Excited states of open strings from N=4 SYM
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dzienkowski, Eric
2015-01-01
We continue the analysis of building open strings stretched between giant gravitons from N=4 SYM by going to second order in perturbation theory using the three-loop dilatation generator from the field theory. In the process we build a Fock-like space of states using Cuntz oscillators which can be used to access the excited open string states. We find a remarkable cancellation among the excited states that shows the ground state energy is consistent with a fully relativistic dispersion relation.
Open-closed string correspondence in open string field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baumgartl, M.; Sachs, I.
2008-01-01
We address the problem of describing different closed string backgrounds in background independent open string field theory: A shift in the closed string background corresponds to a collective excitation of open strings. As an illustration we apply the formalism to the case where the closed string background is a group manifold. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hosomichi, Kazuo
2008-01-01
We study FZZT-branes and open string amplitudes in (p, q) minimal string theory. We focus on the simplest boundary changing operators in two-matrix models, and identify the corresponding operators in worldsheet theory through the comparison of amplitudes. Along the way, we find a novel linear relation among FZZT boundary states in minimal string theory. We also show that the boundary ground ring is realized on physical open string operators in a very simple manner, and discuss its use for perturbative computation of higher open string amplitudes.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishibashi, Nobuyuki; Onogi, Tetsuya
1989-01-01
Consistency conditions of open string theories, which can be a powerful tool in open string model building, are proposed. By making use of these conditions and assuming a simple prescription for the Chan-Paton factors, open string theories in several backgrounds are studied. We show that 1. there exist a large number of consistent bosonic open string theories on Z 2 orbifolds, 2. SO(32) type I superstring is the unique consistent model among fermionic string theories on the ten-dimensional flat Minkowski space, and 3. with our prescription for the Chan-Paton factors, there exist no consistent open superstring theories on (six-dimensional Minkowski space-time) x (Z 2 orbifold). (orig.)
Exceptional groups from open strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gaberdiel, M.R.; Zwiebach, B.
1998-01-01
We consider type IIB theory compactified on a two-sphere in the presence of mutually non-local 7-branes. The BPS states associated with the gauge vectors of exceptional groups are seen to arise from open strings connecting the 7-branes, and multi-pronged open strings capable of ending on more than two 7-branes. These multi-pronged strings are built from open string junctions that arise naturally when strings cross 7-branes. The different string configurations can be multiplied as traditional open strings, and are shown to generate the structure of exceptional groups. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stefanski, B. Jr.
2004-01-01
We find classical open string solutions in the AdS 5 x S 5 /Z 2 orientifold with angular momenta along the five-sphere. The energy of these solutions has an expansion in integral powers of λ with sigma-model corrections suppressed by inverse powers of J - the total angular momentum. This gives a prediction for the exact anomalous dimensions of operators in the large N limit of an N = 2 Sp, Super-Yang-Mills theory with matter. We also find a simple map between open and closed string solutions. This gives a prediction for an all-loop planar relationship between the anomalous dimensions of single-trace and two-quark operators in the dual gauge theory. (author)
Deformations of topological open strings
Hofman, C.; Ma, Whee Ky
Deformations of topological open string theories are described, with an emphasis on their algebraic structure. They are encoded in the mixed bulk-boundary correlators. They constitute the Hochschild complex of the open string algebra - the complex of multilinear maps on the boundary Hilbert space.
Total cross section of highly excited strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lizzi, F.; Senda, I.
1990-01-01
The unpolarized total cross section for the joining of two highly excited strings is calculated. The calculation is performed by taking the average overall states in the given excitation levels of the initial strings. We find that the total cross section grows with the energy and momentum of the initial states. (author). 8 refs, 1 fig
Open-string models with broken supersymmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sagnotti, A.
2002-01-01
I review the salient features of three classes of open-string models with broken supersymmetry. These suffice to exhibit, in relatively simple settings, the two phenomena of 'brane supersymmetry' and 'brane supersymmetry breaking'. In the first class of models, to lowest order supersymmetry is broken both in the closed and in the open sectors. In the second class of models, to lowest order supersymmetry is broken in the closed sector, but is exact in the open sector, at least for the low-lying modes, and often for entire towers of string excitations. Finally, in the third class of models, to lowest order supersymmetry is exact in the closed (bulk) sector, but is broken in the open sector. Brane supersymmetry breaking provides a natural solution to some old difficulties met in the construction of open-string vacua. (author)
Open-string models with broken supersymmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sagnotti, Augusto
2000-01-01
We review the salient features of three classes of open-string models with broken supersymmetry. These suffice to exhibit, in relatively simple settings, the two phenomena of 'brane supersymmetry' and 'brane supersymmetry breaking'. In the first class of models, to lowest order supersymmetry is broken both in the closed and in the open sectors. In the second class of models, to lowest order supersymmetry is broken in the closed sector, but is exact in the open sector, at least for the low-lying modes, and often for entire towers of string excitations. Finally, in the third class of models, to lowest order supersymmetry is exact in the closed (bulk) sector, but is broken in the open sector. Brane supersymmetry breaking provides a natural solution to some old difficulties met in the construction of open-string vacua
Open problems in string cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toumbas, N.
2010-01-01
Some of the open problems in string cosmology are highlighted within the context of the recently constructed thermal and quantum superstring cosmological solutions. Emphasis is given on the high temperature cosmological regime, where it is argued that thermal string vacua in the presence of gravito-magnetic fluxes can be used to bypass the Hagedorn instabilities of string gas cosmology. This article is based on a talk given at the workshop on ''Cosmology and Strings'', Corfu, September 6-13, 2009. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)
Oriented open-closed string theory revisited
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zwiebach, B.
1998-01-01
String theory on D-brane backgrounds is open-closed string theory. Given the relevance of this fact, we give details and elaborate upon our earlier construction of oriented open-closed string field theory. In order to incorporate explicitly closed strings, the classical sector of this theory is open strings with a homotopy associative A ∞ algebraic structure. We build a suitable Batalin-Vilkovisky algebra on moduli spaces of bordered Ricmann surfaces, the construction of which involves a few subtleties arising from the open string punctures and cyclicity conditions. All vertices coupling open and closed strings through disks are described explicitly. Subalgebras of the algebra of surfaces with boundaries are used to discuss symmetries of classical open string theory induced by the closed string sector, and to write classical open string field theory on general closed string backgrounds. We give a preliminary analysis of the ghost-dilaton theorem. copyright 1998 Academic Press, Inc
Highly excited strings I: Generating function
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dimitri P. Skliros
2017-03-01
Full Text Available This is the first of a series of detailed papers on string amplitudes with highly excited strings (HES. In the present paper we construct a generating function for string amplitudes with generic HES vertex operators using a fixed-loop momentum formalism. We generalise the proof of the chiral splitting theorem of D'Hoker and Phong to string amplitudes with arbitrary HES vertex operators (with generic KK and winding charges, polarisation tensors and oscillators in general toroidal compactifications E=RD−1,1×TDcr−D (with generic constant Kähler and complex structure target space moduli, background Kaluza–Klein (KK gauge fields and torsion. We adopt a novel approach that does not rely on a “reverse engineering” method to make explicit the loop momenta, thus avoiding a certain ambiguity pointed out in a recent paper by Sen, while also keeping the genus of the worldsheet generic. This approach will also be useful in discussions of quantum gravity and in particular in relation to black holes in string theory, non-locality and breakdown of local effective field theory, as well as in discussions of cosmic superstrings and their phenomenological relevance. We also discuss the manifestation of wave/particle (or rather wave/string duality in string theory.
On noncommutative open string theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Russo, J.G.; Sheikh-Jabbari, M.M.
2000-08-01
We investigate new compactifications of OM theory giving rise to a 3+1 dimensional open string theory with noncommutative x 0 -x 1 and x 2 -x 3 coordinates. The theory can be directly obtained by starting with a D3 brane with parallel (near critical) electric and magnetic field components, in the presence of a RR scalar field. The magnetic parameter permits to interpolate continuously between the x 0 -x 1 noncommutative open string theory and the x 2 -x 3 spatial noncommutative U(N) super Yang-Mills theory. We discuss SL(2, Z) transformations of this theory. Using the supergravity description of the large N limit, we also compute corrections to the quark-antiquark Coulomb potential arising in the NCOS theory. (author)
Open bosonic string in background electromagnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nesterenko, V.V.
1987-01-01
The classical and quantum dynamics of an open string propagating in the D-dimensional space-time in the presence of a background electromagnetic field is investigated. An important point in this consideration is the use of the generalized light-like gauge. There are considered the strings of two types; the neutral strings with charges at their ends obeying the condition q 1 +q 2 =0 and the charged strings having a net charge q 1 +q 2 ≠ 0. The consistency of theory demands that the background electric field does not exceed its critical value. The distance between the mass levels of the neutral open string decreases (1-e 2 ) times in comparison with the free string, where e is the dimensionless strength of the electric field. The magnetic field does not affect this distance. It is shown that at a classical level the squared mass of the neutral open string has a tachyonic contribution due to the motion of the string as a whole in transverse directions. The tachyonic term disappears if one considers, instead of M 2 , the string energy in a special reference frame where the projection of the total canonical momentum of the string onto the electric field vanishes. The contributions due to zero point fluctuations to the energy spectrum of the neutral string and to the Virasoro operators in the theory of charged string are found
Deriving the four-string and open-closed string interactions from geometric string field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaku, M.
1990-01-01
One of the questions concerning the covariant open string field theory is why there are two distinct BRST theories and why the four-string interaction appears in one version but not the other. The authors solve this mystery by showing that both theories are gauge-fixed versions of a higher gauge theory, called the geometric string field theory, with a new field, a string verbein e μσ νρ , which allows us to gauge the string length and σ parametrization. By fixing the gauge, the authors can derive the endpoint gauge (the covariantized light cone gauge), the midpoint gauge of Witten, or the interpolating gauge with arbitrary string length. The authors show explicitly that the four-string interaction is a gauge artifact of the geometric theory (the counterpart of the four-fermion instantaneous Coulomb term of QED). By choosing the interpolating gauge, they produce a new class of four-string interactions which smoothly interpolate between the endpoint gauge and the midpoint gauge (where it vanishes). Similarly, they can extract the closed string as a bound state of the open string, which appears in the endpoint gauge but vanishes in the midpoint gauge. Thus, the four-string and open-closed string interactions do not have to be added to the action as long as the string vierbein is included
Open string decoupling and tachyon condensation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chalmers, G.
2001-01-01
The amplitudes in perturbative open string theory are examined as functions of the tachyon condensate parameter. The boundary state formalism demonstrates the decoupling of the open string modes at the non-perturbative minima of the tachyon potential via a degeneration of open world-sheets and identifies an independence of the coupling constants g s and g YM at general values of the tachyon condensate. The closed sector is generated at the quantum level; it is also generated at the classical level through the condensation of the propagating open string modes on the D-brane degrees of freedom.
Quantum consistency of open string theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Govaerts, J.
1989-01-01
We discuss how Virasoro anomalies in open string theories uniquely select the gauge group SO(2 D/2 ) independently of any regularisation, although the cancellation of these anomalies does not occur in tachyonic theories, and regulators can always be chosen to make these theories (one-loop) finite for any SO(n) and USp(n) gauge group. The discussion is mainly restricted to open bosonic strings. These results open new perspectives for the recent suggestion made by Sagnotti, the generalisations of which allow for the construction of new open string theories in less than ten dimensions. (orig.)
Topological defects in open string field theory
Kojita, Toshiko; Maccaferri, Carlo; Masuda, Toru; Schnabl, Martin
2018-04-01
We show how conformal field theory topological defects can relate solutions of open string field theory for different boundary conditions. To this end we generalize the results of Graham and Watts to include the action of defects on boundary condition changing fields. Special care is devoted to the general case when nontrivial multiplicities arise upon defect action. Surprisingly the fusion algebra of defects is realized on open string fields only up to a (star algebra) isomorphism.
On Field Theory of Open Strings, Tachyon Condensation and Closed Strings
Shatashvili, Samson L.
2001-01-01
I review the physical properties of different vacua in the background independent open string field theory. Talk presented at Strings 2001, Mumbai, India, http://theory.theory.tifr.res.in/strings/Proceedings/#sha-s.
A classification of open string models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nahm, W.
1985-12-01
Open string models are classified using modular invariance. No good candidates for new models are found, though the existence of an E 8 invariant model in Rsup(17,1), a similar one in Rsup(5,1) and of a supersymmetric model in Rsup(2,1) cannot be excluded by this technique. An intriguing relation between the left moving and right moving sectors of the heterotic string emerges. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Peter; Ooguri, Hirosi.; Park, Jongwon; Tannenhauser, Jonathan
2001-01-01
We study the spectrum of open strings on AdS 2 branes in AdS 3 in an NS-NS background, using the SL(2,R) WZW model. When the brane carries no fundamental string charge, the open string spectrum is the holomorphic square root of the spectrum of closed strings in AdS 3 . It contains short and long strings, and is invariant under spectral flow. When the brane carries fundamental string charge, the open string spectrum again contains short and long strings in all winding sectors. However, branes with fundamental string charge break half the spectral flow symmetry. This has different implications for short and long strings. As the fundamental string charge increases, the brane approaches the boundary of AdS 3 . In this limit, the induced electric field on the worldvolume reaches its critical value, producing noncommutative open string theory on AdS 2
Pinching parameters for open (super) strings
Playle, Sam; Sciuto, Stefano
2018-02-01
We present an approach to the parametrization of (super) Schottky space obtained by sewing together three-punctured discs with strips. Different cubic ribbon graphs classify distinct sets of pinching parameters; we show how they are mapped onto each other. The parametrization is particularly well-suited to describing the region within (super) moduli space where open bosonic or Neveu-Schwarz string propagators become very long and thin, which dominates the IR behaviour of string theories. We show how worldsheet objects such as the Green's function converge to graph theoretic objects such as the Symanzik polynomials in the α ' → 0 limit, allowing us to see how string theory reproduces the sum over Feynman graphs. The (super) string measure takes on a simple and elegant form when expressed in terms of these parameters.
Algebraic structure of open string interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ramond, P.; Rodgers, V.G.J.
1986-05-01
Starting from the gauge invariant equations of motion for the free open string we show how to generate interactions by analogy with Yang-Mills. We postulate Non-Abelian transformation laws acting on the fields of the gauge invariant free open string theory. By demanding algebraic closure we then derive a set of consistency requirements and show that they lead to the construction of the minimal interacting equations which contain no cubic terms away from the physical gauge. We present explicit solutions to lowest interacting order for both vertices and structure functions. 14 refs
Algebraic structure of open-string interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ramond, P.; Rodgers, V.G.J.
1986-01-01
Starting from the gauge-invariant equations of motion for the free open string we show how to generate interactions by analogy with the Yang-Mills system. We postulate non-Abelian transformation laws acting on the fields of the gauge-invariant free open-string theory. By demanding algebraic closure we then derive a set of consistency requirements and show that they lead to the construction of the minimal interacting equations which contain no cubic terms away from the physical gauge. We present explicit solutions to lowest interacting order for both vertices and structure functions
Pre-geometrical field theory of the open string
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nojiri, M.M.; Nojiri, Shin'ichi
1988-01-01
We propose a gauge invariant, background independent string action, which contains open and closed string fields and no kinetic terms. The kinetic term is generated through the condensation of the string fields, which is the solution of the equations of motion. We solve the equations and show that the action is classically equivalent to the open string action proposed by Hata et al. (orig.)
Multi-branes boundary states with open string interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pesando, Igor
2008-01-01
We derive boundary states which describe configurations of multiple parallel branes with arbitrary open string states interactions in bosonic string theory. This is obtained by a careful discussion of the factorization of open/closed string states amplitudes taking care of cycles needed by ensuring vertices commutativity: in particular the discussion reveals that already at the tree level open string knows of the existence of closed string
Continuing between closed and open strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Green, M.B.; Thorn, C.B.
1991-01-01
A family of dual models is defined that interpolates between the tree diagrams of non-orientable bosonic closed-string theory (which has a massless spin-2 state) and the open-string theory with no internal symmetry (in which the lowest-mass spin-2 state is massive). These models are parametrized by the intercept, Δ, of the leading Regge pole. The only models that have an infinite-dimensional conformal invariance and are consequently free of ghosts are the two familiar string theories with Δ=2 (closed strings) and Δ=1 (open strings with no internal symmetry). For arbitrary Δ the models are invariant under the finite dimensional conformal group, SO(Δ,2), which guarantees the crossing symmetry and consistent factorization of tree amplitudes. The spectrum of the level-two states is exhibited explicitly as Δ varies from 2 to 1 in order to illustrate the manner in which the graviton (the lowest-mass spin-2 state) acquires a mass. The scalar ghost generically associated with massive gravity cancels with the 'dilaton' precisely at Δ=1. (orig.)
T-Duality Group for Open String Theory
Kajiura, Hiroshige
2001-01-01
We study T-duality for open strings on tori $\\T^d$. The general boundary conditions for the open strings are constructed, and it is shown that T-duality group, which preserves the mass spectrum of closed strings, preserves also the mass spectrum of the open strings. The open strings are transformed to those with different boundary conditions by T-duality. We also discuss the T-duality for D-brane mass spectrum, and show that the D-branes and the open strings with both ends on them are transfo...
Open string in the constant B-field background
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jing Jian; Long Zhengwen
2005-01-01
A new method is proposed to quantize open strings in this paper. To illustrate our method, we analyze free open string as well as open string in the D-brane background with a nonvanishing B-field, respectively. The Poisson brackets among Fourier components are obtained firstly then we get the Poisson brackets among open string's coordinates. The noncommutativity of coordinates along the D-brane is reproduced. Some ambiguities in the previous discussions can be avoided
Coupling of open to closed bosonic strings in four dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bern, Z.; Dunbar, D.C.
1987-11-01
We study the construction of D < 26 open bosonic string theories using the fermionic formulation for the internal degrees of freedom. The various models are specified by the boundary conditions of the world sheet fermions on the annulus. Using the fact that open string loops can be transformed into closed string exchanges, we determine possible open string models which may be coupled to known D < 26 closed string models. Finally, as a verification of consistency, we examine particular open string non-planar amplitudes. (orig.)
String field theory solution for any open string background
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Erler, T.; Maccaferri, Carlo
2014-01-01
Roč. 10, Oct (2014), 1-37 ISSN 1029-8479 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP201/12/G028 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : tachyon condensation * string field theory * conformal field models in string theory * bosonic strings Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 6.111, year: 2014
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borlaf, J.
1997-01-01
We study T-duality for open strings in arbitrary background fields including the abelian electromagnetic one. We focus in the mapping of the boundary conditions in the disk and the crosscap topologies and we discuss in detail the consistency of the gauging procedure for the bosonic and the N = 1 supersymmetric theories. A brief account is made on the dilaton transformation and global issues in higher genus. (orig.)
Consistent boundary conditions for open strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lindstroem, Ulf; Rocek, Martin; Nieuwenhuizen, Peter van
2003-01-01
We study boundary conditions for the bosonic, spinning (NSR) and Green-Schwarz open string, as well as for (1+1)-dimensional supergravity. We consider boundary conditions that arise from (1) extremizing the action, (2) BRST, rigid or local supersymmetry, or κ(Siegel)-symmetry of the action, (3) closure of the set of boundary conditions under the symmetry transformations, and (4) the boundary limits of bulk Euler-Lagrange equations that are 'conjugate' to other boundary conditions. We find corrections to Neumann boundary conditions in the presence of a bulk tachyon field. We discuss a boundary superspace formalism. We also find that path integral quantization of the open string requires an infinite tower of boundary conditions that can be interpreted as a smoothness condition on the doubled interval; we interpret this to mean that for a path-integral formulation of open strings with only Neuman boundary conditions, the description in terms of orientifolds is not just natural, but is actually fundamental
Global symmetries of open strings in an electromagnetic background
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferrer, E.J.; de la Incera, V.
1994-01-01
The global symmetries of open bosonic strings in an electromagnetic background are investigated. The Poincare subalgebra and the mass of the open charged string are derived. These results are useful for computing the background electric field dependence of the one-loop free energy and Hagedorn temperature of a neutral string gas
Remarks on the relation between different (open) string field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
De Alwis, S.P.
1987-01-01
It is shown that the different three-string vertices, related by conformal transformations, are in the same BRST cohomology class. We use this result to discuss the relation between different (open) string field theories. (orig.)
Solution of the dilaton problem in open bosonic string theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bern, Z. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Dunbar, D.C. (Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom))
1991-01-01
One of the most remarkable features of string theories is that they seem to provide a framework for a consistent theory of quantum gravity which is unified with all other forces. String theories fall into the two basic, a priori equally interesting, categories of open and closed string theories. For the past five years virtually all attention has been focused on purely closed string theories even though the reincarnation of string theory began with the discovery of anomaly cancellation and finiteness in the Green-Schwarz open superstring. It is the authors' purpose in this essay to rekindle interest in open string theories as potential theories of nature, including gravity. All string theories naively contain a massless dilaton which couples with the strength of gravity in direct violation of experiment. They present a simple mechanism for giving the dilaton a mass in unoriented open bosonic string theories.
Solution of the dilaton problem in open bosonic string theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bern, Z.; Dunbar, D.C.
1991-01-01
One of the most remarkable features of string theories is that they seem to provide a framework for a consistent theory of quantum gravity which is unified with all other forces. String theories fall into the two basic, a priori equally interesting, categories of open and closed string theories. For the past five years virtually all attention has been focused on purely closed string theories even though the reincarnation of string theory began with the discovery of anomaly cancellation and finiteness in the Green-Schwarz open superstring. It is the authors' purpose in this essay to rekindle interest in open string theories as potential theories of nature, including gravity. All string theories naively contain a massless dilaton which couples with the strength of gravity in direct violation of experiment. They present a simple mechanism for giving the dilaton a mass in unoriented open bosonic string theories
Open strings in the SL(2, R) WZWN model with solution for a rigidly rotating string
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lomholt, Michael Andersen; Larsen, A.L.
2003-01-01
Boundary conditions and gluing conditions for open strings and D-branes in the SL(2, R) WZWN model, corresponding to AdS , are discussed. Some boundary conditions and gluing conditions previously considered in the literature are shown to be incompatible with the variation principle. We then consi......Boundary conditions and gluing conditions for open strings and D-branes in the SL(2, R) WZWN model, corresponding to AdS , are discussed. Some boundary conditions and gluing conditions previously considered in the literature are shown to be incompatible with the variation principle. We...... then consider open string boundary conditions corresponding to a certain field-dependent gluing condition. This allows us to consider open strings with constant energy and angular momentum. Classically, these open strings naturally generalize the open strings in flat Minkowski space. For rigidly rotating open...
Magnetically-enhanced open string pair production
Lu, J. X.
2017-12-01
We consider the stringy interaction between two parallel stacks of D3 branes placed at a separation. Each stack of D3 branes in a similar fashion carry an electric flux and a magnetic flux with the two sharing no common field strength index. The interaction amplitude has an imaginary part, giving rise to the Schwinger-like pair production of open strings. We find a significantly enhanced rate of this production when the two electric fluxes are almost identical and the brane separation is on the order of string scale. This enhancement will be largest if the two magnetic fluxes are opposite in direction. This novel enhancement results from the interplay of the non-perturbative Schwinger-type pair production due to the electric flux and the stringy tachyon due to the magnetic flux, and may have realistic physical applications.
Deformation of the cubic open string field theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Taejin, E-mail: taejin@kangwon.ac.kr
2017-05-10
We study a consistent deformation of the cubic open bosonic string theory in such a way that the non-planar world sheet diagrams of the perturbative string theory are mapped onto their equivalent planar diagrams of the light-cone string field theory with some length parameters fixed. An explicit evaluation of the cubic string vertex in the zero-slope limit yields the correct relationship between the string coupling constant and the Yang–Mills coupling constant. The deformed cubic open string field theory is shown to produce the non-Abelian Yang–Mills action in the zero-slope limit if it is defined on multiple D-branes. Applying the consistent deformation systematically to multi-string world sheet diagrams, we may be able to calculate scattering amplitudes with an arbitrary number of external open strings.
Deformation of the cubic open string field theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Taejin Lee
2017-05-01
Full Text Available We study a consistent deformation of the cubic open bosonic string theory in such a way that the non-planar world sheet diagrams of the perturbative string theory are mapped onto their equivalent planar diagrams of the light-cone string field theory with some length parameters fixed. An explicit evaluation of the cubic string vertex in the zero-slope limit yields the correct relationship between the string coupling constant and the Yang–Mills coupling constant. The deformed cubic open string field theory is shown to produce the non-Abelian Yang–Mills action in the zero-slope limit if it is defined on multiple D-branes. Applying the consistent deformation systematically to multi-string world sheet diagrams, we may be able to calculate scattering amplitudes with an arbitrary number of external open strings.
Deformation of the cubic open string field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Taejin
2017-01-01
We study a consistent deformation of the cubic open bosonic string theory in such a way that the non-planar world sheet diagrams of the perturbative string theory are mapped onto their equivalent planar diagrams of the light-cone string field theory with some length parameters fixed. An explicit evaluation of the cubic string vertex in the zero-slope limit yields the correct relationship between the string coupling constant and the Yang–Mills coupling constant. The deformed cubic open string field theory is shown to produce the non-Abelian Yang–Mills action in the zero-slope limit if it is defined on multiple D-branes. Applying the consistent deformation systematically to multi-string world sheet diagrams, we may be able to calculate scattering amplitudes with an arbitrary number of external open strings.
On background-independent open-string field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Witten, E.
1992-01-01
A framework for background-independent open-string field theory is proposed. The approach involves using the Batalin-Vilkovisky formalism, in a way suggested by recent developments in closed-string field theory, to implicitly define a gauge-invariant Lagrangian in a hypothetical ''space of all open-string world-sheet theories.'' It is built into the formalism that classical solutions of the string field theory are Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin- (BRST-) invariant open-string world-sheet theories and that, when expanding around a classical solution, the infinitesimal gauge transformations are generated by the world-sheet BRST operator
Boundary string field theory and an open string one-loop
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Tae Jin; Viswanathan, K. S.; Yang, Yi
2003-01-01
We discuss the open string one-loop partition function in the tachyon condensation background of an unstable D-brane system. We evaluate the partition function by using the boundary-state formulation and find that it is in complete agreement with the result obtained in the boundary string field theory. This suggests that the open string higher loop diagrams may be produced consistently by using a closed string field theory, where the D-brane plays the role of a source for the closed string field
Tensor constructions of open string theories. I. Foundations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gaberdiel, M.R.; Zwiebach, B.
1997-01-01
The possible tensor constructions of open string theories are analyzed from first principles. To this end the algebraic framework of open string field theory is clarified, including the role of the homotopy associative A ∞ algebra, the odd symplectic structure, cyclicity, star conjugation, and twist. It is also shown that two string theories are off-shell equivalent if the corresponding homotopy associative algebras are homotopy equivalent in a strict sense. It is demonstrated that a homotopy associative star algebra with a compatible even bilinear form can be attached to an open string theory. If this algebra does not have a space-time interpretation, positivity and the existence of a conserved ghost number require that its cohomology is at degree zero, and that it has the structure of a direct sum of full matrix algebras. The resulting string theory is shown to be physically equivalent to a string theory with a familiar open string gauge group. (orig.)
N=1 Mirror Symmetry and Open/Closed String Duality
Mayr, Peter
2002-01-01
We show that the exact N=1 superpotential of a class of 4d string compactifications is computed by the closed topological string compactified to two dimensions. A relation to the open topological string is used to define a special geometry for N=1 mirror symmetry. Flat coordinates, an N=1 mirror map for chiral multiplets and the exact instanton corrected superpotential are obtained from the periods of a system of differential equations. The result points to a new class of open/closed string dualities which map individual string world-sheets with boundary to ones without. It predicts an mathematically unexpected coincidence of the closed string Gromov-Witten invariants of one Calabi-Yau geometry with the open string invariants of the dual Calabi-Yau.
A non-supersymmetric open-string theory and S-duality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bergman, O.; Gaberdiel, M.R.
1997-01-01
A non-supersymmetric ten-dimensional open-string theory is constructed as an orbifold of type I string theory, and as an orientifold of the bosonic type B theory. It is purely bosonic, and cancellation of massless tadpoles requires the gauge group to be SO(32) x SO(32). The spectrum of the theory contains a closed-string tachyon, and open-string tachyons in the (32,32) multiplet. The D-branes of this theory are analyzed, and it is found that the massless excitations of one of the 1-branes coincide with the world-sheet degrees of freedom of the D=26 bosonic string theory compactified on the SO(32) lattice. This suggests that the two theories are related by S-duality. (orig.)
Open string T-duality in a weakly curved background
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Davidovic, Ljubica
2016-01-01
We consider a theory of an open string moving in a weakly curved background, composed of a constant metric and a linearly coordinate dependent Kalb-Ramond field with an infinitesimal field strength. We find its T-dual using the generalized Buscher procedure developed for the closed string moving in a weakly curved background, and the fact that solving the boundary conditions, the open string theory transforms to the effective closed string theory. So, T-dualizing the effective theory along all effective directions we obtain its T-dual theory and resume the open string theory which has such an effective theory. In this way we obtain the open string theory T-dual. (orig.)
On integrable c < 1 open-closed string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johnson, C.V.
1994-01-01
The integrable structure of open-closed string theories in the (p, q) conformal minimal model backgrounds is presented. The relation between the τ-function of the closed string theory and that of the open-closed string theory is uncovered. The resulting description of the open-closed string theory is shown to fit very naturally into the framework of the sl(q, C) KdV hierarchies. In particular, the twisted bosons which underlie and organise the structure of the closed string theory play a similar role here and may be employed to derive loop equations and correlation function recursion relations for the open-closed strings in a simple way. (orig.)
Open string theory in 1+1 dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bershadsky, M.; Kutasov, D.
1992-01-01
We show that tree level open two dimensional string theory is exactly solvable; the solution exhibits some unusual features, and is qualitatively different from the closed case. The open string 'tachyon' S-matrix describes free fermions, which can be interpreted as the quarks at the ends of the string. These 'quarks' live naturally on a lattice in space-time. We also find an exact vacuum solution of the theory, corresponding to a charged black hole. (orig.)
Hidden gravity in open-string field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Siegel, W.
1994-01-01
We clarify the nature of the graviton as a bound state in open-string field theory: The flat metric in the action appears as the vacuum value of an open string field. The bound state appears as a composite field in the free field theory
Open Wilson lines as states of closed string
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Murakami, Koichi; Nakatsu, Toshio
2003-01-01
A system of a D-brane in bosonic string theory on a constant B field background is studied in order to obtain further insight into the bulk-boundary duality. Boundary states which describe arbitrary numbers of open-string tachyons and gluons are given. The UV behavior of field theories on the non-commutative world-volume is investigated by using these states. We take the zero-slope limits of the generating functions of one-loop amplitudes of gluons (and open-string tachyons) in which the region of the small open-string proper time is magnified. The existence of a B field allows the limits to be slightly different from the standard field theory limits of a closed-string. These limits enable us to obtained world-volume theories at a trans-string scale. In this limit the generating functions are shown to be factorized into two curved open Wilson lines (and their analogues) and become integrals on the space of paths with a Gaussian distribution around straight lines. These facts indicate the possibility that field theories on the non-commutative world-volume are topological at such a trans-string scale. We also give a proof of the Dhar-Kitazawa conjecture by determining an explicit correspondence between the closed-string states and the paths. Momentum eigenstates of closed-string or momentum loops also play an important role in these analyses. (author)
Schwinger-type parametrization of open string worldsheets
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sam Playle
2017-03-01
Full Text Available A parametrization of (super moduli space near the corners corresponding to bosonic or Neveu–Schwarz open string degenerations is introduced for worldsheets of arbitrary topology. With this parametrization, Feynman graph polynomials arise as the α′→0 limit of objects on moduli space. Furthermore, the integration measures of string theory take on a very simple and elegant form.
Analytic study of nonperturbative solutions in open string field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bars, I.; Kishimoto, I.; Matsuo, Y.
2003-01-01
We propose an analytic framework to study the nonperturbative solutions of Witten's open string field theory. The method is based on the Moyal star formulation where the kinetic term can be split into two parts. The first one describes the spectrum of two identical half strings which are independent from each other. The second one, which we call midpoint correction, shifts the half string spectrum to that of the standard open string. We show that the nonlinear equation of motion of string field theory is exactly solvable at zeroth order in the midpoint correction. An infinite number of solutions are classified in terms of projection operators. Among them, there exists only one stable solution which is identical to the standard butterfly state. We include the effect of the midpoint correction around each exact zeroth order solution as a perturbation expansion which can be formally summed to the complete exact solution
Quantum A∞-structures for open-closed topological strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Herbst, M.
2006-02-01
We study factorizations of topological string amplitudes on higher genus Riemann surfaces with multiple boundary components and find quantum A ∞ -relations, which are the higher genus analog of the (classical) A ∞ -relations on the disk. For topological strings with c=3 the quantum A ∞ -relations are trivially satisfied on a single D-brane, whereas in a multiple D-brane configuration they may be used to compute open higher genus amplitudes recursively from disk amplitudes. This can be helpful in open Gromov-Witten theory in order to determine open string higher genus instanton corrections. Finally, we find that the quantum A ∞ -structure cannot quite be recast into a quantum master equation on the open string moduli space. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hongyuan Qiu
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Using a finite element model, this paper investigates the torsional vibration of a drill string under combined deterministic excitation and random excitation. The random excitation is caused by the random friction coefficients between the drill bit and the bottom of the hole and assumed as white noise. Simulation shows that the responses under random excitation become random too, and the probabilistic distribution of the responses at each discretized time instant is obtained. The two points, entering and leaving the stick stage, are examined with special attention. The results indicate that the two points become random under random excitation, and the distributions are not normal even when the excitation is assumed as Gaussian white noise.
Thermodynamic properties of open noncritical string in external electromagnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lichtzier, I.M.; Odintsov, S.D.; Bytsenko, A.A.
1991-01-01
We investigate the thermodynamics of open noncritical string (charged and neutral) in an external constant magnetic field. The free energy and Hagedorn temperature are calculated. It is shown that Hagedorn temperature is the same as in the absence of constant magnetic field. We present also the expressions for the free energy and Hagedorn temperature of the neutral open noncritical string in an external constant electromagnetic field. In this case Hagedorn temperature depends on the external electric field. (author)
Open String Diagrams I: Topological Type
Nag, Subhashis; Sankaran, Parameswaran
1992-01-01
An arbitrary Feynman graph for string field theory interactions is analysed and the homeomorphism type of the corresponding world sheet surface is completely determined even in the non-orientable cases. Algorithms are found to mechanically compute the topological characteristics of the resulting surface from the structure of the signed oriented graph. Whitney's permutation-theoretic coding of graphs is utilized.
No Strings Attached: Open Source Solutions
Fredricks, Kathy
2009-01-01
Imagine downloading a new software application and not having to worry about licensing, finding dollars in the budget, or incurring additional maintenance costs. Imagine finding a Web design tool in the public domain--free for use. Imagine major universities that provide online courses with no strings attached. Imagine online textbooks without a…
On multibrane solutions in open string field theory
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Murata, Masaki; Schnabl, Martin
2011-01-01
Roč. 2011, č. 188 (2011), s. 50-55 ISSN 0375-9687. [International Conference on String Field Theory and Related Aspects (SFT2010). Kyoto, 18.10.2010-22.10.2010] Grant - others:EUROHORC and ESF(XE) EYI/07/E010 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : string field theory * D-branes * open strings Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.063, year: 2011 http://ptp.ipap.jp/link?PTPS/188/50/
Open and Closed String field theory interpreted in classical Algebraic Topology
Sullivan, Dennis
2003-01-01
There is an interpretation of open string field theory in algebraic topology. An interpretation of closed string field theory can be deduced from this open string theory to obtain as well the interpretation of open and closed string field theory combined.
Open string topological amplitudes and gaugino masses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Antoniadis, I.; Narain, K.S.; Taylor, T.R.
2005-09-01
We discuss the moduli-dependent couplings of the higher derivative F-terms (TrW 2 ) h-1 , where W is the gauge N =1 chiral superfield. They are determined by the genus zero topological partition function F (0,h) , on a world-sheet with h boundaries. By string duality, these terms are also related to heterotic topological amplitudes studied in the past, with the topological twist applied only in the left-moving supersymmetric sector of the internal N =(2,0) superconformal field theory. The holomorphic anomaly of these couplings relates them to terms of the form Π n (TrW 2 ) h-2 , where Π's represent chiral projections of non-holomorphic functions of chiral superfields. An important property of these couplings is that they violate R-symmetry for h ≥ 3. As a result, once supersymmetry is broken by D-term expectation values, (TrW 2 ) 2 generates gaugino masses that can be hierarchically smaller than the scalar masses, behaving as m 1/2 ∼ m 0 4 in string units. Similarly, ΠTrW 2 generates Dirac masses for non-chiral brane fermions, of the same order of magnitude. This mechanism can be used for instance to obtain fermion masses at the TeV scale for scalar masses as high as m 0 ∼ O (10 13 ) GeV. We present explicit examples in toroidal string compactifications with intersecting D-branes. (author)
Observational tests of open strings in braneworld scenarios
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Freese, Katherine; Lewis, Matthew J.; Schaar, Jan Pieter van der
2003-01-01
We consider some consequences of describing the gauge and matter degrees of freedom in our universe by open strings, as suggested by the braneworld scenario. We focus on changes in causal structure described by the open string metric and investigate their observational implications. The causal structure is described not by the usual metric g μν , but instead by the open string metric, that incorporates the electromagnetic background and the NS-NS two-form, G μν = g μν -(2 π α') 2 (F 2 ) μν. The speed of light on the brane is now slower when propagating along directions transverse to electromagnetic fields or NS-NS two-forms, so that Lorentz invariance is explicitly broken. We describe experiments designed to detect the predicted variations in the open string causal structure on the brane: interferometric laboratory based experiments, experiments exploiting astrophysical electromagnetic fields, and experiments that rely on modification to special relativity. We show that current technology cannot probe beyond open string lengths of 10 -13 cm, corresponding to MeV string scales. We also point out that in a braneworld scenario, constraints on large scale electromagnetic fields together with a modest phenomenological bound on the NS-NS two-form naturally lead to a bound on the scale of canonical noncommutativity that is two orders of magnitude below the string length. We show that theoretical constraints on the NS-NS two-form bound the scale of noncommutativity to be well below the Planck length, (vertical barθvertical bar max )(1/2) -35 cm x (TeV/stringscale) 2 . (author)
The M5-brane and non-commutative open strings
Bergshoeff, E.; Berman, D.S.; Schaar, J.P. van der; Sundell, P.
2001-01-01
The M-theory origin of non-commutative open-string theory is examined by investigating the M-theory 5-brane at near critical field strength. In particular, it is argued that the open-membrane metric provides the appropriate moduli when calculating the duality relations between M and II
Open string Regge trajectory and its field theory limit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rojas, Francisco; Thorn, Charles B.
2011-01-01
We study the properties of the leading Regge trajectory in open string theory including the open string planar one-loop corrections. With SU(N) Chan-Paton factors, the sum over planar open string multiloop diagrams describes the 't Hooft limit N→∞ with Ng s 2 fixed. Our motivation is to improve the understanding of open string theory at finite α ' as a model of gauge field theories. SU(N) gauge theories in D space-time dimensions are described by requiring open strings to end on a stack of N Dp-branes of space-time dimension D=p+1. The large N leading trajectory α(t)=1+α ' t+Σ(t) can be extracted, through order g 2 , from the s→-∞ limit, at fixed t, of the four open string tree and planar loop diagrams. We analyze the t→0 behavior with the result that Σ(t)∼-Cg 2 (-α ' t) (D-4)/2 /(D-4). This result precisely tracks the 1-loop Reggeized gluon of gauge theory in D>4 space-time dimensions. In particular, for D→4 it reproduces the known infrared divergences of gauge theory in 4 dimensions with a Regge trajectory behaving as -ln(-α ' t). We also study Σ(t) in the limit t→-∞ and show that, when D ' t/(ln(-α ' t)) γ , where γ>0 depends on D and the number of massless scalars. Thus, as long as 4 ' t arbitrarily large. Finally we present the results of numerical calculations of Σ(t) for all negative t.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lugovoj, V.V.
