Study of a Quantum Dot in an Excited State
Slamet, Marlina; Sahni, Viraht
We have studied the first excited singlet state of a quantum dot via quantal density functional theory (QDFT). The quantum dot is represented by a 2D Hooke's atom in an external magnetostatic field. The QDFT mapping is from an excited singlet state of this interacting system to one of noninteracting fermions in a singlet ground state. The results of the study will be compared to (a) the corresponding mapping from a ground state of the quantum dot and (b) to the similar mapping from an excited singlet state of the 3D Hooke's atom.
Excited states configurations of the quantum Toda lattice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsuyama, A.
2001-01-01
Excited states configurations of the quantum Toda lattice are studied by the direct diagonalization of the Hamiltonian. The most probable configurations of one-hole and one-particle excitations are shown to be similar to the profiles of classical phonon and soliton excitations, respectively. One-hole excitation states, which are always ground states of definite E m -symmetry of the dihedral group D N , change those structures abruptly with the potential range varied. One-particle excitations, which are buried in complicated excitation spectra, have well-defined configurations similar to the conoidal profile of the classical periodic Toda lattice. The relationship that the hole (particle) excitations in quantum mechanics correspond to the phonon (soliton) excitations in classical mechanics, which has been suggested based on the similarity of dispersion relations, is confirmed in a geometrically understandable way. Based on the study of one-soliton and two-soliton states, the structure of multi-soliton states in quantum mechanics can be conjectured
Supersymmetric quantum mechanics and higher excited states of a non-polynomial potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Drigo Filho, E.; Ricotta, R.M.
1989-03-01
Supersymmetric quantum mechanics is used to evaluate new excited states of a non-polynomial potential. This illustrates a method of evaluating higher excited states of quantum mechanical potentials. (A.C.A.S.) [pt
Linear-scaling quantum mechanical methods for excited states.
Yam, ChiYung; Zhang, Qing; Wang, Fan; Chen, GuanHua
2012-05-21
The poor scaling of many existing quantum mechanical methods with respect to the system size hinders their applications to large systems. In this tutorial review, we focus on latest research on linear-scaling or O(N) quantum mechanical methods for excited states. Based on the locality of quantum mechanical systems, O(N) quantum mechanical methods for excited states are comprised of two categories, the time-domain and frequency-domain methods. The former solves the dynamics of the electronic systems in real time while the latter involves direct evaluation of electronic response in the frequency-domain. The localized density matrix (LDM) method is the first and most mature linear-scaling quantum mechanical method for excited states. It has been implemented in time- and frequency-domains. The O(N) time-domain methods also include the approach that solves the time-dependent Kohn-Sham (TDKS) equation using the non-orthogonal localized molecular orbitals (NOLMOs). Besides the frequency-domain LDM method, other O(N) frequency-domain methods have been proposed and implemented at the first-principles level. Except one-dimensional or quasi-one-dimensional systems, the O(N) frequency-domain methods are often not applicable to resonant responses because of the convergence problem. For linear response, the most efficient O(N) first-principles method is found to be the LDM method with Chebyshev expansion for time integration. For off-resonant response (including nonlinear properties) at a specific frequency, the frequency-domain methods with iterative solvers are quite efficient and thus practical. For nonlinear response, both on-resonance and off-resonance, the time-domain methods can be used, however, as the time-domain first-principles methods are quite expensive, time-domain O(N) semi-empirical methods are often the practical choice. Compared to the O(N) frequency-domain methods, the O(N) time-domain methods for excited states are much more mature and numerically stable, and
Stability of quantum-dot excited-state laser emission under simultaneous ground-state perturbation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kaptan, Y., E-mail: yuecel.kaptan@physik.tu-berlin.de; Herzog, B.; Schöps, O.; Kolarczik, M.; Woggon, U.; Owschimikow, N. [Institut für Optik und Atomare Physik, Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Röhm, A.; Lingnau, B.; Lüdge, K. [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Schmeckebier, H.; Arsenijević, D.; Bimberg, D. [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Mikhelashvili, V.; Eisenstein, G. [Technion Institute of Technology, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Haifa (Israel)
2014-11-10
The impact of ground state amplification on the laser emission of In(Ga)As quantum dot excited state lasers is studied in time-resolved experiments. We find that a depopulation of the quantum dot ground state is followed by a drop in excited state lasing intensity. The magnitude of the drop is strongly dependent on the wavelength of the depletion pulse and the applied injection current. Numerical simulations based on laser rate equations reproduce the experimental results and explain the wavelength dependence by the different dynamics in lasing and non-lasing sub-ensembles within the inhomogeneously broadened quantum dots. At high injection levels, the observed response even upon perturbation of the lasing sub-ensemble is small and followed by a fast recovery, thus supporting the capacity of fast modulation in dual-state devices.
Quantum entanglement of localized excited states at finite temperature
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Caputa, Paweł [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics (YITP), Kyoto University,Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Nordita, KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University,Roslagstullsbacken 23, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Simón, Joan; Štikonas, Andrius [School of Mathematics and Maxwell Institute for Mathematical Sciences,University of Edinburgh,King’s Buildings, Edinburgh EH9 3FD (United Kingdom); Takayanagi, Tadashi [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics (YITP), Kyoto University,Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (Kavli IPMU),University of Tokyo,Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan)
2015-01-20
In this work we study the time evolutions of (Renyi) entanglement entropy of locally excited states in two dimensional conformal field theories (CFTs) at finite temperature. We consider excited states created by acting with local operators on thermal states and give both field theoretic and holographic calculations. In free field CFTs, we find that the growth of Renyi entanglement entropy at finite temperature is reduced compared to the zero temperature result by a small quantity proportional to the width of the localized excitations. On the other hand, in finite temperature CFTs with classical gravity duals, we find that the entanglement entropy approaches a characteristic value at late time. This behaviour does not occur at zero temperature. We also study the mutual information between the two CFTs in the thermofield double (TFD) formulation and give physical interpretations of our results.
Excitation gap of fractal quantum hall states in graphene
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luo, Wenchen; Chakraborty, Tapash
2016-01-01
In the presence of a magnetic field and an external periodic potential the Landau level spectrum of a two-dimensional electron gas exhibits a fractal pattern in the energy spectrum which is described as the Hofstadter’s butterfly. In this work, we develop a Hartree–Fock theory to deal with the electron-electron interaction in the Hofstadter’s butterfly state in a finite-size graphene with periodic boundary conditions, where we include both spin and valley degrees of freedom. We then treat the butterfly state as an electron crystal so that we could obtain the order parameters of the crystal in the momentum space and also in an infinite sample. A phase transition between the liquid phase and the fractal crystal phase can be observed. The excitation gaps obtained in the infinite sample is comparable to those in the finite-size study, and agree with a recent experimental observation. (paper)
Electronic properties of excited states in single InAs quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Warming, Till
2009-01-01
The application of quantum-mechanical effects in semiconductor nanostructures enables the realization of novel opto-electronic devices. Examples are given by single-photon emitters and emitters of entangled photon pairs, both being essential for quantum cryptography, or for qubit systems as needed for quantum computing. InAs/GaAs quantum dots are one of the most promising candidates for such applications. A detailed knowledge of the electronic properties of quantum dots is a prerequisite for this development. The aim of this work is an experimental access to the detailed electronic structure of the excited states in single InAs/GaAs quantum dots including few-particle effects and in particular exchange interaction. The experimental approach is micro photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy (μPLE). One of the main difficulties using μPLE to probe single QDs is the unambiguous assignment of the observed resonances in the spectrum to specific transitions. By comparing micro photoluminescence (μPL) and μPLE spectra, the identification of the main resonances becomes possible. The key is given by the fine structure of the hot trion. Excitation spectroscopy on single charged QDs enables for the first time the complete observation of a non-trivial fine structure of an excitonic complex in a QD, the hot trion. Modelling based on eight-band k.p theory in combination with a configuration interaction scheme is in excellent agreement. Therewith the simulation also enables realistic predictions on the fine structure of the ground-state exciton which is of large importance for single quantum dot devices. Theory concludes from the observed transitions that the structural symmetry of the QDs is broken. Micro photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy combined with resonantly excited micro photoluminescence enables an optical access to the single particle states of the hole without the influence of few-particle coulomb interactions. Based on this knowledge the exciton binding
Solvent effects on excited-state structures: A quantum Monte Carlo and density functional study
Guareschi, R.; Floris, F.M.; Amovilli, C.; Filippi, Claudia
2014-01-01
We present the first application of quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) in its variational flavor combined with the polarizable continuum model (PCM) to perform excited-state geometry optimization in solution. Our implementation of the PCM model is based on a reaction field that includes both volume and
Effects of crossed states on photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy of InAs quantum dots
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lin Chien-Hung
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract In this report, the influence of the intrinsic transitions between bound-to-delocalized states (crossed states or quasicontinuous density of electron-hole states on photoluminescence excitation (PLE spectra of InAs quantum dots (QDs was investigated. The InAs QDs were different in size, shape, and number of bound states. Results from the PLE spectroscopy at low temperature and under a high magnetic field (up to 14 T were compared. Our findings show that the profile of the PLE resonances associated with the bound transitions disintegrated and broadened. This was attributed to the coupling of the localized QD excited states to the crossed states and scattering of longitudinal acoustical (LA phonons. The degree of spectral linewidth broadening was larger for the excited state in smaller QDs because of the higher crossed joint density of states and scattering rate.
Cathodoluminescence imaging and spectroscopy of excited states in InAs self-assembled quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khatsevich, S.; Rich, D.H.; Kim, Eui-Tae; Madhukar, A.
2005-01-01
We have examined state filling and thermal activation of carriers in buried InAs self-assembled quantum dots (SAQDs) with excitation-dependent cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging and spectroscopy. The InAs SAQDs were formed during molecular-beam epitaxial growth of InAs on undoped planar GaAs (001). The intensities of the ground- and excited-state transitions were analyzed as a function of temperature and excitation density to study the thermal activation and reemission of carriers. The thermal activation energies associated with the thermal quenching of the luminescence were measured for ground- and excited-state transitions of the SAQDs, as a function of excitation density. By comparing these activation energies with the ground- and excited-state transition energies, we have considered various processes that describe the reemission of carriers. Thermal quenching of the intensity of the QD ground- and first excited-state transitions at low excitations in the ∼230-300-K temperature range is attributed to dissociation of excitons from the QD states into the InAs wetting layer. At high excitations, much lower activation energies of the ground and excited states are obtained, suggesting that thermal reemission of single holes from QD states into the GaAs matrix is responsible for the observed temperature dependence of the QD luminescence in the ∼230-300-K temperature range. The dependence of the CL intensity of the ground-and first excited-state transition on excitation density was shown to be linear at all temperatures at low-excitation density. This result can be understood by considering that carriers escape and are recaptured as excitons or correlated electron-hole pairs. At sufficiently high excitations, state-filling and spatial smearing effects are observed together with a sublinear dependence of the CL intensity on excitation. Successive filling of the ground and excited states in adjacent groups of QDs that possess different size distributions is assumed to
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chien-Hao Lin
2015-09-01
Full Text Available In the present work, we report an investigation on quantum entanglement in the doubly excited 2s2 1Se resonance state of the positronium negative ion by using highly correlated Hylleraas type wave functions, determined by calculation of the density of resonance states with the stabilization method. Once the resonance wave function is obtained, the spatial (electron-electron orbital entanglement entropies (von Neumann and linear can be quantified using the Schmidt decomposition method. Furthermore, Shannon entropy in position space, a measure for localization (or delocalization for such a doubly excited state, is also calculated.
Isospin quantum number and structure of the excited states in halo nuclei. Halo-isomers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Izosimov, I.N.
2015-01-01
It has been shown that isobar-analog (IAS), double isobar-analog (DIAS), configuration (CS), and double configuration states (DCS) can simultaneously have n-n, n-p, and p-p halo components in their wave functions. Differences in halo structure of the excited and ground states can result in the formation of isomers (halo-isomers). Both the Borromean and tango halo types can be observed for n-p configurations of atomic nuclei. The structure of the ground and excited states with different isospin quantum number in halo-like nuclei is discussed. B(Mλ) and B(Eλ) for γ-transitions in 6-8 Li, 8-10 Be, 8,10,11 B, 10-14 C, 13-17 N, 15-17,19 O, and 17 F are analyzed. Special attention is given to nuclei whose ground state does not exhibit halo structure, but the excited state may have one.
Lim, Edward C
1974-01-01
Excited States, Volume I reviews radiationless transitions, phosphorescence microwave double resonance through optical spectra in molecular solids, dipole moments in excited states, luminescence of polar molecules, and the problem of interstate interaction in aromatic carbonyl compounds. The book discusses the molecular electronic radiationless transitions; the double resonance techniques and the relaxation mechanisms involving the lowest triplet state of aromatic compounds; as well as the optical spectra and relaxation in molecular solids. The text also describes dipole moments and polarizab
Heat capacity for systems with excited-state quantum phase transitions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cejnar, Pavel; Stránský, Pavel, E-mail: stransky@ipnp.troja.mff.cuni.cz
2017-03-18
Heat capacities of model systems with finite numbers of effective degrees of freedom are evaluated using canonical and microcanonical thermodynamics. Discrepancies between both approaches, which are observed even in the infinite-size limit, are particularly large in systems that exhibit an excited-state quantum phase transition. The corresponding irregularity of the spectrum generates a singularity in the microcanonical heat capacity and affects smoothly the canonical heat capacity. - Highlights: • Thermodynamics of systems with excited-state quantum phase transitions • ESQPT-generated singularities of the microcanonical heat capacity • Non-monotonous dependences of the canonical heat capacity • Discord between canonical and microcanonical pictures in the infinite-size limit.
An excited-state approach within full configuration interaction quantum Monte Carlo
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blunt, N. S.; Smart, Simon D.; Booth, George H.; Alavi, Ali
2015-01-01
We present a new approach to calculate excited states with the full configuration interaction quantum Monte Carlo (FCIQMC) method. The approach uses a Gram-Schmidt procedure, instantaneously applied to the stochastically evolving distributions of walkers, to orthogonalize higher energy states against lower energy ones. It can thus be used to study several of the lowest-energy states of a system within the same symmetry. This additional step is particularly simple and computationally inexpensive, requiring only a small change to the underlying FCIQMC algorithm. No trial wave functions or partitioning of the space is needed. The approach should allow excited states to be studied for systems similar to those accessible to the ground-state method due to a comparable computational cost. As a first application, we consider the carbon dimer in basis sets up to quadruple-zeta quality and compare to existing results where available
Excited states of hydrogen shallow impurities in GaAs-Ga Al As quantum wells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Neves Carneiro, Gleise das
1994-01-01
The study of shallow impurities in semiconductor heterostructures, such as quantum and superlattices, has been of continuous interest over the last years. Successful comparisons between experimental results photoluminescence: N.N Ledentsov et al., Appl. Phys. A 54, 261 (1992) and theoretical calculations [L.E. Oliveira and G.D. Mahan, Phys. Rev. B 47, 2406 (1993)] constitute a strong motivation for an in-depth theoretical study. We present a variational calculation of the binding energies of shallow donors in a Ga-As-AlGaAs quantum well. The energies and variational wave functions associated to the ground state (1s-like) as well as some excited states (2s, 2p xy , 2p xy , 3s, 3p xy , and 3p like) are obtained as functions of the position of the impurity (z i ) in the well. The density of impurity states, intra-donor transition strengths and the infrared absorption spectra are calculated for some of these excited states and results compared with previous theoretical [S. Fraizzoli, F. Bassani, and R. Buczko, Phys. rev. B 41, 5096 (1990)] and experimental works [N.C. Jarosik et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 1283 (1985). (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bagrov, V.G. [Tomsk State University, Department of Physics, Tomsk (Russian Federation); SB RAS, Tomsk Institute of High Current Electronics, Tomsk (Russian Federation); University of Sao Paulo, Institute of Physics, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Burimova, A.N. [Tomsk State University, Department of Physics, Tomsk (Russian Federation); University of Sao Paulo, Institute of Physics, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Gitman, D.M.; Levin, A.D. [University of Sao Paulo, Institute of Physics, Sao Paulo (Brazil)
2012-02-15
The exact expressions for the characteristics of synchrotron radiation of charged particles in the first excited state are obtained in analytical form using quantum theory methods. We performed a detailed analysis of the angular distribution structure of radiation power and its polarization for particles with spin 0 and 1/2. It is shown that the exact quantum calculations lead to results that differ substantially from the predictions of classical theory. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu, Guorong; Neville, Simon P.; Schalk, Oliver; Sekikawa, Taro; Ashfold, Michael N. R.; Worth, Graham A.; Stolow, Albert
2016-01-01
The dynamics of N-methylpyrrole following excitation at wavelengths in the range 241.5-217.0 nm were studied using a combination of time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (TRPES), ab initio quantum dynamics calculations using the multi-layer multi-configurational time-dependent Hartree method, as well as high-level photoionization cross section calculations. Excitation at 241.5 and 236.2 nm results in population of the A 2 (πσ ∗ ) state, in agreement with previous studies. Excitation at 217.0 nm prepares the previously neglected B 1 (π3p y ) Rydberg state, followed by prompt internal conversion to the A 2 (πσ ∗ ) state. In contrast with the photoinduced dynamics of pyrrole, the lifetime of the wavepacket in the A 2 (πσ ∗ ) state was found to vary with excitation wavelength, decreasing by one order of magnitude upon tuning from 241.5 nm to 236.2 nm and by more than three orders of magnitude when excited at 217.0 nm. The order of magnitude difference in lifetimes measured at the longer excitation wavelengths is attributed to vibrational excitation in the A 2 (πσ ∗ ) state, facilitating wavepacket motion around the potential barrier in the N–CH 3 dissociation coordinate
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wu, Guorong [National Research Council Canada, 100 Sussex Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada); State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian, Liaoning 116023 (China); Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information & Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Neville, Simon P. [Department of Chemistry, University of Ottawa, 10 Marie Curie, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada); Schalk, Oliver [National Research Council Canada, 100 Sussex Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada); Department of Physics, AlbaNova University Center, Stockholm University, Roslagstullsbacken 21, 106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Sekikawa, Taro [Department of Applied Physics, Hokkaido University, Kita-13 Nishi-8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Ashfold, Michael N. R. [School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TS (United Kingdom); Worth, Graham A. [School of Chemistry, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Stolow, Albert, E-mail: astolow@uottawa.ca [National Research Council Canada, 100 Sussex Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada); Department of Chemistry, University of Ottawa, 10 Marie Curie, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada); Department of Physics, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada)
2016-01-07
The dynamics of N-methylpyrrole following excitation at wavelengths in the range 241.5-217.0 nm were studied using a combination of time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (TRPES), ab initio quantum dynamics calculations using the multi-layer multi-configurational time-dependent Hartree method, as well as high-level photoionization cross section calculations. Excitation at 241.5 and 236.2 nm results in population of the A{sub 2}(πσ{sup ∗}) state, in agreement with previous studies. Excitation at 217.0 nm prepares the previously neglected B{sub 1}(π3p{sub y}) Rydberg state, followed by prompt internal conversion to the A{sub 2}(πσ{sup ∗}) state. In contrast with the photoinduced dynamics of pyrrole, the lifetime of the wavepacket in the A{sub 2}(πσ{sup ∗}) state was found to vary with excitation wavelength, decreasing by one order of magnitude upon tuning from 241.5 nm to 236.2 nm and by more than three orders of magnitude when excited at 217.0 nm. The order of magnitude difference in lifetimes measured at the longer excitation wavelengths is attributed to vibrational excitation in the A{sub 2}(πσ{sup ∗}) state, facilitating wavepacket motion around the potential barrier in the N–CH{sub 3} dissociation coordinate.
Excitations in the field-induced quantum spin liquid state of α-RuCl3
Banerjee, Arnab; Lampen-Kelley, Paula; Knolle, Johannes; Balz, Christian; Aczel, Adam Anthony; Winn, Barry; Liu, Yaohua; Pajerowski, Daniel; Yan, Jiaqiang; Bridges, Craig A.; Savici, Andrei T.; Chakoumakos, Bryan C.; Lumsden, Mark D.; Tennant, David Alan; Moessner, Roderich; Mandrus, David G.; Nagler, Stephen E.
2018-03-01
The celebrated Kitaev quantum spin liquid (QSL) is the paradigmatic example of a topological magnet with emergent excitations in the form of Majorana Fermions and gauge fluxes. Upon breaking of time-reversal symmetry, for example in an external magnetic field, these fractionalized quasiparticles acquire non-Abelian exchange statistics, an important ingredient for topologically protected quantum computing. Consequently, there has been enormous interest in exploring possible material realizations of Kitaev physics and several candidate materials have been put forward, recently including α-RuCl3. In the absence of a magnetic field this material orders at a finite temperature and exhibits low-energy spin wave excitations. However, at moderate energies, the spectrum is unconventional and the response shows evidence for fractional excitations. Here we use time-of-flight inelastic neutron scattering to show that the application of a sufficiently large magnetic field in the honeycomb plane suppresses the magnetic order and the spin waves, leaving a gapped continuum spectrum of magnetic excitations. Our comparisons of the scattering to the available calculations for a Kitaev QSL show that they are consistent with the magnetic field induced QSL phase.
Quantum efficiency and excited-state relaxation dynamics in neodymium-doped phosphate laser glasses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Caird, J.A.; Ramponi, A.J.; Staver, P.R.
1991-01-01
Radiometrically calibrated spectroscopic techniques employing an integrating-sphere detection system have been used to determine the fluorescence quantum efficiencies for two commercially available Nd 3+ -doped phosphate laser glasses, LG-750 and LG-760. Quantum efficiencies and fluorescence lifetimes were measured for samples with various neodymium concentrations. It is shown that the effects of concentration quenching are accurately described when both resonant nonradiative excitation hopping (the Burshtein model) and annihilation by cross relaxation are accounted for by Foerster--Dexter dipole--dipole energy-transfer theory. The Foerster--Dexter critical range for nonradiative excitation hopping was found to be R DD =11 A, while the critical range for cross relaxation was close to R DA =4 A in these glasses. The quantum efficiency at low Nd 3+ concentrations was (92±5)%, implying a nonradiative relaxation rate of 210±150 s -1 for isolated ions. Improved values for the radiative lifetimes and the stimulated emission cross sections for these glasses were also deduced from the measurements
Exact ground and excited states of an antiferromagnetic quantum spin model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bose, I.
1989-08-01
A quasi-one-dimensional spin model which consists of a chain of octahedra of spins has been suggested for which a certain parameter regime of the Hamiltonian, the ground state, can be written down exactly. The ground state is highly degenerate and can be other than a singlet. Also, several excited states can be constructed exactly. The ground state is a local RVB state for which resonance is confined to rings of spins. Some exact numerical results for an octahedron of spins have also been reported. (author). 16 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab
Inelastic light scattering and the excited states of many-electron quantum dots
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Delgado, Alain [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnologicas y Desarrollo Nuclear, Calle 30 No 502, Miramar, Havana (Cuba); Gonzalez, Augusto [Instituto de Cibernetica, Matematica y Fisica, Calle E 309, Vedado, Havana (Cuba)
2003-06-25
A consistent calculation of resonant inelastic (Raman) scattering amplitudes for relatively large quantum dots, which takes account of valence band mixing, the discrete character of the spectrum in intermediate and final states, and interference effects, is presented. Raman peaks in charge and spin channels are compared with multipole strengths and with the density of energy levels in final states. A qualitative comparison with the available experimental results is given.
Inelastic light scattering and the excited states of many-electron quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Delgado, Alain; Gonzalez, Augusto
2003-01-01
A consistent calculation of resonant inelastic (Raman) scattering amplitudes for relatively large quantum dots, which takes account of valence band mixing, the discrete character of the spectrum in intermediate and final states, and interference effects, is presented. Raman peaks in charge and spin channels are compared with multipole strengths and with the density of energy levels in final states. A qualitative comparison with the available experimental results is given
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stránský, Pavel; Macek, Michal; Cejnar, Pavel
2014-01-01
Quantum systems with a finite number of freedom degrees f develop robust singularities in the energy spectrum of excited states as the system’s size increases to infinity. We analyze the general form of these singularities for low f, particularly f=2, clarifying the relation to classical stationary points of the corresponding potential. Signatures in the smoothed energy dependence of the quantum state density and in the flow of energy levels with an arbitrary control parameter are described along with the relevant thermodynamical consequences. The general analysis is illustrated with specific examples of excited-state singularities accompanying the first-order quantum phase transition. -- Highlights: •ESQPTs found in infinite-size limit of systems with low numbers of freedom degrees f. •ESQPTs related to non-analytical evolutions of classical phase–space properties. •ESQPT signatures analyzed for general f, particularly f=2, extending known case f=1. •ESQPT signatures identified in smoothened density and flow of energy spectrum. •ESQPTs shown to induce a new type of thermodynamic anomalies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stránský, Pavel [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, V Holešovičkách 2, 18000 Prague (Czech Republic); Macek, Michal [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, V Holešovičkách 2, 18000 Prague (Czech Republic); Center for Theoretical Physics, Sloane Physics Laboratory, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520-8120 (United States); Leviatan, Amiram [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, 91904 Jerusalem (Israel); Cejnar, Pavel, E-mail: pavel.cejnar@mff.cuni.cz [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, V Holešovičkách 2, 18000 Prague (Czech Republic)
2015-05-15
This article extends our previous analysis Stránský et al. (2014) of Excited-State Quantum Phase Transitions (ESQPTs) in systems of dimension two. We focus on the oscillatory component of the quantum state density in connection with ESQPT structures accompanying a first-order ground-state transition. It is shown that a separable (integrable) system can develop rather strong finite-size precursors of ESQPT expressed as singularities in the oscillatory component of the state density. The singularities originate in effectively 1-dimensional dynamics and in some cases appear in multiple replicas with increasing excitation energy. Using a specific model example, we demonstrate that these precursors are rather resistant to proliferation of chaotic dynamics. - Highlights: • Oscillatory components of state density and spectral flow studied near ESQPTs. • Enhanced finite-size precursors of ESQPT caused by fully/partly separable dynamics. • These precursors appear due to criticality of a subsystem with lower dimension. • Separability-induced finite-size effects disappear in case of fully chaotic dynamics.
Numerical study of ground state and low lying excitations of quantum antiferromagnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Trivedi, N.; Ceperley, D.M.
1989-01-01
The authors have studied, via Green function Monte Carlo (GFMC), the S = 1/2 Heisenberg quantum antiferromagnet in two dimensions on a square lattice. They obtain the ground state energy with only statistical errors E 0 /J = -0.6692(2), the staggered magnetization m † = 0.31(2), and from the long wave length behavior of the structure factor, the spin wave velocity c/c o = 1.14(5). They show that the ground state wave function has long range pair correlations arising from the zero point motion of spin waves
Vector boson excitations near deconfined quantum critical points.
Huh, Yejin; Strack, Philipp; Sachdev, Subir
2013-10-18
We show that the Néel states of two-dimensional antiferromagnets have low energy vector boson excitations in the vicinity of deconfined quantum critical points. We compute the universal damping of these excitations arising from spin-wave emission. Detection of such a vector boson will demonstrate the existence of emergent topological gauge excitations in a quantum spin system.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Power, E.A.; Thirunamachandran, T.
1993-01-01
Spatial correlations between electromagnetic fields arising from neutral sources with electric-dipole transition moments are calculated using nonrelativistic quantum electrodynamics in the multipolar formalism. Expressions for electric-electric, magnetic-magnetic, and electric-magnetic correlation functions at two points r and r' are given for a source molecule in either a ground or an excited state. In contrast to the electric-electric and magnetic-magnetic cases there are no electric-magnetic correlations for a ground-state molecule. For an excited molecule the downward transitions contribute additional terms which have modulating factors depending on (r-r')/λ. From these correlation functions electric and magnetic energy densities are found by setting r=r'. These energy densities are then used in a response formalism to calculate intermolecular energy shifts. In the case of two ground-state molecules this leads to the Casimir-Polder potential. However, for a pair of molecules, one or both excited, there are additional terms arising from downward transitions. An important feature of these energies is that they exhibit an R -2 dependence for large intermolecular separations R. This dependence is interpreted in terms of the Poynting vector, which itself can be obtained by setting r=r' in the electric-magnetic correlation function
Power density and temperature dependent multi-excited states in InAs/GaAs quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bouzaïene, L.; Sfaxi, L.; Baira, M.; Maaref, H.; Bru-Chevallier, C.
2011-01-01
Self-assembled InAs/GaAs (001) quantum dots (QDs) were grown by molecular beam epitaxy using ultra low-growth rate. A typical dot diameter of around 28 ± 2 nm and a typical height of 5 ± 1 nm are observed based on atomic force microscopy image. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra, their power and temperature dependences have been studied for ground (GS) and three excited states (1–3ES) in InAs QDs. By changing the excitation power density, we can significantly influence the distribution of excitons within the QD ensemble. The PL peak energy positions of GS and ES emissions bands depend on an excitation light power. With increasing excitation power, the GS emission energy was red-shifted, while the 1–3ES emission energies were blue-shifted. It is found that the full width at half maximum of the PL spectra has unusual relationship with increasing temperature from 9 to 300 K. The temperature dependence of QD PL spectra shown the existence of two stages of PL thermal quenching and two distinct activation energies corresponding to the temperature ranges I (9–100 K) and II (100–300 K).
Coimbatore Balram, Ajit; Wójs, Arkadiusz; Jain, Jainendra
2014-03-01
Exact diagonalization studies have revealed that the energy spectrum of interacting electrons in the lowest Landau level splits, non-perturbatively, into bands. The theory of nearly free composite fermions (CFs) has been shown to be valid for the lowest band, and thus to capture the low temperature physics, but it over-predicts the number of states for the excited bands. We explain the state counting of higher bands in terms of composite fermions with an infinitely strong short range interaction between a CF particle and a CF hole. This interaction, the form of which we derive from the microscopic CF theory, eliminates configurations containing certain tightly bound CF excitons. With this modification, the CF theory reproduces, for all well-defined excited bands, an exact counting for ν > 1 / 3 , and an almost exact counting for ν The resulting insight clarifies that the corrections to the nearly free CF theory are not thermodynamically significant at sufficiently low temperatures, thus providing a microscopic explanation for why it has proved successful for the analysis of the various properties of the CF Fermi sea. NSF grants DMR-1005536 and DMR-0820404, Polish NCN grant 2011/01/B/ST3/04504 and EU Marie Curie Grant PCIG09-GA-2011-294186, Research Computing and Cyberinfrastructure, PSU and Wroclaw Centre for Networking and Supercomputing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Warming, Till
2009-02-20
The application of quantum-mechanical effects in semiconductor nanostructures enables the realization of novel opto-electronic devices. Examples are given by single-photon emitters and emitters of entangled photon pairs, both being essential for quantum cryptography, or for qubit systems as needed for quantum computing. InAs/GaAs quantum dots are one of the most promising candidates for such applications. A detailed knowledge of the electronic properties of quantum dots is a prerequisite for this development. The aim of this work is an experimental access to the detailed electronic structure of the excited states in single InAs/GaAs quantum dots including few-particle effects and in particular exchange interaction. The experimental approach is micro photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy ({mu}PLE). One of the main difficulties using {mu}PLE to probe single QDs is the unambiguous assignment of the observed resonances in the spectrum to specific transitions. By comparing micro photoluminescence ({mu}PL) and {mu}PLE spectra, the identification of the main resonances becomes possible. The key is given by the fine structure of the hot trion. Excitation spectroscopy on single charged QDs enables for the first time the complete observation of a non-trivial fine structure of an excitonic complex in a QD, the hot trion. Modelling based on eight-band k.p theory in combination with a configuration interaction scheme is in excellent agreement. Therewith the simulation also enables realistic predictions on the fine structure of the ground-state exciton which is of large importance for single quantum dot devices. Theory concludes from the observed transitions that the structural symmetry of the QDs is broken. Micro photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy combined with resonantly excited micro photoluminescence enables an optical access to the single particle states of the hole without the influence of few-particle coulomb interactions. Based on this knowledge the exciton
Lim, Edward C
1982-01-01
Excited States, Volume 6 is a collection of papers that discusses the excited states of molecules. The first paper discusses the linear polyene electronic structure and potential surfaces, considering both the theoretical and experimental approaches in such electronic states. This paper also reviews the theory of electronic structure and cites some experimental techniques on polyene excitations, polyene spectroscopic phenomenology, and those involving higher states of polyenes and their triplet states. Examples of these experimental studies of excited states involve the high-resolution one-pho
Excited state Intramolecular Proton Transfer in Anthralin
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Møller, Søren; Andersen, Kristine B.; Spanget-Larsen, Jens
1998-01-01
Quantum chemical calculations performed on anthralin (1,8-dihydroxy-9(10H)-anthracenone) predict the possibility of an excited-state intramolecular proton transfer process. Fluorescence excitation and emission spectra of the compound dissolved in n-hexane at ambient temperature results in an unus......Quantum chemical calculations performed on anthralin (1,8-dihydroxy-9(10H)-anthracenone) predict the possibility of an excited-state intramolecular proton transfer process. Fluorescence excitation and emission spectra of the compound dissolved in n-hexane at ambient temperature results......, associated with an excited-state intramolecular proton transfer process....
Lim, Edward C
2013-01-01
Excited States, Volume 2 is a collection of papers that deals with molecules in the excited states. The book describes the geometries of molecules in the excited electronic states. One paper describes the geometries of a diatomic molecule and of polyatomic molecules; it also discusses the determination of the many excited state geometries of molecules with two, three, or four atoms by techniques similar to diatomic spectroscopy. Another paper introduces an ordered theory related to excitons in pure and mixed molecular crystals. This paper also presents some experimental data such as those invo
Bai, Xu-Fang; Xin, Wei; Yin, Hong-Wu; Eerdunchaolu
2017-06-01
The electromagnetic-field dependence of the ground and the first excited-state (GFES) energy eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the strong-coupling polaron in a quantum dot (QD) was studied for various QD thicknesses by using the variational method of the Pekar type (VMPT). On this basis, we construct a qubit in the quantum dot (QQD) by taking a two-level structure of the polaron as the carrier. The results of numerical calculations indicate that the oscillation period of the qubit, {itT}{in0}, increases with increasing the thickness of the quantum dot (TQD) {itL}, but decreases with increasing the cyclotron frequency of the magnetic field (CFMF) ω{in{itc}}, electric-field strength {itF}, and electron-phonon coupling strength (EPCS) α. The probability density of the qubit |Ψ({itρ}, {itz}, {itt})|{su2} presents a normal distribution of the electronic transverse coordinate ρ, significantly influenced by the TQD and effective radius of the quantum dot (ERQD) {itR}{in0}, and shows a periodic oscillation with variations in the electronic longitudinal coordinate {itz}, polar angle φ and time {itt}. The decoherence time τ and the quality factor {itQ} of the free rotation increase with increasing the CFMF ω{in{itc}}, dispersion coefficient η, and EPCS α, but decrease with increasing the electric-field strength {itF}, TQD {itL}, and ERQD {itR}{in0}. The TQD is an important parameter of the qubit. Theoretically, the target, which is to regulate the oscillation period, decoherence time and quality factor of the free rotation of the qubit, can be achieved by designing different TQDs and regulating the strength of the electromagnetic field.
Kwac, Kijeong; Geva, Eitan
2012-03-08
We present a mixed quantum-classical molecular dynamics study of the hydrogen-bonding structure and dynamics of a vibrationally excited hydroxyl stretch in methanol/carbon-tetrachloride mixtures. The adiabatic Hamiltonian of the quantum-mechanical hydroxyl is diagonalized on-the-fly to obtain the ground and first-excited adiabatic energy levels and wave functions which depend parametrically on the instantaneous configuration of the classical degrees of freedom. The dynamics of the classical degrees of freedom are determined by Hellmann-Feynman forces obtained by taking the expectation value of the force with respect to the ground or excited vibrational wave functions. Polarizable force fields are used which were previously shown to reproduce the experimental infrared absorption spectrum rather well, for different isotopomers and over a wide composition range [Kwac, K.; Geva, E. J. Phys. Chem. B 2011, 115, 9184]. We show that the agreement of the absorption spectra with experiment can be further improved by accounting for the dependence of the dipole moment derivatives on the configuration of the classical degrees of freedom. We find that the propensity of a methanol molecule to form hydrogen bonds increases upon photoexcitation of its hydroxyl stretch, thereby leading to a sizable red-shift of the corresponding emission spectrum relative to the absorption spectrum. Treating the relaxation from the first excited to the ground state as a nonadiabatic process, and calculating its rate within the framework of Fermi's golden rule and the harmonic-Schofield quantum correction factor, we were able to predict a lifetime which is of the same order of magnitude as the experimental value. The experimental dependence of the lifetime on the transition frequency is also reproduced. Nonlinear mapping relations between the hydroxyl transition frequency and bond length in the excited state and the electric field along the hydroxyl bond axis are established. These mapping relations
Decoherence of quantum excitation of even/odd coherent states in ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2The Laboratory of Quantum Information Processing, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran. ∗ .... approach to obtain the decoherence time (by evaluating the time-dependent .... Recall that, while Fokker–Planck equation deals with the evolution of the ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hübner, Olaf; Hornung, Julius; Himmel, Hans-Jörg
2015-01-01
The electronic ground and excited states of the vanadium monoxide (VO) molecule were studied in detail. Electronic absorption spectra for the molecule isolated in Ne matrices complement the previous gas-phase spectra. A thorough quantum chemical (multi-reference configuration interaction) study essentially confirms the assignment and characterization of the electronic excitations observed for VO in the gas-phase and in Ne matrices and allows the clarification of open issues. It provides a complete overview over the electronically excited states up to about 3 eV of this archetypical compound
Unbound states in quantum heterostructures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ferreira R
2006-01-01
Full Text Available AbstractWe report in this review on the electronic continuum states of semiconductor Quantum Wells and Quantum Dots and highlight the decisive part played by the virtual bound states in the optical properties of these structures. The two particles continuum states of Quantum Dots control the decoherence of the excited electron – hole states. The part played by Auger scattering in Quantum Dots is also discussed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arsenijević, D., E-mail: dejan@sol.physik.tu-berlin.de; Schliwa, A.; Schmeckebier, H.; Stubenrauch, M.; Spiegelberg, M.; Bimberg, D. [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Mikhelashvili, V. [Department of Electrical Engineering and The Russell Berrie Nanotechnology Institute, Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Eisenstein, G. [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Department of Electrical Engineering and The Russell Berrie Nanotechnology Institute, Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel)
2014-05-05
The dynamic properties of ground- and excited-state emission in InAs/GaAs quantum-dot lasers operating close to 1.31 μm are studied systematically. Under low bias conditions, such devices emit on the ground state, and switch to emission from the excited state under large drive currents. Modification of one facet reflectivity by deposition of a dichroic mirror yields emission at one of the two quantum-dot states under all bias conditions and enables to properly compare the dynamic properties of lasing from the two different initial states. The larger differential gain of the excited state, which follows from its larger degeneracy, as well as its somewhat smaller nonlinear gain compression results in largely improved modulation capabilities. We demonstrate maximum small-signal bandwidths of 10.51 GHz and 16.25 GHz for the ground and excited state, respectively, and correspondingly, large-signal digital modulation capabilities of 15 Gb/s and 22.5 Gb/s. For the excited state, the maximum error-free bit rate is 25 Gb/s.
The Excited Electronic States Calculated for Cd1−xZnxS Quantum Dots Grown by the Sol-Gel Technique
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Sakly
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The present paper is aimed to investigate theoretically the quantum confinement in Cd1−xZnxS-related quantum dots with x the atomic fraction of Zn. For both electrons and holes, we have calculated the excited bound states with use of the spherical geometry model and assuming a finite potential at the boundary. For electrons, calculations were made by using Bessel function as an orthonormal basis. However, for holes, the confined subbands have been calculated based on squared quantum well envelope wave functions. The subband energies were evaluated for both electrons and holes versus zinc composition as well.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Purkait, M
2009-01-01
State selective charge transfer and excitation cross sections for collisions of Ne q+ (q = 1-10) with atomic hydrogen are calculated within the framework of Classical Trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) method and Boundary Corrected Continuum Intermediate State (BCCIS) approximation.
Excitation states in type-II ZnSe/BeTe quantum wells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Platonov, A.V.; Kochereshko, V.P.; Yakovlev, D.R.; Zehnder, U.; Ossau, W.; Fisher, F.; Litz, Th.; Waag, A.; Landwehr, G.
1997-01-01
We present an optical investigation of novel heterostructures based on beryllium chalcogenides with a type-I and type-II band alignment. In the type-II quantum well structures (ZnSe/BeTe) we observed a strong exciton transition involving an electron confined in the conduction band well and a hole localized in the valence band barrier (both in ZnSe layer). This transition is drastically broadened by the temperature increase due to enhanced exciton-acoustic phonon interaction. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kurosaki, Yuzuru, E-mail: kurosaki.yuzuru@jaea.go.jp [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Tokai Research and Development Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Ho, Tak-San, E-mail: tsho@Princeton.EDU [Department of Chemistry, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Rabitz, Herschel, E-mail: hrabitz@Princeton.EDU [Department of Chemistry, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)
2016-05-01
The prospect of performing the open → cyclic ozone isomerization has attracted much research attention. Here we explore this consideration theoretically by performing quantum optimal control calculations to demonstrate the important role that excited-state dissociation channels could play in the isomerization transformation. In the calculations we use a three-state, one-dimensional dynamical model constructed from the lowest five {sup 1}A′ potential energy curves obtained with high-level ab initio calculations. Besides the laser field-dipole couplings between all three states, this model also includes the diabatic coupling between the two excited states at an avoided crossing leading to competing dissociation channels that can further hinder the isomerization process. The present three-state optimal control simulations examine two possible control pathways previously considered in a two-state model, and reveal that only one of the pathways is viable, achieving a robust ∼95% yield to the cyclic target in the three-state model. This work represents a step towards an ultimate model for the open → cyclic ozone transformation capable of giving adequate guidance about the necessary experimental control field resources as well as an estimate of the ro-vibronic spectral character of cyclic ozone as a basis for an appropriate probe of its formation.
Giant resonances on excited states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Besold, W.; Reinhard, P.G.; Toepffer, C.
1984-01-01
We derive modified RPA equations for small vibrations about excited states. The temperature dependence of collective excitations is examined. The formalism is applied to the ground state and the first excited state of 90 Zr in order to confirm a hypothesis which states that not only the ground state but every excited state of a nucleus has a giant resonance built upon it. (orig.)
Optical techniques for probing the excited state dynamics of quantum dot solids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moroz, P.; Kholmicheva, N.; Razgoniaeva, N. [Center for Photochemical Sciences, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH 43402 (United States); Department of Physics, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH 43402 (United States); Burchfield, D. [Department of Chemistry, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH 43402 (United States); Sharma, N.; Acharya, A. [Department of Physics, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH 43402 (United States); Zamkov, M., E-mail: zamkovm@bgsu.edu [Center for Photochemical Sciences, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH 43402 (United States); Department of Physics, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH 43402 (United States)
2016-06-01
Highlights: • Optical techniques represent a powerful tool for probing exciton diffusion in QD solids. • Exciton dissociation in QD solids is caused by charge tunneling to traps and other dots. • Exciton and free-carrier lifetimes are given by fast and slow components of PL decay. • Surface PL offers valuable information on the type and density of traps in QD solids. - Abstract: Quantum dot (QD) solids represent an important class of functional materials that holds strong promise for future applications in technology. Their optoelectronic properties are determined by energy diffusion processes, which character can often be inferred from the temporal and spectral analysis of the film’s photoluminescence (PL). Here, optical techniques based on PL lifetime, bulk quenching, and temperature-dependent PL will be discussed. These techniques complement the electrical conductivity measurements by mapping the flow of optically induced excitons through undepleted, contact-free films with an unprecedented temporal and spatial resolution. By correlating the QD solid morphology with the ensuing photoluminescence (PL) dynamics, these methods allow estimating important transport characteristics, including exciton and charge carrier diffusion lengths, the rate of interparticle energy transfer, carrier mobility, and the exciton diffusivity. The review will cover most popular PL-based strategies and summarize the key experimental findings resulting from these works.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kaprálová-Žďánská, Petra Ruth; Šmydke, Jan; Civiš, S.
2013-01-01
Roč. 139, č. 10 (2013), s. 104314 ISSN 0021-9606 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAAX00100903; GA MŠk(CZ) ME10046; GA ČR GAP205/11/0571 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Gaussian distribution * helium * oscillator strengths * quantum chemistry * rotational states * Rydberg states * two-photon processes Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.122, year: 2013
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sudiarta, I. Wayan; Angraini, Lily Maysari, E-mail: lilyangraini@unram.ac.id [Physics Study Program, University of Mataram, Jln. Majapahit 62 Mataram, NTB (Indonesia)
2016-04-19
We have applied the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method with the supersymmetric quantum mechanics (SUSY-QM) procedure to determine excited energies of one dimensional quantum systems. The theoretical basis of FDTD, SUSY-QM, a numerical algorithm and an illustrative example for a particle in a one dimensional square-well potential were given in this paper. It was shown that the numerical results were in excellent agreement with theoretical results. Numerical errors produced by the SUSY-QM procedure was due to errors in estimations of superpotentials and supersymmetric partner potentials.
Lin, Lyu-Chih; Chen, Chih-Ying; Huang, Heming; Arsenijević, Dejan; Bimberg, Dieter; Grillot, Frédéric; Lin, Fan-Yi
2018-01-15
We experimentally compare the dynamics of InAs/GaAs quantum dot lasers under optical feedback emitting exclusively on ground states (GSs) or excited states (ESs). By varying the feedback parameters and putting focus either on their short or long cavity regions, various periodic and chaotic oscillatory states are found. The GS laser is shown to be more resistant to feedback, benefiting from its strong relaxation oscillation damping. In contrast, the ES laser can easily be driven into complex dynamics. While the GS laser is of importance for the development of isolator-free transmitters, the ES laser is essential for applications taking advantages of chaos.
Quantum engineering of continuous variable quantum states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sabuncu, Metin
2009-01-01
Quantum information with continuous variables is a field attracting increasing attention recently. In continuous variable quantum information one makes use of the continuous information encoded into the quadrature of a quantized light field instead of binary quantities such as the polarization state of a single photon. This brand new research area is witnessing exciting theoretical and experimental achievements such as teleportation, quantum computation and quantum error correction. The rapid development of the field is mainly due higher optical data rates and the availability of simple and efficient manipulation tools in continuous-variable quantum information processing. We in this thesis extend the work in continuous variable quantum information processing and report on novel experiments on amplification, cloning, minimal disturbance and noise erasure protocols. The promising results we obtain in these pioneering experiments indicate that the future of continuous variable quantum information is bright and many advances can be foreseen. (orig.)
Quantum engineering of continuous variable quantum states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sabuncu, Metin
2009-10-29
Quantum information with continuous variables is a field attracting increasing attention recently. In continuous variable quantum information one makes use of the continuous information encoded into the quadrature of a quantized light field instead of binary quantities such as the polarization state of a single photon. This brand new research area is witnessing exciting theoretical and experimental achievements such as teleportation, quantum computation and quantum error correction. The rapid development of the field is mainly due higher optical data rates and the availability of simple and efficient manipulation tools in continuous-variable quantum information processing. We in this thesis extend the work in continuous variable quantum information processing and report on novel experiments on amplification, cloning, minimal disturbance and noise erasure protocols. The promising results we obtain in these pioneering experiments indicate that the future of continuous variable quantum information is bright and many advances can be foreseen. (orig.)
Holonomic Quantum Control by Coherent Optical Excitation in Diamond.
Zhou, Brian B; Jerger, Paul C; Shkolnikov, V O; Heremans, F Joseph; Burkard, Guido; Awschalom, David D
2017-10-06
Although geometric phases in quantum evolution are historically overlooked, their active control now stimulates strategies for constructing robust quantum technologies. Here, we demonstrate arbitrary single-qubit holonomic gates from a single cycle of nonadiabatic evolution, eliminating the need to concatenate two separate cycles. Our method varies the amplitude, phase, and detuning of a two-tone optical field to control the non-Abelian geometric phase acquired by a nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond over a coherent excitation cycle. We demonstrate the enhanced robustness of detuned gates to excited-state decoherence and provide insights for optimizing fast holonomic control in dissipative quantum systems.
Holonomic Quantum Control by Coherent Optical Excitation in Diamond
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhou, Brian B.; Jerger, Paul C.; Shkolnikov, V. O.; Heremans, F. Joseph; Burkard, Guido; Awschalom, David D.
2017-10-01
Although geometric phases in quantum evolution are historically overlooked, their active control now stimulates strategies for constructing robust quantum technologies. Here, we demonstrate arbitrary singlequbit holonomic gates from a single cycle of nonadiabatic evolution, eliminating the need to concatenate two separate cycles. Our method varies the amplitude, phase, and detuning of a two-tone optical field to control the non-Abelian geometric phase acquired by a nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond over a coherent excitation cycle. We demonstrate the enhanced robustness of detuned gates to excited-state decoherence and provide insights for optimizing fast holonomic control in dissipative quantum systems.
Ziaei, Vafa; Bredow, Thomas
2017-03-17
The reliable calculation of the excited states of charge-transfer (CT) compounds poses a major challenge to the ab initio community because the frequently employed method, time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT), massively relies on the underlying density functional, resulting in heavily Hartree-Fock (HF) exchange-dependent excited-state energies. By applying the highly sophisticated many-body perturbation approach, we address the encountered unreliabilities and inconsistencies of not optimally tuned (standard) TD-DFT regarding photo-excited CT phenomena, and present results concerning accurate vertical transition energies and the correct energetic ordering of the CT and the first visible singlet state of a recently synthesized thermodynamically stable large hybrid perylene bisimide-macrocycle complex. This is a large-scale application of the quantum many-body perturbation approach to a chemically relevant CT system, demonstrating the system-size independence of the quality of the many-body-based excitation energies. Furthermore, an optimal tuning of the ωB97X hybrid functional can well reproduce the many-body results, making TD-DFT a suitable choice but at the expense of introducing a range-separation parameter, which needs to be optimally tuned. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Excited state dynamics in In0.5Al0.04Ga0.46As/Al0.08Ga0.92As self-assembled quantum dots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Smith, L.M.; Leosson, Kristjan; Østergaard, John Erland
2001-01-01
We use time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy to probe the relaxation of excited states in In0.5Al0.04Ga0.40As/Al0.08Ga0.92As self-assembled quantum dots. The relaxation rate of excitons confined to the quantum dots increases by nearly an order of magnitude as the energy of the states...... approaches the top of the quantum dot potential. This dramatic change in the dynamics of these states reflects the increasing complexity of the states localized near the top of the quantum dots....
Room temperature excitation spectroscopy of single quantum dots
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Christian Blum
2011-08-01
Full Text Available We report a single molecule detection scheme to investigate excitation spectra of single emitters at room temperature. We demonstrate the potential of single emitter photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy by recording excitation spectra of single CdSe nanocrystals over a wide spectral range of 100 nm. The spectra exhibit emission intermittency, characteristic of single emitters. We observe large variations in the spectra close to the band edge, which represent the individual heterogeneity of the observed quantum dots. We also find specific excitation wavelengths for which the single quantum dots analyzed show an increased propensity for a transition to a long-lived dark state. We expect that the additional capability of recording excitation spectra at room temperature from single emitters will enable insights into the photophysics of emitters that so far have remained inaccessible.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Paul, Bijan Kumar [Department of Chemistry, University of Calcutta, 92 Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Calcutta 700009 (India); Guchhait, Nikhil, E-mail: nikhil.guchhait@rediffmail.com [Department of Chemistry, University of Calcutta, 92 Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Calcutta 700009 (India)
2012-07-25
Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Experimental and computational studies on the photophysics of 4-chlorosalicylic acid. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spectroscopically established ESIPT reaction substantiated by theoretical calculation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quantum chemical treatment of IMHB unveils strength, nature and directional nature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Superiority of quantum chemical treatment of H-bond over geometric criteria. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Role of H-bond as a modulator of aromaticity. -- Abstract: The photophysical study of a pharmaceutically important chlorine substituted derivative of salicylic acid viz., 4-chlorosalicylic acid (4ClSA) has been carried out by steady-state absorption, emission and time-resolved emission spectroscopy. A large Stokes shifted emission band with negligible solvent polarity dependence marks the spectroscopic signature of excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) reaction in 4ClSA. Theoretical calculation by ab initio and Density Functional Theory methods yields results consistent with experimental findings. Theoretical potential energy surfaces predict the occurrence of proton transfer in S{sub 1}-state. Geometrical and energetic criteria, Atoms-In-Molecule topological parameters, Natural Bond Orbital population analysis have been exploited to evaluate the intramolecular hydrogen bond (IMHB) interaction and to explore its directional nature. The inter-correlation between aromaticity and resonance assisted H-bond is also discussed in this context. Our results unveil that the quantum chemical treatment is a more accurate tool to assess hydrogen bonding interaction in comparison to geometrical criteria.
