet and a risk of bias assessment tool. Data were extracted independently by two reviewers and analysed narratively due to heterogeneity. Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria for full review: 11 pre- and post-intervention observational and 1 quasi-experimental design. Studies reported statistically significant reductions in hospital length of stay, length of intubation, ventilator-associated pneumonia rates, failed weaning trials and improvements in lung-protective ventilation compliance. Non-statistically significant results were reported for in-hospital and intensive care unit mortality, re-intubation and intensive care unit length of stay. Limited evidence of the effectiveness of

  5. Ventilation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madoyan, A.A.; Vlasik, V.F.

    1984-01-01

    Foundations and calculation methods of ventilation of rooms with different degree of heat and gas release with the change of operation mode of NPP main equipment, as well as problems of NPP site and adjoining area aerodynamics, have been presented. Systems of air ventilation and conditioning, cooling equipment, are considered. The main points of designing are described and determination of economic efficiency of the ventilation systems are made. Technical characteristics of the ventilators, conditioners, filters and air heaters used, are presented. Organization of adjustment, tests, operation and maintenance of the ventilation systems of NPP with RBMK and WWER-type reactors, is described

  6. Design Procedure for Hybrid Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Tjelflaat, Per Olaf

    Mechanical and natural ventilation systems have developed separately during many years. The natural next step in this development is development of ventilation concepts that utilises and combines the best features from each system into a new type of ventilation system - Hybrid Ventilation....... Buildings with hybrid ventilation often include other sustainable technologies and an energy optimisation requires an integrated approach in the design of the building and its mechanical systems. Therefore, the hybrid ventilation design procedure differs from the design procedure for conventional HVAC....... The first ideas on a design procedure for hybrid ventilation is presented and the different types of design methods, that is needed in different phases of the design process, is discussed....

  7. ASHRAE and residential ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max H.

    2003-10-01

    In the last quarter of a century, the western world has become increasingly aware of environmental threats to health and safety. During this period, people psychologically retreated away from outdoors hazards such as pesticides, smog, lead, oil spills, and dioxin to the seeming security of their homes. However, the indoor environment may not be healthier than the outdoor environment, as has become more apparent over the past few years with issues such as mold, formaldehyde, and sick-building syndrome. While the built human environment has changed substantially over the past 10,000 years, human biology has not; poor indoor air quality creates health risks and can be uncomfortable. The human race has found, over time, that it is essential to manage the indoor environments of their homes. ASHRAE has long been in the business of ventilation, but most of the focus of that effort has been in the area of commercial and institutional buildings. Residential ventilation was traditionally not a major concern because it was felt that, between operable windows and envelope leakage, people were getting enough outside air in their homes. In the quarter of a century since the first oil shock, houses have gotten much more energy efficient. At the same time, the kinds of materials and functions in houses changed in character in response to people's needs. People became more environmentally conscious and aware not only about the resources they were consuming but about the environment in which they lived. All of these factors contributed to an increasing level of public concern about residential indoor air quality and ventilation. Where once there was an easy feeling about the residential indoor environment, there is now a desire to define levels of acceptability and performance. Many institutions--both public and private--have interests in Indoor Air Quality (IAQ), but ASHRAE, as the professional society that has had ventilation as part of its mission for over 100 years, is the

  8. Management of critically ill patients receiving noninvasive and invasive mechanical ventilation in the emergency department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose L

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Louise RoseLawrence S Bloomberg Faculty of Nursing, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, CanadaAbstract: Patients requiring noninvasive and invasive ventilation frequently present to emergency departments, and may remain for prolonged periods due to constrained critical care services. Emergency clinicians often do not receive the same education on management of mechanical ventilation or have similar exposure to these patients as do their critical care colleagues. The aim of this review was to synthesize the evidence on management of patients requiring noninvasive and invasive ventilation in the emergency department including indications, clinical applications, monitoring priorities, and potential complications. Noninvasive ventilation is recommended for patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or cardiogenic pulmonary edema. Less evidence supports its use in asthma and other causes of acute respiratory failure. Use of noninvasive ventilation in the prehospital setting is relatively new, and some evidence suggests benefit. Monitoring priorities for noninvasive ventilation include response to treatment, respiratory and hemodynamic stability, noninvasive ventilation tolerance, detection of noninvasive ventilation failure, and identification of air leaks around the interface. Application of injurious ventilation increases patient morbidity and mortality. Lung-protective ventilation with low tidal volumes based on determination of predicted body weight and control of plateau pressure has been shown to reduce mortality in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome, and some evidence exists to suggest this strategy should be used in patients without lung injury. Monitoring of the invasively ventilated patient should focus on assessing response to mechanical ventilation and other interventions, and avoiding complications, such as ventilator-associated pneumonia. Several key aspects of management of noninvasive

  9. 31 CFR 19.950 - Excluded Parties List System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Excluded Parties List System 19.950 Section 19.950 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 19.950 Excluded Parties List System Excluded Parties...

  10. 20 CFR 404.1012 - Work excluded from employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Work excluded from employment. 404.1012... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Work Excluded from Employment § 404.1012 Work excluded from employment. Certain kinds of work performed by an...

  11. 29 CFR 778.225 - Talent fees excludable under regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Talent fees excludable under regulations. 778.225 Section... Payments That May Be Excluded From the âRegular Rateâ Talent Fees in the Radio and Television Industry § 778.225 Talent fees excludable under regulations. Section 7(e)(3) provides for the exclusion from the...

  12. High Frequency Oscillatory Ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AC Bryan

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available High frequency oscillatory (HFO ventilation using low tidal volume and peak airway pressures is extremely efficient at eliminating carbon dioxide and raising pH in the newborn infant with acute respiratory failure. Improvement in oxygenation requires a strategy of sustained or repetitive inflations to 25 to 30 cm H2O in order to place the lung on the deflation limb of the pressure-volume curve. This strategy has also been shown to decrease the amount of secondary lung injury in animal models. Experience of the use of HFO ventilation as a rescue therapy as well as several published controlled trials have shown improved outcomes and a decrease in the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation when it has been used in newborns.

  13. Diffuse Ceiling Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Yu, Tao; Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    cooling capacity, energy saving, low investment cost and low noise level; while the limitations include condensation risk and the limit on the room geometry. Furthermore, the crucial design parameters are summarized and their effects on the system performance are discussed. In addition to the stand...... is not well structured with this system. These become the motivations in developing the design guide. This design guide aims to establish a systematic understanding of diffuse ceiling ventilation and provide assistance in designing of such a system. The guide is targeted at design engineers, architects...... and manufacturers and the users of diffuse ceiling technology. The design guide introduces the principle and key characteristics of room air distribution with diffuse ceiling ventilation. It provides an overview of potential benefit and limitations of this technology. The benefits include high thermal comfort, high...

  14. Harnessing natural ventilation benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, John

    2013-04-01

    Making sure that a healthcare establishment has a good supply of clean fresh air is an important factor in keeping patients, staff, and visitors, free from the negative effects of CO2 and other contaminants. John O'Leary of Trend Controls, a major international supplier of building energy management solutions (BEMS), examines the growing use of natural ventilation, and the health, energy-saving, and financial benefits, that it offers.

  15. Purge ventilation operability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marella, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    A determination of minimum requirements for purge exhaust ventilation system operability has been performed. HLWE and HLW Regulatory Program personnel have evaluated the various scenarios of equipment conditions and HLWE has developed the requirements for purge exhaust systems. This report is provided to document operability requirements to assist Tank Farm personnel to determine whether a system is operable/inoperable and to define required compensatory actions

  16. Ventilation i industrien

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valbjørn, O.

    I en række afsnit belyses problemer med træk, kulde, varme, og luftforurening på industriens arbejdspladser, og hvordan man ved ventilation og bygningsudformning kan bekæmpe disse gener. Hvert afsnit kan i princippet læses for sig, og anvisningen kan derfor bruges som håndbog, både af de der er...

  17. Noninvasive Ventilation in Premature Neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Keri Ann

    2016-04-01

    The use of noninvasive ventilation is a constantly evolving treatment option for respiratory disease in the premature infant. The goals of these noninvasive ventilation techniques are to improve gas exchange in the premature infant's lungs and to minimize the need for intubation and invasive mechanical ventilation. The goals of this article are to consider various uses of nasal interfaces, discuss skin care and developmental positioning concerns faced by the bedside nurse, and discuss the medical management aimed to reduce morbidity and mortality. This article explores the nursing role, the advances in medical strategies for noninvasive ventilation, and the team approach to noninvasive ventilation use in this population. Search strategy included a literature review on medical databases, such as EBSCOhost, CINAHL, PubMed, and NeoReviews. Innovative products, nursing research on developmental positioning and skin care, and advanced medical management have led to better and safer outcomes for premature infants requiring noninvasive ventilation. The medical focus of avoiding long-term mechanical ventilation would not be possible without the technology to provide noninvasive ventilation to these premature infants and the watchful eye of the nurse in terms of careful positioning, preventing skin breakdown and facial scarring, and a proper seal to maximize ventilation accuracy. This article encourages nursing-based research to quantify some of the knowledge about skin care and positioning as well as research into most appropriate uses for noninvasive ventilation devices.

  18. Performance evaluation of ventilation radiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myhren, Jonn Are; Holmberg, Sture

    2013-01-01

    A ventilation radiator is a combined ventilation and heat emission unit currently of interest due to its potential for increasing energy efficiency in exhaust-ventilated buildings with warm water heating. This paper presents results of performance tests of several ventilation radiator models conducted under controlled laboratory conditions. The purpose of the study was to validate results achieved by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) in an earlier study and identify possible improvements in the performance of such systems. The main focus was on heat transfer from internal convection fins, but comfort and health aspects related to ventilation rates and air temperatures were also considered. The general results from the CFD simulations were confirmed; the heat output of ventilation radiators may be improved by at least 20% without sacrificing ventilation efficiency or thermal comfort. Improved thermal efficiency of ventilation radiators allows a lower supply water temperature and energy savings both for heating up and distribution of warm water in heat pumps or district heating systems. A secondary benefit is that a high ventilation rate can be maintained all year around without risk for cold draught. -- Highlights: ► Low temperature heat emitters are currently of interest due to their potential for increasing energy efficiency. ► A ventilation radiator is a combined ventilation and heat emission unit which can be adapted to low temperature heating systems. ► We examine how ventilation radiators can be made to be more efficient in terms of energy consumption and thermal comfort. ► Current work focuses on heat transfer mechanisms and convection fin configuration of ventilation radiators

  19. Design and planning of the Henderson Mine ventilation upgrade project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loring, D.M.; Shea, N.A. [Climax Molybdenum Co., Henderson Operations, Empire, CO (United States)

    2010-07-01

    The average molybdenum ore throughput at the Henderson Mine near Denver, Colorado increased significantly between 2003 and 2007. In response, the Climax Molybdenum Company updated the life-of-mine plan which resulted in significant changes to the ventilation requirements of the mine. This paper outlined the mine and ventilation planning efforts. The design options that were evaluated to upgrade the ventilation system were also described along with the final design that was chosen to support the updated mine plan. The mine uses an exhaust ventilation system in which ventilation is supplied through a service shaft, an intake shaft and a long ore haulage tunnel. Currently, air is exhausted through 2 exhaust shafts. The new reserve model that was completed in 2007 incorporated updated geologic information and mix/dilution models. An evaluation of the new life-of-mine plans and production sequences drove the development of a new ventilation plan that increased the airflow requirements of the mine. The primary design concerns were radon control; reduction of diesel particulate matter; silica dust; blasting and other gases; and climate control. Ventilation requirements were also updated based on the final exposure limits stipulated in the 2008 regulations of the Mine Safety and Health Administration. 4 refs., 11 tabs., 8 figs.

  20. Pretest Predictions for Ventilation Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Y. Sun; H. Yang; H.N. Kalia

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this calculation is to predict the temperatures of the ventilating air, waste package surface, concrete pipe walls, and insulation that will be developed during the ventilation tests involving various test conditions. The results will be used as input to the following three areas: (1) Decisions regarding testing set-up and performance. (2) Assessing how best to scale the test phenomena measured. (3) Validating numerical approach for modeling continuous ventilation. The scope of the calculation is to identify the physical mechanisms and parameters related to thermal response in the ventilation tests, and develop and describe numerical methods that can be used to calculate the effects of continuous ventilation. Sensitivity studies to assess the impact of variation of linear power densities (linear heat loads) and ventilation air flow rates are included. The calculation is limited to thermal effect only

  1. Design Principles for Natural and Hybrid Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per

    For many years mechanical and natural ventilation systems have developed separately. Naturally, the next step in this development is the development of ventilation concepts that utilize and combine the best features from each system to create a new type of ventilation system- Hybrid Ventilation. ....... The hybrid ventilation concepts, design challenges and principles are discussed and illustrated by four building examples.......For many years mechanical and natural ventilation systems have developed separately. Naturally, the next step in this development is the development of ventilation concepts that utilize and combine the best features from each system to create a new type of ventilation system- Hybrid Ventilation...

  2. Mechanical ventilation in neurosurgical patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshav Goyal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical ventilation significantly affects cerebral oxygenation and cerebral blood flow through changes in arterial carbon dioxide levels. Neurosurgical patients might require mechanical ventilation for correction and maintenance of changes in the pulmonary system that occur either due to neurosurgical pathology or following surgery during the acute phase. This review discusses the basics of mechanical ventilation relevant to the neurosurgeon in the day-to-day management of neurosurgical patient requiring artificial support of the respiration.

  3. Mechanical Ventilation and Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keszler, Martin; Sant'Anna, Guilherme

    2015-12-01

    Mechanical ventilation is an important potentially modifiable risk factor for the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Effective use of noninvasive respiratory support reduces the risk of lung injury. Lung volume recruitment and avoidance of excessive tidal volume are key elements of lung-protective ventilation strategies. Avoidance of oxidative stress, less invasive methods of surfactant administration, and high-frequency ventilation are also important factors in lung injury prevention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Design Principles for Natural and Hybrid Ventilation

    OpenAIRE

    Heiselberg, Per

    2000-01-01

    For many years mechanical and natural ventilation systems have developed separately. Naturally, the next step in this development is the development of ventilation concepts that utilize and combine the best features from each system to create a new type of ventilation system- Hybrid Ventilation. The hybrid ventilation concepts, design challenges and principles are discussed and illustrated by four building examples.

  5. 46 CFR 42.15-45 - Ventilators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilators. 42.15-45 Section 42.15-45 Shipping COAST... Conditions of Assignment of Freeboard § 42.15-45 Ventilators. (a) Ventilators in position 1 or 2 to spaces... any ventilator exceeds 351/2 inches in height it shall be specially supported. (b) Ventilators passing...

  6. Naturlig ventilation i enfamiliehuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergsøe, N.C.

    Meddelelsen beskriver resultaterne af en række beregninger foretaget ved anvendelse af et computerprogram. Beregningerne har til formål at belyse forskellige parametres indvirkning på funktionen af et naturligt ventilationssystem. Blandt andet belyses systemets afhængighed af aftrækskanalernes di...... dimension, udeluftventilarealet og placeringen af aftrækskanalernes udmunding i tagfladen. Derudover gengives i kortfattet form de væsentligste konklusioner af udvalgte publikationer, som behandler særlige forhold vedrørende naturlig ventilation i praksis....

  7. Plane Stratified Flow in a Room Ventilated by Displacement Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm; Nickel, J.; Baron, D. J. G.

    2004-01-01

    The air movement in the occupied zone of a room ventilated by displacement ventilation exists as a stratified flow along the floor. This flow can be radial or plane according to the number of wall-mounted diffusers and the room geometry. The paper addresses the situations where plane flow...

  8. [Lung protective ventilation. Ventilatory modes and ventilator parameters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schädler, Dirk; Weiler, Norbert

    2008-06-01

    Mechanical ventilation has a considerable potential for injuring the lung tissue. Therefore, attention has to be paid to the proper choice of ventilatory mode and settings to secure lung-protective ventilation whenever possible. Such ventilator strategy should account for low tidal volume ventilation (6 ml/kg PBW), limited plateau pressure (30 to 35 cm H2O) and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). It is unclear whether pressure controlled or volume controlled ventilation with square flow profile is beneficial. The adjustment of inspiration and expiration time should consider the actual breathing mechanics and anticipate the generation of intrinsic PEEP. Ventilatory modes with the possibility of supporting spontaneous breathing should be used as soon as possible.

  9. Improved Performance With Ventilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Ellison; Lee, Seung Jae; Karn, Ashish; Hong, Jiarong; Arndt, Roger

    2013-11-01

    Drag reduction and/or speed augmentation of marine vehicles by means of supercavitation is a topic of great interest. During the initial launch of a supercavitating vehicle, ventilation is required to supply an artificial cavity until conditions at which a natural supercavity can be sustained are reached. Various aspects of the flow physics of a supercavitating vehicle have been under investigation for several years at Saint Anthony Falls Laboratory. Both steady flow and simulated flow below a wave train have been studied. Using a high speed camera and the proper software, it is possible to synchronize cavity dimensions with pressure measurements taken inside the cavity to permit an in-depth study of unsteadiness. It was found that flow unsteadiness caused a decrease in the overall length of the supercavity while having only a minimal effect on the maximum diameter. Results regarding supercavity shape, ventilation demand, cavitation parameters and closure methods are reviewed in light of new studies that focused on various closure mechanisms. Sponsored by ONR.

  10. Ventilator-associated pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Michael Jan

    2005-05-01

    This review summarises some of the notable papers on ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) from January 2003 to October 2004. Ventilator-associated pneumonia remains an important drain on hospital resources. All population groups are affected, but patients with VAP are more likely to be older, sicker, and male, with invasive medical devices in situ. Early VAP diagnosis is desirable to reduce VAP mortality and to retard emergence of multidrug-resistant microbes. This may be possible using preliminary culture results or intracellular organism in polymorphonuclear cells. In most intensive care units, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii are the commonest organisms isolated in VAP. However, causative organisms vary between and within hospitals. Consequently, individual intensive care units should develop empirical antibiotic policies to target the pathogenic bacteria prevalent in their patient populations. Preventative strategies aimed at reducing aerodigestive tract colonisation by pathogenic organisms, and also their subsequent aspiration, are becoming increasingly important. Educating medical staff about these simple measures is therefore pertinent. To reduce the occurrence of multidrug-resistant organisms, limiting the duration of antibiotic treatment to 8 days and antimicrobial rotation should be contemplated. Empirical therapy with antipseudomonal penicillins plus beta-lactamase inhibitors should be considered. If methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus VAP is a possibility, linezolid may be better than vancomycin. Prevention remains the key to reducing VAP prevalence.

  11. Free Convection Personalized Ventilation (FCPV)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    Normally we supply fresh air to a room with a diffuser, and this air is distributed in the room according to different principles as: mixing ventilation, displacement ventilation etc. That means we have to supply a very large amount of air to the whole room, although a person in the room totally ...

  12. Innovation in home mechanical ventilation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazenberg, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Patients on home mechanical ventilation (HMV) are ventilator dependent, usually for the rest of their lives. In the past decades, the number of patients on HMV increased to nearly 3,000 in 2016 in the Netherlands. Current indications for HMV are patients diagnosed with either neuromuscular disease,

  13. Reverse ventilation--perfusion mismatch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmaz, J.C.; Barnett, C.A.; Reich, S.B.; Krumpe, P.E.; Farrer, P.A.

    1984-01-01

    Patients having lobar airway obstruction or consolidation usually have decreases of both ventilation and perfusion on lung scans. We report three patients in whom hypoxic vasoconstriction was apparently incomplete, resulting in a ''reversed'' ventilation-perfusion mismatch. Perfusion of the hypoxic lobe on the radionuclide scan was associated with metabolic alkalosis, pulmonary venous and pulmonary arterial hypertension in these patients

  14. Ventilation of an hydrofoil wake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Roger; Lee, Seung Jae; Monson, Garrett

    2013-11-01

    Ventilation physics plays a role in a variety of important engineering applications. For example, hydroturbine ventilation is used for control of vibration and cavitation erosion and more recently for improving the dissolved oxygen content of the flow through the turbine. The latter technology has been the focus of an ongoing study involving the ventilation of an hydrofoil wake to determine the velocity and size distribution of bubbles in a bubbly wake. This was carried out by utilizing particle shadow velocimetry (PSV). This technique is a non-scattering approach that relies on direct in-line volume illumination by a pulsed source such as a light-emitting diode (LED). The data are compared with previous studies of ventilated flow. The theoretical results of Hinze suggest that a scaling relationship is possible that can lead to developing appropriate design parameters for a ventilation system. Sponsored by ONR and DOE.

  15. Natural ventilation for free stall dairy barns

    OpenAIRE

    Gay, Susan Wood

    2009-01-01

    Natural ventilation is a result of a combination good construction, correct temperature, humidity control, air exchange. This publication discusses how to achieve natural ventilation in your structure.

  16. 48 CFR 733.103-73 - Protests excluded from consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Protests excluded from consideration. 733.103-73 Section 733.103-73 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL... excluded from consideration. (a) Contract administration. Disputes between a contractor and USAID are...

  17. 8 CFR 1241.20 - Aliens ordered excluded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aliens ordered excluded. 1241.20 Section 1241.20 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Deportation of Excluded Aliens...

  18. The Value of the Right to Exclude: An Empirical Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Klick (Jonathan); G. Parchomovsky (Gideon)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractProperty theorists have long deemed the right to exclude fundamental and essential for the efficient use and allocation of property. Recently, however, proponents of the progressive property movement have called into question the centrality of the right to exclude, suggesting that it

  19. The predictive value of respiratory function tests for non-invasive ventilation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tilanus, T.B.M.; Groothuis, J.T.; Broek-Pastoor, J.M.C. ten; Feuth, T.; Heijdra, Y.F.; Slenders, J.P.L.; Doorduin, J.; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Kampelmacher, M.J.; Raaphorst, J.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) improves survival and quality of life in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. The timing of referral to a home ventilation service (HVS), which is in part based on respiratory function tests, has shown room for improvement. It is currently unknown

  20. The predictive value of respiratory function tests for non-invasive ventilation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tilanus, T. B. M.; Groothuis, J. T.; TenBroek-Pastoor, J. M. C.; Feuth, T. B.; Heijdra, Y. F.; Slenders, J. P. L.; Doorduin, J.; van Engelen, B. G.; Kampelmacher, M. J.; Raaphorst, J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) improves survival and quality of life in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. The timing of referral to a home ventilation service (HVS), which is in part based on respiratory function tests, has shown room for improvement. It is currently unknown

  1. Sealed Crawl Spaces with Integrated Whole-House Ventilation in a Cold Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoeller, William [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Williamson, James [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Puttafunta, Srikanth [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-07-30

    One method of code-compliance for crawlspaces is to seal and insulate the crawlspace, rather than venting to the outdoors. However, codes require mechanical ventilation; either via conditioned supply air from the HVAC system, or a continuous exhaust ventilation strategy. As the CARB's building partner, Ithaca Neighborhood Housing Services, intended to use the unvented crawlspace in a recent

  2. Krypton for computed tomography lung ventilation imaging: preliminary animal data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahnken, Andreas H; Jost, Gregor; Pietsch, Hubertus

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility and safety of krypton ventilation imaging with intraindividual comparison to xenon ventilation computed tomography (CT). In a first step, attenuation of different concentrations of xenon and krypton was analyzed in a phantom setting. Thereafter, 7 male New Zealand white rabbits (4.4-6.0 kg) were included in an animal study. After orotracheal intubation, an unenhanced CT scan was obtained in end-inspiratory breath-hold. Thereafter, xenon- (30%) and krypton-enhanced (70%) ventilation CT was performed in random order. After a 2-minute wash-in of gas A, CT imaging was performed. After a 45-minute wash-out period and another 2-minute wash-in of gas B, another CT scan was performed using the same scan protocol. Heart rate and oxygen saturation were measured. Unenhanced and krypton or xenon data were registered and subtracted using a nonrigid image registration tool. Enhancement was quantified and statistically analyzed. One animal had to be excluded from data analysis owing to problems during intubation. The CT scans in the remaining 6 animals were completed without complications. There were no relevant differences in oxygen saturation or heart rate between the scans. Xenon resulted in a mean increase of enhancement of 35.3 ± 5.5 HU, whereas krypton achieved a mean increase of 21.9 ± 1.8 HU in enhancement (P = 0.0055). The use of krypton for lung ventilation imaging appears to be feasible and safe. Despite the use of a markedly higher concentration of krypton, enhancement is significantly worse when compared with xenon CT ventilation imaging, but sufficiently high for CT ventilation imaging studies.

  3. [Oesophagitis during mechanical ventilation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastinne, H; Canard, J M; Pillegand, B; Voultoury, J C; Catanzano, A; Claude, R; Gay, R

    1982-10-16

    Twenty-one patients whose condition required mechanical ventilation with nasogastric intubation were investigated for oesophagitis before the 3rd day and on the 15th day of treatment, including endoscopy and biopsy. Lesions of oesophagitis were detected in 14 cases during the initial examination and in 19 cases on the second endoscopy. The course of the lesions varied from one patient to another and appeared to be unrelated to the course of the primary disease. Oesophagitis in these patients is probably due to frequent episodes of gastro-oesophageal reflux encouraged by cough, impaired consciousness and the presence of a tube. Reflux may also be the cause of inapparent and recurrent lung aspiration.

  4. Cardiac gated ventilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, C.W. III; Hoffman, E.A.

    1995-01-01

    There are several theoretic advantages to synchronizing positive pressure breaths with the cardiac cycle, including the potential for improving distribution of pulmonary and myocardial blood flow and enhancing cardiac output. The authors evaluated the effects of synchronizing respiration to the cardiac cycle using a programmable ventilator and electron beam CT (EBCT) scanning. The hearts of anesthetized dogs were imaged during cardiac gated respiration with a 50 msec scan aperture. Multi slice, short axis, dynamic image data sets spanning the apex to base of the left ventricle were evaluated to determine the volume of the left ventricular chamber at end-diastole and end-systole during apnea, systolic and diastolic cardiac gating. The authors observed an increase in cardiac output of up to 30% with inspiration gated to the systolic phase of the cardiac cycle in a non-failing model of the heart

  5. Estimation of Lung Ventilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Kai; Cao, Kunlin; Du, Kaifang; Amelon, Ryan; Christensen, Gary E.; Raghavan, Madhavan; Reinhardt, Joseph M.

    Since the primary function of the lung is gas exchange, ventilation can be interpreted as an index of lung function in addition to perfusion. Injury and disease processes can alter lung function on a global and/or a local level. MDCT can be used to acquire multiple static breath-hold CT images of the lung taken at different lung volumes, or with proper respiratory control, 4DCT images of the lung reconstructed at different respiratory phases. Image registration can be applied to this data to estimate a deformation field that transforms the lung from one volume configuration to the other. This deformation field can be analyzed to estimate local lung tissue expansion, calculate voxel-by-voxel intensity change, and make biomechanical measurements. The physiologic significance of the registration-based measures of respiratory function can be established by comparing to more conventional measurements, such as nuclear medicine or contrast wash-in/wash-out studies with CT or MR. An important emerging application of these methods is the detection of pulmonary function change in subjects undergoing radiation therapy (RT) for lung cancer. During RT, treatment is commonly limited to sub-therapeutic doses due to unintended toxicity to normal lung tissue. Measurement of pulmonary function may be useful as a planning tool during RT planning, may be useful for tracking the progression of toxicity to nearby normal tissue during RT, and can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of a treatment post-therapy. This chapter reviews the basic measures to estimate regional ventilation from image registration of CT images, the comparison of them to the existing golden standard and the application in radiation therapy.

  6. Increasing the inspiratory time and I:E ratio during mechanical ventilation aggravates ventilator-induced lung injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Redetzky, Holger C; Felten, Matthias; Hellwig, Katharina; Wienhold, Sandra-Maria; Naujoks, Jan; Opitz, Bastian; Kershaw, Olivia; Gruber, Achim D; Suttorp, Norbert; Witzenrath, Martin

    2015-01-28

    Lung-protective ventilation reduced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) mortality. To minimize ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI), tidal volume is limited, high plateau pressures are avoided, and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) is applied. However, the impact of specific ventilatory patterns on VILI is not well defined. Increasing inspiratory time and thereby the inspiratory/expiratory ratio (I:E ratio) may improve oxygenation, but may also be harmful as the absolute stress and strain over time increase. We thus hypothesized that increasing inspiratory time and I:E ratio aggravates VILI. VILI was induced in mice by high tidal-volume ventilation (HVT 34 ml/kg). Low tidal-volume ventilation (LVT 9 ml/kg) was used in control groups. PEEP was set to 2 cm H2O, FiO2 was 0.5 in all groups. HVT and LVT mice were ventilated with either I:E of 1:2 (LVT 1:2, HVT 1:2) or 1:1 (LVT 1:1, HVT 1:1) for 4 hours or until an alternative end point, defined as mean arterial blood pressure below 40 mm Hg. Dynamic hyperinflation due to the increased I:E ratio was excluded in a separate group of animals. Survival, lung compliance, oxygenation, pulmonary permeability, markers of pulmonary and systemic inflammation (leukocyte differentiation in lung and blood, analyses of pulmonary interleukin-6, interleukin-1β, keratinocyte-derived chemokine, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1), and histopathologic pulmonary changes were analyzed. LVT 1:2 or LVT 1:1 did not result in VILI, and all individuals survived the ventilation period. HVT 1:2 decreased lung compliance, increased pulmonary neutrophils and cytokine expression, and evoked marked histologic signs of lung injury. All animals survived. HVT 1:1 caused further significant worsening of oxygenation, compliance and increased pulmonary proinflammatory cytokine expression, and pulmonary and blood neutrophils. In the HVT 1:1 group, significant mortality during mechanical ventilation was observed. According to the "baby lung

  7. Mechanical ventilation in abdominal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futier, E; Godet, T; Millot, A; Constantin, J-M; Jaber, S

    2014-01-01

    One of the key challenges in perioperative care is to reduce postoperative morbidity and mortality. Patients who develop postoperative morbidity but survive to leave hospital have often reduced functional independence and long-term survival. Mechanical ventilation provides a specific example that may help us to shift thinking from treatment to prevention of postoperative complications. Mechanical ventilation in patients undergoing surgery has long been considered only as a modality to ensure gas exchange while allowing maintenance of anesthesia with delivery of inhaled anesthetics. Evidence is accumulating, however, suggesting an association between intraoperative mechanical ventilation strategy and postoperative pulmonary function and clinical outcome in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Non-protective ventilator settings, especially high tidal volume (VT) (>10-12mL/kg) and the use of very low level of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) (PEEPventilator-associated lung injury in patients with healthy lungs. Stimulated by previous findings in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome, the use of lower tidal volume ventilation is becoming increasingly more common in the operating room. However, lowering tidal volume, though important, is only part of the overall multifaceted approach of lung protective mechanical ventilation. In this review, we aimed at providing the most recent and relevant clinical evidence regarding the use of mechanical ventilation in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Copyright © 2014 Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Counting the mismatches - lung ventilation/perfusion subtraction index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, T.C.; Evans, S.G.; Larcos, G.; Farlow, D.C.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: There is potential for interobserver variability in interpretation of ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) scans. Objective quantification of V/Q mismatch could be useful. Thus, the aim of this study is to determine the validity of image subtraction in a group of 27 patients (11 men, 8 women; mean age 59.4 years [range 21-81 years])investigated by V/Q scans for suspected pulmonary emboli. A standard 6 view V/Q scan was obtained with two cobalt markers used on the anterior and posterior surfaces for image alignment. Ventilation images were normalised to the perfusion using an area of normal ventilation and perfusion. With the use of automated, and if required, manual alignment, perfusion images were subtracted from ventilation, with a median filter applied. A summed index of mismatch for each lung scan was calculated from the difference. This index was then retrospectively compared to the result reported by one of four experienced physicians. Two patients with chronic obstructive airways disease were excluded from analysis. We conclude that high probability V/Q scans can be differentiated from low probability studies using this index; further prospective investigation in a larger cohort is warranted

  9. Subsurface Ventilation System Description Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric Loros

    2001-07-25

    The Subsurface Ventilation System supports the construction and operation of the subsurface repository by providing air for personnel and equipment and temperature control for the underground areas. Although the system is located underground, some equipment and features may be housed or located above ground. The system ventilates the underground by providing ambient air from the surface throughout the subsurface development and emplacement areas. The system provides fresh air for a safe work environment and supports potential retrieval operations by ventilating and cooling emplacement drifts. The system maintains compliance within the limits established for approved air quality standards. The system maintains separate ventilation between the development and waste emplacement areas. The system shall remove a portion of the heat generated by the waste packages during preclosure to support thermal goals. The system provides temperature control by reducing drift temperature to support potential retrieval operations. The ventilation system has the capability to ventilate selected drifts during emplacement and retrieval operations. The Subsurface Facility System is the main interface with the Subsurface Ventilation System. The location of the ducting, seals, filters, fans, emplacement doors, regulators, and electronic controls are within the envelope created by the Ground Control System in the Subsurface Facility System. The Subsurface Ventilation System also interfaces with the Subsurface Electrical System for power, the Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System to ensure proper and safe operation, the Safeguards and Security System for access to the emplacement drifts, the Subsurface Fire Protection System for fire safety, the Emplacement Drift System for repository performance, and the Backfill Emplacement and Subsurface Excavation Systems to support ventilation needs.

  10. Subsurface Ventilation System Description Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-10-12

    The Subsurface Ventilation System supports the construction and operation of the subsurface repository by providing air for personnel and equipment and temperature control for the underground areas. Although the system is located underground, some equipment and features may be housed or located above ground. The system ventilates the underground by providing ambient air from the surface throughout the subsurface development and emplacement areas. The system provides fresh air for a safe work environment and supports potential retrieval operations by ventilating and cooling emplacement drifts. The system maintains compliance within the limits established for approved air quality standards. The system maintains separate ventilation between the development and waste emplacement areas. The system shall remove a portion of the heat generated by the waste packages during preclosure to support thermal goals. The system provides temperature control by reducing drift temperature to support potential retrieval operations. The ventilation system has the capability to ventilate selected drifts during emplacement and retrieval operations. The Subsurface Facility System is the main interface with the Subsurface Ventilation System. The location of the ducting, seals, filters, fans, emplacement doors, regulators, and electronic controls are within the envelope created by the Ground Control System in the Subsurface Facility System. The Subsurface Ventilation System also interfaces with the Subsurface Electrical System for power, the Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System to ensure proper and safe operation, the Safeguards and Security System for access to the emplacement drifts, the Subsurface Fire Protection System for fire safety, the Emplacement Drift System for repository performance, and the Backfill Emplacement and Subsurface Excavation Systems to support ventilation needs.

  11. Lecture Notes on Mixing Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    The main task of the ventilation system or the air-conditioning system is to supply· and remove air and airborne materials and to supply or remove heat from a room. The necessary level of fresh air will be supplied to· a room by a ventilation system, and heat from equipment or solar radiation can...... be removed by an air-conditioning system. An industrial ventilation system may both take care of the occupants' comfort and the industrial processes in the area....

  12. Contaminant Distribution Around Persons in Rooms Ventilated by Displacement Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik; Nielsen, Peter V.

    An optimal design of the ventilation system needs a proper prediction of the velocity, temperature and contaminant distribution in the room. Traditionally this is done either by the use of simplified models or by a somewhat more comprehensive CFD-simulation. Common to both methods is usually...... the lack of consideration for the persons present in the room. This paper deals with some of the effects of persons present in a displacement ventilated room, especially the effect on the contaminant distribution....

  13. Design of Energy Efficient Hybrid Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per

    The focus in the development has for both systems been to minimise energy consumption while maintaining a comfortable and healthy indoor environment. The natural next step in this development is to develop ventilation concepts that utilises and combines the best features from each system......[Mechanical and natural ventilation] into a new type of ventilation system- Hybrid Ventilation....

  14. 21 CFR 868.5975 - Ventilator tubing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ventilator tubing. 868.5975 Section 868.5975 Food... DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5975 Ventilator tubing. (a) Identification. Ventilator tubing is a device intended for use as a conduit for gases between a ventilator and a patient...

  15. Preoperational test report, vent building ventilation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-01-01

    This represents a preoperational test report for Vent Building Ventilation Systems, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system provides Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) for the W-030 Ventilation Building. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System

  16. 46 CFR 45.131 - Ventilators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilators. 45.131 Section 45.131 Shipping COAST GUARD....131 Ventilators. (a) Ventilators passing through superstructures other than enclosed superstructures must have coamings of steel or equivalent material at the freeboard deck. (b) Ventilators in position 1...

  17. 46 CFR 111.103-1 - Power ventilation systems except machinery space ventilation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Power ventilation systems except machinery space ventilation systems. 111.103-1 Section 111.103-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Power ventilation systems except machinery space ventilation systems. Each power ventilation system must...

  18. The role of ventilation. 2 v. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The 78 papers which constitute the proceedings of the conference are presented in two volumes. The papers in the first volume cover sessions dealing with the following broad topics: ventilation strategies; indoor air quality; energy impact of ventilation; building design for optimum ventilation; ventilation and energy. Volume 2 also covers ventilation strategies and ventilation and energy, and in addition: calculation, measurement and design tools; measurement and modelling. Separate abstract have been prepared for 4 papers in Volume 1 which deal with the role of ventilation in mitigating the hazard of radon in buildings. (UK)

  19. Excluded-volume effects in the diffusion of hard spheres

    KAUST Repository

    Bruna, Maria; Chapman, S. Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Excluded-volume effects can play an important role in determining transport properties in diffusion of particles. Here, the diffusion of finite-sized hard-core interacting particles in two or three dimensions is considered systematically using

  20. Newer nonconventional modes of mechanical ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preet Mohinder Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The conventional modes of ventilation suffer many limitations. Although they are popularly used and are well-understood, often they fail to match the patient-based requirements. Over the years, many small modifications in ventilators have been incorporated to improve patient outcome. The ventilators of newer generation respond to patient′s demands by additional feedback systems. In this review, we discuss the popular newer modes of ventilation that have been accepted in to clinical practice. Various intensive care units over the world have found these modes to improve patient ventilator synchrony, decrease ventilator days and improve patient safety. The various modes discusses in this review are: Dual control modes (volume assured pressure support, volume support, Adaptive support ventilation, proportional assist ventilation, mandatory minute ventilation, Bi-level airway pressure release ventilation, (BiPAP, neurally adjusted ventilatory assist and NeoGanesh. Their working principles with their advantages and clinical limitations are discussed in brief.

  1. Equivalence in Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max; Walker, Iain; Logue, Jennifer

    2011-08-01

    We ventilate buildings to provide acceptable indoor air quality (IAQ). Ventilation standards (such as American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Enginners [ASHRAE] Standard 62) specify minimum ventilation rates without taking into account the impact of those rates on IAQ. Innovative ventilation management is often a desirable element of reducing energy consumption or improving IAQ or comfort. Variable ventilation is one innovative strategy. To use variable ventilation in a way that meets standards, it is necessary to have a method for determining equivalence in terms of either ventilation or indoor air quality. This study develops methods to calculate either equivalent ventilation or equivalent IAQ. We demonstrate that equivalent ventilation can be used as the basis for dynamic ventilation control, reducing peak load and infiltration of outdoor contaminants. We also show that equivalent IAQ could allow some contaminants to exceed current standards if other contaminants are more stringently controlled.

  2. Pulsed ventilation in mines. II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, D

    1975-06-01

    Using test results, an attempt is made to determine the form of the free jet and to derive design data for pulsed fans. The most suitable placing of these fans for the ventilation of headings is discussed.

  3. ENERGY STAR Certified Ventilating Fans

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 4.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Ventilating Fans that are effective as of...

  4. Institutional Care for Long-Term Mechanical Ventilation in Canada: A National Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Rose

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: No national Canadian data define resource requirements and care delivery for ventilator-assisted individuals (VAIs requiring long-term institutional care. Such data will assist in planning health care services to this population.

