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Sample records for exciton radiative lifetime

  1. Extension of the radiative lifetime of Wannier-Mott excitons in semiconductor nanoclusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukushkin, V. A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to calculate the radiative lifetime of Wannier-Mott excitons in three-dimensional potential wells formed of direct-gap narrow-gap semiconductor nanoclusters in wide-gap semiconductors and assumed to be large compared to the exciton radius. Calculations are carried out for the InAs/GaAs heterosystem. It is shown that, as the nanocluster dimensions are reduced to values on the order of the exciton radius, the exciton radiative lifetime becomes several times longer compared to that in a homogeneous semiconductor. The increase in the radiative lifetime is more pronounced at low temperatures. Thus, it is established that the placement of Wannier-Mott excitons into direct-gap semiconductor nanoclusters, whose dimensions are of the order of the exciton radius, can be used for considerable extension of the exciton radiative lifetime

  2. Exciton radiative lifetime in sub-monlayer and stranskii-Krastanow grown InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Zhangcheng; Zhang, Yating; Tackeuchi, Atsushi

    radiative lifetime rad [4]. Here, we compare the exciton radiative lifetime of SML-grown and SK-grown InGaAs/GaAs QDs at 10 K, via time-resolved photoluminescence (PL). The SML-QDs, were formed by 10 cycles of alternate deposition of 0.5 monolayer (ML) InAs and 2.5 ML GaAs, at 500 °C. The SK-QDs were...... formed by depositing 4.1 ML In0.6Ga0.4As on GaAs. The PL spectra indicate that the SML-QDs show better uniformity than the SK-QDs. Transient PL for SML and SK QDs at 10 K, where the PL decay time d is dominated by the exciton radiative lifetime, show d = 90 ps for SML-QDs which is much shorter than...

  3. Radiative recombination of excitons in amorphous semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Jai [School of Engineering and Logistics, Faculty Technology, B-41, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, NT 0909 (Australia)]. E-mail: jai.singh@cdu.edu.au

    2005-04-15

    A theory for calculating the radiative lifetime of excitons in amorphous semiconductors is presented. Four possibilities of excitonic radiative recombination are considered and the corresponding rates are derived at thermal equilibrium. The radiative lifetime is calculated from the inverse of the maximum rate for all the four possibilities. Results agree very well with experiments.

  4. Radiative recombination of excitons in amorphous semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Jai

    2005-01-01

    A theory for calculating the radiative lifetime of excitons in amorphous semiconductors is presented. Four possibilities of excitonic radiative recombination are considered and the corresponding rates are derived at thermal equilibrium. The radiative lifetime is calculated from the inverse of the maximum rate for all the four possibilities. Results agree very well with experiments

  5. Radiative and non-radiative relaxation of excitons in strain-compensated quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kujiraoka, M.; Ishi-Hayase, J.; Akahane, K.; Yamamoto, Y.; Ema, K.; Sasaki, M.

    2008-01-01

    We have investigated the population dynamics of excitons in strain-compensated InAs quantum dots (QDs) using a pump-probe technique under resonant excitation. Precise control of polarization directions of incident pulses enabled us to selectively estimate population lifetimes for two orthogonally polarized exciton ground states according to polarization selection rules. Measured decay times of the probe transmissions were highly dependent on the polarization directions of the exciton states. We found that the ratio of the decay times for the orthogonally polarized states is in quantitative agreement with the ratio of square of the transition dipole moments. This indicates that radiative recombination processes have a dominant effect on the population dynamics and that non-radiative and spin relaxations are negligible in our QDs. As a result, we can estimate the radiative lifetimes to be 1.0±0.1 and 1.7±0.2 ns for orthogonally polarized exciton ground states

  6. Singlet Exciton Lifetimes in Conjugated Polymer Films for Organic Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Dimitrov, Stoichko

    2016-01-13

    The lifetime of singlet excitons in conjugated polymer films is a key factor taken into account during organic solar cell device optimization. It determines the singlet exciton diffusion lengths in polymer films and has a direct impact on the photocurrent generation by organic solar cell devices. However, very little is known about the material properties controlling the lifetimes of singlet excitons, with most of our knowledge originating from studies of small organic molecules. Herein, we provide a brief summary of the nature of the excited states in conjugated polymer films and then present an analysis of the singlet exciton lifetimes of 16 semiconducting polymers. The exciton lifetimes of seven of the studied polymers were measured using ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy and compared to the lifetimes of seven of the most common photoactive polymers found in the literature. A plot of the logarithm of the rate of exciton decay vs. the polymer optical bandgap reveals a medium correlation between lifetime and bandgap, thus suggesting that the Energy Gap Law may be valid for these systems. This therefore suggests that small bandgap polymers can suffer from short exciton lifetimes, which may limit their performance in organic solar cell devices. In addition, the impact of film crystallinity on the exciton lifetime was assessed for a small bandgap diketopyrrolopyrrole co-polymer. It is observed that the increase of polymer film crystallinity leads to reduction in exciton lifetime and optical bandgap again in agreement with the Energy Gap Law.

  7. Spatial mapping of exciton lifetimes in single ZnO nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Reparaz

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the spatial dependence of the exciton lifetimes in single ZnO nanowires. We have found that the free exciton and bound exciton lifetimes exhibit a maximum at the center of nanowires, while they decrease by 30% towards the tips. This dependence is explained by considering the cavity-like properties of the nanowires in combination with the Purcell effect. We show that the lifetime of the bound-excitons scales with the localization energy to the power of 3/2, which validates the model of Rashba and Gurgenishvili at the nanoscale.

  8. Correlated lifetimes of free paraexcitons and excitons trapped at oxygen vacancies in cuprous oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koirala, Sandhaya; Naka, Nobuko; Tanaka, Koichiro

    2013-01-01

    We have studied transients of luminescence due to free excitons and excitons trapped at oxygen vacancies in cuprous oxide. We find that both trapped and free paraexcitons have lifetime dependent on temperature and on the oxygen concentration. By using samples containing much less copper vacancies relative to oxygen vacancies, we find out the direct correlation between the free paraexciton lifetime and trapped exciton lifetime. - Highlights: ► We have investigated trapping of free excitons at oxygen vacancies in cuprous oxide. ► Lifetimes of free and trapped excitons exhibit correlative temperature dependence. ► Four-level model with the activation energy of 33 meV well explains the observation. ► Comparison is made using the four samples with different vacancy concentrations. ► We clarified the crucial role of the oxygen vacancy in shortening the lifetimes.

  9. Singlet Exciton Lifetimes in Conjugated Polymer Films for Organic Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Dimitrov, Stoichko; Schroeder, Bob; Nielsen, Christian; Bronstein, Hugo; Fei, Zhuping; McCulloch, Iain; Heeney, Martin; Durrant, James

    2016-01-01

    The lifetime of singlet excitons in conjugated polymer films is a key factor taken into account during organic solar cell device optimization. It determines the singlet exciton diffusion lengths in polymer films and has a direct impact

  10. Influence of excitonic effects on luminescence quantum yield in silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachenko, A.V.; Kostylyov, V.P.; Vlasiuk, V.M. [V. Lashkaryov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, NAS of Ukraine, 41 prospect Nauky, 03028 Kyiv (Ukraine); Sokolovskyi, I.O., E-mail: isokolovskyi@mun.ca [V. Lashkaryov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, NAS of Ukraine, 41 prospect Nauky, 03028 Kyiv (Ukraine); Department of Physics and Physical Oceanography, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John' s, NL, A1B 3X7 Canada (Canada); Evstigneev, M. [Department of Physics and Physical Oceanography, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John' s, NL, A1B 3X7 Canada (Canada)

    2017-03-15

    Nonradiative exciton lifetime in silicon is determined by comparison of the experimental and theoretical curves of bulk minority charge carriers lifetime on doping and excitation levels. This value is used to analyze the influence of excitonic effects on internal luminescence quantum yield at room temperature, taking into account both nonradiative and radiative exciton lifetimes. A range of Shockley-Hall-Reed lifetimes is found, where excitonic effects lead to an increase of internal luminescence quantum yield.

  11. Exciton distribution function and secondary radiation in polar semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trallero Giner, C.; Sotolongo Costa, O.

    1985-07-01

    An explicit non-equilibrium distribution function for excitons in the ground state n=1 in the case when the fundamental interaction is with acoustical phonons is calculated for polar semiconductors. Using it, a general expression for the secondary radiation cross-section (valid for Raman, hot and thermalized luminescence processes), is obtained. The results are applied to explain the temperature dependence of the 1LO and 2LO luminescence lines half-width in CdS single crystals. The relative contributions of 3LO Raman and luminescence intensities and the variation of the secondary emission spectrum as function of exciton life-time are studied. Comparison with experimental results yields quantitative agreement. (author)

  12. Phonon effects on the radiative recombination of excitons in double quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karwat, Paweł; Sitek, Anna; Machnikowski, Paweł

    2011-11-01

    We study theoretically the radiative recombination of excitons in double quantum dots in the presence of carrier-phonon coupling. We show that the phonon-induced pure dephasing effects and transitions between the exciton states strongly modify the spontaneous emission process and make it sensitive to temperature, which may lead to nonmonotonic temperature dependence of the time-resolved luminescence. We show also that, under specific resonance conditions, the biexcitonic interband polarization can be coherently transferred to the excitonic one, leading to an extended lifetime of the total coherent polarization, which is reflected in the nonlinear optical spectrum of the system. We study the stability of this effect against phonon-induced decoherence.

  13. Radiative control of dark excitons at room temperature by nano-optical antenna-tip Purcell effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyoung-Duck; Jiang, Tao; Clark, Genevieve; Xu, Xiaodong; Raschke, Markus B.

    2018-01-01

    Excitons, Coulomb-bound electron-hole pairs, are elementary photo-excitations in semiconductors that can couple to light through radiative relaxation. In contrast, dark excitons (XD) show anti-parallel spin configuration with generally forbidden radiative emission. Because of their long lifetimes, these dark excitons are appealing candidates for quantum computing and optoelectronics. However, optical read-out and control of XD states has remained challenging due to their decoupling from light. Here, we present a tip-enhanced nano-optical approach to induce, switch and programmably modulate the XD emission at room temperature. Using a monolayer transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) WSe2 on a gold substrate, we demonstrate 6 × 105-fold enhancement in dark exciton photoluminescence quantum yield achieved through coupling of the antenna-tip to the dark exciton out-of-plane optical dipole moment, with a large Purcell factor of ≥2 × 103 of the tip-sample nano-cavity. Our approach provides a facile way to harness excitonic properties in low-dimensional semiconductors offering new strategies for quantum optoelectronics.

  14. Binding Energy and Lifetime of Excitons in InxGa1-xAs/GaAs Quantum Wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orani, D.; Polimeni, A.; Patane, A.

    1997-01-01

    We report a systematic study of exciton binding energies and lifetimes in InGaAs/GaAs quantum wells. The experimental binding energies have been deduced from photoluminescence excitation measurements taking into account the contribution of the 2s state of the exciton and the line broadening...

  15. Employing exciton transfer molecules to increase the lifetime of phosphorescent red organic light emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindla, Florian; Boesing, Manuel; van Gemmern, Philipp; Bertram, Dietrich; Keiper, Dietmar; Heuken, Michael; Kalisch, Holger; Jansen, Rolf H.

    2011-04-01

    The lifetime of phosphorescent red organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) is investigated employing either N,N'-diphenyl-N,N'-bis(1-naphthylphenyl)-1,1'-biphenyl-4,4'-diamine (NPB), TMM117, or 4,4',4″-tris(N-carbazolyl)-triphenylamine (TCTA) as hole-conducting host material (mixed with an electron conductor). All OLED (organic vapor phase deposition-processed) show similar efficiencies around 30 lm/W but strongly different lifetimes. Quickly degrading OLED based on TCTA can be stabilized by doping exciton transfer molecules [tris-(phenyl-pyridyl)-Ir (Ir(ppy)3)] to the emission layer. At a current density of 50 mA/cm2 (12 800 cd/m2), a lifetime of 387 h can be achieved. Employing exciton transfer molecules is suggested to prevent the degradation of the red emission layer in phosphorescent white OLED.

  16. Excitonic effects and related properties in semiconductor nanostructures: roles of size and dimensionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shudong; Cheng, Liwen; Wang, Qiang

    2017-08-01

    The size- and dimensionality-dependence of excitonic effects and related properties in semiconductor nanostructures are theoretically studied in detail within the effective-mass approximation. When nanostructure sizes become smaller than the bulk exciton Bohr radius, excitonic effects are significantly enhanced with reducing size or dimensionality. This is as a result of quantum confinement in more directions leading to larger exciton binding energies and normalized exciton oscillator strengths. These excitonic effects originate from electron-hole Coulombic interactions, which strongly enhance the oscillator strength between the electron and hole. It is also established that the universal scaling of exciton binding energy versus the inverse of the exciton Bohr radius follows a linear scaling law. Herein, we propose a stretched exponential law for the size scaling of optical gap, which is in good agreement with the calculated data. Due to differences in the confinement dimensionality, the radiative lifetime of low-dimensional excitons becomes shorter than that of bulk excitons. The size dependence of the exciton radiative lifetimes is in good agreement with available experimental data. This strongly enhanced electron-hole exchange interaction is expected in low-dimensional structures due to enriched excitonic effects. The main difference in nanostructures compared to the bulk can be interpreted in terms of the enhanced excitonic effects induced by exciton localization. The enhanced excitonic effects are expected to be of importance in developing stable and high-efficiency nanoscale excitonic optoelectronic devices.

  17. Radiative and nonradiative lifetimes in excited states of Ar, Kr and Xe atoms in Ne matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, U.; Schwentner, N.

    1979-10-01

    Synchrotron radiation with its intense continuum and its excellent time structure has been exploited for time resolved luminescence spectroscopy in the solid state. By selective excitation of n = 1, n' = 1 and n = 2 exciton states of Xe, Kr and Ar atoms in Ne matrix we were able to identify the emitting states involved. Lifetimes within the cascade of radiative and radiationless relaxation between excited states as well as the radiative lifetimes for transitions to the ground state have been derived from the decay curves. Energy positions and radiative lifetimes of the emitting states correspond quite well with those of the free atoms. Radiative and radiationless relaxation processes take place within the manifold of excited states of the guest atoms. The rate constants for radiationless decay confirm an energy gap law. The order of the radiationless processes reaches in some cases extremely high values. Selection rules for spin and angular momentum are essential to understand the observed radiationless transition rates. (orig.)

  18. Exciton fine structure in CdSe nanoclusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, K.; Pokrant, S.; Whaley, K.B.

    1998-01-01

    The fine structure in the CdSe nanocrystal absorption spectrum is computed by incorporating two-particle electron-hole interactions and spin-orbit coupling into a tight-binding model, with an expansion in electron-hole single-particle states. The exchange interaction and spin-orbit coupling give rise to dark, low-lying states that are predominantly triplet in character, as well as to a manifold of exciton states that are sensitive to the nanocrystal shape. Near the band gap, the exciton degeneracies are in qualitative agreement with the effective mass approximation (EMA). However, instead of the infinite lifetimes for dark states characteristic of the EMA, we obtain finite radiative lifetimes for the dark states. In particular, for the lowest, predominantly triplet, states we obtain radiative lifetimes of microseconds, in qualitative agreement with the experimental measured lifetimes. The resonant Stokes shifts obtained from the splitting between the lowest dark and bright states are also in good agreement with experimental values for larger crystallites. Higher-lying states exhibit significantly more complex behavior than predicted by EMA, due to extensive mixing of electron-hole pair states. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  19. Probing long-lived dark excitons in self-assembled quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jeppe; Julsgaard, Brian; Stobbe, Søren

    2010-01-01

    Long-lived dark exciton states are formed in self-assembled quantum dots due to the combination of the angular momentum of electrons and holes. The lifetime of dark excitons are determined by spin-flip processes that transfer dark excitons into radiative bright excitons. We employ time......-resolved spontaneous emission measurements in a modified local density of optical states to unambiguously record the spin-flip rate. Pronounced variations in the spin-flip rate with the quantum dot emission energy are observed demonstrating that the exciton storage time can be extended by controlling the quantum dot......, which illustrates the important role of interfaces for quantum dot based nanophotonic structures....

  20. Electrons, holes, and excitons in GaAs polytype quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Climente, Juan I.; Segarra, Carlos; Rajadell, Fernando; Planelles, Josep, E-mail: josep.planelles@uji.es [Departament de Química Física i Analítica, Universitat Jaume I, E-12080 Castelló (Spain)

    2016-03-28

    Single and multi-band k⋅p Hamiltonians for GaAs crystal phase quantum dots are used to assess ongoing experimental activity on the role of such factors as quantum confinement, spontaneous polarization, valence band mixing, and exciton Coulomb interaction. Spontaneous polarization is found to be a dominating term. Together with the control of dot thickness [Vainorius et al., Nano Lett. 15, 2652 (2015)], it enables wide exciton wavelength and lifetime tunability. Several new phenomena are predicted for small diameter dots [Loitsch et al., Adv. Mater. 27, 2195 (2015)], including non-heavy hole ground state, strong hole spin admixture, and a type-II to type-I exciton transition, which can be used to improve the absorption strength and reduce the radiative lifetime of GaAs polytypes.

  1. Lineshape theory of pigment-protein complexes: How the finite relaxation time of nuclei influences the exciton relaxation-induced lifetime broadening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinh, Thanh-Chung; Renger, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.renger@jku.at [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Altenberger Str. 69, 4040 Linz (Austria)

    2016-07-21

    In pigment-protein complexes, often the excited states are partially delocalized and the exciton-vibrational coupling in the basis of delocalized states contains large diagonal and small off-diagonal elements. This inequality may be used to introduce potential energy surfaces (PESs) of exciton states and to treat the inter-PES coupling in Markov and secular approximations. The resulting lineshape function consists of a Lorentzian peak that is broadened by the finite lifetime of the exciton states caused by the inter-PES coupling and a vibrational sideband that results from the mutual displacement of the excitonic PESs with respect to that of the ground state. So far analytical expressions have been derived that relate the exciton relaxation-induced lifetime broadening to the Redfield [T. Renger and R. A. Marcus, J. Chem. Phys. 116, 9997 (2002)] or modified Redfield [M. Schröder, U. Kleinekathöfer, and M. Schreiber, J. Chem. Phys. 124, 084903 (2006)] rate constants of exciton relaxation, assuming that intra-PES nuclear relaxation is fast compared to inter-PES transfer. Here, we go beyond this approximation and provide an analytical expression, termed Non-equilibrium Modified Redfield (NeMoR) theory, for the lifetime broadening that takes into account the finite nuclear relaxation time. In an application of the theory to molecular dimers, we find that, for a widely used experimental spectral density of the exciton-vibrational coupling of pigment-protein complexes, the NeMoR spectrum at low-temperatures (T < 150 K) is better approximated by Redfield than by modified Redfield theory. At room temperature, the lifetime broadening obtained with Redfield theory underestimates the NeMoR broadening, whereas modified Redfield theory overestimates it by a similar amount. A fortuitous error compensation in Redfield theory is found to explain the good performance of this theory at low temperatures. Since steady state spectra of PPCs are often measured at low temperatures

  2. Shorter Exciton Lifetimes via an External Heavy-Atom Effect: Alleviating the Effects of Bimolecular Processes in Organic Light-Emitting Diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einzinger, Markus; Zhu, Tianyu; de Silva, Piotr; Belger, Christian; Swager, Timothy M; Van Voorhis, Troy; Baldo, Marc A

    2017-10-01

    Multiexcited-state phenomena are believed to be the root cause of two exigent challenges in organic light-emitting diodes; namely, efficiency roll-off and degradation. The development of novel strategies to reduce exciton densities under heavy load is therefore highly desirable. Here, it is shown that triplet exciton lifetimes of thermally activated delayed-fluorescence-emitter molecules can be manipulated in the solid state by exploiting intermolecular interactions. The external heavy-atom effect of brominated host molecules leads to increased spin-orbit coupling, which in turn enhances intersystem crossing rates in the guest molecule. Wave function overlap between the host and the guest is confirmed by combined molecular dynamics and density functional theory calculations. Shorter triplet exciton lifetimes are observed, while high photoluminescence quantum yields and essentially unaltered emission spectra are maintained. A change in the intersystem crossing rate ratio due to increased dielectric constants leads to almost 50% lower triplet exciton densities in the emissive layer in the steady state and results in an improved onset of the photoluminescence quantum yield roll-off at high excitation densities. Efficient organic light-emitting diodes with better roll-off behavior based on these novel hosts are fabricated, demonstrating the suitability of this concept for real-world applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Exciton-polaron quenching in organic thin-film transistors studied by fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Baunegaard With; Leißner, Till; Osadnik, Andreas

    Organic semiconductors show great potential in electronic and optical applications. However, a major challenge is the degradation of the semiconductor materials that cause a reduction in device performance. Here, we present our investigations of Organic Thin Film Transistors (OTFT) based...... that correlates with the local charge density indicates a pronounced exciton quenching by the injected charges. Subsequent FLIM measurements on previously biased OTFT devices show a general decrease in fluorescence lifetime suggesting degradation of the organic semiconductor. This is correlated with the results...

  4. Robust tunable excitonic features in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenide quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouladi-Oskouei, J.; Shojaei, S.; Liu, Z.

    2018-04-01

    The effects of quantum confinement on excitons in parabolic quantum dots of monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDC QDs) are investigated within a massive Dirac fermion model. A giant spin-valley coupling of the TMDC QDs is obtained, larger than that of monolayer TMDC sheets and consistent with recent experimental measurements. The exciton transition energy and the binding energy are calculated, and it is found that the strong quantum confinement results in extremely high exciton binding energies. The enormously large exciton binding energy in TMDC QDs (({{E}{{B2D}}}∼ 500 meV)different kinds of TMDC QDs) ensures that the many body interactions play a significant role in the investigation of the optical properties of these novel nanostructures. The estimated oscillator strength and radiative lifetime of excitons are strongly size-dependent and indicate a giant oscillator strength enhancement and ultrafast radiative annihilation of excitons, varying from a few tens of femtoseconds to a few picoseconds. We found that the spin-dependent band gap, spin-valley coupling, binding energy and excitonic effects can be tuned by quantum confinements, leading to tunable quantum dots in monolayer TMDCs. This finding offers new functionality in engineering the interaction of a 2D material with light and creates promise for the quantum manipulation of spin and valley degrees of freedom in TMDC nanostructures, enabling versatile novel 2D quantum photonic and optoelectronic nanodevices.

  5. Effect of localized surface-plasmon mode on exciton transport and radiation emission in carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslyak, Oleksiy; Cherqui, Charles; Dunlap, David H; Piryatinski, Andrei

    2014-07-17

    We report on a general theoretical approach to study exciton transport and emission in a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) in the presence of a localized surface-plasmon (SP) mode within a metal nanoparticle interacting via near-field coupling. We derive a set of quantum mechanical equations of motion and approximate rate equations that account for the exciton, SP, and the environmental degrees of freedom. The material equations are complemented by an expression for the radiated power that depends on the exciton and SP populations and coherences, allowing for an examination of the angular distribution of the emitted radiation that would be measured in experiment. Numerical simulations for a (6,5) SWNT and cone-shaped Ag metal tip (MT) have been performed using this methodology. Comparison with physical parameters shows that the near-field interaction between the exciton-SP occurs in a weak coupling regime, with the diffusion processes being much faster than the exciton-SP population exchange. In such a case, the effect of the exciton population transfer to the MT with its subsequent dissipation (i.e., the Förster energy transfer) is to modify the exciton steady state distribution while reducing the equilibration time for excitons to reach a steady sate distribution. We find that the radiation distribution is dominated by SP emission for a SWNT-MT separation of a few tens of nanometers due to the fast SP emission rate, whereas the exciton-SP coherences can cause its rotation.

  6. Exciton diffusion coefficient measurement in ZnO nanowires under electron beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donatini, Fabrice; Pernot, Julien

    2018-03-01

    In semiconductor nanowires (NWs) the exciton diffusion coefficient can be determined using a scanning electron microscope fitted with a cathodoluminescence system. High spatial and temporal resolution cathodoluminescence experiments are needed to measure independently the exciton diffusion length and lifetime in single NWs. However, both diffusion length and lifetime can be affected by the electron beam bombardment during observation and measurement. Thus, in this work the exciton lifetime in a ZnO NW is measured versus the electron beam dose (EBD) via a time-resolved cathodoluminescence experiment with a temporal resolution of 50 ps. The behavior of the measured exciton lifetime is consistent with our recent work on the EBD dependence of the exciton diffusion length in similar NWs investigated under comparable SEM conditions. Combining the two results, the exciton diffusion coefficient in ZnO is determined at room temperature and is found constant over the full span of EBD.

  7. Tailoring Quantum Dot Assemblies to Extend Exciton Coherence Times and Improve Exciton Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seward, Kenton; Lin, Zhibin; Lusk, Mark

    2012-02-01

    The motion of excitons through nanostructured assemblies plays a central role in a wide range of physical phenomena including quantum computing, molecular electronics, photosynthetic processes, excitonic transistors and light emitting diodes. All of these technologies are severely handicapped, though, by quasi-particle lifetimes on the order of a nanosecond. The movement of excitons must therefore be as efficient as possible in order to move excitons meaningful distances. This is problematic for assemblies of small Si quantum dots (QDs), where excitons quickly localize and entangle with dot phonon modes. Ensuing exciton transport is then characterized by a classical random walk reduced to very short distances because of efficient recombination. We use a combination of master equation (Haken-Strobl) formalism and density functional theory to estimate the rate of decoherence in Si QD assemblies and its impact on exciton mobility. Exciton-phonon coupling and Coulomb interactions are calculated as a function of dot size, spacing and termination to minimize the rate of intra-dot phonon entanglement. This extends the time over which more efficient exciton transport, characterized by partial coherence, can be maintained.

  8. Spatially indirect excitons in coupled quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Chih-Wei Eddy [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2004-03-01

    Microscopic quantum phenomena such as interference or phase coherence between different quantum states are rarely manifest in macroscopic systems due to a lack of significant correlation between different states. An exciton system is one candidate for observation of possible quantum collective effects. In the dilute limit, excitons in semiconductors behave as bosons and are expected to undergo Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) at a temperature several orders of magnitude higher than for atomic BEC because of their light mass. Furthermore, well-developed modern semiconductor technologies offer flexible manipulations of an exciton system. Realization of BEC in solid-state systems can thus provide new opportunities for macroscopic quantum coherence research. In semiconductor coupled quantum wells (CQW) under across-well static electric field, excitons exist as separately confined electron-hole pairs. These spatially indirect excitons exhibit a radiative recombination time much longer than their thermal relaxation time a unique feature in direct band gap semiconductor based structures. Their mutual repulsive dipole interaction further stabilizes the exciton system at low temperature and screens in-plane disorder more effectively. All these features make indirect excitons in CQW a promising system to search for quantum collective effects. Properties of indirect excitons in CQW have been analyzed and investigated extensively. The experimental results based on time-integrated or time-resolved spatially-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and imaging are reported in two categories. (i) Generic indirect exciton systems: general properties of indirect excitons such as the dependence of exciton energy and lifetime on electric fields and densities were examined. (ii) Quasi-two-dimensional confined exciton systems: highly statistically degenerate exciton systems containing more than tens of thousands of excitons within areas as small as (10 micrometer)2 were

  9. Multiphonon resonant Raman scattering in the semimagnetic semiconductor Cd1-xMnxTe: Froehlich and deformation potential exciton-phonon interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riera, R; Rosas, R; Marin, J L; Bergues, J M; Campoy, G

    2003-01-01

    A theory describing multiphonon resonant Raman scattering (MPRRS) processes in wide-gap diluted magnetic semiconductors is presented, with Cd 1-x Mn x Te as an example. The incident radiation frequency ω l is taken above the fundamental absorption region. The photoexcited electron and hole make real transitions through the LO phonon, when one considers Froehlich (F) and deformation potential (DP) interactions. The strong exchange interaction, typical of these materials, leads to a large spin splitting of the exciton states in the magnetic field. Neglecting Landau quantization, this Zeeman splitting gives rise to the formation of eight bands (two conduction and six valence ones) and ten different exciton states according to the polarization of the incident light. Explicit expressions for the MPRRS intensity of second and third order, the indirect creation and annihilation probabilities, the exciton lifetime, and the probabilities of transition between different exciton states and different types of exciton as a function of ω l and the external magnetic field are presented. The selection rules for all hot exciton transitions via exciton-photon interaction and F and DP exciton-phonon interactions are investigated. The exciton energies, as a function of B, the Mn concentration x, and the temperature T, are compared to a theoretical expression. Graphics for creation and annihilation probabilities, lifetime, and Raman intensity of second and third order are discussed

  10. Fluorescence Spectroscopy, Exciton Dynamics and Photochemistry of Single Allophycocyanin Trimers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying, Liming; Xie, Xiaoliang

    1998-01-01

    We report a study of the spectroscopy and exciton dynamics of the allophycocyanin trimer (APC), a light harvesting protein complex from cyanobacteria, by room-temperature single-molecule measurements of fluorescence spectra, lifetimes, intensity trajectories and polarization modulation. Emission spectra of individual APC trimers are found to be homogeneous on the time scale of seconds. In contrast, their emission lifetimes are found to be widely distributed, because of generation of exciton traps during the course of measurements. The intensity trajectories and polarization modulation experiments indicate reversible ixciton trap formation within the three quasi-independent pairs of strong interacting a84 and B84 chromophores in APC, as well a photobleaching of individual chromophores. Comparison experiments under continuous wave and pulsed excitation reveal a two-photon mechanism for generating exciton traps and/or photobleaching, which involves exciton-exciton annihilation. These single-molecule experiments provide new insights into exciton dynamics and photochemistry of light-harvesting complexes

  11. Effect of potential barrier growth of auto-localized excitons decay on radiation defects in AHC at low lattice symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shunkeev, K.; Sagimbaeva, Sh.; Shunkeev, S.

    2007-01-01

    Effect of auto-localized excitons (ALE) luminescence strengthening is conditioned by two mechanisms: either decrease of potential barrier divided of quasi-free states and auto-localized states or decrease of emission-less channel effectiveness of exciton decay on primary radiation defects. In considered range (80 K) all excitons are only in auto-localized state. Therefore a realization of the first mechanism is improbable, For instant, in KI crystal at 80-100 K luminescence of free exciton is completely putting out, and ALE luminescence has maximal intensity. It is known that in the temperature range when ALE luminescence putting out is beginning an effectiveness of radiation defects is beginning to grow. This effect is related with predominating at that time emission-less exciton decay on radiation defects (F-H pairs). Experimentally by luminescence spectroscopy method activation energy of temperature putting out of ALE in AHC under uniaxial deformation. It is revealed, that increase of activation energy value has observed in a number of crystals: KBr→NaCl→KI→Na Br→CsBr→RbI. It is concluded, that effect of ALE intensity building-up and decrease of effectiveness of radiation defect formation are interpreted by growth of potential barrier of ALE decay into radiation defects under low symmetry of AHC lattice of low-temperature uniaxial deformation

  12. Excitonic processes at organic heterojunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, ShouJie; Lu, ZhengHong

    2018-02-01

    Understanding excitonic processes at organic heterojunctions is crucial for development of organic semiconductor devices. This article reviews recent research on excitonic physics that involve intermolecular charge transfer (CT) excitons, and progress on understanding relationships between various interface energy levels and key parameters governing various competing interface excitonic processes. These interface excitonic processes include radiative exciplex emission, nonradiative recombination, Auger electron emission, and CT exciton dissociation. This article also reviews various device applications involving interface CT excitons, such as organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), organic photovoltaic cells, organic rectifying diodes, and ultralow-voltage Auger OLEDs.

  13. Nuclear Exciton Echo Produced by Ultrasound in Forward Scattering of Synchrotron Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, G.V.; van Buerck, U.; Arthur, J.; Popov, S.L.; Baron, A.Q.; Chumakov, A.I.; Ruby, S.L.; Potzel, W.; Brown, G.S.

    1996-01-01

    The time evolution of the coherent decay of a collective nuclear excitation (nuclear exciton), induced by 14.4 keV synchrotron radiation, was studied in a system of two stainless steel foils, where one was vibrated by ultrasound (US). The US vibrations disrupted the coherent nuclear emission from the two targets. However, at times corresponding to multiples of the US period, spike increases in the decay were observed. The spikes are interpreted as echoes of the initial nuclear exciton. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  14. Exciton coherence in semiconductor quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishi-Hayase, Junko; Akahane, Kouichi; Yamamoto, Naokatsu; Sasaki, Masahide; Kujiraoka, Mamiko; Ema, Kazuhiro

    2009-01-01

    The coherent dynamics of excitons in InAs quantum dots (QDs) was investigated in the telecommunication wavelength range using a transient four-wave mixing technique. The sample was fabricated on an InP(311)B substrate using strain compensation to control the emission wavelength. This technique also enabled us to fabricate a 150-layer stacked QD structure for obtaining a high S/N in the four-wave mixing measurements, although no high-sensitive heterodyne detection was carried out. The dephasing time and transition dipole moment were precisely estimated from the polarization dependence of signals, taking into account their anisotropic properties. The population lifetimes of the excitons were also measured by using a polarization-dependent pumpprobe technique. A quantitative comparison of these anisotropies demonstrates that in our QDs, non-radiative population relaxation, polarization relaxation and pure dephasing are considerably smaller than the radiative relaxation. A comparison of the results of the four-wave mixing and pump-probe measurements revealed that the pure dephasing could be directly estimated with an accuracy of greater than 0.1 meV by comparing the results of four-wave mixing and pump-probe measurements. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  15. Plasmon-exciton-polariton lasing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramezani, M.; Halpin, A.; Fernández-Dominguez, A.I.; Feist, J.; Rodriguez, S.R.K.; Gómez-Rivas, J.; Garcia-Vidal, F.J.

    2016-01-01

    Strong coupling of Frenkel excitons with surface plasmons leads to the formation of bosonic quasi-particles known as plasmon-exciton-polaritons (PEPs).Localized surface plasmons in nanoparticles are lossy due to radiative and nonradiative decays, which has hampered the realization of polariton

  16. A multi-timescale map of radiative and nonradiative decay pathways for excitons in CdSe quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Kathryn E; McArthur, Eric A; Weiss, Emily A

    2011-03-22

    A combination of transient absorption (TA) and time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) spectroscopies performed on solution-phase samples of colloidal CdSe quantum dots (QDs) allows the construction of a time-resolved, charge carrier-resolved map of decay from the first excitonic state of the QD. Data from TA and TRPL yield the same six exponential components, with time constants ranging from ∼1 ps to 50 ns, for excitonic decay. Comparison of TA signals in the visible and near-infrared (NIR) spectral regions enables determination of the relative contributions of electron and hole dynamics to each decay component, and comparison of TA and TRPL reveals that each component represents a competition between radiative and nonradiative decay pathways. In total, these data suggest that the QD sample comprises at least three distinct populations that differ in both the radiative and nonradiative decay pathways available to the excitonic charge carriers, and provide evidence for multiple emissive excitonic states in which the hole is not in the valence band, but rather a relaxed or trapped state.

  17. Spectral and Dynamical Properties of Single Excitons, Biexcitons, and Trions in Cesium-Lead-Halide Perovskite Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, Nikolay S; Guo, Shaojun; Isaienko, Oleksandr; Liu, Wenyong; Robel, István; Klimov, Victor I

    2016-04-13

    Organic-inorganic lead-halide perovskites have been the subject of recent intense interest due to their unusually strong photovoltaic performance. A new addition to the perovskite family is all-inorganic Cs-Pb-halide perovskite nanocrystals, or quantum dots, fabricated via a moderate-temperature colloidal synthesis. While being only recently introduced to the research community, these nanomaterials have already shown promise for a range of applications from color-converting phosphors and light-emitting diodes to lasers, and even room-temperature single-photon sources. Knowledge of the optical properties of perovskite quantum dots still remains vastly incomplete. Here we apply various time-resolved spectroscopic techniques to conduct a comprehensive study of spectral and dynamical characteristics of single- and multiexciton states in CsPbX3 nanocrystals with X being either Br, I, or their mixture. Specifically, we measure exciton radiative lifetimes, absorption cross-sections, and derive the degeneracies of the band-edge electron and hole states. We also characterize the rates of intraband cooling and nonradiative Auger recombination and evaluate the strength of exciton-exciton coupling. The overall conclusion of this work is that spectroscopic properties of Cs-Pb-halide quantum dots are largely similar to those of quantum dots of more traditional semiconductors such as CdSe and PbSe. At the same time, we observe some distinctions including, for example, an appreciable effect of the halide identity on radiative lifetimes, considerably shorter biexciton Auger lifetimes, and apparent deviation of their size dependence from the "universal volume scaling" previously observed for many traditional nanocrystal systems. The high efficiency of Auger decay in perovskite quantum dots is detrimental to their prospective applications in light-emitting devices and lasers. This points toward the need for the development of approaches for effective suppression of Auger

  18. Exciton lifetime and spin dynamics in type-I In1−xAlxAs/Ga0.67Al0.33As quantum dots: Photoluminescence and pump-probe experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Daly, A.; Bernardot, F.; Barisien, T.; Galopin, E.; Lemaître, A.; Maaref, M.A.; Testelin, C.

    2015-01-01

    The exciton lifetime and spin relaxation have been studied in self-assembled In 1−x Al x As/Ga 0.67 Al 0.33 As quantum dots (QDs). Time-resolved photoluminescence and resonant pump-probe measurements were performed, at variable temperature and for different QD aluminium compositions. At low temperature, a long exciton-spin relaxation time has been measured, in agreement with the QD zero-dimensional confinement and the quenching of the relaxation mechanisms. The existence of a quasi-2D regime, in sample with a high QD density, has been observed. The importance of thermally-activated processes toward excited states is also evidenced, for QDs with different compositions and sizes. - Highlights: • The exciton lifetime and spin relaxation have been studied in In 1−x Al x As/Ga 0.67 Al 0.33 As quantum dot (QD). • Time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) and pump-probe measurements were performed, at variable temperature and for different QD aluminium compositions. • From the PL decay time, several thermal activation processes, related to 0D or 2D regime, or dependending on collective mechanisms. • The importance of thermal activated processes toward excited states is also evidenced, for QD with different compositions and sizes

  19. Amplification of electromagnetic radiation in the exciton region of the spectrum of a semiconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nerkararyan, Kh.V.

    1989-01-01

    The problem of amplification of electromagnetic radiation in the exciton region of the spectrum of a semiconductor was first discussed by Haken. The possibility of amplification of an electromagnetic wave under conditions of Bose condensation of biexcitons was considered in Ref. 2. However, the difficulties encountered in the creation of a Bose condensed state of biexcitons complicate greatly the performance of an experiment of this kind. The authors shall show that amplification is possible also in a gaseous mixture of excitons and biexcitons which is in thermal equilibrium and can be described by the Maxwellian distribution function of the velocities

  20. Hopping approach towards exciton dissociation in conjugated polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emelianova, E. V.; Auweraer, M. van der; Baessler, H.

    2008-01-01

    By employing random walk an analytic theory for the dissociation of singlet excitons in a random organic solid, for instance, a conjugated polymer, has been developed. At variance of conventional three-dimensional Onsager theory, it is assumed that an exciton with finite lifetime can first transfer endothermically an electron to an adjacent site, thereby generating a charge transfer state whose energy is above the energy of that of the initial exciton. In a second step the latter can fully dissociate in accordance with Onsager's concept Brownian motion. The results indicate that, depending of the energy required for the first jump, the first jump contributes significantly to the field dependence of the dissociation yield. Disorder weakens the temperature dependence of the yield dramatically and precludes extracting information on the exciton binding energy from it

  1. Population decay time and distribution of exciton states analyzed by rate equations based on theoretical phononic and electron-collisional rate coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, Kensuke; Ma, Bei; Ishitani, Yoshihiro

    2017-11-01

    Population distributions and transition fluxes of the A exciton in bulk GaN are theoretically analyzed using rate equations of states of the principal quantum number n up to 5 and the continuum. These rate equations consist of the terms of radiative, electron-collisional, and phononic processes. The dependence of the rate coefficients on temperature is revealed on the basis of the collisional-radiative model of hydrogen plasma for the electron-collisional processes and theoretical formulation using Fermi's "golden rule" for the phononic processes. The respective effects of the variations in electron, exciton, and lattice temperatures are exhibited. This analysis is a base of the discussion on nonthermal equilibrium states of carrier-exciton-phonon dynamics. It is found that the exciton dissociation is enhanced even below 150 K mainly by the increase in the lattice temperature. When the thermal-equilibrium temperature increases, the population fluxes between the states of n >1 and the continuum become more dominant. Below 20 K, the severe deviation from the Saha-Boltzmann distribution occurs owing to the interband excitation flux being higher than the excitation flux from the 1 S state. The population decay time of the 1 S state at 300 K is more than ten times longer than the recombination lifetime of excitons with kinetic energy but without the upper levels (n >1 and the continuum). This phenomenon is caused by a shift of population distribution to the upper levels. This phonon-exciton-radiation model gives insights into the limitations of conventional analyses such as the ABC model, the Arrhenius plot, the two-level model (n =1 and the continuum), and the neglect of the upper levels.

  2. Coherent quantum dynamics of excitons in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides

    KAUST Repository

    Moody, Galan

    2016-03-14

    Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have garnered considerable interest in recent years owing to their layer thickness-dependent optoelectronic properties. In monolayer TMDs, the large carrier effective masses, strong quantum confinement, and reduced dielectric screening lead to pronounced exciton resonances with remarkably large binding energies and coupled spin and valley degrees of freedom (valley excitons). Coherent control of valley excitons for atomically thin optoelectronics and valleytronics requires understanding and quantifying sources of exciton decoherence. In this work, we reveal how exciton-exciton and exciton-phonon scattering influence the coherent quantum dynamics of valley excitons in monolayer TMDs, specifically tungsten diselenide (WSe2), using two-dimensional coherent spectroscopy. Excitation-density and temperature dependent measurements of the homogeneous linewidth (inversely proportional to the optical coherence time) reveal that exciton-exciton and exciton-phonon interactions are significantly stronger compared to quasi-2D quantum wells and 3D bulk materials. The residual homogeneous linewidth extrapolated to zero excitation density and temperature is ~1:6 meV (equivalent to a coherence time of 0.4 ps), which is limited only by the population recombination lifetime in this sample. © (2016) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  3. Coherent quantum dynamics of excitons in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides

    KAUST Repository

    Moody, Galan; Hao, Kai; Dass, Chandriker Kavir; Singh, Akshay; Xu, Lixiang; Tran, Kha; Chen, Chang-Hsiao; Li, Ming-yang; Li, Lain-Jong; Clark, Genevieve; Bergh ä user, Gunnar; Malic, Ermin; Knorr, Andreas; Xu, Xiaodong; Li, Xiaoqin

    2016-01-01

    Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have garnered considerable interest in recent years owing to their layer thickness-dependent optoelectronic properties. In monolayer TMDs, the large carrier effective masses, strong quantum confinement, and reduced dielectric screening lead to pronounced exciton resonances with remarkably large binding energies and coupled spin and valley degrees of freedom (valley excitons). Coherent control of valley excitons for atomically thin optoelectronics and valleytronics requires understanding and quantifying sources of exciton decoherence. In this work, we reveal how exciton-exciton and exciton-phonon scattering influence the coherent quantum dynamics of valley excitons in monolayer TMDs, specifically tungsten diselenide (WSe2), using two-dimensional coherent spectroscopy. Excitation-density and temperature dependent measurements of the homogeneous linewidth (inversely proportional to the optical coherence time) reveal that exciton-exciton and exciton-phonon interactions are significantly stronger compared to quasi-2D quantum wells and 3D bulk materials. The residual homogeneous linewidth extrapolated to zero excitation density and temperature is ~1:6 meV (equivalent to a coherence time of 0.4 ps), which is limited only by the population recombination lifetime in this sample. © (2016) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  4. Exciton diffusion in WSe2 monolayers embedded in a van der Waals heterostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadiz, F.; Robert, C.; Courtade, E.; Manca, M.; Martinelli, L.; Taniguchi, T.; Watanabe, K.; Amand, T.; Rowe, A. C. H.; Paget, D.; Urbaszek, B.; Marie, X.

    2018-04-01

    We have combined spatially resolved steady-state micro-photoluminescence with time-resolved photoluminescence to investigate the exciton diffusion in a WSe2 monolayer encapsulated with hexagonal boron nitride. At 300 K, we extract an exciton diffusion length of LX = 0.36 ± 0.02 μm and an exciton diffusion coefficient of DX = 14.5 ± 2 cm2/s. This represents a nearly 10-fold increase in the effective mobility of excitons with respect to several previously reported values on nonencapsulated samples. At cryogenic temperatures, the high optical quality of these samples has allowed us to discriminate the diffusion of the different exciton species: bright and dark neutral excitons, as well as charged excitons. The longer lifetime of dark neutral excitons yields a larger diffusion length of LXD=1.5 ±0.02 μ m.

  5. Decay dynamics of neutral and charged excitonic complexes in single InAs/GaAs QDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feucker, Max; Seguin, Robert; Rodt, Sven; Poetschke, Konstantin; Bimberg, Dieter

    2008-01-01

    Across the inhomogeneously broadened lineshape of a quantum dot (QD) ensemble the decay times are expected to vary since the wavefunctions and the oscillator strengths are sensitive to the actual geometry of the QD. We performed time-resolved cathodoluminescence spectroscopy of 26 different single InAs/GaAs QDs to investigate the decay dynamics of neutral and charged excitonic complexes. The largest decay rate was found for the XX + , followed by XX, X + and finally the X. We will show that the ratios of lifetimes of the different excitonic complexes are mainly governed by the number of involved recombination channels. There is excellent agreement between the measured and predicted values for the lifetime ratios of the neutral (X/XX) and the positively charged (X + /XX + ) complexes. Surprisingly the lifetime of the exciton (X) shows a much larger yet unexplained scatter than that of all the other complexes

  6. Exciton-dopant and exciton-charge interactions in electronically doped OLEDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Christopher; Lee, Sergey; Ferraris, John; Zakhidov, A. Anvar

    2004-01-01

    The electronic dopants, like tetrafluorocyanoquinodimethane (F 4 -TCNQ) molecules, used for p-doping of hole transport layers in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are found to quench the electroluminescence (EL) if they diffuse into the emissive layer. We observed EL quenching in OLED with F 4 -TCNQ doped N,N'-diphenyl-N'N'-bis(1-naphthyl)-1,1'-biphenyl-4,4'-diamine hole transport layer at large dopant concentrations, >5%. To separate the effects of exciton-dopant quenching, from exciton-polaron quenching we have intentionally doped the emissive layer of (8-tris-hydroxyquinoline) with three acceptors (A) of different electron affinities: F 4 -TCNQ, TCNQ, and C 60 , and found that C 60 is the strongest EL-quencher, while F 4 -TCNQ is the weakest, contrary to intuitive expectations. The new effects of charge transfer and usually considered energy transfer from exciton to neutral (A) and charged acceptors (A - ) are compared as channels for non-radiative Ex-A decay. At high current loads the EL quenching is observed, which is due to decay of Ex on free charge carriers, hole polarons P + . We consider contributions to Ex-P + interaction by short-range charge transfer and describe the structure of microscopic charge transfer (CT)-processes responsible for it. The formation of metastable states of 'charged excitons' (predicted and studied by Agranovich et al. Chem. Phys. 272 (2001) 159) by electron transfer from a P to an Ex is pointed out, and ways to suppress non-radiative Ex-P decay are suggested

  7. Enhancement of exciton radiative recombination for In-doped ZnO nanowires with aluminum cylindrical micropillars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jen-Cheng; Liang, Yu-Ting; Cheng, Fang-Ching; Fang, Chia-Hui; Chen, Hung-Ing; Tsai, Chung-Yuan [Graduate Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering and Department of Electronic Engineering, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa 1st Road, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan, ROC (China); Jiang, Joe-Air [Department of Bio-Industrial Mechatronics Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan, ROC (China); Nee, Tzer-En, E-mail: neete@mail.cgu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering and Department of Electronic Engineering, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa 1st Road, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2013-04-15

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) has attracted intensive research effort in recent years, due to its unique properties and versatile applications. Recent work on the conservation of surface plasmon (SP) and light through period metal arrays has elucidated the propagation of SP resonance behavior. In this paper, we discuss the enhancement of exciton radiative recombination of the ZnO nanowires with Al cylindrical micropillars. Optical characterization of exciton interacted with SP resonance for indium-doped ZnO nanowires with Al cylindrical micropillars has been also investigated. From photoluminescence spectra of In-doped ZnO nanowires, it is found that the In-doped ZnO nanowires have a blue emission at 425 nm, which resulted from the ZnO band-to-band transition. Prior to the arrays of samples were annealed, a broad green emission centered at 500 nm was observed, which is attributed to ZnO native point defects. The relatively strong green band emission results from the radiative recombination that arises from the ionized oxygen vacancy and surface-defect related luminescence. Compare the In-doped ZnO on Si substrate, the enhancement of PL intensity for In-doped ZnO with deposited Al pattern film can be attributed to strong interaction with SP resonance and exciton over a broad temperature range. These experimental results indicate that Al cylindrical micropillars can significantly enhance carrier confinement and increase the quantum efficiency of In-doped ZnO/Al heterostructures due to the interaction of SP resonance between the In-doped ZnO nanowires and Al cylindrical micropillar structures, the surface-defect related luminescence, and the auxiliary test structures with variable micropillar parameters. -- Highlights: ► We examine the exciton radiative recombination of the ZnO nanowires. ► Al cylindrical micropillars affect the carrier recombination of ZnO/Al structures. ► The interaction of SP resonance between In-doped ZnO nanowire and Al pattern film. ► The carrier

  8. Exciton Transport Simulations in Phenyl Cored Thiophene Dendrimers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwiseon; Erkan Kose, Muhammet; Graf, Peter; Kopidakis, Nikos; Rumbles, Garry; Shaheen, Sean E.

    2009-03-01

    Phenyl cored 3-arm and 4-arm thiophene dendrimers are promising materials for use in photovoltaic devices. It is important to understand the energy transfer mechanisms in these molecules to guide the synthesis of novel dendrimers with improved efficiency. A method is developed to estimate the exciton diffusion lengths for the dendrimers and similar chromophores in amorphous films. The approach exploits Fermi's Golden Rule to estimate the energy transfer rates for an ensemble of bimolecular complexes in random orientations. Using Poisson's equation to evaluate Coulomb integrals led to efficient calculation of excitonic couplings between the transition densities. Monte-Carlo simulations revealed the dynamics of energy transport in the dendrimers. Experimental exciton diffusion lengths of the dendrimers range 10 ˜ 20 nm, increasing with the size of the dendrimer. Simulated diffusion lengths correlate well with experiments. The chemical structure of the chromophore, the shape of the transition densities and the exciton lifetime are found to be the most important factors that determine the exciton diffusion length in amorphous films.

  9. Multicomponent exciton gas in cuprous oxide: cooling behaviour and the role of Auger decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semkat, D.; Sobkowiak, S.; Schöne, F.; Stolz, H.; Koch, Th; Fehske, H.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper we present a hydrodynamic model to describe the dynamics of para- and orthoexcitons in cuprous oxide at ultralow temperatures inside a stress induced potential trap. We take into account the finite lifetime of the excitons, the excitation process and exciton-phonon as well as exciton-exciton interaction. Furthermore, we model the two-body loss mechanism assuming an Auger-like effect and compare it to an alternative explanation which relies on the formation of biexcitons. We discuss in detail the influence on the numerical results and compare the predictions to experimental data.

  10. Low temperature excitonic spectroscopy and dynamics as a probe of quality in hybrid perovskite thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarang, Som; Ishihara, Hidetaka; Chen, Yen-Chang; Lin, Oliver; Gopinathan, Ajay; Tung, Vincent C; Ghosh, Sayantani

    2016-10-19

    We have developed a framework for using temperature dependent static and dynamic photoluminescence (PL) of hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites (PVSKs) to characterize lattice defects in thin films, based on the presence of nanodomains at low temperature. Our high-stability PVSK films are fabricated using a novel continuous liquid interface propagation technique, and in the tetragonal phase (T > 120 K), they exhibit bi-exponential recombination from free charge carriers with an average PL lifetime of ∼200 ns. Below 120 K, the emergence of the orthorhombic phase is accompanied by a reduction in lifetimes by an order of magnitude, which we establish to be the result of a crossover from free carrier to exciton-dominated radiative recombination. Analysis of the PL as a function of excitation power at different temperatures provides direct evidence that the exciton binding energy is different in the two phases, and using these results, we present a theoretical approach to estimate this variable binding energy. Our findings explain this anomalous low temperature behavior for the first time, attributing it to an inherent fundamental property of the hybrid PVSKs that can be used as an effective probe of thin film quality.

  11. Highly mobile charge-transfer excitons in two-dimensional WS2/tetracene heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tong; Yuan, Long; Zhao, Yan; Zhou, Mingwei; Wan, Yan; Mei, Jianguo; Huang, Libai

    2018-01-01

    Charge-transfer (CT) excitons at heterointerfaces play a critical role in light to electricity conversion using organic and nanostructured materials. However, how CT excitons migrate at these interfaces is poorly understood. We investigate the formation and transport of CT excitons in two-dimensional WS2/tetracene van der Waals heterostructures. Electron and hole transfer occurs on the time scale of a few picoseconds, and emission of interlayer CT excitons with a binding energy of ~0.3 eV has been observed. Transport of the CT excitons is directly measured by transient absorption microscopy, revealing coexistence of delocalized and localized states. Trapping-detrapping dynamics between the delocalized and localized states leads to stretched-exponential photoluminescence decay with an average lifetime of ~2 ns. The delocalized CT excitons are remarkably mobile with a diffusion constant of ~1 cm2 s−1. These highly mobile CT excitons could have important implications in achieving efficient charge separation. PMID:29340303

  12. Luminescence lifetime enhanced by exciton-plasmon couple in hybrid CsPbBr3 perovskite/Pt nanostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunxu; Zhang, Jisen; Chen, Yongyi; Jing, Pengtao; Zhang, Ligong; Zhao, Haifeng; Fu, Xihong; Wang, Lijun

    2018-02-01

    Photoluminescence (PL) and time-resolved spectroscopic studies on plasmonically coupled semiconductor nanoparticles (SNPs) have demonstrated the PL quenched and lifetime enhanced of SNPs in the presence of metal nanoparticles (MNPs). The hybrid colloidal CsPbBr3 perovskite SNPs/Pt MNPs (S-M) structures exhibit novel optical properties due to the synergetic interaction between the individual components. In hybrid S-M nanostructures colloidal chemistry incorporates SNP and MNP into a single unit resulting in the formation of plexciton (or excimon) which has now been established in a series of hybrid structures. The experimental results of femtosecond transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy based on the time-resolved pump-probe confirm the transformation from excitons to plexcitons. It was found that the experimental data can’t be well described by the theory based on conventional Fӧster resonance energy transfer (FRET). The differences between theory and experiment may be due to the missing some PbBr2 PL peaks, the reason will be revealed further.

  13. Excitonic Effects in Methylammonium Lead Halide Perovskites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beard, Matthew C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chen, Xihan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lu, Haipeng [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yang, Ye [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-05-01

    The exciton binding energy in methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) is about 10 meV, around 1/3 of the available thermal energy (kBT ~ 26 meV) at room temperature. Thus, exciton populations are not stable at room temperature at moderate photoexcited carrier densities. However, excitonic resonances dominate the absorption onset. Furthermore, these resonances determine the transient absorbance and transient reflectance spectra. The exciton binding energy is a reflection of the Coulomb interaction energy between photoexcited electrons and holes. As such, it serves as a marker for the strength of electron/hole interactions and impacts a variety of phenomena, such as, absorption, radiative recombination, and Auger recombination. In this Perspective, we discuss the role of excitons and excitonic resonances in the optical properties of lead-halide perovskite semiconductors. Finally, we discuss how the strong light-matter interactions induce an optical stark effect splitting the doubly spin degenerate ground exciton states and are easily observed at room temperature.

  14. Radiative recombination process of high density excitons in CdS crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dneprovskij, V.S.; Klimov, V.I.; Martynenko, E.D.; Stadnik, V.A.

    1983-11-01

    The behaviour of the P-, E-, L- and Q-lines of luminescence in CdS is compared with calculated results for the processes of exciton-exciton scattering, exciton-electron scattering, annihilation of equilibrium electron-hole fluid (EHF), annihilation of electron-hole plasma (processes of amplification and reabsorption are taken into account). The comparison permitted to determine parameters of high density exciton gas and EHF. Spectral-kinetic properties of generation are investigated, and amplification factor in CdS is estimated.

  15. Triplet exciton dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strien, A.J. van.

    1981-01-01

    Results are presented of electron spin echo experiments combined with laser flash excitation on triplet states of aromatic molecules. Some of the theoretical and experimental aspects of the photoexcited triplet state are discussed in detail and the electron spin echo spectrometers and laser systems are described. All the experiments described in this thesis were performed at liquid helium temperatures. An account is given of the ESE experiments performed on the photoexcited, non-radiative, triplet state of pentacene in napthalene. This is an example of the ESE technique being used to ascertain the zero-field splitting parameters, the populating and depopulating rates, and the orientation of the pentacene molecules in the naphthalene host. A combination of high resolution laser flash excitation and electron-spin echoes in zero-magnetic field allowed the author to observe directly k(vector)→k(vector)' exciton scattering processes in the one-dimensional triplet excitons in tetrachlorobenzene for the first time. Additional experimental data about exciton scattering is provided and a study of the orientational dependence of the spin-lattice relaxation of the triplet excitons in an external magnetic field is described. (Auth.)

  16. Spin transport dynamics of excitons in CdTe/Cd1-xMnxTe quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayanuma, Kentaro; Shirado, Eiji; Debnath, Mukul C.; Souma, Izuru; Chen, Zhanghai; Oka, Yasuo

    2001-01-01

    Transport properties of spin-polarized excitons were studied in the double quantum well system composed of Cd 0.95 Mn 0.05 Te and CdTe wells. Circular polarization degrees of the time resolved exciton photoluminescence in magnetic field showed that the spin-polarized excitons diffused from the magnetic quantum well and injected to the non-magnetic quantum well by conserving their spins. The spin-polarized excitons injected into the nonmagnetic well reaches 18% of the nonmagnetic well excitons. From the circular polarization degree and the lifetime of the magnetic quantum well excitons, the spin relaxation time of the excitons in the Cd 0.95 Mn 0.05 Te well was determined as 275 - 10 ps depending on the magnetic field strength. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  17. Exciton Emission from Bare and Alq3/Gold Coated GaN Nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Fatemesadat; Kuhnert, Gerd; Hommel, Detlef; Schmitzer, Heidrun; Wagner, Hans-Peter

    We study the excitonic and impurity related emission in bare and aluminum quinoline (Alq3)/gold coated wurtzite GaN nanorods by temperature-dependent time-integrated (TI) and time-resolved (TR) photoluminescence (PL). The GaN nanorods were grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Alq3 as well as Alq3/gold covered nanorods were synthesized by organic molecular beam deposition. In the near-band edge region a donor-bound-exciton (D0X) emission is observed at 3.473 eV. Another emission band at 3.275 eV reveals LO-phonon replica and is attributed to a donor-acceptor-pair (DAP) luminescence. TR PL traces at 20 K show a nearly biexponential decay for the D0X with lifetimes of approximately 180 and 800 ps for both bare and Alq3 coated nanorods. In GaN nanorods which were coated with an Alq3 film and subsequently with a 10 nm thick gold layer we observe a PL quenching of D0X and DAP band and the lifetimes of the D0X transition shorten. The quenching behaviour is partially attributed to the energy-transfer from free excitons and donor-bound-excitons to plasmon oscillations in the gold layer.

  18. Measurement of radiative lifetime in atomic samarium using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-08

    Feb 8, 2014 ... gations of radiative lifetime measurement of odd-parity energy level at ... introduced by an electronic delay generator between the two ... cascade repopulation and depopulation, Zeeman and hyperfine quantum beats [6]. The.

  19. Excitonic and electron-hole mechanisms of the creation of Frenkel defect in alkali halides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lushchik, A.; Kirm, M.; Lushchik, Ch.; Vasil'chenko, E.

    2000-01-01

    Excitonic and electron-hole (e-h) mechanisms of stable F centre creation by VUV radiation in alkali halide crystals are discussed. In KCl at 4.2 K, the efficiency of stable F-H pair creation is especially high at the direct optical formation of triplet excitons with n=1. At 200-400 K, the creation processes of stable F centres in KCl are especially efficient at the formation of one-halide exciton in the Urbach tail of an exciton absorption. In KCl and KBr, the decay of a cation exciton (∼20 eV) causes the formation of two e-h pairs, while in NaCl a cation exciton (33.5 eV) decays into two e-h and an anion exciton. An elastic uniaxial stress of a crystal excited by VUV radiation decreases the mean free path of excitons before their self-trapping (KI) and increases the mean free path of hot holes before self-trapping (NaCl)

  20. Decoupling degradation in exciton formation and recombination during lifetime testing of organic light-emitting devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, Kyle W.; Suddard-Bangsund, John; Qian, Gang; Holmes, Russell J.

    2017-09-01

    The analysis of organic light-emitting device degradation is typically restricted to fitting the overall luminance loss as a function of time or the characterization of fully degraded devices. To develop a more complete understanding of degradation, additional specific data are needed as a function of luminance loss. The overall degradation in luminance during testing can be decoupled into a loss in emitter photoluminescence efficiency and a reduction in the exciton formation efficiency. Here, we demonstrate a method that permits separation of these component efficiencies, yielding the time evolution of two additional specific device parameters that can be used in interpreting and modeling degradation without modification to the device architecture or introduction of any additional post-degradation characterization steps. Here, devices based on the phosphor tris[2-phenylpyridinato-C2,N]iridium(III) (Ir(ppy)3) are characterized as a function of initial luminance and emissive layer thickness. The overall loss in device luminance is found to originate primarily from a reduction in the exciton formation efficiency which is exacerbated in devices with thinner emissive layers. Interestingly, the contribution to overall degradation from a reduction in the efficiency of exciton recombination (i.e., photoluminescence) is unaffected by thickness, suggesting a fixed exciton recombination zone width and degradation at an interface.

  1. Theoretical and experimental investigation of atomic radiative lifetimes and hyperfine structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joensson, Per.

    1992-01-01

    Atomic radiative lifetimes and hyperfine structures as well as other properties, such as total energy and specific mass shift, have been studied theoretically and experimentally. Computer programs to calculate hyperfine structure constants from non-relativistic multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock (MCHF) and relativistic multi-configuration Dirac-Fock (MCDF) wavefunctions have been written. Using these programs large-scale calculations of hyperfine structures in lithium and sodium have been performed. It is shown, that the MCHF method is able to predict hyperfine structures to an accuracy of a few per mille in lithium, whereas for the more complex hyperfine structures to an accuracy of a few per mille in lithium, whereas for the more complex sodium atom an accuracy of a few per cent is obtainable. For lithium convergence of the total energy, ionization energy, specific mass shift and hyperfine parameters has been studied with the MCHF method. Radiative lifetimes and hyperfine structures of excited states in sodium and silver have been experimentally determined using time-resolved laser spectroscopy. By recording the fluorescence light decay curves following VUV excitation, the radiative lifetimes and hyperfine structures of the 7p 2 P states in silver were measured. The delayed-coincidence technique has been used to make very accurate measurements of the radiative lifetimes and hyperfine structures of the lowest P states in sodium and silver

  2. Observation of surface excitons in rare gas solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saile, V.; Skibowski, M.; Steinmann, W.; Guertler, P.; Koch, E.E.; Kozevnikov, A.