Kornobis, Karina; Ruud, Kenneth; Kozlowski, Pawel M
2013-02-07
The nature of electronically excited states of the super-reduced form of vitamin B(12) (i.e., cob(I)alamin or B(12s)), a ubiquitous B(12) intermediate, was investigated by performing quantum-chemical calculations within the time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) framework and by establishing their correspondence to experimental data. Using response theory, the electronic absorption (Abs), circular dichroism (CD) and magnetic CD (MCD) spectra of cob(I)alamin were simulated and directly compared with experiment. Several issues have been taken into considerations while performing the TD-DFT calculations, such as strong dependence on the applied exchange-correlation (XC) functional or structural simplification imposed on the cob(I)alamin. In addition, the low-lying transitions were also validated by performing CASSCF/MC-XQDPT2 calculations. By comparing computational results with existing experimental data a new level of understanding of electronic excitations has been established at the molecular level. The present study extends and confirms conclusions reached for other cobalamins. In particular, the better performance of the BP86 functional, rather than hybrid-type, was observed in terms of the excitations associated with both Co d and corrin π localized transitions. In addition, the lowest energy band was associated with multiple metal-to-ligand charge transfer excitations as opposed to the commonly assumed view of a single π → π* transition followed by vibrational progression. Finally, the use of the full cob(I)alamin structure, instead of simplified molecular models, shed new light on the spectral analyses of cobalamin systems and revealed new challenges of this approach related to long-range charge transfer excitations involving side chains.
Photoionization dynamics of excited molecular states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dehmer, J.L.; O'Halloran, M.A.; Tomkins, F.S.; Dehmer, P.M.; Pratt, S.T.
1987-01-01
Resonance Enhanced Multiphoton Ionization (REMPI) utilizes tunable dye lasers to ionize an atom or molecule by first preparing an excited state by multiphoton absorption and then ionizing that state before it can decay. This process is highly selective with respect to both the initial and resonant intermediate states of the target, and it can be extremely sensitive. In addition, the products of the REMPI process can be detected as needed by analyzing the resulting electrons, ions, fluorescence, or by additional REMPI. This points to a number of opportunities for exploring excited state physics and chemistry at the quantum-state-specific level. Here we will first give a brief overview of the large variety of experimental approaches to excited state phenomena made possible by REMPI. Then we will examine in more detail, recent studies of the three photon resonant, four photon (3 + 1) ionization of H 2 via the C 'PI/sup u/ state. Strong non-Franck-Condon behavior in the photoelectron spectra of this nominally simple Rydberg state has led to the examination of a variety of dynamical mechanisms. Of these, the role of doubly excited autoionizing states now seems decisive. Progress on photoelectron studies of autoionizing states in H 2 , excited in a (2 + 1) REMPI process via the E, F 1 Σ/sub g/ + will also be briefly discussed. 26 refs., 7 figs
From fusion hierarchy to excited state TBA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Juettner, G.; Kluemper, A.
1998-01-01
Functional relations among the fusion hierarchy of quantum transfer matrices give a novel derivation of the TBA equations, namely without string hypothesis. This is demonstrated for two important models of 1D highly correlated electron systems, the supersymmetric t-J model and the supersymmetric extended Hubbard model. As a consequence, ''the excited state TBA'' equations, which characterize correlation lengths, are explicitly derived for the t-J model. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first explicit derivation of excited state TBA equations for 1D lattice electron systems. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Viennot, David, E-mail: david.viennot@utinam.cnrs.fr; Aubourg, Lucile
2016-02-15
We study a theoretical model of closed quasi-hermitian chain of spins which exhibits quantum analogues of chimera states, i.e. long life classical states for which a part of an oscillator chain presents an ordered dynamics whereas another part presents a disordered dynamics. For the quantum analogue, the chimera behaviour deals with the entanglement between the spins of the chain. We discuss the entanglement properties, quantum chaos, quantum disorder and semi-classical similarity of our quantum chimera system. The quantum chimera concept is novel and induces new perspectives concerning the entanglement of multipartite systems. - Highlights: • We propose a spin chain model with long range couplings having purely quantum states similar to the classical chimera states. • The quantum chimera states are characterized by the coexistence of strongly entangled and non-entangled spins in the same chain. • The quantum chimera states present some characteristics of quantum chaos.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Viennot, David; Aubourg, Lucile
2016-01-01
We study a theoretical model of closed quasi-hermitian chain of spins which exhibits quantum analogues of chimera states, i.e. long life classical states for which a part of an oscillator chain presents an ordered dynamics whereas another part presents a disordered dynamics. For the quantum analogue, the chimera behaviour deals with the entanglement between the spins of the chain. We discuss the entanglement properties, quantum chaos, quantum disorder and semi-classical similarity of our quantum chimera system. The quantum chimera concept is novel and induces new perspectives concerning the entanglement of multipartite systems. - Highlights: • We propose a spin chain model with long range couplings having purely quantum states similar to the classical chimera states. • The quantum chimera states are characterized by the coexistence of strongly entangled and non-entangled spins in the same chain. • The quantum chimera states present some characteristics of quantum chaos.
Orientation-dependent imaging of electronically excited quantum dots
Nguyen, Duc; Goings, Joshua J.; Nguyen, Huy A.; Lyding, Joseph; Li, Xiaosong; Gruebele, Martin
2018-02-01
We previously demonstrated that we can image electronic excitations of quantum dots by single-molecule absorption scanning tunneling microscopy (SMA-STM). With this technique, a modulated laser beam periodically saturates an electronic transition of a single nanoparticle, and the resulting tunneling current modulation ΔI(x0, y0) maps out the SMA-STM image. In this paper, we first derive the basic theory to calculate ΔI(x0, y0) in the one-electron approximation. For near-resonant tunneling through an empty orbital "i" of the nanostructure, the SMA-STM signal is approximately proportional to the electron density |φi) (x0,y0)|nudge quantum dots on the surface and roll them, thus imaging excited state electronic structure of a single quantum dot at different orientations. We use density functional theory to model ODMs at various orientations, for qualitative comparison with the SMA-STM experiment. The model demonstrates that our experimentally observed signal monitors excited states, localized by defects near the surface of an individual quantum dot. The sub-nanometer super-resolution imaging technique demonstrated here could become useful for mapping out the three-dimensional structure of excited states localized by defects within nanomaterials.
Excited states in biological systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cilento, G.; Zinner, K.; Bechara, E.J.H.; Duran, N.; Baptista, R.C. de; Shimizu, Y.; Augusto, O.; Faljoni-Alario, A.; Vidigal, C.C.C.; Oliveira, O.M.M.F.; Haun, M.
1979-01-01
Some aspects of bioluminescence related to bioenergetics are discussed: 1. chemical generation of excited species, by means of two general processes: electron transference and cyclic - and linear peroxide cleavage; 2. biological systems capable of generating excited states and 3. biological functions of these states, specially the non-emissive ones (tripletes). The production and the role of non-emissive excited states in biological systems are analysed, the main purpose of the study being the search for non-emissive states. Experiences carried out in biological systems are described; results and conclusions are given. (M.A.) [pt
Black Hole Entropy from Indistinguishable Quantum Geometric Excitations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abhishek Majhi
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In loop quantum gravity the quantum geometry of a black hole horizon consists of discrete nonperturbative quantum geometric excitations (or punctures labeled by spins, which are responsible for the quantum area of the horizon. If these punctures are compared to a gas of particles, then the spins associated with the punctures can be viewed as single puncture area levels analogous to single particle energy levels. Consequently, if we assume these punctures to be indistinguishable, the microstate count for the horizon resembles that of Bose-Einstein counting formula for gas of particles. For the Bekenstein-Hawking area law to follow from the entropy calculation in the large area limit, the Barbero-Immirzi parameter (γ approximately takes a constant value. As a by-product, we are able to speculate the state counting formula for the SU(2 quantum Chern-Simons theory coupled to indistinguishable sources in the weak coupling limit.
Realizing Controllable Quantum States
Takayanagi, Hideaki; Nitta, Junsaku
1. Entanglement in solid states. Orbital entanglement and violation of bell inequalities in mesoscopic conductors / M. Büttiker, P. Samuelsson and E. V. Sukhoruk. Teleportation of electron spins with normal and superconducting dots / O. Sauret, D. Feinberg and T. Martin. Entangled state analysis for one-dimensional quantum spin system: singularity at critical point / A. Kawaguchi and K. Shimizu. Detecting crossed Andreev reflection by cross-current correlations / G. Bignon et al. Current correlations and transmission probabilities for a Y-shaped diffusive conductor / S. K. Yip -- 2. Mesoscopic electronics. Quantum bistability, structural transformation, and spontaneous persistent currents in mesoscopic Aharonov-Bohm loops / I. O. Kulik. Many-body effects on tunneling of electrons in magnetic-field-induced quasi one-dimensional systems in quantum wells / T. Kubo and Y. Tokura. Electron transport in 2DEG narrow channel under gradient magnetic field / M. Hara et al. Transport properties of a quantum wire with a side-coupled quantum dot / M. Yamaguchi et al. Photoconductivity- and magneto-transport studies of single InAs quantum wires / A. Wirthmann et al. Thermoelectric transports in charge-density-wave systems / H. Yoshimoto and S. Kurihara -- 3. Mesoscopic superconductivity. Parity-restricted persistent currents in SNS nanorings / A. D. Zaikin and S. V. Sharov. Large energy dependence of current noise in superconductingh/normal metal junctions / F. Pistolesi and M. Houzet. Generation of photon number states and their superpositions using a superconducting qubit in a microcavity / Yu-Xi Liu, L. F. Wei and F. Nori. Andreev interferometry for pumped currents / F. Taddei, M. Governale and R. Fazio. Suppression of Cooper-pair breaking against high magnetic fields in carbon nanotubes / J. Haruyama et al. Impact of the transport supercurrent on the Josephson effect / S. N. Shevchenko. Josephson current through spin-polarized Luttinger liquid / N. Yokoshi and S. Kurihara
Entanglement entropy of excited states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alba, Vincenzo; Fagotti, Maurizio; Calabrese, Pasquale
2009-01-01
We study the entanglement entropy of a block of contiguous spins in excited states of spin chains. We consider the XY model in a transverse field and the XXZ Heisenberg spin chain. For the latter, we developed a numerical application of the algebraic Bethe ansatz. We find two main classes of states with logarithmic and extensive behavior in the dimension of the block, characterized by the properties of excitations of the state. This behavior can be related to the locality properties of the Hamiltonian having a given state as the ground state. We also provide several details of the finite size scaling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wloch, Marta; Gour, Jeffrey R; Piecuch, Piotr; Dean, David J; Hjorth-Jensen, Morten; Papenbrock, Thomas
2005-01-01
We discuss large-scale ab initio calculations of ground and excited states of 16 O and preliminary calculations for 15 O and 17 O using coupled-cluster methods and algorithms developed in quantum chemistry. By using realistic two-body interactions and the renormalized form of the Hamiltonian obtained with a no-core G-matrix approach, we are able to obtain the virtually converged results for 16 O and promising results for 15 O and 17 O at the level of two-body interactions. The calculated properties other than binding and excitation energies include charge radius and charge form factor. The relatively low costs of coupled-cluster calculations, which are characterized by the low-order polynomial scaling with the system size, enable us to probe large model spaces with up to seven or eight major oscillator shells, for which nontruncated shell-model calculations for nuclei with A = 15-17 active particles are presently not possible
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ma Zhihao; Chen Jingling
2011-01-01
In this work we study metrics of quantum states, which are natural generalizations of the usual trace metric and Bures metric. Some useful properties of the metrics are proved, such as the joint convexity and contractivity under quantum operations. Our result has a potential application in studying the geometry of quantum states as well as the entanglement detection.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roa, Luis; Retamal, Juan Carlos; Saavedra, Carlos
2002-01-01
A proposal for a physical implementation of a quantum-state discrimination protocol using an ion in a linear trap is studied, where two nonorthogonal quantum states are codified using two electronic states of the ion. In addition, a protocol is given for discriminating superpositions of nonorthogonal entangled states between ions inside widely separated optical cavities. The discrimination protocol is extended to the case of N linearly independent nonorthogonal quantum states lying in a space of 2N-1 dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
RodrIguez, Arezky H; Handy, Carlos R; Trallero-Giner, C
2004-01-01
The suitability of conformal transformation (CT) analysis, and the eigenvalue moment method (EMM), for determining the eigenenergies and eigenfunctions of a quantum particle confined within a lens geometry, is reviewed and compared to the recent results by Even and Loualiche (2003 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 15 8465). It is shown that CT and EMM define two accurate and versatile analytical/computational methods relevant to lens shaped regions of varying geometrical aspect ratios. (reply)
Quantum correlations and distinguishability of quantum states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Spehner, Dominique [Université Grenoble Alpes and CNRS, Institut Fourier, F-38000 Grenoble, France and Laboratoire de Physique et Modélisation des Milieux Condensés, F-38000 Grenoble (France)
2014-07-15
A survey of various concepts in quantum information is given, with a main emphasis on the distinguishability of quantum states and quantum correlations. Covered topics include generalized and least square measurements, state discrimination, quantum relative entropies, the Bures distance on the set of quantum states, the quantum Fisher information, the quantum Chernoff bound, bipartite entanglement, the quantum discord, and geometrical measures of quantum correlations. The article is intended both for physicists interested not only by collections of results but also by the mathematical methods justifying them, and for mathematicians looking for an up-to-date introductory course on these subjects, which are mainly developed in the physics literature.
Quantum correlations and distinguishability of quantum states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spehner, Dominique
2014-01-01
A survey of various concepts in quantum information is given, with a main emphasis on the distinguishability of quantum states and quantum correlations. Covered topics include generalized and least square measurements, state discrimination, quantum relative entropies, the Bures distance on the set of quantum states, the quantum Fisher information, the quantum Chernoff bound, bipartite entanglement, the quantum discord, and geometrical measures of quantum correlations. The article is intended both for physicists interested not only by collections of results but also by the mathematical methods justifying them, and for mathematicians looking for an up-to-date introductory course on these subjects, which are mainly developed in the physics literature
Takayanagi, Toshiyuki; Suzuki, Kento; Yoshida, Takahiko; Kita, Yukiumi; Tachikawa, Masanori
2017-05-01
We present computational results of vibrationally enhanced positron annihilation in the e+ + HCN/DCN collisions within a local complex potential model. Vibrationally elastic and inelastic cross sections and effective annihilation rates were calculated by solving a time-dependent complex-potential Schrödinger equation under the ab initio potential energy surface for the positron attached HCN molecule, [HCN; e+], with multi-component configuration interaction level (Kita and Tachikawa, 2014). We discuss the effect of vibrational excitation on the positron affinities from the obtained vibrational resonance features.
Excited-state relaxation of some aminoquinolines
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
2006-01-01
Full Text Available The absorption and fluorescence spectra, fluorescence quantum yields and lifetimes, and fluorescence rate constants ( k f of 2-amino-3-( 2 ′ -benzoxazolylquinoline (I, 2-amino-3-( 2 ′ -benzothiazolylquinoline (II, 2-amino-3-( 2 ′ -methoxybenzothiazolyl-quinoline (III, 2-amino-3-( 2 ′ -benzothiazolylbenzoquinoline (IV at different temperatures have been measured. The shortwavelength shift of fluorescence spectra of compounds studied (23–49 nm in ethanol as the temperature decreases (the solvent viscosity increases points out that the excited-state relaxation process takes place. The rate of this process depends essentially on the solvent viscosity, but not the solvent polarity. The essential increasing of fluorescence rate constant k f (up to about 7 times as the solvent viscosity increases proves the existence of excited-state structural relaxation consisting in the mutual internal rotation of molecular fragments of aminoquinolines studied, followed by the solvent orientational relaxation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Møller K. B.
2013-03-01
Full Text Available In this paper we present 4-state, 5-dimensional Vibronic Coupling Hamiltonians for cyclobutanone and cyclopentanone. Wave packet calculations using these Hamiltonians reveal that for cyclobutanone the (n,3s to (n,π* internal conversion involves direct motion in nuclear modes coupling the two states leading to fast population transfer. For cyclopentanone, internal vibrational energy redistribution is a bottleneck for activating reactive nuclear modes leading to slower population transfer.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kuhlman, T. S.; Sauer, Stephan P. A.; Solling, T. I.
2013-01-01
In this paper we present 4-state, 5-dimensional Vibronic Coupling Hamiltonians for cyclobutanone and cyclopentanone. Wave packet calculations using these Hamiltonians reveal that for cyclobutanone the (n,3s) to (n,π*) internal conversion involves direct motion in nuclear modes coupling the two st...... states leading to fast population transfer. For cyclopentanone, internal vibrational energy redistribution is a bottleneck for activating reactive nuclear modes leading to slower population transfer....
Bound states in continuum: Quantum dots in a quantum well
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Prodanović, Nikola, E-mail: elnpr@leeds.ac.uk [Institute of Microwaves and Photonics, School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Leeds, Woodhouse Lane, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Milanović, Vitomir [School of Electrical Engineering, University of Belgrade, Bulevar Kralja Aleksandra 73, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Ikonić, Zoran; Indjin, Dragan; Harrison, Paul [Institute of Microwaves and Photonics, School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Leeds, Woodhouse Lane, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)
2013-11-01
We report on the existence of a bound state in the continuum (BIC) of quantum rods (QR). QRs are novel elongated InGaAs quantum dot nanostructures embedded in the shallower InGaAs quantum well. BIC appears as an excited confined dot state and energetically above the bottom of a well subband continuum. We prove that high height-to-diameter QR aspect ratio and the presence of a quantum well are indispensable conditions for accommodating the BIC. QRs are unique semiconductor nanostructures, exhibiting this mathematical curiosity predicted 83 years ago by Wigner and von Neumann.
Quantum information with Gaussian states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Xiangbin; Hiroshima, Tohya; Tomita, Akihisa; Hayashi, Masahito
2007-01-01
Quantum optical Gaussian states are a type of important robust quantum states which are manipulatable by the existing technologies. So far, most of the important quantum information experiments are done with such states, including bright Gaussian light and weak Gaussian light. Extending the existing results of quantum information with discrete quantum states to the case of continuous variable quantum states is an interesting theoretical job. The quantum Gaussian states play a central role in such a case. We review the properties and applications of Gaussian states in quantum information with emphasis on the fundamental concepts, the calculation techniques and the effects of imperfections of the real-life experimental setups. Topics here include the elementary properties of Gaussian states and relevant quantum information device, entanglement-based quantum tasks such as quantum teleportation, quantum cryptography with weak and strong Gaussian states and the quantum channel capacity, mathematical theory of quantum entanglement and state estimation for Gaussian states
Furusawa, Akira
2015-01-01
This book explains what quantum states of light look like. Of special interest, a single photon state is explained by using a wave picture, showing that it corresponds to the complementarity of a quantum. Also explained is how light waves are created by photons, again corresponding to the complementarity of a quantum. The author shows how an optical wave is created by superposition of a "vacuum" and a single photon as a typical example. Moreover, squeezed states of light are explained as "longitudinal" waves of light and Schrödinger's cat states as macroscopic superposition states.
Excitation and decay of correlated atomic states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rau, A.R.P.
1992-01-01
Doubly excited states of atoms and ions in which two electrons are excited from the ground configuration display strong radial and angular electron correlations. They are prototypical examples of quantum-mechanical systems with strong coupling. Two distinguishing characteristics of these states are: (1) their organization into successive families, with only weak coupling between families, and (2) a hierarchical nature of this coupling, with states from one family decaying primarily to those in the next lower family. A view of the pair of electrons as a single entity, with the electron-electron repulsion between them divided into a adiabatic and nonadiabatic piece, accounts for many of the dominant features. The stronger, adiabatic part determines the family structure and the weaker, nonadiabatic part the excitation and decay between successive families. Similar considerations extend to three-electron atomic states, which group into five different classes. They are suggestive of composite models for quarks in elementary particle physics, which exhibit analogous groupings into families with a hierarchical arrangement of masses and electroweak decays. 49 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Osborne, Tobias J.; Eisert, Jens; Verstraete, Frank
2010-01-01
We show how continuous matrix product states of quantum fields can be described in terms of the dissipative nonequilibrium dynamics of a lower-dimensional auxiliary boundary field by demonstrating that the spatial correlation functions of the bulk field correspond to the temporal statistics of the boundary field. This equivalence (1) illustrates an intimate connection between the theory of continuous quantum measurement and quantum field theory, (2) gives an explicit construction of the boundary field allowing the extension of real-space renormalization group methods to arbitrary dimensional quantum field theories without the introduction of a lattice parameter, and (3) yields a novel interpretation of recent cavity QED experiments in terms of quantum field theory, and hence paves the way toward observing genuine quantum phase transitions in such zero-dimensional driven quantum systems.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ishimaru, K. [Gifu National College of Technology, Gifu (Japan); Okazaki, K. [Tokyo Inst. of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)
1996-06-25
For understanding of fundamental chemical reactions under a highly non equilibrium condition which is quite often used in plasma processing, the relevant atomic and molecular processes must be clarified. In this study, an analysis of the transition process to the excited state of an oxygen molecule induced by electron collisions in the oxygen plasma has been carried out. First, the electron density distribution in an oxygen molecule has been calculated using the extended Huckel molecular orbital method. Then, the electron potential energy distribution in the transition process to the excited state has been estimated. The electron behavior has been calculated using the estimated unidimensional electron potential energy distribution and unsteady quantum mechanics. As a result, the transition process to the excited state of an oxygen molecule induced by electron collisions and its conditions have been clarified qualitatively. 9 refs., 9 figs.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Manohara, S.R.; Kumar, V. Udaya; Shivakumaraiah
2013-01-01
chemical calculations using the DFT method by adopting B3LYP/6-31G* level of theory (Gaussian 03) and using the AM1 method (Chem3D Ultra 8.0). It was observed that, dipole moments of diazines in the excited-state (μe) were greater than the corresponding ground-state values (μg), indicating a substantial...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leite, J.R.; Fazzio, A.; Lima, M.A.P.; Dias, A.M.; Rosato, A.; Segre, E.R.A.
1980-12-01
A self-consistent calculation based on the Variational Cellular Method is performed on the F 2 and Ne 2 molecules. The potential curve for the group state and for excited states of these molecules are determined. Spectroscopic constants related to the potential curves are also obtained. (Author) [pt
Quantum state transfer and network engineering
Nikolopoulos, Georgios M
2013-01-01
Faithful communication is a necessary precondition for large-scale quantum information processing and networking, irrespective of the physical platform. Thus, the problems of quantum-state transfer and quantum-network engineering have attracted enormous interest over the last years, and constitute one of the most active areas of research in quantum information processing. The present volume introduces the reader to fundamental concepts and various aspects of this exciting research area, including links to other related areas and problems. The implementation of state-transfer schemes and the en
Edge physics of the quantum spin Hall insulator from a quantum dot excited by optical absorption.
Vasseur, Romain; Moore, Joel E
2014-04-11
The gapless edge modes of the quantum spin Hall insulator form a helical liquid in which the direction of motion along the edge is determined by the spin orientation of the electrons. In order to probe the Luttinger liquid physics of these edge states and their interaction with a magnetic (Kondo) impurity, we consider a setup where the helical liquid is tunnel coupled to a semiconductor quantum dot that is excited by optical absorption, thereby inducing an effective quantum quench of the tunneling. At low energy, the absorption spectrum is dominated by a power-law singularity. The corresponding exponent is directly related to the interaction strength (Luttinger parameter) and can be computed exactly using boundary conformal field theory thanks to the unique nature of the quantum spin Hall edge.
Trautmann, N.; Hauke, P.
2018-02-01
The transport of excitations governs fundamental properties of matter. Particularly rich physics emerges in the interplay between disorder and environmental noise, even in small systems such as photosynthetic biomolecules. Counterintuitively, noise can enhance coherent quantum transport, which has been proposed as a mechanism behind the high transport efficiencies observed in photosynthetic complexes. This effect has been called "environment-assisted quantum transport". Here, we propose a quantum simulation of the excitation transport in an open quantum network, taking advantage of the high controllability of current trapped-ion experiments. Our scheme allows for the controlled study of various different aspects of the excitation transfer, ranging from the influence of static disorder and interaction range, over the effect of Markovian and non-Markovian dephasing, to the impact of a continuous insertion of excitations. Our paper discusses experimental error sources and realistic parameters, showing that it can be implemented in state-of-the-art ion-chain experiments.
Excited states in stochastic electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Franca, H.M.; Marshall, T.W.
1987-12-01
It is shown that the set of Wigner functions associated with the excited states of the harmonic oscillator constitute a complete set of functions over the phase space. An arbitraty distribution can be expanded in terms of these Wigner functions. By studying the time evolution, according to Stochastic Electrodynamics, of the expansion coefficients, becomes feasible to separate explicity the contributionsof the radiative reaction and the vaccuum field to the Einsten. A coefficients for this system. A simple semiclassical explanation of the Weisskopf-Heitler phenomenon in resonance fluorescence is also supplied. (author) [pt
Interpreting quantum discord through quantum state merging
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Madhok, Vaibhav; Datta, Animesh
2011-01-01
We present an operational interpretation of quantum discord based on the quantum state merging protocol. Quantum discord is the markup in the cost of quantum communication in the process of quantum state merging, if one discards relevant prior information. Our interpretation has an intuitive explanation based on the strong subadditivity of von Neumann entropy. We use our result to provide operational interpretations of other quantities like the local purity and quantum deficit. Finally, we discuss in brief some instances where our interpretation is valid in the single-copy scenario.
Quantum gates controlled by spin chain soliton excitations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cuccoli, Alessandro, E-mail: cuccoli@fi.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Firenze, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Nuzzi, Davide [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Vaia, Ruggero [Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Firenze, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Verrucchi, Paola [Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Firenze, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)
2014-05-07
Propagation of soliton-like excitations along spin chains has been proposed as a possible way for transmitting both classical and quantum information between two distant parties with negligible dispersion and dissipation. In this work, a somewhat different use of solitons is considered. Solitons propagating along a spin chain realize an effective magnetic field, well localized in space and time, which can be exploited as a means to manipulate the state of an external spin (i.e., a qubit) that is weakly coupled to the chain. We have investigated different couplings between the qubit and the chain, as well as different soliton shapes, according to a Heisenberg chain model. It is found that symmetry properties strongly affect the effectiveness of the proposed scheme, and the most suitable setups for implementing single qubit quantum gates are singled out.
Excitation dependence of photoluminescence in silicon quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wen Xiaoming; Lap Van Dao; Hannaford, Peter; Cho, E-C; Cho, Young H; Green, Martin A
2007-01-01
We have studied the optical properties of silicon quantum dots (QDs) embedded in a silicon oxide matrix using photoluminescence (PL) and time-resolved PL. A broad luminescence band is observed in the red region, in which the time evolution exhibits a stretched exponential decay. With increasing excitation intensity a significant saturation effect is observed. Direct electron-hole recombination is the dominant effect in the red band. A relatively narrow peak appears around 1.5 eV, which is attributed to the interface states overlapping with transition from the ground state of the silicon QDs. The saturation factor increases slowly with detection photon energy between 1.5 and 1.8 eV, which is attributed to the emission from zero-phonon electron-hole recombination. At higher photon energies the significantly increased saturation factor suggests a different emission mechanism, most likely the defect states from silicon, silicon oxide or silicon rich oxide
Neutral excitations in the Gaffnian state
Kang, Byungmin; Moore, Joel E.
2017-06-01
We study a model fractional quantum Hall (FQH) wave function called the Gaffnian state, which is believed to represent a gapless, strongly correlated state that is very different from conventional metals. To understand this exotic gapless state better, we provide a representation based on work of Halperin in which the pairing structure of the Gaffnian state becomes more explicit. We employ the single-mode approximation introduced by Girvin, MacDonald, and Platzman, here extended to three-body interactions, in order to treat a neutral collective excitation mode in order to clarify the physical origin of the gaplessness of the Gaffnian state. We discuss approaches to extract systematically the relevant physics in the long-distance, large-electron-number limit of FQH states using numerical calculations with relatively few electrons. In Appendices, we provide second-quantized expressions for many-body Haldane pseudopotentials in various geometries including the plane, sphere, cylinder, and torus based on the proper definition of the relative angular momentum.
Quantum States Transfer by Analogous Bell States
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mei Di; Li Chong; Yang Guohui; Song Heshan
2008-01-01
Transmitting quantum states by channels of analogous Bell states is studied in this paper. We analyze the transmitting process, constructed the probabilitic unitary operator, and gain the largest successful transfer quantum state probability.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hook, D W
2008-01-01
A geometric framework for quantum mechanics arose during the mid 1970s when authors such as Cantoni explored the notion of generalized transition probabilities, and Kibble promoted the idea that the space of pure quantum states provides a natural quantum mechanical analogue for classical phase space. This central idea can be seen easily since the projection of Schroedinger's equation from a Hilbert space into the space of pure spaces is a set of Hamilton's equations. Over the intervening years considerable work has been carried out by a variety of authors and a mature description of quantum mechanics in geometric terms has emerged with many applications. This current offering would seem ideally placed to review the last thirty years of progress and relate this to the most recent work in quantum entanglement. Bengtsson and Zyczkowski's beautifully illustrated volume, Geometry of Quantum States (referred to as GQS from now on) attempts to cover considerable ground in its 466 pages. Its topics range from colour theory in Chapter 1 to quantum entanglement in Chapter 15-to say that this is a whirlwind tour is, perhaps, no understatement. The use of the work 'introduction' in the subtitle of GQS, might suggest to the reader that this work be viewed as a textbook and I think that this interpretation would be incorrect. The authors have chosen to present a survey of different topics with the specific aim to introduce entanglement in geometric terms-the book is not intended as a pedagogical introduction to the geometric approach to quantum mechanics. Each of the fifteen chapters is a short, and mostly self-contained, essay on a particular aspect or application of geometry in the context of quantum mechanics with entanglement being addressed specifically in the final chapter. The chapters fall into three classifications: those concerned with the mathematical background, those which discuss quantum theory and the foundational aspects of the geometric framework, and
Nuclear quantum effects on the nonadiabatic decay mechanism of an excited hydrated electron
Borgis, Daniel; Rossky, Peter J.; Turi, László
2007-11-01
We present a kinetic analysis of the nonadiabatic decay mechanism of an excited state hydrated electron to the ground state. The theoretical treatment is based on a quantized, gap dependent golden rule rate constant formula which describes the nonadiabatic transition rate between two quantum states. The rate formula is expressed in terms of quantum time correlation functions of the energy gap and of the nonadiabatic coupling. These gap dependent quantities are evaluated from three different sets of mixed quantum-classical molecular dynamics simulations of a hydrated electron equilibrated (a) in its ground state, (b) in its first excited state, and (c) on a hypothetical mixed potential energy surface which is the average of the ground and the first excited electronic states. The quantized, gap dependent rate results are applied in a phenomenological kinetic equation which provides the survival probability function of the excited state electron. Although the lifetime of the equilibrated excited state electron is computed to be very short (well under 100fs), the survival probability function for the nonequilibrium process in pump-probe experiments yields an effective excited state lifetime of around 300fs, a value that is consistent with the findings of several experimental groups and previous theoretical estimates.
Dicke states in multiple quantum dots
Sitek, Anna; Manolescu, Andrei
2013-10-01
We present a theoretical study of the collective optical effects which can occur in groups of three and four quantum dots. We define conditions for stable subradiant (dark) states, rapidly decaying super-radiant states, and spontaneous trapping of excitation. Each quantum dot is treated like a two-level system. The quantum dots are, however, realistic, meaning that they may have different transition energies and dipole moments. The dots interact via a short-range coupling which allows excitation transfer across the dots, but conserves the total population of the system. We calculate the time evolution of single-exciton and biexciton states using the Lindblad equation. In the steady state the individual populations of each dot may have permanent oscillations with frequencies given by the energy separation between the subradiant eigenstates.
Excited-state density functional theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harbola, Manoj K; Hemanadhan, M; Shamim, Md; Samal, P
2012-01-01
Starting with a brief introduction to excited-state density functional theory, we present our method of constructing modified local density approximated (MLDA) energy functionals for the excited states. We show that these functionals give accurate results for kinetic energy and exchange energy compared to the ground state LDA functionals. Further, with the inclusion of GGA correction, highly accurate total energies for excited states are obtained. We conclude with a brief discussion on the further direction of research that include the construction of correlation energy functional and exchange potential for excited states.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Neves Carneiro, Gleise das
1994-12-31
The study of shallow impurities in semiconductor heterostructures, such as quantum and superlattices, has been of continuous interest over the last years. Successful comparisons between experimental results photoluminescence: N.N Ledentsov et al., Appl. Phys. A 54, 261 (1992) and theoretical calculations [L.E. Oliveira and G.D. Mahan, Phys. Rev. B 47, 2406 (1993)] constitute a strong motivation for an in-depth theoretical study. We present a variational calculation of the binding energies of shallow donors in a Ga-As-AlGaAs quantum well. The energies and variational wave functions associated to the ground state (1s-like) as well as some excited states (2s, 2p{sub xy}, 2p{sub xy}, 3s, 3p{sub xy}, and 3p like) are obtained as functions of the position of the impurity (z{sub i}) in the well. The density of impurity states, intra-donor transition strengths and the infrared absorption spectra are calculated for some of these excited states and results compared with previous theoretical [S. Fraizzoli, F. Bassani, and R. Buczko, Phys. rev. B 41, 5096 (1990)] and experimental works [N.C. Jarosik et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 1283 (1985)]. (author) 53 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.
Excited states rotational effects on the behavior of excited molecules
Lim, Edward C
2013-01-01
Excited States, Volume 7 is a collection of papers that discusses the excited states of molecules. The first paper reviews the rotational involvement in intra-molecular in vibrational redistribution. This paper analyzes the vibrational Hamiltonian as to its efficacy in detecting the manifestations of intra-molecular state-mixing in time-resolved and time-averaged spectroscopic measurements. The next paper examines the temporal behavior of intra-molecular vibration-rotation energy transfer (IVRET) and the effects of IVRET on collision, reaction, and the decomposition processes. This paper also
Excited-state imaging of cold atoms
Sheludko, D.V.; Bell, S.C.; Vredenbregt, E.J.D.; Scholten, R.E.; Deshmukh, P.C.; Chakraborty, P.; Williams, J.F.
2007-01-01
We have investigated state-selective diffraction contrast imaging (DCI) of cold 85Rb atoms in the first excited (52P3/2) state. Excited-state DCI requires knowledge of the complex refractive index of the atom cloud, which was calculated numerically using a semi-classical model. The Autler-Townes
Multimode optical fibers: steady state mode exciter.
Ikeda, M; Sugimura, A; Ikegami, T
1976-09-01
The steady state mode power distribution of the multimode graded index fiber was measured. A simple and effective steady state mode exciter was fabricated by an etching technique. Its insertion loss was 0.5 dB for an injection laser. Deviation in transmission characteristics of multimode graded index fibers can be avoided by using the steady state mode exciter.
The mechanisms of Excited states in enzymes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Petersen, Frederic Nicolas Rønne; Bohr, Henrik
2010-01-01
Enzyme catalysis is studied on the basis of excited state processes, which are of electronic, vibrational and thermal nature. The ways of achieving the excited state, such as photo-absorption and ligand binding, are discussed and exemplified by various cases of enzymes.......Enzyme catalysis is studied on the basis of excited state processes, which are of electronic, vibrational and thermal nature. The ways of achieving the excited state, such as photo-absorption and ligand binding, are discussed and exemplified by various cases of enzymes....
Polarized fine structure in the excitation spectrum of a negatively charged quantum dot
Ware, M. E.; Stinaff, E. A.; Gammon, D.; Doty, M. F.; Bracker, A. S.; Gershoni, D.; Korenev, V. L.; Badescu, S. C.; Lyanda-Geller, Y.; Reinecke, T. L.
2005-01-01
We report polarized photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy of the negative trion in single charge tunable InAs/GaAs quantum dots. The spectrum exhibits a p-shell resonance with polarized fine structure arising from the direct excitation of the electron spin triplet states. The energy splitting arises from the axially symmetric electron-hole exchange interaction. The magnitude and sign of the polarization are understood from the spin character of the triplet states and a small amount of qua...
Quantum versus thermally excited fluxoid transitions in a SQUID ring
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kurkijaervi, J.
1980-01-01
The possibility of quantum tunneling as a mechanism for fluxoid transitions in a SQUID ring is carefully considered neglecting, however, dissipation arising from the quasiparticle current. The tunneling rates are compared with the thermally excited transition rates. The type of experiment Jackel et al. carried out in order to observe the thermal process is analyzed for observing the quantum tunneling. We find the expected result that the temperature at which the quantum process should begin to dominate depends essentially on ω 0 = 1/√LC of the ring. If an underdamped junction with C -13 F can be made the quantum tunneling temperature range should be easy to attain. (orig.)
Controllability of multi-partite quantum systems and selective excitation of quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schirmer, S G; Pullen, I C H; Solomon, A I
2005-01-01
We consider the degrees of controllability of multi-partite quantum systems, as well as necessary and sufficient criteria for each case. The results are applied to the problem of simultaneous control of an ensemble of quantum dots with a single laser pulse. Finally, we apply optimal control techniques to demonstrate selective excitation of individual dots for a simultaneously controllable ensemble of quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kumar Paul, Bijan; Samanta, Anuva; Kar, Samiran; Guchhait, Nikhil
2010-01-01
Intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) reaction has been investigated in 5-(4-dimethylamino-phenyl)-penta-2,4-dienoic acid methyl ester (DPDAME) using spectroscopic techniques. The molecule DPDAME shows local emission in non-polar solvent and dual emission in polar solvents. Solvatochromic effects on the Stokes shifted emission band clearly demonstrate the charge transfer character of the excited state. Quantum chemical calculations have been performed at Hartree-Fock (HF) and density functional theoretical (DFT) levels to correlate the experimental findings. Potential energy curves (PECs) for the ICT reaction have been evaluated along the donor twist angle at DFT and time dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) levels for the ground and excited states, respectively, using B3LYP hybrid functional and 6-31G** basis set. The solvent effects on the spectral properties have been explored theoretically at the same level with time dependent density functional theory-polarized continuum model (TDDFT-PCM) and the theoretical results are found to well substantiate the solvent polarity dependent Stokes shifted emission of DPDAME. Huge enhancement of dipole moment (Δμ=16.42 D) of the molecule following photoexcitation dictates the highly polar character of the excited state. Although elucidation of PECs does not exactly predict the operation of ICT according to twisted intramolecular charge transfer (TICT) model in DPDAME, lowering of vertical transition energy as a function of the donor twist coordinate scripts the occurrence of red shifted emission as observed experimentally.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Slavcheva, G., E-mail: gsk23@bath.ac.uk [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Kavokin, A.V., E-mail: A.Kavokin@soton.ac.uk [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Spin Optics Laboratory, St. Petersburg State University, 1, Ulyanovskaya 198504 (Russian Federation)
2014-11-15
Optical pumping of excited exciton states in a semiconductor quantum well embedded in a microcavity is a tool for realisation of ultra-compact terahertz (THz) lasers based on stimulated optical transition between excited (2p) and ground (1s) exciton state. We show that the probability of two-photon absorption by a 2p-exciton is strongly dependent on the polarisation of both pumping photons. Five-fold variation of the threshold power for terahertz lasing by switching from circular to co-linear pumping is predicted. We identify photon polarisation configurations for achieving maximum THz photon generation quantum efficiency.
Ware, M. E.; Stinaff, E. A.; Gammon, D.; Doty, M. F.; Bracker, A. S.; Gershoni, D.; Korenev, V. L.; Bădescu, Ş. C.; Lyanda-Geller, Y.; Reinecke, T. L.
2005-10-01
We report polarized photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy of the negative trion in single charge-tunable InAs/GaAs quantum dots. The spectrum exhibits a p-shell resonance with polarized fine structure arising from the direct excitation of the electron spin triplet states. The energy splitting arises from the axially symmetric electron-hole exchange interaction. The magnitude and sign of the polarization are understood from the spin character of the triplet states and a small amount of quantum dot asymmetry, which mixes the wave functions through asymmetric e-e and e-h exchange interactions.
Investigating Quantum Modulation States
2016-03-01
Coherent state quantum data encryption is highly interoperable with current classical optical infrastructure in both fiber and free space optical networks...hub’s field of regard has a transmit/receive module that are endpoints of the Lyot filter stage tree within the hub’s backend electro-optics control... mobile airborne and space-borne networking. Just like any laser communication technology, QC links are affected by several sources of distortions
Multiphoton quantum optics and quantum state engineering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dell' Anno, Fabio [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. R. Caianiello' , Universita degli Studi di Salerno, CNISM and CNR-INFM Coherentia, and INFN Sezione di Napoli, Gruppo Collegato di Salerno, Via S. Allende, I-84081 Baronissi (Saudi Arabia) (Italy)]. E-mail: dellanno@sa.infn.it; De Siena, Silvio [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. R. Caianiello' , Universita degli Studi di Salerno, CNISM and CNR-INFM Coherentia, and INFN Sezione di Napoli, Gruppo Collegato di Salerno, Via S. Allende, I-84081 Baronissi (SA) (Italy)]. E-mail: desiena@sa.infn.it; Illuminati, Fabrizio [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. R. Caianiello' , Universita degli Studi di Salerno, CNISM and CNR-INFM Coherentia, and INFN Sezione di Napoli, Gruppo Collegato di Salerno, Via S. Allende, I-84081 Baronissi (SA) (Italy)]. E-mail: illuminati@sa.infn.it
2006-05-15
We present a review of theoretical and experimental aspects of multiphoton quantum optics. Multiphoton processes occur and are important for many aspects of matter-radiation interactions that include the efficient ionization of atoms and molecules, and, more generally, atomic transition mechanisms; system-environment couplings and dissipative quantum dynamics; laser physics, optical parametric processes, and interferometry. A single review cannot account for all aspects of such an enormously vast subject. Here we choose to concentrate our attention on parametric processes in nonlinear media, with special emphasis on the engineering of nonclassical states of photons and atoms that are relevant for the conceptual investigations as well as for the practical applications of forefront aspects of modern quantum mechanics. We present a detailed analysis of the methods and techniques for the production of genuinely quantum multiphoton processes in nonlinear media, and the corresponding models of multiphoton effective interactions. We review existing proposals for the classification, engineering, and manipulation of nonclassical states, including Fock states, macroscopic superposition states, and multiphoton generalized coherent states. We introduce and discuss the structure of canonical multiphoton quantum optics and the associated one- and two-mode canonical multiphoton squeezed states. This framework provides a consistent multiphoton generalization of two-photon quantum optics and a consistent Hamiltonian description of multiphoton processes associated to higher-order nonlinearities. Finally, we discuss very recent advances that by combining linear and nonlinear optical devices allow to realize multiphoton entangled states of the electromagnetic field, either in discrete or in continuous variables, that are relevant for applications to efficient quantum computation, quantum teleportation, and related problems in quantum communication and information.
Multiphoton quantum optics and quantum state engineering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dell'Anno, Fabio; De Siena, Silvio; Illuminati, Fabrizio
2006-01-01
We present a review of theoretical and experimental aspects of multiphoton quantum optics. Multiphoton processes occur and are important for many aspects of matter-radiation interactions that include the efficient ionization of atoms and molecules, and, more generally, atomic transition mechanisms; system-environment couplings and dissipative quantum dynamics; laser physics, optical parametric processes, and interferometry. A single review cannot account for all aspects of such an enormously vast subject. Here we choose to concentrate our attention on parametric processes in nonlinear media, with special emphasis on the engineering of nonclassical states of photons and atoms that are relevant for the conceptual investigations as well as for the practical applications of forefront aspects of modern quantum mechanics. We present a detailed analysis of the methods and techniques for the production of genuinely quantum multiphoton processes in nonlinear media, and the corresponding models of multiphoton effective interactions. We review existing proposals for the classification, engineering, and manipulation of nonclassical states, including Fock states, macroscopic superposition states, and multiphoton generalized coherent states. We introduce and discuss the structure of canonical multiphoton quantum optics and the associated one- and two-mode canonical multiphoton squeezed states. This framework provides a consistent multiphoton generalization of two-photon quantum optics and a consistent Hamiltonian description of multiphoton processes associated to higher-order nonlinearities. Finally, we discuss very recent advances that by combining linear and nonlinear optical devices allow to realize multiphoton entangled states of the electromagnetic field, either in discrete or in continuous variables, that are relevant for applications to efficient quantum computation, quantum teleportation, and related problems in quantum communication and information
Excited-state molecular photoionization dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pratt, S.T.
1995-01-01
This review presents a survey of work using resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization and double-resonance techniques to study excited-state photoionization dynamics in molecules. These techniques routinely provide detail and precision that are difficult to achieve in single-photon ionization from the ground state. The review not only emphasizes new aspects of photoionization revealed in the excited-state experiments but also shows how the excited-state techniques can provide textbook illustrations of some fundamental mechanisms in molecular photoionization dynamics. Most of the examples are confined to diatomic molecules. (author)
Zutterman, Freddy; Louant, Orian; Mercier, Gabriel; Leyssens, Tom; Champagne, Benoît
2018-06-21
Salicylideneanilines are characterized by a tautomer equilibrium, between an enol and a keto form of different colors, at the origin of their remarkable thermochromic, solvatochromic, and photochromic properties. The enol form is usually the most stable but appropriate choice of substituents and conditions (solvent, crystal, host compound) can displace the equilibrium toward the keto form so that there is a need for fast prediction of the keto:enol abundance ratio. Here we demonstrate the reliability of a combined theoretical-experimental method, based on comparing simulated and measured UV/visible absorption spectra, to determine this keto/enol ratio. The calculations of the excitation energies, oscillator strengths, and vibronic structures of both enol and keto forms are performed for all excited states absorbing in the relevant (visible and near-UV) wavelength range at the time-dependent density functional theory level by accounting for solvent effects using the polarizable continuum model. This approach is illustrated for two salicylideneaniline derivatives, which are present, in solution, under the form of keto-enol mixtures. The results are compared to those of chemometric analysis as well as ab initio predictions of the reaction free enthalpies.
Coherent states in quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodrigues, R. de Lima; Fernandes Junior, Damasio; Batista, Sheyla Marques
2001-12-01
We present a review work on the coherent states is non-relativistic quantum mechanics analysing the quantum oscillators in the coherent states. The coherent states obtained via a displacement operator that act on the wave function of ground state of the oscillator and the connection with Quantum Optics which were implemented by Glauber have also been considered. A possible generalization to the construction of new coherent states it is point out. (author)
Coherent states in quantum mechanics
Rodrigues, R D L; Fernandes, D
2001-01-01
We present a review work on the coherent states is non-relativistic quantum mechanics analysing the quantum oscillators in the coherent states. The coherent states obtained via a displacement operator that act on the wave function of ground state of the oscillator and the connection with Quantum Optics which were implemented by Glauber have also been considered. A possible generalization to the construction of new coherent states it is point out.
Quantum state transfer and network engineering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nikolopoulos, Georgios M.; Jex, Igor
2014-01-01
Presents the basics of large-scale quantum information processing and networking. Covers most aspects of the problems of state transfer and quantum network engineering. Reflects the interdisciplinary nature of the field. Presents various theoretical approaches as well as possible implementations and related experiments. Faithful communication is a necessary precondition for large-scale quantum information processing and networking, irrespective of the physical platform. Thus, the problems of quantum-state transfer and quantum-network engineering have attracted enormous interest over the last years, and constitute one of the most active areas of research in quantum information processing. The present volume introduces the reader to fundamental concepts and various aspects of this exciting research area, including links to other related areas and problems. The implementation of state-transfer schemes and the engineering of quantum networks are discussed in the framework of various quantum optical and condensed matter systems, emphasizing the interdisciplinary character of the research area. Each chapter is a review of theoretical or experimental achievements on a particular topic, written by leading scientists in the field. The volume aims at both newcomers as well as experienced researchers.
Quantum resonances in a single plaquette of Josephson junctions: excitations of Rabi oscillations
Fistul, M. V.
2001-01-01
We present a theoretical study of a quantum regime of the resistive (whirling) state of dc driven anisotropic single plaquette containing three small Josephson junctions. The current-voltage characteristics of such a system display resonant steps that are due to the resonant interaction between the time dependent Josephson current and the excited electromagnetic oscillations (EOs). The voltage positions of the resonances are determined by the quantum interband transitions of EOs. We show that...
Symmetric extendibility of quantum states
Nowakowski, Marcin L.
2015-01-01
Studies on symmetric extendibility of quantum states become especially important in a context of analysis of one-way quantum measures of entanglement, distilabillity and security of quantum protocols. In this paper we analyse composite systems containing a symmetric extendible part with a particular attention devoted to one-way security of such systems. Further, we introduce a new one-way monotone based on the best symmetric approximation of quantum state. We underpin those results with geome...
Quantum modelling of photo-excited processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ramos, Marta M.D.; Correia, Helena M.G.
2005-01-01
In the framework of quantum field theory and the dipole approximation, a self-consistent quantum molecular dynamics method is used to investigate the effect of chain length on the probability of formation or decay of both singlet and triplet excitons due to photon absorption or emission in isolated poly(p-phenylene vinylene) (PPV) chains. We found that the probability of the photo-induced intra-molecular singlet exciton formation and decay increases linearly with chain length and the probability for triplet exciton formation and decay does not depend on the chain length. Polymers with long chains have thus an advantage over small molecules in solar cell and light-emitting diode (LED) applications because their efficiency depends on the number of intra-molecular singlet excitons formed or emitted in the device, which is expected to increase with the conjugation length
Entangled states in quantum mechanics
Ruža, Jānis
2010-01-01
In some circles of quantum physicists, a view is maintained that the nonseparability of quantum systems-i.e., the entanglement-is a characteristic feature of quantum mechanics. According to this view, the entanglement plays a crucial role in the solution of quantum measurement problem, the origin of the “classicality” from the quantum physics, the explanation of the EPR paradox by a nonlocal character of the quantum world. Besides, the entanglement is regarded as a cornerstone of such modern disciplines as quantum computation, quantum cryptography, quantum information, etc. At the same time, entangled states are well known and widely used in various physics areas. In particular, this notion is widely used in nuclear, atomic, molecular, solid state physics, in scattering and decay theories as well as in other disciplines, where one has to deal with many-body quantum systems. One of the methods, how to construct the basis states of a composite many-body quantum system, is the so-called genealogical decomposition method. Genealogical decomposition allows one to construct recurrently by particle number the basis states of a composite quantum system from the basis states of its forming subsystems. These coupled states have a structure typical for entangled states. If a composite system is stable, the internal structure of its forming basis states does not manifest itself in measurements. However, if a composite system is unstable and decays onto its forming subsystems, then the measurables are the quantum numbers, associated with these subsystems. In such a case, the entangled state has a dynamical origin, determined by the Hamiltonian of the corresponding decay process. Possible correlations between the quantum numbers of resulting subsystems are determined by the symmetries-conservation laws of corresponding dynamical variables, and not by the quantum entanglement feature.
Anomalous temperature dependence of excitation transfer between quantum dots
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Král, Karel; Menšík, Miroslav
2015-01-01
Roč. 7, č. 4 (2015), 325-330 ISSN 2164-6627 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD14011; GA MŠk LH12236; GA MŠk LH12186 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389013 Keywords : excitation transfer * quantum dots * temperature dependence * electron-phonon interaction Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism
Excitation spectrum and staggering transformations in lattice quantum models.
Faria da Veiga, Paulo A; O'Carroll, Michael; Schor, Ricardo
2002-08-01
We consider the energy-momentum excitation spectrum of diverse lattice Hamiltonian operators: the generator of the Markov semigroup of Ginzburg-Landau models with Langevin stochastic dynamics, the Hamiltonian of a scalar quantum field theory, and the Hamiltonian associated with the transfer matrix of a classical ferromagnetic spin system at high temperature. The low-lying spectrum consists of a one-particle state and a two-particle band. The two-particle spectrum is determined using a lattice version of the Bethe-Salpeter equation. In addition to the two-particle band, depending on the lattice dimension and on the attractive or repulsive character of the interaction between the particles of the system, there is, respectively, a bound state below or above the two-particle band. We show how the existence or nonexistence of these bound states can be understood in terms of a nonrelativistic single-particle lattice Schrödinger Hamiltonian with a delta potential. A staggering transformation relates the spectra of the attractive and the repulsive cases.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vendrell, Oriol; Moreno, Miquel; Lluch, Jose M.