  5. Wind Extraction for Natural Ventilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagundes, Tadeu; Yaghoobian, Neda; Kumar, Rajan; Ordonez, Juan

    2017-11-01

    Due to the depletion of energy resources and the environmental impact of pollution and unsustainable energy resources, energy consumption has become one of the main concerns in our rapidly growing world. Natural ventilation, a traditional method to remove anthropogenic and solar heat gains, proved to be a cost-effective, alternative method to mechanical ventilation. However, while natural ventilation is simple in theory, its detailed design can be a challenge, particularly for wind-driven ventilation, which its performance highly involves the buildings' form, surrounding topography, turbulent flow characteristics, and climate. One of the main challenges with wind-driven natural ventilation schemes is due to the turbulent and unpredictable nature of the wind around the building that impose complex pressure loads on the structure. In practice, these challenges have resulted in founding the natural ventilation mainly on buoyancy (rather than the wind), as the primary force. This study is the initial step for investigating the physical principals of wind extraction over building walls and investigating strategies to reduce the dependence of the wind extraction on the incoming flow characteristics and the target building form.

  6. Ventilation Model and Analysis Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chipman, V.

    2003-01-01

    This model and analysis report develops, validates, and implements a conceptual model for heat transfer in and around a ventilated emplacement drift. This conceptual model includes thermal radiation between the waste package and the drift wall, convection from the waste package and drift wall surfaces into the flowing air, and conduction in the surrounding host rock. These heat transfer processes are coupled and vary both temporally and spatially, so numerical and analytical methods are used to implement the mathematical equations which describe the conceptual model. These numerical and analytical methods predict the transient response of the system, at the drift scale, in terms of spatially varying temperatures and ventilation efficiencies. The ventilation efficiency describes the effectiveness of the ventilation process in removing radionuclide decay heat from the drift environment. An alternative conceptual model is also developed which evaluates the influence of water and water vapor mass transport on the ventilation efficiency. These effects are described using analytical methods which bound the contribution of latent heat to the system, quantify the effects of varying degrees of host rock saturation (and hence host rock thermal conductivity) on the ventilation efficiency, and evaluate the effects of vapor and enhanced vapor diffusion on the host rock thermal conductivity

  7. Mechanical ventilation for severe asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatherman, James

    2015-06-01

    Acute exacerbations of asthma can lead to respiratory failure requiring ventilatory assistance. Noninvasive ventilation may prevent the need for endotracheal intubation in selected patients. For patients who are intubated and undergo mechanical ventilation, a strategy that prioritizes avoidance of ventilator-related complications over correction of hypercapnia was first proposed 30 years ago and has become the preferred approach. Excessive pulmonary hyperinflation is a major cause of hypotension and barotrauma. An appreciation of the key determinants of hyperinflation is essential to rational ventilator management. Standard therapy for patients with asthma undergoing mechanical ventilation consists of inhaled bronchodilators, corticosteroids, and drugs used to facilitate controlled hypoventilation. Nonconventional interventions such as heliox, general anesthesia, bronchoscopy, and extracorporeal life support have also been advocated for patients with fulminant asthma but are rarely necessary. Immediate mortality for patients who are mechanically ventilated for acute severe asthma is very low and is often associated with out-of-hospital cardiorespiratory arrest before intubation. However, patients who have been intubated for severe asthma are at increased risk for death from subsequent exacerbations and must be managed accordingly in the outpatient setting.

  8. Impact of Fire Ventilation on General Ventilation in the Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zender-Świercz, Ewa; Telejko, Marek

    2017-10-01

    The fire of building is a threat to its users. The biggest threat is generation, during lifetime of fire, hot gases and smoke. The purpose of quick and efficient evacuation from the area covered by the fire, at first step the escape routes have to be secured from smokiness. The smoke ventilation systems are used for this purpose. The proper design and execution of smoke ventilation is important not only because of the safety, but also of the maintenance of comfort in the building at a time when there is no fire. The manuscript presents the effect of incorrectly realized smoke ventilation in the stairwell of the medium building. The analysis shows that the flaps of smoke ventilation located in the stairwell may have a significant impact on the proper functioning of mechanical ventilation in the period when there is no fire. The improperly installed or incorrect insulated components cause perturbation of air flow and they change pressure distribution in the building. The conclusion of the analysis is the need to include the entire technical equipment of the building during the design and realization of its individual elements. The impact of various installations at each other is very important, and the omission of any of them can cause disturbances in the proper work of another.

  9. Contaminants in ventilated filling boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolster, D. T.; Linden, P. F.

    While energy efficiency is important, the adoption of energy-efficient ventilation systems still requires the provision of acceptable indoor air quality. Many low-energy systems, such as displacement or natural ventilation, rely on temperature stratification within the interior environment, always extracting the warmest air from the top of the room. Understanding buoyancy-driven convection in a confined ventilated space is key to understanding the flow that develops with many of these modern low-energy ventilation schemes. In this work we study the transport of an initially uniformly distributed passive contaminant in a displacement-ventilated space. Representing a heat source as an ideal sourced of buoyancy, analytical and numerical models are developed that allow us to compare the average efficiency of contaminant removal between traditional mixing and modern low-energy systems. A set of small-scale analogue laboratory experiments was also conducted to further validate our analytical and numerical solutions.We find that on average traditional and low-energy ventilation methods are similar with regard to pollutant flushing efficiency. This is because the concentration being extracted from the system at any given time is approximately the same for both systems. However, very different vertical concentration gradients exist. For the low-energy system, a peak in contaminant concentration occurs at the temperature interface that is established within the space. This interface is typically designed to sit at some intermediate height in the space. Since this peak does not coincide with the extraction point, displacement ventilation does not offer the same benefits for pollutant flushing as it does for buoyancy removal.

  10. Trigger performance of mid-level ICU mechanical ventilators during assisted ventilation: a bench study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Juliana C; Chipman, Daniel W; Kacmarek, Robert M

    2008-09-01

    To compare the triggering performance of mid-level ICU mechanical ventilators with a standard ICU mechanical ventilator. Experimental bench study. The respiratory care laboratory of a university-affiliated teaching hospital. A computerized mechanical lung model, the IngMar ASL5000. Ten mid-level ICU ventilators were compared to an ICU ventilator at two levels of lung model effort, three combinations of respiratory mechanics (normal, COPD and ARDS) and two modes of ventilation, volume and pressure assist/control. A total of 12 conditions were compared. Performance varied widely among ventilators. Mean inspiratory trigger time was ventilators. The mean inspiratory delay time (time from initiation of the breath to return of airway pressure to baseline) was longer than that for the ICU ventilator for all tested ventilators except one. The pressure drop during triggering (Ptrig) was comparable with that of the ICU ventilator for only two ventilators. Expiratory Settling Time (time for pressure to return to baseline) had the greatest variability among ventilators. Triggering differences among these mid-level ICU ventilators and with the ICU ventilator were identified. Some of these ventilators had a much poorer triggering response with high inspiratory effort than the ICU ventilator. These ventilators do not perform as well as ICU ventilators in patients with high ventilatory demand.

  11. Tidal ventilation distribution during pressure-controlled ventilation and pressure support ventilation in post-cardiac surgery patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankman, P; VAN DER Kreeft, S M; Gommers, D

    2014-09-01

    Inhomogeneous ventilation is an important contributor to ventilator-induced lung injury. Therefore, this study examines homogeneity of lung ventilation by means of electrical impedance tomography (EIT) measurements during pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV) and pressure support ventilation (PSV) using the same ventilation pressures. Twenty mechanically ventilated patients were studied after cardiac surgery. On arrival at the intensive care unit, ventilation distribution was measured with EIT just above the diaphragm for 15 min. After awakening, PCV was switched to PSV and EIT measurements were again recorded. Tidal impedance variation, a measure of tidal volume, increased during PSV compared with PCV, despite using the same ventilation pressures (P = 0.045). The distribution of tidal ventilation to the dependent lung region was more pronounced during PSV compared with PCV, especially during the first half of the inspiration. An even distribution of tidal ventilation between the dependent and non-dependent lung regions was seen during PCV at lower tidal volumes (tidal volumes (≥ 8 ml/kg). In addition, the distribution of tidal ventilation was predominantly distributed to the dependent lung during PSV at low tidal volumes. In post-cardiac surgery patients, PSV showed improved ventilation of the dependent lung region due to the contribution of the diaphragm activity, which is even more pronounced during lower assist levels. © 2014 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Residential ventilation standards scoping study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, Thomas E.; Sherman, Max H.

    2003-10-01

    The goals of this scoping study are to identify research needed to develop improved ventilation standards for California's Title 24 Building Energy Efficiency Standards. The 2008 Title 24 Standards are the primary target for the outcome of this research, but this scoping study is not limited to that timeframe. We prepared this scoping study to provide the California Energy Commission with broad and flexible options for developing a research plan to advance the standards. This document presents the findings of a scoping study commissioned by the Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) program of the California Energy Commission to determine what research is necessary to develop new residential ventilation requirements for California. This study is one of three companion efforts needed to complete the job of determining the ventilation needs of California residences, determining the bases for setting residential ventilation requirements, and determining appropriate ventilation technologies to meet these needs and requirements in an energy efficient manner. Rather than providing research results, this scoping study identifies important research questions along with the level of effort necessary to address these questions and the costs, risks, and benefits of pursuing alternative research questions. In approaching these questions and corresponding levels of effort, feasibility and timing were important considerations. The Commission has specified Summer 2005 as the latest date for completing this research in time to update the 2008 version of California's Energy Code (Title 24).

  13. GUILT OF PERSONS WITH MENTAL DISORDERS ARE NOT EXCLUDING RESPONSIBILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Valerievna Yurchak

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the theory of law as a key cross-sectoral and multi-disciplinary institutions is the Institute of guilt. At the present stage of development of the law, in a convergence of many of its branches, it is important to investigate exhaustively the institution with the general legal position, both in general and in particular - the situation of the guilt of persons with mental disorder, not excluding sanity.The purpose of this study - to investigate the situation of the fault of persons with a mental disorder, not excluding sanity in different areas of law, and address the question of whether this interdisciplinary institute.Scientific, theoretical and practical significance of the work lies in the fact that the study of this topic will summarize the knowledge about the fault of persons with a mental disorder, not excluding sanity, to analyze the content of this institution in various areas of law, and to conclude that the cross-sectoral character.The author uses formal-legal, comparative, hermeneutical, mathematical methods, as well as general methods of scientific research.The author analyzes the provisions of the Russian legislation on the fault of persons with a mental disorder, not excluding sanity, concluding that the criminal law of guilt people with a mental disorder, not excluding sanity, the most developed and taken into account as a circumstance affecting the punishment. In other areas of the law said institution worked shallow.The results of this study are scientific and practical value, because they can be useful for teaching students - in the industrial discipline "Criminal Law" and the general theoretical discipline "Theory of State and Law"; in science - by picking up information about the features of the Institute of guilt, and in practice - said the work can be useful to practitioners of judicial and investigative bodies, in order to understand the meaning and importance of the category of guilt, including - the guilt of persons

  14. Efficiency of Noninvasive Ventilation in Acute Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Z. Nadiradze

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the efficiency of noninvasive supporting ventilation in patients with acute cardiorespiratory failure in the early postoperative period after cardiac surgery under extracorporeal circulation. Methods. Case histories of patients operated on the heart under extracorporeal circulation, who postoperatively developed acute car-diorespiratory failure requiring repeated artificial ventilation (AV, were retrospectively studied. According to the AV mode, the patients were divided into 2 groups. Non-invasive AV was carried out in Group 1 (a study group. In Group 2 (a control group, tracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation were performed when respiratory indices deteriorated. In both groups, anesthesia was maintained without deviating from the clinically accepted protocol. The indications for extubation were routine. Following 24—72 hours after extubation, the health status of patients became worse, as manifested in decreased circulatory performance, requiring that they be switched to AV. Clinical and laboratory findings were used to define indications for AV switching. The conditions for noninvasive ventilation were the close cooperation of a patient with medical personnel, the absence of significant hyperthermia, injury, operation or facial abnormally, which excluded intimate mating. Results. Analysis of gas exchange changes suggests that there are no differences between the groups both just after surgery and within 24 postperfusion hours after extubation. When the condition deteriorated, no differences in oxygen exchange and delivery were observed in the study and control groups. In the control group, PaO2, oxygenation index, and oxygen delivery index were significantly less than those in the study group. Analysis of the duration of assisted ventilation revealed that the study group patients were on a respirator significantly less than the controls. The length of intensive care unit stay also increased greatly in Group 2

  15. Services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardeman, F.

    1998-01-01

    The objectives of the services section is (1) to offer complete services in health-physics measurements according to international quality standards, (2) to improve continuously these measurement techniques and to follow up international recommendations and legislation concerning the surveillance of workers, (3) to support and advise nuclear and non-nuclear industry on problems of radioactive contamination. Achievements related to gamma spectrometry, whole-body counting, beta and alpha spectrometry, dosimetry, radon measurements, calibration, instrumentation, and neutron activation analysis are described

  16. Air Distribution in a Furnished Room Ventilated by Mixing Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, June Richter; Nielsen, Peter V.; Svidt, Kjeld

    Using isothermal full-scale experiments and two-dimensional isothermal CFD simulations it is investigated how normal office furniture influences the air movements in a room with mixing ventilation. Three different set-ups are made in the experiments and different sizes and locations of the furnit......Using isothermal full-scale experiments and two-dimensional isothermal CFD simulations it is investigated how normal office furniture influences the air movements in a room with mixing ventilation. Three different set-ups are made in the experiments and different sizes and locations...

  17. Demand controlled ventilation in a bathroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Dorthe Kragsig; Nielsen, Toke Rammer; Topp, Claus

    2008-01-01

    consumption during periods where the demand for ventilation is low and poor indoor climate during periods where the demand for ventilation is high. Controlling the ventilation rate by demand can improve the energy performance of the ventilation system and the indoor climate. This paper compares the indoor...... climate and energy consumption of a Constant Air Volume (CAV) system and a Demand Controlled Ventilation (DCV) system for two different bathroom designs. The air change rate of the CAV system corresponded to 0.5h-1. The ventilation rate of the DCV system was controlled by occupancy and by the relative...

  18. Excluded-volume effects in the diffusion of hard spheres

    KAUST Repository

    Bruna, Maria

    2012-01-03

    Excluded-volume effects can play an important role in determining transport properties in diffusion of particles. Here, the diffusion of finite-sized hard-core interacting particles in two or three dimensions is considered systematically using the method of matched asymptotic expansions. The result is a nonlinear diffusion equation for the one-particle distribution function, with excluded-volume effects enhancing the overall collective diffusion rate. An expression for the effective (collective) diffusion coefficient is obtained. Stochastic simulations of the full particle system are shown to compare well with the solution of this equation for two examples. © 2012 American Physical Society.

  19. Means of evaluating the consequences of a fire in ventilation and filtration networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laborde, J.C.; Mulcey, P.; Pourprix, M.; Savornin, J.; Tessier, J.

    1989-10-01

    Accident events involving fire are quite frequent and could have a severe effect on the safety of nuclear facilities. As confinement must be maintained, the ventilation and filtration systems have to be designed to exclude any radioactive release to the environment. To determine and analyse the consequences of a fire on the ventilation network and on its associated air cleaning systems, a research program including the development of calculation codes and experimental studies has been carried out at the Nuclear Studies Centre at Saclay (France). The paper describes the highlights of this research program

  20. Air ventilation/controlling facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, Kazuhiro; Kinoshita, Shoichiro

    1997-12-12

    When all electricity supply from the outside of a power plant are lost, a power generator directly connected to an emergency steam turbine which is driven by steams introduced from a nuclear reactor is driven to supply electricity required in the power plant. Cool water prepared by a refrigerator is used as cooling water in an air ventilation/controlling facility of a room equipped with the power generating facility. As the refrigerator, a refrigerator of an existent emergency air cooling water system for an auxiliary air ventilation/controlling equipment is used. This can extend the period of time till the temperature of the room where the power generator is disposed exceeds the temperature range capable of keeping the integrity of the power generator even when all the AC power supply are lost to inactivate the function of the air ventilation/controlling system. (I.S.)

  1. Sealed Crawl Spaces with Integrated Whole-House Ventilation in a Cold Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoeller, William [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States); Williamson, James [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States); Puttagunta, Srikanth [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2015-07-01

    One method of code-compliance for crawlspaces is to seal and insulate the crawlspace, rather than venting to the outdoors. However, codes require mechanical ventilation; either via conditioned supply air from the HVAC system, or a continuous exhaust ventilation strategy. As the CARB's building partner, Ithaca Neighborhood Housing Services, intended to use the unvented crawlspace in a recent development, CARB was interested in investigating a hybrid ventilation method that includes the exhaust air from the crawlspace as a portion of an ASHRAE 62.2 compliant whole-house ventilation strategy. This hybrid ventilation method was evaluated through a series of long-term monitoring tests that observed temperature, humidity, and pressure conditions through the home and crawlspace.

  2. [Pressure support ventilation and proportional assist ventilation during weaning from mechanical ventilation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Bermeo, H; Bottiroli, M; Italiano, S; Roche-Campo, F; Santos, J A; Alonso, M; Mancebo, J

    2014-01-01

    To compare tolerance, duration of mechanical ventilation (MV) and clinical outcomes during weaning from MV in patients subjected to either pressure support ventilation (PSV) or proportional assist ventilation (PAV). A prospective, observational study was carried out. Intensive Care Unit. A total of 40 consecutive subjects were allocated to either the PSV or the PAV group until each group contained 20 patients. Patients were included in the study when they met the criteria to begin weaning and the attending physician decided to initiate the weaning process. The physician selected the modality and set the ventilatory parameters. None. Demographic data, respiratory mechanics, ventilatory parameters, duration of MV, and clinical outcomes (reintubation, tracheostomy, mortality). Baseline characteristics were similar in both groups. No significant differences were observed between the PSV and PAV groups in terms of the total duration of MV (10 [5-18] vs. 9 [7-19] days; P=.85), reintubation (5 [31%] vs. 3 [19%]; P=.69), or mortality (4 [20%] vs. 5 [25%] deaths; P=1). Eight patients (40%) in the PSV group and 6 patients (30%) in the PAV group (P=.74) required a return to volume assist-control ventilation due to clinical deterioration. Tolerance, duration of MV and clinical outcomes during weaning from mechanical ventilation were similar in PSV and PAV. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  3. Membrane modules for building ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kistler, K.R.; Cussler, E.L.

    2002-01-01

    Hollow fibre and flat sheet membranes with an interfacially polymerized coating of polyamide have a permeance for water vapour of about 0.16 m sec{sup -1}. These membranes can serve as a basis for building ventilation which provides fresh air while recovering about 70% of the specific heat and 60% of the latent heat. Because these membranes are selective for water vapour, the air is exhausted with internal pollutants like carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, and radon. The expense of the ventilator should be recovered in reduced heating costs in about three years. (Author)

  4. Limiting volume with modern ventilators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Thomas J; Haan, Lutana; Ashworth, Lonny J; Anderson, Jeff

    2015-06-01

    The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) network low tidal-volume study comparing tidal volumes of 12 ml/kg versus 6 ml/kg was published in 2000. The study was stopped early as data revealed a 22% relative reduction in mortality rate when using 6 ml/kg tidal volume. The current generation of critical care ventilators allows the tidal volume to be set during volume-targeted, assist/control (volume A/C); however, some ventilators include options that may prevent the tidal volume from being controlled. The purpose of this bench study was to evaluate the delivered tidal volume, when these options are active, in a spontaneously breathing lung model using an electronic breathing simulator. Four ventilators were evaluated: CareFusion AVEA (AVEA), Dräger Evita® XL (Evita XL), Covidien Puritan Bennett® 840(TM) (PB 840), and Maquet SERVO-i (SERVO-i). Each ventilator was connected to the Hans Rudolph Electronic Breathing Simulator at an amplitude of 0 cm H2O and then 10 cm H2O. All four ventilators were set to deliver volume A/C, tidal volume 400 ml, respiratory rate 20 bpm, positive end-expiratory pressure 5 cm H2O, peak flowrate 60 L/min. The displayed tidal volume was recorded for each ventilator at the above settings with additional options OFF and then ON. The AVEA has two options in volume A/C: demand breaths and V-sync. When activated, these options allow the patient to exceed the set tidal volume. When using the Evita XL, the option AutoFlow can be turned ON or OFF, and when this option is ON, the tidal volume may vary. The PB 840 does not have any additional options that affect volume delivery, and it maintains the set tidal volume regardless of patient effort. The SERVO-i's demand valve allows additional flow if the patient's inspiratory flowrate exceeds the set flowrate, increasing the delivered tidal volume; this option can be turned OFF with the latest software upgrade. Modern ventilators have an increasing number of optional settings. These settings may

  5. 20 CFR 404.1013 - Included-excluded rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... least one-half of your time in the pay period is in covered work. If you spend most of your time in a... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Included-excluded rule. 404.1013 Section 404.1013 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY...

  6. University Benefits Survey. Part 1 (All Benefits Excluding Pensions).

    Science.gov (United States)

    University of Western Ontario, London.

    Results of a 1983 survey of benefits, excluding pensions, for 17 Ontario, Canada, universities are presented. Information is provided on the following areas: whether the university self-administers insurance plans, communication of benefits, proposed changes in benefits, provision of life and dismemberment insurance, maternity leave policy,…

  7. 21 CFR 1404.950 - Excluded Parties List System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excluded Parties List System 1404.950 Section 1404.950 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION... other information about persons who are ineligible. The EPLS system includes the printed version...

  8. 8 CFR 1240.38 - Fingerprinting of excluded aliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fingerprinting of excluded aliens. 1240.38 Section 1240.38 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS PROCEEDINGS TO DETERMINE REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Exclusion of...

  9. The Education Act and Excluded Children. Policy Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgkin, Rachel

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the negative assumptions and outcomes of provisions in Britain's Education Act of 1997 dealing with expulsion of students. Presents some statistics on excluded children; discusses likely outcomes such as increased delinquency, parent-school acrimony, and disparity in schools. Describes the role of teachers' unions in drafting the bill…

  10. 45 CFR 2400.63 - Excluded graduate study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... arts in public affairs or public administration. The Foundation may at its discretion, upon request of... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Excluded graduate study. 2400.63 Section 2400.63 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) JAMES MADISON MEMORIAL FELLOWSHIP...

  11. Human versus Computer Controlled Selection of Ventilator Settings: An Evaluation of Adaptive Support Ventilation and Mid-Frequency Ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Mireles-Cabodevila

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There are modes of mechanical ventilation that can select ventilator settings with computer controlled algorithms (targeting schemes. Two examples are adaptive support ventilation (ASV and mid-frequency ventilation (MFV. We studied how different clinician-chosen ventilator settings are from these computer algorithms under different scenarios. Methods. A survey of critical care clinicians provided reference ventilator settings for a 70 kg paralyzed patient in five clinical/physiological scenarios. The survey-derived values for minute ventilation and minute alveolar ventilation were used as goals for ASV and MFV, respectively. A lung simulator programmed with each scenario’s respiratory system characteristics was ventilated using the clinician, ASV, and MFV settings. Results. Tidal volumes ranged from 6.1 to 8.3 mL/kg for the clinician, 6.7 to 11.9 mL/kg for ASV, and 3.5 to 9.9 mL/kg for MFV. Inspiratory pressures were lower for ASV and MFV. Clinician-selected tidal volumes were similar to the ASV settings for all scenarios except for asthma, in which the tidal volumes were larger for ASV and MFV. MFV delivered the same alveolar minute ventilation with higher end expiratory and lower end inspiratory volumes. Conclusions. There are differences and similarities among initial ventilator settings selected by humans and computers for various clinical scenarios. The ventilation outcomes are the result of the lung physiological characteristics and their interaction with the targeting scheme.

  12. Ventilation of radioactive enclosures; Ventilation des enceintes radioactives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caminade, F; Laurent, H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-07-01

    Mechanical, physical and chemical manipulations on radioactive products must be carried out in properly ventilated enclosed places. The air extracted can only be discharged into the atmosphere after a correct filtration. The power of the ventilation systems is a function of the dimensions and purpose of the enclosure? The choice of types of filter is determined by the physical state and chemical nature of the radioactive materials to be manipulated. This study deals with the individual equipment of small installations: glove boxes, manipulation boxes with outside control and, if necessary, production chambers (maximum useful volume: 5 m{sup 3}). The performances of three types of 'ventilators', and the modifications provided by the addition of filters, are measured and compared. (author) [French] Les manipulations oceaniques, physiques et chimiques sur des produits radioactifs doivent s'effectuer dans des enceintes convenablement ventilees. L'air extrait ne peut etre rejete dans l'atmosphere qu'apres une filtration correcte. La puissance des installations de ventilation est fonction des dimensions de l'enceinte et de son utilisation. Le choix des types de filtres est determine par l'etat physique et la nature ehimique des corps radioactifs manipules. Notre etude porte sur l'equipement individuel d'installations de petites dimensions: boites a gants, boites a pinces et, a la rigueur, enceintes de production (volume maximum utilisable 5 m{sup 3}). Nous mesurons et comparons les performances de trois types de 'ventilateurs' et les modifications apportees par l'adjonction de filtres. (auteur)

  13. Ventilation effectiveness : health benefits of heat recovery ventilators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2010-08-15

    Studies have shown that the installation of a heat recovery ventilator (HRV) in homes in northern Canada could improve indoor air quality and the respiratory health of inhabitants. Low ventilation rates are common in many homes in the North because the climate is severe, homes are smaller and lack basements, and occupancies are higher, leading to unhealthy indoor air quality. Northern communities also have a high rate of respiratory infections. HRVs recover much of the energy used to ventilate, which is desirable in cold regions with high heating costs. For the study, the test sample was divided into two types of houses, notably houses with active HRVs and those with control HRVs that were installed and operated but that did not function. The study results showed that HRVs provided increased ventilation. Complaints by residents about HRV noise, discomfort, or low humidity were common but equally spread between those with active and placebo HRVs. The study showed that the system design needs to be improved to better suit the needs of Inuit families. The nature of northern housing presents installation and maintenance challenges. It is hard to retrofit HRV ducting inside small, existing houses, and building supplies arrive infrequently, so detailed planning and careful take-offs of all supplies and materials must be done well in advance of construction. In addition, contractors are hard to locate and have variable expertise, and there is little technical follow-up. Robust technical support by local contractors and housing authorities is therefore important. 2 refs.

  14. Decisional responsibility for mechanical ventilation and weaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Louise; Blackwood, Bronagh; Egerod, Ingrid

    2011-01-01

    Optimal management of mechanical ventilation and weaning requires dynamic and collaborative decision making to minimize complications and avoid delays in the transition to extubation. In the absence of collaboration, ventilation decision making may be fragmented, inconsistent, and delayed. Our...

  15. Perioperative lung protective ventilation in obese patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez-Bustamante, Ana; Hashimoto, Soshi; Serpa Neto, Ary; Moine, Pierre; Vidal Melo, Marcos F.; Repine, John E.

    2015-01-01

    The perioperative use and relevance of protective ventilation in surgical patients is being increasingly recognized. Obesity poses particular challenges to adequate mechanical ventilation in addition to surgical constraints, primarily by restricted lung mechanics due to excessive adiposity, frequent

  16. The School Advanced Ventilation Engineering Software (SAVES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The School Advanced Ventilation Engineering Software (SAVES) package is a tool to help school designers assess the potential financial payback and indoor humidity control benefits of Energy Recovery Ventilation (ERV) systems for school applications.

  17. Improvements of uranium mine ventilation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Changrong; Zhou Xinghuo; Liu Zehua; Wang Zhiyong

    2007-01-01

    Ventilation has been proved to be a main method to eliminate radon and its daughters in uranium mines. According to the practical rectifications of uranium mine ventilation system, the improved measures are summarized. (authors)

  18. Ventilation area measured with eit in order to optimize peep settings in mechanically ventilated patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankman, P; Groot Jebbink, E; Preis, C; Bikker, I.; Gommers, D.

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION. Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) is a non-invasive imaging technique, which can be used to visualize ventilation. Ventilation will be measured by impedance changes due to ventilation. OBJECTIVES. The aim of this study was to optimize PEEP settings based on the ventilation area of

  19. Initial ventilator settings for critically ill patients

    OpenAIRE

    Kilickaya, Oguz; Gajic, Ognjen

    2013-01-01

    The lung-protective mechanical ventilation strategy has been standard practice for management of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) for more than a decade. Observational data, small randomized studies and two recent systematic reviews suggest that lung protective ventilation is both safe and potentially beneficial in patients who do not have ARDS at the onset of mechanical ventilation. Principles of lung-protective ventilation include: a) prevention of volutrauma (tidal volume 4 to 8 ...

  20. Building ventilation, state of the art, prospective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    This conference is composed of 21 communications and 21 posters in the domain of building ventilation and indoor air quality; the main themes are: indoor air quality assessment and optimization; performance enhancement and optimization of ventilation systems and equipment; ventilation systems for renovated and rehabilitated buildings; French and European regulations, standardizations and certifications; experimental and numerical simulation studies concerning ventilation systems, air flow, temperature distribution, air quality, radon decontamination, thermal comfort and acoustic levels in buildings

  1. Artificial humidification for the mechanically ventilated patient

    OpenAIRE

    Selvaraj, Nelson

    2010-01-01

    Caring for patients who are mechanically ventilated poses many\\ud challenges for critical care nurses. It is important to humidify the\\ud patient’s airways artificially to prevent complications such as\\ud ventilator-associated pneumonia. There is no gold standard to\\ud determine which type of humidification is best for patients who\\ud are artificially ventilated. This article provides an overview of\\ud commonly used artificial humidification for mechanically ventilated\\ud patients and discuss...

  2. Artificial humidification for the mechanically ventilated patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaraj, N

    Caring for patients who are mechanically ventilated poses many challenges for critical care nurses. It is important to humidify the patient's airways artificially to prevent complications such as ventilator-associated pneumonia. There is no gold standard to determine which type of humidification is best for patients who are artificially ventilated. This article provides an overview of commonly used artificial humidification for mechanically ventilated patients and discusses nurses' responsibilities in caring for patients receiving artificial humidification.

  3. High-Frequency Percussive Ventilation Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    be implemented. ‡ Follow the reverse of the ventilation sequence if respiratory alkalosis develops—however, start at ventilation goal sequence 1 not at...High-frequency percussive ventilation (HFPV) has demonstrated a potential role as a rescue option for refractory acute respiratory distress syndrome...frequency percussive ventilation (HFPV) has demon- strated a potential role as a salvage option for refrac- tory acute respiratory distress syndrome

  4. Performance comparison of 15 transport ventilators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipman, Daniel W; Caramez, Maria P; Miyoshi, Eriko; Kratohvil, Joseph P; Kacmarek, Robert M

    2007-06-01

    Numerous mechanical ventilators are designed and marketed for use in patient transport. The complexity of these ventilators differs considerably, but very few data exist to compare their operational capabilities. Using bench and animal models, we studied 15 currently available transport ventilators with regard to their physical characteristics, gas consumption (duration of an E-size oxygen cylinder), battery life, ease of use, need for compressed gas, ability to deliver set ventilation parameters to a test lung under 3 test conditions, and ability to maintain ventilation and oxygenation in normal and lung-injured sheep. Most of the ventilators tested were relatively simple to operate and had clearly marked controls. Oxygen cylinder duration ranged from 30 min to 77 min. Battery life ranged from 70 min to 8 hours. All except 3 of the ventilators were capable of providing various F(IO2) values. Ten of the ventilators had high-pressure and patient-disconnect alarms. Only 6 of the ventilators were able to deliver all settings as specifically set on the ventilator during the bench evaluation. Only 4 of the ventilators were capable of maintaining ventilation, oxygenation, and hemodynamics in both the normal and the lung-injured sheep. Only 2 of the ventilators met all the trial targets in all the bench and animal tests. With many of the ventilators, certain of the set ventilation parameters were inaccurate (differed by > 10% from the values from a cardiopulmonary monitor). The physical characteristics and high gas consumption of some of these ventilators may render them less desirable for patient transport.

  5. Measurements of waste tank passive ventilation rates using tracer gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Olsen, K.B.; Sklarew, D.S.; Evans, J.C.; Remund, K.M.

    1997-09-01

    This report presents the results of ventilation rate studies of eight passively ventilated high-level radioactive waste tanks using tracer gases. Head space ventilation rates were determined for Tanks A-101, AX-102, AX-103, BY-105, C-107, S-102, U-103, and U-105 using sulfur hexafluoride (SF 6 ) and/or helium (He) as tracer gases. Passive ventilation rates are needed for the resolution of several key safety issues. These safety issues are associated with the rates of flammable gas production and ventilation, the rates at which organic salt-nitrate salt mixtures dry out, and the estimation of organic solvent waste surface areas. This tracer gas study involves injecting a tracer gas into the tank headspace and measuring its concentration at different times to establish the rate at which the tracer is removed by ventilation. Tracer gas injection and sample collection were performed by SGN Eurisys Service Corporation and/or Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation, Characterization Project Operations. Headspace samples were analyzed for He and SF 6 by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The tracer gas method was first demonstrated on Tank S-102. Tests were conducted on Tank S-102 to verify that the tracer gas was uniformly distributed throughout the tank headspace before baseline samples were collected, and that mixing was sufficiently vigorous to maintain an approximately uniform distribution of tracer gas in the headspace during the course of the study. Headspace samples, collected from a location about 4 in away from the injection point and 15, 30, and 60 minutes after the injection of He and SF 6 , indicated that both tracer gases were rapidly mixed. The samples were found to have the same concentration of tracer gases after 1 hour as after 24 hours, suggesting that mixing of the tracer gas was essentially complete within 1 hour

  6. Efficacy of continuous versus intermittent subglottic secretion drainage in preventing ventilator-associated pneumonia in patients requiring mechanical ventilation: A single-center randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Hiroko; Yamaguchi, Osamu; Hayami, Hajime; Shimosaka, Mika; Tsuboi, Sayaka; Sato, Mitsunori; Takebayashi, Shigeo; Morita, Satoshi; Saito, Mari; Goto, Takahisa; Kurahashi, Kiyoyasu

    2018-03-23

    Aspiration of subglottic secretion is a widely used intervention to prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). This study aimed to compare the efficacy of continuous and intermittent subglottic secretion drainage (SSD) in preventing VAP. A single-center randomized controlled trial was conducted on adult postoperative patients who were expected to undergo mechanical ventilation for more than 48 hours. Primary outcome measure was incidence of VAP and secondary outcome measures were length of mechanical ventilation and intensive-care unit (ICU) stay. Fifty-nine patients received continuous SSD, while 60 patients received intermittent SSD. Of these 119 patients, 88 (74%) were excluded and 15 and 16 patients were allocated to receive continuous and intermittent SSD, respectively. VAP was detected in 4 (26.7%) and 7 (43.8%) patients in the continuous and intermittent groups, respectively, (p=0.320). The length of mechanical ventilation was significantly shorter (p=0.034) in the continuous group (99.5±47.1 h) than in the intermittent group (159.9±94.5 h). The length of ICU stay was also shorter (p=0.0097) in the continuous group (6.3±2.1 days) than the intermittent group (9.8±4.8 days). Although continuous SSD did not reduce the incidence of VAP, it reduced the length of mechanical ventilation and ICU stay when compared to intermittent SSD.

  7. Implementation of natural ventilation in pig houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klooster, van 't C.E.

    1994-01-01

    A description of experimental work and discussion on implementation of natural ventilation in pig houses is given. A literature review describes the state of the art, animal growth data are given. It includes characterization of ventilation openings, a technique to estimate the ventilation

  8. 46 CFR 98.25-75 - Ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... shall be fitted with efficient natural or mechanical ventilation. (b) Enclosed compartments in which... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation. 98.25-75 Section 98.25-75 Shipping COAST... Ventilation. (a) All enclosed spaces containing cargo tanks fitted with bottom outlet connections shall be...

  9. 46 CFR 194.10-25 - Ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... magazines. (1) All integral magazines shall be provided with natural or mechanical ventilation. Design... vans shall be provided with natural ventilation sufficient to maintain the inside air temperature below... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation. 194.10-25 Section 194.10-25 Shipping COAST...

  10. Ventilation in Commercial and Residential Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    A number of areas have to be considered in connection with indoor air quality and ventilation. The selection of ventilation principle and components in the ventilation system will have influence on the indoor air quality and this subject will be discussed on the following pages. The main object o...

  11. 14 CFR 252.9 - Ventilation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ventilation systems. 252.9 Section 252.9... REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.9 Ventilation systems. Air carriers shall prohibit smoking whenever the ventilation system is not fully functioning. Fully functioning for this purpose means operating so...

  12. Ventilation strategies and indoor environment in classrooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Liu, Li

    2017-01-01

    Compared with the other building types, the school building has much higher occupancy density and ventilation demand. In Demark, most of the school buildings are ventilated by natural manner. There is a risk of poor indoor environment associated with the lack of ventilation system or insufficient...

  13. Intelligent ventilation in the intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigal Sviri

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Automated, microprocessor-controlled, closed-loop mechanical ventilation has been used in our Medical Intensive Care Unit (MICU at the Hadassah Hebrew-University Medical Center for the past 15 years; for 10 years it has been the primary (preferred ventilator modality. Design and setting. We describe our clinical experience with adaptive support ventilation (ASV over a 6-year period, during which time ASV-enabled ventilators became more readily available and were used as the primary (preferred ventilators for all patients admitted to the MICU. Results. During the study period, 1 220 patients were ventilated in the MICU. Most patients (84% were ventilated with ASV on admission. The median duration of ventilation with ASV was 6 days. The weaning success rate was 81%, and tracheostomy was required in 13%. Sixty-eight patients (6% with severe hypoxia and high inspiratory pressures were placed on pressure-controlled ventilation, in most cases to satisfy a technical requirement for precise and conservative administration of inhaled nitric oxide. The overall pneumothorax rate was less than 3%, and less than 1% of patients who were ventilated only using ASV developed pneumothorax. Conclusions. ASV is a safe and acceptable mode of ventilation for complicated medical patients, with a lower than usual ventilation complication rate.

  14. Why this crisis in residential ventilation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hasselaar, E.

    2008-01-01

    Ventilation is the cornerstone of good indoor air quality. Ventilation requirements have major attention in building regulations, but ventilation in practice is often poor, resulting in increased concentration of pollutants and hence exposure to health risk. Inspection of 500 houses with interviews

  15. 21 CFR 868.5895 - Continuous ventilator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Continuous ventilator. 868.5895 Section 868.5895...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5895 Continuous ventilator. (a) Identification. A continuous ventilator (respirator) is a device intended to mechanically control or assist...

  16. Poor Adherence to Lung-Protective Mechanical Ventilation in Pediatric Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Shan L; Quinn, Carson M; Valentine, Stacey L; Sapru, Anil; Curley, Martha A Q; Willson, Douglas F; Liu, Kathleen D; Matthay, Michael A; Flori, Heidi R

    2016-10-01

    To determine the frequency of low-tidal volume ventilation in pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome and assess if any demographic or clinical factors improve low-tidal volume ventilation adherence. Descriptive post hoc analysis of four multicenter pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome studies. Twenty-six academic PICU. Three hundred fifteen pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome patients. All patients who received conventional mechanical ventilation at hours 0 and 24 of pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome who had data to calculate ideal body weight were included. Two cutoff points for low-tidal volume ventilation were assessed: less than or equal to 6.5 mL/kg of ideal body weight and less than or equal to 8 mL/kg of ideal body weight. Of 555 patients, we excluded 240 for other respiratory support modes or missing data. The remaining 315 patients had a median PaO2-to-FIO2 ratio of 140 (interquartile range, 90-201), and there were no differences in demographics between those who did and did not receive low-tidal volume ventilation. With tidal volume cutoff of less than or equal to 6.5 mL/kg of ideal body weight, the adherence rate was 32% at hour 0 and 33% at hour 24. A low-tidal volume ventilation cutoff of tidal volume less than or equal to 8 mL/kg of ideal body weight resulted in an adherence rate of 58% at hour 0 and 60% at hour 24. Low-tidal volume ventilation use was no different by severity of pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome nor did adherence improve over time. At hour 0, overweight children were less likely to receive low-tidal volume ventilation less than or equal to 6.5 mL/kg ideal body weight (11% overweight vs 38% nonoverweight; p = 0.02); no difference was noted by hour 24. Furthermore, in the overweight group, using admission weight instead of ideal body weight resulted in misclassification of up to 14% of patients as receiving low-tidal volume ventilation when they actually were not. Low

  17. Computational Fluid Dynamics in Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Allard, Francis; Awbi, Hazim B.

    2008-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics in Ventilation Design is a new title in the is a new title in the REHVA guidebook series. The guidebook is written for people who need to use and discuss results based on CFD predictions, and it gives insight into the subject for those who are not used to work with CFD...