1998-01-01
At proton-(anti) proton scattering in the frame of two-string Dual Parton Model the semihard parton-parton interactions can lead to the valence (anti) (di) quark excitations which lead to the production of up to four fast hadron leaders, and the process of soft colour interaction between constituents leads to formation of two primary strings, which decay into secondary hadrons according to a new cascade model of string breaking, which corresponds to the fundamental interaction of the theory of the open string. Therefore the recent results of the theory of QCD open string (about the small deviations of the string stretch direction near the longitudinal direction) are used in the algorithm of string breaking. For the fitted values of the free parameters in the process of decay of mother string into two daughter strings the energy (momentum) distributions for the first and second daughter strings are similar to momentum distributions for valence quark and antiquark in meson. This Monte Carlo model with 9 free parameters agrees well with the multiplicity, pseudorapidity, transverse momentum (up to p T =4GeV) distributions and correlations between the average transverse momentum and multiplicity of secondary particles produced by ISR, SS, Tevatron experiments (√s=27 to 1800 GeV). There is quantitative (and qualitative) explanation for correlations between the average transverse momentum and multiplicity for different types of secondary particles (antiprotons, kaons, pions) at √s =1800 GeV. A cascade model of string breaking is a new Monte Carlo model for hadronization which agrees well with the experimental multiplicity, rapidity, transverse momentum distributions of secondary particles produced by e + e - annihilation at E c.m. =3GeV. (author)
A covariant open bosonic string field theory including the endpoint and middlepoint interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, B.G.; Northwest Univ., Xian; Chen, Y.X.
1988-01-01
Extending the usual endpoint and midpoint interactions, we introduce numerous kinds of interactions, labelled by a parameter λ and obtain a non-commutative and associative string field algebra by adding up all interactions. With this algebra we develop a covariant open bosonic string field theory, which reduces to Witten's open bosonic string field theory under a special string length choice. (orig.)
One-loop masses of open-string scalar fields in string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kitazawa, Noriaki
2008-01-01
In phenomenological models with D-branes, there are in general open-string massless scalar fields, in addition to closed-string massless moduli fields corresponding to the compactification. It is interesting to focus on the fate of such scalar fields in models with broken supersymmetry, because no symmetry forbids their masses. The one-loop effect may give non-zero masses to them, and in some cases mass squared may become negative, which means the radiative gauge symmetry breaking. In this article we investigate and propose a simple method for calculating the one-loop corrections using the boundary state formalism. There are two categories of massless open-string scalar fields. One consists the gauge potential fields corresponding to compactified directions, which can be understood as scalar fields in uncompactified space-time (related with Wilson line degrees of freedom). The other consists 'gauge potential fields' corresponding to transverse directions of D-brane, which emerge as scalar fields in D-brane world-volume (related with brane moduli fields). The D-brane boundary states with constant backgrounds of these scalar fields are constructed, and one-loop scalar masses are calculated in the closed string picture. Explicit calculations are given in the following four concrete models: one D25-brane with a circle compactification in bosonic string theory, one D9-brane with a circle compactification in superstring theory, D3-branes at a supersymmetric C 3 /Z 3 orbifold singularity, and a model of brane supersymmetry breaking with D3-branes and anti-D7-branes at a supersymmetric C 3 /Z 3 orbifold singularity. We show that the sign of the mass squared has a strong correlation with the sign of the related open-string one-loop vacuum amplitude.
Some issues in the loop variable approach to open strings and an extension to closed strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sathiapalan, B.
1994-01-01
Some issues in the loop variable renormalization group approach to gauge-invariant equations for the free fields of the open string are discussed. It had been shown in an earlier paper that this leads to a simple form of the gauge transformation law. We discuss in some detail some of the curious features encountered there. The theory looks a little like a massless theory in one higher dimension that can be dimensionally reduced to give a massive theory. We discuss the origin of some constraints that are needed for gauge invariance and also for reducing the set of fields to that of standard string theory. The mechanism of gauge invariance and the connection with the Virasoro algebra is a little different from the usual story and is discussed. It is also shown that these results can be extended in a straightforward manner to closed strings. (orig.)
Open string T-duality in double space
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sazdovic, B. [University of Belgrade, Institute of Physics, Belgrade (Serbia)
2017-09-15
The role of double space is essential in the new interpretation of T-duality and consequently in an attempt to construct M-theory. The case of the open string is missing in such an approach because until now there has been no appropriate formulation of open string T-duality. In the previous paper (Sazdovic, From geometry to non-geometry via T-duality, arXiv:1606.01938, 2017), we showed how to introduce vector gauge fields A{sup N}{sub a} and A{sup D}{sub i} at the end-points of an open string in order to enable open string invariance under local gauge transformations of the Kalb-Ramond field and its T-dual ''restricted general coordinate transformations''. We demonstrated that gauge fields A{sup N}{sub a} and A{sup D}{sub i} are T-dual to each other. In the present article we prove that all above results can be interpreted as coordinate permutations in double space. (orig.)
Open string T-duality in double space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sazdovic, B.
2017-01-01
The role of double space is essential in the new interpretation of T-duality and consequently in an attempt to construct M-theory. The case of the open string is missing in such an approach because until now there has been no appropriate formulation of open string T-duality. In the previous paper (Sazdovic, From geometry to non-geometry via T-duality, arXiv:1606.01938, 2017), we showed how to introduce vector gauge fields A"N_a and A"D_i at the end-points of an open string in order to enable open string invariance under local gauge transformations of the Kalb-Ramond field and its T-dual ''restricted general coordinate transformations''. We demonstrated that gauge fields A"N_a and A"D_i are T-dual to each other. In the present article we prove that all above results can be interpreted as coordinate permutations in double space. (orig.)
Extended holomorphic anomaly and loop amplitudes in open topological string
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Walcher, Johannes
2009-01-01
Open topological string amplitudes on compact Calabi-Yau threefolds are shown to satisfy an extension of the holomorphic anomaly equation of Bershadsky, Cecotti, Ooguri and Vafa. The total topological charge of the D-brane configuration must vanish in order to satisfy tadpole cancellation. The boundary state of such D-branes is holomorphically captured by a Hodge theoretic normal function. Its Griffiths' infinitesimal invariant is the analogue of the closed string Yukawa coupling and plays the role of the terminator in a Feynman diagram expansion for the topological string with D-branes. The holomorphic anomaly equation is solved and the holomorphic ambiguity is fixed for some representative worldsheets of low genus and with few boundaries on the real quintic.
Solving the open bosonic string in perturbation theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Samuel, S.
1990-01-01
The integrand and integration region for the N-point amplitude in the open oriented bosonic string are obtained to all orders in perturbation theory. The result is derived from the Witten covariant string field theory by using on-shell and off-shell conformal methods and Riemann surface mathematics. Although only the off-shell g-loop tachyon amplitudes are computed explicitly, the methods generalize to other external states. We derive the g-loop ghost-Jacobi identity in which the ghost correlation function cancels the jacobian factor in changing from second-quantized to first-quantized variables. Moduli space is discussed from several viewpoints and it is shown that string field theory provides an algorithm for its determination. (orig.)
Scattering of massive open strings in pure spinor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, I.Y.
2011-01-01
In Park (2008) , it was proposed that the D-brane geometry could be produced by open string quantum effects. In an effort to verify the proposal, we consider scattering amplitudes involving massive open superstrings. The main goal of this paper is to set the ground for two-loop 'renormalization' of an oriented open superstring on a D-brane and to strengthen our skill in the pure spinor formulation of a superstring, an effective tool for multi-loop string diagrams. We start by reviewing scattering amplitudes of massless states in the 2D component method of the NSR formulation. A few examples of massive string scattering are worked out. The NSR results are then reproduced in the pure spinor formulation. We compute the amplitudes using the unintegrated form of the massive vertex operator constructed by Berkovits and Chandia (2002) . We point out that it may be possible to discover new Riemann type identities involving Jacobi θ-functions by comparing a NSR computation and the corresponding pure spinor computation.
Regularizing cubic open Neveu-Schwarz string field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berkovits, Nathan; Siegel, Warren
2009-01-01
After introducing non-minimal variables, the midpoint insertion of Y Y-bar in cubic open Neveu-Schwarz string field theory can be replaced with an operator N ρ depending on a constant parameter ρ. As in cubic open superstring field theory using the pure spinor formalism, the operator N ρ is invertible and is equal to 1 up to a BRST-trivial quantity. So unlike the linearized equation of motion Y Y-bar QV = 0 which requires truncation of the Hilbert space in order to imply QV = 0, the linearized equation N ρ QV = 0 directly implies QV = 0.
A proposal for an effective interacting field theory of open and closed strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baulieu, L.; Grossman, B.
1987-01-01
We propose the use of the reggeon-pomeron vertex to obtain an effective field theory for open and closed strings. We suggest that closed string fields are necessary in order to go off-shell in an open string field theory. We then find that the closed string fields satisfy the Virasoro constraints (including equal number of left and right movers) in an appropriate choice of gauge. (orig.)
Linear b-gauges for open string fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kiermaier, Michael; Zwiebach, Barton; Sen, Ashoke
2008-01-01
Motivated by Schnabl's gauge choice, we explore open string perturbation theory in gauges where a linear combination of antighost oscillators annihilates the string field. We find that in these linear b-gauges different gauge conditions are needed at different ghost numbers. We derive the full propagator and prove the formal properties which guarantee that the Feynman diagrams reproduce the correct on-shell amplitudes. We find that these properties can fail due to the need to regularize the propagator, and identify a large class of linear b-gauges for which they hold rigorously. In these gauges the propagator has a non-anomalous Schwinger representation and builds Riemann surfaces by adding strip-like domains. Projector-based gauges, like Schnabl's, are not in this class of gauges but we construct a family of regular linear b-gauges which interpolate between Siegel gauge and Schnabl gauge
Exact marginality in open string field theory. A general framework
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kiermaier, M.
2007-07-01
We construct analytic solutions of open bosonic string field theory for any exactly marginal deformation in any boundary conformal field theory when properly renormalized operator products of the marginal operator are given. We explicitly provide such renormalized operator products for a class of marginal deformations which include the deformations of flat D-branes in flat backgrounds by constant massless modes of the gauge field and of the scalar fields on the D-branes, the cosine potential for a space-like coordinate, and the hyperbolic cosine potential for the time-like coordinate. In our construction we use integrated vertex operators, which are closely related to finite deformations in boundary conformal field theory, while previous analytic solutions were based on unintegrated vertex operators. We also introduce a modified star product to formulate string field theory around the deformed background. (orig.)
Thermal excitation spectrum from entanglement in an expanding quantum string
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jürgen Berges
2018-03-01
Full Text Available A surprising result in e+e− collisions is that the particle spectra from the string formed between the expanding quark–antiquark pair have thermal properties even though scatterings appear not to be frequent enough to explain this. We address this problem by considering the finite observable interval of a relativistic quantum string in terms of its reduced density operator by tracing over the complement region. We show how quantum entanglement in the presence of a horizon in spacetime for the causal transfer of information leads locally to a reduced mixed-state density operator. For very early proper time τ, we show that the entanglement entropy becomes extensive and scales with the rapidity. At these early times, the reduced density operator is of thermal form, with an entanglement temperature Tτ=ħ/(2πkBτ, even in the absence of any scatterings.
Classical open-string field theory: A∞-algebra, renormalization group and boundary states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakatsu, Toshio
2002-01-01
We investigate classical bosonic open-string field theory from the perspective of the Wilson renormalization group of world-sheet theory. The microscopic action is identified with Witten's covariant cubic action and the short-distance cut-off scale is introduced by length of open-string strip which appears in the Schwinger representation of open-string propagator. Classical open-string field theory in the title means open-string field theory governed by a classical part of the low energy action. It is obtained by integrating out suitable tree interactions of open-strings and is of non-polynomial type. We study this theory by using the BV formalism. It turns out to be deeply related with deformation theory of A ∞ -algebra. We introduce renormalization group equation of this theory and discuss it from several aspects. It is also discussed that this theory is interpreted as a boundary open-string field theory. Closed-string BRST charge and boundary states of closed-string field theory in the presence of open-string field play important roles
Open membranes in a constant C-field background and noncommutative boundary strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kawamoto, Shoichi; Sasakura, Naoki
2000-01-01
We investigate the dynamics of open membrane boundaries in a constant C-field background. We follow the analysis for open strings in a B-field background, and take some approximations. We find that open membrane boundaries do show noncommutativity in this case by explicit calculations. Membrane boundaries are one dimensional strings, so we face a new type of noncommutativity, that is, noncommutative strings. (author)
Gauge unification, non-local breaking, open strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Trapletti, M.
2005-01-01
The issue of non-local GUT symmetry breaking is addressed in the context of open string model building. We study Z N xZ M ' orbifolds with all the GUT-breaking orbifold elements acting freely, as rotations accompanied by translations in the internal space. We consider open strings quantized on these backgrounds, distinguishing whether the translational action is parallel or perpendicular to the D-branes. GUT breaking is impossible in the purely perpendicular case, non-local GUT breaking is instead allowed in the purely parallel case. In the latter, the scale of breaking is set by the compactification moduli, and there are no fixed points with reduced gauge symmetry, where dangerous explicit GUT-breaking terms could be located. We investigate the mixed parallel+perpendicular case in a Z 2 xZ 2 ' example, having also a simplified field theory realization. It is a new S 1 /Z 2 xZ 2 ' orbifold-GUT model, with bulk gauge symmetry SU(5)xSU(5) broken locally to the Standard Model gauge group. In spite of the locality of the GUT symmetry breaking, there is no localized contribution to the running of the coupling constants, and the unification scale is completely set by the length of S 1
Toward an open-closed string theoretical description of a rolling tachyon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ohmori, Kazuki
2004-01-01
We consider how the time-dependent decay process of an unstable D-brane should be described in the full (quantum) open-closed string theory. It is argued that the system, starting from the unstable D-brane configuration, will evolve in time into the time-independent open string tachyon vacuum configuration which we assume to be finite, with the total energy conserved. As a concrete realization of this idea, we construct a toy model describing the open and closed string tachyons which admits such a time-dependent solution. The structure of our model has some resemblance to that of open-closed string field theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lawrence, Albion
2001-07-25
We study the physics of open strings in bosonic and type II string theories in the presence of unstable D-branes. When the potential energy of the open string tachyon is at its minimum, Sen has argued that only closed strings remain in the perturbative spectrum. We explore the scenario of Yi and of Bergman, Hori and Yi, who argue that the open string degrees of freedom are strongly coupled and disappear through confinement. We discuss arguments using open string field theory and worldsheet boundary RG flows, which seem to indicate otherwise. We then describe a solitonic excitation of the open string tachyon and gauge field with the charge and tension of a fundamental closed string. This requires a double scaling limit where the tachyon is taken to its minimal value and the electric field is taken to its maximum value. The resulting flux tube has an unconstrained spatial profile; and for large fundamental string charge, it appears to have light, weakly coupled open strings living in the core. We argue that the flux tube acquires a size or order {alpha}' through sigma model and string coupling effects; and we argue that confinement effects make the light degrees of freedom heavy and strongly interacting.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lawrence, Albion
2001-01-01
We study the physics of open strings in bosonic and type II string theories in the presence of unstable D-branes. When the potential energy of the open string tachyon is at its minimum, Sen has argued that only closed strings remain in the perturbative spectrum. We explore the scenario of Yi and of Bergman, Hori and Yi, who argue that the open string degrees of freedom are strongly coupled and disappear through confinement. We discuss arguments using open string field theory and worldsheet boundary RG flows, which seem to indicate otherwise. We then describe a solitonic excitation of the open string tachyon and gauge field with the charge and tension of a fundamental closed string. This requires a double scaling limit where the tachyon is taken to its minimal value and the electric field is taken to its maximum value. The resulting flux tube has an unconstrained spatial profile; and for large fundamental string charge, it appears to have light, weakly coupled open strings living in the core. We argue that the flux tube acquires a size or order α' through sigma model and string coupling effects; and we argue that confinement effects make the light degrees of freedom heavy and strongly interacting
A note on T-duality, open strings in B-field background and canonical transformations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sheikh-Jabbari, M.M.
1999-11-01
In this paper we study T-duality for open strings ending on branes with non-zero B-field on them from the point of view of canonical transformations. For the particular case of type II strings on the two torus we show that the Sl(2, Z) N transformations can be understood as a sub-class of canonical transformations on the open strings in the B-field background. (author)
Deformations of closed strings and topological open membranes
Hofman, C.; Ma, W.K.
2001-01-01
We study deformations of topological closed strings. A well-known example is the perturba- tion of a topological closed string by itself, where the associative OPE product is deformed, and which isgoverned by the WD VV equations. Our main in terest will be closed strings that arise as the
Deformations of closed strings and topological open membranes
Hofman, C.
We study deformations of topological closed strings. A well-known example is the perturbation of a topological closed string by itself, where the associative OPE product is deformed, and which is governed by the WDVV equations. Our main interest will be closed strings that arise as the boundary
Twistor quantisation of open strings in three dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shaw, W.T.
1987-01-01
The paper treats the first quantisation of loops in real four-dimensional twistor space. Such loops correspond to open strings in three-dimensional spacetime. The geometry and reality structures pertaining to twistors in three dimensions are reviewed and the twistor description of null geodesics is presented as a prototype for the discussion of null curves. The classical twistor structure of null curves is then described. The symplectic structure is exhibited and used to investigate the constraint algebra. Expressions for the momentum operators are found. The symplectic structure defines natural canonical variables for covariant twistor quantisation and the consequences of carrying this out are described. A twistor representation of the Virasoro algebra with central charge 2 is found and some solutions of the quantum constraints are exhibited. (author)
Open string fluctuations in AdS space with and without torsion
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, A.L.; Lomholt, Michael Andersen
2003-01-01
The equations of motion and boundary conditions for the fluctuations around a classical open string, in a curved space-time with torsion, are considered in compact and world-sheet covariant form. The rigidly rotating open strings in anti-de Sitter space with and without torsion are investigated...
Microscopic unitary description of tidal excitations in high-energy string-brane collisions
D'Appollonio, Giuseppe; Russo, Rodolfo; Veneziano, Gabriele
2013-01-01
The eikonal operator was originally introduced to describe the effect of tidal excitations on higher-genus elastic string amplitudes at high energy. In this paper we provide a precise interpretation for this operator through the explicit tree-level calculation of generic inelastic transitions between closed strings as they scatter off a stack of parallel Dp-branes. We perform this analysis both in the light-cone gauge, using the Green-Schwarz vertex, and in the covariant formalism, using the Reggeon vertex operator. We also present a detailed discussion of the high energy behaviour of the covariant string amplitudes, showing how to take into account the energy factors that enhance the contribution of the longitudinally polarized massive states in a simple way.
UV / IR mixing in noncommutative field theory via open string loops
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kiem, Youngjai; Lee, Sangmin
2000-01-01
We explicitly evaluate one-loop (annulus) planar and nonplanar open string amplitudes in the presence of the background NS-NS two-form field. In the decoupling limit of Seiberg and Witten, we find that the nonplanar string amplitudes reproduce the UV/IR mixing of noncommutative field theories. In particular, the investigation of the UV regime of the open string amplitudes shows that certain IR closed string degrees of freedom survive the decoupling limit as previously predicted from the noncommutative field theory analysis. These degrees of freedom are responsible for the quadratic, linear and logarithmic IR singularities when the D-branes embedded in space-time have the codimension zero, one and two, respectively. The analysis is given for both bosonic and supersymmetric open strings
Cosmic strings in an open universe: Quantitative evolution and observational consequences
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Avelino, P.P.; Caldwell, R.R.; Martins, C.J.
1997-01-01
The cosmic string scenario in an open universe is developed - including the equations of motion, a model of network evolution, the large angular scale cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy, and the power spectrum of density fluctuations produced by cosmic strings with dark matter. We first derive the equations of motion for a cosmic string in an open Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) space-time. With these equations and the cosmic string stress-energy conservation law, we construct a quantitative model of the evolution of the gross features of a cosmic string network in a dust-dominated, Ω 2 /Mpc. In a low density universe the string+CDM scenario is a better model for structure formation. We find that for cosmological parameters Γ=Ωh∼0.1 - 0.2 in an open universe the string+CDM power spectrum fits the shape of the linear power spectrum inferred from various galaxy surveys. For Ω∼0.2 - 0.4, the model requires a bias b approx-gt 2 in the variance of the mass fluctuation on scales 8h -1 Mpc. In the presence of a cosmological constant, the spatially flat string+CDM power spectrum requires a slightly lower bias than for an open universe of the same matter density. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
A simple solvable model of quantum field theory of open strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kazakov, V.A.; AN SSSR, Moscow
1990-01-01
A model of quantum field theory of open strings without any embedding (D=0) is solved. The world sheets of interacting strings are represented by dynamical planar graphs with dynamical holes of arbitrary sizes. The phenomenon of spontaneous tearing of the world sheet is noticed, which gives a singularity at zero coupling constant of string interaction. This phenomenon can be considered as a nonperturbative effect, similar to renormalons in planar field theories and is closely related to the α' → 0 limit of string field theories. (orig.)
Light-like tachyon condensation in open string field theory
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Hellerman, S.; Schnabl, Martin
2013-01-01
Roč. 2013, č. 4 (2013), s. 1-34 ISSN 1126-6708 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : string field theory * tachyon condensation Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 5.618, year: 2012
Open BRST algebras, ghost unification and string field theory
Baulieu, Laurent; Bergshoeff, Eric; Sezgin, Ergin
1988-01-01
Geometrical aspects of the BRST quantization of charged antisymmetric tensor fields and string fields are studied within the framework of the Batalin and Vilkovisky method. In both cases, candidate anomalies which obey the Wess-Zumino consistency conditions are given.
Energy momentum tensor and marginal deformations in open string field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sen, Ashoke
2004-01-01
Marginal boundary deformations in a two dimensional conformal field theory correspond to a family of classical solutions of the equations of motion of open string field theory. In this paper we develop a systematic method for relating the parameter labelling the marginal boundary deformation in the conformal field theory to the parameter labelling the classical solution in open string field theory. This is done by first constructing the energy-momentum tensor associated with the classical solution in open string field theory using Noether method, and then comparing this to the answer obtained in the conformal field theory by analysing the boundary state. We also use this method to demonstrate that in open string field theory the tachyon lump solution on a circle of radius larger than one has vanishing pressure along the circle direction, as is expected for a co-dimension one D-brane. (author)
Background Independent Open String Field Theory and Constant B-Field
Nemeschansky, D.; Yasnov, V.
2000-01-01
We calculate the background independent action for bosonic and supersymmetric open string field theory in a constant B-field. We also determine the tachyon effective action in the presence of constant B-field.
A proof that Witten's open string theory gives a single cover of moduli space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zwiebach, B.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge
1991-01-01
We show that Witten's open string diagrams are surfaces with metrics of minimal area under the condition that all nontrivial open Jordan curves be longer or equal to π. The minimal area property is used together with a mini-max problem to establish a new existence and uniqueness theorem for quadratic differentials in open Riemann surfaces with or without punctures on the boundaries. This theorem implies that the Feynman rules of open string theory give a single cover of the moduli of open Riemann surfaces. (orig.)
Physical states at the tachyonic vacuum of open string field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Giusto, S.; Imbimbo, C.
2004-01-01
We illustrate a method for computing the number of physical states of open string theory at the stable tachyonic vacuum in level truncation approximation. The method is based on the analysis of the gauge-fixed open string field theory quadratic action that includes Fadeev-Popov ghost string fields. Computations up to level 9 in the scalar sector are consistent with Sen's conjecture about the absence of physical open string states at the tachyonic vacuum. We also derive a long exact cohomology sequence that relates relative and absolute cohomologies of the BRS operator at the non-perturbative vacuum. We use this exact result in conjunction with our numerical findings to conclude that the higher ghost number non-perturbative BRS cohomologies are non-empty
Open BRST algebras, ghost unification and string field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baulieu, L.; Bergshoeff, E.; Sezgin, E.
1988-01-01
Geometrical aspects of the BRST quantization of charged antisymmetric tensor fields and string fields are studied within the framework of the Batalin and Vilkovisky method. In both cases, candidate anomalies which obey the Wess-Zumino consistency conditions are given. (author). 18 refs, 1 fig
Large BCFT moduli in open string field theory
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Maccaferri, C.; Schnabl, Martin
2015-01-01
Roč. 2015, č. 8 (2015), s. 149 ISSN 1029-8479 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-31689S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : String Field Theory * tachyon condensation * D-branes Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 6.023, year: 2015
Spectral curve for open strings attached to the Y=0 brane
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bajnok, Zoltán; Kim, Minkyoo; Palla, László
2014-01-01
The concept of spectral curve is generalized to open strings in AdS/CFT with integrability preserving boundary conditions. Our definition is based on the logarithms of the eigenvalues of the open monodromy matrix and makes possible to determine all the analytic, symmetry and asymptotic properties of the quasimomenta. We work out the details of the whole construction for the Y=0 brane boundary condition. The quasimomenta of open circular strings are explicitly calculated. We use the asymptotic solutions of the Y-system and the boundary Bethe Ansatz equations to recover the spectral curve in the strong coupling scaling limit. Using the curve the quasiclassical fluctuations of some open string solutions are also studied
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Debut, V.; Antunes, J.; Delaune, X.
2010-01-01
For achieving realistic numerical simulations of bowed string instruments, based on physical modeling, a good understanding of the actual friction interaction phenomena is of great importance. Most work published in the field including our own has assumed that bow/string frictional forces behave according to the classical Coulomb stick-slip model, with an empirical velocity-dependent sliding friction coefficient. Indeed, the basic self-excited string motions (such as the Helmholtz regime) are well captured using such friction model. However, recent work has shown that the tribological behavior of the bow/string rosin interface is rather complex, therefore the basic velocity-dependent Coulomb model may be an over-simplistic representation of the friction force. More specifically, it was suggested that a more accurate model of the interaction force can be achieved by coupling the system dynamical equations with a thermal model which encapsulates the complex interface phenomena. In spite of the interesting work performed by Askenfelt, a direct measurement of the actual dynamical friction forces without disturbing the string motion is quite difficult. Therefore, in this work we develop a modal-based identification technique making use of inverse methods and optimization techniques, which enables the identification of the interface force, as well as the string self-excited motion, from the dynamical reactions measured at the string end supports. The method gives convincing results using simulated data originated from nonlinear computations of a bowed string. Furthermore, in cases where the force identifications are very sensitive to errors in the transfer function modal parameters, we suggest a method to improve the modal frequencies used for the identifications. Preliminary experimental results obtained using a basic bowing device, by which the string is excited with the stick of the bow, are then presented. Our identifications, from the two dynamical string reactions
On the planar and whirling motion of a stretched string due to a parametric harmonic excitation
Van der Burgh, A.H.P.; Van Horssen, W.T.
2004-01-01
In this paper a model of the dynamics of a stretched string is derived. The sag of the string due to gravity is neglected. The string is suspended between a fixed support and a vibrating support. Due to the vibrating support the oscillation of the string in vertical direction is influenced by a
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yaakov, Itamar
2006-01-01
We extend Gopakumar's prescription for constructing closed string worldsheets from free field theory diagrams with adjoint matter to open and closed string worldsheets arising from free field theories with fundamental matter. We describe the extension of the gluing mechanism and the electrical circuit analogy to fundamental matter. We discuss the generalization of the existence and uniqueness theorem of Strebel differentials to open Riemann surfaces. Two examples are computed of correlators containing fundamental matter, and the resulting worldsheet OPE's are computed. Generic properties of Gopakumar's construction are discussed
Open branes in space-time non-commutative little string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harmark, T.
2001-01-01
We conjecture the existence of two new non-gravitational six-dimensional string theories, defined as the decoupling limit of NS5-branes in the background of near-critical electrical two- and three-form RR fields. These theories are space-time non-commutative Little String Theories with open branes. The theory with (2,0) supersymmetry has an open membrane in the spectrum and reduces to OM theory at low energies. The theory with (1,1) supersymmetry has an open string in the spectrum and reduces to (5+1)-dimensional NCOS theory for weak NCOS coupling and low energies. The theories are shown to be T-dual with the open membrane being T-dual to the open string. The theories therefore provide a connection between (5+1)-dimensional NCOS theory and OM theory. We study the supergravity duals of these theories and we consider a chain of dualities that shows how the T-duality between the two theories is connected with the S-duality between (4+1)-dimensional NCOS theory and OM theory
Discrete torsion in non-geometric orbifolds and their open-string descendants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bianchi, Massimo; Morales, Jose F.; Pradisi, Gianfranco
2000-01-01
We discuss some Z N L xZ N R orbifold compactifications of the type IIB superstring to D=4,6 dimensions and their type I descendants. Although the Z N L xZ N R generators act asymmetrically on the chiral string modes, they result into left-right symmetric models that admit sensible unorientable reductions. We carefully work out the phases that appear in the modular transformations of the chiral amplitudes and identify the possibility of introducing discrete torsion. We propose a simplifying ansatz for the construction of the open-string descendants in which the transverse-channel Klein-bottle, annulus and Moebius-strip amplitudes are numerically identical in the proper parametrization of the world-sheet. A simple variant of the ansatz for the Z 2 L xZ 2 R orbifold gives rise to models with supersymmetry breaking in the open-string sector
BPS open strings and A-D-E-singularities in F-theory on K3
Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Hartong, Jelle
We improve on a recently constructed graphical representation of the supergravity 7-brane solution and apply this refined representation to re-study the open string description of the A-D-E-singularities in F-theory on K3. A noteworthy feature of the graphical representation is that it provides the
D-brane description of new open string solutions in AdS5
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kluson, J.
2008-01-01
In this Letter we find D-brane descriptions of some of new open string solutions that were found in (0804.3438 [hep-th]). These D5-brane and D3-brane configurations give gravitational dual descriptions of Wilson loops in some particular representations
Cusp anomalous dimension and rotating open strings in AdS/CFT
Espíndola, R.; García, J. Antonio
2018-03-01
In the context of AdS/CFT we provide analytical support for the proposed duality between a Wilson loop with a cusp, the cusp anomalous dimension, and the meson model constructed from a rotating open string with high angular momentum. This duality was previously studied using numerical tools in [1]. Our result implies that the minimum of the profile function of the minimal area surface dual to the Wilson loop, is related to the inverse of the bulk penetration of the dual string that hangs from the quark-anti-quark pair (meson) in the gauge theory.
Chan-Paton soliton gauge states of the compactified open string
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, J.-C.
2000-01-01
We study the mechanism of the enhanced gauge symmetry of the bosonic open string compactified on a torus by analyzing the zero-norm soliton (non-zero winding of the Wilson line) gauge states in the spectrum. Unlike the closed string case, we find that the soliton gauge state exists only at massive levels. These soliton gauge states correspond to the existence of enhanced massive gauge symmetries with transformation parameters containing both Einstein and Yang-Mills indices. In the T-dual picture, these symmetries exist only at some discrete values of compactified radii when N D-branes are coincident. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nagao, G.
1987-12-01
We recalculate the bosonic 1-loop open string scattering amplitude using the results of the bosonic 1-loop closed string amplitude. The results show explicitly how the cancellation of divergences depends upon of a set of involution-dependent constants which relate the torus to the cylinder and Moebius strip. Such a set of involution-dependent constants exists at each loop level and thus provides a means with which to study the cancellation of divergences and the connection between the world-sheet and internal symmetries. 14 refs., 3 figs
Explicit evaluation of covariant one-loop four-point amplitude for open fermionic string
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamamoto, Hisashi; Nakazawa, Naohito.
1986-11-01
We carry out the explicit evaluation of the covariant one-loop amplitude with four massless external bosons for open fermionic string by the operator formalism. The resulting expression of the amplitude completely coincides with that of the light-cone new formalism for type-I superstring theory, providing the explicit demonstration for the one-loop equivalence of the old and new formalisms for the open superstring theory at the four-point interacting level. (author)
A study of open strings ending on giant gravitons, spin chains and integrability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berenstein, David; Correa, Diego H.; Vazquez, Samuel E.
2006-01-01
We systematically study the spectrum of open strings attached to half BPS giant gravitons in the N = 4 SYM AdS/CFT setup. We find that some null trajectories along the giant graviton are actually null geodesics of AdS 5 x S 5 , so that we can study the problem in a plane wave limit setup. We also find the description of these states at weak 't Hooft coupling in the dual CFT. We show how the dual description is given by an open spin chain with variable number of sites. We analyze this system in detail and find numerical evidence for integrability. We also discover an interesting instability of long open strings in Ramond-Ramond backgrounds that is characterized by having a continuum spectrum of the string, which is separated from the ground state by a gap. This instability arises from accelerating the D-brane on which the strings end via the Ramond-Ramond field. From the integrable spin chain point of view, this instability prevents us from formulating the integrable structure in terms of a Bethe Ansatz construction
Dilatation operator and the Super Yang-Mills duals of open strings on AdS giant gravitons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Correa, Diego H.; Silva, Guillermo A.
2006-01-01
We study the one-loop anomalous dimensions of the Super Yang-Mills dual operators to open strings ending on AdS giant gravitons. AdS giant gravitons have no upper bound for their angular momentum and we represent them by the contraction of scalar fields, carrying the appropriate R-charge, with a totally symmetric tensor. We represent the open string motion along AdS directions by appending to the giant graviton operator a product of fields including covariant derivatives. We derive a bosonic lattice Hamiltonian that describes the mixing of these excited AdS giants operators under the action of the one-loop dilatation operator of N = 4 SYM. This Hamiltonian captures several intuitive differences with respect to the case of sphere giant gravitons. A semiclassical analysis of the Hamiltonian allows us to give a geometrical interpretation for the labeling used to describe the fields products appended to the AdS giant operators. It also allows us to show evidence for the existence of continuous bands in the Hamiltonian spectrum
Topological open string amplitudes on local toric del Pezzo surfaces via remodeling the B-model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Manabe, Masahide
2009-01-01
We study topological strings on local toric del Pezzo surfaces by a method called remodeling the B-model which was recently proposed by Bouchard, Klemm, Marino and Pasquetti. For a large class of local toric del Pezzo surfaces we prove a functional formula of the Bergman kernel which is the basic constituent of the topological string amplitudes by the topological recursion relation of Eynard and Orantin. Because this formula is written as a functional of the period, we can obtain the topological string amplitudes at any point of the moduli space by a simple change of variables of the Picard-Fuchs equations for the period. By this formula and mirror symmetry we compute the A-model amplitudes on K F 2 , and predict the open orbifold Gromov-Witten invariants of C 3 /Z 4 .
The wave function behavior of the open topological string partition function on the conifold
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kashani-Poor, Amir-Kian
2007-01-01
We calculate the topological string partition function to all genus on the conifold, in the presence of branes. We demonstrate that the partition functions for different brane backgrounds (smoothly connected along a quantum corrected moduli space) can be interpreted as the same wave function in different polarizations. This behavior has a natural interpretation in the Chern-Simons target space description of the topological theory. Our detailed analysis however indicates that non-perturbatively, a modification of real Chern-Simons theory is required to capture the correct target space theory of the topological string. We perform our calculations in the framework of a free fermion representation of the open topological string, demonstrating that this framework extends beyond the simple C 3 geometry. The notion of a fermionic brane creation operator arises in this setting, and we study to what extent the wave function properties of the partition function can be extended to this operator
A microscopic description of absorption in high-energy string-brane collisions
D'Appollonio, Giuseppe; Russo, Rodolfo; Veneziano, Gabriele
2016-01-01
We study the collision of a highly energetic light closed string off a stack of Dp-branes at (sub)string-scale impact parameters and in a regime justifying a perturbative treatment. Unlike at larger impact parameters - where elastic scattering and/or tidal excitations dominate - here absorption of the closed string by the brane system, with the associated excitation of open strings living on it, becomes important. As a first step, we study this phenomenon at the disk level, in which the energetic closed string turns into a single heavy open string at rest whose particularly simple properties are described.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strominger, A.
1987-01-01
A gauge invariant cubic action describing bosonic closed string field theory is constructed. The gauge symmetries include local spacetime diffeomorphisms. The conventional closed string spectrum and trilinear couplings are reproduced after spontaneous symmetry breaking. The action S is constructed from the usual ''open string'' field of ghost number minus one half. It is given by the associator of the string field product which is non-vanishing because of associativity anomalies. S does not describe open string propagation because open string states associate and can thereby be shifted away. A field theory of closed and open strings can be obtained by adding to S the cubic open string action. (orig.)
Open semiclassical strings and long defect operators in AdS/dCFT correspondence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Susaki, Yoshiaki; Takayama, Yastoshi; Yoshida, Kentaroh
2005-01-01
We consider defect composite operators in a defect superconformal field theory obtained by inserting an AdS 4 xS 2 -brane in the AdS 5 xS 5 background. The one-loop dilatation operator for the scalar sector is represented by an integrable open spin chain. We give a description to construct coherent states for the open spin chain. Then, by evaluating the expectation value of the Hamiltonian with the coherent states in a long operator limit, a Landau-Lifshitz type of sigma model action is obtained. This action is also derived from the string action and hence we find a complete agreement in both super Yang-Mills and string sides. We see that an SO(3) H pulsating string solution is included in the action and its energy completely agrees with the result calculated in a different method. In addition, we argue that our procedure would be applicable to other AdS-brane cases
Chern-Simons gauge theory on orbifolds: Open strings from three dimensions
Hořava, Petr
1996-12-01
Chern-Simons gauge theory is formulated on three-dimensional Z2 orbifolds. The locus of singular points on a given orbifold is equivalent to a link of Wilson lines. This allows one to reduce any correlation function on orbifolds to a sum of more complicated correlation functions in the simpler theory on manifolds. Chern-Simons theory on manifolds is known to be related to two-dimensional (2D) conformal field theory (CFT) on closed-string surfaces; here it is shown that the theory on orbifolds is related to 2D CFT of unoriented closed- and open-string models, i.e. to worldsheet orbifold models. In particular, the boundary components of the worldsheet correspond to the components of the singular locus in the 3D orbifold. This correspondence leads to a simple identification of the open-string spectra, including their Chan-Paton degeneration, in terms of fusing Wilson lines in the corresponding Chern-Simons theory. The correspondence is studied in detail, and some exactly solvable examples are presented. Some of these examples indicate that it is natural to think of the orbifold group Z2 as a part of the gauge group of the Chern-Simons theory, thus generalizing the standard definition of gauge theories.
General split helicity gluon tree amplitudes in open twistor string theory
Dolan, Louise; Goddard, Peter
2010-05-01
We evaluate all split helicity gluon tree amplitudes in open twistor string theory. We show that these amplitudes satisfy the BCFW recurrence relations restricted to the split helicity case and, hence, that these amplitudes agree with those of gauge theory. To do this we make a particular choice of the sextic constraints in the link variables that determine the poles contributing to the contour integral expression for the amplitudes. Using the residue theorem to re-express this integral in terms of contributions from poles at rational values of the link variables, which we determine, we evaluate the amplitudes explicitly, regaining the gauge theory results of Britto et al. [25].
BRST invariant mixed string vertex for the bosonic string
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clarizia, A.; Pezzella, F.
1987-09-01
We construct a BRST invariant (N+M)-string vertex including both open and closed string states. When we saturate it with N open string and M closed string physical states it reproduces their corresponding scattering amplitude. As a particular case we obtain BRST invariant vertex for the open-closed string transition. (orig.)