    1976-04-01

    Evidence is obtained for the excitation of surface excitons in solid Ar, Kr and Xe in optical transmission and reflection experiments using synchrotron radiation. They are located at photon energies ranging from 0.6 eV for Ar to 0.1 eV for Xe below the corresponding bulk excitons excited from the valence bands. Their halfwidths (20-50 MeV) is less than half the values found for the bulk excitons. Some are split by an amount considerably smaller than the spin orbit splitting of the valence bands. (orig.) [de

  3. Radiationless decay, fission and fusion of excitons in irradiated molecular crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, Gerard.

    1977-01-01

    The creation and evolution of excited states in ionizing particle tracks were investigated. The passage of high energy ionizing particles in molecular crystals results in the formation of highly excited states which energy is generally above the molecular ionization potential. The theory of non radiative transitions, which describes the transitions from the highly excited states to the lowest singlet and triplet excitons S 1 and T 1 is developed. Among these non radiative transitions, the fission of singlet excitons into two singlet or triplet excitons of lower energies is studied experimentally. These results and a kinematics study of the S 1 and T 1 excitons in ionizing particle tracks were used to get a complete description of the scintillation. These results are in good agreement with the experimental measurements on the scintillation [fr

  4. Excitons in Core-Shell Nanowires with Polygonal Cross Sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitek, Anna; Urbaneja Torres, Miguel; Torfason, Kristinn; Gudmundsson, Vidar; Bertoni, Andrea; Manolescu, Andrei

    2018-04-11

    The distinctive prismatic geometry of semiconductor core-shell nanowires leads to complex localization patterns of carriers. Here, we describe the formation of optically active in-gap excitonic states induced by the interplay between localization of carriers in the corners and their mutual Coulomb interaction. To compute the energy spectra and configurations of excitons created in the conductive shell, we use a multielectron numerical approach based on the exact solution of the multiparticle Hamiltonian for electrons in the valence and conduction bands, which includes the Coulomb interaction in a nonperturbative manner. We expose the formation of well-separated quasidegenerate levels, and focus on the implications of the electron localization in the corners or on the sides of triangular, square, and hexagonal cross sections. We obtain excitonic in-gap states associated with symmetrically distributed electrons in the spin singlet configuration. They acquire large contributions due to Coulomb interaction, and thus are shifted to much higher energies than other states corresponding to the conduction electron and the vacancy localized in the same corner. We compare the results of the multielectron method with those of an electron-hole model, and we show that the latter does not reproduce the singlet excitonic states. We also obtain the exciton lifetime and explain selection rules which govern the recombination process.

  5. Classical calculation of radiative lifetimes of atomic hydrogen in a homogeneous magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horbatsch, M.W.; Hessels, E.A.; Horbatsch, M.

    2005-01-01

    Radiative lifetimes of hydrogenic atoms in a homogeneous magnetic field of moderate strength are calculated on the basis of classical radiation. The modifications of the Keplerian orbits due to the magnetic field are incorporated by classical perturbation theory. The model is complemented by a classical radiative decay calculation using the radiated Larmor power. A recently derived highly accurate formula for the transition rate of a field-free hydrogenic state is averaged over the angular momentum oscillations caused by the magnetic field. The resulting radiative lifetimes for diamagnetic eigenstates classified by n,m and the diamagnetic energy shift C compare well with quantum results

  6. Dispersion anisotropy of plasmon-exciton-polaritons in lattices of metallic nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramezani, Mohammad; Halpin, Alexei; Feist, Johannes; Van Hoof, Niels; Fernández-Domínguez, Antonio I.; Garcia-Vidal, Francisco J.; Gómez Rivas, Jaime

    2018-01-01

    When the electromagnetic modes supported by plasmonic-based cavities interact strongly with molecules located within the cavity, new hybrid states known as plasmon-exciton-polaritons (PEPs) are formed. The properties of PEPs, such as group velocity, effective mass, and lifetime, depend on the

  7. Positron annihilation lifetime study of radiation-damaged natural zircons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, J. [Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra (Australia); Gaugliardo, P. [Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, School of Physics, University of Western Australia (Australia); Farnan, I.; Zhang, M. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Vance, E.R.; Davis, J.; Karatchevtseva, I.; Knott, R.B. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (Australia); Mudie, S. [The Australian Synchrotron, Victoria (Australia); Buckman, S.J. [Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra (Australia); Institute for Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Sullivan, J.P., E-mail: james.sullivan@anu.edu.au [Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra (Australia)

    2016-04-01

    Zircons are a well-known candidate waste form for actinides and their radiation damage behaviour has been widely studied by a range of techniques. In this study, well-characterised natural single crystal zircons have been studied using Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS). In some, but not all, of the crystals that had incurred at least half of the alpha-event damage of ∼10{sup 19} α/g required to render them structurally amorphous, PALS spectra displayed long lifetimes corresponding to voids of ∼0.5 nm in diameter. The long lifetimes corresponded to expectations from published Small-Angle X-ray Scattering data on similar samples. However, the non-observation by PALS of such voids in some of the heavily damaged samples may reflect large size variations among the voids such that no singular size can be distinguished or. Characterisation of a range of samples was also performed using scanning electron microscopy, optical absorption spectroscopy, Raman scattering and X-ray scattering/diffraction, with the degree of alpha damage being inferred mainly from the Raman technique and X-ray diffraction. The observed void diameters and intensities of the long lifetime components were changed somewhat by annealing at 700 °C; annealing at 1200 °C removed the voids entirely. The voids themselves may derive from He gas bubbles or voids created by the inclusion of small quantities of organic and hydrous matter, notwithstanding the observation that no voidage was evidenced by PALS in two samples containing hydrous and organic matter. - Highlights: • Study of a range of naturally occurring zircons damaged by alpha radiation. • Characterised using a range of techniques, including PALS spectroscopy. • Effects on hydrous material appear important, rather than direct radiation damage. • Annealing is shown to remove the observed voids.

  8. Exciton emission from bare and hybrid plasmonic GaN nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Fatemesadat; Kunert, Gerd; Hommel, Detlef; Ge, Jingxuan; Duscher, Gerd; Schmitzer, Heidrun; Wagner, Hans Peter

    We study the exciton emission of hybrid gold nanoparticle/Alq3 (aluminiumquinoline)/wurtzite GaN nanorods. GaN nanorods of 1.5 μm length and 250 nm diameter were grown by plasma assisted MBE. Hybrid GaN nanorods were synthesized by organic molecular beam deposition. Temperature and power dependent time integrated (TI) and time resolved (TR) photoluminescence (PL) measurements were performed on bare and hybrid structures. Bare nanorods show donor (D0,X) and acceptor bound (A0,X) exciton emission at 3.473 eV and at 3.463 eV, respectively. TR-PL trace modeling reveal lifetimes of 240 ps and 1.4 ns for the (D0,X) and (A0,X) transition. 10 nm gold coated GaN nanorods show a significant PL quenching and (D0,X) lifetime shortening which is tentatively attributed to impact ionization of (D0,X) due to hot electron injection from the gold nanoparticles. This is supported by electron energy loss spectroscopy that shows a redshift of a midgap state transition indicating a reduction of a preexisting band-bending at the nanorod surface due to positive charging of the gold nanoparticles. Inserting a nominally 5 nm thick Alq3 spacer between the nanorod and the gold reduces the PL quenching and lifetime shortening. Plasmonic nanorods with a 30 nm thick Alq3 spacer reveal lifetimes which are nearly identical to uncoated GaN nanorods.

  9. Recombination dynamics of excitons with low non-radiative component in semi-polar (10-11)-oriented GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales, D.; Gil, B.; Bretagnon, T.; Guizal, B.; Izyumskaya, N.; Monavarian, M.; Zhang, F.; Okur, S.; Avrutin, V.; Özgür, Ü.; Morkoç, H.

    2014-09-01

    Optical properties of GaN/Al0.2Ga0.8N multiple quantum wells grown with semi-polar (10-11) orientation on patterned 7°-off Si (001) substrates have been investigated. Studies performed at 8 K reveal the in-plane anisotropic behavior of the QW photoluminescence (PL) intensity for this semi-polar orientation. The time resolved PL measurements were carried out in the temperature range from 8 to 295 K to deduce the effective recombination decay times, with respective radiative and non-radiative contributions. The non-radiative component remains relatively weak with increasing temperature, indicative of high crystalline quality. The radiative decay time is a consequence of contribution from both localized and free excitons. We report an effective density of interfacial defects of 2.3 × 1012 cm-2 and a radiative recombination time of τloc = 355 ps for the localized excitons. This latter value is significantly larger than those reported for the non-polar structures, which we attribute to the presence of a weak residual electric field in the semi-polar QW layers.

  10. Adequacy of relative and absolute risk models for lifetime risk estimate of radiation-induced cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McBride, M.; Coldman, A.J.

    1988-03-01

    This report examines the applicability of the relative (multiplicative) and absolute (additive) models in predicting lifetime risk of radiation-induced cancer. A review of the epidemiologic literature, and a discussion of the mathematical models of carcinogenesis and their relationship to these models of lifetime risk, are included. Based on the available data, the relative risk model for the estimation of lifetime risk is preferred for non-sex-specific epithelial tumours. However, because of lack of knowledge concerning other determinants of radiation risk and of background incidence rates, considerable uncertainty in modelling lifetime risk still exists. Therefore, it is essential that follow-up of exposed cohorts be continued so that population-based estimates of lifetime risk are available

  11. A method for calculating effective lifetime risk of radiation-induced cancer from screening mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, R.M.; England, A.; McEntee, M.F.; Hogg, P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To propose a method for evaluating the effective lifetime risk of radiation-induced cancer from screening mammography and to present initial data for the UK National Breast Screening Programme. Material and methods: The imaging was undertaken using a Hologic Selenia full field digital mammographic unit. The proposed method utilises an ATOM phantom containing thermoluminescent dosimeters and a perspex-polyethylene breast phantom to measure organ doses during a standard four view screening mammogram. Effective dose was calculated and effective risk was modelled for a range of client ages. The total lifetime effective risk was then calculated for the UK national screening programme. Calculation of effective risk includes the radiation dose to examined and contralateral breasts in addition to other body organs; this is an advantage over the mean glandular dose. Results: The contralateral breast, thyroid, thymus, brain, lung, salivary glands, and bone marrow all receive more than 1 μGy radiation dose during screening mammography. A major difference exists for total effective lifetime risk of radiation-induced cancer between clients with average and high breast cancer risk. Differences are attributed to the commencement age of screening and time interval between screens. Conclusion: This study proposes a method to evaluate effective lifetime risk of radiation-induced cancer from screening mammography in order to compare different mammography screening programmes. - Highlights: • We proposed a method for the calculation of radiation-induced cancer from screening mammography. • We measured the radiation absorbed dose of different organs during screening mammography. • There are major differences between mammography screening programme categories with regard to radiation effective risk.

  12. Excitons in insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grasser, R.; Scharmann, A.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter investigates absorption, reflectivity, and intrinsic luminescence spectra of free and/or self-trapped (localized) excitons in alkali halides and rare gas solids. Introduces the concepts underlying the Wannier-Mott and Frenkel exciton models, two extreme pictures of an exciton in crystalline materials. Discusses the theoretical and experimental background; excitons in alkali halides; and excitons in rare gas solids. Shows that the intrinsic optical behavior of wide gap insulators in the range of the fundamental absorption edge is controlled by modified Wannier-Mott excitons. Finds that while that alkali halides only show free and relaxed molecular-like exciton emission, in rare gas crystals luminescence due to free, single and double centered localized excitons is observed. Indicates that the simultaneous existence of free and self-trapped excitons in these solid requires an energy barrier for self-trapping

  13. Kozloduy NPP WWER-440/230 reactor pressure vessel radiation lifetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vodenicharov, S [Bylgarska Akademiya na Naukite, Sofia (Bulgaria). Inst. po Metaloznanie i Tekhnologiya na Metalite; Kamenova, Tz [Bylgarska Akademiya na Naukite, Sofia (Bulgaria). Inst. po Metaloznanie i Tekhnologiya na Metalite; Tzokov, P; Videnov, A [Kombinat Atomna Energetika, Kozloduj (Bulgaria); Pekov, B [Committee on the Use of Atomic Energy for Peaceful Purposes, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1996-12-31

    The processes of metal embrittlement induced by neutron irradiation embrittlement (NIE) and neutron re-irradiation embrittlement (NRE) of the rector pressure vessel (RPV) are investigated. Radiation lifetime is calculated using two approaches for re-embrittlement: a conservative law and a lateral shift of the critical transition temperature curve after neutron irradiation. In order to prevent NIE the following measures have been taken at the Kozloduy NPP: loading of dummy elements into core periphery; heating the water for emergency core cooling to 55{sup o} C; fast acting valves in the main steam piping, etc. The critical embrittlement temperature, the residual part of temperature shift and the radiation lifetime have been calculated for units 1 - 4 using the two approaches and updated information on P and Cu impurities content. It is concluded that if the lateral re-embrittlement law is adopted and the P content does not exceed 0.05%, all RPV should reach their design lifetime. The NIE in WWER-440/230 is related to C and P content in the weld 4 and is negligible for the Unit 4 in particular, which has low impurities content. In order to reach the design lifetime of the Units 1 - 3 it is necessary to install MSIV. A verification of chemical composition of the Unit 1 RPV weld 4 metal is recommended. 7 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. Kozloduy NPP WWER-440/230 reactor pressure vessel radiation lifetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vodenicharov, S.; Pekov, B.

    1995-01-01

    The processes of metal embrittlement induced by neutron irradiation embrittlement (NIE) and neutron re-irradiation embrittlement (NRE) of the rector pressure vessel (RPV) are investigated. Radiation lifetime is calculated using two approaches for re-embrittlement: a conservative law and a lateral shift of the critical transition temperature curve after neutron irradiation. In order to prevent NIE the following measures have been taken at the Kozloduy NPP: loading of dummy elements into core periphery; heating the water for emergency core cooling to 55 o C; fast acting valves in the main steam piping, etc. The critical embrittlement temperature, the residual part of temperature shift and the radiation lifetime have been calculated for units 1 - 4 using the two approaches and updated information on P and Cu impurities content. It is concluded that if the lateral re-embrittlement law is adopted and the P content does not exceed 0.05%, all RPV should reach their design lifetime. The NIE in WWER-440/230 is related to C and P content in the weld 4 and is negligible for the Unit 4 in particular, which has low impurities content. In order to reach the design lifetime of the Units 1 - 3 it is necessary to install MSIV. A verification of chemical composition of the Unit 1 RPV weld 4 metal is recommended. 7 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs

  15. Effects of surface and interface traps on exciton and multi-exciton dynamics in core/shell quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozio, Renato; Righetto, Marcello; Minotto, Alessandro

    2017-08-01

    Exciton interactions and dynamics are the most important factors determining the exceptional photophysical properties of semiconductor quantum dots (QDs). In particular, best performances have been obtained for ingeniously engineered core/shell QDs. We have studied two factors entering in the exciton decay dynamics with adverse effects for the luminescence efficiency: exciton trapping at surface and interface traps, and non-radiative Auger recombination in QDs carrying either net charges or multiple excitons. In this work, we present a detailed study into the optical absorption, fluorescence dynamics and quantum yield, as well as ultrafast transient absorption properties of CdSe/CdS, CdSe/Cd0.5Zn0.5S, and CdSe/ZnS QDs as a function of shell thickness. It turns out that de-trapping processes play a pivotal role in determining steady state emission properties. By studying the excitation dependent photoluminescence quantum yields (PLQY) in different CdSe/CdxZn1-xS (x = 0, 0.5, 1) QDs, we demonstrate the different role played by hot and cold carrier trapping rates in determining fluorescence quantum yields. Finally, the use of global analysis allows us untangling the complex ultrafast transient absorption signals. Smoothing of interface potential, together with effective surface passivation, appear to be crucial factors in slowing down both Auger-based and exciton trapping recombination processes.

  16. Recombination dynamics of excitons with low non-radiative component in semi-polar (10-11)-oriented GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosales, D.; Gil, B.; Bretagnon, T.; Guizal, B.; Izyumskaya, N.; Monavarian, M.; Zhang, F.; Okur, S.; Avrutin, V.; Özgür, Ü.; Morkoç, H.

    2014-01-01

    Optical properties of GaN/Al 0.2 Ga 0.8 N multiple quantum wells grown with semi-polar (10-11) orientation on patterned 7°-off Si (001) substrates have been investigated. Studies performed at 8 K reveal the in-plane anisotropic behavior of the QW photoluminescence (PL) intensity for this semi-polar orientation. The time resolved PL measurements were carried out in the temperature range from 8 to 295 K to deduce the effective recombination decay times, with respective radiative and non-radiative contributions. The non-radiative component remains relatively weak with increasing temperature, indicative of high crystalline quality. The radiative decay time is a consequence of contribution from both localized and free excitons. We report an effective density of interfacial defects of 2.3 × 10 12 cm −2 and a radiative recombination time of τ loc  = 355 ps for the localized excitons. This latter value is significantly larger than those reported for the non-polar structures, which we attribute to the presence of a weak residual electric field in the semi-polar QW layers

  17. Recombination dynamics of excitons with low non-radiative component in semi-polar (10-11)-oriented GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosales, D.; Gil, B.; Bretagnon, T.; Guizal, B. [CNRS, Laboratoire Charles Coulomb, UMR 5221, F-34095 Montpellier (France); Université Montpellier 2, Laboratoire Charles Coulomb, UMR 5221, F-34095 Montpellier (France); Izyumskaya, N.; Monavarian, M.; Zhang, F.; Okur, S.; Avrutin, V.; Özgür, Ü.; Morkoç, H. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23238 (United States)

    2014-09-07

    Optical properties of GaN/Al{sub 0.2}Ga{sub 0.8}N multiple quantum wells grown with semi-polar (10-11) orientation on patterned 7°-off Si (001) substrates have been investigated. Studies performed at 8 K reveal the in-plane anisotropic behavior of the QW photoluminescence (PL) intensity for this semi-polar orientation. The time resolved PL measurements were carried out in the temperature range from 8 to 295 K to deduce the effective recombination decay times, with respective radiative and non-radiative contributions. The non-radiative component remains relatively weak with increasing temperature, indicative of high crystalline quality. The radiative decay time is a consequence of contribution from both localized and free excitons. We report an effective density of interfacial defects of 2.3 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup −2} and a radiative recombination time of τ{sub loc} = 355 ps for the localized excitons. This latter value is significantly larger than those reported for the non-polar structures, which we attribute to the presence of a weak residual electric field in the semi-polar QW layers.

  18. Effects of excitation spectral width on decay profile of weakly confined excitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, O.; Isu, T.; Ishi-Hayase, J.; Kanno, A.; Katouf, R.; Sasaki, M.; Tsuchiya, M.

    2008-01-01

    We report the effect due to a simultaneous excitation of several exciton states on the radiative decay profiles on the basis of the nonlocal response of weakly confined excitons in GaAs thin films. In the case of excitation of single exciton state, the transient grating signal has two decay components. The fast decay component comes from nonlocal response, and the long-lived component is attributed to free exciton decay. With an increase of excitation spectral width, the nonlocal component becomes small in comparison with the long-lived component, and disappears under irradiation of a femtosecond-pulse laser with broader spectral width. The transient grating spectra clearly indicates the contribution of the weakly confined excitons to the signal, and the exciton line width hardly changes by excitation spectral width. From these results, we concluded that the change of decay profile is attributed not to the many-body effect but to the effect of simultaneous excitation of several exciton states

  19. Inelastic scattering of neutrons by laser photons and excitons in crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agranovich, V.M.; Lalov, I.J.

    1975-01-01

    The cross section for the neutron scattering by photons sharply increases in crystals. In view of the fact that a propagating photon in a crystal (polariton), being the superposition of transverse photons and Coulomb excitations (optical phonons, excitons, etc.), involves in the motion also a nucleus subsystem, the cross section for the neutron scattering on the photon turns out to be proportional to the cross section for neutron scattering on nuclei and to the strength function of phonons at the polariton frequency. Numerical estimates for the cross section of the noncoherent photon absorption by a neutron in the case of a LiH crystal in the presence of an intense, electromagnetic radiation point to the possibility of an action of neutron fluxes by laser radiation. A similar effect of involvement (superposition) also takes place for excitons. This fact can be used for calculations of the cross section for neutron inelastic scattering by excitons, which is proportional to the scattering of neutron on nuclei cross section. The paper also discussed the effect of laser radiation of neutron-induced nuclear reaction (radiative capture and threshold reactions)

  20. Exciton correlations and input–output relations in non-equilibrium exciton superfluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Jinwu; Sun, Fadi; Yu, Yi-Xiang; Liu, Wuming

    2013-01-01

    The photoluminescence (PL) measurements on photons and the transport measurements on excitons are the two types of independent and complementary detection tools to search for possible exciton superfluids in electron–hole semi-conductor bilayer systems. In fact, it was believed that the transport measurements can provide more direct evidences on superfluids than the spectroscopic measurements. It is important to establish the relations between the two kinds of measurements. In this paper, using quantum Heisenberg–Langevin equations, we establish such a connection by calculating various exciton correlation functions in the putative exciton superfluids. These correlation functions include both normal and anomalous greater, lesser, advanced, retarded, and time-ordered exciton Green functions and also various two exciton correlation functions. We also evaluate the corresponding normal and anomalous spectral weights and the Keldysh distribution functions. We stress the violations of the fluctuation and dissipation theorem among these various exciton correlation functions in the non-equilibrium exciton superfluids. We also explore the input–output relations between various exciton correlation functions and those of emitted photons such as the angle resolved photon power spectrum, phase sensitive two mode squeezing spectrum and two photon correlations. Applications to possible superfluids in the exciton–polariton systems are also mentioned. For a comparison, using conventional imaginary time formalism, we also calculate all the exciton correlation functions in an equilibrium dissipative exciton superfluid in the electron–electron coupled semi-conductor bilayers at the quantum Hall regime at the total filling factor ν T =1. We stress the analogies and also important differences between the correlations functions in the two exciton superfluid systems. - Highlights: ► Establish the relations between photoluminescence and transport measurements. ► Stress the

  1. Generation of multiple excitons in Ag2S quantum dots: Single high-energy versus multiple-photon excitation

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Jingya; Yu, Weili; Usman, Anwar; Isimjan, Tayirjan T.; Del Gobbo, Silvano; Alarousu, Erkki; Takanabe, Kazuhiro; Mohammed, Omar F.

    2014-01-01

    We explored biexciton generation via carrier multiplication (or multiple-exciton generation) by high-energy photons and by multiple-photon absorption in Ag2S quantum dots (QDs) using femtosecond broad-band transient absorption spectroscopy. Irrespective of the size of the QDs and how the multiple excitons are generated in the Ag2S QDs, two distinct characteristic time constants of 9.6-10.2 and 135-175 ps are obtained for the nonradiative Auger recombination of the multiple excitons, indicating the existence of two binding excitons, namely, tightly bound and weakly bound excitons. More importantly, the lifetimes of multiple excitons in Ag 2S QDs were about 1 and 2 orders of magnitude longer than those of comparable size PbS QDs and single-walled carbon nanotubes, respectively. This result is significant because it suggests that by utilizing an appropriate electron acceptor, there is a higher possibility to extract multiple electron-hole pairs in Ag2S QDs, which should improve the performance of QD-based solar cell devices. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  2. Generation of multiple excitons in Ag2S quantum dots: Single high-energy versus multiple-photon excitation

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Jingya

    2014-02-20

    We explored biexciton generation via carrier multiplication (or multiple-exciton generation) by high-energy photons and by multiple-photon absorption in Ag2S quantum dots (QDs) using femtosecond broad-band transient absorption spectroscopy. Irrespective of the size of the QDs and how the multiple excitons are generated in the Ag2S QDs, two distinct characteristic time constants of 9.6-10.2 and 135-175 ps are obtained for the nonradiative Auger recombination of the multiple excitons, indicating the existence of two binding excitons, namely, tightly bound and weakly bound excitons. More importantly, the lifetimes of multiple excitons in Ag 2S QDs were about 1 and 2 orders of magnitude longer than those of comparable size PbS QDs and single-walled carbon nanotubes, respectively. This result is significant because it suggests that by utilizing an appropriate electron acceptor, there is a higher possibility to extract multiple electron-hole pairs in Ag2S QDs, which should improve the performance of QD-based solar cell devices. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  3. Fine structure of spectra of a bound exciton in tetragonal zinc diphosphide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syrbu, N.N.; Morozova, V.I.; Stratan, G.I.

    1989-01-01

    Investigation into the low-temperature luminescence spectra recorded in different crystal geometry relative to the direction of incident radiation wave vector, has demonstrated the existence of saddle-shaped valent zone ceiling near k=0 in zinc tetragonal diphosphide monocrystals. Binding energies of free (2.2085 eV) and bound (A(2.1943eV)B(2.1765eV), C(2.1447eV)) excitons as well as the phonon energy value are determined by investigations into absorption spectrum and radiative recombination. Phonon-free lines of bound A 0 and C 0 excitons are splitted into 2.2 and 0.3 MeV respectively. The band exciton singlet-triplet state splittings in a magnetic field and their field dependences are obtained. The spectroscopic splitting factor g=1.9 is determined

  4. Light controlled spin properties and radiative coupling of CdSe based quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, T.; Worschech, L.; Scheibner, M.; Forchel, A.; Slobodskyy, T.; Schmidt, G.; Molenkamp, L.W.; Passow, T.; Hommel, D.

    2007-01-01

    The authors have studied the photoluminescence of large and small ensembles of CdSe based quantum dots (QDs) in magnetic fields for different polarizations and powers of the exciting laser light. By means of polarization spectroscopy the g factors and spin lifetimes were determined for semimagnetic CdMnSe QDs with nominal Mn contents of 0%, 1% and 2%. Also the corresponding exciton lifetimes were analyzed. A sign reversal of the QD exciton g factor was identified comparing the polarization of QD luminescence with 0% and 2% Mn. For small excitation powers QDs with 1% Mn have a vanishing small value of g. Interestingly, by ramping up the excitation power of the exciting laser the exciton g factor increases by up to a factor of 30. Different heating mechanism were identified by characteristic power dependencies. For low excitation powers indirect heating of the spin systems occurs whereas above a critical power direct heating due to photoexcited carriers dominates. It is also demonstrated that in CdMnSe QDs the circular polarization of the luminescence can be inverted solely controlled by the laser power. Applying mesa techniques, collective radiance of QDs is demonstrated. For that purpose the radiative lifetimes of QDs with such a density that there are many dots within an area proportional to the square of the optical wavelength were studied for different numbers of QDs removed from that area. A comparison of photoluminescence decay times obtained for non-resonant and quasi-resonant excitation conditions and different mesa sizes is given. Radiative coupling of QDs takes place at least on the order of 150 nm. This length is comparable to the dimensions of lithographically well definable nanostructures and may therefore provide a mechanism to couple discrete quantum objects on a large scale. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  5. Intrinsic homogeneous linewidth and broadening mechanisms of excitons in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides

    KAUST Repository

    Moody, Galan

    2015-09-18

    The band-edge optical response of transition metal dichalcogenides, an emerging class of atomically thin semiconductors, is dominated by tightly bound excitons localized at the corners of the Brillouin zone (valley excitons). A fundamental yet unknown property of valley excitons in these materials is the intrinsic homogeneous linewidth, which reflects irreversible quantum dissipation arising from system (exciton) and bath (vacuum and other quasiparticles) interactions and determines the timescale during which excitons can be coherently manipulated. Here we use optical two-dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy to measure the exciton homogeneous linewidth in monolayer tungsten diselenide (WSe2). The homogeneous linewidth is found to be nearly two orders of magnitude narrower than the inhomogeneous width at low temperatures. We evaluate quantitatively the role of exciton–exciton and exciton–phonon interactions and population relaxation as linewidth broadening mechanisms. The key insights reported here—strong many-body effects and intrinsically rapid radiative recombination—are expected to be ubiquitous in atomically thin semiconductors.

  6. Time-dependent screening of a positive charge distribution in metals: Excitons on an ultra-short time scale

    OpenAIRE

    Schöne, Wolf-Dieter; Ekardt, Walter

    2000-01-01

    Experiments determining the lifetime of excited electrons in crystalline copper reveal states which cannot be interpreted as Bloch states [S. Ogawa {\\it et al.}, Phys. Rev. B {\\bf 55}, 10869 (1997)]. In this article we propose a model which explains these states as transient excitonic states in metals. The physical background of transient excitons is the finite time a system needs to react to an external perturbation, in other words, the time which is needed to build up a polarization cloud. ...

  7. Radiative lifetime of geminate and non-geminate pairs in amorphous semiconductors: a-Ge:H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Jai [Faculty of Technology, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, NT 0909 (Australia)

    2006-07-01

    Lifetimes of radiative recombination of geminate and non-geminate pairs in amorphous semiconductors are calculated at thermal equilibrium. The theory is applied to calculate the radiative lifetimes of type I and II geminate pairs and non-geminate pairs in hydrogenated amorphous germanium (a-Ge:H) and compared with the experimental results. The type II geminate pairs can exist in singlet and triplet spin states, only singlet is considered here, whereas the type I geminate pairs do not have spin dependence. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  8. Plasmonic, excitonic and exciton-plasmonic photoinduced nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bityurin, N.; Ermolaev, N.; Smirnov, A. A.; Afanasiev, A.; Agareva, N.; Koryukina, T.; Bredikhin, V.; Kamensky, V.; Pikulin, A.; Sapogova, N.

    2016-03-01

    UV irradiation of materials consisting of a polymer matrix that possesses precursors of different kinds can result in creation of nanoparticles within the irradiated domains. Such photoinduced nanocomposites are promising for photonic applications due to the strong alteration of their optical properties compared to initial non-irradiated materials. We report our results on the synthesis and investigation of plasmonic, excitonic and exciton-plasmonic photoinduced nanocomposites. Plasmonic nanocomposites contain metal nanoparticles of noble metals with a pronounced plasmon resonance. Excitonic nanocomposites possess semiconductor nanoclusters (quantum dots). We consider the CdS-Au pair because the luminescent band of CdS nanoparticles enters the plasmon resonance band of gold nanoparticles. The obtaining of such particles within the same composite materials is promising for the creation of media with exciton-plasmon resonance. We demonstrate that it is possible to choose appropriate precursor species to obtain the initially transparent poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) films containing both types of these molecules either separately or together. Proper irradiation of these materials by a light-emitting diode operating at the wavelength of 365 nm provides material alteration demonstrating light-induced optical absorption and photoluminescent properties typical for the corresponding nanoparticles. Thus, an exciton-plasmonic photoinduced nanocomposite is obtained. It is important that here we use the precursors that are different from those usually employed.

  9. Features of exciton dynamics in molecular nanoclusters (J-aggregates): Exciton self-trapping (Review Article)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malyukin, Yu. V.; Sorokin, A. V.; Semynozhenko, V. P.

    2016-06-01

    We present thoroughly analyzed experimental results that demonstrate the anomalous manifestation of the exciton self-trapping effect, which is already well-known in bulk crystals, in ordered molecular nanoclusters called J-aggregates. Weakly-coupled one-dimensional (1D) molecular chains are the main structural feature of J-aggregates, wherein the electron excitations are manifested as 1D Frenkel excitons. According to the continuum theory of Rashba-Toyozawa, J-aggregates can have only self-trapped excitons, because 1D excitons must adhere to barrier-free self-trapping at any exciton-phonon coupling constant g = ɛLR/2β, wherein ɛLR is the lattice relaxation energy, and 2β is the half-width of the exciton band. In contrast, very often only the luminescence of free, mobile excitons would manifest in experiments involving J-aggregates. Using the Urbach rule in order to analyze the low-frequency region of the low-temperature exciton absorption spectra has shown that J-aggregates can have both a weak (g 1) exciton-phonon coupling. Moreover, it is experimentally demonstrated that under certain conditions, the J-aggregate excited state can have both free and self-trapped excitons, i.e., we establish the existence of a self-trapping barrier for 1D Frenkel excitons. We demonstrate and analyze the reasons behind the anomalous existence of both free and self-trapped excitons in J-aggregates, and demonstrate how exciton-self trapping efficiency can be managed in J-aggregates by varying the values of g, which is fundamentally impossible in bulk crystals. We discuss how the exciton-self trapping phenomenon can be used as an alternate interpretation of the wide band emission of some J-aggregates, which has thus far been explained by the strongly localized exciton model.

  10. Magneto-exciton transitions in laterally coupled quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barticevic, Zdenka; Pacheco, Monica; Duque, Carlos A.; Oliveira, Luiz E.

    2008-03-01

    We present a study of the electronic and optical properties of laterally coupled quantum dots. The excitonic spectra of this system under the effects of an external magnetic field applied perpendicular to the plane of the dots is obtained, with the potential of every individual dot taken as the superposition of a quantum well potential along the axial direction with a lateral parabolic confinement potential, and the coupled two- dot system then modeled by a superposition of the potentials of each dot, with their minima at different positions and truncated at the intersection plane. The wave functions and eigenvalues are obtained in the effective-mass approximation by using an extended variational approach in which the magneto- exciton states are simultaneously obtained [1]. The allowed magneto-exciton transitions are investigated by using circularly polarized radiation in the plane perpendicular to the magnetic field. We present results on the excitonic absorption coefficient as a function of the photon energy for different geometric quantum-dot confinement and magnetic-field values. Reference: [1] Z. Barticevic, M. Pacheco, C. A. Duque and L. E. Oliveira, Phys. Rev. B 68, 073312 (2003).

  11. Time-resolved photoluminescence investigation of (Mg, Zn) O alloy growth on a non-polar plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed Ali, Mohammed Jassim; Chauveau, J. M.; Bretagnon, T.

    2018-04-01

    Excitons recombination dynamics in ZnMgO alloy have been studied by time-resolved photoluminescence according to temperature. At low temperature, localisation effects of the exciton are found to play a significant role. The photoluminescence (PL) decays are bi-exponential. The short lifetime has a constant value, whereas the long lifetime shows a dependency with temperature. For temperature higher than 100 K the declines show a mono-exponential decay. The PL declines are dominated by non-radiative process at temperatures above 150 K. The PL lifetime dependancy with temperature is analysed using a model including localisation effects and non-radiative recombinations.

  12. Perovskite Excitonics : Primary Exciton Creation and Crossover from Free Carriers to a Secondary Exciton Phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarritzu, Valerio; Sestu, Nicola; Marongiu, Daniela; Chang, Xueqing; Wang, Qingqian; Loi, Maria Antonietta; Quochi, Francesco; Saba, Michele; Mura, Andrea; Bongiovanni, Giovanni

    2018-01-01

    Understanding exciton formation is of fundamental importance for emerging optoelectronic materials, like hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites, as excitons are the lowest-energy photoexcitations in semiconductors, are electrically neutral, and do not directly contribute to charge transport, but can

  13. Excitonic recombination dynamics in non-polar GaN/AlGaN quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales, D.; Gil, B.; Bretagnon, T.; Guizal, B.; Zhang, F.; Okur, S.; Monavarian, M.; Izyumskaya, N.; Avrutin, V.; Özgür, Ü.; Morkoç, H.; Leach, J. H.

    2014-02-01

    The optical properties of GaN/Al0.15Ga0.85N multiple quantum wells are examined in 8 K-300 K temperature range. Both polarized CW and time resolved temperature-dependent photoluminescence experiment are performed so that we can deduce the relative contributions of the non-radiative and radiative recombination processes. From the calculation of the proportion of the excitonic population having wave vector in the light cone, we can deduce the variation of the radiative decay time with temperature. We find part of the excitonic population to be localized in concert with the report of Corfdir et al. (Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2 52, 08JC01 (2013)) in case of a-plane quantum wells.

  14. Effects of Radiative Recombination and Photon Recycling on Minority Carrier Lifetime in Epitaxial GaINAsSb Lattice-matched to GaSb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S Anikeev; D Donetsky; G Belenky; S Luryl; CA Wang; DA Shiau; M Dashiell; J Beausang; G Nichols

    2004-01-01

    Radiative coefficient (B) is a fundamental recombination parameter which is of importance for a variety of optoelectronic minority carrier devices. Radiative recombination was comprehensively studied for wide-bandgap III-V compounds, while for 0.5-0.6 eV materials experimental data are quite limited and demonstrate significant spreading. Here we report excess carrier lifetime in isotype double heterostructures (DHs) of 0.54-eV p-GaInAsSb capped with p-AlGaAsSb, and grown lattice-matched to GaSb. Lifetime was measured by time-resolved photoluminescence (dynamic lifetime) as well as by optical response to sinusoidal excitation (static lifetime). Wide range of GaInAsSb layer thickness was used to separate contributions from interface and radiative recombination processes. Radiative coefficient and recombination velocity at GaInAsSb/AlGaAsSb heterointerface were determined. Temperature dependence of lifetime demonstrated significant contribution of radiative effects to the total recombination

  15. Spin-dependent exciton-exciton interaction potential in two- and three-dimensional structure semiconductors under excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Ba An; Hoang Ngoc Cam; Nguyen Trung Dan

    1990-08-01

    Analytical expressions of the exciton-exciton interaction potentials have been approximately derived in both 2D and 3D structure materials exhibiting explicit dependences on exciton momentum difference, momentum transfer, electron-hole effective mass ratio and two-exciton state spin symmetry. Numerical calculations show that the character of the exciton-exciton interaction is determined by all of the above-mentioned dependences. (author). 32 refs, 7 figs

  16. Consideration on a limit for lifetime occupational radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellerer, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    Annual dose limits in occupational radiation exposure are merely a secondary constraint in addition to the primary rule of dose reduction and justification. The limits may, therefore, be reached only in rare, special cases. However, in principle, there might be cases in which the annual limit is continuously exhausted throughout a working life; a high total dose of 0.8 Sv could then be reached. In view of this possibility, there have been considerations of an added restriction by limiting the lifetime occupational dose to 0.4 Sv. The implications of such lifetime doses are considered, and it is shown that an exposure up to the maximum of 0.8 Sv will lead to the need for compensation, if a leukaemia were to occur in the exposed worker. A lifetime dose of 0.4 Sv equally spread over a working life will not lead to the critical value of the probability of causation in excess of 0.5. Nevertheless, it could cause such critical values when it is accumulated during shorter periods. More decisive than the probabilities of causation are, however, the absolute numbers of excess cases of leukaemia due to the occupational exposure. It is seen that less than one excess case would be expected if a group of 100 workers were all exposed to the maximum of 0.8 Sv. Since lifetime doses of 0.8 or 0.4 Sv will be accumulated in very few cases and only with special justification, there appears to be little need to introduce a further limit of lifetime exposure in addition to the current annual limit. (orig.)

  17. Confined exciton spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Clivia M.S.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: In this work, the exciton is considered as a sensor of the electronic and optical properties of materials such as semiconductors, which have size compared to the exciton De Broglie wavelength, approximately 20 nm, depending on the semiconductor. Examples of electron-phonon, electron-electron, photon-electron, exciton-polariton, phonon-plasmon, are presented, under different confinement conditions such as quantum wells, superlattices

  18. Study of Exciton Hopping Transport in PbS Colloidal Quantum Dot Thin Films Using Frequency- and Temperature-Scanned Photocarrier Radiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lilei; Mandelis, Andreas; Melnikov, Alexander; Lan, Xinzheng; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Sargent, Edward H.

    2017-01-01

    Solution-processed colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) are promising materials for realizing low-cost, large-area, and flexible photovoltaic devices. The study of charge carrier transport in quantum dot solids is essential for understanding energy conversion mechanisms. Recently, solution-processed two-layer oleic-acid-capped PbS CQD solar cells with one layer treated with tetrabutylammonium iodide (TBAI) serving as the main light-absorbing layer and the other treated with 1,2-ethanedithiol (EDT) acting as an electron-blocking/hole-extraction layer were reported. These solar cells demonstrated a significant improvement in power conversion efficiency of 8.55% and long-term air stability. Coupled with photocarrier radiometry measurements, this work used a new trap-state mediated exciton hopping transport model, specifically for CQD thin films, to unveil and quantify exciton transport mechanisms through the extraction of hopping transport parameters including exciton lifetimes, hopping diffusivity, exciton detrapping time, and trap-state density. It is shown that PbS-TBAI has higher trap-state density than PbS-EDT that results in higher PbS-EDT exciton lifetimes. Hopping diffusivities of both CQD thin film types show similar temperature dependence, particularly higher temperatures yield higher hopping diffusivity. The higher diffusivity of PbS-TBAI compared with PbS-EDT indicates that PbS-TBAI is a much better photovoltaic material than PbS-EDT. Furthermore, PCR temperature spectra and deep-level photothermal spectroscopy provided additional insights to CQD surface trap states: PbS-TBAI thin films exhibit a single dominant trap level, while PbS-EDT films with lower trap-state densities show multiple trap levels.

  19. Frenkel-Charge-Transfer exciton intermixing theory for molecular crystals with two isolated Frenkel exciton states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarev, Igor; Popescu, Adrian

    We develop an analytical theory for the intra-intermolecular exciton intermixing in periodic 1D chains of planar organic molecules with two isolated low-lying Frenkel exciton states, typical of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) and other transition metal phthalocyanine molecules. We formulate the Hamiltonian and use the exact Bogoliubov diagonalization procedure to derive the eigen energy spectrum for the two lowest intramolecular Frenkel excitons coupled to the intermolecular charge transfer (CT) exciton state. By comparing our theoretical spectrum with available experimental CuPc absorption data, we obtain the parameters of the Frenkel-CT exciton intermixing in CuPc thin films. The two Frenkel exciton states here are spaced apart by 0.26 eV, and the charge transfer exciton state is 50 meV above the lowest Frenkel exciton. Both Frenkel excitons are strongly mixed with the CT exciton, showing the coupling constant 0.17 eV in agreement with earlier electron transport experiments. Our results can be used for the proper interpretation of the physical properties of crystalline phthalocyanines. DOE-DE-SC0007117 (I.B.), UNC-GA ROI Grant (A.P.).

  20. Collective State of Interwell Excitons in GaAs/AlGaAs Double Quantum Wells under Pulse Resonance Excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larionov, A. V.; Timofeev, V. B.; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    2002-01-01

    , and a significant increase in the radiative decay rate of the condensed phase. The collective exciton phase arises at temperatures T properties of the collective phase of interwell excitons and experimental manifestations of this coherence...

  1. Superior Valley Polarization and Coherence of 2s Excitons in Monolayer WSe_{2}.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Yu; Goldstein, Thomas; Tong, Jiayue; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Yan, Jun

    2018-01-26

    We report the experimental observation of 2s exciton radiative emission from monolayer tungsten diselenide, enabled by hexagonal boron nitride protected high-quality samples. The 2s luminescence is highly robust and persists up to 150 K, offering a new quantum entity for manipulating the valley degree of freedom. Remarkably, the 2s exciton displays superior valley polarization and coherence than 1s under similar experimental conditions. This observation provides evidence that the Coulomb-exchange-interaction-driven valley-depolarization process, the Maialle-Silva-Sham mechanism, plays an important role in valley excitons of monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides.

  2. Superior Valley Polarization and Coherence of 2 s Excitons in Monolayer WSe2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Yu; Goldstein, Thomas; Tong, Jiayue; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Yan, Jun

    2018-01-01

    We report the experimental observation of 2 s exciton radiative emission from monolayer tungsten diselenide, enabled by hexagonal boron nitride protected high-quality samples. The 2 s luminescence is highly robust and persists up to 150 K, offering a new quantum entity for manipulating the valley degree of freedom. Remarkably, the 2 s exciton displays superior valley polarization and coherence than 1 s under similar experimental conditions. This observation provides evidence that the Coulomb-exchange-interaction-driven valley-depolarization process, the Maialle-Silva-Sham mechanism, plays an important role in valley excitons of monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides.

  3. Excitons in tunnel coupled CdTe and (Cd,Mn)Te quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terletskii, Oleg; Ryabchenko, Sergiy; Tereshchenko, Oleksandr [Institute of Physics NASU, pr. Nauki 46, 03680 Kyiv (Ukraine); Sugakov, Volodymyr; Vertsimakha, Ganna [Institute for Nuclear Research NASU, pr. Nauki 47, 03680 Kyiv (Ukraine); Karczewski, Grzegorz [Institute of Physics PAS, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, PL-02-668 Warsaw (Poland)

    2017-05-15

    The photoluminescence (PL) from structures containing Cd{sub 0.95}Mn{sub 0.05}Te and CdTe quantum wells (QWs) separated by a narrow (1.94 nm) barrier was studied. The PL lines of comparable intensities from several possible exciton states were observed simultaneously at energy distances substantially exceeding kT. This means that the energy transfer in the studied systems is slower than the radiative recombination of the confined excitons. For the CdTe QW width of about 8.7-9 nm, indirect excitons with the electron and heavy hole chiefly localized in the CdTe and Cd{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}Te QWs, respectively, were detected in the magnetic field. These indirect excitons have PL energy of about 10-20 meV above the PL line of the direct excitons in the CdTe QW. The observation of the PL from the indirect excitons which are not the lowest excitations in the structure is a distinctive feature of the system. Photoluminescence intensity dependence on the energy and the magnetic field. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Controlled tuning of the radiative lifetime in InAs self-assembled quantum dots through vertical ordering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colocci, M.; Vinattieri, A.; Lippi, L.; Bogani, F.; Rosa-Clot, M.; Taddei, S.; Bosacchi, A.; Franchi, S.; Frigeri, P.

    1999-01-01

    Multilayer structures of InAs quantum dots have been studied by means of photoluminescence techniques. A strong increase of the radiative lifetime with increasing number of stacked dot layers has been observed at low temperatures. Moreover, a strong temperature dependence of the radiative lifetime, which is not present in the single layer samples, has been found in the multistacked structures. The observed effects are nicely explained as a consequence of the electronic coupling between electrons and holes induced by vertical ordering.

  5. Excitonic recombination dynamics in non-polar GaN/AlGaN quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosales, D.; Gil, B.; Bretagnon, T.; Guizal, B. [CNRS, Laboratoire Charles Coulomb, UMR 5221, F-34095 Montpellier (France); Université Montpellier 2, Laboratoire Charles Coulomb, UMR 5221, F-34095 Montpellier (France); Zhang, F.; Okur, S.; Monavarian, M.; Izyumskaya, N.; Avrutin, V.; Özgür, Ü.; Morkoç, H. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23238 (United States); Leach, J. H. [Kyma Technologies, Raleigh, North Carolina 27617 (United States)

    2014-02-21

    The optical properties of GaN/Al{sub 0.15}Ga{sub 0.85}N multiple quantum wells are examined in 8 K–300 K temperature range. Both polarized CW and time resolved temperature-dependent photoluminescence experiment are performed so that we can deduce the relative contributions of the non-radiative and radiative recombination processes. From the calculation of the proportion of the excitonic population having wave vector in the light cone, we can deduce the variation of the radiative decay time with temperature. We find part of the excitonic population to be localized in concert with the report of Corfdir et al. (Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2 52, 08JC01 (2013)) in case of a-plane quantum wells.

  6. Excitonic recombination dynamics in non-polar GaN/AlGaN quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosales, D.; Gil, B.; Bretagnon, T.; Guizal, B.; Zhang, F.; Okur, S.; Monavarian, M.; Izyumskaya, N.; Avrutin, V.; Özgür, Ü.; Morkoç, H.; Leach, J. H.

    2014-01-01

    The optical properties of GaN/Al 0.15 Ga 0.85 N multiple quantum wells are examined in 8 K–300 K temperature range. Both polarized CW and time resolved temperature-dependent photoluminescence experiment are performed so that we can deduce the relative contributions of the non-radiative and radiative recombination processes. From the calculation of the proportion of the excitonic population having wave vector in the light cone, we can deduce the variation of the radiative decay time with temperature. We find part of the excitonic population to be localized in concert with the report of Corfdir et al. (Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2 52, 08JC01 (2013)) in case of a-plane quantum wells

  7. Quenching of exciton luminescence due to impact ionization and mechanisms of electron relaxation in cadmium sulphide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagan, V.D.; Karpenko, S.L.; Katilyus, R.

    1989-01-01

    Quenching of exciton luminescence in the constant electric field in cadmium sulfide at 1.8K, caused by impact ionization of free and delocalization of bound excitons by hot electrons is observed. When the field is increase up to 1 kW/cm continuous transfer from the Taundsen-Shockley law to the Davydov-Wolf one takes place. Among the samples studied pure samples are distinguished by the exciton spectrum, where, as it is shown in the work, the high-energy electrons lose quasipulse, radiating spontaneously piezophonons; in other samples scattering on impurities prevails. Theoretical processing of data on the bound exciton radiation line quenching in the moderate field region presents about 10 -4 values in pure and about 5x10 -6 cm ones in other samples for the 4 MeV energy electron free flight length. So, the optical methods used allowed one to determine high-energy electron relaxation mechanisms, prevailing in CdS at low temperature

  8. Ionized carbon investigation (spectroscopic terms, radiative lifetimes) using ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchet-Poulizac, M.-C.

    1974-01-01

    The spectra of carbon in all its ionization states were studied by the beam-foil technique, from the far ultraviolet (30A) to 6000A. This excitation process gives the spectra of strongly charged ions with great intensity and favours population of the high levels of these ions. It has led to new identifications, mainly in the CIV, CV, and CVI spectra. The results of radiative lifetime measurements are given for many levels of C II, C III, C IV and C V. The chief cause of error on these measurements is the cascade phenomenon. Various methods of decay curve analysis accounting for these processes were examined and showed that lifetime values of precision better than 10% can be obtained. The transition probabilities were estimated from the lifetime measurements whenever possible. The spectra obtained in the laboratory were compared with those observed in the Wolf-Rayet stars of the carbon sequence. The similarities and dissimilarities which appear yield information on the physical conditions prevailing in the atmosphere of these stars [fr

  9. Optical spectroscopy and imaging of the higher energy excitons and bandgap of monolayer MoS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borys, Nicholas; Bao, Wei; Barnard, Edward; Ko, Changhyun; Tongay, Sefaatin; Wu, Junqiao; Yang, Li; Schuck, P. James

    Monolayer MoS2 (ML-MoS2) exhibits a rich manifold of excitons that dictate optoelectronic performance and functionality. Disentangling these states, which include the quasi-particle bandgap, is critical for developing 2D optoelectronic devices that operate beyond the optical bandgap. Whereas photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy only probes the lowest-energy radiative state and absorption spectroscopy fails to discriminate energetically degenerate states, photoluminescence excitation (PLE) spectroscopy selectively probes only the excited states that thermalize to the emissive ground state exciton. Using PLE spectroscopy of ML-MoS2, we identify the Rydberg series of the exciton A and exciton B states as well as signatures of the quasi-particle bandgap and coupling between the indirect C exciton and the lowest-energy A exciton, which have eluded previous PLE studies. The assignment of these states is confirmed with density functional theory. Mapping the PLE spectrum reveals spatial variations of the higher-energy exciton manifold and quasi-particle bandgap which mirror the heterogeneity in the PL but also indicate variations in local exciton thermalization processes and chemical potentials.

  10. Energy levels, lifetimes and radiative data of W LV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiao-bin; Sun, Rui; Koike, Fumihiro; Murakami, Izumi; Kato, Daiji; Sakaue, Hiroyuki A.; Nakamura, Nobuyuki; Dong, Chen-zhong

    2018-01-01

    Calculations of energy levels, radiative data and lifetimes are reported for tungsten Ca-like ion (W LV) by using multi-configuration Dirac-Fock (MCDF) method. The GRASP2K package is adopted to carry out a large-scale systematic computation with a restricted active space treatment; the Breit interaction and QED effects are included in subsequent relativistic configuration interaction calculations. The energies and lifetimes of the lowest 119 levels are listed; the main leading configuration of the levels is of the ground state configuration [Ne]3s23p63d2 and the first excited configuration [Ne]3s23p53d3. The wavelengths, radiative rates and oscillator strengths for relatively strong E1, E2, M1, and M2 transitions are listed. Comparisons with earlier experimental and theoretical values are made. The average relative deviations of energy levels from the NIST results and E1 transition wavelengths from the EBIT experimental results have turned to be only 0.20% and 0.13%, respectively. The other present results are in reasonable agreement with available data. These agreements confirm the reliability and accuracy of the current results. The present datasets may help us with the investigation of the electron-electron correlation effects in complex multi-electron highly charged heavy ions and of the diagnosis of tungsten impurity plasmas in fusion science.

  11. Exciton localization in (11-22)-oriented semi-polar InGaN multiple quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monavarian, Morteza; Rosales, Daniel; Gil, Bernard; Izyumskaya, Natalia; Das, Saikat; Özgür, Ümit; Morkoç, Hadis; Avrutin, Vitaliy

    2016-02-01

    Excitonic recombination dynamics in (11-22) -oriented semipolar In0.2Ga0.8N/In0.06Ga0.94N multiquantum wells (MQWs) grown on GaN/m-sapphire templates have been investigated by temperature-dependent time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL). The radiative and nonradiative recombination contributions to the PL intensity at different temperatures were evaluated by analysing temperature dependences of PL peak intensity and decay times. The obtained data indicate the existence of exciton localization with a localization energy of Eloc(15K) =7meV and delocalization temperature of Tdeloc = 200K in the semipolar InGaN MQWs. Presence of such exciton localization in semipolar (11-22) -oriented structures could lead to improvement of excitonic emission and internal quantum efficiency.

  12. Fine-structure energy levels and radiative lifetime in Mo XIV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaodong; Pei Dong; Jiang Renbin; Wang Wanjue

    2002-01-01

    Energy levels, radiative lifetime and various transition parameters for allowed transitions among the 1508 fine-structure levels belong to the (1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 ) 3d 10 4l, 3d 9 4l 2 , 3d 10 5l, 3d 9 4l4m, 3d 10 6l, 3d 10 7l and so on configurations of the Cu-like ions Mo XIV have been calculated by using the expanded fully relativistic GRASP code. The results are compared with those available in the literature, and the accuracy of the present data is assessed. Energy levels are expected to be accurate to within 0.81%. The authors have found some long lifetime levels

  13. Nonlinear spectroscopy of the bound exciton states in CdSe single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisitsa, M.P.; Onishchenko, N.A.; Stolyarenko, A.V.; Ananchenko, V.V.; Polishchuk, S.V.

    1989-01-01

    The study is devoted to the pulsed laser radiation effect on the time-resolved variations of free and bound exciton bands region at the helium temperature. A gradual disappearance of the bound I 2 exciton state is observed with increase of the excitation intensity I in CdSe transmission spectra. This phenomenon is explained by the fact that despite of the shorter life of I 2 excitons as compared to the free ones, the concentration of the centres on which they localize is rather low (≤10 16 cm -3 ) while the evolution of the light-generated electron-hole pairs is such as the most probable recombination through the bound excitons. The transmission spectrum kinetics is studied. The intensity limitation of the laser pulse transmitted through the crystal in the region of the exciton ground state region is shown to be related with two-photon absorption (TPA) in which the exciton state is an intermediate level. The calculation results are in good agreement with the experiment. The estimations show the giant TPA coefficient of ∼10 3 cm/MW. The evolution of photoexcited nonequilibrium electron-hole pairs is studied. The possibility of using CdSe single crystals as spectrum-selective limiters of the laser pulses is shown. (author)

  14. Radiative recombination of free and bound excitons in CdMnTe/CdMgTe quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubarev, S.I. [Rossijskaya Akademiya Nauk, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation). Inst. Fiziki Tverdogo Tela; Kulakovskii, V.D. [Rossijskaya Akademiya Nauk, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation). Inst. Fiziki Tverdogo Tela; Tyazhlov, M.G. [Rossijskaya Akademiya Nauk, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation). Inst. Fiziki Tverdogo Tela; Yakovlev, D.R. [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.; Waag, A. [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.; Landwehr, G. [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.

    1995-06-01

    The exchange induced dissociation of bound excitons (BE) has been studied in CdMnTe/CdMgTe quantum wells (QWs). It was found that value of the dissociation critical field does not depend on the field direction with respect to QW axis. This indicates that BE states in investigated structure are connected with excitons bound to neutral donors (D{sub 0}X states). The dependence of the critical field on the QW width has nonmonotonic character: the dissociation occurs at first in 60 A, then in 45 A, and at the end in 100 A QW. Such a behavior can be explained by transformation of bound exciton complex from quasi-3D to quasi-2D state with following increase of Coulomb correlations in confined exciton system. (orig.).

  15. Lifetime attributable risk for cancer from occupational radiation exposure among radiologic technologists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Eun Kyeong; Lee, Won Jin [Dept. of Preventive Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Medical radiation workers were among the earliest occupational groups exposed to external ionizing radiation due to their administration of a range of medical diagnostic procedures. Ionizing radiation is a confirmed human carcinogen for most organ sites. This study, therefore, was aimed to estimate lifetime cancer risk from occupational exposure among radiologic technologists that has been recruited in 2012-2013. Our findings showed a small increased cancer risk in radiologic technologists from their occupational radiation exposure in Korea. However, continuous dose monitoring and strict regulation on occupational safety at the government level should be emphasized to prevent any additional health hazards from occupational radiation exposure. Our findings showed a small increased cancer risk in radiologic technologists from their occupational radiation exposure in Korea. However, continuous dose monitoring and strict regulation on occupational safety at the government level should be emphasized to prevent any additional health hazards from occupational radiation exposure.

  16. Lifetime attributable risk for cancer from occupational radiation exposure among radiologic technologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Eun Kyeong; Lee, Won Jin

    2016-01-01

    Medical radiation workers were among the earliest occupational groups exposed to external ionizing radiation due to their administration of a range of medical diagnostic procedures. Ionizing radiation is a confirmed human carcinogen for most organ sites. This study, therefore, was aimed to estimate lifetime cancer risk from occupational exposure among radiologic technologists that has been recruited in 2012-2013. Our findings showed a small increased cancer risk in radiologic technologists from their occupational radiation exposure in Korea. However, continuous dose monitoring and strict regulation on occupational safety at the government level should be emphasized to prevent any additional health hazards from occupational radiation exposure. Our findings showed a small increased cancer risk in radiologic technologists from their occupational radiation exposure in Korea. However, continuous dose monitoring and strict regulation on occupational safety at the government level should be emphasized to prevent any additional health hazards from occupational radiation exposure.

  17. Energy transfer of excitons between quantum wells separated by a wide barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyo, S. K.

    2000-01-01

    We present a microscopic theory of the excitonic Stokes and anti-Stokes energy-transfer mechanisms between two widely separated unequal quantum wells with a large energy mismatch (Δ) at low temperatures (T). Several important intrinsic energy-transfer mechanisms have been examined, including dipolar coupling, real and virtual photon-exchange coupling, and over-barrier ionization of the excitons via exciton-exciton Auger processes. The transfer rate is calculated as a function of T and the center-to-center distance d between the wells. The rates depend sensitively on T for plane-wave excitons. For localized excitons, the rates depend on T only through the T dependence of the exciton localization radius. For Stokes energy transfer, the dominant energy transfer occurs through a photon-exchange interaction, which enables the excitons from the higher-energy wells to decay into free electrons and holes in the lower-energy wells. The rate has a slow dependence on d, yielding reasonable agreement with recent data from GaAs/Al x Ga 1-x As quantum wells. The dipolar rate is about an order of magnitude smaller for large d (e.g., d=175Aa) with a stronger range dependence proportional to d -4 . However, the latter can be comparable to the radiative rate for small d (e.g., d≤80Aa). For anti-Stokes transfer through exchange-type (e.g., dipolar and photon-exchange) interactions, we show that thermal activation proportional to exp(-Δ/k B T) is essential for the transfer, contradicting a recent nonactivated result based on the Fo''rster-Dexter's spectral-overlap theory. Phonon-assisted transfer yields a negligibly small rate. On the other hand, energy transfer through over-barrier ionization of excitons via Auger processes yields a significantly larger nonactivated rate which is independent of d. The result is compared with recent data

  18. Effects of π-conjugation attenuation on the photophysics and exciton dynamics of poly(p-phenylenevinylene) polymers incorporating 2,2'-bipyridines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, L. X.; Jager, W. J.; Niemczyk, M. P.; Wasielewski, M. R.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of π-conjugation attenuation on the photophysics and exciton dynamics of two conjugated polymers 1 and 2 are examined in solution. The structures of polymers 1 and 2 have 2,2'-bipyridyl-5-vinylene units that alternate with one and three 2,5-bis(n-decyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene monomer units, respectively. The photophysics and exciton dynamics of polymers 1 and 2 were compared to those of the homopolymer, poly(2,5-bis(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene) (BEH-PPV). A series of changes in the photophysics of polymers 1 and 2 were found as a result of π-conjugation attenuation. These changes include blue shifts in absorption and emission spectra, spectral diffusion in stimulated emission, enhancement in photoluminescence quantum yields and lifetimes, and increases in photoinduced absorption intensities and lifetimes. These changes are systematically more pronounced in polymer 1 than in polymer 2 and are correlated with π-conjugation attenuation in the polymers due to twisting of the 2,2'-bipyridine groups about the 2,2' single bond. An exciton dynamics model involving an ensemble of initial exciton states localized on oligomeric segments within the polymer with different conjugation lengths is proposed to describe the observed differences between polymers 1 and 2 and BEH-PPV. When the electronic coupling between these segments is strong, the polymer displays characteristics that are close to those of a one-dimensional semiconductor. However, when these couplings are weakened by groups, such as the 2,2'-bipyridine that attenuate π-conjugation, the polymer displays properties of an ensemble of oligomers

  19. Ultrafast endothermic transfer of non-radiative exciplex state to radiative excitons in polyfluorene random copolymer for blue electroluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghe, Dhanashree A.; Dey, Amrita; Johnson, Kerr; Lu, L.-P.; Friend, Richard H.; Kabra, Dinesh

    2018-04-01

    We report a blue-emitting random copolymer (termed modified Aryl-F8) consisting of three repeat units of polydioctylfluorene (F8), Aryl-polydioctylfluorene (Aryl-F8), and an aromatic amine comonomer unit, poly(bis-N,Ν'-(4-butylphenyl)-bis-N,N'-phenyl-1,4 phenylenediamine) chemically linked to get an improved charge carrier balance without compromising on the photoluminescence (PL) quantum yield with respect to the Aryl-F8 homo-polymer. The measured photoluminescence quantum efficiency (˜70%) of the blue-emitting polymer is comparable to or greater than the individual monomer units. The time resolved PL spectra from the modified Aryl-F8 are similar to those of Arylated-poly(9,9'-dioctylfluorene-co-bis-N,N'-(4-butylphenyl)-bis-N,N'-phenyl-1,4 phenylenediamine) (PFB) even at a time scale of 100-250 ps, indicating an ultrafast energy transfer from the (Aryl-F8 or F8):Arylated-PFB interface to Arylated-PFB, i.e., endothermic transfer of non-radiative exciplex to a radiative molecular exciton. Furthermore, the presence of non-radiative exciplex is confirmed by the photoluminescence decay profile and temperature dependent PL spectra. The luminance efficiency achieved for the modified Aryl-F8 polymer light-emitting diodes is ˜11 cd A-1 with an external quantum efficiency (EQE) of ˜4.5%, whereas it is 0.05 cd/A with an EQE of ˜0.025% for Aryl-F8. Almost two orders of higher efficiency is achieved due to the improved charge carrier balance from the random copolymer without compromising on the photoluminescence yield.