  18. Ventilation system in fire modelization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordero Garcia, S.

    2012-01-01

    There is a model of fire in an enclosure formed by two rooms. In one of them, it will cause the fire and check how the system of ventilation in different configurations responds. In addition, the behavior of selected targets, which will be a configuration of cables similar to those found in nuclear power stations will be analyzed.

  19. Cardiogenic oscillation induced ventilator autotriggering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narender Kaloria

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiogenic oscillation during mechanical ventilation can auto-trigger the ventilator resembling patient initiated breadth. This gives a false sense of intact respiratory drive and determination brain death, even if other tests are positive, is not appropriate in such a situation. It will prolong the ICU stay and confound the brain-death determination. In this case report, we describe a 35 year old man who was brought to the hospital after many hours of critical delay following multiple gun shot injuries. The patient suffered a cardiac arrest while on the way from another hospital. After an emergency laparotomy, patient was shifted to Intensive Care Unit (ICU with Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS score of E1VTM1 and was mechanically ventilated. Despite absence of brainstem reflexes, the ventilator continued to be triggered on continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP mode and the patient maintained normal oxygen saturation and acceptable levels of carbon dioxide. An apnoea test confirmed absent respiratory drive. Ventilatory waveform graph analysis, revealed cardiogenic oscillation as the cause for autotrigerring.

  20. Design ventilátoru

    OpenAIRE

    Macháčková, Petra

    2013-01-01

    Předmětem této bakalářské práce je návrh designu stolního ventilátoru. Hlavní myšlenkou je inovativní přístup a dodržení technických, estetických a ergonomických požadavků a současně splnění psychologických a ekonomických funkcí. Navržený ventilátor by měl využívat inovativní technologie bezlopatkových ventilátorů. Ventilátor by měl působit jako vhodný doplněk do moderního interiéru. Cílem je propojit originální design s modernizací přístroje při splnění obecných předpokladů průmyslového desi...

  1. Thermal Plumes in Ventilated Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Peter; Nielsen, Peter V.

    The design of a displacement ventilation system involves determination of the flow rate in the thermal plumes. The flow rate in the plumes and the vertical temperature gradient influence each other, and they are influenced by many factors. This paper shows some descriptions of these effects....

  2. Thermal Plumes in Ventilated Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Peter; Nielsen, Peter V.

    Ventilation systems with vertical displacement flow have been used in industrial areas with extensive heat loads for many years. Hot and contaminant air is carried directly from the occupied zone towards the ceiling by hot processes and other activities which create a natural convection flow....

  3. ENERGY STAR Certified Ventilating Fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 4.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Ventilating Fans that are effective as of October 1, 2015. A detailed listing of key efficiency criteria are available at http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=vent_fans.pr_crit_vent_fans

  4. Pulmonary ventilation/perfusion scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to stop eating (fast), be on a special diet, or take any medicines before the test. A chest x-ray is usually done before or after a ventilation and perfusion scan. You wear a hospital gown or comfortable clothing that does not have ...

  5. Effect of an interactive cardiopulmonary resuscitation assist device with an automated external defibrillator synchronised with a ventilator on the CPR performance of emergency medical service staff: a randomised simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitzschke, Rainer; Doehn, Christoph; Kersten, Jan F; Blanz, Julian; Kalwa, Tobias J; Scotti, Norman A; Kubitz, Jens C

    2017-04-04

    The present study evaluates whether the quality of advanced cardiac life support (ALS) is improved with an interactive prototype assist device. This device consists of an automated external defibrillator linked to a ventilator and provides synchronised visual and acoustic instructions for guidance through the ALS algorithm and assistance for face-mask ventilations. We compared the cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) quality of emergency medical system (EMS) staff members using the study device or standard equipment in a mannequin simulation study with a prospective, controlled, randomised cross-over study design. Main outcome was the effect of the study device compared to the standard equipment and the effect of the number of prior ALS trainings of the EMS staff on the CPR quality. Data were analysed using analyses of covariance (ANCOVA) and binary logistic regression, accounting for the study design. In 106 simulations of 56 two-person rescuer teams, the mean hands-off time was 24.5% with study equipment and 23.5% with standard equipment (Difference 1.0% (95% CI: -0.4 to 2.5%); p = 0.156). With both types of equipment, the hands-off time decreased with an increasing cumulative number of previous CPR trainings (p = 0.042). The study equipment reduced the mean time until administration of adrenaline (epinephrine) by 23 s (p = 0.003) and that of amiodarone by 17 s (p = 0.016). It also increased the mean number of changes in the person doing chest compressions (0.6 per simulation; p < 0.001) and decreased the mean number of chest compressions (2.8 per minute; p = 0.022) and the mean number of ventilations (1.8 per minute; p < 0.001). The chance of administering amiodarone at the appropriate time was higher, with an odds ratio of 4.15, with the use of the study equipment CPR.com compared to the standard equipment (p = 0.004). With an increasing number of prior CPR trainings, the time intervals in the ALS algorithm until the

  6. Safety evaluation of large ventilation networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrocas, M.; Pruchon, P.; Robin, J.P.; Rouyer, J.L.; Salmon, P.

    1981-01-01

    For large ventilation networks, it is necessary to make a safety evaluation of their responses to perturbations such as blower failure, unexpected transfers, local pressurization. This evaluation is not easy to perform because of the many interrelationships between the different parts of the networks, interrelationships coming from the circulations of workers and matetials between cells and rooms and from the usefulness of air transfers through zones of different classifications. This evaluation is all the more necessary since new imperatives in energy savings push for minimizing the air flows, which tends to render the network more sensitive to perturbations. A program to evaluate safety has been developed by the Service de Protection Technique in cooperation with operators and designers of big nuclear facilities and the first applications presented here show the weak points of the installation studied from the safety view point

  7. Evaluation of a positive ventilation delivery system (PVDS) in administering technegas to the noncompliant patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, P.; Bedford, B.; Bell, A.; Lang, P.; Leiper, C.; Prouse, A.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Certain groups of patients have been excluded from ventilation lung scanning due to their inability to comply with instruction. Tetley Manufacturing have recently developed a Positive Ventilation Delivery System (PVDS) which assists in delivering Technegas to patients who are unable to cooperate fully. The aim of this study is to evaluate the PVDS in the clinical setting. Fifteen frail aged and psychogeriatric patients (n=l 5), mean age 78 years (range 60-93), were ventilated with Technegas using the PVDS. The decision to ventilate the patient with the PVDS was based on an initial assessment of the patients ability to comply with instructions, or failure of the conventional ventilation method, to produce an adequate count rate. Technegas was prepared in the usual manner and then delivered to the patients lungs by squeezing a black anesthetic bag synchronously with the patients breathing, until a count rate of approximately 1000 counts/second was obtained. All patients achieved a satisfactory count rate, mean 1500 counts/second (range 900 to 2300), allowing adequate ventilation images to be obtained. Time to reach this count rate varied between patients, mean 130 seconds (range 40 to 300). The number of assisted breaths also varied, mean 9 (range 3-15). In addition, four patients who required a switch from the conventional method to the PVDS, increased their initial count rate from a mean 200 ± 8% counts/second to a mean of 1300 ± 29% counts/second. This was statistically significant at p = 0.006. Our initial results demonstrate the ability of the PVDS to facilitate ventilation imaging in noncompliant patients such as the frail aged and psychogeriatric. Ventilation times and amounts of radioisotope used were acceptable, economical and practical within a busy department

  8. The air quality in ventilation installations. Practical guidelines; Qualite de l'air dans les installations aerauliques. Guide pratique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angeli, L. [France Air, 91 - Chilly Mazarin (France); Bianchina, M. [Unelvent, 93 - Le Bourget (France); Blazy, M. [Anjos, 01 - Torcieu (France); Boulanger, X. [Aldes, 21 - Chenove (France); Chiesa, M. [Atlantic (France); Duclos, M. [Groupe Titanair, 69 - Lyon (France); Hubert, D.; Kridorian, O. [Groupe Astato, Blanc Mesnil (France); Josserand, O. [Carrier (Belgium); Lancieux, C. [Camfil, 60 - Saint Martin Longueau (France); Lemaire, J.C. [Agence de l' Environnement et de la Maitrise de l' Energie, ADEME, 75 - Paris (France); Petit, Ph. [Compagnie Industrielle d' Applications Thermiques ( CIAT ), 75 - Paris (France); Ribot, B. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France); Tokarek, S. [Gaz de France (GDF), 75 - Paris (France); Bernard, A.M.; Tissot, A. [Centre Technique des Industries Aerauliques et Thermiques (CETIAT), 69 - Villeurbanne (France)

    2004-07-01

    The present guide aims to provide design departments, maintenance companies and builders with practical guidelines and recommendations for the installation of ventilation and air-conditioning systems. The objective is to ensure good Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) and to safeguard the health and well-being of the occupants. The guide deals with aspects of design, dimensioning, installation and servicing, all of which play a major role in guaranteeing IAQ and duct-work hygiene. These steps are reviewed for the principal ventilation systems met in both residential and commercial premises. The first part presents the system and draws the attention of the user to specific points which require particular care in term of IAQ. The second part details recommended practice component by component, in respect of design, installation and servicing. Application of these simple guidelines during the various project stages is essential, in order to ensure a good IAQ in ventilation systems. Content: introduction; good ventilation; systems: exhaust ventilation, balanced ventilation, air handling unit, terminal ventilation units, impact of systems on indoor air quality, components: air inlet, air filter, heat recovery unit, heating or cooling coil, humidifier, mechanical fan unit, cowl and hybrid ventilation fan, mixing box, ventilation duct-work, air outlet and air terminal device; references.

  9. Building technical services - Compact equipment for heating, hot water preparation, ventilation and cooling - Final report; Haustechnik - Kompaktgeraete (Heizen, Warmwasser, Lueften, Kuehlen - alles aus einem). Erkenntnisse aus der Praxis - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haessig, W.; Streit, S. [Haessig Sustech GmbH, Uster (Switzerland); Helfenfinger, D.; Keller, P. [Hochschule fuer Technik und Architektur Luzern (HSLU), Luzern (Switzerland)

    2009-06-15

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents and discusses the knowledge gained in practice concerning compact equipment that can be used for heating, hot water preparation, ventilation and cooling. Such units combine heat-pumps and the further equipment necessary. Data on various factors were collected over a period of one year in three apartment blocks that meet Swiss Minergie-P very low energy consumption standards. Apart from the above mentioned factors, the study also considered humidity and carbon dioxide levels in the apartments and inhabitant behaviour. The authors note that the energy consumption of several apartments fell below the Minergie-P limiting, annual value of 30 kWh/m2. An increase in electricity consumption dependent on room temperatures is noted and commented on. The economic feasibility of Minergie-P and so-called passive housing is commented on.

  10. Volume-Targeted Ventilation in the Neonate: Benchmarking Ventilators on an Active Lung Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Tobias J; Wald, Martin

    2017-03-01

    Mechanically ventilated neonates have been observed to receive substantially different ventilation after switching ventilator models, despite identical ventilator settings. This study aims at establishing the range of output variability among 10 neonatal ventilators under various breathing conditions. Relative benchmarking test of 10 neonatal ventilators on an active neonatal lung model. Neonatal ICU. Ten current neonatal ventilators. Ventilators were set identically to flow-triggered, synchronized, volume-targeted, pressure-controlled, continuous mandatory ventilation and connected to a neonatal lung model. The latter was configured to simulate three patients (500, 1,500, and 3,500 g) in three breathing modes each (passive breathing, constant active breathing, and variable active breathing). Averaged across all weight conditions, the included ventilators delivered between 86% and 110% of the target tidal volume in the passive mode, between 88% and 126% during constant active breathing, and between 86% and 120% under variable active breathing. The largest relative deviation occurred during the 500 g constant active condition, where the highest output machine produced 147% of the tidal volume of the lowest output machine. All machines deviate significantly in volume output and ventilation regulation. These differences depend on ventilation type, respiratory force, and patient behavior, preventing the creation of a simple conversion table between ventilator models. Universal neonatal tidal volume targets for mechanical ventilation cannot be transferred from one ventilator to another without considering necessary adjustments.

  11. Empowering the digitally excluded: learning initiatives for (invisible groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Seale

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence that some digitally excluded groups of learners are receiving more attention than others. Discussions regarding why some digitally excluded learners are more visible than others and therefore worthy of more committed digital inclusion interventions raises important questions about how we define and conceptualise digital inclusion and digital inclusion practice; particularly in relation to empowerment. In this article, we draw on a range of research, practice and policy literature to examine two important questions: what is empowerment and in whose hands does empowerment lie? We argue that empowerment involves making informed choices about technology use, but that learners often require support- human intervention- to make these choices. However, current digital inclusion research has failed to produce a detailed critique of what constitutes empowering support from educational institutions and their staff. A lack of open and reflexive accounts of practice means that we are no closer to identifying and understanding the kinds of empowering practices that are required to challenge the kinds of prejudices, stereotypes, risk-aversiveness and low aspirations associated with the most invisible of digitally excluded learners.

  12. 5 CFR 919.325 - What happens if I do business with an excluded person in a covered transaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What happens if I do business with an... Persons § 919.325 What happens if I do business with an excluded person in a covered transaction? If as a... PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND...

  13. 50 CFR Figure 5 to Part 223 - Net Diagram for the Excluder Panel of the Parker Soft TED

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net Diagram for the Excluder Panel of the Parker Soft TED 5 Figure 5 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 5 Figure 5...

  14. Medicare program; hospital inpatient prospective payment systems for acute care hospitals and the long-term care hospital prospective payment system and fiscal year 2015 rates; quality reporting requirements for specific providers; reasonable compensation equivalents for physician services in excluded hospitals and certain teaching hospitals; provider administrative appeals and judicial review; enforcement provisions for organ transplant centers; and electronic health record (EHR) incentive program. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-22

    We are revising the Medicare hospital inpatient prospective payment systems (IPPS) for operating and capital-related costs of acute care hospitals to implement changes arising from our continuing experience with these systems. Some of these changes implement certain statutory provisions contained in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (collectively known as the Affordable Care Act), the Protecting Access to Medicare Act of 2014, and other legislation. These changes are applicable to discharges occurring on or after October 1, 2014, unless otherwise specified in this final rule. We also are updating the rate-of-increase limits for certain hospitals excluded from the IPPS that are paid on a reasonable cost basis subject to these limits. The updated rate-of-increase limits are effective for cost reporting periods beginning on or after October 1, 2014. We also are updating the payment policies and the annual payment rates for the Medicare prospective payment system (PPS) for inpatient hospital services provided by long-term care hospitals (LTCHs) and implementing certain statutory changes to the LTCH PPS under the Affordable Care Act and the Pathway for Sustainable Growth Rate (SGR) Reform Act of 2013 and the Protecting Access to Medicare Act of 2014. In addition, we discuss our proposals on the interruption of stay policy for LTCHs and on retiring the "5 percent" payment adjustment for collocated LTCHs. While many of the statutory mandates of the Pathway for SGR Reform Act apply to discharges occurring on or after October 1, 2014, others will not begin to apply until 2016 and beyond. In addition, we are making a number of changes relating to direct graduate medical education (GME) and indirect medical education (IME) payments. We are establishing new requirements or revising requirements for quality reporting by specific providers (acute care hospitals, PPS-exempt cancer hospitals, and LTCHs) that

  15. The predictive value of respiratory function tests for non-invasive ventilation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Tilanus, T. B. M.; Groothuis, J. T.; TenBroek-Pastoor, J. M. C.; Feuth, T. B.; Heijdra, Y. F.; Slenders, J. P. L.; Doorduin, J.; Van Engelen, B. G.; Kampelmacher, M. J.; Raaphorst, J.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) improves survival and quality of life in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. The timing of referral to a home ventilation service (HVS), which is in part based on respiratory function tests, has shown room for improvement. It is currently unknown which respiratory function test predicts an appropriate timing of the initiation of NIV. METHODS: We analysed, retrospectively, serial data of five respiratory function tests: forced vital capacity...

  16. Ventilation system design for educational facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsafty, A.F.; Abo Elazm, M.M. [Arab Academy for Science, Alexandria (Egypt). Technology and Maritime Transport; Safwan, M. [Arab Academy for Science, Cairo (Egypt). Technology and Maritime Transport

    2010-07-01

    In order to maintain acceptable indoor air quality levels in classrooms, high ventilation rates are needed to dilute the concentration of indoor contaminants, resulting in higher energy consumption for the operation of mechanical ventilation systems. Three factors are usually considered when determining the adequate ventilation rate for classrooms in educational facilities. These include the maximum population served in the classroom; carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) production rate by occupants; and outdoor air conditions. CO{sub 2} concentrations usually indicate the rate of ventilation required. This paper presented a newly developed computer software program for determining the ventilation rates needed to enhance indoor air quality and to maintain CO{sub 2} concentration within the recommended levels by ANSI/ASHRAE standards for best student performance. This paper also presented design curves for determining the ventilation rates and air changes per hour required for the ventilated educational zone. 15 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  17. Minute Ventilation Limitations of Two Field Transport Ventilators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpisjak, Dale F; Horn, Gregory; Shalov, Samuel; Abes, Alvin Angelo; Van Decar, Lauren

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge of transport ventilator performance impacts patient safety. This study compared minute ventilation (V E ) of the MOVES and Uni-Vent 731 when ventilating the VentAid Training Test Lung with compliance (C) ranging from 0.02 to 0.10 L/cm H 2 O and three different airway resistances (R) (none, Rp5, or Rp20). Tidal volume (V T ) was 800 ± 25 mL. Respiratory rate was increased to ventilator's maximum or until auto-PEEP > 5 cm H 2 O. Respiratory parameters were recorded with the RSS 100HR Research Pneumotach. Data were reported as median (interquartile range). Peak inspiratory pressure (PIP) of the Uni-Vent and MOVES ranged from 22.3 (22.2-22.5) to 82.6 (82.2-83.2) and 20.8 (20.6-20.9) to 50.6 (50.2-50.9) cm H 2 O, respectively. V E of the Uni-Vent and MOVES ranged from 17.7 (17.7-17.7) to 31.5 (31.5-31.5) and 11.3 (10.5-11.3) to 20.2 (19.7-20.5) L/min, respectively. Linear regression demonstrated strong, negative correlation of V E with PIP for the MOVES (V E [L/min] = 26 - 0.31 × PIP [cm H 2 O], r = -0.97) but weak, positive correlation for the Uni-Vent (r = 0.05). Uni-Vent V E exceeded MOVES V E under each test condition (p = 0.0002). If patient V E requirements exceed those predicted by the MOVES regression equation, then using the Uni-Vent should be considered. Reprint & Copyright © 2017 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  18. 41 CFR 105-68.950 - Excluded Parties List System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... System 105-68.950 Section 105-68.950 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION Regional Offices-General Services... General Services Administration (GSA) containing the names and other information about persons who are...

  19. Testing of mechanical ventilators and infant incubators in healthcare institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badnjevic, Almir; Gurbeta, Lejla; Jimenez, Elvira Ruiz; Iadanza, Ernesto

    2017-01-01

    The medical device industry has grown rapidly and incessantly over the past century. The sophistication and complexity of the designed instrumentation is nowadays rising and, with it, has also increased the need to develop some better, more effective and efficient maintenance processes, as part of the safety and performance requirements. This paper presents the results of performance tests conducted on 50 mechanical ventilators and 50 infant incubators used in various public healthcare institutions. Testing was conducted in accordance to safety and performance requirements stated in relevant international standards, directives and legal metrology policies. Testing of output parameters for mechanical ventilators was performed in 4 measuring points while testing of output parameters for infant incubators was performed in 7 measuring points for each infant incubator. As performance criteria, relative error of output parameters for mechanical ventilators and absolute error of output parameters for infant incubators was calculated. The ranges of permissible error, for both groups of devices, are regulated by the Rules on Metrological and Technical Requirements published in the Official Gazette of Bosnia and Herzegovina No. 75/14, which are defined based on international recommendations, standards and guidelines. All ventilators and incubators were tested by etalons calibrated in an ISO 17025 accredited laboratory, which provides compliance to international standards for all measured parameters.The results show that 30% of the tested medical devices are not operating properly and should be serviced, recalibrated and/or removed from daily application.

  20. Summary of human responses to ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppanen, Olli A.; Fisk, William J.

    2004-06-01

    The effects of ventilation on indoor air quality and health is a complex issue. It is known that ventilation is necessary to remove indoor generated pollutants from indoor air or dilute their concentration to acceptable levels. But, as the limit values of all pollutants are not known, the exact determination of required ventilation rates based on pollutant concentrations and associated risks is seldom possible. The selection of ventilation rates has to be based also on epidemiological research (e.g. Seppanen et al., 1999), laboratory and field experiments (e.g. CEN 1996, Wargocki et al., 2002a) and experience (e.g. ECA 2003). Ventilation may also have harmful effects on indoor air quality and climate if not properly designed, installed, maintained and operated as summarized by Seppdnen (2003). Ventilation may bring indoors harmful substances that deteriorate the indoor environment. Ventilation also affects air and moisture flow through the building envelope and may lead to moisture problems that deteriorate the structures of the building. Ventilation changes the pressure differences over the structures of building and may cause or prevent the infiltration of pollutants from structures or adjacent spaces. Ventilation is also in many cases used to control the thermal environment or humidity in buildings. Ventilation can be implemented with various methods which may also affect health (e.g. Seppdnen and Fisk, 2002, Wargocki et al., 2002a). In non residential buildings and hot climates, ventilation is often integrated with air-conditioning which makes the operation of ventilation system more complex. As ventilation is used for many purposes its health effects are also various and complex. This paper summarizes the current knowledge on positive and negative effects of ventilation on health and other human responses. The focus of the paper is on office-type working environment and residential buildings. In the industrial premises the problems of air quality are usually

  1. Home Mechanical Ventilation: A 12-Year Population-Based Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povitz, Marcus; Rose, Louise; Shariff, Salimah Z; Leonard, Sean; Welk, Blayne; Jenkyn, Krista Bray; Leasa, David J; Gershon, Andrea S

    2018-04-01

    Increasing numbers of individuals are being initiated on home mechanical ventilation, including noninvasive (bi-level) and invasive mechanical ventilation delivered via tracheostomy due to chronic respiratory failure to enable symptom management and promote quality of life. Given the high care needs of these individuals, a better understanding of the indications for home mechanical ventilation, and health-care utilization is needed. We performed a retrospective cohort study using provincial health administrative data from Ontario, Canada (population ∼13,000,000). Home mechanical ventilation users were characterized using health administrative data to determine the indications for home mechanical ventilation, the need for acute care at the time of ventilation approval, and their health service use and mortality rates following approval. The annual incidence of home mechanical ventilation approval rose from 1.8/100,000 in 2000 to 5.0/100,000 in 2012, or an annual increase of approximately 0.3/100,000 persons/y. The leading indications were neuromuscular disease, thoracic restriction, and COPD. The indication for the remainder could not be determined due to limitations of the administrative databases. Of the 4,670 individuals, 23.0% commenced home mechanical ventilation following an acute care hospitalization. Among individuals who survived at least 1 y, fewer required hospitalization in the year that followed home mechanical ventilation approval (29.9% vs 39.8%) as compared with the year prior. Utilization of home mechanical ventilation is increasing in Ontario, Canada, and further study is needed to clarify the factors contributing to this and to further optimize utilization of health-care resources. Copyright © 2018 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  2. Monitoring tidal volumes in preterm infants at birth: mask versus endotracheal ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vonderen, Jeroen J; Hooper, Stuart B; Krabbe, Vera B; Siew, Melissa L; Te Pas, Arjan B

    2015-01-01

    Upper airway distention during mask ventilation could reduce gas volumes entering the lung compared with ventilation via an endotracheal tube. Therefore, respiratory tract volumes were measured in lambs and tidal volumes were compared in preterm infants before and after intubation. In seven preterm lambs, volumes of the airways (oropharynx, trachea, lungs) were assessed. In 10 preterm infants, delta pressures, tidal volumes and leak were measured during ventilation 2 min before (mask ventilation) and 2 min after intubation (endotracheal ventilation). Inflations coinciding with breaths were excluded. Amount of upper airway distention in lambs and differences in inspiratory and expiratory tidal volume before and after intubation. In lambs, the combined trachea and oropharynx contributed to 14 (12-21) % (median (IQR), whereas the oropharynx contributed to 9 (7-10) % of the total tidal volume measured at the mouth. In preterm infants, inspiratory (11.1 (7.9-22.6) mL/kg vs 5.8 (3.9-9.6) mL/kg (p=0.01)) and expiratory (8.3 (6.8-15.4) mL/kg vs 4.9 (3.9-9.6) mL/kg (p=0.02)) tidal volumes were significantly larger during mask ventilation compared with endotracheal ventilation. Leak was 18.7 (3.3-28.7) % before versus 0 (0-2.3) % after intubation (p0.05). During mask ventilation, expiratory tidal volume increased from 10.0 (5.4-15.6) mL/kg to 11.3 (7.6-17.0) mL/kg (p=0.01), but remained unchanged during endotracheal ventilation. During neonatal mask ventilation, distention of the upper respiratory tract contributes to the tidal volumes measured and should be taken into account when targeting tidal volumes during mask ventilation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Stockpiling Ventilators for Influenza Pandemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsin-Chan; Araz, Ozgur M; Morton, David P; Johnson, Gregory P; Damien, Paul; Clements, Bruce; Meyers, Lauren Ancel

    2017-06-01

    In preparing for influenza pandemics, public health agencies stockpile critical medical resources. Determining appropriate quantities and locations for such resources can be challenging, given the considerable uncertainty in the timing and severity of future pandemics. We introduce a method for optimizing stockpiles of mechanical ventilators, which are critical for treating hospitalized influenza patients in respiratory failure. As a case study, we consider the US state of Texas during mild, moderate, and severe pandemics. Optimal allocations prioritize local over central storage, even though the latter can be deployed adaptively, on the basis of real-time needs. This prioritization stems from high geographic correlations and the slightly lower treatment success assumed for centrally stockpiled ventilators. We developed our model and analysis in collaboration with academic researchers and a state public health agency and incorporated it into a Web-based decision-support tool for pandemic preparedness and response.

  4. International Ventilation Cooling Application Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holzer, Peter; Psomas, Theofanis Ch.; OSullivan, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The currently running International Energy Agency, Energy and Conservation in Buildings, Annex 62 Ventilative Cooling (VC) project, is coordinating research towards extended use of VC. Within this Annex 62 the joint research activity of International VC Application Database has been carried out...... and locations, using VC as a mean of indoor comfort improvement. The building-spreadsheet highlights distributions of technologies and strategies, such as the following. (Numbers in % refer to the sample of the database’s 91 buildings.) It may be concluded that Ventilative Cooling is applied in temporary......, systematically investigating the distribution of technologies and strategies within VC. The database is structured as both a ticking-list-like building-spreadsheet and a collection of building-datasheets. The content of both closely follows Annex 62 State-Of-The- Art-Report. The database has been filled, based...

  5. Displacement Ventilation in Hospital Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yuguo; Nielsen, Peter V.; Sandberg, Mats

    2011-01-01

    Hospital differ from conventional buildings in terms of ventilation needs. Exhaled infectious droplets or droplet nuclei of an infected patient need to be removed in general wards, waiting areas and isolation rooms to minimize transmission to health-care workers, other patients and visitors. In m....... In most health-care environments, harmful microorganisms and infectious aerosols may exist in relatively high concentration. They are particularly harmful to patients due to reduced immunity, and to those with open wounds.......Hospital differ from conventional buildings in terms of ventilation needs. Exhaled infectious droplets or droplet nuclei of an infected patient need to be removed in general wards, waiting areas and isolation rooms to minimize transmission to health-care workers, other patients and visitors...

  6. Initial mechanical ventilator settings and lung protective ventilation in the ED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Susan R; Richards, Jeremy B; Fisher, Daniel F; Sankoff, Jeffrey; Seigel, Todd A

    2016-08-01

    Mechanical ventilation with low tidal volumes has been shown to improve outcomes for patients both with and without acute respiratory distress syndrome. This study aims to characterize mechanically ventilated patients in the emergency department (ED), describe the initial ED ventilator settings, and assess for associations between lung protective ventilation strategies in the ED and outcomes. This was a multicenter, prospective, observational study of mechanical ventilation at 3 academic EDs. We defined lung protective ventilation as a tidal volume of less than or equal to 8 mL/kg of predicted body weight and compared outcomes for patients ventilated with lung protective vs non-lung protective ventilation, including inhospital mortality, ventilator days, intensive care unit length of stay, and hospital length of stay. Data from 433 patients were analyzed. Altered mental status without respiratory pathology was the most common reason for intubation, followed by trauma and respiratory failure. Two hundred sixty-one patients (60.3%) received lung protective ventilation, but most patients were ventilated with a low positive end-expiratory pressure, high fraction of inspired oxygen strategy. Patients were ventilated in the ED for a mean of 5 hours and 7 minutes but had few ventilator adjustments. Outcomes were not significantly different between patients receiving lung protective vs non-lung protective ventilation. Nearly 40% of ED patients were ventilated with non-lung protective ventilation as well as with low positive end-expiratory pressure and high fraction of inspired oxygen. Despite a mean ED ventilation time of more than 5 hours, few patients had adjustments made to their ventilators. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Ventilation-air conditioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubokoya, Takashi.

    1991-01-01

    Heretofore, in ventilation-air conditioning systems in a nuclear power plant, exhaust gases from each of the ventilation-air conditioning systems of a reactor building, a turbine building, a waste processing building are joined and they are released into atmosphere from the top of a high main exhaustion stack. In order to build such a high main exhaustion stack, a considerable construction cost is required and, in addition, there is a worry of lacking balance with surrounding scenery. Then, in the present invention, exhaust gases are heated by waste heat in a turbine during their introduction from the ventilation-air conditioning facility in the building of a power plant to the main exhaust stack. With such a constitution, since the exhaust gases are heated and their temperature is elevated, they uprise by natural convection when they are released from the top of the main exhaustion stack to the atmosphere. Accordingly, they are released to a level higher than the conventional case in view of the volume of the blower which sends the exhaust gases under pressure, to diffuse them to the atmosphere more sufficiently compared with a conventional case. Further, the height of the main exhaustion stack can be reduced, enabling to minimize the cost for moving the blower. (T.M.)

  8. Technique for determining cesium-137 in milk excluding ashing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonova, V.A.; Prokof'ev, O.N.

    1984-01-01

    For the purpose of simplification of the method of milk sample preparation for the radiochemical analysis for 137 Cs in laboratory sanitary and higienic investigations rapid analysis technique excluding sample ashing is developed. The technique comprises sample mixing with silica gel during an hour, 137 Cs desorption from silica gel into the 1N solution of hydrochloric acid, radiochemical analysis of hydrochloric solution for determining 137 Cs. The comparison of the results obtained by the above method and that with ashing provides perfect agreement. For taking into account the incompleteness of 137 Cs adsorption by silica gel a correction factor is applied in calculation formulae

  9. GUILT OF PERSONS WITH MENTAL DISORDERS ARE NOT EXCLUDING RESPONSIBILITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Ekaterina Valerievna Yurchak

    2014-01-01

    In the theory of law as a key cross-sectoral and multi-disciplinary institutions is the Institute of guilt. At the present stage of development of the law, in a convergence of many of its branches, it is important to investigate exhaustively the institution with the general legal position, both in general and in particular - the situation of the guilt of persons with mental disorder, not excluding sanity.The purpose of this study - to investigate the situation of the fault of persons with a m...

  10. Verification of Carbon Sink Assessment. Can We Exclude Natural Sinks?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandrov, G.; Yamagata, Y

    2004-01-01

    Any human-induced terrestrial sink is susceptible to the effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration, nitrogen deposition, climate variability and other natural or indirect human-induced factors. It has been suggested in climate negotiations that the effects of these factors should be excluded from estimates of carbon sequestration used to meet the emission reduction commitments under the Kyoto Protocol. This paper focuses on the methodologies for factoring out the effects of atmospheric and climate variability/change. We estimate the relative magnitude of the non-human induced effects by using two biosphere models and discuss possibilities for narrowing estimate uncertainty

  11. Excluding black hole firewalls with extreme cosmic censorship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, Don N., E-mail: profdonpage@gmail.com [Department of Physics, 4-183 CCIS, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2E1 (Canada)

    2014-06-01

    The AMPS argument for black hole firewalls seems to arise not only from the assumption of local effective field theory outside the stretched horizon but also from an overcounting of internal black hole states that include states that are singular in the past. Here I propose to exclude such singular states by Extreme Cosmic Censorship (the conjectured principle that the universe is entirely nonsingular, except for transient singularities inside black and/or white holes). I argue that the remaining set of nonsingular realistic states do not have firewalls but yet preserve information in Hawking radiation from black holes that form from nonsingular initial states.

  12. Excluding black hole firewalls with extreme cosmic censorship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, Don N.

    2014-01-01

    The AMPS argument for black hole firewalls seems to arise not only from the assumption of local effective field theory outside the stretched horizon but also from an overcounting of internal black hole states that include states that are singular in the past. Here I propose to exclude such singular states by Extreme Cosmic Censorship (the conjectured principle that the universe is entirely nonsingular, except for transient singularities inside black and/or white holes). I argue that the remaining set of nonsingular realistic states do not have firewalls but yet preserve information in Hawking radiation from black holes that form from nonsingular initial states

  13. Development of a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staff Scientist; Walker, Iain; Sherman, Max; Dickerhoff, Darryl

    2011-12-01

    The goal of this study was to develop a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller (RIVEC) to reduce the energy impact of required mechanical ventilation by 20percent, maintain or improve indoor air quality and provide demand response benefits. This represents potential energy savings of about 140 GWh of electricity and 83 million therms of natural gas as well as proportional peak savings in California. The RIVEC controller is intended to meet the 2008 Title 24 requirements for residential ventilation as well as taking into account the issues of outdoor conditions, other ventilation devices (including economizers), peak demand concerns and occupant preferences. The controller is designed to manage all the residential ventilation systems that are currently available. A key innovation in this controller is the ability to implement the concept of efficacy and intermittent ventilation which allows time shifting of ventilation. Using this approach ventilation can be shifted away from times of high cost or high outdoor pollution towards times when it is cheaper and more effective. Simulations, based on the ones used to develop the new residential ventilation requirements for the California Buildings Energy code, were used to further define the specific criteria and strategies needed for the controller. These simulations provide estimates of the energy, peak power and contaminant improvement possible for different California climates for the various ventilation systems. Results from a field test of the prototype controller corroborate the predicted performance.

  14. Temperature of gas delivered from ventilators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikata, Yusuke; Onodera, Mutsuo; Imanaka, Hideaki; Nishimura, Masaji

    2013-01-01

    Although heated humidifiers (HHs) are the most efficient humidifying device for mechanical ventilation, some HHs do not provide sufficient humidification when the inlet temperature to the water chamber is high. Because portable and home-care ventilators use turbines, blowers, pistons, or compressors to inhale in ambient air, they may have higher gas temperature than ventilators with piping systems. We carried out a bench study to investigate the temperature of gas delivered from portable and home-care ventilators, including the effects of distance from ventilator outlet, fraction of inspiratory oxygen (FIO2), and minute volume (MV). We evaluated five ventilators equipped with turbine, blower, piston, or compressor system. Ambient air temperature was adjusted to 24°C ± 0.5°C, and ventilation was set at FIO2 0.21, 0.6, and 1.0, at MV 5 and 10 L/min. We analyzed gas temperature at 0, 40, 80, and 120 cm from ventilator outlet and altered ventilator settings. While temperature varied according to ventilators, the outlet gas temperature of ventilators became stable after, at the most, 5 h. Gas temperature was 34.3°C ± 3.9°C at the ventilator outlet, 29.5°C ± 2.2°C after 40 cm, 25.4°C ± 1.2°C after 80 cm and 25.1°C ± 1.2°C after 120 cm (P < 0.01). FIO2 and MV did not affect gas temperature. Gas delivered from portable and home-care ventilator was not too hot to induce heated humidifier malfunctioning. Gas soon declined when passing through the limb.

  15. Mechanical ventilators in US acute care hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinson, Lewis; Vaughn, Frances; Nelson, Steve; Giordano, Sam; Kallstrom, Tom; Buckley, Tim; Burney, Tabinda; Hupert, Nathaniel; Mutter, Ryan; Handrigan, Michael; Yeskey, Kevin; Lurie, Nicole; Branson, Richard

    2010-10-01

    The supply and distribution of mechanical ventilation capacity is of profound importance for planning for severe public health emergencies. However, the capability of US health systems to provide mechanical ventilation for children and adults remains poorly quantified. The objective of this study was to determine the quantity of adult and pediatric mechanical ventilators at US acute care hospitals. A total of 5,752 US acute care hospitals included in the 2007 American Hospital Association database were surveyed. We measured the quantities of mechanical ventilators and their features. Responding to the survey were 4305 (74.8%) hospitals, which accounted for 83.8% of US intensive care unit beds. Of the 52,118 full-feature mechanical ventilators owned by respondent hospitals, 24,204 (46.4%) are pediatric/neonatal capable. Accounting for nonrespondents, we estimate that there are 62,188 full-feature mechanical ventilators owned by US acute care hospitals. The median number of full-feature mechanical ventilators per 100,000 population for individual states is 19.7 (interquartile ratio 17.2-23.1), ranging from 11.9 to 77.6. The median number of pediatric-capable device full-feature mechanical ventilators per 100,000 population younger than 14 years old is 52.3 (interquartile ratio 43.1-63.9) and the range across states is 22.1 to 206.2. In addition, respondent hospitals reported owning 82,755 ventilators other than full-feature mechanical ventilators; we estimate that there are 98,738 devices other than full-feature ventilators at all of the US acute care hospitals. The number of mechanical ventilators per US population exceeds those reported by other developed countries, but there is wide variation across states in the population-adjusted supply. There are considerably more pediatric-capable ventilators than there are for adults only on a population-adjusted basis.