2004-01-01
The photodissociation dynamics of [Ru(PH 3 ) 3 (CO)(H) 2 ] and cis-[Ru(PH 3 ) 4 (H) 2 ] is theoretically analyzed in the lowest two excited singlet states. Energies obtained through electronic density functional theory calculations that use the time-dependent formalism are fitted to analytical reduced two-dimensional potential energy surfaces (2D-PES). The metal-H 2 (R) and H-H (r) distances are the variables of these 2D-PES, the rest of the parameters being kept frozen at the values of the minimum energy structure in the ground electronic state. The time evolution in these 2D-PES is exactly followed by means of a fast Fourier transform algorithm applied to solve the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. A simple diabatization scheme is devised to take into account the probability of transitions between both excited states. The quantum dynamics results point out that photoelimination is almost inexistent if the H 2 fragment is to be expelled without further rearrangement of the rest of the complex. Conversely, when the geometries of the complex are optimized by keeping r and R frozen at the hydrogen elimination barrier coordinates, the new 2D-PES so obtained are highly dissociative, the H 2 fragment being expelled in less than 100 fs. Finally the picture of the whole reaction that emerges from our theoretical results is described and the main differences between both complexes are examined
Quantum dissipation and decoherence of collective excitations in metallic nanoparticles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Weick, G.
2006-09-22
The treatment of the surface plasmon as a quantum particle provides a model system for the study of decoherence and quantum dissipation in confined nanoscopic systems, where the role of the electronic correlations is preponderant. Throughout this work we treat the metallic nanoparticle in the jellium approximation where the ionic structure is replaced by a continuous and homogeneous positive charge. The external laser field puts the center of mass into a coherent superposition of its ground and first excited state and thus creates a surface plasmon. The coupling between the center of mass and the relative coordinates causes decoherence and dissipation of this collective excitation. We have developed a theoretical formalism well adapted to the study of this dissipation, which is the reduced-density-matrix formalism. There are mainly two parameters which govern the surface plasmon dynamics: the decay rate of the plasmon, and the resonance frequency. For sizes smaller than 1 nm, presents oscillations as a function of the size. By means of a semiclassical formalism using Gutzwiller's trace formula for the density of states, we have shown that those oscillations are due to the correlations of the density of states of the particles and holes in the nanoparticle. If one considers a noble-metal nanoparticle in an inert matrix, we have shown that a naive application of the Kubo formula for the surface plasmon linewidth fails to reproduce the TDLDA numerical results, which are however consistent with experimental results. We have modified the Kubo theory in order to solve this discrepancy. We have shown, by extending our semiclassical theory to the nonlinear case, that the double plasmon is indeed well defined. We have calculated the lifetime of the double plasmon associated to this second-order effect. In addition to the width, we have also addressed the value of the resonance frequency. The classical electromagnetic Mie theory gives for the resonance frequency of the
Non-Poissonian quantum jumps of a fluxonium qubit due to quasiparticle excitations.
Vool, U; Pop, I M; Sliwa, K; Abdo, B; Wang, C; Brecht, T; Gao, Y Y; Shankar, S; Hatridge, M; Catelani, G; Mirrahimi, M; Frunzio, L; Schoelkopf, R J; Glazman, L I; Devoret, M H
2014-12-12
As the energy relaxation time of superconducting qubits steadily improves, nonequilibrium quasiparticle excitations above the superconducting gap emerge as an increasingly relevant limit for qubit coherence. We measure fluctuations in the number of quasiparticle excitations by continuously monitoring the spontaneous quantum jumps between the states of a fluxonium qubit, in conditions where relaxation is dominated by quasiparticle loss. Resolution on the scale of a single quasiparticle is obtained by performing quantum nondemolition projective measurements within a time interval much shorter than T₁, using a quantum-limited amplifier (Josephson parametric converter). The quantum jump statistics switches between the expected Poisson distribution and a non-Poissonian one, indicating large relative fluctuations in the quasiparticle population, on time scales varying from seconds to hours. This dynamics can be modified controllably by injecting quasiparticles or by seeding quasiparticle-trapping vortices by cooling down in a magnetic field.
Rearrangements in ground and excited states
de Mayo, Paul
1980-01-01
Rearrangements in Ground and Excited States, Volume 3 presents essays on the chemical generation of excited states; the cis-trans isomerization of olefins; and the photochemical rearrangements in trienes. The book also includes essays on the zimmerman rearrangements; the photochemical rearrangements of enones; the photochemical rearrangements of conjugated cyclic dienones; and the rearrangements of the benzene ring. Essays on the photo rearrangements via biradicals of simple carbonyl compounds; the photochemical rearrangements involving three-membered rings or five-membered ring heterocycles;
Multi-quantum excitation in optically pumped alkali atom: rare gas mixtures
Galbally-Kinney, K. L.; Rawlins, W. T.; Davis, S. J.
2014-03-01
Diode-pumped alkali laser (DPAL) technology offers a means of achieving high-energy gas laser output through optical pumping of the D-lines of Cs, Rb, and K. The exciplex effect, based on weak attractive forces between alkali atoms and polarizable rare gas atoms (Ar, Kr, Xe), provides an alternative approach via broadband excitation of exciplex precursors (XPAL). In XPAL configurations, we have observed multi-quantum excitation within the alkali manifolds which result in infrared emission lines between 1 and 4 μm. The observed excited states include the 42FJ states of both Cs and Rb, which are well above the two-photon energy of the excitation laser in each case. We have observed fluorescence from multi-quantum states for excitation wavelengths throughout the exciplex absorption bands of Cs-Ar, Cs-Kr, and Cs-Xe. The intensity scaling is roughly first-order or less in both pump power and alkali concentration, suggesting a collisional energy pooling excitation mechanism. Collisional up-pumping appears to present a parasitic loss term for optically pumped atomic systems at high intensities, however there may also be excitation of other lasing transitions at infrared wavelengths.
Photoionization of excited molecular states using multiphoton excitation techniques
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dehmer, P.M.; Pratt, S.T.; Dehmer, J.L.
1984-01-01
Photoelectron spectra are reported for three photon resonant, four photon ionization of H 2 via the B 1 Σ/sub u/ + , v = 7 (J = 2,4) and C 1 π/sub u'/, v = 0-4 (J = 1) levels and of N 2 via the o 3 1 π/sub u'/, v = 1,2, b 1 π/sub u'/, v = 3-5, and c 1 π/sub u'/, v = 0 levels. The results reflect both the spectroscopy and the dynamics of photoionization of excited molecular states and are discussed in terms of the selection rules for photoionization and the relative probabilities of photoionization from Rydberg and valence states. In some cases, in accordance with the Franck-Condon principle, the results demonstrate that resonant multiphoton ionization through Rydberg states may be a powerful technique for the production of electronic, vibrational, and rotational state selected ions. However, in other cases, systematic departures from Franck-Condon factors are observed, which reflect the more subtle dynamics of excited state photoionization. 23 references, 6 figures, 2 tables
Photoionization of excited molecular states using multiphoton excitation techniques
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dehmer, P.M.; Pratt, S.T.; Dehmer, J.L.
1984-01-01
Photoelectron spectra are reported for three photon resonant, four photon ionization of H 2 via the B 1 Σ + /sub u/, v = 7 (J = 2,4) and C 1 Pi/sub u/, v = 0-4 (J = 1) levels and of N 2 via the o 3 1 Pi/sub u/, v = 1,2, b 1 Pi/sub u/, v = 3-5, and c 1 Pi/sub u/, v = 0 levels. The results reflect both the spectroscopy and the dynamics of photoionization of excited molecular states and are discussed in terms of the selection rules for photoionization and the relative probabilities of photoionization from Rydberg and valence states. In some cases, in accordance with the Franck-Condon principle, the results demonstrate that resonant multiphoton ionization through Rydberg states may be a powerful technique for the production of electronic, vibrational, and rotational state selected ions. However, in other cases, systematic departures from Franck-Condon factors are observed, which reflect the more subtle dynamics of excited state photoionization
Optical studies of multiply excited states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mannervik, S.
1989-01-01
Optical studies of multiply-excited states are reviewed with emphasis on emission spectroscopy. From optical measurements, properties such as excitation energies, lifetimes and autoionization widths can be determined with high accuracy, which constitutes a challenge for modern computational methods. This article mainly covers work on two-, three- and four-electron systems, but also sodium-like quartet systems. Furthermore, some comments are given on bound multiply-excited states in negative ions. Fine structure effects on transition wavelengths and lifetimes (autoionization) are discussed. In particular, the most recent experimental and theoretical studies of multiply-excited states are covered. Some remaining problems, which require further attention, are discussed in more detail. (orig.) With 228 refs
Nuclear spin states and quantum logical operations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Orlova, T.A.; Rasulov, E.N.
2006-01-01
Full text: To build a really functional quantum computer, researchers need to develop logical controllers known as 'gates' to control the state of q-bits. In this work , equal quantum logical operations are examined with the emphasis on 1-, 2-, and 3-q-bit gates.1-q-bit quantum logical operations result in Boolean 'NOT'; the 'NOT' and '√NOT' operations are described from the classical and quantum perspective. For the 'NOT' operation to be performed, there must be a means to switch the state of q-bits from to and vice versa. For this purpose either a light or radio pulse of a certain frequency can be used. If the nucleus has the spin-down state, the spin will absorb a portion of energy from electromagnetic current and switch into the spin-up state, and the radio pulse will force it to switch into state. An operation thus described from purely classical perspective is clearly understood. However, operations not analogous to the classical type may also be performed. If the above mentioned radio pulses are only half the frequency required to cause a state switch in the nuclear spin, the nuclear spin will enter the quantum superposition state of the ground state (↓) and excited states (↑). A recurring radio pulse will then result in an operation equivalent to 'NOT', for which reason the described operation is called '√NOT'. Such an operation allows for the state of quantum superposition in quantum computing, which enables parallel processing of several numbers. The work also treats the principles of 2-q-bit logical operations of the controlled 'NOT' type (CNOT), 2-q-bit (SWAP), and the 3-q-bit 'TAFFOLI' gate. (author)
Charge transfer excitations from excited state Hartree-Fock subsequent minimization scheme
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Theophilou, Iris; Tassi, M.; Thanos, S.
2014-01-01
Photoinduced charge-transfer processes play a key role for novel photovoltaic phenomena and devices. Thus, the development of ab initio methods that allow for an accurate and computationally inexpensive treatment of charge-transfer excitations is a topic that nowadays attracts a lot of scientific attention. In this paper we extend an approach recently introduced for the description of single and double excitations [M. Tassi, I. Theophilou, and S. Thanos, Int. J. Quantum Chem. 113, 690 (2013); M. Tassi, I. Theophilou, and S. Thanos, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 124107 (2013)] to allow for the description of intermolecular charge-transfer excitations. We describe an excitation where an electron is transferred from a donor system to an acceptor one, keeping the excited state orthogonal to the ground state and avoiding variational collapse. These conditions are achieved by decomposing the space spanned by the Hartree-Fock (HF) ground state orbitals into four subspaces: The subspace spanned by the occupied orbitals that are localized in the region of the donor molecule, the corresponding for the acceptor ones and two more subspaces containing the virtual orbitals that are localized in the neighborhood of the donor and the acceptor, respectively. Next, we create a Slater determinant with a hole in the subspace of occupied orbitals of the donor and a particle in the virtual subspace of the acceptor. Subsequently we optimize both the hole and the particle by minimizing the HF energy functional in the corresponding subspaces. Finally, we test our approach by calculating the lowest charge-transfer excitation energies for a set of tetracyanoethylene-hydrocarbon complexes that have been used earlier as a test set for such kind of excitations
Set discrimination of quantum states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Shengyu; Ying Mingsheng
2002-01-01
We introduce a notion of set discrimination, which is an interesting extension of quantum state discrimination. A state is secretly chosen from a number of quantum states, which are partitioned into some disjoint sets. A set discrimination is required to identify which set the given state belongs to. Several essential problems are addressed in this paper, including the condition of perfect set discrimination, unambiguous set discrimination, and in the latter case, the efficiency of the discrimination. This generalizes some important results on quantum state discrimination in the literature. A combination of state and set discrimination and the efficiency are also studied
Probability of collective excited state decay
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Manykin, Eh.A.; Ozhovan, M.I.; Poluehktov, P.P.
1987-01-01
Decay mechanisms of condensed excited state formed of highly excited (Rydberg) atoms are considered, i.e. stability of so-called Rydberg substance is analyzed. It is shown that Auger recombination and radiation transitions are the basic processes. The corresponding probabilities are calculated and compared. It is ascertained that the ''Rydberg substance'' possesses macroscopic lifetime (several seconds) and in a sense it is metastable
Multipartite fully nonlocal quantum states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Almeida, Mafalda L.; Cavalcanti, Daniel; Scarani, Valerio; Acin, Antonio
2010-01-01
We present a general method for characterizing the quantum correlations obtained after local measurements on multipartite systems. Sufficient conditions for a quantum system to be fully nonlocal according to a given partition, as well as being (genuinely) multipartite fully nonlocal, are derived. These conditions allow us to identify all completely connected graph states as multipartite fully nonlocal quantum states. Moreover, we show that this feature can also be observed in mixed states: the tensor product of five copies of the Smolin state, a biseparable and bound entangled state, is multipartite fully nonlocal.
Hopping mixed hybrid excitations in multiple composite quantum wire structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nguyen Ba An; Tran Thai Hoa
1995-10-01
A structure consisting of N pairs of inorganic semiconductor and organic quantum wires is considered theoretically. In such an isolated pair of wires, while the intrawire coupling forms Wannier-Mott exciton in an inorganic semiconductor quantum wire and Frenkel exciton in an organic one, the interwire coupling gives rise to hybrid excitons residing within the pair. When N pairs of wires are packed together 2N new mixed hybrid modes appear that are the true elementary excitations and can hop throughout the whole structure. Energies and wave functions of such hopping mixed hybrid excitations are derived analytically in detail accounting for the global interwire coupling and the different polarization configurations. (author). 19 refs
Multiparty Quantum Secret Sharing of Quantum States Using Entanglement States
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ying, Guo; Da-Zu, Huang; Gui-Hua, Zeng; Ho, Lee Moon
2008-01-01
A multi-partite-controlled quantum secret sharing scheme using several non-orthogonal entanglement states is presented with unconditional security. In this scheme, the participants share the secret quantum state by exchanging the secret polarization angles of the disordered travel particles. The security of the secret quantum state is also guaranteed by the non-orthogonal multi-partite-controlled entanglement states, the participants' secret polarizations, and the disorder of the travelling particles. Moreover, the present scheme is secure against the particle-number splitting attack and the intercept-and-resend attack. It may be still secure even if the distributed quantum state is embedded in a not-so-weak coherent-state pulse
Extended Lagrangian Excited State Molecular Dynamics.
Bjorgaard, J A; Sheppard, D; Tretiak, S; Niklasson, A M N
2018-02-13
An extended Lagrangian framework for excited state molecular dynamics (XL-ESMD) using time-dependent self-consistent field theory is proposed. The formulation is a generalization of the extended Lagrangian formulations for ground state Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics [Phys. Rev. Lett. 2008 100, 123004]. The theory is implemented, demonstrated, and evaluated using a time-dependent semiempirical model, though it should be generally applicable to ab initio theory. The simulations show enhanced energy stability and a significantly reduced computational cost associated with the iterative solutions of both the ground state and the electronically excited states. Relaxed convergence criteria can therefore be used both for the self-consistent ground state optimization and for the iterative subspace diagonalization of the random phase approximation matrix used to calculate the excited state transitions. The XL-ESMD approach is expected to enable numerically efficient excited state molecular dynamics for such methods as time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TD-HF), Configuration Interactions Singles (CIS), and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT).
Self-consistent hole motion and spin excitations in a quantum antiferromagnet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Su, Z.B.; Yu, L.; Li, Y.M.; Lai, W.Y.
1989-12-01
A new quantum Bogoliubov-de Gennes (BdeG) formalism is developed to study the self-consistent motion of holes and spin excitations in a quantum antiferromagnet within the generalized t-J model. On the one hand, the effects of local distortion of spin configurations and the renormalization of the hole motion due to virtual excitations of the distorted spin background are treated on an equal footing to obtain the hole wave function and its spectrum, as well as the effective mass for a propagating hole. On the other hand, the change of the spin excitation spectrum and the spin correlations due to the presence of dynamical holes are studied within the same adiabatic approximation. The stability of the hole states with respect to such changes justifies the self-consistency of the proposed formalism. (author). 25 refs, 6 figs, 1 tab
Computing correct truncated excited state wavefunctions
Bacalis, N. C.; Xiong, Z.; Zang, J.; Karaoulanis, D.
2016-12-01
We demonstrate that, if a wave function's truncated expansion is small, then the standard excited states computational method, of optimizing one "root" of a secular equation, may lead to an incorrect wave function - despite the correct energy according to the theorem of Hylleraas, Undheim and McDonald - whereas our proposed method [J. Comput. Meth. Sci. Eng. 8, 277 (2008)] (independent of orthogonality to lower lying approximants) leads to correct reliable small truncated wave functions. The demonstration is done in He excited states, using truncated series expansions in Hylleraas coordinates, as well as standard configuration-interaction truncated expansions.
Observer dependence of quantum states in relativistic quantum field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Malin, S.
1982-01-01
Quantum states can be understood as either (i) describing quantum systems or (ii) representing observers' knowledge about quantum systems. These different meanings are shown to imply different transformation properties in relativistic field theories. The rules for the reduction of quantum states and the transformation properties of quantum states under Lorentz transformations are derived for case (ii). The results obtained are applied to a quantum system recently presented and analyzed by Aharonov and Albert. It is shown that the present results, combined with Aharonov and Albert's, amount to a proof of Bohr's view that quantum states represent observers' knowledge about quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ho, Yew Kam; Lin, Chien-Hao
2015-01-01
In this work, we study the quantum entanglement for doubly excited resonance states in two-electron atomic systems such as the H - and Ps - ions and the He atom by using highly correlated Hylleraas type functions The resonance states are determined by calculation of density of resonance states with the stabilization method. The spatial (electron-electron orbital) entanglement entropies (linear and von Neumann) for the low-lying doubly excited states are quantified using the Schmidt-Slater decomposition method. (paper)
Quantum control of vibrational excitations in a heteronuclear ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
WINTEC
Optimal control theory is applied to obtain infrared laser pulses for selective vibrational exci- tation in a ... introduced in the field prior to evaluation of the cost functional for better field shape. Conjugate ... focused greater attention on optimal control of quan- tum states ... from the ground state to the first excited state in a.
Quantum States as Ordinary Information
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ken Wharton
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Despite various parallels between quantum states and ordinary information, quantum no-go-theorems have convinced many that there is no realistic framework that might underly quantum theory, no reality that quantum states can represent knowledge about. This paper develops the case that there is a plausible underlying reality: one actual spacetime-based history, although with behavior that appears strange when analyzed dynamically (one time-slice at a time. By using a simple model with no dynamical laws, it becomes evident that this behavior is actually quite natural when analyzed “all-at-once” (as in classical action principles. From this perspective, traditional quantum states would represent incomplete information about possible spacetime histories, conditional on the future measurement geometry. Without dynamical laws imposing additional restrictions, those histories can have a classical probability distribution, where exactly one history can be said to represent an underlying reality.
Gate errors in solid-state quantum-computer architectures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hu Xuedong; Das Sarma, S.
2002-01-01
We theoretically consider possible errors in solid-state quantum computation due to the interplay of the complex solid-state environment and gate imperfections. In particular, we study two examples of gate operations in the opposite ends of the gate speed spectrum, an adiabatic gate operation in electron-spin-based quantum dot quantum computation and a sudden gate operation in Cooper-pair-box superconducting quantum computation. We evaluate quantitatively the nonadiabatic operation of a two-qubit gate in a two-electron double quantum dot. We also analyze the nonsudden pulse gate in a Cooper-pair-box-based quantum-computer model. In both cases our numerical results show strong influences of the higher excited states of the system on the gate operation, clearly demonstrating the importance of a detailed understanding of the relevant Hilbert-space structure on the quantum-computer operations
Statistical representation of quantum states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Montina, A [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)
2007-05-15
In the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics, the state is described by an abstract wave function in the representation space. Conversely, in a realistic interpretation, the quantum state is replaced by a probability distribution of physical quantities. Bohm mechanics is a consistent example of realistic theory, where the wave function and the particle positions are classically defined quantities. Recently, we proved that the probability distribution in a realistic theory cannot be a quadratic function of the quantum state, in contrast to the apparently obvious suggestion given by the Born rule for transition probabilities. Here, we provide a simplified version of this proof.
Giant dipole resonances built on excited states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Snover, K.A.
1983-01-01
The properties of giant dipole resonances built on excited nuclear states are reviewed, with emphasis on recent results. Nonstatistical (p,γ) reactions in light nuclei, and statistical complex-particle reactions in light and heavy nuclei are discussed. 27 references
Excited state properties of aryl carotenoids
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Fuciman, M.; Chábera, P.; Župčanová, Anita; Hříbek, P.; Arellano, J.B.; Vácha, František; Pšenčík, J.; Polívka, Tomáš
2010-01-01
Roč. 12, č. 13 (2010), s. 3112-3120 ISSN 1463-9076 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA608170604 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : carotenoids * excited-states * femtosecond spectroscopy Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.454, year: 2010
Excitation of nuclear states by synchrotron radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Olariu, Albert
2003-01-01
We study the excitation of nuclear states by gamma ray beams of energy up to 200 keV produced as synchrotron radiation. We consider the possibility to populate an excited state |i> in two steps, from the ground state |g> to an intermediary state |n> which decays by gamma emission or internal conversion to a lower state |i>. The aim of this study is to establish that the probability P 2 of the two-step transition |g> → |n> → |i> should be greater than the probability P 1 of the direct transition |g> → |i>. The probabilities P 1 and P 2 correspond to a radiation pulse of duration equal to the half-time of the state |i>. We have written a computer program in C++ which computes the probability P 2 , the ratio P 2 /P 1 and the rate C 2 of the two-step transitions for any nuclei and different configurations of states. The program uses a database which contains information on the energy levels, half-lives, spins and parities of nuclear states and on the relative intensities of the nuclear transitions. If the half-lives or the relative intensities are not known the program uses the Weisskopf estimates for the transition half-lives. An interpolation program of internal conversion coefficients has also been used. We listed the values obtained for P 2 , P 2 /P 1 and C 2 in a number of cases in which P 2 is significant from the 2900 considered cases. The states |i> and |n> have the energies E i and E n , the corresponding half-lives being t i and t n . The spectral density of the synchrotron radiation has been considered to be 10 12 photons cm -2 s -1 eV -1 . We listed only the cases for which the relative intensities of the transitions from levels |n> and |i> to lower states are known. The calculations carried out in this study allowed us to identify nuclei for which P 2 has relatively great values. In the listed cases P 2 /P 1 >>1, so that the two-step excitation by synchrotron radiation is more efficient than the direct excitation |g> → |i>. For a sample having 10
Quantum resonances in a single plaquette of Josephson junctions: excitations of Rabi oscillations
Fistul, M. V.
2002-03-01
We present a theoretical study of a quantum regime of the resistive (whirling) state of dc driven anisotropic single plaquette containing small Josephson junctions. The current-voltage characteristics of such systems display resonant steps that are due to the resonant interaction between the time dependent Josephson current and the excited electromagnetic oscillations (EOs). The voltage positions of the resonances are determined by the quantum interband transitions of EOs. We show that in the quantum regime as the system is driven on the resonance, coherent Rabi oscillations between the quantum levels of EOs occur. At variance with the classical regime the magnitude and the width of resonances are determined by the frequency of Rabi oscillations that in turn, depends in a peculiar manner on an externally applied magnetic field and the parameters of the system.
Normalized Excited Squeezed Vacuum State and Its Applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meng Xiangguo; Wang Jisuo; Liang Baolong
2007-01-01
By using the intermediate coordinate-momentum representation in quantum optics and generating function for the normalization of the excited squeezed vacuum state (ESVS), the normalized ESVS is obtained. We find that its normalization constants obtained via two new methods are uniform and a new form which is different from the result obtained by Zhang and Fan [Phys. Lett. A 165 (1992) 14]. By virtue of the normalization constant of the ESVS and the intermediate coordinate-momentum representation, the tomogram of the normalized ESVS and some useful formulae are derived.
Multi-dimensional photonic states from a quantum dot
Lee, J. P.; Bennett, A. J.; Stevenson, R. M.; Ellis, D. J. P.; Farrer, I.; Ritchie, D. A.; Shields, A. J.
2018-04-01
Quantum states superposed across multiple particles or degrees of freedom offer an advantage in the development of quantum technologies. Creating these states deterministically and with high efficiency is an ongoing challenge. A promising approach is the repeated excitation of multi-level quantum emitters, which have been shown to naturally generate light with quantum statistics. Here we describe how to create one class of higher dimensional quantum state, a so called W-state, which is superposed across multiple time bins. We do this by repeated Raman scattering of photons from a charged quantum dot in a pillar microcavity. We show this method can be scaled to larger dimensions with no reduction in coherence or single-photon character. We explain how to extend this work to enable the deterministic creation of arbitrary time-bin encoded qudits.
Wigner function for the generalized excited pair coherent state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meng Xiangguo; Wang Jisuo; Liang Baolong; Li Hongqi
2008-01-01
This paper introduces the generalized excited pair coherent state (GEPCS). Using the entangled state |η> representation of Wigner operator, it obtains the Wigner function for the GEPCS. In the ρ-γ phase space, the variations of the Wigner function distributions with the parameters q, α, k and l are discussed. The tomogram of the GEPCS is calculated with the help of the Radon transform between the Wigner operator and the projection operator of the entangled state |η 1 , η 2 , τ 1 , τ 2 >. The entangled states |η> and η 1 , η 2 , τ 1 , τ 2 > provide two good representative space for studying the Wigner functions and tomograms of various two-mode correlated quantum states
Quantum cosmology and stationary states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Padmanabhan, T.
1983-01-01
A model for quantum gravity, in which the conformal part of the metric is quantized using the path integral formalism, is presented. Einstein's equations can be suitably modified to take into account the effects of quantum conformal fluctuations. A closed Friedman model can be described in terms of well-defined stationary states. The ''ground state'' sets a lower bound (at Planck length) to the scale factor preventing the collapse. A possible explanation for matter creation and quantum nature of matter is suggested. (author)
Effective interactions and elementary excitations in quantum liquids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pines, D.
1986-01-01
The effective interactions which provide a wavevector and frequency dependent restoring force for collective modes in quantum liquids are derived for the helium liquids by means of physical arguments and sum rule and continuity considerations. A simple model is used to take into account mode-mode coupling between collective and multiparticle excitations, and the results for the zero-temperature liquid 4 He phonon-maxon-roton spectrum are shown to compare favorably with experiment and with microscopic calculation. The role played by spin-dependent backflow in liquid 3 He is analyzed, and a physical interpretation of its variation with density and spin-polarization is presented. A progress report is given on recent work on effective interactions and elementary excitations in nuclear matter, with particular attention to features encountered in the latter system which have no counterparts in the helium liquids
Symmetric-bounce quantum state of the universe
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Page, Don N., E-mail: don@phys.ualberta.ca [Theoretical Physics Institute, Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Room 238 CEB, 11322 – 89 Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G7 (Canada)
2009-09-01
A proposal is made for the quantum state of the universe that has an initial state that is macroscopically time symmetric about a homogeneous, isotropic bounce of extremal volume and that at that bounce is microscopically in the ground state for inhomogeneous and/or anisotropic perturbation modes. The coarse-grained entropy is minimum at the bounce and then grows during inflation as the modes become excited away from the bounce and interact (assuming the presence of an inflaton, and in the part of the quantum state in which the inflaton is initially large enough to drive inflation). The part of this pure quantum state that dominates for observations is well approximated by quantum processes occurring within a Lorentzian expanding macroscopic universe. Because this part of the quantum state has no negative Euclidean action, one can avoid the early-time Boltzmann brains and Boltzmann solar systems that appear to dominate observations in the Hartle-Hawking no-boundary wavefunction.
Symmetric-bounce quantum state of the universe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Page, Don N.
2009-01-01
A proposal is made for the quantum state of the universe that has an initial state that is macroscopically time symmetric about a homogeneous, isotropic bounce of extremal volume and that at that bounce is microscopically in the ground state for inhomogeneous and/or anisotropic perturbation modes. The coarse-grained entropy is minimum at the bounce and then grows during inflation as the modes become excited away from the bounce and interact (assuming the presence of an inflaton, and in the part of the quantum state in which the inflaton is initially large enough to drive inflation). The part of this pure quantum state that dominates for observations is well approximated by quantum processes occurring within a Lorentzian expanding macroscopic universe. Because this part of the quantum state has no negative Euclidean action, one can avoid the early-time Boltzmann brains and Boltzmann solar systems that appear to dominate observations in the Hartle-Hawking no-boundary wavefunction
Molecular excitation dynamics and relaxation quantum theory and spectroscopy
Valkunas, Leonas; Mancal, Tomas
2013-01-01
Meeting the need for a work that brings together quantum theory and spectroscopy to convey excitation processes to advanced students and specialists wishing to conduct research and understand the entire field rather than just single aspects.Written by an experienced author and recognized authority in the field, this text covers numerous applications and offers examples taken from different disciplines. As a result, spectroscopists, molecular physicists, physical chemists, and biophysicists will all find this a must-have for their research. Also suitable as supplementary reading in graduate
Analytical study of doubly excited ridge states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wong, H.Y.
1988-01-01
Two different non-separable problems are explored and analyzed. Non-perturbative methods need to be used to handle them, as the competing forces involved in these problems are equally strong and do not yield to a perturbative analysis. The first one is the study of doubly excited ridge states of atoms, in which two electrons are comparably excited. An analytical wavefunction for such states is introduced and is used to solve the two-electron Hamiltonian in the pair coordinates called hyperspherical coordinates variationally. The correlation between the electrons is built in analytically into the structure of the wavefunction. Sequences of ridge states out to very high excitation are computed and are organized as Rydberg series converging to the double ionization limit. Numerical results of such states in He and H - are compared with other theoretical calculations where available. The second problem is the analysis of the photodetachment of negative ions in an electric field via the frame transformation theory. The presence of the electron field requires a transformation from spherical to cylindrical symmetry for the outgoing photoelectron. This gives an oscillatory modulating factor as the effect of the electric field on cross-sections. All of this work is derived analytically in a general form applicable to the photodetachment of any negative ion. The expressions are applied to H - and S - for illustration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liptak, J.; Kristiak, J.; Kristiakova, K.
1977-01-01
The β + -decay of 79 Rb has been studied with Ge(Li) detectors in single and coincidence modes. The half-life of the 147.06 keV level in 79 Kr has been determined to be (78+-6) ns. The relative electron intensities of seventeen transitions have been measured with a magnetic Si(Li) spectrometer. The internal conversion coefficients have been determined. The transition multipolarities have been deduced. The spin-parity assignments have been made for excited states of 79 Kr and a β-decaying sta 79 Rb(5/2 + ). The structure of excited states in 79 Kr is discussed in the framework of the Alaga and Coriolis coupling models. It is shown that the properties of some levels in 79 Kr can be explained by the existence of relatively pure rotational bands
Rearrangements in ground and excited states
de Mayo, Paul
1980-01-01
Rearrangements in Ground and Excited States, Volume 2 covers essays on the theoretical approach of rearrangements; the rearrangements involving boron; and the molecular rearrangements of organosilicon compounds. The book also includes essays on the polytopal rearrangement at phosphorus; the rearrangement in coordination complexes; and the reversible thermal intramolecular rearrangements of metal carbonyls. Chemists and people involved in the study of rearrangements will find the book invaluable.
Strategies for state-dependent quantum deleting
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Song Wei; Yang Ming; Cao Zhuoliang
2004-01-01
A quantum state-dependent quantum deleting machine is constructed. We obtain a upper bound of the global fidelity on N-to-M quantum deleting from a set of K non-orthogonal states. Quantum networks are constructed for the above state-dependent quantum deleting machine when K=2. Our deleting protocol only involves a unitary interaction among the initial copies, with no ancilla. We also present some analogies between quantum cloning and deleting
Bound state and localization of excitation in many-body open systems
Cui, H. T.; Shen, H. Z.; Hou, S. C.; Yi, X. X.
2018-04-01
We study the exact bound state and time evolution for single excitations in one-dimensional X X Z spin chains within a non-Markovian reservoir. For the bound state, a common feature is the localization of single excitations, which means the spontaneous emission of excitations into the reservoir is prohibited. Exceptionally, the pseudo-bound state can be found, for which the single excitation has a finite probability of emission into the reservoir. In addition, a critical energy scale for bound states is also identified, below which only one bound state exists, and it is also the pseudo-bound state. The effect of quasirandom disorder in the spin chain is also discussed; such disorder induces the single excitation to locate at some spin sites. Furthermore, to display the effect of bound state and disorder on the preservation of quantum information, the time evolution of single excitations in spin chains is studied exactly. An interesting observation is that the excitation can stay at its initial location with high probability only when the bound state and disorder coexist. In contrast, when either one of them is absent, the information of the initial state can be erased completely or becomes mixed. This finding shows that the combination of bound state and disorder can provide an ideal mechanism for quantum memory.
Decoy State Quantum Key Distribution
Lo, Hoi-Kwong
2005-10-01
Quantum key distribution (QKD) allows two parties to communicate in absolute security based on the fundamental laws of physics. Up till now, it is widely believed that unconditionally secure QKD based on standard Bennett-Brassard (BB84) protocol is limited in both key generation rate and distance because of imperfect devices. Here, we solve these two problems directly by presenting new protocols that are feasible with only current technology. Surprisingly, our new protocols can make fiber-based QKD unconditionally secure at distances over 100km (for some experiments, such as GYS) and increase the key generation rate from O(η2) in prior art to O(η) where η is the overall transmittance. Our method is to develop the decoy state idea (first proposed by W.-Y. Hwang in "Quantum Key Distribution with High Loss: Toward Global Secure Communication", Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 057901 (2003)) and consider simple extensions of the BB84 protocol. This part of work is published in "Decoy State Quantum Key Distribution", . We present a general theory of the decoy state protocol and propose a decoy method based on only one signal state and two decoy states. We perform optimization on the choice of intensities of the signal state and the two decoy states. Our result shows that a decoy state protocol with only two types of decoy states--a vacuum and a weak decoy state--asymptotically approaches the theoretical limit of the most general type of decoy state protocols (with an infinite number of decoy states). We also present a one-decoy-state protocol as a special case of Vacuum+Weak decoy method. Moreover, we provide estimations on the effects of statistical fluctuations and suggest that, even for long distance (larger than 100km) QKD, our two-decoy-state protocol can be implemented with only a few hours of experimental data. In conclusion, decoy state quantum key distribution is highly practical. This part of work is published in "Practical Decoy State for Quantum Key Distribution
Critical excitation spectrum of a quantum chain with a local three-spin coupling.
McCabe, John F; Wydro, Tomasz
2011-09-01
Using the phenomenological renormalization group (PRG), we evaluate the low-energy excitation spectrum along the critical line of a quantum spin chain having a local interaction between three Ising spins and longitudinal and transverse magnetic fields, i.e., a Turban model. The low-energy excitation spectrum found with the PRG agrees with the spectrum predicted for the (D(4),A(4)) conformal minimal model under a nontrivial correspondence between translations at the critical line and discrete lattice translations. Under this correspondence, the measurements confirm a prediction that the critical line of this quantum spin chain and the critical point of the two-dimensional three-state Potts model are in the same universality class.
Critical excitation spectrum of a quantum chain with a local three-spin coupling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McCabe, John F.; Wydro, Tomasz
2011-01-01
Using the phenomenological renormalization group (PRG), we evaluate the low-energy excitation spectrum along the critical line of a quantum spin chain having a local interaction between three Ising spins and longitudinal and transverse magnetic fields, i.e., a Turban model. The low-energy excitation spectrum found with the PRG agrees with the spectrum predicted for the (D 4 ,A 4 ) conformal minimal model under a nontrivial correspondence between translations at the critical line and discrete lattice translations. Under this correspondence, the measurements confirm a prediction that the critical line of this quantum spin chain and the critical point of the two-dimensional three-state Potts model are in the same universality class.
Preparation of freezing quantum state for quantum coherence
Yang, Lian-Wu; Man, Zhong-Xiao; Zhang, Ying-Jie; Han, Feng; Du, Shao-jiang; Xia, Yun-Jie
2018-06-01
We provide a method to prepare the freezing quantum state for quantum coherence via unitary operations. The initial product state consists of the control qubit and target qubit; when it satisfies certain conditions, the initial product state converts into the particular Bell diagonal state under the unitary operations, which have the property of freezing of quantum coherence under quantum channels. We calculate the frozen quantum coherence and corresponding quantum correlations, and find that the quantities are determined by the control qubit only when the freezing phenomena occur.
Electron impact excitation of xenon from the metastable state to the excited states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jiang Jun; Dong Chenzhong; Xie Luyou; Zhou Xiaoxin [College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Wang Jianguo [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematic, Beijing 100088 (China)], E-mail: dongcz@nwnu.edu.cn
2008-12-28
The electron impact excitation cross sections from the lowest metastable state 5p{sup 5}6sJ = 2 to the six lowest excited states of the 5p{sup 5}6p configuration of xenon are calculated systematically by using the fully relativistic distorted wave method. In order to discuss the effects of target state descriptions on the electron impact excitation cross sections, two correlation models are used to describe the target states based on the multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock (MCDF) method. It is found that the correlation effects play a very important role in low energy impact. For high energy impact, however, the cross sections are not sensitive to the description of the target states, but many more partial waves must be included.
Excited state electron affinity calculations for aluminum
Hussein, Adnan Yousif
2017-08-01
Excited states of negative aluminum ion are reviewed, and calculations of electron affinities of the states (3s^23p^2)^1D and (3s3p^3){^5}{S}° relative to the (3s^23p)^2P° and (3s3p^2)^4P respectively of the neutral aluminum atom are reported in the framework of nonrelativistic configuration interaction (CI) method. A priori selected CI (SCI) with truncation energy error (Bunge in J Chem Phys 125:014107, 2006) and CI by parts (Bunge and Carbó-Dorca in J Chem Phys 125:014108, 2006) are used to approximate the valence nonrelativistic energy. Systematic studies of convergence of electron affinity with respect to the CI excitation level are reported. The calculated value of the electron affinity for ^1D state is 78.675(3) meV. Detailed Calculations on the ^5S°c state reveals that is 1216.8166(3) meV below the ^4P state.
Properties of Nonabelian Quantum Hall States
Simon, Steven H.
2004-03-01
The quantum statistics of particles refers to the behavior of a multiparticle wavefunction under adiabatic interchange of two identical particles. While a three dimensional world affords the possibilities of Bosons or Fermions, the two dimensional world has more exotic possibilities such as Fractional and Nonabelian statistics (J. Frölich, in ``Nonperturbative Quantum Field Theory", ed, G. t'Hooft. 1988). The latter is perhaps the most interesting where the wavefunction obeys a ``nonabelian'' representation of the braid group - meaning that braiding A around B then B around C is not the same as braiding B around C then A around B. This property enables one to think about using these exotic systems for robust topological quantum computation (M. Freedman, A. Kitaev, et al, Bull Am Math Soc 40, 31 (2003)). Surprisingly, it is thought that quasiparticles excitations with such nonabelian statistics may actually exist in certain quantum Hall states that have already been observed. The most likely such candidate is the quantum Hall ν=5/2 state(R. L. Willett et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1776-1779 (1987)), thought to be a so-called Moore-Read Pfaffian state(G. Moore and N. Read, Nucl Phys. B360 362 (1991)), which can be thought of as a p-wave paired superconducting state of composite fermions(M. Greiter, X. G. Wen, and F. Wilczek, PRL 66, 3205 (1991)). Using this superconducting analogy, we use a Chern-Simons field theory approach to make a number of predictions as to what experimental signatures one should expect for this state if it really is this Moore-Read state(K. Foster, N. Bonesteel, and S. H. Simon, PRL 91 046804 (2003)). We will then discuss how the nonabelian statistics can be explored in detail using a quantum monte-carlo approach (Y. Tserkovnyak and S. H. Simon, PRL 90 106802 (2003)), (I. Finkler, Y. Tserkovnyak, and S. H. Simon, work in progress.) that allows one to explicitly drag one particle around another and observe the change in the wavefunctions
Psoralen phototherapy and the possible involvement of triplet excited states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bensasson, R.V.; Salet, E.J.; Land, E.J.
1979-01-01
Psoralens are important drugs used in the phototherapy of psoriasis and vitiligo. It has been predicted that the triplet excited state of psoralen is photoactive. The authors have employed pulse radiolysis and laser flash photolysis to determine the quantum yields of formation of the triplet states of psoralens and related molecules including 4'5' dihydropsoralen, a model for 4'5' psoralenpyrimidine mono-adducts. The triplet spectra were used to follow the reactions of the triplets with thymine and tryptophan. Such reactions may take place via a charge transfer mechanism. For 8-methoxy psoralen, in addition to triplet formation, photoionization was detected using high laser intensities. Although significant yields of psoralen triplets are formed, and some such triplets react with thymine, it is too early yet to say definitely whether or not the therapeutic action of psoralens is mediated via such triplet states. (Auth.)
Statistical density of nuclear excited states
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. M. Kolomietz
2015-10-01
Full Text Available A semi-classical approximation is applied to the calculations of single-particle and statistical level densities in excited nuclei. Landau's conception of quasi-particles with the nucleon effective mass m* < m is used. The approach provides the correct description of the continuum contribution to the level density for realistic finite-depth potentials. It is shown that the continuum states does not affect significantly the thermodynamic calculations for sufficiently small temperatures T ≤ 1 MeV but reduce strongly the results for the excitation energy at high temperatures. By use of standard Woods - Saxon potential and nucleon effective mass m* = 0.7m the A-dependency of the statistical level density parameter K was evaluated in a good qualitative agreement with experimental data.
The triplet excited state of bilirubin
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Land, E.J.
1976-01-01
Pulse radiolysis of benzene solutions of 40 μM bilirubin alone or with 0.1 M biphenyl has yielded evidence for the formation of the triplet excited state of bilirubin. Measurements were made of a number of properties, including the absorption spectrum (lambdasub(max)500nm), lifetime 9μs), extinction coefficient (8800 M -1 cm -1 ), energy level (approximately 150 kJ mol -1 ) and the rate of quenching by oxygen (rate constant, 8.2 x 10 8 M -1 s -1 ). An upper limit of 0.1 has also been obtained for the singlet to triplet crossover efficiency of bilirubin following excitation by 353 nm radiation. Consideration is given to the relevance of these data to the mechanism of bilirubin photo-destruction, both in vivo and in vitro. (U.K.)
Excited state kinetics of anthracene-bridge-aniline intramolecular exciplexes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thyrhaug, Erling; Hammershøj, Peter; Kjær, Kasper Skov
2014-01-01
excited anthracene state (LE) and an excited state complex (exciplex, EP) in non-polar solvents. The kinetics of the excited state processes were established in decalin from the time-resolved emission, and was shown to be strongly influenced by an electron-transfer state (ET). For quantitative studies...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lingerfelt, David B.; Lestrange, Patrick J.; Radler, Joseph J.; Brown-Xu, Samantha E.; Kim, Pyosang; Castellano, Felix N.; Chen, Lin X.; Li, Xiaosong
2017-02-24
Materials and molecular systems exhibiting long-lived electronic coherence can facilitate coherent transport, opening the door to efficient charge and energy transport beyond traditional methods. Recently, signatures of a possible coherent, recurrent electronic motion were identified in femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy experiments on a binuclear platinum complex, where a persistent periodic beating in the transient absorption signal’s anisotropy was observed. In this study, we investigate the excitonic dynamics that underlie the suspected electronic coherence for a series of binuclear platinum complexes exhibiting a range of interplatinum distances. Results suggest that the long-lived coherence can only result when competitive electronic couplings are in balance. At longer Pt-Pt distances, the electronic couplings between the two halves of the binuclear system weaken, and exciton localization and recombination is favored on short time scales. For short Pt-Pt distances, electronic couplings between the states in the coherent superposition are stronger than the coupling with other excitonic states, leading to long-lived coherence.
First 3- excited state of 56Fe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fotiades, N.; Nelson, R. O.; Devlin, M.
2010-01-01
There is no reliable evidence for the existence of the 3.076 MeV (3 - ) level adopted in the ENSDF evaluation for 56 Fe although it has been reported in a few experiments. Previous reports of the observation of this level appear to be based on an incorrect assignment in early (e,e ' ) work. Recent neutron inelastic scattering measurements by Demidov et al. [Phys. At. Nucl. 67, 1884, (2004)] show that the assigned γ-ray decay of this state does not occur at a level consistent with known properties of inelastic scattering. In the present work the 56 Fe(n,n ' γ) reaction was used to populate excited states in 56 Fe. Neutrons in the energy range from 1 to 250 MeV were provided by the pulsed neutron source of the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center's WNR facility. Deexciting γ rays were detected with the GEANIE spectrometer, a Compton suppressed array of 26 Ge detectors. The γ-γ data obtained with GEANIE were used to establish coincidence relations between transitions. All previously reported levels up to E x =3.6 MeV excitation energy were observed except for the 3.076 MeV (3 - ) level. The 991- and 2229-keV transitions, previously reported to deexcite this level, were not observed in the γ-γ coincidence data obtained in the present experiment. The present work supports the assignment of the 4509.6 keV level as the first 3 - excited state in 56 Fe by observation of two previously known transitions deexciting this state.
Non-adiabatic quantum state preparation and quantum state transport in chains of Rydberg atoms
Ostmann, Maike; Minář, Jiří; Marcuzzi, Matteo; Levi, Emanuele; Lesanovsky, Igor
2017-12-01
Motivated by recent progress in the experimental manipulation of cold atoms in optical lattices, we study three different protocols for non-adiabatic quantum state preparation and state transport in chains of Rydberg atoms. The protocols we discuss are based on the blockade mechanism between atoms which, when excited to a Rydberg state, interact through a van der Waals potential, and rely on single-site addressing. Specifically, we discuss protocols for efficient creation of an antiferromagnetic GHZ state, a class of matrix product states including a so-called Rydberg crystal and for the state transport of a single-qubit quantum state between two ends of a chain of atoms. We identify system parameters allowing for the operation of the protocols on timescales shorter than the lifetime of the Rydberg states while yielding high fidelity output states. We discuss the effect of positional disorder on the resulting states and comment on limitations due to other sources of noise such as radiative decay of the Rydberg states. The proposed protocols provide a testbed for benchmarking the performance of quantum information processing platforms based on Rydberg atoms.
Loss energy states of nonstationary quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dodonov, V.V.; Man'ko, V.I.
1978-01-01
The concept of loss energy states is introduced. The loss energy states of the quantum harmonic damping oscillator are considered in detail. The method of constructing the loss energy states for general multidimensional quadratic nonstationary quantum systems is briefly discussed
The structure of 83Sr excited states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liptak, J.; Kristiak, J.; Kristiakova, K.
1976-01-01
The β-decay of 83 Y isomers (7.06 min and 2.85 min) have been studied by means of Ge(Li) detectors. The proposed level scheme of the 83 Sr nucleus is based on the coincidence measurement and the analysis of energy sums. The intensity balance requirement leads to αsub(T)(35.5keV)=3.2 which is consistent with M1 multipolarity of this transition. A probable structure of some of the excited states in the 83 Sr nucleus is discussed in the frame work of Alaga's model and Kuriyama's model
Excited state dynamics of DNA bases
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kleinermanns, K.; Nachtigallová, Dana; de Vries, M. S.
2013-01-01
Roč. 32, č. 2 (2013), s. 308-342 ISSN 0144-235X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP208/12/1318 Grant - others:National Science Foundation(US) CHE-0911564; NASA (US) NNX12AG77G; Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft(DE) SFB 663; Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft(DE) KI 531-29 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : DNA bases * nucleobases * excited state * dynamics * computations * gas phase * conical intersections Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.920, year: 2013
Coherent states in the quantum multiverse
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Robles-Perez, S.; Hassouni, Y.; Gonzalez-Diaz, P.F.
2010-01-01
In this Letter, we study the role of coherent states in the realm of quantum cosmology, both in a second-quantized single universe and in a third-quantized quantum multiverse. In particular, most emphasis will be paid to the quantum description of multiverses made of accelerated universes. We have shown that the quantum states involved at a quantum mechanical multiverse whose single universes are accelerated are given by squeezed states having no classical analogs.
Coherent states in the quantum multiverse
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Robles-Perez, S., E-mail: salvarp@imaff.cfmac.csic.e [Colina de los Chopos, Centro de Fisica ' Miguel Catalan' , Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Estacion Ecologica de Biocosmologia, Medellin (Spain); Hassouni, Y. [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, Faculte des Sciences-Universite Sidi Med Ben Abdellah, Avenue Ibn Batouta B.P: 1014, Agdal Rabat (Morocco); Gonzalez-Diaz, P.F. [Colina de los Chopos, Centro de Fisica ' Miguel Catalan' , Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Estacion Ecologica de Biocosmologia, Medellin (Spain)
2010-01-11
In this Letter, we study the role of coherent states in the realm of quantum cosmology, both in a second-quantized single universe and in a third-quantized quantum multiverse. In particular, most emphasis will be paid to the quantum description of multiverses made of accelerated universes. We have shown that the quantum states involved at a quantum mechanical multiverse whose single universes are accelerated are given by squeezed states having no classical analogs.
Coherent excitation-energy transfer and quantum entanglement in a dimer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liao Jieqiao; Sun, C. P.; Huang Jinfeng; Kuang Leman
2010-01-01
We study coherent energy transfer of a single excitation and quantum entanglement in a dimer, which consists of a donor and an acceptor modeled by two two-level systems. Between the donor and the acceptor, there exists a dipole-dipole interaction, which provides the physical mechanism for coherent energy transfer and entanglement generation. The donor and the acceptor couple to two independent heat baths with diagonal couplings that do not dissipate the energy of the noncoupling dimer. Special attention is paid to the effect on single-excitation energy transfer and entanglement generation of the energy detuning between the donor and the acceptor and the temperatures of the two heat baths. It is found that, the probability for single-excitation energy transfer largely depends on the energy detuning in the low temperature limit. Concretely, the positive and negative energy detunings can increase and decrease the probability at steady state, respectively. In the high temperature limit, however, the effect of the energy detuning on the probability is negligibly small. We also find that the probability is negligibly dependent on the bath temperature difference of the two heat baths. In addition, it is found that quantum entanglement can be generated in the process of coherent energy transfer. As the bath temperature increases, the generated steady-state entanglement decreases. For a given bath temperature, the steady-state entanglement decreases with the increase of the absolute value of the energy detuning.
Excited State Spectra and Dynamics of Phenyl-Substituted Butadienes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wallace-Williams, Stacie E.; Schwartz, Benjamin J.; Møller, Søren
1994-01-01
indicate that phenyl torsional motion is not important to the excited-state dynamics and reveal alternative excited-state reaction pathways. The results demonstrate how molecular systems that are structually similar can exhibit different electronic properties and excited-state dynamics....
Vendrell, Oriol; Brill, Michael; Gatti, Fabien; Lauvergnat, David; Meyer, Hans-Dieter
2009-06-21
Quantum dynamical calculations are reported for the zero point energy, several low-lying vibrational states, and the infrared spectrum of the H(5)O(2)(+) cation. The calculations are performed by the multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree (MCTDH) method. A new vector parametrization based on a mixed Jacobi-valence description of the system is presented. With this parametrization the potential energy surface coupling is reduced with respect to a full Jacobi description, providing a better convergence of the n-mode representation of the potential. However, new coupling terms appear in the kinetic energy operator. These terms are derived and discussed. A mode-combination scheme based on six combined coordinates is used, and the representation of the 15-dimensional potential in terms of a six-combined mode cluster expansion including up to some 7-dimensional grids is discussed. A statistical analysis of the accuracy of the n-mode representation of the potential at all orders is performed. Benchmark, fully converged results are reported for the zero point energy, which lie within the statistical uncertainty of the reference diffusion Monte Carlo result for this system. Some low-lying vibrationally excited eigenstates are computed by block improved relaxation, illustrating the applicability of the approach to large systems. Benchmark calculations of the linear infrared spectrum are provided, and convergence with increasing size of the time-dependent basis and as a function of the order of the n-mode representation is studied. The calculations presented here make use of recent developments in the parallel version of the MCTDH code, which are briefly discussed. We also show that the infrared spectrum can be computed, to a very good approximation, within D(2d) symmetry, instead of the G(16) symmetry used before, in which the complete rotation of one water molecule with respect to the other is allowed, thus simplifying the dynamical problem.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ambruş, Victor E.; Winstanley, Elizabeth
2014-01-01
We revisit the definition of rotating thermal states for scalar and fermion fields in unbounded Minkowski space–time. For scalar fields such states are ill-defined everywhere, but for fermion fields an appropriate definition of the vacuum gives thermal states regular inside the speed-of-light surface. For a massless fermion field, we derive analytic expressions for the thermal expectation values of the fermion current and stress–energy tensor. These expressions may provide qualitative insights into the behaviour of thermal rotating states on more complex space–time geometries
Quantum state of the black hole interior
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brustein, Ram; Medved, A.J.M.