  20. Optical nutation in the exciton range of spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khadzhi, P. I.; Vasiliev, V. V.

    2013-01-01

    Optical nutation in the exciton range of spectrum is studied in the mean field approximation taking into account exciton-photon and elastic exciton-exciton interactions. It is shown that the features of nutation development are determined by the initial exciton and photon densities, the resonance detuning, the nonlinearity parameter, and the initial phase difference. For nonzero initial exciton and photon concentrations, three regimes of temporal evolution of excitons and photons exist: periodic conversion of excitons to photons and vice versa, aperiodic conversion of photons to excitons, and the rest regime. In the rest regime, the initial exciton and photon densities are nonzero and do not change with time. The oscillation amplitudes and periods of particle densities determined by the system parameters are found. The exciton self-trapping and photon trapping appearing in the system at threshold values of the nonlinearity parameter were predicted. As this parameter increases, the oscillation amplitudes of the exciton and photon densities sharply change at the critical value of the nonlinearity parameter. These two phenomena are shown to be caused by the elastic exciton-exciton interaction, resulting in the dynamic concentration shift of the exciton level

  1. Chromophore-Dependent Intramolecular Exciton-Vibrational Coupling in the FMO Complex: Quantification and Importance for Exciton Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Daniele; Lee, Myeong H; Claridge, Kirsten; Troisi, Alessandro

    2017-11-02

    In this paper, we adopt an approach suitable for monitoring the time evolution of the intramolecular contribution to the spectral density of a set of identical chromophores embedded in their respective environments. We apply the proposed method to the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) complex, with the objective to quantify the differences among site-dependent spectral densities and the impact of such differences on the exciton dynamics of the system. Our approach takes advantage of the vertical gradient approximation to reduce the computational demands of the normal modes analysis. We show that the region of the spectral density that is believed to strongly influence the exciton dynamics changes significantly in the timescale of tens of nanoseconds. We then studied the impact of the intramolecular vibrations on the exciton dynamics by considering a model of FMO in a vibronic basis and neglecting the interaction with the environment to isolate the role of the intramolecular exciton-vibration coupling. In agreement with the assumptions in the literature, we demonstrate that high frequency modes at energy much larger than the excitonic energy splitting have negligible influence on exciton dynamics despite the large exciton-vibration coupling. We also find that the impact of including the site-dependent spectral densities on exciton dynamics is not very significant, indicating that it may be acceptable to apply the same spectral density on all sites. However, care needs to be taken for the description of the exciton-vibrational coupling in the low frequency part of intramolecular modes because exciton dynamics is more susceptible to low frequency modes despite their small Huang-Rhys factors.

  2. Exciton emissions in alkali cyanides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weid, J.P. von der.

    1979-10-01

    The emissions of Alkali Cyanides X irradiated at low temperature were measured. In addition to the molecular (Frenkel Type) exciton emissions, another emitting centre was found and tentatively assigned to a charge transfer self trapped exciton. The nature of the molecular exciton emitting state is discussed. (Author) [pt

  3. Radiative lifetime measurements of rubidium Rydberg states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branden, D B; Juhasz, T; Mahlokozera, T; Vesa, C; Wilson, R O; Zheng, M; Tate, D A; Kortyna, A

    2010-01-01

    We have measured the radiative lifetimes of ns, np and nd Rydberg states of rubidium in the range 28 ≤ n ≤ 45. To enable long-lived states to be measured, our experiment uses slow-moving (∼100 μK) 85 Rb atoms in a magneto-optical trap (MOT). Two experimental techniques have been adopted to reduce random and systematic errors. First, a narrow-bandwidth pulsed laser is used to excite the target nl Rydberg state, resulting in minimal shot-to-shot variation in the initial state population. Second, we monitor the target state population as a function of time delay from the laser pulse using a short-duration, millimetre-wave pulse that is resonant with a one- or two-photon transition to a higher energy 'monitor state', n'l'. We then selectively field ionize the monitor state, and detect the resulting electrons with a micro-channel plate. This signal is an accurate mirror of the nl target state population, and is uncontaminated by contributions from other states which are populated by black body radiation. Our results are generally consistent with other recent experimental results obtained using a method which is more prone to systematic error, and are also in excellent agreement with theory.

  4. Band-Edge Exciton Fine Structure and Recombination Dynamics in InP/ZnS Colloidal Nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biadala, Louis; Siebers, Benjamin; Beyazit, Yasin; Tessier, Mickaël D; Dupont, Dorian; Hens, Zeger; Yakovlev, Dmitri R; Bayer, Manfred

    2016-03-22

    We report on a temperature-, time-, and spectrally resolved study of the photoluminescence of type-I InP/ZnS colloidal nanocrystals with varying core size. By studying the exciton recombination dynamics we assess the exciton fine structure in these systems. In addition to the typical bright-dark doublet, the photoluminescence stems from an upper bright state in spite of its large energy splitting (∼100 meV). This striking observation results from dramatically lengthened thermalization processes among the fine structure levels and points to optical-phonon bottleneck effects in InP/ZnS nanocrystals. Furthermore, our data show that the radiative recombination of the dark exciton scales linearly with the bright-dark energy splitting for CdSe and InP nanocrystals. This finding strongly suggests a universal dangling bonds-assisted recombination of the dark exciton in colloidal nanostructures.

  5. Parametric validations of analytical lifetime estimates for radiation belt electron diffusion by whistler waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Artemyev

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The lifetimes of electrons trapped in Earth's radiation belts can be calculated from quasi-linear pitch-angle diffusion by whistler-mode waves, provided that their frequency spectrum is broad enough and/or their average amplitude is not too large. Extensive comparisons between improved analytical lifetime estimates and full numerical calculations have been performed in a broad parameter range representative of a large part of the magnetosphere from L ~ 2 to 6. The effects of observed very oblique whistler waves are taken into account in both numerical and analytical calculations. Analytical lifetimes (and pitch-angle diffusion coefficients are found to be in good agreement with full numerical calculations based on CRRES and Cluster hiss and lightning-generated wave measurements inside the plasmasphere and Cluster lower-band chorus waves measurements in the outer belt for electron energies ranging from 100 keV to 5 MeV. Comparisons with lifetimes recently obtained from electron flux measurements on SAMPEX, SCATHA, SAC-C and DEMETER also show reasonable agreement.

  6. Exciton Seebeck effect in molecular systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Yun-An, E-mail: yunan@nano.gznc.edu.cn [Guizhou Provincial Key Laboratory of Computational Nanomaterial Science, Guizhou Normal College, Guiyang, Guizhou 550018 (China); Cai, Shaohong [Guizhou Key Laboratory of Economic System Simulation, Guizhou University of Finance and Economics, Guiyang 550004 (China)

    2014-08-07

    We investigate the exciton dynamics under temperature difference with the hierarchical equations of motion. Through a nonperturbative simulation of the transient absorption of a heterogeneous trimer model, we show that the temperature difference causes exciton population redistribution and affects the exciton transfer time. It is found that one can reproduce not only the exciton population redistribution but also the change of the exciton transfer time induced by the temperature difference with a proper tuning of the site energies of the aggregate. In this sense, there exists a site energy shift equivalence for any temperature difference in a broad range. This phenomenon is similar to the Seebeck effect as well as spin Seebeck effect and can be named as exciton Seebeck effect.

  7. Efficient Generation of Long-Lived Triplet Excitons in 2D Hybrid Perovskite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younts, Robert; Duan, Hsin-Sheng; Gautam, Bhoj; Saparov, Bayrammurad; Liu, Jie; Mongin, Cedric; Castellano, Felix N; Mitzi, David B; Gundogdu, Kenan

    2017-03-01

    Triplet excitons form in quasi-2D hybrid inorganic-organic perovskites and diffuse over 100 nm before radiating with >11% photoluminescence quantum efficiency (PLQE) at low temperatures. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Estimation of baseline lifetime risk of developed cancer related to radiation exposure in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaoliang; Niu Haowei; Sun Quanfu; Ma Weidong

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To introduce the general international method for estimation of lifetime risk of developed cancer, and to estimate the lifetime risk baseline values of several kinds of cancers related to radiation exposures in China. Methods: The risk estimation was based on the data from Chinese Cancer Registry Annual Report (2010) and China Population and Employment Statistics Yearbook (2009), and made according to the method previously published by National Cancer Institute (NCI) in USA. Results: The lifetime risk of all cancer in China in 2007 was estimated to be 27.77%, that of lung cancer 5.96%, that of breast cancer for female 3.34%, that of all leukemia 0.14%, that of thyroid cancer 0.37%. The lifetime risks of all cancer were estimated to be 32.74% for males and 24.73% for females, and that was 36.47% for urban residents and 26.79% for rural people. Conclusions: The lifetime risk of all cancer for males in 2007 was about 1.25 times as much as that for females. The value of all cancer for urban residents was about 1.35 times as much as that for rural residents. The lifetime risk of developed cancers in 2007 in China is lower than that in the developed countries,such as Japan. (authors)

  9. Quantum-well exciton polariton emission from multi-quantum-well wire structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, M.; Heitmann, D.; Grambow, P.; Ploog, K.

    The radiative decay of quantum-well exciton (QWE) polaritons in microstructured Al0.3Ga0.7As - GaAs multi-quantum wells (MQW) has been studied by photoluminescence spectroscopy. Periodic wire structures with lateral periodicities a = 250-500 nm and lateral widths t = 100-200 nm have been fabricated by plasma etching. The thickness of the QWs was 13 nm. In the QW wire samples the free-exciton photoluminescence was strongly reduced and the QWE polariton emission was observed as a maximum peaked at a 3 meV higher energy than the free QWE transition. In samples which had only a microstructured cladding layer, the free-exciton photoluminescence was dominant in the spectrum and the QWE polariton emission was observed as a shoulder on the high-energy side of the free QWE transition. In addition, two transitions at the low energy side of the free QWE photoluminescence were present in the microstructured samples, which were related to etching induced states.

  10. Exciton luminescence in In0.3Ga0.7As/GaAs quantum well heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapon, Eli; Mereuta, Alexandru; Dorogan, Andrei; Dragutan, Nicolae; Vieru, Tatiana; Syrbu, Nicolae

    2011-01-01

    Radiation maxima were observed in photoluminescence spectra of GaAs/ In 0.3 Ga 0.7 As/ GaAs in case of 632.8 nm and 532 nm He-Ne laser excitation conditioned by the recombination from ground (e1-hh1, e1-lh1) and excited (e2-hh2, e2-lh2) states of polarionic excitons in quantum wells. The doublet character of e1-hh1, e1-lh1 transitions can be explained by the interaction of excitons in quantum wells. Radiation maxima are revealed in the region of 1.5eV energy conditioned by recombination transitions E b -hh1, E b -lh1of the GaAs buffer layer.

  11. Analysis of Novo-Voronezh NPP unit 3 radiation lifetime of the WWER-440 reactor pressure vessel given samplings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiselyov, V.; Korinets, A.; Maksimov, Yu.; Piminov, V.

    1997-01-01

    The analysis of the residual radiation lifetime of the Novo-Voronezh NPP Unit 3 reactor pressure vessel which had spherical samplings after annealing was performed for the spectrum of the 'worst' modes of the emergency situation category. For the residual radiation lifetime estimation within the given study, two approaches to determine stress intensity factors, K I , have been used simultaneously. The first approach included a direct numeric modelling of postulated cracks in the cut-out zone with the use of the 3D finite element method. The second approach included K 1 calculation using 3D weight functions calculated with the use of the boundary element method. For K I , calculation flaws have been postulated as surface longitudinal semielliptical flaws located in the deepest point of a cut-out. The results of K I calculations obtained using different methods were practically the same. The allowable critical brittleness temperature was determined as 175 C that permitted the extension of the radiation lifetime by up to 6 years after annealing. (orig.)

  12. Bose-Einstein condensation and indirect excitons: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combescot, Monique; Combescot, Roland; Dubin, François

    2017-06-01

    We review recent progress on Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of semiconductor excitons. The first part deals with theory, the second part with experiments. This Review is written at a time where the problem of exciton Bose-Einstein condensation has just been revived by the understanding that the exciton condensate must be dark because the exciton ground state is not coupled to light. Here, we theoretically discuss this missed understanding before providing its experimental support through experiments that scrutinize indirect excitons made of spatially separated electrons and holes. The theoretical part first discusses condensation of elementary bosons. In particular, the necessary inhibition of condensate fragmentation by exchange interaction is stressed, before extending the discussion to interacting bosons with spin degrees of freedom. The theoretical part then considers composite bosons made of two fermions like semiconductor excitons. The spin structure of the excitons is detailed, with emphasis on the crucial fact that ground-state excitons are dark: indeed, this imposes the exciton Bose-Einstein condensate to be not coupled to light in the dilute regime. Condensate fragmentations are then reconsidered. In particular, it is shown that while at low density, the exciton condensate is fully dark, it acquires a bright component, coherent with the dark one, beyond a density threshold: in this regime, the exciton condensate is 'gray'. The experimental part first discusses optical creation of indirect excitons in quantum wells, and the detection of their photoluminescence. Exciton thermalisation is also addressed, as well as available approaches to estimate the exciton density. We then switch to specific experiments where indirect excitons form a macroscopic fragmented ring. We show that such ring provides efficient electrostatic trapping in the region of the fragments where an essentially-dark exciton Bose-Einstein condensate is formed at sub-Kelvin bath

  13. Strong coupling of two interacting excitons confined in a nanocavity-quantum dot system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardenas, Paulo C; RodrIguez, Boris A; Quesada, Nicolas; Vinck-Posada, Herbert

    2011-01-01

    We present a study of the strong coupling between radiation and matter, considering a system of two quantum dots, which are in mutual interaction and interact with a single mode of light confined in a semiconductor nanocavity. We take into account dissipative mechanisms such as the escape of the cavity photons, decay of the quantum dot excitons by spontaneous emission, and independent exciton pumping. It is shown that the mutual interaction between the dots can be measured off-resonance only if the strong coupling condition is reached. Using the quantum regression theorem, a reasonable definition of the dynamical coupling regimes is introduced in terms of the complex Rabi frequency. Finally, the emission spectrum for relevant conditions is presented and compared with the above definition, demonstrating that the interaction between the excitons does not affect the strong coupling.

  14. The creation of radiation defects in lithium fluoride single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flerov, A. [Inst. of Phys. (Latvia); Flerov, V. [Nucl. Res. Center, Salaspils (Latvia)

    1997-10-01

    Frenkel pair creation occurs in LiF through the interaction of a self-trapped exciton and a free exciton. This has been confirmed by the dependence of the F center formation yield on the 4th power of the dose rate. The F center production efficiency was increased and V{sub k} center decreased by increasing the temperature from 77 to 300 K, each having an activation energy of 0.028 eV. The lifetime of the self-trapped exciton at room temperature was about 0.7 {mu}s. (orig.)

  15. Dark excitons in transition metal dichalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malic, Ermin; Selig, Malte; Feierabend, Maja; Brem, Samuel; Christiansen, Dominik; Wendler, Florian; Knorr, Andreas; Berghäuser, Gunnar

    2018-01-01

    Monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) exhibit a remarkably strong Coulomb interaction that manifests in tightly bound excitons. Due to the complex electronic band structure exhibiting several spin-split valleys in the conduction and valence band, dark excitonic states can be formed. They are inaccessibly by light due to the required spin-flip and/or momentum transfer. The relative position of these dark states with respect to the optically accessible bright excitons has a crucial impact on the emission efficiency of these materials and thus on their technological potential. Based on the solution of the Wannier equation, we present the excitonic landscape of the most studied TMD materials including the spectral position of momentum- and spin-forbidden excitonic states. We show that the knowledge of the electronic dispersion does not allow to conclude about the nature of the material's band gap since excitonic effects can give rise to significant changes. Furthermore, we reveal that an exponentially reduced photoluminescence yield does not necessarily reflect a transition from a direct to a nondirect gap material, but can be ascribed in most cases to a change of the relative spectral distance between bright and dark excitonic states.

  16. Adjustment of lifetime risks of space radiation-induced cancer by the healthy worker effect and cancer misclassification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif E. Peterson

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions. The typical life table approach for projecting lifetime risk of radiation-induced cancer mortality and incidence for astronauts and radiation workers can be improved by adjusting for HWE while simulating the uncertainty of input rates, input excess risk coefficients, and bias correction factors during multiple Monte Carlo realizations of the life table.

  17. Assessment of background gamma radiation and determination of excess lifetime cancer risk in Sabzevar City, Iran in 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Eslami

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Background gamma radiation levels vary in different locations and depended on many factors such as radiation properties of soil, building materials as well as construction types which human lives on it. People are always exposed to ionizing radiation, which could badly influence their health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the background gamma-ray dose rate and the estimated annual effective dose equivalent and determination of excess lifetime cancer risk in Sabzevar City, Iran. Methods: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the dose rate of background gamma radiation in outdoor an indoor areas, 26 stations were selected using the map of the Sabzevar City. The amount of gamma radiation was measured at 4 months (September to January in 2014 year. The dosimeter used in this study was a survey meter, that is designed for monitoring radiation of x, gamma and beta rays. Results: The obtained results show that there are significant differences between the indoor and outdoor exposures (P> 0.05. We did not observe significant differences between the time of sampling and sampling locations, (P<0.05. The minimum and maximum values of dose rate were found 66±20 nSvh-1 and 198±28 nSvh-1. The annual effective dose for Sabzevar residents was estimated to be 0.85 mSv and also the amount of excess lifetime cancer risk was estimated 3.39×10-3. Conclusion: According to the results, the excess lifetime cancer risk and the annual effective dose for the Sabzavar City residents due to the background gamma radiation was higher than the global average (0.5 mSv. The epidemiological studies have been proposed to evaluate the risk of chronic diseases associated with natural radiation exposure among residents.

  18. Excitonic transport in a ZnMgO/ZnO quantumwell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noltemeyer, Martin; Hempel, Thomas; Christen, Juergen [Institute of Experimental Physics, Otto-von-Guericke-Universitaet Magdeburg (Germany); Brandt, Matthias; Lorenz, Michael; Grundmann, Marius [Institut fuer Experimentelle Physik II, Universitaet Leipzig (Germany); Polyakov, Andrey; Stepovich, Mikhail [Tsiolkovsky Kaluga State University (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-01

    Using highly spectrally and ps-time resolved cathodoluminescence (CL) the excitonic transport in a c-oriented PLD grown ZnMgO/ZnO quantumwell (QW) of about b=4nm thickness is indirectly measured as a function of temperature (T=5K-180K). In a first step, the initial exciton lifetime {tau} of the QW (E{sub QW}(5K)=3.22eV) is assigned by time resolved CL on the uncovered sample area. It decreases over one order of magnitude from {tau}(5K)=3.75ns to {tau}(180K)=0.38ns. In a second step, the sample is excited by the pulsed e-beam in the center of a circular aperture (d=1.45{mu}m) in a completely light absorbing Ti-mask (thickness: 160nm). The analytic solution of the two-dimensional diffusion equation for this geometry is fitted to the initial decay of the CL with the given parameters {tau}(T) and d(T). This directly gives the diffusion constant D(T) which increases from D(5K)=0.25 cm{sup 2}/s to D(180K)=1.4 cm{sup 2}/s. Using the Einstein-Relation, one can define an excitonic mobility that has a plateau around {mu}=600 cm{sup 2}/Vs at low T (5K-12K) with a decay at higher temperature following {mu}{proportional_to}T{sup -(2)/(3)} which is close to scattering with Froehlich-Interaction ({mu}{proportional_to}T{sup -(1)/(2)}).

  19. Occupational risk and lifetime exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapp, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    Any lowering of annual radiation limits for occupational exposure should be based on industry experience with lifetime doses and not on a worst case career exposure of 47 years. Two decades of experience show a lifetime accumulation of less than 1.5 rem for workers with measurable exposure. This is 5% of the normal lifetime exposure of Americans to natural and medical radiation. Any epidemiology of the US nuclear power workforce's two decade long exposure would have to focus on excess leukemia. Application of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki cancer mortality shows that too few leukemias would be expressed to permit a feasible epidemiology. Ionizing radiation appears to be a mild carcinogen as compared to physical and chemical agents presented in the occupational environment. A realistic factor in determining any change in occupational exposure limits for ionizing radiation should take into account the past performance of the licensee and potential health effects applicable to the workplace. Specifically, the lifetime exposure data for workers at nuclear power plants and naval shipyards should be considered. The nuclear industry and the US Navy have detailed data on the annual exposure of workers with a combined collective exposure approaching 1 million worker-rem. The lifetime dose for naval personnel and shipyard workers averages 1.1 rem J 1990. Shipyard workers have an annual dose of 0.28 rem per work-year and a mean exposure time of 4.4 years. The data apply to workers with measurable dose

  20. Excess lifetime cancer mortality risk attributable to radiation exposure from computed tomography examinations in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chodick, Gabriel; Ronckers, Cécile M.; Shalev, Varda; Ron, Elaine

    2007-01-01

    The use of computed tomography in Israel has been growing rapidly during recent decades. The major drawback of this important technology is the exposure to ionizing radiation, especially among children who have increased organ radiosensitivity and a long lifetime to potentially develop

  1. Photoionization cross section of the 4p55d[7/2] J=4 state and radiative lifetimes of three states of Kr I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, B.D.; Glab, W.L.; Ogorzalek-Loo, R.

    1993-01-01

    Three states in Kr I were studied in a pure Kr discharge at pressures ≤15 mTorr. Two-photon excitation from the metastable 4p 5 5s[3/2] J=2 state produced the 4p 5 5d[7/2] J=4 state whose photoionization cross section and lifetime were measured. The photoionization cross section at λ=1064 nm is 32±5 Mb, and the radiative lifetime is 142±12 ns. One-photon excitation produced the 4p 5 5p[5/2] J=2 and J=3 states of Kr I, whose radiative lifetimes were measured. In contrast to previous lifetime measurements of these two 5p states, this work used both state-specific excitation and low pressures. The pressures were low enough that collisional transfer between these two states was negligible. In a very clean 8-mm-diam cell, the 5p[5/2] J=3 lifetime increased with Kr pressure. This increase is attributed to radiation trapping on the 5s[3/2] J=2 to 5p[5/2] J=3 transition. This radiation trapping by the metastable first excited state of Kr I was observed in a pure Kr discharge at pressures below 4 mTorr

  2. Excitons in the rare gas solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Excitons play a prominent role in the chemistry and physics of condensed matter. Excitons in the rare gas solids, the prototypical van der Waals insulators, will be the focus of the remainder of this report. The goal here is to investigate the controversies surrounding the description of excitons in insulators and, therefore the simplest class of these solids, namely the rare gas solids, is chosen as the exemplary system. Specific problems associated with molecular crystals are, therefore, avoided and only the salient features of excitons are thus considered. 47 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs

  3. Determination of the effective radiative lifetimes of the 6 3P1 atomic mercury level in low-pressure mercury discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van de Weijer, P.; Cremers, R.M.M.

    1984-01-01

    Experiments are described in which low-pressure mercury, mercury-argon and mercury-krypton discharges were irradiated with a dye laser pulse at 365.5 nm, thus exciting mercury atoms from the metastable 6 3 P 2 level to the 6 3 D 2 level. The 6 3 D 2 level decays radiatively to the 6 P levels. By recording the time dependence of the overpopulation in the 6 3 P 1 and the 6 1 P 1 level at the fluorescence signals at 254 nm and 185 nm, respectively, the effective radiative lifetime of these levels were determined. The effective radiative lifetime of the 6 3 P 1 level was measured in the k 0 R regime 0.1-500. The 6 1 P 1 lifetime was determined for the following discharge conditions: tube diameter 10-36 mm, mercury density 7.10 18 -2.10 21 m -3 , and noble gas pressure 0, 130, 400 Pa

  4. Excitons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozhushner, M

    1975-06-01

    The theory of quasi particles is explained to layman readers and the significance of the discovery of excitons is pointed out. New possibilities of the study of electron-hole interactions and of superconductivity are indicated.

  5. SIRTF thermal design modifications to increase lifetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrick, S. W.

    1993-01-01

    An effort was made to increase the predicted lifetime of the SIRTF dewar by lowering the exterior shell temperature, increasing the radiated energy from the vapor cooled shields and reconfiguring the vapor cooled shields. The lifetime increases can be used to increase the scientific return from the mission and as a trade-off against mass and cost. This paper describes the configurations studied, the steady state thermal model used, the analytical methods and the results of the analysis. Much of the heat input to the outside dewar shell is radiative heat transfer from the solar panel. To lower the shell temperature, radiative cooled shields were placed between the solar panel and the dewar shell and between the bus and the dewar shell. Analysis showed that placing a radiator on the outer vapor cooled shield had a significant effect on lifetime. Lengthening the distance between the outer shell and the point where the vapor cooled shields are attached to the support straps also improved lifetime.

  6. Probing exciton density of states through phonon-assisted emission in GaN epilayers: A and B exciton contributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavigli, Lucia; Gabrieli, Riccardo; Gurioli, Massimo; Bogani, Franco; Feltin, Eric; Carlin, Jean-François; Butté, Raphaël; Grandjean, Nicolas; Vinattieri, Anna

    2010-09-01

    A detailed experimental investigation of the phonon-assisted emission in a high-quality c -plane GaN epilayer is presented up to 200 K. By performing photoluminescence and reflectivity measurements, we find important etaloning effects in the phonon-replica spectra, which have to be corrected before addressing the lineshape analysis. Direct experimental evidence for free exciton thermalization is found for the whole temperature range investigated. A close comparison with existing models for phonon replicas originating from a thermalized free exciton distribution shows that the simplified and commonly adopted description of the exciton-phonon interaction with a single excitonic band leads to a large discrepancy with experimental data. Only the consideration of the complex nature of the excitonic band in GaN, including A and B exciton contributions, allows accounting for the temperature dependence of the peak energy, intensity, and lineshape of the phonon replicas.

  7. Scaling laws of Rydberg excitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckötter, J.; Freitag, M.; Fröhlich, D.; Aßmann, M.; Bayer, M.; Semina, M. A.; Glazov, M. M.

    2017-09-01

    Rydberg atoms have attracted considerable interest due to their huge interaction among each other and with external fields. They demonstrate characteristic scaling laws in dependence on the principal quantum number n for features such as the magnetic field for level crossing or the electric field of dissociation. Recently, the observation of excitons in highly excited states has allowed studying Rydberg physics in cuprous oxide crystals. Fundamentally different insights may be expected for Rydberg excitons, as the crystal environment and associated symmetry reduction compared to vacuum give not only optical access to many more states within an exciton multiplet but also extend the Hamiltonian for describing the exciton beyond the hydrogen model. Here we study experimentally and theoretically the scaling of several parameters of Rydberg excitons with n , for some of which we indeed find laws different from those of atoms. For others we find identical scaling laws with n , even though their origin may be distinctly different from the atomic case. At zero field the energy splitting of a particular multiplet n scales as n-3 due to crystal-specific terms in the Hamiltonian, e.g., from the valence band structure. From absorption spectra in magnetic field we find for the first crossing of levels with adjacent principal quantum numbers a Br∝n-4 dependence of the resonance field strength, Br, due to the dominant paramagnetic term unlike for atoms for which the diamagnetic contribution is decisive, resulting in a Br∝n-6 dependence. By contrast, the resonance electric field strength shows a scaling as Er∝n-5 as for Rydberg atoms. Also similar to atoms with the exception of hydrogen we observe anticrossings between states belonging to multiplets with different principal quantum numbers at these resonances. The energy splittings at the avoided crossings scale roughly as n-4, again due to crystal specific features in the exciton Hamiltonian. The data also allow us to

  8. Excitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozhushner, M.

    1975-01-01

    The theory of quasi particles is explained to layman readers and the significance of the discovery of excitons is pointed out. New possibilities of the study of electron-hole interactions and of superconductivity are indicated. (L.O.)

  9. Radiative-lifetime measurements and calculations of odd-parity highly excited levels in Ba i

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wei; Du Shan; Palmeri, Patrick; Quinet, Pascal; Biemont, Emile; Dai Zhenwen

    2010-01-01

    Natural radiative lifetime measurements have been performed for 70 odd-parity highly excited levels of neutral barium in the energy range from 308 15.512 to 417 59.93 cm -1 by a time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence technique in a laser-produced plasma. The lifetime values measured in this paper are in the range from 11.3 to 901 ns. They are compared with the published lifetimes of four levels. Two of them are in good agreement, whereas for the other two our measurements are slightly longer than the published data. The reasons for the discrepancies are discussed. Comparisons with theoretical results of the Hartree-Fock method with relativistic corrections illustrate the difficulties associated with the use of Cowan's codes for obtaining accurate branching fractions for transitions depopulating highly excited levels along the Rydberg series of heavy neutral elements. This work will be useful to extend the set of oscillator strengths available in Ba i.

  10. Excitons in Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes and Their Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amori, Amanda R.; Hou, Zhentao; Krauss, Todd D.

    2018-04-01

    Understanding exciton dynamics in single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) is essential to unlocking the many potential applications of these materials. This review summarizes recent progress in understanding exciton photophysics and, in particular, exciton dynamics in SWCNTs. We outline the basic physical and electronic properties of SWCNTs, as well as bright and dark transitions within the framework of a strongly bound one-dimensional excitonic model. We discuss the many facets of ultrafast carrier dynamics in SWCNTs, including both single-exciton states (bright and dark) and multiple-exciton states. Photophysical properties that directly relate to excitons and their dynamics, including exciton diffusion lengths, chemical and structural defects, environmental effects, and photoluminescence photon statistics as observed through photon antibunching measurements, are also discussed. Finally, we identify a few key areas for advancing further research in the field of SWCNT excitons and photonics.

  11. Minority carrier lifetime in mid-wavelength infrared InAs/InAsSb superlattices: Photon recycling and the role of radiative and Shockley-Read-Hall recombination mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Höglund, L.; Ting, D. Z.; Soibel, A.; Fisher, A.; Khoshakhlagh, A.; Hill, C. J.; Keo, S.; Gunapala, S. D.

    2014-01-01

    The influence of radiative recombination on the minority carrier lifetime in mid-wavelength InAs/InAsSb superlattices was investigated. From the lifetime's dependence on temperature, photon recycling, and carrier concentration, it was demonstrated that radiative lifetime dominates for carrier concentrations >5 × 10 14  cm −3 , and Shockley-Read-Hall recombination starts to dominate the minority carrier lifetime for carrier concentrations <5 × 10 14  cm −3 . An observed increase of the minority carrier lifetime with increasing superlattice thickness was attributed to photon recycling, and good agreement between measured and theoretical values of the photon recycling factor was obtained

  12. Models of coherent exciton condensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Littlewood, P B; Eastham, P R; Keeling, J M J; Marchetti, F M; Simons, B D; Szymanska, M H

    2004-01-01

    That excitons in solids might condense into a phase-coherent ground state was proposed about 40 years ago, and has been attracting experimental and theoretical attention ever since. Although experimental confirmation has been hard to come by, the concepts released by this phenomenon have been widely influential. This tutorial review discusses general aspects of the theory of exciton and polariton condensates, focusing on the reasons for coherence in the ground state wavefunction, the BCS to Bose crossover(s) for excitons and for polaritons, and the relationship of the coherent condensates to standard lasers

  13. Models of coherent exciton condensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Littlewood, P B [Theory of Condensed Matter, Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Eastham, P R [Theory of Condensed Matter, Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Keeling, J M J [Theory of Condensed Matter, Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Marchetti, F M [Theory of Condensed Matter, Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Simons, B D [Theory of Condensed Matter, Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Szymanska, M H [Theory of Condensed Matter, Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)

    2004-09-08

    That excitons in solids might condense into a phase-coherent ground state was proposed about 40 years ago, and has been attracting experimental and theoretical attention ever since. Although experimental confirmation has been hard to come by, the concepts released by this phenomenon have been widely influential. This tutorial review discusses general aspects of the theory of exciton and polariton condensates, focusing on the reasons for coherence in the ground state wavefunction, the BCS to Bose crossover(s) for excitons and for polaritons, and the relationship of the coherent condensates to standard lasers.

  14. Density-dependent squeezing of excitons in highly excited semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Hong Quang.

    1995-07-01

    The time evolution from coherent states to squeezed states of high density excitons is studied theoretically based on the boson formalism and within the Random Phase Approximation. Both the mutual interaction between excitons and the anharmonic exciton-photon interaction due to phase-space filling of excitons are taken into account. It is shown that the exciton squeezing depends strongly on the exciton density in semiconductors and becomes smaller with increasing the latter. (author). 16 refs, 2 figs

  15. Monte Carlo mixture model of lifetime cancer incidence risk from radiation exposure on shuttle and international space station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, L.E.; Cucinotta, F.A.

    1999-01-01

    Estimating uncertainty in lifetime cancer risk for human exposure to space radiation is a unique challenge. Conventional risk assessment with low-linear-energy-transfer (LET)-based risk from Japanese atomic bomb survivor studies may be inappropriate for relativistic protons and nuclei in space due to track structure effects. This paper develops a Monte Carlo mixture model (MCMM) for transferring additive, National Institutes of Health multiplicative, and multiplicative excess cancer incidence risks based on Japanese atomic bomb survivor data to determine excess incidence risk for various US astronaut exposure profiles. The MCMM serves as an anchor point for future risk projection methods involving biophysical models of DNA damage from space radiation. Lifetime incidence risks of radiation-induced cancer for the MCMM based on low-LET Japanese data for nonleukemia (all cancers except leukemia) were 2.77 (90% confidence limit, 0.75-11.34) for males exposed to 1 Sv at age 45 and 2.20 (90% confidence limit, 0.59-10.12) for males exposed at age 55. For females, mixture model risks for nonleukemia exposed separately to 1 Sv at ages of 45 and 55 were 2.98 (90% confidence limit, 0.90-11.70) and 2.44 (90% confidence limit, 0.70-10.30), respectively. Risks for high-LET 200 MeV protons (LET=0.45 keV/μm), 1 MeV α-particles (LET=100 keV/μm), and 600 MeV iron particles (LET=180 keV/μm) were scored on a per particle basis by determining the particle fluence required for an average of one particle per cell nucleus of area 100 μm 2 . Lifetime risk per proton was 2.68x10 -2 % (90% confidence limit, 0.79x10 -3 %-0.514x10 -2 %). For α-particles, lifetime risk was 14.2% (90% confidence limit, 2.5%-31.2%). Conversely, lifetime risk per iron particle was 23.7% (90% confidence limit, 4.5%-53.0%). Uncertainty in the DDREF for high-LET particles may be less than that for low-LET radiation because typically there is very little dose-rate dependence. Probability density functions for

  16. Defect production at exciton decay in ionic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lushchik, Ch.B.

    1984-01-01

    On the example of alkali halide crystals experimentally detected phenomenon of structural point defect production in wide-gap nonmetallic solids at low-temperature radiationless decay of self-localizing excitons and recombination of electrons with self-localized holes is considered. Factors promoting radiationless transformation of electron excitations to not small oscillations of many atoms (heat release), but to separate ion large shifts, that determine one of the most important mechanisms of radiation instability of solids, used, in particular, for data recording, are discussed

  17. Exciton dynamics at the heteromolecular interface between N,N′-dioctyl-3,4,9,10-perylenedicarboximide and quaterrylene, studied using time-resolved photoluminescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuya Hiroshiba

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To elucidate the exciton dynamics at the heteromolecular interface, the temperature dependence of time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL spectra of neat-N,N′-dioctyl-3,4,9,10-perylenedicarboximide (PTCDI-C8 and PTCDI-C8/Quaterrylene (QT heteromolecular thin films was investigated. The lifetimes of excitons were evaluated to identify the Frenkel (FE, high energy charge-transfer (CTEhigh, low energy charge-transfer (CTElow, and excimer exciton states. The thermal activation energy (Δact of CTElow in PTCDI-C8 thin film was evaluated as 25 meV, which is 1/5 of that of FE, indicating that CTElow is more thermally sensitive than FE in PTCDI-C8 thin film. We investigated the exciton transport length (l along the vertical direction against the substrate surface in PTCDI-C8/QT thin film at 30 K, and demonstrated that lFE = 9.9 nm, lCTElow = 4.2 nm, lCTEhigh = 4.3 nm, and lexcimer = 11.9 nm. To elucidate the difference in l among these excitons, the activation energies (Ea for quenching at the heteromolecular interface were investigated. Ea values were estimated to be 13.1 meV for CTElow and 18.6 meV for CTEhigh. These values agree with the thermal sensitivity of CTEs as reported in a previous static PL study. This latter situation is different from the case of FE and excimer excitons, which are transported via a resonant process and have no temperature dependence. The small Ea values of CTEs suggest that exciton transport takes place via a thermal hopping process in CTEs. The present experimental study provides information on nano-scaled exciton dynamics in a well-defined PTCDI-C8 (2 ML/QT (2 ML system.

  18. Exciton Formation in Disordered Semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klochikhin, A.; Reznitsky, A.; Permogorov, S.

    1999-01-01

    Stationary luminescence spectra of disordered solid solutions can be accounted by the model of localized excitons. Detailed analysis of the long time decay kinetics of luminescence shows that exciton formation in these systems is in great extent due to the bimolecular reaction of separated carrie...

  19. Fractional Solitons in Excitonic Josephson Junctions

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, Ya-Fen; Su, Jung-Jung

    2015-01-01

    The Josephson effect is especially appealing to physicists because it reveals macroscopically the quantum order and phase. In excitonic bilayers the effect is even subtler due to the counterflow of supercurrent as well as the tunneling between layers (interlayer tunneling). Here we study, in a quantum Hall bilayer, the excitonic Josephson junction: a conjunct of two exciton condensates with a relative phase ? 0 applied. The system is mapped into a pseudospin ferromagnet then described numeric...

  20. Exciton management in organic photovoltaic multidonor energy cascades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Olga L; Forrest, Stephen R

    2014-05-14

    Multilayer donor regions in organic photovoltaics show improved power conversion efficiency when arranged in decreasing exciton energy order from the anode to the acceptor interface. These so-called "energy cascades" drive exciton transfer from the anode to the dissociating interface while reducing exciton quenching and allowing improved overlap with the solar spectrum. Here we investigate the relative importance of exciton transfer and blocking in a donor cascade employing diphenyltetracene (D1), rubrene (D2), and tetraphenyldibenzoperiflanthene (D3) whose optical gaps monotonically decrease from D1 to D3. In this structure, D1 blocks excitons from quenching at the anode, D2 accepts transfer of excitons from D1 and blocks excitons at the interface between D2 and D3, and D3 contributes the most to the photocurrent due to its strong absorption at visible wavelengths, while also determining the open circuit voltage. We observe singlet exciton Förster transfer from D1 to D2 to D3 consistent with cascade operation. The power conversion efficiency of the optimized cascade OPV with a C60 acceptor layer is 7.1 ± 0.4%, which is significantly higher than bilayer devices made with only the individual donors. We develop a quantitative model to identify the dominant exciton processes that govern the photocurrent generation in multilayer organic structures.

  1. Chiral topological excitons in a Chern band insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ke; Shindou, Ryuichi

    2017-10-01

    A family of semiconductors called Chern band insulators are shown to host exciton bands with nonzero topological Chern integers and chiral exciton edge modes. Using a prototypical two-band Chern insulator model, we calculate a cross-correlation function to obtain the exciton bands and their Chern integers. The lowest exciton band acquires Chern integers such as ±1 and ±2 in the electronic Chern insulator phase. The nontrivial topology can be experimentally observed both by a nonlocal optoelectronic response of exciton edge modes and by a phase shift in the cross-correlation response due to the bulk mode. Our result suggests that magnetically doped HgTe, InAs/GaSb quantum wells, and (Bi,Sb)2Te3 thin films are promising candidates for a platform of topological excitonics.

  2. Radiation hardness and lifetime studies of LEDs and VCSELs for the optical readout of the ATLAS SCT

    CERN Document Server

    Beringer, J; Mommsen, R K; Nickerson, R B; Weidberg, A R; Monnier, E; Hou, H Q; Lear, K L

    1999-01-01

    We study the radiation hardness and the lifetime of Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) and Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser diodes (VCSELs) in the context of the development of the optical readout for the ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker (SCT) at LHC. About 170 LEDs from two different manufacturers and about 130 VCSELs were irradiated with neutron and proton fluences equivalent to (and in some cases more than twice as high as) the combined neutral and charged particle fluence of about 5x10 sup 1 sup 4 n (1 MeV eq. in GaAs)/cm sup 2 expected in the ATLAS inner detector. We report on the radiation damage and the conditions required for its partial annealing under forward bias, we calculate radiation damage constants, and we present post-irradiation failure rates for LEDs and VCSELs. The lifetime after irradiation was investigated by operating the diodes at an elevated temperature of 50 degree sign C for several months, resulting in operating times corresponding to up to 70 years of operation in the ATLAS SCT. From o...

  3. Fine structure of the exciton electroabsorption in semiconductor superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monozon, B.S., E-mail: borismonozon@mail.ru [Physics Department, Marine Technical University, 3 Lotsmanskaya Str., 190008 St.Petersburg (Russian Federation); Schmelcher, P. [Zentrum für Optische Quantentechnologien, The Hamburg Centre for Ultrafast Imaging, Universität Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany)

    2017-02-15

    Wannier-Mott excitons in a semiconductor layered superlattice (SL) are investigated analytically for the case that the period of the superlattice is much smaller than the 2D exciton Bohr radius. Additionally we assume the presence of a longitudinal external static electric field directed parallel to the SL axis. The exciton states and the optical absorption coefficient are derived in the tight-binding and adiabatic approximations. Strong and weak electric fields providing spatially localized and extended electron and hole states, respectively, are studied. The dependencies of the exciton states and the exciton absorption spectrum on the SL parameters and the electric field strength are presented in an explicit form. We focus on the fine structure of the ground quasi-2D exciton level formed by the series of closely spaced energy levels adjacent from the high frequencies. These levels are related to the adiabatically slow relative exciton longitudinal motion governed by the potential formed by the in-plane exciton state. It is shown that the external electric fields compress the fine structure energy levels, decrease the intensities of the corresponding optical peaks and increase the exciton binding energy. A possible experimental study of the fine structure of the exciton electroabsorption is discussed.

  4. Instantaneous Rayleigh scattering from excitons localized in monolayer islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langbein, Wolfgang; Leosson, Kristjan; Jensen, Jacob Riis

    2000-01-01

    We show that the initial dynamics of Rayleigh scattering from excitons in quantum wells can be either instantaneous or delayed, depending on the exciton ensemble studied. For excitation of the entire exciton resonance, a finite rise time given by the inverse inhomogeneous broadening: of the exciton...

  5. TR-LIF LIFETIME MEASUREMENTS AND HFR+CPOL CALCULATIONS OF RADIATIVE PARAMETERS IN VANADIUM ATOM (V I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Q.; Jiang, L. Y.; Shang, X.; Tian, Y. S.; Dai, Z. W.; Quinet, P.; Palmeri, P.; Zhang, W.

    2014-01-01

    Radiative lifetimes of 79 levels belonging to the 3d 3 4s4p, 3d 4 4p, 3d 3 4s5p, 3d 4 5p, and 3d 3 4s4d configurations of V I with energy from 26,604.807 to 46,862.786 cm –1 have been measured using time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence (TR-LIF) spectroscopy in laser-produced plasma. The lifetime values reported in this paper are in the range of 3.3-494 ns, and the uncertainties of these measurements are within ±10%. A good agreement was obtained with previous data. HFR+CPOL calculations have been performed and used to combine the calculated branching fractions with the available experimental lifetimes to determine semi-empirical transition probabilities for 784 V I transitions

  6. Exciton fission in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenide semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhoff, A; Florian, M; Rösner, M; Schönhoff, G; Wehling, T O; Jahnke, F

    2017-10-27

    When electron-hole pairs are excited in a semiconductor, it is a priori not clear if they form a plasma of unbound fermionic particles or a gas of composite bosons called excitons. Usually, the exciton phase is associated with low temperatures. In atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenide semiconductors, excitons are particularly important even at room temperature due to strong Coulomb interaction and a large exciton density of states. Using state-of-the-art many-body theory, we show that the thermodynamic fission-fusion balance of excitons and electron-hole plasma can be efficiently tuned via the dielectric environment as well as charge carrier doping. We propose the observation of these effects by studying exciton satellites in photoemission and tunneling spectroscopy, which present direct solid-state counterparts of high-energy collider experiments on the induced fission of composite particles.

  7. Alternative approaches to electronic damage by ion-beam irradiation: Exciton models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agullo-Lopez, F.; Munoz-Martin, A.; Zucchiatti, A. [Centro de Micro-Analisis de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049, Madrid (Spain); Climent-Font, A. [Centro de Micro-Analisis de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049, Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049, Madrid (Spain)

    2016-11-15

    The paper briefly describes the main features of the damage produced by swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation. After a short revision of the widely used thermal spike concept, it focuses on cumulative mechanisms of track formation which are alternative to those based on lattice melting (thermal spike models). These cumulative mechanisms rely on the production of point defects around the ion trajectory, and their accumulation up to a final lattice collapse or amorphization. As to the formation of point defects, the paper considers those mechanisms relying on direct local conversion of the excitation energy into atomic displacements (exciton models). A particular attention is given to processes based on the non-radiative recombination of excitons that have become self-trapped as a consequence of a strong electron-phonon interaction (STEs). These mechanisms, although operative under purely ionizing radiation in some dielectric materials, have been rarely invoked, so far, to discuss SHI damage. They are discussed in this paper together with relevant examples to materials such as Cu{sub 3}N, alkali halides, SiO{sub 2}, and LiNbO{sub 3}. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Excitonic optical bistability in n-type doped semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Ba An; Le Thi Cat Tuong

    1991-07-01

    A resonant monochromatic pump laser generates coherent excitons in an n-type doped semiconductor. Both exciton-exciton and exciton-donor interactions come into play. The former interaction can give rise to the appearance of optical bistability which is heavily influenced by the latter one. When optical bistability occurs at a fixed laser frequency both its holding intensity and hysteresis loop size are shown to decrease with increasing donor concentration. Two possibilities are suggested for experimentally determining one of the two parameters of the system - the exciton-donor coupling constant and the donor concentration, if the other parameter is known beforehand. (author). 36 refs, 2 figs

  9. Nonlinear spectroscopy of excitons and biexcitons in ZnS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlov, L.I.; Paskov, P.P.; Lalov, I.J.

    1989-01-01

    Four- photon spectroscopy on exciton and biexciton states in ZnS is reported at T = 10 K. The Nd:YAG laser is used as a fundamental source in the experimental setup. Second harmonic radiation ω 2 pumps the dye laser of ω 1 tunable frequency. The ZnS single crystal is placed in an optical cryostat for resonant spectroscopy at low temperature. Four-photon mixing ω 3 = 2ω 1 -ω 2 signal is separated by MDR-23 monochromator and is registered by a laser photometer. The hexagonal ZnS crystal is experimentally investigated when the waves ω 1 and ω 2 propagate colinear with the optical axis. The crystal is cut along the (1120) plane. The photon 2ℎω 1 energy scans over the range 3.895-3.940 eV. The dispersion of I 3 (ω 3 ) upon 2ℎω 1 is obtained. Three resonances are registered E M = 3.8964, E B 1 = 3.9010 and E B 2 = 3.9311 eV. The recorded low temperature resonance in dispersion of nonlinearity χ (3) are identified with B 1 s and B 2 s excitons as well as with biexciton in ZnS which is observed for the first time in this crystal. An experimental dependence of the signal I 3 (ω 3 ) intensity upon the pump I 1 (ω 1 ) is obtained. The E M resonance is saturated with the I 1 (ω 1 ) enhancement while the E B 1 resonance increases. Authors explain such a behaviour by the fact that the recombination probability of the biexcitons to excitons increases with the pump level growth. Estimations for the exciton density and the bounding energy are given. (author)

  10. Excitonic Properties of Chemically Synthesized 2D Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Perovskite Nanosheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Chu, Leiqiang; Zhou, Feng; Ji, Wei; Eda, Goki

    2018-05-01

    2D organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites (OIHPs) represent a unique class of materials with a natural quantum-well structure and quasi-2D electronic properties. Here, a versatile direct solution-based synthesis of mono- and few-layer OIHP nanosheets and a systematic study of their electronic structure as a function of the number of monolayers by photoluminescence and absorption spectroscopy are reported. The monolayers of various OIHPs are found to exhibit high electronic quality as evidenced by high quantum yield and negligible Stokes shift. It is shown that the ground exciton peak blueshifts by ≈40 meV when the layer thickness reduces from bulk to monolayer. It is also shown that the exciton binding energy remains effectively unchanged for (C 6 H 5 (CH 2 ) 2 NH 3 ) 2 PbI 4 with the number of layers. Similar trends are observed for (C 4 H 9 NH 3 ) 2 PbI 4 in contrast to the previous report. Further, the photoluminescence lifetime is found to decrease with the number of monolayers, indicating the dominant role of surface trap states in nonradiative recombination of the electron-hole pairs. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Acousto-exciton interaction in a gas of 2D indirect dipolar excitons in the presence of disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalev, V. M.; Chaplik, A. V., E-mail: chaplik@isp.nsc.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

    2016-03-15

    A theory for the linear and quadratic responses of a 2D gas of indirect dipolar excitons to an external surface acoustic wave perturbation in the presence of a static random potential is considered. The theory is constructed both for high temperatures, definitely greater than the exciton gas condensation temperature, and at zero temperature by taking into account the Bose–Einstein condensation effects. The particle Green functions, the density–density correlation function, and the quadratic response function are calculated by the “cross” diagram technique. The results obtained are used to calculate the absorption of Rayleigh surface waves and the acoustic exciton gas drag by a Rayleigh wave. The damping of Bogoliubov excitations in an exciton condensate due to theirs scattering by a random potential has also been determined.

  12. Radiation-induced defect-formation in lithium hydride and deuteride monocrystals. [Electron and X-ray irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pustovarov, V.A.; Betenekova, T.A.; Zav' yalov, N.A.; Cholakh, S.O. (Ural' skij Politekhnicheskij Inst., Sverdlovsk (USSR))

    1983-08-01

    Methods of stationary and pulse absorption spectroscopy were used to investigate into processes of formation and decay of radiation defects in cubic LiH and LiD crystals. F- and V-centers form at low temperatures during crystal irradiation by photons, creating excitons selectively, accelerator electrons, X-ray radiation. Analysis of possible mechanisms of defect formation shows that radiation defect formation in LiH is based on radiationless exciton decay. It is shown that efficiency of F- and V-centers generation in pure and impure crystals in 80-298 K range is the same. Exciton decay with formation of Frenkel radiation defects in pure LiH and LiD crystals takes place, probably, in regular crystal lattice points. Process of radiation defect formation as a result of near activator exciton decay takes place in impure LiH-Na, LiD-Na crystals.

  13. Lifetime of a black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlitz, R.D.; Willey, R.S.

    1987-01-01

    We study the constraints placed by quantum mechanics upon the lifetime of a black hole. In the context of a moving-mirror analog model for the Hawking radiation process, we conclude that the period of Hawking radiation must be followed by a much longer period during which the remnant mass (of order m/sub P/) may be radiated away. We are able to place a lower bound on the time required for this radiation process, which translates into a lower bound for the lifetime of the black hole. Particles which are emitted during the decay of the remnant, like the particles which comprise the Hawking flux, may be uncorrelated with each other. But each particle emitted from the decaying remnant is correlated with one particle emitted as Hawking radiation. The state which results after the remnant has evaporated is one which locally appears to be thermal, but which on a much larger scale is marked by extensive correlations

  14. Interlayer excitons in a bulk van der Waals semiconductor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arora, Ashish; Drueppel, Matthias; Schmidt, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Bound electron-hole pairs called excitons govern the electronic and optical response of many organic and inorganic semiconductors. Excitons with spatially displaced wave functions of electrons and holes (interlayer excitons) are important for Bose-Einstein condensation, superfluidity......, dissipationless current flow, and the light-induced exciton spin Hall effect. Here we report on the discovery of interlayer excitons in a bulk van der Waals semiconductor. They form due to strong localization and spin-valley coupling of charge carriers. By combining high-field magneto-reflectance experiments...

  15. Exciton Binding Energy of Monolayer WS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bairen; Chen, Xi; Cui, Xiaodong

    2015-03-01

    The optical properties of monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDC) feature prominent excitonic natures. Here we report an experimental approach to measuring the exciton binding energy of monolayer WS2 with linear differential transmission spectroscopy and two-photon photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy (TP-PLE). TP-PLE measurements show the exciton binding energy of 0.71 +/- 0.01 eV around K valley in the Brillouin zone.

  16. Use of BEIR V and UNSCEAR 1988 in radiation risk assessment: Lifetime total cancer mortality risk estimates at low doses and low dose rates for low-LET radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    In November 1986, the Department of Defense (DoD) asked the Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination (CIRRPC) to develop a coordinated Federal position on risk assessment for low levels of ionizing radiation. Since Federal risk assessment activities are based primarily on the scientific data and analyses in authoritative review documents prepared by groups like the National Academy of Sciences' Committee on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR), the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) and the United Nations' Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), DoD proposed that the CIRRPC Science Panel undertake the task of providing coordinated interagency positions on the use of information in the reports of such groups. The practice has been for individual Federal agencies to interpret and decide independently how to use the information provided in such reports. As a result of its deliberations, the Subpanel recommends two nominal risk estimates for lifetime total cancer mortality following whole-body exposure to low levels of low-LET ionizing radiation, one for the general population and one for the working-age population (see Section II). The recommended risk estimates reflect the general agreement of information in BEIR V and UNSCEAR 1988 for total cancer mortality. The Subpanel's risk estimates and associated statements are intended to meet the needs of the Federal agencies for: (a) values that are current; (b) values that are relevant to the low-dose and low dose-rate ionizing radiation exposures principally encountered in carrying out Federal responsibilities; (c) a statement of the change in the estimates of lifetime total cancer mortality relative to estimates in previous authoritative review documents; and (d) a practical statement on the scientific uncertainty associated with applying the lifetime total cancer mortality values at very low doses

  17. Exploring ultrafast dynamics of excitons and multiexcitons in "giant" nanocrystal quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampat, Siddharth

    In this work, we have performed extensive time resolved photoluminescence (PL) studies to further the understanding of charge dynamics in semiconductor nanocrystal quantum dots (QDs). Recent developments in QD synthesis have introduced a new set of QD known as "giant" quantum dots (gQDs) that consist of a CdSe core coated with up to 19 monolayers of a CdS shell. The thick shell layer is grown using a SILAR method resulting in a defect free, alloyed CdSe/CdS interface. This has been attributed to gQDs exhibiting excellent optical properties such as high excitonic quantum yield (QY), prolonged photostability and inhibition of flourescence intermittency ("blinking"), which is regularly observed in conventional QDs. In gQDs, however, owing to unique fabrication methods and material selection, the Auger process is strongly suppressed resulting in efficient radiative recombination of photogenerated excitons as well as high PL QY of charged excitonic and multiexcitonic species. We perform extensive single gQDs studies that establish the role played by gQD shell thickness and core size in governing their optical properties. It is found that both the core and shell dimensions can be tuned in order to achieve the smallest gQDs with the highest vii Auger suppression resulting in photostable dots with high QYs. Next, we perform a study of multiexcitonic species in gQDs that are encapsulated in an insulating SiO2shell. These silica-coated gQDs exhibit strong PL from charged excitons, biexcitons as well as triexcitons. This observation has led to an accurate description of excitonic and multiexcitonic behavior which is modeled using a statistical scaling approach. As a demonstration of the practical applicability of gQDs, energy transfer of excitons as well as multiexcitons to different substrates is studied. Finally, a back gated silicon nanomembrane FET device is discussed that exhibits a large photocurrent increase when sensitized with QDs.

  18. Magnetic field effect on the energy levels of an exciton in a GaAs quantum dot: Application for excitonic lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahan, K Luhluh; Boda, A; Shankar, I V; Raju, Ch Narasimha; Chatterjee, Ashok

    2018-03-22

    The problem of an exciton trapped in a Gaussian quantum dot (QD) of GaAs is studied in both two and three dimensions in the presence of an external magnetic field using the Ritz variational method, the 1/N expansion method and the shifted 1/N expansion method. The ground state energy and the binding energy of the exciton are obtained as a function of the quantum dot size, confinement strength and the magnetic field and compared with those available in the literature. While the variational method gives the upper bound to the ground state energy, the 1/N expansion method gives the lower bound. The results obtained from the shifted 1/N expansion method are shown to match very well with those obtained from the exact diagonalization technique. The variation of the exciton size and the oscillator strength of the exciton are also studied as a function of the size of the quantum dot. The excited states of the exciton are computed using the shifted 1/N expansion method and it is suggested that a given number of stable excitonic bound states can be realized in a quantum dot by tuning the quantum dot parameters. This can open up the possibility of having quantum dot lasers using excitonic states.

  19. Directing energy transport in organic photovoltaic cells using interfacial exciton gates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menke, S Matthew; Mullenbach, Tyler K; Holmes, Russell J

    2015-04-28

    Exciton transport in organic semiconductors is a critical, mediating process in many optoelectronic devices. Often, the diffusive and subdiffusive nature of excitons in these systems can limit device performance, motivating the development of strategies to direct exciton transport. In this work, directed exciton transport is achieved with the incorporation of exciton permeable interfaces. These interfaces introduce a symmetry-breaking imbalance in exciton energy transfer, leading to directed motion. Despite their obvious utility for enhanced exciton harvesting in organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs), the emergent properties of these interfaces are as yet uncharacterized. Here, directed exciton transport is conclusively demonstrated in both dilute donor and energy-cascade OPVs where judicious optimization of the interface allows exciton transport to the donor-acceptor heterojunction to occur considerably faster than when relying on simple diffusion. Generalized systems incorporating multiple exciton permeable interfaces are also explored, demonstrating the ability to further harness this phenomenon and expeditiously direct exciton motion, overcoming the diffusive limit.

  20. Nonboson treatment of excitonic nonlinearity in optically excited media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Ba An.

    1990-11-01

    The present article shortly reviews some recent results in the study of excitonic nonlinearity in optically excited media using a nonboson treatment for many-exciton systems. After a brief discussion of the exciton nonbosonity the closed commutation relations are given for exciton operators which hold for any exciton density and type. The nonboson treatment is then applied to the problems of intrinsic optical bistability and nonlinear polariton yielding quite interesting and new effects, e.g. new shapes of hysteresis loops of intrinsic optical bistability or anomalies of polariton dispersion. (author). 71 refs, 4 figs

  1. Long-lived exciplex formation and delayed exciton emission in bulk heterojunction blends of silole derivative and polyfluorene copolymer: the role of morphology on exciplex formation and charge separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson-Smith, Jessica J; Wilson, Joanne; Dyer-Smith, Clare; Mouri, Kazuhiro; Yamaguchi, Shigehiro; Murata, Hideyuki; Nelson, Jenny

    2009-06-04

    Long-lived exciplex emission is observed in blend films of poly[9,9-dioctylfluorene-co-N-(4-methoxy-phenyl)diphenylamine] (TFMO) and the soluble silole derivative 2,5-bis-(2,2-bipyridin-6-yl)-1,1-dimethyl-3,4-diphenylsilacyclopentadiene (PyPySPyPy). The exciplex is characterized by a long-lived (approximately 40-90 ns) component in both the photoluminescence and electroluminescence spectra, which is red-shifted relative to the emission of the pristine materials. In addition to exciplex emission, delayed fluorescence from the TFMO singlet state is observed and is attributed to exciton regeneration through the interfacial exciplex state. Comparing blend films made using chlorobenzene and p-xylene solvents, we find that exciplex lifetime and exciton regeneration in the blend film are sensitive to the choice of solvent and the resulting morphology of the blend film. The exciplex emissive lifetime can be correlated to changes in photoluminescence quenching and efficiency of light-emitting diodes.

  2. Bright triplet excitons in caesium lead halide perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Michael A.; Vaxenburg, Roman; Nedelcu, Georgian; Sercel, Peter C.; Shabaev, Andrew; Mehl, Michael J.; Michopoulos, John G.; Lambrakos, Samuel G.; Bernstein, Noam; Lyons, John L.; Stöferle, Thilo; Mahrt, Rainer F.; Kovalenko, Maksym V.; Norris, David J.; Rainò, Gabriele; Efros, Alexander L.

    2018-01-01

    Nanostructured semiconductors emit light from electronic states known as excitons. For organic materials, Hund’s rules state that the lowest-energy exciton is a poorly emitting triplet state. For inorganic semiconductors, similar rules predict an analogue of this triplet state known as the ‘dark exciton’. Because dark excitons release photons slowly, hindering emission from inorganic nanostructures, materials that disobey these rules have been sought. However, despite considerable experimental and theoretical efforts, no inorganic semiconductors have been identified in which the lowest exciton is bright. Here we show that the lowest exciton in caesium lead halide perovskites (CsPbX3, with X = Cl, Br or I) involves a highly emissive triplet state. We first use an effective-mass model and group theory to demonstrate the possibility of such a state existing, which can occur when the strong spin-orbit coupling in the conduction band of a perovskite is combined with the Rashba effect. We then apply our model to CsPbX3 nanocrystals, and measure size- and composition-dependent fluorescence at the single-nanocrystal level. The bright triplet character of the lowest exciton explains the anomalous photon-emission rates of these materials, which emit about 20 and 1,000 times faster than any other semiconductor nanocrystal at room and cryogenic temperatures, respectively. The existence of this bright triplet exciton is further confirmed by analysis of the fine structure in low-temperature fluorescence spectra. For semiconductor nanocrystals, which are already used in lighting, lasers and displays, these excitons could lead to materials with brighter emission. More generally, our results provide criteria for identifying other semiconductors that exhibit bright excitons, with potential implications for optoelectronic devices.