  16. Particle deposition in ventilation ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sippola, Mark Raymond [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2002-09-01

    Exposure to airborne particles is detrimental to human health and indoor exposures dominate total exposures for most people. The accidental or intentional release of aerosolized chemical and biological agents within or near a building can lead to exposures of building occupants to hazardous agents and costly building remediation. Particle deposition in heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems may significantly influence exposures to particles indoors, diminish HVAC performance and lead to secondary pollutant release within buildings. This dissertation advances the understanding of particle behavior in HVAC systems and the fates of indoor particles by means of experiments and modeling. Laboratory experiments were conducted to quantify particle deposition rates in horizontal ventilation ducts using real HVAC materials. Particle deposition experiments were conducted in steel and internally insulated ducts at air speeds typically found in ventilation ducts, 2-9 m/s. Behaviors of monodisperse particles with diameters in the size range 1-16 μm were investigated. Deposition rates were measured in straight ducts with a fully developed turbulent flow profile, straight ducts with a developing turbulent flow profile, in duct bends and at S-connector pieces located at duct junctions. In straight ducts with fully developed turbulence, experiments showed deposition rates to be highest at duct floors, intermediate at duct walls, and lowest at duct ceilings. Deposition rates to a given surface increased with an increase in particle size or air speed. Deposition was much higher in internally insulated ducts than in uninsulated steel ducts. In most cases, deposition in straight ducts with developing turbulence, in duct bends and at S-connectors at duct junctions was higher than in straight ducts with fully developed turbulence. Measured deposition rates were generally higher than predicted by published models. A model incorporating empirical equations based on the

  17. The diagnostic value of ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy combined with plasma D-dimer assay in diagnosis of pulmonary embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qian; Huang Lili; Qin Shuling; Yue Minggang; Wang Yu; Nie Yuxin; Liang Tiejun

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical diagnostic value of ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy combined with plasma D-dimer assay in diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE). Methods: One hundred and four patients with clinically suspected PE underwent both pulmonary ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy and plasma D-dimer assay. According to the criteria of prospective investigation of the pulmonary embolism diagnosis (PIOPED), ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy was interpreted as normal, very low or low probability of PE, intermediate probability of PE and high probability of PE. High probability was considered as positive; normal and very low or low probability as negative and intermediate probability as non-diagnostic. Plasma D-dimer levels were measured using a quantitative immunoturbidimetric method, and a cut-off value of 500 mg/L was used in the diagnosis of PE. Clinical diagnostic value of ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy, D-dimer assay and combined use of ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy and D-dimer assay for diagnosing PE was evaluated, respectively, comparing with the final clinical diagnosis that was based on the clinical findings. Results: Among the 104 patients, 44 were diagnosed with PE and 60 were excluded. Ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy provided diagnostic interpretations for 86 (82.7%) patients, and non-diagnostic interpretations for 18 (17.3%) patients. For diagnosing PE, the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy was 84.1%, 75.0%, 78.8%, 71.2% and 86.5%, respectively, and with D-dimer assay was 93.2%, 60.0%, 74.0%, 63.1% and 92.3%, respectively. If a plasma D-dimer level of < 500 mg/L was taken as a criterion to exclude PE for those intermediate probability of ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy, the diagnostic specificity and accuracy would be raised to 85.0% and 84.6%, respectively. Conclusions: When a non-diagnostic interpretation was occurred on

  18. Diffusion of multiple species with excluded-volume effects

    KAUST Repository

    Bruna, Maria; Chapman, S. Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Stochastic models of diffusion with excluded-volume effects are used to model many biological and physical systems at a discrete level. The average properties of the population may be described by a continuum model based on partial differential equations. In this paper we consider multiple interacting subpopulations/species and study how the inter-species competition emerges at the population level. Each individual is described as a finite-size hard core interacting particle undergoing Brownian motion. The link between the discrete stochastic equations of motion and the continuum model is considered systematically using the method of matched asymptotic expansions. The system for two species leads to a nonlinear cross-diffusion system for each subpopulation, which captures the enhancement of the effective diffusion rate due to excluded-volume interactions between particles of the same species, and the diminishment due to particles of the other species. This model can explain two alternative notions of the diffusion coefficient that are often confounded, namely collective diffusion and self-diffusion. Simulations of the discrete system show good agreement with the analytic results. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.

  19. HLA region excluded by linkage analyses of early onset periodontitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, C.; Wang, S.; Lopez, N.

    1994-09-01

    Previous studies suggested that HLA genes may influence susceptibility to early-onset periodontitis (EOP). Segregation analyses indicate that EOP may be due to a single major gene. We conducted linkage analyses to assess possible HLA effects on EOP. Fifty families with two or more close relatives affected by EOP were ascertained in Virginia and Chile. A microsatellite polymorphism within the HLA region (at the tumor necrosis factor beta locus) was typed using PCR. Linkage analyses used a donimant model most strongly supported by previous studies. Assuming locus homogeneity, our results exclude a susceptibility gene within 10 cM on either side of our marker locus. This encompasses all of the HLA region. Analyses assuming alternative models gave qualitatively similar results. Allowing for locus heterogeneity, our data still provide no support for HLA-region involvement. However, our data do not statistically exclude (LOD <-2.0) hypotheses of disease-locus heterogeneity, including models where up to half of our families could contain an EOP disease gene located in the HLA region. This is due to the limited power of even our relatively large collection of families and the inherent difficulties of mapping genes for disorders that have complex and heterogeneous etiologies. Additional statistical analyses, recruitment of families, and typing of flanking DNA markers are planned to more conclusively address these issues with respect to the HLA region and other candidate locations in the human genome. Additional results for markers covering most of the human genome will also be presented.

  20. Report of the Mechanics Service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolic, A.

    2003-01-01

    Service for mechanical components at the RA reactor includes: control and maintenance of utility components, mechanical workshop, hot cells and storage. Control and maintenance of main components covers: reactor core, heavy water system, technical water system, gas system. This service is responsible for the following auxiliary systems: transportation units; spent fuel storage pool; special ventilation system; personal protection appliances; hot cells. Maintenance of the reactor building, ventilation, heating, water supply, sewage, fire protection devices, gas and compressed air systems are included [sr

  1. Comparative performances analysis of neonatal ventilators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldoli, Ilaria; Tognarelli, Selene; Scaramuzzo, Rosa T; Ciantelli, Massimiliano; Cecchi, Francesca; Gentile, Marzia; Sigali, Emilio; Ghirri, Paolo; Boldrini, Antonio; Menciassi, Arianna; Laschi, Cecilia; Cuttano, Armando

    2015-02-08

    Mechanical ventilation is a therapeutic action for newborns with respiratory diseases but may have side effects. Correct equipment knowledge and training may limit human errors. We aimed to test different neonatal mechanical ventilators' performances by an acquisition module (a commercial pressure sensor plus an isolated chamber and a dedicated software). The differences (ΔP) between peak pressure values and end-expiration pressure were investigated for each ventilator. We focused on discrepancies among measured and imposed pressure data. A statistical analysis was performed. We investigated the measured/imposed ΔP relation. The ΔP do not reveal univocal trends related to ventilation setting parameters and the data distributions were non-Gaussian. Measured ΔP represent a significant parameter in newborns' ventilation, due to the typical small volumes. The investigated ventilators showed different tendencies. Therefore, a deep specific knowledge of the intensive care devices is mandatory for caregivers to correctly exploit their operating principles.

  2. Application of CPM procedures in mine ventilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.J.; Mutmansky, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Mine ventilation analysis is an engineering discipline that can be considered a branch of the body of science known as network analysis. Likewise, the group of engineering procedures known as the critical path method (CPM) is considered a branch of network analysis. It is therefore not surprising that mine ventilation network analysis and CPM have many similarities. These similarities are useful in analyzing several types of mine ventilation problems and will be utilized in this paper. The analogy between the free split in a ventilation circuit and the critical path in a scheduling network has been recognized by Owili-Eger (1973). While this was recognized as a property of a general ventilation network, many important applications to controlled-splitting problems also exist. The mathematical procedures necessary to apply CPM and network methods have previously been presented (Wang, 1981; Wang, 1982). This paper will illustrate the implementation of these methods by application to mine ventilation networks

  3. Comparison of Active and Passive Humidifiers on Mechanical Ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Dilek Mersin Özcanoğlu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To research the effectiveness on humidifying, respiratory mechanics, bacterial colonization and infection rates of continuous usage for 96 hours of active and passive humidifiers which are used for heating and moisturizing the inspired gases in patients under mechanical ventilation. Materials and Methods: Adult patients who are expected to support at least 4 days under mechanical ventilation, excluding patients with primary lung disease and sepsis, are included in the research. Patients are separated in two groups as a passive humidifier group (heat moisture exchange filter (n=16 and an active humidifier group (n=14. In passive humidifier group, humidifier is used continuously for 96 hours without change. In active humidifier group moisturizing is obtained by using sterile distilled water in heated humidifier. Patients whose demographic characteristics were recorded and first 24 hour APACHE II scores were calculated, were taking chest X-Ray’s daily. Respiratory mechanics measurements were recorded twice a day which were watched in Servo300A ventilators respiratory mechanics monitor, in patients under volume controlled ventilation. The amount of moisture and liquidity of the secretion in endotracheal tube were recorded and scored visually. The endotracheal aspiration samples at the beginning and at the end of 96th hour and respiratory circuits ventilator side sample taken at 96th hour were studied microbiologically. Cultures and colonial counts were studied at Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty Microbiology Laboratory. Results: There were no significant difference in two groups by demographic data, APACHE II scores and illness diagnoses. In passive humidifier group, respiratory mechanics showed no significant difference between the beginning and the 4th day (p>0.05. In active humidifier group when MAP, PEEPtot, EEF, Rins, Rexp values showed no significant difference between the beginning and the 4th day but PIP values showed significant

  4. Modelling of Natural and Hybrid Ventilation

    OpenAIRE

    Heiselberg, Per

    2006-01-01

    The effectiveness of natural ventilation, i.e. its ability to ensure indoor air quality and passive cooling in a building, depends greatly on the design process. Mechanical ventilation systems can be designed separately from the design of the building in which they are installed. They can also be installed in existing buildings after a few modifications. In contrast, ventilation systems using only natural forces such as wind and thermal buoyancy need to be designed together with the building,...

  5. Prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    J. Oliveira; C. Zagalo; P. Cavaco-Silva

    2014-01-01

    Invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) represents a risk factor for the development of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), which develops at least 48 h after admission in patients ventilated through tracheostomy or endotracheal intubation. VAP is the most frequent intensive-care-unit (ICU)-acquired infection among patients receiving IMV. It contributes to an increase in hospital mortality, duration of MV and ICU and length of hospital stay. Therefore, it worsens the condition of the critica...

  6. 46 CFR 153.312 - Ventilation system standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation system standards. 153.312 Section 153.312... Handling Space Ventilation § 153.312 Ventilation system standards. A cargo handling space ventilation system must meet the following: (a) A ventilation system exhaust duct must discharge no less than 10 m...

  7. Short-term airing by natural ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perino, Marco; Heiselberg, Per

    2009-01-01

    The need to improve the energy efficiency of buildings requires new and more efficient ventilation systems. It has been demonstrated that innovative operating concepts that make use of natural ventilation seem to be more appreciated by occupants. This kind of system frequently integrates traditio......The need to improve the energy efficiency of buildings requires new and more efficient ventilation systems. It has been demonstrated that innovative operating concepts that make use of natural ventilation seem to be more appreciated by occupants. This kind of system frequently integrates...... traditional mechanical ventilation components with natural ventilation devices, such as motorized windows and louvers. Among the various ventilation strategies that are currently available, buoyancy driven single-sided natural ventilation has proved to be very effective and can provide high air change rates...... that was aimed at developing and validating numerical models for the analysis of buoyancy driven single-sided natural ventilation systems. Once validated, these models can be used to optimize control strategies in order to achieve satisfactory indoor comfort conditions and IAQ....

  8. A NEW EXHAUST VENTILATION SYSTEM DESIGN SOFTWARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Asilian Mahabady

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A Microsoft Windows based ventilation software package is developed to reduce time-consuming and boring procedure of exhaust ventilation system design. This program Assure accurate and reliable air pollution control related calculations. Herein, package is tentatively named Exhaust Ventilation Design Software which is developed in VB6 programming environment. Most important features of Exhaust Ventilation Design Software that are ignored in formerly developed packages are Collector design and fan dimension data calculations. Automatic system balance is another feature of this package. Exhaust Ventilation Design Software algorithm for design is based on two methods: Balance by design (Static pressure balance and design by Blast gate. The most important section of software is a spreadsheet that is designed based on American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists calculation sheets. Exhaust Ventilation Design Software is developed so that engineers familiar with American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists datasheet can easily employ it for ventilation systems design. Other sections include Collector design section (settling chamber, cyclone, and packed tower, fan geometry and dimension data section, a unit converter section (that helps engineers to deal with units, a hood design section and a Persian HTML help. Psychometric correction is also considered in Exhaust Ventilation Design Software. In Exhaust Ventilation Design Software design process, efforts are focused on improving GUI (graphical user interface and use of programming standards in software design. Reliability of software has been evaluated and results show acceptable accuracy.

  9. TU-G-BRA-04: Changes in Regional Lung Function Measured by 4D-CT Ventilation Imaging for Thoracic Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Y; Kadoya, N; Kabus, S; Loo, B; Keall, P; Yamamoto, T

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To test the hypothesis: 4D-CT ventilation imaging can show the known effects of radiotherapy on lung function: (1) radiation-induced ventilation reductions, and (2) ventilation increases caused by tumor regression. Methods: Repeat 4D-CT scans (pre-, mid- and/or post-treatment) were acquired prospectively for 11 thoracic cancer patients in an IRB-approved clinical trial. A ventilation image for each time point was created using deformable image registration and the Hounsfield unit (HU)-based or Jacobian-based metric. The 11 patients were divided into two subgroups based on tumor volume reduction using a threshold of 5 cm 3 . To quantify radiation-induced ventilation reduction, six patients who showed a small tumor volume reduction (<5 cm 3 ) were analyzed for dose-response relationships. To investigate ventilation increase caused by tumor regression, two of the other five patients were analyzed to compare ventilation changes in the lung lobes affected and unaffected by the tumor. The remaining three patients were excluded because there were no unaffected lobes. Results: Dose-dependent reductions of HU-based ventilation were observed in a majority of the patient-specific dose-response curves and in the population-based dose-response curve, whereas no clear relationship was seen for Jacobian-based ventilation. The post-treatment population-based dose-response curve of HU-based ventilation demonstrated the average ventilation reductions of 20.9±7.0% at 35–40 Gy (equivalent dose in 2-Gy fractions, EQD2), and 40.6±22.9% at 75–80 Gy EQD2. Remarkable ventilation increases in the affected lobes were observed for the two patients who showed an average tumor volume reduction of 37.1 cm 3 and re-opening airways. The mid-treatment increase in HU-based ventilation of patient 3 was 100.4% in the affected lobes, which was considerably greater than 7.8% in the unaffected lobes. Conclusion: This study has demonstrated that 4D-CT ventilation imaging shows the known

  10. [Ventilator bundle guided by context of JCI settings can effectively reduce the morbidity of ventilator-associated pneumonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lili; Liu, Lili; Chen, Jing; Yang, Caili; Nie, Jianjian; Zhang, Minwei

    2017-07-01

    To observe the impact of improving the compliance of ventilator bundle on morbidity of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in intensive care unit (ICU) patients undergoing mechanical ventilation (MV) guided by context of Joint Commission International (JCI) settings, and to study the oral care efficacy of suction tube sponge brush. A prospective study was conducted. The patients who needed MV admitted to Department of Critical Care Medicine of the First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University from January 2013 to December 2016 were enrolled. In the context of JCI settings, necessary measurements were taken to enhance the compliance of ventilator bundle each year. In 2013, the preventive measures were set up and the education was strengthened. In 2014, the compliance of hand hygiene and bedside elevation was strengthened. In 2015, a control study was conducted to evaluate the effect between the traditional cotton dipped in chlorhexidine and the suction tube sponge brush rinsed with chlorhexidine on oral health impact parameters. The suction tube sponge brush rinsed with chlorhexidine oral care was introduced to improve compliance. In 2016, electronic bundle checklist for daily self-audits was conducted. The annually morbidity of VAP through the software of hospital and ICU was collected and calculated. The annual incidence of VAP was indicated by the VAP cases per 1 000 MV days. Based on the VAP incidence rate in 2013 as 1, the VAP incidence-rate ratio (IRR) of each year was calculated. During the study period, a total of 2 733 patients admitted to the ICU, including 1 403 patients undergoing MV. Ninety-four of the 1 403 patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), aspiration pneumonia, back elevation ban, incomplete information, and withdrew from the study were excluded. 1 399 patients undergoing MV were enrolled in the final analysis, with total MV days of 11 012 days, and 94 patients occurred VAP. The annual incidence of VAP was progressively declined

  11. A Contemporary Assessment of Acute Mechanical Ventilation in Beijing: Description, Costs, and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yanping; Zhu, Bo; Jiang, Li; Jiang, Qi; Wang, Meiping; Hua, Lin; Xi, Xiuming

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the contemporary practice, outcomes, and costs related to mechanical ventilation among ICUs in China. A prospective observational cohort study. Fourteen ICUs among 13 hospitals in Beijing, China. Seven hundred ninety-three patients who received at least 24 hours of mechanical ventilation within the first 48 hours of ICU stay. None. The mean age was 64 years. Sixty-three percent were male. New acute respiratory failure accounted for 85.5% of mechanical ventilation cases. Only 4.7% of the patients received mechanical ventilation for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The most widely used ventilation mode was the combination of synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation and pressure support (43.6%). Use of lung-protective ventilation is widespread with tidal volumes of 7.1 mL/kg (2.1 mL/kg). The ICU/hospital mortality was 27.6%/29.3%, respectively (8.5%/9.7% for surgical patients and 41.3%/43.2% for medical patients, respectively). The mean level of ICU/hospital cost per patient was $15,271 (18,940)/$22,946 (25,575), respectively. The mean daily ICU cost per patient was $1,212. For the first time, we obtained a preliminary epidemiology data of mechanical ventilation in Beijing, China, through the study. Compared with the other nations, our patients are older, predominantly male, and treated according to prevailing international guidelines yet at a relatively high cost and high mortality. The expanding elderly population predicts increase demand for mechanical ventilation that must be met by continuous improvement in quality and efficiency of critical care services.

  12. Analysis of emergency helpline support for home ventilator dependent patients: risk management and workload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Chatwin

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available From a total of 1211 adult & paediatric patients receiving home ventilation (HV supervised by Royal Brompton Hospital between 1/1/06 and 30/6/06 the respiratory support team received an average of 528 daytime calls/month and 14/month out of hours calls to a telephone helpline. Diagnoses included: neuromuscular disease, chest wall disease, COPD, obesity hypoventilation and non-COPD lung disease. 99% received non-invasive ventilation, 1% tracheostomy ventilation. 149 required 2 ventilators for near 24 hour ventilator dependency, the remainder were classified as 1 (17% 2 (33% & 3 (50% night dependency as were able to breathe spontaneously for this period. 50% used bilevel positive pressure ventilators, 48% inspiratory pressure ventilators and 2% volume ventilators. In 188 calls a home visit was carried out because of ventilator or associated equipment-related problems. Despite regular equipment servicing programme, in 188 patients there was a technical problem with the equipment which was solved in the patient's home in 64% or required replacement / parts in 22%. Of the 25 calls in which no fault was found, 13 patients were unwell at home or required hospital admission, 2 patients died within 1 month of identification of no fault. No patient was admitted as a result of technical failure of equipment. Conclusion: There is a significant workload associated with supporting HV patients. Patients / carers all received standard competency training before discharge but other calls may be reduced by a more flexible problem-solving approach. Importantly, reports in which no technical fault is found may indicate deteriorating health in the patient and require close follow-up.

  13. Only MR can safely exclude patients from arthroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincken, Patrice W.J.; Braak, Bert P.M. ter; Erkel, Arian R. van; Bloem, Johan L.; Bloem, Rolf M.; Luijt, Peter A. van; Coene, L.N.J.E.M.; Lange, Sam de

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine in patients with subacute knee complaints and normal standardized physical examination the fraction of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies showing arthroscopically treatable intra-articular pathology. There were 290 consecutive patients (between 16 and 45 years) with at least 4 weeks of knee complaints and low clinical suspicion of intra-articular pathology based on physical exam. Two hundred seventy-four patients were included. Sixteen patients with prior knee surgery, rheumatic arthritis, or severe osteoarthritis were excluded. MRI was used to assign patients to group 1 (treatable abnormalities) or group 2 (normal or no treatable findings), depending on whether MR demonstrated treatable pathology. Arthroscopy was performed in group 1 patients. If symptoms persisted for 3 months in group 2 patients, cross over to arthroscopy was allowed. MR showed treatable pathology in 73 patients (26.6%). Arthroscopy was performed in 64 patients of 73 patients (group 1). In 52 patients (81.3%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 71.4-91.1%), arthroscopy was therapeutic. Of the 13 arthroscopies (6.5%) in group 2, four were therapeutic (30.8%, 95% CI 1.7-59.8). The highest fraction of MR studies showing treatable pathology was found in males, aged over 30 years, with a history of effusion (54.5%, six of 11 patients). Authors believe that the negative predictive value of clinical assessment in patients with subacute knee complaints is too low to exclude these patients from MR. MR should at least be considered in male patients aged 30 years and over with a history of effusion. (orig.)

  14. Only MR can safely exclude patients from arthroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincken, Patrice W.J.; Braak, Bert P.M. ter; Erkel, Arian R. van; Bloem, Johan L. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 9600, Leiden (Netherlands); Bloem, Rolf M. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Leiden (Netherlands); Reinier de Graaf Gasthuis, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Delft (Netherlands); Luijt, Peter A. van [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Traumatology, Leiden (Netherlands); Coene, L.N.J.E.M. [HAGA Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Hague (Netherlands); Lange, Sam de [Medical Center Haaglanden, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, The Hague (Netherlands)

    2009-10-15

    The aim of this study was to determine in patients with subacute knee complaints and normal standardized physical examination the fraction of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies showing arthroscopically treatable intra-articular pathology. There were 290 consecutive patients (between 16 and 45 years) with at least 4 weeks of knee complaints and low clinical suspicion of intra-articular pathology based on physical exam. Two hundred seventy-four patients were included. Sixteen patients with prior knee surgery, rheumatic arthritis, or severe osteoarthritis were excluded. MRI was used to assign patients to group 1 (treatable abnormalities) or group 2 (normal or no treatable findings), depending on whether MR demonstrated treatable pathology. Arthroscopy was performed in group 1 patients. If symptoms persisted for 3 months in group 2 patients, cross over to arthroscopy was allowed. MR showed treatable pathology in 73 patients (26.6%). Arthroscopy was performed in 64 patients of 73 patients (group 1). In 52 patients (81.3%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 71.4-91.1%), arthroscopy was therapeutic. Of the 13 arthroscopies (6.5%) in group 2, four were therapeutic (30.8%, 95% CI 1.7-59.8). The highest fraction of MR studies showing treatable pathology was found in males, aged over 30 years, with a history of effusion (54.5%, six of 11 patients). Authors believe that the negative predictive value of clinical assessment in patients with subacute knee complaints is too low to exclude these patients from MR. MR should at least be considered in male patients aged 30 years and over with a history of effusion. (orig.)

  15. [Alveolar ventilation and recruitment under lung protective ventilation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putensen, Christian; Muders, Thomas; Kreyer, Stefan; Wrigge, Hermann

    2008-11-01

    Goal of mechanical ventilation is to improve gas exchange and reduce work of breathing without contributing to further lung injury. Besides providing adequate EELV and thereby arterial oxygenation PEEP in addition to a reduction in tidal volume is required to prevent cyclic alveolar collapse and tidal recruitment and hence protective mechanical ventilation. Currently, there is no consensus if and if yes at which price alveolar recruitment with high airway pressures should be intended ("open up the lung"), or if it is more important to reduce the mechanical stress and strain to the lungs as much as possible ("keep the lung closed"). Potential of alveolar recruitment differs from patient to patient but also between lung regions. Potential for recruitment depends probably more on regional lung mechanics - especially on lung elastance - than on the underlying disease. Based on available data neither high PEEP nor other methods used for alveolar recruitment could demonstrate a survival benefit in patients with ARDS. These results may support an individualized titration of PEEP or other manoeuvres used for recruitment taking into consideration the regional effects. Bedside imaging techniques allowing titration of PEEP or other manoeuvres to prevent end-expiratory alveolar collapse (tidal recruitment) and inspiratory overinflation may be a promising development.

  16. Thermal comfort of seated occupants in rooms with personalized ventilation combined with mixing or displacement ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forejt, L.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Cermak, Radim

    2004-01-01

    The performance of two personalized ventilation systems combined with mixing or displacement ventilation was studied under different conditions in regard to thermal comfort of seated occupants. The cooling performance of personalized ventilation was found to be independent of room air distribution...

  17. Boundary conditions for the use of personal ventilation over mixing ventilation in open plan offices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Steffen; Hviid, Christian Anker

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the boundary conditions for choosing a combined Personal Ventilation (PV) and Mixing Ventilation (MV) over conventional mixing ventilation in an office with multiple workers. A simplified procedure for annual performance assessment of PV/MV systems in terms of air quality...

  18. What is at Risk? [Excluding Damages due to Physical Access

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Possible Targets: Relay Configurations; Control System Settings – Changing of control parameters, limiting values; Erasing complete data from SCADA servers. Freezing values of critical line loadings. Denial of Service (communication to control room)

  19. [Cases and duration of mechanical ventilation in German hospitals : An analysis of DRG incentives and developments in respiratory medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biermann, A; Geissler, A

    2016-09-01

    Diagnosis-related groups (DRGs) have been used to reimburse hospitals services in Germany since 2003/04. Like any other reimbursement system, DRGs offer specific incentives for hospitals that may lead to unintended consequences for patients. In the German context, specific procedures and their documentation are suspected to be primarily performed to increase hospital revenues. Mechanical ventilation of patients and particularly the duration of ventilation, which is an important variable for the DRG-classification, are often discussed to be among these procedures. The aim of this study was to examine incentives created by the German DRG-based payment system with regard to mechanical ventilation and to identify factors that explain the considerable increase of mechanically ventilated patients in recent years. Moreover, the assumption that hospitals perform mechanical ventilation in order to gain economic benefits was examined. In order to gain insights on the development of the number of mechanically ventilated patients, patient-level data provided by the German Federal Statistical Office and the German Institute for the Hospital Remuneration System were analyzed. The type of performed ventilation, the total number of ventilation hours, the age distribution, mortality and the DRG distribution for mechanical ventilation were calculated, using methods of descriptive and inferential statistics. Furthermore, changes in DRG-definitions and changes in respiratory medicine were compared for the years 2005-2012. Since the introduction of the DRG-based payment system in Germany, the hours of ventilation and the number of mechanically ventilated patients have substantially increased, while mortality has decreased. During the same period there has been a switch to less invasive ventilation methods. The age distribution has shifted to higher age-groups. A ventilation duration determined by DRG definitions could not be found. Due to advances in respiratory medicine, new

  20. Ventil

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, U.; Schuetz, H.G.; Meinel, M.; Buehling, H.

    1998-01-01

    The valve, especially as an overload safety valve for a mechanical press, has a mechanical lock on the valve piston (1) in the pressure medium flow path between an entry (7) and outlet (9) opening. The lock is a screw which is broken by a pyrotechnic or explosive action. The valve piston (1) has the structure of a step piston, where it is under loading from the pressure medium. USE - The safety valve is for protection of a mechanical press from damage through overloading. ADVANTAGE - The stru...

  1. Performances of domiciliary ventilators compared by using a parametric procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fresnel Emeline

    2016-12-01

    Performances of domiciliary ventilators strongly depend not only on the breathing dynamics but also on the ventilator strategy. One given ventilator may be more adequate than another one for a given patient.

  2. The development of WIPPVENT, a windows based interactive mine ventilation simulation software program at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDaniel, K.H.

    1995-01-01

    An interactive mine ventilation simulation software program (WIPPVENT) was developed at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The WIPP is a US Department of Energy (DOE) research and development project located near Carlsbad, New Mexico. The facility is designed to provide a permanent, safe underground disposal of US defense generated transuranic waste in bedded salt. In addition to it's regular functions, the underground ventilation system is engineered to prevent the uncontrolled spread of radioactive materials in the unlikely event of a release. To enhance the operability system, Westinghouse Electric Corporation has developed an interactive mine ventilation simulation software program (WIPPVENT). While WIPPVENT includes most of the functions of the commercially available simulation program VNETPC (copyright 1991 Mine Ventilation Services, Inc.), the user interface has been completely rewritten as a Windows reg-sign application and screen graphics have been added. WIPPVENT is designed to interact with the WIPP ventilation monitoring systems through the site wide Central Monitoring System

  3. History of Mechanical Ventilation. From Vesalius to Ventilator-induced Lung Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slutsky, Arthur S

    2015-05-15

    Mechanical ventilation is a life-saving therapy that catalyzed the development of modern intensive care units. The origins of modern mechanical ventilation can be traced back about five centuries to the seminal work of Andreas Vesalius. This article is a short history of mechanical ventilation, tracing its origins over the centuries to the present day. One of the great advances in ventilatory support over the past few decades has been the development of lung-protective ventilatory strategies, based on our understanding of the iatrogenic consequences of mechanical ventilation such as ventilator-induced lung injury. These strategies have markedly improved clinical outcomes in patients with respiratory failure.

  4. Trends in mechanical ventilation: are we ventilating our patients in the best possible way?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele L. Dellaca’

    2017-06-01

    To learn how mechanical ventilation developed in recent decades and to provide a better understanding of the actual technology and practice. To learn how and why interdisciplinary research and competences are necessary for providing the best ventilation treatment to patients. To understand which are the most relevant technical limitations in modern mechanical ventilators that can affect their performance in delivery of the treatment. To better understand and classify ventilation modes. To learn the classification, benefits, drawbacks and future perspectives of automatic ventilation tailoring algorithms.

  5. Carbon dioxide production during mechanical ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henneberg, S; Söderberg, D; Groth, T

    1987-01-01

    studied CO2 production (VCO2) and oxygen consumption (VO2) in mechanically ventilated ICU patients, where CO2 stores were altered by: a) changing minute ventilation by 15%, b) reducing body temperature, and c) changing the level of sedation. Expired gases went through a mixing chamber and were analyzed...

  6. Preoperational test report, primary ventilation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-01-01

    This represents a preoperational test report for Primary Ventilation Systems, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system provides vapor space filtered venting of tanks AY101, AY102, AZ101, AZ102. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System

  7. Naturlig ventilation og træk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    2002-01-01

    Nye ventilationsprincipper som naturlig ventilation er med til at sætte fokus på de strømningselementer, der skal anvendes til dimensionering af luftfordelingen i et rum. Artiklen anviser, hvordan træk fra vinduer og tagåbninger i rum med naturlig ventilation kan beregnes ved hjælp af...

  8. Preoperational test report, primary ventilation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-11-04

    This represents a preoperational test report for Primary Ventilation Systems, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system provides vapor space filtered venting of tanks AY101, AY102, AZ101, AZ102. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  9. [Mechanical ventilation in acute asthma crisis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbas, Carmen Sílvia Valente; Pinheiro, Bruno do Valle; Vianna, Arthur; Magaldi, Ricardo; Casati, Ana; José, Anderson; Okamoto, Valdelis Novis

    2007-06-01

    The II Brazilian Consensus Conference on Mechanical Ventilation was published in 2000. Knowledge on the field of mechanical ventilation evolved rapidly since then, with the publication of numerous clinical studies with potential impact on the ventilatory management of critically ill patients. Moreover, the evolving concept of evidence - based medicine determined the grading of clinical recommendations according to the methodological value of the studies on which they are based. This explicit approach has broadened the understanding and adoption of clinical recommendations. For these reasons, AMIB - Associação de Medicina Intensiva Brasileira and SBPT - Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisiologia - decided to update the recommendations of the II Brazilian Consensus. Mechanical ventilation in the asthma attack has been one of the updated topics. Describe the most important topics on the mechanical ventilation during the asthma attack and suggest the main therapeutic approaches. Systematic review of the published literature and gradation of the studies in levels of evidence, using the key words "mechanical ventilation" and "asthma". We present recommendations on the ventilatory modes and settings to be adopted when ventilating a patient during an asthma attack, as well as the recommended monitoring. Alternative ventilation techniques are also presented. Protective ventilatory strategies are recommended when ventilating a patient during a severe asthma attack.

  10. Intraoperative mechanical ventilation for the pediatric patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneyber, Martin C J

    2015-09-01

    Invasive mechanical ventilation is required when children undergo general anesthesia for any procedure. It is remarkable that one of the most practiced interventions such as pediatric mechanical ventilation is hardly supported by any scientific evidence but rather based on personal experience and data from adults, especially as ventilation itself is increasingly recognized as a harmful intervention that causes ventilator-induced lung injury. The use of low tidal volume and higher levels of positive end-expiratory pressure became an integral part of lung-protective ventilation following the outcomes of clinical trials in critically ill adults. This approach has been readily adopted in pediatric ventilation. However, a clear association between tidal volume and mortality has not been ascertained in pediatrics. In fact, experimental studies have suggested that young children might be less susceptible to ventilator-induced lung injury. As such, no recommendations on optimal lung-protective ventilation strategy in children with or without lung injury can be made. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Lung-protective ventilation in abdominal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futier, Emmanuel; Jaber, Samir

    2014-08-01

    To provide the most recent and relevant clinical evidence regarding the use of prophylactic lung-protective mechanical ventilation in abdominal surgery. Evidence is accumulating, suggesting an association between intraoperative mechanical ventilation strategy and postoperative pulmonary complications in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Nonprotective ventilator settings, especially high tidal volume (>10-12 ml/kg), very low level of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP, ventilator-associated lung injury in patients with healthy lungs. Stimulated by the previous findings in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome, the use of lower tidal volume ventilation is becoming increasingly more common in the operating room. However, lowering tidal volume, though important, is only part of the overall multifaceted approach of lung-protective mechanical ventilation. Recent data provide compelling evidence that prophylactic lung-protective mechanical ventilation using lower tidal volume (6-8 ml/kg of predicted body weight), moderate PEEP (6-8 cm H2O), and recruitment maneuvers is associated with improved functional or physiological and clinical postoperative outcome in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. The use of prophylactic lung-protective ventilation can help in improving the postoperative outcome.

  12. Review of operating room ventilation standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melhado, M.D.A.; Hensen, J.L.M.; Loomans, M.G.L.C.

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews standards applied to operating room ventilation design used by European, South and North American countries. Required environmental parameters are compared with regard to type of surgery, and ventilation system. These requirements as well as their relation to infection control

  13. Lung-protective ventilation in neonatology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kaam, Anton

    2011-01-01

    Ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) is considered an important risk factor in the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and is primarily caused by overdistension (volutrauma) and repetitive opening and collapse (atelectrauma) of terminal lung units. Lung-protective ventilation should

  14. Ventilation in low energy housing retrofits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mlecnik, E.

    2008-01-01

    According to the definition, passive houses in Europe meet a target energy demand for heating of less than 15 kWh per square meter and per year. This low level for the heating demand is based on heating by a small post-heater in the hygienic ventilation system at 52 °C maximum, while the ventilation

  15. Echocardiographic evaluation during weaning from mechanical ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciele Medianeira Schifelbain

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Echocardiographic, electrocardiographic and other cardiorespiratory variables can change during weaning from mechanical ventilation. OBJECTIVES: To analyze changes in cardiac function, using Doppler echocardiogram, in critical patients during weaning from mechanical ventilation, using two different weaning methods: pressure support ventilation and T-tube; and comparing patient subgroups: success vs. failure in weaning. METHODS: Randomized crossover clinical trial including patients under mechanical ventilation for more than 48 h and considered ready for weaning. Cardiorespiratory variables, oxygenation, electrocardiogram and Doppler echocardiogram findings were analyzed at baseline and after 30 min in pressure support ventilation and T-tube. Pressure support ventilation vs. T-tube and weaning success vs. failure were compared using ANOVA and Student's t-test. The level of significance was p<0.05. RESULTS: Twenty-four adult patients were evaluated. Seven patients failed at the first weaning attempt. No echocardiographic or electrocardiographic differences were observed between pressure support ventilation and T-tube. Weaning failure patients presented increases in left atrium, intraventricular septum thickness, posterior wall thickness and diameter of left ventricle and shorter isovolumetric relaxation time. Successfully weaned patients had higher levels of oxygenation. CONCLUSION: No differences were observed between Doppler echocardiographic variables and electrocardiographic and other cardiorespiratory variables during pressure support ventilation and T-tube. However cardiac structures were smaller, isovolumetric relaxation time was larger, and oxygenation level was greater in successfully weaned patients

  16. Methodology for ventilation/perfusion SPECT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajc, Marika; Neilly, Brian; Miniati, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    Ventilation/perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (V/Q SPECT) is the scintigraphic technique of choice for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism and many other disorders that affect lung function. Data from recent ventilation studies show that the theoretic advantages of Technegas ov...

  17. New modes of assisted mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Sipmann, F

    2014-05-01

    Recent major advances in mechanical ventilation have resulted in new exciting modes of assisted ventilation. Compared to traditional ventilation modes such as assisted-controlled ventilation or pressure support ventilation, these new modes offer a number of physiological advantages derived from the improved patient control over the ventilator. By implementing advanced closed-loop control systems and using information on lung mechanics, respiratory muscle function and respiratory drive, these modes are specifically designed to improve patient-ventilator synchrony and reduce the work of breathing. Depending on their specific operational characteristics, these modes can assist spontaneous breathing efforts synchronically in time and magnitude, adapt to changing patient demands, implement automated weaning protocols, and introduce a more physiological variability in the breathing pattern. Clinicians have now the possibility to individualize and optimize ventilatory assistance during the complex transition from fully controlled to spontaneous assisted ventilation. The growing evidence of the physiological and clinical benefits of these new modes is favoring their progressive introduction into clinical practice. Future clinical trials should improve our understanding of these modes and help determine whether the claimed benefits result in better outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  18. Ventilation of gloveboxes and containment shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guetron, R.

    1984-01-01

    In this paper are defined fundamental principles for the ventilation of containment enclosures and gloveboxes, and examined criteria required to maintain containment in normal or accidental conditions. Dimensioning of ventilation network and associated equipment (adjustement and filtering devices). Some examples are given [fr

  19. Commissioning Ventilated Containment Systems in the Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-08-01

    This Best Practices Guide focuses on the specialized approaches required for ventilated containment systems, understood to be all components that drive and control ventilated enclosures and local exhaust systems within the laboratory. Geared toward architects, engineers, and facility managers, this guide provides information about technologies and practices to use in designing, constructing, and operating operating safe, sustainable, high-performance laboratories.

  20. Standardization of pulmonary ventilation technique using volume-controlled ventilators in rats with congenital diaphragmatic hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Melo Gallindo

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To standardize a technique for ventilating rat fetuses with Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia (CDH using a volume-controlled ventilator. METHODS: Pregnant rats were divided into the following groups: a control (C; b exposed to nitrofen with CDH (CDH; and c exposed to nitrofen without CDH (N-. Fetuses of the three groups were randomly divided into the subgroups ventilated (V and non-ventilated (N-V. Fetuses were collected on day 21.5 of gestation, weighed and ventilated for 30 minutes using a volume-controlled ventilator. Then the lungs were collected for histological study. We evaluated: body weight (BW, total lung weight (TLW, left lung weight (LLW, ratios TLW / BW and LLW / BW, morphological histology of the airways and causes of failures of ventilation. RESULTS: BW, TLW, LLW, TLW / BW and LLW / BW were higher in C compared with N- (p 0.05. The morphology of the pulmonary airways showed hypoplasia in groups N- and CDH, with no difference between V and N-V (p <0.05. The C and N- groups could be successfully ventilated using a tidal volume of 75 ìl, but the failure of ventilation in the CDH group decreased only when ventilated with 50 ìl. CONCLUSION: Volume ventilation is possible in rats with CDH for a short period and does not alter fetal or lung morphology.