2015-01-01
If a black hole (BH) is initially in an approximately pure state and it evaporates by a unitary process, then the emitted radiation will be in a highly quantum state. As the purifier of this radiation, the state of the BH interior must also be in some highly quantum state. So that, within the interior region, the mean-field approximation cannot be valid and the state of the BH cannot be described by some semiclassical metric. On this basis, we model the state of the BH interior as a collection of a large number of excitations that are packed into closely spaced but single-occupancy energy levels; a sort-of “Fermi sea” of all light-enough particles. This highly quantum state is surrounded by a semiclassical region that lies close to the horizon and has a non-vanishing energy density. It is shown that such a state looks like a BH from the outside and decays via gravitational pair production in the near-horizon region at a rate that agrees with the Hawking rate. We also consider the fate of a classical object that has passed through to the BH interior and show that, once it has crossed over the near-horizon threshold, the object meets its demise extremely fast. This result cannot be attributed to a “firewall”, as the trauma to the in-falling object only begins after it has passed through the near-horizon region and enters a region where semiclassical spacetime ends but the energy density is still parametrically smaller than Planckian.
Radiative and Excited State Charmonium Physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jozef Dudek
2007-07-30
Renewed interest in the spectroscopy of charmonium has arisen from recent unexpected observations at $e^+e^-$ colliders. Here we report on a series of works from the previous two years examining the radiative physics of charmonium states as well as the mass spectrum of states of higher spin and internal excitation. Using new techniques applied to Domain-Wall and Clover quark actions on quenched isotropic and anisotropic lattices, radiative transitions and two-photon decays are considered for the first time. Comparisons are made with experimental results and with model approaches. Forthcoming application to the light-quark sector of relevance to experiments like Jefferson Lab's GlueX is discussed.
Quantum Secure Direct Communication Using W State
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dong Li; Xiu Xiaoming; Gao Yajun; Chi Feng
2008-01-01
A theoretical scheme of quantum secure direct communication using teleportation is proposed. In the scheme, the sender needs to prepare a class of three-particle W states to use as quantum channel. The two communicators may communicate after they test the security of the quantum channel. The security of the protocol is ensured by quantum entanglement and quantum no-cloning theorem. The receiver can obtain the secret message determinately if the quantum channel is secure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Khan, Salahuddin; Jayabalan, J., E-mail: jjaya@rrcat.gov.in; Chari, Rama; Pal, Suparna [Laser Physics Applications Section, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India); Porwal, Sanjay; Sharma, Tarun Kumar; Oak, S. M. [Semiconductor Physics and Devices Lab., Solid State Laser Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India)
2014-08-18
We report tunneling assisted beating of carriers in a near-surface single GaAsP/AlGaAs quantum well using transient reflectivity measurement. The observed damped oscillating signal has a period of 120 ± 6 fs which corresponds to the energy difference between lh1 and hh2 hole states in the quantum well. Comparing the transient reflectivity signal at different photon energies and with a buried quantum well sample, we show that the beating is caused by the coherent coupling between surface state and the hole states (lh1 and hh2) in the near-surface quantum well. The dependence of decay of coherence of these tunneling carriers on the excitation fluence is also reported. This observation on the coherent tunneling of carrier is important for future quantum device applications.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khan, Salahuddin; Jayabalan, J.; Chari, Rama; Pal, Suparna; Porwal, Sanjay; Sharma, Tarun Kumar; Oak, S. M.
2014-01-01
We report tunneling assisted beating of carriers in a near-surface single GaAsP/AlGaAs quantum well using transient reflectivity measurement. The observed damped oscillating signal has a period of 120 ± 6 fs which corresponds to the energy difference between lh1 and hh2 hole states in the quantum well. Comparing the transient reflectivity signal at different photon energies and with a buried quantum well sample, we show that the beating is caused by the coherent coupling between surface state and the hole states (lh1 and hh2) in the near-surface quantum well. The dependence of decay of coherence of these tunneling carriers on the excitation fluence is also reported. This observation on the coherent tunneling of carrier is important for future quantum device applications.
Calculation of 0-0 excitation energies of organic molecules by CIS(D) quantum chemical methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grimme, Stefan; Izgorodina, Ekaterina I.
2004-01-01
The accuracy and reliability of the CIS(D) quantum chemical method and a spin-component scaled variant (SCS-CIS(D)) are tested for calculating 0-0 excitation energies of organic molecules. The ground and excited state geometries and the vibrational zero-point corrections are taken from (TD)DFT-B3LYP calculations. In total 32 valence excited states of different character are studied: π → π* states of polycyclic aromatic compounds/polyenes and n → π* states of carbonyl, thiocarbonyl and aza(azo)-aromatic compounds. This set is augmented by two systems of special interest, i.e., indole and the TICT state of dimethylaminbenzonitrile (DMABN). Both methods predict excitation energies that are on average higher than experiment by about 0.2 eV. The errors are found to be quite systematic (with a standard deviation of about 0.15 eV) and especially SCS-CIS(D) provides a more balanced treatment of π → π* vs. n → π* states. For the test suite of states, both methods clearly outperform the (TD)DFT-B3LYP approach. Opposed to previous conclusions about the performance of CIS(D), these methods can be recommended as reliable and efficient tools for computational studies of excited state problems in organic chemistry. In order to obtain conclusive results, however, the use of optimized excited state geometries and comparison with observables (0-0 excitation energies) are necessary
Quantum state of the multiverse
Robles Pérez, Salvador; González-Díaz, Pedro F.
2010-01-01
A third quantization formalism is applied to a simplified multiverse scenario. A well-defined quantum state of the multiverse is obtained which agrees with standard boundary condition proposals. These states are found to be squeezed, and related to accelerating universes: they share similar properties to those obtained previously by Grishchuk and Siderov. We also comment on related works that have criticized the third quantization approach. © 2010 The American Physical Society.
Quantum state of the multiverse
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Robles-Perez, Salvador; Gonzalez-Diaz, Pedro F.
2010-01-01
A third quantization formalism is applied to a simplified multiverse scenario. A well-defined quantum state of the multiverse is obtained which agrees with standard boundary condition proposals. These states are found to be squeezed, and related to accelerating universes: they share similar properties to those obtained previously by Grishchuk and Siderov. We also comment on related works that have criticized the third quantization approach.
Electron affinity and excited states of methylglyoxal
Dauletyarov, Yerbolat; Dixon, Andrew R.; Wallace, Adam A.; Sanov, Andrei
2017-07-01
Using photoelectron imaging spectroscopy, we characterized the anion of methylglyoxal (X2A″ electronic state) and three lowest electronic states of the neutral methylglyoxal molecule: the closed-shell singlet ground state (X1A'), the lowest triplet state (a3A″), and the open-shell singlet state (A1A″). The adiabatic electron affinity (EA) of the ground state, EA(X1A') = 0.87(1) eV, spectroscopically determined for the first time, compares to 1.10(2) eV for unsubstituted glyoxal. The EAs (adiabatic attachment energies) of two excited states of methylglyoxal were also determined: EA(a3A″) = 3.27(2) eV and EA(A1A″) = 3.614(9) eV. The photodetachment of the anion to each of these two states produces the neutral species near the respective structural equilibria; hence, the a3A″ ← X2A″ and A1A″ ← X2A″ photodetachment transitions are dominated by intense peaks at their respective origins. The lowest-energy photodetachment transition, on the other hand, involves significant geometry relaxation in the X1A' state, which corresponds to a 60° internal rotation of the methyl group, compared to the anion structure. Accordingly, the X1A' ← X2A″ transition is characterized as a broad, congested band, whose vertical detachment energy, VDE = 1.20(4) eV, significantly exceeds the adiabatic EA. The experimental results are in excellent agreement with the ab initio predictions using several equation-of-motion methodologies, combined with coupled-cluster theory.
Transfer matrices and excitations with matrix product states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zauner, V; Rams, M M; Verstraete, F; Draxler, D; Vanderstraeten, L; Degroote, M; Haegeman, J; Stojevic, V; Schuch, N
2015-01-01
We use the formalism of tensor network states to investigate the relation between static correlation functions in the ground state of local quantum many-body Hamiltonians and the dispersion relations of the corresponding low-energy excitations. In particular, we show that the matrix product state transfer matrix (MPS-TM)—a central object in the computation of static correlation functions—provides important information about the location and magnitude of the minima of the low-energy dispersion relation(s), and we present supporting numerical data for one-dimensional lattice and continuum models as well as two-dimensional lattice models on a cylinder. We elaborate on the peculiar structure of the MPS-TM’s eigenspectrum and give several arguments for the close relation between the structure of the low-energy spectrum of the system and the form of the static correlation functions. Finally, we discuss how the MPS-TM connects to the exact quantum transfer matrix of the model at zero temperature. We present a renormalization group argument for obtaining finite bond dimension approximations of the MPS, which allows one to reinterpret variational MPS techniques (such as the density matrix renormalization group) as an application of Wilson’s numerical renormalization group along the virtual (imaginary time) dimension of the system. (paper)
Orbital-exchange and fractional quantum number excitations in an f-electron metal, Yb2Pt2Pb
Wu, L.S.; Gannon, W.J.; Zaliznyak, I.A.; Tsvelik, A.M.; Brockmann, M.; Caux, J.-S.; Kim, M.S.; Qiu, Y.; Copley, J.R.D.; Ehlers, G.; Podlesnyak, A.; Aronson, M.C.
2016-01-01
Exotic quantum states and fractionalized magnetic excitations, such as spinons in one-dimensional chains, are generally expected to occur in 3d transition metal systems with spin 1/2. Our neutron-scattering experiments on the 4f-electron metal Yb2Pt 2 Pb overturn this conventional wisdom. We observe
Quantum State Description Complexity (Invited Talk)
Vazirani, Umesh V.
2011-01-01
Quantum states generally require exponential sized classical descriptions, but the long conjectured area law provides hope that a large class of natural quantum states can be described succinctly. Recent progress in formally proving the area law is described.
Experimental determination of the degree of polarization of quantum states
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kothe-Termén, Christian; Madsen, Lars Skovgaard; Andersen, Ulrik Lund
2013-01-01
We demonstrate experimental excitation-manifold-resolved polarization characterization of quantum states of light ranging from the few-photon to the many-photon level. In contrast to the traditional characterization of polarization that is based on the Stokes parameters, we experimentally determine...... the Stokes vector of each excitation manifold separately. Only for states with a given photon number do the methods coincide. For states with an indeterminate photon number, for example Gaussian states, the employed method gives a richer and more accurate description. We apply the method both in theory...
Quantum tomography via equidistant states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paiva-Sanchez, C.; Burgos-Inostroza, E.; Jimenez, O.; Delgado, A.
2010-01-01
We study the possibility of performing quantum state tomography via equidistant states. This class of states allows us to propose a nonsymmetric informationally complete Positive Operator Valued Measure (POVM) based tomographic scheme. The scheme is defined for odd dimensions N and involves the measurement of N 2 transition probabilities and an inversion, which can be analytically carried out by Fourier transform. The scheme can be modified to allow the reconstruction of states in the case of even dimensions at the expense of increasing the number of measurements to 3N 2 /2.
Geometric measure of quantum discord and total quantum correlations in an N-partite quantum state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hassan, Ali Saif M; Joag, Pramod S
2012-01-01
Quantum discord, as introduced by Ollivier and Zurek (2001 Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 017901), is a measure of the discrepancy between quantum versions of two classically equivalent expressions for mutual information and is found to be useful in quantification and application of quantum correlations in mixed states. It is viewed as a key resource present in certain quantum communication tasks and quantum computational models without containing much entanglement. An early step toward the quantification of quantum discord in a quantum state was by Dakic et al (2010 Phys. Rev. Lett. 105 190502) who introduced a geometric measure of quantum discord and derived an explicit formula for any two-qubit state. Recently, Luo and Fu (2010 Phys. Rev. A 82 034302) introduced a generic form of the geometric measure of quantum discord for a bipartite quantum state. We extend these results and find generic forms of the geometric measure of quantum discord and total quantum correlations in a general N-partite quantum state. Further, we obtain computable exact formulas for the geometric measure of quantum discord and total quantum correlations in an N-qubit quantum state. The exact formulas for the N-qubit quantum state can be used to get experimental estimates of the quantum discord and the total quantum correlation. (paper)
Thermal excitation spectrum from entanglement in an expanding quantum string
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jürgen Berges
2018-03-01
Full Text Available A surprising result in e+e− collisions is that the particle spectra from the string formed between the expanding quark–antiquark pair have thermal properties even though scatterings appear not to be frequent enough to explain this. We address this problem by considering the finite observable interval of a relativistic quantum string in terms of its reduced density operator by tracing over the complement region. We show how quantum entanglement in the presence of a horizon in spacetime for the causal transfer of information leads locally to a reduced mixed-state density operator. For very early proper time τ, we show that the entanglement entropy becomes extensive and scales with the rapidity. At these early times, the reduced density operator is of thermal form, with an entanglement temperature Tτ=ħ/(2πkBτ, even in the absence of any scatterings.
About the structure of quantum intermediate state of superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ledenev, O.P.
2008-01-01
The calculation of spatial structure of a quantum intermediate state in Type I superconductors is completed. Theoretical model of thermodynamics of considered state was proposed by Andreev. It is shown, that in a quantum case, the period of structure appears significantly smaller and has different dependence on both the magnetic field and temperature than in the classical intermediate Landau state. The decrease of thickness of normal layers results in increase of characteristic distance between the quantum Andreev levels of electronic excitations, and the transition to the quantum intermediate from classical state is realized at higher temperatures ∼1 K, than it was supposed in previous works. The comparison of calculation data with experimental results, for example using the sample of mono-crystal gallium, is conducted
Quantum Bit Commitment and the Reality of the Quantum State
Srikanth, R.
2018-01-01
Quantum bit commitment is insecure in the standard non-relativistic quantum cryptographic framework, essentially because Alice can exploit quantum steering to defer making her commitment. Two assumptions in this framework are that: (a) Alice knows the ensembles of evidence E corresponding to either commitment; and (b) system E is quantum rather than classical. Here, we show how relaxing assumption (a) or (b) can render her malicious steering operation indeterminable or inexistent, respectively. Finally, we present a secure protocol that relaxes both assumptions in a quantum teleportation setting. Without appeal to an ontological framework, we argue that the protocol's security entails the reality of the quantum state, provided retrocausality is excluded.
Lin, Z R; Nakamura, Y; Dykman, M I
2015-08-01
We study the dynamics of a nonlinear oscillator near the critical point where period-two vibrations are first excited with the increasing amplitude of parametric driving. Above the threshold, quantum fluctuations induce transitions between the period-two states over the quasienergy barrier. We find the effective quantum activation energies for such transitions and their scaling with the difference of the driving amplitude from its critical value. We also find the scaling of the fluctuation correlation time with the quantum noise parameters in the critical region near the threshold. The results are extended to oscillators with nonlinear friction.
Effect of carrier dynamics and temperature on two-state lasing in semiconductor quantum dot lasers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Korenev, V. V., E-mail: korenev@spbau.ru; Savelyev, A. V.; Zhukov, A. E.; Omelchenko, A. V.; Maximov, M. V. [Saint Petersburg Academic University-Nanotechnology Research and Education Center (Russian Federation)
2013-10-15
It is analytically shown that the both the charge carrier dynamics in quantum dots and their capture into the quantum dots from the matrix material have a significant effect on two-state lasing phenomenon in quantum dot lasers. In particular, the consideration of desynchronization in electron and hole capture into quantum dots allows one to describe the quenching of ground-state lasing observed at high injection currents both qualitatevely and quantitatively. At the same time, an analysis of the charge carrier dynamics in a single quantum dot allowed us to describe the temperature dependences of the emission power via the ground- and excited-state optical transitions of quantum dots.
Effect of carrier dynamics and temperature on two-state lasing in semiconductor quantum dot lasers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Korenev, V. V.; Savelyev, A. V.; Zhukov, A. E.; Omelchenko, A. V.; Maximov, M. V.
2013-01-01
It is analytically shown that the both the charge carrier dynamics in quantum dots and their capture into the quantum dots from the matrix material have a significant effect on two-state lasing phenomenon in quantum dot lasers. In particular, the consideration of desynchronization in electron and hole capture into quantum dots allows one to describe the quenching of ground-state lasing observed at high injection currents both qualitatevely and quantitatively. At the same time, an analysis of the charge carrier dynamics in a single quantum dot allowed us to describe the temperature dependences of the emission power via the ground- and excited-state optical transitions of quantum dots
Quantum ground state and single-phonon control of a mechanical resonator.
O'Connell, A D; Hofheinz, M; Ansmann, M; Bialczak, Radoslaw C; Lenander, M; Lucero, Erik; Neeley, M; Sank, D; Wang, H; Weides, M; Wenner, J; Martinis, John M; Cleland, A N
2010-04-01
Quantum mechanics provides a highly accurate description of a wide variety of physical systems. However, a demonstration that quantum mechanics applies equally to macroscopic mechanical systems has been a long-standing challenge, hindered by the difficulty of cooling a mechanical mode to its quantum ground state. The temperatures required are typically far below those attainable with standard cryogenic methods, so significant effort has been devoted to developing alternative cooling techniques. Once in the ground state, quantum-limited measurements must then be demonstrated. Here, using conventional cryogenic refrigeration, we show that we can cool a mechanical mode to its quantum ground state by using a microwave-frequency mechanical oscillator-a 'quantum drum'-coupled to a quantum bit, which is used to measure the quantum state of the resonator. We further show that we can controllably create single quantum excitations (phonons) in the resonator, thus taking the first steps to complete quantum control of a mechanical system.
Excited-state dynamics of acetylene excited to individual rotational level of the V04K01 subband
Makarov, Vladimir I.; Kochubei, Sergei A.; Khmelinskii, Igor V.
2006-01-01
Dynamics of the IR emission induced by excitation of the acetylene molecule using the (32Ka0,1,2,ÃAu1←41la1,X˜Σg+1) transition was investigated. The observed IR emission was assigned to transitions between the ground-state vibrational levels. Acetylene fluorescence quenching induced by external electric and magnetic fields acting upon the system prepared using the (34Ka1,ÃAu1←00la0,X˜Σg+1) excitation was also studied. External electric field creates an additional radiationless pathway to the ground-state levels, coupling levels of the ÃAu1 excited state to the quasiresonant levels of the X˜Σg+1 ground state. The level density of the ground state in the vicinity of the excited state is very high, thus the electric-field-induced transition is irreversible, with the rate constant described by the Fermi rule. Magnetic field alters the decay profile without changing the fluorescence quantum yield in collisionless conditions. IR emission from the CCH transient was detected, and was also affected by the external electric and magnetic fields. Acetylene predissociation was demonstrated to proceed by the direct S1→S0 mechanism. The results were explained using the previously developed theoretical approach, yielding values of the relevant model parameters.
Steady state quantum discord for circularly accelerated atoms
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hu, Jiawei, E-mail: hujiawei@nbu.edu.cn [Center for Nonlinear Science and Department of Physics, Ningbo University, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315211 (China); Yu, Hongwei, E-mail: hwyu@hunnu.edu.cn [Center for Nonlinear Science and Department of Physics, Ningbo University, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315211 (China); Synergetic Innovation Center for Quantum Effects and Applications, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan 410081 (China)
2015-12-15
We study, in the framework of open quantum systems, the dynamics of quantum entanglement and quantum discord of two mutually independent circularly accelerated two-level atoms in interaction with a bath of fluctuating massless scalar fields in the Minkowski vacuum. We assume that the two atoms rotate synchronically with their separation perpendicular to the rotating plane. The time evolution of the quantum entanglement and quantum discord of the two-atom system is investigated. For a maximally entangled initial state, the entanglement measured by concurrence diminishes to zero within a finite time, while the quantum discord can either decrease monotonically to an asymptotic value or diminish to zero at first and then followed by a revival depending on whether the initial state is antisymmetric or symmetric. When both of the two atoms are initially excited, the generation of quantum entanglement shows a delayed feature, while quantum discord is created immediately. Remarkably, the quantum discord for such a circularly accelerated two-atom system takes a nonvanishing value in the steady state, and this is distinct from what happens in both the linear acceleration case and the case of static atoms immersed in a thermal bath.
Probing the Locality of Excited States with Linear Algebra.
Etienne, Thibaud
2015-04-14
This article reports a novel theoretical approach related to the analysis of molecular excited states. The strategy introduced here involves gathering two pieces of physical information, coming from Hilbert and direct space operations, into a general, unique quantum mechanical descriptor of electronic transitions' locality. Moreover, the projection of Hilbert and direct space-derived indices in an Argand plane delivers a straightforward way to visually probe the ability of a dye to undergo a long- or short-range charge-transfer. This information can be applied, for instance, to the analysis of the electronic response of families of dyes to light absorption by unveiling the trend of a given push-pull chromophore to increase the electronic cloud polarization magnitude of its main transition with respect to the size extension of its conjugated spacer. We finally demonstrate that all the quantities reported in this article can be reliably approximated by a linear algebraic derivation, based on the contraction of detachment/attachment density matrices from canonical to atomic space. This alternative derivation has the remarkable advantage of a very low computational cost with respect to the previously used numerical integrations, making fast and accurate characterization of large molecular systems' excited states easily affordable.
On calculations of the ground state energy in quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Efimov, G.V.
1991-02-01
In nonrelativistic quantum mechanics the Wick-ordering method called the oscillator representation suggested to calculate the ground-state energy for a wide class of potentials allowing the existence of a bound state. The following examples are considered: the orbital excitations of the ground-state in the Coulomb plus linear potential, the Schroedinger equation with a ''relativistic'' kinetic energy √p 2 +m 2 , the Coulomb three-body problem. (author). 22 refs, 2 tabs
Quantum learning of coherent states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sentis, Gael [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Fisica Teorica: Informacio i Fenomens Quantics, Barcelona (Spain); Guta, Madalin; Adesso, Gerardo [University of Nottingham, School of Mathematical Sciences, Nottingham (United Kingdom)
2015-12-15
We develop a quantum learning scheme for binary discrimination of coherent states of light. This is a problem of technological relevance for the reading of information stored in a digital memory. In our setting, a coherent light source is used to illuminate a memory cell and retrieve its encoded bit by determining the quantum state of the reflected signal. We consider a situation where the amplitude of the states produced by the source is not fully known, but instead this information is encoded in a large training set comprising many copies of the same coherent state. We show that an optimal global measurement, performed jointly over the signal and the training set, provides higher successful identification rates than any learning strategy based on first estimating the unknown amplitude by means of Gaussian measurements on the training set, followed by an adaptive discrimination procedure on the signal. By considering a simplified variant of the problem, we argue that this is the case even for non-Gaussian estimation measurements. Our results show that, even in absence of entanglement, collective quantum measurements yield an enhancement in the readout of classical information, which is particularly relevant in the operating regime of low-energy signals. (orig.)
Quantum learning of coherent states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sentis, Gael; Guta, Madalin; Adesso, Gerardo
2015-01-01
We develop a quantum learning scheme for binary discrimination of coherent states of light. This is a problem of technological relevance for the reading of information stored in a digital memory. In our setting, a coherent light source is used to illuminate a memory cell and retrieve its encoded bit by determining the quantum state of the reflected signal. We consider a situation where the amplitude of the states produced by the source is not fully known, but instead this information is encoded in a large training set comprising many copies of the same coherent state. We show that an optimal global measurement, performed jointly over the signal and the training set, provides higher successful identification rates than any learning strategy based on first estimating the unknown amplitude by means of Gaussian measurements on the training set, followed by an adaptive discrimination procedure on the signal. By considering a simplified variant of the problem, we argue that this is the case even for non-Gaussian estimation measurements. Our results show that, even in absence of entanglement, collective quantum measurements yield an enhancement in the readout of classical information, which is particularly relevant in the operating regime of low-energy signals. (orig.)
Spectrally tunable mollow triplet emission from a coherently excited quantum dot in a microcavity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ulrich, Sven M.; Ates, Serkan; Reitzenstein, Stephan
2010-01-01
Resonance fluorescence of excitonic s-shell emission from a coherently pumped single InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot inside a micropillar cavity has been investigated in dependence on optical pump power and laser detuning, respectively. For strong purely resonant excitation, Mollow triplet spectra with l...... with large Rabi splittings of j~j » 60¹eV have been observed. Laser detuning-dependent series revealed the pronounced asymmetry of the emission triplet as predicted by theory. From our data, an electrical dipole moment of ¹ » 17:8§0:5 Debye could be derived for the excitonic state....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oppermann, R.; Rosenow, B.
1997-10-01
We report large effects of Parisi replica permutation symmetry breaking (RPSB) on elementary excitations of fermionic systems with frustrated magnetic interactions. The electronic density of states is obtained exactly in the zero temperature limit for (K = 1)- step RPSB together with relations for arbitrary breaking K, which lead to a new fermionic and dynamical Parisi solution at K = ∞. The Ward identity for charge conservation indicates RPSB-effects on the conductivity in metallic quantum spin glasses. This implies that RPSB is essential for any fermionic system showing spin glass sections within its phase diagram. An astonishing similarity with a neural network problem is also observed. (author)
Solid-state cavity quantum electrodynamics using quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gerard, J.M.; Gayral, B.; Moreau, E.; Robert, I.; Abram, I.
2001-01-01
We review the recent development of solid-state cavity quantum electrodynamics using single self-assembled InAs quantum dots and three-dimensional semiconductor microcavities. We discuss first prospects for observing a strong coupling regime for single quantum dots. We then demonstrate that the strong Purcell effect observed for single quantum dots in the weak coupling regime allows us to prepare emitted photons in a given state (the same spatial mode, the same polarization). We present finally the first single-mode solid-state source of single photons, based on an isolated quantum dot in a pillar microcavity. This optoelectronic device, the first ever to rely on a cavity quantum electrodynamics effect, exploits both Coulomb interaction between trapped carriers in a single quantum dot and single mode photon tunneling in the microcavity. (author)
Identification of excited states in conjugated polymers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hartwell, Lewis John
2003-01-01
This thesis reports quasi steady state photoinduced absorption measurements from three conjugated polymers: polypyridine (PPy), polyfluorene (PFO) and the emeraldine base (EB) form of polyaniline. The aim of these experiments was to determine the nature of the photoexcited states existing in these materials in the millisecond time domain, as this has important consequences for the operation of real devices manufactured using these materials. The results from the photoinduced absorption experiments are closely compared with published results from pulse radiolysis experiments. In all cases there is very good correspondence between the two data sets, which has enabled the photoexcited states to be assigned with a high degree of confidence. Quasi steady-state photoinduced absorption involves the measurement of the change in absorption of a material in response to optical excitation with a laser beam. The changes in absorption are small, so a dedicated instrument was developed and optimised for each different sample. Lock-in techniques were used to recover the small signals from the samples. The samples involved were thin films of the polymer spin coated onto sapphire substrates in the cases of PPy and EB. Solution state experiments were conducted on EB. The experiments on PFO were conducted on aligned and unaligned thin films provided by Sony. In the case of the aligned PFO samples, the photoinduced absorption spectrometer was modified to enable polarisation-sensitive data collection. In PPy, both triplet excitons and polarons have been shown to be long-lived photoexcitations, with photoinduced absorption features at 2.29 eV (triplet exciton transition), 1.5 eV and 0.8 eV (polaron transitions). In PFO, the one observed photoinduced band at 1.52 eV is assigned to a triplet exciton. Two photoinduced absorption bands are observed in EB, at 1.4 eV and 0.8 eV. These are assigned to a self-trapped CT singlet exciton and triplet exciton, respectively. (author)
Eisfeld, Alexander; Ritschel, Gerhard; Roden, Jan; Strunz, Walter; Aspuru-Guzik, Alan
2012-02-01
Energy transfer in the photosynthetic Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) complex of the Green Sulfur Bacteria is studied theoretically taking all three subunits (monomers) of the FMO trimer and the recently found eighth bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) molecule into account. For the calculations we use the efficient Non-Markovian Quantum State diffusion approach. Since it is believed that the eighth BChl is located near the main light harvesting antenna we look at the differences in transfer between the situation when BChl 8 is initially excited and the usually considered case when BChl 1 or 6 is initially excited. We find strong differences in the transfer dynamics, both qualitatively and quantitatively. When the excited state dynamics is initialized at site eight of the FMO complex, we see a slow exponential-like decay of the excitation. This is in contrast to the oscillations and a relatively fast transfer that occurs when only seven sites or initialization at sites 1 and 6 is considered. Additionally we show that differences in the values of the electronic transition energies found in the literature lead to a large difference in the transfer dynamics.
Disjoint states and quantum games
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kowalski, A M; Plastino, A
2013-01-01
We cast in game theory terms the physics associated with the interaction between (i) matter and (ii) a single mode of an electromagnetic field within a cavity. Thereby, we introduce a game admitting both classical and quantal players. Strategies are determined by the initial conditions of the associated dynamical system, whose time evolution is characterized by the existence of attractors that represent possible results of the game. Two types of quantum states are considered: perfectly distinguishable or partially overlapping ones. (paper)
Photodissociation of ultracold diatomic strontium molecules with quantum state control.
McDonald, M; McGuyer, B H; Apfelbeck, F; Lee, C-H; Majewska, I; Moszynski, R; Zelevinsky, T
2016-07-07
Chemical reactions at ultracold temperatures are expected to be dominated by quantum mechanical effects. Although progress towards ultracold chemistry has been made through atomic photoassociation, Feshbach resonances and bimolecular collisions, these approaches have been limited by imperfect quantum state selectivity. In particular, attaining complete control of the ground or excited continuum quantum states has remained a challenge. Here we achieve this control using photodissociation, an approach that encodes a wealth of information in the angular distribution of outgoing fragments. By photodissociating ultracold (88)Sr2 molecules with full control of the low-energy continuum, we access the quantum regime of ultracold chemistry, observing resonant and nonresonant barrier tunnelling, matter-wave interference of reaction products and forbidden reaction pathways. Our results illustrate the failure of the traditional quasiclassical model of photodissociation and instead are accurately described by a quantum mechanical model. The experimental ability to produce well-defined quantum continuum states at low energies will enable high-precision studies of long-range molecular potentials for which accurate quantum chemistry models are unavailable, and may serve as a source of entangled states and coherent matter waves for a wide range of experiments in quantum optics.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Manvir S. Kushwaha
2012-09-01
Full Text Available The most fundamental approach to an understanding of electronic, optical, and transport phenomena which the condensed matter physics (of conventional as well as nonconventional systems offers is generally founded on two experiments: the inelastic electron scattering and the inelastic light scattering. This work embarks on providing a systematic framework for the theory of inelastic electron scattering and of inelastic light scattering from the electronic excitations in GaAs/Ga1−xAlxAs quantum wells. To this end, we start with the Kubo's correlation function to derive the generalized nonlocal, dynamic dielectric function, and the inverse dielectric function within the framework of Bohm-Pines’ random-phase approximation. This is followed by a thorough development of the theory of inelastic electron scattering and of inelastic light scattering. The methodological part is then subjected to the analytical diagnoses which allow us to sense the subtlety of the analytical results and the importance of their applications. The general analytical results, which know no bounds regarding, e.g., the subband occupancy, are then specified so as to make them applicable to practicality. After trying and testing the eigenfunctions, we compute the density of states, the Fermi energy, the full excitation spectrum made up of intrasubband and intersubband – single-particle and collective (plasmon – excitations, the loss functions for all the principal geometries envisioned for the inelastic electron scattering, and the Raman intensity, which provides a measure of the real transitions induced by the (laser probe, for the inelastic light scattering. It is found that the dominant contribution to both the loss peaks and the Raman peaks comes from the collective (plasmon excitations. As to the single-particle peaks, the analysis indicates a long-lasting lack of quantitative comparison between theory and experiments. It is inferred that the inelastic electron
Quantum State Engineering Via Coherent-State Superpositions
Janszky, Jozsef; Adam, P.; Szabo, S.; Domokos, P.
1996-01-01
The quantum interference between the two parts of the optical Schrodinger-cat state makes possible to construct a wide class of quantum states via discrete superpositions of coherent states. Even a small number of coherent states can approximate the given quantum states at a high accuracy when the distance between the coherent states is optimized, e. g. nearly perfect Fock state can be constructed by discrete superpositions of n + 1 coherent states lying in the vicinity of the vacuum state.
Process to produce excited states of atomic nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morita, M.; Morita, R.
The claims of a patented process which relates to the production of excited states of atomic nuclei are outlined. Among these are (1) production of nuclear excited states by bombarding the atoms with x rays or electrons under given conditions, (2) production of radioactive substances by nuclear excitation with x rays or electrons, (3) separation of specific isotopes from a mixture of isotopes of the same element by means of nuclear excitation followed by chemical treatment. The invention allows production of excited states of atomic nuclei in a relatively simple manner without the need of large apparatus and equipment
Quantum state tomography of neutron
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hasegawa, Y.; Loidl, R.; Filipp, S.; Klepp, J.; Rauch, H.
2005-01-01
Full text: Non-local correlations between subsystems sufficiently separated in spacetime have been extensively discussed in the light of the Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen (EPR) paradox, together with the Bell's inequality. Within quantum terminology, such a non-locality can be interpreted as a consequence of the correlation between commuting observables due to the different position. Thus, a more general concept, i.e., contextuality, compared to non-locality can be introduced to describe other striking phenomena predicted by quantum theory. As an example of quantum contextuality, we accomplished a neutron interferometric experiment to show a violation of Bell-liKEX inequality with the use of an entanglement of the path and the spin degrees of freedoms. We proceeded to qualify the state which is used in the experiment by applying the quantum tomography method. This result justifies our treatment of neutrons' entanglement and, in addition, provides further possibilities to utilize their entanglement to study, for instance, decoherence, depolarization and other non-unitary mapping with neutrons. Ref. 1 (author)
Quantum Computing in Solid State Systems
Ruggiero, B; Granata, C
2006-01-01
The aim of Quantum Computation in Solid State Systems is to report on recent theoretical and experimental results on the macroscopic quantum coherence of mesoscopic systems, as well as on solid state realization of qubits and quantum gates. Particular attention has been given to coherence effects in Josephson devices. Other solid state systems, including quantum dots, optical, ion, and spin devices which exhibit macroscopic quantum coherence are also discussed. Quantum Computation in Solid State Systems discusses experimental implementation of quantum computing and information processing devices, and in particular observations of quantum behavior in several solid state systems. On the theoretical side, the complementary expertise of the contributors provides models of the various structures in connection with the problem of minimizing decoherence.
Bethe ansatz approach to quantum sine Gordon thermodynamics and finite temperature excitations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zotos, X.
1982-01-01
Takahashi and Suzuki (TS) using the Bethe ansatz method developed a formalism for the thermodynamics of the XYZ spin chain. Translating their formalism to the quantum sine-Gordon system, the thermodynamics and finite temperature elementary excitations are analyzed. Criteria imposed by TS on the allowed states simply correspond to the condition of normalizability of the wave functions. A set of coupled nonlinear integral equations for the thermodynamic equilibrium densities for particular values of the coupling constant in the attractive regime is derived. Solving numerically these Bethe ansatz equations, curves of the specific heat as a function of temperature are obtained. The soliton contribution peaks at a temperature of about 0.4 soliton masses shifting downward as the classical limit is approached. The weak coupling regime is analyzed by deriving the Bethe ansatz equations including the charged vacuum excitations. It is shown that they are necessary for a consistent presentation of the thermodynamics
Myslitskaya, N. A.; Samusev, I. G.; Bryukhanov, V. V.
2014-11-01
The electron excitation energy transfer from CdSe/ZnS quantum dots to eosin molecules in the polymer matrix of butyral resin is investigated. The main characteristics of energy transfer are determined. By means of luminescence microscopy and correlation spectroscopy methods we found that quantum dots in the polymer are in an aggregate state.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Zhenni; Jin Jiasen; Yu Changshui
2011-01-01
We present schemes for a type of one-parameter bipartite quantum state to probe quantum entanglement, quantum discord, the classical correlation, and the quantum state based on cavity QED. It is shown that our detection does not influence all these measured quantities. We also discuss how the spontaneous emission introduced by our probe atom influences our detection.
Geometry of Gaussian quantum states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Link, Valentin; Strunz, Walter T
2015-01-01
We study the Hilbert–Schmidt measure on the manifold of mixed Gaussian states in multi-mode continuous variable quantum systems. An analytical expression for the Hilbert–Schmidt volume element is derived. Its corresponding probability measure can be used to study typical properties of Gaussian states. It turns out that although the manifold of Gaussian states is unbounded, an ensemble of Gaussian states distributed according to this measure still has a normalizable distribution of symplectic eigenvalues, from which unitarily invariant properties can be obtained. By contrast, we find that for an ensemble of one-mode Gaussian states based on the Bures measure the corresponding distribution cannot be normalized. As important applications, we determine the distribution and the mean value of von Neumann entropy and purity for the Hilbert–Schmidt measure. (paper)
Resonance charge exchange between excited states in slow proton-hydrogen collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tolstikhina, Inga Yu.; Kato, Daiji
2010-01-01
The theory of resonance charge exchange in slow collisions of a proton with a hydrogen atom in the excited state is developed. It extends the Firsov-Demkov theory of resonance charge exchange to the case of degenerate initial and final states. The theory is illustrated by semiclassical and quantum calculations of charge exchange cross sections between states with n=2 in parabolic and spherical coordinates. The results are compared with existing close-coupling calculations.
Quantum state engineering in hybrid open quantum systems
Joshi, Chaitanya; Larson, Jonas; Spiller, Timothy P.
2015-01-01
We investigate a possibility to generate nonclassical states in light-matter coupled noisy quantum systems, namely, the anisotropic Rabi and Dicke models. In these hybrid quantum systems, a competing influence of coherent internal dynamics and environment-induced dissipation drives the system into nonequilibrium steady states (NESSs). Explicitly, for the anisotropic Rabi model, the steady state is given by an incoherent mixture of two states of opposite parities, but as each parity state disp...
Quantum condensates and topological bosons in coupled light-matter excitations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Janot, Alexander
2016-02-29
Motivated by the sustained interest in Bose Einstein condensates and the recent progress in the understanding of topological phases in condensed matter systems, we study quantum condensates and possible topological phases of bosons in coupled light-matter excitations, so-called polaritons. These bosonic quasi-particles emerge if electronic excitations (excitons) couple strongly to photons. In the first part of this thesis a polariton Bose Einstein condensate in the presence of disorder is investigated. In contrast to the constituents of a conventional condensate, such as cold atoms, polaritons have a finite life time. Then, the losses have to be compensated by continued pumping, and a non-thermal steady state can build up. We discuss how static disorder affects this non-equilibrium condensate, and analyze the stability of the superfluid state against disorder. We find that disorder destroys the quasi-long range order of the condensate wave function, and that the polariton condensate is not a superfluid in the thermodynamic limit, even for weak disorder, although superfluid behavior would persist in small systems. Furthermore, we analyze the far field emission pattern of a polariton condensate in a disorder environment in order to compare directly with experiments. In the second part of this thesis features of polaritons in a two-dimensional quantum spin Hall cavity with time reversal symmetry are discussed. We propose a topological invariant which has a nontrivial value if the quantum spin Hall insulator is topologically nontrivial. Furthermore, we analyze emerging polaritonic edge states, discuss their relation to the underlying electronic structure, and develop an effective edge state model for polaritons.
Distinguishability of quantum states and shannon complexity in quantum cryptography
Arbekov, I. M.; Molotkov, S. N.
2017-07-01
The proof of the security of quantum key distribution is a rather complex problem. Security is defined in terms different from the requirements imposed on keys in classical cryptography. In quantum cryptography, the security of keys is expressed in terms of the closeness of the quantum state of an eavesdropper after key distribution to an ideal quantum state that is uncorrelated to the key of legitimate users. A metric of closeness between two quantum states is given by the trace metric. In classical cryptography, the security of keys is understood in terms of, say, the complexity of key search in the presence of side information. In quantum cryptography, side information for the eavesdropper is given by the whole volume of information on keys obtained from both quantum and classical channels. The fact that the mathematical apparatuses used in the proof of key security in classical and quantum cryptography are essentially different leads to misunderstanding and emotional discussions [1]. Therefore, one should be able to answer the question of how different cryptographic robustness criteria are related to each other. In the present study, it is shown that there is a direct relationship between the security criterion in quantum cryptography, which is based on the trace distance determining the distinguishability of quantum states, and the criterion in classical cryptography, which uses guesswork on the determination of a key in the presence of side information.
Characterization of weakly excited final states by shakedown spectroscopy of laser-excited potassium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schulz, J.; Heinaesmaeki, S.; Aksela, S.; Aksela, H.; Sankari, R.; Rander, T.; Lindblad, A.; Bergersen, H.; Oehrwall, G.; Svensson, S.; Kukk, E.
2006-01-01
3p shakedown spectra of laser excited potassium atoms as well as direct 3p photoemission of ground state potassium have been studied. These two excitation schemes lead to the same final states and thereby provide a good basis for a detailed study of the 3p 5 (4s3d) 1 configurations of singly ionized potassium and the photoemission processes leading to these configurations. The comparison of direct photoemission from the ground state and conjugate shakedown spectra from 4p 1/2 laser excited potassium made it possible to experimentally determine the character of final states that are only weakly excited in the direct photoemission but have a much higher relative intensity in the shakedown spectrum. Based on considerations of angular momentum and parity conservation the excitation scheme of the final states can be understood
Selective two-photon excitation of a vibronic state by correlated photons.
Oka, Hisaki
2011-03-28
We theoretically investigate the two-photon excitation of a molecular vibronic state by correlated photons with energy anticorrelation. A Morse oscillator having three sets of vibronic states is used, as an example, to evaluate the selectivity and efficiency of two-photon excitation. We show that a vibrational mode can be selectively excited with high efficiency by the correlated photons, without phase manipulation or pulse-shaping techniques. This can be achieved by controlling the quantum correlation so that the photon pair concurrently has two pulse widths, namely, a temporally narrow width and a spectrally narrow width. Though this concurrence is seemingly contradictory, we can create such a photon pair by tailoring the quantum correlation between two photons.
Assessments of macroscopicity for quantum optical states
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Laghaout, Amine; Neergaard-Nielsen, Jonas Schou; Andersen, Ulrik Lund
2015-01-01
With the slow but constant progress in the coherent control of quantum systems, it is now possible to create large quantum superpositions. There has therefore been an increased interest in quantifying any claims of macroscopicity. We attempt here to motivate three criteria which we believe should...... enter in the assessment of macroscopic quantumness: The number of quantum fluctuation photons, the purity of the states, and the ease with which the branches making up the state can be distinguished. © 2014....
Molecular excited states from the SCAN functional
Tozer, David J.; Peach, Michael J. G.
2018-06-01
The performance of the strongly constrained and appropriately normed (SCAN) meta-generalised gradient approximation exchange-correlation functional is investigated for the calculation of time-dependent density-functional theory molecular excitation energies of local, charge-transfer and Rydberg character, together with the excited ? potential energy curve in H2. The SCAN results frequently resemble those obtained using a global hybrid functional, with either a standard or increased fraction of exact orbital exchange. For local excitations, SCAN can exhibit significant triplet instability problems, resulting in imaginary triplet excitation energies for a number of cases. The Tamm-Dancoff approximation offers a simple approach to improve the situation, but the excitation energies are still significantly underestimated. Understanding the origin of these (near)-triplet instabilities may provide useful insight into future functional development.
Applications of the infinite momentum method to quantum electrodynamics and bound state problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brodsky, S.J.
1973-01-01
It is shown that the infinite momentum method is a valid and useful calculational alternative to standard perturbation theory methods. The most exciting future applications may be in bound state problems in quantum electrodynamics
Vibronic coupling in the excited-states of carotenoids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miki, Takeshi [Physikalisch-Chemisches Institut; Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg; D-69120 Heidelberg; Germany; Buckup, Tiago [Physikalisch-Chemisches Institut; Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg; D-69120 Heidelberg; Germany; Krause, Marie S. [Physikalisch-Chemisches Institut; Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg; D-69120 Heidelberg; Germany; Southall, June [College of Medical; Veterinary, and Life Science; University of Glasgow; G12 8QQ Glasgow; UK; Cogdell, Richard J. [College of Medical; Veterinary, and Life Science; University of Glasgow; G12 8QQ Glasgow; UK; Motzkus, Marcus [Physikalisch-Chemisches Institut; Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg; D-69120 Heidelberg; Germany
2016-01-01
The ultrafast femtochemistry of carotenoids is governed by the interaction between electronic excited states, which has been explained by the relaxation dynamics within a few hundred femtoseconds from the lowest optically allowed excited state S_{2}to the optically dark state S_{1}.
On excited states in real-time AdS/CFT
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Botta-Cantcheff, Marcelo; Martínez, Pedro J.; Silva, Guillermo A. [Instituto de Física de La Plata - CONICET & Departamento de Física - UNLP,C.C. 67, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)
2016-02-25
The Skenderis-van Rees prescription, which allows the calculation of time-ordered correlation functions of local operators in CFT’s using holographic methods is studied and applied for excited states. Calculation of correlators and matrix elements of local CFT operators between generic in/out states are carried out in global Lorentzian AdS. We find the precise form of such states, obtain an holographic formula to compute the inner product between them, and using the consistency with other known prescriptions, we argue that the in/out excited states built according to the Skenderis-Van Rees prescription correspond to coherent states in the (large-N) AdS-Hilbert space. This is confirmed by explicit holographic computations. The outcome of this study has remarkable implications on generalizing the Hartle-Hawking construction for wave functionals of excited states in AdS quantum gravity.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pietralla, N., E-mail: pietralla@ikp.tu-darmstadt.d [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Nuclear Structure Laboratory, SUNY at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800 (United States); Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet zu Koeln, 50937 Koeln (Germany); Li, T.C. [Nuclear Structure Laboratory, SUNY at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800 (United States); Fritzsche, M. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Ahmed, M.W. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL), Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Ahn, T.; Costin, A. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Nuclear Structure Laboratory, SUNY at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800 (United States); Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet zu Koeln, 50937 Koeln (Germany); Enders, J. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Li, J. [Duke Free Electron Laser Laboratory (DFELL), Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Mueller, S.; Neumann-Cosel, P. von [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Pinayev, I.V. [Duke Free Electron Laser Laboratory (DFELL), Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Ponomarev, V.Yu.; Savran, D. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Tonchev, A.P.; Tornow, W.; Weller, H.R. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL), Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Werner, V. [A.W. Wright Nuclear Structure Laboratory (WNSL), Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States); Wu, Y.K. [Duke Free Electron Laser Laboratory (DFELL), Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Zilges, A. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet zu Koeln, 50937 Koeln (Germany)
2009-10-26
The Pb(gamma{sup -}>,gamma{sup '}) photon scattering reaction has been studied with the nearly monochromatic, linearly polarized photon beams at the High Intensity gamma-ray Source (HIgammaS) at the DFELL. Azimuthal scattering intensity asymmetries measured with respect to the polarization plane of the beam have been used for the first time to assign both the spin and parity quantum numbers of dipole excited states of {sup 206,207,208}Pb at excitation energies in the vicinity of 5.5 MeV. Evidence for dominant particle-core coupling is deduced from these results along with information on excitation energies and electromagnetic transition matrix elements. Implications of the existence of weakly coupled states built on highly excited core states in competition with 1homega single particle (hole) excitations at comparable energies are discussed.
Past Quantum States of a Monitored System
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gammelmark, Søren; Julsgaard, Brian; Mølmer, Klaus
2013-01-01
A density matrix ρ(t) yields probabilistic information about the outcome of measurements on a quantum system. We introduce here the past quantum state, which, at time T, accounts for the state of a quantum system at earlier times t...(t) and E(t), conditioned on the dynamics and the probing of the system until t and in the time interval [t, T], respectively. The past quantum state is characterized by its ability to make better predictions for the unknown outcome of any measurement at t than the conventional quantum state at that time....... On the one hand, our formalism shows how smoothing procedures for estimation of past classical signals by a quantum probe [M. Tsang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102 250403 (2009)] apply also to describe the past state of the quantum system itself. On the other hand, it generalizes theories of pre- and postselected...
Excitation density dependence of the photoluminescence from CdxHg1-xTe multiple quantum wells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tonheim, C R; Selvig, E; Nicolas, S; Breivik, M; Haakenaasen, R; Gunnaes, A E
2008-01-01
A study of the photoluminescence from a four-period Cd x Hg 1-x Te multiple quantum well structure at 11 K as a function of excitation density is presented. High-resolution X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy revealed that the quantum well structure is of high quality. This was supported by the narrow photoluminescence peak originating in the ground state electron - heavy hole transition, with a full width at half maximum of only 7.4 meV for an excitation density of 1.3 W/cm 2 . When the excitation density was increased from 1.3 to 23.4 W/cm 2 , the peak position was shifted toward higher energy by 2.6 meV and the full width at half maximum increased from 7.4 to 10.9 meV
Teleportations of Mixed States and Multipartite Quantum States
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YU Chang-Shui; WANG Ya-Hong; SONG He-Shan
2007-01-01
In this paper, we propose a protocol to deterministically teleport an unknown mixed state of qubit by utilizing a maximally bipartite entangled state of qubits as quantum channel. Ifa non-maximally entangled bipartite pure state is employed as quantum channel, the unknown mixed quantum state of qubit can be teleported with 1 - √1 - C2 probability, where C is the concurrence of the quantum channel. The protocol can also be generalized to teleport a mixed state of qudit or a multipartite mixed state. More important purpose is that, on the basis of the protocol, the teleportation of an arbitrary multipartite (pure or mixed) quantum state can be decomposed into the teleportation of each subsystem by employing separate entangled states as quantum channels. In the case of deterministic teleportation,Bob only needs to perform unitary transformations on his single particles in order to recover the initial teleported multipartite quantum state.
Quantum - statistical equation of state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kalitkin, N.N.; Kuz'mina, L.V.
1976-01-01
An atom model is considered which allows uniform description of the equation of an equilibrium plasma state in the range of densities from gas to superhigh ones and in the temperature range from 1-5 eV to a ten of keV. Quantum and exchange corrections to the Thomas-Fermi thermodynamic functions at non zero temperatures have been calculated. The calculated values have been compared with experimental data and with calculations performed by more accurate models. The differences result from the fact that a quantum approach does not allow for shell effects. The evaluation of these differences makes it possible to indicate the limits of applicability of the Thomas-Fermi model with quantum and exchange corrections. It turns out that if at zero temperature the model may be applied only for high compressions, at the temperature more than 1 eV it well describes the behaviour of plasma in a very wide range of densities and agrees satisfactorily with experiment even for non-ideal plasma
Quantum theory of parametric excitation in plasmas with the driving field space dispersion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vo Hong Anh
1998-11-01
A development of the quantum theory of parametric wave excitation in plasmas is presented to take into account the effects of space dispersion of the driving external fields. The quantum equation of motion method with the use of appropriate matrix formalism leads to the system of dispersion equations for the eigenmodes of vibrations. Calculations show the enlargement of the excitable waves region both in wave number values and directions as compared to the case of dipole approximation considered earlier. (author)
Quantum state engineering in hybrid open quantum systems
Joshi, Chaitanya; Larson, Jonas; Spiller, Timothy P.
2016-04-01
We investigate a possibility to generate nonclassical states in light-matter coupled noisy quantum systems, namely, the anisotropic Rabi and Dicke models. In these hybrid quantum systems, a competing influence of coherent internal dynamics and environment-induced dissipation drives the system into nonequilibrium steady states (NESSs). Explicitly, for the anisotropic Rabi model, the steady state is given by an incoherent mixture of two states of opposite parities, but as each parity state displays light-matter entanglement, we also find that the full state is entangled. Furthermore, as a natural extension of the anisotropic Rabi model to an infinite spin subsystem, we next explored the NESS of the anisotropic Dicke model. The NESS of this linearized Dicke model is also an inseparable state of light and matter. With an aim to enrich the dynamics beyond the sustainable entanglement found for the NESS of these hybrid quantum systems, we also propose to combine an all-optical feedback strategy for quantum state protection and for establishing quantum control in these systems. Our present work further elucidates the relevance of such hybrid open quantum systems for potential applications in quantum architectures.