  3. Atomic lattice excitons: from condensates to crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantian, A; Daley, A J; Toermae, P; Zoller, P

    2007-01-01

    We discuss atomic lattice excitons (ALEs), bound particle-hole pairs formed by fermionic atoms in two bands of an optical lattice. Such a system provides a clean set-up, with tunable masses and interactions, to study fundamental properties of excitons including exciton condensation. We also find that for a large effective mass ratio between particles and holes, effective long-range interactions can mediate the formation of an exciton crystal, for which superfluidity is suppressed. Using a combination of mean-field treatments, bosonized theory based on a Born-Oppenheimer approximation, and one-dimensional (1D) numerical computation, we discuss the properties of ALEs under varying conditions, and discuss in particular their preparation and measurement

  4. Atomic lattice excitons: from condensates to crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kantian, A [Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Daley, A J [Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Toermae, P [Nanoscience Center, Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, PO Box 35, FIN-40014 (Finland); Zoller, P [Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2007-11-15

    We discuss atomic lattice excitons (ALEs), bound particle-hole pairs formed by fermionic atoms in two bands of an optical lattice. Such a system provides a clean set-up, with tunable masses and interactions, to study fundamental properties of excitons including exciton condensation. We also find that for a large effective mass ratio between particles and holes, effective long-range interactions can mediate the formation of an exciton crystal, for which superfluidity is suppressed. Using a combination of mean-field treatments, bosonized theory based on a Born-Oppenheimer approximation, and one-dimensional (1D) numerical computation, we discuss the properties of ALEs under varying conditions, and discuss in particular their preparation and measurement.

  5. Measurement of Exciton Binding Energy of Monolayer WS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Zhu, Bairen; Cui, Xiaodong

    Excitonic effects are prominent in monolayer crystal of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) because of spatial confinement and reduced Coulomb screening. Here we use linear differential transmission spectroscopy and two-photon photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy (TP-PLE) to measure the exciton binding energy of monolayer WS2. Peaks for excitonic absorptions of the direct gap located at K valley of the Brillouin zone and transitions from multiple points near Γ point of the Brillouin zone, as well as trion side band are shown in the linear absorption spectra of WS2. But there is no gap between distinct excitons and the continuum of the interband transitions. Strong electron-phonon scattering, overlap of excitons around Γ point and the transfer of the oscillator strength from interband continuum to exciton states make it difficult to resolve the electronic interband transition edge even down to 10K. The gap between excited states of the band-edge exciton and the single-particle band is probed by TP-PLE measurements. And the energy difference between 1s exciton and the single-particle gap gives the exciton binding energy of monolayer WS2 to be about 0.71eV. The work is supported by Area of excellency (AoE/P-04/08), CRF of Hong Kong Research Grant Council (HKU9/CRF/13G) and SRT on New Materials of The University of Hong Kong.

  6. Triplet exciton diffusion in organic semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehler, Anna [Department of Physics, University of Bayreuth (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Efficient triplet exciton emission has allowed improved operation of organic light-emitting diodes (LEDs). To enhance the device performance, it is necessary to understand what governs the motion of triplet excitons through the organic semiconductor. We use a series of poly(p-phenylene)-type conjugated polymers and oligomers of variable degree of molecular distortion (i.e. polaron formation) and energetic disorder as model systems to study the Dexter-type triplet exciton diffusion in thin films. We show that triplet diffusion can be quantitatively described in the framework of a Holstein small polaron model (Marcus theory) that is extended to include contributions from energetic disorder. The model predicts a tunnelling process at low temperatures followed by a thermally activated hopping process above a transition temperature. In contrast to charge transfer, the activation energy required for triplet exciton transfer can be deduced from the optical spectra. We discuss the implications for device architecture.

  7. Pentacene Excitons in Strong Electric Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhnke, Klaus; Turkowski, Volodymyr; Kabakchiev, Alexander; Lutz, Theresa; Rahman, Talat S; Kern, Klaus

    2018-02-05

    Electroluminescence spectroscopy of organic semiconductors in the junction of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) provides access to the polarizability of neutral excited states in a well-characterized molecular geometry. We study the Stark shift of the self-trapped lowest singlet exciton at 1.6 eV in a pentacene nanocrystal. Combination of density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) with experiment allows for assignment of the observation to a charge-transfer (CT) exciton. Its charge separation is perpendicular to the applied field, as the measured polarizability is moderate and the electric field in the STM junction is strong enough to dissociate a CT exciton polarized parallel to the applied field. The calculated electric-field-induced anisotropy of the exciton potential energy surface will also be of relevance to photovoltaic applications. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Radiation lifetimes and failure mechanisms of carbon stripper foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auble, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    Measurements of lifetimes of thin carbon foils under heavy-ion irradiation are compiled and recent advances in stripper foil technology are reviewed. The impact of recent foil lifetime improvements, many by more than an order of magnitude, on heavy-ion electrostatic accelerators is discussed. Foil inhomogeneities, particularly those caused by sputtering are suggested to be a prime factor in usable foil lifetimes

  9. Exciton molecule in semiconductors by two-photon absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arya, K.; Hassan, A.R.

    1976-07-01

    Direct creation of bi-exciton states by two-photon absorption in direct gap semiconductors is investigated theoretically. A numerical application to the case of CuCl shows that the two-photon absorption coefficient for bi-excitonic transitions is larger than that for two-photon interband transitions by three orders of magnitude. It becomes comparable to that for one-photon excitonic transitions for available laser intensities. The main contribution to this enhancement of the absorption coefficient for the transitions to the bi-exciton states is found to be from the resonance effect

  10. Theoretical and computational studies of excitons in conjugated polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barford, William; Bursill, Robert J.; Smith, Richard W.

    2002-09-01

    We present a theoretical and computational analysis of excitons in conjugated polymers. We use a tight-binding model of π-conjugated electrons, with 1/r interactions for large r. In both the weak-coupling limit (defined by W>>U) and the strong-coupling limit (defined by Wparticle models. We compare these to density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) calculations, and find good agreement in the extreme limits. We use these analytical results to interpret the DMRG calculations in the intermediate-coupling regime (defined by W~U), most applicable to conjugated polymers. We make the following conclusions. (1) In the weak-coupling limit the bound states are Mott-Wannier excitons, i.e., conduction-band electrons bound to valence-band holes. Singlet and triplet excitons whose relative wave functions are odd under a reflection of the relative coordinate are degenerate. Thus, the 2 1A+g and 1 3A-g states are degenerate in this limit. (2) In the strong-coupling limit the bound states are Mott-Hubbard excitons, i.e., particles in the upper Hubbard band bound to holes in the lower Hubbard band. These bound states occur in doublets of even and odd parity excitons. Triplet excitons are magnons bound to the singlet excitons, and hence are degenerate with their singlet counterparts. (3) In the intermediate-coupling regime Mott-Wannier excitons are the more appropriate description for large dimerization, while for the undimerized chain Mott-Hubbard excitons are the correct description. For dimerizations relevant to polyacetylene and polydiacetylene both Mott-Hubbard and Mott-Wannier excitons are present. (4) For all coupling strengths an infinite number of bound states exist for 1/r interactions for an infinite polymer. As a result of the discreteness of the lattice and the restrictions on the exciton wave functions in one dimension, the progression of states does not follow the Rydberg series. In practice, excitons whose particle-hole separation exceeds the length of the polymer

  11. Exciton binding energy in a pyramidal quantum dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitha, A.; Arulmozhi, M.

    2018-05-01

    The effects of spatially dependent effective mass, non-parabolicity of the conduction band and dielectric screening function on exciton binding energy in a pyramid-shaped quantum dot of GaAs have been investigated by variational method as a function of base width of the pyramid. We have assumed that the pyramid has a square base with area a× a and height of the pyramid H=a/2. The trial wave function of the exciton has been chosen according to the even mirror boundary condition, i.e. the wave function of the exciton at the boundary could be non-zero. The results show that (i) the non-parabolicity of the conduction band affects the light hole (lh) and heavy hole (hh) excitons to be more bound than that with parabolicity of the conduction band, (ii) the dielectric screening function (DSF) affects the lh and hh excitons to be more bound than that without the DSF and (iii) the spatially dependent effective mass (SDEM) affects the lh and hh excitons to be less bound than that without the SDEM. The combined effects of DSF and SDEM on exciton binding energy have also been calculated. The results are compared with those available in the literature.

  12. Effect of exciton polaritons of absorption edge of GaTe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurbatov, L.N.; Dirochka, A.I.; Sosin, V.A.

    1979-01-01

    The experimental results, pointing to the dependence of spectral and integral coefficients of exciton absorption as well as to the exciton relaxation parameter γsub(0) over the exciton zone on the sample thickness, are presented. It is tried to explain the inverse dependences of absorption intensity in the maximum of αsub(max) and γsub(0) exciton line within the limits of polariton theory. The values of polariton free path length in GaTe at various temperatures, as well as the volume γsub(vol.) and surface γsub(surf.) parameters of exciton relaxation over the exciton zone are discussed

  13. Switching Exciton Pulses Through Conical Intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, K.; Wüster, S.; Rost, J. M.

    2014-11-01

    Exciton pulses transport excitation and entanglement adiabatically through Rydberg aggregates, assemblies of highly excited light atoms, which are set into directed motion by resonant dipole-dipole interaction. Here, we demonstrate the coherent splitting of such pulses as well as the spatial segregation of electronic excitation and atomic motion. Both mechanisms exploit local nonadiabatic effects at a conical intersection, turning them from a decoherence source into an asset. The intersection provides a sensitive knob controlling the propagation direction and coherence properties of exciton pulses. The fundamental ideas discussed here have general implications for excitons on a dynamic network.

  14. Exciton-relaxation dynamics in lead halides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwanaga, Masanobu; Hayashi, Tetsusuke

    2003-01-01

    We survey recent comprehensive studies of exciton relaxation in the crystals of lead halides. The luminescence and electron-spin-resonance studies have revealed that excitons in lead bromide spontaneously dissociate and both electrons and holes get self-trapped individually. Similar relaxation has been also clarified in lead chloride. The electron-hole separation is ascribed to repulsive correlation via acoustic phonons. Besides, on the basis of the temperature profiles of self-trapped states, we discuss the origin of luminescence components which are mainly induced under one-photon excitation into the exciton band in lead fluoride, lead chloride, and lead bromide

  15. Pure exciton- and magnon-assisted optical transitionsin the one-dimensional antiferromagnet CsMnCl3x2H2O (CMC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, W.; Strauss, E.; Yen, W.M.

    1981-01-01

    We report the first observation of the pure electronic transitions in the 4 T 1 state of Mn 2+ ions in the one-dimensional antiferromagnet CsMnCl 3 x2H 2 O (CMC) in the absorption, excitation, and fluorescence spectra. Selection rules are analyzed: the exciton transition is electric dipole allowed, the magnon sideband in emission is a single-ion process, and is both electric and magnetic dipole allowed; however, the magnon sideband in absorption is an ion-pair process and is a weakened-electric-dipole and magnetic-dipole transition. The density of magnon states and the line profile of the magnon sideband have been calculated. The results explain the peculiar line shapes of the observed sideband emission. An exponential decay of the exciton is observed with a lifetime of 0.576 ms

  16. Principal and secondary luminescence lifetime components in annealed natural quartz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chithambo, M.L.; Ogundare, F.O.; Feathers, J.

    2008-01-01

    Time-resolved luminescence spectra from quartz can be separated into components with distinct principal and secondary lifetimes depending on certain combinations of annealing and measurement temperature. The influence of annealing on properties of the lifetimes related to irradiation dose and temperature of measurement has been investigated in sedimentary quartz annealed at various temperatures up to 900 deg. C. Time-resolved luminescence for use in the analysis was pulse stimulated from samples at 470 nm between 20 and 200 deg. C. Luminescence lifetimes decrease with measurement temperature due to increasing thermal effect on the associated luminescence with an activation energy of thermal quenching equal to 0.68±0.01eV for the secondary lifetime but only qualitatively so for the principal lifetime component. Concerning the influence of annealing temperature, luminescence lifetimes measured at 20 deg. C are constant at about 33μs for annealing temperatures up to 600 0 C but decrease to about 29μs when the annealing temperature is increased to 900 deg. C. In addition, it was found that lifetime components in samples annealed at 800 deg. C are independent of radiation dose in the range 85-1340 Gy investigated. The dependence of lifetimes on both the annealing temperature and magnitude of radiation dose is described as being due to the increasing importance of a particular recombination centre in the luminescence emission process as a result of dynamic hole transfer between non-radiative and radiative luminescence centres

  17. Excitonic effects in the luminescence of quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deveaud, B.; Kappei, L.; Berney, J.; Morier-Genoud, F.; Portella-Oberli, M.T.; Szczytko, J.; Piermarocchi, C.

    2005-01-01

    We report on the origin of the excitonic luminescence in quantum wells. This study is carried out by time-resolved photoluminescence experiments performed on a very high-quality InGaAs quantum well sample in which the photoluminescence contributions at the energy of the exciton and at the band edge can be clearly separated and traced over a broad range of times and densities. This allows us to compare the two conflicting theoretical approaches to the question of the origin of the excitonic luminescence in quantum wells: the model of the exciton population and the model of the Coulomb correlated plasma. We measure the exciton formation time and we show the fast exciton formation and its dependence with carrier density. We are also able to give the boundaries of the Mott transition in our system, and to show the absence of observable renormalization of the gap below the onset of this transition. We detail the characteristics of the trion formation and evidence the possible formation of both positive and negative trions in the absence of any resident free carrier populations

  18. Excitons in van der Waals heterostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Latini, Simone; Olsen, Thomas; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2015-01-01

    The existence of strongly bound excitons is one of the hallmarks of the newly discovered atomically thin semiconductors. While it is understood that the large binding energy is mainly due to the weak dielectric screening in two dimensions, a systematic investigation of the role of screening on two......-dimensional (2D) excitons is still lacking. Here we provide a critical assessment of a widely used 2D hydrogenic exciton model, which assumes a dielectric function of the form epsilon(q) = 1 + 2 pi alpha q, and we develop a quasi-2D model with a much broader applicability. Within the quasi-2D picture, electrons...... exciton binding energies in both isolated and supported 2D materials. For isolated 2D materials, the quasi-2D treatment yields results almost identical to those of the strict 2D model, and both are in good agreement with ab initio many-body calculations. On the other hand, for more complex structures...

  19. Synthesis and Exciton Dynamics of Triplet Sensitized Conjugated Polymers

    KAUST Repository

    Andernach, Rolf

    2015-07-22

    We report the synthesis of a novel polythiophene-based host-guest copolymer incorporating a Pt-porphyrin complex (TTP-Pt) into the backbone for efficient singlet to triplet polymer exciton sensitization. We elucidated the exciton dynamics in thin films of the material by means of Transient Absorption Spectrosopcy (TAS) on multiple timescales and investigated the mechanism of triplet exciton formation. During sensitization, single exciton diffusion is followed by exciton transfer from the polymer backbone to the complex where it undergoes intersystem crossing to the triplet state of the complex. We directly monitored the triplet exciton back transfer from the Pt-porphyrin to the polymer and find that 60% of the complex triplet excitons are transferred with a time constant of 1087 ps. We propose an equilibrium between polymer and porphyrin triplet states as a result of the low triplet diffusion length in the polymer backbone and hence an increased local triplet population resulting in increased triplet-triplet annihilation. This novel system has significant implications for the design of novel materials for triplet sensitized solar cells and up-conversion layers.

  20. Utilizing Interlayer Excitons in Bilayer WS2 for Increased Photovoltaic Response in Ultrathin Graphene Vertical Cross-Bar Photodetecting Tunneling Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yingqiu; Tan, Haijie; Sheng, Yuewen; Fan, Ye; Xu, Wenshuo; Warner, Jamie H

    2018-04-19

    Here we study the layer-dependent photoconductivity in Gr/WS 2 /Gr vertical stacked tunneling (VST) cross-bar devices made using two-dimensional (2D) materials all grown by chemical vapor deposition. The larger number of devices (>100) enables a statistically robust analysis on the comparative differences in the photovoltaic response of monolayer and bilayer WS 2 , which cannot be achieved in small batch devices made using mechanically exfoliated materials. We show a dramatic increase in photovoltaic response for Gr/WS 2 (2L)/Gr compared to monolayers because of the long inter- and intralayer exciton lifetimes and the small exciton binding energy (both interlayer and intralayer excitons) of bilayer WS 2 compared with that of monolayer WS 2 . Different doping levels and dielectric environments of top and bottom graphene electrodes result in a potential difference across a ∼1 nm vertical device, which gives rise to large electric fields perpendicular to the WS 2 layers that cause band structure modification. Our results show how precise control over layer number in all 2D VST devices dictates the photophysics and performance for photosensing applications.

  1. Excitonic polaritons of zinc diarsenide single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syrbu, N.N., E-mail: sirbunn@yahoo.com [Technical University of Moldova, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); Stamov, I.G. [T.G. Shevchenko State University of Pridnestrovie, Tiraspol, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); Zalamai, V.V. [Institute of Applied Physics, Academy of Sciences of Moldova, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); Dorogan, A. [Technical University of Moldova, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of)

    2017-02-01

    Excitonic polaritons of ZnAs{sub 2} single crystals had been investigated. Parameters of singlet excitons with Г{sub 2}¯(z) symmetry and orthoexcitons 2Г{sub 1}¯(y)+Г{sub 2}¯(x) had been determined. Spectral dependencies of ordinary and extraordinary dispersion of refractive index had been calculated using interferential reflection and transmittance spectra. It was shown, that A excitonic series were due to hole (V{sub 1}) and electron (C{sub 1}) bands. The values of effective masses of electrons (m{sub c}{sup *}=0.10 m{sub 0}) and holes (m{sub v1}{sup *}=0.89 m{sub 0}) had been estimated. It was revealed that the hole mass m{sub v1}{sup *} changes from 1.03 m{sub 0} to 0.55 m{sub 0} at temperature increasing from 10 K up to 230 K and that the electron mass m{sub c}{sup *} does not depend on temperature. The integral absorption A (eV cm{sup −1}) of the states n=1, 2 and 3 of Г{sub 2}¯(z) excitons depends on the A{sub n}≈n{sup −3} equality, which it is characteristic for S-type excitonic functions. Temperature dependences of the integral absorption of ground states for Г{sub 2}¯(z) and Г{sub 2}¯(Ñ…) excitons differ. The ground states of B and C excitons formed by V{sub 3} – C{sub 1} and V{sub 4} – C{sub 1} bands and its parameters had been determined.

  2. Lifetime measurement of excited atomic and ionic states of some

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    High-frequency deflection (HFD) technique with a delayed coincidence single photon counting arrangement is an efficient technique for radiative lifetime measurement. An apparatus for measurement of the radiative lifetime of atoms and molecules has been developed in our laboratory and measurements have been ...

  3. Different emissive states in the bulk and at the surface of methylammonium lead bromide perovskite revealed by two-photon micro-spectroscopy and lifetime measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadga Jung Karki

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Two photon photoluminescence (2PPL from single crystals of methyl ammonium lead bromide (CH3NH3PbBr3, MAPbBr3 is studied. We observe two components in the 2PPL spectra, which we assign to the photoluminescence (PL from the carrier recombination at the band edge and the recombination due to self-trapping of excitons. The PL Stokes shift of self-trapped excitons is about 100 meV from the band-gap energy. Our measurements show that about 15% of the total PL from regions about 40 μm deep inside the crystal is due to the emission from self-trapped exciton. This contribution increases to about 20% in the PL from the regions close to the surface. Time resolved measurements of 2PPL show that the PL due to band-edge recombination has a life time of about 8 ns while the PL lifetime of self-trapped excitons is in the order of 100 ns. Quantification of self-trapped excitons in the materials used in photovoltaics is important as such excitons hinder charge separation. As our results also show that an appreciable fraction of photo-generated carriers get trapped, the results are important in rational design of photovoltaics. On the other hand, our results also show that the self-trapped excitons broaden the emission spectrum, which may be useful in designing broadband light emitting devices.

  4. Use of three-dimensional lognormal dose-response surfaces in lifetime studies of radiation-induced cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raabe, O.G.

    1986-01-01

    The three-dimensional lognormal cumulative probability power function was used to provide a unifying dose-response description of the lifetime cancer risk for chronic exposure of experimental animals and people, for risk evaluation, and for scaling between species. Bone tumor fatilities, primarily from alpha irradiation of the skeleton in lifetime studies of beagles injected with 226 Ra, were shown to be well described by this function. This function described cancer risk in lifetime studies as a curved smooth surface depending on radiation exposure rate and elapsed time, such that the principal risk at low dose rates occurred near the end of the normal life span without significant life shortening. Essentially identical functions with the median value of the power function displaced with respect to appropriate RBE values were shown to describe bone-cancer induction primarily from alpha irradiation of the skeleton in lifetime beagle studies with injected 226 Ra, 228 Th, 239 Pu and 241 Am, and with inhaled 238 Pu. Application of this model to human exposures to 226 Ra yielded a response ratio of 3.6; that is, the time required for development of bone cancer in people was 3.6 times longer than for beagles at the same average skeletal dose rate. It was suggested that similar techniques were appropriate to other carcinogens and other critical organs. 20 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Excitons in single-walled carbon nanotubes: environmental effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smyrnov, O.A.

    2010-01-01

    The properties of excitons in semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) isolated in vacuum or a medium and their contributions to the optical spectra of nanotubes are studied within the elementary potential model, in which an exciton is represented as a bound state of two oppositely charged quasiparticles confined to the nanotube surface. The emphasis is given on the influence of the dielectric environment surrounding a nanotube on the exciton spectra. For nanotubes in the environment with a permittivity less than ∼ 1:8; the ground-state exciton binding energies exceed the respective energy gaps, whereas the obtained binding energies of excitons in nanotubes in a medium with permittivity greater than ∼ 4 are in good accordance with the corresponding experimental data and consistent with the known scaling relation for the environmental effect. The stabilization of a single-electron spectrum in SWCNTs in media with rather low permittivities is discussed.

  6. Two-photon transitions to exciton polaritons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, A.R.

    1979-08-01

    A semiclassical theory for the creation of excitonic polariton states by two-photon absorption, via an intermediate exciton state, is given. A band model has been introduced which gives the dominant contribution to this process. A numerical calculation is found to be in good agreement with a recent observation in CuCl. (author)

  7. Energy and Information Transfer Via Coherent Exciton Wave Packets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Xiaoning

    Electronic excitons are bound electron-hole states that are generated when light interacts with matter. Such excitations typically entangle with phonons and rapidly decohere; the resulting electronic state dynamics become diffusive as a result. However, if the exciton-phonon coupling can be reduced, it may be possible to construct excitonic wave packets that offer a means of efficiently transmitting information and energy. This thesis is a combined theory/computation investigation to design condensed matter systems which support the requisite coherent transport. Under the idealizing assumption that exciton-phonon entanglement could be completely suppressed, the majority of this thesis focuses on the creation and manipulation of exciton wave packets in quasi-one-dimensional systems. While each site could be a silicon quantum dot, the actual implementation focused on organic molecular assemblies for the sake of computational simplicity, ease of experimental implementation, potential for coherent transport, and promise because of reduced structural uncertainty. A laser design was derived to create exciton wave packets with tunable shape and speed. Quantum interference was then exploited to manipulate these packets to block, pass, and even dissociate excitons based on their energies. These developments allow exciton packets to be considered within the arena of quantum information science. The concept of controllable excitonic wave packets was subsequently extended to consider molecular designs that allow photons with orbital angular momentum to be absorbed to create excitons with a quasi-angular momentum of their own. It was shown that a well-defined measure of topological charge is conserved in such light-matter interactions. Significantly, it was also discovered that such molecules allow photon angular momenta to be combined and later emitted. This amounts to a new way of up/down converting photonic angular momentum without relying on nonlinear optical materials. The

  8. Excitons in InP/InAs inhomogeneous quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assaid, E; Feddi, E; Khamkhami, J El; Dujardin, F

    2003-01-01

    Wannier excitons confined in an InP/InAs inhomogeneous quantum dot (IQD) have been studied theoretically in the framework of the effective mass approximation. A finite-depth potential well has been used to describe the effect of the quantum confinement in the InAs layer. The exciton binding energy has been determined using the Ritz variational method. The spatial correlation between the electron and the hole has been taken into account in the expression for the wavefunction. It has been shown that for a fixed size b of the IQD, the exciton binding energy depends strongly on the core radius a. Moreover, it became apparent that there are two critical values of the core radius, a crit and a 2D , for which important changes of the exciton binding occur. The former critical value, a crit , corresponds to a minimum of the exciton binding energy and may be used to distinguish between tridimensional confinement and bidimensional confinement. The latter critical value, a 2D , corresponds to a maximum of the exciton binding energy and to the most pronounced bidimensional character of the exciton

  9. Interlayer excitons in a bulk van der Waals semiconductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Ashish; Drüppel, Matthias; Schmidt, Robert; Deilmann, Thorsten; Schneider, Robert; Molas, Maciej R; Marauhn, Philipp; Michaelis de Vasconcellos, Steffen; Potemski, Marek; Rohlfing, Michael; Bratschitsch, Rudolf

    2017-09-21

    Bound electron-hole pairs called excitons govern the electronic and optical response of many organic and inorganic semiconductors. Excitons with spatially displaced wave functions of electrons and holes (interlayer excitons) are important for Bose-Einstein condensation, superfluidity, dissipationless current flow, and the light-induced exciton spin Hall effect. Here we report on the discovery of interlayer excitons in a bulk van der Waals semiconductor. They form due to strong localization and spin-valley coupling of charge carriers. By combining high-field magneto-reflectance experiments and ab initio calculations for 2H-MoTe 2 , we explain their salient features: the positive sign of the g-factor and the large diamagnetic shift. Our investigations solve the long-standing puzzle of positive g-factors in transition metal dichalcogenides, and pave the way for studying collective phenomena in these materials at elevated temperatures.Excitons, quasi-particles of bound electron-hole pairs, are at the core of the optoelectronic properties of layered transition metal dichalcogenides. Here, the authors unveil the presence of interlayer excitons in bulk van der Waals semiconductors, arising from strong localization and spin-valley coupling of charge carriers.

  10. Exciton Mapping at Subwavelength Scales in Two-Dimensional Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Tizei, Luiz H. G.

    2015-03-01

    Spatially resolved electron-energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) is performed at diffuse interfaces between MoS2 and MoSe2 single layers. With a monochromated electron source (20 meV) we successfully probe excitons near the interface by obtaining the low loss spectra at the nanometer scale. The exciton maps clearly show variations even with a 10 nm separation between measurements; consequently, the optical band gap can be measured with nanometer-scale resolution, which is 50 times smaller than the wavelength of the emitted photons. By performing core-loss EELS at the same regions, we observe that variations in the excitonic signature follow the chemical composition. The exciton peaks are observed to be broader at interfaces and heterogeneous regions, possibly due to interface roughness and alloying effects. Moreover, we do not observe shifts of the exciton peak across the interface, possibly because the interface width is not much larger than the exciton Bohr radius.

  11. Exciton spectra of mixed LiH1-xDx crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plekhanov, V.G.

    1989-01-01

    The results of low-tempertaure experimental investigation of exciton spectra of pure surface of mixed crystals LiH 1-x d x forming the continuous series of a solved solution are presented. The long-wave reflection spectra is formed, as in pure crystals, by excitons of a large radius. The developed structure of spectra of exciton luminiscence consisting mainly of LO-lines, testifies to the intraband Frelich mechanism of free exciton scattering by LO-phonos, playing the considerable role in renormalization of the exciton Rydberg and the energy of interband transitions. Increase of the concentration of deuterium in mixed crystals causes a short-wave shift in the reflection spectrum and luminescence and continuous decrease of LO-phonon energy together with the increase of Rydberg exciton

  12. New method for control over exciton states in quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maslov, A Yu; Proshina, O V

    2010-01-01

    The theoretical study of the exciton states in the quantum well is performed with regard to the distinctions of the dielectric properties of quantum well and barrier materials. The strong exciton-phonon interaction is shown to be possible in materials with high ionicity. This leads to the essential modification of the exciton states. The relationship between the exciton binding energy, along with oscillator strength and the barrier material dielectric properties is found. This suggests the feasibility of the exciton spectrum parameter control by the choice of the barrier material. It is shown that such exciton spectrum engineering also is possible in the quantum wells based on the materials with low ionicity. The reason is the dielectric confinement effect in the quantum wells.

  13. Femtosecond dynamics of excitons in π-conjugated oligomers: the role of intrachain two-exciton states in the formation of interchain species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimov, Victor I.; McBranch, Duncan W.; Barashkov, Nikolay N.; Ferraris, John P.

    1997-10-01

    We report femtosecond transient absorption results for solutions and thin films of a substituted oligomer of poly(para-phenylene vinylene) performed over wide spectral and pump-intensity ranges. Solutions and films exhibit a photoinduced absorption (PA) band with dynamics matching those of the stimulated emission, demonstrating unambiguously that these features originate from intrachain singlet excitons. Thin films exhibit an additional short-wavelength PA band with pump-independent dynamics, indicating the formation of non-emissive interchain excitons. Correlations in the dynamics of the two PA features, as well as the intensity-dependence, provide strong evidence that the formation of interchain excitons is mediated by intrachain two-exciton states.

  14. Triplet exciton formation in organic photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xudong; Westenhoff, Sebastian; Howard, Ian; Ford, Thomas; Friend, Richard; Hodgkiss, Justin; Greenham, Neil [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    We have recently found that the formation of triplet excitons can be an important loss mechanism in organic photovoltaics, particularly in donor-acceptor blends designed to have high open-circuit voltages. This can occur when the intrachain triplet state lies lower in energy than the charge-transfer state formed at the heterojunction. We find that in a blend based on the polyfluorene derivatives F8BT and PFB, triplet excitons are formed after photoexcitation with much higher efficiency than in the component polymers. We use transient absorption spectroscopy to study the dynamics of charges and triplet excitons on timescales from picoseconds to microseconds. This allows us to determine a characteristic time of {proportional_to} 40 ns for intersystem crossing in the charge-separated state, and to estimate that as many as 75% of photoexcitations lead to the formation of triplet states. To avoid losses to triplet excitons in photovoltaic devices, it is necessary to separate charge pairs before intersystem crossing can occur. We also present photophysical measurements of saturation and relaxation of the triplet excited state absorption used to quantify triplet populations.

  15. Magneto-optical quantum interferences in a system of spinor excitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Wen-Hsuan; Gudmundsson, Vidar

    2018-04-01

    In this work we investigate magneto-optical properties of two-dimensional semiconductor quantum-ring excitons with Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions threaded by a magnetic flux perpendicular to the plane of the ring. By calculating the excitonic Aharonov-Bohm spectrum, we study the Coulomb and spin-orbit effects on the Aharonov-Bohm features. From the light-matter interactions of the excitons, we find that for scalar excitons, there are open channels for spontaneous recombination resulting in a bright photoluminescence spectrum, whereas the forbidden recombination of dipolar excitons results in a dark photoluminescence spectrum. We investigate the generation of persistent charge and spin currents. The exploration of spin orientations manifests that by adjusting the strength of the spin-orbit interactions, the exciton can be constructed as a squeezed complex with specific spin polarization. Moreover, a coherently moving dipolar exciton acquires a nontrivial dual Aharonov-Casher phase, creating the possibility to generate persistent dipole currents and spin dipole currents. Our study reveals that in the presence of certain spin-orbit generated fields, the manipulation of the magnetic field provides a potential application for quantum-ring spinor excitons to be utilized in nano-scaled magneto-optical switches.

  16. Exciton ionization in multilayer transition-metal dichalcogenides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas Garm; Latini, Simone; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2016-01-01

    Photodetectors and solar cells based on materials with strongly bound excitons rely crucially on field-assisted exciton ionization. We study the ionization process in multilayer transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) within the Mott-Wannier model incorporating fully the pronounced anisotropy...

  17. Magneto-exciton dephasing in a single quantum dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, F. J.; Reyes, A.; Olaya-Castro, A.; Quiroga, L.

    2001-03-01

    Ultrafast spectroscopy experiments on single quantum dot (SQD) in magnetic fields provide a variety of unexpected results, one of them being the recently reported entanglement of exciton states. In order to explore the entanglement robustness, dephasing mechanisms must be considered. By calculating the non-linear time resolved optical spectrum of a SQD, we present a theoretical study on the exciton-exciton scattering contribution to the magneto-exciton dephasing time. Our results show that the time evolution of \\chi^(3) presents, under non-steady-state condition, a beating between the bound biexciton and the first unbound biexciton state in the strong confinement regime. The contribution coming from both left and right polarized emitted photons allows us to predict the creation of exciton entanglement, in agreement with recent experimental results. Previous theoretical works have only addressed the stationary optical response. By contrast, our results based on a full time dependent calculation show new features specially for the fast dephasing case.

  18. Efficient singlet exciton fission in pentacene prepared from a soluble precursor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim Tabachnyk

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Carrier multiplication using singlet exciton fission (SF to generate a pair of spin-triplet excitons from a single optical excitation has been highlighted as a promising approach to boost the photocurrent in photovoltaics (PVs thereby allowing PV operation beyond the Shockley-Queisser limit. The applicability of many efficient fission materials, however, is limited due to their poor solubility. For instance, while acene-based organics such as pentacene (Pc show high SF yields (up to200%, the plain acene backbone renders the organic molecule insoluble in common organic solvents. Previous approaches adding solubilizing side groups such as bis(tri-iso-propylsilylethynyl to the Pc core resulted in low vertical carrier mobilities due to reduction of the transfer integrals via steric hindrance, which prevented high efficiencies in PVs. Here we show how to achieve good solubility while retaining the advantages of molecular Pc by using a soluble precursor route. The precursor fully converts into molecular Pc through thermal removal of the solubilizing side groups upon annealing above 150 °C in the solid state. The annealed precursor shows small differences in the crystallinity compared to evaporated thin films of Pc, indicating that the Pc adopts the bulk rather than surface polytype. Furthermore, we identify identical SF properties such as sub-100 fs fission time and equally long triplet lifetimes in both samples.

  19. Relaxation of nonthermal hh and lh excitons in ZnSe quantum wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalt, H.; Hoffmann, J.; Umlauff, M.

    1998-01-01

    The strong exciton-LO phonon coupling in ZnSe QWs gives a direct access to the relaxation dynamics of nonthermal, free heavy-hole and light-hole excitons. Narrow hot-exciton distributions can be generated by LO-phonon assisted exciton formation. The thermalization of these excitons is monitored b...

  20. Non-radiative Exciton Decay in Single-walled Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrah, Mark; Swan, Anna

    2010-03-01

    Experiments have shown step-wise changes in the fluorescence intensity from single-walled carbon nanotubes [1,2]. It has been proposed that the underlying mechanism for the step-wise changes is diffusion-limited quenching of excitons at defects [1]. This property has been used to demonstrate single-molecule detection for biological applications [3]. We perform a Monte-Carlo simulation of nanotube fluorescence with a diffusion-limited quenching model. The fluorescence intensity is seen to depend on the mean-square distance between defects, implying a nonlinear dependence on the number of defects. The intensity for consecutive defect counts can overlap depending on the positions of the defects. [4pt] [1] Cognet, L. et al. Science 316, 1465-1468 (2007).[0pt] [2] Jin, H. et al. Nano Lett. 8, 4299-4304 (2008).[0pt] [3] Heller, D. A. et al. Nature Nanotech. 4, 114-120 (2009).

  1. Exciton-plasmon coupling interactions: from principle to applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, En; Lin, Weihua; Sun, Mengtao; Liang, Wenjie; Song, Yuzhi

    2018-01-01

    The interaction of exciton-plasmon coupling and the conversion of exciton-plasmon-photon have been widely investigated experimentally and theoretically. In this review, we introduce the exciton-plasmon interaction from basic principle to applications. There are two kinds of exciton-plasmon coupling, which demonstrate different optical properties. The strong exciton-plasmon coupling results in two new mixed states of light and matter separated energetically by a Rabi splitting that exhibits a characteristic anticrossing behavior of the exciton-LSP energy tuning. Compared to strong coupling, such as surface-enhanced Raman scattering, surface plasmon (SP)-enhanced absorption, enhanced fluorescence, or fluorescence quenching, there is no perturbation between wave functions; the interaction here is called the weak coupling. SP resonance (SPR) arises from the collective oscillation induced by the electromagnetic field of light and can be used for investigating the interaction between light and matter beyond the diffraction limit. The study on the interaction between SPR and exaction has drawn wide attention since its discovery not only due to its contribution in deepening and broadening the understanding of SPR but also its contribution to its application in light-emitting diodes, solar cells, low threshold laser, biomedical detection, quantum information processing, and so on.

  2. Peculiarities of the determination of shallow impurity concentrations in semiconductors from the analysis of exciton luminescence spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Glinchuk, K D

    2002-01-01

    An analysis was made of the applicability limits of the method for the determination of the content of shallow acceptors and donors in semiconductors from the ratio of the low-temperature (T = 1.8-4.2 K) luminescence intensities of exciton bands, in particular, induces by radiative annihilation of excitons bound to acceptors (donors) and free excitons. It is shown that correct data about the concentrations of shallow acceptors and donors as well as data on changes in their content as a result of various treatments may be obtained if the occupancy of the defects in question by holes and electrons does not depend on the excitation intensity or external treatments. A way to check the fulfillment of criteria for the method application is suggested. An example is given is given of the method application for determination of thermally stimulated changes in the concentration of shallow acceptors and donors in gallium arsenide

  3. Excitons in atomically thin 2D semiconductors and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jun; Zhao, Mervin; Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiang

    2017-06-01

    The research on emerging layered two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors, such as molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), reveals unique optical properties generating significant interest. Experimentally, these materials were observed to host extremely strong light-matter interactions as a result of the enhanced excitonic effect in two dimensions. Thus, understanding and manipulating the excitons are crucial to unlocking the potential of 2D materials for future photonic and optoelectronic devices. In this review, we unravel the physical origin of the strong excitonic effect and unique optical selection rules in 2D semiconductors. In addition, control of these excitons by optical, electrical, as well as mechanical means is examined. Finally, the resultant devices such as excitonic light emitting diodes, lasers, optical modulators, and coupling in an optical cavity are overviewed, demonstrating how excitons can shape future 2D optoelectronics.

  4. Excitons in the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, R. B.

    1984-09-01

    Quasiparticles of charge 1/m in the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect form excitons, which are collective excitations physically similar to the transverse magnetoplasma oscillations of a Wigner crystal. A variational exciton wavefunction which shows explicitly that the magnetic length is effectively longer for quasiparticles than for electrons is proposed. This wavefunction is used to estimate the dispersion relation of these excitons and the matrix elements to generate them optically out of the ground state. These quantities are then used to describe a type of nonlinear conductivity which may occur in these systems when they are relatively clean.

  5. Exciton polariton spectra and limiting factors for the room-temperature photoluminescence efficiency in ZnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chichibu, S. F.; Uedono, A.; Tsukazaki, A.; Onuma, T.; Zamfirescu, M.; Ohtomo, A.; Kavokin, A.; Cantwell, G.; Litton, C. W.; Sota, T.; Kawasaki, M.

    2005-04-01

    processes in L-MBE ZnO were studied using time-resolved PL making a connection with the results of positron annihilation measurement. Free excitonic PL intensity at room temperature naturally increased with the increase in nonradiative lifetime (τnr). The value of τnr increased and density or size of Zn vacancies (VZn) decreased with increasing growth temperature (Tg) in heteroepitaxial films grown on a ScAlMgO4 substrate, and the use of homoepitaxial substrates further reduced VZn density. The value of τnr was shown to increase with the decrease in gross density of positively and negatively charged and neutral point defects including complexes rather than with the decrease in VZn density. The results indicate that the nonradiative recombination process is governed not by single point defects, but by certain defects introduced with the incorporation of VZn, such as VZn-defect complexes. As a result of defect elimination by growing the films at high Tg followed by subsequent post-growth in situ annealing, combined with the use of high-temperature-annealed ZnO self-buffer layer, a record long τnr for spontaneous emission of 3.8 ns was obtained at room temperature. By using progressively improving epitaxial growth methods, the polariton laser effect is expected to be observed at room temperature in the near future.

  6. Excitonic dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordstrøm, K.B.; Johnsen, Kristinn; Allen, S.J.

    1998-01-01

    The dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect is exposed by exploring near-band-gap absorption in the presence of intense THz electric fields. It bridges the gap between the de Franz-Keldysh effect and multiphoton absorption and competes with the THz ac Stark effect in shifting the energy of the excitonic...... resonance. A theoretical model which includes the strong THz field nonperturbatively via a nonequilibrium Green functions technique is able to describe the dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect in the presence of excitonic absorption....

  7. Quasiparticle Lifetime Broadening in Resonant X-ray Scattering of NH4NO3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, John; Jach, Terrence; Müller, Matthias; Unterumsberger, Rainer; Beckhoff, Burkhard

    2016-07-15

    It has been previously shown that two effects cause dramatic changes in the x-ray absorption and emission spectra from the N K edge of the insulating crystal ammonium nitrate. First, vibrational disorder causes major changes in the absorption spectrum, originating not only from the thermal population of phonons, but, significantly, from zero-point motion as well. Second, the anomalously large broadening ( ~ 4 eV) of the emission originating from nitrate σ states is due to unusually short lifetimes of quasiparticles in an otherwise extremely narrow band. In this work we investigate the coupling of these effects to core and valence excitons that are created as the initial x-ray excitation energy is progressively reduced toward the N edge. Using a GW /Bethe-Salpeter approach, we show the extent to which this anomalous broadening is captured by the GW approximation. The data and calculations demonstrate the importance that the complex self-energies (finite lifetimes) of valence bands have on the interpretation of emission spectra. We produce a scheme to explain why extreme lifetimes should appear in σ states of other similar compounds.

  8. Photoluminescence studies of ZnO thin films on R-plane sapphire substrates grown by sol-gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Su [Department of Nano Systems Engineering, Center for Nano Manufacturing, Inje University, Gimhae, Gyungnam 621-749 (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Giwoong; Kim, Soaram [Department of Nano Engineering, Inje University, Gimhae, Gyungnam 621-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Do Yeob [Holcombe Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Center for Optical Materials Science and Engineering Technologies, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); Lee, Dong-Yul [LED R and D team, Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd., Yongin 446-711 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Soo [Research Center of Advanced Materials Development (RCAMD), Division of Advanced Materials Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Chonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung-O [Holcombe Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Center for Optical Materials Science and Engineering Technologies, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); Kim, Jong Su [Department of Physics, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongsangbuk-do 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Son, Jeong-Sik [Department of Visual Optics, Kyungwoon University, Gumi, Gyeongsangbuk-do 730-850 (Korea, Republic of); Leem, Jae-Young, E-mail: jyleem@inje.ac.kr [Department of Nano Systems Engineering, Center for Nano Manufacturing, Inje University, Gimhae, Gyungnam 621-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films on R-plane sapphire substrates were grown by the sol-gel spin-coating method. The optical properties of the ZnO thin films were investigated using photoluminescence. In the UV range, the asymmetric near-band-edge emission was observed at 300 K, which consisted of two emissions at 3.338 and 3.279 eV. Eight peaks at 3.418, 3.402, 3.360, 3.288, 3.216, 3.145, 3.074, and 3.004 eV, which respectively correspond to the free exciton (FX), bound exciton, transverse optical (TO) phonon replica of FX recombination, and first-order longitudinal optical phonon replica of FX and the TO (1LO+TO), 2LO+TO, 3LO+TO, 4LO+TO, and 5LO+TO, were obtained at 12 K. From the temperature-dependent PL, it was found that the emission peaks at 3.338 and 3.279 eV corresponded to the FX and TO, respectively. The activation energy of the FX and TO emission peaks was found to be about 39.3 and 28.9 meV, respectively. The values of the fitting parameters of Varshni's empirical equation were {alpha}=4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} eV/K and {beta}=4.9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} K, and the S factor of the ZnO thin films was 0.658. With increasing temperature, the exciton radiative lifetime of the FX and TO emissions increased. The temperature-dependent variation of the exciton radiative lifetime for the TO emission was slightly higher than that for the FX emission. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZnO thin films on R-plane sapphire substrates were grown by sol-gel method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two emission peaks at 3.338 and 3.279 eV were observed at 300 K Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Activation energies of the two peaks were 39.3 and 28.9 meV,respectively. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Exciton radiative lifetime of the two peaks increased with increasing temperature.

  9. Fractional Solitons in Excitonic Josephson Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jung-Jung; Hsu, Ya-Fen

    The Josephson effect is especially appealing because it reveals macroscopically the quantum order and phase. Here we study this effect in an excitonic Josephson junction: a conjunct of two exciton condensates with a relative phase ϕ0 applied. Such a junction is proposed to take place in the quantum Hall bilayer (QHB) that makes it subtler than in superconductor because of the counterflow of excitonic supercurrent and the interlayer tunneling in QHB. We treat the system theoretically by first mapping it into a pseudospin ferromagnet then describing it by the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation. In the presence of interlayer tunneling, the excitonic Josephson junction can possess a family of fractional sine-Gordon solitons that resemble the static fractional Josephson vortices in the extended superconducting Josephson junctions. Interestingly, each fractional soliton carries a topological charge Q which is not necessarily a half/full integer but can vary continuously. The resultant current-phase relation (CPR) shows that solitons with Q =ϕ0 / 2 π are the lowest energy states for small ϕ0. When ϕ0 > π , solitons with Q =ϕ0 / 2 π - 1 take place - the polarity of CPR is then switched.

  10. Magnetic excitons in singlet-ground-state ferromagnets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birgeneau, R.J.; Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Bucher, E.

    1971-01-01

    The authors report measurements of the dispersion of singlet-triplet magnetic excitons as a function of temperature in the singlet-ground-state ferromagnets fcc Pr and Pr3Tl. Well-defined excitons are observed in both the ferromagnetic and paramagnetic regions, but with energies which are nearly...

  11. Angular momentum transport with twisted exciton wave packets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Xiaoning; Lusk, Mark T.

    2017-10-01

    A chain of cofacial molecules with CN or CN h symmetry supports excitonic states with a screwlike structure. These can be quantified with the combination of an axial wave number and an azimuthal winding number. Combinations of these states can be used to construct excitonic wave packets that spiral down the chain with well-determined linear and angular momenta. These twisted exciton wave packets can be created and annihilated using laser pulses, and their angular momentum can be optically modified during transit. This allows for the creation of optoexcitonic circuits in which information, encoded in the angular momentum of light, is converted into excitonic wave packets that can be manipulated, transported, and then reemitted. A tight-binding paradigm is used to demonstrate the key ideas. The approach is then extended to quantify the evolution of twisted exciton wave packets in a many-body, multilevel time-domain density functional theory setting. In both settings, numerical methods are developed that allow the site-to-site transfer of angular momentum to be quantified.

  12. Spectral properties of excitons in the bilayer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apinyan, V.; Kopeć, T. K.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the spectral properties of the bilayer graphene with the local excitonic pairing interaction between the electrons and holes. We consider the generalized Hubbard model, which includes both intralayer and interlayer Coulomb interaction parameters. The solution of the excitonic gap parameter is used to calculate the electronic band structure, single-particle spectral functions, the hybridization gap, and the excitonic coherence length in the bilayer graphene. We show that the local interlayer Coulomb interaction is responsible for the semimetal-semiconductor transition in the double layer system, and we calculate the hybridization gap in the band structure above the critical interaction value. The formation of the excitonic band gap is reported as the threshold process and the momentum distribution functions have been calculated numerically. We show that in the weak coupling limit the system is governed by the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS)-like pairing state. Contrary, in the strong coupling limit the excitonic condensate states appear in the semiconducting phase, by forming the Dirac's pockets in the reciprocal space.

  13. Excitonic terahertz photoconductivity in intrinsic semiconductor nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jie-Yun

    2018-06-01

    Excitonic terahertz photoconductivity in intrinsic semiconductor nanowires is studied. Based on the excitonic theory, the numerical method to calculate the photoconductivity spectrum in the nanowires is developed, which can simulate optical pump terahertz-probe spectroscopy measurements on real nanowires and thereby calculate the typical photoconductivity spectrum. With the help of the energetic structure deduced from the calculated linear absorption spectrum, the numerically observed shift of the resonant peak in the photoconductivity spectrum is found to result from the dominant exciton transition between excited or continuum states to the ground state, and the quantitative analysis is in good agreement with the quantum plasmon model. Besides, the dependence of the photoconductivity on the polarization of the terahertz field is also discussed. The numerical method and supporting theoretical analysis provide a new tool for experimentalists to understand the terahertz photoconductivity in intrinsic semiconductor nanowires at low temperatures or for nanowires subjected to below bandgap photoexcitation, where excitonic effects dominate.

  14. Theory for electric dipole superconductivity with an application for bilayer excitons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qing-Dong; Bao, Zhi-qiang; Sun, Qing-Feng; Xie, X C

    2015-07-08

    Exciton superfluid is a macroscopic quantum phenomenon in which large quantities of excitons undergo the Bose-Einstein condensation. Recently, exciton superfluid has been widely studied in various bilayer systems. However, experimental measurements only provide indirect evidence for the existence of exciton superfluid. In this article, by viewing the exciton in a bilayer system as an electric dipole, we derive the London-type and Ginzburg-Landau-type equations for the electric dipole superconductors. By using these equations, we discover the Meissner-type effect and the electric dipole current Josephson effect. These effects can provide direct evidence for the formation of the exciton superfluid state in bilayer systems and pave new ways to drive an electric dipole current.

  15. New paradigm for prediction of radiation life-time of reactor pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotrechko, S.A.; Meshkov, Yu.Ya.; Neklyudov, I.M.; Revka, V.N.

    2011-01-01

    New paradigm for prediction of radiation life-time of reactor pressure vessel is presented. Equation for limiting state of reactor pressure vessel wall with crack-like defect is obtained. It is exhibited that the value of critical fluence Φ c may be determined not by shift of critical temperature of fracture of surveillance specimen, which is indirect characteristic, but by direct method, namely, by the condition of initiation of brittle fracture of irradiated metal ahead of a crack in RPV wall. Within the framework of engineering version of LA to fracture the technique for Φ c ascertainment is developed. Prediction of Φ c for WWER pressure vessels demonstrates potentialities of this technique.

  16. Two-Year and Lifetime Cost-Effectiveness of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Versus 3-Dimensional Conformal Radiation Therapy for Head-and-Neck Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohler, Racquel E. [Department of Health Policy and Management, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Sheets, Nathan C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina Hospitals, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Wheeler, Stephanie B. [Department of Health Policy and Management, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Nutting, Chris [Royal Marsden Hospital, London, United Kindom (United Kingdom); Hall, Emma [Clinical Trials and Statistics Unit, Division of Clinical Studies, Institute of Cancer Research, London (United Kingdom); Chera, Bhishamjit S., E-mail: bchera@med.unc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina Hospitals, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: To assess the cost-effectiveness of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) versus 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) in the treatment of head-and neck-cancer (HNC). Methods and Materials: We used a Markov model to simulate radiation therapy-induced xerostomia and dysphagia in a hypothetical cohort of 65-year-old HNC patients. Model input parameters were derived from PARSPORT (CRUK/03/005) patient-level trial data and quality-of-life and Medicare cost data from published literature. We calculated average incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) from the US health care perspective as cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained and compared our ICERs with current cost-effectiveness standards whereby treatment comparators less than $50,000 per QALY gained are considered cost-effective. Results: In the first 2 years after initial treatment, IMRT is not cost-effective compared with 3D-CRT, given an average ICER of $101,100 per QALY gained. However, over 15 years (remaining lifetime on the basis of average life expectancy of a 65-year-old), IMRT is more cost-effective at $34,523 per QALY gained. Conclusion: Although HNC patients receiving IMRT will likely experience reduced xerostomia and dysphagia symptoms, the small quality-of-life benefit associated with IMRT is not cost-effective in the short term but may be cost-effective over a patient's lifetime, assuming benefits persist over time and patients are healthy and likely to live for a sustained period. Additional data quantifying the long-term benefits of IMRT, however, are needed.

  17. Radiation damage in nonmetallic solids under dense electronic excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Noriaki; Tanimura, Katsumi; Nakai, Yasuo

    1992-01-01

    Basic processes of radiation damage of insulators by dense electronic excitation are reviewed. First it is pointed out that electronic excitation of nonmetallic solids produces the self-trapped excitons and defect-related metastable states having relatively long lifetimes, and that the excitation of these metastable states, produces stable defects. The effects of irradiation with heavy ions, including track registration, are surveyed on the basis of the microscopic studies. It is pointed out also that the excitation of the metastable states plays a role in laser-induced damage at relatively low fluences, while the laser damage has been reported to be governed by heating of free electrons produced by multiphoton excitation. Difference in the contributions of the excitation of metastable defects to laser-induced damage of surfaces, or laser ablation, and laser-induced bulk damage is stressed. (orig.)

  18. Lifetime radiation risks from low-dose rate radionuclides in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, M.; Rosenblatt, L.S.

    1985-01-01

    One of the largest, long-term (25-yr) animal studies on the effects of low-dose internal irradiation is almost completed. Some 335 beagles were given continuous exposure to graded 90 Sr [low linear energy transfer (LET)] in their diets (D-dogs) through adulthood. A second group (R-dogs) was given fractionated doses of 225 Ra (high LET) as young adults. A third group of 44 was given a single injection of 90 Sr as adults (S-dogs) to compare single to continuous dosages. All dogs were followed through their lifetimes. Only one of the 848 dogs is still alive. The animals were whole-body counted over their entire life span and were examined frequently for assessment of medical status. There were no acute radiation lethalities. Analyses of the large data base from these dogs have begun and preliminary indications are that 90 Sr, which was tested over a 1500-fold skeletal dose rate range, does not cause significant life shortening at average accumulation skeletal doses of ∼2500 rads (25 Gy) and that a curvilinear dose response curve for life shortening was seen at higher accumulation doses. The data will be discussed in terms of modern epidemiological concepts and quantifications will be related to certain parameters of human risk from acute or chronic radiation exposures

  19. Twisted molecular excitons as mediators for changing the angular momentum of light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Xiaoning; Lusk, Mark T.

    2017-07-01

    Molecules with CN or CN h symmetry can absorb quanta of optical angular momentum to generate twisted excitons with well-defined quasiangular momenta of their own. Angular momentum is conserved in such interactions at the level of a paraxial approximation for the light beam. A sequence of absorption events can thus be used to create a range of excitonic angular momenta. Subsequent decay can produce radiation with a single angular momentum equal to that accumulated. Such molecules can thus be viewed as mediators for changing the angular momentum of light. This sidesteps the need to exploit nonlinear light-matter interactions based on higher-order susceptibilities. A tight-binding paradigm is used to verify angular momentum conservation and demonstrate how it can be exploited to change the angular momentum of light. The approach is then extended to a time-dependent density functional theory setting where the key results are shown to hold in a many-body, multilevel setting.

  20. Excitonic bistabilities, instabilities and chaos in laser-pumped semiconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Ba An; Nguyen Trung Dan; Hoang Xuan Nguyen

    1992-07-01

    The Hurwitz criteria are used for a stability analysis of the steady state excitonic optical bistability curves in a semiconductor pumped by an external laser resonant with the exciton level. Besides the middle branch of the bistability curves which is unstable in the sense of the linear stability theory, we have found other domains of instability in the upper and lower branches of the steady state curves. Numerical results show that a possible route to chaos in the photon-exciton system is period-doubling self-oscillation process. The influence of the presence of free carriers that coexist with the excitons is also discussed. (author). 16 refs, 6 figs

  1. Organic-Inorganic Composites of Semiconductor Nanocrystals for Efficient Excitonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzelturk, Burak; Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    2015-06-18

    Nanocomposites of colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals integrated into conjugated polymers are the key to soft-material hybrid optoelectronics, combining advantages of both plastics and particles. Synergic combination of the favorable properties in the hybrids of colloidal nanocrystals and conjugated polymers offers enhanced performance and new functionalities in light-generation and light-harvesting applications, where controlling and mastering the excitonic interactions at the nanoscale are essential. In this Perspective, we highlight and critically consider the excitonic interactions in the organic-inorganic nanocomposites to achieve highly efficient exciton transfer through rational design of the nanocomposites. The use of strong excitonic interactions in optoelectronic devices can trigger efficiency breakthroughs in hybrid optoelectronics.

  2. Resonant transfer of excitons and quantum computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovett, Brendon W.; Reina, John H.; Nazir, Ahsan; Kothari, Beeneet; Briggs, G. Andrew D.

    2003-01-01

    Resonant energy transfer mechanisms have been observed in the sensitized luminescence of solids, and in quantum dots, molecular nanostructures, and photosynthetic organisms. We demonstrate that such mechanisms, together with the exciton-exciton binding energy shift typical of these nanostructures, can be used to perform universal quantum logic and generate quantum entanglement

  3. Exciton dephasing in ZnSe quantum wires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Hans Peter; Langbein, Wolfgang Werner; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    1998-01-01

    The homogeneous linewidths of excitons in wet-etched ZnSe quantum wires of lateral sizes down to 23 nm are studied by transient four-wave mixing. The low-density dephasing time is found to increase with decreasing wire width. This is attributed mainly to a reduction of electron-exciton scattering...

  4. Photoluminescence dynamics of weakly confined excitons in GaAs thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Atsushi; Katouf, Redouane; Kojima, Osamu; Ishi-Hayase, Junko; Sasaki, Masahide; Tsuchiya, Masahiro; Isu, Toshiro

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of weakly confined excitons in GaAs thin films measured by time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) technique. When excitation energy was above the resonant energy of the exciton, a long PL rise time of about 200 ps was observed. It is considered that an exciton formation process from excited continuum energy states to discrete energy states of the exciton in the thin film causes the slow PL rise. The observed PL decay time constant was about 14 ns due to high quality fabricated samples. The observed population dynamics can be surely ascribed to the specific features of weakly confined excitons

  5. Tailorable Exciton Transport in Doped Peptide–Amphiphile Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, Lee A. [Center; Sykes, Matthew E. [Center; Wu, Yimin A. [Center; Schaller, Richard D. [Center; Department; Wiederrecht, Gary P. [Center; Fry, H. Christopher [Center

    2017-08-29

    Light-harvesting biomaterials are an attractive target in photovoltaics, photocatalysis, and artificial photosynthesis. Through peptide self-assembly, complex nanostructures can be engineered to study the role of chromophore organization during light absorption and energy transport. To this end, we demonstrate the one-dimensional transport of excitons along naturally occurring, light-harvesting, Zn-protoporphyrin IX chromophores within self-assembled peptide-amphiphile nanofibers. The internal structure of the nanofibers induces packing of the porphyrins into linear chains. We find that this peptide assembly can enable long-range exciton diffusion, yet it also induces the formation of excimers between adjacent molecules, which serve as exciton traps. Electronic coupling between neighboring porphyrin molecules is confirmed by various spectroscopic methods. The exciton diffusion process is then probed through transient photoluminescence and absorption measurements and fit to a model for one-dimensional hopping. Because excimer formation impedes exciton hopping, increasing the interchromophore spacing allows for improved diffusivity, which we control through porphyrin doping levels. We show that diffusion lengths of over 60 nm are possible at low porphyrin doping, representing an order of magnitude improvement over the highest doping fractions.

  6. Excitonic AND Logic Gates on DNA Brick Nanobreadboards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    A promising application of DNA self-assembly is the fabrication of chromophore-based excitonic devices. DNA brick assembly is a compelling method for creating programmable nanobreadboards on which chromophores may be rapidly and easily repositioned to prototype new excitonic devices, optimize device operation, and induce reversible switching. Using DNA nanobreadboards, we have demonstrated each of these functions through the construction and operation of two different excitonic AND logic gates. The modularity and high chromophore density achievable via this brick-based approach provide a viable path toward developing information processing and storage systems. PMID:25839049

  7. Molecular weight dependence of exciton diffusion in poly(3-hexylthiophene)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masri, Zarifi; Ruseckas, Arvydas; Emelianova, Evguenia V.

    2013-01-01

    A joint experimental and theoretical study of singlet exciton diffusion in spin-coated poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) films and its dependence on molecular weight is presented. The results show that exciton diffusion is fast along the co-facial π–π aggregates of polymer chromophores and about 100...... times slower in the lateral direction between aggregates. Exciton hopping between aggregates is found to show a subtle dependence on interchain coupling, aggregate size, and Boltzmann statistics. Additionally, a clear correlation is observed between the effective exciton diffusion coefficient...

  8. Achieving Extreme Utilization of Excitons by an Efficient Sandwich-Type Emissive Layer Architecture for Reduced Efficiency Roll-Off and Improved Operational Stability in Organic Light-Emitting Diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhongbin; Sun, Ning; Zhu, Liping; Sun, Hengda; Wang, Jiaxiu; Yang, Dezhi; Qiao, Xianfeng; Chen, Jiangshan; Alshehri, Saad M; Ahamad, Tansir; Ma, Dongge

    2016-02-10

    It has been demonstrated that the efficiency roll-off is generally caused by the accumulation of excitons or charge carriers, which is intimately related to the emissive layer (EML) architecture in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). In this article, an efficient sandwich-type EML structure with a mixed-host EML sandwiched between two single-host EMLs was designed to eliminate this accumulation, thus simultaneously achieving high efficiency, low efficiency roll-off and good operational stability in the resulting OLEDs. The devices show excellent electroluminescence performances, realizing a maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 24.6% with a maximum power efficiency of 105.6 lm W(-1) and a maximum current efficiency of 93.5 cd A(-1). At the high brightness of 5,000 cd m(-2), they still remain as high as 23.3%, 71.1 lm W(-1), and 88.3 cd A(-1), respectively. And, the device lifetime is up to 2000 h at initial luminance of 1000 cd m(-2), which is significantly higher than that of compared devices with conventional EML structures. The improvement mechanism is systematically studied by the dependence of the exciton distribution in EML and the exciton quenching processes. It can be seen that the utilization of the efficient sandwich-type EML broadens the recombination zone width, thus greatly reducing the exciton quenching and increasing the probability of the exciton recombination. It is believed that the design concept provides a new avenue for us to achieve high-performance OLEDs.

  9. Pool-Frenkel thermoelectric modulation of exciton photoluminescence in GaSe crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ertap, H.; Mamedov, G.M.; Karabulut, M.; Bacioglu, A.

    2011-01-01

    Effect of external field on the exciton photoluminescence of GaSe crystals has been investigated and it has been observed that the PL is quenched with the applied field. The changes observed in the PL spectra have been analyzed with impact exciton, Franz-Keldysh and Pool-Frenkel effects. From the analyses of the experimental data, it has been found that the intensity of direct free, indirect free and bound exciton peaks decreased exponentially with the square root of applied field as I∼exp-β√E. The energy positions of emission peaks were found to shift to longer wavelength with the applied field as ΔE∼β√E. From these findings, the Pool-Frenkel thermoelectric field effect is seen to be the dominant mechanism in the variation of exciton PL with the applied field even though the impact exciton and Franz-Keldysh effects contribute. - Highlights: → Exciton PL intensity varies with the applied field. It decreases with the square root of E in accordance with Pool-Frenkel effect. → In the intrinsic region of PL spectrum, lines belonging to direct and indirect free/bound excitons were observed. → Line positions shifted to longer wavelengths with the applied field. → It was shown that amplitude modulation of exciton PL with electric field was possible.