((F, D1), D3) bound state, S-duality and noncommutative open string/Yang-Mills theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lu, J.X.; Roy, S.; Singh, H.
2000-01-01
We study decoupling limits and S-dualities for noncommutative open string/Yang-Mills theory in a gravity setup by considering an SL(2,Z) invariant supergravity solution of the form ((F, D1), D3) bound state of type IIB string theory. This configuration can be regarded as D3-branes with both electric and magnetic fields turned on along one of the spatial directions of the brane and preserves half of the space-time supersymmetries of the string theory. Our study indicates that there exists a decoupling limit for which the resulting theory is an open string theory defined in a geometry with noncommutativity in both space-time and space-space directions. We study S-duality of this noncommutative open string (NCOS) and find that the same decoupling limit in the S-dual description gives rise to a space-space noncommutative Yang-Mills theory (NCYM). We also discuss independently the decoupling limit for NCYM in this D3 brane background. Here we find that S-duality of NCYM theory does not always give a NCOS theory. Instead, it can give an ordinary Yang-Mills with a singular metric and an infinitely large coupling. We also find that the open string coupling relation between the two S-duality related theories is modified such that S-duality of a strongly coupled open-string/Yang-Mills theory does not necessarily give a weakly coupled theory. The relevant gravity dual descriptions of NCOS/NCYM are also given. (author)
Poisson-Lie T-duality open strings and D-branes
Klimcik, C.
1996-01-01
Global issues of the Poisson-Lie T-duality are addressed. It is shown that oriented open strings propagating on a group manifold G are dual to D-brane - anti-D-brane pairs propagating on the dual group manifold \\ti G. The D-branes coincide with the symplectic leaves of the standard Poisson structure induced on the dual group \\ti G by the dressing action of the group G. T-duality maps the momentum of the open string into the mutual distance of the D-branes in the pair. The whole picture is then extended to the full modular space M(D) of the Poisson-Lie equivalent \\si-models which is the space of all Manin triples of a given Drinfeld double.T-duality rotates the zero modes of pairs of D-branes living on targets belonging to M(D). In this more general case the D-branes are preimages of symplectic leaves in certain Poisson homogeneous spaces of their targets and, as such, they are either all even or all odd dimensional.
Remarks on entanglement entropy in string theory
Balasubramanian, Vijay; Parrikar, Onkar
2018-03-01
Entanglement entropy for spatial subregions is difficult to define in string theory because of the extended nature of strings. Here we propose a definition for bosonic open strings using the framework of string field theory. The key difference (compared to ordinary quantum field theory) is that the subregion is chosen inside a Cauchy surface in the "space of open string configurations." We first present a simple calculation of this entanglement entropy in free light-cone string field theory, ignoring subtleties related to the factorization of the Hilbert space. We reproduce the answer expected from an effective field theory point of view, namely a sum over the one-loop entanglement entropies corresponding to all the particle-excitations of the string, and further show that the full string theory regulates ultraviolet divergences in the entanglement entropy. We then revisit the question of factorization of the Hilbert space by analyzing the covariant phase-space associated with a subregion in Witten's covariant string field theory. We show that the pure gauge (i.e., BRST exact) modes in the string field become dynamical at the entanglement cut. Thus, a proper definition of the entropy must involve an extended Hilbert space, with new stringy edge modes localized at the entanglement cut.
In- and out-of-plane response of a stretched string due to an in-plane harmonic excitation
Van Horssen, W.T.; Van der Burgh, A.H.P
2004-01-01
In this paper a model of the dynamics of a stretched string is derived. The sag of the string due to gravity is neglected. The string is suspended between a fixed support and a vibrating support. Due to the vibrating support the oscillation of the string in vertical direction is influenced by a
The Hagedorn temperature and open QCD-string tachyons in pure N=1 super-Yang-Mills
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Armoni, Adi; Hollowood, Timothy J.
2008-01-01
We consider large-N confining gauge theories with a Hagedorn density of states. In such theories the potential between a pair of colour-singlet sources may diverge at a critical distance r c =1/T H . We consider, in particular, pure N=1 super-Yang-Mills theory and argue that when a domain wall and an anti-domain wall are brought to a distance near r c the interaction potential is better described by an 'open QCD-string channel'. We interpret the divergence of the potential in terms of a tachyonic mode and relate its mass to the Hagedorn temperature. Finally we relate our result to a theorem of Kutasov and Seiberg and argue that the presence of an open string tachyonic mode in the annulus amplitude implies an exponential density of states in the UV of the closed string channel
α′-Expansion of open string disk integrals via Mellin transformations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ellis Ye Yuan
2015-02-01
Full Text Available Open string disk integrals are represented as contour integrals of a product of Beta functions using Mellin transformations. This makes the mathematical problem of computing the α′-expansion around the field-theory limit similar to that of the ϵ-expansion in Feynman loop integrals around the four-dimensional limit. More explicitly, the formula in Mellin space obtained directly from the standard Koba–Nielsen-like representation is valid in a region of values of α′ that does not include α′=0. Analytic continuation is therefore needed since contours are pinched by poles as α′→0. Deforming contours that get pinched by poles generates a set of (n−3! multi-dimensional residues left behind which contain all the field theory information. Some analogies between the field theory formulas obtained by this method and those derived recently from using the scattering equations are commented at the end.
High-energy string-brane scattering: leading eikonal and beyond
D'Appollonio, Giuseppe; Russo, Rodolfo; Veneziano, Gabriele
2010-01-01
We extend previous techniques for calculations of transplanckian-energy string-string collisions to the high-energy scattering of massless closed strings from a stack of N Dp-branes in Minkowski spacetime. We show that an effective non-trivial metric emerges from the string scattering amplitudes by comparing them against the semiclassical dynamics of high-energy strings in the extremal p-brane background. By changing the energy, impact parameter and effective open string coupling, we are able to explore various interesting regimes and to reproduce classical expectations, including tidal-force excitations, even beyond the leading-eikonal approximation.
Open rigid string with the Gauss-Bonnet term in action
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nesterenko, V.V.; Pirozhenko, I.G.
1998-01-01
The effect of the Gaussian curvature in the rigid string action on the interquark potential is investigated. The linearized equations of motion and boundary conditions, following from the modified string action, are obtained. The equation, defining the eigenfrequency spectrum of the string oscillations is derived. On this basis the interquark potential generated by the string is calculated in one-loop approximation. A substantial influence of the topological term in the string action on the interquark potential at the distances of hadronic size order or less is revealed
Strings and fundamental physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baumgartl, Marco; Brunner, Ilka; Haack, Michael
2012-01-01
The basic idea, simple and revolutionary at the same time, to replace the concept of a point particle with a one-dimensional string, has opened up a whole new field of research. Even today, four decades later, its multifaceted consequences are still not fully conceivable. Up to now string theory has offered a new way to view particles as different excitations of the same fundamental object. It has celebrated success in discovering the graviton in its spectrum, and it has naturally led scientists to posit space-times with more than four dimensions - which in turn has triggered numerous interesting developments in fields as varied as condensed matter physics and pure mathematics. This book collects pedagogical lectures by leading experts in string theory, introducing the non-specialist reader to some of the newest developments in the field. The carefully selected topics are at the cutting edge of research in string theory and include new developments in topological strings, AdS/CFT dualities, as well as newly emerging subfields such as doubled field theory and holography in the hydrodynamic regime. The contributions to this book have been selected and arranged in such a way as to form a self-contained, graduate level textbook. (orig.)
Strings and fundamental physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baumgartl, Marco [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Brunner, Ilka; Haack, Michael (eds.) [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Physik
2012-07-01
The basic idea, simple and revolutionary at the same time, to replace the concept of a point particle with a one-dimensional string, has opened up a whole new field of research. Even today, four decades later, its multifaceted consequences are still not fully conceivable. Up to now string theory has offered a new way to view particles as different excitations of the same fundamental object. It has celebrated success in discovering the graviton in its spectrum, and it has naturally led scientists to posit space-times with more than four dimensions - which in turn has triggered numerous interesting developments in fields as varied as condensed matter physics and pure mathematics. This book collects pedagogical lectures by leading experts in string theory, introducing the non-specialist reader to some of the newest developments in the field. The carefully selected topics are at the cutting edge of research in string theory and include new developments in topological strings, AdS/CFT dualities, as well as newly emerging subfields such as doubled field theory and holography in the hydrodynamic regime. The contributions to this book have been selected and arranged in such a way as to form a self-contained, graduate level textbook. (orig.)
Jost, Jürgen
2007-01-01
This book presents a mathematical treatment of Bosonic string theory from the point of view of global geometry. As motivation, Jost presents the theory of point particles and Feynman path integrals. He provides detailed background material, including the geometry of Teichmüller space, the conformal and complex geometry of Riemann surfaces, and the subtleties of boundary regularity questions. The high point is the description of the partition function for Bosonic strings as a finite-dimensional integral over a moduli space of Riemann surfaces. Jost concludes with some topics related to open and closed strings and D-branes. Bosonic Strings is suitable for graduate students and researchers interested in the mathematics underlying string theory.
String theory of the Regge intercept.
Hellerman, S; Swanson, I
2015-03-20
Using the Polchinski-Strominger effective string theory in the covariant gauge, we compute the mass of a rotating string in D dimensions with large angular momenta J, in one or two planes, in fixed ratio, up to and including first subleading order in the large J expansion. This constitutes a first-principles calculation of the value for the order-J(0) contribution to the mass squared of a meson on the leading Regge trajectory in planar QCD with bosonic quarks. For open strings with Neumann boundary conditions, and for closed strings in D≥5, the order-J(0) term in the mass squared is exactly calculated by the semiclassical approximation. This term in the expansion is universal and independent of the details of the theory, assuming only D-dimensional Poincaré invariance and the absence of other infinite-range excitations on the string world volume, beyond the Nambu-Goldstone bosons.
Are Stopped Strings Preferred in Sad Music?
David Huron; Caitlyn Trevor
2017-01-01
String instruments may be played either with open strings (where the string vibrates between the bridge and a hard wooden nut) or with stopped strings (where the string vibrates between the bridge and a performer's finger pressed against the fingerboard). Compared with open strings, stopped strings permit the use of vibrato and exhibit a darker timbre. Inspired by research on the timbre of sad speech, we test whether there is a tendency to use stopped strings in nominally sad music. Specifica...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gross, D.J.
1986-01-01
Traditional string theories, either bosonic or supersymmetric, came in two varieties, closed string theories and open string theories. Closed string are neutral objects which describe at low energies gravity or supergravity. Open strings have geometrically invariant ends to which charge can be attached, thereby obtaining, in addition to gravity, Yang-Mills gauge interactions. Recently a new kind of string theory was discovered--the heterotic string, which is a chiral hybrid of the closed superstring and the closed bosonic string, and which produces by an internal dynamical mechanism gauge interactions of a totally specified kind. Although this theory is found in an attempt to produce a superstring theory which would yield a low energy E/sub 8/xE/sub 8/ supersymmetric, anomaly free, gauge theory, as suggested by the anomaly cancellation mechanism of Green and Schwarz, it fits naturally into the general framework of consistent string theories
Exactly soluble dynamics of (p,q) string near macroscopic fundamental strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bak, Dongsu; Rey, Soojong; Yee, Houng
2004-01-01
We study dynamics of type-IIB bound-state of a Dirichlet string and n fundamental strings in the background of N fundamental strings. Because of supergravity potential, the bound-state string is pulled to the background fundamental strings, whose motion is described by open string rolling radion field. The string coupling can be made controllably weak and, in the limit 1 2 st n 2 st N, the bound-state energy involved is small compared to the string scale. We thus propose rolling dynamics of open string radion in this system as an exactly solvable analog for rolling dynamics of open string tachyon in decaying D-brane. The dynamics bears a novel feature that the worldsheet electric field increases monotonically to the critical value as the bound-state string falls into the background string. Close to the background string, D string constituent inside the bound-state string decouples from fundamental string constituents. (author)
Interpolating string field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zwiebach, B.
1992-01-01
This paper reports that a minimal area problem imposing different length conditions on open and closed curves is shown to define a one-parameter family of covariant open-closed quantum string field theories. These interpolate from a recently proposed factorizable open-closed theory up to an extended version of Witten's open string field theory capable of incorporating on shell closed strings. The string diagrams of the latter define a new decomposition of the moduli spaces of Riemann surfaces with punctures and boundaries based on quadratic differentials with both first order and second order poles
Algebraic solutions in open string field theory – a lightning review
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Schnabl, Martin
2010-01-01
Roč. 50, č. 3 (2010), s. 102-108 ISSN 1210-2709 Grant - others:EUROHORC(XE) EYI/07/E010 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : string field theory * tachyon condensation Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics https://ojs.cvut.cz/ojs/index.php/ap/article/download/1213/1045
String Resonances at Hadron Colliders
Anchordoqui, Luis A; Dai, De-Chang; Feng, Wan-Zhe; Goldberg, Haim; Huang, Xing; Lust, Dieter; Stojkovic, Dejan; Taylor, Tomasz R
2014-01-01
[Abridged] We consider extensions of the standard model based on open strings ending on D-branes. Assuming that the fundamental string mass scale M_s is in the TeV range and that the theory is weakly coupled, we discuss possible signals of string physics at the upcoming HL-LHC run (3000 fb^{-1}) with \\sqrt{s} = 14 TeV, and at potential future pp colliders, HE-LHC and VLHC, operating at \\sqrt{s} = 33 and 100 TeV, respectively. In such D-brane constructions, the dominant contributions to full-fledged string amplitudes for all the common QCD parton subprocesses leading to dijets and \\gamma + jet are completely independent of the details of compactification, and can be evaluated in a parameter-free manner. We make use of these amplitudes evaluated near the first (n=1) and second (n=2) resonant poles to determine the discovery potential for Regge excitations of the quark, the gluon, and the color singlet living on the QCD stack. We show that for string scales as large as 7.1 TeV (6.1 TeV), lowest massive Regge exc...
Connecting solutions in open string field theory with singular gauge transformations
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Erler, Theodore; Maccaferri, C.
2012-01-01
Roč. 2012, č. 4 (2012), 1-40 ISSN 1126-6708 Grant - others:EUROHORC and ESF(XE) EYI/07/E010 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : tachyon condensation * string field theory Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 5.618, year: 2012 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FJHEP04%282012%29107
Thermodynamics of quantum strings
Morgan, M J
1994-01-01
A statistical mechanical analysis of an ideal gas of non-relativistic quantum strings is presented, in which the thermodynamic properties of the string gas are calculated from a canonical partition function. This toy model enables students to gain insight into the thermodynamics of a simple 'quantum field' theory, and provides a useful pedagogical introduction to the more complicated relativistic string theories. A review is also given of the thermodynamics of the open bosonic string gas and the type I (open) superstring gas. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Neveu, A.
1986-01-01
There exist several string models. In the first lecture, the simplest one, the open bosonic string, which turns out to live most naturally in 26 dimensions will be described in some detail. In the second lecture, the closed bosonic strings, and the open and closed 10-dimensional strings (superstrings) are reviewed. In the third lecture, various compactification schemes which have been proposed to deal with the extra space dimensions, from 4 to 10 or 26 are dealt with; in particular, the Frenkel-Kac construction which builds non-Abelian internal symmetry groups out of the compactified dimensions, and the resulting heterotic string are described. Finally, in the fourth lecture, the important problem of the second quantization of string theories, and of the underlying gauge invariance which is responsible for the possibility of dealing, in a consistent fashion, with interacting high-spin states without negative metric is addressed. 41 references, 8 figures
Orthodontic treatment-induced temporal alteration of jaw-opening reflex excitability.
Sasaki, Au; Hasegawa, Naoya; Adachi, Kazunori; Sakagami, Hiroshi; Suda, Naoto
2017-10-01
The impairment of orofacial motor function during orthodontic treatment needs to be addressed, because most orthodontic patients experience pain and motor excitability would be affected by pain. In the present study, the temporal alteration of the jaw-opening reflex excitability was investigated to determine if orthodontic treatment affects orofacial motor function. The excitability of jaw-opening reflex evoked by electrical stimulation on the gingiva and recorded bilaterally in the anterior digastric muscles was evaluated at 1 (D1), 3 (D3), and 7 days (D7) after orthodontic force application to the teeth of right side; morphological features (e.g., osteoclast genesis and tooth movement) were also evaluated. To clarify the underlying mechanism of orthodontic treatment-induced alteration of orofacial motor excitability, analgesics were administrated for 1 day. At D1 and D3, orthodontic treatment significantly decreased the threshold for inducing the jaw-opening reflex but significantly increased the threshold at D7. Other parameters of the jaw-opening reflex were also evaluated (e.g., latency, duration and area under the curve of anterior digastric muscles activity), and only the latency of the D1 group was significantly different from that of the other groups. Temporal alteration of the jaw-opening reflex excitability was significantly correlated with changes in morphological features. Aspirin (300 mg·kg -1 ·day -1 ) significantly increased the threshold for inducing the jaw-opening reflex, whereas a lower dose (75-150 mg·kg -1 ·day -1 ) of aspirin or acetaminophen (300 mg·kg -1 ·day -1 ) failed to alter the jaw-opening reflex excitability. These results suggest that an increase of the jaw-opening reflex excitability can be induced acutely by orthodontic treatment, possibly through the cyclooxygenase activation. NEW & NOTEWORTHY It is well known that motor function is affected by pain, but the effect of orthodontic treatment-related pain on the trigeminal
Introduction to string theory and string compactifications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
GarcIa-Compean, Hugo
2005-01-01
Basics of some topics on perturbative and non-perturbative string theory are reviewed. After a mathematical survey of the Standard Model of particle physics and GUTs, the bosonic string kinematics for the free case and with interaction is described. The effective action of the bosonic string and the spectrum is also discussed. T-duality in closed and open strings and the definition of D-brane are surveyed. Five perturbative superstring theories and their spectra is briefly outlined. Calabi-Yau three-fold compactifications of heterotic strings and their relation to some four-dimensional physics are given. Finally, non-perturbative issues like S-duality, M-theory and F-theory are also reviewed
Cosmic strings and galaxy formation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bertschinger, E.
1989-01-01
Cosmic strings have become increasingly popular candidates as seeds for the formation of structure in the universe. This scenario, remains a serious cosmogonical model despite close scrutiny. In constrast, magnetic monopoles and domain walls - relic topological defects as are cosmic strings - are disastrous for cosmology if they are left over from the early universe. The production of heavy cosmic strings is speculative, as it depends on the details of ultrahigh energy physics. Fortunately, speculation about cosmic strings is not entirely idle because, if they exist and are heavy enough to seed galaxy formation, cosmic strings can be detected astronomically. Failure to detect cosmic strings would impose some constraints on grand unified theories (GUTs); their discovery would have exciting consequences for high energy physics and cosmology. This article reviews the basic physics of nonsuperconducting cosmic strings, highlighting the field theory aspects, and provides a progress report on calculations of structure formation with cosmic strings
Lectures on strings and dualities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vafa, C.
1997-01-01
In this set of lectures I review recent developments in string theory emphasizing their non-perturbative aspects and their recently discovered duality symmetries. The goal of the lectures is to make the recent exciting developments in string theory accessible to those with no previous background in string theory who wish to join the research effort in this area. Topics covered include a brief review of string theory, its compactifications, solitons and D-branes, black hole entropy and wed of string dualities. (author)
A Gauged Open 2-Brane String in the p-Brane Background
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Monemzadeh, Majid; Sarvi, Fahimeh; Abarghouei Nejad, Salman
2016-01-01
We make a gauge theory from the Open p-brane system and map it into the Open 2-Brane one. Due to the presence of second-class constraints in this model, we encounter some problems during the procedure of quantization. In this regard, considering boundary conditions as Dirac conditions, one can drive the constrained structure of the model at first. Then, with the help of BFT formalism of constraint systems, the Open 2-Brane model is embedded into an extended phase space. For this purpose, we introduce some tensor fields to convert ungauged theory into the gauged one. This is the novel part of our research, while mostly scalar and vector fields are used to convert second-class constraints into first ones.
Nonrelativistic closed string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gomis, Jaume; Ooguri, Hirosi
2001-01-01
We construct a Galilean invariant nongravitational closed string theory whose excitations satisfy a nonrelativistic dispersion relation. This theory can be obtained by taking a consistent low energy limit of any of the conventional string theories, including the heterotic string. We give a finite first order worldsheet Hamiltonian for this theory and show that this string theory has a sensible perturbative expansion, interesting high energy behavior of scattering amplitudes and a Hagedorn transition of the thermal ensemble. The strong coupling duals of the Galilean superstring theories are considered and are shown to be described by an eleven-dimensional Galilean invariant theory of light membrane fluctuations. A new class of Galilean invariant nongravitational theories of light-brane excitations are obtained. We exhibit dual formulations of the strong coupling limits of these Galilean invariant theories and show that they exhibit many of the conventional dualities of M theory in a nonrelativistic setting
String amplitudes: from field theories to number theory
CERN. Geneva
2017-01-01
In a variety of recent developments, scattering amplitudes hint at new symmetries of and unexpected connections between physical theories which are otherwise invisible in their conventional description via Feynman diagrams or Lagrangians. Yet, many of these hidden structures are conveniently accessible to string theory where gauge interactions and gravity arise as the low-energy excitations of open and closed strings. In this talk, I will give an intuitive picture of gravity as a double copy of gauge interactions and extend the web of relations to scalar field theories including chiral Lagrangians for Goldstone bosons. The string corrections to gauge and gravity amplitudes beyond their point-particle limit exhibit elegant mathematical structures and offer a convenient laboratory to explore modern number-theoretic concepts in a simple context. As a common theme with Feynman integrals, string amplitudes introduce a variety of periods and special functions including multiple zeta values and polylogarithms, orga...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ramond, P.
1987-01-01
We review the construction of the free equations of motion for open and closed strings in 26 dimensions, using the methods of the Florida Group. Differing from previous treatments, we argue that the constraint L 0 -anti L 0 =0 should not be imposed on all the fields of the closed string in the gauge invariant formalism; we show that it can be incorporated in the gauge invariant formalism at the price of being unable to extract the equations of motion from a Langrangian. We then describe our purely algebraic method to introduce interactions, which works equally well for open and closed strings. Quartic interactions are absent except in the Physical Gauge. Finally, we speculate on the role of the measure of the open string path functional. (orig.)
2015-01-01
Welcome to String-Math 2015 at Sanya. The conference will be opened in December 31, 2015- January 4, 2016. String theory plays a central role in theoretical physics as a candidate for the quantum theory unifying gravity with other interactions. It has profound connections with broad branches of modern mathematics ever since the birth. In the last decades, the prosperous interaction, built upon the joint efforts from both mathematicians and physicists, has given rise to marvelous deep results in supersymmetric gauge theory, topological string, M-theory and duality on the physics side as well as in algebraic geometry, differential geometry, algebraic topology, representation theory and number theory on the mathematics side. The interplay is two-fold. The mathematics has provided powerful tools to fulfill the physical interconnection of ideas and clarify physical structures to understand the nature of string theory. On the other hand, ideas from string theory and quantum field theory have been a source of sign...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chan Hongmo.
1987-10-01
The paper traces the development of the String Theory, and was presented at Professor Sir Rudolf Peierls' 80sup(th) Birthday Symposium. The String theory is discussed with respect to the interaction of strings, the inclusion of both gauge theory and gravitation, inconsistencies in the theory, and the role of space-time. The physical principles underlying string theory are also outlined. (U.K.)
Manipulating Strings in Python
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
William J. Turkel
2012-07-01
Full Text Available This lesson is a brief introduction to string manipulation techniques in Python. Knowing how to manipulate strings plays a crucial role in most text processing tasks. If you’d like to experiment with the following lessons, you can write and execute short programs as we’ve been doing, or you can open up a Python shell / Terminal to try them out on the command line.
Functional integral approach to string theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sakita, B.
1987-01-01
Fermionic string theory can be made supersymmetric: the superstring. It contains among others mass zero gauge fields of spin 1 and 2. The recent revival of interests in string field theories is due to the recognition of the compactified superstring theory as a viable theory of grandunification of all interactions, especially after Green and Schwarz's discovery of the gauge and gravitational anomaly cancellation in 0(32) superstring theory. New developments include string phenomenology, general discussions of compactification, new models, especially the heterotic string. These are either applications or extensions of string field theories. Although these are very exciting developments, the author limits his attention to the basics of the bosonic string theory
String field representation of the Virasoro algebra
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mertes, Nicholas [Institute of Physics AS CR,Na Slovance 2, Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Department of Physics, University of Miami,Coral Gables, FL (United States); Schnabl, Martin [Institute of Physics AS CR,Na Slovance 2, Prague 8 (Czech Republic)
2016-12-29
We construct a representation of the zero central charge Virasoro algebra using string fields in Witten’s open bosonic string field theory. This construction is used to explore extensions of the KBc algebra and find novel algebraic solutions of open string field theory.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Popov, A.D.
1991-01-01
We introduce hyperbolic strings as closed bosonic strings with the target space R d-1,1 xT q+1,1 which has an additional time-like dimension in the internal space. The Fock spaces of the q-parametric family of standard bosonic, fermionic and heterotic strings with the target spaces of dimension n≤d+q are shown to be embedded into the Fock space of hyperbolic strings. The condition of the absence of anomaly fixes d and q for all three types of strings written in a bosonized form. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kogan, Y.I.
1989-05-01
Using the connection between (2+1) Chern-Simons gauge theory and 2d Conformal Field Theory the on-shell string condition is obtained as a condition of full independence of interior of (2+1) world. The new method for off-shell continuation is considered based on the introduction of the Maxwell term in (2+1) theory. This leads to dynamical transmutation of world-sheet dimensions - the off-shell string becomes topological membrane (topological means that (2+1) theory has topological mass term). The dependence of parameters of (2+1) theory under the external fields is discussed. (author). 17 refs
High-energy symmetries of string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee Jenchi.
1990-01-01
The author studies the high-energy symmetry structure of string theory corresponding to the massive excitations of the string. These enlarged gauge symmetries are closely related to the existence of zero-norm states in the string spectrum. He has derived these symmetries in the framework of the Hamiltonian version of the first-quantized generalized σ-model formalism. It is conjectured that these infinite space-time symmetry structures could shed light on the finiteness of string perturbation theory. Two interesting phenomena were discovered for these massive states symmetries. One is the inter-'spin' symmetry for the different 'spin' states at each fixed mass level. Specifically, the four physical propagating states with 'spins' up to six of the second massive level of the closed bosonic string are found to form a large gauge multiplet. This is demonstrated by the existence of gauge transformations induced by the type II zero-norm states at this mass level. It is argued that this is a σ-model three loop result for the second massive level and is a general feature for higher massive levels at each fixed mass. The other one is the decoupling of some degenerate positive-norm states. As an example, he explicitly demonstrates that the 'spin' two and scalar physical propagating fields of the third massive level of the open bosonic string are mere gauge artifacts of the higher 'spin' fields at the same mass level. It is conjectured that this phenomenon comes from the well-known ambiguity in defining the positive-norm states due to the existence of zero-norm states in the same Young representation
Assessment of guide vane self-excitation stability at small openings in pump flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nennemann, B; Sallaberger, M; Henggeler, U; Gentner, C; Parkinson, E
2012-01-01
A parameter study of self-excited pump turbine guide vane instability at small openings using a combined CFD-1DOF approach shows that clear tendencies are difficult to obtain. Two types of boundary conditions can be used in the simulations: prescribed mass flow and prescribed pressure. Simulations with both show results that - for one specific operating condition - are consistent with a self-excited guide vane incident at a prototype pump turbine. However, over a larger range of reduced velocities, the tendencies obtained with the two boundary condition types are not always consistent. Pressure boundary conditions may be the more realistic option. Results then show that with increasing reduced velocity, guide vanes will eventually reach static instability or divergence. This may not be problematic. In contrast, passing through a zone of dynamic instability during operation should and can be avoided.
String theory compactifications
Graña, Mariana
2017-01-01
The lectures in this book provide graduate students and non-specialist researchers with a concise introduction to the concepts and formalism required to reduce the ten-dimensional string theories to the observable four-dimensional space-time - a procedure called string compactification. The text starts with a very brief introduction to string theory, first working out its massless spectrum and showing how the condition on the number of dimensions arises. It then dwells on the different possible internal manifolds, from the simplest to the most relevant phenomenologically, thereby showing that the most elegant description is through an extension of ordinary Riemannian geometry termed generalized geometry, which was first introduced by Hitchin. Last but not least, the authors review open problems in string phenomenology, such as the embedding of the Standard Model and obtaining de Sitter solutions.
Rossing, Thomas D.; Hanson, Roger J.
In the next eight chapters, we consider some aspects of the science of bowed string instruments, old and new. In this chapter, we present a brief discussion of bowed strings, a subject that will be developed much more thoroughly in Chap. 16. Chapters 13-15 discuss the violin, the cello, and the double bass. Chapter 17 discusses viols and other historic string instruments, and Chap. 18 discusses the Hutchins-Schelleng violin octet.
Are Stopped Strings Preferred in Sad Music?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David Huron
2017-01-01
Full Text Available String instruments may be played either with open strings (where the string vibrates between the bridge and a hard wooden nut or with stopped strings (where the string vibrates between the bridge and a performer's finger pressed against the fingerboard. Compared with open strings, stopped strings permit the use of vibrato and exhibit a darker timbre. Inspired by research on the timbre of sad speech, we test whether there is a tendency to use stopped strings in nominally sad music. Specifically, we compare the proportion of potentially open-to-stopped strings in a sample of slow, minor-mode movements with matched major-mode movements. By way of illustration, a preliminary analysis of Samuel Barber's famous Adagio from his Opus 11 string quartet shows that the selected key (B-flat minor provides the optimum key for minimizing open string tones. However, examination of a broader controlled sample of quartet movements by Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven failed to exhibit the conjectured relationship. Instead, major-mode movements were found to avoid possible open strings more than slow minor-mode movements.
Differential formulation in string theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guzzo, M.M.
1987-01-01
The equations of gauge invariance motion for theories of boson open strings and Neveu-Schwarz and Ramond superstring are derived. A construction for string theories using differential formalism, is introduced. The importance of BRST charge for constructing such theories and the necessity of introduction of auxiliary fields are verified. (M.C.K.) [pt
Lin, Chien-Hung
2017-05-01
We generalize the string-net construction to multiple flavors of strings, each of which is labeled by the elements of an Abelian group Gi. The same flavor of strings can branch, while different flavors of strings can cross one another and thus they form intersecting string nets. We systematically construct the exactly soluble lattice Hamiltonians and the ground-state wave functions for the intersecting string-net condensed phases. We analyze the braiding statistics of the low-energy quasiparticle excitations and find that our model can realize all the topological phases as the string-net model with group G =∏iGi . In this respect, our construction provides various ways of building lattice models which realize topological order G , corresponding to different partitions of G and thus different flavors of string nets. In fact, our construction concretely demonstrates the Künneth formula by constructing various lattice models with the same topological order. As an example, we construct the G =Z2×Z2×Z2 string-net model which realizes a non-Abelian topological phase by properly intersecting three copies of toric codes.
Comparing double string theory actions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
De Angelis, L.; Gionti, S.J.G.; Marotta, R.; Pezzella, F.
2014-01-01
Aimed to a deeper comprehension of a manifestly T-dual invariant formulation of string theory, in this paper a detailed comparison between the non-covariant action proposed by Tseytlin and the covariant one proposed by Hull is done. These are obtained by making both the string coordinates and their duals explicitly appear, on the same footing, in the world-sheet action, so “doubling” the string coordinates along the compact dimensions. After a discussion on the nature of the constraints in both the models and the relative quantization, it results that the string coordinates and their duals behave like “non-commuting” phase space coordinates but their expressions in terms of Fourier modes generate the oscillator algebra of the standard bosonic string. A proof of the equivalence of the two formulations is given. Furthermore, open-string solutions are also discussed
Comparing double string theory actions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
De Angelis, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi “Federico II” di Napoli,Complesso Universitario Monte S. Angelo ed. 6, via Cintia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Gionti, S.J.G. [Specola Vaticana, Vatican City, V-00120, Vatican City State and Vatican Observatory Research Group, Steward Observatory, The University Of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States); Marotta, R.; Pezzella, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Napoli,Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo ed. 6, via Cintia, 80126 Napoli (Italy)
2014-04-28
Aimed to a deeper comprehension of a manifestly T-dual invariant formulation of string theory, in this paper a detailed comparison between the non-covariant action proposed by Tseytlin and the covariant one proposed by Hull is done. These are obtained by making both the string coordinates and their duals explicitly appear, on the same footing, in the world-sheet action, so “doubling” the string coordinates along the compact dimensions. After a discussion on the nature of the constraints in both the models and the relative quantization, it results that the string coordinates and their duals behave like “non-commuting” phase space coordinates but their expressions in terms of Fourier modes generate the oscillator algebra of the standard bosonic string. A proof of the equivalence of the two formulations is given. Furthermore, open-string solutions are also discussed.
Regularization of finite temperature string theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leblanc, Y.; Knecht, M.; Wallet, J.C.
1990-01-01
The tachyonic divergences occurring in the free energy of various string theories at finite temperature are eliminated through the use of regularization schemes and analytic continuations. For closed strings, we obtain finite expressions which, however, develop an imaginary part above the Hagedorn temperature, whereas open string theories are still plagued with dilatonic divergences. (orig.)
Tadpole resummations in string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kitazawa, Noriaki
2008-01-01
While R-R tadpoles should be canceled for consistency, string models with broken supersymmetry generally have uncanceled NS-NS tadpoles. Their presence signals that the background does not solve the field equations, so that these models are in 'wrong' vacua. In this Letter we investigate, with reference to some prototype examples, whether the true values of physical quantities can be recovered resumming the NS-NS tadpoles, hence by an approach that is related to the analysis based on String Field Theory by open-closed duality. We show that, indeed, the positive classical vacuum energy of a Dp-brane of the bosonic string is exactly canceled by the negative contribution arising from tree-level tadpole resummation, in complete agreement with Sen's conjecture on open-string tachyon condensation and with the consequent analysis based on String Field Theory. We also show that the vanishing classical vacuum energy of the SO(8192) unoriented bosonic open-string theory does not receive any tree-level corrections from the tadpole resummation. This result is consistent with the fact that this (unstable) configuration is free from tadpoles of massless closed-string modes, although there is a tadpole of the closed string tachyon. The application of this method to superstring models with broken supersymmetry is also discussed
Plucked Strings and the Harpsichord
GIORDANO, N.; WINANS, J. P.
1999-07-01
The excitation of a harpsichord string when it is set into motion, i.e., plucked, by a plectrum is studied. We find that the amplitude of the resulting string vibration is approximately independent of the velocity with which the key is depressed. This result is in accord with conventional wisdom, but at odds with a recent theoretical model. A more realistic theoretical treatment of the plucking process is then described, and shown to be consistent with our measurements. The experiments reveal several other interesting aspects of the plectrum-string interaction.
Spin chain for quantum strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beisert, N.
2005-01-01
We review and compare the integrable structures in N=4 gauge theory and string theory on AdS 5 x S 5 . Recently, Bethe ansaetze for gauge theory/weak coupling and string theory/strong coupling were proposed to describe scaling dimensions in the su(2) subsector. Here we investigate the Bethe equations for quantum string theory, naively extrapolated to weak coupling. Excitingly, we find a spin chain Hamiltonian similar, but not equal, to the gauge theory dilatation operator. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)
Evidence for concerted ring opening and C–Br bond breaking in UV-excited bromocyclopropane
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pandit, Shubhrangshu; Preston, Thomas J.; Orr-Ewing, Andrew J., E-mail: a.orr-ewing@bristol.ac.uk [School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Cantock’s Close, Bristol BS8 1TS (United Kingdom); King, Simon J.; Vallance, Claire [Department of Chemistry, University of Oxford, Chemistry Research Laboratory, 12 Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3TA (United Kingdom)
2016-06-28
Photodissociation of gaseous bromocyclopropane via its A-band continuum has been studied at excitation wavelengths ranging from 230 nm to 267 nm. Velocity-map images of ground-state bromine atoms (Br), spin-orbit excited bromine atoms (Br{sup ∗}), and C{sub 3}H{sub 5} hydrocarbon radicals reveal the kinetic energies of these various photofragments. Both Br and Br{sup ∗} atoms are predominantly generated via repulsive excited electronic states in a prompt photodissociation process in which the hydrocarbon co-fragment is a cyclopropyl radical. However, the images obtained at the mass of the hydrocarbon radical fragment identify a channel with total kinetic energy greater than that deduced from the Br and Br{sup ∗} images, and with a kinetic energy distribution that exceeds the energetic limit for Br + cyclopropyl radical products. The velocity-map images of these C{sub 3}H{sub 5} fragments have lower angular anisotropies than measured for Br and Br{sup ∗}, indicating molecular restructuring during dissociation. The high kinetic energy C{sub 3}H{sub 5} signals are assigned to allyl radicals generated by a minor photochemical pathway which involves concerted C–Br bond dissociation and cyclopropyl ring-opening following single ultraviolet (UV)-photon absorption. Slow photofragments also contribute to the velocity map images obtained at the C{sub 3}H{sub 5} radical mass, but the corresponding slow Br atoms are not observed. These features in the images are attributed to C{sub 3}H{sub 5}{sup +} from the photodissociation of the C{sub 3}H{sub 5}Br{sup +} molecular cation following two-photon ionization of the parent compound. This assignment is confirmed by 118-nm vacuum ultraviolet ionization studies that prepare the molecular cation in its ground electronic state prior to UV photodissociation.
Evidence for concerted ring opening and C-Br bond breaking in UV-excited bromocyclopropane.
Pandit, Shubhrangshu; Preston, Thomas J; King, Simon J; Vallance, Claire; Orr-Ewing, Andrew J
2016-06-28
Photodissociation of gaseous bromocyclopropane via its A-band continuum has been studied at excitation wavelengths ranging from 230 nm to 267 nm. Velocity-map images of ground-state bromine atoms (Br), spin-orbit excited bromine atoms (Br(∗)), and C3H5 hydrocarbon radicals reveal the kinetic energies of these various photofragments. Both Br and Br(∗) atoms are predominantly generated via repulsive excited electronic states in a prompt photodissociation process in which the hydrocarbon co-fragment is a cyclopropyl radical. However, the images obtained at the mass of the hydrocarbon radical fragment identify a channel with total kinetic energy greater than that deduced from the Br and Br(∗) images, and with a kinetic energy distribution that exceeds the energetic limit for Br + cyclopropyl radical products. The velocity-map images of these C3H5 fragments have lower angular anisotropies than measured for Br and Br(∗), indicating molecular restructuring during dissociation. The high kinetic energy C3H5 signals are assigned to allyl radicals generated by a minor photochemical pathway which involves concerted C-Br bond dissociation and cyclopropyl ring-opening following single ultraviolet (UV)-photon absorption. Slow photofragments also contribute to the velocity map images obtained at the C3H5 radical mass, but the corresponding slow Br atoms are not observed. These features in the images are attributed to C3H5 (+) from the photodissociation of the C3H5Br(+) molecular cation following two-photon ionization of the parent compound. This assignment is confirmed by 118-nm vacuum ultraviolet ionization studies that prepare the molecular cation in its ground electronic state prior to UV photodissociation.