Electron capture and excitation processes in H+-H collisions in dense quantum plasmas
Jakimovski, D.; Markovska, N.; Janev, R. K.
2016-10-01
Electron capture and excitation processes in proton-hydrogen atom collisions taking place in dense quantum plasmas are studied by employing the two-centre atomic orbital close-coupling (TC-AOCC) method. The Debye-Hückel cosine (DHC) potential is used to describe the plasma screening effects on the Coulomb interaction between charged particles. The properties of a hydrogen atom with DHC potential are investigated as a function of the screening strength of the potential. It is found that the decrease in binding energy of nl levels with increasing screening strength is considerably faster than in the case of the Debye-Hückel (DH) screening potential, appropriate for description of charged particle interactions in weakly coupled classical plasmas. This results in a reduction in the number of bound states in the DHC potential with respect to that in the DH potential for the same plasma screening strength, and is reflected in the dynamics of excitation and electron capture processes for the two screened potentials. The TC-AOCC cross sections for total and state-selective electron capture and excitation cross sections with the DHC potential are calculated for a number of representative screening strengths in the 1-300 keV energy range and compared with those for the DH and pure Coulomb potential. The total capture cross sections for a selected number of screening strengths are compared with the available results from classical trajectory Monte Carlo calculations.
The triplet excited state of Bodipy: formation, modulation and application.
Zhao, Jianzhang; Xu, Kejing; Yang, Wenbo; Wang, Zhijia; Zhong, Fangfang
2015-12-21
Boron dipyrromethene (Bodipy) is one of the most extensively investigated organic chromophores. Most of the investigations are focused on the singlet excited state of Bodipy, such as fluorescence. In stark contrast, the study of the triplet excited state of Bodipy is limited, but it is an emerging area, since the triplet state of Bodipy is tremendously important for several areas, such as the fundamental photochemistry study, photodynamic therapy (PDT), photocatalysis and triplet-triplet annihilation (TTA) upconversion. The recent developments in the study of the production, modulation and application of the triplet excited state of Bodipy are discussed in this review article. The formation of the triplet state of Bodipy upon photoexcitation, via the well known approach such as the heavy atom effect (including I, Br, Ru, Ir, etc.), and the new methods, such as using a spin converter (e.g. C60), charge recombination, exciton coupling and the doubly substituted excited state, are summarized. All the Bodipy-based triplet photosensitizers show strong absorption of visible or near IR light and the long-lived triplet excited state, which are important for the application of the triplet excited state in PDT or photocatalysis. Moreover, the methods for switching (or modulation) of the triplet excited state of Bodipy were discussed, such as those based on the photo-induced electron transfer (PET), by controlling the competing Förster-resonance-energy-transfer (FRET), or the intermolecular charge transfer (ICT). Controlling the triplet excited state will give functional molecules such as activatable PDT reagents or molecular devices. It is worth noting that switching of the singlet excited state and the triplet state of Bodipy may follow different principles. Application of the triplet excited state of Bodipy in PDT, hydrogen (H2) production, photoredox catalytic organic reactions and TTA upconversion were discussed. The challenges and the opportunities in these areas were
Quantum state discrimination and its applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bae, Joonwoo; Kwek, Leong-Chuan
2015-01-01
Quantum state discrimination underlies various applications in quantum information processing tasks. It essentially describes the distinguishability of quantum systems in different states, and the general process of extracting classical information from quantum systems. It is also useful in quantum information applications, such as the characterization of mutual information in cryptographic protocols, or as a technique for deriving fundamental theorems on quantum foundations. It has deep connections to physical principles such as relativistic causality. Quantum state discrimination traces a long history of several decades, starting with the early attempts to formalize information processing of physical systems such as optical communication with photons. Nevertheless, in most cases, the problems of finding optimal strategies of quantum state discrimination remain unsolved, and related applications are valid in some limited cases only. The present review aims to provide an overview on quantum state discrimination, covering some recent progress, and addressing applications in some selected areas. This review serves to strengthen the link between results in quantum state discrimination and quantum information applications, by showing the ways in which the fundamental results are exploited in applications and vice versa. (topical review)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Manvir S. Kushwaha
2013-04-01
Full Text Available The nanofabrication technology has taught us that an m-dimensional confining potential imposed upon an n-dimensional electron gas paves the way to a quasi-(n-m-dimensional electron gas, with m ⩽ n and 1 ⩽ n, m ⩽ 3. This is the road to the (semiconducting quasi-n dimensional electron gas systems we have been happily traversing on now for almost two decades. Achieving quasi-one dimensional electron gas (Q-1DEG [or quantum wire(s for more practical purposes] led us to some mixed moments in this journey: while the reduced phase space for the scattering led us believe in the route to the faster electron devices, the proximity to the 1D systems left us in the dilemma of describing it as a Fermi liquid or as a Luttinger liquid. No one had ever suspected the potential of the former, but it took quite a while for some to convince the others on the latter. A realistic Q-1DEG system at the low temperatures is best describable as a Fermi liquid rather than as a Luttinger liquid. In the language of condensed matter physics, a critical scrutiny of Q-1DEG systems has provided us with a host of exotic (electronic, optical, and transport phenomena unseen in their higher- or lower-dimensional counterparts. This has motivated us to undertake a systematic investigation of the inelastic electron scattering (IES and the inelastic light scattering (ILS from the elementary electronic excitations in quantum wires. We begin with the Kubo's correlation functions to derive the generalized dielectric function, the inverse dielectric function, and the Dyson equation for the dynamic screened potential in the framework of Bohm-Pines’ random-phase approximation. These fundamental tools then lead us to develop methodically the theory of IES and ILS for the Q-1DEG systems. As an application of the general formal results, which know no bounds regarding the subband occupancy, we compute the density of states, the Fermi energy, the full excitation spectrum [comprised of
Transfer of an unknown quantum state, quantum networks, and memory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Biswas, Asoka; Agarwal, G.S.
2004-01-01
We present a protocol for transfer of an unknown quantum state. The protocol is based on a two-mode cavity interacting dispersively in a sequential manner with three-level atoms in the Λ configuration. We propose a scheme for quantum networking using an atomic channel. We investigate the effect of cavity decoherence in the entire process. Further, we demonstrate the possibility of an efficient quantum memory for arbitrary superposition of two modes of a cavity containing one photon
Relativistic quantum correlations in bipartite fermionic states
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The influences of relative motion, the size of the wave packet and the average momentum of the particles on different types of correlations present in bipartite quantum states are investigated. In particular, the dynamics of the quantum mutual information, the classical correlation and the quantum discord on the ...
Indirect control of quantum systems via an accessor: pure coherent control without system excitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fu, H C; Dong Hui; Sun, C P; Liu, X F
2009-01-01
A pure indirect control of quantum systems via a quantum accessor is investigated. In this control scheme, we do not apply any external classical excitation fields on the controlled system and we control a quantum system via a quantum accessor and classical control fields control the accessor only. Complete controllability is investigated for arbitrary finite-dimensional quantum systems and exemplified by two- and three-dimensional systems. The scheme exhibits some advantages; it uses less qubits in the accessor and does not depend on the energy-level structure of the controlled system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gilmore, Joel; McKenzie, Ross H
2005-01-01
We give a theoretical treatment of the interaction of electronic excitations (excitons) in biomolecules and quantum dots with the surrounding polar solvent. Significant quantum decoherence occurs due to the interaction of the electric dipole moment of the solute with the fluctuating electric dipole moments of the individual molecules in the solvent. We introduce spin boson models which could be used to describe the effects of decoherence on the quantum dynamics of biomolecules which undergo light-induced conformational change and on biomolecules or quantum dots which are coupled by Foerster resonant energy transfer
The population transfer of high excited states of Rydberg lithium atoms in a microwave field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jiang Lijuan; Zhang Xianzhou; Ma Huanqiang; Jia Guangrui; Zhang Yonghui; Xia Lihua
2012-01-01
Using the time-dependent multilevel approach (TDMA), the properties of high excited Rydberg lithium atom have been obtained in the microwave field. The population transfer of lithium atom are studied on numerical calculation, quantum states are controlled and manipulated by microwave field. It shows that the population can be completely transferred to the target state by changing the chirped rate and field amplitude. (authors)
Inelastic scattering of {sup 9}Li and excitation mechanism of its first excited state
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Al Falou, H. [Astronomy and Physics Department, Saint Mary' s University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 3C3 (Canada); TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 2A3 (Canada); Kanungo, R., E-mail: ritu@triumf.ca [Astronomy and Physics Department, Saint Mary' s University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 3C3 (Canada); Andreoiu, C.; Cross, D.S. [Department of Chemistry, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia V5A 1S6 (Canada); Davids, B.; Djongolov, M. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 2A3 (Canada); Gallant, A.T. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 2A3 (Canada); Department of Physics, University of British Columbia, British Columbia V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Galinski, N.; Howell, D. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 2A3 (Canada); Department of Physics, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia V5A 1S6 (Canada); Kshetri, R.; Niamir, D. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 2A3 (Canada); Orce, J.N. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 2A3 (Canada); Department of Physics, University of the Western Cape, P/B X17, Bellville, ZA-7535 (South Africa); Shotter, A.C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Sjue, S. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 2A3 (Canada); Tanihata, I. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567 0047 (Japan); Thompson, I.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Triambak, S. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 2A3 (Canada); Uchida, M. [Astronomy and Physics Department, Saint Mary' s University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 3C3 (Canada); Walden, P. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 2A3 (Canada); Wiringa, R.B. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)
2013-04-25
The first measurement of inelastic scattering of {sup 9}Li from deuterons at the ISAC facility is reported. The measured angular distribution for the first excited state confirms the nature of excitation to be an E2 transition. The quadrupole deformation parameter is extracted from an analysis of the angular distribution.
Inelastic scattering of 9Li and excitation mechanism of its first excited state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Al Falou, H.; Kanungo, R.; Andreoiu, C.; Cross, D.S.; Davids, B.; Djongolov, M.; Gallant, A.T.; Galinski, N.; Howell, D.; Kshetri, R.; Niamir, D.; Orce, J.N.; Shotter, A.C.; Sjue, S.; Tanihata, I.; Thompson, I.J.; Triambak, S.; Uchida, M.; Walden, P.; Wiringa, R.B.
2013-01-01
The first measurement of inelastic scattering of 9 Li from deuterons at the ISAC facility is reported. The measured angular distribution for the first excited state confirms the nature of excitation to be an E2 transition. The quadrupole deformation parameter is extracted from an analysis of the angular distribution
Signatures of discrete breathers in coherent state quantum dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Igumenshchev, Kirill; Ovchinnikov, Misha; Prezhdo, Oleg; Maniadis, Panagiotis
2013-01-01
In classical mechanics, discrete breathers (DBs) – a spatial time-periodic localization of energy – are predicted in a large variety of nonlinear systems. Motivated by a conceptual bridging of the DB phenomena in classical and quantum mechanical representations, we study their signatures in the dynamics of a quantum equivalent of a classical mechanical point in phase space – a coherent state. In contrast to the classical point that exhibits either delocalized or localized motion, the coherent state shows signatures of both localized and delocalized behavior. The transition from normal to local modes have different characteristics in quantum and classical perspectives. Here, we get an insight into the connection between classical and quantum perspectives by analyzing the decomposition of the coherent state into system's eigenstates, and analyzing the spacial distribution of the wave-function density within these eigenstates. We find that the delocalized and localized eigenvalue components of the coherent state are separated by a mixed region, where both kinds of behavior can be observed. Further analysis leads to the following observations. Considered as a function of coupling, energy eigenstates go through avoided crossings between tunneling and non-tunneling modes. The dominance of tunneling modes in the high nonlinearity region is compromised by the appearance of new types of modes – high order tunneling modes – that are similar to the tunneling modes but have attributes of non-tunneling modes. Certain types of excitations preferentially excite higher order tunneling modes, allowing one to study their properties. Since auto-correlation functions decrease quickly in highly nonlinear systems, short-time dynamics are sufficient for modeling quantum DBs. This work provides a foundation for implementing modern semi-classical methods to model quantum DBs, bridging classical and quantum mechanical signatures of DBs, and understanding spectroscopic experiments
Quantum Control of Graphene Plasmon Excitation and Propagation at Heaviside Potential Steps.
Wang, Dongli; Fan, Xiaodong; Li, Xiaoguang; Dai, Siyuan; Wei, Laiming; Qin, Wei; Wu, Fei; Zhang, Huayang; Qi, Zeming; Zeng, Changgan; Zhang, Zhenyu; Hou, Jianguo
2018-02-14
Quantum mechanical effects of single particles can affect the collective plasmon behaviors substantially. In this work, the quantum control of plasmon excitation and propagation in graphene is demonstrated by adopting the variable quantum transmission of carriers at Heaviside potential steps as a tuning knob. First, the plasmon reflection is revealed to be tunable within a broad range by varying the ratio γ between the carrier energy and potential height, which originates from the quantum mechanical effect of carrier propagation at potential steps. Moreover, the plasmon excitation by free-space photos can be regulated from fully suppressed to fully launched in graphene potential wells also through adjusting γ, which defines the degrees of the carrier confinement in the potential wells. These discovered quantum plasmon effects offer a unified quantum-mechanical solution toward ultimate control of both plasmon launching and propagating, which are indispensable processes in building plasmon circuitry.
Interqubit coupling mediated by a high-excitation-energy quantum object
Ashhab, S.; Niskanen, A.O.; Harrabi, K.; Nakamura, Y.; Picot, T.; De Groot, P.C.; Harmans, C.J.P.M.; Mooij, J.E.; Nori, F.
2008-01-01
We consider a system composed of two qubits and a high excitation energy quantum object used to mediate coupling between the qubits. We treat the entire system quantum mechanically and analyze the properties of the eigenvalues and eigenstates of the total Hamiltonian. After reproducing well known
Sub-diffraction positioning of a two-photon excited and optically trapped quantum dot
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Liselotte Jauffred; Kyrsting, Anders Højbo; Christensen, Eva Arnspang
2014-01-01
Colloidal quantum dots are luminescent long-lived probes that can be two-photon excited and manipulated by a single laser beam. Therefore, quantum dots can be used for simultaneous single molecule visualization and force manipulation using an infra-red laser. Here, we show that even a single opti...
DILEPTON YIELD FROM THE DECAY OF EXCITED SI-28 STATES
BACELAR, JC; BUDA, A; BALANDA, A; KRASZNAHORKAY, A; VANDERPLOEG, H; SUJKOWSKI, Z; VANDERWOUDE, A
1994-01-01
The first dilepton yield measurements from excited nuclear states obtained with a new Positron-Electron Pair Spectroscopic Instrument (PEPSI) are reported. Nuclear states in Si-28, with an initial excitation energy E* = 50 MeV, were populated via the isospin T = 0 reaction He-4 + Mg-24 and the
Ultrafast excited state relaxation in long-chain polyenes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Antognazza, Maria Rosa; Lueer, Larry; Polli, Dario; Christensen, Ronald L.; Schrock, Richard R.; Lanzani, Guglielmo; Cerullo, Giulio
2010-01-01
Graphical abstract: Excited state dynamics of a long-chain polyene studied by femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy. - Abstract: We present a comprehensive study, by femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy, of excited state dynamics in a polyene that approaches the infinite chain limit. By excitation with sub-10-fs pulses resonant with the 0-0 S 0 → S 2 transition, we observe rapid loss of stimulated emission from the bright excited state S 2 , followed by population of the hot S 1 state within 150 fs. Vibrational cooling of S 1 takes place within 500 fs and is followed by decay back to S 0 with 1 ps time constant. By excitation with excess vibrational energy we also observe the ultrafast formation of a long-living absorption, that is assigned to the triplet state generated by singlet fission.
Unknown quantum states: The quantum de Finetti representation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Caves, Carlton M.; Fuchs, Christopher A.; Schack, Ruediger
2002-01-01
We present an elementary proof of the quantum de Finetti representation theorem, a quantum analog of de Finetti's classical theorem on exchangeable probability assignments. This contrasts with the original proof of Hudson and Moody [Z. Wahrschein. verw. Geb. 33, 343 (1976)], which relies on advanced mathematics and does not share the same potential for generalization. The classical de Finetti theorem provides an operational definition of the concept of an unknown probability in Bayesian probability theory, where probabilities are taken to be degrees of belief instead of objective states of nature. The quantum de Finetti theorem, in a closely analogous fashion, deals with exchangeable density-operator assignments and provides an operational definition of the concept of an ''unknown quantum state'' in quantum-state tomography. This result is especially important for information-based interpretations of quantum mechanics, where quantum states, like probabilities, are taken to be states of knowledge rather than states of nature. We further demonstrate that the theorem fails for real Hilbert spaces and discuss the significance of this point
Observation and quantification of the quantum dynamics of a strong-field excited multi-level system.
Liu, Zuoye; Wang, Quanjun; Ding, Jingjie; Cavaletto, Stefano M; Pfeifer, Thomas; Hu, Bitao
2017-01-04
The quantum dynamics of a V-type three-level system, whose two resonances are first excited by a weak probe pulse and subsequently modified by another strong one, is studied. The quantum dynamics of the multi-level system is closely related to the absorption spectrum of the transmitted probe pulse and its modification manifests itself as a modulation of the absorption line shape. Applying the dipole-control model, the modulation induced by the second strong pulse to the system's dynamics is quantified by eight intensity-dependent parameters, describing the self and inter-state contributions. The present study opens the route to control the quantum dynamics of multi-level systems and to quantify the quantum-control process.
Nonadiabatic excited-state molecular dynamics: On-the-fly limiting of essential excited states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nelson, Tammie [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Naumov, Artem [Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology, Moscow 143026 (Russian Federation); Fernandez-Alberti, Sebastian [Universidad Nacional de Quilmes, Roque Saenz Pea 352, B1876BXD Bernal (Argentina); Tretiak, Sergei, E-mail: serg@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)
2016-12-20
The simulation of nonadiabatic dynamics in extended molecular systems involving hundreds of atoms and large densities of states is particularly challenging. Nonadiabatic coupling terms (NACTs) represent a significant numerical bottleneck in surface hopping approaches. Rather than using unreliable NACT cutting schemes, here we develop “on-the-fly” state limiting methods to eliminate states that are no longer essential for the non-radiative relaxation dynamics as a trajectory proceeds. We propose a state number criteria and an energy-based state limit. The latter is more physically relevant by requiring a user-imposed energy threshold. For this purpose, we introduce a local kinetic energy gauge by summing contributions from atoms within the spatial localization of the electronic wavefunction to define the energy available for upward hops. The proposed state limiting schemes are implemented within the nonadiabatic excited-state molecular dynamics framework to simulate photoinduced relaxation in poly-phenylene vinylene (PPV) and branched poly-phenylene ethynylene (PPE) oligomers for benchmark evaluation.
Spin fine structure of optically excited quantum dot molecules
Scheibner, M.; Doty, M. F.; Ponomarev, I. V.; Bracker, A. S.; Stinaff, E. A.; Korenev, V. L.; Reinecke, T. L.; Gammon, D.
2007-06-01
The interaction between spins in coupled quantum dots is revealed in distinct fine structure patterns in the measured optical spectra of InAs/GaAs double quantum dot molecules containing zero, one, or two excess holes. The fine structure is explained well in terms of a uniquely molecular interplay of spin-exchange interactions, Pauli exclusion, and orbital tunneling. This knowledge is critical for converting quantum dot molecule tunneling into a means of optically coupling not just orbitals but also spins.
Coherent states in quantum physics
Gazeau, Jean-Pierre
2009-01-01
This self-contained introduction discusses the evolution of the notion of coherent states, from the early works of Schrödinger to the most recent advances, including signal analysis. An integrated and modern approach to the utility of coherent states in many different branches of physics, it strikes a balance between mathematical and physical descriptions.Split into two parts, the first introduces readers to the most familiar coherent states, their origin, their construction, and their application and relevance to various selected domains of physics. Part II, mostly based on recent original results, is devoted to the question of quantization of various sets through coherent states, and shows the link to procedures in signal analysis. Title: Coherent States in Quantum Physics Print ISBN: 9783527407095 Author(s): Gazeau, Jean-Pierre eISBN: 9783527628292 Publisher: Wiley-VCH Dewey: 530.12 Publication Date: 23 Sep, 2009 Pages: 360 Category: Science, Science: Physics LCCN: Language: English Edition: N/A LCSH:
Excited States in Solution through Polarizable Embedding
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olsen, Jógvan Magnus; Aidas, Kestutis; Kongsted, Jacob
2010-01-01
mechanical calculation. The polarizable embedding potential is described by an atomistic representation including terms up to localized octupoles and anisotropic polarizabilities. It is generally applicable to any quantum chemical description but is here implemented for the case of Kohn−Sham density...
Direct conversion of graphite into diamond through electronic excited states
Nakayama, H
2003-01-01
An ab initio total energy calculation has been performed for electronic excited states in diamond and rhombohedral graphite by the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method within the framework of the local density approximation (LDA). First, calculations for the core-excited state in diamond have been performed to show that the ab initio calculations based on the LDA describe the wavefunctions in the electronic excited states as well as in the ground state quite well. Fairly good coincidence with both experimental data and theoretical prediction has been obtained for the lattice relaxation of the core exciton state. The results of the core exciton state are compared with nitrogen-doped diamond. Next, the structural stability of rhombohedral graphite has been investigated to examine the possibility of the transition into the diamond structure through electronic excited states. While maintaining the rhombohedral symmetry, rhombohedral graphite can be spontaneously transformed to cubic diamond. Tota...
Systematics in Rydberg state excitations for ion-atom collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andresen, B.; Jensen, K.; Petersen, N.B.; Veje, E.
1976-01-01
Rydberg state excitations in the Ne + , Mg + -He collisions have been studied in the projectile energy range 10-75 keV by means of optical spectrometry in a search for systematic trends. The relative excitation cross sections for levels of a Rydberg term series are found to follow a general (nsup(x))sup(P) behaviour with P < approximately -3 varying with collision energy and particles, regardless of whether the excited state population results from direct excitation, single electron transfer, or double electron transfer. At higher collision energies P is approximately -3 as predicted by theory. Polarization of the emitted line radiation indicates that there is no general rule for the relative excitation of the different magnetic substates of the same level. A statistical distribution of excitation is found for levels within the same term when the fine structure splitting is small. (Auth.)
Electric quadrupole excitation of the first excited state of 11B
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fewell, M.P.; Spear, R.H.; Zabel, T.H.; Baxter, A.M.
1980-02-01
The Coulomb excitation of backscattered 11 B projectiles has been used to measure the reduced E2 transition probability B(E2; 3/2 - →1/2 - ) between the 3/2 - ground state and the 1/2 - first excited state of 11 B. It is found that B(E2; 3/2 - →1/2 - ) = 2.1 +- 0.4 e 2 fm 4 , which agrees with shell-model predictions but is a factor of 10 larger than the prediction of the core-excitation model
Kinetics studies following state-selective laser excitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Keto, J.W.
1994-04-01
The objective of this contract was the study of state-to-state, electronic energy transfer reactions relevant to the excited state chemistry observed in discharges. We studied deactivation reactions and excitation transfer in collisions of excited states of xenon and krypton atoms with Ar, Kr, Xe and chlorine. The reactant states were excited selectively in two-photon transitions using tunable u.v. and v.u.v. lasers. Excited states produced by the collision were observed by their fluorescence. Reaction rates were measured by observing the time dependent decay of signals from reactant and product channels. In addition we measured interaction potentials of the reactants by laser spectroscopy where the laser induced fluorescence or ionization is measured as a function of laser wavelength (excitation spectra) or by measuring fluorescence spectra at fixed laser frequencies with monochromators. The spectra were obtained in the form of either lineshapes or individual lines from rovibrational transitions of bound states. Our research then required several categories of experiments in order to fully understand a reaction process: 1. High resolution laser spectroscopy of bound molecules or lineshapes of colliding pairs is used to determine potential curves for reactants. 2. Direct measurements of state-to-state reaction rates were measured by studying the time dependent loss of excited reactants and the time dependent formation of products. 3. The energy selectivity of a laser can be used to excite reactants on an excited surface with controlled internuclear configurations. For free states of reactants (as exist in a gas cell) this has been termed laser assisted reactions, while for initially bound states (as chemically bound reactants or dimers formed in supersonic beams) the experiments have been termed photo-fragmentation spectroscopy
Macroscopic Quantum States and Quantum Phase Transition in the Dicke Model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lian Jin-Ling; Zhang Yuan-Wei; Liang Jiu-Qing
2012-01-01
The energy spectrum of Dicke Hamiltonians with and without the rotating wave approximation for an arbitrary atom number is obtained analytically by means of the variational method, in which the effective pseudo-spin Hamiltonian resulting from the expectation value in the boson-field coherent state is diagonalized by the spin-coherent-state transformation. In addition to the ground-state energy, an excited macroscopic quantum-state is found corresponding to the south- and north-pole gauges of the spin-coherent states, respectively. Our results of ground-state energies in exact agreement with various approaches show that these models exhibit a zero-temperature quantum phase transition of the second order for any number of atoms, which was commonly considered as a phenomenon of the thermodynamic limit with the atom number tending to infinity. The critical behavior of the geometric phase is analyzed. (general)
Excitation of spin-1 states in 166168170Er using bremsstrahlung
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Metzger, F.R.
1976-01-01
Some 40 states in 166 , 168 , 170 Er, most of them previously unknown, have been excited using bremsstrahlung with < or =4.2 MeV endpoint energy. For all but three of these levels, the angular distribution of the resonantly scattered radiation favors the assignment of spin 1. For some of the strongly excited levels, linear polarization measurements have been performed. They indicate that these levels have positive parity. The branching ratios further characterize them as K=1 excitations
Secret Sharing of a Quantum State.
Lu, He; Zhang, Zhen; Chen, Luo-Kan; Li, Zheng-Da; Liu, Chang; Li, Li; Liu, Nai-Le; Ma, Xiongfeng; Chen, Yu-Ao; Pan, Jian-Wei
2016-07-15
Secret sharing of a quantum state, or quantum secret sharing, in which a dealer wants to share a certain amount of quantum information with a few players, has wide applications in quantum information. The critical criterion in a threshold secret sharing scheme is confidentiality: with less than the designated number of players, no information can be recovered. Furthermore, in a quantum scenario, one additional critical criterion exists: the capability of sharing entangled and unknown quantum information. Here, by employing a six-photon entangled state, we demonstrate a quantum threshold scheme, where the shared quantum secrecy can be efficiently reconstructed with a state fidelity as high as 93%. By observing that any one or two parties cannot recover the secrecy, we show that our scheme meets the confidentiality criterion. Meanwhile, we also demonstrate that entangled quantum information can be shared and recovered via our setting, which shows that our implemented scheme is fully quantum. Moreover, our experimental setup can be treated as a decoding circuit of the five-qubit quantum error-correcting code with two erasure errors.
Bimetric Theory of Fractional Quantum Hall States
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrey Gromov
2017-11-01
Full Text Available We present a bimetric low-energy effective theory of fractional quantum Hall (FQH states that describes the topological properties and a gapped collective excitation, known as the Girvin-Macdonald-Platzman (GMP mode. The theory consists of a topological Chern-Simons action, coupled to a symmetric rank-2 tensor, and an action à la bimetric gravity, describing the gapped dynamics of a spin-2 mode. The theory is formulated in curved ambient space and is spatially covariant, which allows us to restrict the form of the effective action and the values of phenomenological coefficients. Using bimetric theory, we calculate the projected static structure factor up to the k^{6} order in the momentum expansion. To provide further support for the theory, we derive the long-wave limit of the GMP algebra, the dispersion relation of the GMP mode, and the Hall viscosity of FQH states. The particle-hole (PH transformation of the theory takes a very simple form, making the duality between FQH states and their PH conjugates manifest. We also comment on the possible applications to fractional Chern insulators, where closely related structures arise. It is shown that the familiar FQH observables acquire a curious geometric interpretation within the bimetric formalism.
Bimetric Theory of Fractional Quantum Hall States
Gromov, Andrey; Son, Dam Thanh
2017-10-01
We present a bimetric low-energy effective theory of fractional quantum Hall (FQH) states that describes the topological properties and a gapped collective excitation, known as the Girvin-Macdonald-Platzman (GMP) mode. The theory consists of a topological Chern-Simons action, coupled to a symmetric rank-2 tensor, and an action à la bimetric gravity, describing the gapped dynamics of a spin-2 mode. The theory is formulated in curved ambient space and is spatially covariant, which allows us to restrict the form of the effective action and the values of phenomenological coefficients. Using bimetric theory, we calculate the projected static structure factor up to the k6 order in the momentum expansion. To provide further support for the theory, we derive the long-wave limit of the GMP algebra, the dispersion relation of the GMP mode, and the Hall viscosity of FQH states. The particle-hole (PH) transformation of the theory takes a very simple form, making the duality between FQH states and their PH conjugates manifest. We also comment on the possible applications to fractional Chern insulators, where closely related structures arise. It is shown that the familiar FQH observables acquire a curious geometric interpretation within the bimetric formalism.
Particle decay of (12)Be excited states
Charity, R. J.; Komarov, S. A.; Sobotka, L. G.; Clifford, J.; Bazin, D.; Gade, A.; Lee, Jenny; Lukyanov, S. M.; Lynch, W. G.; Mocko, M.; Lobastov, S. P.; Rogers, A. M.; Sanetullaev, A.; Tsang, M. B.; Wallace, M. S.; Hudan, S.; Metelko, C.; Famiano, M. A.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; van Goethem, M. J.
2007-01-01
The breakup of E/A=50 MeV (12)Be fragments following inelastic scattering off of hydrogen and carbon target nuclei has been studied. The breakup channels alpha+(8)He, (6)He+(6)He, t+(9)Li, and p+(11)Li were observed. Two doublets at excitation energies of 12.8 and 15.5 MeV were found for the
Introduction to quantum-state estimation
Teo, Yong Siah
2016-01-01
Quantum-state estimation is an important field in quantum information theory that deals with the characterization of states of affairs for quantum sources. This book begins with background formalism in estimation theory to establish the necessary prerequisites. This basic understanding allows us to explore popular likelihood- and entropy-related estimation schemes that are suitable for an introductory survey on the subject. Discussions on practical aspects of quantum-state estimation ensue, with emphasis on the evaluation of tomographic performances for estimation schemes, experimental realizations of quantum measurements and detection of single-mode multi-photon sources. Finally, the concepts of phase-space distribution functions, which compatibly describe these multi-photon sources, are introduced to bridge the gap between discrete and continuous quantum degrees of freedom. This book is intended to serve as an instructive and self-contained medium for advanced undergraduate and postgraduate students to gra...
Neural-network quantum state tomography
Torlai, Giacomo; Mazzola, Guglielmo; Carrasquilla, Juan; Troyer, Matthias; Melko, Roger; Carleo, Giuseppe
2018-05-01
The experimental realization of increasingly complex synthetic quantum systems calls for the development of general theoretical methods to validate and fully exploit quantum resources. Quantum state tomography (QST) aims to reconstruct the full quantum state from simple measurements, and therefore provides a key tool to obtain reliable analytics1-3. However, exact brute-force approaches to QST place a high demand on computational resources, making them unfeasible for anything except small systems4,5. Here we show how machine learning techniques can be used to perform QST of highly entangled states with more than a hundred qubits, to a high degree of accuracy. We demonstrate that machine learning allows one to reconstruct traditionally challenging many-body quantities—such as the entanglement entropy—from simple, experimentally accessible measurements. This approach can benefit existing and future generations of devices ranging from quantum computers to ultracold-atom quantum simulators6-8.
Coherent excitation of a single atom to a Rydberg state
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Miroshnychenko, Yevhen; Gaëtan, Alpha; Evellin, Charles
2010-01-01
We present the coherent excitation of a single Rubidium atom to the Rydberg state 58d3/2 using a two-photon transition. The experimental setup is described in detail, as are experimental techniques and procedures. The coherence of the excitation is revealed by observing Rabi oscillations between...
Anisotropy of electronic states excited in ion-atom collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boskamp, E.B.
1983-01-01
The author reports coincidence measurements made on the He + + Ne and He + + He systems. The complex population amplitudes for the magnetic sublevels of the investigated excited states, Ne(2p 4 3s 2 ) 1 D and He(2p 2 ) 1 D, were completely determined and possible excitation mechanisms are described. (Auth.)
Lifetime measurements of excited states in 196Pt
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bolotin, H.H.; Katayama, Ichiro; Sakai, Hideyuki; Fujita, Yoshitaka; Fujiwara, Mamoru
1979-01-01
The lifetimes of six excited states in 196 Pt up to an excitation energy of 1525 keV were measured by the recoil-distance method (RDM). These levels were populated by Coulomb excitation using both 90 MeV 20 Ne and 220 MeV 58 Ni ion beams. The measured lifetimes of the 2 1 + , 4 1 + , 6 1 + , 2 2 + , 4 2 + and 0 2 + states and the B(E2) values inferred for the depopulating transitions from these levels are presented. With the exception of the 2 1 + state, the meanlives of all other levels are the first such direct experimental determinations to be reported. (author)
Hertzian spectroscopy application to excited states in accelerated ion beams
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gaillard, M L
1974-01-01
Accelerated ion beams enables the application of optical hertzian spectrometry methods to be extended to research on the excited states of free ionic systems. The photon beat method has proved especially simple to apply in beam foil geometry because of the unidirectional beam velocity while the beam gas device is suitable for experiments of the energy level crossing type. Only the resonance technique involving direct application of high-frequency magnetic fields poses serious problems because of the high HF powers necessary. So far structure intervals have been measured in ions carrying up to three charges (seven in the special case of Lamb shift measurements) with a precision of a few percent. Study of hydrogen-like or helium-like ions of high Z allows the fundamental calculations of quantum electrodynamics to be checked with regard to the Lamb shift or the spontaneous emission theory. In more complex electronic systems, optical spectroscopy of accelerated ion beams gives wavelengths with a resolution reaching 10/sup -5/, lifetimes with an accuracy better than 10% when the cascade effects are properly studied, and Lande factors with a precision of several % under present technical conditions. The photon beat method concerns hyperfine nuclear effects in light atoms of Z < = 20. (FR)
Many-body effects in the gain spectra of highly excited quantum-dot lasers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schneider, H. C.; Chow, W. W.; Koch, S. W.
2001-01-01
Optical gain spectra are computed for quantum dots under high excitation conditions, where there is a non-negligible two-dimensional carrier density surrounding the dots. Using a screened Hartree-Fock theory to describe the influence of the Coulomb interaction, we find different self-energy shifts for the dot and quantum-well transitions. Furthermore, in contrast to the result for quantum-well and bulk systems, the peak gain at the quantum-dot transition computed including Coulomb effects is reduced from its free carrier value
Nuclear Spin Nanomagnet in an Optically Excited Quantum Dot
Korenev, V. L.
2007-12-01
Linearly polarized light tuned slightly below the optical transition of the negatively charged exciton (trion) in a single quantum dot causes the spontaneous nuclear spin polarization (self-polarization) at a level close to 100%. The effective magnetic field of spin-polarized nuclei shifts the optical transition energy close to resonance with photon energy. The resonantly enhanced Overhauser effect sustains the stability of the nuclear self-polarization even in the absence of spin polarization of the quantum dot electron. As a result the optically selected single quantum dot represents a tiny magnet with the ferromagnetic ordering of nuclear spins—the nuclear spin nanomagnet.
Ground states of quantum spin systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bratteli, Ola; Kishimoto, Akitaka; Robinson, D.W.
1978-07-01
The authors prove that ground states of quantum spin systems are characterized by a principle of minimum local energy and that translationally invariant ground states are characterized by the principle of minimum energy per unit volume
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Godunov, I.A.; Bataev, V.A.; Maslov, D.V.; Yakovlev, N.N.
2017-01-01
The structure of conformational non-rigid molecules in the excited electronic states are investigated by joint theoretical and experimental methods. The theoretical part of work consist of two stages. In first stage the ab initio quantum-chemical calculations are carried out using high level methods. In second stage the vibrational problems of the various dimensions are solved by variational method for vibrations of large amplitude. In experimental part of work the vibronic spectra are investigated: gas-phase absorption and also, fluorescence excitation spectra of jet-cooled molecules. Some examples are considered.
Theoretical observation of two state lasing from InAs/InP quantum-dash lasers
Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa
2011-09-01
The effect of cavity length on the lasing wavelength of InAs/InP quantum dash (Qdash) laser is examined using the carrier-photon rate equation model including the carrier relaxation process from the Qdash ground state and excited state. Both, homogeneous and inhomogeneous broadening has been incorporated in the model. We show that ground state lasing occurs with longer cavity lasers and excited state lasing occurs from relatively short cavity lasers. © 2011 IEEE.
High efficiency detection technology on quantum action using radiation excitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Okubo, Masataka; Ukibe, Masahiro; Sakamoto, Isao; Hayashi, Nobuyuki; Shoji, Akira; Kobayashi, Naoto
2000-01-01
In 1998 fiscal year, as a local quasi particle loss process, it was elucidated that there was a quasi particle loss induced with magnetic flux quantum trapped by a detector on its cooling. Hitherto, it was reported that action of a tunnel junction detector was different by its magnetic history. That is, the detector had unstability such as variation of its action on its cooling. Therefore, the quasi particle loss induced by magnetic flux quantum forming cause of the unstability was quantitatively evaluated. As a result, it was elucidated that output of the detector was reduced half only by trapping the magnetic flux quantum with numbers corresponding to weak magnetic field like geomagnetism. And, this phenomenon was also described by using a model concept with quasi particle trapping due to the magnetic flux quantum. (G.K.)
Excitation of lowest electronic states of thymine by slow electrons
Chernyshova, I. V.; Kontros, E. J.; Markush, P. P.; Shpenik, O. B.
2013-11-01
Excitation of lowest electronic states of the thymine molecules in the gas phase is studied by elec- tron energy loss spectroscopy. In addition to dipole-allowed transitions to singlet states, transitions to the lowest triplet states were observed. The low-energy features of the spectrum at 3.66 and 4.61 eV are identified with the excitation of the first triplet states 13 A' (π → π*) and 13 A″ ( n → π*). The higher-lying features at 4.96, 5.75, 6.17, and 7.35 eV are assigned mainly to the excitation of the π → π* transitions to the singlet states of the molecule. The excitation dynamics of the lowest states is studied. It is found that the first triplet state 13 A'(π → π*) is most efficiently excited at a residual energy close to zero, while the singlet 21 A'(π → π*) state is excited with almost identical efficiency at different residual energies.
Quantum mechanics of excitation transport in photosynthetic complexes: a key issues review.
Levi, Federico; Mostarda, Stefano; Rao, Francesco; Mintert, Florian
2015-07-01
For a long time microscopic physical descriptions of biological processes have been based on quantum mechanical concepts and tools, and routinely employed by chemical physicists and quantum chemists. However, the last ten years have witnessed new developments on these studies from a different perspective, rooted in the framework of quantum information theory. The process that more, than others, has been subject of intense research is the transfer of excitation energy in photosynthetic light-harvesting complexes, a consequence of the unexpected experimental discovery of oscillating signals in such highly noisy systems. The fundamental interdisciplinary nature of this research makes it extremely fascinating, but can also constitute an obstacle to its advance. Here in this review our objective is to provide an essential summary of the progress made in the theoretical description of excitation energy dynamics in photosynthetic systems from a quantum mechanical perspective, with the goal of unifying the language employed by the different communities. This is initially realized through a stepwise presentation of the fundamental building blocks used to model excitation transfer, including protein dynamics and the theory of open quantum system. Afterwards, we shall review how these models have evolved as a consequence of experimental discoveries; this will lead us to present the numerical techniques that have been introduced to quantitatively describe photo-absorbed energy dynamics. Finally, we shall discuss which mechanisms have been proposed to explain the unusual coherent nature of excitation transport and what insights have been gathered so far on the potential functional role of such quantum features.
Harnessing molecular excited states with Lanczos chains
Baroni, Stefano; Gebauer, Ralph; Bariş Malcioğlu, O.; Saad, Yousef; Umari, Paolo; Xian, Jiawei
2010-02-01
The recursion method of Haydock, Heine and Kelly is a powerful tool for calculating diagonal matrix elements of the resolvent of quantum-mechanical Hamiltonian operators by elegantly expressing them in terms of continued fractions. In this paper we extend the recursion method to off-diagonal matrix elements of general (possibly non-Hermitian) operators and apply it to the simulation of molecular optical absorption and photoemission spectra within time-dependent density-functional and many-body perturbation theories, respectively. This method is demonstrated with a couple of applications to the optical absorption and photoemission spectra of the caffeine molecule.
Harnessing molecular excited states with Lanczos chains
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baroni, Stefano; Baris Malcioglu, O; Xian Jiawei [SISSA-Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati, I-34151 Trieste (Italy); Gebauer, Ralph; Umari, Paolo [CNR DEMOCRITOS Theory-Elettra Group, c/o Sincrotrone Trieste, Area Science Park, I-34012 Basovizza, Trieste (Italy); Saad, Yousef [Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Minnesota, and Minnesota Supercomputing Institute, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)
2010-02-24
The recursion method of Haydock, Heine and Kelly is a powerful tool for calculating diagonal matrix elements of the resolvent of quantum-mechanical Hamiltonian operators by elegantly expressing them in terms of continued fractions. In this paper we extend the recursion method to off-diagonal matrix elements of general (possibly non-Hermitian) operators and apply it to the simulation of molecular optical absorption and photoemission spectra within time-dependent density-functional and many-body perturbation theories, respectively. This method is demonstrated with a couple of applications to the optical absorption and photoemission spectra of the caffeine molecule.
Harnessing molecular excited states with Lanczos chains.
Baroni, Stefano; Gebauer, Ralph; Bariş Malcioğlu, O; Saad, Yousef; Umari, Paolo; Xian, Jiawei
2010-02-24
The recursion method of Haydock, Heine and Kelly is a powerful tool for calculating diagonal matrix elements of the resolvent of quantum-mechanical Hamiltonian operators by elegantly expressing them in terms of continued fractions. In this paper we extend the recursion method to off-diagonal matrix elements of general (possibly non-Hermitian) operators and apply it to the simulation of molecular optical absorption and photoemission spectra within time-dependent density-functional and many-body perturbation theories, respectively. This method is demonstrated with a couple of applications to the optical absorption and photoemission spectra of the caffeine molecule.
Harnessing molecular excited states with Lanczos chains
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baroni, Stefano; Baris Malcioglu, O; Xian Jiawei; Gebauer, Ralph; Umari, Paolo; Saad, Yousef
2010-01-01
The recursion method of Haydock, Heine and Kelly is a powerful tool for calculating diagonal matrix elements of the resolvent of quantum-mechanical Hamiltonian operators by elegantly expressing them in terms of continued fractions. In this paper we extend the recursion method to off-diagonal matrix elements of general (possibly non-Hermitian) operators and apply it to the simulation of molecular optical absorption and photoemission spectra within time-dependent density-functional and many-body perturbation theories, respectively. This method is demonstrated with a couple of applications to the optical absorption and photoemission spectra of the caffeine molecule.
Optical evidence of quantum rotor orbital excitations in orthorhombic manganites
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kovaleva, Natalia; Kugel, K.I.; Potůček, Z.; Kusmartseva, O.E.; Goryachev, N.S.; Bryknar, Z.; Demikhov, E.I.; Trepakov, Vladimír; Dejneka, Alexandr; Kusmartsev, F.V.; Stoneham, A.M.
2016-01-01
Roč. 122, č. 5 (2016), s. 890-901 ISSN 1063-7761 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : optical evidence * rotor orbital excitations Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.196, year: 2016
Quantum dynamics of vibrational excitations and vibrational charge ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Administrator
Dedicated to the memory of the late Professor S K Rangarajan ... Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036. # ... likely ways to improve the results are discussed in terms of the inclusion of higher excited ...
Gain dynamics of quantum dot devices for dual-state operation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kaptan, Y., E-mail: yuecel.kaptan@physik.tu-berlin.de; Herzog, B.; Kolarczik, M.; Owschimikow, N.; Woggon, U. [Institut für Optik und Atomare Physik, Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Schmeckebier, H.; Arsenijević, D.; Bimberg, D. [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Mikhelashvili, V.; Eisenstein, G. [Technion Institute of Technology, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Haifa (Israel)
2014-06-30
Ground state gain dynamics of In(Ga)As-quantum dot excited state lasers are investigated via single-color ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy below and above lasing threshold. Two-color pump-probe experiments are used to localize lasing and non-lasing quantum dots within the inhomogeneously broadened ground state. Single-color results yield similar gain recovery rates of the ground state for lasing and non-lasing quantum dots decreasing from 6 ps to 2 ps with increasing injection current. We find that ground state gain dynamics are influenced solely by the injection current and unaffected by laser operation of the excited state. This independence is promising for dual-state operation schemes in quantum dot based optoelectronic devices.
The properties of 4'-N,N-dimethylaminoflavonol in the ground and excited states
Moroz, V. V.; Chalyi, A. G.; Roshal, A. D.
2008-09-01
The mechanism of protonation of 4-N,N-dimethylaminoflavonol and the structure of its protolytic forms in the ground and excited states were studied by electron absorption and fluorescence (steady-state and time-resolved) spectroscopy and with the use of the RM1 quantum-chemical method. A comparison of equilibrium constants and the theoretical enthalpies of formation showed that excitation should be accompanied by the inversion of the basicity of the electron acceptor groups of this compound and, as a consequence, changes in the structure of its monocationic form. An analysis of the spectral parameters of the protolytic 4-N,N-dimethylaminoflavonol forms, however, showed that their structure and the sequence of protonation in the excited state were the same as in the ground state. Changes in the structure of the monocation in the excited state were not observed because of the fast radiationless deactivation of this form and the occurrence of excited state intramolecular proton transfer in aprotic solvents.
Fractional excitations in the square-lattice quantum antiferromagnet
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Piazza, B. Dalla; Mourigal, M.; Christensen, Niels Bech
2015-01-01
-projected trial wavefunctions. The excitation continuum is accounted for by the existence of spatially extended pairs of fractional S=1/2 quasiparticles, 2D analogues of 1D spinons. Away from the anomalous wavevector, these fractional excitations are bound and form conventional magnons. Our results establish...... the existence of fractional quasiparticles in the high-energy spectrum of a quasi-two-dimensional antiferromagnet, even in the absence of frustration....
Authentication Protocol using Quantum Superposition States
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kanamori, Yoshito [University of Alaska; Yoo, Seong-Moo [University of Alabama, Huntsville; Gregory, Don A. [University of Alabama, Huntsville; Sheldon, Frederick T [ORNL
2009-01-01
When it became known that quantum computers could break the RSA (named for its creators - Rivest, Shamir, and Adleman) encryption algorithm within a polynomial-time, quantum cryptography began to be actively studied. Other classical cryptographic algorithms are only secure when malicious users do not have sufficient computational power to break security within a practical amount of time. Recently, many quantum authentication protocols sharing quantum entangled particles between communicators have been proposed, providing unconditional security. An issue caused by sharing quantum entangled particles is that it may not be simple to apply these protocols to authenticate a specific user in a group of many users. An authentication protocol using quantum superposition states instead of quantum entangled particles is proposed. The random number shared between a sender and a receiver can be used for classical encryption after the authentication has succeeded. The proposed protocol can be implemented with the current technologies we introduce in this paper.
Noncyclic geometric changes of quantum states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kult, David; Sjoeqvist, Erik; Aaberg, Johan
2006-01-01
Non-Abelian quantum holonomies, i.e., unitary state changes solely induced by geometric properties of a quantum system, have been much under focus in the physics community as generalizations of the Abelian Berry phase. Apart from being a general phenomenon displayed in various subfields of quantum physics, the use of holonomies has lately been suggested as a robust technique to obtain quantum gates; the building blocks of quantum computers. Non-Abelian holonomies are usually associated with cyclic changes of quantum systems, but here we consider a generalization to noncyclic evolutions. We argue that this open-path holonomy can be used to construct quantum gates. We also show that a structure of partially defined holonomies emerges from the open-path holonomy. This structure has no counterpart in the Abelian setting. We illustrate the general ideas using an example that may be accessible to tests in various physical systems
Engineering arbitrary pure and mixed quantum states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pechen, Alexander
2011-01-01
Controlled manipulation by atomic- and molecular-scale quantum systems has attracted a lot of research attention in recent years. A fundamental problem is to provide deterministic methods for controlled engineering of arbitrary quantum states. This work proposes a deterministic method for engineering arbitrary pure and mixed states of a wide class of quantum systems. The method exploits a special combination of incoherent and coherent controls (incoherent and coherent radiation) and has two properties which are specifically important for manipulating by quantum systems: it realizes the strongest possible degree of their state control, complete density matrix controllability, meaning the ability to steer arbitrary pure and mixed initial states into any desired pure or mixed final state, and it is all-to-one, such that each particular control transfers all initial system states into one target state.
A note on calm excited states of inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ashoorioon, Amjad; Shiu, Gary
2011-01-01
We identify a two-parameter family of excited states within slow-roll inflation for which either the corrections to the two-point function or the characteristic signatures of excited states in the three-point function — i.e. the enhancement for the flattened momenta configurations– are absent. These excited states may nonetheless violate the adiabaticity condition maximally. We dub these initial states of inflation calm excited states. We show that these two sets do not intersect, i.e., those that leave the power-spectrum invariant can be distinguished from their bispectra, and vice versa. The same set of calm excited states that leave the two-point function invariant for slow-roll inflation, do the same task for DBI inflation. However, at the level of three-point function, the calm excited states whose flattened configuration signature is absent for slow-roll inflation, will lead to an enhancement for DBI inflation generally, although the signature is smaller than what suggested by earlier analysis. This example also illustrates that imposing the Wronskian condition is important for obtaining a correct estimate of the non-Gaussian signatures
Quasi-superradiant soliton state of matter in quantum metamaterials
Asai, Hidehiro; Kawabata, Shiro; Savel'ev, Sergey E.; Zagoskin, Alexandre M.
2018-02-01
Strong interaction of a system of quantum emitters (e.g., two-level atoms) with electromagnetic field induces specific correlations in the system accompanied by a drastic increase of emitted radiation (superradiation or superfluorescence). Despite the fact that since its prediction this phenomenon was subject to a vigorous experimental and theoretical research, there remain open question, in particular, concerning the possibility of a first order phase transition to the superradiant state from the vacuum state. In systems of natural and charge-based artificial atom this transition is prohibited by "no-go" theorems. Here we demonstrate numerically and confirm analytically a similar transition in a one-dimensional quantum metamaterial - a chain of artificial atoms (qubits) strongly interacting with classical electromagnetic fields in a transmission line. The system switches from vacuum state to the quasi-superradiant (QS) phase with one or several magnetic solitons and finite average occupation of qubit excited states along the transmission line. A quantum metamaterial in the QS phase circumvents the "no-go" restrictions by considerably decreasing its total energy relative to the vacuum state by exciting nonlinear electromagnetic solitons.
Secure quantum key distribution using squeezed states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gottesman, Daniel; Preskill, John
2001-01-01
We prove the security of a quantum key distribution scheme based on transmission of squeezed quantum states of a harmonic oscillator. Our proof employs quantum error-correcting codes that encode a finite-dimensional quantum system in the infinite-dimensional Hilbert space of an oscillator, and protect against errors that shift the canonical variables p and q. If the noise in the quantum channel is weak, squeezing signal states by 2.51 dB (a squeeze factor e r =1.34) is sufficient in principle to ensure the security of a protocol that is suitably enhanced by classical error correction and privacy amplification. Secure key distribution can be achieved over distances comparable to the attenuation length of the quantum channel
Manipulating Quantum Coherence in Solid State Systems
Flatté, Michael E; The NATO Advanced Study Institute "Manipulating Quantum Coherence in Solid State Systems"
2007-01-01
The NATO Advanced Study Institute "Manipulating Quantum Coherence in Solid State Systems", in Cluj-Napoca, Romania, August 29-September 9, 2005, presented a fundamental introduction to solid-state approaches to achieving quantum computation. This proceedings volume describes the properties of quantum coherence in semiconductor spin-based systems and the behavior of quantum coherence in superconducting systems. Semiconductor spin-based approaches to quantum computation have made tremendous advances in the past several years. Coherent populations of spins can be oriented, manipulated and detected experimentally. Rapid progress has been made towards performing the same tasks on individual spins (nuclear, ionic, or electronic) with all-electrical means. Superconducting approaches to quantum computation have demonstrated single qubits based on charge eigenstates as well as flux eigenstates. These topics have been presented in a pedagogical fashion by leading researchers in the fields of semiconductor-spin-based qu...