  10. Strong excitonic interactions in the oxygen K-edge of perovskite oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomita, Kota; Miyata, Tomohiro [Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Olovsson, Weine [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden); Mizoguchi, Teruyasu, E-mail: teru@iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan)

    2017-07-15

    Excitonic interactions of the oxygen K-edge electron energy-loss near-edge structure (ELNES) of perovskite oxides, CaTiO{sub 3}, SrTiO{sub 3}, and BaTiO{sub 3}, together with reference oxides, MgO, CaO, SrO, BaO, and TiO{sub 2}, were investigated using a first-principles Bethe–Salpeter equation calculation. Although the transition energy of oxygen K-edge is high, strong excitonic interactions were present in the oxygen K-edge ELNES of the perovskite oxides, whereas the excitonic interactions were negligible in the oxygen K-edge ELNES of the reference compounds. Detailed investigation of the electronic structure suggests that the strong excitonic interaction in the oxygen K-edge ELNES of the perovskite oxides is caused by the directionally confined, low-dimensional electronic structure at the Ti–O–Ti bonds. - Highlights: • Excitonic interaction in oxygen-K edge is investigated. • Strong excitonic interaction is found in the oxygen-K edge of perovskite oxides. • The strong excitonic interaction is ascribed to the low-dimensional and confined electronic structure.

  11. Strongly Enhanced Free-Exciton Luminescence in Microcrystalline CsPbBr3 Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Shin-ichi; Kakuchi, Mitsugu; Masaki, Atsushi; Saito, Tadaaki

    2003-07-01

    The luminescence properties of CsPbBr3 films prepared via the amorphous phase by crystallization are dominated by free-exciton emission, and only a weak trace of emission due to trapped excitons was observed, in contrast to the case of bulk CsPbBr3 crystals. In particular, the films in the microcrystalline state show by more than an order of magnitude stronger free-exciton emission than in the polycrystalline state. The enhanced free-exciton emission is suggestive of excitonic superradiance.

  12. Correction of the exciton Bohr radius in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Run-Ze; Dong, Xi-Ying; Li, Zhi-Qing; Wang, Zi-Wu

    2018-07-01

    We theoretically investigate the correction of exciton Bohr radius in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) on different polar substrates arising from the exciton-optical phonon coupling, in which both the intrinsic longitudinal optical phonon and surface optical phonon modes couple with the exciton are taken into account. We find that the exciton Bohr radius is enlarged markedly due to these coupling. Moreover, it can be changed on a large scale by modulating the polarizability of polar substrate and the internal distance between the monolayer TMDCs and polar substrate. Theoretical result provides a potential explanation for the variation of the exciton Bohr radius in experimental measurement.

  13. Spectroscopy of bound multi exciton complexes and deep centers in implanted and annealed silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babich, V.M.; Valakh, M.Ya.; Kovalchuk, V.B.; Rudko, G.Yu.; Shakhrajchuk, N.I.

    1989-01-01

    The change of silicon properties relevant to device physics caused by ion implantation and thermal annealing is studied. It is shown that in boron-doped p-Si the increase of P + ions implantation doses from 10 12 to 10 14 ions/cm 2 lead to a decrease of the broadening of boron bound exciton bands. This behaviour is caused by implantation-induced disordering of the lattice. The subsequent thermal annealing restores the intensity and the halfwidth of the above-mentioned bands and initiates the increase of the bands which correspond to excitons bond on the implanted phosphorus ions. Measurements of phosphorus bound exciton band intensities are applicable to the characterization of the process of phosphorus activation. Analysis of low energy region of luminescence spectra of heat treated samples shows that there is a correlation between the process of implanted phosphorus activation and the one of radiation defects transformation. The influence of germanium doping on the generation of thermal donors by means of spectroscopy of deep centres luminescence has been investigated. It is shown that the introduction of germanium in concentrations of 10 19 -10 20 cm -3 effectively suppresses the generation of thermal donors and deep centres under investigation. (author)

  14. Exciton in type-II quantum dot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra-Ortega, J; Escorcia, R A [Universidad del Magdalena, A. A. 731, Santa Marta (Colombia); Mikhailov, I D, E-mail: jsierraortega@gmail.co [Universidad Industrial de Santander, A. A. 678, Bucaramanga (Colombia)

    2009-05-01

    We study the quantum-size effect and the influence of the external magnetic field on the exciton ground state energy in the type-II InP quantum disk, lens and pyramid deposited on a wetting layer and embedded in a GaInP matrix. We show that the charge distribution over and below quantum dot and wetting layer induced by trapped exciton strongly depends on the quantum dot morphology and the strength of the magnetic field.

  15. Direct observation of free-exciton thermalization in quantum-well structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Umlauff, M.; Hoffmann, J.; Kalt, H.

    1998-01-01

    We report on a direct observation of free-exciton thermalization in quantum-well structures. A narrow energy distribution of free 1s excitons is created in ZnSe-based quantum wells by emission of one LO phonon after optical excitation of the continuum stales with picosecond laser pulses. The subs......We report on a direct observation of free-exciton thermalization in quantum-well structures. A narrow energy distribution of free 1s excitons is created in ZnSe-based quantum wells by emission of one LO phonon after optical excitation of the continuum stales with picosecond laser pulses...

  16. The effect of excitons on CdTe solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karazhanov, S. Zh.; Zhang, Y.; Mascarenhas, A.; Deb, S.

    2000-01-01

    Temperature and doping-level dependence of CdTe solar cells is investigated, taking into account the involvement of excitons on photocurrent transport. We show that the density of excitons in CdTe is comparable with that of minority carriers at doping levels ≥10 15 cm -3 . From the investigation of the dark-saturation current, we show that the product of electron and hole concentrations at equilibrium is several orders of magnitude more than the square of the intrinsic carrier concentration. With this assumption, we have studied the effect of excitons on CdTe solar cells, and the effect is negative. CdTe solar cell performance with excitons included agrees well with existing experimental results. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  17. Excitons in InP/InAs inhomogeneous quantum dots

    CERN Document Server

    Assaid, E; Khamkhami, J E; Dujardin, F

    2003-01-01

    Wannier excitons confined in an InP/InAs inhomogeneous quantum dot (IQD) have been studied theoretically in the framework of the effective mass approximation. A finite-depth potential well has been used to describe the effect of the quantum confinement in the InAs layer. The exciton binding energy has been determined using the Ritz variational method. The spatial correlation between the electron and the hole has been taken into account in the expression for the wavefunction. It has been shown that for a fixed size b of the IQD, the exciton binding energy depends strongly on the core radius a. Moreover, it became apparent that there are two critical values of the core radius, a sub c sub r sub i sub t and a sub 2 sub D , for which important changes of the exciton binding occur. The former critical value, a sub c sub r sub i sub t , corresponds to a minimum of the exciton binding energy and may be used to distinguish between tridimensional confinement and bidimensional confinement. The latter critical value, a ...

  18. Effect of disorder on exciton dissociation in conjugated polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Yuwen; Zhao Hui; Chen Yuguang; Yan Yonghong

    2017-01-01

    By using a multi-configurational time-dependent Hartree–Fock (MCTDHF) method for the time-dependent Schrödinger equation and a Newtonian equation of motion for lattice, we investigate the disorder effects on the dissociation process of excitons in conjugated polymer chains. The simulations are performed within the framework of an extended version of the Su–Schrieffer–Heeger model modified to include on-site disorder, off-diagonal, electron–electron interaction, and an external electric field. Our results show that Coulomb correlation effects play an important role in determining the exciton dissociation process. The electric field required to dissociate an exciton can practically impossibly occur in a pure polymer chain, especially in the case of triplet exciton. However, when the on-site disorder effects are taken into account, this leads to a reduction in mean dissociation electric fields. As the disorder strength increases, the dissociation field decreases effectively. On the contrary, the effects of off-diagonal disorder are negative in most cases. Moreover, the dependence of exciton dissociation on the conjugated length is also discussed. (paper)

  19. Inverse Funnel Effect of Excitons in Strained Black Phosphorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo San-Jose

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We study the effects of strain on the properties and dynamics of Wannier excitons in monolayer (phosphorene and few-layer black phosphorus (BP, a promising two-dimensional material for optoelectronic applications due to its high mobility, mechanical strength, and strain-tunable direct band gap. We compare the results to the case of molybdenum disulphide (MoS_{2} monolayers. We find that the so-called funnel effect, i.e., the possibility of controlling exciton motion by means of inhomogeneous strains, is much stronger in few-layer BP than in MoS_{2} monolayers and, crucially, is of opposite sign. Instead of excitons accumulating isotropically around regions of high tensile strain like in MoS_{2}, excitons in BP are pushed away from said regions. This inverse funnel effect is moreover highly anisotropic, with much larger funnel distances along the armchair crystallographic direction, leading to a directional focusing of exciton flow. A strong inverse funnel effect could enable simpler designs of funnel solar cells and offer new possibilities for the manipulation and harvesting of light.

  20. Quasiparticle lifetime broadening in resonant x-ray scattering of NH4NO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, John; Jach, Terrence; Müller, Matthias; Unterumsberger, Rainer; Beckhoff, Burkhard

    2016-07-01

    It has been previously shown that two effects cause dramatic changes in the x-ray absorption and emission spectra from the N K edge of the insulating crystal ammonium nitrate. First, vibrational disorder causes major changes in the absorption spectrum, originating not only from the thermal population of phonons, but, significantly, from zero-point motion as well. Second, the anomalously large broadening (˜4 eV) of the emission originating from nitrate σ states is due to the unusually short lifetimes of quasiparticles in an otherwise extremely narrow band. In this work, we investigate the coupling of these effects to core and valence excitons that are created as the initial x-ray excitation energy is progressively reduced toward the N edge. Using a G W /Bethe-Salpeter approach, we show the extent to which this anomalous broadening is captured by the G W approximation. The data and calculations demonstrate the importance that the complex self-energies (finite lifetimes) of the valence bands have on the interpretation of emission spectra. We produce a scheme to explain why extreme lifetimes should appear in σ states of other similar compounds.

  1. Large-k exciton dynamics in GaN epilayers: Nonthermal and thermal regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinattieri, Anna; Bogani, Franco; Cavigli, Lucia; Manzi, Donatella; Gurioli, Massimo; Feltin, Eric; Carlin, Jean-François; Martin, Denis; Butté, Raphaël; Grandjean, Nicolas

    2013-02-01

    We present a detailed investigation performed at low temperature (T<50 K) concerning the exciton dynamics in GaN epilayers grown on c-plane sapphire substrates, focusing on the exciton formation and the transition from the nonthermal to the thermal regime. The time-resolved kinetics of longitudinal-optical-phonon replicas is used to address the energy relaxation in the excitonic band. From picosecond time-resolved spectra, we bring evidence for a long lasting nonthermal excitonic distribution, which accounts for the first 50 ps. Such a behavior is confirmed in different experimental conditions when both nonresonant and resonant excitations are used. At low excitation power density, the exciton formation and their subsequent thermalization are dominated by impurity scattering rather than by acoustic phonon scattering. The estimate of the average energy of the excitons as a function of delay after the excitation pulse provides information on the relaxation time, which describes the evolution of the exciton population to the thermal regime.

  2. Radiation damage and life-time evaluation of RBMK graphite stack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platonov, P A; Chugunov, O K; Manevsky, V N; Karpukhin, V I [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation). Reactor Material Div.

    1996-08-01

    At the present time there are 11 NPP units with RBMK reactors in operation in Russia, with the oldest now in operation 22 years. Design life-time of the RBMK-1000 reactor is 30 years. This paper addresses the evaluation of RBMK graphite stack life-time. It is the practice in Russia to evaluate the reliability of the channel reactor graphite stack using at least three criteria: degradation of physical-mechanical properties of graphite, preservation of the graphite brick integrity, and degradation of the graphite stack as a structure. Stack life-time evaluation by different criteria indicates that the most realistic approach may be realized on the basis of the criteria of brick cracking and degradation of the graphite stack as a structure. The RBMK reactor graphite stack life-time depends on its temperature and for different units it may be different. (author). 2 refs, 10 figs.

  3. Exciton luminescence in CdxMn1-xTe compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caraman, M.; Gashin, P.; Metelitsa, Snejana; Nicorici, Valentina; Nicorici, A.

    2002-01-01

    The Cd x Mn 1-x Te (0.5 7 W/cm 2 . The luminescence spectra were observed at 78 K. The results of the study had shown that the presence of relatively narrow luminescence peaks localized in the region of the fundamental absorption edge is characteristic for these spectra and for the majority of the crystals a wide maximum in the long wavelength region is observed. The luminescence maxima with an accuracy of ∼ 5 meV correspond to the resonance energy of the excitons of the state with n=1 determined from the absorption spectra. Hence, these maxima can be considered as exciton luminescence stimulated either by the excitons of the state n=1 or bounded to the exciton ionization centers. From the analysis of the absorption and exciton luminescence spectra one can make a conclusion about the fact that the homogeneity extent of the crystals decreases from CdTe to the compounds with x= 0.8 - 0.7 and slightly increases at the x decrease to 0.5. The exciton luminescence lines in CdTe and Cd 0.99 Mn 0.01 Te crystals is shifting by 7 - 10 meV relatively to the lines of free excitons absorption. This fact is explained by the fact that in these crystals, probably, excitons bounding to the lattice inherited defects with the binding energy of 7 - 10 meV participate in the luminescence. In the long wavelength region a wide peak is observed on which the impurity lines are not displayed. In the luminescence spectra of CdTe with 0.1%. As crystals three maxima at 1.51 eV, 1.46 eV and 1.42 eV are revealed. For pure CdTe the maximum at 1.4 eV is also revealed. These maxima are explained by the luminescence through the recombination levels localized at 0.46 eV. (authors)

  4. Calculation of collective effects and beam lifetimes for the LBL [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory] 1-2 GeV synchrotron radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chattopadhyay, S.; Zisman, M.S.

    1987-03-01

    In designing a third-generation high brightness synchrotron radiation source, attention must be paid to the various collective effects that can influence beam performance. We report on calculations, performed with the code ZAP, of the bunch length, the transverse emittance and the beam lifetime (from both Touschek and gas scattering) for our 1-2 GeV storage ring. In addition, we estimate the growth times for both longitudinal and transverse coupled bunch instabilities. Bunch lengths of about 20 ps should be obtainable and intrabeam scattering emittance growth is small. For a limiting undulator gap of 1 cm and residual gas pressure of 1n Torr, the beam lifetime is about 5 hours in the single-bunch mode; in the multibunch mode, lifetimes in excess of 6 hours are expected. These results indicate that all performance goals for the facility should be achievable

  5. Anisotropic Exciton Rabi Oscillation in Single Telecommunication-Band Quantum Dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toshiyuki Miyazawa,; Toshihiro Nakaoka,; Katsuyuki Watanabe,; Naoto Kumagai,; Naoki Yokoyama,; Yasuhiko Arakawa,

    2010-06-01

    Anisotropic Rabi oscillation in the exciton state in a single InAs/GaAs quantum dot (QD) was demonstrated in the telecommunication-band by selecting two orthogonal polarization angles of the excitation laser. Our InAs QDs were embedded in an intrinsic layer of an n-i-Schottky diode, which provides an electric field to extract photoexcited carriers from QDs. Owing to the potential anisotropy of QDs, the fine structure splitting (FSS) energy in the exciton state in single InAs QDs was ˜110 μeV, measured by polarization-resolved photocurrent spectroscopy. The ratio between two different Rabi frequencies, which reflect anisotropic dipole moments of two orthogonal exciton states, was estimated to be ˜1.2. This demonstrates that the selective control of two orthogonal polarized exciton states is a promising technique for exciton-based-quantum information devices compatible with fiber optics.

  6. Ultrafast exciton decay in PbS quantum dots through simultaneous electron and hole recombination with a surface-localized ion pair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edme, Kedy; Bettis Homan, Stephanie; Nepomnyashchii, Alexander B.; Weiss, Emily A., E-mail: e-weiss@northwestern.edu

    2016-06-01

    Highlights: • We synthesize complexes of PbS quantum dots (QDs) and tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ). Each PbS QD spontaneously reduces up to 17 TCNQ molecules. • The photoluminescence of the PbS QDs is quenched in the presence of the reduced TCNQ species through ultrafast non-radiative, simultaneous decay of the electron and hole. • We assign this decay to a four-carrier, concerted charge recombination mechanism with the surface localized sulfur–TCNQ{sup x−} ion pair. - Abstract: This paper describes the ultrafast decay of the band-edge exciton in PbS quantum dots (QDs) through simultaneous recombination of the excitonic hole and electron with the surface localized ion pair formed upon adsorption of tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ). Each PbS QD (R = 1.8 nm) spontaneously reduces up to 17 TCNQ molecules upon adsorption of the TCNQ molecule to a sulfur on the QD surface. The photoluminescence of the PbS QDs is quenched in the presence of the reduced TCNQ species through ultrafast (⩽15-ps) non-radiative decay of the exciton; the rate constant for the decay process increases approximately linearly with the number of adsorbed, reduced TCNQ molecules. Near-infrared and mid-infrared transient absorption show that this decay occurs through simultaneous transfer of the excitonic electron and hole, and is assigned to a four-carrier, concerted charge recombination mechanism based on the observations that (i) the PL of the QDs recovers when spontaneously reduced TCNQ{sup 1−} desorbs from the QD surface upon addition of salt, and (ii) the PL of the QDs is preserved when another spontaneous oxidant, ferrocinium, which cannot participate in charge transfer in its reduced state, is substituted for TCNQ.

  7. Engineering and manipulating exciton wave packets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Xiaoning; Montangero, Simone; Carr, Lincoln D.; Lusk, Mark T.

    2017-05-01

    When a semiconductor absorbs light, the resulting electron-hole superposition amounts to a uncontrolled quantum ripple that eventually degenerates into diffusion. If the conformation of these excitonic superpositions could be engineered, though, they would constitute a new means of transporting information and energy. We show that properly designed laser pulses can be used to create such excitonic wave packets. They can be formed with a prescribed speed, direction, and spectral make-up that allows them to be selectively passed, rejected, or even dissociated using superlattices. Their coherence also provides a handle for manipulation using active, external controls. Energy and information can be conveniently processed and subsequently removed at a distant site by reversing the original procedure to produce a stimulated emission. The ability to create, manage, and remove structured excitons comprises the foundation for optoexcitonic circuits with application to a wide range of quantum information, energy, and light-flow technologies. The paradigm is demonstrated using both tight-binding and time-domain density functional theory simulations.

  8. Exciton dephasing and biexciton binding in CdSe/ZnSe islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Hans Peter; Tranitz, H.-P.; Preis, H

    1999-01-01

    The dephasing of excitons and the formation of biexcitons in self-organized CdSe/ZnSe islands grown by molecular-beam epitaxy is investigated using spectrally resolved four-wave mixing. A distribution of exciton-exciton scattering efficiencies and dephasing times in the range of 0.5-10 ps...

  9. Exciton-polaritons in cuprous oxide: Theory and comparison with experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweiner, Frank; Ertl, Jan; Main, Jörg; Wunner, Günter; Uihlein, Christoph

    2017-12-01

    The observation of giant Rydberg excitons in cuprous oxide (Cu2O ) up to a principal quantum number of n =25 by T. Kazimierczuk et al. [Nature (London) 514, 343 (2014), 10.1038/nature13832] inevitably raises the question whether these quasiparticles must be described within a multipolariton framework since excitons and photons are always coupled in the solid. In this paper we present the theory of exciton-polaritons in Cu2O . To this end we extend the Hamiltonian which includes the complete valence-band structure, the exchange interaction, and the central-cell corrections effects, and which has been recently deduced by F. Schweiner et al. [Phys. Rev. B 95, 195201 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevB.95.195201], for finite values of the exciton momentum ℏ K . We derive formulas to calculate not only dipole but also quadrupole oscillator strengths when using the complete basis of F. Schweiner et al., which has recently been proven as a powerful tool to calculate exciton spectra. Very complex polariton spectra for the three orientations of K along the axes [001 ] , [110 ] , and [111 ] of high symmetry are obtained and a strong mixing of exciton states is reported. The main focus is on the 1 S ortho-exciton-polariton, for which pronounced polariton effects have been measured in experiments. We set up a 5 ×5 matrix model, which accounts for both the polariton effect and the K -dependent splitting, and which allows treating the anisotropic polariton dispersion for any direction of K . We especially discuss the dispersions for K being oriented in the planes perpendicular to [1 1 ¯0 ] and [111 ] , for which experimental transmission spectra have been measured. Furthermore, we compare our results with experimental values of the K -dependent splitting, the group velocity, and the oscillator strengths of this exciton-polariton. The results are in good agreement. This proves the validity of the 5 ×5 matrix model as a useful theoretical model for further investigations on the 1 S

  10. Spin-exciton interaction and related micro-photoluminescence spectra of ZnSe:Mn DMS nanoribbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Lipeng; Zhou, Weichang; Zou, Bingsuo; Zhang, Yu; Han, Junbo; Yang, Xinxin; Gong, Zhihong; Li, Jingbo; Xie, Sishen; Shi, Li-Jie

    2017-03-10

    For their spintronic applications the magnetic and optical properties of diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS) have been studied widely. However, the exact relationships between the magnetic interactions and optical emission behaviors in DMS are not well understood yet due to their complicated microstructural and compositional characters from different growth and preparation techniques. Manganese (Mn) doped ZnSe nanoribbons with high quality were obtained by using the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Successful Mn ion doping in a single ZnSe nanoribbon was identified by elemental energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy mapping and micro-photoluminescence (PL) mapping of intrinsic d-d optical transition at 580 nm, i.e. the transition of 4 T 1 ( 4 G) →  6 A 1 ( 6 s),. Besides the d-d transition PL peak at 580 nm, two other PL peaks related to Mn ion aggregates in the ZnSe lattice were detected at 664 nm and 530 nm, which were assigned to the d-d transitions from the Mn 2+ -Mn 2+ pairs with ferromagnetic (FM) coupling and antiferromagnetic (AFM) coupling, respectively. Moreover, AFM pair formation goes along with strong coupling with acoustic phonon or structural defects. These arguments were supported by temperature-dependent PL spectra, power-dependent PL lifetimes, and first-principle calculations. Due to the ferromagnetic pair existence, an exciton magnetic polaron (EMP) is formed and emits at 460 nm. Defect existence favors the AFM pair, which also can account for its giant enhancement of spin-orbital coupling and the spin Hall effect observed in PRL 97, 126603(2006) and PRL 96, 196404(2006). These emission results of DMS reflect their relation to local sp-d hybridization, spin-spin magnetic coupling, exciton-spin or phonon interactions covering structural relaxations. This kind of material can be used to study the exciton-spin interaction and may find applications in spin-related photonic devices besides spintronics.

  11. Synthesis and Exciton Dynamics of Triplet Sensitized Conjugated Polymers

    KAUST Repository

    Andernach, Rolf; Utzat, Hendrik; Dimitrov, Stoichko; McCulloch, Iain; Heeney, Martin; Durrant, James; Bronstein, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    We report the synthesis of a novel polythiophene-based host-guest copolymer incorporating a Pt-porphyrin complex (TTP-Pt) into the backbone for efficient singlet to triplet polymer exciton sensitization. We elucidated the exciton dynamics in thin

  12. Resolving ultrafast exciton migration in organic solids at the nanoscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Naomi

    The migration of Frenkel excitons, tightly-bound electron-hole pairs, in photosynthesis and in organic semiconducting films is critical to the efficiency of natural and artificial light harvesting. While these materials exhibit a high degree of structural heterogeneity on the nanoscale, traditional measurements of exciton migration lengths are performed on bulk samples. Since both the characteristic length scales of structural heterogeneity and the reported bulk diffusion lengths are smaller than the optical diffraction limit, we adapt far-field super-resolution fluorescence imaging to uncover the correlations between the structural and energetic landscapes that the excitons explore. By combining the ultrafast super-resolved measurements with exciton hopping simulations we furthermore specify the nature (in addition to the extent) of exciton migration as a function of the intrinsic and ensemble chromophore energy scales that determine a spatio-energetic landscape for migration. In collaboration with: Samuel Penwell, Lucas Ginsberg, University of California, Berkeley and Rodrigo Noriega University of Utah.

  13. How to Draw Energy Level Diagrams in Excitonic Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, X-Y

    2014-07-03

    Emerging photovoltaic devices based on molecular and nanomaterials are mostly excitonic in nature. The initial absorption of a photon in these materials creates an exciton that can subsequently dissociate in each material or at their interfaces to give charge carriers. Any attempt at mechanistic understanding of excitonic solar cells must start with drawing energy level diagrams. This seemingly elementary exercise, which is described in textbooks for inorganic solar cells, has turned out to be a difficult subject in the literature. The problem stems from conceptual confusion of single-particle energy with quasi-particle energy and the misleading practice of mixing the two on the same energy level diagram. Here, I discuss how to draw physically accurate energy diagrams in excitonic solar cells using only single-particle energies (ionization potentials and electron affinities) of both ground and optically excited states. I will briefly discuss current understanding on the electronic energy landscape responsible for efficient charge separation in excitonic solar cells.

  14. Exciton center-of-mass localization and dielectric environment effect in monolayer WS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hichri, Aïda; Ben Amara, Imen; Ayari, Sabrine; Jaziri, Sihem

    2017-06-01

    The ultrathin transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have emerged as promising materials for various applications using two dimensional semiconductors. They have attracted increasing attention due to their unique optical properties originate from neutral and charged excitons. In this paper, we study the strong localization of exciton center-of-mass motion within random potential fluctuations caused by the monolayer defects. Here, we report negatively charged exciton formation in monolayer TMDs, notably tungsten disulfide WS2. Our theory is based on an effective mass model of neutral and charged excitons, parameterized by ab-initio calculations. Taking into the account the strong correlation between the monolayer WS2 and the surrounding dielectric environment, our theoretical results are in good agreement with one-photon photoluminescence (PL) and reflectivity measurements. We also show that the exciton state with p-symmetry, experimentally observed by two-photon PL emission, is energetically below the 2s-state. We use the equilibrium mass action law, to quantify the relative weight of exciton and trion PL. We show that exciton and trion emission can be tuned and controlled by external parameters like temperature, pumping, and injection electrons. Finally, in comparison with experimental measurements, we show that exciton emission in monolayer tungsten dichalcogenides is substantially reduced. This feature suggests that free exciton can be trapped in disordered potential wells to form a localized exciton and therefore offers a route toward novel optical properties.

  15. The creation of defects in ammonium halides by excitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, L.M.

    2002-01-01

    The ammonium halides crystals and alkali halides crystals are analogous by kind chemical bonds and crystalline lattices. The anionic sublattice is identical in this crystals. It is known the main mechanism of defect creation by irradiation is radiationless decay of excitons in alkali halides crystals. The F-, H-centers are formation in this processes. However, F, H-centres are not detected in ammonium halides. The goal of this work is investigation the creation of defects in ammonium halides by excitons. We established that excitons in ammonium chlorides and bromides are similar to excitons in alkali halides. It is known excitons are self-trapped and have identical parameters of the exciton-phonon interaction in both kind crystals. It is supposed, that processes of radiationless disintegration of excitons are identical in ammonium and alkali halides. It is necessary to understand why F-, H-centers are absent in ammonium halides. V k -centres are created by the excitation of the ammonium halides crystals in the absorption band of excitons. It was established by thermoluminescence and spectrums of absorption. The V k -centers begin to migrate at 110-120 K in ammonium chlorides and bromides. The curve of thermoluminescence have peak with maximum at this temperatures. It is known V k -centers in ammonium chlorides have the absorption band at 380 nm. We discovered this absorption band after irradiation of crystals by ultra-violet. In alkali halides F-center is anionic vacancy with electron. The wave function of electron are spread ed at the cations around anionic vacancy. We established the cation NH 4 + in ammonium halides can to capture electron. The ion NH 4 2+ is unsteady. It is disintegrated to NH 3 + and H + . We suppose that excitons in ammonium and alkali halides are disintegrated identically. When cation NH 4 + capture electron, in the anionic sublattice the configuration are created in a direction (100) The indicated configuration is unsteady in relation to a

  16. Radiative lifetimes and two-body collisional deactivation rate constants in argon for Kr(4p 55p) and Kr(4p 55p') states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, R.S.F.; Horiguchi, H.; Setser, D.W.

    1980-01-01

    The radiative lifetimes and collisional deactivation rate constants, in argon, of eight Kr(4p 5 [ 2 P/sub 1/2/]5p and [ 2 P/sub 3/2/]5p) levels have been measured by a time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence technique in a flowing afterglow apparatus. The measured radiative lifetimes are compared with other experimental values and with theoretical calculations. Radiative branching ratios of these excited states also were measured in order to assign the absolute transition probabilities of the Kr(5p,5p'--5s, 5s') transition array from the radiative lifetimes. In addition to the total deactivation rate constants, product states from two-body collisions between Kr(5p and 5p') atoms and ground state argon atoms were identified from the laser-induced emission spectra, and product formation rate constants were assigned. Two-body intermultiplet transfer from Kr(4p 5 [ 2 P/sub 1/2/]5p) to the Kr(4p 5 [ 2 P/sub 3/2/]4d) levels occurs with ease. Intermultiplet transfer from the lowest level in the (4p 5 5p) configuration to the Kr(4p 5 5s and 5s') manifold was fast despite the large energy defect. However, this was the only Kr(5p) level that gave appreciable transfer to the Kr(5s or 5s') manifold. Generally the favored product states are within a few kT of the entrance channel

  17. Bose-Einstein condensation of excitons in Cu2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snoke, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    Free excitons provide the only experimental system other than helium in which the behavior of particles with mass is known to follow Bose-Einstein statistics. Experimental observations are presented of the kinetic energy distribution of excitons in the direct-gap semiconductor Cu 2 O, both the triplet orthoexciton state and the singlet paraexciton state. The density and temperature of the exciton gas closely follow the phase boundary for Bose-Einstein condensation. At the highest densities, the lower-lying paraexcitons take on an anomalous energy distribution with a sharp, high-energy edge. This odd distribution of particle energies may be associated with Bose-Einstein condensation into a state with nonzero momentum. Indeed, the excitons leave the region of their creation at supersonic velocities. In addition to the experimental observations, theoretical models are presented for several aspects of this nonequilibrium system. The equilibration of a nearly-ideal boson gas is modeled, finding that a significant time is required for the approach to condensation. The temperature and density of the excitons in steady state are modeled based on known classical kinetic effects in semiconductors, and the effects of Bose-Einstein statistics on these processes estimated

  18. Excitons in van der Waals Heterostructures: A theoretical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Latini, Simone

    )electronics devices, e.g. light emitting diodes, solar cells, ultra-fast photodetectors, transistors etc., have been successfully fabricated. It is well established that for isolated 2D semiconductors and vdWHs the optical response is governed by excitonic effects. While it is understood that the reduced amount...... of electronic screening in freestanding 2D materials is the main origin of extraordinarily strongly bound excitons, a theoretical understanding of excitonic effects and of how the electronic screening is affected for the more complex case of multi-layer structures is still lacking due to the computational...... in a generalized hydrogenic model to compute exciton binding energies in isolated, supported, or encapsulated 2D semiconductors. The non-locality of the dielectric screening is inherently included in our method and we can successfully describe the non-hydrogenic Rydberg series of low-dimensional systems...

  19. Energy levels, radiative rates, and lifetimes for transitions in W XL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, Kanti M.; Keenan, Francis P.

    2014-01-01

    Energy levels and radiative rates are reported for transitions in Br-like tungsten, W XL, calculated with the general-purpose relativistic atomic structure package (GRASP). Configuration interaction (CI) has been included among 46 configurations (generating 4215 levels) over a wide energy range up to 213 Ryd. However, for conciseness results are only listed for the lowest 360 levels (with energies up to ∼43 Ryd), which mainly belong to the 4s 2 4p 5 ,4s 2 4p 4 4d,4s 2 4p 4 4f,4s4p 6 ,4p 6 4d,4s4p 5 4d,4s 2 4p 3 4d 2 , and 4s 2 4p 3 4d4f configurations, and provided for four types of transitions, E1, E2, M1, and M2. Comparisons are made with existing (but limited) results. However, to fully assess the accuracy of our data, analogous calculations have been performed with the flexible atomic code, including an even larger CI than in GRASP. Our energy levels are estimated to be accurate to better than 0.02 Ryd, whereas results for radiative rates (and lifetimes) should be accurate to better than 20% for a majority of the strong transitions

  20. Some evidence for the high density phase of excitons in CdS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rueckmann, I.; May, V.; Voigt, J.

    1980-01-01

    Reflection spectra without and with additional pumping are measured in CdS at 1.8 and 77 K, respectively, starting from very low pump intensities. At low pump intensities a special behaviour of the reflection minimum is found indicating the importance of an exciton dead layer. The experimental spectra up to the highest pump intensities can be fitted very well taking into account spatial dispersion, exciton dead layer, and density dependent excitonic parameters. Polarizability, damping, and layer thickness change continuously in the whole range of excitation intensities. On the other side, the transverse dielectric function of a high density gas of interacting 1s excitons is calculated. A comparison between theoretically and experimentally obtained excitonic parameters at different densities shows good agreement. Hence, the importance of many-exciton interaction for the reflection spectra up to vanishing at highest pump intensities is concluded. (author)

  1. Excitonic processes and their contribution to non-proportionality observed in the light yield of inorganic scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, J.; Koblov, A.

    2013-01-01

    Using the derived expression for the light yield in a scintillator, the influence of linear radiative and non-radiative (quenching) rates on the non-proportionality in light yield is studied. It is found that if the excitation created within the electron track initiated by a γ-photon incident on a scintillator, remains mainly excitonic, then non-proportionality can be minimized by inventing a scintillator material with linear radiative rate > 10 7 s -1 , linear quenching rate 6 s -1 and track radius ≥ 70 nm along with maintaining the rates of other non-linear processes as discovered earlier. If one can increase the linear radiative rate to 10 9 s -1 , then the non-proportionality can be eliminated at a track radius > 20 nm. (authors)

  2. Self-trapped excitons in LH2 bacteriochlorophyll-protein complexes under high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timpmann, K.; Ellervee, Aleksandr; Kuznetsov, Anatoli; Laisaar, Arlentin; Trinkunas, Gediminas; Freiberg, Arvi

    2003-01-01

    The absorption and emission spectra of excitons in LH2 antenna complexes from the photosynthetic purple bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides have been studied under hydrostatic pressure. The measurements made between ambient pressure and 6 kbar over a broad temperature range reveal largely different rates of the pressure-induced shifts for the absorption and emission bands. Numerical calculations based on exciton polaron model provide evidence for the exciton self-trapping at ambient pressure as well as for the pressure stabilization of the self-trapped exciton states responsible for the emission, whereas the light absorbing states belong to nearly free excitons over the whole pressure and temperature ranges studied

  3. Measurement of the radiation incident on ALS NdFeB permanent magnet insertion device structures and a determination of their lifetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krebs, G.F.; Holmes, M.

    1997-05-01

    Measurements of the radiation incident on ALS insertion device NdFeB permanent magnet structures were carried out using thermoluminescence dosimeters. A plastic scintillator gamma telescope was utilized to unravel the various contributions to the integrated dose. Magnet lifetimes were calculated for various operational conditions

  4. Wannier-Mott Excitons in Nanoscale Molecular Ices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.-J.; Muñoz Caro, G. M.; Aparicio, S.; Jiménez-Escobar, A.; Lasne, J.; Rosu-Finsen, A.; McCoustra, M. R. S.; Cassidy, A. M.; Field, D.

    2017-10-01

    The absorption of light to create Wannier-Mott excitons is a fundamental feature dictating the optical and photovoltaic properties of low band gap, high permittivity semiconductors. Such excitons, with an electron-hole separation an order of magnitude greater than lattice dimensions, are largely limited to these semiconductors but here we find evidence of Wannier-Mott exciton formation in solid carbon monoxide (CO) with a band gap of >8 eV and a low electrical permittivity. This is established through the observation that a change of a few degrees K in deposition temperature can shift the electronic absorption spectra of solid CO by several hundred wave numbers, coupled with the recent discovery that deposition of CO leads to the spontaneous formation of electric fields within the film. These so-called spontelectric fields, here approaching 4 ×107 V m-1 , are strongly temperature dependent. We find that a simple electrostatic model reproduces the observed temperature dependent spectral shifts based on the Stark effect on a hole and electron residing several nm apart, identifying the presence of Wannier-Mott excitons. The spontelectric effect in CO simultaneously explains the long-standing enigma of the sensitivity of vacuum ultraviolet spectra to the deposition temperature.

  5. Phonon-assisted two-photon exciton transitions in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, A.R.

    1987-08-01

    The theory of phonon-assisted two-photon transitions to excitonic states in semiconductors has been theoretically investigated. The effects of both the nonparabolicity of the band and the degeneracy of the valence band have been taken into account. Expressions for the absorption coefficient through different band models are calculated. The numerical applications to CdI 2 and GaP show that the 4-band model gives the dominant contribution which leads to a final s-exciton state. An exciton peak appears at an energy which is close to that recently observed in CdI 2 . The non-parabolic effect enhances the absorption coefficient by a two-order of magnitude. (author). 6 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  6. Positron annihilation lifetime measurement of electron-irradiated ZnO crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomiyama, N.; Takenaka, M.; Kuramoto, E.

    1992-01-01

    In order to clarify the basic properties of radiation-induced defects in ZnO crystals positron annihilation lifetime measurements were performed for the ZnO crystals irradiated by 28 MeV electrons at 77 K. The electron-irradiation induced the color change of the specimens from the original yellowish-white to the orange and long lifetime component of about 200 psec. The isochronal annealing experiments showed that the decrease of the positron annihilation lifetime appeared in the temperature range between 423 and 473 K and between 723 and 923 K. The radiation-induced color change disappeared in the first temperature range. It can be considered that the first stage corresponds to migration and recovery of radiation-induced oxygen vacancies. It is difficult to identify the second stage, but it might be the recovery stage of small ZnO interstitial clusters formed through clustering of Zn and O interstitials

  7. Multiple exciton generation in chiral carbon nanotubes: Density functional theory based computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryjevski, Andrei; Mihaylov, Deyan; Kilina, Svetlana; Kilin, Dmitri

    2017-10-01

    We use a Boltzmann transport equation (BE) to study time evolution of a photo-excited state in a nanoparticle including phonon-mediated exciton relaxation and the multiple exciton generation (MEG) processes, such as exciton-to-biexciton multiplication and biexciton-to-exciton recombination. BE collision integrals are computed using Kadanoff-Baym-Keldysh many-body perturbation theory based on density functional theory simulations, including exciton effects. We compute internal quantum efficiency (QE), which is the number of excitons generated from an absorbed photon in the course of the relaxation. We apply this approach to chiral single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), such as (6,2) and (6,5). We predict efficient MEG in the (6,2) and (6,5) SWCNTs within the solar spectrum range starting at the 2Eg energy threshold and with QE reaching ˜1.6 at about 3Eg, where Eg is the electronic gap.

  8. Decay of orientational grating of weakly confined excitons in GaAs thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, O.; Isu, T.; Ishi-Hayase, J.; Kanno, A.; Katouf, R.; Sasaki, M.; Tsuchiya, M.

    2008-01-01

    We report the dynamical properties of the exciton orientation in GaAs thin films using the orientational grating (OG) technique. From the results of excitation-power dependence of OG signal, we confirmed that the OG signal comes from the optical nonlinearity of weakly confined excitons. In addition, the OG-decay time decreases with an increase of excitation power due to exciton-exciton interaction, and the shortest decay time is below 1 ps. Our results may imply the potential application of optical nonlinearity of weakly confined exciton to ultrafast switching devices operating at 1 Tbit/s

  9. Charge separation in excitonic and bipolar solar cells - A detailed balance approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchartz, Thomas; Rau, Uwe

    2008-01-01

    A generalized solar cell model for excitonic and classical, bipolar solar cells is developed that describes the combined transport and interaction of electrons, holes and excitons. Both, conventional inorganic solar cells as well as organic solar cells, where excitons play a dominant role for energy transport, turn out to be special cases of this model. Due to the inclusion of photon recycling effects, the approach is compatible with the principle of detailed balance and the Shockley-Queisser limit. We show how varying the interaction between excitons and charge carriers as well as varying the respective mobilities of the different species changes the operation mode of the solar cell path between excitonic and bipolar

  10. A study of polaritonic transparency in couplers made from excitonic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Mahi R.; Racknor, Chris [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Western University, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada)

    2015-03-14

    We have studied light matter interaction in quantum dot and exciton-polaritonic coupler hybrid systems. The coupler is made by embedding two slabs of an excitonic material (CdS) into a host excitonic material (ZnO). An ensemble of non-interacting quantum dots is doped in the coupler. The bound exciton polariton states are calculated in the coupler using the transfer matrix method in the presence of the coupling between the external light (photons) and excitons. These bound exciton-polaritons interact with the excitons present in the quantum dots and the coupler is acting as a reservoir. The Schrödinger equation method has been used to calculate the absorption coefficient in quantum dots. It is found that when the distance between two slabs (CdS) is greater than decay length of evanescent waves the absorption spectrum has two peaks and one minimum. The minimum corresponds to a transparent state in the system. However, when the distance between the slabs is smaller than the decay length of evanescent waves, the absorption spectra has three peaks and two transparent states. In other words, one transparent state can be switched to two transparent states when the distance between the two layers is modified. This could be achieved by applying stress and strain fields. It is also found that transparent states can be switched on and off by applying an external control laser field.

  11. Long-lived and largely red-shifted photoluminescence of solid-state rhodamine dyes: Molecular exciton coupling and structural effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xian-Fu; Zhang, Ya-Kui

    2015-01-01

    The optical absorption and fluorescence properties of five rhodamine dyes in solid-state are measured and show large difference from that in their gas phase or liquid solvents. All solid-state rhodamine dyes strongly absorb all light in UV and visible region, but emit only red and NIR fluorescence (680–800 nm, >100 nm red-shifted from that in solution). Further more, the absorption maxima of a solid-state rhodamine show a large red-shifted band (~100 nm) and blue-shifted peak (~125 nm) compared to that in solutions, indicating a strong molecular exciton coupling between molecules. All solid-state rhodamines still show reasonably good fluorescence quantum yield (Φ f ). In particular, solid-state Rhodamine B butyl ester and sulfonyl Rhodamine B showed a much longer emission lifetime (τ f ) than that of the corresponding molecular rhodamine, i.e. 4.12 and 4.14 ns in solid state compared to 1.61 and 2.47 ns in solution. The chemical structure of a rhodamine molecule showed dramatic effect on Φ f and τ f values for solid state rhodamine. The larger substituent in the benzene moiety favors higher Φ f and τ f values of rhodamine solids. These effects can be elucidated by the relation between structure-molecular distance and molecular exciton couplings. - Highlights: • Optical properties of solid rhodamines show large difference from that in solutions. • Solid-state rhodamine dyes emit red and NIR fluorescence (680–800 nm). • Solid-state rhodamines still show reasonably good fluorescence quantum yield. • Solid-state rhodamines have much longer fluorescence lifetimes than that in solutions

  12. Long-lived and largely red-shifted photoluminescence of solid-state rhodamine dyes: Molecular exciton coupling and structural effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xian-Fu, E-mail: zhangxianfu@tsinghua.org.cn [Institute of Applied Photochemistry & Center of Analysis and Measurements, Hebei Normal University of Science and Technology, Qinhuangdao 066004, Hebei Province (China); MPC Technologies, Hamilton, ON, Canada L8S 3H4 (Canada); Zhang, Ya-Kui [Institute of Applied Photochemistry & Center of Analysis and Measurements, Hebei Normal University of Science and Technology, Qinhuangdao 066004, Hebei Province (China)

    2015-10-15

    The optical absorption and fluorescence properties of five rhodamine dyes in solid-state are measured and show large difference from that in their gas phase or liquid solvents. All solid-state rhodamine dyes strongly absorb all light in UV and visible region, but emit only red and NIR fluorescence (680–800 nm, >100 nm red-shifted from that in solution). Further more, the absorption maxima of a solid-state rhodamine show a large red-shifted band (~100 nm) and blue-shifted peak (~125 nm) compared to that in solutions, indicating a strong molecular exciton coupling between molecules. All solid-state rhodamines still show reasonably good fluorescence quantum yield (Φ{sub f}). In particular, solid-state Rhodamine B butyl ester and sulfonyl Rhodamine B showed a much longer emission lifetime (τ{sub f}) than that of the corresponding molecular rhodamine, i.e. 4.12 and 4.14 ns in solid state compared to 1.61 and 2.47 ns in solution. The chemical structure of a rhodamine molecule showed dramatic effect on Φ{sub f} and τ{sub f} values for solid state rhodamine. The larger substituent in the benzene moiety favors higher Φ{sub f} and τ{sub f} values of rhodamine solids. These effects can be elucidated by the relation between structure-molecular distance and molecular exciton couplings. - Highlights: • Optical properties of solid rhodamines show large difference from that in solutions. • Solid-state rhodamine dyes emit red and NIR fluorescence (680–800 nm). • Solid-state rhodamines still show reasonably good fluorescence quantum yield. • Solid-state rhodamines have much longer fluorescence lifetimes than that in solutions.

  13. Plasmon exciton-polariton lasing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramezani, M.; Halpin, H.A.; Feist, J.; Fernández-Dominguez, A.; Rodriguez, S.R.K.; Garcia-Vidal, F.J.; Gomez-Rivas, J.

    2017-01-01

    Strong light-matter interaction leads to the appearance of new states, i.e. exciton-polaritons, with photophysical properties rather distinct from their constituents. Recent developments in fabrication techniques allow us to make metallic structures with strong electric field confinement in

  14. Exciton Rydberg series in mono- and few-layer WS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernikov, Alexey; Berkelbach, Timothy C.; Hill, Heather M.; Rigosi, Albert; Li, Yilei; Aslan, Özgur B.; Hybertsen, Mark S.; Reichman, David R.; Heinz, Tony F.

    2014-03-01

    Considered a long-awaited semiconducting analogue to graphene, the family of atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) attracted intense interest in the scientific community due to their remarkable physical properties resulting from the reduced dimensionality. A fundamental manifestation of the two-dimensional nature is a strong increase in the Coulomb interaction. The resulting formation of tightly bound excitons plays a crucial role for a majority of optical and transport phenomena. In our work, we investigate the excitons in atomically thin TMDs by optical micro-spectroscopy and apply a microscopic, ab-initio theoretical approach. We observe a full sequence of excited exciton states, i.e., the Rydberg series, in the monolayer WS2, identifying tightly bound excitons with energies exceeding 0.3 eV - almost an order of magnitude higher than in the corresponding, three-dimensional crystal. We also find significant deviations of the excitonic properties from the conventional hydrogenic physics - a direct evidence of a non-uniform dielectric environment. Finally, an excellent quantitative agreement is obtained between the experimental findings and the developed theoretical approach.

  15. Modeling temperature dependent singlet exciton dynamics in multilayered organic nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Leonardo Evaristo; de Oliveira Neto, Pedro Henrique; Kjelstrup-Hansen, Jakob; da Silva Filho, Demétrio Antônio

    2018-05-01

    Organic nanofibers have shown potential for application in optoelectronic devices because of the tunability of their optical properties. These properties are influenced by the electronic structure of the molecules that compose the nanofibers and also by the behavior of the excitons generated in the material. Exciton diffusion by means of Förster resonance energy transfer is responsible, for instance, for the change with temperature of colors in the light emitted by systems composed of different types of nanofibers. To study in detail this mechanism, we model temperature dependent singlet exciton dynamics in multilayered organic nanofibers. By simulating absorption and emission spectra, the possible Förster transitions are identified. Then, a kinetic Monte Carlo model is employed in combination with a genetic algorithm to theoretically reproduce time-resolved photoluminescence measurements for several temperatures. This procedure allows for the obtainment of different information regarding exciton diffusion in such a system, including temperature effects on the Förster transfer efficiency and the activation energy of the Förster mechanism. The method is general and may be employed for different systems where exciton diffusion plays a role.

  16. Two exciton states in discrete and continuum alpha-helical proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latha, M.M.; Merlin, G.

    2012-01-01

    The dynamics of alpha-helical proteins is described by proposing a model Hamiltonian representing two exciton bound states. The dynamics is studied by constructing the equations of motion using a two exciton eigen-function in the discrete level. A numerical analysis shows the existence of two excitons in alpha-helical proteins and its propagation as solitons along the hydrogen bonding spines. The lattice model is also treated in the continuum limit which is a valid approximation in the low temperature, long wavelength limit. The resulting equation is studied using the multiple scale perturbation analysis which also shows the transfer of two exciton energy through alpha-helical proteins in the form of solitons with no change in velocity and amplitude. -- Highlights: ► The dynamics of alpha-helical proteins with two exciton states is studied. ► The dynamics is studied both in the discrete and continuum levels. ► The resulting equations are solved numerically and analytically. ► The solution supports the propagation of the energy in the form of solitons.

  17. Detuning-Controlled Internal Oscillations in an Exciton-Polariton Condensate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronova, N. S.; Elistratov, A. A.; Lozovik, Yu. E.

    2015-10-01

    We theoretically analyze exciton-photon oscillatory dynamics within a homogenous polariton gas in the presence of energy detuning between the cavity and quantum well modes. Whereas pure Rabi oscillations consist of the particle exchange between the photon and exciton states in the polariton system without any oscillations of the phases of the two subcondensates, we demonstrate that any nonzero detuning results in oscillations of the relative phase of the photon and exciton macroscopic wave functions. Different initial conditions reveal a variety of behaviors of the relative phase between the two condensates, and a crossover from Rabi-like to Josephson-like oscillations is predicted.

  18. Ultrafast electric phase control of a single exciton qubit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widhalm, Alex; Mukherjee, Amlan; Krehs, Sebastian; Sharma, Nandlal; Kölling, Peter; Thiede, Andreas; Reuter, Dirk; Förstner, Jens; Zrenner, Artur

    2018-03-01

    We report on the coherent phase manipulation of quantum dot excitons by electric means. For our experiments, we use a low capacitance single quantum dot photodiode which is electrically controlled by a custom designed SiGe:C BiCMOS chip. The phase manipulation is performed and quantified in a Ramsey experiment, where ultrafast transient detuning of the exciton energy is performed synchronous to double pulse π/2 ps laser excitation. We are able to demonstrate electrically controlled phase manipulations with magnitudes up to 3π within 100 ps which is below the dephasing time of the quantum dot exciton.

  19. Ultrafast dynamics of Coulomb correlated excitons in GaAs quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mycek, M.A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics]|[Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Materials Sciences Div.

    1995-12-01

    The author measures the transient nonlinear optical response of room temperature excitons in gallium arsenide quantum wells via multi-wave mixing experiments. The dynamics of the resonantly excited excitons is directly reflected by the ultrafast decay of the induced nonlinear polarization, which radiates the detected multi-wave mixing signal. She characterizes this ultrafast coherent emission in both amplitude and phase, using time- and frequency-domain measurement techniques, to better understand the role of Coulomb correlation in these systems. To interpret the experimental results, the nonlinear optical response of a dense medium is calculated using a model including Coulomb interaction. She contributes three new elements to previous theoretical and experimental studies of these systems. First, surpassing traditional time-integrated measurements, she temporally resolves the amplitude of the ultrafast coherent emission. Second, in addition to measuring the third-order four-wave mixing signal, she also investigates the fifth-order six-wave mixing response. Third, she characterizes the ultrafast phase dynamics of the nonlinear emission using interferometric techniques with an unprecedented resolution of approximately 140 attoseconds. The author finds that effects arising from Coulomb correlation dominate the nonlinear optical response when the density of excitons falls below 3 {times} 10{sup 11} cm{sup {minus}2}, the saturation density. These signatures of Coulomb correlation are investigated for increasing excitation density to gradually screen the interactions and test the validity of the model for dense media. The results are found to be qualitatively consistent with both the predictions of the model and with numerical solutions to the semiconductor Bloch equations. Importantly, the results also indicate current experimental and theoretical limitations, which should be addressed in future research.

  20. Bose Condensation of Interwell Excitons in Double Quantum Wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larionov, A. V.; Timofeev, V. B.; Ni, P. A.

    2002-01-01

    The luminescence of interwell excitons in double quantum wells GaAs/AlGaAs (n–i–n heterostructures) with large-scale fluctuations of random potential in the heteroboundary planes was studied. The properties of excitons whose photoexcited electron and hole are spatially separated in the neighboring...

  1. Photogenerated Exciton Dissociation in Highly Coupled Lead Salt Nanocrystal Assemblies

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Joshua J.; Luria, Justin; Hyun, Byung-Ryool; Bartnik, Adam C.; Sun, Liangfeng; Lim, Yee-Fun; Marohn, John A.; Wise, Frank W.; Hanrath, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    Internanocrystal coupling induced excitons dissociation in lead salt nanocrystal assemblies is investigated. By combining transient photoluminescence spectroscopy, grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering, and time-resolved electric force microscopy, we show that excitons can dissociate, without the aid of an external bias or chemical potential gradient, via tunneling through a potential barrier when the coupling energy is comparable to the exciton binding energy. Our results have important implications for the design of nanocrystal-based optoelectronic devices. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  2. Photogenerated Exciton Dissociation in Highly Coupled Lead Salt Nanocrystal Assemblies

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Joshua J.

    2010-05-12

    Internanocrystal coupling induced excitons dissociation in lead salt nanocrystal assemblies is investigated. By combining transient photoluminescence spectroscopy, grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering, and time-resolved electric force microscopy, we show that excitons can dissociate, without the aid of an external bias or chemical potential gradient, via tunneling through a potential barrier when the coupling energy is comparable to the exciton binding energy. Our results have important implications for the design of nanocrystal-based optoelectronic devices. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  3. Quasienergy Spectroscopy of Excitons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Kristinn; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    1999-01-01

    We theoretically study nonlinear optics of excitons under intense THz irradiation. In particular, the linear near-infrared absorption and resonantly enhanced nonlinear sideband generation are described. We predict a rich structure in the spectra which an be interpreted in terms of the quasienergy...

  4. Exciton Dynamics of 2D Hybrid Perovskite Nanocrystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rui; Zhu, Zhuan; Boulesbaa, Abdelaziz; Venkatesan, Swaminathan; Xiao, Kai; Bao, Jiming; Yao, Yan; Li, Wenzhi

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites have emerged as promising materials for applications in photovoltaic and optoelectronic devices. Among the perovskites, two dimensional (2D) perovskites are of great interests due to their remarkable optical and electrical properties as well as the flexibility of material selection for the organic and inorganic moieties. In this study, we demonstrate the solution-phase growth of large square-shaped single-crystalline 2D hybrid perovskites of (C6H5C2H4 NH3) 2 PbBr4 with a few unit cells thickness. Compared to the bulk crystal, a band gap shift and new photoluminescence (PL) peak are observed from the hybrid perovskite sheets. Color of the 2D crystals can be tuned by adjusting the sheet thickness. Pump-probe spectroscopy is used to investigate the exciton dynamics and exhibits a biexponential decay with an amplitude-weighted lifetime of 16.7 ps. Such high-quality (C6H5C2H4 NH3) 2 PbBr4 sheets are expected to have high PL quantum efficiency which can be adopted for light-emitting devices. National Science Foundation (Grant No. CMMI-1334417 and DMR-1506640).

  5. Fermi-edge exciton-polaritons in doped semiconductor microcavities with finite hole mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenov, Dimitri; von Delft, Jan; Glazman, Leonid; Goldstein, Moshe

    2017-10-01

    The coupling between a 2D semiconductor quantum well and an optical cavity gives rise to combined light-matter excitations, the exciton-polaritons. These were usually measured when the conduction band is empty, making the single polariton physics a simple single-body problem. The situation is dramatically different in the presence of a finite conduction-band population, where the creation or annihilation of a single exciton involves a many-body shakeup of the Fermi sea. Recent experiments in this regime revealed a strong modification of the exciton-polariton spectrum. Previous theoretical studies concerned with nonzero Fermi energy mostly relied on the approximation of an immobile valence-band hole with infinite mass, which is appropriate for low-mobility samples only; for high-mobility samples, one needs to consider a mobile hole with large but finite mass. To bridge this gap, we present an analytical diagrammatic approach and tackle a model with short-ranged (screened) electron-hole interaction, studying it in two complementary regimes. We find that the finite hole mass has opposite effects on the exciton-polariton spectra in the two regimes: in the first, where the Fermi energy is much smaller than the exciton binding energy, excitonic features are enhanced by the finite mass. In the second regime, where the Fermi energy is much larger than the exciton binding energy, finite mass effects cut off the excitonic features in the polariton spectra, in qualitative agreement with recent experiments.

  6. Radiative charge-transfer lifetime of the excited state of (NaCa)+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarov, Oleg P.; Cote, R.; Michels, H.; Smith, W.W.

    2003-01-01

    New experiments were proposed recently to investigate the regime of cold atomic and molecular ion-atom collision processes in a special hybrid neutral-atom-ion trap under high-vacuum conditions. We study the collisional cooling of laser precooled Ca + ions by ultracold Na atoms. Modeling this process requires knowledge of the radiative lifetime of the excited singlet A 1 Σ + state of the (NaCa) + molecular system. We calculate the rate coefficient for radiative charge transfer using a semiclassical approach. The dipole radial matrix elements between the ground and the excited states, and the potential curves were calculated using complete active space self-consistent field and Moeller-Plesset second-order perturbation theory with an extended Gaussian basis, 6-311+G (3df). The semiclassical charge-transfer rate coefficient was averaged over a thermal Maxwellian distribution. In addition, we also present elastic collision cross sections and the spin-exchange cross section. The rate coefficient for charge transfer was found to be 2.3x10 -16 cm 3 /sec, while those for the elastic and spin-exchange cross sections were found to be several orders of magnitude higher (1.1x10 -8 cm 3 /sec and 2.3x10 -9 cm 3 /sec, respectively). This confirms our assumption that the milli-Kelvin regime of collisional cooling of calcium ions by sodium atoms is favorable with the respect to low loss of calcium ions due to the charge transfer

  7. Vacuum ultraviolet synchrotron measurements of excitons in NaMgF{sub 3}:Yb{sup 2+}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes-Currie, Rosa B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Canterbury, PB 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); Ivanovskikh, Konstantin V. [ANK Service Ltd., PB 58, Novouralsk 624131, Sverdlovsk Region (Russian Federation); Ural Federal University, 19 Mira st., Ekaterinburg 620002 (Russian Federation); Reid, Michael F., E-mail: mike.reid@canterbury.ac.nz [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Canterbury, PB 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology (New Zealand); Wells, Jon-Paul R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Canterbury, PB 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); Dodd-Walls Centre for Quantum and Photonic Technologies (New Zealand); Reeves, Roger J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Canterbury, PB 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology (New Zealand); Meijerink, Andries [Debye Institute, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80 000, 3508 TA Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2016-01-15

    Results of a vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopic characterization of NaMgF{sub 3}:Yb{sup 2+} are presented. The material demonstrates emission features associated with self-trapped excitons and impurity-trapped excitons. The emission features noticeably overlap giving rise to a broad emission band from 17 000 to 35 000 cm{sup −1} at a sample temperature of 8 K. To identify the true profiles of the emission features we have used a deconvolution procedure. The deconvolution was possible due to the thermal quenching of self-trapped excitons at room temperature that allowed for direct observations of the impurity trapped exciton emission band. Energy transfer between host electronic excitations (excitons and e–h pairs) and Yb{sup 2+} ions leading to the formation of impurity-trapped excitons is evident from excitation spectra. - Highlights: • We present VUV emission and excitation spectra of NaMgF{sub 3}:Yb{sup 2+}. • Formation of free excitons leads to emission from intrinsic and extrinsic excitons. • We deconvolute the emission to separate the two overlapping exciton bands. • The excitation spectra show two mechanisms for forming impurity-trapped excitons.

  8. Resonant Rayleigh scattering of exciton-polaritons in multiple quantum wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malpuech, Guillaume; Kavokin, Alexey; Langbein, Wolfgang Werner

    2000-01-01

    A theoretical concept of resonant Rayleigh scattering (RRS) of exciton-polaritons in multiple quantum wells (QWs) is presented. The optical coupling between excitons in different QWs can strongly affect the RRS dynamics, giving rise to characteristic temporal oscillations on a picosecond scale....... Bragg and anti-Bragg arranged QW structures with the same excitonic parameters are predicted to have drastically different RRS spectra. Experimental data on the RRS from multiple QWs show the predicted strong temporal oscillations at small scattering angles, which are well explained by the presented...

  9. Structural tunability and switchable exciton emission in inorganic-organic hybrids with mixed halides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Shahab; Baumberg, Jeremy J.; Vijaya Prakash, G.

    2013-12-01

    Room-temperature tunable excitonic photoluminescence is demonstrated in alloy-tuned layered Inorganic-Organic (IO) hybrids, (C12H25NH3)2PbI4(1-y)Br4y (y = 0 to 1). These perovskite IO hybrids adopt structures with alternating stacks of low-dimensional inorganic and organic layers, considered to be naturally self-assembled multiple quantum wells. These systems resemble stacked monolayer 2D semiconductors since no interlayer coupling exists. Thin films of IO hybrids exhibit sharp and strong photoluminescence (PL) at room-temperature due to stable excitons formed within the low-dimensional inorganic layers. Systematic variation in the observed exciton PL from 510 nm to 350 nm as the alloy composition is changed, is attributed to the structural readjustment of crystal packing upon increase of the Br content in the Pb-I inorganic network. The energy separation between exciton absorption and PL is attributed to the modified exciton density of states and diffusion of excitons from relatively higher energy states corresponding to bromine rich sites towards the lower energy iodine sites. Apart from compositional fluctuations, these excitons show remarkable reversible flips at temperature-induced phase transitions. All the results are successfully correlated with thermal and structural studies. Such structural engineering flexibility in these hybrids allows selective tuning of desirable exciton properties within suitable operating temperature ranges. Such wide-range PL tunability and reversible exciton switching in these novel IO hybrids paves the way to potential applications in new generation of optoelectronic devices.

  10. Decoherence suppression of excitons by bang-bang control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishimoto, T.; Hasegawa, A.; Mitsumori, Y.; Ishi-Hayase, J.; Sasaki, M.; Minami, F.

    2007-01-01

    We report the demonstration of decoherence control of excitons on a layered compound semiconductor GaSe by using successive three femtosecond pulses, i.e., the six-wave mixing configuration. The second pulse acts as a π pulse which reverses the time evolution of non-Markovian dynamics. By changing the pulse interval conditions, we confirmed for the first time the suppression of exciton decoherence by π pulse irradiation

  11. Exciton-polariton dynamics in quantum dot-cavity system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neto, Antonio F.; Lima, William J.; Villas-Boas, Jose M. [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (UFU), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2012-07-01

    Full text: One of the basic requirement for quantum information processing systems is the ability to completely control the state of a single qubit. This imply in know all sources of decoherence and elaborate ways to avoid them. In recent work, A. Laucht et al. [1] presented detailed theoretical and experimental investigations of electrically tunable single quantum dot (QD) - photonic crystal (PhC) nanocavity systems operating in the strong coupling regime of the light matter interaction. Unlike previous studies, where the exciton-cavity spectral detuning was varied by changing the lattice temperature, or by the adsorption of inert gases at low temperatures, they employ the quantum confined Stark-effect to electro-optically control the exciton-cavity detuning. The new built device enabled them to systematically probe the emission spectrum of the strongly coupled system as a function of external control parameters, as for example the incoherent excitation power density or the lattice temperature. Those studies reveal for the first time insights in dephasing mechanisms of 0D exciton polaritons [1]. In another study [2], using a similar device, they investigate the coupling between two different QDs with a single cavity mode. In both works, incoherent pumping was used, but for quantum information, coherent and controlled excitations are necessary. Here, we theoretically investigate the dynamics a single quantum dot inside a cavity under coherent pulse excitation and explore a wide range of parameters, as for example, the exciton-cavity detunings, the excitation power, the spontaneous decay, and pure dephasing. We use density matrix formalism in the Lindblad form, and we solve it numerically. Our results show that coherent excitation can be used to probe strong coupling between exciton and cavity mode by monitoring the exciton Rabi oscillation as function of the cavity detuning. This can give new insights for future experimental measurement focusing on quantum

  12. Lifetime measurements of the rare earths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stahnke, H.J.

    1981-01-01

    The lifetime of excited energy levels of Praseodymium, Neodymium, Gadolinium, Holmium and Erbium are measured. The measurements were done on atomic beams excited by laser radiation. The experimental results allow an interpretation of the electronic structure of the rare earths. (BEF)

  13. Energy Migration in Organic Thin Films--From Excitons to Polarons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullenbach, Tyler K.