Experimental observation of Bethe strings
Wang, Zhe; Wu, Jianda; Yang, Wang; Bera, Anup Kumar; Kamenskyi, Dmytro; Islam, A. T. M. Nazmul; Xu, Shenglong; Law, Joseph Matthew; Lake, Bella; Wu, Congjun; Loidl, Alois
2018-02-01
Almost a century ago, string states—complex bound states of magnetic excitations—were predicted to exist in one-dimensional quantum magnets. However, despite many theoretical studies, the experimental realization and identification of string states in a condensed-matter system have yet to be achieved. Here we use high-resolution terahertz spectroscopy to resolve string states in the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg-Ising chain SrCo2V2O8 in strong longitudinal magnetic fields. In the field-induced quantum-critical regime, we identify strings and fractional magnetic excitations that are accurately described by the Bethe ansatz. Close to quantum criticality, the string excitations govern the quantum spin dynamics, whereas the fractional excitations, which are dominant at low energies, reflect the antiferromagnetic quantum fluctuations. Today, Bethe’s result is important not only in the field of quantum magnetism but also more broadly, including in the study of cold atoms and in string theory; hence, we anticipate that our work will shed light on the study of complex many-body systems in general.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, F.; Chun, W.
1985-01-01
The use of basis states described as hadronic (or hadron-hadron) or hidden-colour (or colour-colour) for a system of quarks does not necessarily imply that connected exotic multiquark hadrons do exist. Antisymmetrization of quark wave functions tends to make these descriptions ill defined. It appears necessary to have stable collective structures called strings or bags to provide the physical connections required by quark confinement. The masses of multiquark hadrons can then be estimated by using semplified string, bag and NR potential models. The results turn out to be qualitatively similar in all these models. The stability problem for multiquark strings is briefly discussed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bennett, D.P.
1988-07-01
Cosmic strings are linear topological defects that are predicted by some grand unified theories to form during a spontaneous symmetry breaking phase transition in the early universe. They are the basis for the only theories of galaxy formation aside from quantum fluctuations from inflation that are based on fundamental physics. In contrast to inflation, they can also be observed directly through gravitational lensing and their characteristic microwave background anistropy. It has recently been discovered by F. Bouchet and myself that details of cosmic string evolution are very different from the so-called ''standard model'' that has been assumed in most of the string induced galaxy formation calculations. Therefore, the details of galaxy formation in the cosmic string models are currently very uncertain. 29 refs., 9 figs
The tension as perturbative parameter in string theory
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Gamboa, J.
1990-01-01
We propose an approach to string theory where the zero theory is the null string. We find an explicit form of the propagator for the null string in the momentum space. We show that considering the tension as perturbative parameter, the perturbative series is completely summable and we find the propagator of the bosonic open string with tension T. (author) [pt
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chaves, Max
2006-01-01
The conception of the magnetic string is presented as an infinitely thin bundle of magnetic flux lines. The magnetic strings are surrounded by a film of current that rotates around them, and are a solution of Maxwell's equations. The magnetic potential contains a line singularity, and its stability can be established topologically. A few comments are added on the possibility that they may exist at a cosmological scale as relics of the Big Bang. (author) [es
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thorn, C.B.
1988-01-01
The possibility of studying non-perturbative effects in string theory using a world sheet lattice is discussed. The light-cone lattice string model of Giles and Thorn is studied numerically to assess the accuracy of ''coarse lattice'' approximations. For free strings a 5 by 15 lattice seems sufficient to obtain better than 10% accuracy for the bosonic string tachyon mass squared. In addition a crude lattice model simulating string like interactions is studied to find out how easily a coarse lattice calculation can pick out effects such as bound states which would qualitatively alter the spectrum of the free theory. The role of the critical dimension in obtaining a finite continuum limit is discussed. Instead of the ''gaussian'' lattice model one could use one of the vertex models, whose continuum limit is the same as a gaussian model on a torus of any radius. Indeed, any critical 2 dimensional statistical system will have a stringy continuum limit in the absence of string interactions. 8 refs., 1 fig. , 9 tabs
Transverse structure of the QCD string
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meyer, Harvey B.
2010-01-01
The characterization of the transverse structure of the QCD string is discussed. We formulate a conjecture as to how the stress-energy tensor of the underlying gauge theory couples to the string degrees of freedom. A consequence of the conjecture is that the energy density and the longitudinal-stress operators measure the distribution of the transverse position of the string, to leading order in the string fluctuations, whereas the transverse-stress operator does not. We interpret recent numerical measurements of the transverse size of the confining string and show that the difference of the energy and longitudinal-stress operators is a particularly natural probe at next-to-leading order. Second, we derive the constraints imposed by open-closed string duality on the transverse structure of the string. We show that a total of three independent ''gravitational'' form factors characterize the transverse profile of the closed string, and obtain the interpretation of recent effective string theory calculations: the square radius of a closed string of length β defined from the slope of its gravitational form factor, is given by (d-1/2πσ)log(β/4r 0 ) in d space dimensions. This is to be compared with the well-known result that the width of the open string at midpoint grows as (d-1/2πσ)log(r/r 0 ). We also obtain predictions for transition form factors among closed-string states.
Basic Concepts of String Theory
Blumenhagen, Ralph; Theisen, Stefan
2013-01-01
The purpose of this book is to thoroughly prepare the reader for research in string theory. It is intended as a textbook in the sense that, starting from the basics, the material is presented in a pedagogical and self-contained fashion. The emphasis is on the world-sheet perspective of closed strings and of open strings ending on D-branes, where two-dimensional conformal field theory is the main tool. Compactifications of string theory, with and without fluxes, and string dualities are also discussed from the space-time point of view, i.e. in geometric language. End-of-chapter references have been added to guide the reader intending to pursue further studies or to start research in the topics covered by this book.
Basic concepts of string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blumenhagen, Ralph
2013-01-01
The purpose of this book is to thoroughly prepare the reader for research in string theory. It is intended as a textbook in the sense that, starting from the basics, the material is presented in a pedagogical and self-contained fashion. The emphasis is on the world-sheet perspective of closed strings and of open strings ending on D-branes, where two-dimensional conformal field theory is the main tool. Compactifications of string theory, with and without fluxes, and string dualities are also discussed from the space-time point of view, i.e. in geometric language. End-of-chapter references have been added to guide the reader intending to pursue further studies or to start research in the topics covered by this book.
Interacting bosonic strings in subcritical dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hwang, S.; Marnelius, R.
1988-01-01
Interaction theory for relativistic bosonic string in spacetime dimensions below the critical value 26 is formulated using BRST techniques with an extra scalar field. One-loop zero-point amplitudes for closed strings are modular invariant. For a free scalar field, vertex operators are constructed leading to, e.g., the old dual N-tachyon tree amplitudes in D < 26. The N-tachyon one-loop expressions contain closed string poles for open strings, and are modular invariant for closed strings. However, the threshold cuts are wrong in D < 25. Only for D=25 to the considered vertex operators lead to consistency. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mauricio Antonio Retamal
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Satellite glial cells (SGCs are the main glia in sensory ganglia. They surround neuronal bodies and form a cap that prevents the formation of chemical or electrical synapses between neighboring neurons. SGCs have been suggested to establish bidirectional paracrine communication with sensory neurons. However, the molecular mechanism involved in this cellular communication is unknown. In the central nervous system, astrocytes present connexin43 (Cx43 hemichannels and pannexin1 (Panx1 channels, and their opening allows the release of signal molecules, such as ATP and glutamate. We propose that these channels could play a role in the glia-neuron communication in sensory ganglia. Therefore, we studied the expression and function of Cx43 and Panx1 in rat and mouse nodose-petrosal-jugular complex (NPJc by confocal immunofluorescence, molecular and electrophysiological techniques. Cx43 and Panx1 were detected in SGCs and sensory neurons, respectively. In the rat and mouse, the electrical activity of vagal nerve increased significantly after nodose neurons were exposed to Ca2+/ Mg2+-free solution, a condition that increases the open probability of Cx hemichannels. This response was partially mimicked by a cell-permeable peptide corresponding to the last 10 amino acids of Cx43 (TAT-Cx43CT. Enhanced neuronal activity was reduced by Cx hemichannel, Panx1 channel and P2X7 receptor blockers. Moreover, the role of Panx1 was confirmed in NPJc, because Panx1 knockout mouse showed a reduced increase of neuronal activity induced by Ca2+/Mg2+-free extracellular conditions. Data suggest that Cx hemichannels and Panx channels serve as paracrine communication pathways between SGCs and neurons by modulating the excitability of sensory neurons.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thorlacius, L.
1989-01-01
Open string vacuum configurations are described in terms of a one-dimensional field theory on the worldsheet boundary. The one-dimensional path integral has direct physical interpretation as a source term for closed string fields. This means that the vacuum divergences (Mobius infinities) of the path integral must be renormalized correctly. The author shows that reparametrization invariance Ward identities, apart from specifying the equations of motion of spacetime background gauge fields, also serve to fix the renormalization scheme of the vacuum divergences. He argues that vacuum configurations of open strings correspond to Caldeira-Leggett models of dissipative quantum mechanics (DQM) evaluated at a delocalization critical point. This connection reveals that critical DQM will manifest reparametrization invariance (inherited from the conformal invariance of string theory) rather than just scale invariance. This connection should open up new ways of constructing analytic and approximate solutions of open string theory (in particular, topological solitons such as monopoles and instantons). Type I superstring theory gives rise to a supersymmetric boundary field theory. Bose-Fermi cancellation eliminates vacuum divergences but the one-loop beta function remains the same as in the bosonic theory. Reparametrization invariance Ward identities dictate a boundary state normalization which yields consistent string-loop corrections to spacetime equations of motion, in both the periodic and anti-periodic fermion sectors
Becker, Katrin; Becker, Melanie; Schwarz, John H.
String theory is one of the most exciting and challenging areas of modern theoretical physics. This book guides the reader from the basics of string theory to recent developments. It introduces the basics of perturbative string theory, world-sheet supersymmetry, space-time supersymmetry, conformal field theory and the heterotic string, before describing modern developments, including D-branes, string dualities and M-theory. It then covers string geometry and flux compactifications, applications to cosmology and particle physics, black holes in string theory and M-theory, and the microscopic origin of black-hole entropy. It concludes with Matrix theory, the AdS/CFT duality and its generalizations. This book is ideal for graduate students and researchers in modern string theory, and will make an excellent textbook for a one-year course on string theory. It contains over 120 exercises with solutions, and over 200 homework problems with solutions available on a password protected website for lecturers at www.cambridge.org/9780521860697. Comprehensive coverage of topics from basics of string theory to recent developments Ideal textbook for a one-year course in string theory Includes over 100 exercises with solutions Contains over 200 homework problems with solutions available to lecturers on-line
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Engquist, J.; Sundell, P.; Tamassia, L.
2007-01-01
The group theoretical structure underlying physics in anti de Sitter (AdS) spacetime is intrinsically different with respect to the flat case, due to the presence of special ultra-short representations, named singletons, that do not admit a flat space limit. The purpose of this collaboration is to exploit this feature in the study of string and brane dynamics in AdS spacetime, in particular while trying to establish a connection between String Theory in AdS backgrounds (in the tensionless limit) and Higher-Spin Gauge Theory. (orig.)
Joining-Splitting Interaction of Noncritical String
Hadasz, Leszek; Jaskólski, Zbigniew
The joining-splitting interaction of noncritical bosonic string is analyzed in the light-cone formulation. The Mandelstam method of constructing tree string amplitudes is extended to the bosonic massive string models of the discrete series. The general properties of the Liouville longitudinal excitations which are necessary and sufficient for the Lorentz covariance of the light-cone amplitudes are derived. The results suggest that the covariant and the light-cone approach are equivalent also in the noncritical dimensions. Some aspects of unitarity of interacting noncritical massive string theory are discussed.
Gauge invariant actions for string models
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Banks, T.
1986-06-01
String models of unified interactions are elegant sets of Feynman rules for the scattering of gravitons, gauge bosons, and a host of massive excitations. The purpose of these lectures is to describe the progress towards a nonperturbative formulation of the theory. Such a formulation should make the geometrical meaning of string theory manifest and explain the many ''miracles'' exhibited by the string Feynman rules. There are some new results on gauge invariant observables, on the cosmological constant, and on the symmetries of interacting string field theory. 49 refs
Li, Zhendong; Liu, Wenjian
2016-01-12
A benchmark set of 11 small radicals is set up to assess the performance of time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) for the excited states of open-shell systems. Both the unrestricted (U-TD-DFT) and spin-adapted (X-TD-DFT) formulations of TD-DFT are considered. For comparison, the well-established EOM-CCSD (equation-of-motion coupled-cluster with singles and doubles) is also used. In total, 111 low-lying singly excited doublet states are accessed by all the three approaches. Taking the MRCISD+Q (multireference configuration interaction with singles and doubles plus the Davidson correction) results as the benchmark, it is found that both U-TD-DFT and EOM-CCSD perform well for those states dominated by singlet-coupled single excitations (SCSE) from closed-shell to open-shell, open-shell to vacant-shell, or closed-shell to vacant-shell orbitals. However, for those states dominated by triplet-coupled single excitations (TCSE) from closed-shell to vacant-shell orbitals, both U-TD-DFT and EOM-CCSD fail miserably due to severe spin contaminations. In contrast, X-TD-DFT provides balanced descriptions of both SCSE and TCSE. As far as the functional dependence is concerned, it is found that, when the Hartree-Fock ground state does not suffer from the instability problem, both global hybrid (GH) and range-separated hybrid (RSH) functionals perform grossly better than pure density functionals, especially for Rydberg and charge-transfer excitations. However, if the Hartree-Fock ground state is instable or nearly instable, GH and RSH tend to underestimate severely the excitation energies. The SAOP (statistically averaging of model orbital potentials) performs more uniformly than any other density functionals, although it generally overestimates the excitation energies of valence excitations. Not surprisingly, both EOM-CCSD and adiabatic TD-DFT are incapable of describing excited states with substantial double excitation characters.
Boundary terms in the Nambu-Goto string action
Hadasz, Leszek; Wȩgrzyn, Paweł
1995-03-01
We investigate classical strings defined by the Nambu-Goto action with the boundary term added. We demonstrate that the latter term has a significant bearing on the string dynamics. It is confirmed that new action terms that depend on higher order derivatives of string coordinates cannot be considered as continuous perturbations from the starting string functional. In the case when the boundary term reduces to the Gauss-Bonnet term, a stability analysis is performed on the rotating rigid string solution. We determine the most generic solution that the fluctuations grow to. Longitudinal string excitations are found. The Regge trajectories are nonlinear.
Boundary terms in the Nambu-Goto string action
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hadasz, L.; Wegrzyn, P.
1995-01-01
We investigate classical strings defined by the Nambu-Goto action with the boundary term added. We demonstrate that the latter term has a significant bearing on the string dynamics. It is confirmed that new action terms that depend on higher order derivatives of string coordinates cannot be considered as continuous perturbations from the starting string functional. In the case when the boundary term reduces to the Gauss-Bonnet term, a stability analysis is performed on the rotating rigid string solution. We determine the most generic solution that the fluctuations grow to. Longitudinal string excitations are found. The Regge trajectories are nonlinear
Non-perturbative topological strings and conformal blocks
Cheng, M.C.N.; Dijkgraaf, R.; Vafa, C.
2011-01-01
We give a non-perturbative completion of a class of closed topological string theories in terms of building blocks of dual open strings. In the specific case where the open string is given by a matrix model these blocks correspond to a choice of integration contour. We then apply this definition to
The nucleation model of strings and the Hagedorn phase transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lizzi, F.; Senda, Ikuo.
1990-07-01
In this paper we discuss a model of interacting strings at finite densities based on nucleation theory, the study of formation of droplets in a supersaturated gas, the analogy being between drops of various sizes and strings with various excitation number. The interaction of the strings is considered to be the usual merging and splitting. We do not assume equilibrium a priori but find equilibrium configurations of strings as a result of their dynamics. We study these configurations as we change the energy density, and find the presence of two phases. A low density 'gas' phase, in which the energy is in strings in the fundamental or the first few excited levels, and a high density 'liquid' phase in which the number of strings is low, all the energy being carried by few very excited strings. For the gas phase we also discuss the thermodynamics of the system. (author). 21 refs, 20 figs, 1 tab
Strings draw theorists together
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Green, Michael
2000-01-01
has been learned about the non-perturbative extension of string theory now known as ''M theory'' and this has shed light on many previously mysterious aspects of quantum field theory. The range of new and potentially important developments is indeed impressive. One example is the accumulation of results on the role of ''noncommutative geometry'' in string theory. Another major theme of the meeting was the new ideas on how string theory may describe observed physics, such as the forces and particles in nature and their properties. The recent work by Lisa Randall of Princeton University and Raman Sundrum of Boston University is a variant of the ''brane world'' idea that has come to the fore over the past couple of years. According to this idea, which was reviewed by Randall at the conference, our four-dimensional universe can be thought of as a membrane (known as a three-brane) that is embedded inside a higher-dimensional universe. The number of higher dimensions is predicted by the structure of string theory. The possible consequences of this are striking. For example, in such a universe the fundamental energy scale of the theory may be much smaller than the Planck energy of 10 19 GeV. Indeed, the scale could be so small that it will be accessible to direct experimental observation using the next generation of accelerators, such as the Large Hadron Collider that is currently under construction at CERN. This theme was further developed by Steven Hawking, who conjectured on how such a universe might have evolved from the initial quantum state that preceded the big bang. One of the most exciting developments over the past few years has been in understanding how so-called Yang-Mills gauge theories - the bread and butter of the Standard Model of particle physics - are related to quantum gravity by string theory. Particularly important is the so-called ''Maldacena correspondence'', first developed by Juan Maldacena of Harvard University. This correspondence gives an explicit
Ibáñez, Luis E
2015-01-01
This chapter reviews a number of topics in the field of string phenomenology, focusing on orientifold/F-theory models yielding semirealistic low-energy physics. The emphasis is on the extraction of the low-energy effective action and possible tests of specific models at the LHC.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aldazabal, G.; Ibanez, L.E.; Uranga, A.M.
1995-01-01
Standard SUSY-GUTs such as those based on SU(5) or SO(10) lead to predictions for the values of α s and sin 2 θ W in amazing agreement with experiment. In this article we investigate how these models may be obtained from string theory, thus bringing them into the only known consistent framework for quantum gravity. String models with matter in standard GUT representations require the realization of affine Lie algebras at higher levels. We start by describing some methods to build level k=2 symmetric orbifold string models with gauge groups SU(5) or SO(10). We present several examples and identify generic features of the type of models constructed. Chiral fields appropriate to break the symmetry down to the standard model generically appear in the massless spectrum. However, unlike in standard SUSY-GUTs, they often behave as string moduli, i.e., they do not have self-couplings. We also discuss briefly the doublet-triplet Higgs splitting. We find that, in some models, built-in sliding-singlet type of couplings exist. (orig.)
Aspects of some dualities in string theory
Kim, Bom Soo
AdS/CFT correspondence in string theory has changed landscape of the theoretical physics. Through this celebrated duality between gravity theory and field theory, one can investigate analytically strongly coupled gauge theories such as Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) in terms of weakly coupled string theory such as supergravity theory and vice versa. In the first part of this thesis we used this duality to construct a new type of nonlocal field theory, called Puff Field Theory, in terms of D3 branes in type IIB string theory with a geometric twist. In addition to the strong-weak duality of AdS/CFT, there also exists a weak-weak duality, called Twistor String Theory. Twistor technique is successfully used to calculate the SYM scattering amplitude in an elegant fashion. Yet, the progress in the string theory side was hindered by a non-unitary conformal gravity. We extend the Twistor string theory by introducing mass terms, in the second part of the thesis. A chiral mass term is identified as a vacuum expectation value of a conformal supergravity field and is tied with the breaking of the conformal symmetry of gravity. As a prime candidate for a quantum theory of gravity, string theory revealed many promising successes such as counting the number of microstates in supersymmetric Black Holes thermodynamics and resolution of timelike and null singularities, to name a few. Yet, the fundamental string and M-theroy formulations are not yet available. Various string theories without gravity, such as Non-Commutative Open String (NCOS) and Open Membrane (OM) theories, are very nice playground to investigate the fundamental structure of string and M-theory without the complication of gravity. In the last part of the thesis, simpler Non-Relativistic String Theories are constructed and investigated. One important motivation for those theories is related to the connection between Non-Relativistic String Theories and Non-critical String Theories through the bosonization of betagamma
Bound state and localization of excitation in many-body open systems
Cui, H. T.; Shen, H. Z.; Hou, S. C.; Yi, X. X.
2018-04-01
We study the exact bound state and time evolution for single excitations in one-dimensional X X Z spin chains within a non-Markovian reservoir. For the bound state, a common feature is the localization of single excitations, which means the spontaneous emission of excitations into the reservoir is prohibited. Exceptionally, the pseudo-bound state can be found, for which the single excitation has a finite probability of emission into the reservoir. In addition, a critical energy scale for bound states is also identified, below which only one bound state exists, and it is also the pseudo-bound state. The effect of quasirandom disorder in the spin chain is also discussed; such disorder induces the single excitation to locate at some spin sites. Furthermore, to display the effect of bound state and disorder on the preservation of quantum information, the time evolution of single excitations in spin chains is studied exactly. An interesting observation is that the excitation can stay at its initial location with high probability only when the bound state and disorder coexist. In contrast, when either one of them is absent, the information of the initial state can be erased completely or becomes mixed. This finding shows that the combination of bound state and disorder can provide an ideal mechanism for quantum memory.
String moduli inflation. An overview
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cicoli, Michele [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Quevedo, Fernando [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). DAMTP/CMS; Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy)
2011-06-15
We present an overview of inflationary models derived from string theory focusing mostly on closed string moduli as inflatons. After a detailed discussion of the {eta}-problem and different approaches to address it, we describe possible ways to obtain a de Sitter vacuum with all closed string moduli stabilised. We then look for inflationary directions and present some of the most promising scenarios where the inflatons are either the real or the imaginary part of Kaehler moduli. We pay particular attention on extracting potential observable implications, showing how most of the scenarios predict negligible gravitational waves and could therefore be ruled out by the Planck satellite. We conclude by briefly mentioning some open challenges in string cosmology beyond deriving just inflation. (orig.)
String moduli inflation. An overview
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cicoli, Michele; Quevedo, Fernando
2011-06-01
We present an overview of inflationary models derived from string theory focusing mostly on closed string moduli as inflatons. After a detailed discussion of the η-problem and different approaches to address it, we describe possible ways to obtain a de Sitter vacuum with all closed string moduli stabilised. We then look for inflationary directions and present some of the most promising scenarios where the inflatons are either the real or the imaginary part of Kaehler moduli. We pay particular attention on extracting potential observable implications, showing how most of the scenarios predict negligible gravitational waves and could therefore be ruled out by the Planck satellite. We conclude by briefly mentioning some open challenges in string cosmology beyond deriving just inflation. (orig.)
Production of massless particles in collisions of strings at high energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lipatov, L.N.
1988-01-01
The authors obtain explicit formulas (generalizing the Low-Gribov expressions) for the production amplitude of massless particles (gluons and gravitons) with low transverse momenta in the scattering of lower-mass excitations of open and closed strings. In the limit α' → 0 they reproduce the results of calculation of effective vertices for inelastic scattering amplitudes in multi-Regge kinematics in the Yang-Mills theory and in gravitation
Strings draw theorists together
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Green, Michael [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom)
2000-03-01
string theorists over the past decade. Much has been learned about the non-perturbative extension of string theory now known as ''M theory'' and this has shed light on many previously mysterious aspects of quantum field theory. The range of new and potentially important developments is indeed impressive. One example is the accumulation of results on the role of ''noncommutative geometry'' in string theory. Another major theme of the meeting was the new ideas on how string theory may describe observed physics, such as the forces and particles in nature and their properties. The recent work by Lisa Randall of Princeton University and Raman Sundrum of Boston University is a variant of the ''brane world'' idea that has come to the fore over the past couple of years. According to this idea, which was reviewed by Randall at the conference, our four-dimensional universe can be thought of as a membrane (known as a three-brane) that is embedded inside a higher-dimensional universe. The number of higher dimensions is predicted by the structure of string theory. The possible consequences of this are striking. For example, in such a universe the fundamental energy scale of the theory may be much smaller than the Planck energy of 10{sup 19} GeV. Indeed, the scale could be so small that it will be accessible to direct experimental observation using the next generation of accelerators, such as the Large Hadron Collider that is currently under construction at CERN. This theme was further developed by Steven Hawking, who conjectured on how such a universe might have evolved from the initial quantum state that preceded the big bang. One of the most exciting developments over the past few years has been in understanding how so-called Yang-Mills gauge theories - the bread and butter of the Standard Model of particle physics - are related to quantum gravity by string theory. Particularly important is the so-called &apos
Calculations in perturbative string field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thorn, C.B.
1987-01-01
The author discusses methods for evaluating the Feynman diagrams of string field theory, with particular emphasis on Witten's version of open string field theory. It is explained in some detail how the rules states by Giddings and Martinec for relating a given diagram to a Polyakov path integral emerge from the Feynman rules
Vector superconductivity in cosmic strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dvali, G.R.; Mahajan, S.M.
1992-03-01
We argue that in most realistic cases, the usual Witten-type bosonic superconductivity of the cosmic string is automatically (independent of the existence of superconducting currents) accompanied by the condensation of charged gauge vector bosons in the core giving rise to a new vector type superconductivity. The value of the charged vector condensate is related with the charged scalar expectation value, and vanishes only if the latter goes to zero. The mechanism for the proposed vector superconductivity, differing fundamentally from those in the literature, is delineated using the simplest realistic example of the two Higgs doublet standard model interacting with the extra cosmic string. It is shown that for a wide range of parameters, for which the string becomes scalarly superconducting, W boson condensates (the sources of vector superconductivity) are necessarily excited. (author). 14 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kalashnikova, Yu.S.; Nefediev, A.V.
1997-01-01
The QCD-motivated constituent string model is extended to consider the baryon. The system of three quarks propagating in the confining background field is studied in the Wilson loop approach, and the effective action is obtained. The resulting Lagrangian at large interquark distances corresponds to the Mercedes Benz string configuration. Assuming the quarks to be heavy enough to allow the adiabatic separation of quark and string junction motion and using the hyperspherical expansion for the quark subsystem we write out and solve the classical equation of motion for the junction. We quantize the motion of the junction and demonstrate that the account of these modes leads to the effective swelling of baryon in comparison with standard potential picture. The effects of finite gluonic correlation length which do not affect the excited states but appear to be substantial for the baryonic ground state, reducing the swelling considerably is discussed
Brandenberger, Robert H.
2008-01-01
String gas cosmology is a string theory-based approach to early universe cosmology which is based on making use of robust features of string theory such as the existence of new states and new symmetries. A first goal of string gas cosmology is to understand how string theory can effect the earliest moments of cosmology before the effective field theory approach which underlies standard and inflationary cosmology becomes valid. String gas cosmology may also provide an alternative to the curren...
Systems and methods for photovoltaic string protection
Krein, Philip T.; Kim, Katherine A.; Pilawa-Podgurski, Robert C. N.
2017-10-25
A system and method includes a circuit for protecting a photovoltaic string. A bypass switch connects in parallel to the photovoltaic string and a hot spot protection switch connects in series with the photovoltaic string. A first control signal controls opening and closing of the bypass switch and a second control signal controls opening and closing of the hot spot protection switch. Upon detection of a hot spot condition the first control signal closes the bypass switch and after the bypass switch is closed the second control signal opens the hot spot protection switch.
Physical Fock space of tensionless strings
Antoniadis, Ignatios; Antoniadis, Ignatios; Savvidy, George
2004-01-01
We study the physical Fock space of the tensionless string theory with perimeter action which has pure massless spectrum. The states are classified by the Wigner's little group for massless particles. The ground state contains infinite many massless fields of fixed helicity, the excitation levels realize CSR representations. We demonstrate that the first and the second excitation levels are physical null states.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Skachek, Sergey; Adamatzky, Andrew; Melhuish, Chris
2005-01-01
A two-dimensional cellular automaton (CA) model of an excitable medium is coupled with an array of micro-actuators in the form of abstract air-jets. Each cell of the CA is linked to a unique air-jet. A cell state determines the orientation and intensity of the airflow generated by the air-jet corresponding to the cell. We explore the phenomenology of an open-loop configuration in which CA cells do not sense the presence of the object being moved. Excitation waves generated in the initial stimulation of the medium, travel on the lattice and cause waves of actuation in the air-jets, resulting in changing airflow patterns. Thus, the waves of actuation move and rotate the manipulated object. We study the manipulation of three convex shapes by excitable CA, and provide the classification of various types of object motion from straight to sinuous and oscillatory trajectories. The relation between the excitation dynamic and resulting trajectories of the object will be used in future designs of hardware prototypes of massive-parallel manipulators controlled by non-linear media
Two field formulation of closed string field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bogojevic, A.R.
1990-09-01
A formulation of closed string field theory is presented that is based on a two field action. It represents a generalization of Witten's Chern-Simons formulation of 3d gravity. The action contains only 3 string interactions and no string field truncations, unlike the previous non-polynomial action of Zwiebach. The two field action is found to follow from a purely cubic, background independent action similar to the one for open strings. (orig.)
A note on closed-string interactions a la Witten
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Romans, L.J.
1987-01-01
We consider the problem of formulating a field theory of interacting closed strings analogous to Witten's open-string field theory. Two natural candidates have been suggested for an off-shell three-string interaction vertex: one scheme involves a cyclic geometric overlap in spacetime, while the other is obtained by 'stuttering' the Fock-space realization of the open-string vertex. We demonstrate that these two approaches are in fact equivalent, utilizing the operator formalism as developed to describe Witten's theory. Implications of this result for the construction of closed-string theories are briefly discussed. (orig.)
Note on closed-string interactions a la Witten
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Romans, L.J.
1987-08-20
We consider the problem of formulating a field theory of interacting closed strings analogous to Witten's open-string field theory. Two natural candidates have been suggested for an off-shell three-string interaction vertex: one scheme involves a cyclic geometric overlap in spacetime, while the other is obtained by 'stuttering' the Fock-space realization of the open-string vertex. We demonstrate that these two approaches are in fact equivalent, utilizing the operator formalism as developed to describe Witten's theory. Implications of this result for the construction of closed-string theories are briefly discussed.
Testing string dynamics in lepton nucleus reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gyulassy, M.; Pluemer, M.
1989-10-01
The sensitivity of nuclear attenuation of 10-100 GeV lepton nucleus (ell A) reactions to space-time aspects of hadronization is investigated within the context of the Lund string model. We consider two mechanisms for attenuation in a nucleus: final state cascading and string flip excitations. Implications for the evolution of the energy density in nuclear collisions are discussed. 16 refs., 10 figs
Notes on strings and higher spins
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sagnotti, A
2013-01-01
This review is devoted to the intriguing and still largely unexplored links between string theory and higher spins, the types of excitations that lie behind their most cherished properties. A closer look at higher spin fields provides some further clues that string theory describes a broken phase of a higher spin gauge theory. Conversely, string amplitudes contain a wealth of information on higher spin interactions that can clarify long-standing issues related to their infrared behavior. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Higher spin theories and holography’. (review)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sikivie, P.
1991-01-01
The topics are: global strings; the gravitational field of a straight global string; how do global strings behave?; the axion cosmological energy density; computer simulations of the motion and decay of global strings; electromagnetic radiation from the conversion of Nambu-Goldstone bosons in astrophysical magnetic fields. (orig.)
Evidence for string substructure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bergman, O.
1996-06-01
The author argues that the behavior of string theory at high temperature and high longitudinal boosts, combined with the emergence of p-branes as necessary ingredients in various string dualities, point to a possible reformulation of strings, as well as p-branes, as composites of bits. He reviews the string-bit models, and suggests generalizations to incorporate p-branes
New twistor string theories revisited
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Broedel, Johannes; Wurm, Bernhard
2009-01-01
A gauged version of Berkovits twistor string theory featuring the particle content of N=8 supergravity was suggested by Abou-Zeid, Hull and Mason. The equations of motion for a particular multiplet in the modified theory are examined on the level of basic twistor fields and thereby shown to imply the vanishing of the negative helicity graviton on-shell. Additionally, the restrictions emerging from the equation of motion for the new gauge field B-bar reveal the chiral nature of interactions in theories constructed in this manner. Moreover, a particular amplitude in Berkovits open string theory is shown to be in agreement with the corresponding result in Einstein gravity.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Turok, N.
1987-11-01
It is argued that, in fundamental string theories, as one traces the universe back in time a point is reached when the expansion rate is so fast that the rate of string creation due to quantum effects balances the dilution of the string density due to the expansion. One is therefore led into a phase of constant string density and an exponentially expanding universe. Fundamental strings therefore seem to lead naturally to inflation. 17 refs., 1 fig
Lowe, D. A.; Thorlacius, L.
1994-01-01
Above the Hagedorn energy density closed fundamental strings form a long string phase. The dynamics of weakly interacting long strings is described by a simple Boltzmann equation which can be solved explicitly for equilibrium distributions. The average total number of long strings grows logarithmically with total energy in the microcanonical ensemble. This is consistent with calculations of the free single string density of states provided the thermodynamic limit is carefully defined. If the ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Turok, N.
1988-01-01
It is argued that, in fundamental string theories, as one traces the universe back in time a point is reached when the expansion rate is so fast that the rate of string creation due to quantum effects balances the dilution of the string density due to the expansion. One is therefore led into a phase of constant string density and an exponentially expanding universe. Fundamental strings therefore seem to lead naturally to inflation
Vortex-strings in N=2 SQCD and bulk-string decoupling
Gerchkovitz, Efrat; Karasik, Avner
2018-02-01
We study vortex-strings in four-dimensional N=2 supersymmetric SU( N c ) × U(1) gauge theories with N f hypermultiplets in the fundamental representation of SU( N c ) and general U(1) charges. If N f > N c , the vacuum is not gapped and the low-energy theory contains both the vacuum massless excitations and the string zero-modes. The question we address in this work is whether the vacuum and the string moduli decouple at low energies, allowing a description of the low-energy dynamics in terms of a two-dimensional theory on the string worldsheet. We find a simple condition controlling the bulk-string coupling: if there exist two flavors such that the product of their U(1) charge difference with the magnetic flux carried by the string configuration is not an integer multiple of 2 π, the string has zero-modes that decay slower than 1 /r, where r is the radial distance from the string core. These modes are coupled to the vacuum massless excitations even at low energies. If, however, all such products are integer multiples of 2 π, long-range modes of this type do not exist and the string moduli decouple from the bulk at low energies. This condition turns out to coincide with the condition of trivial Aharonov-Bohm phases for the particles in the spectrum. In addition to a derivation of the bulk-string decoupling criterion using classical analysis of the string zero-modes, we provide a non-perturbative derivation of the criterion, which uses supersymmetric localization techniques.
A model of interacting strings and the Hagedorn phase transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lizzi, F.; Senda, I.
1990-03-01
In this letter we introduce a model of interacting string in which the usual ideal gas approximations are not made. The model is constructed in analogy with nucleation models, the formation of droplets in a supersaturate gas. We consider the strings to be interacting and their number not fixed. The equilibrium configuration is the one for which the time derivatives of the number of strings in the various energies vanishes. We evaluate numerically the equilibrium configurations for various values of the energy density. We find that a density of order one in planck units there is a sharp transition, from a 'gas' phase in which there are many strings, all in the massless or first few excited states, to a 'liquid' phase in which all strings have coalesced into one (or few) highly excited string. (author). 14 refs, 4 figs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carlip, S [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)
2006-10-21
, it could easily be missed-but these are minor drawbacks. Readers will find clear answers to many 'frequently asked questions.' Are D-branes really necessary? Polchinski begins with T-duality for the closed string, and shows that the extension to open strings requires the existence of D-branes. How does string theory incorporate gravity? The two standard answers are that string theory contains a massless spin two 'graviton' and that consistent string propagation in a curved background requires that the background metric satisfy the Einstein field equations; Polchinski links the two, showing that the background metric can be viewed as a coherent state of the spin two excitations. Volume II, Superstring Theory and Beyond, extends Volume I to superstring theory, and then proceeds to treat a range of more advanced subjects: effective actions for branes, dualities and equivalences among string theories, M theory, stringy black holes, compactifications and four-dimensional field theories, and the like. The tone of this volume changes a bit-it is not as self-contained, and reads less like a textbook and more like an extended review article. I suspect, for example, that few students without a strong background in field theory will follow the discussion of anomalies in chapter 12. The change can be largely attributed to the content: the superstring is inherently more difficult than the bosonic string, and the newer material is not as deeply understood. But there are a few weaknesses in presentation as well: for instance, a discussion in chapter 11 of the relationship between symmetries and constraints omits any explanation of how one decides whether a transformation generates a symmetry or a constraint. Any two-volume book on string theory is necessarily incomplete. In his introduction, Polchinski cites the lack of a more thorough treatment of compactifications on curved manifolds. I would personally have liked to see more about noncritical strings and
Quench propagation tests on the LHC superconducting magnet string
Coull, L; Krainz, G; Rodríguez-Mateos, F; Schmidt, R
1996-01-01
The installation and testing of a series connection of superconducting magnets (three 10 m long dipoles and one 3 m long quadrupole) has been a necessary step in the verification of the viability of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. In the LHC machine, if one of the lattice dipoles or quadrupoles quenches, the current will be by-passed through cold diodes and the whole magnet chain will be de-excited by opening dump switches. In such a scenario it is very important to know whether the quench propagates from the initially quenching magnet to adjacent ones. A series of experiments have been performed with the LHC Test String powered at different current levels and at different de-excitation rates in order to understand possible mechanisms for such a propagation, and the time delays involved. Results of the tests and implications regarding the LHC machine operation are described in this paper.
Photoionization of excited states, ions and open-shell atoms: innovative synchrotron experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Manson, S.T.
1981-01-01
The development of synchrotron light sources with increased photon flux in the region 10 eV less than or equal to hν less than or equal to 1000 eV opens the door to many atomic physics investigations which have not been possible up to now. In this paper, three general types of experiments are discussed, each of which offers attractive possibilities for significant advances in our understanding
String field theory. Algebraic structure, deformation properties and superstrings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Muenster, Korbinian
2013-01-01
This thesis discusses several aspects of string field theory. The first issue is bosonic open-closed string field theory and its associated algebraic structure - the quantum open-closed homotopy algebra. We describe the quantum open-closed homotopy algebra in the framework of homotopy involutive Lie bialgebras, as a morphism from the loop homotopy Lie algebra of closed string to the involutive Lie bialgebra on the Hochschild complex of open strings. The formulation of the classical/quantum open-closed homotopy algebra in terms of a morphism from the closed string algebra to the open string Hochschild complex reveals deformation properties of closed strings on open string field theory. In particular, we show that inequivalent classical open string field theories are parametrized by closed string backgrounds up to gauge transformations. At the quantum level the correspondence is obstructed, but for other realizations such as the topological string, a non-trivial correspondence persists. Furthermore, we proof the decomposition theorem for the loop homotopy Lie algebra of closed string field theory, which implies uniqueness of closed string field theory on a fixed conformal background. Second, the construction of string field theory can be rephrased in terms of operads. In particular, we show that the formulation of string field theory splits into two parts: The first part is based solely on the moduli space of world sheets and ensures that the perturbative string amplitudes are recovered via Feynman rules. The second part requires a choice of background and determines the real string field theory vertices. Each of these parts can be described equivalently as a morphism between appropriate cyclic and modular operads, at the classical and quantum level respectively. The algebraic structure of string field theory is then encoded in the composition of these two morphisms. Finally, we outline the construction of type II superstring field theory. Specific features of the
Notes on entanglement entropy in string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
He, Song; Numasawa, Tokiro; Takayanagi, Tadashi; Watanabe, Kento
2015-01-01
In this paper, we study the conical entropy in string theory in the simplest setup of dividing the nine dimensional space into two halves. This corresponds to the leading quantum correction to the horizon entropy in string theory on the Rindler space. This entropy is also called the conical entropy and includes surface term contributions. We first derive a new simple formula of the conical entropy for any free higher spin fields. Then we apply this formula to computations of conical entropy in open and closed superstring. In our analysis of closed string, we study the twisted conical entropy defined by making use of string theory on Melvin backgrounds. This quantity is easier to calculate owing to the folding trick. Our analysis shows that the conical entropy in closed superstring is UV finite owing to the string scale cutoff.