Electron-impact excitation and ionization cross sections for ground state and excited helium atoms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ralchenko, Yu.; Janev, R.K.; Kato, T.; Fursa, D.V.; Bray, I.; Heer, F.J. de
2008-01-01
Comprehensive and critically assessed cross sections for the electron-impact excitation and ionization of ground state and excited helium atoms are presented. All states (atomic terms) with n≤4 are treated individually, while the states with n≥5 are considered degenerate. For the processes involving transitions to and from n≥5 levels, suitable cross section scaling relations are presented. For a large number of transitions, from both ground and excited states, convergent close coupling calculations were performed to achieve a high accuracy of the data. The evaluated/recommended cross section data are presented by analytic fit functions, which preserve the correct asymptotic behavior of the cross sections. The cross sections are also displayed in graphical form
Doubly and triply excited states for different plasma sources
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
More, R.M.; Safronova, U.I.
2000-01-01
Autoionizing rates of doubly excited states as nln'l' configurations with n=2-9 and n'=2-9 are calculated. Analytical expressions of decay amplitude for two-electron system are derived. Expressions for autoionizing rates with averaging over LS are obtained for many-electron systems. The n and l dependence of doubly excited states as nln'l' configurations are investigated. (author)
Does the excited state of the 3He nucleus exist?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barabanov, A.L.
1994-01-01
The suggestion is made that the excited state of the 3 He nucleus found out recently in the reaction has spin and parity 1/2 + and the same configuration that the ground open of 6 He. It is shown that in an elastic nd-scattering a resonance associated with the excited state may be absent due to destructive interference of potential and resonant scattering phases
Localized excitations and the geometry of the 1nπ* excited states of pyrazine
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kleier, D.A.; Martin, R.L.; Wadt, W.R.; Moomaw, W.R.
1982-01-01
Previous theoretical work has shown that the lowest excited singlet state of pyrazine, the π* 1 B 3 u state, is best described in terms of interacting excitations localized on each nitrogen. The present work refines the localized excitation model and considers its implications for the geometry of the 1 B 3 u state. Hartree-Fock calculations show that the best single configuration description of the nπ* state has broken ( 1 B 1 ) symmetry with the excitation strongly localized at one end of the molcule. If the symmetry-restricted hf result is used for reference, this localization describes an important correlation effect. The excited-state geometry was probed using configuration interaction wave functions based on the symmetry-restricted orbitals, as well as properly symmetrized ''valance-bond'' wave functions based on the broken symmetry solutions. Both descriptions lead to a very flat potential for a b/sub 1u/ vibrational mode. This mode reduces the molecular geometry from D/sub 2h/ to C/sub 2v/. We present spectroscopic evidence of our own and of other workers which is consistent with such a flat potential
Formation and role of excited states in radiolysis - a foreword
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singh, A.
1976-01-01
It is stated that the choice of contributions to the special issue of this Journal has been limited to those which bear on the details of the mechanisms of excited state formation and are likely to be useful to radiation chemists. Since more than half the energy deposited in radiolysis goes into excitation, studies on the fate of the excited species formed are very important. A brief reference is made to the subject matter of each of the fifteen contributions, and its significance to the development of the technique of radiolysis is outlined. (U.K.)
Self-energy correction to the hyperfine splitting for excited states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wundt, B. J.; Jentschura, U. D.
2011-01-01
The self-energy corrections to the hyperfine splitting is evaluated for higher excited states in hydrogenlike ions using an expansion in the binding parameter Zα, where Z is the nuclear-charge number and α is the fine-structure constant. We present analytic results for D, F, and G states, and for a number of highly excited Rydberg states, with principal quantum numbers in the range 13≤n≤16, and orbital angular momenta l=n-2 and l=n-1. A closed-form analytic expression is derived for the contribution of high-energy photons, valid for any state with l≥2 and arbitrary n, l, and total angular momentum j. The low-energy contributions are written in the form of generalized Bethe logarithms and evaluated for selected states.
Multi-state Quantum Teleportation via One Entanglement State
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guo Ying; Zeng Guihua; Lee, Moon Ho
2008-01-01
A multi-sender-controlled quantum teleportation scheme is proposed to teleport several secret quantum states from different senders to a distance receiver based on only one Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) pair with controlled-NOT (CNOT) gates. In the present scheme, several secret single-qubit quantum states are encoded into a multi-qubit entangled quantum state. Two communication modes, i.e., the detecting mode and the message mode, are employed so that the eavesdropping can be detected easily and the teleported message may be recovered efficiently. It has an advantage over teleporting several different quantum states for one scheme run with more efficiency than the previous quantum teleportation schemes
Quantum Nanomechanics: State Engineering and Measurement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Woolley, M. J.; Milburn, G. J.; Doherty, A. C.
2011-01-01
There has recently been a surge of interest in the study of mechanical systems near the quantum limit. Such experiments are motivated by both fundamental interest in studying quantum mechanics with macroscopic engineered systems and potential applications as ultra-sensitive transducers, or even in quantum information processing. A particularly promising system is a microwave cavity optomechanical system, in which a nanomechanical resonator is embedded within (and capacitively coupled to) a superconducting microwave cavity. Here we discuss two schemes for the generation and measurement of quantum states of the nanomechanical resonator. A quantum squeezed state may be generated via mechanical parametric amplification, while a number state may be conditionally generated via continuous measurement and feedback control mediated by a superconducting qubit.
Operational geometric phase for mixed quantum states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andersson, O; Heydari, H
2013-01-01
The geometric phase has found a broad spectrum of applications in both classical and quantum physics, such as condensed matter and quantum computation. In this paper, we introduce an operational geometric phase for mixed quantum states, based on spectral weighted traces of holonomies, and we prove that it generalizes the standard definition of the geometric phase for mixed states, which is based on quantum interferometry. We also introduce higher order geometric phases, and prove that under a fairly weak, generically satisfied, requirement, there is always a well-defined geometric phase of some order. Our approach applies to general unitary evolutions of both non-degenerate and degenerate mixed states. Moreover, since we provide an explicit formula for the geometric phase that can be easily implemented, it is particularly well suited for computations in quantum physics. (paper)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guevara, Z. E., E-mail: zjguevaram@unal.edu.co; Torres, D. A., E-mail: datorresg@unal.edu.co [Physics Department, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá D.C. (Colombia)
2016-07-07
In this contribution the challenges in the use of a setup to simultaneously measure lifetimes and g-factor values will be presented. The simultaneous use of the transient field technique and the Doppler Shift Attenuation Method, to measure magnetic moments and lifetimes respectively, allows to obtain a complete characterization of the currents of nucleons and the deformation in excited states close to the ground state. The technique is at the moment limited to Coulomb excitation and alpha-transfer reactions, what opens an interesting perspective to consider this type of experiments with radioactive beams. The use of deep-inelastic and fusion-evaporation reactions will be discussed. An example of a setup that makes use of a beam of {sup 106}Cd to study excited states of {sup 110}Sn and the beam nuclei itself will be presented.
Controlled quantum teleportation with Bell states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Tian-Yin; Wen Qiao-Yan
2011-01-01
We propose a new scheme for controlled quantum teleportation with Bell states in which classical keys for controllers' portion are used. We also discuss the security of the proposed scheme and show that it can satisfy the requirements for controlled quantum teleportation. The comparison between this scheme and the previous ones shows that it is more economical and efficient. (general)
All-optical quantum computing with a hybrid solid-state processing unit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pei Pei; Zhang Fengyang; Li Chong; Song Heshan
2011-01-01
We develop an architecture of a hybrid quantum solid-state processing unit for universal quantum computing. The architecture allows distant and nonidentical solid-state qubits in distinct physical systems to interact and work collaboratively. All the quantum computing procedures are controlled by optical methods using classical fields and cavity QED. Our methods have a prominent advantage of the insensitivity to dissipation process benefiting from the virtual excitation of subsystems. Moreover, the quantum nondemolition measurements and state transfer for the solid-state qubits are proposed. The architecture opens promising perspectives for implementing scalable quantum computation in a broader sense that different solid-state systems can merge and be integrated into one quantum processor afterward.
Kurt, Hasan; Yüce, Meral; Yuce, Meral; Hussain, Babar; Budak, Hikmet
2016-01-01
In this report, a dual-excitation sensing method was developed using aptamer-functionalized quantum dots and upconverting nanoparticles, exhibiting Stokes and anti-Stokes type excitation profiles, respectively. Conjugation of the aptamer-functionalized luminescent nanoparticles with the magnetic beads, comprising short DNA sequences that were partially complementary to the aptamer sequences, enabled facile separation of the analyte-free conjugates for fluorescent measurement. UV–Visible spect...
Closser, Kristina Danielle
This thesis presents new developments in excited state electronic structure theory. Contrasted with the ground state, the electronically excited states of atoms and molecules often are unstable and have short lifetimes, exhibit a greater diversity of character and are generally less well understood. The very unusual excited states of helium clusters motivated much of this work. These clusters consist of large numbers of atoms (experimentally 103--109 atoms) and bands of nearly degenerate excited states. For an isolated atom the lowest energy excitation energies are from 1s → 2s and 1s → 2 p transitions, and in clusters describing the lowest energy band minimally requires four states per atom. In the ground state the clusters are weakly bound by van der Waals interactions, however in the excited state they can form well-defined covalent bonds. The computational cost of quantum chemical calculations rapidly becomes prohibitive as the size of the systems increase. Standard excited-state methods such as configuration interaction singles (CIS) and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) can be used with ≈100 atoms, and are optimized to treat only a few states. Thus, one of our primary aims is to develop a method which can treat these large systems with large numbers of nearly degenerate excited states. Additionally, excited states are generally formed far from their equilibrium structures. Vertical excitations from the ground state induce dynamics in the excited states. Thus, another focus of this work is to explore the results of these forces and the fate of the excited states. Very little was known about helium cluster excited states when this work began, thus we first investigated the excitations in small helium clusters consisting of 7 or 25 atoms using CIS. The character of these excited states was determined using attachment/detachment density analysis and we found that in the n = 2 manifold the excitations could generally be interpreted as
Invariant measures on multimode quantum Gaussian states
Lupo, C.; Mancini, S.; De Pasquale, A.; Facchi, P.; Florio, G.; Pascazio, S.
2012-12-01
We derive the invariant measure on the manifold of multimode quantum Gaussian states, induced by the Haar measure on the group of Gaussian unitary transformations. To this end, by introducing a bipartition of the system in two disjoint subsystems, we use a parameterization highlighting the role of nonlocal degrees of freedom—the symplectic eigenvalues—which characterize quantum entanglement across the given bipartition. A finite measure is then obtained by imposing a physically motivated energy constraint. By averaging over the local degrees of freedom we finally derive the invariant distribution of the symplectic eigenvalues in some cases of particular interest for applications in quantum optics and quantum information.
Invariant measures on multimode quantum Gaussian states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lupo, C.; Mancini, S.; De Pasquale, A.; Facchi, P.; Florio, G.; Pascazio, S.
2012-01-01
We derive the invariant measure on the manifold of multimode quantum Gaussian states, induced by the Haar measure on the group of Gaussian unitary transformations. To this end, by introducing a bipartition of the system in two disjoint subsystems, we use a parameterization highlighting the role of nonlocal degrees of freedom—the symplectic eigenvalues—which characterize quantum entanglement across the given bipartition. A finite measure is then obtained by imposing a physically motivated energy constraint. By averaging over the local degrees of freedom we finally derive the invariant distribution of the symplectic eigenvalues in some cases of particular interest for applications in quantum optics and quantum information.
Invariant measures on multimode quantum Gaussian states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lupo, C. [School of Science and Technology, Universita di Camerino, I-62032 Camerino (Italy); Mancini, S. [School of Science and Technology, Universita di Camerino, I-62032 Camerino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); De Pasquale, A. [NEST, Scuola Normale Superiore and Istituto Nanoscienze-CNR, I-56126 Pisa (Italy); Facchi, P. [Dipartimento di Matematica and MECENAS, Universita di Bari, I-70125 Bari (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Florio, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche Enrico Fermi, Piazza del Viminale 1, I-00184 Roma (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica and MECENAS, Universita di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Pascazio, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica and MECENAS, Universita di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy)
2012-12-15
We derive the invariant measure on the manifold of multimode quantum Gaussian states, induced by the Haar measure on the group of Gaussian unitary transformations. To this end, by introducing a bipartition of the system in two disjoint subsystems, we use a parameterization highlighting the role of nonlocal degrees of freedom-the symplectic eigenvalues-which characterize quantum entanglement across the given bipartition. A finite measure is then obtained by imposing a physically motivated energy constraint. By averaging over the local degrees of freedom we finally derive the invariant distribution of the symplectic eigenvalues in some cases of particular interest for applications in quantum optics and quantum information.
The plasma wake field excitation: Recent developments from thermal to quantum regime
Fedele, Renato; Tanjia, Fatema; de Nicola, Sergio; Jovanović, Dušan; Jovanović
2013-12-01
To describe the transverse nonlinear and collective self-consistent interaction of a long relativistic electron or positron beam with an unmagnetized plasma, a pair of coupled nonlinear differential equations were proposed by Fedele and Shukla in 1992 (Fedele, R. and Shukla, P. K. 1992a Phys. Rev. A 45, 4045). They were obtained within the quantum-like description provided by the thermal wave model and the theory of plasma wake field excitation. The pair of equations comprises a 2D Schrödinger-like equation for a complex wave function (whose squared modulus is proportional to beam density) and a Poisson-like equation for the plasma wake potential. The dispersion coefficient of the Schrödinger-like equation is proportional to the beam thermal emittance. More recently, Fedele-Shukla equations have been further applied to magnetized plasmas, and solutions were found in the form of nonlinear vortex states and ring solitons. They have been also applied to plasma focusing problems and extended from thermal to quantum regimes. We present here a review of the original approach, and subsequent developments.
Quantum calculation of dipole excitation in fusion reaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Simenel, C.; Chomaz, Ph.; De France, G.
2000-01-01
The excitation of the giant dipole resonance by fusion is studied with N/Z asymmetry in the entrance channel. The TDHF solution exhibits a strong dipole vibration which can be associated with a giant vibration along the main axis of a fluctuating prolate shape. The consequences on the gamma-ray emission from hot compound nuclei are discussed. (author)
Excited states of open strings from N=4 SYM
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dzienkowski, Eric
2015-01-01
We continue the analysis of building open strings stretched between giant gravitons from N=4 SYM by going to second order in perturbation theory using the three-loop dilatation generator from the field theory. In the process we build a Fock-like space of states using Cuntz oscillators which can be used to access the excited open string states. We find a remarkable cancellation among the excited states that shows the ground state energy is consistent with a fully relativistic dispersion relation.
Ultrafast excited-state dynamics of 2,5-dimethylpyrrole.
Yang, Dongyuan; Min, Yanjun; Chen, Zhichao; He, Zhigang; Yuan, Kaijun; Dai, Dongxu; Yang, Xueming; Wu, Guorong
2018-04-17
The ultrafast excited-state dynamics of 2,5-dimethylpyrrole following excitation at wavelengths in the range of 265.7-216.7 nm is studied using the time-resolved photoelectron imaging method. It is found that excitation at longer wavelengths (265.7-250.2 nm) results in the population of the S1(1πσ*) state, which decays out of the photoionization window in about 90 fs. At shorter pump wavelengths (242.1-216.7 nm), the assignments are less clear-cut. We tentatively assign the initially photoexcited state(s) to the 1π3p Rydberg state(s) which has lifetimes of 159 ± 20, 125 ± 15, 102 ± 10 and 88 ± 10 fs for the pump wavelengths of 242.1, 238.1, 232.6 and 216.7 nm, respectively. Internal conversion to the S1(1πσ*) state represents at most a minor decay channel. The methyl substitution effects on the decay dynamics of the excited states of pyrrole are also discussed. Methyl substitution on the pyrrole ring seems to enhance the direct internal conversion from the 1π3p Rydberg state to the ground state, while methyl substitution on the N atom has less influence and the internal conversion to the S1(πσ*) state represents a main channel.
Quantum Discord Determines the Interferometric Power of Quantum States
Girolami, Davide; Souza, Alexandre M.; Giovannetti, Vittorio; Tufarelli, Tommaso; Filgueiras, Jefferson G.; Sarthour, Roberto S.; Soares-Pinto, Diogo O.; Oliveira, Ivan S.; Adesso, Gerardo
2014-05-01
Quantum metrology exploits quantum mechanical laws to improve the precision in estimating technologically relevant parameters such as phase, frequency, or magnetic fields. Probe states are usually tailored to the particular dynamics whose parameters are being estimated. Here we consider a novel framework where quantum estimation is performed in an interferometric configuration, using bipartite probe states prepared when only the spectrum of the generating Hamiltonian is known. We introduce a figure of merit for the scheme, given by the worst-case precision over all suitable Hamiltonians, and prove that it amounts exactly to a computable measure of discord-type quantum correlations for the input probe. We complement our theoretical results with a metrology experiment, realized in a highly controllable room-temperature nuclear magnetic resonance setup, which provides a proof-of-concept demonstration for the usefulness of discord in sensing applications. Discordant probes are shown to guarantee a nonzero phase sensitivity for all the chosen generating Hamiltonians, while classically correlated probes are unable to accomplish the estimation in a worst-case setting. This work establishes a rigorous and direct operational interpretation for general quantum correlations, shedding light on their potential for quantum technology.
Fractional Quantum Hall States in a Ge Quantum Well.
Mironov, O A; d'Ambrumenil, N; Dobbie, A; Leadley, D R; Suslov, A V; Green, E
2016-04-29
Measurements of the Hall and dissipative conductivity of a strained Ge quantum well on a SiGe/(001)Si substrate in the quantum Hall regime are reported. We analyze the results in terms of thermally activated quantum tunneling of carriers from one internal edge state to another across saddle points in the long-range impurity potential. This shows that the gaps for different filling fractions closely follow the dependence predicted by theory. We also find that the estimates of the separation of the edge states at the saddle are in line with the expectations of an electrostatic model in the lowest spin-polarized Landau level (LL), but not in the spin-reversed LL where the density of quasiparticle states is not high enough to accommodate the carriers required.
Electronic excitations in a dielectric continuum solvent with quantum Monte Carlo: Acrolein in water
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Floris, Franca Maria, E-mail: floris@dcci.unipi.it; Amovilli, Claudio [Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, Università di Pisa, Via Risorgimento 35, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Filippi, Claudia [MESA Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)
2014-01-21
We investigate here the vertical n → π{sup *} and π → π{sup *} transitions of s-trans-acrolein in aqueous solution by means of a polarizable continuum model (PCM) we have developed for the treatment of the solute at the quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) level of the theory. We employ the QMC approach which allows us to work with highly correlated electronic wave functions for both the solute ground and excited states and, to study the vertical transitions in the solvent, adopt the commonly used scheme of considering fast and slow dielectric polarization. To perform calculations in a non-equilibrium solvation regime for the solute excited state, we add a correction to the global dielectric polarization charge density, obtained self consistently with the solute ground-state wave function by assuming a linear-response scheme. For the solvent polarization in the field of the solute in the ground state, we use the static dielectric constant while, for the electronic dielectric polarization, we employ the solvent refractive index evaluated at the same frequency of the photon absorbed by the solute for the transition. This choice is shown to be better than adopting the most commonly used value of refractive index measured in the region of visible radiation. Our QMC calculations show that, for standard cavities, the solvatochromic shifts obtained with the PCM are underestimated, even though of the correct sign, for both transitions of acrolein in water. Only by reducing the size of the cavity to values where more than one electron is escaped to the solvent region, we regain the experimental shift for the n → π{sup *} case and also improve considerably the shift for the π → π{sup *} transition.
Electronic excitations in a dielectric continuum solvent with quantum Monte Carlo: Acrolein in water
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Floris, Franca Maria; Amovilli, Claudio; Filippi, Claudia
2014-01-01
We investigate here the vertical n → π * and π → π * transitions of s-trans-acrolein in aqueous solution by means of a polarizable continuum model (PCM) we have developed for the treatment of the solute at the quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) level of the theory. We employ the QMC approach which allows us to work with highly correlated electronic wave functions for both the solute ground and excited states and, to study the vertical transitions in the solvent, adopt the commonly used scheme of considering fast and slow dielectric polarization. To perform calculations in a non-equilibrium solvation regime for the solute excited state, we add a correction to the global dielectric polarization charge density, obtained self consistently with the solute ground-state wave function by assuming a linear-response scheme. For the solvent polarization in the field of the solute in the ground state, we use the static dielectric constant while, for the electronic dielectric polarization, we employ the solvent refractive index evaluated at the same frequency of the photon absorbed by the solute for the transition. This choice is shown to be better than adopting the most commonly used value of refractive index measured in the region of visible radiation. Our QMC calculations show that, for standard cavities, the solvatochromic shifts obtained with the PCM are underestimated, even though of the correct sign, for both transitions of acrolein in water. Only by reducing the size of the cavity to values where more than one electron is escaped to the solvent region, we regain the experimental shift for the n → π * case and also improve considerably the shift for the π → π * transition
Electronic excitations in a dielectric continuum solvent with quantum Monte Carlo: Acrolein in water
Floris, Franca Maria; Filippi, Claudia; Amovilli, Claudio
2014-01-01
We investigate here the vertical n → π* and π → π* transitions of s-trans-acrolein in aqueous solution by means of a polarizable continuum model (PCM) we have developed for the treatment of the solute at the quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) level of the theory. We employ the QMC approach which allows us to work with highly correlated electronic wave functions for both the solute ground and excited states and, to study the vertical transitions in the solvent, adopt the commonly used scheme of considering fast and slow dielectric polarization. To perform calculations in a non-equilibrium solvation regime for the solute excited state, we add a correction to the global dielectric polarization charge density, obtained self consistently with the solute ground-state wave function by assuming a linear-response scheme. For the solvent polarization in the field of the solute in the ground state, we use the static dielectric constant while, for the electronic dielectric polarization, we employ the solvent refractive index evaluated at the same frequency of the photon absorbed by the solute for the transition. This choice is shown to be better than adopting the most commonly used value of refractive index measured in the region of visible radiation. Our QMC calculations show that, for standard cavities, the solvatochromic shifts obtained with the PCM are underestimated, even though of the correct sign, for both transitions of acrolein in water. Only by reducing the size of the cavity to values where more than one electron is escaped to the solvent region, we regain the experimental shift for the n → π* case and also improve considerably the shift for the π → π* transition.
Unambiguous discrimination of mixed quantum states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Chi; Feng Yuan; Ying Mingsheng
2006-01-01
The problem of unambiguous discrimination between mixed quantum states is addressed by isolating the part of each mixed state which has no contribution to discrimination and by employing the strategy of set discrimination of pure states. A necessary and sufficient condition of unambiguous mixed state discrimination is presented. An upper bound of the efficiency is also derived
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hiyama, M.; Kosugi, N.
2004-01-01
Full text: Ab initio R-matrix/MQDT approach, which is a combination of ab initio R-matrix techniques and the multi channel quantum defect theory (MQDT), has recently been developed by one of the present authors (MH) and Child, to successfully obtain the potential energy curves of Rydberg states converging to not only the lowest but also the higher ionized states. This approach is also applied to estimate the valence state interaction with Rydberg and continuum (ionization) channels. Very recently we have made an original ab initio polyatomic R-matrix/MQDT program package, GSCF4R based on Gaussian type basis functions for the bound and continuum states, to extensively study molecular excitation and ionization in the X-ray region as well as in the VUV region. We are going to report the results for core excitation and ionization of diatomic molecules such as NO and O 2 to show that the R-matrix/MQDT method is indispensable to describe the core-to-Rydberg states with the higher quantum number and the continuum states. These results lead us to the conclusion that the close-coupling approximation augmented with the correlation term within the R-matrix/MQDT formalism is powerful to calculate the Rydberg-valence mixing and the interchannel coupling between several core-ionized states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kleymann, G.
1976-01-01
This paper is a compilation of results of experimental and theoretical studies on the term diagrams of odd-even nuclei from the isotope series of Nb, Tc, Rh and Ag, published until October 1975. As a relatively simple interpretation of the excitements of these nuclei, De Shalit proposed the coupling of a particle, whose quantum numbers may be derived from a shell model, to excited states of the core of the nucleus. (orig./BJ) [de
Excited-state spectroscopy of singly, doubly and triply-charmed baryons from lattice QCD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Padmanath, M. [Tata Institute; Edwards, Robert G. [JLAB; Mathur, Nilmani [Tata Institute; Peardon, Michael [Trinity College
2014-07-01
We present the ground and excited state spectra of singly, doubly and triply-charmed baryons by using dynamical lattice QCD. A large set of baryonic operators that respect the symmetries of the lattice and are obtained after subduction from their continuum analogues are utilized. These operators transform as irreducible representations of SU(3)F symmetry for flavour, SU(4) symmetry for Dirac spins of quarks and O(3) symmetry for orbital angular momenta. Using novel computational techniques correlation functions of these operators are generated and the variational method is exploited to extract excited states. The lattice spectra that we obtain have baryonic states with well-defined total spins up to 7/2 and the low lying states remarkably resemble the expectations of quantum numbers from SU(6)ⓍO(3) symmetry.
Low-lying excited states by constrained DFT
Ramos, Pablo; Pavanello, Michele
2018-04-01
Exploiting the machinery of Constrained Density Functional Theory (CDFT), we propose a variational method for calculating low-lying excited states of molecular systems. We dub this method eXcited CDFT (XCDFT). Excited states are obtained by self-consistently constraining a user-defined population of electrons, Nc, in the virtual space of a reference set of occupied orbitals. By imposing this population to be Nc = 1.0, we computed the first excited state of 15 molecules from a test set. Our results show that XCDFT achieves an accuracy in the predicted excitation energy only slightly worse than linear-response time-dependent DFT (TDDFT), but without incurring into problems of variational collapse typical of the more commonly adopted ΔSCF method. In addition, we selected a few challenging processes to test the limits of applicability of XCDFT. We find that in contrast to TDDFT, XCDFT is capable of reproducing energy surfaces featuring conical intersections (azobenzene and H3) with correct topology and correct overall energetics also away from the intersection. Venturing to condensed-phase systems, XCDFT reproduces the TDDFT solvatochromic shift of benzaldehyde when it is embedded by a cluster of water molecules. Thus, we find XCDFT to be a competitive method among single-reference methods for computations of excited states in terms of time to solution, rate of convergence, and accuracy of the result.
Classical topology and quantum states
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
structures) can be reconstructed using Gel'fand–Naimark theory and its ..... pair production and annihilation [23], quantum gravity too can be expected to become ..... showed their utility for research of current interest such as topology change ...
Scalable on-chip quantum state tomography
Titchener, James G.; Gräfe, Markus; Heilmann, René; Solntsev, Alexander S.; Szameit, Alexander; Sukhorukov, Andrey A.
2018-03-01
Quantum information systems are on a path to vastly exceed the complexity of any classical device. The number of entangled qubits in quantum devices is rapidly increasing, and the information required to fully describe these systems scales exponentially with qubit number. This scaling is the key benefit of quantum systems, however it also presents a severe challenge. To characterize such systems typically requires an exponentially long sequence of different measurements, becoming highly resource demanding for large numbers of qubits. Here we propose and demonstrate a novel and scalable method for characterizing quantum systems based on expanding a multi-photon state to larger dimensionality. We establish that the complexity of this new measurement technique only scales linearly with the number of qubits, while providing a tomographically complete set of data without a need for reconfigurability. We experimentally demonstrate an integrated photonic chip capable of measuring two- and three-photon quantum states with statistical reconstruction fidelity of 99.71%.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sakko, Arto; Rossi, Tuomas P; Nieminen, Risto M
2014-01-01
The presence of plasmonic material influences the optical properties of nearby molecules in untrivial ways due to the dynamical plasmon-molecule coupling. We combine quantum and classical calculation schemes to study this phenomenon in a hybrid system that consists of a Na 2 molecule located in the gap between two Au/Ag nanoparticles. The molecule is treated quantum-mechanically with time-dependent density-functional theory, and the nanoparticles with quasistatic classical electrodynamics. The nanoparticle dimer has a plasmon resonance in the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum, and the Na 2 molecule has an electron-hole excitation in the same energy range. Due to the dynamical interaction of the two subsystems the plasmon and the molecular excitations couple, creating a hybridized molecular-plasmon excited state. This state has unique properties that yield e.g. enhanced photoabsorption compared to the freestanding Na 2 molecule. The computational approach used enables decoupling of the mutual plasmon-molecule interaction, and our analysis verifies that it is not legitimate to neglect the backcoupling effect when describing the dynamical interaction between plasmonic material and nearby molecules. Time-resolved analysis shows nearly instantaneous formation of the coupled state, and provides an intuitive picture of the underlying physics. (paper)
Identification of the low-energy excitations in a quantum critical system
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tom Heitmann
2017-05-01
Full Text Available We have identified low-energy magnetic excitations in a doped quantum critical system by means of polarized neutron scattering experiments. The presence of these excitations could explain why Ce(Fe0.76Ru0.242Ge2 displays dynamical scaling in the absence of local critical behavior or long-range spin-density wave criticality. The low-energy excitations are associated with the reorientations of the superspins of fully ordered, isolated magnetic clusters that form spontaneously upon lowering the temperature. The system houses both frozen clusters and dynamic clusters, as predicted by Hoyos and Vojta [Phys. Rev. B 74, 140401(R (2006].
Colored Quantum Algebra and Its Bethe State
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Jin-Zheng; Jia Xiao-Yu; Wang Shi-Kun
2014-01-01
We investigate the colored Yang—Baxter equation. Based on a trigonometric solution of colored Yang—Baxter equation, we construct a colored quantum algebra. Moreover we discuss its algebraic Bethe ansatz state and highest wight representation. (general)
Rydberg energies using excited state density functional theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheng, C.-L.; Wu Qin; Van Voorhis, Troy
2008-01-01
We utilize excited state density functional theory (eDFT) to study Rydberg states in atoms. We show both analytically and numerically that semilocal functionals can give quite reasonable Rydberg energies from eDFT, even in cases where time dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) fails catastrophically. We trace these findings to the fact that in eDFT the Kohn-Sham potential for each state is computed using the appropriate excited state density. Unlike the ground state potential, which typically falls off exponentially, the sequence of excited state potentials has a component that falls off polynomially with distance, leading to a Rydberg-type series. We also address the rigorous basis of eDFT for these systems. Perdew and Levy have shown using the constrained search formalism that every stationary density corresponds, in principle, to an exact stationary state of the full many-body Hamiltonian. In the present context, this means that the excited state DFT solutions are rigorous as long as they deliver the minimum noninteracting kinetic energy for the given density. We use optimized effective potential techniques to show that, in some cases, the eDFT Rydberg solutions appear to deliver the minimum kinetic energy because the associated density is not pure state v-representable. We thus find that eDFT plays a complementary role to constrained DFT: The former works only if the excited state density is not the ground state of some potential while the latter applies only when the density is a ground state density.
Dinamical polarizability of highly excited hydrogen-like states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Delone, N.B.; Krajnov, V.P.
1982-01-01
Analytic expressions are derived for the dynamic polarizability of highly excited hydrogen-like atomic states. It is shown that in the composite matrix element which determines the dynamic polarizability there is a strong compensation of the terms as a result of which the resulting magnitude of the dynamic polarizability is quasiclasically small compared to the individual terms of the composite matrix. It is concluded that the resonance behaviour of the dynamic polarizability of highly excited states differs significantly from the resonance behaviour of the polarizability for the ground and low-lying atomic states. The static limit and high-frequency limit of on electromagnetic field are considered
Joo, Taiha; Albrecht, A. C.
1993-06-01
Time-resolved degenerate four-wave mixing (TRDFWM) for an electronically resonant system in a phase-matching configuration that measures population decay is reported. Because the spectral width of input light exceeds the vibrational Bohr frequency of a strong Raman active mode, the vibrational coherence produces strong oscillations in the TRDFWM signal together with the usual population decay from the excited electronic state. The data are analyzed in terms of a four-level system: ground and excited electronic states each split by a vibrational quantum of a Raman active mode. Absolute frequencies and their dephasing times of the vibrational modes at ≈590 cm -1 are obtained for the excited as well as the ground electronic state. The vibrational dephasing rate in the excited electronic state is about an order of magnitude faster than that in the ground state, the origin of which is speculated upon.
The symmetric extendibility of quantum states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nowakowski, Marcin L
2016-01-01
Studies on the symmetric extendibility of quantum states have become particularly important in the context of the analysis of one-way quantum measures of entanglement, and the distillability and security of quantum protocols. In this paper we analyze composite systems containing a symmetric extendible part, with particular attention devoted to the one-way security of such systems. Further, we introduce a new one-way entanglement monotone based on the best symmetric approximation of a quantum state and the extendible number of a quantum state. We underpin these results with geometric observations about the structures of multi-party settings which posses substantial symmetric extendible components in their subspaces. The impossibility of reducing the maximal symmetric extendibility by means of the one-way local operations and classical communication method is pointed out on multiple copies. Finally, we state a conjecture linking symmetric extendibility with the one-way distillability and security of all quantum states, analyzing the behavior of a private key in the neighborhood of symmetric extendible states. (paper)
Microscopic description and excitation of unitary analog states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kisslinger, L S [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, Pa. (USA); Van Giai, N [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire
1977-12-05
A microscopic investigation in a self-consistent particle-hole model reveals approximate unitary analog states in spite of large symmetry breaking. The K-nucleus elastic scattering and (K/sup -/, ..pi../sup -/) excitation of these states are studied, showing strong surface effects.
Excitations of the field-induced quantum soliton lattice in CuGeO3
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Enderle, M.; Rønnow, H.M.; McMorrow, D.F.
2001-01-01
The incommensurate magnetic soliton lattice in the high-field phase of a spin-Peierls system results from quantum fluctuations. We have used neutron scattering techniques to study CuGeO3, allowing us to obtain the first complete characterization of the excitations of the soliton lattice. Three...
Superconducting Analogue of the Parafermion Fractional Quantum Hall States
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abolhassan Vaezi
2014-07-01
Full Text Available Read-Rezayi Z_{k} parafermion wave functions describe ν=2+(k/kM+2 fractional quantum Hall (FQH states. These states support non-Abelian excitations from which protected quantum gates can be designed. However, there is no experimental evidence for these non-Abelian anyons to date. In this paper, we study the ν=2/k FQH-superconductor heterostructure and find the superconducting analogue of the Z_{k} parafermion FQH state. Our main tool is the mapping of the FQH into coupled one-dimensional chains, each with a pair of counterpropagating modes. We show that by inducing intrachain pairing and charge preserving backscattering with identical couplings, the one-dimensional chains flow into gapless Z_{k} parafermions when k<4. By studying the effect of interchain coupling, we show that every parafermion mode becomes massive except for the two outermost ones. Thus, we achieve a fractional topological superconductor whose chiral edge state is described by a Z_{k} parafermion conformal field theory. For instance, we find that a ν=2/3 FQH in proximity to a superconductor produces a Z_{3} parafermion superconducting state. This state is topologically indistinguishable from the non-Abelian part of the ν=12/5 Read-Rezayi state. Both of these systems can host Fibonacci anyons capable of performing universal quantum computation through braiding operations.
Beck, Warren F; Bishop, Michael M; Roscioli, Jerome D; Ghosh, Soumen; Frank, Harry A
2015-04-15
A consideration of the excited state potential energy surfaces of carotenoids develops a new hypothesis for the nature of the conformational motions that follow optical preparation of the S2 (1(1)Bu(+)) state. After an initial displacement from the Franck-Condon geometry along bond length alternation coordinates, it is suggested that carotenoids pass over a transition-state barrier leading to twisted conformations. This hypothesis leads to assignments for several dark intermediate states encountered in femtosecond spectroscopic studies. The Sx state is assigned to the structure reached upon the onset of torsional motions near the transition state barrier that divides planar and twisted structures on the S2 state potential energy surface. The X state, detected recently in two-dimensional electronic spectra, corresponds to a twisted structure well past the barrier and approaching the S2 state torsional minimum. Lastly, the S(∗) state is assigned to a low lying S1 state structure with intramolecular charge transfer character (ICT) and a pyramidal conformation. It follows that the bent and twisted structures of carotenoids that are found in photosynthetic light-harvesting proteins yield excited-state structures that favor the development of an ICT character and optimized energy transfer yields to (bacterio)chlorophyll acceptors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Self-Localized Quasi-Particle Excitation in Quantum Electrodynamics and Its Physical Interpretation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ilya D. Feranchuk
2007-12-01
Full Text Available The self-localized quasi-particle excitation of the electron-positron field (EPF is found for the first time in the framework of a standard form of the quantum electrodynamics. This state is interpreted as the ''physical'' electron (positron and it allows one to solve the following problems: i to express the ''primary'' charge $e_0$ and the mass $m_0$ of the ''bare'' electron in terms of the observed values of $e$ and $m$ of the ''physical'' electron without any infinite parameters and by essentially nonperturbative way; ii to consider $mu$-meson as another self-localized EPF state and to estimate the ratio $m_mu/m$; iii to prove that the self-localized state is Lorentz-invariant and its energy spectrum corresponds to the relativistic free particle with the observed mass $m$; iv to show that the expansion in a power of the observed charge $e ll 1$ corresponds to the strong coupling expansion in a power of the ''primary'' charge $e^{-1}_0 sim e$ when the interaction between the ''physical'' electron and the transverse electromagnetic field is considered by means of the perturbation theory and all terms of this series are free from the ultraviolet divergence.
Electronic excited states and relaxation dynamics in polymer heterojunction systems
Ramon, John Glenn Santos
The potential for using conducting polymers as the active material in optoelectronic devices has come to fruition in the past few years. Understanding the fundamental photophysics behind their operations points to the significant role played by the polymer interface in their performance. Current device architectures involve the use of bulk heterojunctions which intimately blend the donor and acceptor polymers to significantly increase not only their interfacial surface area but also the probability of exciton formation within the vicinity of the interface. In this dissertation, we detail the role played by the interface on the behavior and performance of bulk heterojunction systems. First, we explore the relation between the exciton binding energy to the band offset in determining device characteristics. As a general rule, when the exciton binding energy is greater than the band offset, the exciton remains the lowest energy excited state leading to efficient light-emitting properties. On the other hand, if the offset is greater than the binding energy, charge separation becomes favorable leading to better photovoltaic behavior. Here, we use a Wannier function, configuration interaction based approach to examine the essential excited states and predict the vibronic absorption and emission spectra of the PPV/BBL, TFB/F8BT and PFB/F8BT heterojunctions. Our results underscore the role of vibrational relaxation in the formation of charge-transfer states following photoexcitation. In addition, we look at the relaxation dynamics that occur upon photoexcitation. For this, we adopt the Marcus-Hush semiclassical method to account for lattice reorganization in the calculation of the interconversion rates in TFB/F8BT and PFB/F8BT. We find that, while a tightly bound charge-transfer state (exciplex) remains the lowest excited state, a regeneration pathway to the optically active lowest excitonic state in TFB/F8BT is possible via thermal repopulation from the exciplex. Finally
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Hyun Ji; Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Julia; Nizkorodov, Sergey A.
2013-05-10
Certain biogenic secondary organic aerosols (SOA) become absorbent and fluorescent when exposed to reduced nitrogen compounds such as ammonia, amines and their salts. Fluorescent SOA may potentially be mistaken for biological particles by detection methods relying on fluorescence. This work quantifies the spectral distribution and effective quantum yields of fluorescence of SOA generated from two monoterpenes, limonene and a-pinene, and two different oxidants, ozone (O3) and hydroxyl radical (OH). The SOA was generated in a smog chamber, collected on substrates, and aged by exposure to ~100 ppb ammonia vapor in air saturated with water vapor. Absorption and excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectra of aqueous extracts of aged and control SOA samples were measured, and the effective absorption coefficients and fluorescence quantum yields (~0.005 for 349 nm excitation) were determined from the data. The strongest fluorescence for the limonene-derived SOA was observed for excitation = 420+- 50 nm and emission = 475 +- 38 nm. The window of the strongest fluorescence shifted to excitation = 320 +- 25 nm and emission = 425 +- 38 nm for the a-pinene-derived SOA. Both regions overlap with the excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectra of some of the fluorophores found in primary biological aerosols. Our study suggests that, despite the low quantum yield, the aged SOA particles should have sufficient fluorescence intensities to interfere with the fluorescence detection of common bioaerosols.
Kurt, Hasan; Yüce, Meral; Hussain, Babar; Budak, Hikmet
2016-07-15
In this report, a dual-excitation sensing method was developed using aptamer-functionalized quantum dots and upconverting nanoparticles, exhibiting Stokes and anti-Stokes type excitation profiles, respectively. Conjugation of the aptamer-functionalized luminescent nanoparticles with the magnetic beads, comprising short DNA sequences that were partially complementary to the aptamer sequences, enabled facile separation of the analyte-free conjugates for fluorescent measurement. UV-Visible spectroscopy, Circular Dichroism spectroscopy, Dynamic Light Scattering and Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis techniques were used to characterize the aptamer probes developed. The target-specific luminescent conjugates were applied for multiplex detection of model food pathogens, Salmonella typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus, in which the fluorescent emission spectra were obtained under UV excitation at 325nm for quantum dots and NIR excitation at 980nm for upconverting nanoparticles, respectively. The dual-excitation strategy was aimed to minimize cross-talk between the luminescent signals for multiplexed detection, and yielded limit of detection values of 16 and 28cfumL(-1) for Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella typhimurium, respectively. By employing a greater number of quantum dots and upconverting nanoparticles with non-overlapping fluorescent emissions, the proposed methodology might be exploited further to detect several analytes, simultaneously. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Coherent states for quantum compact groups
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jurco, B.; Stovicek, P.; CTU, Prague
1996-01-01
Coherent states are introduced and their properties are discussed for simple quantum compact groups A l , B l , C l and D l . The multiplicative form of the canonical element for the quantum double is used to introduce the holomorphic coordinates on a general quantum dressing orbit. The coherent state is interpreted as a holomorphic function on this orbit with values in the carrier Hilbert space of an irreducible representation of the corresponding quantized enveloping algebra. Using Gauss decomposition, the commutation relations for the holomorphic coordinates on the dressing orbit are derived explicitly and given in a compact R-matrix formulation (generalizing this way the q-deformed Grassmann and flag manifolds). The antiholomorphic realization of the irreducible representations of a compact quantum group (the analogue of the Borel-Weil construction) is described using the concept of coherent state. The relation between representation theory and non-commutative differential geometry is suggested. (orig.)
Coherent states for quantum compact groups
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jurco, B. [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland). Theory Div.; Stovicek, P. [Ceske Vysoke Uceni Technicke, Prague (Czech Republic). Dept. of Mathematics]|[CTU, Prague (Czech Republic). Doppler Inst.
1996-12-01
Coherent states are introduced and their properties are discussed for simple quantum compact groups A{sub l}, B{sub l}, C{sub l} and D{sub l}. The multiplicative form of the canonical element for the quantum double is used to introduce the holomorphic coordinates on a general quantum dressing orbit. The coherent state is interpreted as a holomorphic function on this orbit with values in the carrier Hilbert space of an irreducible representation of the corresponding quantized enveloping algebra. Using Gauss decomposition, the commutation relations for the holomorphic coordinates on the dressing orbit are derived explicitly and given in a compact R-matrix formulation (generalizing this way the q-deformed Grassmann and flag manifolds). The antiholomorphic realization of the irreducible representations of a compact quantum group (the analogue of the Borel-Weil construction) is described using the concept of coherent state. The relation between representation theory and non-commutative differential geometry is suggested. (orig.)
Coherent states for quantum compact groups
Jurco, B
1996-01-01
Coherent states are introduced and their properties are discussed for all simple quantum compact groups. The multiplicative form of the canonical element for the quantum double is used to introduce the holomorphic coordinates on a general quantum dressing orbit and interpret the coherent state as a holomorphic function on this orbit with values in the carrier Hilbert space of an irreducible representation of the corresponding quantized enveloping algebra. Using Gauss decomposition, the commutation relations for the holomorphic coordinates on the dressing orbit are derived explicitly and given in a compact R--matrix formulation (generalizing this way the q--deformed Grassmann and flag manifolds). The antiholomorphic realization of the irreducible representations of a compact quantum group (the analogue of the Borel--Weil construction) are described using the concept of coherent state. The relation between representation theory and non--commutative differential geometry is suggested.}
Solvable model of quantum microcanonical states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bender, Carl M; Brody, Dorje C; Hook, Daniel W
2005-01-01
This letter examines the consequences of a recently proposed modification of the postulate of equal a priori probability in quantum statistical mechanics. This modification, called the quantum microcanonical postulate (QMP), asserts that for a system in microcanonical equilibrium all pure quantum states having the same energy expectation value are realized with equal probability. A simple model of a quantum system that obeys the QMP and that has a nondegenerate spectrum with equally spaced energy eigenvalues is studied. This model admits a closed-form expression for the density of states in terms of the energy eigenvalues. It is shown that in the limit as the number of energy levels approaches infinity, the expression for the density of states converges to a δ function centred at the intermediate value (E max + E min )/2 of the energy. Determining this limit requires an elaborate asymptotic study of an infinite sum whose terms alternate in sign. (letter to the editor)
Dielectronic recombination rate coefficients to excited states of Be-like oxygen
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Murakami, Izumi; Safronova, Ulyana I.; Kato, Takako
2001-05-01
We have calculated energy levels, radiative transition probabilities, and autoionization rates for Be-like oxygen (O{sup 4+}) including ls{sup 2}2lnl' (n=2 - 8, l {<=} n - 1) and 1s{sup 2}3l'nl (n=3 - 6, l {<=} n - l) states by multi-configurational Hartree-Fock method (Cowan code) and perturbation theory Z-expansion method (MZ code). The state selective dielectronic recombination rate coefficients to excited states of Be-like O ions are obtained. Configuration mixing plays an important role for the principal quantum number n distribution of the dielectronic recombination rate coefficients for 2snl (n {<=} 5) levels at low electron temperature. The orbital angular momentum quantum number l distribution of the rate coefficients shows a peak at l = 4. The total dielectronic recombination rate coefficient is derived as a function of electron temperature. (author)
Classical and Quantum-Mechanical State Reconstruction
Khanna, F. C.; Mello, P. A.; Revzen, M.
2012-01-01
The aim of this paper is to present the subject of state reconstruction in classical and in quantum physics, a subject that deals with the experimentally acquired information that allows the determination of the physical state of a system. Our first purpose is to explain a method for retrieving a classical state in phase space, similar to that…
Formation of excited states in high-Z helium-like systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fritzsche, S.; Fricke, B.; Brinzanescu, O.
1999-12-01
High-Z helium-like ions represent the simplest multi-electron systems for studying the interplay between electron-electron correlations, relativistic as well as quantum electrodynamical effects in strong fields. In contrast to the adjacent lithium-like ions, however, almost no experimental information is available about the excited states in the high-Z domain of the helium sequence. Here, we present a theoretical analysis of the X-ray production and decay dynamics of the excited states in helium-like uranium. Emphasize has been paid particularly to the formation of the 3 P 0 and 3 P 2 levels by using electron capture into hydrogen-like U 91+ . Both states are of interest for precise measurements on high-Z helium-like ions in the future. (orig.)
Quantum information processing with graph states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schlingemann, Dirk-Michael
2005-04-01
Graph states are multiparticle states which are associated with graphs. Each vertex of the graph corresponds to a single system or particle. The links describe quantum correlations (entanglement) between pairs of connected particles. Graph states were initiated independently by two research groups: On the one hand, graph states were introduced by Briegel and Raussendorf as a resource for a new model of one-way quantum computing, where algorithms are implemented by a sequence of measurements at single particles. On the other hand, graph states were developed by the author of this thesis and ReinhardWerner in Braunschweig, as a tool to build quantum error correcting codes, called graph codes. The connection between the two approaches was fully realized in close cooperation of both research groups. This habilitation thesis provides a survey of the theory of graph codes, focussing mainly, but not exclusively on the author's own research work. We present the theoretical and mathematical background for the analysis of graph codes. The concept of one-way quantum computing for general graph states is discussed. We explicitly show how to realize the encoding and decoding device of a graph code on a one-way quantum computer. This kind of implementation is to be seen as a mathematical description of a quantum memory device. In addition to that, we investigate interaction processes, which enable the creation of graph states on very large systems. Particular graph states can be created, for instance, by an Ising type interaction between next neighbor particles which sits at the points of an infinitely extended cubic lattice. Based on the theory of quantum cellular automata, we give a constructive characterization of general interactions which create a translationally invariant graph state. (orig.)
Quantum Teleportation of Tripartite Arbitrary State via W State
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XUE Zheng-Yuan; YI You-Min; CAO Zhuo-Liang
2005-01-01
A scheme of teleportation of a tripartite state via W state is suggested. The W state serves as quantum channels. Standard Bell-state measurements and Von Neumann measurements are performed. After the sender operates the measurements and informs the receiver her results, he can reconstruct the original state by the corresponding unitary transformation. The probability of the successful teleportation is also obtained.
Quantum state transfer with untunable couplings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gagnebin, P. K.; Skinner, S. R.; Behrman, E. C.; Steck, J. E.
2007-01-01
We present a general scheme for implementing bidirectional quantum state transfer in a quantum swapping channel. Unlike many other schemes for quantum computation and communication, our method does not require qubit couplings to be switched on and off. The only control variable is the bias acting on individual qubits. We show how to derive the parameters of the system (fixed and variable) such that perfect state transfer can be achieved. Since these parameters vary linearly with the pulse width, our scheme allows flexibility in the time scales under which qubits evolve. Unlike quantum spin networks, our scheme allows the transmission of several quantum states at a time, requiring only a two qubit separation between quantum states. By pulsing the biases of several qubits at the same time, we show that only eight bias control lines are required to achieve state transfer along a channel of arbitrary length. Furthermore, when the information to be transferred is purely classical in nature, only three bias control lines are required, greatly simplifying the circuit complexity
Increased fluorescence of PbS quantum dots in photonic crystals by excitation enhancement
Barth, Carlo; Roder, Sebastian; Brodoceanu, Daniel; Kraus, Tobias; Hammerschmidt, Martin; Burger, Sven; Becker, Christiane
2017-07-01
We report on the enhanced fluorescence of lead sulfide quantum dots interacting with leaky modes of slab-type silicon photonic crystals. The photonic crystal slabs were fabricated, supporting leaky modes in the near infrared wavelength range. Lead sulfite quantum dots which are resonant in the same spectral range were prepared in a thin layer above the slab. We selectively excited the leaky modes by tuning the wavelength and angle of incidence of the laser source and measured distinct resonances of enhanced fluorescence. By an appropriate experiment design, we ruled out directional light extraction effects and determined the impact of enhanced excitation. Three-dimensional numerical simulations consistently explain the experimental findings by strong near-field enhancements in the vicinity of the photonic crystal surface. Our study provides a basis for systematic tailoring of photonic crystals used in biological applications such as biosensing and single molecule detection, as well as quantum dot solar cells and spectral conversion applications.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Naruse, Makoto; Nomura, Wataru; Ohtsu, Motoichi; Aono, Masashi; Sonnefraud, Yannick; Drezet, Aurélien; Huant, Serge; Kim, Song-Ju
2014-01-01
Optical near-field interactions between nanostructured matters, such as quantum dots, result in unidirectional optical excitation transfer when energy dissipation is induced. This results in versatile spatiotemporal dynamics of the optical excitation, which can be controlled by engineering the dissipation processes and exploited to realize intelligent capabilities such as solution searching and decision making. Here, we experimentally demonstrate the ability to solve a decision making problem on the basis of optical excitation transfer via near-field interactions by using colloidal quantum dots of different sizes, formed on a geometry-controlled substrate. We characterize the energy transfer behavior due to multiple control light patterns and experimentally demonstrate the ability to solve the multi-armed bandit problem. Our work makes a decisive step towards the practical design of nanophotonic systems capable of efficient decision making, one of the most important intellectual attributes of the human brain.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Naruse, Makoto, E-mail: naruse@nict.go.jp [Photonic Network Research Institute, National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, 4-2-1 Nukui-kita, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8795 (Japan); Nomura, Wataru; Ohtsu, Motoichi [Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Systems, Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Aono, Masashi [Earth-Life Science Institute, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguru-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi-shi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Sonnefraud, Yannick; Drezet, Aurélien; Huant, Serge [Université Grenoble Alpes, Inst. NEEL, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CNRS, Inst. NEEL, F-38042 Grenoble (France); Kim, Song-Ju [WPI Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan)
2014-10-21
Optical near-field interactions between nanostructured matters, such as quantum dots, result in unidirectional optical excitation transfer when energy dissipation is induced. This results in versatile spatiotemporal dynamics of the optical excitation, which can be controlled by engineering the dissipation processes and exploited to realize intelligent capabilities such as solution searching and decision making. Here, we experimentally demonstrate the ability to solve a decision making problem on the basis of optical excitation transfer via near-field interactions by using colloidal quantum dots of different sizes, formed on a geometry-controlled substrate. We characterize the energy transfer behavior due to multiple control light patterns and experimentally demonstrate the ability to solve the multi-armed bandit problem. Our work makes a decisive step towards the practical design of nanophotonic systems capable of efficient decision making, one of the most important intellectual attributes of the human brain.