    The rise of organic photovoltaic devices (OPVs) and organic light-emitting devices has generated interest in the physics governing exciton and polaron dynamics in thin films. Energy transfer has been well studied in dilute solutions, but there are emergent properties in thin films and greater complications due to complex morphologies which must be better understood. Despite the intense interest in energy transport in thin films, experimental limitations have slowed discoveries. Here, a new perspective of OPV operation is presented where photovoltage, instead of photocurrent, plays the fundamental role. By exploiting this new vantage point the first method of measuring the diffusion length (LD) of dark (non-luminescent) excitons is developed, a novel photodetector is invented, and the ability to watch exciton arrival, in real-time, at the donor-acceptor heterojunction is presented. Using an enhanced understanding of exciton migration in thin films, paradigms for enhancing LD by molecular modifications are discovered, and the first exciton gate is experimentally and theoretically demonstrated. Generation of polarons from exciton dissociation represents a second phase of energy migration in OPVs that remains understudied. Current approaches are capable of measuring the rate of charge carrier recombination only at open-circuit. To enable a better understanding of polaron dynamics in thin films, two new approaches are presented which are capable of measuring both the charge carrier recombination and transit rates at any OPV operating voltage. These techniques pave the way for a more complete understanding of charge carrier kinetics in molecular thin films.

  14. Accessing the dark exciton spin in deterministic quantum-dot microlenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heindel, Tobias; Thoma, Alexander; Schwartz, Ido; Schmidgall, Emma R.; Gantz, Liron; Cogan, Dan; Strauß, Max; Schnauber, Peter; Gschrey, Manuel; Schulze, Jan-Hindrik; Strittmatter, Andre; Rodt, Sven; Gershoni, David; Reitzenstein, Stephan

    2017-12-01

    The dark exciton state in semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) constitutes a long-lived solid-state qubit which has the potential to play an important role in implementations of solid-state-based quantum information architectures. In this work, we exploit deterministically fabricated QD microlenses which promise enhanced photon extraction, to optically prepare and read out the dark exciton spin and observe its coherent precession. The optical access to the dark exciton is provided via spin-blockaded metastable biexciton states acting as heralding states, which are identified by deploying polarization-sensitive spectroscopy as well as time-resolved photon cross-correlation experiments. Our experiments reveal a spin-precession period of the dark exciton of (0.82 ± 0.01) ns corresponding to a fine-structure splitting of (5.0 ± 0.7) μeV between its eigenstates |↑ ⇑ ±↓ ⇓ ⟩. By exploiting microlenses deterministically fabricated above pre-selected QDs, our work demonstrates the possibility to scale up implementations of quantum information processing schemes using the QD-confined dark exciton spin qubit, such as the generation of photonic cluster states or the realization of a solid-state-based quantum memory.

  15. Optical Selection Rule of Excitons in Gapped Chiral Fermion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoou; Shan, Wen-Yu; Xiao, Di

    2018-02-01

    We show that the exciton optical selection rule in gapped chiral fermion systems is governed by their winding number w , a topological quantity of the Bloch bands. Specifically, in a CN-invariant chiral fermion system, the angular momentum of bright exciton states is given by w ±1 +n N with n being an integer. We demonstrate our theory by proposing two chiral fermion systems capable of hosting dark s -like excitons: gapped surface states of a topological crystalline insulator with C4 rotational symmetry and biased 3 R -stacked MoS2 bilayers. In the latter case, we show that gating can be used to tune the s -like excitons from bright to dark by changing the winding number. Our theory thus provides a pathway to electrical control of optical transitions in two-dimensional material.

  16. Influence of intra-pigment vibrations on dynamics of photosynthetic exciton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yoshihiro; Doolittle, Brian

    2014-11-14

    We have numerically investigated the effect of an underdamped intra-pigment vibrational mode on an exciton's quantum coherence and energy transfer efficiency. Our model describes a bacteriochlorophyll a pigment-protein dimer under the conditions at which photosynthetic energy transfer occurs. The dimer is modeled using a theoretical treatment of a vibronic exciton, and its dynamics are numerically analyzed using a non-Markovian and non-perturbative method. We examined the system's response to various values of the Huang-Rhys factor, site energy difference, reorganization energy, and reorganization energy difference. We found that the inclusion of the intra-pigment vibronic mode allows for long-lived oscillatory quantum coherences to occur. This excitonic coherence is robust against static site-energy disorder. The vibrational mode also promotes exciton transfer along the site-energy landscape thus improving the overall energy transfer efficiency.

  17. Influence of intra-pigment vibrations on dynamics of photosynthetic exciton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Yoshihiro; Doolittle, Brian

    2014-01-01

    We have numerically investigated the effect of an underdamped intra-pigment vibrational mode on an exciton's quantum coherence and energy transfer efficiency. Our model describes a bacteriochlorophyll a pigment-protein dimer under the conditions at which photosynthetic energy transfer occurs. The dimer is modeled using a theoretical treatment of a vibronic exciton, and its dynamics are numerically analyzed using a non-Markovian and non-perturbative method. We examined the system's response to various values of the Huang-Rhys factor, site energy difference, reorganization energy, and reorganization energy difference. We found that the inclusion of the intra-pigment vibronic mode allows for long-lived oscillatory quantum coherences to occur. This excitonic coherence is robust against static site-energy disorder. The vibrational mode also promotes exciton transfer along the site-energy landscape thus improving the overall energy transfer efficiency

  18. Influence of intra-pigment vibrations on dynamics of photosynthetic exciton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Yoshihiro, E-mail: sato.yoshihiro77@nihon-u.ac.jp, E-mail: ysato.colby@gmail.com; Doolittle, Brian [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Colby College, Waterville, Maine 04901 (United States)

    2014-11-14

    We have numerically investigated the effect of an underdamped intra-pigment vibrational mode on an exciton's quantum coherence and energy transfer efficiency. Our model describes a bacteriochlorophyll a pigment-protein dimer under the conditions at which photosynthetic energy transfer occurs. The dimer is modeled using a theoretical treatment of a vibronic exciton, and its dynamics are numerically analyzed using a non-Markovian and non-perturbative method. We examined the system's response to various values of the Huang-Rhys factor, site energy difference, reorganization energy, and reorganization energy difference. We found that the inclusion of the intra-pigment vibronic mode allows for long-lived oscillatory quantum coherences to occur. This excitonic coherence is robust against static site-energy disorder. The vibrational mode also promotes exciton transfer along the site-energy landscape thus improving the overall energy transfer efficiency.

  19. Room-Temperature Exciton Lasing in Ultrathin Film of Coupled Nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appavoo, Kannatassen; Xiaoze, Liu; Menon, Vinod; Sfeir, Matthew Y.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate exciton lasing in sub-wavelength coupled nanostructures at ultralow fluence threshold, as probed by femtosecond broadband emission and absorption spectroscopy. The complex spectrotemporal dynamics reveal for the first time an excitonic-to-electron-hole plasma lasing mechanism.

  20. Theoretical optimization of base doping concentration for radiation resistance of InGaP subcells of InGaP/GaAs/Ge based on minority-carrier lifetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elfiky, Dalia; Yamaguchi, Masafumi; Sasaki, Takuo

    2010-01-01

    One of the fundamental objectives for research and development of space solar cells is to improve their radiation resistance. InGaP solar cells with low base carrier concentrations under low-energy proton irradiations have shown high radiation resistances. In this study, an analytical model for low-energy proton radiation damage to InGaP subcells based on a fundamental approach for radiative and nonradiative recombinations has been proposed. The radiation resistance of InGaP subcells as a function of base carrier concentration has been analyzed by using the radiative recombination lifetime and damage coefficient K for the minority-carrier lifetime of InGaP. Numerical analysis shows that an InGaP solar cell with a lower base carrier concentration is more radiation-resistant. Satisfactory agreements between analytical and experimental results have been obtained, and these results show the validity of the analytical procedure. The damage coefficients for minority-carrier diffusion length and carrier removal rate with low-energy proton irradiations have been observed to be dependent on carrier concentration through this study. As physical mechanisms behind the difference observed between the radiation-resistant properties of various base doping concentrations, two mechanisms, namely, the effect of a depletion layer as a carrier collection layer and generation of the impurity-related complex defects due to low-energy protons stopping within the active region, have been proposed. (author)

  1. Exciton binding energy in GaAsBiN spherical quantum dot heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Subhasis; Dhar, S.

    2017-03-01

    The ground state exciton binding energies (EBE) of heavy hole excitons in GaAs1-x-yBixNy - GaAs spherical quantum dots (QD) are calculated using a variational approach under 1s hydrogenic wavefunctions within the framework of effective mass approximation. Both the nitrogen and the bismuth content in the material are found to affect the binding energy, in particular for larger nitrogen content and lower dot radii. Calculations also show that the ground state exciton binding energies of heavy holes increase more at smaller dot sizes as compared to that for the light hole excitons.

  2. Structural tunability and switchable exciton emission in inorganic-organic hybrids with mixed halides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Shahab; Vijaya Prakash, G.; Baumberg, Jeremy J.

    2013-01-01

    Room-temperature tunable excitonic photoluminescence is demonstrated in alloy-tuned layered Inorganic-Organic (IO) hybrids, (C 12 H 25 NH 3 ) 2 PbI 4(1−y) Br 4y (y = 0 to 1). These perovskite IO hybrids adopt structures with alternating stacks of low-dimensional inorganic and organic layers, considered to be naturally self-assembled multiple quantum wells. These systems resemble stacked monolayer 2D semiconductors since no interlayer coupling exists. Thin films of IO hybrids exhibit sharp and strong photoluminescence (PL) at room-temperature due to stable excitons formed within the low-dimensional inorganic layers. Systematic variation in the observed exciton PL from 510 nm to 350 nm as the alloy composition is changed, is attributed to the structural readjustment of crystal packing upon increase of the Br content in the Pb-I inorganic network. The energy separation between exciton absorption and PL is attributed to the modified exciton density of states and diffusion of excitons from relatively higher energy states corresponding to bromine rich sites towards the lower energy iodine sites. Apart from compositional fluctuations, these excitons show remarkable reversible flips at temperature-induced phase transitions. All the results are successfully correlated with thermal and structural studies. Such structural engineering flexibility in these hybrids allows selective tuning of desirable exciton properties within suitable operating temperature ranges. Such wide-range PL tunability and reversible exciton switching in these novel IO hybrids paves the way to potential applications in new generation of optoelectronic devices

  3. Excitonic and photonic processes in materials

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This book is expected to present state-of-the-art understanding of a selection of excitonic and photonic processes in useful materials from semiconductors to insulators to metal/insulator nanocomposites, both inorganic and organic.  Among the featured applications are components of solar cells, detectors, light-emitting devices, scintillators, and materials with novel optical properties.  Excitonic properties are particularly important in organic photovoltaics and light emitting devices, as also in questions of the ultimate resolution and efficiency of new-generation scintillators for medical diagnostics,  border security, and nuclear nonproliferation.  Novel photonic and optoelectronic applications benefit from new material combinations and structures to be discussed.

  4. Exciton spectrum of surface-corrugated quantum wells: the adiabatic self-consistent approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atenco A, N.; Perez R, F.; Makarov, N.M.

    2005-01-01

    A theory for calculating the relaxation frequency ν and the shift δ ω of exciton resonances in quantum wells with finite potential barriers and adiabatic surface disorder is developed. The adiabaticity implies that the correlation length R C for the well width fluctuations is much larger than the exciton radius a 0 (R C >> a 0 ). Our theory is based on the self-consistent Green's function method, and therefore takes into account the inherent action of the exciton scattering on itself. The self-consistent approach is shown to describe quantitatively the sharp exciton resonance. It also gives the qualitatively correct resonance picture for the transition to the classical limit, as well as within the domain of the classical limit itself. We present and analyze results for h h-exciton in a GaAs quantum well with Al 0.3 Ga 0.7 As barriers. It is established that the self-consistency and finite height of potential barriers significantly influence on the line-shape of exciton resonances, and make the values of ν and δ ω be quite realistic. In particular, the relaxation frequency ν for the ground-state resonance has a broad, almost symmetric maximum near the resonance frequency ω 0 , while the surface-induced resonance shift δ ω vanishes near ω 0 , and has different signs on the sides of the exciton resonance. (Author) 43 refs., 4 figs

  5. Creation of free excitons in solid krypton investigated by time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisand, Vambola; Kirm, Marco; Negodin, Evgeni; Sombrowski, Elke; Steeg, Barbara; Vielhauer, Sebastian; Zimmerer, Georg

    2003-01-01

    The creation and relaxation of secondary excitons in solid Kr was investigated using energy-and time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy in the vacuum ultraviolet region. The spectrally selected emission of the free exciton (FE) was used as a probe for an investigation of the different exciton creation processes. Delayed FE creation via electron-hole recombination and 'prompt' (in terms of the time-resolution of the experiment) creation of excitons were separated. The 'prompt' creation of a FE appears in the region above threshold energy E th , which is equal to the sum of the band gap energy and the free exciton energy. 'Prompt' creation of excitons above E th is ascribed to a superposition of two processes: (i) creation of the electronic polaron complex (one-step process) and (ii) inelastic scattering of photoelectrons described in the framework of the multiple-parabolic-branch band model (two-step process). In addition, the ratio spectrum of the time-integrated FE and self-trapped exciton (STE) emission was analysed. The behaviour of the ratio spectrum is a proof that electron-hole recombination leads to STE states through FE states as precursors

  6. Selectively Modulating Triplet Exciton Formation in Host Materials for Highly Efficient Blue Electrophosphorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huanhuan; Bi, Ran; Chen, Ting; Yuan, Kai; Chen, Runfeng; Tao, Ye; Zhang, Hongmei; Zheng, Chao; Huang, Wei

    2016-03-23

    The concept of limiting the triplet exciton formation to fundamentally alleviate triplet-involved quenching effects is introduced to construct host materials for highly efficient and stable blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PhOLEDs). The low triplet exciton formation is realized by small triplet exciton formation fraction and rate with high binding energy and high reorganization energy of triplet exciton. Demonstrated in two analogue molecules in conventional donor-acceptor molecule structure for bipolar charge injection and transport with nearly the same frontier orbital energy levels and triplet excited energies, the new concept host material shows significantly suppressed triplet exciton formation in the host to avoid quenching effects, leading to much improved device efficiencies and stabilities. The low-voltage-driving blue PhOLED devices exhibit maximum efficiencies of 43.7 cd A(-1) for current efficiency, 32.7 lm W(-1) for power efficiency, and 20.7% for external quantum efficiency with low roll-off and remarkable relative quenching effect reduction ratio up to 41%. Our fundamental solution for preventing quenching effects of long-lived triplet excitons provides exciting opportunities for fabricating high-performance devices using the advanced host materials with intrinsically small triplet exciton formation cross section.

  7. Coherent detection of THz-induced sideband emission from excitons in the nonperturbative regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, K.; Otobe, T.; Mochizuki, T.; Kim, C.; Yoshita, M.; Tanaka, K.; Akiyama, H.; Pfeiffer, L. N.; West, K. W.; Hirori, H.

    2018-04-01

    Strong interaction of a terahertz (THz) wave with excitons induces nonperturbative optical effects such as Rabi splitting and high-order sideband generation. Here, we investigated coherent properties of THz-induced sideband emissions from GaAs/AlGaAs multiquantum wells. With increasing THz electric field, optical susceptibility of the THz-dressed exciton shows a redshift with spectral broadening and extraordinary phase shift. This implies that the field ionization of the 1 s exciton modifies the THz-dressed exciton in the nonperturbative regime.

  8. The excitonic insulator route through a dynamical phase transition induced by an optical pulse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brazovskii, S., E-mail: brazov@lptms.u-psud.fr [Université Paris-Saclay, LPTMS, CNRS, Univ. Paris-sud (France); Kirova, N. [Université Paris-Saclay, LPS, CNRS, Univ. Paris-sud (France)

    2016-03-15

    We consider a dynamical phase transition induced by a short optical pulse in a system prone to thermodynamical instability. We address the case of pumping to excitons whose density contributes directly to the order parameter. To describe both thermodynamic and dynamic effects on equal footing, we adopt a view of the excitonic insulator for the phase transition and suggest a formation of the Bose condensate for the pumped excitons. The work is motivated by experiments in donor–acceptor organic compounds with a neutral- ionic phase transition coupled to the spontaneous lattice dimerization and to charge transfer excitons. The double nature of the ensemble of excitons leads to an intricate time evolution, in particular, to macroscopic quantum oscillations from the interference between the Bose condensate of excitons and the ground state of the excitonic insulator. The coupling of excitons and the order parameter also leads to self-trapping of their wave function, akin to self-focusing in optics. The locally enhanced density of excitons can surpass a critical value to trigger the phase transformation, even if the mean density is below the required threshold. The system is stratified in domains that evolve through dynamical phase transitions and sequences of merging. The new circumstances in experiments and theory bring to life, once again, some remarkable inventions made by L.V. Keldysh.

  9. Mapping exciton quenching in photovoltaic-applicable polymer blends using time-resolved scanning near-field optical microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadby, A.; Khalil, G.; Fox, A. M.; Lidzey, D. G.

    2008-05-01

    We have used time-resolved scanning near-field microscopy to image the fluorescence decay lifetime across a phase-separated blend of the photovoltaic-applicable polymers poly(9,9'-dioctylfluorene-alt-benzothiadiazole) (F8BT) and poly(9,9'-dioctylfluorene-alt-bis- N ,N'-(4-butylphenyl)-bis-N ,N'-phenyl-1,4-phenylenediamine) (PFB). We show that the efficiency of local fluorescence quenching is composition dependent, with excitons on F8BT molecules being more effectively quenched when F8BT is trapped at a low concentration in a PFB-rich phase. Despite such presumed differences in charge-carrier generation efficiency, our results demonstrate that charge extraction from F8BT:PFB devices is the most dominant mechanism limiting their operational efficiency.

  10. Effect of interface disorder on quantum well excitons and microcavity polaritons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savona, Vincenzo

    2007-01-01

    The theory of the linear optical response of excitons in quantum wells and polaritons in planar semiconductor microcavities is reviewed, in the light of the existing experiments. For quantum well excitons, it is shown that disorder mainly affects the exciton centre-of-mass motion and is modelled by an effective Schroedinger equation in two dimensions. For polaritons, a unified model accounting for quantum well roughness and fluctuations of the microcavity thickness is developed. Numerical results confirm that polaritons are mostly affected by disorder acting on the photon component, thus confirming existing studies on the influence of exciton disorder. The polariton localization length is estimated to be in the few-micrometres range, depending on the amplitude of disorder, in agreement with recent experimental findings

  11. Colloquium: Excitons in atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gang; Chernikov, Alexey; Glazov, Mikhail M.; Heinz, Tony F.; Marie, Xavier; Amand, Thierry; Urbaszek, Bernhard

    2018-04-01

    Atomically thin materials such as graphene and monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) exhibit remarkable physical properties resulting from their reduced dimensionality and crystal symmetry. The family of semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides is an especially promising platform for fundamental studies of two-dimensional (2D) systems, with potential applications in optoelectronics and valleytronics due to their direct band gap in the monolayer limit and highly efficient light-matter coupling. A crystal lattice with broken inversion symmetry combined with strong spin-orbit interactions leads to a unique combination of the spin and valley degrees of freedom. In addition, the 2D character of the monolayers and weak dielectric screening from the environment yield a significant enhancement of the Coulomb interaction. The resulting formation of bound electron-hole pairs, or excitons, dominates the optical and spin properties of the material. Here recent progress in understanding of the excitonic properties in monolayer TMDs is reviewed and future challenges are laid out. Discussed are the consequences of the strong direct and exchange Coulomb interaction, exciton light-matter coupling, and influence of finite carrier and electron-hole pair densities on the exciton properties in TMDs. Finally, the impact on valley polarization is described and the tuning of the energies and polarization observed in applied electric and magnetic fields is summarized.

  12. Influence of structural defects on excitonic photoluminescence of pentacene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piryatins'kij, Yu.P.; Kurik, M.V.

    2011-01-01

    The exciton reflection, absorption, and photoluminescence spectra for single crystals and polycrystalline films have been studied in the temperature range of 4.2-296 K. A significant influence of structural defects arising during phase transitions on the exciton spectra of pentacene has been detected. The mechanisms of photoluminescence in single crystals and crystalline films of pentacene have been considered.

  13. Anatomy of an Exciton : Vibrational Distortion and Exciton Coherence in H- and J-Aggregates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tempelaar, Roel; Stradomska, Anna; Knoester, Jasper; Spano, Frank C.

    2013-01-01

    In organic materials, coupling of electronic excitations to vibrational degrees of freedom results in polaronic excited states. Through numerical calculations, we demonstrate that the vibrational distortion field accompanying such a polaron scales as the product of the excitonic interaction field

  14. Exciton broadening in WS2 /graphene heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, Heather M.; Rigosi, Albert F.; Raja, Archana

    2017-01-01

    Here, we have used optical spectroscopy to observe spectral broadening of WS 2 exciton reflectance peaks in heterostructures of monolayer WS 2 capped with mono- to few-layer graphene. The broadening is found to be similar for the A and B excitons and on the order of 5–10 meV. No strong dependence on the number of graphene layers was observed within experimental uncertainty. The broadening can be attributed to charge- and energy-transfer processes between the two materials, providing an observed lower bound for the corresponding time scales of 65 fs.

  15. Splitting of the excitonic peak in quantum wells with interfacial roughness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castella, H.; Wilkins, J.W.

    1998-01-01

    Excitons in a quantum well depend on the interfacial roughness resulting from its growth. The interface is characterized by islands of size ξ separated by one monolayer steps across which the confining potential decreases by V 0 for wider wells. A natural length is the localization length ξ 0 =πℎ/√ (2MV 0 ) characterizing the minimum size island to confine an exciton. For small islands (ξ 0 ), the absorption spectrum has a single exciton peak. As the island size ξ exceeds the localization length ξ 0 , the peak gradually splits into a doublet. Generally the spectra exhibit the following features: (1) the shape is very sensitive to ξ/ξ 0 and depends only weakly on the ratio of island size to exciton radius; (2) in the small island regime ξ 0 , the asymmetric shape of the exciton peak is correctly described by a model of white-noise potential, except for the position of the peak which still depends on the correlation length of the disorder. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  16. Average annual doses, lifetime doses and associated risk of cancer death for radiation workers in various fuel fabrication facilities in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyer, P.S.; Dhond, R.V.

    1980-01-01

    Lifetime doses based on average annual doses are estimated for radiation workers in various fuel fabrication facilities in India. For such cumulative doses, the risk of radiation-induced cancer death is computed. The methodology for arriving at these estimates and the assumptions made are discussed. Based on personnel monitoring records from 1966 to 1978, the average annual dose equivalent for radiation workers is estimated as 0.9 mSv (90 mrem), and the maximum risk of cancer death associated with this occupational dose as 1.35x10 -5 a -1 , as compared with the risk of death due to natural causes of 7x10 -4 a -1 and the risk of death due to background radiation alone of 1.5x10 -5 a -1 . (author)

  17. Ordered Dissipative Structures in Exciton Systems in Semiconductor Quantum Wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey A. Chernyuk

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available A phenomenological theory of exciton condensation in conditions of inhomogeneous excitation is proposed. The theory is applied to the study of the development of an exciton luminescence ring and the ring fragmentation at macroscopical distances from the central excitation spot in coupled quantum wells. The transition between the fragmented and the continuous ring is considered. With assumption of a defect in the structure, a possibility of a localized island of the condensed phase in a fixed position is shown. Exciton density distribution is also analyzed in the case of two spatially separated spots of the laser excitation.

  18. Protein structural deformation induced lifetime shortening of photosynthetic bacteria light-harvesting complex LH2 excited state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xing-Hai; Zhang, Lei; Weng, Yu-Xiang; Du, Lu-Chao; Ye, Man-Ping; Yang, Guo-Zhen; Fujii, Ritsuko; Rondonuwu, Ferdy S; Koyama, Yasushi; Wu, Yi-Shi; Zhang, J P

    2005-06-01

    Photosynthetic bacterial light-harvesting antenna complex LH2 was immobilized on the surface of TiO(2) nanoparticles in the colloidal solution. The LH2/TiO(2) assembly was investigated by the time-resolved spectroscopic methods. The excited-state lifetimes for carotenoid-containing and carotenoidless LH2 have been measured, showing a decrease in the excited-state lifetime of B850 when LH2 was immobilized on TiO(2). The possibility that the decrease of the LH2 excited-state lifetime being caused by an interfacial electron transfer reaction between B850 and the TiO(2) nanoparticle was precluded experimentally. We proposed that the observed change in the photophysical properties of LH2 when assembled onto TiO(2) nanoparticles is arising from the interfacial-interaction-induced structural deformation of the LH2 complex deviating from an ellipse of less eccentric to a more eccentric ellipse, and the observed phenomenon can be accounted by an elliptical exciton model. Experiment by using photoinactive SiO(2) nanoparticle in place of TiO(2) and core complex LH1 instead of LH2 provide further evidence to the proposed mechanism.

  19. Exciton Scattering approach for conjugated macromolecules: from electronic spectra to electron-phonon coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tretiak, Sergei

    2014-03-01

    The exciton scattering (ES) technique is a multiscale approach developed for efficient calculations of excited-state electronic structure and optical spectra in low-dimensional conjugated macromolecules. Within the ES method, the electronic excitations in the molecular structure are attributed to standing waves representing quantum quasi-particles (excitons), which reside on the graph. The exciton propagation on the linear segments is characterized by the exciton dispersion, whereas the exciton scattering on the branching centers is determined by the energy-dependent scattering matrices. Using these ES energetic parameters, the excitation energies are then found by solving a set of generalized ``particle in a box'' problems on the graph that represents the molecule. All parameters can be extracted from quantum-chemical computations of small molecular fragments and tabulated in the ES library for further applications. Subsequently, spectroscopic modeling for any macrostructure within considered molecular family could be performed with negligible numerical effort. The exciton scattering properties of molecular vertices can be further described by tight-binding or equivalently lattice models. The on-site energies and hopping constants are obtained from the exciton dispersion and scattering matrices. Such tight-binding model approach is particularly useful to describe the exciton-phonon coupling, energetic disorder and incoherent energy transfer in large branched conjugated molecules. Overall the ES applications accurately reproduce the optical spectra compared to the reference quantum chemistry results, and make possible to predict spectra of complex macromolecules, where conventional electronic structure calculations are unfeasible.

  20. Study of organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) with optimal emission efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Jai [School of Engineering and IT, B-purple 12, Faculty of EHS, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, NT 0909 (Australia)

    2010-04-15

    The external emission efficiency of organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) is analysed by studying the rate of spontaneous emission of both singlet and triplet excitons and their corresponding radiative lifetimes. Rates of spontaneous emissions are calculated from the first order perturbation theory using the newly discovered time-dependent spin-orbit-exciton-photon interaction operator as the perturbation operator. It is clearly shown how the new interaction operator is responsible for attracting triplet excitons to a phosphor (heavy metal atom) and then it flips the spins to a singlet configuration. Thus, the spin forbidden transition becomes spin allowed. Calculated rates agree with the experimental results qualitatively. Results are of general interests for OLED studies. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  1. Exciton spectrum of surface-corrugated quantum wells: the adiabatic self-consistent approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atenco A, N.; Perez R, F. [lnstituto de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, A.P. J-48, 72570 Puebla (Mexico); Makarov, N.M. [lnstituto de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Priv. 17 Norte No 3417, Col. San Miguel Hueyotlipan, 72050 Puebla (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    A theory for calculating the relaxation frequency {nu} and the shift {delta} {omega} of exciton resonances in quantum wells with finite potential barriers and adiabatic surface disorder is developed. The adiabaticity implies that the correlation length R{sub C} for the well width fluctuations is much larger than the exciton radius a{sub 0} (R{sub C} >> a{sub 0}). Our theory is based on the self-consistent Green's function method, and therefore takes into account the inherent action of the exciton scattering on itself. The self-consistent approach is shown to describe quantitatively the sharp exciton resonance. It also gives the qualitatively correct resonance picture for the transition to the classical limit, as well as within the domain of the classical limit itself. We present and analyze results for h h-exciton in a GaAs quantum well with Al{sub 0.3} Ga{sub 0.7}As barriers. It is established that the self-consistency and finite height of potential barriers significantly influence on the line-shape of exciton resonances, and make the values of {nu} and {delta} {omega} be quite realistic. In particular, the relaxation frequency {nu} for the ground-state resonance has a broad, almost symmetric maximum near the resonance frequency {omega}{sub 0}, while the surface-induced resonance shift {delta} {omega} vanishes near {omega}{sub 0}, and has different signs on the sides of the exciton resonance. (Author) 43 refs., 4 figs.

  2. Harmonic Quantum Coherence of Multiple Excitons in PbS/CdS Core-Shell Nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahara, Hirokazu; Sakamoto, Masanori; Teranishi, Toshiharu; Kanemitsu, Yoshihiko

    2017-12-01

    The generation and recombination dynamics of multiple excitons in nanocrystals (NCs) have attracted much attention from the viewpoints of fundamental physics and device applications. However, the quantum coherence of multiple exciton states in NCs still remains unclear due to a lack of experimental support. Here, we report the first observation of harmonic dipole oscillations in PbS/CdS core-shell NCs using a phase-locked interference detection method for transient absorption. From the ultrafast coherent dynamics and excitation-photon-fluence dependence of the oscillations, we found that multiple excitons cause the harmonic dipole oscillations with ω , 2 ω , and 3 ω oscillations, even though the excitation pulse energy is set to the exciton resonance frequency, ω . This observation is closely related to the quantum coherence of multiple exciton states in NCs, providing important insights into multiple exciton generation mechanisms.

  3. Direct determination of exciton wavefunction amplitudes by the momentum-resolved photo-electron emission experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Hiromasa; Tomita, Norikazu; Nasu, Keiichiro

    2018-03-01

    We study conceptional problems of a photo-electron emission (PEE) process from a free exciton in insulating crystals. In this PEE process, only the electron constituting the exciton is suddenly emitted out of the crystal, while the hole constituting the exciton is still left inside and forced to be recoiled back to its original valence band. This recoil on the hole is surely reflected in the spectrum of the PEE with a statistical distribution along the momentum-energy curve of the valence band. This distribution is nothing but the square of the exciton wavefunction amplitude, since it shows how the electron and the hole are originally bound together. Thus, the momentum-resolved PEE can directly determine the exciton wavefunction. These problems are clarified, taking the Γ and the saddle point excitons in GaAs, as typical examples. New PEE experiments are also suggested.

  4. Energy dissipation of free exciton polaritons in semiconducting films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Crescenzi, M.; Harbeke, G.; Tosatti, E.

    1978-08-01

    The effective (thickness-dependent) light absorption coefficient K(ω,d) is discussed for thin semiconducting films in the frequency range of free, spatially dispersive exciton polaritons. We find that (i) it oscillates strongly for small film thicknesses; (ii) it exhibits a slanted peak lineshape; (iii) its integrated strength also depends upon the exciton damping and extrapolates to zero for vanishing damping

  5. Impact of the glass transition on exciton dynamics in polymer thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenreich, Philipp; Proepper, Daniel; Graf, Alexander; Jores, Stefan; Boris, Alexander V.; Schmidt-Mende, Lukas

    2017-11-01

    In the development of organic electronics, unlimited design possibilities of conjugated polymers offer a wide variety of mechanical and electronic properties. Thereby, it is crucially important to reveal universal physical characteristics that allow efficient and forward developments of new chemical compounds. In particular for organic solar cells, a deeper understanding of exciton dynamics in polymer films can help to improve the charge generation process further. For this purpose, poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) is commonly used as a model system, although exciton decay kinetics have found different interpretations. Using temperature-dependent time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy in combination with low-temperature spectroscopic ellipsometry, we can show that P3HT is indeed a model system in which excitons follow a simple diffusion/hopping model. Based on our results we can exclude the relevance of hot-exciton emission as well as a dynamic torsional relaxation upon photoexcitation on a ps time scale. Instead, we depict the glass transition temperature of polymers to strongly affect exciton dynamics.

  6. Near-infrared exciton-polaritons in strongly coupled single-walled carbon nanotube microcavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Arko; Tropf, Laura; Zakharko, Yuriy; Zaumseil, Jana; Gather, Malte C.

    2016-10-01

    Exciton-polaritons form upon strong coupling between electronic excitations of a material and photonic states of a surrounding microcavity. In organic semiconductors the special nature of excited states leads to particularly strong coupling and facilitates condensation of exciton-polaritons at room temperature, which may lead to electrically pumped organic polariton lasers. However, charge carrier mobility and photo-stability in currently used materials is limited and exciton-polariton emission so far has been restricted to visible wavelengths. Here, we demonstrate strong light-matter coupling in the near infrared using single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in a polymer matrix and a planar metal-clad cavity. By exploiting the exceptional oscillator strength and sharp excitonic transition of (6,5) SWCNTs, we achieve large Rabi splitting (>110 meV), efficient polariton relaxation and narrow band emission (<15 meV). Given their high charge carrier mobility and excellent photostability, SWCNTs represent a promising new avenue towards practical exciton-polariton devices operating at telecommunication wavelengths.

  7. Picosecond dynamics of internal exciton transitions in CdSe nanorods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooke, D. G.; Jepsen, Peter Uhd; Lek, Jun Yan

    2013-01-01

    . The onset of exciton-LO phonon coupling appears as a bleach in the optical conductivity spectra at the LO phonon energy for times > 1 ps after excitation. Simulations show a suppressed exciton temperature due to thermally excited hole states being rapidly captured onto ligands or unpassivated surface states...

  8. Coherent excitonic nonlinearity versus inhomogeneous broadening in single quantum wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langbein, Wolfgang Werner; Borri, Paola; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    1998-01-01

    The coherent response of excitons in semiconductor nanostructures, as measured in four wave mixing (FWM) experiments, depends strongly on the inhomogeneous broadening of the exciton transition. We investigate GaAs-AlGaAs single quantum wells (SQW) of 4 nm to 25 nm well width. Two main mechanisms...

  9. Analytic 1D pn junction diode photocurrent solutions following ionizing radiation and including time-dependent changes in the carrier lifetime.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Axness, Carl L.; Keiter, Eric Richard; Kerr, Bert (New Mexico Tech, Socorro, NM)

    2011-04-01

    Circuit simulation tools (e.g., SPICE) have become invaluable in the development and design of electronic circuits in radiation environments. These codes are often employed to study the effect of many thousands of devices under transient current conditions. Device-scale simulation tools (e.g., MEDICI) are commonly used in the design of individual semiconductor components, but require computing resources that make their incorporation into a circuit code impossible for large-scale circuits. Analytic solutions to the ambipolar diffusion equation, an approximation to the carrier transport equations, may be used to characterize the transient currents at nodes within a circuit simulator. We present new transient 1D excess carrier density and photocurrent density solutions to the ambipolar diffusion equation for low-level radiation pulses that take into account a finite device geometry, ohmic fields outside the depleted region, and an arbitrary change in the carrier lifetime due to neutron irradiation or other effects. The solutions are specifically evaluated for the case of an abrupt change in the carrier lifetime during or after, a step, square, or piecewise linear radiation pulse. Noting slow convergence of the raw Fourier series for certain parameter sets, we use closed-form formulas for some of the infinite sums to produce 'partial closed-form' solutions for the above three cases. These 'partial closed-form' solutions converge with only a few tens of terms, which enables efficient large-scale circuit simulations.

  10. Time-correlated single-photon counting study of multiple photoluminescence lifetime components of silicon nanoclusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamare, D., E-mail: d.diamare@ee.ucl.ac.uk [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London, WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Wojdak, M. [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London, WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Lettieri, S. [Institute for Superconductors and Innovative Materials, National Council of Research (CNR-SPIN), Via Cintia 80126, Naples (Italy); Department of Physical Sciences, University of Naples “Federico II”, Via Cintia 80126, Naples (Italy); Kenyon, A.J. [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London, WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom)

    2013-04-15

    We report time-resolved photoluminescence measurements of thin films of silica containing silicon nanoclusters (Si NCs), produced by PECVD and annealed at temperatures between 700 °C and 1150 °C. While the near infrared emission of Si NCs has long been studied, visible light emission has only recently attracted interest due to its very short decay times and its recently-reported redshift with decreasing NCs size. We analyse the PL decay dynamics in the range 450–700 nm with picosecond time resolution using Time Correlated Single Photon Counting. In the resultant multi-exponential decays two dominant components can clearly be distinguished: a very short component, in the range of hundreds of picoseconds, and a nanosecond component. In this wavelength range we do not detect the microsecond component generally associated with excitonic recombination. We associate the nanosecond component to defect relaxation: it decreases in intensity in the sample annealed at higher temperature, suggesting that the contribution from defects decreases with increasing temperature. The origin of the very fast PL component (ps time region) is also discussed. We show that it is consistent with the Auger recombination times of multiple excitons. Further work needs to be done in order to assess the contribution of the Auger-controlled recombinations to the defect-assisted mechanism of photoluminescence. -- Highlights: ► We report time-resolved PL measurements of Si-Ncs embedded in SiO{sub 2} matrix. ► Net decrease of PL with increasing the annealing temperature has been observed. ► Lifetime distribution analysis revealed a multiexponential decay with ns and ps components. ► Ps components are consistent with the lifetime range of the Auger recombination times. ► No evidence for a fast direct transition at the Brillouin zone centre.

  11. Synthetic Control of Exciton Behavior in Colloidal Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Chaodan; Qin, Haiyan; Gao, Yuan; Zhou, Jianhai; Wang, Peng; Peng, Xiaogang

    2017-03-08

    Colloidal quantum dots are promising optical and optoelectronic materials for various applications, whose performance is dominated by their excited-state properties. This article illustrates synthetic control of their excited states. Description of the excited states of quantum-dot emitters can be centered around exciton. We shall discuss that, different from conventional molecular emitters, ground-state structures of quantum dots are not necessarily correlated with their excited states. Synthetic control of exciton behavior heavily relies on convenient and affordable monitoring tools. For synthetic development of ideal optical and optoelectronic emitters, the key process is decay of band-edge excitons, which renders transient photoluminescence as important monitoring tool. On the basis of extensive synthetic developments in the past 20-30 years, synthetic control of exciton behavior implies surface engineering of quantum dots, including surface cation/anion stoichiometry, organic ligands, inorganic epitaxial shells, etc. For phosphors based on quantum dots doped with transition metal ions, concentration and location of the dopant ions within a nanocrystal lattice are found to be as important as control of the surface states in order to obtain bright dopant emission with monoexponential yet tunable photoluminescence decay dynamics.

  12. Self-localization of excitons in a periodically modulated molecular medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zabolotskii, A. A.

    2006-01-01

    Electromagnetic field propagation is analyzed in a one-dimensional Bragg grating consisting of periodically arranged linear molecules making up a resonant medium. Dye J-aggregates and conjugated polymers are considered as examples of the medium. Both adiabatic and nonadiabatic dynamics of the acoustic waves generated by electromagnetic field in the system are examined. The effects of exciton-phonon and exciton-phonon-photon interactions on the band structure and formation of self-localized excitations are examined on various time scales. A new mechanism for controlling bandgap parameters in a bistable regime is described. Some effects of electromagnetic-field nonuniformity on generation of phonons in molecules and exciton self-localization are investigated

  13. Halogenation of SiC for band-gap engineering and excitonic functionalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drissi, L. B.; Ramadan, F. Z.; Lounis, S.

    2017-11-01

    The optical excitation spectra and excitonic resonances are investigated in systematically functionalized SiC with Fluorine and/or Chlorine utilizing density functional theory in combination with many-body perturbation theory. The latter is required for a realistic description of the energy band-gaps as well as for the theoretical realization of excitons. Structural, electronic and optical properties are scrutinized and show the high stability of the predicted two-dimensional materials. Their realization in laboratory is thus possible. Large band-gaps of the order of 4 eV are found in the so-called GW approximation, with the occurrence of bright excitons, optically active in the four investigated materials. Their binding energies vary from 0.9 eV to 1.75 eV depending on the decoration choice and in one case, a dark exciton is foreseen to exist in the fully chlorinated SiC. The wide variety of opto-electronic properties suggest halogenated SiC as interesting materials with potential not only for solar cell applications, anti-reflection coatings or high-reflective systems but also for a possible realization of excitonic Bose-Einstein condensation.

  14. Theory of Excitonic Delocalization for Robust Vibronic Dynamics in LH2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caycedo-Soler, Felipe; Lim, James; Oviedo-Casado, Santiago; van Hulst, Niek F; Huelga, Susana F; Plenio, Martin B

    2018-06-11

    Nonlinear spectroscopy has revealed long-lasting oscillations in the optical response of a variety of photosynthetic complexes. Different theoretical models that involve the coherent coupling of electronic (excitonic) or electronic-vibrational (vibronic) degrees of freedom have been put forward to explain these observations. The ensuing debate concerning the relevance of either mechanism may have obscured their complementarity. To illustrate this balance, we quantify how the excitonic delocalization in the LH2 unit of Rhodopseudomonas acidophila purple bacterium leads to correlations of excitonic energy fluctuations, relevant coherent vibronic coupling, and importantly, a decrease in the excitonic dephasing rates. Combining these effects, we identify a feasible origin for the long-lasting oscillations observed in fluorescent traces from time-delayed two-pulse single-molecule experiments performed on this photosynthetic complex and use this approach to discuss the role of this complementarity in other photosynthetic systems.

  15. Excitons in semiconducting quantum filaments of CdS and CdSe with dielectric barriers

    CERN Document Server

    Dneprovskij, V S; Shalygina, O A; Lyaskovskij, V L; Mulyarov, E A; Gavrilov, S A; Masumoto, I

    2002-01-01

    The peculiarities of the luminescence spectra obtained by different polarization and intensity of the pumping excitation and luminescence kinetics of the CdS and CdSe nanocrystals are explained by the exciton transitions in the semiconducting quantum threads with dielectric barriers. The exciton transition energies correspond to the calculated ones with an account of both their dimensional quantization and the effect of the excitons dielectric intensification. It is shown that the excitons transition energies do not change by the change in the quantum threads diameter within the wide range, while the increase in the one-dimensional forbidden zone width of quantum thread by the decrease in its diameter is compensated through the decrease in the excitons binding energy

  16. Resonant exciton-phonon coupling in ZnO nanorods at room temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumee Chakraborty

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Vibronic and optoelectronic properties, along with detailed studies of exciton-phonon coupling at room temperature (RT for random and aligned ZnO nanorods are reported. Excitation energy dependent Raman studies are performed for detailed analysis of multi-phonon processes in the nanorods. We report here the origin of coupling between free exciton and its associated phonon replicas, including its higher order modes, in the photoluminescence spectra at RT. Resonance of excitonic electron and resonating first order zone center LO phonon, invoked strongly by Frolich interaction, are made responsible for the observed phenomenon.

  17. Dynamically controlling the emission of single excitons in photonic crystal cavities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pagliano, F.; Cho, Y.; Xia, T.; Otten, van F.W.M.; Johne, R.; Fiore, A.

    2014-01-01

    Single excitons in semiconductor microcavities represent a solid state and scalable platform for cavity quantum electrodynamics, potentially enabling an interface between flying (photon) and static (exciton) quantum bits in future quantum networks. While both singlephoton emission and the strong

  18. One dimensional models of excitons in carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornean, Horia Decebal; Duclos, P.; Pedersen, Thomas Garm

    Excitons in carbon nanotubes may be modeled by two oppositely charged particles living on the surface of a cylinder. We derive three one dimensional effective Hamiltonians which become exact as the radius of the cylinder vanishes. Two of them are solvable.......Excitons in carbon nanotubes may be modeled by two oppositely charged particles living on the surface of a cylinder. We derive three one dimensional effective Hamiltonians which become exact as the radius of the cylinder vanishes. Two of them are solvable....

  19. One-dimensional models of excitons in carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornean, Horia Decebal; Duclos, Pierre; Pedersen, Thomas Garm

    2004-01-01

    Excitons in carbon nanotubes may be modeled by two oppositely charged particles living on the surface of a cylinder. We derive three one-dimensional effective Hamiltonians which become exact as the radius of the cylinder vanishes. Two of them are solvable.......Excitons in carbon nanotubes may be modeled by two oppositely charged particles living on the surface of a cylinder. We derive three one-dimensional effective Hamiltonians which become exact as the radius of the cylinder vanishes. Two of them are solvable....

  20. Signatures of exciton condensation in a transition metal dichalcogenide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogar, Anshul; Rak, Melinda S.; Vig, Sean; Husain, Ali A.; Flicker, Felix; Joe, Young Il; Venema, Luc; MacDougall, Greg J.; Chiang, Tai C.; Fradkin, Eduardo; van Wezel, Jasper; Abbamonte, Peter

    2017-12-01

    Bose condensation has shaped our understanding of macroscopic quantum phenomena, having been realized in superconductors, atomic gases, and liquid helium. Excitons are bosons that have been predicted to condense into either a superfluid or an insulating electronic crystal. Using the recently developed technique of momentum-resolved electron energy-loss spectroscopy (M-EELS), we studied electronic collective modes in the transition metal dichalcogenide semimetal 1T-TiSe2. Near the phase-transition temperature (190 kelvin), the energy of the electronic mode fell to zero at nonzero momentum, indicating dynamical slowing of plasma fluctuations and crystallization of the valence electrons into an exciton condensate. Our study provides compelling evidence for exciton condensation in a three-dimensional solid and establishes M-EELS as a versatile technique sensitive to valence band excitations in quantum materials.

  1. Coulomb Mediated Hybridization of Excitons in Coupled Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardelt, P-L; Gawarecki, K; Müller, K; Waeber, A M; Bechtold, A; Oberhofer, K; Daniels, J M; Klotz, F; Bichler, M; Kuhn, T; Krenner, H J; Machnikowski, P; Finley, J J

    2016-02-19

    We report Coulomb mediated hybridization of excitonic states in optically active InGaAs quantum dot molecules. By probing the optical response of an individual quantum dot molecule as a function of the static electric field applied along the molecular axis, we observe unexpected avoided level crossings that do not arise from the dominant single-particle tunnel coupling. We identify a new few-particle coupling mechanism stemming from Coulomb interactions between different neutral exciton states. Such Coulomb resonances hybridize the exciton wave function over four different electron and hole single-particle orbitals. Comparisons of experimental observations with microscopic eight-band k·p calculations taking into account a realistic quantum dot geometry show good agreement and reveal that the Coulomb resonances arise from broken symmetry in the artificial semiconductor molecule.

  2. Preface to the SPECIAL ISSUE: Excitonic Solar Cells(II)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianjun Tian; Meicheng Li; Kaibo Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Among all the excitonic solar cells(ESCs)including dyesensitized solar cells(DSSCs),quantum solar cells(QDSCs),perovskites solar cells(PSCs),and organic photovoltaics(OPVs),PSCs attracted enormous research attention in the past 7 years and attained the highest power conversion efficiency(PCE)of over 20%with the biggest progress,from 3.8%to over 22.1%in 7 years.However,one can easily realize the fact that such a rapid progress achieved in PSCs was made possible is largely based on the fundamental knowledge,experimental skills,and characterization facilities obtained and accumulated through the multi-decade long endeavor in the study of other excitonic solar cells.Even though PSCs have attractedmuch research human resource and funding,the study on other excitonic solar cells has never stopped,and such persistent efforts

  3. Lifetime enhanced phosphorescent organic light emitting diode using an electron scavenger layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seokhwan; Kim, Ji Whan; Lee, Sangyeob, E-mail: sy96.lee@samsung.com [Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd., 130 Samsung-ro, Suwon, Gyeonggi 443-803 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-27

    We demonstrate a method to improve lifetime of a phosphorescent organic light emitting diode (OLED) using an electron scavenger layer (ESL) in a hole transporting layer (HTL) of the device. We use a bis(1-(phenyl)isoquinoline)iridium(III)acetylacetonate [Ir(piq){sub 2}(acac)] doped HTL to stimulate radiative decay, preventing thermal degradation in HTL. The ESL effectively prevented non-radiative decay of leakage electron in HTL by converting non-radiative decay to radiative decay via a phosphorescent red emitter, Ir(piq){sub 2}(acac). The lifetime of device (t{sub 95}: time after 5% decrease of luminance) has been increased from 75 h to 120 h by using the ESL in a phosphorescent green-emitting OLED.

  4. Study of hemoglobin response to mid-ultraviolet (UVB) radiation using micro-Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y. Y.; Li, N.; Zhou, S. N.; Huang, Z. T.; Zhuang, Z. F.

    2017-09-01

    Confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy is employed to monitor the damage to haemoglobin from mid-ultraviolet (UVB) radiation. We obtained the Raman spectra of an erythrocyte, which indicated that a peroxidation reaction occurs after UVB radiation. Further, the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra of isolated haemoglobin show that the intensities of the 1375 and 1399 cm-1 bands, which are markers of haem aggregation, obviously increase with prolonged UVB irradiation. This increase reveals that haem aggregation occurs in the peroxidation of erythrocytes. The UV-Vis spectra of isolated haemoglobin indicate that the Soret band, which is indicative of excitonic interactions in the aggregated haems, has a redshift ( 12 nm) after 30 min of UVB irradiation of erythrocytes. It can be deduced that an excitonic interaction occurs in the aggregated haems, which is caused by haemoglobin denaturation following UVB irradiation. In addition, the changes of the Raman marker bands during aggregation primarily originate from excitonic interactions. Throughout the process, a higher UVB radiation dose causes greater damage to haemoglobin.

  5. Disorder effects on free excitons in CdSsub(1-x)Sesub(x) mixed crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goede, O.; Hennig, D.; John, L.

    1979-01-01

    In CdSsub(1-x)Sesub(x) mixed crystals the energies and transition probability ratios for free A, B, and C excitons are obtained as a function of the composition x by reflection and emission measurements at 77 K. The observation of the disorder-allowed A(GAMMA 6 ) exciton transition, the bowing of the energy difference between A and C exciton, and the broadening of the exciton lines clearly demonstrate the importance of disorder effects in these mixed crystals. This conclusion is further supported by the stress-induced enhancement of the A(GAMMA 6 ) exciton transition probability by uniaxial stress parallel to the c-axis of the mixed crystals. The experimental results are discussed on the basis of an effective exciton Hamiltonian consisting of a quasi-cubic VCA-Hamiltonian for wurtzite-type mixed crystals and an additional lower-symmetric term which describes the disorder effects phenomenologically by two fluctuating crystal fields parallel and perpendicular to the c-axis, respectively. (author)

  6. Programmed coherent coupling in a synthetic DNA-based excitonic circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulais, Étienne; Sawaya, Nicolas P. D.; Veneziano, Rémi; Andreoni, Alessio; Banal, James L.; Kondo, Toru; Mandal, Sarthak; Lin, Su; Schlau-Cohen, Gabriela S.; Woodbury, Neal W.; Yan, Hao; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán; Bathe, Mark

    2018-02-01

    Natural light-harvesting systems spatially organize densely packed chromophore aggregates using rigid protein scaffolds to achieve highly efficient, directed energy transfer. Here, we report a synthetic strategy using rigid DNA scaffolds to similarly program the spatial organization of densely packed, discrete clusters of cyanine dye aggregates with tunable absorption spectra and strongly coupled exciton dynamics present in natural light-harvesting systems. We first characterize the range of dye-aggregate sizes that can be templated spatially by A-tracts of B-form DNA while retaining coherent energy transfer. We then use structure-based modelling and quantum dynamics to guide the rational design of higher-order synthetic circuits consisting of multiple discrete dye aggregates within a DX-tile. These programmed circuits exhibit excitonic transport properties with prominent circular dichroism, superradiance, and fast delocalized exciton transfer, consistent with our quantum dynamics predictions. This bottom-up strategy offers a versatile approach to the rational design of strongly coupled excitonic circuits using spatially organized dye aggregates for use in coherent nanoscale energy transport, artificial light-harvesting, and nanophotonics.

  7. Polarized excitons and optical activity in single-wall carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yao-Wen; Jin, Bih-Yaw

    2018-05-01

    The polarized excitons and optical activity of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are studied theoretically by π -electron Hamiltonian and helical-rotational symmetry. By taking advantage of the symmetrization, the single-particle energy and properties of a SWNT are characterized with the corresponding helical band structure. The dipole-moment matrix elements, magnetic-moment matrix elements, and the selection rules can also be derived. Based on different selection rules, the optical transitions can be assigned as the parallel-polarized, left-handed circularly-polarized, and right-handed circularly-polarized transitions, where the combination of the last two gives the cross-polarized transition. The absorption and circular dichroism (CD) spectra are simulated by exciton calculation. The calculated results are well comparable with the reported measurements. Built on the foundation, magnetic-field effects on the polarized excitons and optical activity of SWNTs are studied. Dark-bright exciton splitting and interband Faraday effect in the CD spectrum of SWNTs under an axial magnetic field are predicted. The Faraday rotation dispersion can be analyzed according to the selection rules of circular polarizations and the helical band structure.

  8. Strong excitonic interactions in the oxygen K-edge of perovskite oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Kota; Miyata, Tomohiro; Olovsson, Weine; Mizoguchi, Teruyasu

    2017-07-01

    Excitonic interactions of the oxygen K-edge electron energy-loss near-edge structure (ELNES) of perovskite oxides, CaTiO 3 , SrTiO 3 , and BaTiO 3 , together with reference oxides, MgO, CaO, SrO, BaO, and TiO 2 , were investigated using a first-principles Bethe-Salpeter equation calculation. Although the transition energy of oxygen K-edge is high, strong excitonic interactions were present in the oxygen K-edge ELNES of the perovskite oxides, whereas the excitonic interactions were negligible in the oxygen K-edge ELNES of the reference compounds. Detailed investigation of the electronic structure suggests that the strong excitonic interaction in the oxygen K-edge ELNES of the perovskite oxides is caused by the directionally confined, low-dimensional electronic structure at the Ti-O-Ti bonds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Lifetime, money and cost-benefit analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengtsson, G.

    1984-01-01

    The paper describes briefly many methods for explicit or implicit valuation of the loss of lifetime expectancy due to radiation exposures or other hazards. The health gain from investment in protection is compared with the health gain from a general increase in wealth. It is concluded that in many instances lifetime is valued at 1 to 10 times the gross national product produced in this time. This seems to be reasonable for rich countries whereas it may be questionable for poorer countries. Here, any investment that raises the level of living of the poorer segment of the population may have a greater effect on life expectancy. (author)

  10. Exciton delocalization incorporated drift-diffusion model for bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zi Shuai; Sha, Wei E. I.; Choy, Wallace C. H.

    2016-12-01

    Modeling the charge-generation process is highly important to understand device physics and optimize power conversion efficiency of bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells (OSCs). Free carriers are generated by both ultrafast exciton delocalization and slow exciton diffusion and dissociation at the heterojunction interface. In this work, we developed a systematic numerical simulation to describe the charge-generation process by a modified drift-diffusion model. The transport, recombination, and collection of free carriers are incorporated to fully capture the device response. The theoretical results match well with the state-of-the-art high-performance organic solar cells. It is demonstrated that the increase of exciton delocalization ratio reduces the energy loss in the exciton diffusion-dissociation process, and thus, significantly improves the device efficiency, especially for the short-circuit current. By changing the exciton delocalization ratio, OSC performances are comprehensively investigated under the conditions of short-circuit and open-circuit. Particularly, bulk recombination dependent fill factor saturation is unveiled and understood. As a fundamental electrical analysis of the delocalization mechanism, our work is important to understand and optimize the high-performance OSCs.

  11. The confinement effect in spherical inhomogeneous quantum dots and stability of excitons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Benhaddou

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigate in this work the quantum confinement effect of exciton in spherical inhomogeneous quantum dots IQDs. The spherical core is enveloped by two shells. The inner shell is a semiconductor characterized by a small band-gap. The core and the outer shell are the same semiconductor characterized by a large band-gap. So there is a significant gap-offset creating a deep potential well where the excitons are localized and strongly confined. We have adopted the Ritz variational method to calculate numerically the excitonic ground state energy and its binding energy in the strong, moderate and low confinement regimes. The results show that the Ritz variational method is in good agreement with the perturbation method in strong confinement. There is a double confinement effect and dual control. The calculation checks the effective Rydberg R* at the asymptotic limit of bulk semiconductor when the thickness takes very large values. The excitonic binding energy increases, Thus giving the excitons a high stability even at ambient temperature. These nanosystems are promising in several applications: lighting, detection, biological labeling and quantum computing.

  12. The Dual Role of Disorder on the Dissociation of Interfacial Charge Transfer Excitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Liang; Lee, Chee-Kong; Willard, Adam

    In organic-based photovoltaics (OPV), dissociation of neutral photo-excitations (i.e., Frenkel excitons) into free charge carriers requires the excitons to overcome binding energy that can significantly exceed thermal energies. The inability of bound charges to overcome this large binding energy has been implicated as a primary source of efficiency loss in OPVs. Despite the potential impact on the performance of organic solar cells much remains to be understood about the microscopic mechanism of exciton dissociation in OPV materials. Here we explore the role of static molecular disorder in mediating this charge dissociation process. Using a simple lattice model of exciton dynamics we demonstrate that random spatial variations in the energetic landscape can mitigate the effects of the exciton binding energy by lowering the free energy barrier. By considering the competition between this thermodynamic effect and the disorder-induced slowing of dissociation kinetics we demonstrate that exciton dissociation yields are expected to depend non-monotonically on the degree of static disorder. We conclude that a certain amount of molecular-scale disorder is desirable in order to optimize the performance of organic photovoltaic materials.

  13. The interplay between excitons and trions in a monolayer of MoSe2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundt, N.; Cherotchenko, E.; Iff, O.; Fan, X.; Shen, Y.; Bigenwald, P.; Kavokin, A. V.; Höfling, S.; Schneider, C.

    2018-01-01

    The luminescence and absorption properties of transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers are widely determined by neutral and charged excitonic complexes. Here, we focus on the impact of a free carrier reservoir on the optical properties of excitonic and trionic complexes in a MoSe2 monolayer at cryogenic temperatures. By applying photodoping via a non-resonant pump laser, the electron density can be controlled in our sample, which is directly reflected in the contribution of excitons and trions to the luminescence signal. We find significant shifts of both the exciton and trion energies in the presence of an induced electron gas both in power- and in time evolution (on the second to minute scale) in our photoluminescence spectra. In particular, in the presence of the photo-doped carrier reservoir, we observe that the splitting between excitons and trions can be enhanced by up to 4 meV. This behaviour is phenomenologically explained by an interplay between an increased screening of excitons via electrons in our system and a modification of the Fermi level. We introduce a simple but still quantitative treatment of these effects within a variational approach that takes into account both screening and phase space filling effects.

  14. Triplet energy transfer and triplet exciton recycling in singlet fission sensitized organic heterojunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Tasnuva; Yambem, Soniya D.; Crawford, Ross; Roberts, Jonathan; Pandey, Ajay K.

    2017-08-01

    Singlet exciton fission is a process where an excited singlet state splits into two triplets, thus leading to generation of multiple excitons per absorbed photon in organic semiconductors. Herein, we report a detailed exciton management approach for multiexciton harvesting over a broadband region of the solar spectrum in singlet fission sensitized organic photodiodes. Through systematic studies on the model cascade of pentacene/rubrene/C60, we found that efficient photocurrent generation from pentacene can still occur despite the presence of a >10nm thick interlayer of rubrene in between the pentacene/C60 heterojunction. Our results show that thin rubrene interlayers of thickness pentacene despite having a reasonably thick rubrene interlayer, that too with higher triplet energy (T1=1.12 eV) than pentacene (T1= 0.86 eV), makes its operation a rather interesting result. We discuss the role of rubrene interlayer film discontinuity, triplet exciton reflection from rubrene interlayer and triplet energy transfer from rubrene to pentacene layer followed by diffusion of triplet excitons through rubrene as plausible mechanisms that would enable triplet excitons from pentacene to generate significant photocurrent in a multilayer organic heterojunction.

  15. Efficient Exciton Diffusion and Resonance-Energy Transfer in Multi-Layered Organic Epitaxial Nanofibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavares, Luciana; Cadelano, Michele; Quochi, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Multi-layered epitaxial nanofibers are exemplary model systems for the study of exciton dynamics and lasing in organic materials due to their well-defined morphology, high luminescence efficiencies, and color tunability. We resort to temperature-dependent cw and picosecond photoluminescence (PL......) spectroscopy to quantify exciton diffusion and resonance-energy transfer (RET) processes in multi-layered nanofibers consisting of alternating layers of para-hexaphenyl (p6P) and α-sexithiophene (6T), serving as exciton donor and acceptor material, respectively. The high probability for RET processes...... is confirmed by Quantum Chemical calculations. The activation energy for exciton diffusion in p6P is determined to be as low as 19 meV, proving p6P epitaxial layers also as a very suitable donor material system. The small activation energy for exciton diffusion of the p6P donor material, the inferred high p6P...

  16. Excitons in intact cells of photosynthetic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freiberg, Arvi; Pajusalu, Mihkel; Rätsep, Margus

    2013-09-26

    Live cells and regular crystals seem fundamentally incompatible. Still, effects characteristic to ideal crystals, such as coherent sharing of excitation, have been recently used in many studies to explain the behavior of several photosynthetic complexes, especially the inner workings of the light-harvesting apparatus of the oldest known photosynthetic organisms, the purple bacteria. To this date, there has been no concrete evidence that the same effects are instrumental in real living cells, leaving a possibility that this is an artifact of unnatural study conditions, not a real effect relevant to the biological operation of bacteria. Hereby, we demonstrate survival of collective coherent excitations (excitons) in intact cells of photosynthetic purple bacteria. This is done by using excitation anisotropy spectroscopy for tracking the temperature-dependent evolution of exciton bands in light-harvesting systems of increasing structural complexity. The temperature was gradually raised from 4.5 K to ambient temperature, and the complexity of the systems ranged from detergent-isolated complexes to complete bacterial cells. The results provide conclusive evidence that excitons are indeed one of the key elements contributing to the energetic and dynamic properties of photosynthetic organisms.