Rotating and orbiting strings in Dp-brane background
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Biswas, Sagar; Panigrahi, Kamal L. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur,721302, Kharagpur (India)
2015-03-04
We probe the open fundamental strings in Dp-brane (p=1, 3, 5) backgrounds and find new classes of rotating and orbiting string solutions. We show that for various worldsheet embedding ansatz we get solutions of the string equations of motion that correspond to the well known giant magnon and single spikes, in addition to few new solutions corresponding to the orbiting strings. We make a systematic study of both rigidly rotating and orbiting strings in D1, D3 and D5-brane backgrounds.
Relativistic classical strings. II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Galvao, C.A.P.
1985-01-01
The interactions of strings with electromagnetic and gravitational fields are extensively discussed. Some concepts of differential geometry are reviewed. Strings in Kaluza-Klein manifolds are studied. (L.C.) [pt
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
strongly motivate a detailed search for inflation within string theory, although it has ... between string theory and observations provides a strong incentive for ..... sonably be expected to arise for any system having very many degrees of freedom.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chudnovsky, E.; Vilenkin, A.
1988-01-01
If light superconducting strings were formed in the early Universe, then it is very likely that now they exist in abundance in the interstellar plasma and in stars. The dynamics of such strings can be dominated by friction, so that they are ''frozen'' into the plasma. Turbulence of the plasma twists and stretches the strings, forming a stochastic string network. Such networks must generate particles and magnetic fields, and may play an important role in the physics of stars and of the Galaxy
Conlon, Joseph
2016-01-01
Is string theory a fraud or one of the great scientific advances? Why do so many physicists work on string theory if it cannot be tested? This book provides insight into why such a theory, with little direct experimental support, plays such a prominent role in theoretical physics. The book gives a modern and accurate account of string theory and science, explaining what string theory is, why it is regarded as so promising, and why it is hard to test.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carlip, S
2006-01-01
-but these are minor drawbacks. Readers will find clear answers to many 'frequently asked questions.' Are D-branes really necessary? Polchinski begins with T-duality for the closed string, and shows that the extension to open strings requires the existence of D-branes. How does string theory incorporate gravity? The two standard answers are that string theory contains a massless spin two 'graviton' and that consistent string propagation in a curved background requires that the background metric satisfy the Einstein field equations; Polchinski links the two, showing that the background metric can be viewed as a coherent state of the spin two excitations. Volume II, Superstring Theory and Beyond, extends Volume I to superstring theory, and then proceeds to treat a range of more advanced subjects: effective actions for branes, dualities and equivalences among string theories, M theory, stringy black holes, compactifications and four-dimensional field theories, and the like. The tone of this volume changes a bit-it is not as self-contained, and reads less like a textbook and more like an extended review article. I suspect, for example, that few students without a strong background in field theory will follow the discussion of anomalies in chapter 12. The change can be largely attributed to the content: the superstring is inherently more difficult than the bosonic string, and the newer material is not as deeply understood. But there are a few weaknesses in presentation as well: for instance, a discussion in chapter 11 of the relationship between symmetries and constraints omits any explanation of how one decides whether a transformation generates a symmetry or a constraint. Any two-volume book on string theory is necessarily incomplete. In his introduction, Polchinski cites the lack of a more thorough treatment of compactifications on curved manifolds. I would personally have liked to see more about noncritical strings and Liouville theory and about the Green-Schwarz superstring
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ambjoern, J.
1987-08-01
The theory of strings is the theory of random surfaces. I review the present attempts to regularize the world sheet of the string by triangulation. The corresponding statistical theory of triangulated random surfaces has a surprising rich structure, but the connection to conventional string theory seems non-trivial. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cardona, Biel [Departament d’Estructura i Constituents de la Matèriaand Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB) Facultat de Física, Universitat de Barcelona,Diagonal 647, E-08028 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Gomis, Joaquim [Departament d’Estructura i Constituents de la Matèriaand Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB) Facultat de Física, Universitat de Barcelona,Diagonal 647, E-08028 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University,Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Pons, Josep M. [Departament d’Estructura i Constituents de la Matèriaand Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB) Facultat de Física, Universitat de Barcelona,Diagonal 647, E-08028 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)
2016-07-11
We construct the canonical action of a Carroll string doing the Carroll limit of a canonical relativistic string. We also study the Killing symmetries of the Carroll string, which close under an infinite dimensional algebra. The tensionless limit and the Carroll p-brane action are also discussed.
The series of String-Math conferences has developed into a central event on the interface between mathematics and physics related to string theory, quantum field theory and neighboring subjects. The conference will take place from July 24-28 in the main building of Hamburg university. The String-Math conference is organised by the University of Hamburg jointly with DESY Hamburg.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vishniac, E.T.
1987-01-01
We examine the compatibility of inflation with the cosmic string theory for galaxy formation. There is a general conflict between having sufficient string tension to effect galaxy formation, and reheating after inflation to a high enough temperature that strings may form in a thermal phase transition. To escape this conflict, we propose a class of models where the inflation is coupled to the string-producing field. The strings are formed late in inflation as the inflaton rolls towards its zero-temperature value. A large subset of these models have a novel large-scale distribution of galaxies that is fractal, displays biasing without dynamics or feedback mechanisms, and contains voids. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Freund, P.G.O.
1988-01-01
According to the author nobody has succeeded as yet in extracting any new numbers from string theory. This paper discusses how if one cannot get new numbers from string theory, maybe one can get new strings out of number theory. Number theory is generally regarded as the purest form of mathematics. So how can it conceivably make contact with physics which aims at describing nature? The author discusses how the connecting link of these two disciplines is provided by the compact Riemann surfaces. These appear as world sheets of interacting strings. For instance, string-string scattering at the three-loop level involves the four external strings attaching themselves to a genus three compact surface
Electric magnetic duality in string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sen, A.
1992-07-01
The electric-magnetic duality transformation in four dimensional heterotic string theory discussed by Shapere, Trivedi and Wilczek is shown to be an exact symmetry of the equations of motion of low energy effective field theory even after including the scalar and the vector fields, arising due to compactification, in the effective field theory. Using this duality transformation we construct rotating black hole solutions in the effective field theory carrying both electric and magnetic charges. The spectrum of extremal magnetically charged black holes turn out to be similar to that of electrically charged elementary string excitations lying on the leading Regge trajectory. We also discuss the possibility that the duality symmetry is an exact symmetry of the full string theory under which electrically charged elementary string excitations get exchanged with magnetically charged soliton like solutions. This proposal might be made concrete following the suggestion of Dabholkar et. al. that fundamental strings may be regarded as soliton like classical solutions in the effective field theory. (author). 20 refs
Strings, texture, and inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hodges, H.M.; Primack, J.R.
1991-01-01
We examine mechanisms, several of which are proposed here, to generate structure formation, or to just add large-scale features, through either gauged or global cosmic strings or global texture, within the framework of inflation. We first explore the possibility that strings or texture form if there is no coupling between the topological theory and the inflaton or spacetime curvature, via (1) quantum creation, and (2) a sufficiently high reheat temperature. In addition, we examine the prospects for the inflaton field itself to generate strings or texture. Then, models with the string/texture field coupled to the curvature, and an equivalent model with coupling to the inflaton field, are considered in detail. The requirement that inflationary density fluctuations are not so large as to conflict with observations leads to a number of constraints on model parameters. We find that strings of relevance for structure formation can form in the absence of coupling to the inflaton or curvature through the process of quantum creation, but only if the strings are strongly type I, or if they are global strings. If formed after reheating, naturalness suggests that gauged cosmic strings correspond to a type-I superconductor. Similarly, gauged strings formed during inflation via conformal coupling ξ=1/6 to the spacetime curvature (in a model suggested by Yokoyama in order to evade the millisecond pulsar constraint on cosmic strings) are expected to be strongly type I
Free bosonic string field theory without supplementary fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Embacher, F.
1987-01-01
A covariant local action for free bosonic string fields is constructed without the use of supplementary fields. The open string case is treated in detail. Up to a mathematical conjecture which is likely to hold it is shown that the Virasoro constraints arise as a special choice of gauge. The kinetic operator turns out to be extremely simple, the gauge transformation law arising rather implicitly. The case of closed strings is briefly discussed. 25 refs. (Author)
Action-angle variables for the massless relativistic string in 1+1 dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soederberg, B.; Andersson, B.; Gustafson, G.
1985-01-01
In this paper the Poisson bracket algebra for the open massless relativistic string in the one-space- and one-time-dimensional case is considered. In order to characterize the orbit of the system the directrix function, i.e., the orbit of one of the endpoints of the string, is used. It turns out that the Poisson bracket algebra is of a very simple form in terms of the parameters of the directrix function. We use these results to construct action-angle variables for the general motion of the string. The variables are different for different Lorentz frames, with a continuous dependence. The action-angle variables of the center-of-mass frame and of the light-cone frames are of particular interest with respect to the simplicity of the Poincare generators and the physical interpretation. For the light-cone frame variables the equivalence to a set of indistinguishable oscillators is shown, for which an excitation corresponds to an instantaneous momentum transfer to an endpoint of the string
Introduction to string and superstring theory II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peskin, M.E.
1987-03-01
Conformal field theory is reviewed, then conformal invariance is used to rederive the basic results on the embedding dimensionality for bosonic and fermionic strings. The spectrum of the bosonic and the computation of scattering amplitudes are discussed. The formalism used is extended to clarify the origin of Yang-Mills gauge invariance in the open bosonic string theory. The question of the general-coordinate gauge invariance of string theory is addressed, presenting two disparate viewpoints on this question. A brief introduction is then given of the reduction from the idealized string theory in 10 extended dimensions to more realistic solutions in which all but 4 of these dimensions are compactified. The state of knowledge about the space-time supersymmetry of the superstring from the covariant viewpoint is outlined. An approach for identifying possible 6-dimensional spaces which might represent the form of the compact dimensions is discussed, and the orbifold scheme of compactification is presented. 77 refs., 18 figs
Introduction to string and superstring theory II
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Peskin, M.E.
1987-03-01
Conformal field theory is reviewed, then conformal invariance is used to rederive the basic results on the embedding dimensionality for bosonic and fermionic strings. The spectrum of the bosonic and the computation of scattering amplitudes are discussed. The formalism used is extended to clarify the origin of Yang-Mills gauge invariance in the open bosonic string theory. The question of the general-coordinate gauge invariance of string theory is addressed, presenting two disparate viewpoints on this question. A brief introduction is then given of the reduction from the idealized string theory in 10 extended dimensions to more realistic solutions in which all but 4 of these dimensions are compactified. The state of knowledge about the space-time supersymmetry of the superstring from the covariant viewpoint is outlined. An approach for identifying possible 6-dimensional spaces which might represent the form of the compact dimensions is discussed, and the orbifold scheme of compactification is presented. 77 refs., 18 figs. (LEW)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vega, H.J. de
1990-01-01
One of the main challenges in theoretical physics today is the unification of all interactions including gravity. At present, string theories appear as the most promising candidates to achieve such a unification. However, gravity has not completely been incorporated in string theory, many technical and conceptual problems remain and a full quantum theory of gravity is still non-existent. Our aim is to properly understand strings in the context of quantum gravity. Attempts towards this are reviewed. (author)
Reconstruction of piano hammer force from string velocity.
Chaigne, Antoine
2016-11-01
A method is presented for reconstructing piano hammer forces through appropriate filtering of the measured string velocity. The filter design is based on the analysis of the pulses generated by the hammer blow and propagating along the string. In the five lowest octaves, the hammer force is reconstructed by considering two waves only: the incoming wave from the hammer and its first reflection at the front end. For the higher notes, four- or eight-wave schemes must be considered. The theory is validated on simulated string velocities by comparing imposed and reconstructed forces. The simulations are based on a nonlinear damped stiff string model previously developed by Chabassier, Chaigne, and Joly [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 134(1), 648-665 (2013)]. The influence of absorption, dispersion, and amplitude of the string waves on the quality of the reconstruction is discussed. Finally, the method is applied to real piano strings. The measured string velocity is compared to the simulated velocity excited by the reconstructed force, showing a high degree of accuracy. A number of simulations are compared to simulated strings excited by a force derived from measurements of mass and acceleration of the hammer head. One application to an historic piano is also presented.
Gadde, Abhijit; Haghighat, Babak; Kim, Joonho; Kim, Seok; Lockhart, Guglielmo; Vafa, Cumrun
2018-02-01
We consider bound states of strings which arise in 6d (1,0) SCFTs that are realized in F-theory in terms of linear chains of spheres with negative self-intersections 1,2, and 4. These include the strings associated to N small E 8 instantons, as well as the ones associated to M5 branes probing A and D type singularities in M-theory or D5 branes probing ADE singularities in Type IIB string theory. We find that these bound states of strings admit (0,4) supersymmetric quiver descriptions and show how one can compute their elliptic genera.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cohen-Tannoudji, G.
1990-01-01
This paper is devoted to a review of the connections between quantumchromodynamics (QCD) and string theories. One reviews the phenomenological models leading to string pictures in non perturbative QCD and the string effects, related to soft gluon coherence, which arise in perturbative QCD. One tries to build a string theory which goes to QCD at the zero slope limit. A specific model, based on superstring theories is shown to agree with QCD four point amplitudes at the Born approximation and with one loop corrections. One shows how this approach can provide a theoretical framework to account for the phenomenological property of parton-hadron duality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Becker, Katrin; Becker, Melanie; Krause, Axel
2006-01-01
We show that all three conditions for the cosmological relevance of heterotic cosmic strings, the right tension, stability and a production mechanism at the end of inflation, can be met in the strongly coupled M-theory regime. Whereas cosmic strings generated from weakly coupled heterotic strings have the well-known problems posed by Witten in 1985, we show that strings arising from M5-branes wrapped around 4-cycles (divisors) of a Calabi-Yau in heterotic M-theory compactifications solve these problems in an elegant fashion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Turok, N.; Bhattacharjee, P.
1984-01-01
The evolution of a network of strings produced at a grand-unification phase transition in an expanding universe is discussed, with particular reference to the processes of energy exchange between the strings and the rest of the universe. This is supported by numerical calculations simulating the behavior of strings in an expanding universe. It is found that in order that the energy density of the strings does not come to dominate the total energy density there must be an efficient mechanism for energy loss: the only plausible one being the production of closed loops and their subsequent decay via gravitational radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cohen-Tannoudji, G.
1989-01-01
This series of lectures is devoted to review ot he connections between QCD and string theories. One reviews the phenomenological models leading to string pictures in non perturbative QCD and the string effects, related to soft gluon coherence, which arise in perturbative QCD. One tries to build a string theory which goes to QCD at the zero slope limit. A specific model, based on superstring theories is shown to agree with QCD four point amplitudes at the Born approximation and with one loop corrections. One shows how this approach can provide a theoretical framework to account for the phenomenological property of parton-hadron duality.(author)
Scattering of massless vector, tensor, and other particles in string theory at high energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Antonov, E.N.
1990-01-01
The 2 → 2 and 2 → 3 processes are studied in the multi-Regge kinematics for gluons and gravitons, the first excited states of the open and closed strings. The factorization of the corresponding amplitudes is demonstrated. Explicit relations generalizing the Low-Gribov expressions are obtained in the kinematics where one of the external particles is produced with small transverse momentum. The expressions in the limit α' → 0 coincide with the results of Yang-Mills theory and gravitation at high energies
Casimir energy for twisted piecewise uniform bosonic strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lu, J.; Huang, B.; Shanghai, Teachers Univ.
1998-01-01
The Casimir energy for the transverse oscillations of piecewise uniform bosonic strings with either untwisted or twisted continuous conditions is discussed. After calculating the analytic values of zeros of the dispersion function under certain conditions, is obtained the Casimir energy for both open and closed bosonic strings composed of two or three segments
Liouville equation with boundary conditions derived from classical strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marnelius, R.
1983-01-01
It is shown in terms of the classical string theory that a breaking of the Weyl invariance necessarily requires the Liouville equation for the variable phi=1n rho, where rho is the variable that appears in the conformal gauge gsub(α#betta#)=rhoetasub(α#betta#). Appropriate boundary conditions on phi for open and closed strings are then derived. (orig.)
Semilocal and electroweak strings
Achucarro, A; Vachaspati, T
We review a class of non-topological defects in the standard electroweak model, and their implications. Starting with the semilocal string, which provides a counterexample to many well-known properties of topological vortices, we discuss electroweak strings and their stability with and without
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schäfer, Mirko; Greiner, Martin
2011-01-01
to chaotic strings. Inhomogeneous coupling weights as well as small-world perturbations of the ring-network structure are discussed. It is found that certain combinations of coupling and network disorder preserve the empirical relationship between chaotic strings and the weak and strong sector...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jensen, B.
1993-06-01
The author presents a global solution of Einstein's equations which represents a rotating cosmic string with a finite coreradius. The importance of pressure for the generation of closed timelike curves outside the coreregion of such strings is clearly displayed in this model due to the simplicity of the source. 10 refs
Derandomizing from random strings
Buhrman, H.; Fortnow, L.; Koucký, M.; Loff, B.
2010-01-01
In this paper we show that BPP is truth-table reducible to the set of Kolmogorov random strings R(K). It was previously known that PSPACE, and hence BPP is Turing-reducible to R(K). The earlier proof relied on the adaptivity of the Turing-reduction to find a Kolmogorov-random string of polynomial
Unification of string dualities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sen, A.
1997-01-01
We argue that all conjectured dualities involving various string, M- and F-theory compactifications can be 'derived' from the conjectured duality between type I and SO(32) heterotic string theory, T-dualities and the definition of M-and F-theories. (orig.)
Optimal Packed String Matching
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ben-Kiki, Oren; Bille, Philip; Breslauer, Dany
2011-01-01
In the packed string matching problem, each machine word accommodates – characters, thus an n-character text occupies n/– memory words. We extend the Crochemore-Perrin constantspace O(n)-time string matching algorithm to run in optimal O(n/–) time and even in real-time, achieving a factor – speed...
CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit
2002-01-01
I will present a simple and non-technical overview of string theory, aimed for non-experts who like to get some idea what string theory is about. Besides introductory material, I intend to cover also some of the more recent developments.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Barendregt, Wolmet; Börjesson, Peter; Eriksson, Eva
2017-01-01
In this paper, we present the forced collaborative interaction game StringForce. StringForce is developed for a special education context to support training of collaboration skills, using readily available technologies and avoiding the creation of a "mobile bubble". In order to play String......Force two or four physically collocated tablets are required. These tablets are connected to form one large shared game area. The game can only be played by collaborating. StringForce extends previous work, both technologically and regarding social-emotional training. We believe String......Force to be an interesting demo for the IDC community, as it intertwines several relevant research fields, such as mobile interaction and collaborative gaming in the special education context....
Black strings, low viscosity fluids, and violation of cosmic censorship.
Lehner, Luis; Pretorius, Frans
2010-09-03
We describe the behavior of 5-dimensional black strings, subject to the Gregory-Laflamme instability. Beyond the linear level, the evolving strings exhibit a rich dynamics, where at intermediate stages the horizon can be described as a sequence of 3-dimensional spherical black holes joined by black string segments. These segments are themselves subject to a Gregory-Laflamme instability, resulting in a self-similar cascade, where ever-smaller satellite black holes form connected by ever-thinner string segments. This behavior is akin to satellite formation in low-viscosity fluid streams subject to the Rayleigh-Plateau instability. The simulation results imply that the string segments will reach zero radius in finite asymptotic time, whence the classical space-time terminates in a naked singularity. Since no fine-tuning is required to excite the instability, this constitutes a generic violation of cosmic censorship.
Integrable equation of state for noisy cosmic string
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carter, B.
1990-01-01
It is argued that, independently of the detailed (thermal or more general) noise spectrum of the microscopic extrinsic excitations that can be expected on an ordinary cosmic string, their effect can be taken into account at a macroscopic level by replacing the standard isotropic Goto-Nambu-type string model by the nondegenerate string model characterized by an equation of state of the nondispersive ''fixed determinant'' type, with the effective surface stress-energy tensor satisfying (T ν ν ) 2 -T μ ν T ν μ =2T 0 2 , where T 0 is a constant representing the null-state limit of the string tension T, whose product with the energy density U of the string is thereby held fixed: TU=T 0 2 . It is shown that this equation of state has the special property of giving rise (in a flat background) to explicitly integrable dynamical equations
Reheating for closed string inflation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cicoli, Michele [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Mazumdar, Anupam [Lancaster Univ. (United Kingdom). Physics Dept.; Copenhagen Univ. (Denmark). Niels Bohr Institute
2010-05-15
We point out some of the outstanding challenges for embedding inflationary cosmology within string theory studying the process of reheating for models where the inflaton is a closed string mode parameterising the size of an internal cycle of the compactification manifold. A realistic model of inflation must explain the tiny perturbations in the cosmic microwave background radiation and also how to excite the ordinary matter degrees of freedom after inflation, required for the success of Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. We study these issues focusing on two promising inflationary models embedded in LARGE volume type IIB flux compactifications. We show that phenomenological requirements and consistency of the effective field theory treatment imply the presence at low energies of a hidden sector together with a visible sector, where the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model fields are residing. A detailed calculation of the inflaton coupling to the fields of the hidden sector, visible sector, and moduli sector, reveals that the inflaton fails to excite primarily the visible sector fields, instead hidden sector fields are excited copiously after the end of inflation. This sets severe constraints on hidden sector model building where the most promising scenario emerges as a pure N=1 SYM theory, forbidding the kinematical decay of the inflaton to the hidden sector. In this case it is possible to reheat the Universe with the visible degrees of freedom even though in some cases we discover a new tension between TeV scale SUSY and reheating on top of the well-known tension between TeV scale SUSY and inflation. (orig.)
Reheating for closed string inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cicoli, Michele; Mazumdar, Anupam; Copenhagen Univ.
2010-05-01
We point out some of the outstanding challenges for embedding inflationary cosmology within string theory studying the process of reheating for models where the inflaton is a closed string mode parameterising the size of an internal cycle of the compactification manifold. A realistic model of inflation must explain the tiny perturbations in the cosmic microwave background radiation and also how to excite the ordinary matter degrees of freedom after inflation, required for the success of Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. We study these issues focusing on two promising inflationary models embedded in LARGE volume type IIB flux compactifications. We show that phenomenological requirements and consistency of the effective field theory treatment imply the presence at low energies of a hidden sector together with a visible sector, where the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model fields are residing. A detailed calculation of the inflaton coupling to the fields of the hidden sector, visible sector, and moduli sector, reveals that the inflaton fails to excite primarily the visible sector fields, instead hidden sector fields are excited copiously after the end of inflation. This sets severe constraints on hidden sector model building where the most promising scenario emerges as a pure N=1 SYM theory, forbidding the kinematical decay of the inflaton to the hidden sector. In this case it is possible to reheat the Universe with the visible degrees of freedom even though in some cases we discover a new tension between TeV scale SUSY and reheating on top of the well-known tension between TeV scale SUSY and inflation. (orig.)
D-branes in little string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Israel, Dan; Pakman, Ari; Troost, Jan
2005-01-01
We analyze in detail the D-branes in the near-horizon limit of NS5-branes on a circle, the holographic dual of little string theory in a double scaling limit. We emphasize their geometry in the background of the NS5-branes and show the relation with D-branes in coset models. The exact one-point functions giving the coupling of the closed string states with the D-branes and the spectrum of open strings are computed. Using these results, we analyze several aspects of Hanany-Witten setups, using exact CFT analysis. In particular we identify the open string spectrum on the D-branes stretched between NS5-branes which confirms the low-energy analysis in brane constructions, and that allows to go to higher energy scales. As an application we show the emergence of the beta-function of the N=2 gauge theory on D4-branes stretching between NS5-branes from the boundary states describing the D4-branes. We also speculate on the possibility of getting a matrix model description of little string theory from the effective theory on the D1-branes. By considering D3-branes orthogonal to the NS5-branes we find a CFT incarnation of the Hanany-Witten effect of anomalous creation of D-branes. Finally we give an brief description of some non-BPS D-branes
A reduced covariant string model for the extrinsic string
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Botelho, L.C.L.
1989-01-01
It is studied a reduced covariant string model for the extrinsic string by using Polyakov's path integral formalism. On the basis of this reduced model it is suggested that the extrinsic string has its critical dimension given by 13. Additionally, it is calculated in a simple way Poliakov's renormalization group law for the string rigidity coupling constants. (A.C.A.S.) [pt
Is string interaction the origin of quantum mechanics?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bars, Itzhak, E-mail: bars@usc.edu; Rychkov, Dmitry
2014-12-12
String theory was developed by demanding consistency with quantum mechanics. In this paper we wish to reverse the reasoning. We pretend that open string field theory is a fully consistent definition of the theory – it is at least a self-consistent sector. Then we find in its structure that the rules of quantum mechanics emerge from the non-commutative nature of the basic string joining/splitting interactions. Thus, rather than assuming the quantum commutation rules among the usual canonical variables we derive them from the physical process of string interactions. Morally we could apply such an argument to M-theory to cover quantum mechanics for all physics. If string or M-theory really underlies all physics, it seems that the door has been opened to an explanation of the origins of quantum mechanics from the physical processes point of view.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yao, Dongyuan; Lavigne, Gilles J.; Lee, Jye-Chang
2013-01-01
Study Objective: To test the hypothesis that the reflex and corticobulbar motor excitability of jaw muscles is reduced during sleep. Design: Polysomnographic recordings in the electrophysiological study. Setting: University sleep research laboratories. Participants and Interventions: The reflex a...
A Chern-Simons-like action for closed-string field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Taylor, C.C.
1989-01-01
A Chern-Simons-like action is proposed for closed-string field theory. The action involves auxiliary fields of arbitrary ghost number and is defined in terms of the closed-string operations ∫, Q and *, analogous to those introduced by Witten in the construction of open-string field theory. The action is an extension of one proposed for free closed strings and bears a formal relationship to 2 + 1 gravity analogous to that between open-string field theory and (2 + 1)-dimensional Yang-Mills theory. (author)
Yang-Mills formulation of interacting strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chan Hongmo; Tsou Sheungtsun
1988-06-01
A suggestion that the theory of interacting open bosonic string be reformulated as a generalised Yang-Mills theory is further elucidated. Moreover, a serious reservation regarding the ordering of operators in the earlier 'proof' of equivalence between the new and standard formulations is now removed. (author)
The volume conjecture and topological strings
Dijkgraaf, R.; Fuji, H.
2009-01-01
In this paper, we discuss a relation between Jones-Witten theory of knot invariants and topological open string theory on the basis of the volume conjecture. We find a similar Hamiltonian structure for both theories, and interpret the AJ conjecture as the D-module structure for a D-brane partition
Star products from commutative string theory
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
in commutative open-string theory performed in [2], and an impressive ... formed to all orders in the derivative expansion, but keeping only terms of order(F 2) ... nonlogarithmic finite parts [2] and come from propagators for which there is no self-.
String field equation from renormalization group
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sakai, Kenji.
1988-10-01
We derive an equation of motion for an open bosonic string field which is introduced as a background field in a sigma model. By using the method of Klebanov and Susskind, we obtain the β-function for this background field and investigate its properties. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaku, M.
1987-01-01
In this article, the authors summarize the rapid progress in constructing string field theory actions, such as the development of the covariant BRST theory. They also present the newer geometric formulation of string field theory, from which the BRST theory and the older light cone theory can be derived from first principles. This geometric formulation allows us to derive the complete field theory of strings from two geometric principles, in the same way that general relativity and Yang-Mills theory can be derived from two principles based on global and local symmetry. The geometric formalism therefore reduces string field theory to a problem of finding an invariant under a new local gauge group they call the universal string group (USG). Thus, string field theory is the gauge theory of the universal string group in much the same way that Yang-Mills theory is the gauge theory of SU(N). The geometric formulation places superstring theory on the same rigorous group theoretical level as general relativity and gauge theory
String Chopping and Time-ordered Products of Linear String-localized Quantum Fields
Cardoso, Lucas T.; Mund, Jens; Várilly, Joseph C.
2018-03-01
For a renormalizability proof of perturbative models in the Epstein-Glaser scheme with string-localized quantum fields, one needs to know what freedom one has in the definition of time-ordered products of the interaction Lagrangian. This paper provides a first step in that direction. The basic issue is the presence of an open set of n-tuples of strings which cannot be chronologically ordered. We resolve it by showing that almost all such string configurations can be dissected into finitely many pieces which can indeed be chronologically ordered. This fixes the time-ordered products of linear field factors outside a nullset of string configurations. (The extension across the nullset, as well as the definition of time-ordered products of Wick monomials, will be discussed elsewhere).
Li, Zhendong; Liu, Wenjian
2016-06-14
Compared with closed-shell systems, open-shell systems place three additional challenges to time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) for electronically excited states: (a) the spin-contamination problem is a serious issue; (b) the exchange-correlation (XC) kernel may be numerically instable; and (c) the single-determinant description of open-shell ground states readily becomes energetically instable. Confined to flip-up single excitations, the spin-contamination problem can largely be avoided by using the spin-flip TD-DFT (SF-TD-DFT) formalism, provided that a noncollinear XC kernel is employed. As for the numerical instabilities associated with such a kernel, only an ad hoc scheme has been proposed so far, viz., the ALDA0 kernel, which amounts to setting the divergent components (arising from density gradients and kinetic energy density) simply to zero. The ground-state instability problem can effectively be avoided by introducing the Tamm-Dancoff approximation (TDA) to TD-DFT. Therefore, on a general basis, the SF-TDA/ALDA0 Ansatz is so far the only promising means within the TD-DFT framework for flip-up single excitations of open-shell systems. To assess systematically the performance of SF-TDA/ALDA0, in total 61 low-lying quartet excited states of the benchmark set of 11 small radicals [J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2016, 12, 238] are investigated with various XC functionals. Taking the MRCISD+Q (multireference configuration interaction with singles and doubles plus the Davidson correction) results as benchmark, it is found that the mean absolute errors of SF-TDA/ALDA0 with the SAOP (statistical averaging of model orbital potentials), global hybrid, and range-separated hybrid functionals are in the range of 0.2-0.4 eV. This is in line not only with the typical accuracy of TD-DFT for singlet and triplet excited states of closed-shell systems but also with the gross accuracy of spin-adapted TD-DFT for spin-conserving excited states of open-shell systems.
Duality relation between charged elastic strings and superconducting cosmic strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carter, B.
1989-01-01
The mechanical properties of macroscopic electromagnetically coupled string models in a flat or curved background are treated using a covariant formalism allowing the construction of a duality transformation that relates the category of uniform ''electric'' string models, constructed as the (nonconducting) charged generalisation of ordinary uncoupled (violin type) elastic strings, to a category of ''magnetic'' string models comprising recently discussed varieties of ''superconducting cosmic strings''. (orig.)
Thermodynamic properties of magnetic strings on a square lattice
Mol, Lucas; Oliveira, Denis Da Mata; Bachmann, Michael
2015-03-01
In the last years, spin ice systems have increasingly attracted attention by the scientific community, mainly due to the appearance of collective excitations that behave as magnetic monopole like particles. In these systems, geometrical frustration induces the appearance of degenerated ground states characterized by a local energy minimization rule, the ice rule. Violations of this rule were shown to behave like magnetic monopoles connected by a string of dipoles that carries the magnetic flux from one monopole to the other. In order to obtain a deeper knowledge about the behavior of these excitations we study the thermodynamics of a kind of magnetic polymer formed by a chain of magnetic dipoles in a square lattice. This system is expected to capture the main properties of monopole-string excitations in the artificial square spin ice. It has been found recently that in this geometry the monopoles are confined, but the effective string tension is reduced by entropic effects. To obtain the thermodynamic properties of the strings we have exactly enumerated all possible string configurations of a given length and used standard statistical mechanics analysis to calculate thermodynamic quantities. We show that the low-temperature behavior is governed by strings that satisfy ice rules. Financial support from FAPEMIG and CNPq (Brazilian agencies) are gratefully acknowledged.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jevicki, A.; Ninomiya, M.
1985-01-01
We are concerned with applications of the simplicial discretization method (Regge calculus) to two-dimensional quantum gravity with emphasis on the physically relevant string model. Beginning with the discretization of gravity and matter we exhibit a discrete version of the conformal trace anomaly. Proceeding to the string problem we show how the direct approach of (finite difference) discretization based on Nambu action corresponds to unsatisfactory treatment of gravitational degrees. Based on the Regge approach we then propose a discretization corresponding to the Polyakov string. In this context we are led to a natural geometric version of the associated Liouville model and two-dimensional gravity. (orig.)
Superconducting cosmic strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chudnovsky, E.M.; Field, G.B.; Spergel, D.N.; Vilenkin, A.
1986-01-01
Superconducting loops of string formed in the early Universe, if they are relatively light, can be an important source of relativistic particles in the Galaxy. They can be observed as sources of synchrotron radiation at centimeter wavelengths. We propose a string model for two recently discovered radio sources, the ''thread'' in the galactic center and the source G357.7-0.1, and predict that the filaments in these sources should move at relativistic speeds. We also consider superheavy superconducting strings, and the possibility that they be observed as extragalactic radio sources
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Witten, Edward
2015-10-21
The Strings 2014 meeting was held at Princeton University June 23-27, 2014, co-sponsored by Princeton University and the Institute for Advanced Study. The goal of the meeting was to provide a stimulating and up-to-date overview of research in string theory and its relations to other areas of physics and mathematics, ranging from geometry to quantum field theory, condensed matter physics, and more. This brief report lists committee members and speakers but contains no scientific information. Note that the talks at Strings 2014 were videotaped and are available on the conference website: http://physics.princeton.edustrings2014/Talk_titles.shtml.
A disintegrating cosmic string
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Griffiths, J B; Docherty, P
2002-01-01
We present a simple sandwich gravitational wave of the Robinson-Trautman family. This is interpreted as representing a shock wave with a spherical wavefront which propagates into a Minkowski background minus a wedge (i.e. the background contains a cosmic string). The deficit angle (the tension) of the string decreases through the gravitational wave, which then ceases. This leaves an expanding spherical region of Minkowski space behind it. The decay of the cosmic string over a finite interval of retarded time may be considered to generate the gravitational wave. (letter to the editor)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klimenko, S.V.; Kochin, V.N.; Plyushchaj, M.S.; Pron'ko, G.P.; Razumov, A.V.; Samarin, A.V.
1985-01-01
Partial solutions to classical equations of three-string motion are considered. Simplest solutions, when three-string center moving with high velocity, are co nsidered. Single-mode solutions are studied. Explicit form of their parametrization is obtained and three-string dynamics visualization is made. Means of graphic packet ''Atom'' were used for visualization. A set of processes for graphic representation of multiparametric functions is developed. Peculiarity of these processes is a wide class of functions, which are represented by parametric, coordinate and functional isolines
Unity from duality: gravity, gauge theory and strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bachas, C.; Bilal, A.; Douglas, M.; Nekrasov, N.; David, F.
2002-01-01
The 76. session of the summer school in theoretical physics was devoted to recent developments in string theory, gauge theories and quantum gravity. Superstring theory is the leading candidate for a unified theory of all fundamental physical forces and elementary particles. The discovery of dualities and of important tools such as D-branes, has greatly reinforced this point of view. This document gathers the papers of 9 lectures: 1) supergravity, 2) supersymmetric gauge theories, 3) an introduction to duality symmetries, 4) large N field theories and gravity, 5) D-branes on the conifold and N = 1 gauge/gravity dualities, 6) de Sitter space, 7) string compactification with N = 1 supersymmetry, 8) open strings and non-commutative gauge theories, and 9) condensates near the Argyres-Douglas point in SU(2) gauge theory with broken N = 2 supersymmetry, and of 8 seminars: 1) quantum field theory with extra dimensions, 2) special holonomy spaces and M-theory, 3) four dimensional non-critical strings, 4) U-opportunities: why ten equal to ten?, 5) exact answers to approximate questions - non-commutative dipoles, open Wilson lines and UV-IR duality, 6) open-string models with broken supersymmetry, 7) on a field theory of open strings, tachyon condensation and closed strings, and 8) exceptional magic. (A.C.)
Origin of gauge invariance in string theory
Horowitz, G. T.; Strominger, A.
1986-01-01
A first quantization of the space-time embedding Chi exp mu and the world-sheet metric rho of the open bosonic string. The world-sheet metric rho decouples from S-matrix elements in 26 dimensions. This formulation of the theory naturally includes 26-dimensional gauge transformations. The gauge invariance of S-matrix elements is a direct consequence of the decoupling of rho. Second quantization leads to a string field Phi(Chi exp mu, rho) with a gauge-covariant equation of motion.
Purely cubic action for string field theory
Horowitz, G. T.; Lykken, J.; Rohm, R.; Strominger, A.
1986-01-01
It is shown that Witten's (1986) open-bosonic-string field-theory action and a closed-string analog can be written as a purely cubic interaction term. The conventional form of the action arises by expansion around particular solutions of the classical equations of motion. The explicit background dependence of the conventional action via the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin operator is eliminated in the cubic formulation. A closed-form expression is found for the full nonlinear gauge-transformation law.
Topics in supergravity and string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eastaugh, A.G.
1987-01-01
The first topic covered in this dissertation concerns the harmonic expansion technique and its application to the dimensional compactification of higher dimensional supergravity. A simple example is given to explain the method and then the method is applied to the problem of obtaining the mass spectrum of the squashed seven-sphere compactification of eleven dimensional supergravity. The second topic concerns the application of Fujikawa's method of anomaly calculation to the calculation of the critical dimension of various string models. The third topic is a study and explicit calculation of the Fock space representation of the vertex in Witten's formulation of the interacting open bosonic string field theory
Cosmic strings and cosmic structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Albrecht, A.; Brandenberger, R.; Turok, N.
1987-01-01
The paper concerns the application of the theory of cosmic strings to explain the structure of the Universe. The formation of cosmic strings in the early Universe is outlined, along with the Big Bang theory, Grand Unified theories, and the first three minutes after the Big Bang. A description is given of the shaping of the Universe by cosmic strings, including the evolution of the string. The possibility for direct observation of cosmic strings is discussed. (U.K.)
International conference on string theory
2017-01-01
The Strings 2017 conference is part of the "Strings" series of annual conferences, that bring the entire string theory community together. It will include reviews of major developments in the field, and specialized talks on specific topics. There will also be several public lectures given by conference participants, a pre-Strings school at the Technion, and a post-Strings workshop at the Weizmann Institute.
Katz, Sheldon; Klemm, Albrecht; Morrison, David R
2015-01-01
This volume contains the proceedings of the conference String-Math 2012, which was held July 16-21, 2012, at the Hausdorff Center for Mathematics, Universitat Bonn. This was the second in a series of annual large meetings devoted to the interface of mathematics and string theory. These meetings have rapidly become the flagship conferences in the field. Topics include super Riemann surfaces and their super moduli, generalized moonshine and K3 surfaces, the latest developments in supersymmetric and topological field theory, localization techniques, applications to knot theory, and many more. The contributors include many leaders in the field, such as Sergio Cecotti, Matthias Gaberdiel, Rahul Pandharipande, Albert Schwarz, Anne Taormina, Johannes Walcher, Katrin Wendland, and Edward Witten. This book will be essential reading for researchers and students in this area and for all mathematicians and string theorists who want to update themselves on developments in the math-string interface.
Hydroball string sensing system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hurwitz, M.J.; Ekeroth, D.E.; Squarer, D.