Analysis of 165Er excited state properties
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morozov, V.A.; Budzynski, M.
1982-01-01
It is shown by the analysis of 165 Tm decay that the precision measurements of γ-ray and internal conversion electron intensities together with the measurements o.f angular correlation coefficients provide more data for the determination of γ-ray multipole composition and intensities of γ-transitions with small enerqy difference. The spin of the 589.868 ke tate is found to be I=1/2 - . Doublet transitions of different parity from the states 1103.495, 920.645 and 745.968 keV to the levels of the 590 keV region with energy difference ΔE=(108+-22) eV are identified
The Sommerfeld enhancement for dark matter with an excited state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Slatyer, Tracy R.
2010-01-01
We present an analysis of the Sommerfeld enhancement to dark matter annihilation in the presence of an excited state, where the interaction inducing the enhancement is purely off-diagonal, such as in models of exciting or inelastic dark matter. We derive a simple and accurate semi-analytic approximation for the s-wave enhancement, which is valid provided the mass splitting between the ground and excited states is not too large, and discuss the cutoff of the enhancement for large mass splittings. We reproduce previously derived results in the appropriate limits, and demonstrate excellent agreement with numerical calculations of the enhancement. We show that the presence of an excited state leads to generically larger values of the Sommerfeld enhancement, larger resonances, and shifting of the resonances to lower mediator masses. Furthermore, in the presence of a mass splitting the enhancement is no longer a monotonic function of velocity: the enhancement where the kinetic energy is close to that required to excite the higher state can be up to twice as large as the enhancement at zero velocity
Energies and lifetimes of excited states in copperlike Kr VIII
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Livingston, A.E.; Curtis, L.J.; Schectman, R.M.; Berry, H.G.
1980-01-01
The spectrum of Kr VIII has been observed between 180 and 2000 A by using foil excitation of 2.5--3.5-MeV krypton ions. Twenty new transitions have been classified and eleven new excited-state energies have been determined within the n=4 --7 shells. The ionization potential is derived to be 1 015 800 +- 200 cm -1 . The excited-state energies and fine structures are compared with recent relativistic Hartree-Fock calculations. The 4p-state lifetime has been measured by performing a simultaneous analysis of decay data for the 4p level and for its dominant cascade-repopulating levels. The 4p lifetime is found to be 30% shorter than previously measured values and is in excellent agreement with the result of a recent multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock calculation. The source of the discrepancy between this result and earlier measurements is discussed
Method of producing excited states of atomic nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morita, M.; Morita, R.
1976-01-01
A method is claimed of producing excited states of atomic nuclei which comprises bombarding atoms with x rays or electrons, characterized in that (1) in the atoms selected to be produced in the excited state of their nuclei, (a) the difference between the nuclear excitation energy and the difference between the binding energies of adequately selected two electron orbits is small enough to introduce the nuclear excitation by electron transition, and (b) the system of the nucleus and the electrons in the case of ionizing an orbital electron in said atoms should satisfy the spin and parity conservation laws; and (2) the energy of the bombarding x rays or electrons should be larger than the binding energy of one of the said two electron orbits which is located at shorter distance from the atomic nucleus. According to the present invention, atomic nuclei can be excited in a relatively simple manner without requiring the use of large scale apparatus, equipment and production facilities, e.g., factories. It is also possible to produce radioactive substances or separate a particular isotope with an extremely high purity from a mixture of isotopes by utilizing nuclear excitation
On some aspects of Coulomb excitation of nuclear rotational states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Massmann, H.; Robotham, H.
1979-01-01
The Coulomb excitation of nuclear rotational states is studied with a semiclassical method using classical trajectories and the classical action in order to construct the excitation probabilities. This method allows one to consider the effect on the excitation probabilities of a weak nuclear potential. An explicit expression for the 'safe bombarding energy' that is the largest bombarding energy for which the nuclear force can be neglected, is found. Also the transfer of angular momentum to the projectile's orbit is considered. One finds that the dynamical distortion of the orbit has a measurable effect on the excitation probabilities for the case of very heavy ions. Furthermore, new dimensionless parameters measuring the dynamical distortion and the effect of the adiabaticity of the collision are introduced and discussed. (author)
Quantum operations, state transformations and probabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chefles, Anthony
2002-01-01
In quantum operations, probabilities characterize both the degree of the success of a state transformation and, as density operator eigenvalues, the degree of mixedness of the final state. We give a unified treatment of pure→pure state transformations, covering both probabilistic and deterministic cases. We then discuss the role of majorization in describing the dynamics of mixing in quantum operations. The conditions for mixing enhancement for all initial states are derived. We show that mixing is monotonically decreasing for deterministic pure→pure transformations, and discuss the relationship between these transformations and deterministic local operations with classical communication entanglement transformations
Doubly excited circular Ba(6pj, 21c) states: e-e interaction effects in weak external fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, L.; Cheret, M.; Poirier, M.; Roussel, F.; Bolzinger, T.; Spiess, G.
1992-01-01
The behaviour of doubly excited circular atoms in weak parallel electric and magnetic fields has been studied. The Hamiltonian, including the e-e interaction between the two excited electrons, Stark and Zeeman effects, is diagonalized in a truncated basis. The Rydberg electron, initially in a circular state, experiences a mixing of its orbital and magnetic quantum numbers, due to the presence of the external fields and to the excitation of the inner electron. This mixing depends on the spatial symmetry of the excited core and on the amplitude of the electric field. It can be detected by the field-ionization method which provides a new way for studying non-autoionizing doubly excited states. (orig.)
Photoionization of furan from the ground and excited electronic states.
Ponzi, Aurora; Sapunar, Marin; Angeli, Celestino; Cimiraglia, Renzo; Došlić, Nađa; Decleva, Piero
2016-02-28
Here we present a comparative computational study of the photoionization of furan from the ground and the two lowest-lying excited electronic states. The study aims to assess the quality of the computational methods currently employed for treating bound and continuum states in photoionization. For the ionization from the ground electronic state, we show that the Dyson orbital approach combined with an accurate solution of the continuum one particle wave functions in a multicenter B-spline basis, at the density functional theory (DFT) level, provides cross sections and asymmetry parameters in excellent agreement with experimental data. On the contrary, when the Dyson orbitals approach is combined with the Coulomb and orthogonalized Coulomb treatments of the continuum, the results are qualitatively different. In excited electronic states, three electronic structure methods, TDDFT, ADC(2), and CASSCF, have been used for the computation of the Dyson orbitals, while the continuum was treated at the B-spline/DFT level. We show that photoionization observables are sensitive probes of the nature of the excited states as well as of the quality of excited state wave functions. This paves the way for applications in more complex situations such as time resolved photoionization spectroscopy.
Equations of state for self-excited MHD generator studies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rogers, F.J.; Ross, M.; Haggin, G.L.; Wong, L.K.
1980-02-26
We have constructed a state-of-the-art equation of state (EOS) for argon covering the temperature density range attainable by currently proposed self-excited MHD generators. The EOS for conditions in the flow channel was obtained primarily by a non-ideal plasma code (ACTEX) that is based on a many body activity expansion. For conditions in the driver chamber the EOS was primarily obtained from a fluid code (HDFP) that calculates the fluid properties from perturbation theory based on the insulator interatomic pair potential but including electronic excitations. The results are in agreement with several sets of experimental data in the 0.6 - 91 GPa pressure range.
Quantum cloning of mixed states in symmetric subspaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fan Heng
2003-01-01
Quantum-cloning machine for arbitrary mixed states in symmetric subspaces is proposed. This quantum-cloning machine can be used to copy part of the output state of another quantum-cloning machine and is useful in quantum computation and quantum information. The shrinking factor of this quantum cloning achieves the well-known upper bound. When the input is identical pure states, two different fidelities of this cloning machine are optimal
Can $\\beta$-decay probe excited state halos?
2002-01-01
In the first experiment at the newly constructed ISOLDE Facility the first-forbidden $\\beta$-decay of $^{17}$Ne into the first excited state of $^{17}$F has been measured. It is a factor two faster than the corresponding mirror decay and thus gives one of the largest recorded asymmetries for $\\beta$-decays feeding bound final states. Shell-model calculations can only reproduce the asymmetry if the halo structure of the $^{17}$F state is taken into account.
Ab initio excited states from the in-medium similarity renormalization group
Parzuchowski, N. M.; Morris, T. D.; Bogner, S. K.
2017-04-01
We present two new methods for performing ab initio calculations of excited states for closed-shell systems within the in-medium similarity renormalization group (IMSRG) framework. Both are based on combining the IMSRG with simple many-body methods commonly used to target excited states, such as the Tamm-Dancoff approximation (TDA) and equations-of-motion (EOM) techniques. In the first approach, a two-step sequential IMSRG transformation is used to drive the Hamiltonian to a form where a simple TDA calculation (i.e., diagonalization in the space of 1 p 1 h excitations) becomes exact for a subset of eigenvalues. In the second approach, EOM techniques are applied to the IMSRG ground-state-decoupled Hamiltonian to access excited states. We perform proof-of-principle calculations for parabolic quantum dots in two dimensions and the closed-shell nuclei 16O and 22O. We find that the TDA-IMSRG approach gives better accuracy than the EOM-IMSRG when calculations converge, but it is otherwise lacking the versatility and numerical stability of the latter. Our calculated spectra are in reasonable agreement with analogous EOM-coupled-cluster calculations. This work paves the way for more interesting applications of the EOM-IMSRG approach to calculations of consistently evolved observables such as electromagnetic strength functions and nuclear matrix elements, and extensions to nuclei within one or two nucleons of a closed shell by generalizing the EOM ladder operator to include particle-number nonconserving terms.
Entangled exciton states in quantum dot molecules
Bayer, Manfred
2002-03-01
Currently there is strong interest in quantum information processing(See, for example, The Physics of Quantum Information, eds. D. Bouwmeester, A. Ekert and A. Zeilinger (Springer, Berlin, 2000).) in a solid state environment. Many approaches mimic atomic physics concepts in which semiconductor quantum dots are implemented as artificial atoms. An essential building block of a quantum processor is a gate which entangles the states of two quantum bits. Recently a pair of vertically aligned quantum dots has been suggested as optically driven quantum gate(P. Hawrylak, S. Fafard, and Z. R. Wasilewski, Cond. Matter News 7, 16 (1999).)(M. Bayer, P. Hawrylak, K. Hinzer, S. Fafard, M. Korkusinski, Z.R. Wasilewski, O. Stern, and A. Forchel, Science 291, 451 (2001).): The quantum bits are individual carriers either on dot zero or dot one. The different dot indices play the same role as a "spin", therefore we call them "isospin". Quantum mechanical tunneling between the dots rotates the isospin and leads to superposition of these states. The quantum gate is built when two different particles, an electron and a hole, are created optically. The two particles form entangled isospin states. Here we present spectrocsopic studies of single self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum dot molecules that support the feasibility of this proposal. The evolution of the excitonic recombination spectrum with varying separation between the dots allows us to demonstrate coherent tunneling of carriers across the separating barrier and the formation of entangled exciton states: Due to the coupling between the dots the exciton states show a splitting that increases with decreasing barrier width. For barrier widths below 5 nm it exceeds the thermal energy at room temperature. For a given barrier width, we find only small variations of the tunneling induced splitting demonstrating a good homogeneity within a molecule ensemble. The entanglement may be controlled by application of electromagnetic field. For
Threshold quantum state sharing based on entanglement swapping
Qin, Huawang; Tso, Raylin
2018-06-01
A threshold quantum state sharing scheme is proposed. The dealer uses the quantum-controlled-not operations to expand the d-dimensional quantum state and then uses the entanglement swapping to distribute the state to a random subset of participants. The participants use the single-particle measurements and unitary operations to recover the initial quantum state. In our scheme, the dealer can share different quantum states among different subsets of participants simultaneously. So the scheme will be very flexible in practice.
The formation and decay of triply excited He- states in e-He scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heideman, H.G.M.
1988-01-01
A description is given of doubly and triply excited negative-ion states and their effects on the electron impact excitation of atomic states. Mechanisms for indirect excitation of singly excited states are discussed with respect to:- negative-ion resonance, autoionisation and post-collision interaction, and excitation of an autoionising state via a negative ion resonance. A classification of doubly excited states is considered. Experimental results on the excitation of the n'S states of helium as a function of the incident electron energy are presented, along with theoretical PCI (post collision interaction) profiles in excitation functions, and an interpretation of the results. (UK)
Quantum Secure Communication Scheme with W State
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Jian; Zhang Quan; Tang Chaojng
2007-01-01
We present a quantum secure communication scheme using three-qubit W state. It is unnecessary for the present scheme to use alternative measurement or Bell basis measurement. Compared with the quantum secure direct communication scheme proposed by Cao et al. [H.J. Cao and H.S. Song, Chin. Phys. Lett. 23 (2006) 290], in our scheme, the detection probability for an eavesdropper's attack increases from 8.3% to 25%. We also show that our scheme is secure for a noise quantum channel.
Implementing quantum information splitting using a five-partite cluster state in cavity QED
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ye Liu; Song Qingmin; Li Aixia
2010-01-01
We propose an explicit scheme for splitting up quantum information into parts using five-atom cluster states in cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED). It is found that the quantum information splitting of an arbitrary two-atomic state can be realized by using the five-atom cluster state. During the process, the cavity fields are excited only virtually. The scheme is insensitive to cavity decay. Therefore, the scheme can be experimentally realized using a range of current cavity QED techniques. The schemes considered here are also secure against certain eavesdropping attacks.
Electronically excited negative ion resonant states in chloroethylenes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Khvostenko, O.G., E-mail: khv@mail.ru; Lukin, V.G.; Tuimedov, G.M.; Khatymova, L.Z.; Kinzyabulatov, R.R.; Tseplin, E.E.
2015-02-15
Highlights: • Several novel dissociative negative ion channels were revealed in chloroethylenes. • The electronically excited resonant states were recorded in all chloroethylenes under study. • The states were assigned to the inter-shell types, but not to the core-excited Feshbach one. - Abstract: The negative ion mass spectra of the resonant electron capture by molecules of 1,1-dichloroethylene, 1,2-dichloroethylene-cis, 1,2-dichloroethylene-trans, trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene have been recorded in the 0–12 eV range of the captured electron energy using static magnetic sector mass spectrometer modified for operation in the resonant electron capture regime. As a result, several novel low-intensive dissociation channels were revealed in the compounds under study. Additionally, the negative ion resonant states were recorded at approximately 3–12 eV, mostly for the first time. These resonant states were assigned to the electronically excited resonances of the inter-shell type by comparing their energies with those of the parent neutral molecules triplet and singlet electronically excited states known from the energy-loss spectra obtained by previous studies.
Excited State Structural Dynamics of Carotenoids and Charge Transfer Systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Van Tassle, Aaron Justin
2006-01-01
This dissertation describes the development and implementation of a visible/near infrared pump/mid-infrared probe apparatus. Chapter 1 describes the background and motivation of investigating optically induced structural dynamics, paying specific attention to solvation and the excitation selection rules of highly symmetric molecules such as carotenoids. Chapter 2 describes the development and construction of the experimental apparatus used throughout the remainder of this dissertation. Chapter 3 will discuss the investigation of DCM, a laser dye with a fluorescence signal resulting from a charge transfer state. By studying the dynamics of DCM and of its methyl deuterated isotopomer (an otherwise identical molecule), we are able to investigate the origins of the charge transfer state and provide evidence that it is of the controversial twisted intramolecular (TICT) type. Chapter 4 introduces the use of two-photon excitation to the S1 state, combined with one-photon excitation to the S2 state of the carotenoid beta-apo-8'-carotenal. These 2 investigations show evidence for the formation of solitons, previously unobserved in molecular systems and found only in conducting polymers Chapter 5 presents an investigation of the excited state dynamics of peridinin, the carotenoid responsible for the light harvesting of dinoflagellates. This investigation allows for a more detailed understanding of the importance of structural dynamics of carotenoids in light harvesting
Observability of Quantum State of Black Hole
David, J R; Mandal, G; Wadia, S R; David, Justin R.; Dhar, Avinash; Mandal, Gautam; Wadia, Spenta R.
1997-01-01
We analyze terms subleading to Rutherford in the $S$-matrix between black hole and probes of successively high energies. We show that by an appropriate choice of the probe one can read off the quantum state of the black hole from the S-matrix, staying asymptotically far from the BH all the time. We interpret the scattering experiment as scattering off classical stringy backgrounds which explicitly depend on the internal quantum numbers of the black hole.
Fidelity induced distance measures for quantum states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ma Zhihao; Zhang Fulin; Chen Jingling
2009-01-01
Fidelity plays an important role in quantum information theory. In this Letter, we introduce new metric of quantum states induced by fidelity, and connect it with the well-known trace metric, Sine metric and Bures metric for the qubit case. The metric character is also presented for the qudit (i.e., d-dimensional system) case. The CPT contractive property and joint convex property of the metric are also studied.
Absence of quantized energy-states local diffusion in semiconductor quantum-dash structures
Tan, Cheeloon
2010-01-01
We present an analysis of InAs/InAlGaAs/InP quantum-dash structures utilizing different degrees of postgrowth-lattice-disordering. The observation of digital transitions among quantized states discards the origins of multiple excited states from a single group of dash ensembles.
Distinguishing computable mixtures of quantum states
Grande, Ignacio H. López; Senno, Gabriel; de la Torre, Gonzalo; Larotonda, Miguel A.; Bendersky, Ariel; Figueira, Santiago; Acín, Antonio
2018-05-01
In this article we extend results from our previous work [Bendersky et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 230402 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.230402] by providing a protocol to distinguish in finite time and with arbitrarily high success probability any algorithmic mixture of pure states from the maximally mixed state. Moreover, we include an experimental realization, using a modified quantum key distribution setup, where two different random sequences of pure states are prepared; these sequences are indistinguishable according to quantum mechanics, but they become distinguishable when randomness is replaced with pseudorandomness within the experimental preparation process.
Duality constructions from quantum state manifolds
Kriel, J. N.; van Zyl, H. J. R.; Scholtz, F. G.
2015-11-01
The formalism of quantum state space geometry on manifolds of generalised coherent states is proposed as a natural setting for the construction of geometric dual descriptions of non-relativistic quantum systems. These state manifolds are equipped with natural Riemannian and symplectic structures derived from the Hilbert space inner product. This approach allows for the systematic construction of geometries which reflect the dynamical symmetries of the quantum system under consideration. We analyse here in detail the two dimensional case and demonstrate how existing results in the AdS 2 /CF T 1 context can be understood within this framework. We show how the radial/bulk coordinate emerges as an energy scale associated with a regularisation procedure and find that, under quite general conditions, these state manifolds are asymptotically anti-de Sitter solutions of a class of classical dilaton gravity models. For the model of conformal quantum mechanics proposed by de Alfaro et al. [1] the corresponding state manifold is seen to be exactly AdS 2 with a scalar curvature determined by the representation of the symmetry algebra. It is also shown that the dilaton field itself is given by the quantum mechanical expectation values of the dynamical symmetry generators and as a result exhibits dynamics equivalent to that of a conformal mechanical system.
Quantum communication with coherent states of light
Khan, Imran; Elser, Dominique; Dirmeier, Thomas; Marquardt, Christoph; Leuchs, Gerd
2017-06-01
Quantum communication offers long-term security especially, but not only, relevant to government and industrial users. It is worth noting that, for the first time in the history of cryptographic encoding, we are currently in the situation that secure communication can be based on the fundamental laws of physics (information theoretical security) rather than on algorithmic security relying on the complexity of algorithms, which is periodically endangered as standard computer technology advances. On a fundamental level, the security of quantum key distribution (QKD) relies on the non-orthogonality of the quantum states used. So even coherent states are well suited for this task, the quantum states that largely describe the light generated by laser systems. Depending on whether one uses detectors resolving single or multiple photon states or detectors measuring the field quadratures, one speaks of, respectively, a discrete- or a continuous-variable description. Continuous-variable QKD with coherent states uses a technology that is very similar to the one employed in classical coherent communication systems, the backbone of today's Internet connections. Here, we review recent developments in this field in two connected regimes: (i) improving QKD equipment by implementing front-end telecom devices and (ii) research into satellite QKD for bridging long distances by building upon existing optical satellite links. This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantum technology for the 21st century'.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhdanovich, S.; Shapiro, E. A.; Shapiro, M.; Hepburn, J. W.; Milner, V.
2008-01-01
We propose and experimentally demonstrate the method of population transfer by piecewise adiabatic passage between two quantum states. Coherent excitation of a two-level system with a train of ultrashort laser pulses is shown to reproduce the effect of an adiabatic passage, conventionally achieved with a single frequency-chirped pulse. By properly adjusting the amplitudes and phases of the pulses in the excitation pulse train, we achieve complete and robust population transfer to the target state. The piecewise nature of the process suggests a possibility for the selective population transfer in complex quantum systems
A Scheme of Controlled Quantum State Swapping
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zha Xinwei; Zou Zhichun; Qi Jianxia; Song Haiyang
2012-01-01
A scheme for controlled quantum state swapping is presented using maximally entangled five-qubit state, i.e., Alice wants to transmit an entangled state of particle a to Bob and at the same time Bob wants to transmit an entangled state of particle b to Alice via the control of the supervisor Charlie. The operations used in this swapping process including C-not operation and a series of single-qubit measurements performed by Alice, Bob, and Charlie.
Quantum state sharing against the controller's cheating
Shi, Run-hua; Zhong, Hong; Huang, Liu-sheng
2013-08-01
Most existing QSTS schemes are equivalent to the controlled teleportation, in which a designated agent (i.e., the recoverer) can recover the teleported state with the help of the controllers. However, the controller may attempt to cheat the recoverer during the phase of recovering the secret state. How can we detect this cheating? In this paper, we considered the problem of detecting the controller's cheating in Quantum State Sharing, and further proposed an effective Quantum State Sharing scheme against the controller's cheating. We cleverly use Quantum Secret Sharing, Multiple Quantum States Sharing and decoy-particle techniques. In our scheme, via a previously shared entanglement state Alice can teleport multiple arbitrary multi-qubit states to Bob with the help of Charlie. Furthermore, by the classical information shared previously, Alice and Bob can check whether there is any cheating of Charlie. In addition, our scheme only needs to perform Bell-state and single-particle measurements, and to apply C-NOT gate and other single-particle unitary operations. With the present techniques, it is feasible to implement these necessary measurements and operations.
Quantum teleportation of entangled squeezed vacuum states
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
蔡新华
2003-01-01
An optical scheme for probabilistic teleporting entangled squeezed vacuum states (SVS) is proposed. In this scheme,the teleported state is a bipartite entangled SVS,and the quantum channel is a tripartite entangled SVS.The process of the teleportation is achieved by using a 50/50 symmetric beamsplitter and photon detectors with the help of classical information.
On satellite lines anomalies in OH excited states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Elitzur, M.
1976-01-01
It is argued that different pumps produce similar distributions of populations in the first two excited states of OH. The pattern observed recently in G 219.3 - 07 by Whiteoak and Gardner can be due either to radiative or collisional pump. (author)
Core excitations to the low lying states of thallium isotopes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gruenbaum, L.; Tomaselli, M.; Herold, D.
1977-08-01
The admixture of core excitations to the low lying states of A = 203 and A = 205 thallium isotopes has been calculated. The wave functions obtained reproduce the electromagnetic properties as well as the hyperfine splittings and the isomershifts of both thallium isotopes. (orig.) [de
Excited state intramolecular charge transfer reaction in non-aqueous ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
polar phase and thus leading to less swelling of reverse .... ues were restricted up to the limit at which no phase separation was ..... The lower panel of figure 1 also indicates that the slopes of ... probe in its ground and excited states.55.
Size dependent deactivation of the excited state of DHICA
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gauden, Magdalena; Pezzella, Alessandro; Panzella, Lucia
2008-01-01
Melanin is a natural pigment mainly responsible for the protection of skin and eyes from UV damage. 5,6- dihydroxyindole- 2 carboxylic acid (DHICA) is a key melanin building block. We have investigated the excited state dynamics of DHICA as well as its derivatives and oligomeric units using...
Optimal control of peridinin excited-state dynamics
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Dietzek, B.; Chábera, P.; Hanf, R.; Tschierlei, S.; Popp, J.; Pascher, T.; Yartsev, A.; Polívka, Tomáš
2010-01-01
Roč. 373, 1-2 (2010), s. 129-136 ISSN 0301-0104 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : peridin * excited-state dynamics * coherent control Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.017, year: 2010
Dark excited states of carotenoids: Consensus and controversy
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Polívka, Tomáš; Sundström, V.
2009-01-01
Roč. 477, 1-3 (2009), s. 1-11 ISSN 0009-2614 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : carotenoids * excited states * relaxation pathways * femtosecond spectroscopy Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.291, year: 2009
Quantum information processing with mesoscopic photonic states
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Lars Skovgaard
2012-01-01
photon numbers and the states where one of Stokes parameters is highly excited. To describe the polarization of these state we introduce several new polarization measures which take into account the covariance of the polarization and resolve the polarization manifolds. We experimentally demonstrate...
Engineering quantum hyperentangled states in atomic systems
Nawaz, Mehwish; -Islam, Rameez-ul; Abbas, Tasawar; Ikram, Manzoor
2017-11-01
Hyperentangled states have boosted many quantum informatics tasks tremendously due to their high information content per quantum entity. Until now, however, the engineering and manipulation of such states were limited to photonic systems only. In present article, we propose generating atomic hyperentanglement involving atomic internal states as well as atomic external momenta states. Hypersuperposition, hyperentangled cluster, Bell and Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states are engineered deterministically through resonant and off-resonant Bragg diffraction of neutral two-level atoms. Based on the characteristic parameters of the atomic Bragg diffraction, such as comparatively large interaction times and spatially well-separated outputs, such decoherence resistant states are expected to exhibit good overall fidelities and offer the evident benefits of full controllability, along with extremely high detection efficiency, over the counterpart photonic states comprised entirely of flying qubits.
Memory-assisted quantum key distribution resilient against multiple-excitation effects
Lo Piparo, Nicolò; Sinclair, Neil; Razavi, Mohsen
2018-01-01
Memory-assisted measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MA-MDI-QKD) has recently been proposed as a technique to improve the rate-versus-distance behavior of QKD systems by using existing, or nearly-achievable, quantum technologies. The promise is that MA-MDI-QKD would require less demanding quantum memories than the ones needed for probabilistic quantum repeaters. Nevertheless, early investigations suggest that, in order to beat the conventional memory-less QKD schemes, the quantum memories used in the MA-MDI-QKD protocols must have high bandwidth-storage products and short interaction times. Among different types of quantum memories, ensemble-based memories offer some of the required specifications, but they typically suffer from multiple excitation effects. To avoid the latter issue, in this paper, we propose two new variants of MA-MDI-QKD both relying on single-photon sources for entangling purposes. One is based on known techniques for entanglement distribution in quantum repeaters. This scheme turns out to offer no advantage even if one uses ideal single-photon sources. By finding the root cause of the problem, we then propose another setup, which can outperform single memory-less setups even if we allow for some imperfections in our single-photon sources. For such a scheme, we compare the key rate for different types of ensemble-based memories and show that certain classes of atomic ensembles can improve the rate-versus-distance behavior.
Calculation of neutral beam deposition accounting for excited states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gianakon, T.A.
1992-09-01
Large-scale neutral-beam auxillary heating of plasmas has led to new plasma operational regimes which are often dominated by fast ions injected via the absorption of an energetic beam of hydrogen neutrals. An accurate simulation of the slowing down and transport of these fast ions requires an intimate knowledge of the hydrogenic neutral deposition on each flux surface of the plasma. As a refinement to the present generation of transport codes, which base their beam deposition on ground-state reaction rates, a new set of routines, based on the excited states of hydrogen, is presented as mechanism for computing the attenuation and deposition of a beam of energetic neutrals. Additionally, the numerical formulations for the underlying atomic physics for hydrogen impacting on the constiuent plasma species is developed and compiled as a numerical database. Sample results based on this excited state model are compared with the ground-state model for simple plasma configurations
Sub-50 fs excited state dynamics of 6-chloroguanine upon deep ultraviolet excitation.
Mondal, Sayan; Puranik, Mrinalini
2016-05-18
The photophysical properties of natural nucleobases and their respective nucleotides are ascribed to the sub-picosecond lifetime of their first singlet states in the UV-B region (260-350 nm). Electronic transitions of the ππ* type, which are stronger than those in the UV-B region, lie at the red edge of the UV-C range (100-260 nm) in all isolated nucleobases. The lowest energetic excited states in the UV-B region of nucleobases have been investigated using a plethora of experimental and theoretical methods in gas and solution phases. The sub-picosecond lifetime of these molecules is not a general attribute of all nucleobases but specific to the five primary nucleobases and a few xanthine and methylated derivatives. To determine the overall UV photostability, we aim to understand the effect of more energetic photons lying in the UV-C region on nucleobases. To determine the UV-C initiated photophysics of a nucleobase system, we chose a halogen substituted purine, 6-chloroguanine (6-ClG), that we had investigated previously using resonance Raman spectroscopy. We have performed quantitative measurements of the resonance Raman cross-section across the Bb absorption band (210-230 nm) and constructed the Raman excitation profiles. We modeled the excitation profiles using Lee and Heller's time-dependent theory of resonance Raman intensities to extract the initial excited state dynamics of 6-ClG within 30-50 fs after photoexcitation. We found that imidazole and pyrimidine rings of 6-ClG undergo expansion and contraction, respectively, following photoexcitation to the Bb state. The amount of distortions of the excited state structure from that of the ground state structure is reflected by the total internal reorganization energy that is determined at 112 cm(-1). The contribution of the inertial component of the solvent response towards the total reorganization energy was obtained at 1220 cm(-1). In addition, our simulation also yields an instantaneous response of the first
Wang, Lin; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Hu, Yibin; Wang, Shao-Wei; Lu, Wei
2015-04-28
Plasma waves in graphene field-effect transistors (FETs) and nano-patterned graphene sheets have emerged as very promising candidates for potential terahertz and infrared applications in myriad areas including remote sensing, biomedical science, military, and many other fields with their electrical tunability and strong interaction with light. In this work, we study the excitations and propagation properties of plasma waves in nanometric graphene FETs down to the scaling limit. Due to the quantum-capacitance effect, the plasma wave exhibits strong correlation with the distribution of density of states (DOS). It is indicated that the electrically tunable plasma resonance has a power-dependent V0.8 TG relation on the gate voltage, which originates from the linear dependence of density of states (DOS) on the energy in pristine graphene, in striking difference to those dominated by classical capacitance with only V0.5 TG dependence. The results of different transistor sizes indicate the potential application of nanometric graphene FETs in highly-efficient electro-optic modulation or detection of terahertz or infrared radiation. In addition, we highlight the perspectives of plasma resonance excitation in probing the many-body interaction and quantum matter state in strong correlation electron systems. This study reveals the key feature of plasma waves in decorated/nanometric graphene FETs, and paves the way to tailor plasma band-engineering and expand its application in both terahertz and mid-infrared regions.
Environment-assisted Quantum Critical Effect for Excitation Energy Transfer in a LH2-type Trimer
Xu, Lan; Xu, Bo
2015-10-01
In this article, we are investigating excitation energy transfer (EET) in a basic unit cell of light-harvesting complex II (LH2), named a LH2-type trimer. Calculation of energy transfer efficiency (ETE) in the framework of non-Markovian environment is also implemented. With these achievements, we theoretically predict the environment-assisted quantum critical effect, where ETE exhibits a sudden change at the critical point of quantum phase transition (QPT) for the LH2-type trimer. It is found that highly efficient EET with nearly unit efficiency may occur in the vicinity of the critical point of QPT.
Quantum Correlations in Mixed-State Metrology
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kavan Modi
2011-12-01
Full Text Available We analyze the effects of quantum correlations, such as entanglement and discord, on the efficiency of phase estimation by studying four quantum circuits that can be readily implemented using NMR techniques. These circuits define a standard strategy of repeated single-qubit measurements, a classical strategy where only classical correlations are allowed, and two quantum strategies where nonclassical correlations are allowed. In addition to counting space (number of qubits and time (number of gates requirements, we introduce mixedness as a key constraint of the experiment. We compare the efficiency of the four strategies as a function of the mixedness parameter. We find that the quantum strategy gives sqrt[N] enhancement over the standard strategy for the same amount of mixedness. This result applies even for highly mixed states that have nonclassical correlations but no entanglement.
N multipartite GHZ states in quantum networks
Caprara Vivoli, Valentina; Wehner, Stephanie
Nowadays progress in experimental quantum physics has brought to a significant control on systems like nitrogen-vacancy centres, ion traps, and superconducting qubit clusters. These systems can constitute the key cells of future quantum networks, where tasks like quantum communication at large scale and quantum cryptography can be achieved. It is, though, still not clear which approaches can be used to generate such entanglement at large distances using only local operations on or between at most two adjacent nodes. Here, we analyse three protocols that are able to generate genuine multipartite entanglement between an arbitrary large number of parties. In particular, we focus on the generation of the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state. Moreover, the performances of the three methods are numerically compared in the scenario of a decoherence model both in terms of fidelity and entanglement generation rate. V.C.V. is founded by a NWO Vidi Grant, and S.W. is founded by STW Netherlands.
Parallel state transfer and efficient quantum routing on quantum networks.
Chudzicki, Christopher; Strauch, Frederick W
2010-12-31
We study the routing of quantum information in parallel on multidimensional networks of tunable qubits and oscillators. These theoretical models are inspired by recent experiments in superconducting circuits. We show that perfect parallel state transfer is possible for certain networks of harmonic oscillator modes. We extend this to the distribution of entanglement between every pair of nodes in the network, finding that the routing efficiency of hypercube networks is optimal and robust in the presence of dissipation and finite bandwidth.
Exotic states in quantum nanostructures
2002-01-01
Mesoscopic physics has made great strides in the last few years It is an area of research that is attractive to many graduate students of theoretical condensed matter physics The techniques that are needed to understand it go beyond the conventional perturbative approaches that still form the bulk of the graduate lectures that are given to students Even when the non-perturbative techniques are presented, they often are presented within an abstract context It is important to have lectures given by experts in the field, which present both theory and experiment in an illuminating and inspiring way, so that the impact of new methodology on novel physics is clear It is an apt time to have such a volume since the field has reached a level of maturity The pedagogical nature of the articles and the variety of topics makes it an important resource for newcomers to the field The topics range from the newly emerging area of quantum computers and quantum information using Josephson junctions to the formal mathematical me...
Frequencies of the Edge-Magnetoplasmon Excitations in Gated Quantum Hall Edges
Endo, Akira; Koike, Keita; Katsumoto, Shingo; Iye, Yasuhiro
2018-06-01
We have investigated microwave transmission through the edge of quantum Hall systems by employing a coplanar waveguide (CPW) fabricated on the surface of a GaAs/AlGaAs two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) wafer. An edge is introduced to the slot region of the CPW by applying a negative bias Vg to the central electrode (CE) and depleting the 2DEG below the CE. We observe peaks attributable to the excitation of edge magnetoplasmons (EMP) at a fundamental frequency f0 and at its harmonics if0 (i = 2,3, \\ldots ). The frequency f0 increases with decreasing Vg, indicating that EMP propagates with higher velocity for more negative Vg. The dependence of f0 on Vg is interpreted in terms of the variation in the distance between the edge state and the CE, which alters the velocity by varying the capacitive coupling between them. The peaks are observed to continue, albeit with less clarity, up to the regions of Vg where 2DEG still remains below the CE.
Projective loop quantum gravity. I. State space
Lanéry, Suzanne; Thiemann, Thomas
2016-12-01
Instead of formulating the state space of a quantum field theory over one big Hilbert space, it has been proposed by Kijowski to describe quantum states as projective families of density matrices over a collection of smaller, simpler Hilbert spaces. Beside the physical motivations for this approach, it could help designing a quantum state space holding the states we need. In a latter work by Okolów, the description of a theory of Abelian connections within this framework was developed, an important insight being to use building blocks labeled by combinations of edges and surfaces. The present work generalizes this construction to an arbitrary gauge group G (in particular, G is neither assumed to be Abelian nor compact). This involves refining the definition of the label set, as well as deriving explicit formulas to relate the Hilbert spaces attached to different labels. If the gauge group happens to be compact, we also have at our disposal the well-established Ashtekar-Lewandowski Hilbert space, which is defined as an inductive limit using building blocks labeled by edges only. We then show that the quantum state space presented here can be thought as a natural extension of the space of density matrices over this Hilbert space. In addition, it is manifest from the classical counterparts of both formalisms that the projective approach allows for a more balanced treatment of the holonomy and flux variables, so it might pave the way for the development of more satisfactory coherent states.
Highly excited bound-state resonances of short-range inverse power-law potentials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hod, Shahar [The Ruppin Academic Center, Emeq Hefer (Israel); The Hadassah Academic College, Jerusalem (Israel)
2017-11-15
We study analytically the radial Schroedinger equation with long-range attractive potentials whose asymptotic behaviors are dominated by inverse power-law tails of the form V(r) = -β{sub n}r{sup -n} with n > 2. In particular, assuming that the effective radial potential is characterized by a short-range infinitely repulsive core of radius R, we derive a compact analytical formula for the threshold energy E{sub l}{sup max} = E{sub l}{sup max}(n, β{sub n}, R), which characterizes the most weakly bound-state resonance (the most excited energy level) of the quantum system. (orig.)
Theory of collisional excitation transition between Rydberg states of atoms. Non-inertial mechanism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaulakys, B.P.
1982-01-01
The transitions between highly states of an atom due to the collision of its core with another atom are considered. The cross sections of the change of highly excited electron angular momentum, in the case of the transitions when the main quantum number is constant, are expressed in terms of transport cross sections of the perturbing atom scattering on the ion of Rydberg atom. It is shown that the cross sections of the momentum mixing at thermal rapidities are lower than the cross sections of the atom-ion elastic scattering
Triplet excited state properties in variable gap π-conjugated donor–acceptor–donor chromophores
Cekli, Seda; Winkel, Russell W.; Alarousu, Erkki; Mohammed, Omar F.; Schanze, Kirk S.
2016-01-01
A series of variable band-gap donor–acceptor–donor (DAD) chromophores capped with platinum(II) acetylide units has been synthesized and fully characterized by electrochemical and photophysical methods, with particular emphasis placed on probing triplet excited state properties. A counter-intuitive trend of increasing fluorescence quantum efficiency and lifetime with decreasing excited state energy (optical gap) is observed across the series of DAD chromophores. Careful study of the excited state dynamics, including triplet yields (as inferred from singlet oxygen sensitization), reveals that the underlying origin of the unusual trend in the fluorescence parameters is that the singlet–triplet intersystem crossing rate and yield decrease with decreasing optical gap. It is concluded that the rate of intersystem crossing decreases as the LUMO is increasingly localized on the acceptor unit in the DAD chromophore, and this result is interpreted as arising because the extent of spin–orbit coupling induced by the platinum heavy metal centers decreases as the LUMO is more localized on the acceptor. In addition to the trend in intersystem crossing, the results show that the triplet decay rates follow the Energy Gap Law correlation over a 1.8 eV range of triplet energy and 1000-fold range of triplet decay rates. Finally, femtosecond transient absorption studies for the DAD chromophores reveals a strong absorption in the near-infrared region which is attributed to the singlet excited state. This spectral band appears to be general for DAD chromophores, and may be a signature of the charge transfer (CT) singlet excited state.
Picosecond spectral relaxation of curcumin excited state in toluene–alcohol mixtures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saini, R.K.; Das, K., E-mail: kaustuv@rrcat.gov.in
2013-12-15
Excited state photophysics of Curcumin in a binary solvent mixture of toluene and five different alcohols (Methanol, Ethanol, 1-Propanol, 1-Butanol and 1-Octanol) are compared with an instrument time resolution of ∼40 ps. As the alcohol mole-fraction is varied from zero to unity, the observed trends in the fluorescence quantum yield and lifetime of the pigment in toluene–alcohol mixtures changes significantly in going from Methanol to 1-Octanol. This is attributed to the different degree of modulation of the non-radiative rates associated with the excited state intermolecular H bonding between the pigment and the alcohol. Fluorescence decays taken at the red edge of the emission spectrum started to show measurable rise times (200–30 ps) the magnitude of which decreased gradually with increasing alcohol mole-fraction. As a consequence the solvation times in the binary mixture were observed to slow down considerably at certain solvent compositions compared to that in neat alcohol. However, in toluene-1-Octanol mixture, the rise times and corresponding solvation times did not show a dependence on the 1-Octanol mole-fraction. The observed results suggest that viscosity, polarity and hydrogen bonding property of the alcohol solvent plays an important role in the excited state processes of the pigment in toluene–alcohol mixture. -- Highlights: • Excited state photophysics of Curcumin in a binary solvent mixture of toluene and five different alcohols were studied. • The observed trends in the fluorescence properties are attributed to intermolecular H bonding between the pigment and the alcohol. • Except 1-Octanol, the average solvation times of the pigment were observed to depend upon alcohol mole-fraction. • Viscosity, polarity and hydrogen bonding play an important role in the excited state processes of the pigment.
Triplet excited state properties in variable gap π-conjugated donor–acceptor–donor chromophores
Cekli, Seda
2016-02-12
A series of variable band-gap donor–acceptor–donor (DAD) chromophores capped with platinum(II) acetylide units has been synthesized and fully characterized by electrochemical and photophysical methods, with particular emphasis placed on probing triplet excited state properties. A counter-intuitive trend of increasing fluorescence quantum efficiency and lifetime with decreasing excited state energy (optical gap) is observed across the series of DAD chromophores. Careful study of the excited state dynamics, including triplet yields (as inferred from singlet oxygen sensitization), reveals that the underlying origin of the unusual trend in the fluorescence parameters is that the singlet–triplet intersystem crossing rate and yield decrease with decreasing optical gap. It is concluded that the rate of intersystem crossing decreases as the LUMO is increasingly localized on the acceptor unit in the DAD chromophore, and this result is interpreted as arising because the extent of spin–orbit coupling induced by the platinum heavy metal centers decreases as the LUMO is more localized on the acceptor. In addition to the trend in intersystem crossing, the results show that the triplet decay rates follow the Energy Gap Law correlation over a 1.8 eV range of triplet energy and 1000-fold range of triplet decay rates. Finally, femtosecond transient absorption studies for the DAD chromophores reveals a strong absorption in the near-infrared region which is attributed to the singlet excited state. This spectral band appears to be general for DAD chromophores, and may be a signature of the charge transfer (CT) singlet excited state.
Picosecond spectral relaxation of curcumin excited state in toluene–alcohol mixtures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saini, R.K.; Das, K.
2013-01-01
Excited state photophysics of Curcumin in a binary solvent mixture of toluene and five different alcohols (Methanol, Ethanol, 1-Propanol, 1-Butanol and 1-Octanol) are compared with an instrument time resolution of ∼40 ps. As the alcohol mole-fraction is varied from zero to unity, the observed trends in the fluorescence quantum yield and lifetime of the pigment in toluene–alcohol mixtures changes significantly in going from Methanol to 1-Octanol. This is attributed to the different degree of modulation of the non-radiative rates associated with the excited state intermolecular H bonding between the pigment and the alcohol. Fluorescence decays taken at the red edge of the emission spectrum started to show measurable rise times (200–30 ps) the magnitude of which decreased gradually with increasing alcohol mole-fraction. As a consequence the solvation times in the binary mixture were observed to slow down considerably at certain solvent compositions compared to that in neat alcohol. However, in toluene-1-Octanol mixture, the rise times and corresponding solvation times did not show a dependence on the 1-Octanol mole-fraction. The observed results suggest that viscosity, polarity and hydrogen bonding property of the alcohol solvent plays an important role in the excited state processes of the pigment in toluene–alcohol mixture. -- Highlights: • Excited state photophysics of Curcumin in a binary solvent mixture of toluene and five different alcohols were studied. • The observed trends in the fluorescence properties are attributed to intermolecular H bonding between the pigment and the alcohol. • Except 1-Octanol, the average solvation times of the pigment were observed to depend upon alcohol mole-fraction. • Viscosity, polarity and hydrogen bonding play an important role in the excited state processes of the pigment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prati, Enrico
2015-01-01
Long living coherent quantum states have been observed in biological systems up to room temperature. Light harvesting in chromophoresis realized by excitonic systems living at the edge of quantum chaos, where energy level distribution becomes semi-Poissonian. On the other hand, artificial materials suffer the loss of coherence of quantum states in quantum information processing, but semiconductor materials are known to exhibit quantum chaotic conditions, so the exploitation of similar conditions are to be considered. The advancements of nanofabrication, together with the control of implantation of individual atoms at nanometric precision, may open the experimental study of such special regime at the edge of the phase transitions for the electronic systems obtained by implanting impurity atoms in a silicon transistor. Here I review the recent advancements made in the field of theoretical description of the light harvesting in biological system in its connection with phase transitions at the few atoms scale and how it would be possible to achieve transition point to quantum chaotic regime. Such mechanism may thus preserve quantum coherent states at room temperature in solid state devices, to be exploited for quantum information processing as well as dissipation-free quantum electronics. (paper)
Quantum state propagation in linear photonic bandgap structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Severini, S; Tricca, D; Sibilia, C; Bertolotti, M; Perina, Jan
2004-01-01
In this paper we investigate the propagation of a generic quantum state in a corrugated waveguide, which reproduces a photonic bandgap structure. We find the conditions that assure the outcoming state to preserve the quantum properties of the incoming state. Then, focusing on a particular quantum state (realized by two counter-propagating coherent states), we study the possibility of preserving the quantum properties of this particular double coherent state even in the presence of absorption phenomena during propagation in the structure
Electronic states in a quantum lens
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodriguez, Arezky H.; Trallero-Giner, C.; Ulloa, S. E.; Marin-Antuna, J.
2001-01-01
We present a model to find analytically the electronic states in self-assembled quantum dots with a truncated spherical cap (''lens'') geometry. A conformal analytical image is designed to map the quantum dot boundary into a dot with semispherical shape. The Hamiltonian for a carrier confined in the quantum lens is correspondingly mapped into an equivalent operator and its eigenvalues and eigenfunctions for the corresponding Dirichlet problem are analyzed. A modified Rayleigh-Schro''dinger perturbation theory is presented to obtain analytical expressions for the energy levels and wave functions as a function of the spherical cap height b and radius a of the circular cross section. Calculations for a hard wall confinement potential are presented, and the effect of decreasing symmetry on the energy values and eigenfunctions of the lens-shape quantum dot is studied. As the degeneracies of a semicircular geometry are broken for b≠a, our perturbation approach allows tracking of the split states. Energy states and electronic wave functions with m=0 present the most pronounced influence on the reduction of the lens height. The method and expressions presented here can be straightforwardly extended to deal with more general Hamiltonians, including strains and valence-band coupling effects in Group III--V and Group II--VI self-assembled quantum dots
Communication: Fully coherent quantum state hopping
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martens, Craig C., E-mail: cmartens@uci.edu [University of California, Irvine, California 92697-2025 (United States)
2015-10-14
In this paper, we describe a new and fully coherent stochastic surface hopping method for simulating mixed quantum-classical systems. We illustrate the approach on the simple but unforgiving problem of quantum evolution of a two-state quantum system in the limit of unperturbed pure state dynamics and for dissipative evolution in the presence of both stationary and nonstationary random environments. We formulate our approach in the Liouville representation and describe the density matrix elements by ensembles of trajectories. Population dynamics are represented by stochastic surface hops for trajectories representing diagonal density matrix elements. These are combined with an unconventional coherent stochastic hopping algorithm for trajectories representing off-diagonal quantum coherences. The latter generalizes the binary (0,1) “probability” of a trajectory to be associated with a given state to allow integers that can be negative or greater than unity in magnitude. Unlike existing surface hopping methods, the dynamics of the ensembles are fully entangled, correctly capturing the coherent and nonlocal structure of quantum mechanics.
Clustered chimera states in systems of type-I excitability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vüllings, Andrea; Omelchenko, Iryna; Hövel, Philipp; Hizanidis, Johanne
2014-01-01
The chimera state is a fascinating phenomenon of coexisting synchronized and desynchronized behaviour that was discovered in networks of nonlocally coupled identical phase oscillators over ten years ago. Since then, chimeras have been found in numerous theoretical and experimental studies and more recently in models of neuronal dynamics as well. In this work, we consider a generic model for a saddle-node bifurcation on a limit cycle representative of neural excitability type I. We obtain chimera states with multiple coherent regions (clustered chimeras/multi-chimeras) depending on the distance from the excitability threshold, the range of nonlocal coupling and the coupling strength. A detailed stability diagram for these chimera states and other interesting coexisting patterns (like traveling waves) is presented. (paper)
Deciphering excited state evolution in halorhodopsin with stimulated emission pumping.
Bismuth, Oshrat; Komm, Pavel; Friedman, Noga; Eliash, Tamar; Sheves, Mordechai; Ruhman, Sanford
2010-03-04
The primary photochemical dynamics of Hb. pharaonis Halorhodopsin (pHR) are investigated by femtosecond visible pump-near IR dump-hyperspectral probe spectroscopy. The efficiency of excited state depletion is deduced from transient changes in absorption, recorded with and without stimulated emission pumping (SEP), as a function of the dump delay. The concomitant reduction of photocycle population is assessed by probing the "K" intermediate difference spectrum. Results show that the cross section for stimulating emission is nearly constant throughout the fluorescent state lifetime. Probing "K" demonstrates that dumping produces a proportionate reduction in photocycle yields. We conclude that, despite its nonexponential internal conversion (IC) kinetics, the fluorescent state in pHR constitutes a single intermediate in the photocycle. This contrasts with conclusions drawn from the study of primary events in the related chloride pump from Hb. salinarum (sHR), believed to produce the "K" intermediate from a distinct short-lived subpopulation in the excited state. Our discoveries concerning internal conversion dynamics in pHR are discussed in light of recent expectations for similar excited state dynamics in both proteins.
Controlling excited-state contamination in nucleon matrix elements
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yoon, Boram; Gupta, Rajan; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Engelhardt, Michael; Green, Jeremy; Joó, Bálint; Lin, Huey-Wen; Negele, John; Orginos, Kostas; Pochinsky, Andrew; Richards, David; Syritsyn, Sergey; Winter, Frank
2016-06-01
We present a detailed analysis of methods to reduce statistical errors and excited-state contamination in the calculation of matrix elements of quark bilinear operators in nucleon states. All the calculations were done on a 2+1 flavor ensemble with lattices of size $32^3 \\times 64$ generated using the rational hybrid Monte Carlo algorithm at $a=0.081$~fm and with $M_\\pi=312$~MeV. The statistical precision of the data is improved using the all-mode-averaging method. We compare two methods for reducing excited-state contamination: a variational analysis and a two-state fit to data at multiple values of the source-sink separation $t_{\\rm sep}$. We show that both methods can be tuned to significantly reduce excited-state contamination and discuss their relative advantages and cost-effectiveness. A detailed analysis of the size of source smearing used in the calculation of quark propagators and the range of values of $t_{\\rm sep}$ needed to demonstrate convergence of the isovector charges of the nucleon to the $t_{\\rm sep} \\to \\infty $ estimates is presented.
Symmetry-enhanced supertransfer of delocalized quantum states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lloyd, Seth; Mohseni, Masoud
2010-01-01
Coherent hopping of excitation relies on quantum coherence over physically extended states. In this work, we consider simple models to examine the effect of symmetries of delocalized multi-excitation states on the dynamical timescales, including hopping rates, radiative decay and environmental interactions. While the decoherence (pure dephasing) rate of an extended state over N sites is comparable to that of a non-extended state, superradiance leads to a factor of N enhancement in decay and absorption rates. In addition to superradiance, we illustrate how the multi-excitonic states exhibit 'supertransfer' in the far-field regime-hopping from a symmetrized state over N sites to a symmetrized state over M sites at a rate proportional to MN. We argue that such symmetries could play an operational role in physical systems based on the competition between symmetry-enhanced interactions and localized inhomogeneities and environmental interactions that destroy symmetry. As an example, we propose that supertransfer and coherent hopping play a role in recent observations of anomalously long diffusion lengths in nano-engineered assembly of light-harvesting complexes.