  17. Exciton diamagnetic shift and optical properties in CdSe nanocrystal quantum dots in magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shudong; Cheng, Liwen

    2018-04-01

    The magnetic field dependence of the optical properties of CdSe nanocrystal quantum dots (NQDs) is investigated theoretically using a perturbation method within the effective-mass approximation. The results show that the magnetic field lifts the degeneracy of the electron (hole) states. A blue-shift in the absorption spectra of m ≥ 0 exciton states is observed while the absorption peak of m attributed to the interplay of the orbital Zeeman effect and the additive confinement induced by the magnetic field. The excitonic absorption coefficient is almost independent of B in the strong confinement regime. The applied magnetic field causes the splitting of degenerated exciton states, resulting in the new absorption peaks. Based on the first-order perturbation theory, we propose the analytical expressions for the exciton binding energy, exciton transition energy and exciton diamagnetic shift of 1s, 1p-1, 1p0, 1p1, 1d-2, 1d-1, 1d0, 1d1, 1d2 and 2s exciton states on the applied magnetic field in the strong confinement regime.

  18. Theoretical study of excitonic complexes in semiconductors quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dacal, Luis Carlos Ogando

    2001-08-01

    A physical system where indistinguishable particles interact with each other creates the possibility of studying correlation and exchange effect. The simplest system is that one with only two indistinguishable particles. In condensed matter physics, these complexes are represented by charged excitons, donors and acceptors. In quantum wells, the valence band is not parabolic, therefore, the negatively charged excitons and donors are theoretically described in a simpler way. Despite the fact that the stability of charged excitons (trions) is known since the late 50s, the first experimental observation occurred only at the early 90s in quantum well samples, where their binding energies are one order of magnitude larger due to the one dimensional carriers confinement. After this, these complexes became the subject of an intense research because the intrinsic screening of electrical interactions in semiconductor materials allows that magnetic fields that are usual in laboratories have strong effects on the trion binding energy. Another rich possibility is the study of trions as an intermediate state between the neutral exciton and the Fermi edge singularity when the excess of doping carriers is increased. In this thesis, we present a theoretical study of charged excitons and negatively charged donors in GaAs/Al 0.3 Ga 0.7 As quantum wells considering the effects of external electric and magnetic fields. We use a simple, accurate and physically clear method to describe these systems in contrast with the few and complex treatments s available in the literature. Our results show that the QW interface defects have an important role in the trion dynamics. This is in agreement with some experimental works, but it disagrees with other ones. (author)

  19. Excitonic spectrum of the ZnO/ZnMgO quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobrov, M. A., E-mail: largaseal@gmail.com; Toropov, A. A.; Ivanov, S. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical Technical Institute (Russian Federation); El-Shaer, A.; Bakin, A.; Waag, A. [TU Braunschweig, Institute of Semiconductor Technology (Germany)

    2011-06-15

    Excitonic spectrum of the wurtzite ZnO/Zn{sub 1-x}Mg{sub x}O quantum wells with a width on the order of or larger than the Bohr radius of the exciton has been studied; the quantum wells have been grown by the method of molecular beam epitaxy (with plasma-assisted activation of oxygen) on substrates of sapphire (0001). Low-temperature (25 K) spectra of photoluminescence excitation (PLE) have been experimentally measured, making it possible to resolve the peaks of exciton absorption in the quantum well. The spectrum of excitons in the quantum well is theoretically determined as a result of numerical solution of the Schroedinger equation by the variational method. The value of elastic stresses in the structure (used in calculations) has been determined from theoretical simulation of measured spectra of optical reflection. A comparison of experimental data with the results of calculations makes it possible to relate the observed features in the PLE spectra to excitons, including the lower level of dimensional quantization for electrons and two first levels of holes for the A and B valence bands of the wurtzite crystal. The values of the electron and hole masses in ZnO are refined, and the value of the built-in electric field introduced by spontaneous and piezoelectric polarizations is estimated.

  20. Lifetime tests for MAC vertex chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, H.N.

    1986-07-01

    A vertex chamber for MAC was proposed to increase precision in the measurement of the B hadron and tau lepton lifetimes. Thin-walled aluminized mylar drift tubes were used for detector elements. A study of radiation hardness was conducted under the conditions of the proposed design using different gases and different operating conditions

  1. Numerical modeling of exciton-polariton Bose-Einstein condensate in a microcavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronych, Oksana; Buraczewski, Adam; Matuszewski, Michał; Stobińska, Magdalena

    2017-06-01

    A novel, optimized numerical method of modeling of an exciton-polariton superfluid in a semiconductor microcavity was proposed. Exciton-polaritons are spin-carrying quasiparticles formed from photons strongly coupled to excitons. They possess unique properties, interesting from the point of view of fundamental research as well as numerous potential applications. However, their numerical modeling is challenging due to the structure of nonlinear differential equations describing their evolution. In this paper, we propose to solve the equations with a modified Runge-Kutta method of 4th order, further optimized for efficient computations. The algorithms were implemented in form of C++ programs fitted for parallel environments and utilizing vector instructions. The programs form the EPCGP suite which has been used for theoretical investigation of exciton-polaritons. Catalogue identifier: AFBQ_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AFBQ_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: BSD-3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 2157 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 498994 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++ with OpenMP extensions (main numerical program), Python (helper scripts). Computer: Modern PC (tested on AMD and Intel processors), HP BL2x220. Operating system: Unix/Linux and Windows. Has the code been vectorized or parallelized?: Yes (OpenMP) RAM: 200 MB for single run Classification: 7, 7.7. Nature of problem: An exciton-polariton superfluid is a novel, interesting physical system allowing investigation of high temperature Bose-Einstein condensation of exciton-polaritons-quasiparticles carrying spin. They have brought a lot of attention due to their unique properties and potential applications in polariton-based optoelectronic integrated circuits. This is an out-of-equilibrium quantum system confined

  2. Optical orientation and alignment of excitons in ensembles of inorganic perovskite nanocrystals

    OpenAIRE

    Nestoklon, M. O.; Goupalov, S. V.; Dzhioev, R. I.; Ken, O. S.; Korenev, V. L.; Kusrayev, Yu. G.; Sapega, V. F.; de Weerd, C.; Gomez, L.; Gregorkiewicz, T.; Lin, Junhao; Suenaga, Kazutomo; Fujiwara, Yasufumi; Matyushkin, L. B.; Yassievich, I. N.

    2018-01-01

    We demonstrate the optical orientation and alignment of excitons in a two-dimensional layer of CsPbI$_3$ perovskite nanocrystals prepared by colloidal synthesis and measure the anisotropic exchange splitting of exciton levels in the nanocrystals. From the experimental data at low temperature (2K), we obtain the average value of anisotropic splitting of bright exciton states of the order of 120{\\mu}eV. Our calculations demonstrate that there is a significant contribution to the splitting due t...

  3. The self-trapping of anion excitons in alkali halides at elastic deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulepbergenov, S.K.; Dzhumanov, S.; Spivak-Lavrov, I.F.; Shunkeev, K.Sh.

    2001-01-01

    The self-trapping of electronic excitations (EE) (excitons, holes and electrons) in alkali halides (AH), fluorides and oxides plays an important roles in luminescence and defect formation. Therein the specific features of self-trapping of EE in various materials are essentially different. In particular, the self-trapping of excitons in some AH (i.e. alkali iodides and bromides) occurs with overcoming of the potential barrier and in other AH (e.g. alkali fluorides and chlorides) such a barrier is absent. Here we develop the continuum theory of self-trapping of within the adiabatic approximation elastically stressed AH. In the continuum model of solids the functional of the total energy of are interacting exciton-phonon system in the deformed ionic crystal just as in the undeformed crystal depends on the dilation Δ(r) described by the deformation potential of acoustic phonon, the electrostatic potential φ[r) due to the lattice polarization at optical lattice vibrations and the wave function of exciton chosen for hydro statically and uniaxially stressed 3D crystals. The functionals of the total energy of the interfacing exciton-phonon system E{Δ(r),φ(r),ψ(r)} are minimized relative to Δ, φ and ψ for the cases of isotropic and anisotropic 3D crystals. As a result, we obtained the functionals depending on μ and determined their possible extremum. We have show that the linear deformations under the hydrostatic and uniaxial stress at 80 K lead to the decreasing of the self trapping barrier for exciton and to the increasing of the luminescence of self-trapped excitons (STE). While the nonlinear deformations under the such stress at 80 K lead to the increasing of the self-trapping barrier for excitons and to the decreasing at the STE luminescence in AH. At T=0 K the small hydrostatic and uniaxial pressures lead to the same effects. Further at hydrostatic and uniaxial compressions of AH the minimums of the adiabatic potentials of quasifree and STE are shifted to

  4. Quantum confinement-induced tunable exciton states in graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dongwook; Seo, Jiwon; Zhu, Xi; Lee, Jiyoul; Shin, Hyeon-Jin; Cole, Jacqueline M; Shin, Taeho; Lee, Jaichan; Lee, Hangil; Su, Haibin

    2013-01-01

    Graphene oxide has recently been considered to be a potential replacement for cadmium-based quantum dots due to its expected high fluorescence. Although previously reported, the origin of the luminescence in graphene oxide is still controversial. Here, we report the presence of core/valence excitons in graphene-based materials, a basic ingredient for optical devices, induced by quantum confinement. Electron confinement in the unreacted graphitic regions of graphene oxide was probed by high resolution X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy and first-principles calculations. Using experiments and simulations, we were able to tune the core/valence exciton energy by manipulating the size of graphitic regions through the degree of oxidation. The binding energy of an exciton in highly oxidized graphene oxide is similar to that in organic electroluminescent materials. These results open the possibility of graphene oxide-based optoelectronic device technology.

  5. Singlet exciton fission in polycrystalline pentacene: from photophysics toward devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mark W B; Rao, Akshay; Ehrler, Bruno; Friend, Richard H

    2013-06-18

    Singlet exciton fission is the process in conjugated organic molecules bywhich a photogenerated singlet exciton couples to a nearby chromophore in the ground state, creating a pair of triplet excitons. Researchers first reported this phenomenon in the 1960s, an event that sparked further studies in the following decade. These investigations used fluorescence spectroscopy to establish that exciton fission occurred in single crystals of several acenes. However, research interest has been recently rekindled by the possibility that singlet fission could be used as a carrier multiplication technique to enhance the efficiency of photovoltaic cells. The most successful architecture to-date involves sensitizing a red-absorbing photoactive layer with a blue-absorbing material that undergoes fission, thereby generating additional photocurrent from higher-energy photons. The quest for improved solar cells has spurred a drive to better understand the fission process, which has received timely aid from modern techniques for time-resolved spectroscopy, quantum chemistry, and small-molecule device fabrication. However, the consensus interpretation of the initial studies using ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy was that exciton fission was suppressed in polycrystalline thin films of pentacene, a material that would be otherwise expected to be an ideal model system, as well as a viable candidate for fission-sensitized photovoltaic devices. In this Account, we review the results of our recent transient absorption and device-based studies of polycrystalline pentacene. We address the controversy surrounding the assignment of spectroscopic features in transient absorption data, and illustrate how a consistent interpretation is possible. This work underpins our conclusion that singlet fission in pentacene is extraordinarily rapid (∼80 fs) and is thus the dominant decay channel for the photoexcited singlet exciton. Further, we discuss our demonstration that triplet excitons

  6. Tuning crystalline ordering by annealing and additives to study its effect on exciton diffusion in a polyalkylthiophene copolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Mithun; Sajjad, Muhammad T; Savikhin, Victoria; Hergué, Noémie; Sutija, Karina B; Oosterhout, Stefan D; Toney, Michael F; Dubois, Philippe; Ruseckas, Arvydas; Samuel, Ifor D W

    2017-05-17

    The influence of various processing conditions on the singlet exciton diffusion is explored in films of a conjugated random copolymer poly-(3-hexylthiophene-co-3-dodecylthiophene) (P3HT-co-P3DDT) and correlated with the degree of crystallinity probed by grazing incidence X-ray scattering and with exciton bandwidth determined from absorption spectra. The exciton diffusion coefficient is deduced from exciton-exciton annihilation measurements and is found to increase by more than a factor of three when thin films are annealed using CS 2 solvent vapour. A doubling of exciton diffusion coefficient is observed upon melt annealing at 200 °C and the corresponding films show about 50% enhancement in the degree of crystallinity. In contrast, films fabricated from polymer solutions containing a small amount of either solvent additive or nucleating agent show a decrease in exciton diffusion coefficient possibly due to formation of traps for excitons. Our results suggest that the enhancement of exciton diffusivity occurs because of increased crystallinity of alkyl-stacking and longer conjugation of aggregated chains which reduces the exciton bandwidth.

  7. Intense coherent longitudinal optical phonons in CuI thin films under exciton-excitation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, O.; Mizoguchi, K.; Nakayama, M..

    2005-01-01

    We have investigated the dynamical properties of the coherent longitudinal optical (LO) phonon in CuI thin films grown on a NaCl substrate by vacuum deposition. The intense coherent LO phonon in the CuI thin film is observed under the exciton-excitation conditions. Moreover, the pump-energy dependence of the amplitude of the coherent LO phonon shows peaks at the heavy-hole and light-hole exciton energies. The enhancement of the coherent LO phonon under the exciton-resonance condition is much larger than that in an ordinary semiconductor quantum well system such as a GaAs/AlAs one. These facts demonstrate that the intense coherent LO phonon is generated under the exciton-excitation condition in a material with a strong exciton-phonon interaction such as CuI

  8. Thermalization of Hot Free Excitons in ZnSe-Based Quantum Wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, J.; Umlauff, M.; Kalt, H.

    1997-01-01

    Thermalization of hot-exciton populations in ZnSe quantum wells occurs on a time scale of 100 ps. Strong exciton-phonon coupling in II-VI semiconductors leads to a direct access to the thermalization dynamics via time-resolved spectroscopy of phonon-assisted luminescence. The experimental spectra...

  9. Magnetic exciton dispersion in praseodymium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rainford, B. D.; Houmann, Jens Christian Gylden

    1971-01-01

    Measurements of the dispersion of magnetic excitons have been made in a single crystal of praseodymium metal using inelastic neutron scattering. A preliminary analysis of the data yields the first detailed information about the exchange interactions and the crystal field splittings in the light...... rare-earth metals....

  10. How exciton-vibrational coherences control charge separation in the photosystem II reaction center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoderezhkin, Vladimir I; Romero, Elisabet; van Grondelle, Rienk

    2015-12-14

    In photosynthesis absorbed sun light produces collective excitations (excitons) that form a coherent superposition of electronic and vibrational states of the individual pigments. Two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectroscopy allows a visualization of how these coherences are involved in the primary processes of energy and charge transfer. Based on quantitative modeling we identify the exciton-vibrational coherences observed in 2D photon echo of the photosystem II reaction center (PSII-RC). We find that the vibrations resonant with the exciton splittings can modify the delocalization of the exciton states and produce additional states, thus promoting directed energy transfer and allowing a switch between the two charge separation pathways. We conclude that the coincidence of the frequencies of the most intense vibrations with the splittings within the manifold of exciton and charge-transfer states in the PSII-RC is not occurring by chance, but reflects a fundamental principle of how energy conversion in photosynthesis was optimized.

  11. Surface Plasmon Polariton-Assisted Long-Range Exciton Transport in Monolayer Semiconductor Lateral Heterostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jinwei; Lin, Meng-Hsien; Chen, Yi-Tong; Estakhri, Nasim Mohammadi; Tseng, Guo-Wei; Wang, Yanrong; Chen, Hung-Ying; Chen, Chun-An; Shih, Chih-Kang; Alã¹, Andrea; Li, Xiaoqin; Lee, Yi-Hsien; Gwo, Shangjr

    Recently, two-dimensional (2D) semiconductor heterostructures, i.e., atomically thin lateral heterostructures (LHSs) based on transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have been demonstrated. In an optically excited LHS, exciton transport is typically limited to a rather short spatial range ( 1 micron). Furthermore, additional losses may occur at the lateral interfacial regions. Here, to overcome these challenges, we experimentally implement a planar metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structure by placing a monolayer of WS2/MoS2 LHS on top of an Al2O3 capped Ag single-crystalline plate. We found that the exciton transport range can be extended to tens of microns. The process of long-range exciton transport in the MOS structure is confirmed to be mediated by an exciton-surface plasmon polariton-exciton conversion mechanism, which allows a cascaded energy transfer process. Thus, the planar MOS structure provides a platform seamlessly combining 2D light-emitting materials with plasmonic planar waveguides, offering great potential for developing integrated photonic/plasmonic functionalities.

  12. Generation and decay dynamics of triplet excitons in Alq3 thin films under high-density excitation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Sadayuki; Furube, Akihiro; Katoh, Ryuzi

    2006-08-31

    We studied the generation and decay dynamics of triplet excitons in tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) thin films by using transient absorption spectroscopy. Absorption spectra of both singlet and triplet excitons in the film were identified by comparison with transient absorption spectra of the ligand molecule (8-hydroxyquinoline) itself and the excited triplet state in solution previously reported. By measuring the excitation light intensity dependence of the absorption, we found that exciton annihilation dominated under high-density excitation conditions. Annihilation rate constants were estimated to be gammaSS = (6 +/- 3) x 10(-11) cm3 s(-1) for single excitons and gammaTT = (4 +/- 2) x 10(-13) cm3 s(-1) for triplet excitons. From detailed analysis of the light intensity dependence of the quantum yield of triplet excitons under high-density conditions, triplet excitons were mainly generated through fission from highly excited singlet states populated by singlet-singlet exciton annihilation. We estimated that 30% of the highly excited states underwent fission.

  13. Colloidal InP/ZnS core-shell nanocrystals studied by linearly and circularly polarized photoluminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langof, L.; Fradkin, L.; Ehrenfreund, E.; Lifshitz, E.; Micic, O.I.; Nozik, A.J.

    2004-01-01

    The magneto-optical properties of InP/ZnS core-shell nanocrystals (NCs) were investigated by measuring the degree of linear and circular polarization of photoluminescence (PL) spectra, in the presence of an external magnetic field under resonant or non-resonant excitation. The linearly polarized PL data strongly indicate that InP/ZnS NCs have a prolongated shape. The resonant-excited circularly polarized PL decay curves indicate that the spin relaxation time of the studied samples is shorter than the radiative lifetime of their exciton. Furthermore, the magnetic field-induced circularly polarized PL process reveals an exciton g factor (g ex ) of 0.55. Thus, such studies may serve as a tool to directly estimate the NC's shape anisotropy and to determine the g-factor of charge carriers and excitons in those NCs

  14. Colloidal InP/ZnS core shell nanocrystals studied by linearly and circularly polarized photoluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langof, L.; Fradkin, L.; Ehrenfreund, E.; Lifshitz, E.; Micic, O. I.; Nozik, A. J.

    2004-02-01

    The magneto-optical properties of InP/ZnS core-shell nanocrystals (NCs) were investigated by measuring the degree of linear and circular polarization of photoluminescence (PL) spectra, in the presence of an external magnetic field under resonant or non-resonant excitation. The linearly polarized PL data strongly indicate that InP/ZnS NCs have a prolongated shape. The resonant-excited circularly polarized PL decay curves indicate that the spin relaxation time of the studied samples is shorter than the radiative lifetime of their exciton. Furthermore, the magnetic field-induced circularly polarized PL process reveals an exciton g factor ( gex) of 0.55. Thus, such studies may serve as a tool to directly estimate the NC's shape anisotropy and to determine the g-factor of charge carriers and excitons in those NCs.

  15. Correlation effect of Rabi oscillations of excitons in quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishi-Hayase, J.; Akahane, K.; Yamamoto, Y.; Kujiraoka, M.; Ema, K.; Sasaki, M.

    2008-01-01

    We performed a transient four-wave mixing experiment on a strain-compensated InAs quantum dot (QD) ensemble over a wide range of excitation intensities. Under the resonant excitation of an exciton ground state, an extremely long dephasing time of 1 ns was found. By increasing the areas of the excitation pulses, Rabi oscillations of excitonic polarizations were clearly observed. The corresponding Rabi frequency is three orders of magnitude higher than the measured dephasing rate. For larger pulse areas, we found that the deviation of experimental data from two-level predictions became significant. The deviations cannot be explained by taking into account, as has been suggested in other research, excitation density-dependent dephasing or Hartree-Fock-type Coulomb interactions between excitons

  16. Wannier-Frenkel hybrid exciton in organic-semiconductor quantum dot heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birman, Joseph L.; Huong, Nguyen Que

    2007-01-01

    The formation of a hybridization state of Wannier Mott exciton and Frenkel exciton in different hetero-structure configurations involving quantum dots is investigated. The hybrid excitons exist at the interfaces of the semiconductors quantum dots and the organic medium, having unique properties and a large optical non-linearity. The coupling at resonance is very strong and tunable by changing the parameters of the systems (dot radius, dot-dot distance, generation of the organic dendrites and the materials of the system etc...). Different semiconductor quantum dot-organic material combination systems have been considered such as a semiconductor quantum dot lattice embedded in an organic host, a semiconductor quantum dot at the center of an organic dendrite, a semiconductor quantum dot coated by an organic shell

  17. Stark effect of excitons in corrugated lateral surface superlattices: effect of centre-of-mass quantization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong Sun

    1998-11-01

    The quantum confined Stark effect (QCSE) of excitons in GaAs/AlAs corrugated lateral surface superlattices (CLSSLs) is calculated. Blue and red shifts in the exciton energies are predicted for the heavy- and light-excitons in the CLSSLs, respectively, comparing with those in the unmodulated quantum well due to the different effective hole masses in the parallel direction. Sensitive dependence of the QCSE on the hole effective mass in the parallel direction is expected because of the ''centre-of-mass'' quantization (CMQ) induced by the periodic corrugated interfaces of the CLSSLs. The effect of the CMQ on the exciton mini-bands and the localization of the excitons in the CLSSLs is discussed. (author)

  18. Radiative lifetime and Lande-factor measurements of the Se I 4p35S 5S2 level using pulsed laser spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerne, R.

    1992-01-01

    This diploma project consists of spectroscopic examinations of atomic selenium. Natural selenium was thermally dissociated in a quarts resonance cell keeping the background pressure of selenium molecules low by differential heating. The 4p 3 5S 5 S 2 level was excited by frequency-tripled pulsed dye-laser radiation at 207 nm. From time-resolved recording of the fluorescence decay at 216 nm the natural radiative lifetime of the 5 S 2 level was determined to be 493(15) ns. Quantum-beat and optical double resonance measurements in an external magnetic field yielded g j = 2.0004(10) for the Lande factor

  19. Probing Exciton Diffusion and Dissociation in Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube-C60 Heterojunctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowgiallo, Anne-Marie; Mistry, Kevin S.; Johnson, Justin C.; Reid, Obadiah G.; Blackburn, Jeffrey L.

    2016-05-19

    The efficiency of thin-film organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices relies heavily upon the transport of excitons to type-II heterojunction interfaces, where there is sufficient driving force for exciton dissociation and ultimately the formation of charge carriers. Semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are strong near-infrared absorbers that form type-II heterojunctions with fullerenes such as C60. Although the efficiencies of SWCNT-fullerene OPV devices have climbed over the past few years, questions remain regarding the fundamental factors that currently limit their performance. In this study, we determine the exciton diffusion length in the C60 layer of SWCNT-C60 bilayer active layers using femtosecond transient absorption measurements. We demonstrate that hole transfer from photoexcited C60 molecules to SWCNTs can be tracked by the growth of narrow spectroscopic signatures of holes in the SWCNT 'reporter layer'. In bilayers with thick C60 layers, the SWCNT charge-related signatures display a slow rise over hundreds of picoseconds, reflecting exciton diffusion through the C60 layer to the interface. A model based on exciton diffusion with a Beer-Lambert excitation profile, as well as Monte Carlo simulations, gives the best fit to the data as a function of C60 layer thickness using an exciton diffusion length of approximately 5 nm.

  20. Real-Time Observation of Exciton-Phonon Coupling Dynamics in Self-Assembled Hybrid Perovskite Quantum Wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Limeng; Huynh, Uyen; Cheminal, Alexandre; Thomas, Tudor H; Shivanna, Ravichandran; Hinrichsen, Ture F; Ahmad, Shahab; Sadhanala, Aditya; Rao, Akshay

    2017-11-28

    Self-assembled hybrid perovskite quantum wells have attracted attention due to their tunable emission properties, ease of fabrication, and device integration. However, the dynamics of excitons in these materials, especially how they couple to phonons, remains an open question. Here, we investigate two widely used materials, namely, butylammonium lead iodide (CH 3 (CH 2 ) 3 NH 3 ) 2 PbI 4 and hexylammonium lead iodide (CH 3 (CH 2 ) 5 NH 3 ) 2 PbI 4 , both of which exhibit broad photoluminescence tails at room temperature. We performed femtosecond vibrational spectroscopy to obtain a real-time picture of the exciton-phonon interaction and directly identified the vibrational modes that couple to excitons. We show that the choice of the organic cation controls which vibrational modes the exciton couples to. In butylammonium lead iodide, excitons dominantly couple to a 100 cm -1 phonon mode, whereas in hexylammonium lead iodide, excitons interact with phonons with frequencies of 88 and 137 cm -1 . Using the determined optical phonon energies, we analyzed photoluminescence broadening mechanisms. At low temperatures (photoluminescence line shape observed in hybrid perovskite quantum wells and provide insights into the mechanism of exciton-phonon coupling in these materials.

  1. Terahertz field-induced ionization and perturbed free induction decay of excitons in bulk GaAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murotani, Yuta; Takayama, Masayuki; Sekiguchi, Fumiya; Kim, Changsu; Akiyama, Hidefumi; Shimano, Ryo

    2018-03-01

    We investigated the interaction between an intense terahertz (THz) pulse and excitons in bulk GaAs by using THz pump near-infrared (NIR) optical probe spectroscopy. We observed a clear spectral oscillation in the NIR transient absorption spectra at low temperature, which is interpreted as the THz pump-induced perturbed free induction decay (PFID) of the excitonic interband polarization. We performed a numerical simulation based on a microscopic theory and identified that the observed PFID signal originates from the THz field-induced ionization of excitons. Using a real-space representation of the excitonic wave function, we visualized how the ionization of an exciton proceeds under the intense single-cycle THz electric field. We also calculated the nonlinear susceptibility with the lowest-order perturbation theory assuming a weak THz pump, which showed a similar spectral feature with that obtained by the full treatment to field-induced ionization process. This coincidence is attributed to the fact that 1s-excitonic interband polarization is modified predominantly through interactions with the p-wave component of the excitonic wave function. A simple phenomenological expression of the PFID signal is presented to discuss effects of the THz pump pulse duration on the spectral oscillation.

  2. Judd–Ofelt modeling, emission lifetimes and non-radiative relaxation for Er{sup 3+} doped Cs{sub 2}NaYF{sub 6} elpasolite crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loiko, P.A. [ITMO University, 49 Kronverkskiy pr., St. Petersburg 197101 (Russian Federation); Vilejshikova, E.V. [Center for Optical Materials and Technologies (COMT), Belarusian National Technical University, 65/17 Nezavisimosti Ave., Minsk 220013 (Belarus); Khaidukov, N.M. [N.S. Kurnakov Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, 31 Leninskii Prospekt, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Méndez-Ramos, J. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de La Laguna, La Laguna 38206, Tenerife (Spain); Mateos, X. [Física i Cristallografia de Materials i Nanomaterials (FiCMA-FiCNA), Universitat Rovira i Virgili (URV), Campus Sescelades, c/ Marcellí Domingo, s/n., Tarragona 43007 (Spain); Yumashev, K.V., E-mail: k.yumashev@tut.by [Center for Optical Materials and Technologies (COMT), Belarusian National Technical University, 65/17 Nezavisimosti Ave., Minsk 220013 (Belarus)

    2017-05-15

    Absorption and emission properties of Er{sup 3+} ions in a cubic elpasolite crystal, Cs{sub 2}NaYF{sub 6}, are modeled within the Judd-Ofelt (J-O) theory. The J-O intensity parameters have been determined: Ω{sub 2} = 0.665, Ω{sub 4} = 0.217 and Ω{sub 6} = 0.029 ×10{sup –20} cm{sup 2}. The elpasolite structure of Cs{sub 2}NaYF{sub 6} containing isolated [YF{sub 6}] polyhedra allows high Er{sup 3+} doping levels up to 100 at% without considerable concentration quenching of luminescence and exceptionally long lifetimes of the excited states (in particular, the radiative lifetimes of the {sup 4}I{sub 13/2} and {sup 4}I{sub 11/2} states are as long as 36.7 ms and 113.4 ms, respectively). It also shows weak non-radiative relaxation. Stimulated-emission cross-sections have been determined for the Er{sup 3+} transitions in Cs{sub 2}NaYF{sub 6} at ~2.7 and ~1.5 μm as well as in the visible spectral range.

  3. Exciton binding energy in wurtzite InGaN/GaN quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seoung-Hwan; Kim, Jong-Jae; Kim, Hwa-Min

    2004-01-01

    The internal field and carrier density effects on the exciton binding energies in wurtzite (WZ) InGaN/GaN quantum-well (QW) structures are investigated using the multiband effective-mass theory, and are compared with those obtained from the at-band model and with those of GaN/AlGaN QW structures. The exciton binding energy is significantly reduced with increasing sheet carrier density, suggesting that excitons are nearly bleached at densities around 10 12 cm -2 for both InGaN/GaN and GaN/AlGaN QW structures. With the inclusion of the internal field, the exciton binding energy is substantialy reduced compared to that of the at-band model in the investigated region of the wells. This can be explained by a decrease in the momentum matrix element and an increase in the inverse screening length due to the internal field. The exciton binding energy of the InGaN/GaN structure is smaller than that of the GaN/AlGaN structure because InGaN/GaN structures have a smaller momentum matrix element and a larger inverse screening length than GaN/AlGaN structures.

  4. Exciton absorption of entangled photons in semiconductor quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Ferney; Guzman, David; Salazar, Luis; Quiroga, Luis; Condensed Matter Physics Group Team

    2013-03-01

    The dependence of the excitonic two-photon absorption on the quantum correlations (entanglement) of exciting biphotons by a semiconductor quantum well is studied. We show that entangled photon absorption can display very unusual features depending on space-time-polarization biphoton parameters and absorber density of states for both bound exciton states as well as for unbound electron-hole pairs. We report on the connection between biphoton entanglement, as quantified by the Schmidt number, and absorption by a semiconductor quantum well. Comparison between frequency-anti-correlated, unentangled and frequency-correlated biphoton absorption is addressed. We found that exciton oscillator strengths are highly increased when photons arrive almost simultaneously in an entangled state. Two-photon-absorption becomes a highly sensitive probe of photon quantum correlations when narrow semiconductor quantum wells are used as two-photon absorbers. Research funds from Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de los Andes

  5. H-point exciton transitions in bulk MoS2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saigal, Nihit; Ghosh, Sandip

    2015-01-01

    Reflectance and photoreflectance spectrum of bulk MoS 2 around its direct bandgap energy have been measured at 12 K. Apart from spectral features due to the A and B ground state exciton transitions at the K-point of the Brillouin zone, one observes additional features at nearby energies. Through lineshape analysis the character of two prominent additional features are shown to be quite different from that of A and B. By comparing with reported electronic band structure calculations, these two additional features are identified as ground state exciton transitions at the H-point of the Brillouin zone involving two spin-orbit split valance bands. The excitonic energy gap at the H-point is 1.965 eV with a valance bands splitting of 185 meV. While at the K-point, the corresponding values are 1.920 eV and 205 meV, respectively

  6. An Evaluation of C1-C3 Hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) Metrics: Lifetimes, Ozone Depletion Potentials, Radiative Efficiencies, Global Warming and Global Temperature Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkholder, J. B.; Papanastasiou, D. K.; Marshall, P.

    2017-12-01

    Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) have been used as chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) substitutes in a number of applications, e.g. refrigerator and air-conditioning systems. Although HCFCs have lower ozone-depletion potentials (ODPs) compared to CFCs, they are potent greenhouse gases. The twenty-eighth meeting of the parties to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (Kigali, 2016) included a list of 274 HCFCs to be controlled under the Montreal Protocol. However, from this list, only 15 of the HCFCs have values for their atmospheric lifetime, ODP, global warming potential (GWP), and global temperature potential (GTP) that are based on fundamental experimental studies, while 48 are registered compounds. In this work, we present a comprehensive evaluation of the atmospheric lifetimes, ODPs, radiative efficiencies (REs), GWPs, and GTPs for all 274 HCFCs to be included in the Montreal Protocol. Atmospheric lifetimes were estimated based on HCFC reactivity with OH radicals and O(1D), as well as their removal by UV photolysis using structure activity relationships and reactivity trends. ODP values are based on the semi-empirical approach described in the WMO/UNEP ozone assessment. Radiative efficiencies were estimated, based on infrared spectra calculated using theoretical electronic structure methods (Gaussian 09). GWPs and GTPs were calculated relative to CO2 using our estimated atmospheric lifetimes and REs. The details of the methodology will be discussed as well as the associated uncertainties. This study has provided a consistent set of atmospheric metrics for a wide range of HCFCs that support future policy decisions. More accurate metrics for a specific HCFC, if desired, would require fundamental laboratory studies to better define the OH reactivity and infrared absorption spectrum of the compound of interest. Overall, HCFCs within the same family (isomers) show a large ODP, GWP, GTP dependence on the molecular geometry of the isomers. The

  7. Beam-foil lifetimes of highly ionized silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traebert, E.; Heckmann, P.H.; Buttlar, H. v.

    1977-01-01

    Electronically excited states of Si ions are created by passing a 20 MeV Si 5+ beam through a thin carbon foil. The EUV-radiation (lambda = 13-61 nm) emitted by the beam is analyzed using a grazing-incidence spectrometer. From the decay curves, lifetimes of 24 low lying levels in Si VIII to Si XII and of the 4f and 5g levels of Si XI and Si XII are derived. Cascades from doubly excited states turn out to be an important contribution to the radiation observed. The lifetime values of this work are compared to theoretical data mainly of Wiese, Sinanoglu and Dankwort/Trefftz. Most experimental values agree with at least one of the theoretical values. The decay time 560 ps of the 2s2p 3 3 D 0 3 state of Si IX is clearly longer than the theoretical prediction (highest value 455 ps by Sinanoglu). (orig.) [de

  8. Reduced Charge Transfer Exciton Recombination in Organic Semiconductor Heterojunctions by Molecular Doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschler, Felix; da Como, Enrico; Limmer, Thomas; Tautz, Raphael; Godde, Tillmann; Bayer, Manfred; von Hauff, Elizabeth; Yilmaz, Seyfullah; Allard, Sybille; Scherf, Ullrich; Feldmann, Jochen

    2011-09-01

    We investigate the effect of molecular doping on the recombination of electrons and holes localized at conjugated-polymer-fullerene interfaces. We demonstrate that a low concentration of p-type dopant molecules (<4% weight) reduces the interfacial recombination via charge transfer excitons and results in a favored formation of separated carriers. This is observed by the ultrafast quenching of photoluminescence from charge transfer excitons and the increase in photoinduced polaron density by ˜70%. The results are consistent with a reduced formation of emissive charge transfer excitons, induced by state filling of tail states.

  9. PbSe Nanocrystal Excitonic Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Joshua J.; Lim, Yee-Fun; Santiago-Berrios, Mitk’ El B.; Oh, Matthew; Hyun, Byung-Ryool; Sun, Liangfeng; Bartnik, Adam C.; Goedhart, Augusta; Malliaras, George G.; Abruña, Héctor D.; Wise, Frank W.; Hanrath, Tobias

    2009-01-01

    that Is distinct from previously reported Schottky devices and consistent with signatures of excitonic solar cells. Remarkably, despite the limitation of planar junction structure, and without film thickness optimization, the best performing device shows a 1-sun

  10. Spectral signatures of x((5)) processes in four-wave mixing of homogeneously broadened excitons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langbein, W.; Meier, T.; Koch, S.W.

    2001-01-01

    -biexciton beating at the exciton resonance is observed that is vanishing for long negative delays owing to the faster dephasing in the two-exciton continuum compared with the bound biexciton state. These results are in qualitative agreement with microscopic model calculations that include the coherent dynamics...... of one- and two-exciton resonances up to the fifth order in the optical field....

  11. Exciton localization-delocalization transition in an extended dendrimer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pouthier, Vincent, E-mail: vincent.pouthier@univ-fcomte.fr [Institut UTINAM, Université de Franche-Comté, CNRS UMR 6213, 25030 Besançon Cedex (France)

    2013-12-21

    Exciton-mediated quantum state transfer between the periphery and the core of an extended dendrimer is investigated numerically. By mapping the dynamics onto that of a linear chain, it is shown that a localization-delocalization transition arises for a critical value of the generation number G{sub c} ≈ 5. This transition originates in the quantum interferences experienced by the excitonic wave due to the multiple scatterings that arise each time the wave tunnels from one generation to another. These results suggest that only small-size dendrimers could be used for designing an efficient quantum communication protocol.

  12. Exciton localization-delocalization transition in an extended dendrimer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouthier, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Exciton-mediated quantum state transfer between the periphery and the core of an extended dendrimer is investigated numerically. By mapping the dynamics onto that of a linear chain, it is shown that a localization-delocalization transition arises for a critical value of the generation number G c ≈ 5. This transition originates in the quantum interferences experienced by the excitonic wave due to the multiple scatterings that arise each time the wave tunnels from one generation to another. These results suggest that only small-size dendrimers could be used for designing an efficient quantum communication protocol

  13. Intrinsic homogeneous linewidth and broadening mechanisms of excitons in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides

    KAUST Repository

    Moody, Galan; Kavir Dass, Chandriker; Hao, Kai; Chen, Chang-Hsiao; Li, Lain-Jong; Singh, Akshay; Tran, Kha; Clark, Genevieve; Xu, Xiaodong; Berghä user, Gunnar; Malic, Ermin; Knorr, Andreas; Li, Xiaoqin

    2015-01-01

    unknown property of valley excitons in these materials is the intrinsic homogeneous linewidth, which reflects irreversible quantum dissipation arising from system (exciton) and bath (vacuum and other quasiparticles) interactions and determines

  14. A Comparison Between Magnetic Field Effects in Excitonic and Exciplex Organic Light-Emitting Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin Tiras, Kevser; Wang, Yifei; Harmon, Nicholas J.; Wohlgenannt, Markus; Flatte, Michael E.

    In flat-panel displays and lighting applications, organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) have been widely used because of their efficient light emission, low-cost manufacturing and flexibility. The electrons and holes injected from the anode and cathode, respectively, form a tightly bound exciton as they meet at a molecule in organic layer. Excitons occur as spin singlets or triplets and the ratio between singlet and triplet excitons formed is 1:3 based on spin degeneracy. The internal quantum efficiency (IQE) of fluorescent-based OLEDs is limited 25% because only singlet excitons contribute the light emission. To overcome this limitation, thermally activated delayed fluorescent (TADF) materials have been introduced in the field of OLEDs. The exchange splitting between the singlet and triplet states of two-component exciplex systems is comparable to the thermal energy in TADF materials, whereas it is usually much larger in excitons. Reverse intersystem crossing occurs from triplet to singlet exciplex state, and this improves the IQE. An applied small magnetic field can change the spin dynamics of recombination in TADF blends. In this study, magnetic field effects on both excitonic and exciplex OLEDs will be presented and comparison similarities and differences will be made.

  15. Lifetime evaluation of plasma-facing materials during a tokamak disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanein, A.; Konkashbaev, I.

    1995-09-01

    Erosion losses of plasma-facing materials in a tokamak reactor during major disruptions, giant ELMS, and large power excursions are serious concerns that influence component survivability and overall lifetime. Two different mechanisms lead to material erosion during these events: surface vaporization and loss of the melt layer. Hydrodynamics and radiation transport in the rapidly developed vapor-cloud region above the exposed area are found to control and determine the net erosion thickness from surface vaporization. A comprehensive self-consistent kinetic model has been developed in which the time-dependent optical properties and the radiation field of the vapor cloud are calculated in order to correctly estimate the radiation flux at the divertor surface. The developed melt layer of metallic divertor materials will, however, be free to move and can be eroded away due to various forces. , Physical mechanisms that affect surface vaporization and cause melt layer erosion are integrated in a comprehensive model. It is found that for metallic components such as beryllium and tungsten, lifetime due to these abnormal events will be controlled and dominated by the evolution and hydrodynamics of the melt layer during the disruption. The dependence of divertor plate lifetime on various aspects of plasma/material interaction physics is discussed

  16. Superposition of the luminescence spectra of free and bound excitons in ZnP2-D48

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamov, Ion; Nemerenco, Lucretia; Ivanenco, Iurii; Syrbu, Nicolae

    2011-01-01

    The luminescence spectra of ZnP 2 tetragonal crystals doped Mn, Sn, Cd, Sb at 10 K emission lines of bound excitons is detected. In the spectra non-phonon emission lines of bound and free excitons and their phonon replicas is isolated. The emission lines by the levels of the axial center are described. The composition of the luminescence of free and bound excitons at the axial center is investigated. In the region of phonon replicas of free excitons observed enhancement of lines due to forbidden transitions involving the recombination of excitons. A model of optic recombination transitions of the axial centre is proposed

  17. Exciton shelves for charge and energy transport in third-generation quantum-dot devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Samuel; Singh, Vivek; Noh, Hyunwoo; Casamada, Josep; Chatterjee, Anushree; Cha, Jennifer; Nagpal, Prashant

    2014-03-01

    Quantum dots are semiconductor nanocrystallites with size-dependent quantum-confined energy levels. While they have been intensively investigated to utilize hot-carriers for photovoltaic applications, to bridge the mismatch between incident solar photons and finite bandgap of semiconductor photocells, efficient charge or exciton transport in quantum-dot films has proven challenging. Here we show development of new coupled conjugated molecular wires with ``exciton shelves'', or different energy levels, matched with the multiple energy levels of quantum dots. Using single nanoparticle and ensemble device measurements we show successful extraction and transport of both bandedge and high-energy charge carriers, and energy transport of excitons. We demonstrate using measurements of electronic density of states, that careful matching of energy states of quantum-dot with molecular wires is important, and any mismatch can generate midgap states leading to charge recombination and reduced efficiency. Therefore, these exciton-shelves and quantum dots can lead to development of next-generation photovoltaic and photodetection devices using simultaneous transport of bandedge and hot-carriers or energy transport of excitons in these nanostructured solution-processed films.

  18. Phosphorescence as a probe of exciton formation and energy transfer in organic light emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldo, M.; Segal, M.

    2004-01-01

    The development of highly efficient phosphorescent molecules has approximately quadrupled the quantum efficiency of organic light emitting devices (OLEDs). By harnessing triplet as well as singlet excitons, efficient molecular phosphorescence has also enabled novel studies of exciton physics in organic semiconductors. In this review, we will summarize recent progress in understanding exciton formation and energy transfer using phosphorescent molecular probes. Particular emphasis is given to two topics of current interest: energy transfer in blue phosphorescent OLEDs, and quantifying the formation ratio of singlet to triplet excitons in small-molecular weight materials and polymers. (orig.)

  19. Plasmonic Structure Enhanced Exciton Generation at the Interface between the Perovskite Absorber and Copper Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kuen-Feng; Chiang, Chien-Hung; Wu, Chun-Guey

    2014-01-01

    The refractive index and extinction coefficient of a triiodide perovskite absorber (TPA) were obtained by fitting the transmittance spectra of TPA/PEDOT:PSS/ITO/glass using the transfer matrix method. Cu nanoplasmonic structures were designed to enhance the exciton generation in the TPA and to simultaneously reduce the film thickness of the TPA. Excitons were effectively generated at the interface between TPA and Cu nanoparticles, as observed through the 3D finite-difference time-domain method. The exciton distribution is advantageous for the exciton dissociation and carrier transport. PMID:25295290

  20. Atmospheric lifetimes, infrared absorption spectra, radiative forcings and global warming potentials of NF3 and CF3CF2Cl (CFC-115

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Totterdill

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fluorinated compounds such as NF3 and C2F5Cl (CFC-115 are characterised by very large global warming potentials (GWPs, which result from extremely long atmospheric lifetimes and strong infrared absorptions in the atmospheric window. In this study we have experimentally determined the infrared absorption cross sections of NF3 and CFC-115, calculated the radiative forcing and efficiency using two radiative transfer models and identified the effect of clouds and stratospheric adjustment. The infrared cross sections are within 10 % of previous measurements for CFC-115 but are found to be somewhat larger than previous estimates for NF3, leading to a radiative efficiency for NF3 that is 25 % larger than that quoted in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fifth Assessment Report. A whole atmosphere chemistry–climate model was used to determine the atmospheric lifetimes of NF3 and CFC-115 to be (509 ± 21 years and (492 ± 22 years, respectively. The GWPs for NF3 are estimated to be 15 600, 19 700 and 19 700 over 20, 100 and 500 years, respectively. Similarly, the GWPs for CFC-115 are 6030, 7570 and 7480 over 20, 100 and 500 years, respectively.

  1. Exciton and biexciton signatures in femtosecond transient absorption of π-conjugated oligomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimov, Victor I.; McBranch, Duncan W.; Barashkov, Nikolay N.; Ferraris, John P.

    1997-12-01

    We report femtosecond transient-absorption studies of a five-ring oligomer of polyphenylenevinylene prepared in two different forms: as solid-state films and dilute solutions. Both types of samples exhibit a photoinduced absorption (PA) band with dynamics which closely match those of the stimulated emission (SE), demonstrating unambiguously that these features originate from the same species, namely from intrachain singlet excitons. Photochemical degradation of the solid-state samples is demonstrated to dramatically shorten the SE dynamics above a moderate incident pump fluence, whereupon the dynamics of the SE and the long- wavelength PA no longer coincide. In contrast to solutions, solid-state films exhibit an additional short-wavelength PA band with pump-independent dynamics, indicating the efficient formation of non-emissive inter-chain excitons. Correlations in the subpicosecond dynamics of the two PA features, as well as the pump intensity-dependence provide strong evidence that the formation of inter-chain excitons is mediated by intrachain two-exciton states. At high pump levels, we see a clear indication of interaction between excited states also in dilute solutions. This is manifested as a superlinear pump-dependence and shortening of the decay dynamics of the SE. We attribute this behavior to the formation of biexcitons resulting from coherent interaction between two excitons on a single chain.

  2. Excitonic surface polaritons in luminescence from ZnTe crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodin, M.S.; Bandura, V.M.; Matsko, M.G.

    1984-01-01

    The form and structure of reflection and exciton-polariton luminescence spectra of ZnTe crystals are studied in the region of the ground (n = 1) exciton state. The longitudinal-transverse splitting magnitude ΔE/sub LT/ is determined from the shape of the reflection spectra. A detected doublet structure of an emission band from the lower polariton branch is associated with the k-linear term. The evolution of bulk and surface polariton luminescence spectra versus temperature and wavelength of the exciting light is investigated. (author)

  3. Excitonic surface polaritons in luminescence from ZnTe crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodin, M.S.; Bandura, V.M.; Matsko, M.G. (AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev. Inst. Fiziki)

    1984-10-01

    The form and structure of reflection and exciton-polariton luminescence spectra of ZnTe crystals are studied in the region of the ground (n = 1) exciton state. The longitudinal-transverse splitting magnitude ..delta..E/sub LT/ is determined from the shape of the reflection spectra. A detected doublet structure of an emission band from the lower polariton branch is associated with the k-linear term. The evolution of bulk and surface polariton luminescence spectra versus temperature and wavelength of the exciting light is investigated.

  4. Well separated trion and neutral excitons on superacid treated MoS{sub 2} monolayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadiz, Fabian, E-mail: cadiz@insa-toulouse.fr; Tricard, Simon; Gay, Maxime; Lagarde, Delphine; Wang, Gang; Robert, Cedric; Renucci, Pierre; Urbaszek, Bernhard; Marie, Xavier [Université de Toulouse, INSA-CNRS-UPS, LPCNO, 135 Av. Rangueil, 31077 Toulouse (France)

    2016-06-20

    Developments in optoelectronics and spin-optronics based on transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers (MLs) need materials with efficient optical emission and well-defined transition energies. In as-exfoliated MoS{sub 2} MLs, the photoluminescence (PL) spectra even at low temperature consist typically of broad, overlapping contributions from neutral, charged excitons (trions) and localized states. Here, we show that in superacid treated MoS{sub 2} MLs, the PL intensity increases by up to 60 times at room temperature. The neutral and charged exciton transitions are spectrally well separated in PL and reflectivity at T = 4 K, with linewidth for the neutral exciton of 15 meV, but both transitions have similar intensities compared to the ones in as-exfoliated MLs at the same temperature. Time resolved experiments uncover picoseconds recombination dynamics analyzed separately for charged and neutral exciton emissions. Using the chiral interband selection rules, we demonstrate optically induced valley polarization for both complexes and valley coherence for only the neutral exciton.

  5. Microscopic description of exciton polaritons in direct two-band semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Van Trong; Mahler, Günter

    1999-07-01

    Based on a quantum electrodynamical formulation, a microscopic description of exciton polaritons in a two-band semiconductor is presented. We show that the interband exchange Coulomb interaction, responsible for the coupling of the exciton with the longitudinal part of the induced field, should be treated on equal footing together with the coupling to the transverse part of the induced field (the photon field). The constitutive relation is established to connect the current density with the total electric field of polaritons. The classical Maxwell equations are derived from the quantum representation of photons to get a closed system of equations. The temporal evolution for an initial excited exciton state is studied in detail and an anisotropic polariton vacuum Rabi splitting is shown to occur. A number of up-to-now unresolved discrepancies in the literature are clarified.

  6. Quantum-dot excitons in nanostructured environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Stobbe, Søren; Lodahl, Peter

    2010-01-01

    determined the oscillator strength, quantum efficiency and spin-flip rates of QD excitons as well as their dependencies on emission wavelength and QD size. Enhancement and inhibition of QD spontaneous emission in photonic crystal membranes (PCMs) is observed. Efficient coupling to PCM waveguides...

  7. Quantum-dot excitons in nanostructured environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Stobbe, Søren; Lodahl, Peter

    2011-01-01

    determined the oscillator strength, quantum efficiency and spin-flip rates of QD excitons as well as their dependencies on emission wavelength and QD size. Enhancement and inhibition of QD spontaneous emission in photonic crystal membranes (PCMs) is observed. Efficient coupling to PCM waveguides...

  8. Visualising Berry phase and diabolical points in a quantum exciton-polariton billiard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrecho, E; Gao, T; Brodbeck, S; Kamp, M; Schneider, C; Höfling, S; Truscott, A G; Ostrovskaya, E A

    2016-11-25

    Diabolical points (spectral degeneracies) can naturally occur in spectra of two-dimensional quantum systems and classical wave resonators due to simple symmetries. Geometric Berry phase is associated with these spectral degeneracies. Here, we demonstrate a diabolical point and the corresponding Berry phase in the spectrum of hybrid light-matter quasiparticles-exciton-polaritons in semiconductor microcavities. It is well known that sufficiently strong optical pumping can drive exciton-polaritons to quantum degeneracy, whereby they form a macroscopically populated quantum coherent state similar to a Bose-Einstein condensate. By pumping a microcavity with a spatially structured light beam, we create a two-dimensional quantum billiard for the exciton-polariton condensate and demonstrate a diabolical point in the spectrum of the billiard eigenstates. The fully reconfigurable geometry of the potential walls controlled by the optical pump enables a striking experimental visualization of the Berry phase associated with the diabolical point. The Berry phase is observed and measured by direct imaging of the macroscopic exciton-polariton probability densities.

  9. Simulating Excitons in MoS2 with Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamant, Cedric; Kolesov, Grigory; Kaxiras, Efthimios

    Monolayer molybdenum disulfide, owing to its graphene-like two-dimensional geometry whilst still having a finite bandgap, is a material of great interest in condensed matter physics and for potential application in electronic devices. In particular, MoS2 exhibits significant excitonic effects, a desirable quality for fundamental many-body research. Time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) allows us to simulate dynamical effects as well as temperature-based effects in a natural way given the direct treatment of the time evolution of the system. We present a TD-DFT study of monolayer MoS2 exciton dynamics, examining various qualitative and quantitative predictions in pure samples and in the presence of defects. In particular, we generate an absorption spectrum through simulated pulse excitation for comparison to experiment and also analyze the response of the exciton in an external electric field.In this work we also discuss the electronic structure of the exciton in MoS2 with and without vacancies.

  10. Quantum condensation from a tailored exciton population in a microcavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eastham, P. R.; Phillips, R. T.

    2009-01-01

    An experiment is proposed on the coherent quantum dynamics of a semiconductor microcavity containing quantum dots. Modeling the experiment using a generalized Dicke model, we show that a tailored excitation pulse can create an energy-dependent population of excitons, which subsequently evolves to a quantum condensate of excitons and photons. The population is created by a generalization of adiabatic rapid passage and then condenses due to a dynamical analog of the BCS instability.

  11. Lifetime Extension Report: Progress on the SAVY-4000 Lifetime Extension Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, Cynthia F.; Smith, Paul Herrick; Weis, Eric M.; Blair, Michael W.; Stone, Timothy Amos; Veirs, Douglas Kirk; Reeves, Kirk Patrick; Karns, Tristan; Oka, Jude M.; Keller, Jennie; Meincke, Linda Jeanne; Torres, Joseph Angelo; Herman, Matthew Joseph; Weaver, Brian Phillip; Adams, Jillian Cathleen; Trautschold, Olivia Carol

    2016-01-01

    The 3-year accelerated aging study of the SAVY-4000 O-ring shows very little evidence of significant degradation to samples subjected to aggressive elevated temperature and radiation conditions. Whole container thermal aging studies followed by helium leakage testing and compression set measurements were used to establish an estimate for a failure criterion for O-ring compression set of ?65 %. The whole container aging studies further show that the air flow and efficiency functions of the filter do not degrade significantly after thermal aging. However, the degradation of the water-resistant function leads to water penetration failure after four months at 210°C, but does not cause failure after 10 months at 120°C (130°C is the maximum operating temperature for the PTFE membrane). The thermal aging data for O-ring compression set do not meet the assumptions of standard time-temperature superposition analysis for accelerated aging studies. Instead, the data suggest that multiple degradation mechanisms are operative, with a reversible mechanism operative at low aging temperatures and an irreversible mechanism dominating at high aging temperatures. To distinguish between these mechanisms, we have measured compression set after allowing the sample to physically relax, thereby minimizing the effect of the reversible mechanism. The resulting data were analyzed using two distinct mathematical methods to obtain a lifetime estimate based on chemical degradation alone. Both methods support a lifetime estimate of greater than 150 years at 80°C. Although the role of the reversible mechanism is not fully understood, it is clear that the contribution to the total compression set is small in comparison to that due to the chemical degradation mechanism. To better understand the chemical degradation mechanism, thermally aged O-ring samples have been characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR), Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC), and

  12. Lifetime Extension Report: Progress on the SAVY-4000 Lifetime Extension Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, Cynthia F. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology. Engineered Materials; Smith, Paul Herrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Nuclear Process Infrastructure; Weis, Eric M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology. Engineered Materials; Blair, Michael W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology. Engineered Materials; Stone, Timothy Amos [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Nuclear Process Infrastructure; Veirs, Douglas Kirk [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Manufacturing Engineering and Technology; Reeves, Kirk Patrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Nuclear Process Infrastructure; Karns, Tristan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Nuclear Process Infrastructure; Oka, Jude M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Nuclear Process Infrastructure; Keller, Jennie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology. Engineered Materials; Meincke, Linda Jeanne [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology. Engineered Materials; Torres, Joseph Angelo [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology. Engineered Materials; Herman, Matthew Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology. Engineered Materials; Weaver, Brian Phillip [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Computer, Computational, and Statistical Sciences. Statistical Sciences; Adams, Jillian Cathleen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology. Engineered Materials; Trautschold, Olivia Carol [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology. Engineered Materials

    2016-09-20

    The 3-year accelerated aging study of the SAVY-4000 O-ring shows very little evidence of significant degradation to samples subjected to aggressive elevated temperature and radiation conditions. Whole container thermal aging studies followed by helium leakage testing and compression set measurements were used to establish an estimate for a failure criterion for O-ring compression set of ≥65 %. The whole container aging studies further show that the air flow and efficiency functions of the filter do not degrade significantly after thermal aging. However, the degradation of the water-resistant function leads to water penetration failure after four months at 210°C, but does not cause failure after 10 months at 120°C (130°C is the maximum operating temperature for the PTFE membrane). The thermal aging data for O-ring compression set do not meet the assumptions of standard time-temperature superposition analysis for accelerated aging studies. Instead, the data suggest that multiple degradation mechanisms are operative, with a reversible mechanism operative at low aging temperatures and an irreversible mechanism dominating at high aging temperatures. To distinguish between these mechanisms, we have measured compression set after allowing the sample to physically relax, thereby minimizing the effect of the reversible mechanism. The resulting data were analyzed using two distinct mathematical methods to obtain a lifetime estimate based on chemical degradation alone. Both methods support a lifetime estimate of greater than 150 years at 80°C. Although the role of the reversible mechanism is not fully understood, it is clear that the contribution to the total compression set is small in comparison to that due to the chemical degradation mechanism. To better understand the chemical degradation mechanism, thermally aged O-ring samples have been characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR), Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC

  13. Continuum contribution to excitonic four-wave mixing due to interaction-induced nonlinearities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkedal, Dan; Vadim, Lyssenko; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    1996-01-01

    We present an experimental and theoretical investigation of ultrafast transient four-wave mixing of GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs quantum wells for coherent excitation of exciton and continuum states. The signal appears at the exciton resonance and is shown to consist of two contributions: an intense spectrall...

  14. Excitons and continuum transitions of rubidium halides in the 10 - 26 eV photon energy range at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zierau, W.; Skibowski, M.

    1975-04-01

    The reflection spectra of RbCl, RbBr and RbI single crystals were investigated for temperatures between 300 K and 8 K in order to study excitations from the Rb + 4p level (> approximately 16 eV) as well as the higher continuum transitions from the valence band (> approximately 10 eV). The measurements were performed by use of the synchrotron radiation of DESY. The sensitivity for detecting details of the fine structure was increased by simultaneously measuring the wavelength modulated spectra. The experimental procedure is briefly described. New spectral features have been resolved for the exciton multiplets from the Rb + 4p level. They are discussed in light of the predictions of a recent model for the Rb + 4p excitons based on ligand field theory. The continuum transitions associated with the valence band and the Rb + 4p level show characteristic structure which is compared with calculations of the joint density of states. (orig.) [de

  15. Colloidal InP/ZnS core-shell nanocrystals studied by linearly and circularly polarized photoluminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langof, L.; Fradkin, L.; Ehrenfreund, E.; Lifshitz, E.; Micic, O.I.; Nozik, A.J

    2004-02-16

    The magneto-optical properties of InP/ZnS core-shell nanocrystals (NCs) were investigated by measuring the degree of linear and circular polarization of photoluminescence (PL) spectra, in the presence of an external magnetic field under resonant or non-resonant excitation. The linearly polarized PL data strongly indicate that InP/ZnS NCs have a prolongated shape. The resonant-excited circularly polarized PL decay curves indicate that the spin relaxation time of the studied samples is shorter than the radiative lifetime of their exciton. Furthermore, the magnetic field-induced circularly polarized PL process reveals an exciton g factor (g{sub ex}) of 0.55. Thus, such studies may serve as a tool to directly estimate the NC's shape anisotropy and to determine the g-factor of charge carriers and excitons in those NCs.

  16. Process of defect formation in alkaline halogenides contaminated with Eu2+ induced by non ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedroza M, M.; Melendrez, R.; Barboza F, M.; Castaneda, B.

    2004-01-01

    The creation of defects in polluted alkaline halogenides with divalent impurities exposed to ionizing radiation is explained by means of the creation of auto trapped excitons (STE), which can be formed by means of the excitement of the halogen ion or through the trapping of electrons in centers V K taken place during the process of ionization of the halogen ion. The luminescent recombination of the exciton auto trapped produces a characteristic exciton luminescence and the recombination non radiative causes the formation of the Frenkel type defects, even of centers F - H. Experimentally has been demonstrated that the same type of glasses, exposed to radiation non ionizing of the type UV of around 230 nm, they produce defects similar Frenkel. The situation is interesting all time that photons of 230 nm (5.3 eV) they cannot create excitons directly since they are in an energy level of approximately 2.4 inferior eV to the necessary energy for the production of the same ones. In order to investigating the type of process of creation of defects with UV light energy below the energy of the band prohibited in polluted alkaline halogenides with Eu 2+ , mainly looking for experimental information that allows to explain the creation of defects taken place by the radiation non ionizing, one carries out the present work. It was found that, independently of the energy of the radiation used for the excitement, the emission comes from the transition 4f 6 5d(t 2g )-4f 7 ( 8 S 7/2 ) of the ion Eu 2+ characterized by a wide band centered in 420 nm and an additional component in 460 nm of possibly intrinsic origin. It was determined that so much the F centers and F z participate in the thermoluminescent processes and of optically stimulated luminescence, achieving to identify those peaks of Tl strictly associated to the F centers (peak in 470 K for the KCl: Eu 2+ ) and F z (peak in 370 K). Also, by means of a process of selective photo stimulation evidence was obtained that the F

  17. Efficient Multiple Exciton Generation Observed in Colloidal PbSe Quantum Dots with Temporally and Spectrally Resolved Intraband Excitation

    KAUST Repository

    Ji, Minbiao

    2009-03-11

    We have spectrally resolved the intraband transient absorption of photogenerated excitons to quantify the exciton population dynamics in colloidal PbSe quantum dots (QDs). These measurements demonstrate that the spectral distribution, as well as the amplitude, of the transient spectrum depends on the number of excitons excited in a QD. To accurately quantify the average number of excitons per QD, the transient spectrum must be spectrally integrated. With spectral integration, we observe efficient multiple exciton generation In colloidal PbSe QDs. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  18. Efficient Multiple Exciton Generation Observed in Colloidal PbSe Quantum Dots with Temporally and Spectrally Resolved Intraband Excitation

    KAUST Repository

    Ji, Minbiao; Park, Sungnam; Connor, Stephen T.; Mokari, Taleb; Cui, Yi; Gaffney, Kelly J.

    2009-01-01

    We have spectrally resolved the intraband transient absorption of photogenerated excitons to quantify the exciton population dynamics in colloidal PbSe quantum dots (QDs). These measurements demonstrate that the spectral distribution, as well as the amplitude, of the transient spectrum depends on the number of excitons excited in a QD. To accurately quantify the average number of excitons per QD, the transient spectrum must be spectrally integrated. With spectral integration, we observe efficient multiple exciton generation In colloidal PbSe QDs. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  19. Creation of radiation defects in KCl crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lushchik, A.Ch.; Pung, L.A.; Khaldre, Yu.Yu.; Kolk, Yu.V.

    1981-01-01

    Optical and EPR methods were used to study the creation of anion and cation Frenkel defects in KCl crystals irradiated by X-ray and VUV-radiation. The decay of excitons with the creation of charged Frenkel defects (α and I centres) was detected and investigated at 4.2 K. The decay of excitons as well as the recombination of electrons with self-trapped holes leads to the creation of neutral Frenkel defects (F and H centres). The creation of Cl 3 - and Vsub(F) centres (cation vacancy is a component of these centres) by X-irradiation at 80 K proves the possibility of cation defects creation in KCl [ru

  20. Ultrafast dynamics of confined and localised excitons and biexcitons in low-dimensional semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Langbein, Wolfgang; Borri, Paola

    1999-01-01

    Coherent optical spectroscopy in the form of nonlinear transient four-wave mixing (TFWM) and linear resonant Rayleigh scattering (RRS) has been applied to investigate the exciton dynamics of low-dimensional semiconductor heterostructures. The dephasing times of excitons are determined from...