1991-01-01
This patent describes a hydroball string sensing system for a nuclear reactor having a core containing a fluid at a fluid pressure. It comprises a tube connectable to the nuclear reactor so that the fluid can flow within the tube at a fluid pressure that is substantially the same as the fluid pressure of the nuclear reactor core; a hydroball string including - a string member having objects positioned therealong with a specified spacing, the object including a plurality of hydroballs, and bullet members positioned at opposing ends of the string member; first sensor means, positioned outside a first segment of the tube, for sensing one of the objects being positioned within the first segment, and for providing a sensing signal responsive to the sensing of the first sensing means
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Espriu, D.
2003-01-01
QCD can be described in a certain kinematical regime by an effective string theory. This string must couple to background chiral fields in a chirally invariant manner, thus taking into account the true chirally non-invariant QCD vacuum. By requiring conformal symmetry of the string and the unitarity constraint on chiral fields we reconstruct the equations of motion for the latter ones. These provide a consistent background for the propagation of the string. By further requiring locality of the effective action we recover the Lagrangian of non-linear sigma model of pion interactions. The prediction is unambiguous and parameter-free. The estimated chiral structural constants of Gasser and Leutwyler fit very well the phenomenological values. (author)
2008-01-01
String Theory supporters argue that the universe we live in has eleven dimensions, out of which three spacial dimensions and a temporal one, which define the void and the space-time environment we experience daily.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schellekens, A.N.
1989-01-01
In this paper an elementary introduction to the principles of four-dimensional string construction will be given. Although the emphasis is on lattice constructions, almost all results have further, and often quite straightforward generalizations to other constructions. Since heterotic strings look phenomenologically more promising than type-II theories the authors only consider the former, although everything can easily be generalized to type-II theories. Some additional aspects of lattice constructions are discussed, and an extensive review can be found
Confusing the heterotic string
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Benett, D.L.; Mizrachi, L.
1986-01-01
A confusion mechanism is proposed as a global modification of the heterotic string model. It envolves a confusion hypersurface across which the two E 8 's of the heterotic string are permuted. A remarkable numerical coincidence is found which prevents an inconsistency in the model. The low energy limit of this theory (after compactification) is typically invariant under one E 8 only, thereby removing the shadow world from the original model. (orig.)
Confusing the heterotic string
Benett, D.; Brene, N.; Mizrachi, Leah; Nielsen, H. B.
1986-10-01
A confusion mechanism is proposed as a global modification of the heterotic string model. It envolves a confusion hypersurface across which the two E 8's of the heterotic string are permuted. A remarkable numerical coincidence is found which prevents an inconsistency in the model. The low energy limit of this theory (after compactification) is typically invariant under one E 8 only, thereby removing the shadow world from the original model.
Confusing the heterotic string
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Benett, D.L.; Brene, N.; Nielsen, H.B.; Mizrachi, L.
1986-10-02
A confusion mechanism is proposed as a global modification of the heterotic string model. It envolves a confusion hypersurface across which the two E/sub 8/'s of the heterotic string are permuted. A remarkable numerical coincidence is found which prevents an inconsistency in the model. The low energy limit of this theory (after compactification) is typically invariant under one E/sub 8/ only, thereby removing the shadow world from the original model.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thorn, C.B.
1988-01-01
Several topics are discussed in string theory presented as three lectures to the Spring School on Superstrings at the ICTP at Trieste, Italy, in April, 1988. The first lecture is devoted to some general aspects of conformal invariance and duality. The second sketches methods for carrying out perturbative calculations in string field theory. The final lecture presents an alternative lattice approach to a nonperturbative formulation of the sum over world surfaces. 35 refs., 12 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gervais, J.L.; Neveu, A.
1980-01-01
Recent works of the authors on string interpretation of the Wilson loop operators in QCD are reviewed in a self-contained fashion. Although most of the results habe already appeared in print, some new material is presented in renormalization of the Wilson loop operator and on the use of light-cone expansion to derive a linear string-like equation in light-cone formalism. (orig.)
Dijkgraaf, R; Verlinde, Herman L
1997-01-01
Via compactification on a circle, the matrix model of M-theory proposed by Banks et al suggests a concrete identification between the large N limit of two-dimensional N=8 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory and type IIA string theory. In this paper we collect evidence that supports this identification. We explicitly identify the perturbative string states and their interactions, and describe the appearance of D-particle and D-membrane states.
Wilson loop, Regge trajectory and hadron masses in a Yang-Mills theory from semiclassical strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bigazzi, F.; Cotrone, A.L.; Martucci, L.; Pando Zayas, L.A.
2004-07-01
We compute the one-loop string corrections to the Wilson loop, glueball Regge trajectory and stringy hadron masses in the Witten model of non supersymmetric, large-N Yang-Mills theory. The classical string configurations corresponding to the above field theory objects are respectively: open straight strings, folded closed spinning strings, and strings orbiting in the internal part of the supergravity background. For the rectangular Wilson loop we show that besides the standard Luscher term, string corrections provide a rescaling of the field theory string tension. The one-loop corrections to the linear glueball Regge trajectories render them nonlinear with a positive intercept, as in the experimental soft Pomeron trajectory. Strings orbiting in the internal space predict a spectrum of hadronic-like states charged under global flavor symmetries which falls in the same universality class of other confining models. (author)
Nonassociativity, Malcev algebras and string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guenaydin, M.; Minic, D.
2013-01-01
Nonassociative structures have appeared in the study of D-branes in curved backgrounds. In recent work, string theory backgrounds involving three-form fluxes, where such structures show up, have been studied in more detail. We point out that under certain assumptions these nonassociative structures coincide with nonassociative Malcev algebras which had appeared in the quantum mechanics of systems with non-vanishing three-cocycles, such as a point particle moving in the field of a magnetic charge. We generalize the corresponding Malcev algebras to include electric as well as magnetic charges. These structures find their classical counterpart in the theory of Poisson-Malcev algebras and their generalizations. We also study their connection to Stueckelberg's generalized Poisson brackets that do not obey the Jacobi identity and point out that nonassociative string theory with a fundamental length corresponds to a realization of his goal to find a non-linear extension of quantum mechanics with a fundamental length. Similar nonassociative structures are also known to appear in the cubic formulation of closed string field theory in terms of open string fields, leading us to conjecture a natural string-field theoretic generalization of the AdS/CFT-like (holographic) duality. (Copyright copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
String creation, D-branes and effective field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hung Lingyan
2008-01-01
This paper addresses several unsettled issues associated with string creation in systems of orthogonal Dp-D(8-p) branes. The interaction between the branes can be understood either from the closed string or open string picture. In the closed string picture it has been noted that the DBI action fails to capture an extra RR exchange between the branes. We demonstrate how this problem persists upon lifting to M-theory. These D-brane systems are analysed in the closed string picture by using gauge-fixed boundary states in a non-standard lightcone gauge, in which RR exchange can be analysed precisely. The missing piece in the DBI action also manifests itself in the open string picture as a mismatch between the Coleman-Weinberg potential obtained from the effective field theory and the corresponding open string calculation. We show that this difference can be reconciled by taking into account the superghosts in the (0+1) effective theory of the chiral fermion, that arises from gauge fixing the spontaneously broken world-line local supersymmetries
Jet signals for low mass strings at the large hadron collider.
Anchordoqui, Luis A; Goldberg, Haim; Nawata, Satoshi; Taylor, Tomasz R
2008-05-02
The mass scale M{s} of superstring theory is an arbitrary parameter that can be as low as few TeVs if the Universe contains large extra dimensions. We propose a search for the effects of Regge excitations of fundamental strings at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), in the process pp-->gamma+jet. The underlying parton process is dominantly the single photon production in gluon fusion, gg-->gammag, with open string states propagating in intermediate channels. If the photon mixes with the gauge boson of the baryon number, which is a common feature of D-brane quivers, the amplitude appears already at the string disk level. It is completely determined by the mixing parameter-and it is otherwise model (compactification) independent. Even for relatively small mixing, 100 fb{-1} of LHC data could probe deviations from standard model physics, at a 5sigma significance, for M{s} as large as 3.3 TeV.
Strong/weak coupling duality relations for non-supersymmetric string theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blum, J.D.; Dienes, K.R.
1998-01-01
Both the supersymmetric SO(32) and E 8 x E 8 heterotic strings in ten dimensions have known strong-coupling duals. However, it has not been known whether there also exist strong-coupling duals for the non-supersymmetric heterotic strings in ten dimensions. In this paper, we construct explicit open-string duals for the circle compactifications of several of these non-supersymmetric theories, among them the tachyon-free SO(16) x SO(16) string. Our method involves the construction of heterotic and open-string interpolating models that continuously connect non-supersymmetric strings to supersymmetric strings. We find that our non-supersymmetric dual theories have exactly the same massless spectra as their heterotic counterparts within a certain range of our interpolations. We also develop a novel method for analyzing the solitons of non-supersymmetric open-string theories, and find that the solitons of our dual theories also agree with their heterotic counterparts. These are therefore the first known examples of strong/weak coupling duality relations between non-supersymmetric, tachyon-free string theories. Finally, the existence of these strong-coupling duals allows us to examine the non-perturbative stability of these strings, and we propose a phase diagram for the behavior of these strings as a function of coupling and radius. (orig.)
Deterministic indexing for packed strings
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Skjoldjensen, Frederik Rye
2017-01-01
Given a string S of length n, the classic string indexing problem is to preprocess S into a compact data structure that supports efficient subsequent pattern queries. In the deterministic variant the goal is to solve the string indexing problem without any randomization (at preprocessing time...... or query time). In the packed variant the strings are stored with several character in a single word, giving us the opportunity to read multiple characters simultaneously. Our main result is a new string index in the deterministic and packed setting. Given a packed string S of length n over an alphabet σ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Henrik H; Weikop, Pia; Mikkelsen, Maria D
2017-01-01
Central Kv7 (KCNQ) channels are voltage-dependent potassium channels composed of different combinations of four Kv7 subunits, being differently expressed in the brain. Notably, striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission is strongly suppressed by systemic administration of the pan-Kv7 channel opener ...... by acute systemic haloperidol administration in the rat. The relative mRNA levels of Kv7 subunits in the rat striatum were found to be Kv7.2 = Kv7.3 = Kv7.5 > >Kv7.4. These data suggest that intrastriatal Kv7 channels play a direct role in regulating striatal excitability in vivo....
Nakano, Masayoshi
2014-01-01
This brief investigates the diradical character, which is one of the ground-state chemical indices for 'bond weakness' or 'electron correlation' and which allows researchers to explore the origins of the electron-correlation-driven physico-chemical phenomena concerned with electronic, optical and magnetic properties as well as to control them in the broad fields of physics and chemistry. It then provides the theoretical fundamentals of ground and excited electronic structures of symmetric and asymmetric open-shell molecular systems by using model molecular systems. Moreover, it presents the th
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dae Seung Cho
2016-03-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a numerical procedure for the natural vibration analysis of plates with openings and carlings based on the assumed mode method is extended to assess their forced response. Firstly, natural response of plates with openings and carlings is calculated from the eigenvalue equation derived by using Lagrange's equation of motion. Secondly, the mode superposition method is applied to determine frequency response. Mindlin theory is adopted for plate modelling and the effect of openings is taken into account by subtracting their potential and kinetic energies from the corresponding plate energies. Natural and frequency response of plates with openings and carlings subjected to point excitation force and enforced acceleration at boundaries, respectively, is analysed by using developed in-house code. For the validation of the developed method and the code, extensive numerical results, related to plates with different opening shape, carlings and boundary conditions, are compared with numerical data from the relevant literature and with finite element solutions obtained by general finite element tool.
Boundary operators in effective string theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hellerman, Simeon [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, The University of Tokyo,Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Swanson, Ian [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, The University of Tokyo,Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan)
2017-04-13
Various universal features of relativistic rotating strings depend on the organization of allowed local operators on the worldsheet. In this paper, we study the set of Neumann boundary operators in effective string theory, which are relevant for the controlled study of open relativistic strings with freely moving endpoints. Relativistic open strings are thought to encode the dynamics of confined quark-antiquark pairs in gauge theories in the planar approximation. Neumann boundary operators can be organized by their behavior under scaling of the target space coordinates X{sup μ}, and the set of allowed X-scaling exponents is bounded above by +1/2 and unbounded below. Negative contributions to X-scalings come from powers of a single invariant, or “dressing' operator, which is bilinear in the embedding coordinates. In particular, we show that all Neumann boundary operators are dressed by quarter-integer powers of this invariant, and we demonstrate how this rule arises from various ways of regulating the short-distance singularities of the effective theory.
Casali, Eduardo; Tourkine, Piotr
2018-03-01
Twistor string models have been known for more than a decade now but have come back under the spotlight recently with the advent of the scattering equation formalism which has greatly generalized the scope of these models. A striking ubiquitous feature of these models has always been that, contrary to usual string theory, they do not admit vibrational modes and thus describe only conventional field theory. In this paper we report on the surprising discovery of a whole new sector of one of these theories which we call "twisted strings," when spacetime has compact directions. We find that the spectrum is enhanced from a finite number of states to an infinite number of interacting higher spin massive states. We describe both bosonic and world sheet supersymmetric models, their spectra and scattering amplitudes. These models have distinctive features of both string and field theory, for example they are invariant under stringy T-duality but have the high energy behavior typical of field theory. Therefore they describe a new kind of field theories in target space, sitting on their own halfway between string and field theory.
Perspectives on string phenomenology
Kane, Gordon; Kumar, Piyush
2015-01-01
The remarkable recent discovery of the Higgs boson at the CERN Large Hadron Collider completed the Standard Model of particle physics and has paved the way for understanding the physics which may lie beyond it. String/M theory has emerged as a broad framework for describing a plethora of diverse physical systems, which includes condensed matter systems, gravitational systems as well as elementary particle physics interactions. If string/M theory is to be considered as a candidate theory of Nature, it must contain an effectively four-dimensional universe among its solutions that is indistinguishable from our own. In these solutions, the extra dimensions of string/M Theory are “compactified” on tiny scales which are often comparable to the Planck length. String phenomenology is the branch of string/M theory that studies such solutions, relates their properties to data, and aims to answer many of the outstanding questions of particle physics beyond the Standard Model. This book contains perspectives on stri...
Coulomb string tension, asymptotic string tension, and the gluon chain
Greensite, Jeff; Szczepaniak, Adam P.
2014-01-01
We compute, via numerical simulations, the non-perturbative Coulomb potential of pure SU(3) gauge theory in Coulomb gauge. We find that that the Coulomb potential scales nicely in accordance with asymptotic freedom, that the Coulomb potential is linear in the infrared, and that the Coulomb string tension is about four times larger than the asymptotic string tension. We explain how it is possible that the asymptotic string tension can be lower than the Coulomb string tension by a factor of four.
Interacting-string picture of the fermionic string
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mandelstam, S.
1986-01-01
This report gives a review of the interacting-string picture of the Bose string. In the present lecture, the author outlines a similar treatment of the Fermionic string. The quantization of the free Fermionic string is carried out to the degrees of freedom x, representing the displacement of the string. Also presented are Grassman degrees of freedom S distributed along the string. The report pictures the fermionic string as a string of dipoles. The general picture of the interaction of such strings by joining and splitting is the same as for the Bose string. The author does not at present have the simplest formula for fermion string scattering amplitudes. A less detailed treatment is given than for the Bose string. The report sets up the functional-integration formalism, derives the analog mode, and indicates in general, terms how the conformal transformation to the z-plane may be performed. The paper concludes by stating without proof the formula for the N-article tree amplitude in the manifestly supersymmetric formalism
Strings for quantumchromodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schomerus, V.
2007-04-01
During the last decade, intriguing dualities between gauge and string theory have been found and explored. they provide a novel window on strongly couplde gauge physics, including QCD-like models. Based on a short historical review of modern string theory, we explain how so-called AdS/CFT dualities emerged at the end of the 1990s. Some of their concrete implications and remarkable recent progress are then illustrated for the simplest example, namely the multicolor limit of N=4 SYM theory in four dimensions. We end with a few comments on existing extensions to more realistic models and applications, in particular to the sQGP. This text is meant as a non-technical introduction to gauge/string dualities for (particle) physicists. (orig.)
Kiritsis, E; Nitti, F
2014-01-01
We extend the holographic trailing string picture of a heavy quark to the case of a bulk geometry dual to a confining gauge theory. We compute the classical trailing confining string solution for a static as well as a uniformly moving quark. The trailing string is infinitely extended and approaches a confining horizon, situated at a critical value of the radial coordinate, along one of the space-time directions, breaking boundary rotational invariance. We compute the equations for the fluctuations around the classical solutions, which are used to obtain boundary force correlators controlling the Langevin dynamics of the quark. The imaginary part of the correlators has a non-trivial low-frequency limit, which gives rise to a viscous friction coefficient induced by the confining vacuum. The vacuum correlators are used to define finite-temperature dressed Langevin correlators with an appropriate high-frequency behavior.
Strings for quantumchromodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schomerus, V.
2007-04-15
During the last decade, intriguing dualities between gauge and string theory have been found and explored. they provide a novel window on strongly couplde gauge physics, including QCD-like models. Based on a short historical review of modern string theory, we explain how so-called AdS/CFT dualities emerged at the end of the 1990s. Some of their concrete implications and remarkable recent progress are then illustrated for the simplest example, namely the multicolor limit of N=4 SYM theory in four dimensions. We end with a few comments on existing extensions to more realistic models and applications, in particular to the sQGP. This text is meant as a non-technical introduction to gauge/string dualities for (particle) physicists. (orig.)
Wavy strings: Black or bright?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaloper, N.; Myers, R.C.; Roussel, H.
1997-01-01
Recent developments in string theory have brought forth considerable interest in time-dependent hair on extended objects. This novel new hair is typically characterized by a wave profile along the horizon and angular momentum quantum numbers l,m in the transverse space. In this work, we present an extensive treatment of such oscillating black objects, focusing on their geometric properties. We first give a theorem of purely geometric nature, stating that such wavy hair cannot be detected by any scalar invariant built out of the curvature and/or matter fields. However, we show that the tidal forces detected by an infalling observer diverge at the open-quotes horizonclose quotes of a black string superposed with a vibration in any mode with l≥1. The same argument applied to longitudinal (l=0) waves detects only finite leading-order tidal forces. We also provide an example with a manifestly smooth metric, proving that at least a certain class of these longitudinal waves have regular horizons. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Quark potential of spontaneous strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
German, G.; Kleinert, H.
1989-01-01
The authors present some recent developments in string models with an extrinsic curvature term in action. Particular emphasis is placed upon the static quark potential and on the thermal deconfinement properties of spontaneous strings
PREFACE Particles, Strings and Cosmology (PASCOS)
Cabrera, Susana; Hirsch, Martin; Mitsou, Vasiliki; Muñoz, Carlos; Pastor, Sergio; Amparo Tórtola, María; Valle, José W. F.; Vives, Óscar
2010-11-01
The XVI Symposium in the Particles, Strings and Cosmology (PASCOS) series took place on 19-23 July 2010, in the historic city of Valencia, and was hosted by the Instituto de Física Corpuscular (IFIC), the largest particle physics laboratory of the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), jointly operated with the University of Valencia. The PASCOS series of annual symposia is dedicated to the latest advances on the study of the forces that govern the elementary constituents of matter - the microcosm - and their effects on the understanding of the Universe at large - the macrocosm. Indeed the basic principles of uncertainty and mass-energy equivalence imply that when one probes deep inside the subatomic scale, one inevitably excites states of very high energy and mass which were copiously produced at the Big Bang. Recreating these particles in the laboratory is tantamount to tracing back the very early history of the universe. The interface of particle physics, string theory and cosmology has indeed become a highly active field of research at the frontier of human knowledge and the PASCOS meetings aim to bring together researchers from the three areas so as to facilitate the exchange of ideas and to identify possible synergies. The series started in the mid-nineties in the United States, where the first events took place. However it has by now become truly global, having circulated through India, South Korea, the United Kingdom, Canada and Germany. The aim of the conference was to review the recent progress in particle physics, string theory and cosmology, promoting the exchange of ideas and discussing future prospects. With the startup of LHC and the launch of the Planck satellite as well as many other experiments under way or planned, PASCOS2010 looked at an exciting future, giving theorists an opportunity to prepare for this wealth of new data and the stringent tests to which they will subject the existing theories. While the conferences in this series have
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Szklarczyk, Damian; Franceschini, Andrea; Wyder, Stefan
2015-01-01
, and the available data exhibit notable differences in terms of quality and completeness. The STRING database (http://string-db.org) aims to provide a critical assessment and integration of protein-protein interactions, including direct (physical) as well as indirect (functional) associations. The new version 10...... into families at various levels of phylogenetic resolution. Further improvements in version 10.0 include a completely redesigned prediction pipeline for inferring protein-protein associations from co-expression data, an API interface for the R computing environment and improved statistical analysis...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arnowitt, R.; Bryan, R.; Duff, M.J.; Nanopoulos, D.; Pope, C.N.
1990-01-01
Does string theory provide us with a consistent quantum theory of gravity? Is it that Holy Grail of elementary particle physics, a Theory of Everything with embraces all the forces and particles of Nature? Even if it is, can we extract concrete predictions about our low-energy world that can be tested experimentally at the SSC and other particle accelerators? What does it have to say about the origin of the Universe and the thorny problem of the cosmological constant? Are superstring theories unique, or might the eleven-dimensional supermembrane prove equally consistent? These are just some of the question posed and debated at Strings '89
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Randjbar-Daemi, S.; Strathdee, J.
1987-10-01
These notes are based on a set of six introductory lectures given jointly by the authors. After developing the canonical methods we discuss the covariant quantization of the bosonic as well as the fermionic string. Conformal field theory methods are also introduced and used to calculate the anomaly coefficient, c, as well as the critical dimensions for bosonic and superstrings. We briefly sketch the BRS quantization and then offer an elementary derivation of the anomaly in the ghost number current. Finally, we address the one-loop partition function of the bosonic string and the question of SL(2,Z) invariance. (author). 15 refs
Matrix string partition function
Kostov, Ivan K; Kostov, Ivan K.; Vanhove, Pierre
1998-01-01
We evaluate quasiclassically the Ramond partition function of Euclidean D=10 U(N) super Yang-Mills theory reduced to a two-dimensional torus. The result can be interpreted in terms of free strings wrapping the space-time torus, as expected from the point of view of Matrix string theory. We demonstrate that, when extrapolated to the ultraviolet limit (small area of the torus), the quasiclassical expressions reproduce exactly the recently obtained expression for the partition of the completely reduced SYM theory, including the overall numerical factor. This is an evidence that our quasiclassical calculation might be exact.
Racetrack inflation and cosmic strings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brax, P. [CEA-Saclay, Gif sur Yvette (France). CEA/DSM/SPhT, Unite de Recherche Associee au CNRS, Service de Physique Theorique; Bruck, C. van de [Sheffield Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Applied Mathematics; Davis, A.C.; Davis, S.C. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). DAMTP, Centre for Mathematical Sciences; Jeannerot, R. [Instituut-Lorentz for Theoretical Physics, Leiden (Netherlands); Postma, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)]|[Nationaal Inst. voor Kernfysica en Hoge-Energiefysica (NIKHEF), Amsterdam (Netherlands)
2008-05-15
We consider the coupling of racetrack inflation to matter fields as realised in the D3/D7 brane system. In particular, we investigate the possibility of cosmic string formation in this system. We find that string formation before or at the onset of racetrack inflation is possible, but they are then inflated away. Furthermore, string formation at the end of inflation is prevented by the presence of the moduli sector. As a consequence, no strings survive racetrack inflation. (orig.)
String theory in four dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dine, M.
1988-01-01
A representative sample of current ideas about how one might develop a string phenomenology is presented. Some of the obstacles which lie in between string theory and contact with experiment are described. It is hoped that this volume will provide the reader with ways of thinking about string theory in four dimensions and provide tools for asking questions about string theory and ordinary physics. 102 refs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Szklarczyk, Damian; Franceschini, Andrea; Kuhn, Michael
2011-01-01
present an update on the online database resource Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes (STRING); it provides uniquely comprehensive coverage and ease of access to both experimental as well as predicted interaction information. Interactions in STRING are provided with a confidence score...... models, extensive data updates and strongly improved connectivity and integration with third-party resources. Version 9.0 of STRING covers more than 1100 completely sequenced organisms; the resource can be reached at http://string-db.org....
Instability of colliding metastable strings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hiramatsu, Takashi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Yukawa Inst. for Theoretical Physics; Eto, Minoru [Yamagata Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Kamada, Kohei [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Kobayashi, Tatsuo [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Ookouchi, Yutaka [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Kyoto Univ. (Japan). The Hakubi Center for Advanced Research
2013-04-15
We investigate the collision dynamics of two metastable strings which can be viewed as tube-like domain walls with winding numbers interpolating a false vacuum and a true vacuum. We find that depending on the relative angle and speed of two strings, instability of strings increases and the false vacuum is filled out by rapid expansion of the strings or of a remnant of the collision.
Cosmic strings and galaxy formation
Bertschinger, Edmund
1989-01-01
The cosmogonical model proposed by Zel'dovich and Vilenkin (1981), in which superconducting cosmic strings act as seeds for the origin of structure in the universe, is discussed, summarizing the results of recent theoretical investigations. Consideration is given to the formation of cosmic strings, the microscopic structure of strings, gravitational effects, cosmic string evolution, and the formation of galaxies and large-scale structure. Simulation results are presented in graphs, and several outstanding issues are listed and briefly characterized.
Instability of colliding metastable strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hiramatsu, Takashi; Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Ookouchi, Yutaka; Kyoto Univ.
2013-04-01
We investigate the collision dynamics of two metastable strings which can be viewed as tube-like domain walls with winding numbers interpolating a false vacuum and a true vacuum. We find that depending on the relative angle and speed of two strings, instability of strings increases and the false vacuum is filled out by rapid expansion of the strings or of a remnant of the collision.
Racetrack inflation and cosmic strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brax, P.; Postma, M.
2008-05-01
We consider the coupling of racetrack inflation to matter fields as realised in the D3/D7 brane system. In particular, we investigate the possibility of cosmic string formation in this system. We find that string formation before or at the onset of racetrack inflation is possible, but they are then inflated away. Furthermore, string formation at the end of inflation is prevented by the presence of the moduli sector. As a consequence, no strings survive racetrack inflation. (orig.)
On the domain of string perturbation theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Davis, S.
1989-06-01
For a large class of effectively closed surfaces, it is shown that the only divergences in string scattering amplitudes at each order in perturbation theory are those associated with the coincidence of vertex operators and the boundary of moduli space. This class includes all closed surfaces of finite genus, and infinite-genus surfaces which can be uniformized by a group of Schottky type. While the computation is done explicitly for bosonic strings in their ground states, it can also be extended to excited states and to superstrings. The properties of these amplitudes lead to a definition of the domain of perturbation theory as the set of effectively closed surfaces. The implications of the restriction to effectively closed surfaces on the behavior of the perturbation series are discussed. (author). 20 refs, 6 figs
From maximal to minimal supersymmetry in string loop amplitudes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Berg, Marcus; Buchberger, Igor [Department of Physics, Karlstad University,651 88 Karlstad (Sweden); Schlotterer, Oliver [Max-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut,14476 Potsdam (Germany)
2017-04-28
We calculate one-loop string amplitudes of open and closed strings with N=1,2,4 supersymmetry in four and six dimensions, by compactification on Calabi-Yau and K3 orbifolds. In particular, we develop a method to combine contributions from all spin structures for arbitrary number of legs at minimal supersymmetry. Each amplitude is cast into a compact form by reorganizing the kinematic building blocks and casting the worldsheet integrals in a basis. Infrared regularization plays an important role to exhibit the expected factorization limits. We comment on implications for the one-loop string effective action.
String theory and quark confinement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Polyakov, A.M.
1998-01-01
This article is based on a talk given at the ''Strings '97'' conference. It discusses the search for the universality class of confining strings. The key ingredients include the loop equations, the zigzag symmetry, the non-linear renormalization group. Some new tests for the equivalence between gauge fields and strings are proposed. (orig.)
String theory in four dimensions
1988-01-01
``String Theory in Four Dimensions'' contains a representative collection of papers dealing with various aspects of string phenomenology, including compactifications on smooth manifolds and more general conformal field theories. Together with the lucid introduction by M. Dine, this material gives the reader a good working knowledge of our present ideas for connecting string theory to nature.
String necklaces and primordial black holes from type IIB strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lake, Matthew; Thomas, Steve; Ward, John
2009-01-01
We consider a model of static cosmic string loops in type IIB string theory, where the strings wrap cycles within the internal space. The strings are not topologically stabilised, however the presence of a lifting potential traps the windings giving rise to kinky cycloops. We find that PBH formation occurs at early times in a small window, whilst at late times we observe the formation of dark matter relics in the scaling regime. This is in stark contrast to previous predictions based on field theoretic models. We also consider the PBH contribution to the mass density of the universe, and use the experimental data to impose bounds on the string theory parameters.
Dualities in ABJM matrix model from closed string viewpoint
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kiyoshige, Kazuki; Moriyama, Sanefumi [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University,3-3-138 Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan)
2016-11-17
We propose a new formalism to study the ABJM matrix model. Contrary to expressing the fractional brane background with the Wilson loops in the open string formalism, we formulate the Wilson loop expectation value from the viewpoint of the closed string background. With this new formalism, we can prove some duality relations in the matrix model. /includegraphics[scale=0.7]{abstract.eps}.
Real time control of the SSC string magnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Calvo, O.; Flora, R.; MacPherson, M.
1987-01-01
The system described in this paper, called SECAR, was designed to control the excitation of a test string of magnets for the proposed Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) and will be used to upgrade the present Tevatron Excitation, Control and Regulation (TECAR) hardware and software. It resides in a VME orate and is controlled by a 68020/68881 based CPU running the application software under a real time operating system named VRTX
SUPERCOLLIDER: String test success
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1992-01-01
On 14 August at the Superconducting Supercollider (SSC) Laboratory in Ellis County, Texas, the Accelerator Systems String Test (ASST) successfully met its objective by operating a half-cell of five collider dipole magnets, one quadrupole magnet, and two spool pieces at the design current of 6500 amperes
2007-01-01
"How can the nature of basic particles be defined beyond the mechanisms presiding over their creation? Besides the standard model of particle physics - resulting from the postulations of quantum mechanics - contemporary science has pinned its hopes on the totally new unifying notion provided by the highly mathematical string theory."(2 pages)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marco A.C. Kneipp
2016-12-01
Full Text Available We consider a Yang–Mills–Higgs theory with the gauge group SU(3 broken to its center Z3 by two scalar fields in the adjoint representation and obtain new Z3 strings asymptotic configurations with the gauge field and magnetic field in the direction of the step operators.
On exceptional instanton strings
Del Zotto, M.; Lockhart, G.
According to a recent classification of 6d (1, 0) theories within F-theory there are only six “pure” 6d gauge theories which have a UV superconformal fixed point. The corresponding gauge groups are SU(3), SO(8), F4, E6, E7, and E8. These exceptional models have BPS strings which are also instantons
String perturbation theory diverges
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gross, D.J.; Periwal, V.
1988-01-01
We prove that perturbation theory for the bosonic string diverges for arbitrary values of the coupling constant and is not Borel summable. This divergence is independent of the existence of the infinities that occur in the theory due to the presence of tachyons and dilaton tadpoles. We discuss the physical implications of such a divergence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akama, Keiichi
1988-01-01
Starting with the space-time action of the transversally extended string, we derive its world-sheet action, which is that of a gravitational and gauge theory with matter fields on the world-sheet, with additional effects of the second fundamental quantity. (author)
Macroscopic fundamental strings in cosmology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aharonov, Y; Englert, F; Orloff, J
1987-12-24
We show that, when D greater than or equal to 4, theories of closed strings of closed strings in D, non-compact space-time dimensions exhibit a phase transition. The high-temperature phase is characterized by a condensate of arbitrarily long strings with Hausdorff dimension two (area filling curves). We suggest that this stringy phase is the ancestor of the adiabatic era. Fundamental strings could then both drive the inflation and seed, in a way reminiscent of the cosmic string mechanism, the large structures in the universe.
Gravitational effects of global strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aryal, M.; Everett, A.E.
1986-01-01
We have obtained the gravitational field, in the weak-field approximation, of cosmic strings formed in a phase transition in which a global symmetry is broken (global strings). The effect of this field on light rays passing a global string is found, and the resulting formation of double images and production of discontinuities in the microwave background temperature compared with the corresponding results for gauge strings. There are some differences in the case of global strings, reflecting the fact that the space surrounding such strings is not purely conical. However, the differences between gauge and global strings with masses suitable to explain galaxy formation are small, and the task of distinguishing them observationally appears difficult at best
Device for balancing parallel strings
Mashikian, Matthew S.
1985-01-01
A battery plant is described which features magnetic circuit means in association with each of the battery strings in the battery plant for balancing the electrical current flow through the battery strings by equalizing the voltage across each of the battery strings. Each of the magnetic circuit means generally comprises means for sensing the electrical current flow through one of the battery strings, and a saturable reactor having a main winding connected electrically in series with the battery string, a bias winding connected to a source of alternating current and a control winding connected to a variable source of direct current controlled by the sensing means. Each of the battery strings is formed by a plurality of batteries connected electrically in series, and these battery strings are connected electrically in parallel across common bus conductors.
Gusev, Nikolay; Svatovskaya, Larisa; Kucherenko, Alexandr
2018-03-01
The article is devoted to the problem of improving the reliability of monitoring systems for the technical conditions of high-rise buildings. The improvement is based on string sensors with an impulsed excitation method ensuring the maximum signal-to-noise ratio at their output. The influence of the parameters of the monitoring system on the shape of the excitation impulses of the string, and, consequently, on the amplitude of the string vibration of the string converter is also considered in the article. It has been experimentally proved that the parameters of the excitation impulses of the string converters. The article presents the results of the experiments showing the effect of the fronts duration of the excitation impulses on the amplitude of the oscillations of the strings. The influence of the fronts duration of the excitation impulse with the frontal lengths up to 0.5 ms is studied at the excitation impulse duration not exceeding 0.5 times the duration of natural oscillation periods of the string. The experimental data are compared with the theoretical ones and hypotheses explaining their difference are advanced. The article suggests some methods of reducing the influence of the cable-switching equipment system parameters on the amplitude of string oscillations. The possibilities of improving the reliability of the systems developed on the basis of string sensors with an impulsed excitation method and used for monitoring the technical conditions of the high-rise buildings are proposed.
Identification of market trends with string and D2-brane maps
Bartoš, Erik; Pinčák, Richard
2017-08-01
The multidimensional string objects are introduced as a new alternative for an application of string models for time series forecasting in trading on financial markets. The objects are represented by open string with 2-endpoints and D2-brane, which are continuous enhancement of 1-endpoint open string model. We show how new object properties can change the statistics of the predictors, which makes them the candidates for modeling a wide range of time series systems. String angular momentum is proposed as another tool to analyze the stability of currency rates except the historical volatility. To show the reliability of our approach with application of string models for time series forecasting we present the results of real demo simulations for four currency exchange pairs.
Star democracy in open string field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maccaferri, Carlo; Mamone, Davide
2003-01-01
We study three types of star products in Saft: the ghosts, the twisted ghosts and the matter. We find that their Neumann coefficients are related to each other in a compact way which includes the Gross-Jevicki relation between matter and ghost sector: we explicitly show that the same relation, with a minus sign, holds for the twisted and non-twisted ghosts (which are different but define the same solution). In agreement with this, we prove that matter and twisted ghost coefficients just differ by a minus sign. As a consistency check, we also compute the spectrum of the twisted ghost vertices from conformal field theory and, using equality of twisted and reduced slivers, we derive the spectrum of the non twisted ghost star. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Riordan, M. [Stanford University and the University of California, Santa Cruz (United States)]. E-mail: mriordan@ucsc.edu
2007-02-15
In the last few decades, however, physical theory has drifted away from the professional norms advocated by Newton and other enlightenment philosophers. A vast outpouring of hypotheses has occurred under the umbrella of what is widely called string theory. But string theory is not really a 'theory' at all - at least not in the strict sense that scientists generally use the term. It is instead a dense, weedy thicket of hypotheses and conjectures badly in need of pruning. That pruning, however, can come only from observation and experiment, to which string theory (a phrase I will grudgingly continue using) is largely inaccessible. String theory was invented in the 1970s in the wake of the Standard Model of particle physics. Encouraged by the success of gauge theories of the strong, weak and electromagnetic forces, theorists tried to extend similar ideas to energy and distance scales that are orders of magnitude beyond what can be readily observed or measured. The normal, healthy intercourse between theory and experiment - which had led to the Standard Model - has broken down, and fundamental physics now finds itself in a state of crisis. So it is refreshing to hear from a theorist - one who was deeply involved with string theory and championed it in his previous book, Three Roads to Quantum Gravity - that all is not well in this closeted realm. Smolin argues from the outset that viable hypotheses must lead to observable consequences by which they can be tested and judged. String theory by its very nature does not allow for such probing, according to Smolin, and therefore it must be considered as an unprovable conjecture. Towards the end of his book, Smolin suggests other directions fundamental physics can take, particularly in the realm of quantum gravity, to resolve its crisis and reconnect with the observable world. From my perspective, he leans a bit too heavily towards highly speculative ideas such as doubly special relativity, modified Newtonian
Miranda, R P; Fisher, A J; Stella, L; Horsfield, A P
2011-06-28
The solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for systems of interacting electrons is generally a prohibitive task, for which approximate methods are necessary. Popular approaches, such as the time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) approximation and time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT), are essentially single-configurational schemes. TDHF is by construction incapable of fully accounting for the excited character of the electronic states involved in many physical processes of interest; TDDFT, although exact in principle, is limited by the currently available exchange-correlation functionals. On the other hand, multiconfigurational methods, such as the multiconfigurational time-dependent Hartree-Fock (MCTDHF) approach, provide an accurate description of the excited states and can be systematically improved. However, the computational cost becomes prohibitive as the number of degrees of freedom increases, and thus, at present, the MCTDHF method is only practical for few-electron systems. In this work, we propose an alternative approach which effectively establishes a compromise between efficiency and accuracy, by retaining the smallest possible number of configurations that catches the essential features of the electronic wavefunction. Based on a time-dependent variational principle, we derive the MCTDHF working equation for a multiconfigurational expansion with fixed coefficients and specialise to the case of general open-shell states, which are relevant for many physical processes of interest.
Real topological string amplitudes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Narain, K.S. [The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP),Strada Costiera 11, Trieste, 34151 (Italy); Piazzalunga, N. [Simons Center for Geometry and Physics, State University of New York,Stony Brook, NY, 11794-3636 (United States); International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA) and INFN, Sez. di Trieste,via Bonomea 265, Trieste, 34136 (Italy); Tanzini, A. [International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA) and INFN, Sez. di Trieste,via Bonomea 265, Trieste, 34136 (Italy)
2017-03-15
We discuss the physical superstring correlation functions in type I theory (or equivalently type II with orientifold) that compute real topological string amplitudes. We consider the correlator corresponding to holomorphic derivative of the real topological amplitude G{sub χ}, at fixed worldsheet Euler characteristic χ. This corresponds in the low-energy effective action to N=2 Weyl multiplet, appropriately reduced to the orientifold invariant part, and raised to the power g{sup ′}=−χ+1. We show that the physical string correlator gives precisely the holomorphic derivative of topological amplitude. Finally, we apply this method to the standard closed oriented case as well, and prove a similar statement for the topological amplitude F{sub g}.