Coherent semiclassical states for loop quantum cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Corichi, Alejandro; Montoya, Edison
2011-01-01
The spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmological model with a massless scalar field in loop quantum cosmology admits a description in terms of a completely solvable model. This has been used to prove that: (i) the quantum bounce that replaces the big bang singularity is generic; (ii) there is an upper bound on the energy density for all states, and (iii) semiclassical states at late times had to be semiclassical before the bounce. Here we consider a family of exact solutions to the theory, corresponding to generalized coherent Gaussian and squeezed states. We analyze the behavior of basic physical observables and impose restrictions on the states based on physical considerations. These turn out to be enough to select, from all the generalized coherent states, those that behave semiclassical at late times. We study then the properties of such states near the bounce where the most 'quantum behavior' is expected. As it turns out, the states remain sharply peaked and semiclassical at the bounce and the dynamics is very well approximated by the ''effective theory'' throughout the time evolution. We compare the semiclassicality properties of squeezed states to those of the Gaussian semiclassical states and conclude that the Gaussians are better behaved. In particular, the asymmetry in the relative fluctuations before and after the bounce are negligible, thus ruling out claims of so-called 'cosmic forgetfulness'.
Embedding potentials for excited states of embedded species
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wesolowski, Tomasz A.
2014-01-01
Frozen-Density-Embedding Theory (FDET) is a formalism to obtain the upper bound of the ground-state energy of the total system and the corresponding embedded wavefunction by means of Euler-Lagrange equations [T. A. Wesolowski, Phys. Rev. A 77(1), 012504 (2008)]. FDET provides the expression for the embedding potential as a functional of the electron density of the embedded species, electron density of the environment, and the field generated by other charges in the environment. Under certain conditions, FDET leads to the exact ground-state energy and density of the whole system. Following Perdew-Levy theorem on stationary states of the ground-state energy functional, the other-than-ground-state stationary states of the FDET energy functional correspond to excited states. In the present work, we analyze such use of other-than-ground-state embedded wavefunctions obtained in practical calculations, i.e., when the FDET embedding potential is approximated. Three computational approaches based on FDET, that assure self-consistent excitation energy and embedded wavefunction dealing with the issue of orthogonality of embedded wavefunctions for different states in a different manner, are proposed and discussed
Jailaubekov, Askat E.; Song, Sang-Hun; Vengris, Mikas; Cogdell, Richard J.; Larsen, Delmar S.
2010-02-01
The hypothesis that S∗ is a vibrationally-excited ground-state population is tested and discarded for two carotenoid samples: β-carotene in solution and rhodopin glucoside embedded in the light harvesting 2 protein from Rhodopseudomonas acidophila. By demonstrating that the transient absorption signals measured in both systems that are induced by broadband (1000 cm -1) and narrowband (50 cm -1) excitation pulses are near identical and hence bandwidth independent, the impulsive stimulated Raman scattering mechanism proposed as the primary source for S∗ generation is discarded. To support this conclusion, previously published multi-pulse pump-dump-probe signals [17] are revisited to discard secondary mechanisms for S∗ formation.
On the epistemic view of quantum states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Skotiniotis, Michael; Roy, Aidan; Sanders, Barry C.
2008-01-01
We investigate the strengths and limitations of the Spekkens toy model, which is a local hidden variable model that replicates many important properties of quantum dynamics. First, we present a set of five axioms that fully encapsulate Spekkens' toy model. We then test whether these axioms can be extended to capture more quantum phenomena by allowing operations on epistemic as well as ontic states. We discover that the resulting group of operations is isomorphic to the projective extended Clifford group for two qubits. This larger group of operations results in a physically unreasonable model; consequently, we claim that a relaxed definition of valid operations in Spekkens' toy model cannot produce an equivalence with the Clifford group for two qubits. However, the new operations do serve as tests for correlation in a two toy bit model, analogous to the well known Horodecki criterion for the separability of quantum states
Optimal signal states for quantum detectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oreshkov, Ognyan; Calsamiglia, John; Munoz-Tapia, Ramon; Bagan, Emili
2011-01-01
Quantum detectors provide information about the microscopic properties of quantum systems by establishing correlations between those properties and a set of macroscopically distinct events that we observe. The question of how much information a quantum detector can extract from a system is therefore of fundamental significance. In this paper, we address this question within a precise framework: given a measurement apparatus implementing a specific POVM measurement, what is the optimal performance achievable with it for a specific information readout task and what is the optimal way to encode information in the quantum system in order to achieve this performance? We consider some of the most common information transmission tasks-the Bayes cost problem, unambiguous message discrimination and the maximal mutual information. We provide general solutions to the Bayesian and unambiguous discrimination problems. We also show that the maximal mutual information is equal to the classical capacity of the quantum-to-classical channel describing the measurement, and study its properties in certain special cases. For a group covariant measurement, we show that the problem is equivalent to the problem of accessible information of a group covariant ensemble of states. We give analytical proofs of optimality in some relevant cases. The framework presented here provides a natural way to characterize generalized quantum measurements in terms of their information readout capabilities.
Quantum-state comparison and discrimination
Hayashi, A.; Hashimoto, T.; Horibe, M.
2018-05-01
We investigate the performance of discrimination strategy in the comparison task of known quantum states. In the discrimination strategy, one infers whether or not two quantum systems are in the same state on the basis of the outcomes of separate discrimination measurements on each system. In some cases with more than two possible states, the optimal strategy in minimum-error comparison is that one should infer the two systems are in different states without any measurement, implying that the discrimination strategy performs worse than the trivial "no-measurement" strategy. We present a sufficient condition for this phenomenon to happen. For two pure states with equal prior probabilities, we determine the optimal comparison success probability with an error margin, which interpolates the minimum-error and unambiguous comparison. We find that the discrimination strategy is not optimal except for the minimum-error case.
Quantum Entanglement in Neural Network States
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dong-Ling Deng
2017-05-01
Full Text Available Machine learning, one of today’s most rapidly growing interdisciplinary fields, promises an unprecedented perspective for solving intricate quantum many-body problems. Understanding the physical aspects of the representative artificial neural-network states has recently become highly desirable in the applications of machine-learning techniques to quantum many-body physics. In this paper, we explore the data structures that encode the physical features in the network states by studying the quantum entanglement properties, with a focus on the restricted-Boltzmann-machine (RBM architecture. We prove that the entanglement entropy of all short-range RBM states satisfies an area law for arbitrary dimensions and bipartition geometry. For long-range RBM states, we show by using an exact construction that such states could exhibit volume-law entanglement, implying a notable capability of RBM in representing quantum states with massive entanglement. Strikingly, the neural-network representation for these states is remarkably efficient, in the sense that the number of nonzero parameters scales only linearly with the system size. We further examine the entanglement properties of generic RBM states by randomly sampling the weight parameters of the RBM. We find that their averaged entanglement entropy obeys volume-law scaling, and the meantime strongly deviates from the Page entropy of the completely random pure states. We show that their entanglement spectrum has no universal part associated with random matrix theory and bears a Poisson-type level statistics. Using reinforcement learning, we demonstrate that RBM is capable of finding the ground state (with power-law entanglement of a model Hamiltonian with a long-range interaction. In addition, we show, through a concrete example of the one-dimensional symmetry-protected topological cluster states, that the RBM representation may also be used as a tool to analytically compute the entanglement spectrum. Our
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kryzhanovskii, Boris V; Sokolov, G B
2000-01-01
The quasi-energy wave functions of a two-level atom in an electromagnetic field, the state of which represents a superposition of coherent states, were found. The fluorescence spectrum of an atom excited by such a field was investigated. It was shown that a spectral fluorescence mode corresponds to each mode of the quantum-statistical distribution of the field incident on the atom. This means that the number of statistical modes of the incident field may be recorded as the number of data bits of the information carried by the light pulse. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)
Collective and single-particle states at high excitation energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Van den Berg, A.M.; Van der Molen, H.K.T.; Harakeh, M.N.; Akimune, H.; Daito, I.; Fujimura, H.; Fujiwara, M.; Ihara, F.; Inomata, T.
2000-01-01
Complete text of publication follows. Damping of high-lying single-particle states was investigated by the study of proton decay from high-lying states in 91 Nb, populated by the 90 Zr(α,t) reaction with E α = 180 MeV. In addition to decay to the ground state of 90 Zr, semi-direct decay was observed to the low-lying (2 + and 3 - ) phonon states, confirming the conclusion from other experiments that these phonon states play an important role in the damping process of the single-particle states. Furthermore, the population and decay of Isobaric Analogue States of 91 Zr, which are located at an excitation energy of about 10 - 12 MeV in 91 Nb, has been studied in the same reaction. (author)
Andreev bound states probed in three-terminal quantum dots
Gramich, J.; Baumgartner, A.; Schönenberger, C.
2017-11-01
Andreev bound states (ABSs) are well-defined many-body quantum states that emerge from the hybridization of individual quantum dot (QD) states with a superconductor and exhibit very rich and fundamental phenomena. We demonstrate several electron transport phenomena mediated by ABSs that form on three-terminal carbon nanotube (CNT) QDs, with one superconducting (S) contact in the center and two adjacent normal-metal (N) contacts. Three-terminal spectroscopy allows us to identify the coupling to the N contacts as the origin of the Andreev resonance (AR) linewidths and to determine the critical coupling strengths to S, for which a ground state (or quantum phase) transition in such S-QD systems can occur. In addition, we ascribe replicas of the lowest-energy ABS resonance to transitions between the ABS and odd-parity excited QD states, a process we call excited state ABS resonances. In the conductance between the two N contacts we find a characteristic pattern of positive and negative differential subgap conductance, which we explain by considering two nonlocal processes, the creation of Cooper pairs in S by electrons from both N terminals, and a transport mechanism we call resonant ABS tunneling, possible only in multiterminal QD devices. In the latter process, electrons are transferred via the ABS without effectively creating Cooper pairs in S. The three-terminal geometry also allows spectroscopy experiments with different boundary conditions, for example by leaving S floating. Surprisingly, we find that, depending on the boundary conditions and the device parameters, the experiments either show single-particle Coulomb blockade resonances, ABS characteristics, or both in the same measurements, seemingly contradicting the notion of ABSs replacing the single-particle states as eigenstates of the QD. We qualitatively explain these results as originating from the finite time scale required for the coherent oscillations between the superposition states after a single
Exact finite volume expectation values of local operators in excited states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pozsgay, B. [MTA-BME “Momentum” Statistical Field Theory Research Group,Budafoki út 8, 1111 Budapest (Hungary); Szécsényi, I.M. [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Institute of Theoretical Physics, Eötvös Loránd University,Pázmány Péter sétány 1/A, 1117 Budapest (Hungary); Takács, G. [MTA-BME “Momentum” Statistical Field Theory Research Group,Budafoki út 8, 1111 Budapest (Hungary); Department of Theoretical Physics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics,Budafoki út 8, 1111 Budapest (Hungary)
2015-04-07
We present a conjecture for the exact expression of finite volume expectation values in excited states in integrable quantum field theories, which is an extension of an earlier conjecture to the case of general diagonal factorized scattering with bound states and a nontrivial bootstrap structure. The conjectured expression is a spectral expansion which uses the exact form factors and the excited state thermodynamic Bethe Ansatz as building blocks. The conjecture is proven for the case of the trace of the energy-moment tensor. Concerning its validity for more general operators, we provide numerical evidence using the truncated conformal space approach. It is found that the expansion fails to be well-defined for small values of the volume in cases when the singularity structure of the TBA equations undergoes a non-trivial rearrangement under some critical value of the volume. Despite these shortcomings, the conjectured expression is expected to be valid for all volumes for most of the excited states, and as an expansion above the critical volume for the rest.
Exact finite volume expectation values of local operators in excited states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pozsgay, B.; Szécsényi, I.M.; Takács, G.
2015-01-01
We present a conjecture for the exact expression of finite volume expectation values in excited states in integrable quantum field theories, which is an extension of an earlier conjecture to the case of general diagonal factorized scattering with bound states and a nontrivial bootstrap structure. The conjectured expression is a spectral expansion which uses the exact form factors and the excited state thermodynamic Bethe Ansatz as building blocks. The conjecture is proven for the case of the trace of the energy-moment tensor. Concerning its validity for more general operators, we provide numerical evidence using the truncated conformal space approach. It is found that the expansion fails to be well-defined for small values of the volume in cases when the singularity structure of the TBA equations undergoes a non-trivial rearrangement under some critical value of the volume. Despite these shortcomings, the conjectured expression is expected to be valid for all volumes for most of the excited states, and as an expansion above the critical volume for the rest.
Calculations of core-excited states in Li
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Verbockhaven, G.; Hansen, J.E.
1999-01-01
We report on progress in the calculation of three-electron states making use of B-spline basis sets. In particular we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using a Hartree-Fock basis (expanded in B-splines) compared to the use of hydrogenic basis states. Preliminary results are presented for the 2 S terms in Li below the 1s2s 3 S limit at 64.4 eV. The 2 S terms have been studied less extensively than other core-excited states in Li. In this particular case the choice of basis has a large influence on the quality of the results. (orig.)
Excited states by analytic continuation of TBA equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dorey, P.; Tateo, R.
1996-01-01
We suggest an approach to the problem of finding integral equations for the excited states of an integrable model, starting from the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz equations for its ground state. The idea relies on analytic continuation through complex values of the coupling constant, and an analysis of the monodromies that the equations and their solutions undergo. For the scaling Lee-Yang model, we find equations in this way for the one- and two-particle states in the spin-zero sector, and suggest various generalisations. Numerical results show excellent agreement with the truncated conformal space approach, and we also treat some of the ultraviolet and infrared asymptotics analytically. (orig.)
Local copying of orthogonal entangled quantum states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anselmi, Fabio; Chefles, Anthony; Plenio, Martin B
2004-01-01
In classical information theory one can, in principle, produce a perfect copy of any input state. In quantum information theory, the no cloning theorem prohibits exact copying of non-orthogonal states. Moreover, if we wish to copy multiparticle entangled states and can perform only local operations and classical communication (LOCC), then further restrictions apply. We investigate the problem of copying orthogonal, entangled quantum states with an entangled blank state under the restriction to LOCC. Throughout, the subsystems have finite dimension D. We show that if all of the states to be copied are non-maximally entangled, then novel LOCC copying procedures based on entanglement catalysis are possible. We then study in detail the LOCC copying problem where both the blank state and at least one of the states to be copied are maximally entangled. For this to be possible, we find that all the states to be copied must be maximally entangled. We obtain a necessary and sufficient condition for LOCC copying under these conditions. For two orthogonal, maximally entangled states, we provide the general solution to this condition. We use it to show that for D = 2, 3, any pair of orthogonal, maximally entangled states can be locally copied using a maximally entangled blank state. However, we also show that for any D which is not prime, one can construct pairs of such states for which this is impossible
Quantum speed limits for Bell-diagonal states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Han Wei; Jiang Ke-Xia; Zhang Ying-Jie; Xia Yun-Jie
2015-01-01
The lower bounds of the evolution time between two distinguishable states of a system, defined as quantum speed limit time, can characterize the maximal speed of quantum computers and communication channels. We study the quantum speed limit time between the composite quantum states and their target states in the presence of nondissipative decoherence. For the initial states with maximally mixed marginals, we obtain the exact expressions of the quantum speed limit time which mainly depend on the parameters of the initial states and the decoherence channels. Furthermore, by calculating the quantum speed limit time for the time-dependent states started from a class of initial states, we discover that the quantum speed limit time gradually decreases in time, and the decay rate of the quantum speed limit time would show a sudden change at a certain critical time. Interestingly, at the same critical time, the composite system dynamics would exhibit a sudden transition from classical decoherence to quantum decoherence. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pal, Suvajit; Sinha, Sudarson Sekhar; Ganguly, Jayanta; Ghosh, Manas
2013-01-01
Highlights: • The excitation kinetics of impurity doped quantum dot has been investigated. • The dot is subject to Gaussian white noise. • External oscillatory field is also applied. • Noise strength and field intensity fabricate the kinetics. • Role of dopant location has also been analyzed. - Abstract: We investigate the excitation kinetics of a repulsive impurity doped quantum dot initiated by simultaneous application of Gaussian white noise and external sinusoidal field. We have considered both additive and multiplicative noise (in Stratonovich sense). The combined influences of noise strength (ζ) and the field intensity (∊) have been capsuled by invoking their ratio (η). The said ratio and the dopant location have been found to fabricate the kinetics in a delicate way. Moreover, the influences of additive and multiplicative nature of the noise on the excitation kinetics have been observed to be widely different. The investigation reveals emergence of maximization/minimization and saturation in the excitation kinetics as a result of complex interplay between η and the dopant coordinate (r 0 ). The present investigation is believed to provide some useful insights in the functioning of mesoscopic devices where noise plays some significant role
Local temperature in quantum thermal states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garcia-Saez, Artur; Ferraro, Alessandro; Acin, Antonio
2009-01-01
We consider blocks of quantum spins in a chain at thermal equilibrium, focusing on their properties from a thermodynamical perspective. In a classical system the temperature behaves as an intensive magnitude, above a certain block size, regardless of the actual value of the temperature itself. However, a deviation from this behavior is expected in quantum systems. In particular, we see that under some conditions the description of the blocks as thermal states with the same global temperature as the whole chain fails. We analyze this issue by employing the quantum fidelity as a figure of merit, singling out in detail the departure from the classical behavior. As it may be expected, we see that quantum features are more prominent at low temperatures and are affected by the presence of zero-temperature quantum phase transitions. Interestingly, we show that the blocks can be considered indeed as thermal states with a high fidelity, provided an effective local temperature is properly identified. Such a result may originate from typical properties of reduced subsystems of energy-constrained Hilbert spaces. Finally, the relation between local and global temperatures is analyzed as a function of the size of the blocks and the system parameters.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tonheim, C R; Selvig, E; Nicolas, S; Breivik, M; Haakenaasen, R [Norwegian Defence Research Establishment, PO Box 25, N-2027 Kjeller (Norway); Gunnaes, A E [Department of Physics, University of Oslo, Boks 1048 Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway)], E-mail: celin.tonheim@ffi.no
2008-03-15
A study of the photoluminescence from a four-period Cd{sub x}Hg{sub 1-x}Te multiple quantum well structure at 11 K as a function of excitation density is presented. High-resolution X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy revealed that the quantum well structure is of high quality. This was supported by the narrow photoluminescence peak originating in the ground state electron - heavy hole transition, with a full width at half maximum of only 7.4 meV for an excitation density of 1.3 W/cm{sup 2}. When the excitation density was increased from 1.3 to 23.4 W/cm{sup 2}, the peak position was shifted toward higher energy by 2.6 meV and the full width at half maximum increased from 7.4 to 10.9 meV.
Quantum oscillators in the canonical coherent states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rodrigues, R. de Lima [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Lima, A.F. de; Ferreira, K. de Araujo [Paraiba Univ., Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Vaidya, A.N. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica
2001-11-01
The main characteristics of the quantum oscillator coherent states including the two-particle Calogero interaction are investigated. We show that these Calogero coherent states are the eigenstates of the second-order differential annihilation operator which is deduced via Wigner-Heisenberg algebraic technique and correspond exactly to the pure uncharged-bosonic states. They posses the important properties of non-orthogonality and completeness. The minimum uncertainty relation for the Wigner oscillator coherent states are investigated. New sets of even and odd coherent states are point out. (author)
Criteria for reachability of quantum states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schirmer, S.G.; Solomon, A.I. [Quantum Processes Group and Department of Applied Maths, Open University, Milton Keynes (United Kingdom)]. E-mails: S.G.Schirmer@open.ac.uk; A.I.Solomon@open.ac.uk; Leahy, J.V. [Department of Mathematics and Institute of Theoretical Science, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States)]. E-mail: leahy@math.uoregon.edu
2002-10-11
We address the question of which quantum states can be inter-converted under the action of a time-dependent Hamiltonian. In particular, we consider the problem as applied to mixed states, and investigate the difference between pure- and mixed-state controllabilities introduced in previous work. We provide a complete characterization of the eigenvalue spectrum for which the state is controllable under the action of the symplectic group. We also address the problem of which states can be prepared if the dynamical Lie group is not sufficiently large to allow the system to be controllable. (author)
Li, Qiang; Pan, Deng; Wei, Hong; Xu, Hongxing
2018-03-14
Hybrid systems composed of multiple quantum emitters coupled with plasmonic waveguides are promising building blocks for future integrated quantum nanophotonic circuits. The techniques that can super-resolve and selectively excite contiguous quantum emitters in a diffraction-limited area are of great importance for studying the plasmon-mediated interaction between quantum emitters and manipulating the single plasmon generation and propagation in plasmonic circuits. Here we show that multiple quantum dots coupled with a silver nanowire can be controllably excited by tuning the interference field of surface plasmons on the nanowire. Because of the period of the interference pattern is much smaller than the diffraction limit, we demonstrate the selective excitation of two quantum dots separated by a distance as short as 100 nm. We also numerically demonstrate a new kind of super-resolution imaging method that combines the tunable surface plasmon interference pattern on the NW with the structured illumination microscopy technique. Our work provides a novel high-resolution optical excitation and imaging method for the coupled systems of multiple quantum emitters and plasmonic waveguides, which adds a new tool for studying and manipulating single quantum emitters and single plasmons for quantum plasmonic circuitry applications.
Quantum gambling using three nonorthogonal states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hwang, Won-Young; Matsumoto, Keiji
2002-01-01
We provide a quantum gambling protocol using three (symmetric) nonorthogonal states. The bias of the proposed protocol is less than that of previous ones, making it more practical. We show that the proposed scheme is secure against nonentanglement attacks. The security of the proposed scheme against entanglement attacks is shown heuristically
Fermionic topological quantum states as tensor networks
Wille, C.; Buerschaper, O.; Eisert, J.
2017-06-01
Tensor network states, and in particular projected entangled pair states, play an important role in the description of strongly correlated quantum lattice systems. They do not only serve as variational states in numerical simulation methods, but also provide a framework for classifying phases of quantum matter and capture notions of topological order in a stringent and rigorous language. The rapid development in this field for spin models and bosonic systems has not yet been mirrored by an analogous development for fermionic models. In this work, we introduce a tensor network formalism capable of capturing notions of topological order for quantum systems with fermionic components. At the heart of the formalism are axioms of fermionic matrix-product operator injectivity, stable under concatenation. Building upon that, we formulate a Grassmann number tensor network ansatz for the ground state of fermionic twisted quantum double models. A specific focus is put on the paradigmatic example of the fermionic toric code. This work shows that the program of describing topologically ordered systems using tensor networks carries over to fermionic models.
Relativistic quantum correlations in bipartite fermionic states
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2016-09-21
Sep 21, 2016 ... particles on different types of correlations present in bipartite quantum states are investigated. In particular, the ... the focus of research for the last few years. Many re- ..... figures, the qualitative behaviour of all the three types ...
In-gap corner states in core-shell polygonal quantum rings.
Sitek, Anna; Ţolea, Mugurel; Niţă, Marian; Serra, Llorenç; Gudmundsson, Vidar; Manolescu, Andrei
2017-01-10
We study Coulomb interacting electrons confined in polygonal quantum rings. We focus on the interplay of localization at the polygon corners and Coulomb repulsion. Remarkably, the Coulomb repulsion allows the formation of in-gap states, i.e., corner-localized states of electron pairs or clusters shifted to energies that were forbidden for non-interacting electrons, but below the energies of corner-side-localized states. We specify conditions allowing optical excitation to those states.
In-gap corner states in core-shell polygonal quantum rings
Sitek, Anna; Ţolea, Mugurel; Niţă, Marian; Serra, Llorenç; Gudmundsson, Vidar; Manolescu, Andrei
2017-01-01
We study Coulomb interacting electrons confined in polygonal quantum rings. We focus on the interplay of localization at the polygon corners and Coulomb repulsion. Remarkably, the Coulomb repulsion allows the formation of in-gap states, i.e., corner-localized states of electron pairs or clusters shifted to energies that were forbidden for non-interacting electrons, but below the energies of corner-side-localized states. We specify conditions allowing optical excitation to those states.
Controlled teleportation of a 3-dimensional bipartite quantum state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cao Haijing; Chen Zhonghua; Song Heshan
2008-01-01
A controlled teleportation scheme of an unknown 3-dimensional (3D) two-particle quantum state is proposed, where a 3D Bell state and 3D GHZ state function as the quantum channel. This teleportation scheme can be directly generalized to teleport an unknown d-dimensional bipartite quantum state
Zeng, Qiao; Liang, WanZhen
2015-10-07
The time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) has become the most popular method to calculate the electronic excitation energies, describe the excited-state properties, and perform the excited-state geometric optimization of medium and large-size molecules due to the implementation of analytic excited-state energy gradient and Hessian in many electronic structure software packages. To describe the molecules in condensed phase, one usually adopts the computationally efficient hybrid Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics (QM/MM) models. Here, we extend our previous work on the energy gradient of TDDFT/MM excited state to account for the mutual polarization effects between QM and MM regions, which is believed to hold a crucial position in the potential energy surface of molecular systems when the photoexcitation-induced charge rearrangement in the QM region is drastic. The implementation of a simple polarizable TDDFT/MM (TDDFT/MMpol) model in Q-Chem/CHARMM interface with both the linear response and the state-specific features has been realized. Several benchmark tests and preliminary applications are exhibited to confirm our implementation and assess the effects of different treatment of environmental polarization on the excited-state properties, and the efficiency of parallel implementation is demonstrated as well.
Excitonic quantum interference in a quantum dot chain with rings.
Hong, Suc-Kyoung; Nam, Seog Woo; Yeon, Kyu-Hwang
2008-04-16
We demonstrate excitonic quantum interference in a closely spaced quantum dot chain with nanorings. In the resonant dipole-dipole interaction model with direct diagonalization method, we have found a peculiar feature that the excitation of specified quantum dots in the chain is completely inhibited, depending on the orientational configuration of the transition dipole moments and specified initial preparation of the excitation. In practice, these excited states facilitating quantum interference can provide a conceptual basis for quantum interference devices of excitonic hopping.
Nonlinear phenomena in the highly excited state of C60
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Byrne, H.J.; Maser, W.K.; Kaiser, M.; Akselrod, L.; Anders, J.; Ruehle, W.W.; Zhou, X.Q.; Mittelbach, A.; Roth, S.
1993-01-01
Under high intensity illumination, the optical and electronic properties of fullerenes are seen to undergo dramatic, nonlinear changes. The photoluminescence emission is seen to increase with approximately the third power of the input intensity above an apparent threshold intensity. Associated with this nonlinear increase is the emergence of a long lifetime emission component and a redshifting of the emission spectrum. Above the threshold intensity the photoconductive response increases with approximately the cube of the input power. In the highly excited state, the photoconductive response becomes relatively temperature independent compared to the thermally activated behaviour observed at low intensities. The characteristics of the temperature dependence are associated with a metallic-like phase in the highly excited state and therefore an optically driven insulator to metal transition is proposed as a description of the observed phenomena. (orig.)
Lifetime measurements of highly excited Rydberg states of strontium. Pt. 1
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kunze, S.; Hohmann, R.; Kluge, H.J.; Lantzsch, J.; Monz, L.; Stenner, J.; Stratmann, K.; Wendt, K.; Zimmer, K. (Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik)
1993-06-01
Lifetimes of Rydberg states of triplet-series 5s ns[sup 3]S[sub 1] with n=19-23, 35 and 5s nd[sup 3]D[sub 3] with n=18-20, 23-28 in the spectrum of neutral strontium have been determined. Observation of the exponential decay after excitation by a pulsed laser in a fast atomic beam and subsequent state-selective field ionization was employed. The lifetimes of the states of the [sup 3]S[sub 1]-series show the expected n*[sup 3] dependence on the effective principal quantum number, while the [sup 3]D[sub 3]-series is disturbed by configuration mixing. Furthermore, state re-populations induced by black-body radiation have been observed. (orig.).
Lifetime measurements of highly excited Rydberg states of strontium. Pt. 1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kunze, S.; Hohmann, R.; Kluge, H.J.; Lantzsch, J.; Monz, L.; Stenner, J.; Stratmann, K.; Wendt, K.; Zimmer, K.
1993-01-01
Lifetimes of Rydberg states of triplet-series 5s ns 3 S 1 with n=19-23, 35 and 5s nd 3 D 3 with n=18-20, 23-28 in the spectrum of neutral strontium have been determined. Observation of the exponential decay after excitation by a pulsed laser in a fast atomic beam and subsequent state-selective field ionization was employed. The lifetimes of the states of the 3 S 1 -series show the expected n* 3 dependence on the effective principal quantum number, while the 3 D 3 -series is disturbed by configuration mixing. Furthermore, state re-populations induced by black-body radiation have been observed. (orig.)
Lifetime measurements of the excited states in {sup 145} Sm
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
El-Badry, A M; Abdel Samie, Sh; Ahmad, A A [Depatment of Physics, Faculty of Science, ElMinia University, ElMinia, (Egypt); Kuroyanagi, T; Odahara, A; Gono, Y; Morinobu, S [Tandem Accelerator Laboratory, Department of Physics, Kyushu University, (Japan)
1997-12-31
Lifetime of the excited levels in {sup 145} Sm has been measured through the {sup 139} La ({sup 10} B, 4 n){sup 145} Sm nuclear reaction. The optimal beam energy of 49 MeV was determined from the measurements of the excitation function and Cascade program. With the possibility of studying lifetime of this nucleus a conventional plunger system have been designed and constructed at kyushu University tandem accelerator laboratory. A La target of 0.22 mg/cm{sup 2} thickness which was evaporated onto a Au foil of 2 mg/cm{sup 2} thickness was used. Since the recoil velocity was estimated to be 1.76 mm/ns (beta 0.00585), the measurable time range resulted in the range from 5 Ps to 5 ns. The single spectra measurements were performed at the 20 plunger positions in the range from 10 {mu} to 10 mm. Analyses of the data were carried using hypermet and/or GF2 program to obtain the lifetimes. A new list of lifetimes for 12 excited states up to 3.922 MeV excitations for {sup 145} Sm were determined for the first time. Decay curves of the these transitions are discussed. The new lifetimes of excited states in {sup 145} Sm enabled us to understand the electromagnetic properties. The deduced transition probabilities were established and compared with that of N = 83 isotones and the closed shell nucleus {sup 144} Sm. In addition, a nuclear structure of {sup 145} Sm have been discussed and proposed in framework of the shell model. 4 figs., 1 tab.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kenzelmann, M.; Cowley, R.A.; Buyers, W.J.L.
2002-01-01
We have mapped from the quantum to the classical limit the spin excitation spectrum of the antiferromagnetic spin-1 Heisenberg chain system CsNiCl3 in its paramagnetic phase from T=5 to 200 K. Neutron scattering shows that the excitations are resonant and dispersive up to at least T=70 Ksimilar...... is in agreement with quantum Monte Carlo calculations for the spin-1 chain. xi is also consistent with the single mode approximation, suggesting that the excitations are short-lived single particle excitations. Below T=12 K where three-dimensional spin correlations are important, xi is shorter than predicted...... and the experiment is not consistent with the random phase approximation for coupled quantum chains. At T=200 K, the structure factor and second energy moment of the excitation spectrum are in excellent agreement with the high-temperature series expansion....
Quantum teleportation via a W state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Joo, Jaewoo; Park, Young-Jai; Oh, Sangchul; Kim, Jaewan
2003-01-01
We investigate two schemes of quantum teleportation with a W state, which belongs to a different class from the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger class. In the first scheme, the W state is shared by three parties, one of whom, called a sender, performs a Bell measurement. It is shown that the quantum information of an unknown state is split between two parties and recovered with a certain probability. In the second scheme, a sender takes two particles of the W state and performs positive operator valued measurements. For the two schemes, we calculate the success probability and the average fidelity. We show that the average fidelity of the second scheme cannot exceed that of the first one
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Turchinovich, Dmitry; Monozon, B. S.; Jepsen, Peter Uhd
2006-01-01
In this work we describe the ultrafast excitation kinetics of biased quantum well, arising from the optically induced dynamical screening of a bias electric field. The initial bia electric field inside the quantum well is screened by the optically excited polarized electron-hole pairs. This leads...... wells are in good agreement with our experimental observations [Turchinovich et al., Phys. Rev. B 68, 241307(R) (2003)], as well as in perfect compliance with qualitative considerations. ©2006 American Institute of Physics...
Magnetic excitations in intermediate valence semiconductors with singlet ground state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kikoin, K.A.; Mishchenko, A.S.
1994-01-01
The explanation of the origin inelastic peaks in magnetic neutron scattering spectra of the mixed-valent semiconductor SmB 6 is proposed. It is shown that the excitonic theory of intermediate valence state not only gives the value of the peak frequency but also explains the unusual angular dependence of intensity of inelastic magnetic scattering and describes the dispersion of magnetic excitations in good agreement with experiment
Density-dependent phonoriton states in highly excited semiconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nguyen Hong Quang; Nguyen Minh Khue; Nguyen Que Huong
1995-09-01
The dynamical aspects of the phonoriton state in highly-photoexcited semiconductors is studied theoretically. The effect of the exciton-exciton interaction and nonbosonic character of high-density excitons are taken into account. Using Green's function method and within the Random Phase Approximation it is shown that the phonoriton dispersion and damping are very sensitive to the exciton density, characterizing the excitation degree of semiconductors. (author). 18 refs, 3 figs
Bound states in curved quantum waveguides
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Exner, P.; Seba, P.
1987-01-01
We study free quantum particle living on a curved planar strip Ω of a fixed width d with Dirichlet boundary conditions. It can serve as a model for electrons in thin films on a cylindrical-type substrate, or in a curved quantum wire. Assuming that the boundary of Ω is infinitely smooth and its curvature decays fast enough at infinity, we prove that a bound state with energy below the first transversal mode exists for all sufficiently small d. A lower bound on the critical width is obtained using the Birman-Schwinger technique. (orig.)
Wigner tomography of multispin quantum states
Leiner, David; Zeier, Robert; Glaser, Steffen J.
2017-12-01
We study the tomography of multispin quantum states in the context of finite-dimensional Wigner representations. An arbitrary operator can be completely characterized and visualized using multiple shapes assembled from linear combinations of spherical harmonics [A. Garon, R. Zeier, and S. J. Glaser, Phys. Rev. A 91, 042122 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevA.91.042122]. We develop a general methodology to experimentally recover these shapes by measuring expectation values of rotated axial spherical tensor operators and provide an interpretation in terms of fictitious multipole potentials. Our approach is experimentally demonstrated for quantum systems consisting of up to three spins using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.
Molecular and excited state properties of isomeric scarlet disperse dyes
Lim, Jihye; Szymczyk, Malgorzata; Mehraban, Nahid; Ding, Yi; Parrillo-Chapman, Lisa; El-Shafei, Ahmed; Freeman, Harold S.
2018-06-01
This work was part of an investigation aimed at characterizing the molecular and excited state properties of currently available disperse dyes developed to provide stability to extensive sunlight exposures when adsorbed on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fibers. Having completed the characterization of yellow, magenta, and cyan disperse dyes for PET-based fabrics used outdoors, our attention turned to the colors designed to enhance the color gamut of a standard 4-member (cyan/yellow/magenta/black) color set. The present study pertained specifically to the characterization of commercially available scarlet dyes. In this regard, HPLC analysis showed that a scarlet product used for PET coloration was mainly a 70/30 mixture of dyes, and the use of HRMS and single crystal X-ray diffraction analyses indicated that these two dyes were azo compounds derived from isomeric pyridine-based couplers which differed in the location of the primary amino (sbnd NH2) and anilino (sbnd NHPh) groups attached to the pyridine ring. One dye structure has the sbnd NHPh group para to the azo group (Sc2), while the other has that group in the ortho position (Sc3). The presence of either ortho substituent provides photostabilization through intramolecular H-bonding with the azo moiety. Further, results from molecular modeling studies showed that the lower excited state oxidation potential of Sc3 relative to that of Sc2 allows Sc3 to function as an energy quencher for the excited state of Sc2 - through thermodynamically favorable electron transfer.
Dynamics of Photoexcited State of Semiconductor Quantum Dots
Trivedi, Dhara J.
In this thesis, non-adiabatic molecular dynamics (NAMD) of excited states in semiconductor quantum dots are investigated. Nanoscale systems provide important opportunities for theory and computation for research because the experimental tools often provide an incomplete picture of the structure and/or function of nanomaterials, and theory can often fill in missing features crucial in understanding what is being measured. The simulation of NAMD is an indispensable tool for understanding complex ultrafast photoinduced processes such as charge and energy transfer, thermal relaxation, and charge recombination. Based on the state-of-the-art ab initio approaches in both the energy and time domains, the thesis presents a comprehensive discussion of the dynamical processes in quantum dots, ranging from the initial photon absorption to the final emission. We investigate the energy relaxation and transfer rates in pure and surface passivated quantum dots of different sizes. The study establishes the fundamental mechanisms of the electron and hole relaxation processes with and without hole traps. We develop and implement more accurate and efficient methods for NAMD. These methods are advantageous over the traditional ones when one encounters classically forbidden transitions. We also explore the effect of decoherence and non-adiabatic couplings on the dynamics. The results indicate significant influence on the accuracy and related computational cost of the simulated dynamics.
Asymmetry and coherence weight of quantum states
Bu, Kaifeng; Anand, Namit; Singh, Uttam
2018-03-01
The asymmetry of quantum states is an important resource in quantum information processing tasks such as quantum metrology and quantum communication. In this paper, we introduce the notion of asymmetry weight—an operationally motivated asymmetry quantifier in the resource theory of asymmetry. We study the convexity and monotonicity properties of asymmetry weight and focus on its interplay with the corresponding semidefinite programming (SDP) forms along with its connection to other asymmetry measures. Since the SDP form of asymmetry weight is closely related to asymmetry witnesses, we find that the asymmetry weight can be regarded as a (state-dependent) asymmetry witness. Moreover, some specific entanglement witnesses can be viewed as a special case of an asymmetry witness—which indicates a potential connection between asymmetry and entanglement. We also provide an operationally meaningful coherence measure, which we term coherence weight, and investigate its relationship to other coherence measures like the robustness of coherence and the l1 norm of coherence. In particular, we show that for Werner states in any dimension d all three coherence quantifiers, namely, the coherence weight, the robustness of coherence, and the l1 norm of coherence, are equal and are given by a single letter formula.
Random unitary maps for quantum state reconstruction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Merkel, Seth T.; Riofrio, Carlos A.; Deutsch, Ivan H.; Flammia, Steven T.
2010-01-01
We study the possibility of performing quantum state reconstruction from a measurement record that is obtained as a sequence of expectation values of a Hermitian operator evolving under repeated application of a single random unitary map, U 0 . We show that while this single-parameter orbit in operator space is not informationally complete, it can be used to yield surprisingly high-fidelity reconstruction. For a d-dimensional Hilbert space with the initial observable in su(d), the measurement record lacks information about a matrix subspace of dimension ≥d-2 out of the total dimension d 2 -1. We determine the conditions on U 0 such that the bound is saturated, and show they are achieved by almost all pseudorandom unitary matrices. When we further impose the constraint that the physical density matrix must be positive, we obtain even higher fidelity than that predicted from the missing subspace. With prior knowledge that the state is pure, the reconstruction will be perfect (in the limit of vanishing noise) and for arbitrary mixed states, the fidelity is over 0.96, even for small d, and reaching F>0.99 for d>9. We also study the implementation of this protocol based on the relationship between random matrices and quantum chaos. We show that the Floquet operator of the quantum kicked top provides a means of generating the required type of measurement record, with implications on the relationship between quantum chaos and information gain.
On the conductance sum rule for the hierarchical edge states of the fractional quantum hall effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ma Zhongshui; Chen Yixin; Su Zhaobin.
1993-09-01
The conductance sum rule for the hierarchical edge channel currents of a Fractional Quantum Hall Effect state is derived analytically within the Haldane-Halperin hierarchy scheme. We provide also an intuitive interpretation for the hierarchical drift velocities of the edge excitations. (author). 12 refs
Geodesics in thermodynamic state spaces of quantum gases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oshima, H.; Obata, T.; Hara, H.
2002-01-01
The geodesics for ideal quantum gases are numerically studied. We show that 30 ideal quantum state is connected to an ideal classical state by geodesics and that the bundle of geodesics for Bose gases have a tendency of convergence
Cryptanalysis of Multiparty Quantum Secret Sharing of Quantum State Using Entangled States
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Su-Juan, Qin; Qiao-Yan, Wen; Fu-Chen, Zhu
2008-01-01
Security of a quantum secret sharing of quantum state protocol proposed by Guo et al. [Chin. Phys. Lett. 25 (2008) 16] is reexamined. It is shown that an eavesdropper can obtain some of the transmitted secret information by monitoring the classical channel or the entire secret by intercepting the quantum states, and moreover, the eavesdropper can even maliciously replace the secret message with an arbitrary message without being detected. Finally, the deep reasons why an eavesdropper can attack this protocol are discussed and the modified protocol is presented to amend the security loopholes
Locking classical correlations in quantum States.
DiVincenzo, David P; Horodecki, Michał; Leung, Debbie W; Smolin, John A; Terhal, Barbara M
2004-02-13
We show that there exist bipartite quantum states which contain a large locked classical correlation that is unlocked by a disproportionately small amount of classical communication. In particular, there are (2n+1)-qubit states for which a one-bit message doubles the optimal classical mutual information between measurement results on the subsystems, from n/2 bits to n bits. This phenomenon is impossible classically. However, states exhibiting this behavior need not be entangled. We study the range of states exhibiting this phenomenon and bound its magnitude.
Conditional expectations associated with quantum states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Niestegge, Gerd
2005-01-01
An extension of the conditional expectations (those under a given subalgebra of events and not the simple ones under a single event) from the classical to the quantum case is presented. In the classical case, the conditional expectations always exist; in the quantum case, however, they exist only if a certain weak compatibility criterion is satisfied. This compatibility criterion was introduced among others in a recent paper by the author. Then, state-independent conditional expectations and quantum Markov processes are studied. A classical Markov process is a probability measure, together with a system of random variables, satisfying the Markov property and can equivalently be described by a system of Markovian kernels (often forming a semigroup). This equivalence is partly extended to quantum probabilities. It is shown that a dynamical (semi)group can be derived from a given system of quantum observables satisfying the Markov property, and the group generators are studied. The results are presented in the framework of Jordan operator algebras, and a very general type of observables (including the usual real-valued observables or self-adjoint operators) is considered
Rotational Spectra in 29 Vibrationally Excited States of Interstellar Aminoacetonitrile
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kolesniková, L.; Alonso, E. R.; Mata, S.; Alonso, J. L. [Grupo de Espectroscopia Molecular (GEM), Edificio Quifima, Área de Química-Física, Laboratorios de Espectroscopia y Bioespectroscopia, Parque Científico UVa, Unidad Asociada CSIC, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47011 Valladolid (Spain)
2017-04-01
We report a detailed spectroscopic investigation of the interstellar aminoacetonitrile, a possible precursor molecule of glycine. Using a combination of Stark and frequency-modulation microwave and millimeter wave spectroscopies, we observed and analyzed the room-temperature rotational spectra of 29 excited states with energies up to 1000 cm{sup −1}. We also observed the {sup 13}C isotopologues in the ground vibrational state in natural abundance (1.1%). The extensive data set of more than 2000 new rotational transitions will support further identifications of aminoacetonitrile in the interstellar medium.
Excitation of higher lying energy states in a rubidium DPAL
Wallerstein, A. J.; Perram, Glen; Rice, Christopher A.
2018-02-01
The spontaneous emission in a cw rubidium diode dumped alkali laser (DPAL) system was analyzed. The fluorescence from higher lying states decreases with additional buffer gas. The intermediate states (7S, 6P, 5D) decay more slowly with buffer gas and scale super-linearly with alkali density. A detailed kinetic model has been constructed, where the dominant mechanisms are energy pooling and single photon ionization. It also includes pumping into the non-Lorentzian wings of absorption profiles, fine structure mixing, collisional de-excitation, and Penning ionization. Effects of ionization in a high powered CW rubidium DPAL were assessed.
Control aspects of quantum computing using pure and mixed states
Schulte-Herbrüggen, Thomas; Marx, Raimund; Fahmy, Amr; Kauffman, Louis; Lomonaco, Samuel; Khaneja, Navin; Glaser, Steffen J.
2012-01-01
Steering quantum dynamics such that the target states solve classically hard problems is paramount to quantum simulation and computation. And beyond, quantum control is also essential to pave the way to quantum technologies. Here, important control techniques are reviewed and presented in a unified frame covering quantum computational gate synthesis and spectroscopic state transfer alike. We emphasize that it does not matter whether the quantum states of interest are pure or not. While pure states underly the design of quantum circuits, ensemble mixtures of quantum states can be exploited in a more recent class of algorithms: it is illustrated by characterizing the Jones polynomial in order to distinguish between different (classes of) knots. Further applications include Josephson elements, cavity grids, ion traps and nitrogen vacancy centres in scenarios of closed as well as open quantum systems. PMID:22946034
Control aspects of quantum computing using pure and mixed states.
Schulte-Herbrüggen, Thomas; Marx, Raimund; Fahmy, Amr; Kauffman, Louis; Lomonaco, Samuel; Khaneja, Navin; Glaser, Steffen J
2012-10-13
Steering quantum dynamics such that the target states solve classically hard problems is paramount to quantum simulation and computation. And beyond, quantum control is also essential to pave the way to quantum technologies. Here, important control techniques are reviewed and presented in a unified frame covering quantum computational gate synthesis and spectroscopic state transfer alike. We emphasize that it does not matter whether the quantum states of interest are pure or not. While pure states underly the design of quantum circuits, ensemble mixtures of quantum states can be exploited in a more recent class of algorithms: it is illustrated by characterizing the Jones polynomial in order to distinguish between different (classes of) knots. Further applications include Josephson elements, cavity grids, ion traps and nitrogen vacancy centres in scenarios of closed as well as open quantum systems.
Chemical modulation of electronic structure at the excited state
Li, F.; Song, C.; Gu, Y. D.; Saleem, M. S.; Pan, F.
2017-12-01
Spin-polarized electronic structures are the cornerstone of spintronics, and have thus attracted a significant amount of interest; in particular, researchers are looking into how to modulate the electronic structure to enable multifunctional spintronics applications, especially in half-metallic systems. However, the control of the spin polarization has only been predicted in limited two-dimensional systems with spin-polarized Dirac structures and is difficult to achieve experimentally. Here, we report the modulation of the electronic structure in the light-induced excited state in a typical half-metal, L a1 /2S r1 /2Mn O3 -δ . According to the spin-transport measurements, there appears a light-induced increase in magnetoresistance due to the enhanced spin scattering, which is closely associated with the excited spin polarization. Strikingly, the light-induced variation can be enhanced via alcohol processing and reduced by oxygen annealing. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements show that in the chemical process, a redox reaction occurs with a change in the valence of Mn. Furthermore, first-principles calculations reveal that the change in the valence of Mn alters the electronic structure and consequently modulates the spin polarization in the excited state. Our findings thus report a chemically tunable electronic structure, demonstrating interesting physics and the potential for multifunctional applications and ultrafast spintronics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dobryakov, A. L.; Quick, M.; Ioffe, I. N.; Granovsky, A. A.; Ernsting, N. P.; Kovalenko, S. A.
2014-01-01
We show that femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy can record excited-state spectra in the absence of actinic excitation, if the Raman pump is in resonance with an electronic transition. The approach is illustrated by recording S 1 and S 0 spectra of trans-azobenzene in n-hexane. The S 1 spectra were also measured conventionally, upon nπ* (S 0 → S 1 ) actinic excitation. The results are discussed and compared to earlier reports
The structure of states and maps in quantum theory
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 73; Issue 3. The structure of states and maps in quantum theory. Sudhavathani Simon S P ... The structure of statistical state spaces in the classical and quantum theories are compared in an interesting and novel manner. Quantum state spaces and maps on them ...
Long-Lived Triplet Excited States of Bent-Shaped Pentacene Dimers by Intramolecular Singlet Fission.
Sakuma, Takao; Sakai, Hayato; Araki, Yasuyuki; Mori, Tadashi; Wada, Takehiko; Tkachenko, Nikolai V; Hasobe, Taku
2016-03-24
Intramolecular singlet fission (ISF) is a promising photophysical process to construct more efficient light energy conversion systems as one excited singlet state converts into two excited triplet states. Herein we synthesized and evaluated bent-shaped pentacene dimers as a prototype of ISF to reveal intrinsic characters of triplet states (e.g., lifetimes of triplet excited states). In this study, meta-phenylene-bridged TIPS-pentacene dimer (PcD-3Ph) and 2,2'-bipheynyl bridged TIPS-pentacene dimer (PcD-Biph) were newly synthesized as bent-shaped dimers. In the steady-state spectroscopy, absorption and emission bands of these dimers were fully characterized, suggesting the appropriate degree of electronic coupling between pentacene moieties in these dimers. In addition, the electrochemical measurements were also performed to check the electronic interaction between two pentacene moieties. Whereas the successive two oxidation peaks owing to the delocalization were observed in a directly linked-pentacene dimer (PcD) by a single bond, the cyclic voltammograms in PcD-Biph and PcD-3Ph implied the weaker interaction compared to that of p-phenylene-bridged TIPS-pentacene dimer (PcD-4Ph) and PcD. The femtosecond and nanosecond transient absorption spectra clearly revealed the slower ISF process in bent-shaped pentacene dimers (PcD-Biph and PcD-3Ph), more notably, the slower relaxation of the excited triplet states in PcD-Biph and PcD-3Ph. Namely, the quantum yields of triplet states (ΦT) by ISF approximately remain constant (ca. 180-200%) in all dimer systems, whereas the lifetimes of the triplet excited states became much longer (up to 360 ns) in PcD-Biph as compared to PcD-4Ph (15 ns). Additionally, the lifetimes of the corresponding triplet states in PcD-Biph and PcD-3Ph were sufficiently affected by solvent viscosity. In particular, the lifetimes of PcD-Biph triplet state in THF/paraffin (1.0 μs) increased up to approximately three times as compared to that in THF
Lifetime measurements of excited states in 73As
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singh, K.P.; Kavakand, T.; Hajivaliei, M.
2004-01-01
The excited states of 73 As have been investigated via the 73 Ge(p, nγ) 73 As reaction with proton beam energies from 2.5–4.3 MeV. The lifetimes of the levels at 769.6, 860.5, 1177.8, 1188.7, 1274.9, 1344.1, 1557.1 and 1975.2 keV excitation energies have been measured for the first time using the Doppler shift attenuation method. The angular distributions have been used to assign the spins and the multipole mixing ratios using statistical theory for compound nuclear reactions. The ambiguity in the spin values for the various levels has been removed. The multipole mixing ratios for eight γ-transitions have been newly measured. (author)
Delgado, Francisco
2017-12-01
Quantum information processing should be generated through control of quantum evolution for physical systems being used as resources, such as superconducting circuits, spinspin couplings in ions and artificial anyons in electronic gases. They have a quantum dynamics which should be translated into more natural languages for quantum information processing. On this terrain, this language should let to establish manipulation operations on the associated quantum information states as classical information processing does. This work shows how a kind of processing operations can be settled and implemented for quantum states design and quantum processing for systems fulfilling a SU(2) reduction in their dynamics.
Quantum coherence generated by interference-induced state selectiveness
Garreau, Jean Claude
2001-01-01
The relations between quantum coherence and quantum interference are discussed. A general method for generation of quantum coherence through interference-induced state selection is introduced and then applied to `simple' atomic systems under two-photon transitions, with applications in quantum optics and laser cooling.
Quantum localization and bound-state formation in Bose-Einstein condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Franzosi, Roberto; Giampaolo, Salvatore M.; Illuminati, Fabrizio
2010-01-01
We discuss the possibility of exponential quantum localization in systems of ultracold bosonic atoms with repulsive interactions in open optical lattices without disorder. We show that exponential localization occurs in the maximally excited state of the lowest energy band. We establish the conditions under which the presence of the upper energy bands can be neglected, determine the successive stages and the quantum phase boundaries at which localization occurs, and discuss schemes to detect it experimentally by visibility measurements. The discussed mechanism is a particular type of quantum localization that is intuitively understood in terms of the interplay between nonlinearity and a bounded energy spectrum.
Probabilistic coding of quantum states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grudka, Andrzej; Wojcik, Antoni; Czechlewski, Mikolaj
2006-01-01
We discuss the properties of probabilistic coding of two qubits to one qutrit and generalize the scheme to higher dimensions. We show that the protocol preserves the entanglement between the qubits to be encoded and the environment and can also be applied to mixed states. We present a protocol that enables encoding of n qudits to one qudit of dimension smaller than the Hilbert space of the original system and then allows probabilistic but error-free decoding of any subset of k qudits. We give a formula for the probability of successful decoding