  1. Assisted Ventilation in Patients with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: Lung-distending Pressure and Patient-Ventilator Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorduin, J.; Sinderby, C.A.; Beck, J.; Hoeven, J.G. van der; Heunks, L.M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), the use of assisted mechanical ventilation is a subject of debate. Assisted ventilation has benefits over controlled ventilation, such as preserved diaphragm function and improved oxygenation. Therefore, higher level of

  2. Performance of ductless personalized ventilation in conjunction with displacement ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalewski, Mariusz; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Vesely, Michal

    2014-01-01

    perception of the environment. The subjects could control the position of the DPV supply diffuser and the personalized air flow (air velocity). The use of DPV improved perceived air quality and thermal comfort compared to displacement ventilation alone. At 26 °C and 29 °C the percentage dissatisfied with air......, increased eye dryness sensation was reported by 30% of subjects. The personalized air flow selected by nearly 80% of the subjects at 26 °C was between 10 and 20 l/s corresponding to the target air velocity of 1.2–1.7 m/s. At 29 °C almost 90% of subjects chose a personalized air flow between 15 and 20 l/s (1...

  3. Transference to the analyst as an excluded observer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, John

    2008-02-01

    In this paper I briefly review some significant points in the development of ideas on transference which owe so much to the discoveries of Freud. I then discuss some of the subsequent developments which were based on Freud 's work and which have personally impressed me. In particular I mention Melanie Klein's elaboration of an internal world peopled by internal object and her description of the mechanisms of splitting and projective identification, both of which profoundly affect our understanding of transference. Using some clinical material I try to illustrate an important transference situation which I do not think has been sufficiently emphasized although it is part of the 'total situation' outlined by Klein. In this kind of transference the analyst finds himself in an observing position and is no longer the primary object to whom love and hate are directed. Instead he is put in a position of an excluded figure who can easily enact rather than understand the role he has been put in. In this situation he may try to regain the position as the patient's primary object in the transference or avoid the transference altogether and make extra-transference interpretations and in this way enact the role of a judgemental and critical super-ego. If he can tolerate the loss of a central role and understand the transference position he has been put in, the analyst can sometimes reduce enactments and release feelings to do with mourning and loss in both himself and his patient.

  4. Determinants of Prosocial Behavior in Included Versus Excluded Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadrado, Esther; Tabernero, Carmen; Steinel, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Prosocial behavior (PSB) is increasingly becoming necessary as more and more individuals experience exclusion. In this context it is important to understand the motivational determinants of PSB. Here we report two experiments which analyzed the influence of dispositional (prosocialness; rejection sensitivity) and motivational variables (prosocial self-efficacy; prosocial collective efficacy; trust; anger; social affiliation motivation) on PSB under neutral contexts (Study 1), and once under inclusion or exclusion conditions (Study 2). Both studies provided evidence for the predicted mediation of PSB. Results in both neutral and inclusion and exclusion conditions supported our predictive model of PSB. In the model dispositional variables predicted motivational variables, which in turn predicted PSB. We showed that the investigated variables predicted PSB; this suggests that to promote PSB one could (1) foster prosocialness, prosocial self and collective efficacy, trust in others and affiliation motivation and (2) try to reduce negative feelings and the tendency to dread rejection in an attempt to reduce the negative impact that these variables have on PSB. Moreover, the few differences that emerged in the model between the inclusion and exclusion contexts suggested that in interventions with excluded individuals special care emphasis should be placed on addressing rejection sensitivity and lack of trust.

  5. One negative polysomnogram does not exclude obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, T J; Eveloff, S E; Kline, L R; Millman, R P

    1993-03-01

    Night-to-night variability of apneas on overnight polymnography exists in patients with documented obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). In this study, we evaluated the possibility that this variability may be severe enough to miss the diagnosis of OSA in patients clinically at risk for the disease. We prospectively studied 11 patients who were deemed on clinical grounds to have probable OSA, but had a negative result on overnight polysomnography. Six of the 11 patients were found to have a positive second study with a significant rise in the apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) from 3.1 +/- 1.0 to 19.8 +/- 4.7 (mean +/- SEM, p cause of the negative first study in these patients is unclear, but it does not seem related to risk factor pattern, sleep architecture, or test interval. The change in AHI was not found to be rapid eye movement (REM)-dependent. This study demonstrates that a negative first-night study is insufficient to exclude OSA in patients with one or more clinical markers of the disease.

  6. Determinants of prosocial behavior in included versus excluded contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther eCuadrado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Prosocial behavior is increasingly becoming necessary as more and more individuals experience exclusion. In this context it is important to understand the motivational determinants of prosocial behavior. Here we report two experiments which analyzed the influence of dispositional (prosocialness; rejection sensitivity and motivational variables (prosocial self-efficacy; prosocial collective efficacy; trust; anger; social affiliation motivation on prosocial behavior under neutral contexts (Study 1, and once under inclusion or exclusion conditions (Study 2. Both studies provided evidence for the predicted mediation of prosocial behavior. Results in both neutral and inclusion and exclusion conditions supported our predictive model of prosocial behavior. In the model dispositional variables predicted motivational variables, which in turn predicted prosocial behavior. We showed that the investigated variables predicted prosocial behavior; this suggests that to promote prosocial behavior one could (1 foster prosocialness, prosocial self and collective efficacy, trust in others and affiliation motivation and (2 try to reduce negative feelings and the tendency to dread rejection in an attempt to reduce the negative impact that these variables have on prosocial behavior. Moreover, the few differences that emerged in the model between the inclusion and exclusion contexts suggested that in interventions with excluded individuals special care emphasis should be placed on addressing rejection sensitivity and lack of trust.

  7. Short Term Airing by Natural Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Perino, M.

    2010-01-01

    The need to improve the energy efficiency of buildings requires new and more efficient ventilation systems. It has been demonstrated that innovative operating concepts that make use of natural ventilation seem to be more appreciated by occupants. Among the available ventilation strategies...... that are currently available, buoyancy driven, single-sided natural ventilation has proved to be very effective and can provide high air change rates for temperature and Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) control. However, to promote a wider distribution of these systems an improvement in the knowledge of their working...... airflow rate, ventilation efficiency, thermal comfort and dynamic temperature conditions. A suitable laboratory test rig was developed to perform extensive experimental analyses of the phenomenon under controlled and repeatable conditions. The results showed that short-term window airing is very effective...

  8. Methodology for ventilation/perfusion SPECT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajc, Marika; Neilly, Brian; Miniati, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    radiolabeled liquid aerosols are not restricted to the presence of obstructive lung disease. Radiolabeled macroaggregated human albumin is the imaging agent of choice for perfusion scintigraphy. An optimal combination of nuclide activities and acquisition times for ventilation and perfusion, collimators......Ventilation/perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (V/Q SPECT) is the scintigraphic technique of choice for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism and many other disorders that affect lung function. Data from recent ventilation studies show that the theoretic advantages of Technegas over......, and imaging matrix yields an adequate V/Q SPECT study in approximately 20 minutes of imaging time. The recommended protocol based on the patient remaining in an unchanged position during the initial ventilation study and the perfusion study allows presentation of matching ventilation and perfusion slices...

  9. Mechanical Ventilation: State of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Tài; Brochard, Laurent J; Slutsky, Arthur S

    2017-09-01

    Mechanical ventilation is the most used short-term life support technique worldwide and is applied daily for a diverse spectrum of indications, from scheduled surgical procedures to acute organ failure. This state-of-the-art review provides an update on the basic physiology of respiratory mechanics, the working principles, and the main ventilatory settings, as well as the potential complications of mechanical ventilation. Specific ventilatory approaches in particular situations such as acute respiratory distress syndrome and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are detailed along with protective ventilation in patients with normal lungs. We also highlight recent data on patient-ventilator dyssynchrony, humidified high-flow oxygen through nasal cannula, extracorporeal life support, and the weaning phase. Finally, we discuss the future of mechanical ventilation, addressing avenues for improvement. Copyright © 2017 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Lung protective ventilation - pathophysiology and diagnostics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlig, Stefan; Frerichs, Inéz

    2008-06-01

    Mechanical ventilation may lead to lung injury depending on the ventilatory settings (e.g. pressure amplitudes, endexpiratory pressures, frequency) and the length of mechanical ventilation. Particularly in the inhomogeneously injured lungs of ARDS patients, alveolar overextension results in volutrauma, cyclic opening and closure of alveolar units in atelectrauma. Particularly important appears to be the fact that these processes may also cause biotrauma, i.e. the ventilator-induced hyperactivation of inflammatory responses in the lung. These side effects are reduced, but not eliminated with the currently recommended ventilation strategy with a tidal volume of 6 ml/kg idealized body weight. It is our hope that in the future optimization of ventilator settings will be facilated by bedside monitoring of novel indices of respiratory mechanics such as the stress index or the Slice technique, and by innovative real-time imaging technologies such as electrical impedance tomography.

  11. Pandemic ventilator rationing and appeals processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrone, Daniel; Resnik, David

    2011-06-01

    In a severe influenza pandemic, hospitals will likely experience serious and widespread shortages of patient pulmonary ventilators and of staff qualified to operate them. Deciding who will receive access to mechanical ventilation will often determine who lives and who dies. This prospect raises an important question whether pandemic preparedness plans should include some process by which individuals affected by ventilator rationing would have the opportunity to appeal adverse decisions. However, the issue of appeals processes to ventilator rationing decisions has been largely neglected in state pandemic planning efforts. If we are to devise just and effective plans for coping with a severe influenza pandemic, more attention to the issue of appeals processes for pandemic ventilator rationing decisions is needed. Arguments for and against appeals processes are considered, and some suggestions are offered to help efforts at devising more rational pandemic preparedness plans.

  12. Potential of Natural Ventilation in Shopping Centres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, Alice; Friis, Kristina; Brohus, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    The indoor environmental quality (IEQ) is a fundamental requirement for a well performing shopping centre. This paper contains a pilot study of the potential of using hybrid ventilation (a combination of automatically controlled natural and mechanical ventilation - respectively NV and MV) in shop......The indoor environmental quality (IEQ) is a fundamental requirement for a well performing shopping centre. This paper contains a pilot study of the potential of using hybrid ventilation (a combination of automatically controlled natural and mechanical ventilation - respectively NV and MV......) in shopping centres with focus on both the achieved IEQ and energy consumptions for air movement. By thermal building simulations it is found that there exists an interesting potential for hybrid ventilation of shopping centres, which can lead to great savings in the electrical energy consumptions...

  13. Mechanisms of natural ventilation in livestock buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rong, Li; Bjerg, Bjarne; Batzanas, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the mechanisms of natural ventilation in livestock buildings are reviewed and influences on discharge and pressure coefficients are discussed. Compared to studies conducted on buildings for human occupation and industrial buildings which focus on thermal comfort, ventilation systems......, indoor air quality, building physics and energy etc., our understanding of the mechanisms involved in natural ventilation of livestock buildings are still limited to the application of the orifice equation. It has been observed that the assumptions made for application of the orifice equation...... are not valid for wind-induced cross ventilation through large openings. This review identifies that the power balance model, the concept of stream tube and the local dynamic similarity model has helped in the fundamental understanding of wind-induced natural ventilation in buildings for human occupation...

  14. Functionality of Ventilated Facades: Protection of Insulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrichenko Mikhail

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses about methods of construction of the ventilated facades. The ventilated facade is not only the element of facing, it is the supporting structure. Their main objective - creation of air ventilating space between a facade and an external wall of the building. Moving of air in this gap protects a heater from destruction, interfering with a moisture congestion. In addition, the ventilated facade protect the building from aggressive influence of external environment, have a sound and thermal insulation properties. There are several problems of systems of the ventilated facades connected with an application of a heater. For more effective using it is necessary to minimize contact of a heater with environment.

  15. Modelling and Simulation of Volume Controlled Mechanical Ventilation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Shi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Volume controlled mechanical ventilation system is a typical time-delay system, which is applied to ventilate patients who cannot breathe adequately on their own. To illustrate the influences of key parameters of the ventilator on the dynamics of the ventilated respiratory system, this paper firstly derived a new mathematical model of the ventilation system; secondly, simulation and experimental results are compared to verify the mathematical model; lastly, the influences of key parameters of ventilator on the dynamics of the ventilated respiratory system are carried out. This study can be helpful in the VCV ventilation treatment and respiratory diagnostics.

  16. If patient-reported outcome measures are considered key health-care quality indicators, who is excluded from participation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Thilo; Wyke, Sally; Jahagirdar, Deepa; Ritchie, Karen

    2014-10-01

    Patient-reported outcome measures have received increasing attention with regard to ensuring quality improvement across the health service. However, there is a risk that people with disabilities and low literacy are systematically excluded from the development of these measures as well as their application in clinical practice. This editorial highlights some of these risks and the potential consequences of exclusion for these groups. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Bilevel vs ICU ventilators providing noninvasive ventilation: effect of system leaks: a COPD lung model comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Juliana C; Chipman, Daniel W; Hill, Nicholas S; Kacmarek, Robert M

    2009-08-01

    Noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation (NPPV) modes are currently available on bilevel and ICU ventilators. However, little data comparing the performance of the NPPV modes on these ventilators are available. In an experimental bench study, the ability of nine ICU ventilators to function in the presence of leaks was compared with a bilevel ventilator using the IngMar ASL5000 lung simulator (IngMar Medical; Pittsburgh, PA) set at a compliance of 60 mL/cm H(2)O, an inspiratory resistance of 10 cm H(2)O/L/s, an expiratory resistance of 20 cm H(2)O/ L/s, and a respiratory rate of 15 breaths/min. All of the ventilators were set at 12 cm H(2)O pressure support and 5 cm H(2)O positive end-expiratory pressure. The data were collected at baseline and at three customized leaks. At baseline, all of the ventilators were able to deliver adequate tidal volumes, to maintain airway pressure, and to synchronize with the simulator, without missed efforts or auto-triggering. As the leak was increased, all of the ventilators (except the Vision [Respironics; Murrysville, PA] and Servo I [Maquet; Solna, Sweden]) needed adjustment of sensitivity or cycling criteria to maintain adequate ventilation, and some transitioned to backup ventilation. Significant differences in triggering and cycling were observed between the Servo I and the Vision ventilators. The Vision and Servo I were the only ventilators that required no adjustments as they adapted to increasing leaks. There were differences in performance between these two ventilators, although the clinical significance of these differences is unclear. Clinicians should be aware that in the presence of leaks, most ICU ventilators require adjustments to maintain an adequate tidal volume.

  18. Mechanical ventilation during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Matthieu; Pellegrino, Vincent; Combes, Alain; Scheinkestel, Carlos; Cooper, D Jamie; Hodgson, Carol

    2014-01-21

    The timing of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) initiation and its outcome in the management of respiratory and cardiac failure have received considerable attention, but very little attention has been given to mechanical ventilation during ECMO. Mechanical ventilation settings in non-ECMO studies have been shown to have an effect on survival and may also have contributed to a treatment effect in ECMO trials. Protective lung ventilation strategies established for non-ECMO-supported respiratory failure patients may not be optimal for more severe forms of respiratory failure requiring ECMO support. The influence of positive end-expiratory pressure on the reduction of the left ventricular compliance may be a matter of concern for patients receiving ECMO support for cardiac failure. The objectives of this review were to describe potential mechanisms for lung injury during ECMO for respiratory or cardiac failure, to assess the possible benefits from the use of ultra-protective lung ventilation strategies and to review published guidelines and expert opinions available on mechanical ventilation-specific management of patients requiring ECMO, including mode and ventilator settings. Articles were identified through a detailed search of PubMed, Ovid, Cochrane databases and Google Scholar. Additional references were retrieved from the selected studies. Growing evidence suggests that mechanical ventilation settings are important in ECMO patients to minimize further lung damage and improve outcomes. An ultra-protective ventilation strategy may be optimal for mechanical ventilation during ECMO for respiratory failure. The effects of airway pressure on right and left ventricular afterload should be considered during venoarterial ECMO support of cardiac failure. Future studies are needed to better understand the potential impact of invasive mechanical ventilation modes and settings on outcomes.

  19. Probiotics for preventing ventilator-associated pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Lulong; Li, Jinbao; Tao, Tianzhu; Bai, Yu; Ye, Xiaofei; Hotchkiss, Richard S; Kollef, Marin H; Crooks, Neil H; Deng, Xiaoming

    2014-01-01

    Background Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is common in intensive care units (ICUs). Some evidence indicates that probiotics may reduce the incidence of VAP. Several additional published studies have demonstrated that probiotics are safe and efficacious in preventing VAP in ICUs. We aimed to systematically summarise the results of all available data to generate the best evidence for the prevention of VAP. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of probiotics for preventing VAP. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (2014, Issue 8), MEDLINE (1948 to September week 1, 2014) and EMBASE (2010 to September 2014). Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing probiotics with placebo or another control (excluding RCTs that use probiotics in both study groups) to prevent VAP. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed eligibility and the quality of trials, and extracted data. Main results We included eight RCTs, with 1083 participants. All studies compared a form of probiotic (Lactobacillus casei rhamnosus; Lactobacillus plantarum; Synbiotic 2000FORTE; Ergyphilus; combination Bifidobacterium longum + Lactobacillus bulgaricus + Streptococcus thermophilus) versus a control group (placebo; glutamine; fermentable fibre; peptide; chlorhexidine). The analysis of all RCTs showed that the use of probiotics decreased the incidence of VAP (odds ratio (OR) 0.70, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.52 to 0.95, low quality evidence). However, the aggregated results were uncertain for ICU mortality (OR 0.84, 95% CI 0.58 to 1.22 very low quality evidence), in-hospital mortality (OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.54 to 1.14, very low quality evidence), incidence of diarrhoea (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.47 to 1.09, very low quality evidence), length of ICU stay (mean difference (MD) −1.60, 95% CI −6.53 to 3.33, very low quality evidence), duration of mechanical ventilation (MD −6.15, 95% CI −18.77 to 6.47, very low quality evidence) and antibiotic

  20. Air-conditioning and ventilation systems and components of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The Guide defines the requirements for the design, implementation and operation of the air-conditioning and ventilation systems of nuclear facilities belonging to safety classes 3 and 4, and for the related documents to be submitted to STUK (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Finland). Furthermore, the Guide describes the inspections of air-conditioning and ventilation systems to be conducted by STUK during construction and operation of the facilities. As far as systems and components belonging to safety class 2 are concerned, STUK sets additional requirements case by case. In general, air-conditioning systems refer to systems designed to manage the indoor air cleanness, temperature, humidity and movement. In some rooms of a nuclear power plant, ventilation systems are also used to prevent radioactive materials from spreading outside the rooms. Guide YVL1.0 defines the safety principles concerning the air-conditioning and ventilation of nuclear power plants. Guide YVL2.0 gives the requirements for the design of nuclear power plant systems. In addition, YVLGuide groups 3, 4, 5 and 7 deal with the requirements for air-conditioning and ventilation systems with regard to the mechanical equipment, fire prevention, electrical systems, instrumentation and control technology, and the restriction of releases. The rules and regulations issued by the Ministry of the Environment and the Ministry of the Interior (RakMK, the Finnish building code) concerning the design and operation of air-conditioning and ventilation systems and the related fire protection design bases also apply to nuclear facilities. Exhaust gas treatment systems, condenser vacuum systems of boiling water reactor plants and leak collection systems are excluded from the scope of this Guide

  1. BreathDx - molecular analysis of exhaled breath as a diagnostic test for ventilator-associated pneumonia: protocol for a European multicentre observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oort, Pouline M. P.; Nijsen, Tamara; Weda, Hans; Knobel, Hugo; Dark, Paul; Felton, Timothy; Rattray, Nicholas J. W.; Lawal, Oluwasola; Ahmed, Waqar; Portsmouth, Craig; Sterk, Peter J.; Schultz, Marcus J.; Zakharkina, Tetyana; Artigas, Antonio; Povoa, Pedro; Martin-Loeches, Ignacio; Fowler, Stephen J.; Bos, Lieuwe D. J.; Camprubi, Marta; Coelho, Luis; Davie, Alan; Diaz, Emili; Goma, Gemma; Goodacre, Royston; Leopold, Jan-Hendrik; Rijnders, Guus; Steenwelle, Ruud; Valles, Jordi; Verhoeckx, Fred; Vink, Anton; Winters, Tineke

    2017-01-01

    The diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) remains time-consuming and costly, the clinical tools lack specificity and a bedside test to exclude infection in suspected patients is unavailable. Breath contains hundreds to thousands of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that result from host

  2. A new system for continuous and remote monitoring of patients receiving home mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battista, L

    2016-09-01

    Home mechanical ventilation is the treatment of patients with respiratory failure or insufficiency by means of a mechanical ventilator at a patient's home. In order to allow remote patient monitoring, several tele-monitoring systems have been introduced in the last few years. However, most of them usually do not allow real-time services, as they have their own proprietary communication protocol implemented and some ventilation parameters are not always measured. Moreover, they monitor only some breaths during the whole day, despite the fact that a patient's respiratory state may change continuously during the day. In order to reduce the above drawbacks, this work reports the development of a novel remote monitoring system for long-term, home-based ventilation therapy; the proposed system allows for continuous monitoring of the main physical quantities involved during home-care ventilation (e.g., differential pressure, volume, and air flow rate) and is developed in order to allow observations of different remote therapy units located in different places of a city, region, or country. The developed remote patient monitoring system is able to detect various clinical events (e.g., events of tube disconnection and sleep apnea events) and has been successfully tested by means of experimental tests carried out with pulmonary ventilators typically used to support sick patients.

  3. Knowledge levels of intensive care nurses on prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akın Korhan, Esra; Hakverdioğlu Yönt, Gülendam; Parlar Kılıç, Serap; Uzelli, Derya

    2014-01-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia constitutes a significant concern for ventilated patients in the intensive care unit. This study was planned to evaluate the knowledge of nurses working in general intensive care units concerning evidence-based measures for the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia. This study design is cross-sectional. It was carried out on nurses working in the general intensive care units of anesthiology and re-animation clinics. Collection of research data was performed by means of a Nurse Identification Form and a Form of Evidence-Based Knowledge concerning the Prevention of Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia. Characterization statistics were shown by percentage, median and interquartile range. Chi-square and Wilcoxon tests and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used as appropriate. The median value of total points scored by nurses on the questionnaire was 4.00 ± 2.00. The difference between the nurses' education levels, duration of work experience and participation in in-service training programmes on ventilator-associated pneumonia prevention and the median value of their total scores on the questionnaire was found to be statistically significant (p < 0.05). The conclusion of the study was that critical care nurses' knowledge about ventilator-associated pneumonia prevention is poor. © 2013 British Association of Critical Care Nurses.

  4. What works in inclusion health: overview of effective interventions for marginalised and excluded populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchenski, Serena; Maguire, Nick; Aldridge, Robert W; Hayward, Andrew; Story, Alistair; Perri, Patrick; Withers, James; Clint, Sharon; Fitzpatrick, Suzanne; Hewett, Nigel

    2017-11-10

    Inclusion health is a service, research, and policy agenda that aims to prevent and redress health and social inequities among the most vulnerable and excluded populations. We did an evidence synthesis of health and social interventions for inclusion health target populations, including people with experiences of homelessness, drug use, imprisonment, and sex work. These populations often have multiple overlapping risk factors and extreme levels of morbidity and mortality. We identified numerous interventions to improve physical and mental health, and substance use; however, evidence is scarce for structural interventions, including housing, employment, and legal support that can prevent exclusion and promote recovery. Dedicated resources and better collaboration with the affected populations are needed to realise the benefits of existing interventions. Research must inform the benefits of early intervention and implementation of policies to address the upstream causes of exclusion, such as adverse childhood experiences and poverty. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Thermal plumes in ventilated rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Peter; Nielsen, Peter V.

    1990-01-01

    The design of a displacement ventilation system involves determination of the flow rate in the thermal plumes. The flow rate in the plumes and the vertical temperature gradient influence each other, and they are influenced by many factors. This paper shows some descriptions of these effects. Free...... above a point heat source cannot be used. This is caused either by the way of generating the plume including a long intermediate region or by the environmental conditions where vertical temperature gradients are present. The flow has a larger angle of spread and the entrainment factor is greather than...... turbulent plumes from different heated bodies are investigated. The measurements have taken place in a full-scale test room where the vertical temperature gradient have been changed. The velocity and the temperature distribution in the plume are measured. Large scale plume axis wandering is taken...

  6. The politics of corruption, inequality, and the socially excluded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Salas, Anna

    2013-07-01

    In this article, the production of knowledge in the context of socially excluded people exposed to inequality, oppression, and exploitation is problematized. The analysis follows Enrique Dussel's philosophical exegesis of the politics of power and corruption and his vision of a critical transformation of the social political order. The argument is also informed by the work of critical educator Paulo Freire, who elucidates the conditions of oppression and marginalization and highlights the importance of conscientization to develop a critical awareness of these conditions. Hannah Arendt's work on the politics of understanding totalitarianism also assists in the elucidation of the machinery that operates behind oppression to sustain power and inequality. The article emphasizes the need to recognize the inequality of conditions that exists between the producer of knowledge and those who live through inequality and oppression in their lived corporality. A critical transformation of the process of production of knowledge is needed to both acknowledge the conditions that sustain this endeavour in the first place and avoid the corruption of knowledge. A work of conscientization is also necessary among knowledge producers to undertake a critical analysis of inequality that exposes the corruption of power. This analysis needs to examine and unmask the hidden mechanisms that perpetuate inequality and oppression and serve only the interests of a few. The abysmal gaps between the wealthy and the poor within and among countries bespeak a degree of human indifference that reflects a most serious and complex phenomenon that perverts something profoundly human in our societies. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Investigation of possible primary energy conservation using different coupling scenarios of mechanical ventilation systems with heat recovery on processes of space - and service water heating.; Untersuchung der erzielbaren Primaerenergieeinsparung bei unterschiedlichen Kopplungsvarianten mechanischer Lueftungsanlagen mit Waermerueckgewinnung an Verfahren zur Heizenergiebereitstellung und/oder Brauchwassererwaermung. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steimle, F.; Bruckmann, O.

    2001-07-01

    The criteria for acceptance testing of ventilation systems with integrated heat recovery were specified by the Deutsches Institut fuer Bautechnik (DIBt), Berlin, for systems for heat supply to the fresh air stream (air-to-air systems). This includes requirements on the test facilities of the technical inspection services, e.g. test stand layout and measuring systems to ensure a standard accuracy. The contribution describes these requirements for the example of the test facility of the Institute of Applied Thermodynamics and Air Conditioning Engineering at Essen University. (orig.) [German] Die Pruefkriterien fuer Zulassungspruefungen von Wohnungslueftungsgeraeten mit Waermerueckgewinnung wurden, zumindest sofern es Geraete zur Waermeuebertragung an den Zuluftstrom betrifft (Luft/Luft-Technik), vom Deutschen Institut fuer Bautechnik (DIBt) in Berlin verbindlich festgelegt. Hiermit verbunden sind nicht zuletzt die Anforderungen an die Versuchsstaende der Pruefstellen zur Durchfuehrung dieser Zulassungspruefungen hinsichtlich des Aufbaus und der einzusetzenden Messtechnik, bzw. der zu erzielenden Messgenauigkeit. Der vorliegende Artikel beschreibt diese Anforderungen am Beispiel des Pruefstandes des Instituts fuer Angewandte Thermodynamik und Klimatechnik an der Universitaet Essen. (orig.)

  8. General design guide for ventilation systems for fuel reprocessing plants, September 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    General safety, occupied area ventilation systems, process area ventilation systems, exhaust ventilation and filtration systems, ventilation system construction and layout ventilation system testing and monitoring, and the quality assurance program are discussed

  9. Thallium myocardial tomoscintigraphy: detection of ischemia during weaning from mechanical ventilation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Tomoscintigraphie myocardique au thallium: detection de l'ischemie provoquee par le sevrage de la ventilation assistee chez le bronchiteux chronique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andre, L; Valette, H; Obama, S; Archambaud, F; Richard, C; Teboul, J L; Hebert, J L; Auzepy, P; Desgrez, A [Hopital de Bicetre, 94 - Le Kremlin-Bicetre (FR)

    1990-01-01

    In order to evidence myocardial ischemia-leading to ventricular dysfunction-during weaning from mechanical ventilation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, thallium myocardial tomography and gated blood pool studies were performed in 9 patients during mechanical ventilation and during weaning from mechanical ventilation. During the latter, results of gated blood pool studies showed a diffuse homogeneous left ventricular dysfunction. A fixed lower thallium uptake in the septum than in the lateral wall was found with the quantitative analysis of myocardial tomograms. Partial volume effect is likely the cause of this septal defect. The hypothesis of a diffuse ischemia cannot be excluded; but, without the absolute quantification of tomographic data, it cannot be proven.

  10. Oral mask ventilation is more effective than face mask ventilation after nasal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazicioğlu, Dilek; Baran, Ilkay; Uzumcugil, Filiz; Ozturk, Ibrahim; Utebey, Gulten; Sayın, M Murat

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate and compare the face mask (FM) and oral mask (OM) ventilation techniques during anesthesia emergence regarding tidal volume, leak volume, and difficult mask ventilation (DMV) incidence. Prospective, randomized, crossover study. Operating room, training and research hospital. American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I and II adult patients scheduled for nasal surgery. Patients in group FM-OM received FM ventilation first, followed by OM ventilation, and patients in group OM-FM received OM ventilation first, followed by FM ventilation, with spontaneous ventilation after deep extubation. The FM ventilation was applied with the 1-handed EC-clamp technique. The OM was placed only over the mouth, and the 1-handed EC-clamp technique was used again. A child's size FM was used for the OM ventilation technique, the mask was rotated, and the inferior part of the mask was placed toward the nose. The leak volume (MVleak), mean airway pressure (Pmean), and expired tidal volume (TVe) were assessed with each mask technique for 3 consecutive breaths. A mask ventilation grade ≥3 was considered DMV. DMV occurred more frequently during FM ventilation (75% with FM vs 8% with OM). In the FM-first sequence, the mean TVe was 249±61mL with the FM and 455±35mL with the OM (P=.0001), whereas in the OM-first sequence, it was 276±81mL with the FM and 409±37mL with the OM (P=.0001). Regardless of the order used, the OM technique significantly decreased the MVleak and increased the TVe when compared to the FM technique. During anesthesia emergence after nasal surgery the OM may offer an effective ventilation method as it decreases the incidence of DMV and the gas leak around the mask and provides higher tidal volume delivery compared with FM ventilation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The fluid mechanics of natural ventilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Paul

    1999-11-01

    Natural ventilation of buildings is the flow generated by temperature differences and by the wind. Modern buildings have extreme designs with large, tall open plan spaces and large cooling requirements. Natural ventilation offers a means of cooling these buildings and providing good indoor air quality. The essential feature of ventilation is an exchange between an interior space and the external ambient. Recent work shows that in many circumstances temperature variations play a controlling feature on the ventilation since the directional buoyancy force has a large influence on the flow patterns within the space and on the nature of the exchange with the outside. Two forms of buoyancy-driven ventilation are discussed: mixing ventilation in which the interior is at approximately uniform temperature and displacement ventilation where there is strong internal stratification. The dynamics of these flows are considered and the effects of wind on them are examined both experimentally and theoretically. The aim behind this work is to give designers rules and intuition on how air moves within a building and the research shows a fascinating branch of fluid mechanics.

  12. Rights to ecosystem services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davidson, M.

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystem services are the benefits people obtain from ecosystems. Many of these services are provided outside the borders of the land where they are produced; this article investigates who is entitled to these non-excludable ecosystem services from two libertarian perspectives. Taking a

  13. REVERSIBLE VENTILATION SYSTEM FOR ADMINISTRATIVE BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery Yu. Kravchuk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Objectives To consider the possibility of applying the principle of reversing air flows for a centralised ventilation system; to develop a specific scheme for air exchange reversible ventilation, which will take into account the peculiarities of the microclimate of administrative buildings; to select the type of filling of the air-permeable element and justify this choice; to determine the conditions for changing the direction of air movement in the ventilation system and the area of its application; to form a list of equipment necessary for the operation of such a system; to consider the influence of supply and exhaust devices on the heat and humidity regime of claddings. Methods  To achieve this goal, the published thematic material was reviewed and a patent search carried out using Russian and European databases. Data on mathematical modelling of filtration in porous media and experimental results were used. A method for ventilating rooms in administrative building using the reversal of movement of supply and exhaust air streams along the same channels was applied. Results  Schemas for reversible ventilation systems are presented and their modes of operation considered. It is established that the idea of reversing ventilation flows has not yet been applied in the development of centralised ventilation systems. Based on these published materials, it was concluded that the proposed design of supply and exhaust devices can be used in practice. An original air exchange scheme for the ventilation of administrative buildings and design of supply and exhaust devices for this system are proposed. The conditions for changing the operating modes of the system and the scope of its application are determined. Conclusion The use of the proposed ventilation system allows normative air exchange to be provided without using a supply unit during the cold season. This application of airflow reversal allows the potential of natural forces to be used

  14. Characteristics of coal mine ventilation air flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shi; Chen, Hongwei; Teakle, Philip; Xue, Sheng

    2008-01-01

    Coal mine methane (CMM) is not only a greenhouse gas but also a wasted energy resource if not utilised. Underground coal mining is by far the most important source of fugitive methane emissions, and approximately 70% of all coal mining related methane is emitted to the atmosphere through mine ventilation air. Therefore, research and development on mine methane mitigation and utilisation now focuses on methane emitted from underground coal mines, in particular ventilation air methane (VAM) capture and utilisation. To date, most work has focused on the oxidation of very low concentration methane. These processes may be classified based on their combustion kinetic mechanisms into thermal oxidation and catalytic oxidation. VAM mitigation/utilisation technologies are generally divided into two basic categories: ancillary uses and principal uses. However, it is possible that the characteristics of ventilation air flows, for example the variations in methane concentration and the presence of certain compounds, which have not been reported so far, could make some potential VAM mitigation and utilisation technologies unfeasible if they cannot cope with the characteristics of mine site ventilation air flows. Therefore, it is important to understand the characteristics of mine ventilation air flows. Moreover, dust, hydrogen sulphide, sulphur dioxide, and other possible compounds emitted through mine ventilation air into the atmosphere are also pollutants. Therefore, this paper presents mine-site experimental results on the characteristics of mine ventilation air flows, including methane concentration and its variations, dust loadings, particle size, mineral matter of the dust, and other compounds in the ventilation air flows. The paper also discusses possible correlations between ventilation air characteristics and underground mining activities.

  15. Hygrothermal performance of ventilated wooden cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nore, Kristine

    2009-10-15

    depths, but these measurement results were not possible to interpret. However, the methodology might work, even on thin wood boards, if the set up is thoroughly calibrated prior to mounting The test house study shows the advantage of two-stage tightening, with a ventilated cavity behind the cladding. The cavity reduces the risk of moisture problems in wall assemblies; it serves as a safety valve, discharging excess moisture by drainage and ventilation. At the test house, with open fields around, it is shown that by having only a few millimetre cavity opening the cavity operates sufficiently. In a dry climate, where the wall will be mostly dry, the results indicate that a design with the cavity openings closed will give the driest wood cladding. No significant conclusion can be drawn regarding the surface treatment and material quality. Although the four year study shows some results, the service life of a wooden cladding might exceed a hundred years with correct design and maintenance.

  16. Preoperational test report, primary ventilation condensate system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-01-29

    Preoperational test report for Primary Ventilation Condensate System, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system provides a collection point for condensate generated by the W-030 primary vent offgas cooling system serving tanks AYIOI, AY102, AZIOI, AZI02. The system is located inside a shielded ventilation equipment cell and consists of a condensate seal pot, sampling features, a drain line to existing Catch Tank 241-AZ-151, and a cell sump jet pump. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  17. Secretion management in the mechanically ventilated patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branson, Richard D

    2007-10-01

    Secretion management in the mechanically ventilated patient includes routine methods for maintaining mucociliary function, as well as techniques for secretion removal. Humidification, mobilization of the patient, and airway suctioning are all routine procedures for managing secretions in the ventilated patient. Early ambulation of the post-surgical patient and routine turning of the ventilated patient are common secretion-management techniques that have little supporting evidence of efficacy. Humidification is a standard of care and a requisite for secretion management. Both active and passive humidification can be used. The humidifier selected and the level of humidification required depend on the patient's condition and the expected duration of intubation. In patients with thick, copious secretions, heated humidification is superior to a heat and moisture exchanger. Airway suctioning is the most important secretion removal technique. Open-circuit and closed-circuit suctioning have similar efficacy. Instilling saline prior to suctioning, to thin the secretions or stimulate a cough, is not supported by the literature. Adequate humidification and as-needed suctioning are the foundation of secretion management in the mechanically ventilated patient. Intermittent therapy for secretion removal includes techniques either to simulate a cough, to mechanically loosen secretions, or both. Patient positioning for secretion drainage is also widely used. Percussion and postural drainage have been widely employed for mechanically ventilated patients but have not been shown to reduce ventilator-associated pneumonia or atelectasis. Manual hyperinflation and insufflation-exsufflation, which attempt to improve secretion removal by simulating a cough, have been described in mechanically ventilated patients, but neither has been studied sufficiently to support routine use. Continuous lateral rotation with a specialized bed reduces atelectasis in some patients, but has not been shown

  18. Position paper - primary ventilation system configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalpiaz, E.L.

    1994-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop and document a position on the configuration of the primary ventilation system. This configuration will be used on the waste storage tanks currently being designed for the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility. The primary ventilation system provides a single treatment train and exhaust fan for each waste storage tank. The ventilation systems from each of two tanks are grouped with an additional treatment train and exhaust fan that function as backup to either of the two systems

  19. Energy Analysis of the Ductless Personalized Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lelong, Cyril; Dalewski, Mariusz; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2013-01-01

    energy efficient strategies for implantation of DPV in practice. The impact of using DPV on annual energy use has been studied for different occupancy profiles in cold climates. The results suggest that using DPV combined with displacement ventilation may significantly reduce building energy use while......This study explores the impact of different occupancy profiles on the potential energy savings due to using ductless personalized ventilation (DPV) combined with displacement ventilation. Energy simulations were performed with the dynamic simulation software IDA-ICE in order to investigate optimal...