  1. Exciton and biexciton signatures in femotosecond transient absorption of {pi}-conjugated oligomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimov, V.; McBranch, D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Barashkov, N.; Ferraris, J. [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States)

    1997-10-01

    The authors report femotosecond transient-absorption studies of a five-ring oligomer of polyphenylenevinylene (PPV) prepared in two different forms: as solid-state films and dilute solutions. Both types of samples exhibit a photoinduced absorption (PA) band with dynamics which closely match those of the stimulated emission (SE), demonstrating unambiguously that these features originate from the same species, namely from intrachain singlet excitons. Photo-chemical degradation of the solid-state samples is demonstrated to dramatically shorten the SE dynamics above a moderate incident pump fluence, whereupon the dynamics of the SE and the long-wavelength PA no longer coincide. In contrast to solutions, solid-state films exhibit an additional short-wavelength PA band with pump-independent dynamics, indicating the efficient formation of non-emissive inter-chain excitons. Correlations in the subpicosecond dynamics of the two PA features, as well as the pump intensity-dependence provide strong evidence that the formation of inter-chain excitons is mediated by intrachain two-exciton states. At high pump levels, the authors see a clear indication of interaction between excited states also in dilute solutions. This is manifested as a superlinear pump-dependence and shortening of the decay dynamics of the SE. They attribute this behavior to the formation of biexcitons resulting from coherent interaction between two excitons on a single chain.

  2. Simultaneous monitoring of singlet and triplet exciton variations in solid organic semiconductors driven by an external static magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Baofu, E-mail: b.ding@ecu.edu.au; Alameh, Kamal, E-mail: k.alameh@ecu.edu.au [Electron Science Research Institute, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, WA 6027 (Australia)

    2014-07-07

    The research field of organic spintronics has remarkably and rapidly become a promising research area for delivering a range of high-performance devices, such as magnetic-field sensors, spin valves, and magnetically modulated organic light emitting devices (OLEDs). Plenty of microscopic physical and chemical models based on exciton or charge interactions have been proposed to explain organic magneto-optoelectronic phenomena. However, the simultaneous observation of singlet- and triplet-exciton variations in an external magnetic field is still unfeasible, preventing a thorough theoretical description of the spin dynamics in organic semiconductors. Here, we show that we can simultaneously observe variations of singlet excitons and triplet excitons in an external magnetic field, by designing an OLED structure employing a singlet-exciton filtering and detection layer in conjunction with a separate triplet-exciton detection layer. This OLED structure enables the observation of a Lorentzian and a non-Lorentzian line-shape magnetoresponse for singlet excitons and triplet excitons, respectively.

  3. Simultaneous monitoring of singlet and triplet exciton variations in solid organic semiconductors driven by an external static magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Baofu; Alameh, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    The research field of organic spintronics has remarkably and rapidly become a promising research area for delivering a range of high-performance devices, such as magnetic-field sensors, spin valves, and magnetically modulated organic light emitting devices (OLEDs). Plenty of microscopic physical and chemical models based on exciton or charge interactions have been proposed to explain organic magneto-optoelectronic phenomena. However, the simultaneous observation of singlet- and triplet-exciton variations in an external magnetic field is still unfeasible, preventing a thorough theoretical description of the spin dynamics in organic semiconductors. Here, we show that we can simultaneously observe variations of singlet excitons and triplet excitons in an external magnetic field, by designing an OLED structure employing a singlet-exciton filtering and detection layer in conjunction with a separate triplet-exciton detection layer. This OLED structure enables the observation of a Lorentzian and a non-Lorentzian line-shape magnetoresponse for singlet excitons and triplet excitons, respectively.

  4. Tropical High Cloud Fraction Controlled by Cloud Lifetime Rather Than Clear-sky Convergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, J.; Jeevanjee, N.; Romps, D. M.

    2016-12-01

    Observations and simulations show a peak in cloud fraction below the tropopause. This peak is usually attributed to a roughly co-located peak in radiatively-driven clear-sky convergence, which is presumed to force convective detrainment and thus promote large cloud fraction. Using simulations of radiative-convective equilibrium forced by various radiative cooling profiles, we refute this mechanism by showing that an upper-tropospheric peak in cloud fraction persists even in simulations with no peak in clear-sky convergence. Instead, cloud fraction profiles seem to be controlled by cloud lifetimes — i.e., how long it takes for clouds to dissipate after they have detrained. A simple model of cloud evaporation shows that the small saturation deficit in the upper troposphere greatly extends cloud lifetimes there, while the large saturation deficit in the lower troposphere causes condensate to evaporate quickly. Since cloud mass flux must go to zero at the tropopause, a peak in cloud fraction emerges at a "sweet spot" below the tropopause where cloud lifetimes are long and there is still sufficient mass flux to be detrained.

  5. The nature of singlet excitons in oligoacene molecular crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Yamagata, H.; Norton, J.; Hontz, E.; Olivier, Y.; Beljonne, D.; Brédas, J. L.; Silbey, R. J.; Spano, F. C.

    2011-01-01

    A theory for polarized absorption in crystalline oligoacenes is presented, which includes Frenkel exciton coupling, the coupling between Frenkel and charge-transfer (CT) excitons, and the coupling of all neutral and ionic excited states to the dominant ring-breathing vibrational mode. For tetracene, spectra calculated using all Frenkel couplings among the five lowest energy molecular singlet states predict a Davydov splitting (DS) of the lowest energy (0-0) vibronic band of only -32cm-1, far smaller than the measured value of 631cm-1 and of the wrong sign-a negative sign indicating that the polarizations of the lower and upper Davydov components are reversed from experiment. Inclusion of Frenkel-CT coupling dramatically improves the agreement with experiment, yielding a 0-0 DS of 601cm-1 and a nearly quantitative reproduction of the relative spectral intensities of the 0-n vibronic components. Our analysis also shows that CT mixing increases with the size of the oligoacenes. We discuss the implications of these results on exciton dissociation and transport. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.

  6. Time-resolved energy transfer from single chloride-terminated nanocrystals to graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajayi, O. A.; Wong, C. W.; Anderson, N. C.; Wolcott, A.; Owen, J. S.; Cotlet, M.; Petrone, N.; Hone, J.; Gu, T.; Gesuele, F.

    2014-01-01

    We examine the time-resolved resonance energy transfer of excitons from single n-butyl amine-bound, chloride-terminated nanocrystals to two-dimensional graphene through time-correlated single photon counting. The radiative biexponential lifetime kinetics and blinking statistics of the individual surface-modified nanocrystal elucidate the non-radiative decay channels. Blinking modification as well as a 4× reduction in spontaneous emission were observed with the short chloride and n-butylamine ligands, probing the energy transfer pathways for the development of graphene-nanocrystal nanophotonic devices

  7. Time-resolved energy transfer from single chloride-terminated nanocrystals to graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajayi, O. A., E-mail: oaa2114@columbia.edu, E-mail: cww2104@columbia.edu; Wong, C. W., E-mail: oaa2114@columbia.edu, E-mail: cww2104@columbia.edu [Optical Nanostructures Laboratory, Center for Integrated Science and Engineering, Solid-State Science and Engineering, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Anderson, N. C.; Wolcott, A.; Owen, J. S. [Department of Chemistry, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Cotlet, M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York, New York 11973 (United States); Petrone, N.; Hone, J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Gu, T.; Gesuele, F. [Optical Nanostructures Laboratory, Center for Integrated Science and Engineering, Solid-State Science and Engineering, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)

    2014-04-28

    We examine the time-resolved resonance energy transfer of excitons from single n-butyl amine-bound, chloride-terminated nanocrystals to two-dimensional graphene through time-correlated single photon counting. The radiative biexponential lifetime kinetics and blinking statistics of the individual surface-modified nanocrystal elucidate the non-radiative decay channels. Blinking modification as well as a 4× reduction in spontaneous emission were observed with the short chloride and n-butylamine ligands, probing the energy transfer pathways for the development of graphene-nanocrystal nanophotonic devices.

  8. Frequency dependence of the radiative decay rate of excitons in self-assembled quantum dots: Experiment and theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stobbe, Søren; Johansen, Jeppe; Kristensen, Philip Trøst

    2009-01-01

    We analyze time-resolved spontaneous emission from excitons confined in self-assembled InAs quantum dots placed at various distances to a semiconductor-air interface. The modification of the local density of optical states due to the proximity of the interface enables unambiguous determination...... furthermore discuss three models of quantum dot strain and compare the measured wave-function overlap to these models. The observed frequency dependence of the wave-function overlap can be understood qualitatively in terms of the different compressibility of electrons and holes originating from...

  9. Biexciton formation and exciton coherent coupling in layered GaSe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, P.; Paul, J.; Moody, G.; Stevens, C. E.; Glikin, N.; Kovalyuk, Z. D.; Kudrynskyi, Z. R.; Romero, A. H.; Cantarero, A.; Hilton, D. J.; Karaiskaj, D.

    2015-06-01

    Nonlinear two-dimensional Fourier transform (2DFT) and linear absorption spectroscopy are used to study the electronic structure and optical properties of excitons in the layered semiconductor GaSe. At the 1s exciton resonance, two peaks are identified in the absorption spectra, which are assigned to splitting of the exciton ground state into the triplet and singlet states. 2DFT spectra acquired for co-linear polarization of the excitation pulses feature an additional peak originating from coherent energy transfer between the singlet and triplet. At cross-linear polarization of the excitation pulses, the 2DFT spectra expose a new peak likely originating from bound biexcitons. The polarization dependent 2DFT spectra are well reproduced by simulations using the optical Bloch equations for a four level system, where many-body effects are included phenomenologically. Although biexciton effects are thought to be strong in this material, only moderate contributions from bound biexciton creation can be observed. The biexciton binding energy of ˜2 meV was estimated from the separation of the peaks in the 2DFT spectra. Temperature dependent absorption and 2DFT measurements, combined with "ab initio" theoretical calculations of the phonon spectra, indicate strong interaction with the A1 ' phonon mode. Excitation density dependent 2DFT measurements reveal excitation induced dephasing and provide a lower limit for the homogeneous linewidth of the excitons in the present GaSe crystal.

  10. Quantum-correlated two-photon transitions to excitons in semiconductor quantum wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, L J; Guzmán, D A; Rodríguez, F J; Quiroga, L

    2012-02-13

    The dependence of the excitonic two-photon absorption on the quantum correlations (entanglement) of exciting biphotons by a semiconductor quantum well is studied. We show that entangled photon absorption can display very unusual features depending on space-time-polarization biphoton parameters and absorber density of states for both bound exciton states as well as for unbound electron-hole pairs. We report on the connection between biphoton entanglement, as quantified by the Schmidt number, and absorption by a semiconductor quantum well. Comparison between frequency-anti-correlated, unentangled and frequency-correlated biphoton absorption is addressed. We found that exciton oscillator strengths are highly increased when photons arrive almost simultaneously in an entangled state. Two-photon-absorption becomes a highly sensitive probe of photon quantum correlations when narrow semiconductor quantum wells are used as two-photon absorbers.

  11. Localization of excitons by molecular layer formation in a polymer film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chattopadhyay, S.; Datta, A.

    2005-01-01

    Spin coated films of atactic polystyrene of two different molecular weights have been studied with uv spectroscopy and x-ray reflectivity, the film thickness (d) varying from ∼2R g to ∼12R g where R g is the unperturbed radius of gyration of the polymer. uv extinction due to the pure electronic singlet 1 A 1g → 1 E 1u is seen to increase with d -1 for 4R g ≤d≤12R g (region 1). This suggests excitonic interaction along d. The variation of total exciton energy (E) of the A 1g →E 1u singlet with d in region 1 can be well explained by formation of linear J-aggregates of polystyrene molecules, in a lattice with spacing 'a' (in A) R g g , along d. Atomic force microscopic images of the films show the presence of 'spheres' distributed randomly on film surfaces with in-plane dimensions matching a. From the variation of E with d -2 the effective mass (m eff ) of the exciton is also determined. For R g g (region 2) the extinction and E become essentially independent of d, indicating exciton localization along d, and the value of m eff becomes very large. This enhancement in the effective mass maybe used to quantify localization. The variations of electron density (ρ) with d, i.e., the electron density profiles (EDPs) of the films extracted from x-ray reflectivity studies, indicate formation of layers with period 'b' (in A), R g g parallel to substrate surface in region 2 and a constant ρ film in region 1. On raising the temperature of a typical film to 60 deg. C, the layering was seen to almost vanish, as obtained from both the EDP and the Patterson function of the reflectivity profile. The close correspondence between 'a' and 'b' indicates that the molecules forming the J-aggregates form the layers, too. The average difference in ρ between successive extrema in the EDPs in region 2, denoted by δ, can be used as the order parameter for the layering transition. For PS-5, δ>0 at d≅4R g , where the exciton is still delocalized. Layering reduces the Hamaker

  12. Luminescence lifetimes in natural quartz annealed beyond its second phase inversion temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chithambo, M.L.

    2015-01-01

    The influence of annealing, irradiation dose, preheating and measurement temperature on luminescence lifetimes has been studied in quartz annealed at 1000 °C. The measurements were supplemented by studies on quartz annealed at 900 and 800 °C. Lifetimes increase with dose as well as with temperature and duration of annealing between 800 and 1000 °C. Preheating produces the same effect. The changes are accounted for in terms of hole-transfer from the non-radiative luminescence centre to and between radiative centres. The influence of measurement temperature on lifetimes depends on whether the stimulation is carried out from ambient to 200 °C or otherwise. This result is unlike that in quartz annealed at or below 500 °C where lifetimes are independent of the direction of heating. In particular, lifetimes decrease monotonically when measurements are made from 20 to 200 °C but not when recorded from 200 to 20 °C. The latter produces a pattern resembling that in quartz annealed up to 500 °C. The results are concluded as evidence of thermal effects on separate luminescence centres. In support of this, different values of the activation energy for thermal quenching were found for each supposed luminescence centre. The change of the corresponding luminescence intensity with temperature is also qualitatively consistent with this notion. - Highlights: • Luminescence lifetimes in natural quartz annealed beyond its second phase inversion temperature is reported. • Lifetimes increase with dose, annealing between 800 and 1000 °C, and preheating. • Lifetimes under stimulation temperature are affected by direction of heating. • Changes are accounted for in terms of hole-transfer luminescence centres.

  13. Pressure-Dependent Light Emission of Charged and Neutral Excitons in Monolayer MoSe 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Xinpeng [State; Li, Fangfei [State; Lin, Jung-Fu [Department; Gong, Yuanbo [State; Huang, Xiaoli [State; Huang, Yanping [State; Han, Bo [State; Zhou, Qiang [State; Cui, Tian [State

    2017-07-19

    Tailoring the excitonic properties in two-dimensional monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) through strain engineering is an effective means to explore their potential applications in optoelectronics and nanoelectronics. Here we report pressure-tuned photon emission of trions and excitons in monolayer MoSe2 via a diamond anvil cell (DAC) through photoluminescence measurements and theoretical calculations. Under quasi-hydrostatic compressive strain, our results show neutral (X0) and charged (X–) exciton emission of monolayer MoSe2 can be effectively tuned by alcohol mixture vs inert argon pressure transmitting media (PTM). During this process, X– emission undergoes a continuous blue shift until reaching saturation, while X0 emission turns up splitting. The pressure-dependent charging effect observed in alcohol mixture PTM results in the increase of the X– exciton component and facilitates the pressure-tuned emission of X– excitons. This substantial tunability of X– and X0 excitons in MoSe2 can be extended to other 2D TMDs, which holds potential for developing strained and optical sensing devices.

  14. Intensity dependent absorption bleaching of high subband excitons in GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum wells

    CERN Document Server

    Shin, S H; Lee, E H; Chae, K M; Park, S H; Kim, U

    1998-01-01

    We have investigated the influence of carrier generation on the absorption bleaching of the n=2 and n=3 excitons in GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum wells (MQWs). With the excitation near the resonance of the n=1 exciton absorption, the long range coulomb screening and collision broadening had significant effects on the exciton bleaching. At low excitation intensity, the absorption bleaching of the n=2 exciton in 75 A-thick MQWs and that of the n=3 exciton in 150 A-thick MQWs were due to linewidth broadening by the collision broadening effect only. At high excitation intensity, however, the reduction of oscillator strength due to the long range coulomb screening contributed dominantly to absorption bleaching.

  15. Excitonic quantum interference in a quantum dot chain with rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Suc-Kyoung; Nam, Seog Woo; Yeon, Kyu-Hwang

    2008-04-16

    We demonstrate excitonic quantum interference in a closely spaced quantum dot chain with nanorings. In the resonant dipole-dipole interaction model with direct diagonalization method, we have found a peculiar feature that the excitation of specified quantum dots in the chain is completely inhibited, depending on the orientational configuration of the transition dipole moments and specified initial preparation of the excitation. In practice, these excited states facilitating quantum interference can provide a conceptual basis for quantum interference devices of excitonic hopping.

  16. Competition of edge effects on the electronic properties and excitonic effects in short graphene nanoribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Yan; Wei, Sheng; Jin, Jing; Wang, Li; Lu, Wengang

    2016-01-01

    We explore the electronic properties and exciton effects in short graphene nanoribbons (SGNRs), which have two armchair edges and two zigzag edges. Our results show that both of these two types of edges have profound effects on the electronic properties and exciton effects. Both the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) states are alternatively changed between the bulk and the edge states as the lengths of the zigzag edges increase, due to the competition between the states of the two types of edges. The energy gaps, as a function of the lengths of the armchair edges, will then induce two kinds of trends. Furthermore, two kinds of exciton energies and exciton binding energies are found, which can be understood through the two kinds of HOMO and LUMO states in SGNRs. In addition, we find that the three triplet exciton states are not totally energy degenerate in SGNRs due to the spin-polarized states on the zigzag edges. (paper)

  17. Thermal degradation kinetics and estimation of lifetime of radiation grafted polypropylene films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandal, Dev K.; Bhunia, Haripada; Bajpai, Pramod K.; Bhalla, Vinod Kumar

    2017-01-01

    In this research work, thermal stability and degradation behavior of acrylic acid grafted polypropylene (PP-g-PAAc) films were investigated by using thermogravimetric (TGA) analysis at four different heating rates 5, 10, 15 and 20 °C/min over a temperature range of 40–550 °C in nitrogen atmosphere. The kinetic parameters namely activation energy (E a ), reaction order (n) and frequency factor (Z) were calculated by three multiple heating rate methods. The thermal stability of PP-g-PAAc films is found to decrease with increase in degree of grafting. The TGA data and thermal kinetic parameters were also used to predict the lifetime of grafted PP films. The estimated lifetime of neat PP as well as grafted PP decreased with increase in temperature by all the three methods. Studies also indicated that E a and lifetime of PP-g-PAAc films decreased with increase in degree of grafting, which may also be helpful in biodegradation of grafted PP films. - Highlights: • Thermal stability of grafted polypropylene films have been observed lower than for neat polypropylene film. • Multiple heating rate methods have been used for determination of activation energy. • Activation energies of grafted polypropylene films were lower than polypropylene film. • The lifetimes of grafted polypropylene films were shorter than for neat polypropylene film.

  18. Anomalous carrier life-time relaxation mediated by head group interaction in surface anchored MnSe quantum dots conjugated with albumin proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarma, Runjun; Mohanta, Dambarudhar, E-mail: best@tezu.ernet.in

    2017-02-01

    We report on the radiative emission decay dynamics of a less known, γ-phase manganese selenide quantum dot system (MnSe QDs) subjected to bio-functionalization. A short-ligand thioglycolic acid (TGA), and a long-chain sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) surfactants were used as surface anchors prior bioconjugation with albumin proteins (BSA). Time resolved photoluminescence (TR-PL) spectra of the QDs have revealed bi-exponential decay trends with the fast (τ{sub 1}) and slow (τ{sub 2}) decay parameters assigned to the core state recombination and surface trapped excitons; respectively. The average lifetime (τ{sub avg}) was found to get shortened from a value of ∼0.87 ns–0.72 ns in unconjugated and BSA conjugated MnSe-TGA QDs; respectively. Conversely, MnSe-SDS QDs with BSA conjugation exhibited nearly four-fold enhancement of τ{sub avg} with respect to its unconjugated counterpart. Moreover, a considerable amount of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) was found to occur from the TGA coated MnSe QDs to BSA and with an ensuing efficiency of ∼61%. The origin of anomalous carrier life-time relaxation features has also been encountered through a simplified model as regards head group interaction experienced by the MnSe QDs with different surfactant types. Exploiting luminescence decay characteristics of a magneto-fluorescent candidate could find immense scope in diverse biological applications including assays, labeling and imaging. - Highlights: • Surface anchored manganese selenide quantum dots (MnSe QDs) have been synthesized via a physico-chemical reduction route. • Time resolved luminescence spectra of the QDs have displayed bi-exponential decay trend. • Thioglycolic acid (TGA) coated QDs exhibited shorter lifetime as compared to sodium dodecyl sulfo-succinate (SDS) coated ones. • Upon BSA conjugation, the average life time is four-fold enhanced in MnSe-SDS QDs. • An efficient FRET process has been revealed in BSA conjugated TGA coated MnSe QDs.

  19. Identification of excitons, trions and biexcitons in single-layer WS{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plechinger, Gerd; Nagler, Philipp; Kraus, Julia; Paradiso, Nicola; Strunk, Christoph; Schueller, Christian; Korn, Tobias [Institut fuer Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Regensburg, 93040, Regensburg (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    Single-layer WS{sub 2} is a direct-gap semiconductor showing strong excitonic photoluminescence features in the visible spectral range. Here, we present temperature-dependent photoluminescence measurements on mechanically exfoliated single-layer WS{sub 2}, revealing the existence of neutral and charged excitons at low temperatures as well as at room temperature. By applying a gate voltage, we can electrically control the ratio of excitons and trions and assert a residual n-type doping of our samples. At high excitation densities and low temperatures, an additional peak at energies below the trion dominates the photoluminescence, which we identify as biexciton emission. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Migration of CT triplet excitons in TCNB-biphenyl and TCNB-HMB crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozankiewicz, BolesAw

    1994-01-01

    Delayed fluorescence decay curves of charge transfer (CT) crystals of tetracyanobenzene with biphenyl (TCNB-B) and with hexamethylbenzene (TCNB-HMB) have been studied over a wide temperature range (5-200 K). The decay curves have been adequately described by decay expressions derived for different mechanisms of triplet-triplet annihilation. This analysis points to one-dimensional, thermally activated motion of CT triplet excitons. The estimated activation energies for the exciton hopping are 360±60 and 650±100 cm -1 (or 550±150 cm -1 depending on the applied model) for the TCNB-B and TCNB-HMB crystals, respectively. The results seem to confirm the self-trapping of triplet CT excitons.

  1. Optical nonlinearity and bistability in the bound exciton energy range of CdS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoenig, T.; Gutowski, J.

    1988-01-01

    Under high excitation conditions thick CdS samples show pronounced broad-band nonlinear transmission in the bound exciton region and up to a wavelength of about 515 nm at cryo-temperatures. This behavior is only explainable in a model based on impurity neutralization and bound exciton creation. The suitability of these nonlinearities to yield optical bistability will be shown. Bistable operation is investigated in dependence of crystal thickness, impurity concentration, excitation density, wavelength, and temperature. A strong correlation to acceptor-bound exciton generation is obtained, and the explanation of this bistable operation fits well with that of the above mentioned transmission behavior. (author)

  2. Exciton-polariton dynamics in a GaAs bulk microcavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccherini, S.; Gurioli, M.; Bogani, F.; Colocci, M.; Tredicucci, A.; Bassani, F.; Beltram, F.; Sorba, L.

    1998-01-01

    We present a full analysis of exciton dynamics in a GaAs λ/2 bulk microcavity following excitation by ultrafast laser pulses. Coherent dynamics was probed by means of an interferometric technique; beating and dephasing times were studied for various excitation intensities. At high incident power, population effects begin to show up reducing exciton oscillator strength and suppressing Rabi splitting. This feature produces marked non-linearities in the input-output characteristic of the optical functions, which were studied in view of reaching bistable operation. Theoretical calculations performed within the transfer-matrix framework show good agreement with experimental results.

  3. Fluctuating exciton localization in giant π-conjugated spoked-wheel macrocycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, A. Vikas; Thiessen, Alexander; Idelson, Alissa; Kalle, Daniel; Würsch, Dominik; Stangl, Thomas; Steiner, Florian; Jester, Stefan-S.; Vogelsang, Jan; Höger, Sigurd; Lupton, John M.

    2013-11-01

    Conjugated polymers offer potential for many diverse applications, but we still lack a fundamental microscopic understanding of their electronic structure. Elementary photoexcitations (excitons) span only a few nanometres of a molecule, which itself can extend over microns, and how their behaviour is affected by molecular dimensions is not immediately obvious. For example, where is the exciton formed within a conjugated segment and is it always situated on the same repeat units? Here, we introduce structurally rigid molecular spoked wheels, 6 nm in diameter, as a model of extended π conjugation. Single-molecule fluorescence reveals random exciton localization, which leads to temporally varying emission polarization. Initially, this random localization arises after every photon absorption event because of temperature-independent spontaneous symmetry breaking. These fast fluctuations are slowed to millisecond timescales after prolonged illumination. Intramolecular heterogeneity is revealed in cryogenic spectroscopy by jumps in transition energy, but emission polarization can also switch without a spectral jump occurring, which implies long-range homogeneity in the local dielectric environment.

  4. Excitons in conjugated polymers: Do we need a paradigma change?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beenken, Wichard J.D. [Department of Theoretical Physics I, Ilmenau University of Thechnology (Germany)

    2009-12-15

    We have previously shown that both, polymer conformation and dynamics are crucial for the exciton transport in conjugated polymers. Thereby we found that the usual Foerster-type hopping transfer model - even if one applies the line-dipole approximation - falls short in one crucial aspect: the nature of the sites the excitons are transferred between is still unclear. We found that the simple model of spectroscopic units defined as segments of the polymer chains separated by structural defects breaking the {pi}-conjugation is only justified for chemical defects like hydrogenated double bonds, or extreme gauche (90 ) torsions between the monomers. Both defects are far too rare in a well-prepared conjugated polymer to explain the mean spectroscopic-unit length of typically 6-7 monomers. Meanwhile, also the concept of dynamical formation of the spectroscopic units, we had previously suggested, has also failed. Thus the question of a paradigma change concerning the exciton transport in conjugated polymers appears on the agenda. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  5. Beam lifetime measurement and analysis in Indus-2 electron ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    was gradually reduced (at 100 mA stored current, average pressure: 1.2 × 10. −9. Torr) due ... of all working beamlines (open for synchrotron radiation users) were kept closed to avoid any variation in ... Beam lifetime (hours). Beam current (mA).

  6. Exciton generation/dissociation/charge-transfer enhancement in inorganic/organic hybrid solar cells by robust single nanocrystalline LnPxOy (Ln = Eu, Y) doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiao; Sun, Weifu; Chen, Zihan; Wei, Taihuei; Chen, Chuyang; He, Xingdao; Yuan, Yongbiao; Li, Yue; Li, Qinghua

    2014-06-11

    Low-temperature solution-processed photovoltaics suffer from low efficiencies because of poor exciton or electron-hole transfer. Inorganic/organic hybrid solar cell, although still in its infancy, has attracted great interest thus far. One of the promising ways to enhance exciton dissociation or electron-hole transport is the doping of lanthanide phosphate ions. However, the underlying photophysical mechanism remains poorly understood. Herein, by applying femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy, we successfully distinguished hot electron, less energetic electron, hole transport from electron-hole recombination. Concrete evidence has been provided that lanthanide phosphate doping improves the efficiency of both hot electron and "less energetic" electron transfers from donor to acceptor, but the hole transport almost remains unchanged. In particular, the hot electron transfer lifetime was shortened from 30.2 to 12.7 ps, that is, more than 60% faster than pure TiO2 acceptor. Such improvement was ascribed to the facts that the conduction band (CB) edge energy level of TiO2 has been elevated by 0.2 eV, while the valence band level almost remains unchanged, thus not only narrowing the energy offset between CB levels of TiO2 and P3HT, but also meanwhile enlarging the band gap of TiO2 itself that permits one to inhibit electron-hole recombination within TiO2. Consequently, lanthanide phosphate doped TiO2/P3HT bulk-heterojunction solar cell has been demonstrated to be a promising hybrid solar cell, and a notable power conversion efficiency of 2.91% is therefore attained. This work indicates that lanthanide compound ions can efficiently facilitate exciton generation, dissociation, and charge transport, thus enhancing photovoltaic performance.

  7. Jointly Tuned Plasmonic–Excitonic Photovoltaics Using Nanoshells

    KAUST Repository

    Paz-Soldan, Daniel

    2013-04-10

    Recent advances in spectrally tuned, solution-processed plasmonic nanoparticles have provided unprecedented control over light\\'s propagation and absorption via engineering at the nanoscale. Simultaneous parallel progress in colloidal quantum dot photovoltaics offers the potential for low-cost, large-area solar power; however, these devices suffer from poor quantum efficiency in the more weakly absorbed infrared portion of the sun\\'s spectrum. Here, we report a plasmonic-excitonic solar cell that combines two classes of solution-processed infrared materials that we tune jointly. We show through experiment and theory that a plasmonic-excitonic design using gold nanoshells with optimized single particle scattering-to-absorption cross-section ratios leads to a strong enhancement in near-field absorption and a resultant 35% enhancement in photocurrent in the performance-limiting near-infrared spectral region. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  8. Exciton scattering approach for optical spectra calculations in branched conjugated macromolecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hao; Wu, Chao; Malinin, Sergey V.; Tretiak, Sergei; Chernyak, Vladimir Y.

    2016-01-01

    The exciton scattering (ES) technique is a multiscale approach based on the concept of a particle in a box and developed for efficient calculations of excited-state electronic structure and optical spectra in low-dimensional conjugated macromolecules. Within the ES method, electronic excitations in molecular structure are attributed to standing waves representing quantum quasi-particles (excitons), which reside on the graph whose edges and nodes stand for the molecular linear segments and vertices, respectively. Exciton propagation on the linear segments is characterized by the exciton dispersion, whereas exciton scattering at the branching centers is determined by the energy-dependent scattering matrices. Using these ES energetic parameters, the excitation energies are then found by solving a set of generalized “particle in a box” problems on the graph that represents the molecule. Similarly, unique energy-dependent ES dipolar parameters permit calculations of the corresponding oscillator strengths, thus, completing optical spectra modeling. Both the energetic and dipolar parameters can be extracted from quantum-chemical computations in small molecular fragments and tabulated in the ES library for further applications. Subsequently, spectroscopic modeling for any macrostructure within a considered molecular family could be performed with negligible numerical effort. We demonstrate the ES method application to molecular families of branched conjugated phenylacetylenes and ladder poly-para-phenylenes, as well as structures with electron donor and acceptor chemical substituents. Time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) is used as a reference model for electronic structure. The ES calculations accurately reproduce the optical spectra compared to the reference quantum chemistry results, and make possible to predict spectra of complex macromolecules, where conventional electronic structure calculations are unfeasible.

  9. Exciton scattering approach for optical spectra calculations in branched conjugated macromolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Wu, Chao; Malinin, Sergey V.; Tretiak, Sergei; Chernyak, Vladimir Y.

    2016-12-01

    The exciton scattering (ES) technique is a multiscale approach based on the concept of a particle in a box and developed for efficient calculations of excited-state electronic structure and optical spectra in low-dimensional conjugated macromolecules. Within the ES method, electronic excitations in molecular structure are attributed to standing waves representing quantum quasi-particles (excitons), which reside on the graph whose edges and nodes stand for the molecular linear segments and vertices, respectively. Exciton propagation on the linear segments is characterized by the exciton dispersion, whereas exciton scattering at the branching centers is determined by the energy-dependent scattering matrices. Using these ES energetic parameters, the excitation energies are then found by solving a set of generalized "particle in a box" problems on the graph that represents the molecule. Similarly, unique energy-dependent ES dipolar parameters permit calculations of the corresponding oscillator strengths, thus, completing optical spectra modeling. Both the energetic and dipolar parameters can be extracted from quantum-chemical computations in small molecular fragments and tabulated in the ES library for further applications. Subsequently, spectroscopic modeling for any macrostructure within a considered molecular family could be performed with negligible numerical effort. We demonstrate the ES method application to molecular families of branched conjugated phenylacetylenes and ladder poly-para-phenylenes, as well as structures with electron donor and acceptor chemical substituents. Time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) is used as a reference model for electronic structure. The ES calculations accurately reproduce the optical spectra compared to the reference quantum chemistry results, and make possible to predict spectra of complex macromolecules, where conventional electronic structure calculations are unfeasible.

  10. Exciton scattering approach for optical spectra calculations in branched conjugated macromolecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hao [Department of Chemistry, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 (United States); Wu, Chao [Electronic Structure Lab, Center of Microscopic Theory and Simulation, Frontier Institute of Science and Technology, Xian Jiaotong University, Xian 710054 (China); Malinin, Sergey V. [Department of Chemistry, Wayne State University, 5101 Cass Avenue, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); Tretiak, Sergei, E-mail: serg@lanl.gov [Theoretical Division and Center for Nonlinear Studies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Chernyak, Vladimir Y., E-mail: chernyak@chem.wayne.edu [Department of Chemistry, Wayne State University, 5101 Cass Avenue, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States)

    2016-12-20

    The exciton scattering (ES) technique is a multiscale approach based on the concept of a particle in a box and developed for efficient calculations of excited-state electronic structure and optical spectra in low-dimensional conjugated macromolecules. Within the ES method, electronic excitations in molecular structure are attributed to standing waves representing quantum quasi-particles (excitons), which reside on the graph whose edges and nodes stand for the molecular linear segments and vertices, respectively. Exciton propagation on the linear segments is characterized by the exciton dispersion, whereas exciton scattering at the branching centers is determined by the energy-dependent scattering matrices. Using these ES energetic parameters, the excitation energies are then found by solving a set of generalized “particle in a box” problems on the graph that represents the molecule. Similarly, unique energy-dependent ES dipolar parameters permit calculations of the corresponding oscillator strengths, thus, completing optical spectra modeling. Both the energetic and dipolar parameters can be extracted from quantum-chemical computations in small molecular fragments and tabulated in the ES library for further applications. Subsequently, spectroscopic modeling for any macrostructure within a considered molecular family could be performed with negligible numerical effort. We demonstrate the ES method application to molecular families of branched conjugated phenylacetylenes and ladder poly-para-phenylenes, as well as structures with electron donor and acceptor chemical substituents. Time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) is used as a reference model for electronic structure. The ES calculations accurately reproduce the optical spectra compared to the reference quantum chemistry results, and make possible to predict spectra of complex macromolecules, where conventional electronic structure calculations are unfeasible.

  11. Electrical control of charged carriers and excitons in atomically thin materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; De Greve, Kristiaan; Jauregui, Luis A.; Sushko, Andrey; High, Alexander; Zhou, You; Scuri, Giovanni; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Lukin, Mikhail D.; Park, Hongkun; Kim, Philip

    2018-02-01

    Electrical confinement and manipulation of charge carriers in semiconducting nanostructures are essential for realizing functional quantum electronic devices1-3. The unique band structure4-7 of atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) offers a new route towards realizing novel 2D quantum electronic devices, such as valleytronic devices and valley-spin qubits8. 2D TMDs also provide a platform for novel quantum optoelectronic devices9-11 due to their large exciton binding energy12,13. However, controlled confinement and manipulation of electronic and excitonic excitations in TMD nanostructures have been technically challenging due to the prevailing disorder in the material, preventing accurate experimental control of local confinement and tunnel couplings14-16. Here we demonstrate a novel method for creating high-quality heterostructures composed of atomically thin materials that allows for efficient electrical control of excitations. Specifically, we demonstrate quantum transport in the gate-defined, quantum-confined region, observing spin-valley locked quantized conductance in quantum point contacts. We also realize gate-controlled Coulomb blockade associated with confinement of electrons and demonstrate electrical control over charged excitons with tunable local confinement potentials and tunnel couplings. Our work provides a basis for novel quantum opto-electronic devices based on manipulation of charged carriers and excitons.

  12. Optimum lifetime structuring in silicon power diodes by means of various irradiation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazdra, P.; Vobecky, J.; Brand, K.

    2002-01-01

    Application of radiation defects for adjustment of power diode parameters is demonstrated. Local lifetime control (LLC) by proton and alpha-particle irradiation with energies 1.8-12.1 MeV is compared with uniform lifetime killing by 4.5 MeV electrons. The influence of both the techniques on static and dynamic parameters of modified diodes is experimentally established and explained by means of state-of-the-art simulation system. Optimization means and limits of lifetime control by irradiation techniques are discussed, as well

  13. Impact of the Crystallite Orientation Distribution on Exciton Transport in Donor–Acceptor Conjugated Polymers

    KAUST Repository

    Ayzner, Alexander L.; Mei, Jianguo; Appleton, Anthony; DeLongchamp, Dean; Nardes, Alexandre; Benight, Stephanie; Kopidakis, Nikos; Toney, Michael F.; Bao, Zhenan

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. Conjugated polymers are widely used materials in organic photovoltaic devices. Owing to their extended electronic wave functions, they often form semicrystalline thin films. In this work, we aim to understand whether distribution of crystallographic orientations affects exciton diffusion using a low-band-gap polymer backbone motif that is representative of the donor/acceptor copolymer class. Using the fact that the polymer side chain can tune the dominant crystallographic orientation in the thin film, we have measured the quenching of polymer photoluminescence, and thus the extent of exciton dissociation, as a function of crystal orientation with respect to a quenching substrate. We find that the crystallite orientation distribution has little effect on the average exciton diffusion length. We suggest several possibilities for the lack of correlation between crystallographic texture and exciton transport in semicrystalline conjugated polymer films.

  14. Exciton localization and interface roughness in growth-interrupted GaAs/AlAs quantum wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leosson, Kristjan; Jensen, Jacob Riis; Langbein, Wolfgang Werner

    2000-01-01

    of the in-plane disorder potential and the exciton localization length determines the spectral shape of the exciton luminescence. When the correlation length of the in-plane disorder potential is larger than the exciton localization length, the excitonic spectrum splits up into discrete peaks, stemming from...... regions differing in effective thickness by an integral number of monolayers. The energies of monolayers peaks, taking into account the in-plane localization energy, are found to be reproducible in wafers grown under similar conditions. We conclude that atomically smooth growth islands are formed on both...... AlAs and GaAs surfaces after growth interruption. During overgrowth, surface segregation leads to the generation of an atomic-scale disorder in the first overgrown monolayers. This results in an additional in-plane disorder potential with a much shorter correlation length than the original surface...

  15. Impact of the Crystallite Orientation Distribution on Exciton Transport in Donor–Acceptor Conjugated Polymers

    KAUST Repository

    Ayzner, Alexander L.

    2015-12-30

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. Conjugated polymers are widely used materials in organic photovoltaic devices. Owing to their extended electronic wave functions, they often form semicrystalline thin films. In this work, we aim to understand whether distribution of crystallographic orientations affects exciton diffusion using a low-band-gap polymer backbone motif that is representative of the donor/acceptor copolymer class. Using the fact that the polymer side chain can tune the dominant crystallographic orientation in the thin film, we have measured the quenching of polymer photoluminescence, and thus the extent of exciton dissociation, as a function of crystal orientation with respect to a quenching substrate. We find that the crystallite orientation distribution has little effect on the average exciton diffusion length. We suggest several possibilities for the lack of correlation between crystallographic texture and exciton transport in semicrystalline conjugated polymer films.

  16. Coherent spin dynamics of an interwell excitonic gas in GaAs/AlGaAs coupled quantum wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larionov, A. V.; Bisti, V. E.; Bayer, M.

    2006-01-01

    The spin dynamics of an interwell exciton gas has been investigated in n-i-n GaAs/AlGaAs coupled quantum wells. The time evolution kinetics of the interwell exciton photoluminescence has been measured under resonant excitation of the 1s heavy-hole intrawell exciton, using a pulsed tunable laser...

  17. Jointly Tuned Plasmonic–Excitonic Photovoltaics Using Nanoshells

    KAUST Repository

    Paz-Soldan, Daniel; Lee, Anna; Thon, Susanna M.; Adachi, Michael M.; Dong, Haopeng; Maraghechi, Pouya; Yuan, Mingjian; Labelle, André J.; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Liu, Kun; Kumacheva, Eugenia; Sargent, Edward H.

    2013-01-01

    photovoltaics offers the potential for low-cost, large-area solar power; however, these devices suffer from poor quantum efficiency in the more weakly absorbed infrared portion of the sun's spectrum. Here, we report a plasmonic-excitonic solar cell that combines

  18. Beam-foil level lifetimes in krypton III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coetzer, F.J.; Kotze, P.B.; Westhuizen, P. van der

    1982-01-01

    The radiative lifetimes of levels in doubly-ionized Krypton have been measured after foil excitation of a beam of Krypton particles in the wavelength range 120-500 nm. The results are compared with the experimental values obtained by Fink et al., as well as theoretical values resulting from Coulomb (C.A.) and single configuration Hartree-Fock (H.F.) calculations. (orig.)

  19. Dynamic Control of Plasmon-Exciton Coupling in Au Nanodisk–J-Aggregate Hybrid Nanostructure Arrays

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Yue Bing; Juluri, Bala Krishna; Jensen, Linlin; Jensen, Lasse; Huang, Tony Jun

    2009-01-01

    We report the dynamic control of plasmon-exciton coupling in Au nanodisk arrays adsorbed with J-aggregate molecules by incident angle of light. The angle-resolved spectra of an array of bare Au nanodisks exhibit continuous shifting of localized surface plasmon resonances. This characteristic enables the production of real-time, controllable spectral overlaps between molecular and plasmonic resonances, and the efficient measurement of plasmon-exciton coupling as a function of wavelength with one or fewer nanodisk arrays. Experimental observations of varying plasmon-exciton coupling match with coupled dipole approximation calculations.

  20. Exciton trapping in interface defects/quantum dots in narrow quantum wells: magnetic-field effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barticevic, Z.; Pacheco, M.; Duque, C.A.; Oliveira, L.E.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of applied magnetic fields on excitons trapped in quantum dots/interface defects in narrow GaAs/Ga 1-x Al x As quantum wells are studied within the effective-mass approximation. The magnetic fields are applied in the growth direction of the quantum wells, and exciton trapping is modeled through a quantum dot formed by monolayer fluctuations in the z-direction, together with lateral confinement via a truncated or infinite parabolic potential in the exciton in-plane coordinate. Theoretical results are found in overall agreement with available experimental measurements

  1. Particle-in-a-box model of one-dimensional excitons in conjugated polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Thomas G.; Johansen, Per M.; Pedersen, Henrik C.

    2000-04-01

    A simple two-particle model of excitons in conjugated polymers is proposed as an alternative to usual highly computationally demanding quantum chemical methods. In the two-particle model, the exciton is described as an electron-hole pair interacting via Coulomb forces and confined to the polymer backbone by rigid walls. Furthermore, by integrating out the transverse part, the two-particle equation is reduced to one-dimensional form. It is demonstrated how essentially exact solutions are obtained in the cases of short and long conjugation length, respectively. From a linear combination of these cases an approximate solution for the general case is obtained. As an application of the model the influence of a static electric field on the electron-hole overlap integral and exciton energy is considered.

  2. Excitons in undoped AlGaAs/GaAs wide parabolic quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabata, A; Oliveira, J B B [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, 17033-360, Bauru (Brazil); Silva, E C F da; Lamas, T E; Duarte, C A; Gusev, G M, E-mail: tabata@fc.unesp.b [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 05315-970, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2010-02-01

    In this work the electronic structure of undoped AlGaAs/GaAs wide parabolic quantum wells (PQWs) with different well widths (1000 A and 3000 A) were investigated by means of photoluminescence (PL) measurements. Due to the particular potential shape, the sample structure confines photocreated carriers with almost three-dimensional characteristics. Our data show that depending on the well width thickness it is possible to observe very narrow structures in the PL spectra, which were ascribed to emissions associated to the recombination of confined 1s-excitons of the parabolic potential wells. From our measurements, the exciton binding energies (of a few meV) were estimated. Besides the exciton emission, we have also observed PL emissions associated to electrons in the excited subbands of the PQWs.

  3. Biexciton formation and exciton coherent coupling in layered GaSe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dey, P.; Paul, J.; Stevens, C. E.; Glikin, N.; Karaiskaj, D., E-mail: karaiskaj@usf.edu [Department of Physics, University of South Florida, 4202 East Fowler Ave., Tampa, Florida 33620 (United States); Moody, G. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, 325 Broadway, Boulder, Colarado 80305 (United States); Kovalyuk, Z. D.; Kudrynskyi, Z. R. [Chernivtsi Department, Frantsevich Institute of Material Sciences Problems, The National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 5, Iryna Vilde St., 58001 Chernivtsi (Ukraine); Romero, A. H. [Physics Department, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506-6315 (United States); Cantarero, A. [Materials Science Institute, University of Valencia, P.O. Box 2205, 46071 Valencia (Spain); Hilton, D. J. [Department of Physics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294 (United States)

    2015-06-07

    Nonlinear two-dimensional Fourier transform (2DFT) and linear absorption spectroscopy are used to study the electronic structure and optical properties of excitons in the layered semiconductor GaSe. At the 1s exciton resonance, two peaks are identified in the absorption spectra, which are assigned to splitting of the exciton ground state into the triplet and singlet states. 2DFT spectra acquired for co-linear polarization of the excitation pulses feature an additional peak originating from coherent energy transfer between the singlet and triplet. At cross-linear polarization of the excitation pulses, the 2DFT spectra expose a new peak likely originating from bound biexcitons. The polarization dependent 2DFT spectra are well reproduced by simulations using the optical Bloch equations for a four level system, where many-body effects are included phenomenologically. Although biexciton effects are thought to be strong in this material, only moderate contributions from bound biexciton creation can be observed. The biexciton binding energy of ∼2 meV was estimated from the separation of the peaks in the 2DFT spectra. Temperature dependent absorption and 2DFT measurements, combined with “ab initio” theoretical calculations of the phonon spectra, indicate strong interaction with the A{sub 1}{sup ′} phonon mode. Excitation density dependent 2DFT measurements reveal excitation induced dephasing and provide a lower limit for the homogeneous linewidth of the excitons in the present GaSe crystal.

  4. Biexciton formation and exciton coherent coupling in layered GaSe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, P.; Paul, J.; Stevens, C. E.; Glikin, N.; Karaiskaj, D.; Moody, G.; Kovalyuk, Z. D.; Kudrynskyi, Z. R.; Romero, A. H.; Cantarero, A.; Hilton, D. J.

    2015-01-01

    Nonlinear two-dimensional Fourier transform (2DFT) and linear absorption spectroscopy are used to study the electronic structure and optical properties of excitons in the layered semiconductor GaSe. At the 1s exciton resonance, two peaks are identified in the absorption spectra, which are assigned to splitting of the exciton ground state into the triplet and singlet states. 2DFT spectra acquired for co-linear polarization of the excitation pulses feature an additional peak originating from coherent energy transfer between the singlet and triplet. At cross-linear polarization of the excitation pulses, the 2DFT spectra expose a new peak likely originating from bound biexcitons. The polarization dependent 2DFT spectra are well reproduced by simulations using the optical Bloch equations for a four level system, where many-body effects are included phenomenologically. Although biexciton effects are thought to be strong in this material, only moderate contributions from bound biexciton creation can be observed. The biexciton binding energy of ∼2 meV was estimated from the separation of the peaks in the 2DFT spectra. Temperature dependent absorption and 2DFT measurements, combined with “ab initio” theoretical calculations of the phonon spectra, indicate strong interaction with the A 1 ′ phonon mode. Excitation density dependent 2DFT measurements reveal excitation induced dephasing and provide a lower limit for the homogeneous linewidth of the excitons in the present GaSe crystal

  5. Energetic disorder and exciton states of individual molecular rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, Pavel; Barvik, Ivan; Zapletal, David

    2006-01-01

    Exciton states in molecular rings (resembling, e.g. the B850 ring from LH2 complexes of purple bacterium Rhodopseudomonas acidophila) with strong intermolecular interaction are still a question of interest [V. Sundstrom, T. Pullerits, R. van Grondelle, J. Phys. Chem. B 103 (1999) 2327]. In our theoretical model we use the ring of two-level systems, simulating, e.g., the bacteriochlorophylls B850. The dynamical aspects in ensemble of rings are reflected in optical line shapes of electronic transitions. The observed linewidths reflect the combined influence of different types of static and dynamic disorder. To avoid the broadening of lines due to ensemble averaging one uses the single-molecule spectroscopy technique to obtain a fluorescence-excitation spectrum. For zero disorder the exciton manifold features two non-degenerate and eight pairwise degenerate states. In the presence of energetic disorder the degeneracy of the exciton states is lifted and oscillator strength is redistributed among the exciton states. A satisfactory understanding of the nature of static disorder in light-harvesting systems has not been reached [S. Jang, S.F. Dempster, R.J. Silbey, J. Phys. Chem. B 105 (2001) 6655]. In the local site basis, there can be present static disorder in both diagonal and off-diagonal Hamiltonian matrix elements. Silbey et al. [J. Phys. Chem. B 105 (2001) 6655] pointed out several questions: is former enough or the latter should be included as well? If both are considered, then there remains a question about whether they are independent or correlated. The distribution of the energetic separation E(k=+/-1) and relative orientation of the transition-dipole moments has been recently investigated [S. Jang, et al., J. Phys. Chem. B 105 (2001) 6655; C. Hofmann, T.J. Aartsma, J. Koehler, Chem. Phys. Lett. 395 (2004) 373]. In our present contribution we have extended such a type of investigation to four models of noncorrelated static disorder: (A) Gaussian disorder in the

  6. Nonlinear optical spectra having characteristics of Fano interferences in coherently coupled lowest exciton biexciton states in semiconductor quantum dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Gotoh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Optical nonlinear effects are examined using a two-color micro-photoluminescence (micro-PL method in a coherently coupled exciton-biexciton system in a single quantum dot (QD. PL and photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy (PLE are employed to measure the absorption spectra of the exciton and biexciton states. PLE for Stokes and anti-Stokes PL enables us to clarify the nonlinear optical absorption properties in the lowest exciton and biexciton states. The nonlinear absorption spectra for excitons exhibit asymmetric shapes with peak and dip structures, and provide a distinct contrast to the symmetric dip structures of conventional nonlinear spectra. Theoretical analyses with a density matrix method indicate that the nonlinear spectra are caused not by a simple coherent interaction between the exciton and biexciton states but by coupling effects among exciton, biexciton and continuum states. These results indicate that Fano quantum interference effects appear in exciton-biexciton systems at QDs and offer important insights into their physics.

  7. Ultrafast single-molecule photonics: Excited state dynamics in coherently coupled complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernando, Jordi; Hoogenboom, Jacob; Dijk, Erik van; Garcia-Parajo, Maria; Hulst, Niek F. van

    2008-01-01

    We present a single-molecule study on femtosecond dynamics in multichromophoric systems, combining fs pump-probe, emission-spectra and fluorescence-lifetime analysis. The ultrafast fs approach gives direct information on the initial exciton dynamics after excitation. The lifetime data show superradiance, a direct measure for the extent of the coherent coupling and static disorder. The spectra finally reveal the role of exciton-phonon coupling. At the single-molecule level a wide range of exciton delocalization lengths and energy redistribution times is revealed

  8. Ultrafast single-molecule photonics: Excited state dynamics in coherently coupled complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernando, Jordi [Dept. de Quimica, Universitat Autonoma Barcelona, 08193 Cerdanyola del Valles (Spain); Hoogenboom, Jacob [ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, Mediterranean Technology Park, 08860 Castelldefels, Barcelona (Spain); Dijk, Erik van [Applied Optics Group, MESA Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, 7500AE Enschede (Netherlands); Garcia-Parajo, Maria [IBEC-Institute of BioEngineering of Catalunya, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); ICREA-Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats, 08015 Barcelona (Spain); Hulst, Niek F. van [ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, Mediterranean Technology Park, 08860 Castelldefels, Barcelona (Spain) and ICREA-Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats, 08015 Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: Niek.vanHulst@ICFO.es

    2008-05-15

    We present a single-molecule study on femtosecond dynamics in multichromophoric systems, combining fs pump-probe, emission-spectra and fluorescence-lifetime analysis. The ultrafast fs approach gives direct information on the initial exciton dynamics after excitation. The lifetime data show superradiance, a direct measure for the extent of the coherent coupling and static disorder. The spectra finally reveal the role of exciton-phonon coupling. At the single-molecule level a wide range of exciton delocalization lengths and energy redistribution times is revealed.

  9. Incomplete Exciton Harvesting from Fullerenes in Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Burkhard, George F.

    2009-12-09

    We investigate the internal quantum efficiencies (IQEs) of high efficiency poly-3-hexylthiophene:[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) solar cells and find them to be lower at wavelengths where the PCBM absorbs. Because the exciton diffusion length in PCBM is too small, excitons generated in PCBM decay before reaching the donor-acceptor interface. This result has implications for most state of the art organic solar cells, since all of the most efficient devices use fullerenes as electron acceptors. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  10. Incomplete Exciton Harvesting from Fullerenes in Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Burkhard, George F.; Hoke, Eric T.; Scully, Shawn R.; McGehee, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the internal quantum efficiencies (IQEs) of high efficiency poly-3-hexylthiophene:[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) solar cells and find them to be lower at wavelengths where the PCBM absorbs. Because the exciton diffusion length in PCBM is too small, excitons generated in PCBM decay before reaching the donor-acceptor interface. This result has implications for most state of the art organic solar cells, since all of the most efficient devices use fullerenes as electron acceptors. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  11. Pressure-induced increase of exciton-LO-phonon coupling in a ZnCdSe/ZnSe quantum well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Z. Z.; Liang, X. X.; Ban, S. L.

    2003-07-01

    The possibility of pressure-induced increase of exciton-LO-phonon coupling in ZnCdSe/ZnSe quantum wells is studied. The ground state binding energies of the heavy hole excitons are calculated using a variational method with consideration of the electron-phonon interaction and the pressure dependence of the parameters. The results show that for quantum wells with intermediate well width, the exciton binding energy and the LO-phonon energy may coincide in the course of pressure increasing, resulting in the increase of exciton-LO-phonon coupling. It is also found that among the pressure-dependent parameters, the influence of the lattice constant is the most important one. The changes of both the effective masses and the dielectric constants have obvious effects on the exciton binding energy, but their influences are counterbalanced.

  12. Exciton spectra and energy band structure of Cu{sub 2}ZnSiSe{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guc, M., E-mail: gmax@phys.asm.md [Institute of Applied Physics, Academy of Sciences of Moldova, Academiei Str. 5, Chisinau MD 2028, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); Levcenko, S. [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Dermenji, L. [Institute of Applied Physics, Academy of Sciences of Moldova, Academiei Str. 5, Chisinau MD 2028, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); Gurieva, G. [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Schorr, S. [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Free University Berlin, Institute of Geological Sciences, Malteserstr. 74-100, Berlin (Germany); Syrbu, N.N. [Technical University of Moldova, Chisinau MD-2004, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); Arushanov, E. [Institute of Applied Physics, Academy of Sciences of Moldova, Academiei Str. 5, Chisinau MD 2028, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of)

    2014-02-25

    Highlights: • Reflection spectra of Cu{sub 2}ZnSiSe{sub 4} were studied for E ⊥ c and E || c light polarizations. • Four excitonic series are revealed in the reflection spectra at 10 K. • Model of exciton dispersion and the presence of a dead-layer. • Exciton Rydberg energies and free carriers effective masses were calculated. • Reflectivity for E ⊥ c and E || c were analyzed in the region 3–6 eV at 300 K. -- Abstract: Exciton spectra are studied in Cu{sub 2}ZnSiSe{sub 4} single crystals at 10 and 300 K by means of reflection spectroscopy. The exciton parameters, dielectric constant and free carriers effective masses are deduced from experimental spectra by calculations in the framework of a model taking into account the spatial dispersion and the presence of a dead-layer. The structure found in the reflectivity was analyzed and related to the theoretical electronic band structure of close related Cu{sub 2}ZnSiS{sub 4} semiconductor.

  13. Continuum contribution to excitonic four-wave mixing due to interaction-induced nonlinearities: A numerical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sayed, K.; Birkedal, D.; Lyssenko, V. G.; Hvam, J. M.

    1997-01-01

    We present a theoretical investigation of ultrafast transient four-wave mixing (FWM) of GaAs quantum wells for coherent excitation of excitons and a large number of continuum states. It is shown that in this case the line shape of the FWM signal is drastically altered due to an interaction-induced coupling of the exciton to all the excited continuum states. The signal is dominantly emitted at the spectral position of the exciton and decays, as a function of delay, on a time scale set by the duration of the laser pulse rather than by the intrinsic dephasing time. Nevertheless, the spectral width of the exciton line in the FWM spectrum and in the decay of the time-resolved FWM signal in real time are governed by the intrinsic excitonic dephasing rate. It is shown that for pulse durations of ~ 100 fs (for GaAs quantum wells) this behavior can be explained as the influence of the Coulomb exchange interaction, while for even shorter pulses this behavior is dominantly caused by nonlinear polarization decay.

  14. Ultrafast Mid-Infrared Intra-Excitonic Response of Individualized Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jigang; Graham, Matt W.; Ma, Yingzhong; Fleming, Graham R.; Kaindl, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    The quasi-1D confinement and reduced screening of photoexcited charges in single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) entails strongly-enhanced Coulomb interactions and exciton binding energies. Such amplified electron-hole (e-h) correlations have important implications for both fundamental physics and optoelectronic applications of nanotubes. The availability of 'individualized' SWNT ensembles with bright and structured luminescence has rendered specific tube chiralities experimentally accessible. In these samples, evidence for excitonic behavior was found in absorption-luminescence maps, two-photon excited luminescence, or ultrafast carrier dynamics. Here, we report ultrafast mid-infrared (mid-IR) studies of individualized SWNTs, evidencing strong photoinduced absorption around 200 meV in semiconducting tubes of (6,5) and (7,5) chiralities. This manifests the observation of quasi-1D intra-excitonic transitions between different relative-momentum states, in agreement with the binding energy and calculated oscillator strength. Our measurements further reveal a saturation of the photoinduced absorption with increasing phase-space filling of the correlated e-h pairs. The transient mid-IR response represents a new tool, unhindered by restrictions of momentum or interband dipole moment, to investigate the density and dynamics of SWNT excitons.

  15. Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, E.J.

    1992-05-01

    The following research programs from the Center for Radiological Research of Columbia University are described: Design and development of a new wall-less ultra miniature proportional counter for nanodosimetry; some recent measurements of ionization distributions for heavy ions at nanometer site sizes with a wall-less proportional counter; a calculation of exciton energies in periodic systems with helical symmetry: application to a hydrogen fluoride chain; electron energy-loss function in polynucleotide and the question of plasmon excitation; a non-parametric, microdosimetric-based approach to the evaluation of the biological effects of low doses of ionizing radiation; high-LET radiation risk assessment at medium doses; high-LET radiobiological effects: increased lesion severity or increased lesion proximity; photoneutrons generated by high energy medical linacs; the biological effectiveness of neutrons; implications for radiation protection; molecular characterization of oncogenes induced by neutrons; and the inverse dose-rate effect for oncogenic transformation by charged particles is LET dependent

  16. Preequilibrium decay in the exciton model for nuclear potential with a finite depth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogila, Ye.A.; Kolomiets, V.M.; Sanzhur, A.I.; Shlomo, S.

    1995-01-01

    The spectra of preequilibrium particles, taking into account the energy dependence of the single-particle level density, are calculated using the particle-hole (exciton) level density. We demonstrate the significant effect of the finite depth of the potential well (continuum effect) on partial emission spectra for configurations with a small exciton number

  17. Energy relaxation and transfer in excitonic trimer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, Pavel; Barvik, Ivan; Urbanec, Martin

    2004-01-01

    Two models describing exciton relaxation and transfer (the Redfield model in the secular approximation and Capek's model) are compared for a simple example - a symmetric trimer coupled to a phonon bath. Energy transfer within the trimer occurs via resonance interactions and coupling between the trimer and the bath occurs via modulation of the monomer energies by phonons. Two initial conditions are adopted: (1) one of higher eigenstates of the trimer is initially occupied and (2) one local site of the trimer is initially occupied. The diagonal exciton density matrix elements in the representation of eigenstates are found to be the same for both models, but this is not so for the off-diagonal density matrix elements. Only if the off-diagonal density matrix elements vanish initially (initial condition (1)), they then vanish at arbitrary times in both models. If the initial excitation is local, the off-diagonal matrix elements essentially differ

  18. Hyperspectral Probing of Exciton dynamics and Multiplication in PbSe Nanocrystals

    OpenAIRE

    Bawendi M.G.; Strasfeld D.; Roitblat A.; Sachs H.; Gdor I.; Ruhman S.

    2013-01-01

    Height time hyperspectral near IR probing providing broad-band coverage is employed on PbSe nanocrystals, uncovering spectral evolution following high energy photo-excitation due to hot exciton relaxation and recombination. Separation of single, double and triple exciton state contributions to these spectra is demonstrated, and the mechanisms underlying the course of spectral evolution are investigated. In addition no sign of MEG was detected in this sample up to a photon energy 3.7 times tha...

  19. Excitons and Cooper pairs two composite bosons in many-body physics

    CERN Document Server

    Combescot, Monique

    2015-01-01

    This book bridges a gap between two major communities of Condensed Matter Physics, Semiconductors and Superconductors, that have thrived independently. Through an original perspective that their key particles, excitons and Cooper pairs, are composite bosons, the authors raise fundamental questions of current interest: how does the Pauli exclusion principle wield its power on the fermionic components of bosonic particles at a microscopic level and how this affects the macroscopic physics? What can we learn from Wannier and Frenkel excitons and from Cooper pairs that helps us understand "bosonic condensation" of composite bosons and its difference from Bose-Einstein condensation of elementary bosons? The authors start from solid mathematical and physical foundation to derive excitons and Cooper pairs. They further introduce Shiva diagrams as a graphic support to grasp the many-body physics induced by fermion exchange - a novel mechanism not visualized by standard Feynman diagrams. Advanced undergraduate or grad...

  20. On nonlinear dynamics of a dipolar exciton BEC in two-layer graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berman, O.L.; Kezerashvili, R.Ya.; Kolmakov, G.V.

    2012-01-01

    The nonlinear dynamics of a Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) of dipolar excitons in two-layer graphene is studied. It is demonstrated that a steady turbulent state is formed in this system. A comparison between the dynamics of the exciton BEC in two-layer graphene and those in GaAs/AlGaAs coupled quantum wells shows that turbulence is a general effect in a BEC.