New Supersymmetric String Compactifications
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kachru, Shamit
2002-11-25
We describe a new class of supersymmetric string compactifications to 4d Minkowski space. These solutions involve type II strings propagating on (orientifolds of) non Calabi-Yau spaces in the presence of background NS and RR fluxes. The simplest examples have descriptions as cosets, generalizing the three-dimensional nilmanifold. They can also be thought of as twisted tori. We derive a formula for the (super)potential governing the light fields, which is generated by the fluxes and certain ''twists'' in the geometry. Detailed consideration of an example also gives strong evidence that in some cases, these exotic geometries are related by smooth transitions to standard Calabi-Yau or G2 compactifications of M-theory.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gross, D.J.
1985-01-01
String theories offer a way of realizing the potential of supersymmetry, Kaluza-Klein and much more. They represent a radical departure from ordinary quantum field theory, but in the direction of increased symmetry and structure. They are based on an enormous increase in the number of degrees of freedom, since in addition to fermionic coordinates and extra dimensions, the basic entities are extended one dimensional objects instead of points. Correspondingly the symmetry group is greatly enlarged, in a way that we are only beginning to comprehend. At the very least this extended symmetry contains the largest group of symmetries that can be contemplated within the framework of point field theories-those of ten-dimensional supergravity and super Yang-Mills theory. Types of string theories and the phenomenology to be expected from them are reviewed
Diaz, Victor Alfonzo; Giusti, Andrea
2018-03-01
The aim of this paper is to present a simple generalization of bosonic string theory in the framework of the theory of fractional variational problems. Specifically, we present a fractional extension of the Polyakov action, for which we compute the general form of the equations of motion and discuss the connection between the new fractional action and a generalization the Nambu-Goto action. Consequently, we analyze the symmetries of the modified Polyakov action and try to fix the gauge, following the classical procedures. Then we solve the equations of motion in a simplified setting. Finally, we present a Hamiltonian description of the classical fractional bosonic string and introduce the fractional light-cone gauge. It is important to remark that, throughout the whole paper, we thoroughly discuss how to recover the known results as an "integer" limit of the presented model.
From fractals to wormholes via string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Felce, A.G.
1992-01-01
The thesis is in two parts. The first part is devoted to a study of the definition of mass for soliton solutions in string theory. In the context of the low-energy effective field theory, there are three distinct quantities from which one can extract the mass of a soliton: the ADM mass, the static action and the kinetic energy. The three corresponding masses are carefully defined and shown to be equal for a representative class of string solitons, the so-called 'black fivebranes'. Along the way a potential confusion in the definition of the action is cleared up, and it is shown that the kinetic energy of a moving soliton is given in terms of a surface integral at spacelike infinity. This result for the kinetic energy is used to motivate a conjecture about the exact value of soliton masses in string theory: That in conformal field theory the kinetic mass is realized as the norm of the (1,1) deformation induced by the collective coordinate. Such deformations are usually treated as unphysical because they appear to be pure gauge and have zero norm. In a soliton conformal field theory, a finite number of these gauge transformations become physical because of a subtlety involving the boundary at spatial infinity. Some proposals for concrete exploration of this phenomenon are discussed. The second part of the thesis concerns the connection between string theory and an important problem in condensed matter physics. It has recently been shown that the dissipative Hofstadter model (dissipative quantum mechanics of an electron subject to uniform magnetic field and periodic potential in two dimensions) exhibit critical behavior on a network of lines in the dissipation/magnetic field plane. Apart from their obvious condensed matter interest, the corresponding critical theories represent non-trivial solutions of open string field theory containing a tachyon and gauge field background. A detailed account of their properties would be interesting from several points of view
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Volovich, I.V.
1987-01-01
The hypothesis of the possible p-adic structure of spacetime is considered. The p-adic Veneziano amplitude is proposed and the main properties of the p-adic string theory are discussed. The analogous questions on the Galois field are also discussed. In this case the Jacobi sum plays the role of the Veneziano amplitude which can be expressed by means of the I-adic cohomology of the Fermat curves. The corresponding vertex operator is given. (author)
The theta-structure in string theories - 1: bosonic strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Miao.
1985-09-01
We explored the theta-structures in bosonic string theories which are similar to those in gauge field theories. The theta-structure of string is due to the multiply connected spatial compact subspace of space-time. The work of this paper shows that there is an energy band E(theta) in the string theory and one may move the tachyon out in theory by choosing some proper theta parameters. (author)
String phase transitions in a strong magnetic field
Ferrara, Sergio; Ferrara, Sergio; Porrati, Massimo
1993-01-01
We consider open strings in an external constant magnetic field $H$. For an (infinite) sequence of critical values of $H$ an increasing number of (highest spin component) states lying on the first Regge trajectory becomes tachyonic. In the limit of infinite $H$ all these states are tachyons (with a common tachyonic mass) both in the case of the bosonic string and for the Neveu-Schwarz sector of the fermionic string. This result generalizes to extended object the same instability which occurs in ordinary non-Abelian gauge theories. The Ramond states have always positive square masses as is the case for ordinary QED. The weak field limit of the mass spectrum is the same as for a field theory with gyromagnetic ratio $g_S=2$ for all charged spin states. This behavior suggests a phase transition of the string as it has been argued for the ordinary electroweak theory.
Connecting the ambitwistor and the sectorized heterotic strings
Azevedo, Thales; Jusinskas, Renann Lipinski
2017-10-01
The sectorized description of the (chiral) heterotic string using pure spinors has been misleadingly viewed as an infinite tension string. One evidence for this fact comes from the tree level 3-point graviton amplitude, which we show to contain the usual Einstein term plus a higher curvature contribution. After reintroducing a dimensionful parameter ℓ in the theory, we demonstrate that the heterotic model is in fact two-fold, depending on the choice of the supersymmetric sector, and that the spectrum also contains one massive (open string like) multiplet. By taking the limit ℓ → ∞, we finally show that the ambitwistor string is recovered, reproducing the unexpected heterotic state in Mason and Skinner's RNS description.
String-theoretic deformation of the Parke-Taylor factor
Mizera, Sebastian; Zhang, Guojun
2017-09-01
Scattering amplitudes in a range of quantum field theories can be computed using the Cachazo-He-Yuan (CHY) formalism. In theories with color ordering, the key ingredient is the so-called Parke-Taylor factor. In this paper we give a fully SL (2 ,C )-covariant definition and study the properties of a new integrand called the "string Parke-Taylor" factor. It has an α' expansion whose leading coefficient is the field-theoretic Parke-Taylor factor. Its main application is that it leads to a CHY formulation of open string tree-level amplitudes. In fact, the definition of the string Parke-Taylor factor was motivated by trying to extend the compact formula for the first α' correction found by He and Zhang, while the main ingredient in its definition is a determinant of a matrix introduced in the context of string theory by Stieberger and Taylor.
Polynomial invariants for torus knots and topological strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Labastida, J.M.F.
2001-01-01
We make a precision test of a recently proposed conjecture relating Chern-Simons gauge theory to topological string theory on the resolution of the conifold. First, we develop a systematic procedure to extract string amplitudes from vacuum expectation values (vevs) of Wilson loops in Chern-Simons gauge theory, and then we evaluate these vevs in arbitrary irreducible representations of SU(N) for torus knots. We find complete agreement with the predictions derived from the target space interpretation of the string amplitudes. We also show that the structure of the free energy of topological open string theory gives further constraints on the Chern-Simons vevs. Our work provides strong evidence towards an interpretation of knot polynomial invariants as generating functions associated to enumerative problems. (orig.)
An invariant string propagator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cohen, A.; Moore, G.; Nelson, P.; Polchinski, J.
1986-01-01
The authors show that the Polyakov path integral is used to define off-shell quantities in string theory. The path integral of Polyakov gives an elegant description of strings and their interactions. However, its use has been limited to obtaining the Koba-Nielsen expressions for S-matrix elements. It is not yet clear what quantities make sense in string theory. This study shows that the path integral can be used to define off-shell quantities as well. In particular it defines a natural n-point function in loop space as the sum of all world surfaces bounded by n specific spacetime curves. The reader is referred for more detail. The report first outlines general evaluation then discusses the additional features added by boundaries. Locally, the three gauge freedoms ξ/sup a/ and δphi can be used to take g/sub ab/ (σ) to the unit matrix. Globally, this is not quite possible. In general the researchers choose a family of fiducial metrics g/sub ab/ (σ,tau), depending on a finite number of Teichmuller parameters tau, and every metric is gauge equivalent to one of these
Thermodynamical string fragmentation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fischer, Nadine [Theoretical Particle Physics, Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund University,Sölvegatan 14A, Lund, SE-223 62 (Sweden); School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University,Wellington Road, Clayton, VIC-3800 (Australia); Sjöstrand, Torbjörn [Theoretical Particle Physics, Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund University,Sölvegatan 14A, Lund, SE-223 62 (Sweden)
2017-01-31
The observation of heavy-ion-like behaviour in pp collisions at the LHC suggests that more physics mechanisms are at play than traditionally assumed. The introduction e.g. of quark-gluon plasma or colour rope formation can describe several of the observations, but as of yet there is no established paradigm. In this article we study a few possible modifications to the Pythia event generator, which describes a wealth of data but fails for a number of recent observations. Firstly, we present a new model for generating the transverse momentum of hadrons during the string fragmentation process, inspired by thermodynamics, where heavier hadrons naturally are suppressed in rate but obtain a higher average transverse momentum. Secondly, close-packing of strings is taken into account by making the temperature or string tension environment-dependent. Thirdly, a simple model for hadron rescattering is added. The effect of these modifications is studied, individually and taken together, and compared with data mainly from the LHC. While some improvements can be noted, it turns out to be nontrivial to obtain effects as big as required, and further work is called for.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aldazabal, G.; Ibanez, L.E.; Uranga, A.M.
1996-01-01
We study in detail the structure of Grand Unified Theories derived as the low-energy limit of orbifold four-dimensional strings. To this aim, new techniques for building level-two symmetric orbifold theories are presented. New classes of GUTs in the context of symmetric orbifolds are then constructed. The method of permutation modding is further explored and SO(10) GUTs with both 45- or 54-plets are obtained. SU(5) models are also found through this method. It is shown that, in the context of symmetric orbifold SO(10) GUTs, only a single GUT Higgs, either a 54 or a 45, can be present and it always resides in an order-two untwisted sector. Very restrictive results also hold in the case of SU(5). General properties and selection rules for string GUTs are described. Some of these selection rules forbid the presence of some particular GUT-Higgs couplings which are sometimes used in SUSY-GUT model building. Some semi-realistic string GUT examples are presented and their properties briefly discussed. (orig.)
Fingerprints in Compressed Strings
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bille, Philip; Cording, Patrick Hagge; Gørtz, Inge Li
2013-01-01
The Karp-Rabin fingerprint of a string is a type of hash value that due to its strong properties has been used in many string algorithms. In this paper we show how to construct a data structure for a string S of size N compressed by a context-free grammar of size n that answers fingerprint queries...... derivative that captures LZ78 compression and its variations) we get O(loglogN) query time. Hence, our data structures has the same time and space complexity as for random access in SLPs. We utilize the fingerprint data structures to solve the longest common extension problem in query time O(logNlogℓ) and O....... That is, given indices i and j, the answer to a query is the fingerprint of the substring S[i,j]. We present the first O(n) space data structures that answer fingerprint queries without decompressing any characters. For Straight Line Programs (SLP) we get O(logN) query time, and for Linear SLPs (an SLP...
How to simulate global cosmic strings with large string tension
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Klaer, Vincent B.; Moore, Guy D., E-mail: vklaer@theorie.ikp.physik.tu-darmstadt.de, E-mail: guy.moore@physik.tu-darmstadt.de [Institut für Kernphysik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstraße 2, Darmstadt, D-64289 Germany (Germany)
2017-10-01
Global string networks may be relevant in axion production in the early Universe, as well as other cosmological scenarios. Such networks contain a large hierarchy of scales between the string core scale and the Hubble scale, ln( f {sub a} / H ) ∼ 70, which influences the network dynamics by giving the strings large tensions T ≅ π f {sub a} {sup 2} ln( f {sub a} / H ). We present a new numerical approach to simulate such global string networks, capturing the tension without an exponentially large lattice.
Massive IIA string theory and Matrix theory compactification
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lowe, David A.; Nastase, Horatiu; Ramgoolam, Sanjaye
2003-01-01
We propose a Matrix theory approach to Romans' massive Type IIA supergravity. It is obtained by applying the procedure of Matrix theory compactifications to Hull's proposal of the massive Type IIA string theory as M-theory on a twisted torus. The resulting Matrix theory is a super-Yang-Mills theory on large N three-branes with a space-dependent noncommutativity parameter, which is also independently derived by a T-duality approach. We give evidence showing that the energies of a class of physical excitations of the super-Yang-Mills theory show the correct symmetry expected from massive Type IIA string theory in a lightcone quantization
Maximal unbordered factors of random strings
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cording, Patrick Hagge; Knudsen, Mathias Bæk Tejs
2016-01-01
A border of a string is a non-empty prefix of the string that is also a suffix of the string, and a string is unbordered if it has no border. Loptev, Kucherov, and Starikovskaya [CPM 2015] conjectured the following: If we pick a string of length n from a fixed alphabet uniformly at random...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schaefer, Mirko
2011-01-01
The main topic of this thesis is the investigation of dynamical properties of coupled Tchebycheff map networks. The results give insights into the chaotic string model and its network generalization from a dynamical point of view. As a first approach, discrete symmetry transformations of the model are studied. These transformations are formulated in a general way in order to be also applicable to similar dynamics on bipartite network structures. The dynamics is studied numerically via Lyapunov measures, spatial correlations, and ergodic properties. It is shown that the zeros of the interaction energy are distinguished only with respect to this specific observable, but not by a more general dynamical principle. The original chaotic string model is defined on a one-dimensional lattice (ring-network) as the underlying network topology. This thesis studies a modification of the model based on the introduction of tunable disorder. The effects of inhomogeneous coupling weights as well as small-world perturbations of the ring-network structure on the interaction energy are discussed. Synchronization properties of the chaotic string model and its network generalization are studied in later chapters of this thesis. The analysis is based on the master stability formalism, which relates the stability of the synchronized state to the spectral properties of the network. Apart from complete synchronization, where the dynamics at all nodes of the network coincide, also two-cluster synchronization on bipartite networks is studied. For both types of synchronization it is shown that depending on the type of coupling the synchronized dynamics can display chaotic as well as periodic or quasi-periodic behaviour. The semi-analytical calculations reveal that the respective synchronized states are often stable for a wide range of coupling values even for the ring-network, although the respective basins of attraction may inhabit only a small fraction of the phase space. To provide
Quantum backreaction in string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Evnin, O.
2012-01-01
There are situations in string theory when a finite number of string quanta induce a significant backreaction upon the background and render the perturbation theory infrared-divergent. The simplest example is D0-brane recoil under an impact by closed strings. A more physically interesting case is backreaction on the evolution of a totally compact universe due to closed string gas. Such situations necessitate qualitative amendments to the traditional formulation of string theory in a fixed classical background. In this contribution to the proceedings of the XVII European Workshop on String Theory in Padua, I review solved problems and current investigations in relation to this kind of quantum backreaction effects. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Fast Searching in Packed Strings
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bille, Philip
2009-01-01
Given strings P and Q the (exact) string matching problem is to find all positions of substrings in Q matching P. The classical Knuth-Morris-Pratt algorithm [SIAM J. Comput., 1977] solves the string matching problem in linear time which is optimal if we can only read one character at the time....... However, most strings are stored in a computer in a packed representation with several characters in a single word, giving us the opportunity to read multiple characters simultaneously. In this paper we study the worst-case complexity of string matching on strings given in packed representation. Let m...... word-RAM with logarithmic word size we present an algorithm using time O(n/log(sigma) n + m + occ) Here occ is the number of occurrences of P in Q. For m = o(n) this improves the O(n) bound...
Regularized strings with extrinsic curvature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ambjoern, J.; Durhuus, B.
1987-07-01
We analyze models of discretized string theories, where the path integral over world sheet variables is regularized by summing over triangulated surfaces. The inclusion of curvature in the action is a necessity for the scaling of the string tension. We discuss the physical properties of models with extrinsic curvature terms in the action and show that the string tension vanishes at the critical point where the bare extrinsic curvature coupling tends to infinity. Similar results are derived for models with intrinsic curvature. (orig.)
Classical theory of radiating strings
Copeland, Edmund J.; Haws, D.; Hindmarsh, M.
1990-01-01
The divergent part of the self force of a radiating string coupled to gravity, an antisymmetric tensor and a dilaton in four dimensions are calculated to first order in classical perturbation theory. While this divergence can be absorbed into a renormalization of the string tension, demanding that both it and the divergence in the energy momentum tensor vanish forces the string to have the couplings of compactified N = 1 D = 10 supergravity. In effect, supersymmetry cures the classical infinities.
Cosmic string induced CMB maps
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Landriau, M.; Shellard, E. P. S.
2011-01-01
We compute maps of CMB temperature fluctuations seeded by cosmic strings using high resolution simulations of cosmic strings in a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe. We create full-sky, 18 deg. and 3 deg. CMB maps, including the relevant string contribution at each resolution from before recombination to today. We extract the angular power spectrum from these maps, demonstrating the importance of recombination effects. We briefly discuss the probability density function of the pixel temperatures, their skewness, and kurtosis.
Introduction to strings and superstrings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Traubenberg, M.R. de.
1988-01-01
We discuss the main features on the formulation of string theory that, in a primitive level, describe the hadronic phenomenon of duality. We also study an extension of the models of closed and strings with spin. Then, by using supersymmetry, it is formulated the theory of superstrings and heterotic strings with the aim of unify the fundamental interactions and matter. (M.W.O.) [pt
Experimenting with string musical instruments
LoPresto, Michael C.
2012-03-01
What follows are several investigations involving string musical instruments developed for and used in a Science of Sound & Light course. The experiments make use of a guitar, orchestral string instruments and data collection and graphing software. They are designed to provide students with concrete examples of how mathematical formulae, when used in physics, represent reality that can actually be observed, in this case, the operation of string musical instruments.
String breaking with Wilson loops?
Kratochvila, S; Kratochvila, Slavo; Forcrand, Philippe de
2003-01-01
A convincing, uncontroversial observation of string breaking, when the static potential is extracted from Wilson loops only, is still missing. This failure can be understood if the overlap of the Wilson loop with the broken string is exponentially small. In that case, the broken string ground state will only be seen if the Wilson loop is long enough. Our preliminary results show string breaking in the context of the 3d SU(2) adjoint static potential, using the L\\"uscher-Weisz exponential variance reduction approach. As a by-product, we measure the fundamental SU(2) static potential with improved accuracy and see clear deviations from Casimir scaling.
Schomerus, Volker
2017-01-01
Since its conception in the 1960s, string theory has been hailed as one of the most promising routes we have to unify quantum mechanics and general relativity. This book provides a concise introduction to string theory explaining central concepts, mathematical tools and covering recent developments in physics including compactifications and gauge/string dualities. With string theory being a multidisciplinary field interfacing with high energy physics, mathematics and quantum field theory, this book is ideal for both students with no previous knowledge of the field and scholars from other disciplines who are looking for an introduction to basic concepts.
Haouzi, Nathan; Kozçaz, Can
2017-01-01
Starting from type IIB string theory on an $ADE$ singularity, the (2,0) little string arises when one takes the string coupling $g_s$ to 0. In this setup, we give a unified description of the codimension-two defects of the little string, for any simple Lie algebra ${\\mathfrak{g}}$. Geometrically, these are D5 branes wrapping 2-cycles of the singularity. Equivalently, the defects are specified by a certain set of weights of $^L {\\mathfrak{g}}$, the Langlands dual of ${\\mathfrak{g}}$. As a firs...
Kiritsis, Elias
2007-01-01
This book is the essential new introduction to modern string theory, by one of the world's authorities on the subject. Concise, clearly presented, and up-to-date, String Theory in a Nutshell brings together the best understood and most important aspects of a theory that has been evolving since the early 1980s. A core model of physics that substitutes one-dimensional extended ""strings"" for zero-dimensional point-like particles (as in quantum field theory), string theory has been the leading candidate for a theory that would successfully unify all fundamental forces of nature, includin
Splitting strings on integrable backgrounds
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vicedo, Benoit
2011-05-15
We use integrability to construct the general classical splitting string solution on R x S{sup 3}. Namely, given any incoming string solution satisfying a necessary self-intersection property at some given instant in time, we use the integrability of the worldsheet {sigma}-model to construct the pair of outgoing strings resulting from a split. The solution for each outgoing string is expressed recursively through a sequence of dressing transformations, the parameters of which are determined by the solutions to Birkhoff factorization problems in an appropriate real form of the loop group of SL{sub 2}(C). (orig.)
Free-fermion descriptions of parafermion chains and string-net models
Meichanetzidis, Konstantinos; Turner, Christopher J.; Farjami, Ashk; Papić, Zlatko; Pachos, Jiannis K.
2018-03-01
Topological phases of matter remain a focus of interest due to their unique properties: fractionalization, ground-state degeneracy, and exotic excitations. While some of these properties can occur in systems of free fermions, their emergence is generally associated with interactions between particles. Here, we quantify the role of interactions in general classes of topological states of matter in one and two spatial dimensions, including parafermion chains and string-net models. Surprisingly, we find that certain topological states can be exactly described by free fermions, while others saturate the maximum possible distance from their optimal free-fermion description [C. J. Turner et al., Nat. Commun. 8, 14926 (2017), 10.1038/ncomms14926]. Our work opens the door to understanding the complexity of topological models by establishing new types of fermionization procedures to describe their low-energy physics, thus making them amenable to experimental realizations.
Strings and superstrings. Electron linear colliders
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alessandrini, V.; Bambade, P.; Binetruy, P.; Kounnas, C.; Le Duff, J.; Schwimmer, A.
1989-01-01
Basic string theory; strings in interaction; construction of strings and superstrings in arbitrary space-time dimensions; compactification and phenomenology; linear e+e- colliders; and the Stanford linear collider were discussed [fr
The volume conjecture, perturbative knot invariants, and recursion relations for topological strings
Dijkgraaf, R.; Fuji, H.; Manabe, M.
2011-01-01
We study the relation between perturbative knot invariants and the free energies defined by topological string theory on the character variety of the knot. Such a correspondence between SL(2;C) Chern-Simons gauge theory and the topological open string theory was proposed earlier on the basis of the
On the symmetry algebra of the discrete states in d<2 closed string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Panda, S.; Roy, S.
1993-01-01
The symmetry charges associated with the Lian-Zuckerman states for d<2 closed string theory are constructed. Unlike in the open string case, it is shown here that the symmetry charges commute among themselves and act trivially on all the physical states. (author). 19 refs
Strings, Branes and Symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Westerberg, A.
1997-01-01
Recent dramatic progress in the understanding of the non-perturbative structure of superstring theory shows that extended objects of various kinds, collectively referred to as p-branes, are an integral part of the theory. In this thesis, comprising an introductory text and seven appended research papers, we study various aspects of p-branes with relevance for superstring theory. The first part of the introductory text is a brief review of string theory focussing on the role of p-branes. In particular, we consider the so-called D-branes which currently are attracting a considerable amount of attention. The purpose of this part is mainly to put into context the results of paper 4, 5 and 6 concerning action functionals describing the low-energy dynamics of D-branes. The discussion of perturbative string theory given in this part of the introduction is also intended to provide some background to paper 2 which contains an application of the Reggeon-sewing approach to the construction of string vertices. The second part covers a rather different subject, namely higher-dimensional loop algebras and their cohomology, with the aim of facilitating the reading of papers 1, 3 and 7. The relation to p-branes is to be found in paper 1 where we introduce a certain higher-dimensional generalization of the loop algebra and discuss its potential applicability as a symmetry algebra for p-branes. Papers 3 and 7 are mathematically oriented out-growths of this paper addressing the issue of realizing algebras of this kind, known in physics as current algebras, in terms of pseudo differential operators (PSDOs). The main result of paper 3 is a proof of the equivalence between certain Lie-algebra cocycles on the space of second-quantizable PSDOs
Gorbatov, Elie
In the first part of the dissertation we study noncommutative field theories at finite temperature. We find evidence for winding states and observe the existence of a transition to a new phase where there is a reduction of the degrees of freedom in the non-planar sector of the theory. We emphasize that such a transition is generic and insensitive to the particulars of the UV definition of the theory. In the second part we investigate some aspects of M-theory compactifications on orbifolds. The heterotic E8 x E 8 string compactified on T4/ ZN has gauge group G x G˜ with massless states in the twisted sector charged under both factors. In the dual M-theory description on T4/ ZN x S1/Z 2 the two groups do not communicate with each other since they reside on the boundary of the eleven dimensional spacetime. This leads to a conundrum for the twisted states of the perturbative heterotic string for there does not seem to be local degrees of freedom which carry charges under both G and G˜. We propose a resolution of this apparent paradox by nonperturbative states in M-theory. In support of our argument we review the consideration of six-dimensional gauge couplings and verify the local anomaly cancellation. In order to understand the dynamical properties of these states we deform the orbifold geometry, find an equivalent string theory background, and brane engineer the low energy six-dimensional field theories. In the process we encounter many exotic and surprising phenomena which are intrinsically M-theoretic and completely invisible to the perturbative observer.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Siciliano, E.R.
1998-05-12
Data and supporting documentation were compiled and analyzed for 26 cases of gas grab samples taken during waste-tank core sampling activities between September 1, 1995 and December 31, 1997. These cases were tested against specific criteria to reduce uncertainties associated with in-tank sampling location and conditions. Of the 26 possible cases, 16 qualified as drill-string grab samples most likely to represent recently released waste gases. The data from these 16 ``confirmed`` cases were adjusted to remove non-waste gas contributions from core-sampling activities (argon or nitrogen purge), the atmospheric background, and laboratory sampler preparation (helium). The procedure for subtracting atmospheric, laboratory, and argon purge gases was unambiguous. No reliable method for determining the exact amount of nitrogen purge gas was established. Thus, the final set of ``Adjusted`` drill string gas data for the 6 nitrogen-purged cases had a greater degree of uncertainty than the final results for the 10 argon-purged cases. Including the appropriate amounts of uncertainty, this final set of data was added to the set of high-quality results from the Retained Gas Sampler (RGS), and good agreement was found for the N{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and N{sub 2}O mole fractions sampled from common tanks. These results indicate that under favorable sampling conditions, Drill-String (DS) grab samples can provide reasonably accurate information about the dominant species of released gas. One conclusion from this set of total gas data is that the distribution of the H{sub 2} mole fractions is bimodal in shape, with an upper bound of 78%.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Amin Boumenir
2008-07-01
Full Text Available We investigate the existence and representation of transmutations, also known as transformation operators, for strings. Using measure theory and functional analytic methods we prove their existence and study their representation. We show that in general they are not close to unity since their representation does not involve a Volterra operator but rather the eigenvalue parameter. We also obtain conditions under which the transmutation is either a bounded or a compact operator. Explicit examples show that they cannot be reduced to Volterra type operators.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kachru, Shamit; McAllister, Liam; Sundrum, Raman
2007-01-01
We study sequestering, a prerequisite for flavor-blind supersymmetry breaking in several high-scale mediation mechanisms, in compactifications of type IIB string theory. We find that although sequestering is typically absent in unwarped backgrounds, strongly warped compactifications do readily sequester. The AdS/CFT dual description in terms of conformal sequestering plays an important role in our analysis, and we establish how sequestering works both on the gravity side and on the gauge theory side. We pay special attention to subtle compactification effects that can disrupt sequestering. Our result is a step toward realizing an appealing pattern of soft terms in a KKLT compactification
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shakhobalov, A B; Galiopa, A A; Ponomarev, G V; Ushakov, A M
1981-04-28
A drilling string lifter is suggested which includes a rotating tower installed on a fixed base, hydraulic cylinder and pipe-clamping assembly connected through a chain gear to the drive motor. In order to simplify the design of the hydraulic lifter, the drive motor is installed on a fixed base so that the axis of the outlet shaft of the drive motor coincides with the axis of rotation of the tower. In addition, the axis of rotation of the tower is made in the form of a tubular element, and the outlet shaft of the drive motor is ranged between the tubular element.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ip, A.K.; Koyanagi, K.; Tarasuk, W.R.
1976-01-01
A method of fabricating rodded fuels suitable for use in pressure tube type reactors and in pressure vessel type reactors is described. Fuel rods are secured as an inner and an outer sub-assembly, each rod attached between mounting rings secured to the rod ends. The two sub-assemblies are telescoped together and positioned by spaced thimbles located between them to provide precise positioning while permittng differential axial movement between the sub-assemblies. Such sub-assemblies are particularly suited for mounting as bundle strings. The method provides particular advantages in the assembly of annular-section fuel pins, which includes booster fuel containing enriched fuel material. (LL)
Anatomy of zero-norm states in string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chan, C.-T.; Lee, J.-C.; Yi Yang
2005-01-01
We calculate and identify the counterparts of zero-norm states in the old covariant first quantized (OCFQ) spectrum of open bosonic string in two other quantization schemes of string theory, namely, the light-cone Del Giudice-Di Vecchia-Fubine zero-norm states and the off-shell Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) zero-norm states (with ghost) in the Witten string field theory (WSFT). In particular, special attention is paid to the interparticle zero-norm states in all quantization schemes. For the case of the off-shell BRST zero-norm states, we impose the no-ghost conditions and recover exactly two types of on-shell zero-norm states in the OCFQ string spectrum for the first few low-lying mass levels. We then show that off-shell gauge transformations of WSFT are identical to the on-shell stringy gauge symmetries generated by two types of zero-norm states in the generalized massive σ-model approach of string theory. The high-energy limit of these stringy gauge symmetries was recently used to calculate the proportionality constants, conjectured by Gross, among high-energy scattering amplitudes of different string states. Based on these zero-norm state calculations, we have thus related gauge symmetry of WSFT to the high-energy stringy symmetry of Gross
Physics is in trouble, the string theory has failed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smolin, L.
2007-01-01
The popularity of the string theory is based on its claim to explain both the very big and the very small: gravity and elementary particles. The string theory assumes that the real world contains dimensions that have not yet been observed and that any elementary particle is a vibration of a unique entity called string that obeys simple and elegant laws. Most theoretical physicists and mathematicians have focused their attention on this theory for the last 25 years and the diagnosis is clear: string theory fails to cope with the standard model and to explain the existence of dark matter or the mass of neutrinos. The string theory is hailed for its beauty or elegancy but this theory has never been backed by experimental data. While science has made significant progress in numerous domains, particle physics seems to have reached a dead-end. It is high time we officially questioned the string theory and opened the gate for alternative theories. (A.C.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dyer, C C; Oattes, L M; Starkman, G D
1988-01-01
The authors find that vacuum string solutions cannot be embedded in an FRW model in the spirit of the swiss cheese model for inhomogeneities. Since all standard lensing calculations rely implicitly on the Swiss Cheese model, this result indicates that the previous lensing results for the vacuum string may be in error.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iyer, Ramakrishnan; Johnson, Clifford V; Pennington, Jeffrey S
2011-01-01
We uncover a remarkable role that an infinite hierarchy of nonlinear differential equations plays in organizing and connecting certain c-hat <1 string theories non-perturbatively. We are able to embed the type 0A and 0B (A, A) minimal string theories into this single framework. The string theories arise as special limits of a rich system of equations underpinned by an integrable system known as the dispersive water wave hierarchy. We observe that there are several other string-like limits of the system, and conjecture that some of them are type IIA and IIB (A, D) minimal string backgrounds. We explain how these and several string-like special points arise and are connected. In some cases, the framework endows the theories with a non-perturbative definition for the first time. Notably, we discover that the Painleve IV equation plays a key role in organizing the string theory physics, joining its siblings, Painleve I and II, whose roles have previously been identified in this minimal string context.
2001-01-01
String 2 is a series of superconducting magnets that are prototypes of those which will be installed in the LHC. It was cooled down to 1.9 Kelvin on September 14th. On Thursday last week, the dipoles of String 2 were successfully taken to nominal current, 11850 A.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mandelstam, S.
1986-06-01
Work on the derivation of an explicit perturbation series for string and superstring amplitudes is reviewed. The light-cone approach is emphasized, but some work on the Polyakov approach is also mentioned, and the two methods are compared. The calculation of the measure factor is outlined in the interacting-string picture
String-localized quantum fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mund, Jens; Santos, Jose Amancio dos; Silva, Cristhiano Duarte; Oliveira, Erichardson de
2009-01-01
Full text. The principles of physics admit (unobservable) quantum fields which are localized not on points, but on strings in the sense of Mandelstam: a string emanates from a point in Minkowski space and extends to infinity in some space-like direction. This type of localization might permit the construction of new models, for various reasons: (a) in general, weaker localization implies better UV behaviour. Therefore, the class of renormalizable interactions in the string-localized has a chance to be larger than in the point-localized case; (b) for certain particle types, there are no point-localized (free) quantum fields - for example Anyons in d = 2 + 1, and Wigner's massless 'infinite spin' particles. For the latter, free string-localized quantum fields have been constructed; (c) in contrast to the point-localized case, string-localization admits covariant vector/tensor potentials for fotons and gravitons in a Hilbert space representation with positive energy. We shall present free string-localized quantum fields for various particle types, and some ideas about the perturbative construction of interacting string-localized fields. A central point will be an analogue of gauge theories, completely within a Hilbert space and without ghosts, trading gauge dependence with dependence on the direction of the localization string. In order to discuss renormalizability (item (a)), methods from microlocal analysis (wave front set and scaling degree) are needed. (author)
Schaffer, Karl
2012-01-01
The use of traditional string figures by the Dr. Schaffer and Mr. Stern Dance Ensemble led to experimentation with polyhedral string constructions. This article presents a series of polyhedra made with six loops of three colors which sequence through all the Platonic Solids.
Symmetry breaking in string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Potting, R.
1998-01-01
A mechanism for a spontaneous breakdown of CPT symmetry appears in string theory, with possible implications for particle models. A realistic string theory might exhibit CPT violation at levels detectable in current or future experiments. A possible new mechanism for baryogenesis in the early Universe is also discussed
Ng, Chiu-king
2010-01-01
When one end of a taut horizontal elastic string is shaken repeatedly up and down, a transverse wave (assume sine waveform) will be produced and travel along it. College students know this type of wave motion well. They know when the wave passes by, each element of the string will perform an oscillating up-down motion, which in mechanics is termed…
String theory : physics or metaphysics?
Veneziano, Gabriele
2010-01-01
I will give arguments for why the enormous progress made during the last century on understanding elementary particles and their fundamental interactions suggests strings as the truly elementary constituents of Nature. I will then address the issue of whether the string paradigm can in principle be falsified or whether it should be considered as mere metaphysics.
Towards optimal packed string matching
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ben-Kiki, Oren; Bille, Philip; Breslauer, Dany
2014-01-01
-size string-matching instruction wssm is available in contemporary commodity processors. The other word-size maximum-suffix instruction wslm is only required during the pattern pre-processing. Benchmarks show that our solution can be efficiently implemented, unlike some prior theoretical packed string...
Experimenting with String Musical Instruments
LoPresto, Michael C.
2012-01-01
What follows are several investigations involving string musical instruments developed for and used in a "Science of Sound & Light" course. The experiments make use of a guitar, orchestral string instruments and data collection and graphing software. They are designed to provide students with concrete examples of how mathematical formulae, when…
Progress in string theory research
2016-01-01
At the first look, the String Theory seems just an interesting and non-trivial application of the quantum mechanics and the special relativity to vibrating strings. By itself, the quantization of relativistic strings does not call the attention of the particle physicist as a significant paradigm shift. However, when the string quantization is performed by applying the standard rules of the perturbative Quantum Field Theory, one discovers that the strings in certain states have the same physical properties as the gravity in the flat space-time. Chapter one of this book reviews the construction of the thermal bosonic string and D-brane in the framework of the Thermo Field Dynamics (TFD). It briefly recalls the wellknown light-cone quantization of the bosonic string in the conformal gauge in flat space-time, and gives a bird’s eye view of the fundamental concepts of the TFD. Chapter two examines a visual model inspired by string theory, on the system of interacting anyons. Chapter three investigate the late-ti...
Gauge invariance of string fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Banks, T.; Peskin, M.E.
1985-10-01
Some work done to understand the appearance of gauge bosons and gravitons in string theories is reported. An action has been constructed for free (bosonic) string field theory which is invariant under an infinite set of gauge transformations which include Yang-Mills transformations and general coordinate transformations as special cases. 15 refs., 1 tab
Generalized string theory mapping relations between gravity and gauge theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bjerrum-Bohr, N.E.J.
2003-01-01
A previous study of the Kawai, Lewellen and Tye (KLT) relations between gravity and gauge theories, imposed by the relationship of closed and open strings, are here extended in the light of general relativity and Yang-Mills theory as effective field theories. We discuss the possibility of generalizing the traditional KLT mapping in this effective setting. A generalized mapping between the effective Lagrangians of gravity and Yang-Mills theory is presented, and the corresponding operator relations between gauge and gravity theories at the tree level are further explored. From this generalized mapping remarkable diagrammatic relations are found, linking diagrams in gravity and Yang-Mills theory, as well as diagrams in pure effective Yang-Mills theory. Also the possibility of a gravitational coupling to an antisymmetric field in the gravity scattering amplitude is considered, and shown to allow for mixed open-closed string solutions, i.e., closed heterotic strings
String dualities and superpotential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ha, Tae-Won
2010-09-01
The main objective of this thesis is the computation of the superpotential induced by D5- branes in the type IIB string theory and by five-branes in the heterotic string theory. Both superpotentials have the same functional form which is the chain integral of the holomorphic three-form. Using relative (co)homology we can unify the flux and brane superpotential. The chain integral can be seen as an example of the Abel-Jacobi map. We discuss many structures such as mixed Hodge structure which allows for the computation of Picard-Fuchs differential equations crucial for explicit computations. We blow up the Calabi-Yau threefold along the submanifold wrapped by the brane to obtain geometrically more appropriate configuration. The resulting geometry is non-Calabi-Yau and we have a canonically given divisor. This blown-up geometry makes it possible to restrict our attention to complex structure deformations. However, the direct computation is yet very difficult, thus the main tool for computation will be the lift of the brane configuration to a F-theory compactification. In F-theory, since complex structure, brane and, if present, bundlemoduli are all contained in the complex structure moduli space of the elliptic Calabi-Yau fourfold, the computation can be dramatically simplified. The heterotic/F-theory duality is extended to include the blow-up geometry and thereby used to give the blow-up geometry amore physical meaning. (orig.)
String dualities and superpotential
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ha, Tae-Won
2010-09-15
The main objective of this thesis is the computation of the superpotential induced by D5- branes in the type IIB string theory and by five-branes in the heterotic string theory. Both superpotentials have the same functional form which is the chain integral of the holomorphic three-form. Using relative (co)homology we can unify the flux and brane superpotential. The chain integral can be seen as an example of the Abel-Jacobi map. We discuss many structures such as mixed Hodge structure which allows for the computation of Picard-Fuchs differential equations crucial for explicit computations. We blow up the Calabi-Yau threefold along the submanifold wrapped by the brane to obtain geometrically more appropriate configuration. The resulting geometry is non-Calabi-Yau and we have a canonically given divisor. This blown-up geometry makes it possible to restrict our attention to complex structure deformations. However, the direct computation is yet very difficult, thus the main tool for computation will be the lift of the brane configuration to a F-theory compactification. In F-theory, since complex structure, brane and, if present, bundlemoduli are all contained in the complex structure moduli space of the elliptic Calabi-Yau fourfold, the computation can be dramatically simplified. The heterotic/F-theory duality is extended to include the blow-up geometry and thereby used to give the blow-up geometry amore physical meaning. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anchordoqui, Luis; Nawata, Satoshi; Goldberg, Haim; Nunez, Carlos
2007-01-01
We explore the cosmological content of Salam-Sezgin six-dimensional supergravity, and find a solution to the field equations in qualitative agreement with observation of distant supernovae, primordial nucleosynthesis abundances, and recent measurements of the cosmic microwave background. The carrier of the acceleration in the present de Sitter epoch is a quintessence field slowly rolling down its exponential potential. Intrinsic to this model is a second modulus which is automatically stabilized and acts as a source of cold dark matter, with a mass proportional to an exponential function of the quintessence field (hence realizing varying mass particle models within a string context). However, any attempt to saturate the present cold dark matter component in this manner leads to unacceptable deviations from cosmological data--a numerical study reveals that this source can account for up to about 7% of the total cold dark matter budget. We also show that (1) the model will support a de Sitter energy in agreement with observation at the expense of a miniscule breaking of supersymmetry in the compact space; (2) variations in the fine structure constant are controlled by the stabilized modulus and are negligible; (3) ''fifth'' forces are carried by the stabilized modulus and are short range; (4) the long time behavior of the model in four dimensions is that of a Robertson-Walker universe with a constant expansion rate (w=-1/3). Finally, we present a string theory background by lifting our six-dimensional cosmological solution to ten dimensions
Poisson hierarchy of discrete strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ioannidou, Theodora; Niemi, Antti J.