  20. Weaning newborn infants from mechanical ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Biban

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Invasive mechanical ventilation is a life-saving procedure which is largely used in neonatal intensive care units, particularly in very premature newborn infants. However, this essential treatment may increase mortality and cause substantial morbidity, including lung or airway injuries, unplanned extubations, adverse hemodynamic effects, analgosedative dependency and severe infectious complications, such as ventilator-associated pneumonia. Therefore, limiting the duration of airway intubation and mechanical ventilator support is crucial for the neonatologist, who should aim to a shorter process of discontinuing mechanical ventilation as well as an earlier appreciation of readiness for spontaneous breathing trials. Unfortunately, there is scarce information about the best ways to perform an effective weaning process in infants undergoing mechanical ventilation, thus in most cases the weaning course is still based upon the individual judgment of the attending clinician. Nonetheless, some evidence indicate that volume targeted ventilation modes are more effective in reducing the duration of mechanical ventilation than traditional pressure limited ventilation modes, particularly in very preterm babies. Weaning and extubation directly from high frequency ventilation could be another option, even though its effectiveness, when compared to switching and subsequent weaning and extubating from conventional ventilation, is yet to be adequately investigated. Some data suggest the use of weaning protocols could reduce the weaning time and duration of mechanical ventilation, but better designed prospective studies are still needed to confirm these preliminary observations. Finally, the implementation of short spontaneous breathing tests in preterm infants has been shown to be beneficial in some centres, favoring an earlier extubation at higher ventilatory settings compared with historical controls, without worsening the extubation failure rate. Further

  1. Special Considerations in Neonatal Mechanical Ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalgleish, Stacey; Kostecky, Linda; Charania, Irina

    2016-12-01

    Care of infants supported with mechanical ventilation is complex, time intensive, and requires constant vigilance by an expertly prepared health care team. Current evidence must guide nursing practice regarding ventilated neonates. This article highlights the importance of common language to establish a shared mental model and enhance clear communication among the interprofessional team. Knowledge regarding the underpinnings of an open lung strategy and the interplay between the pathophysiology and individual infant's response to a specific ventilator strategy is most likely to result in a positive clinical outcome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Do new anesthesia ventilators deliver small tidal volumes accurately during volume-controlled ventilation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachiller, Patricia R; McDonough, Joseph M; Feldman, Jeffrey M

    2008-05-01

    During mechanical ventilation of infants and neonates, small changes in tidal volume may lead to hypo- or hyperventilation, barotrauma, or volutrauma. Partly because breathing circuit compliance and fresh gas flow affect tidal volume delivery by traditional anesthesia ventilators in volume-controlled ventilation (VCV) mode, pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV) using a circle breathing system has become a common approach to minimizing the risk of mechanical ventilation for small patients, although delivered tidal volume is not assured during PCV. A new generation of anesthesia machine ventilators addresses the problems of VCV by adjusting for fresh gas flow and for the compliance of the breathing circuit. In this study, we evaluated the accuracy of new anesthesia ventilators to deliver small tidal volumes. Four anesthesia ventilator systems were evaluated to determine the accuracy of volume delivery to the airway during VCV at tidal volume settings of 100, 200, and 500 mL under different conditions of breathing circuit compliance (fully extended and fully contracted circuits) and lung compliance. A mechanical test lung (adult and infant) was used to simulate lung compliances ranging from 0.0025 to 0.03 L/cm H(2)O. Volumes and pressures were measured using a calibrated screen pneumotachograph and custom software. We tested the Smartvent 7900, Avance, and Aisys anesthesia ventilator systems (GE Healthcare, Madison, WI) and the Apollo anesthesia ventilator (Draeger Medical, Telford, PA). The Smartvent 7900 and Avance ventilators use inspiratory flow sensors to control the volume delivered, whereas the Aisys and Apollo ventilators compensate for the compliance of the circuit. We found that the anesthesia ventilators that use compliance compensation (Aisys and Apollo) accurately delivered both large and small tidal volumes to the airway of the test lung under conditions of normal and low lung compliance during VCV (ranging from 95.5% to 106.2% of the set tidal volume

  3. Casino Self- and Forced Excluders' Gambling Behavior Before and After Exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotter, Roxana; Kräplin, Anja; Bühringer, Gerhard

    2018-06-01

    Casino exclusion programs are intended to prevent or limit gambling-related harm. Although previous research showed that self-exclusion is associated with reduced gambling, it remains unknown whether self- and forced excluded subjects show different patterns of gambling behavior and if exclusion from casino gambling affects all gambling activities. The present study retrospectively investigated (1) the role of voluntariness of exclusion for the first time, and (2) general gambling behavior of excluded individuals before and after exclusion. A total of N = 215 casino excluders (self-excluders: n = 187, forced excluders: n = 28) completed an online survey or a face-to-face interview up to 8 years after enrollment. Self- and forced excluders showed similar rates of abstinence (self-excluders: 19.3%, forced excluders: 28.6%) and reduction (self-excluders: 67.4%, forced excluders: 60.7%), even though forced excluders reported a significantly greater initial gambling intensity compared to self-excluders (e.g., pre-exclusion gambling time; self-excluders: 3.2 days/week, forced excluders: 4.3 days/week). Overall, results indicated that 20.5% of excluders stopped all gambling activities and another 66.5% reduced their gambling. Those who continued gambling significantly reduced this behavior in every segment, except for gambling halls. Findings indicate that self- and forced exclusion are associated with similarly reduced gambling behavior, even in non-excluded segments. However, unchanged gambling in gambling halls emphasizes the importance to implement consistent exclusion programs over all gambling segments.

  4. National review of use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as respiratory support in thoracic surgery excluding lung transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinieri, Philippe; Peillon, Christophe; Bessou, Jean-Paul; Veber, Benoît; Falcoz, Pierre-Emmanuel; Melki, Jean; Baste, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for respiratory support is increasingly used in intensive care units (ICU), but rarely during thoracic surgical procedures outside the transplantation setting. ECMO can be an alternative to cardiopulmonary bypass for major trachea-bronchial surgery and single-lung procedures without in-field ventilation. Our aim was to evaluate the intraoperative use of ECMO as respiratory support in thoracic surgery: benefits, indications and complications. This was a multicentre retrospective study (questionnaire) of use of ECMO as respiratory support during the thoracic surgical procedure. Lung transplantation and lung resection for tumour invading the great vessels and/or the left atrium were excluded, because they concern respiratory and circulatory support. From March 2009 to September 2012, 17 of the 34 centres in France applied ECMO within veno-venous (VV) (n=20) or veno-arterial (VA) (n=16) indications in 36 patients. Ten VA ECMO were performed with peripheral cannulation and 6 with central cannulation; all VV ECMO were achieved through peripheral cannulation. Group 1 (total respiratory support) was composed of 28 patients without mechanical ventilation, involving 23 tracheo-bronchial and 5 single-lung procedures. Group 2 (partial respiratory support) was made up of 5 patients with respiratory insufficiency. Group 3 was made up of 3 patients who underwent thoracic surgery in a setting of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) with preoperative ECMO. Mortality at 30 days in Groups 1, 2 and 3 was 7, 40 and 67%, respectively (P<0.05). In Group 1, ECMO was weaned intraoperatively or within 24 h in 75% of patients. In Group 2, ECMO was weaned in ICU over several days. In Group 1, 2 patients with VA support were converted to VV support for chronic respiratory indications. Bleeding was the major complication with 17% of patients requiring return to theatre for haemostasis. There were two cannulation-related complications (6%). VV or

  5. 21 CFR 1308.26 - Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant... SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Excluded Veterinary Anabolic Steroid Implant Products § 1308.26 Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant products. (a) Products containing an anabolic steroid, that are expressly...

  6. 33 CFR 183.610 - Powered ventilation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Powered ventilation system. 183... (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Ventilation § 183.610 Powered ventilation system... must: (1) Be open to the atmosphere, or (2) Be ventilated by an exhaust blower system. (b) Each exhaust...

  7. 46 CFR 153.310 - Ventilation system type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation system type. 153.310 Section 153.310... Handling Space Ventilation § 153.310 Ventilation system type. A cargo handling space must have a permanent forced ventilation system of the exhaust type. ...

  8. Modeling and Control of Livestock Ventilation Systems and Indoor Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Zhuang; Heiselberg, Per; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2005-01-01

    The hybrid ventilation systems have been widely used for livestock barns to provide optimum indoor climate by controlling the ventilation rate and air flow distribution within the ventilated building structure. The purpose of this paper is to develop models for livestock ventilation systems and i...

  9. Are lung-protective ventilation strategies worth the effort? | Slinger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nonphysiological ventilation in healthy lungs induces acute lung injury (ALI). Protective lung ventilation in patients with ALI improves outcome. Protective lung ventilation in noninjured lungs and in the absence of a primary pulmonary insult may initiate ventilation-induced lung injury (VILI), as evidenced by inflammatory ...

  10. Effects of different rhizosphere ventilation treatment on water and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to explore the effects of different rhizosphere ventilation treatment on water and nutrients absorption of maize. The pot experiment was conducted using three methods: no ventilation, two day ventilation and four day ventilation, under conditions of the different levels of irrigation methods.

  11. Reduction of duration and cost of mechanical ventilation in an intensive care unit by use of a ventilatory management team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, I L; Bari, N; Strosberg, M A; Weinberg, P F; Wacksman, R M; Millstein, B H; Fein, I A

    1991-10-01

    To test the hypothesis that a formal interdisciplinary team approach to managing ICU patients requiring mechanical ventilation enhances ICU efficiency. Retrospective review with cost-effectiveness analysis. A 20-bed medical-surgical ICU in a 450-bed community referral teaching hospital with a critical care fellowship training program. All patients requiring mechanical ventilation in the ICU were included, comparing patients admitted 1 yr before the inception of the ventilatory management team (group 1) with those patients admitted for 1 yr after the inception of the team (group 2). Group 1 included 198 patients with 206 episodes of mechanical ventilation and group 2 included 165 patients with 183 episodes of mechanical ventilation. A team consisting of an ICU attending physician, nurse, and respiratory therapist was formed to conduct rounds regularly and supervise the ventilatory management of ICU patients who were referred to the critical care service. The two study groups were demographically comparable. However, there were significant reductions in resource use in group 2. The number of days on mechanical ventilation decreased (3.9 days per episode of mechanical ventilation [95% confidence interval 0.3 to 7.5 days]), as did days in the ICU (3.3 days per episode of mechanical ventilation [90% confidence interval 0.3 to 6.3 days]), numbers of arterial blood gases (23.2 per episode of mechanical ventilation; p less than .001), and number of indwelling arterial catheters (1 per episode of mechanical ventilation; p less than .001). The estimated cost savings from these reductions was $1,303 per episode of mechanical ventilation. We conclude that a ventilatory management team, or some component thereof, can significantly and safely expedite the process of "weaning" patients from mechanical ventilatory support in the ICU.

  12. SU-E-J-87: Ventilation Weighting Effect On Mean Doses of Both Side Lungs for Patients with Advanced Stage Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu, H; Xia, P; Yu, N

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To study ventilation weighting effect on radiation doses to both side lungs for patients with advanced stage lung cancer. Methods: Fourteen patients with advanced stage lung cancer were included in this retrospective study. Proprietary software was developed to calculate the lung ventilation map based on 4DCT images acquired for radiation therapy. Two phases of inhale (0%) and exhale (50%) were used for the lung ventilation calculations. For each patient, the CT images were resampled to the same dose calculation resolution of 3mmx3mmx3mm. The ventilation distribution was then normalized by the mean value of the ventilation. The ventilation weighted dose was calculated by applying linearly weighted ventilation to the dose of each pixel. The lung contours were automatically delineated from patient CT image with lung window, excluding the tumor and high density tissues. For contralateral and ipsilateral lungs, the mean lung doses from the original plan and ventilation weighted mean lung doses were compared using two tail t-Test. Results: The average of mean dose was 6.1 ±3.8Gy for the contralateral lungs, and 26.2 ± 14.0Gy for the ipsilateral lungs. The average of ventilation weighted dose was 6.3± 3.8Gy for the contralateral lungs and 24.6 ± 13.1Gy for the ipsilateral lungs. The statistics analysis shows the significance of the mean dose increase (p<0.015) for the contralateral lungs and decrease (p<0.005) for the ipsilateral lungs. Conclusion: Ventilation weighted doses were greater than the un-weighted doses for contralateral lungs and smaller for ipsilateral lungs. This Result may be helpful to understand the radiation dosimetric effect on the lung function and provide planning guidance for patients with advance stage lung cancer

  13. Discussion for management of ventilation system in uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xianjie; Ren Jianjun; Hu Penghua

    2014-01-01

    Radon exhaustion and ventilation are surely regarded as key links for safety production and radiation protection in underground uranium mines, and the crucial point to achieve safety production goals lies in timely and accurately adjusting and controlling of ventilation technical measures and ventilation system management with the changing operation conditions of mines. This paper proposes corresponding countermeasures based on the respectively systematical analysis of daily ventilation management, ventilation facilities and structures management, and ventilation system information management in uranium mines. Furthermore, standardized management approaches and suggestions are put forward to realize standardization of uranium mines' ventilation management and radon exhaustion technique. (authors)

  14. Can mechanical ventilation strategies reduce chronic lung disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donn, Steven M; Sinha, Sunil K

    2003-12-01

    Chronic lung disease (CLD) continues to be a significant complication in newborn infants undergoing mechanical ventilation for respiratory failure. Although the aetiology of CLD is multifactorial, specific factors related to mechanical ventilation, including barotrauma, volutrauma and atelectrauma, have been implicated as important aetiologic mechanisms. This article discusses the ways in which these factors might be manipulated by various mechanical ventilatory strategies to reduce ventilator-induced lung injury. These include continuous positive airway pressure, permissive hypercapnia, patient-triggered ventilation, volume-targeted ventilation, proportional assist ventilation, high-frequency ventilation and real-time monitoring.

  15. Using a Ventilation Controller to Optimize Residential Passive Ventilation For Energy and Indoor Air Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, William [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-08-01

    One way to reduce the energy impact of providing residential ventilation is to use passive and hybrid systems. However, these passive and hybrid (sometimes called mixed-mode) systems must still meet chronic and acute health standards for ventilation. This study uses a computer simulation approach to examine the energy and indoor air quality (IAQ) implications of passive and hybrid ventilation systems, in 16 California climate zones. Both uncontrolled and flow controlled passive stacks are assessed. A new hybrid ventilation system is outlined that uses an intelligent ventilation controller to minimise energy use, while ensuring chronic and acute IAQ standards are met. ASHRAE Standard 62.2-2010 – the United States standard for residential ventilation - is used as the chronic standard, and exposure limits for PM2.5, formaldehyde and NO2 are used as the acute standards.The results show that controlled passive ventilation and hybrid ventilation can be used in homes to provide equivalent IAQ to continuous mechanical ventilation, for less use of energy.

  16. Design of Natural and Hybrid Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per

    The effectiveness of natural ventilation, i.e. its ability to ensure indoor air quality and passive cooling in a building, depends greatly on the design process. Mechanical ventilation systems can be designed separately from the design of the building in which they are installed. They can also...... be installed in existing buildings after a few modifications. In contrast, ventilation systems using only natural forces such as wind and thermal buoyancy need to be designed together with the building, since the building itself and its components are the elements that can reduce or increase air movement...... as well as influence the air content (dust, pollution etc.). Architects and engineers need to acquire qualitative and quantitative information about the interactions between building characteristics and natural ventilation in order to design buildings and systems consistent with a passive low...

  17. Modelling of Natural and Hybrid Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per

    The effectiveness of natural ventilation, i.e. its ability to ensure indoor air quality and passive cooling in a building, depends greatly on the design process. Mechanical ventilation systems can be designed separately from the design of the building in which they are installed. They can also...... be installed in existing buildings after a few modifications. In contrast, ventilation systems using only natural forces such as wind and thermal buoyancy need to be designed together with the building, since the building itself and its components are the elements that can reduce or increase air movement...... as well as influence the air content (dust, pollution etc.). Architects and engineers need to acquire qualitative and quantitative information about the interactions between building characteristics and natural ventilation in order to design buildings and systems consistent with a passive low...

  18. Mechanical ventilation strategies for the surgical patient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schultz, Marcus J.; Abreu, Marcelo Gama de; Pelosi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review To summarize clinical evidence for intraoperative ventilation settings, which could protect against postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) in surgical patients with uninjured lungs. Recent findings There is convincing evidence for protection against PPCs by low tidal volumes:

  19. Appointment, qualifications and responsibilities of ventilation officers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The Code provides for the appointment of a ventilation officer when required by the appropriate authority. This guideline offers comment on the appointment, qualifications, training and responsibilities of that person

  20. Solar Preheated Ventilation - Innovative Solar Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gaberson, Howard

    1999-01-01

    .... This innovative technology applies to both new construction or rehabilitation projects. This TDS introduces this low maintenance solar technology for consideration in all future industrial ventilation or HVAC projects...

  1. Concentration Distribution in a Mixing Ventilated Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Pedersen, D.N.; Nielsen, Peter V.

    2001-01-01

    Today there is an increasing focus on the importance of a proper ventilation system to obtain good working conditions in the term of air and thermal quality to ensure high productivity. Different ventilation principles are used, e.g., mixing ventilation and displacement ventilation. In order...... that the air is fully mixed. The objective of this work is to determine the influence of the location of a pollutant, temperature differences and whether the room is furnished or not. It is also investigated if it is sufficient to determine the mean concentration in the room to determine the personal exposure....... Full scale experiments along with a breathing thermal manikin (BTM) have been used. The results show that the location of the sources is of great importance, just as well as temperature differences. Furthermore, the concentration in the breathing zone showed large differences throughout the room....

  2. Ductless personalized ventilation with local air cleaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalewski, Mariusz; Vesely, Michal; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2012-01-01

    An experiment with 28 human subjects was performed to examine effects of using a local air cleaning device combined with ductless personalized ventilation (DPV) on perceived air quality. Experiments were performed in a test room with displacement ventilation. The DPV at one of two desks was equip......An experiment with 28 human subjects was performed to examine effects of using a local air cleaning device combined with ductless personalized ventilation (DPV) on perceived air quality. Experiments were performed in a test room with displacement ventilation. The DPV at one of two desks...... was equipped with an activated carbon filter installed at the air intake, while the DPV at the second desk was without such a filter. The air temperature in the occupied zone (1.1 m above the floor) was 29 °C. The pollution load in the room was simulated by PVC floor covering. The subjects assessed...

  3. Noninvasive ventilation in hypoxemic respiratory failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Dhar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Noninvasive ventilation (NIV refers to positive pressure ventilation delivered through a noninvasive interface (nasal mask, facemask, or nasal plugs etc. Over the past decade its use has become more common as its benefits are increasingly recognized. This review will focus on the evidence supporting the use of NIV in various conditions resulting in acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (AHRF, that is, non-hypercapnic patients having acute respiratory failure in the absence of a cardiac origin or underlying chronic pulmonary disease. Outcomes depend on the patient's diagnosis and clinical characteristics. Patients should be monitored closely for signs of noninvasive ventilation failure and promptly intubated before a crisis develops. The application of noninvasive ventilation by a trained and experienced team, with careful patient selection, should optimize patient outcomes.

  4. Intelligent ventilation in the intensive care unit

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Automated, microprocessor-controlled, closed-loop mechanical ventilation has been used ... Sixty-eight patients (6%) with severe hypoxia and high inspiratory pressures were ... At any breath, the controller compares target and actual data for.

  5. Comfort parameters - Ventilation of a subway wagon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petr, Pavlíček; Ladislav, Tříska

    2017-09-01

    Research and development of a ventilation system is being carried out as a part of project TA04030774 of the Technology Agency of the Czech Republic. Name of the project is "Research and Development of Mass-optimized Components for Rail Vehicles". Problems being solved are development and testing of a new concept for ventilation systems for public transport vehicles. The main improvements should be a reduction of the mass of the whole system, easy installation and reduction of the noise of the ventilation system. This article is focused on the comfort parameters in a subway wagon (measurement and evaluation carried out on a function sample in accordance with the regulations). The input to the project is a ventilator hybrid casing for a subway wagon, which was manufactured and tested during the Ministry of Industry and Trade project TIP FR-TI3/449.

  6. Improving underground ventilation conditions in coal mines

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Meyer, CF

    1993-11-01

    Full Text Available projects could be initiated by miningtek in co-operation with different mines. This report deals with the findings of this project and also deals with the future of research within Miningtek with regard to underground ventilation....

  7. Adaptive Intelligent Ventilation Noise Control, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address the NASA need for quiet on-orbit crew quarters (CQ), Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Adaptive Intelligent Ventilation Noise...

  8. Adaptive Intelligent Ventilation Noise Control, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address NASA needs for quiet crew volumes in a space habitat, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Adaptive Intelligent Ventilation Noise...

  9. Ventilation Guidance for Spray Polyurethane Foam Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Properly designed ventilation can reduce airborne levels of aerosols, mists, and vapors generated during spray application and can help protect SPF applicators, helpers, and others who may be working in adjacent areas.

  10. Perioperative lung protective ventilation in obese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Bustamante, Ana; Hashimoto, Soshi; Serpa Neto, Ary; Moine, Pierre; Vidal Melo, Marcos F; Repine, John E

    2015-05-06

    The perioperative use and relevance of protective ventilation in surgical patients is being increasingly recognized. Obesity poses particular challenges to adequate mechanical ventilation in addition to surgical constraints, primarily by restricted lung mechanics due to excessive adiposity, frequent respiratory comorbidities (i.e. sleep apnea, asthma), and concerns of postoperative respiratory depression and other pulmonary complications. The number of surgical patients with obesity is increasing, and facing these challenges is common in the operating rooms and critical care units worldwide. In this review we summarize the existing literature which supports the following recommendations for the perioperative ventilation in obese patients: (1) the use of protective ventilation with low tidal volumes (approximately 8 mL/kg, calculated based on predicted -not actual- body weight) to avoid volutrauma; (2) a focus on lung recruitment by utilizing PEEP (8-15 cmH2O) in addition to recruitment maneuvers during the intraoperative period, as well as incentivized deep breathing and noninvasive ventilation early in the postoperative period, to avoid atelectasis, hypoxemia and atelectrauma; and (3) a judicious oxygen use (ideally less than 0.8) to avoid hypoxemia but also possible reabsorption atelectasis. Obesity poses an additional challenge for achieving adequate protective ventilation during one-lung ventilation, but different lung isolation techniques have been adequately performed in obese patients by experienced providers. Postoperative efforts should be directed to avoid hypoventilation, atelectasis and hypoxemia. Further studies are needed to better define optimum protective ventilation strategies and analyze their impact on the perioperative outcomes of surgical patients with obesity.

  11. Intraoperative mechanical ventilation: state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Lorenzo; Costantino, Federico; Orefice, Giulia; Chandrapatham, Karthikka; Pelosi, Paolo

    2017-10-01

    Mechanical ventilation is a cornerstone of the intraoperative management of the surgical patient and is still mandatory in several surgical procedures. In the last decades, research focused on preventing postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs), both improving risk stratification through the use of predictive scores and protecting the lung adopting so-called protective ventilation strategies. The aim of this review was to give an up-to-date overview of the currently suggested intraoperative ventilation strategies, along with their pathophysiologic rationale, with a focus on challenging conditions, such as obesity, one-lung ventilation and cardiopulmonary bypass. While anesthesia and mechanical ventilation are becoming increasingly safe practices, the contribution to surgical mortality attributable to postoperative lung injury is not negligible: for these reasons, the prevention of PPCs, including the use of protective mechanical ventilation is mandatory. Mechanical ventilation should be optimized providing an adequate respiratory support while minimizing unwanted negative effects. Due to the high number of surgical procedures performed daily, the impact on patients' health and healthcare costs can be relevant, even when new strategies result in an apparently small improvement of outcome. A protective intraoperative ventilation should include a low tidal volume of 6-8 mL/kg of predicted body weight, plateau pressures ideally below 16 cmH2O, the lowest possible driving pressure, moderate-low PEEP levels except in obese patients, laparoscopy and long surgical procedures that might benefit of a slightly higher PEEP. The work of the anesthesiologist should start with a careful preoperative visit to assess the risk, and a close postoperative monitoring.

  12. Perioperative lung protective ventilation in obese patients

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez-Bustamante, Ana; Hashimoto, Soshi; Serpa Neto, Ary; Moine, Pierre; Vidal Melo, Marcos F; Repine, John E

    2015-01-01

    The perioperative use and relevance of protective ventilation in surgical patients is being increasingly recognized. Obesity poses particular challenges to adequate mechanical ventilation in addition to surgical constraints, primarily by restricted lung mechanics due to excessive adiposity, frequent respiratory comorbidities (i.e. sleep apnea, asthma), and concerns of postoperative respiratory depression and other pulmonary complications. The number of surgical patients with obesity is increa...

  13. Computer codes for ventilation in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulcey, P.

    1987-01-01

    In this paper the authors present some computer codes, developed in the last years, for ventilation and radioprotection. These codes are used for safety analysis in the conception, exploitation and dismantlement of nuclear facilities. The authors present particularly: DACC1 code used for aerosol deposit in sampling circuit of radiation monitors; PIAF code used for modelization of complex ventilation system; CLIMAT 6 code used for optimization of air conditioning system [fr

  14. Sensor-based demand controlled ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Almeida, A.T. [Universidade de Coimbra (Portugal). Dep. Eng. Electrotecnica; Fisk, W.J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-07-01

    In most buildings, occupancy and indoor pollutant emission rates vary with time. With sensor-based demand-controlled ventilation (SBDCV), the rate of ventilation (i.e., rate of outside air supply) also varies with time to compensate for the changes in pollutant generation. In other words, SBDCV involves the application of sensing, feedback and control to modulate ventilation. Compared to ventilation without feedback, SBDCV offers two potential advantages: (1) better control of indoor pollutant concentrations; and (2) lower energy use and peak energy demand. SBDCV has the potential to improve indoor air quality by increasing the rate of ventilation when indoor pollutant generation rates are high and occupants are present. SBDCV can also save energy by decreasing the rate of ventilation when indoor pollutant generation rates are low or occupants are absent. After providing background information on indoor air quality and ventilation, this report provides a relatively comprehensive discussion of SBDCV. Topics covered in the report include basic principles of SBDCV, sensor technologies, technologies for controlling air flow rates, case studies of SBDCV, application of SBDCV to laboratory buildings, and research needs. SBDCV appears to be an increasingly attractive technology option. Based on the review of literature and theoretical considerations, the application of SBDCV has the potential to be cost-effective in applications with the following characteristics: (a) a single or small number of dominant pollutants, so that ventilation sufficient to control the concentration of the dominant pollutants provides effective control of all other pollutants; (b) large buildings or rooms with unpredictable temporally variable occupancy or pollutant emission; and (c) climates with high heating or cooling loads or locations with expensive energy.

  15. Ventilation and filtration of active buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, E.J.

    1975-12-01

    Over the last twenty years considerable practical experience has accumulated on the ventilation of buildings handling radioactive materials. It has been recognised that there is a need to establish a UKAEA code of practice in the light of this experience for the future use of designers and operators in this field. An attempt is made to lay down some of the principles governing the design of ventilation systems and, from the existing background data, to establish some of the basic design criteria. (author)

  16. A historical perspective on ventilator management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, B A

    1994-02-01

    Paralysis via neuromuscular blockade in ICU patients requires mechanical ventilation. This review historically addresses the technological advances and scientific information upon which ventilatory management concepts are based, with special emphasis on the influence such concepts have had on the use of neuromuscular blocking agents. Specific reference is made to the scientific information and technological advances leading to the newer concepts of ventilatory management. Information from > 100 major studies in the peer-reviewed medical literature, along with the author's 25 yrs of clinical experience and academic involvement in acute respiratory care is presented. Nomenclature related to ventilatory management is specifically defined and consistently utilized to present and interpret the data. Pre-1970 ventilatory management is traced from the clinically unacceptable pressure-limited devices to the reliable performance of volume-limited ventilators. The scientific data and rationale that led to the concept of relatively large tidal volume delivery are reviewed in the light of today's concerns regarding alveolar overdistention, control-mode dyssynchrony, and auto-positive end-expiratory pressure. Also presented are the post-1970 scientific rationales for continuous positive airway pressure/positive end-expiratory pressure therapy, avoidance of alveolar hyperxia, and partial ventilatory support techniques (intermittent mandatory ventilation/synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation). The development of pressure-support devices is discussed and the capability of pressure-control techniques is presented. The rationale for more recent concepts of total ventilatory support to avoid ventilator-induced lung injury is presented. The traditional techniques utilizing volume-preset ventilators with relatively large tidal volumes remain valid and desirable for the vast majority of patients requiring mechanical ventilation. Neuromuscular blockade is best avoided in these

  17. Humidification of inspired gases during mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, J L; Park, G R

    2012-04-01

    Humidification of inspired gas is mandatory for all mechanically ventilated patients to prevent secretion retention, tracheal tube blockage and adverse changes occurring to the respiratory tract epithelium. However, the debate over "ideal" humidification continues. Several devices are available that include active and passive heat and moisture exchangers and hot water humidifiers Each have their advantages and disadvantages in mechanically ventilated patients. This review explores each device in turn and defines their role in clinical practice.

  18. Ventilation-perfused studies using SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwijnenburg, A.

    1989-01-01

    A method for the quantitative analysis of ventilation-perfusion SPECT studies is decribed and an effort is made to evaluate its usefullness. The technical details of the emthod are described. In the the transaxial reconstructions of the tomographic studies the contour of the lungs is detected and regional values of lung volume, ventilation, perfusion and ventilation-perfusion ratios are calculated. The method is operator independent. The lung volume calculations from the SPECT studies are validated by comparing them with lung volume measurements using the helium dilution technique. A good correlation (r=0.91) was found between the two volumes. SPECT volume was greater than the volume measured with helium dilution, which was attributed to non-gas-containing structures in the. lungs. The use of ventilation-perfusion ratio SPECT is described to evaluate the effect of ionizing radiation on the lungs in patients treated with mantle field irradiation for Hodgkin's disease. Perfusion changes appear as early as 2 months after the start of irradiation. Ventilation changes appear later and relatively minor. No changes are seen outside the radiation portals. The ventilation-perfusion inequality in pulmonary sarcoidosis is treated. It is suggested that the decrease D LCO in these patients may be partly due to an even distribution of ventilation perfusion ratios. An effort is made to establish the properties of a new tracer used for the assessment of the metabolic function of the pulmonary endothelium. The lung uptake of I-123 IMP mimics the distribution of a perfusion tracer and it is suggested that this tracer may be useful for the early detection of pulmonary vascular damage, even when blood flow is still intact. Some aspects of the use of Kr-81m as a ventilation tracer are discussed as well as the effect of noise on Kr-81m SPECT reconstructions. (author). 146 refs.; 39 figs.; 8 tabs

  19. Probabilistic Analysis Methods for Hybrid Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik; Frier, Christian; Heiselberg, Per

    This paper discusses a general approach for the application of probabilistic analysis methods in the design of ventilation systems. The aims and scope of probabilistic versus deterministic methods are addressed with special emphasis on hybrid ventilation systems. A preliminary application...... of stochastic differential equations is presented comprising a general heat balance for an arbitrary number of loads and zones in a building to determine the thermal behaviour under random conditions....

  20. Healthcare Technology Management (HTM) of mechanical ventilators by clinical engineers

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshioka, Jun; Nakane, Masaki; Kawamae, Kaneyuki

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical ventilator failures expose patients to unacceptable risks, and maintaining mechanical ventilator safety is an important issue. We examined the usefulness of maintaining mechanical ventilators by clinical engineers (CEs) using a specialized calibrator. These evaluations and the ability to make in-house repairs proved useful for obviating the need to rent ventilators which, in turn, might prove faulty themselves. The CEs' involvement in maintaining mechanical ventilators is desirable...

  1. Tracer dating and ocean ventilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiele, G.; Sarmiento, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    The interpretation of transient tracer observations depends on difficult to obtain information on the evolution in time of the tracer boundary conditions and interior distributions. Recent studies have attempted to circumvent this problem by making use of a derived quantity, age, based on the simultaneous distribution of two complementary tracers, such as tritium and its daughter, helium 3. The age is defined with reference to the surface such that the boundary condition takes on a constant value of zero. The authors use a two-dimensional model to explore the circumstances under which such a combination of conservation equations for two complementary tracers can lead to a cancellation of the time derivative terms. An interesting aspect of this approach is that mixing can serve as a source or sink of tracer based age. The authors define an idealized ventilation age tracer that is conservative with respect to mixing, and they explore how its behavior compares with that of the tracer-based ages over a range of advective and diffusive parameters

  2. Ventilation criteria for IDMS facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, D.P.

    1996-01-01

    Both Facility Evaluation Board (FEB) reviews of the Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS) have identified the inconsistency of the current IDMS Process Hazards Review (PHR) versus actual IDMS practice as regards the criteria to contain air borne pollutants that may be present in the Process Room (e.g. benzene and mercury). The PHR states that a 1.0 in. wc pressure differential be maintained between the IDMS Process Room and Building 672-T. In addition, the PHR further specifies that the linear velocity through openings into the Process Room (e.g. open doors) be equal to or greater than 150 fpm. Finally, the PHR recommended that mercury vapor and benzene monitors be installed in the Process Room ventilation exhaust to alert personnel to the presence of vapors of benzene and/or mercury before entering the Process Room. This report summarizes the results of reassessment of these criteria and the specific recommendation for permanent installation of mercury and benzene vapor monitors in the vapor exhaust of the Process Room

  3. Ventilator in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Hiroshi.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To fabricate a compact ventilator by arranging separate pipelines communicating the operating stage range and contaminated range in a building, and arranging cleaning means commonly used for these ranges. Constitution: A pipeline to be connected to the operating stage range is connected via an exhaust fan and a damper to the stack, and a pipeline to be connected to the contaminated range is connected via another exhaust fan and another damper to the above described pipeline. The exhaust sides of both exhaust fans are connected by means of separate pipelines, and two dampers are disposed in the intermediate of the pipeline. A pipeline is led out from the intermediate of the dampers, and connected to the terminal end of the pipeline from the contaminated range via a filter train and a booster fan. Since the exhaust volume of the operating stage range is substantially equal to that of the contaminated range, the installation capacity of the filter train is reduced to half. (Sekiya, K.)

  4. Pretest Predictions for Phase II Ventilation Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yiming Sun

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this calculation is to predict the temperatures of the ventilating air, waste package surface, and concrete pipe walls that will be developed during the Phase II ventilation tests involving various test conditions. The results will be used as inputs to validating numerical approach for modeling continuous ventilation, and be used to support the repository subsurface design. The scope of the calculation is to identify the physical mechanisms and parameters related to thermal response in the Phase II ventilation tests, and describe numerical methods that are used to calculate the effects of continuous ventilation. The calculation is limited to thermal effect only. This engineering work activity is conducted in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for: Subsurface Performance Testing for License Application (LA) for Fiscal Year 2001'' (CRWMS M and O 2000d). This technical work plan (TWP) includes an AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities'', activity evaluation (CRWMS M and O 2000d, Addendum A) that has determined this activity is subject to the YMP quality assurance (QA) program. The calculation is developed in accordance with the AP-3.12Q procedure, ''Calculations''. Additional background information regarding this activity is contained in the ''Development Plan for Ventilation Pretest Predictive Calculation'' (DP) (CRWMS M and O 2000a)

  5. Histochemical alterations in one lung ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Kingsley; Gribbin, Elizabeth; Emanuel, Steven; Orndorff, Rebecca; Walker, Jean; Weese, James; Fallahnejad, Manucher

    2007-01-01

    One lung ventilation is a commonly performed surgical procedure. Although there have been several reports showing that one-lung ventilation can cause pathophysiological alterations such as pulmonary hypoxic vasoconstriction and intrapulmonary shunting, there have been virtually no reports on the effects of one-lung ventilation on lung histology. Yorkshire pigs (11-17 kg) were anesthetized, a tracheotomy performed and a tracheal tube inserted. The chest was opened and one lung ventilation (OLV), was induced by clamping of the right main bronchus. OLV was continued for 60 min before the clamp was removed and two lung ventilation (TLV) started. TLV was continued for 30 to 60 min. Blood and lung biopsies were taken immediately before OLV, 30 min and 60 min of OLV and after restoration of TLV. Histological analyses revealed that the non-ventilated lung was totally collapsed during OLV. On reventilation, there was clear evidence of vascular congestion and alveolar wall thickening at 30 min after TLV. At 60 min of TLV, there was still vascular congestion. Serum nitrite levels (as an index of nitric oxide production) showed steady decline over the course of the experimental period, reaching a significantly low level on reventilation (compared with baseline levels before OLV). Lung MPO activity (marker of neutrophil sequestration) and serum TNFalpha levels were not raised during the entire experimental period. These results suggest that there was lung vascular injury after OLV, which was associated with reduced levels of nitric oxide production and not associated with an inflammatory response.

  6. 3 Level Ventilation: the First Clinical Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Torok

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the issues of artificial ventilation (AV in non-homogenous pathological lung processes (acute lung injury (ALI, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, pneumonia, etc., the authors applied the three-level lung ventilation to a group of 12 patients with non-homogenous lung injury. Three-level ventilation was defined as a type (modification of AV whose basic ventilation level was produced by the modes CMV, PCV or PS (ASB and add-on level, the so-called background ventilation was generated by two levels of PEEP. PEEP (constant and PEEPh (PEEP high with varying frequency and duration of transition between the individual levels of PEEP. Objective: to elucidate whether in cases of considerably non-homogenous gas distribution in acute pathological disorders, three-level ventilation (3LV can correct gas distribution into the so-called slow bronchoalveolar compartments, by decreasing the volume load of the so-called fast compartments and to improve lung gas exchange, by following the principles of safe ventilation. Results. 3LV was applied to 12 patients with severe non-homogenous lung injury/disorder (atypic pneumonia and ARDS/ALI and low-success PCV ventilation after recruitment manoeuvre (PaO2 (kPA /FiO2 = 5—6. There were pronounced positive changes in pulmonary gas exchange within 1—4 hours after initiation of 3LV at a fPCV of 26±4 breaths/min-1 and PEEPh at a fPEEPH of 7±2 breaths/min-1 with a minute ventilation of 12±4 l/min. 3LV reduced a intrapulmonary shunt fraction 50±5 to 30±5%, increased CO2 elimination, with PaCO2 falling to the values below 6±0.3 kPa, and PaO2 to 7.5±1.2 kPa, with FiO2 being decreased to 0.8—0.4. Lung recruitment also improved gas exchange: with PEEP=1.2±0.4 kPa, static tho-racopulmonary compliance (Cst elevated from 0.18±0.02 l/kPa to 0.3±0.02 l/kPa and then to 0.38±0.05 l/kPa. Airways resistance (Raw decreased by more than 30%. Improved lung aeration was also estimated as a manifestation of

  7. Nasal mask ventilation is better than face mask ventilation in edentulous patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Mukul Chandra; Rana, Sandeep; Singh, Arvind Kumar; Vishal, Vindhya; Sikdar, Indranil

    2016-01-01

    Face mask ventilation of the edentulous patient is often difficult as ineffective seating of the standard mask to the face prevents attainment of an adequate air seal. The efficacy of nasal ventilation in edentulous patients has been cited in case reports but has never been investigated. Consecutive edentulous adult patients scheduled for surgery under general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation, during a 17-month period, were prospectively evaluated. After induction of anesthesia and administration of neuromuscular blocker, lungs were ventilated with a standard anatomical face mask of appropriate size, using a volume controlled anesthesia ventilator with tidal volume set at 10 ml/kg. In case of inadequate ventilation, the mask position was adjusted to achieve best-fit. Inspired and expired tidal volumes were measured. Thereafter, the face mask was replaced by a nasal mask and after achieving best-fit, the inspired and expired tidal volumes were recorded. The difference in expired tidal volumes and airway pressures at best-fit with the use of the two masks and number of patients with inadequate ventilation with use of the masks were statistically analyzed. A total of 79 edentulous patients were recruited for the study. The difference in expiratory tidal volumes with the use of the two masks at best-fit was statistically significant (P = 0.0017). Despite the best-fit mask placement, adequacy of ventilation could not be achieved in 24.1% patients during face mask ventilation, and 12.7% patients during nasal mask ventilation and the difference was statistically significant. Nasal mask ventilation is more efficient than standard face mask ventilation in edentulous patients.

  8. Report of the Mechanics Service - Annex 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolic, A.

    2003-01-01

    Service for mechanical components at the RA reactor includes: control and maintenance of utility components, mechanical workshop, hot cells and storage. Control and maintenance of main components covers: reactor core, heavy water system, technical water system, gas system. This service is responsible for the following auxiliary systems: transportation units; spent fuel storage pool; special ventilation system; personal protection appliances; hot cells. Maintenance of the reactor building, ventilation, heating, water supply, sewage, fire protection devices, gas and compressed air systems are included [sr

  9. Report of the Mechanics Service - Annex D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulem, B.

    1998-01-01

    Service for mechanical components at the RA reactor includes: control and maintenance of utility components, mechanical workshop, hot cells and storage. Control and maintenance of main components covers: reactor core, heavy water system, technical water system, gas system. This service is responsible for the following auxiliary systems: transportation units; spent fuel storage pool; special ventilation system; personal protection appliances; hot cells. Maintenance of the reactor building, ventilation, heating, water supply, sewage, fire protection devices, gas and compressed air systems are included [sr

  10. Report of the Mechanics Service - Annex D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulem, B.

    1996-01-01

    Service for mechanical components at the RA reactor includes: control and maintenance of utility components, mechanical workshop, hot cells and storage. Control and maintenance of main components covers: reactor core, heavy water system, technical water system, gas system. This service is responsible for the following auxiliary systems: transportation units; spent fuel storage pool; special ventilation system; personal protection appliances; hot cells. Maintenance of the reactor building, ventilation, heating, water supply, sewage, fire protection devices, gas and compressed air systems are included [sr

  11. Report of the Mechanics Service - Annex D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulem, B.

    1999-01-01

    Service for mechanical components at the RA reactor includes: control and maintenance of utility components, mechanical workshop, hot cells and storage. Control and maintenance of main components covers: reactor core, heavy water system, technical water system, gas system. This service is responsible for the following auxiliary systems: transportation units; spent fuel storage pool; special ventilation system; personal protection appliances; hot cells. Maintenance of the reactor building, ventilation, heating, water supply, sewage, fire protection devices, gas and compressed air systems are included [sr

  12. Report of the Mechanics Service - Annex D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulem, B.

    1993-01-01

    Service for mechanical components at the RA reactor includes: control and maintenance of utility components, mechanical workshop, hot cells and storage. Control and maintenance of main components covers: reactor core, heavy water system, technical water system, gas system. This service is responsible for the following auxiliary systems: transportation units; spent fuel storage pool; special ventilation system; personal protection appliances; hot cells. Maintenance of the reactor building, ventilation, heating, water supply, sewage, fire protection devices, gas and compressed air systems are included [sr

  13. Report of the Mechanics Service - Annex D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulem, B.

    1990-01-01

    Service for mechanical components at the RA reactor includes: control and maintenance of utility components, mechanical workshop, hot cells and storage. Control and maintenance of main components covers: reactor core, heavy water system, technical water system, gas system. This service is responsible for the following auxiliary systems: transportation units; spent fuel storage pool; special ventilation system; personal protection appliances; hot cells. Maintenance of the reactor building, ventilation, heating, water supply, sewage, fire protection devices, gas and compressed air systems are included [sr

  14. Report of the Mechanics Service - Annex D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulem, B.

    1997-01-01

    Service for mechanical components at the RA reactor includes: control and maintenance of utility components, mechanical workshop, hot cells and storage. Control and maintenance of main components covers: reactor core, heavy water system, technical water system, gas system. This service is responsible for the following auxiliary systems: transportation units; spent fuel storage pool; special ventilation system; personal protection appliances; hot cells. Maintenance of the reactor building, ventilation, heating, water supply, sewage, fire protection devices, gas and compressed air systems are included [sr

  15. Report of the Mechanics Service - Annex D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulem, B.

    2000-01-01

    Service for mechanical components at the RA reactor includes: control and maintenance of utility components, mechanical workshop, hot cells and storage. Control and maintenance of main components covers: reactor core, heavy water system, technical water system, gas system. This service is responsible for the following auxiliary systems: transportation units; spent fuel storage pool; special ventilation system; personal protection appliances; hot cells. Maintenance of the reactor building, ventilation, heating, water supply, sewage, fire protection devices, gas and compressed air systems are included [sr

  16. Report of the Mechanics Service - Annex D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulem, B.

    2002-01-01

    Service for mechanical components at the RA reactor includes: control and maintenance of utility components, mechanical workshop, hot cells and storage. Control and maintenance of main components covers: reactor core, heavy water system, technical water system, gas system. This service is responsible for the following auxiliary systems: transportation units; spent fuel storage pool; special ventilation system; personal protection appliances; hot cells. Maintenance of the reactor building, ventilation, heating, water supply, sewage, fire protection devices, gas and compressed air systems are included [sr

  17. Report of the Mechanics Service - Annex D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulem, B.

    1986-01-01

    Service for mechanical components at the RA reactor includes: control and maintenance of utility components, mechanical workshop, hot cells and storage. Control and maintenance of main components covers: reactor core, heavy water system, technical water system, gas system. This service is responsible for the following auxiliary systems: transportation units; spent fuel storage pool; special ventilation system; personal protection appliances; hot cells. Maintenance of the reactor building, ventilation, heating, water supply, sewage, fire protection devices, gas and compressed air systems are included [sr

  18. British Thoracic Society Quality Standards for acute non-invasive ventilation in adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Michael; Allen, Martin; Bentley, Andrew; Bourke, Stephen C; Creagh-Brown, Ben; D’Oliveiro, Rachel; Glossop, Alastair; Gray, Alasdair; Jacobs, Phillip; Mahadeva, Ravi; Moses, Rachael; Setchfield, Ian

    2018-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of the quality standards document is to provide healthcare professionals, commissioners, service providers and patients with a guide to standards of care that should be met for the provision of acute non-invasive ventilation in adults together with measurable markers of good practice. Methods Development of British Thoracic Society (BTS) Quality Standards follows the BTS process of quality standard production based on the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence process manual for the development of quality standards. Results 6 quality statements have been developed, each describing a standard of care for the provision of acute non-invasive ventilation in the UK, together with measurable markers of good practice. Conclusion BTS Quality Standards for acute non-invasive ventilation in adults form a key part of the range of supporting materials that the Society produces to assist in the dissemination and implementation of guideline’s recommendations. PMID:29636979

  19. Recommendations for mechanical ventilation of critically ill children from the Paediatric Mechanical Ventilation Consensus Conference (PEMVECC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneyber, Martin C J; de Luca, Daniele; Calderini, Edoardo; Jarreau, Pierre-Henri; Javouhey, Etienne; Lopez-Herce, Jesus; Hammer, Jürg; Macrae, Duncan; Markhorst, Dick G; Medina, Alberto; Pons-Odena, Marti; Racca, Fabrizio; Wolf, Gerhard; Biban, Paolo; Brierley, Joe; Rimensberger, Peter C

    2017-12-01

    Much of the common practice in paediatric mechanical ventilation is based on personal experiences and what paediatric critical care practitioners have adopted from adult and neonatal experience. This presents a barrier to planning and interpretation of clinical trials on the use of specific and targeted interventions. We aim to establish a European consensus guideline on mechanical ventilation of critically children. The European Society for Paediatric and Neonatal Intensive Care initiated a consensus conference of international European experts in paediatric mechanical ventilation to provide recommendations using the Research and Development/University of California, Los Angeles, appropriateness method. An electronic literature search in PubMed and EMBASE was performed using a combination of medical subject heading terms and text words related to mechanical ventilation and disease-specific terms. The Paediatric Mechanical Ventilation Consensus Conference (PEMVECC) consisted of a panel of 15 experts who developed and voted on 152 recommendations related to the following topics: (1) general recommendations, (2) monitoring, (3) targets of oxygenation and ventilation, (4) supportive measures, (5) weaning and extubation readiness, (6) normal lungs, (7) obstructive diseases, (8) restrictive diseases, (9) mixed diseases, (10) chronically ventilated patients, (11) cardiac patients and (12) lung hypoplasia syndromes. There were 142 (93.4%) recommendations with "strong agreement". The final iteration of the recommendations had none with equipoise or disagreement. These recommendations should help to harmonise the approach to paediatric mechanical ventilation and can be proposed as a standard-of-care applicable in daily clinical practice and clinical research.

  20. Characteristics of rain penetration through a gravity ventilator used for natural ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taehyeung; Lee, Dong Ho; Ahn, Kwangseog; Ha, Hyunchul; Park, Heechang; Piao, Cheng Xu; Li, Xiaoyu; Seo, Jeoungyoon

    2008-01-01

    Gravity ventilators rely simply on air buoyancy to extract air and are widely used to exhaust air contaminants and heat from workplaces using minimal energy. They are designed to maximize the exhaust flow rate, but the rain penetration sometimes causes malfunctioning. In this study, the characteristics of rain penetration through a ventilator were examined as a preliminary study to develop a ventilator with the maximum exhaust capacity while minimizing rain penetration. A model ventilator was built and exposed to artificial rain and wind. The paths, intensities and amounts of penetration through the ventilator were observed and measured in qualitative and quantitative fashions. In the first phase, the pathways and intensities of rain penetration were visually observed. In the second phase, the amounts of rain penetration were quantitatively measured under the different configurations of ventilator components that were installed based on the information obtained in the first-phase experiment. The effects of wind speed, grill direction, rain drainage width, outer wall height, neck height and leaning angle of the outer wall from the vertical position were analyzed. Wind speed significantly affected rain penetration. Under the low crosswind conditions, the rain penetration intensities were under the limit of detection. Under the high crosswind conditions, grill direction and neck height were the most significant factors in reducing rain penetration. The installation of rain drainage was also important in reducing rain penetration. The experimental results suggest that, with proper configurations of its components, a gravity ventilator can be used for natural ventilation without significant rain penetration problems.

  1. Changes in lung volume and ventilation during surfactant treatment in ventilated preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miedema, Martijn; de Jongh, Frans H.; Frerichs, Inez; van Veenendaal, Mariëtte B.; van Kaam, Anton H.

    2011-01-01

    The immediate and regional effects of exogenous surfactant in open lung high-frequency oscillatory ventilated (HFOV) preterm infants are unknown. To assess regional changes in lung volume, mechanics, and ventilation during and after surfactant administration in HFOV preterm infants with respiratory

  2. Analysis on ventilation pressure of fire area in longitudinal ventilation of underground tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiaxin; Li, Yanfeng; Feng, Xiao; Li, Junmei

    2018-03-01

    In order to solve the problem of ventilation pressure loss in the fire area under the fire condition, the wind pressure loss model of the fire area is established based on the thermodynamic equilibrium relation. The semi-empirical calculation formula is obtained by using the model experiment and CFD simulation. The validity of the formula is verified. The results show that the ventilation pressure loss in the fire zone is proportional to the convective heat release rate at the critical velocity, which is inversely proportional to the upstream ventilation velocity and the tunnel cross-sectional area. The proposed formula is consistent with the law of the tunnel fire test fitting formula that results are close, in contrast, the advantage lies in a clear theoretical basis and ventilation velocity values. The resistance of road tunnel ventilation system is calculated accurately and reliably, and then an effective emergency ventilation operation program is developed. It is necessary to consider the fire zone ventilation pressure loss. The proposed ventilation pressure loss formula can be used for design calculation after thorough verification.

  3. Partial liquid ventilation improves lung function in ventilation-induced lung injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.F. Vazquez de Anda; R.A. Lachmann; S.J.C. Verbrugge (Serge); D.A.M.P.J. Gommers (Diederik); J.J. Haitsma (Jack); B.F. Lachmann (Burkhard)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractDisturbances in lung function and lung mechanics are present after ventilation with high peak inspiratory pressures (PIP) and low levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). Therefore, the authors investigated whether partial liquid ventilation can re-establish

  4. Accuracy of tidal volume delivered by home mechanical ventilation during mouthpiece ventilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigent, Helene; Falaize, Line; Leroux, Karl; Santos, Dante; Vaugier, Isabelle; Orlikowski, David; Lofaso, Frederic

    2016-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate efficacy and reliability of currently available ventilators for mouthpiece ventilation (MPV). Five life-support home ventilators were assessed in a bench test using different settings simulating the specificities of MPV, such as intermittent circuit disconnection and presence of continuous leaks. The intermittent disconnection of the circuit caused relevant swings in the delivered tidal volume (VT), showing a VT overshoot during the disconnection periods and a VT decrease when the interface was reconnected to the test lung. The five ventilators showed substantial differences in the number of respiratory cycles necessary to reach a stable VT in the volume-controlled setting, ranging from 1.3 ± 0.6 to 7.3 ± 1.2 cycles. These differences were less accentuated in the volume-assisted setting (MPV-dedicated mode, when available). Our data show large differences in the capacity of the different ventilators to deal with the rapidly changing respiratory load features that characterize MPV, which can be further accentuated according to the used ventilator setting. The dedicated MPV modes allow improvement in the performance of ventilators only in some defined situations. This has practical consequences for the choice of the ventilator to be used for MPV in a specific patient. PMID:27146811

  5. Hydrostatic Hyperbaric Chamber Ventilation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarguisingh, Miriam J.

    2012-01-01

    The hydrostatic hyperbaric chamber (HHC) represents the merger of several technologies in development for NASA aerospace applications, harnessed to directly benefit global health. NASA has significant experience developing composite hyperbaric chambers for a variety of applications. NASA also has researched the application of water-filled vessels to increase tolerance of acceleration forces. The combination of these two applications has resulted in the hydrostatic chamber, which has been conceived as a safe, affordable means of making hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) available in the developing world for the treatment of a variety of medical conditions. Specifically, HBOT is highly-desired as a possibly curative treatment for Buruli Ulcer, an infectious condition that afflicts children in sub-Saharan Africa. HBOT is simply too expensive and too dangerous to implement in the developing world using standard equipment. The HHC technology changes the paradigm. The HHC differs from standard hyperbaric chambers in that the majority of its volume is filled with water which is pressurized by oxygen being supplied in the portion of the chamber containing the patient s head. This greatly reduces the amount of oxygen required to sustain a hyperbaric atmosphere, thereby making the system more safe and economical to operate. An effort was taken to develop an HHC system to apply HBOT to children that is simple and robust enough to support transport, assembly, maintenance and operation in developing countries. This paper details the concept for an HHC ventilation and pressurization system to provide controlled pressurization and adequate washout of carbon dioxide while the subject is enclosed in the confined space during the administration of the medical treatment. The concept took into consideration operational complexity, safety to the patient and operating personnel, and physiological considerations. The simple schematic, comprised of easily acquired commercial hardware

  6. Fires in large scale ventilation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, W.S.; Martin, R.A.; White, B.W.; Nichols, B.D.; Smith, P.R.; Leslie, I.H.; Fenton, D.L.; Gunaji, M.V.; Blythe, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper summarizes the experience gained simulating fires in large scale ventilation systems patterned after ventilation systems found in nuclear fuel cycle facilities. The series of experiments discussed included: (1) combustion aerosol loading of 0.61x0.61 m HEPA filters with the combustion products of two organic fuels, polystyrene and polymethylemethacrylate; (2) gas dynamic and heat transport through a large scale ventilation system consisting of a 0.61x0.61 m duct 90 m in length, with dampers, HEPA filters, blowers, etc.; (3) gas dynamic and simultaneous transport of heat and solid particulate (consisting of glass beads with a mean aerodynamic diameter of 10μ) through the large scale ventilation system; and (4) the transport of heat and soot, generated by kerosene pool fires, through the large scale ventilation system. The FIRAC computer code, designed to predict fire-induced transients in nuclear fuel cycle facility ventilation systems, was used to predict the results of experiments (2) through (4). In general, the results of the predictions were satisfactory. The code predictions for the gas dynamics, heat transport, and particulate transport and deposition were within 10% of the experimentally measured values. However, the code was less successful in predicting the amount of soot generation from kerosene pool fires, probably due to the fire module of the code being a one-dimensional zone model. The experiments revealed a complicated three-dimensional combustion pattern within the fire room of the ventilation system. Further refinement of the fire module within FIRAC is needed. (orig.)

  7. Ventilation practices in subarachnoid hemorrhage: a cohort study exploring the use of lung protective ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marhong, Jonathan D; Ferguson, Niall D; Singh, Jeffrey M

    2014-10-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is common following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), but the influence of mechanical ventilator settings on its development is unclear. We sought to determine adherence to lung protective thresholds in ventilated patients with SAH and describe the association between ventilator settings and subsequent development of ARDS. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of consecutive patients receiving mechanical ventilation within 72 h of SAH at a single academic center. Ventilator settings and blood gas data were collected twice daily for the first 7 days of ventilation along with ICU and hospital outcomes. Lung protective ventilation was defined as follows: tidal volume ≤8 mL/kg of predicted body weight, positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) ≥5 cm H(2)O, and peak or plateau pressure ≤30 cm H(2)O. The development of ARDS was ascertained retrospectively by PaO(2)/FiO(2) ≤300 with new bilateral lung opacities on chest X-ray within one day of hypoxemia. We identified 62 patients who underwent early mechanical ventilation following SAH. PS and Continuous Positive Airway Pressure were common ventilator modes with a median tidal volume of 7.8 mL/kg [interquartile range 6.8-8.8], median peak pressure of 14 cm H(2)O [IQR 12-17], and median PEEP of 5 cm H(2)O [IQR 5-6]. Adherence to tidal volumes ≤8 mL/kg was seen in 64 % of all observations and peak pressures protective criteria were seen in 58 % of all observations. Thirty-one patients (50 %) were determined to have ARDS. ARDS patients were more frequently ventilated with a peak pressure >30 cm H(2)O (11.3 % of ARDS ventilation days vs. 0 % of non-ARDS ventilation days; p mechanical ventilation frequently breathe spontaneously, generating tidal volumes above usual protective thresholds regardless of meeting ARDS criteria. In patients with SAH, the presence of an additional ARDS risk factor should prompt close screening for the development of ARDS and

  8. Computer program for sizing residential energy recovery ventilator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koontz, M.D.; Lee, S.M.; Spears, J.W.; Kesselring, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    Energy recovery ventilators offer the prospect of tighter control over residential ventilation rates than manual methods, such as opening windows, with a lesser energy penalty. However, the appropriate size of such a ventilator is not readily apparent in most situations. Sizing of energy recovery ventilation software was developed to calculate the size of ventilator necessary to satisfy ASHRAE Standard 62-1989, Ventilation for Acceptable Air Quality, or a user-specified air exchange rate. Inputs to the software include house location, structural characteristics, house operations and energy costs, ventilation characteristics, and HVAC system COP/efficiency. Based on these inputs, the program estimates the existing air exchange rate for the house, the ventilation rate required to meet the ASHRAE standard or user-specified air exchange rate, the size of the ventilator needed to meet the requirement, and the expected changes in indoor air quality and energy consumption. In this paper an illustrative application of the software is provided

  9. Engineering task plan for tank farm ventilation strategy document preparation and maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanderZanden, M.D.

    1994-01-01

    Active and passive systems provide ventilation for single shell tanks (SST), double shell tanks (DST), and doubly contained receiver tanks (DCRT). The systems perform or contribute to one or more of the following functions: maintain structural integrity (prevent overpressurization), confinement, cooling, vapor and gas removal, and leak detection. For certain tanks, ventilation also removes particles, in addition to vapors, to permit visual observation of the tank inner walls and waste surface. The function(s) performed are dependent on tank construction, watchlist classification, and tank contents. The function(s) should be maintained to support the TWRS mission. The tank farm mission is expected to extend to 2028, based on Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) milestone, M-50-00, for completion of waste pretreatment. Many systems are currently beyond service life expectations and continued operation will result in decreased reliability and increased maintenance. Therefore, the systems must be replaced or upgraded to ensure adequate reliability. Ventilation system upgrades are included in a capital Project W-314, Tank Farm Restoration and Safe Operations. The ventilation upgrades are expected to be completed by June 2002. The new ventilation systems will satisfy the required function(s) of the tanks and/or tank farms. However, interim component upgrades may be required to guarantee reliability of systems until the capital project is completed. Some upgrades originally identified in the project might more suitably be provided with non-project resources

  10. Potential risk for bacterial contamination in conventional reused ventilator systems and disposable closed ventilator-suction systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ya-Chi; Lin, Hui-Ling; Liao, Fang-Chun; Wang, Sing-Siang; Chang, Hsiu-Chu; Hsu, Hung-Fu; Chen, Sue-Hsien; Wan, Gwo-Hwa

    2018-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the difference in bacterial contamination between conventional reused ventilator systems and disposable closed ventilator-suction systems. The aim of this study was to investigate the bacterial contamination rates of the reused and disposable ventilator systems, and the association between system disconnection and bacterial contamination of ventilator systems. The enrolled intubated and mechanically ventilated patients used a conventional reused ventilator system and a disposable closed ventilator-suction system, respectively, for a week; specimens were then collected from the ventilator circuit systems to evaluate human and environmental bacterial contamination. The sputum specimens from patients were also analyzed in this study. The detection rate of bacteria in the conventional reused ventilator system was substantially higher than that in the disposable ventilator system. The inspiratory and expiratory limbs of the disposable closed ventilator-suction system had higher bacterial concentrations than the conventional reused ventilator system. The bacterial concentration in the heated humidifier of the reused ventilator system was significantly higher than that in the disposable ventilator system. Positive associations existed among the bacterial concentrations at different locations in the reused and disposable ventilator systems, respectively. The predominant bacteria identified in the reused and disposable ventilator systems included Acinetobacter spp., Bacillus cereus, Elizabethkingia spp., Pseudomonas spp., and Stenotrophomonas (Xan) maltophilia. Both the reused and disposable ventilator systems had high bacterial contamination rates after one week of use. Disconnection of the ventilator systems should be avoided during system operation to decrease the risks of environmental pollution and human exposure, especially for the disposable ventilator system. ClinicalTrials.gov PRS / NCT03359148.

  11. Detection of early subclinical lung disease in children with cystic fibrosis by lung ventilation imaging with hyperpolarised gas MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Helen; Horsley, Alex; Taylor, Chris J; Smith, Laurie; Hughes, David; Horn, Felix C; Swift, Andrew J; Parra-Robles, Juan; Hughes, Paul J; Norquay, Graham; Stewart, Neil J; Collier, Guilhem J; Teare, Dawn; Cunningham, Steve; Aldag, Ina; Wild, Jim M

    2017-08-01

    Hyperpolarised 3 He ventilation-MRI, anatomical lung MRI, lung clearance index (LCI), low-dose CT and spirometry were performed on 19 children (6-16 years) with clinically stable mild cystic fibrosis (CF) (FEV 1 >-1.96), and 10 controls. All controls had normal spirometry, MRI and LCI. Ventilation-MRI was the most sensitive method of detecting abnormalities, present in 89% of patients with CF, compared with CT abnormalities in 68%, LCI 47% and conventional MRI 22%. Ventilation defects were present in the absence of CT abnormalities and in patients with normal physiology, including LCI. Ventilation-MRI is thus feasible in young children, highly sensitive and provides additional information about lung structure-function relationships. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  12. A Porcine Model for Initial Surge Mechanical Ventilator Assessment and Evaluation of Two Limited Function Ventilators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Robert P; Hotchkin, David L; Lamm, Wayne JE; Hinkson, Carl; Pierson, David J; Glenny, Robb W; Rubinson, Lewis

    2013-01-01

    Objective To adapt an animal model of acute lung injury for use as a standard protocol for a screening, initial evaluation of limited function, or “surge,” ventilators for use in mass casualty scenarios. Design Prospective, experimental animal study. Setting University research laboratory. Subjects 12 adult pigs. Interventions 12 spontaneously breathing pigs (6 in each group) were subjected to acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) via pulmonary artery infusion of oleic acid. Following development of respiratory failure, animals were mechanically ventilated with a limited function ventilator (Simplified Automatic Ventilator [SAVe] I or II; Automedx) for one hour or until the ventilator could not support the animal. The limited function ventilator was then exchanged for a full function ventilator (Servo 900C; Siemens). Measurements and Main Results Reliable and reproducible levels of ALI/ARDS were induced. The SAVe I was unable to adequately oxygenate 5 animals, with PaO2 (52.0 ± 11.1 torr) compared to the Servo (106.0 ± 25.6 torr; p=0.002). The SAVe II was able to oxygenate and ventilate all 6 animals for one hour with no difference in PaO2 (141.8 ± 169.3 torr) compared to the Servo (158.3 ± 167.7 torr). Conclusions We describe a novel in vivo model of ALI/ARDS that can be used to initially screen limited function ventilators considered for mass respiratory failure stockpiles, and is intended to be combined with additional studies to defintively assess appropriateness for mass respiratory failure. Specifically, during this study we demonstrate that the SAVe I ventilator is unable to provide sufficient gas exchange, while the SAVe II, with several more functions, was able to support the same level of hypoxemic respiratory failure secondary to ALI/ARDS for one hour. PMID:21187747

  13. [A comparison of leak compensation in six acute care ventilators during non-invasive ventilation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, X S; Wang, Y; Wang, Z T; Yan, P; Zhang, X G; Zhao, S F; Xie, F; Gu, H J; Xie, L X

    2017-02-12

    Objective: To compare the ability of leak compensation in 6 medical ventilators during non-invasive ventilation. Methods: Six medical ventilators were selected, including 3 non-invasive ventilators (V60, Flexo and Stellar150), and 3 invasive ventilators(Avea, Servo I and BellaVist). Using a lung simulator, the ability of leak compensation was evaluated during triggering and cycling in 2 respiratory mechanics conditions (high airway resistance condition and high elastance resistance condition), and each condition was performed under 2 PEEP levels (4, and 8 cmH(2)O, 1 mmHg=0.098 kPa) at 4 air leak level conditions (L0: 2-3 L/min, L1: 8-10 L/min, L2: 22-27 L/min, L3: 35-40 L/min). Results: In the high elastance resistance condition (L2, L3)with different leak levels, the number of auto-triggering and miss-triggering of the non-invasive ventilator Flexo was significantly less than those of the others (L2: 1, 1; L3: 1.67, 1.33, P ventilators ( P ventilators (1, 0.67, 0, P ventilators in both high airway resistance and high elastance resistance conditions with L0 and L1 leak levels and PEEP levels [ARDS, PEEP=4: (109.8±1.8) ms, (112.0±0.6) ms; ARDS, PEEP=8: (103.1±0.7) ms, (109.7±0.7) ms; COPD, PEEP=4: (207.3±1.1) ms, (220.8±1.1) ms; COPD, PEEP=8: (195.6±6.7) ms, (200.0±1.2) ms , P ventilators could be synchronized, among which V60, Stellar150 and Flexo presented a good performance features in specific conditions.

  14. Characterizing the chaotic nature of ocean ventilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGilchrist, Graeme A.; Marshall, David P.; Johnson, Helen L.; Lique, Camille; Thomas, Matthew

    2017-09-01

    Ventilation of the upper ocean plays an important role in climate variability on interannual to decadal timescales by influencing the exchange of heat and carbon dioxide between the atmosphere and ocean. The turbulent nature of ocean circulation, manifest in a vigorous mesoscale eddy field, means that pathways of ventilation, once thought to be quasi-laminar, are in fact highly chaotic. We characterize the chaotic nature of ventilation pathways according to a nondimensional "filamentation number," which estimates the reduction in filament width of a ventilated fluid parcel due to mesoscale strain. In the subtropical North Atlantic of an eddy-permitting ocean model, the filamentation number is large everywhere across three upper ocean density surfaces—implying highly chaotic ventilation pathways—and increases with depth. By mapping surface ocean properties onto these density surfaces, we directly resolve the highly filamented structure and confirm that the filamentation number captures its spatial variability. These results have implications for the spreading of atmospherically-derived tracers into the ocean interior.

  15. Protective mechanical ventilation, why use it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiberlich, Emerson; Santana, Jonas Alves; Chaves, Renata de Andrade; Seiberlich, Raquel Carvalho

    2011-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation (MV) strategies have been modified over the last decades with a tendency for increasingly lower tidal volumes (VT). However, in patients without acute lung injury (ALI) or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) the use of high VTs is still very common. Retrospective studies suggest that this practice can be related to mechanical ventilation-associated ALI. The objective of this review is to search for evidence to guide protective MV in patients with healthy lungs and to suggest strategies to properly ventilate lungs with ALI/ARDS. A review based on the main articles that focus on the use of strategies of mechanical ventilation was performed. Consistent studies to determine which would be the best way to ventilate a patient with healthy lungs are lacking. Expert recommendations and current evidence presented in this article indicate that the use of a VT lower than 10 mL.kg(-1), associated with positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) ≥ 5 cmH(2)O without exceeding a pressure plateau of 15 to 20 cmH(2)O could minimize alveolar stretching at the end of inspiration and avoid possible inflammation or alveolar collapse. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. Design Feature 7: Continuous Preclosure Ventilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A.T. Watkins

    1999-01-01

    This design feature (DF) is intended to evaluate the effects of continuous ventilation in the emplacement drifts during preclosure and how the effects, if any, compare to the Viability Assessment (VA) reference design for postclosure long term performance. This DF will be evaluated against a set of criteria provided by the License Application Design Selection (LADS) group. The VA reference design included a continuous ventilation airflow quantity of 0.1 m 3 /s in the emplacement drifts in the design of the repository subsurface facilities. The effects of this continuous ventilation during the preclosure was considered to have a negligible effect on postclosure performance and therefore is not included during postclosure in the assessment of the long term performance. This DF discusses the effects of continuous ventilation on the emplacement drift environment and surrounding rock conditions during preclosure for three increased airflow quantities. The three cases of continuous ventilation systems are: System A, 1.0 m 3 /s (Section 8), System B, 5.0 m 3 /s (Section 9), and System C, 10.0 m 3 /s (Section 10) in each emplacement drift split. An emplacement drift split is half total length of emplacement drift going from the east or west main to the exhaust main. The difference in each system is the quantity of airflow in the emplacement drifts

  17. Low resource ventilation unit; Ressourcebesparende ventilationsenhed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drivsholm, C.

    2012-03-15

    In the project a resource-saving ventilation device was developed which is based on the use of a regenerator and a reversible air flow. The regenerator is placed in the building envelope, and the concept works in the way that the heat in the air during ventilation is stored in the regenerator and brought back into the building by a reversible air change. The heated air is blown from inside the building out through the regenerator. In this way the regenerator accumulates the heat in the air. Over a period of 30-120 seconds, the regenerator capacity is utilized. When the regenerator cannot be further heated, the air flow is reversed and there is now blown cold air through the regenerator. Thereby the heat from the regenerator is released to the cold fresh air. Thus, the fresh air brings heat back into the building, whereby the air is replaced with a limited heat loss. Ventilation with a regenerator is described as micro-ventilation. The developed micro-ventilation unit was tested by the Danish Technological Institute. The test results shows that the unit performs according to expectations: 1) The heat recovery is 85%; 2) The flow through the unit is 80m3 per hour in a 5 section unit; 3) The noise level is 30 db(A) in a representative room; 4) The energy consumption is <300 J/m3. The unit is introduced into the market, and the first plants have been sold. (LN)

  18. Optimized mine ventilation on demand (OMVOD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provided an overview of the Optimized Mine Ventilation on Demand (OMVOD) system that is being installed at Xstrata Nickel Rim South Project and at Vale Inco's Totten Mine in Sudbury. The OMVOD system is designed to dynamically monitor and control air quality and quantity in real time and dilute and remove hazardous substances including diesel particulate matter (DPM), carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrous oxide (NO 2 ). It is also designed to control the thermal environment and provide ventilation for humans as well as mobile equipment engine combustion according to regulatory standards. The paper highlighted the OMVOD system optimization of energy, air quality measurement and control and production management of the mines through real time dynamic automation. Topics of discussion included real-time tracking and monitoring of diesel equipment; real-time tracking of underground miners; real-time evaluation of mine ventilation networks; and real-time control and optimization of ventilation equipment. ABB and Simsmart Technologies have joined forces to provide underground mining customers with a ventilation optimization solution. Simsmart's OMVOD provides proven real time/dynamic automation technology to significantly reduce energy costs, provide health and safety benefits as well as major capital cost savings while realizing an increase in production.

  19. Ventilation system for 99Mo production apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumo, Mishiroku; Okane, Shougo; Sorita, Takami; Aoyama, Saburou

    1978-04-01

    In production of 20 Ci 99 Mo from 235 U fission, about 120 Ci of radioiodine ( 131 I, 132 I, and 133 I) is involved. To remove airborne radioiodine from the exhaust air from production apparatus and minimize radioiodine release to the atmosphere, the ventilation system is equipped with 2 units of Model-FD charcoal filter (KI 3 -Impregnated charcoal 2 inch thick of Barnebey-Cheney Co.). From September 1976 to December 1977, 21 runs of 99 Mo production involving airborne radioiodine were carried out. The ventilation system was operated continuously for the whole 15 months period; variation in removal efficiency of airborne radioiodine from the exhaust air stream was observed. In the runs valuable experiences were gained in operation and maintenance of the ventilation system including activated charcoal filter and health-physics management of such facility. Following are the results: (1) Airborne radioiodine from 99 Mo production apparatus is reduced to 10 -3 % of the original quantity. (2) When the ventilation system is operated at a maximum air flow rate through the filter, the average efficiency during 15 months is over 98%. (3) Airborne radioiodine released from 99 Mo production apparatus to the ventilation system is less than 5% particulate iodine and alkyl iodines and more than 95% inorganic iodine. (4) Airborne radioiodine released from the stack is less than 28 μCi/run, which is below the limit in regulations on Radioisotope Production Laboratory. (auth.)

  20. Underground ventilation remote monitoring and control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strever, M.T.; Wallace, K.G. Jr.; McDaniel, K.H.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the design and installation of an underground ventilation remote monitoring and control system at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. This facility is designed to demonstrate safe underground disposal of U.S. defense generated transuranic nuclear waste. To improve the operability of the ventilation system, an underground remote monitoring and control system was designed and installed. The system consists of 15 air velocity sensors and 8 differential pressure sensors strategically located throughout the underground facility providing real-time data regarding the status of the ventilation system. In addition, a control system was installed on the main underground air regulators. The regulator control system gives indication of the regulator position and can be controlled either locally or remotely. The sensor output is displayed locally and at a central surface location through the site-wide Central Monitoring System (CMS). The CMS operator can review all sensor data and can remotely operate the main underground regulators. Furthermore, the Virtual Address Extension (VAX) network allows the ventilation engineer to retrieve real-time ventilation data on his personal computer located in his workstation. This paper describes the types of sensors selected, the installation of the instrumentation, and the initial operation of the remote monitoring system

  1. Computational fluid dynamics in ventilation: Practical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, J. R.

    The potential of computation fluid dynamics (CFD) for conceiving ventilation systems is shown through the simulation of five practical cases. The following examples are considered: capture of pollutants on a surface treating tank equipped with a unilateral suction slot in the presence of a disturbing air draft opposed to suction; dispersion of solid aerosols inside fume cupboards; performances comparison of two general ventilation systems in a silkscreen printing workshop; ventilation of a large open painting area; and oil fog removal inside a mechanical engineering workshop. Whereas the two first problems are analyzed through two dimensional numerical simulations, the three other cases require three dimensional modeling. For the surface treating tank case, numerical results are compared to laboratory experiment data. All simulations are carried out using EOL, a CFD software specially devised to deal with air quality problems in industrial ventilated premises. It contains many analysis tools to interpret the results in terms familiar to the industrial hygienist. Much experimental work has been engaged to validate the predictions of EOL for ventilation flows.

  2. Tunnel Ventilation Control Using Reinforcement Learning Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Baeksuk; Kim, Dongnam; Hong, Daehie; Park, Jooyoung; Chung, Jin Taek; Kim, Tae-Hyung

    The main purpose of tunnel ventilation system is to maintain CO pollutant concentration and VI (visibility index) under an adequate level to provide drivers with comfortable and safe driving environment. Moreover, it is necessary to minimize power consumption used to operate ventilation system. To achieve the objectives, the control algorithm used in this research is reinforcement learning (RL) method. RL is a goal-directed learning of a mapping from situations to actions without relying on exemplary supervision or complete models of the environment. The goal of RL is to maximize a reward which is an evaluative feedback from the environment. In the process of constructing the reward of the tunnel ventilation system, two objectives listed above are included, that is, maintaining an adequate level of pollutants and minimizing power consumption. RL algorithm based on actor-critic architecture and gradient-following algorithm is adopted to the tunnel ventilation system. The simulations results performed with real data collected from existing tunnel ventilation system and real experimental verification are provided in this paper. It is confirmed that with the suggested controller, the pollutant level inside the tunnel was well maintained under allowable limit and the performance of energy consumption was improved compared to conventional control scheme.

  3. Control of Airborne Infectious Diseases in Ventilated Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    2009-01-01

    We protect ourselves from airborne cross-infection in the indoor environment by supplying fresh air to a room by natural or mechanical ventilation. The air is distributed in the room according to different principles: mixing ventilation, displacement ventilation, etc. A large amount of air...... to have high ventilation effectiveness. Furthermore, personalized ventilation may reduce the risk of cross-infection, and in some cases, it can also reduce the source of infection. Personalized ventilation can especially be used in hospital wards, aircraft cabins and, in general, where people are in fixed...

  4. Randomized, controlled trial comparing synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation and synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation plus pressure support in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Zenaida C; Claure, Nelson; Tauscher, Markus K; D'Ugard, Carmen; Vanbuskirk, Silvia; Bancalari, Eduardo

    2006-10-01

    Prolonged mechanical ventilation is associated with lung injury in preterm infants. In these infants, weaning from synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation may be delayed by their inability to cope with increased respiratory loads. The addition of pressure support to synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation can offset these loads and may facilitate weaning. The purpose of this work was to compare synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation and synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation plus pressure support in weaning from mechanical ventilation and the duration of supplemental oxygen dependency in preterm infants with respiratory failure. Preterm infants weighing 500 to 1000 g at birth who required mechanical ventilation during the first postnatal week were randomly assigned to synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation or synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation plus pressure support. In both groups, weaning followed a set protocol during the first 28 days. Outcomes were assessed during the first 28 days and until discharge or death. There were 107 infants enrolled (53 synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation plus pressure support and 54 synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation). Demographic and perinatal data, mortality, and morbidity did not differ between groups. During the first 28 days, infants in the synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation plus pressure support group reached minimal ventilator settings and were extubated earlier than infants in the synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation group. Total duration of mechanical ventilation, duration of oxygen dependency, and oxygen need at 36 weeks' postmenstrual age alone or combined with death did not differ between groups. However, infants in synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation plus pressure support within the 700- to 1000-g birth weight strata had a shorter oxygen dependency. The results of this study suggest that the addition of

  5. Ventilation safety of facilities comprising nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guirlet, J.

    1982-01-01

    The reliability of the ventilation is one of the most important aspects in the prevention of the nuisances that a nuclear installation can provide, since the ventilation is located at the last barrier. A certain number of essential points have been recalled here. But it is necessary to bear in mind other requirements such as the limitation in the number of crossovers, the answers to be found should the system fail, the need to show that ventilation systems do not in themselves bring other nuisances such as noise, irradiation or contamination hazards, likelyhood of recycling the contamination, vibrations, fire. Finally, it is absolutely essential, right from the project stage, that the design ensures that very good accessibility, very easy dismantling and handling, as well as all the facilities needed to make sure of the initial and periodic tests, are guaranteed [fr

  6. Flow measurement in mechanical ventilation: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schena, Emiliano; Massaroni, Carlo; Saccomandi, Paola; Cecchini, Stefano

    2015-03-01

    Accurate monitoring of flow rate and volume exchanges is essential to minimize ventilator-induced lung injury. Mechanical ventilators employ flowmeters to estimate the amount of gases delivered to patients and use the flow signal as a feedback to adjust the desired amount of gas to be delivered. Since flowmeters play a crucial role in this field, they are required to fulfill strict criteria in terms of dynamic and static characteristics. Therefore, mechanical ventilators are equipped with only the following kinds of flowmeters: linear pneumotachographs, fixed and variable orifice meters, hot wire anemometers, and ultrasonic flowmeters. This paper provides an overview of these sensors. Their working principles are described together with their relevant advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore, the most promising emerging approaches for flowmeters design (i.e., fiber optic technology and three dimensional micro-fabrication) are briefly reviewed showing their potential for this application. Copyright © 2015 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Phrenic pacing compared with mechanical ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Morten Packert; Laub, Michael; Biering-Sørensen, Fin

    2017-01-01

    mechanical ventilator dependent tetraplegics met the inclusion criteria. Data were retrieved from medical records and a structured follow-up interview with seven individuals from each group. RESULTS: No significant differences were found when comparing age at injury, time since injury, length...... of hospitalization, incidence of pneumonia, number of pneumonia hospitalizations, number of tracheal suctions, speech quality and activities of daily living or quality of life. On the Short Form Health Survey (SF36) mental health summary the median for both users of phrenic nerve pacing and users of mechanical...... ventilation was one s.d. above the mean of a standard population. CONCLUSIONS: Nine people have had a phrenic nerve pacer implanted. They do not significantly differ from a group of home mechanical ventilator dependent tetraplegics on a number of performance measures, but both groups seem to have better...

  8. Optimized ventilation-on-demand (VOD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masse, M. [Simsmart Technologies Inc., Brossard, PQ (Canada); Cervinka, A. [Newtrax Technologies Inc., Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    This presentation described how the combination of 2 innovative technologies can help optimize mine ventilation. Newtrax Technologies has developed a self-contained battery-powered wireless electronic system designed to operate in harsh industrial environments, including underground mines. Simsmart Technologies has created an advanced process and control simulation based design tool used in industrial applications, including mine ventilation systems. This presentation described the system components and how they work. These included the wireless mesh network designed for dynamic diesel machinery tracking and operating status monitoring; the real-time ventilation model and fan speed optimizer; the OPC server for information interchange; the OPC linkage to existing control infrastructure; a human machine interface that provide data archiving capability; live MS-Excel to interrogate the simulation, controls and optimizer; and, the battery-powered network mesh that provides SCADA functionality to route optimized setpoints. Details of the user interface were also provided. 1 tab., 20 figs.

  9. Indirect Calorimetry in Mechanically Ventilated Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allingstrup, Matilde Jo; Kondrup, Jens; Perner, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims: The 2 currently available indirect calorimeters, CCM Express Indirect Calorimeter (MedGraphics, St Paul, MN) and Quark RMR ICU Indirect Calorimeter (COSMED, Rome, Italy), have not been validated against a gold standard in mechanically ventilated patients. Our aim was to do so...... using a gold-standard, modified Tissot bell-spirometer method in mechanically ventilated patients who were hemodynamically, respiratory, and metabolically stable. Methods: We studied 30 patients undergoing general anesthesia and major gynecological surgery. We measured oxygen consumption ((Formula...... of 77 (167) with limits of agreement −249 to 404 kcal/d. Conclusions: The QUARK RMR ICU Indirect Calorimeter compared better with the gold standard for values of (Formula presented.) O2 and REE than did the CCM Express Indirect Calorimeter in mechanically ventilated patients who were circulatory...

  10. Personal Exposure in Displacement Ventilated Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik; Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    1996-01-01

    in the lower part of the room close to the occupant. A personal exposure model for displacement ventilated rooms is proposed. The model takes the influence of gradients and the human thermal boundary layer into account. Two new quantities describing the interaction between a person and the ventilation......Personal exposure in a displacement ventilated room is examined. The stratified flow and the considerable concentration gradients necessitate an improvement of the widely used fully mixing compartmental approach. The exposure of a seated and a standing person in proportion to the stratification...... contaminant sources, this entrainment improves the indoor air quality. Measurements of exposure due to a passive contaminant source show a significant dependence on the flow field as well as on the contaminant source location. Poor system performance is found in the case of a passive contaminant released...

  11. A stability analysis of ventilated boiling channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taleyarkhan, R.P.; Podowski, M.Z.; Lahey, R.T. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A mathematical model has been developed for the linear stability analysis of a system of ventilated parallel boiling channels. This model accounts for subcooled boiling, an arbitrary heat flux distribution, distributed and local hydraulic losses, heated wall dynamics, slip flow, turbulent mixing and arbitrary flow paths for transverse ventilation. The digital computer program MAZDA-NF was written for numerical evaluation of the mathematical model. Comparison of MAZDA-NF results with those obtained form both a closed form analytical solution and experiment, showed good agreement. A parametric study revealed that such phenomena as subcooled boiling, the transverse coupling between channels (due to cross-flow and mixing) and power skewing can have a significant impact on predicted stability margins. An analysis of an advanced BWR fuel, of the ASEA-ATOM SVEA design, has indicated that transverse ventilation may considerably improve channel stability. (orig.)

  12. Cellular phone interference with the operation of mechanical ventilators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Cheryl I; Kacmarek, Robert M; Hampton, Rickey L; Riggi, Vincent; El Masry, Ashraf; Cooper, Jeffrey B; Hurford, William E

    2004-04-01

    To determine whether a cellular phone would interfere with the operation of mechanical ventilators. Laboratory study. University medical center. Fourteen mechanical ventilators. We evaluated change in operation and malfunction of the mechanical ventilators. The cellular phone (Nokia 6120i) was computer controlled, operating at 828.750 MHz analog modulation. It was operated at 16, 40, 100, 250, and 600 mW, 30 cm from the floor and 30, 15, and ventilator. Six of the 14 ventilators tested malfunctioned when a cellular phone at maximum power output was placed ventilating when the cellular phone at maximum power output was placed ventilator. One ventilator doubled the ventilatory rate and another increased the displayed tidal volume from 350 to 1033 mL. In one of the infant ventilators, displayed tidal volume increased from 21 to 100 mL. In another ventilator, the high respiratory rate alarm sounded but the rate had not changed. In a controlled laboratory setting, cellular phones placed in close proximity to some commercially available intensive care ventilators can cause malfunctions, including irrecoverable cessation of ventilation. This is most likely to occur if the cellular phone is or =3 feet from all medical devices. The current electromagnetic compatibility standards for mechanical ventilators are inadequate to prevent malfunction. Manufacturers should ensure that their products are not affected by wireless technology even when placed immediately next to the device.

  13. Trends in mechanical ventilation: are we ventilating our patients in the best possible way?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellaca', Raffaele L; Veneroni, Chiara; Farre', Ramon

    2017-06-01

    This review addresses how the combination of physiology, medicine and engineering principles contributed to the development and advancement of mechanical ventilation, emphasising the most urgent needs for improvement and the most promising directions of future development. Several aspects of mechanical ventilation are introduced, highlighting on one side the importance of interdisciplinary research for further development and, on the other, the importance of training physicians sufficiently on the technological aspects of modern devices to exploit properly the great complexity and potentials of this treatment. To learn how mechanical ventilation developed in recent decades and to provide a better understanding of the actual technology and practice.To learn how and why interdisciplinary research and competences are necessary for providing the best ventilation treatment to patients.To understand which are the most relevant technical limitations in modern mechanical ventilators that can affect their performance in delivery of the treatment.To better understand and classify ventilation modes.To learn the classification, benefits, drawbacks and future perspectives of automatic ventilation tailoring algorithms.

  14. SUPRAGLOTTIC JET VENTILATION VERSUS CONVENTIONAL ENDOTRACHEAL VENTILATION IN MINOR LARYNGEAL SURGERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Illendual Upendranath

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Any attempt at intubation will cause many cardiovascular responses and the major concern during this time is to attenuate the same. Similar response is seen during procedures on Larynx in microlaryngeal surgery which produces an intense cardiovascular stimulation during suspension laryngoscopy and intubation. AIM OF STUDY Supraglottic jet ventilation versus conventional endotracheal ventilation in minor laryngeal surgeries. To evaluate the haemodynamic response in supraglottic jet ventilation and conventional intubation in minor laryngeal surgeries. METHODS Patients were randomised to 2 Groups: 30 patients in each group; Group A - in whom supraglottic jet ventilation was planned and Group B - in whom endotracheal intubation was planned. RESULT The haemodynamic response in terms of increase in MAP and HR is significantly more with endotracheal intubation than with supraglottic jet ventilation. CONCLUSION Our study showed that supraglottic jet ventilation showed a better haemodynamic stability when compared to conventional endotracheal intubation in patients undergoing minor laryngeal surgeries. Statistical scores were also in favour of the patients treated with supraglottic jet ventilation based on the p values.

  15. Factors Predicting Ventilator Dependence in Patients with Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Cheng Tseng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To determine risk factors associated with ventilator dependence in patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP. Study Design. A retrospective study was conducted at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung, from January 1, 2007 to January 31, 2008. Methods. This study evaluated 163 adult patients (aged ≥18 years. Eligibility was evaluated according to the criterion for VAP, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA score, Acute Physiological Assessment and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II score. Oxygenation index, underlying comorbidities, septic shock status, previous tracheostomy status, and factors related to pneumonia were collected for analysis. Results. Of the 163 VAP patients in the study, 90 patients survived, yielding a mortality rate of 44.8%. Among the 90 surviving patients, only 36 (40% had been weaned off ventilators at the time of discharge. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify underlying factors such as congestive cardiac failure (P=0.009, initial high oxygenation index value (P=0.04, increased SOFA scores (P=0.01, and increased APACHE II scores (P=0.02 as independent predictors of ventilator dependence. Results from the Kaplan-Meier method indicate that initial therapy with antibiotics could increase the ventilator weaning rate (log Rank test, P<0.001. Conclusions. Preexisting cardiopulmonary function, high APACHE II and SOFA scores, and high oxygenation index were the strongest predictors of ventilator dependence. Initial empiric antibiotic treatment can improve ventilator weaning rates at the time of discharge.

  16. My life as a pupil: The autobiographical memories of adolescents excluded from school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farouk, Shaalan

    2017-02-01

    Narrative psychology is founded on the premise that substantial insight can be gained into individuals' self-understanding and behaviour by studying the content of their autobiographical memories. This article contributes to this field of inquiry by suggesting that our understanding of adolescents' exclusion from mainstream education can be enhanced by examining their recollections of school using a narrative dialogical approach. In a research project the autobiographical memories of fifteen female and twenty male students, aged 15-16 years, who had been excluded from secondary schools in London, England were collected and analysed. The aim was to examine how in their narrated depictions of the past, the adolescents explained and justified their position and behaviour at different times in their lives at school. The findings highlight how adolescents perceive themselves to have become positioned by the voices of significant others, schools as institutions and themselves at earlier or later stages in their lives. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Nunavut housing ventilation research 2003-2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fugler, D.

    2005-11-15

    Inuit children in Alaska and Nunavut have high rates of severe lower respiratory tract infections, with hospitalization rates of 300 per year for each 1000 infants. The aim of this research report was to summarize the findings of a pilot project measuring the indoor air quality (IAQ) in 20 Cape Dorset houses as well as a study measuring the ventilation rates of 100 house from 4 communities in Nunavut. The 20 house pilot study included a respiratory questionnaire; a detailed home inspection and data collection; a blower door airtightness test; 7 day measurements of nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), nicotine, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), relative humidity and temperature; a natural air change rate testing using Brookhaven tracer gas technology; and settled floor dust and bed dust collection followed by biological analysis. The 100 house study recorded 3 to 5 days of house temperatures, relative humidity and CO{sub 2}. The Brookhaven tracer gas technique was used to establish house air change rate. A questionnaire was used to assess ventilation devices. A medical questionnaire was administered and an evaluation of hospitalization data was carried out. Results indicated that a large number of Nunavut houses were not adequately ventilated. In the 20 house study, a third of the houses showed air change rates that would be considered low by any ventilation standards, and that were very low when considering the high occupancy of the houses. In the hundred house study, almost all houses indicated a mean CO{sub 2} level over 1000 ppm, and peaks exceeded 2000 ppm in approximately half the houses. The concentrations were far higher than those seen in southern Canadian homes. It was concluded that the development and promotion of energy-efficient ventilation devices could help to resolve ventilation deficiencies in Nunavut. 2 figs.

  18. Thermoregulation and ventilation of termite mounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korb, Judith

    2003-05-01

    Some of the most sophisticated of all animal-built structures are the mounds of African termites of the subfamily Macrotermitinae, the fungus-growing termites. They have long been studied as fascinating textbook examples of thermoregulation or ventilation of animal buildings. However, little research has been designed to provide critical tests of these paradigms, derived from a very small number of original papers. Here I review results from recent studies on Macrotermes bellicosus that considered the interdependence of ambient temperature, thermoregulation, ventilation and mound architecture, and that question some of the fundamental paradigms of termite mounds. M. bellicosus achieves thermal homeostasis within the mound, but ambient temperature has an influence too. In colonies in comparably cool habitats, mound architecture is adapted to reduce the loss of metabolically produced heat to the environment. While this has no negative consequences in small colonies, it produces a trade-off with gas exchange in large colonies, resulting in suboptimally low nest temperatures and increased CO2 concentrations. Along with the alteration in mound architecture, the gas exchange/ventilation mechanism also changes. While mounds in the thermally appropriate savannah have a very efficient circular ventilation during the day, the ventilation in the cooler forest is a less efficient upward movement of air, with gas exchange restricted by reduced surface exchange area. These results, together with other recent findings, question entrenched ideas such as the thermosiphon-ventilation mechanism or the assumption that mounds function to dissipate internally produced heat. Models trying to explain the proximate mechanisms of mound building, or building elements, are discussed.

  19. Ventilation-perfusion distribution in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Kenneth C; Johnson, Bruce D; Olson, Thomas P; Wilson, Theodore A

    2012-09-01

    Functional values of LogSD of the ventilation distribution (σ(V)) have been reported previously, but functional values of LogSD of the perfusion distribution (σ(q)) and the coefficient of correlation between ventilation and perfusion (ρ) have not been measured in humans. Here, we report values for σ(V), σ(q), and ρ obtained from wash-in data for three gases, helium and two soluble gases, acetylene and dimethyl ether. Normal subjects inspired gas containing the test gases, and the concentrations of the gases at end-expiration during the first 10 breaths were measured with the subjects at rest and at increasing levels of exercise. The regional distribution of ventilation and perfusion was described by a bivariate log-normal distribution with parameters σ(V), σ(q), and ρ, and these parameters were evaluated by matching the values of expired gas concentrations calculated for this distribution to the measured values. Values of cardiac output and LogSD ventilation/perfusion (Va/Q) were obtained. At rest, σ(q) is high (1.08 ± 0.12). With the onset of ventilation, σ(q) decreases to 0.85 ± 0.09 but remains higher than σ(V) (0.43 ± 0.09) at all exercise levels. Rho increases to 0.87 ± 0.07, and the value of LogSD Va/Q for light and moderate exercise is primarily the result of the difference between the magnitudes of σ(q) and σ(V). With known values for the parameters, the bivariate distribution describes the comprehensive distribution of ventilation and perfusion that underlies the distribution of the Va/Q ratio.

  20. Advanced design of local ventilation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulmala, I. [VTT Manufacturing Technology, Espoo (Finland). Safety Technology

    1997-12-31

    Local ventilation is widely used in industry for controlling airborne contaminants. However, the present design practices of local ventilation systems are mainly based on empirical equations and do not take quantitatively into account the various factors affecting the performance of these systems. The aim of this study was to determine the applicability and limitations of more advanced fluid mechanical methods to the design and development of local ventilation systems. The most important factors affecting the performance of local ventilation systems were determined and their effect was studied in a systematic manner. The numerical calculations were made with the FLUENT computer code and they were verified by laboratory experiments, previous measurements or analytical solutions. The results proved that the numerical calculations can provide a realistic simulation of exhaust openings, effects of ambient air flows and wake regions. The experiences with the low-velocity local supply air showed that these systems can also be modelled fairly well. The results were used to improve the efficiency and thermal comfort of a local ventilation unit and to increase the effective control range of exhaust hoods. In the simulation of the interaction of a hot buoyant source and local exhaust, the predicted capture efficiencies were clearly higher than those observed experimentally. The deviations between measurements and non-isothermal flow calculations may have partly been caused by the inability to achieve grid independent solutions. CFD simulations is an advanced and flexible tool for designing and developing local ventilation. The simulations can provide insight into the time-averaged flow field which may assist us in understanding the observed phenomena and to explain experimental results. However, for successful calculations the applicability and limitations of the models must be known. (orig.) 78 refs.

  1. The growing role of noninvasive ventilation in patients requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Dean R

    2012-06-01

    For many patients with chronic respiratory failure requiring ventilator support, noninvasive ventilation (NIV) is preferable to invasive support by tracheostomy. Currently available evidence does not support the use of nocturnal NIV in unselected patients with stable COPD. Several European studies have reported benefit for high intensity NIV, in which setting of inspiratory pressure and respiratory rate are selected to achieve normocapnia. There have also been studies reporting benefit for the use of NIV as an adjunct to exercise training. NIV may be useful as an adjunct to airway clearance techniques in patients with cystic fibrosis. Accumulating evidence supports the use of NIV in patients with obesity hypoventilation syndrome. There is considerable observational evidence supporting the use of NIV in patients with chronic respiratory failure related to neuromuscular disease, and one randomized controlled trial reported that the use of NIV was life-prolonging in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. A variety of interfaces can be used to provide NIV in patients with stable chronic respiratory failure. The mouthpiece is an interface that is unique in this patient population, and has been used with success in patients with neuromuscular disease. Bi-level pressure ventilators are commonly used for NIV, although there are now a new generation of intermediate ventilators that are portable, have a long battery life, and can be used for NIV and invasive applications. Pressure support ventilation, pressure controlled ventilation, and volume controlled ventilation have been used successfully for chronic applications of NIV. New modes have recently become available, but their benefits await evidence to support their widespread use. The success of NIV in a given patient population depends on selection of an appropriate patient, selection of an appropriate interface, selection of an appropriate ventilator and ventilator settings, the skills of the clinician, the

  2. No-sedation during mechanical ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laerkner, Eva; Stroem, Thomas; Toft, Palle

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence is growing that less or no-sedation is possible and beneficial for patients during mechanical ventilation. AIM: To investigate if there was a difference in patient consciousness and nursing workload comparing a group of patients receiving no-sedation with a group of sedated...... patients with daily wake up, and also to estimate economic consequences of a no-sedation strategy. DESIGN AND METHODS: Data were collected during a prospective trial of 140 mechanically ventilated patients randomized to either no-sedation or to sedation with daily wake up. From day 1 to 7 in the intensive...

  3. Preoperational test report, recirculation ventilation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-01-01

    This represents a preoperational test report for Recirculation Ventilation Systems, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system provides vapor space cooling of tanks AY1O1, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102 and supports the ability to exhaust air from each tank. Each system consists of a valved piping loop, a fan, condenser, and moisture separator; equipment is located inside each respective tank farm in its own hardened building. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System

  4. Preoperational test report, recirculation ventilation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-11-11

    This represents a preoperational test report for Recirculation Ventilation Systems, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system provides vapor space cooling of tanks AY1O1, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102 and supports the ability to exhaust air from each tank. Each system consists of a valved piping loop, a fan, condenser, and moisture separator; equipment is located inside each respective tank farm in its own hardened building. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  5. Air change. Ventilation requirements of closed rooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cords, W

    1988-04-01

    Closed rooms have to be ventilated in order to compensate influences changing the composition and quality of air. Details are given on the conditions and factors determining the required change of air as well as the design of ventilation systems. Reference is made to the respiratory consumption of oxygen, the increase of hazardous carbon dioxide contents causing headaches and indispositions, water vapor exhalations, body heat, odors, cold air coming in from outside, bodily heat losses, carbon dioxide limiting values, air speeds, and air pressures inside rooms. The humidity and temperatures of frequented rooms should keep within the maximum values. (HWJ).

  6. Ventilation of nuclear rooms and operators' protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavasseur, C.

    1985-01-01

    Ventilation systems are designed to guarantee air replacement in rooms so as to evacuate gases, odors and aerosols liable to be produced therein. This air is conditioned, filtered, heated, and the relative humidity checked. At the outlet, a filtration system adapted to the type of effluent prevents the external dispersion of toxic substances. Ventilation is defined by the air change time. A comfort rule recommends reducing the velocities reaching the person present in less than 0.2 m/sec. This reduction is achieved by adjusting the natural property of the jets, induction, by means of diffusers placed at the vents

  7. Ventilation influence upon indoor air radon level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Deyuan

    1995-01-01

    Levels of indoor radon in air are studied by a continuous electrostatic radon monitor under normal living conditions to evaluate the influence of air conditioned ventilation on indoor air radon level. Results show that the indoor air radon concentrations are not much more than those without household conditioner living condition, although using household conditioner requires a sealed room which should lead to a higher radon level. Turning on air conditioner helps lower indoor radon level. Therefore, the total indoor air Rn levels are normal > ventilation > exhaust or in-draft > exhaust plus in-draft

  8. Improving comfort and health with personalized ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2004-01-01

    The thermal environment and air quality in buildings affects occupants¿ health, comfort and performance. The heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) of buildings today is designed to provide a uniform room environment. However, large individual differences exist between occupants in regard...... existing knowledge on performance of personalized ventilation (PV) and on human response to it. The airflow interaction in the vicinity of the human body is analysed and its impact on thermal comfort and inhaled air quality is discussed together with control strategies and the application of PV in practice...

  9. Evaporation Controlled Emission in Ventilated Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topp, Claus; Nielsen, Peter V.; Heiselberg, Per

    -scale ventilated room when the emission is fully or partly evaporation controlled. The objective of the present research work has been to investigate the change of emission rates from small-scale experiments to full-scale ventilated rooms and to investigate the influence of the local air velocity field near......Emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from materials is traditionally determined from tests carried out in small-scale test chambers. However, a difference in scale may lead to a difference in the measured emission rate in a small-scale test chamber and the actual emission rate in a full...

  10. Performance of displacement ventilation in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naidenov, K.; Pitchurov, G.; Langkilde, Gunnar

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents results of a field study in offices with displacement ventilation. It comprises detailed physical measurements of the thermal environment and collection of occupants´ response at 227 workplaces. The results, both physical measurements and human response, identified draught...... as the major local discomfort in the rooms with displacement ventilation. Twenty-three percent of the occupants were daily bothered by draught. In some buildings the maintenance personnel tried to improve occupants´ thermal comfort by raising the supply air temperature or office workers themselves blocked...

  11. Continuous use of an adaptive lung ventilation controller in critically ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1995-05-05

    May 5, 1995 ... Adaptive lung ventilation (ALV) refers to closed-loop mechanical ventilation designed to work ... optimise the controller performance, the volume controller .... PawEE), vital capacity IYC), an index of airway resistance relative to ...

  12. Dimensionless study on dynamics of pressure controlled mechanical ventilation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Yan; Niu, Jinglong; Cai, Maolin; Xu, Weiqing

    2015-01-01

    Dynamics of mechanical ventilation system can be referred in pulmonary diagnostics and treatments. In this paper, to conveniently grasp the essential characteristics of mechanical ventilation system, a dimensionless model of mechanical ventilation system is presented. For the validation of the mathematical model, a prototype mechanical ventilation system of a lung simulator is proposed. Through the simulation and experimental studies on the dimensionless dynamics of the mechanical ventilation system, firstly, the mathematical model is proved to be authentic and reliable. Secondly, the dimensionless dynamics of the mechanical ventilation system are obtained. Last, the influences of key parameters on the dimensionless dynamics of the mechanical ventilation system are illustrated. The study provides a novel method to study the dynamic of mechanical ventilation system, which can be referred in the respiratory diagnostics and treatment.

  13. Ventilation systems in houses. Special issue; Woonhuisventilatie. Special

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Op ' t Veld, P.; Van der Aa, A. [Cauberg-Huygen Raadgevend Ingenieurs, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Verschoor, M.J.E. [Afdeling Koudetechniek en Warmtepompen, TNO Milieu, Energie en Procesinnovatie TNO-MEP, Apeldoorn (Netherlands); Van Gulik, L.H. [Itho, Scheidam (Netherlands); Van der Mark, K.; Overman, P. [AGPO, Breda (Netherlands); Roemer, J.C.; Schuitema, R. [ECN Duurzame Energie in de Gebouwde Omgeving DEGO, Petten (Netherlands); Weterings, M. [GGD voor Rotterdam e.o., Rotterdam (Netherlands); Rosenmai, T.; Rasmussen, S. [Copenhagen Business School, Copenhagen (Denmark); Vollebregt, R. [Bureau Kent, Utrecht (Netherlands); Smeets, L.J.M. [Nederlandse onderneming voor energie en milieu Novem, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2001-06-01

    In 10 articles attention is paid to several aspects with respect to ventilation of houses. This issue includes an overview of suppliers of high-efficiency heat recovering balanced ventilation systems.

  14. Dimensionless study on dynamics of pressure controlled mechanical ventilation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Yan; Niu, Jinglong; Cai, Maolin; Xu, Weiqing [Beihang University, Beijing (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Dynamics of mechanical ventilation system can be referred in pulmonary diagnostics and treatments. In this paper, to conveniently grasp the essential characteristics of mechanical ventilation system, a dimensionless model of mechanical ventilation system is presented. For the validation of the mathematical model, a prototype mechanical ventilation system of a lung simulator is proposed. Through the simulation and experimental studies on the dimensionless dynamics of the mechanical ventilation system, firstly, the mathematical model is proved to be authentic and reliable. Secondly, the dimensionless dynamics of the mechanical ventilation system are obtained. Last, the influences of key parameters on the dimensionless dynamics of the mechanical ventilation system are illustrated. The study provides a novel method to study the dynamic of mechanical ventilation system, which can be referred in the respiratory diagnostics and treatment.

  15. Surgical management for the first 48 h following blunt chest trauma: state of the art (excluding vascular injuries).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lesquen, Henri; Avaro, Jean-Philippe; Gust, Lucile; Ford, Robert Michael; Beranger, Fabien; Natale, Claudia; Bonnet, Pierre-Mathieu; D'Journo, Xavier-Benoît

    2015-03-01

    This review aims to answer the most common questions in routine surgical practice during the first 48 h of blunt chest trauma (BCT) management. Two authors identified relevant manuscripts published since January 1994 to January 2014. Using preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses statement, they focused on the surgical management of BCT, excluded both child and vascular injuries and selected 80 studies. Tension pneumothorax should be promptly diagnosed and treated by needle decompression closely followed with chest tube insertion (Grade D). All traumatic pneumothoraces are considered for chest tube insertion. However, observation is possible for selected patients with small unilateral pneumothoraces without respiratory disease or need for positive pressure ventilation (Grade C). Symptomatic traumatic haemothoraces or haemothoraces >500 ml should be treated by chest tube insertion (Grade D). Occult pneumothoraces and occult haemothoraces are managed by observation with daily chest X-rays (Grades B and C). Periprocedural antibiotics are used to prevent chest-tube-related infectious complications (Grade B). No sign of life at the initial assessment and cardiopulmonary resuscitation duration >10 min are considered as contraindications of Emergency Department Thoracotomy (Grade C). Damage Control Thoracotomy is performed for either massive air leakage or refractive shock or ongoing bleeding enhanced by chest tube output >1500 ml initially or >200 ml/h for 3 h (Grade D). In the case of haemodynamically stable patients, early video-assisted thoracic surgery is performed for retained haemothoraces (Grade B). Fixation of flail chest can be considered if mechanical ventilation for 48 h is probably required (Grade B). Fixation of sternal fractures is performed for displaced fractures with overlap or comminution, intractable pain or respiratory insufficiency (Grade D). Lung herniation, traumatic diaphragmatic rupture and pericardial rupture are life

  16. A comparison of leak compensation in acute care ventilators during noninvasive and invasive ventilation: a lung model study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oto, Jun; Chenelle, Christopher T; Marchese, Andrew D; Kacmarek, Robert M

    2013-12-01

    Although leak compensation has been widely introduced to acute care ventilators to improve patient-ventilator synchronization in the presence of system leaks, there are no data on these ventilators' ability to prevent triggering and cycling asynchrony. The goal of this study was to evaluate the ability of leak compensation in acute care ventilators during invasive and noninvasive ventilation (NIV). Using a lung simulator, the impact of system leaks was compared on 7 ICU ventilators and 1 dedicated NIV ventilator during triggering and cycling at 2 respiratory mechanics (COPD and ARDS models) settings, various modes of ventilation (NIV mode [pressure support ventilation], and invasive mode [pressure support and continuous mandatory ventilation]), and 2 PEEP levels (5 and 10 cm H(2)O). Leak levels used were up to 35-36 L/min in NIV mode and 26-27 L/min in invasive mode. Although all of the ventilators were able to synchronize with the simulator at baseline, only 4 of the 8 ventilators synchronized to all leaks in NIV mode, and 2 of the 8 ventilators in invasive mode. The number of breaths to synchronization was higher during increasing than during decreasing leak. In the COPD model, miss-triggering occurred more frequently and required a longer time to stabilize tidal volume than in the ARDS model. The PB840 required fewer breaths to synchronize in both invasive and noninvasive modes, compared with the other ventilators (P ventilators. The PB840 and the V60 were the only ventilators to acclimate to all leaks, but there were differences in performance between these 2 ventilators. It is not clear if these differences have clinical importance.

  17. 40 CFR 761.187 - Reporting importers and by persons generating PCBs in excluded manufacturing processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS General Records and Reports § 761.187 Reporting importers and by persons generating PCBs in excluded manufacturing processes. In addition to... generating PCBs in excluded manufacturing processes. 761.187 Section 761.187 Protection of Environment...

  18. 26 CFR 31.3402(e)-1 - Included and excluded wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Included and excluded wages. 31.3402(e)-1... SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3402(e)-1 Included and excluded wages. (a) If a portion of... not more than 31 consecutive days constitutes wages, and the remainder does not constitute wages, all...

  19. 31 CFR 19.500 - What is the purpose of the Excluded Parties List System (EPLS)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the purpose of the Excluded Parties List System (EPLS)? 19.500 Section 19.500 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Excluded Parties List System...

  20. 17 CFR 37.4 - Election to trade excluded and exempt commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Election to trade excluded and exempt commodities. 37.4 Section 37.4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION DERIVATIVES TRANSACTION EXECUTION FACILITIES § 37.4 Election to trade excluded and exempt...

  1. 8 CFR 241.21 - Stay of deportation of excluded alien.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stay of deportation of excluded alien. 241.21 Section 241.21 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Deportation of Excluded Aliens (for Hearings Commenced...

  2. 22 CFR 40.102 - Guardian required to accompany excluded alien.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Guardian required to accompany excluded alien. 40.102 Section 40.102 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO BOTH... Guardian required to accompany excluded alien. INA 212(a)(9)(B) is not applicable at the time of visa...

  3. Psychiatric Disorder or Impairing Psychology in Children Who Have Been Excluded from School: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whear, Rebecca; Marlow, Ruth; Boddy, Kate; Ukoumunne, Obioha C.; Parker, Claire; Ford, Tamsin; Thompson-Coon, Jo; Stein, Ken

    2014-01-01

    When children with special educational needs are excluded from school, it should raise the concern that these children are not receiving adequate help and support. This systematic review aims to identify the prevalence of psychiatric disorder or impairing psychopathology among children who are excluded from school compared to children who are not…

  4. Should breast cancer survivors be excluded from, or invited to, organised mammography screening programmes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bucchi Lauro

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of breast cancer in developed countries has steadily risen over recent decades. Immediate and long-term health needs of patients, including preventive care and screening services, are receiving increasing attention. A question still unresolved is whether breast cancer survivors should receive mammographic surveillance in the clinical or screening setting and, thus, whether they should be excluded from, or invited to, organised mammography screening programmes. The objective of this article is to discuss the many contradictory aspects of this matter. Discussion Problems with mammographic surveillance of breast cancer survivors include: weak evidence of a reduction in mortality; lack of evidence in favour of one setting or the other; lack of evidence-based guidelines for the frequency and duration of surveillance; disproportionate emphasis placed on the first few years post-treatment, probably dictated by surgical and oncological priorities; a variety of screening policies, as these women are permanently or temporarily or partially excluded from many - but not all - organised screening programmes worldwide; an even greater disparity in follow-up protocols used in the clinical setting; a paucity of data on compliance to mammographic surveillance in both settings; and a difficulty in coordinating the roles of health care providers. In the future, the use of mammography in breast cancer survivors will be influenced by the inclusion of women aged > 69 years in organised screening programmes and the implementation of multidisciplinary breast units, and will probably be investigated by research activities on individual risk assessment and risk-tailored screening. In the interim, current problems can be partially alleviated with some technical solutions in screening data recording, patient flows, and care coordination. Summary Mammographic surveillance of breast cancer survivors is situated at the crossroads of numerous

  5. Design guidelines for natural ventilation systems in tertiary sector buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Van Moeseke, Geoffrey; Bruyère, Isabelle; De Herde, André; CISBAT 2005: Renewables in a changing climate

    2005-01-01

    Parameters determining efficiency of natural ventilation systems are numerous. The most important are architecture and system design. This article get onto both but focuses on system design. Through dynamic simulations it shows that natural ventilation management has a large impact on energy saving but most of all on thermal comfort. Natural ventilation techniques are also weighted against hybrid solutions and high efficiency mechanical cooling solutions. Natural ventilation techniques show t...

  6. Displacement Ventilation in a Room with Low-Level Diffusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    Ventilation systems with vertical displacement flow have been used in industrial areas with high thermal loads for many years. Quite resently the vertical displacement flow systems have grown popular as comfort ventilation in rooms with thermal loads e.g. offices.......Ventilation systems with vertical displacement flow have been used in industrial areas with high thermal loads for many years. Quite resently the vertical displacement flow systems have grown popular as comfort ventilation in rooms with thermal loads e.g. offices....

  7. Comparison of two modes of ventilation after fast-track cardiac surgery: Adaptive support ventilation versus synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghadavoudi, O.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: There is substantial debate regarding the appropriate protocol for ventilatory management in fast-track cardiac anesthesia (FTCA). This study was carried out to assess and compare the risks and benefits of respiratory weaning based on adaptive support ventilation (ASV) and synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation (SIMV) after uncomplicated cardiac surgery. Methodology: In a randomized clinical trial, after receiving approval of the Department Research Committee and informed consent from study subjects, 100 patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) were enrolled during a 4-month period at a university-based hospital. After surgery and admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), patients were randomized to ASV and SIMV groups. Arterial blood gas (ABG) and hemodynamic variables, respiratory and ventilator characteristics including lung compliance, rapid shallow breathing index (RSBI), tidal volume (TV), respiratory rate (RR), peak inspiratory pressure (P peak), mean airway pressure (p mean), Pao2/FIo2, duration of mechanical ventilation and tracheal intubation, and length of ICU stay were recorded and compared between the two groups. The data were analyzed in 82 patients after considering the exclusion criteria. Results: There were no differences between ASV and SIMV groups in demographics and preoperative characteristics. The duration of tracheal intubation and the length of ICU stay were similar in both groups. There were no statistically and clinically relevant differences between the two groups in ABG, hemodynamic changes, and respiratory and ventilator characteristics during ICU stay. Conclusion: Although ASV may facilitate postoperative respiratory management in FTCA, both ASV and SIMV provide similarly safe and practicable respiratory weaning in the cardiac ICU. The evaluation of potential advantages in patient outcomes and resource utilization of respiratory weaning based on ASV

  8. 20 CFR 404.1015 - Family services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Family services. 404.1015 Section 404.1015... Family services. (a) General. If you work as an employee of a relative, the work is excluded from... section, and work for a partnership is not excluded unless the required family relationship exists between...

  9. The Design and Simulation of Natural Personalised Ventilation (NPV System for Multi-Bed Hospital Wards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfikar A. Adamu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Adequate ventilation is necessary for thermal comfort and reducing risks from infectious bio-aerosols in hospital wards, but achieving this with mechanical ventilation has carbon and energy implications. Natural ventilation is often limited to window-based designs whose dilution/mixing effectiveness are subject to constraints of wind speed, cross ventilation, and in the case of hospital wards, proximity of patients to external walls. A buoyancy-driven natural ventilation system capable of achieving dilution/mixing was shown to be feasible in a preceding study of novel system called natural personalised ventilation (NPV. This system combined both architecture and airflow engineering principles of space design and buoyancy and was tested and validated (salt-bath experiment for a single bed ward. This research extends the previous work and is proof-of-concept on the feasibility of NPV system for multi-bed wards. Two different four-bed ward types were investigated of using computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulations under wind-neutral conditions. Results predict that NPV system could deliver fresh air to multiple patients, including those located 10 m away from external wall, with absolute flow rates of between 32 L·s−1 and 54 L·s−1 for each patient/bed. Compared to same wards simulated using window design, ingress of airborne contaminants into patients’ breathing zone and summer overheating potential were minimised, while overall ward dilution was maximised. Findings suggest the NPV has potentials for enabling architects and building service engineers to decouple airflow delivery from the visualisation and illumination responsibilities placed upon windows.

  10. 46 CFR 169.315 - Ventilation (other than machinery spaces).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... section is satisfied, a vessel having only a natural ventilation system must satisfy the following: V/A≥1... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation (other than machinery spaces). 169.315... SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Hull Structure § 169.315 Ventilation (other than machinery...

  11. 9 CFR 354.226 - Lighting and ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Facilities § 354.226 Lighting and ventilation. There shall be ample light, either natural or artificial or both, of good quality and well distributed, and sufficient ventilation for all rooms and compartments... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lighting and ventilation. 354.226...

  12. 33 CFR 183.630 - Standards for natural ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for natural ventilation... (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Ventilation § 183.630 Standards for natural ventilation. (a) For the purpose of § 183.620, “natural ventilation” means an airflow in a compartment in a...

  13. 46 CFR 38.20-10 - Ventilation-T/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Ventilation § 38.20-10 Ventilation—T/ALL. (a) A power ventilation system shall be provided for compartments containing pumps, compressors, pipes, control spaces, etc. connected with the cargo handling facilities... the ventilation system associated with the compartment. Inlets to exhaust ducts shall be provided and...

  14. 21 CFR 888.4230 - Cement ventilation tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cement ventilation tube. 888.4230 Section 888.4230...) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.4230 Cement ventilation tube. (a) Identification. A cement ventilation tube is a tube-like device usually made of plastic intended to be inserted into...

  15. Hybrid Ventilation in New and Retrofitted Office Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per

    The scope of this annex is to obtain better knowledge of the use of hybrid ventilation technologies. The annex will focus on development of control strategies for hybrid ventilation, on development of methods to predict hybrid ventilation performance in office buildings and on development...

  16. Study on the applicability of the desk displacement ventilation concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loomans, Marcel G.L.C.

    1999-01-01

    This paper summarizes an experimental and numerical study into a ventilation concept that combines displacement ventilation with task conditioning, the so-called desk displacement ventilation (DDV) concept. The study uses steady-state and transient results to discuss the applicability of the DDV

  17. Study on the applicability of the desk replacement ventilation concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loomans, M.G.L.C.

    1999-01-01

    This paper summarizes an experimental and numerical study into a ventilation concept that combines displacement ventilation with task conditioning, the so-called desk displace-ment ventilation (DDV) concept. The study uses steady-state and transient results to discuss the applicability of the DDV

  18. Analysis on present radon ventilation situation of Chinese uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xianjie; Hu Penghua

    2010-01-01

    Mine Ventilation is the most important way in lowering radon of uranium mines. At present, radon and radon daughter concentration of underground air is 3∼5 times higher than any other air concentration of foreign uranium mines, as the same input for Protective Ventilation between Chinese uranium mines with compaction methodology and international advanced uranium mines. In this passage, through the analysis of Ventilation Radon Reduction status in Chinese uranium mines and the comparison of advantages and shortcomings between variety of ventilation and radon reduction, it illuminated the reasons of higher radon and radon daughter concentration in Chinese uranium mines and put forward some problems in three aspects, which are Ventilation Radon Reduction Theory, Ventilation Radon Reduction Measures and Ventilation Management. And to above problems, this passage put forward some proposals and measures about some aspects, such as strengthen examination and verification and monitoring practical situation, making clear ventilation plan, in according to mining sequence strictly, training Ventilation technician forcefully, enhance Ventilation System management, development of Ventilation Radon Reduction technology research in uranium mines and carrying out ventilation equipments as soon as possible in further and so on. (authors)

  19. Experimental Analysis and Model Validation of an Opaque Ventilated Facade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López, F. Peci; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Heiselberg, Per

    2012-01-01

    Natural ventilation is a convenient way of reducing energy consumption in buildings. In this study an experimental module of an opaque ventilated façade (OVF) was built and tested for assessing its potential of supplying free ventilation and air preheating for the building. A numerical model was ...

  20. Ventilation measurements as an adjunct to radon measurements in buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knutson, E.O.; Franklin, H.

    1977-01-01

    The concentration of radon in a building is a function of the radon sources within the building and of the building's ventilation characteristics. To complement its radon measurement program, HASL is currently assessing apparatus and procedures for measuring building ventilation. Results are reported from ventilation measurements made in the laboratory and in a residential building