2016-01-01
The Poisson geometry of a discrete string in three dimensional Euclidean space is investigated. For this the Frenet frames are converted into a spinorial representation, the discrete spinor Frenet equation is interpreted in terms of a transfer matrix formalism, and Poisson brackets are introduced in terms of the spinor components. The construction is then generalised, in a self-similar manner, into an infinite hierarchy of Poisson algebras. As an example, the classical Virasoro (Witt) algebra that determines reparametrisation diffeomorphism along a continuous string, is identified as a particular sub-algebra, in the hierarchy of the discrete string Poisson algebra. - Highlights: • Witt (classical Virasoro) algebra is derived in the case of discrete string. • Infinite dimensional hierarchy of Poisson bracket algebras is constructed for discrete strings. • Spinor representation of discrete Frenet equations is developed.
Strings, conformal fields and topology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaku, Michio
1991-01-01
String Theory has advanced at an astonishing pace in the last few years, and this book aims to acquaint the reader with the most active topics of research in the field. Building on the foundations laid in his Introduction to Superstrings, Professor Kaku discusses such topics as the classification of conformal string theories, knot theory, the Yang-Baxter relation, quantum groups, the non-polynominal closed string field theory, matrix models, and topological field theory. Several chapters review the fundamentals of string theory, making the presentation of the material self-contained while keeping overlap with the earlier book to a minimum. The book conveys the vitality of current research in string theory and places readers at its forefront. (orig.) With 40 figs. in 50 parts
Poisson hierarchy of discrete strings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ioannidou, Theodora, E-mail: ti3@auth.gr [Faculty of Civil Engineering, School of Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54249, Thessaloniki (Greece); Niemi, Antti J., E-mail: Antti.Niemi@physics.uu.se [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 803, S-75108, Uppsala (Sweden); Laboratoire de Mathematiques et Physique Theorique CNRS UMR 6083, Fédération Denis Poisson, Université de Tours, Parc de Grandmont, F37200, Tours (France); Department of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Haidian District, Beijing 100081 (China)
2016-01-28
The Poisson geometry of a discrete string in three dimensional Euclidean space is investigated. For this the Frenet frames are converted into a spinorial representation, the discrete spinor Frenet equation is interpreted in terms of a transfer matrix formalism, and Poisson brackets are introduced in terms of the spinor components. The construction is then generalised, in a self-similar manner, into an infinite hierarchy of Poisson algebras. As an example, the classical Virasoro (Witt) algebra that determines reparametrisation diffeomorphism along a continuous string, is identified as a particular sub-algebra, in the hierarchy of the discrete string Poisson algebra. - Highlights: • Witt (classical Virasoro) algebra is derived in the case of discrete string. • Infinite dimensional hierarchy of Poisson bracket algebras is constructed for discrete strings. • Spinor representation of discrete Frenet equations is developed.
CERN. Geneva
2002-01-01
A theory with such mathematical beauty cannot be wrong: this is one of the main arguments in favour of string theory, which unifies all known physical theories of fundamental interactions in a single coherent description of the universe. But no one has ever observed strings, not even indirectly, nor the space of extra dimensions where they live. However there are good reasons to believe that the 'hidden' dimensions of string theory may be much larger than what we thought in the past and that they may be within experimental reach in the near future - together with the strings themselves. In my talk, I will give an elementary introduction of string theory and describe the main experimental predictions.Organiser(s): Jasper Kirkby / EP DivisionNote: Tea & coffee will be served at 16.00 hrs.
Exceptional Colloquium: The Rise, Fall, and Rebirth of Cosmic Strings
CERN. Geneva; Treille, D; Alvarez-Gaumé, Luís
2005-01-01
In the 1980s many people were excited by the concept that cosmic strings, as relics of the Grand Unified Era, could be responsible for the formation of cosmic structure. In the 1990s the cosmic string concept steadily lost ground to the Inflationary model both as a result of the difficulty of calculations and more definitively through observations of the CMB. About the time many expected the new WMAP data to deliver the coup de grace, the concepts of cosmic strings as major physical phenomena (not so important in structure formation) has begun a renaissance. This new interest is motivated by one of the original ideas that topological defects are inevitable in symmetry breaking by the Kibble (1976) mechanism and the introduction of new ideas such as brane-cosmology/inflation and the realization that cosmic strings may be the only acceptable such defect. We find ourselves back in the business of trying to detect or limit and understand cosmic strings once again for the insight and constraints they put on partic...
Exceptional Colloquium: The Rise, Fall, and Rebirth of Cosmic Strings
CERN. Geneva
2005-01-01
In the 1980s many people were excited by the concept that cosmic strings, as relics of the Grand Unified Era, could be responsible for the formation of cosmic structure. In the 1990s the cosmic string concept steadily lost ground to the Inflationary model both as a result of the difficulty of calculations and more definitively through observations of the CMB. About the time many expected the new WMAP data to deliver the coup de grace, the concepts of cosmic strings as major physical phenomena (not so important in structure formation) has begun a renaissance. This new interest is motivated by one of the original ideas that topological defects are inevitable in symmetry breaking by the Kibble (1976) mechanism and the introduction of new ideas such as brane-cosmology/inflation and the realization that cosmic strings may be the only acceptable such defect. We find ourselves back in the business of trying to detect or limit and understand cosmic strings once again for the insight and constraints they put on p...
A string theory which isn't about strings
Lee, Kanghoon; Rey, Soo-Jong; Rosabal, J. A.
2017-11-01
Quantization of closed string proceeds with a suitable choice of worldsheet vacuum. A priori, the vacuum may be chosen independently for left-moving and right-moving sectors. We construct ab initio quantized bosonic string theory with left-right asymmetric worldsheet vacuum and explore its consequences and implications. We critically examine the validity of new vacuum and carry out first-quantization using standard operator formalism. Remarkably, the string spectrum consists only of a finite number of degrees of freedom: string gravity (massless spin-two, Kalb-Ramond and dilaton fields) and two massive spin-two Fierz-Pauli fields. The massive spin-two fields have negative norm, opposite mass-squared, and provides a Lee-Wick type extension of string gravity. We compute two physical observables: tree-level scattering amplitudes and one-loop cosmological constant. Scattering amplitude of four dilatons is shown to be a rational function of kinematic invariants, and in D = 26 factorizes into contributions of massless spin-two and a pair of massive spin-two fields. The string one loop partition function is shown to perfectly agree with one loop Feynman diagram of string gravity and two massive spin-two fields. In particular, it does not exhibit modular invariance. We critically compare our construction with recent studies and contrast differences.
Conformal techniques in string theory and string field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Giddings, S.B.
1987-01-01
The application of some conformal and Riemann surface techniques to string theory and string field theory is described. First a brief review of Riemann surface techniques and of the Polyakov approach to string theory is presented. This is followed by a discussion of some features of string field theory and of its Feynman rules. Specifically, it is shown that the Feynman diagrams for Witten's string field theory respect modular invariance, and in particular give a triangulation of moduli space. The Polyakov formalism is then used to derive the Feynman rules that should follow from this theory upon gauge-fixing. It should also be possible to apply this derivation to deduce the Feynman rules for other gauge-fixed string field theories. Following this, Riemann surface techniques are turned to the problem of proving the equivalence of the Polyakov and light-cone formalisms. It is first shown that the light-cone diagrams triangulate moduli space. Then the Polyakov measure is worked out for these diagrams, and shown to equal that deduced from the light-cone gauge fixed formalism. Also presented is a short description of the comparison of physical states in the two formalisms. The equivalence of the two formalisms in particular constitutes a proof of the unitarity of the Polyakov framework for the closed bosonic string
A matrix model from string field theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Syoji Zeze
2016-09-01
Full Text Available We demonstrate that a Hermitian matrix model can be derived from level truncated open string field theory with Chan-Paton factors. The Hermitian matrix is coupled with a scalar and U(N vectors which are responsible for the D-brane at the tachyon vacuum. Effective potential for the scalar is evaluated both for finite and large N. Increase of potential height is observed in both cases. The large $N$ matrix integral is identified with a system of N ZZ branes and a ghost FZZT brane.
Investigation of elastic stability of the lower part of drill pipe string (dynamic problems)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Griguletskii, V.G.
1981-12-01
Based on V.V. Bolotin's results, the problem of dynamic stability of the lower part of a string of drill pipes in a vertical well is formulated (and solved in the first approximation). An investigation of the phenomena during the interaction between lengthwise and transverse oscillations of the bottom part of the drill pipe string is carried out. Excitation conditions are determined and the mechanism of the onset of parametric oscillations is explained. 20 refs.
String model of elementary particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kikkawa, Keiji
1975-01-01
Recent development of the models of elementary particles is described. The principal features of elementary particle physics can be expressed by quark model, mass spectrum, the Regge behavior of scattering amplitude, and duality. Venezians showed in 1968 that the B function can express these features. From the analysis of mass spectrum, the string model was introduced. The quantization of the string is performed with the same procedure as the ordinary quantum mechanics. The motion of the string is determined by the Nambu-Goto action integral, and the Schroedinger equation is obtained. Mass spectrum from the string model was same as that from the duality model such as Veneziano model. The interaction between strings can be introduced, and the Lagrangian can be formulated. The relation between the string model and the duality model has been studied. The string model is the first theory of non-local field, and the further development is attractive. The relation between this model and the quark model is still not clear. (Kato, T.)
String bit models for superstring
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bergman, O.; Thorn, C.B.
1995-01-01
The authors extend the model of string as a polymer of string bits to the case of superstring. They mainly concentrate on type II-B superstring, with some discussion of the obstacles presented by not II-B superstring, together with possible strategies for surmounting them. As with previous work on bosonic string work within the light-cone gauge. The bit model possesses a good deal less symmetry than the continuous string theory. For one thing, the bit model is formulated as a Galilei invariant theory in (D - 2) + 1 dimensional space-time. This means that Poincare invariance is reduced to the Galilei subgroup in D - 2 space dimensions. Naturally the supersymmetry present in the bit model is likewise dramatically reduced. Continuous string can arise in the bit models with the formation of infinitely long polymers of string bits. Under the right circumstances (at the critical dimension) these polymers can behave as string moving in D dimensional space-time enjoying the full N = 2 Poincare supersymmetric dynamics of type II-B superstring
String bit models for superstring
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bergman, O.; Thorn, C.B.
1995-12-31
The authors extend the model of string as a polymer of string bits to the case of superstring. They mainly concentrate on type II-B superstring, with some discussion of the obstacles presented by not II-B superstring, together with possible strategies for surmounting them. As with previous work on bosonic string work within the light-cone gauge. The bit model possesses a good deal less symmetry than the continuous string theory. For one thing, the bit model is formulated as a Galilei invariant theory in (D {minus} 2) + 1 dimensional space-time. This means that Poincare invariance is reduced to the Galilei subgroup in D {minus} 2 space dimensions. Naturally the supersymmetry present in the bit model is likewise dramatically reduced. Continuous string can arise in the bit models with the formation of infinitely long polymers of string bits. Under the right circumstances (at the critical dimension) these polymers can behave as string moving in D dimensional space-time enjoying the full N = 2 Poincare supersymmetric dynamics of type II-B superstring.
Fermions on the electroweak string
Moreno, J M; Quirós, Mariano; Moreno, J M; Oaknin, D H; Quiros, M
1995-01-01
We construct a simple class of exact solutions of the electroweak theory including the naked Z--string and fermion fields. It consists in the Z--string configuration (\\phi,Z_\\theta), the {\\it time} and z components of the neutral gauge bosons (Z_{0,3},A_{0,3}) and a fermion condensate (lepton or quark) zero mode. The Z--string is not altered (no feed back from the rest of fields on the Z--string) while fermion condensates are zero modes of the Dirac equation in the presence of the Z--string background (no feed back from the {\\it time} and z components of the neutral gauge bosons on the fermion fields). For the case of the n--vortex Z--string the number of zero modes found for charged leptons and quarks is (according to previous results by Jackiw and Rossi) equal to |n|, while for (massless) neutrinos is |n|-1. The presence of fermion fields in its core make the obtained configuration a superconducting string, but their presence (as well as that of Z_{0,3},A_{0,3}) does not enhance the stability of the Z--stri...
Ortín, Tomás
2015-01-01
Self-contained and comprehensive, this definitive new edition of Gravity and Strings is a unique resource for graduate students and researchers in theoretical physics. From basic differential geometry through to the construction and study of black-hole and black-brane solutions in quantum gravity - via all the intermediate stages - this book provides a complete overview of the intersection of gravity, supergravity, and superstrings. Now fully revised, this second edition covers an extensive array of topics, including new material on non-linear electric-magnetic duality, the electric-tensor formalism, matter-coupled supergravity, supersymmetric solutions, the geometries of scalar manifolds appearing in 4- and 5-dimensional supergravities, and much more. Covering reviews of important solutions and numerous solution-generating techniques, and accompanied by an exhaustive index and bibliography, this is an exceptional reference work.
Fingerprints in compressed strings
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Cording, Patrick Hagge
2017-01-01
In this paper we show how to construct a data structure for a string S of size N compressed into a context-free grammar of size n that supports efficient Karp–Rabin fingerprint queries to any substring of S. That is, given indices i and j, the answer to a query is the fingerprint of the substring S......[i,j]. We present the first O(n) space data structures that answer fingerprint queries without decompressing any characters. For Straight Line Programs (SLP) we get O(logN) query time, and for Linear SLPs (an SLP derivative that captures LZ78 compression and its variations) we get O(loglogN) query time...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bonara, L.; Cotta-Ramusino, P.; Rinaldi, M.
1987-01-01
It is well-known that type I and heterotic superstring theories have a zero mass spectrum which correspond to the field content of N=1 supergravity theory coupled to supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory in 10-D. The authors study the field theory ''per se'', in the hope that simple consistency requirements will determine the theory completely once one knows the field content inherited from string theory. The simplest consistency requirements are: N=1 supersymmetry; and absence of chiral anomalies. This is what the authors discuss in this paper here leaving undetermined the question of the range of validity of the resulting field theory. As is known, a model of N=1 supergravity (SUGRA) coupled to supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory was known in the form given by Chapline and Manton. The coupling of SUGRA to SYM was determined by the definition of the ''field strength'' 3-form H in this paper
Wilson Loop and related strings for the instanton and their variational derivatives
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bollini, C.G.; Giambiagi, J.J.; Tiomno, J.
1980-05-01
Ordered integrals along arcs (or circles) and segments for the instanton are computed. They are to obtain variational and partial derivatives for open an d closed strings. The D'Alembertian for wilson loops is also computed. (Author) [pt
Dynamical evolution of cosmic strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bouchet, F.R.
1988-01-01
The author have studied by means of numerical simulations the dynamical evolution of a network of cosmic strings, both in the radiation and matter era. Our basic conclusion is that a scaling solution exists, i.e., the string energy density evolves as t -2 . This means that the process by which long strings dump their energy into closed loops (which can gravitationally radiate away) is efficient enough to prevent the string domination over other forms of energy. This conclusion does not depend on the initial string energy density, nor on the various numerical parameters. On the other hand, the generated spectrum of loop sizes does depend on the value of our numerical lower cutoff (i.e., the minimum length of loop we allow to be chopped off the network). Furthermore, the network evolution is very different from what was assumed before), namely the creation of a few horizon sized loops per horizon volume and per hubble time, which subsequently fragment into about 10 smaller daughter loops. Rather, many tiny loops are directly cut from the network of infinite strings, and it appears that the only fundamental scale (the horizon) has been lost. This is probably because a fundamental ingredient had been overlooked, namely the kinks. These kinks are created in pairs at each intercommutation, and very rapidly, the long strings appear to be very kinky. Thus the number of long strings per horizon is still of the order of a few, but their total length is fairly large. Furthermore, a large number of kinks favors the formation of small loops, and their sizes might well be governed by the kink density along the long strings. Finally, we computed the two-point correlation function of the loops and found significant differences from the work of Turok
On the scattering of gluons in the GKP string
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bianchi, Lorenzo; Hamburg Univ.; Bianchi, Marco S.
2015-11-01
We compute the one-loop S-matrix for the light bosonic excitations of the GKP string at strong coupling. These correspond, on the gauge theory side, to gluon insertions in the GKP vacuum. We perform the calculation by Feynman diagrams in the worldsheet theory and we compare the result to the integrability prediction, finding perfect agreement for the scheme independent part. For scheme dependent rational terms we test different schemes and find that a recent proposal reproduces exactly the integrability prediction.
Canonical quantization of a string describing N branes at angles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Igor Pesando
2014-12-01
The splitting of the string coordinates into a classical and quantum part allows the formulation of an improved overlap principle. Using this approach we then proceed in computing the generating function for the generic correlator with L untwisted operators and N (excited twist fields for branes at angles. We recover as expected the results previously obtained using the path integral. This construction explains why these correlators are given by a generalization of the Wick theorem.
Casimir energy of a nonuniform string
Hadasz, L.; Lambiase, G.; Nesterenko, V. V.
2000-07-01
The Casimir energy of a nonuniform string built up from two pieces with different speeds of sound is calculated. A standard procedure of subtracting the energy of an infinite uniform string is applied, the subtraction being interpreted as the renormalization of the string tension. It is shown that in the case of a homogeneous string this method is completely equivalent to zeta renormalization.
Test particle trajectories near cosmic strings
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We present a detailed analysis of the motion of test particle in the gravitational ﬁeld of cosmic strings in different situations using the Hamilton–Jacobi (H–J) formalism. We have discussed the trajectories near static cosmic string, cosmic string in Brans–Dicke theory and cosmic string in dilaton gravity.
String Formatting Considered Harmful for Novice Programmers
Hughes, Michael C.; Jadud, Matthew C.; Rodrigo, Ma. Mercedes T.
2010-01-01
In Java, "System.out.printf" and "String.format" consume a specialised kind of string commonly known as a format string. In our study of first-year students at the Ateneo de Manila University, we discovered that format strings present a substantial challenge for novice programmers. Focusing on their first laboratory we found…
M-strings, Elliptic Genera and N=4 String Amplitudes
Hohenegger, Stefan
2014-01-01
We study mass-deformed N=2 gauge theories from various points of view. Their partition functions can be computed via three dual approaches: firstly, (p,q)-brane webs in type II string theory using Nekrasov's instanton calculus, secondly, the (refined) topological string using the topological vertex formalism and thirdly, M theory via the elliptic genus of certain M-strings configurations. We argue for a large class of theories that these approaches yield the same gauge theory partition function which we study in detail. To make their modular properties more tangible, we consider a fourth approach by connecting the partition function to the equivariant elliptic genus of R^4 through a (singular) theta-transform. This form appears naturally as a specific class of one-loop scattering amplitudes in type II string theory on T^2, which we calculate explicitly.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Di Vecchia, P.; Sciuto, S.; Nakayama, R.; Petersen, J.L.; Sidenius, J.R.
1986-11-01
The BRST-invariant N-Reggeon vertex (for the bosonic string) previously given by us in the operator formulation is considered in more detail. In particular we present a direct derivation from the string path integral. Several crucial symmetry properties found a posteriori before, become a priori clearer in this formulation. A number of delicate points related to zero modes, cut off procedures and normal ordering prescriptions are treated in some detail. The old technique of letting the string field acquire a small dimension ε/2 → 0 + is found especially elegant. (orig.)
Worldsheet geometries of ambitwistor string
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ohmori, Kantaro [Department of Physics, the University of Tokyo,Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 133-0022 (Japan)
2015-06-12
Mason and Skinner proposed the ambitwistor string theory which directly reproduces the formulas for the amplitudes of massless particles proposed by Cachazo, He and Yuan. In this paper we discuss geometries of the moduli space of worldsheets associated to the bosonic or the RNS ambitwistor string. Further, we investigate the factorization properties of the amplitudes when an internal momentum is near on-shell in the abstract CFT language. Along the way, we propose the existence of the ambitwistor strings with three or four fermionic worldsheet currents.
Geometry, topology, and string theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Varadarajan, Uday [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
2003-01-01
A variety of scenarios are considered which shed light upon the uses and limitations of classical geometric and topological notions in string theory. The primary focus is on situations in which D-brane or string probes of a given classical space-time see the geometry quite differently than one might naively expect. In particular, situations in which extra dimensions, non-commutative geometries as well as other non-local structures emerge are explored in detail. Further, a preliminary exploration of such issues in Lorentzian space-times with non-trivial causal structures within string theory is initiated.
Geometry, topology, and string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Varadarajan, Uday
2003-01-01
A variety of scenarios are considered which shed light upon the uses and limitations of classical geometric and topological notions in string theory. The primary focus is on situations in which D-brane or string probes of a given classical space-time see the geometry quite differently than one might naively expect. In particular, situations in which extra dimensions, non-commutative geometries as well as other non-local structures emerge are explored in detail. Further, a preliminary exploration of such issues in Lorentzian space-times with non-trivial causal structures within string theory is initiated
Lüscher formula for GKP string
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Basso, B.; Belitsky, A.V.
2012-01-01
We investigate finite-size corrections to anomalous dimensions of large-spin twist-two operators in the planar maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. We develop a framework for analysis of these corrections, that is complementary to the conventional spin-chain approach, by making use of the hole rather than the magnon picture. From the dual string theory perspective where the large-spin operator is identified with the Gubser-Klebanov-Polyakov (GKP) string, our approach is equivalent to constructing the first Lüscher correction to the energy of the GKP string by incorporating the contribution of virtual excitations propagating on it. It allows us to propose a formula that controls a particular class of large-spin corrections to the twist-two anomalous dimension and holds at any value of the coupling constant. Compared to wrapping corrections computed with magnons propagating on the spin chain, the finite-size corrections that are encoded in our formalism start at a lower-loop level. Our formalism thus calls for modification of the asymptotic contributions which are conventionally incorporated within the Asymptotic Bethe Ansatz. An educated guess allows us to remedy this pitfall and successfully confront our predictions with known results up to five-loop accuracy at weak coupling. Finally, our formula sheds light on the weak-to-strong coupling transition for the subleading large-spin corrections under study and confirms stringy expectations at strong coupling where they are found to be identical to the first Lüscher correction to the vacuum energy of the O(6) sigma model.
String cosmology modern string theory concepts from the cosmic structure
2009-01-01
The field of string cosmology has matured considerably over the past few years, attracting many new adherents to this multidisciplinary Field. This book fills a critical gap by bringing together strains of current research into one single volume. The resulting collection of selected articles presents the latest, ongoing results from renowned experts currently working in the field. This offers the possibility for practitioners to become conversant with many different aspects of string cosmology
String cosmology. Large-field inflation in string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Westphal, Alexander
2014-09-01
This is a short review of string cosmology. We wish to connect string-scale physics as closely as possible to observables accessible to current or near-future experiments. Our possible best hope to do so is a description of inflation in string theory. The energy scale of inflation can be as high as that of Grand Unification (GUT). If this is the case, this is the closest we can possibly get in energy scales to string-scale physics. Hence, GUT-scale inflation may be our best candidate phenomenon to preserve traces of string-scale dynamics. Our chance to look for such traces is the primordial gravitational wave, or tensor mode signal produced during inflation. For GUT-scale inflation this is strong enough to be potentially visible as a B-mode polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Moreover, a GUT-scale inflation model has a trans-Planckian excursion of the inflaton scalar field during the observable amount of inflation. Such large-field models of inflation have a clear need for symmetry protection against quantum corrections. This makes them ideal candidates for a description in a candidate fundamental theory like string theory. At the same time the need of large-field inflation models for UV completion makes them particularly susceptible to preserve imprints of their string-scale dynamics in the inflationary observables, the spectral index n s and the fractional tensor mode power r. Hence, we focus this review on axion monodromy inflation as a mechanism of large-field inflation in string theory.
Layer Construction of 3D Topological States and String Braiding Statistics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chao-Ming Jian
2014-12-01
Full Text Available While the topological order in two dimensions has been studied extensively since the discovery of the integer and fractional quantum Hall systems, topological states in three spatial dimensions are much less understood. In this paper, we propose a general formalism for constructing a large class of three-dimensional topological states by stacking layers of 2D topological states and introducing coupling between them. Using this construction, different types of topological states can be obtained, including those with only surface topological order and no bulk topological quasiparticles, and those with topological order both in the bulk and at the surface. For both classes of states, we study its generic properties and present several explicit examples. As an interesting consequence of this construction, we obtain example systems with nontrivial braiding statistics between string excitations. In addition to studying the string-string braiding in the example system, we propose a topological field-theory description for the layer-constructed systems, which captures not only the string-particle braiding statistics but also the string-string braiding statistics when the coupling is twisted. Last, we provide a proof of a general identity for Abelian string statistics and discuss an example system with non-Abelian strings.
Charting the Landscape of Supercritical String Theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hellerman, Simeon; Swanson, Ian
2007-01-01
Special solutions of string theory in supercritical dimensions can interpolate in time between theories with different numbers of spacetime dimensions and different amounts of world sheet supersymmetry. These solutions connect supercritical string theories to the more familiar string duality web in ten dimensions and provide a precise link between supersymmetric and purely bosonic string theories. Dimension quenching and c duality appear to be natural concepts in string theory, giving rise to large networks of interconnected theories
String and Sticky Tape Experiments.
Edge, R. D., Ed.
1979-01-01
Explains how to demonstrate the fundamentals of one dimensional kinematics such as Newton's third law of motion, and collision between bodies, using simple materials of marbles, strings, sticky tape, drinking straws, and rubber bands. (GA)
String theory or field theory?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marshakov, A.V.
2002-01-01
The status of string theory is reviewed, and major recent developments - especially those in going beyond perturbation theory in the string theory and quantum field theory frameworks - are analyzed. This analysis helps better understand the role and place of experimental phenomena, it is emphasized that there are some insurmountable problems inherent in it - notably the impossibility to formulate the quantum theory of gravity on its basis - which prevent it from being a fundamental physical theory of the world of microscopic distances. It is this task, the creation of such a theory, which string theory, currently far from completion, is expected to solve. In spite of its somewhat vague current form, string theory has already led to a number of serious results and greatly contributed to progress in the understanding of quantum field theory. It is these developments, which are our concern in this review [ru
Spin chains and string theory.
Kruczenski, Martin
2004-10-15
Recently, an important test of the anti de Sitter/conformal field theory correspondence has been done using rotating strings with two angular momenta. We show that such a test can be described more generally as the agreement between two actions: one a low energy description of a spin chain appearing in the field theory side, and the other a limit of the string action in AdS5xS5. This gives a map between the mean value of the spin in the boundary theory and the position of the string in the bulk, and shows how a string action can emerge from a gauge theory in the large-N limit.
Pattern recognition and string matching
Cheng, Xiuzhen
2002-01-01
The research and development of pattern recognition have proven to be of importance in science, technology, and human activity. Many useful concepts and tools from different disciplines have been employed in pattern recognition. Among them is string matching, which receives much theoretical and practical attention. String matching is also an important topic in combinatorial optimization. This book is devoted to recent advances in pattern recognition and string matching. It consists of twenty eight chapters written by different authors, addressing a broad range of topics such as those from classifica tion, matching, mining, feature selection, and applications. Each chapter is self-contained, and presents either novel methodological approaches or applications of existing theories and techniques. The aim, intent, and motivation for publishing this book is to pro vide a reference tool for the increasing number of readers who depend upon pattern recognition or string matching in some way. This includes student...
String Formation Beyond Leading Colour
Christiansen, Jesper R.
2015-08-03
We present a new model for the hadronisation of multi-parton systems, in which colour correlations beyond leading $N_C$ are allowed to influence the formation of confining potentials (strings). The multiplet structure of $SU(3)$ is combined with a minimisation of the string potential energy, to decide between which partons strings should form, allowing also for "baryonic" configurations (e.g., two colours can combine coherently to form an anticolour). In $e^+e^-$collisions, modifications to the leading-colour picture are small, suppressed by both colour and kinematics factors. But in $pp$ collisions, multi-parton interactions increase the number of possible subleading connections, counteracting their naive $1/N_C^2$ suppression. Moreover, those that reduce the overall string lengths are kinematically favoured. The model, which we have implemented in the PYTHIA 8 generator, is capable of reaching agreement not only with the important $\\left(n_\\mathrm{charged})$ distribution but also with measured rates (and ra...
Strange diquarks and orbital excitations of hyperons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kondratyuk, L.A.; Ralchenko, Yu.V.; Vasilets, A.V.
1987-01-01
Using the model of the QCD string with spin-orbital interaction the masses of strange diquarks are determined. The spectra of orbital excitations of the Λ and Σ hyperons are calculated and discussed. Also the decay modes for Λ's and Σ's are considered
Strings in the abelized picture
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Embacher, F.
1990-01-01
The transformation properties of the bosonic string variables under the recently discovered abelizing operator are exhibited. The intimate relation of this operator to the light-cone gauge condition is illustrated for the classical string. As an application of the formalism, the derivation of the BRST cohomology by the method of Freemann and Olive is carried over to the abelized picture, where it takes a particularly simple from. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pope, C.N.; Stelle, K.S.
1991-08-01
We study the spectrum of W 3 strings. In particular, we show that for appropriately chosen space-time signature, one of the scalar fields is singled out be the spin-3 constraint and is ''frozen'': no creation operators from it can appear in physical states and the corresponding momentum must assume a specific fixed value. The remaining theory is unitary and resembles an ordinary string theory in d contains 26 with anomalies cancelled by appropriate background charges. (author). 8 refs
Cooldown of superconducting magnet strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yuecel, A.; Carcagno, R.H.
1995-01-01
A numerical model for the cooldown of the superconducting magnet strings in the Accelerator System String Test (ASST) Facility at the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) Laboratory is presented. Numerical results are compared with experimental data from the ASST test runs. Agreement between the numerical predictions and experiments is very good over the entire range from room temperature to liquid helium temperatures. The model can be readily adapted to predict the cooldown and warmup behavior of other superconducting magnets or cold masses
Strings in the abelized picture
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Embacher, F.
1990-01-01
The transformation properties of the bosonic string variables under the recently discovered abelizing operator are exhibited. The intimate relation of this operator to the light-cone gauge condition is illustrated for the classical string. As an application of the formalism, the derivation of the BRST cohomology by the method of Freeman and Olive is carried over to the abelized picture, where it takes a particulary simple form. 14 refs. (Author)
An introduction to string theory
West, Peter C
1989-01-01
These notes are based on lectures given by Michael Green during Part III of the Mathematics Tripos (the Certificate for Advanced Study in Mathematics) in the Spring of 2003. The course provided an introduction to string theory, focussing on the Bosonic string, but treating the superstring as well. A background in quantum field theory and general relativity is assumed. Some background in particle physics, group theory and conformal field theory is useful, though not essential. A number of appe...
Black strings and classical hair
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horowitz, G.T.; Yang, H.
1997-01-01
We examine the geometry near the event horizon of a family of black string solutions with traveling waves. It has previously been shown that the metric is continuous there. Contrary to expectations, we find that the geometry is not smooth, and the horizon becomes singular whenever a wave is present. Both five-dimensional and six-dimensional black strings are considered with similar results. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
String wave function across a Kasner singularity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Copeland, Edmund J.; Niz, Gustavo; Turok, Neil
2010-01-01
A collision of orbifold planes in 11 dimensions has been proposed as an explanation of the hot big bang. When the two planes are close to each other, the winding membranes become the lightest modes of the theory, and can be effectively described in terms of fundamental strings in a ten-dimensional background. Near the brane collision, the 11-dimensional metric is a Euclidean space times a 1+1-dimensional Milne universe. However, one may expect small perturbations to lead into a more general Kasner background. In this paper we extend the previous classical analysis of winding membranes to Kasner backgrounds, and using the Hamiltonian equations, solve for the wave function of loops with circular symmetry. The evolution across the singularity is regular, and explained in terms of the excitement of higher oscillation modes. We also show there is finite particle production and unitarity is preserved.
Bosonic Liouville string theory in conformal gauge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schnittger, J.
1990-01-01
The object of the present thesis are the so-called Liouville theories as possibilities for the consistent formulation of string theories beyond the critical dimension. First we discuss the general framework for the quantum theory and explain common properties and differences of different approaches. These considerations lead us to the main demand of the thesis, the formulation of a unified quantum theory for open and closed strings. Of central importance is thereby the construction of the field operator for the Weyl degree of freedom on a suitably defined Hilbert space, so that also in the quantum theory locality and Hermiticity of the Energy-Momentum tensor are respected. In the study of the allowed ground states of the Hilbert space an interesting particularity in comparison to the structure of usual conformal field theories comes across, the importance and consequences of which we intensively study. In the last section we enter the consistence of the theory on the 1-loop level and come then to the final consideration, where we indicate some still open questions of the Liouville theory. (orig.) [de
Fast Partial Evaluation of Pattern Matching in Strings
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ager, Mads Sig; Danvy, Olivier; Rohde, Henning Korsholm
2006-01-01
We show how to obtain all of Knuth, Morris, and Pratt's linear-time string matcher by specializing a quadratic-time string matcher with respect to a pattern string. Although it has been known for 15 years how to obtain this linear matcher by partial evaluation of a quadratic one, how to obtain...... it in linear time has remained an open problem. Obtaining a linear matcher by partial evaluation of a quadratic one is achieved by performing its backtracking at specialization time and memoizing its results. We show (1) how to rewrite the source matcher such that its static intermediate computations can...... be shared at specialization time and (2) how to extend the memoization capabilities of a partial evaluator to static functions. Such an extended partial evaluator, if its memoization is implemented efficiently, specializes the rewritten source matcher in linear time. Finally, we show that the method also...
Fast Partial Evaluation of Pattern Matching in Strings
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ager, Mads Sig; Danvy, Olivier; Rohde, Henning Korsholm
2003-01-01
We show how to obtain all of Knuth, Morris, and Pratt's linear-time string matcher by specializing a quadratic-time string matcher with respect to a pattern string. Although it has been known for 15 years how to obtain this linear matcher by partial evaluation of a quadratic one, how to obtain...... it in linear time has remained an open problem. Obtaining a linear matcher by partial evaluation of a quadratic one is achieved by performing its backtracking at specialization time and memoizing its results. We show (1) how to rewrite the source matcher such that its static intermediate computations can...... be shared at specialization time and (2) how to extend the memoization capabilities of a partial evaluator to static functions. Such an extended partial evaluator, if its memoization is implemented efficiently, specializes the rewritten source matcher in linear time. Finally, we show that the method also...
Fast Partial Evaluation of Pattern Matching in Strings
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ager, Mads Sig; Danvy, Olivier; Rohde, Henning Korsholm
2003-01-01
We show how to obtain all of Knuth, Morris, and Pratt's linear-time string matcher by partial evaluation of a quadratic-time string matcher with respect to a pattern string. Although it has been known for 15 years how to obtain this linear matcher by partial evaluation of a quadratic one, how...... to obtain it in linear time has remained an open problem.Obtaining a linear matcher by partial evaluation of a quadratic one is achieved by performing its backtracking at specialization time and memoizing its results. We show (1) how to rewrite the source matcher such that its static intermediate...... computations can be shared at specialization time and (2) how to extend the memoization capabilities of a partial evaluator to static functions. Such an extended partial evaluator, if its memoization is implemented efficiently, specializes the rewritten source matcher in linear time....
D-strings in unconventional type I vacuum configurations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bianchi, M.; Gava, E.; Morales, F.; Narain, K.S.
1998-11-01
We determine the spectrum of D-string bound states in various classes of generalized type I vacuum configurations with sixteen and eight supercharges. The precise matching of the BPS spectra confirms the duality between unconventional type IIB orientfolds with quantized NS-NS antisymmetric tensor and heterotic CHL models in D=8. A similar analysis puts the duality between type II (4,0) models and type I strings without open strings on a firmer ground. The analysis can be extended to type II (2,0) asymmetric orbifolds and their type I duals that correspond to unconventional K3 compactifications. Finally we discuss BPS-saturated threshold corrections to the corresponding low-energy effective lagrangians. In particular we show how the exact moduli dependence of some F 4 terms in the eight-dimensional type II (4,0) orbifold is reproduced by the infinite sum of D-instanton contributions in the dual type I theory. (author)
Aspects of string phenomenology in particle physics and cosmology
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Antoniadis I.
2017-01-01
Full Text Available I discuss possible connections between several scales in particle physics and cosmology, such the the electroweak, inflation, dark energy and Planck scales. In particular, I discuss the physics of extra dimensions and low scale gravity that are motivated from the problem of mass hierarchy, providing an alternative to low energy supersymmetry. I describe their realization in type I string theory with D-branes and I present the main experimental predictions in particle accelerators and their implications in cosmology. I also show that low-mass-scale string compactifications, with a generic D-brane configuration that realizes the Standard Model by open strings, can explain the relatively broad peak in the diphoton invariant mass spectrum at 750 GeV recently reported by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations.
Topological vertex, string amplitudes and spectral functions of hyperbolic geometry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guimaraes, M.E.X.; Rosa, T.O. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Instituto de Fisica, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza, s/n, CEP 24210-346, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Luna, R.M. [Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Departamento de Fisica, Caixa Postal 6001, Londrina, Parana (Brazil)
2014-05-15
We discuss the homological aspects of the connection between quantum string generating function and the formal power series associated to the dimensions of chains and homologies of suitable Lie algebras. Our analysis can be considered as a new straightforward application of the machinery of modular forms and spectral functions (with values in the congruence subgroup of SL(2,Z)) to the partition functions of Lagrangian branes, refined vertex and open string partition functions, represented by means of formal power series that encode Lie algebra properties. The common feature in our examples lies in the modular properties of the characters of certain representations of the pertinent affine Lie algebras and in the role of Selberg-type spectral functions of a hyperbolic three-geometry associated with q-series in the computation of the string amplitudes. (orig.)
On the background independence of string field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sen, A.
1990-01-01
Given a solution Ψ cl of the classical equations of motion in either closed or open string field theory formulated around a given conformal field theory background, we can construct a new operator Q B in the corresponding two-dimensional field theory such that (Q B ) 2 =0. It is shown that in the limit when the background field Ψ cl is weak, Q B can be identified with the BRST charge of a new local conformal field theory. This indicates that the string field theories formulated around these two different conformal field theories are actually the same theory, and that these two conformal field theories may be regarded as different classical solutions of this string field theory. (orig.)
Fast searching in packed strings
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bille, Philip
2011-01-01
Given strings P and Q the (exact) string matching problem is to find all positions of substrings in Q matching P. The classical Knuth–Morris–Pratt algorithm [SIAM J. Comput. 6 (2) (1977) 323–350] solves the string matching problem in linear time which is optimal if we can only read one character...... at the time. However, most strings are stored in a computer in a packed representation with several characters in a single word, giving us the opportunity to read multiple characters simultaneously. In this paper we study the worst-case complexity of string matching on strings given in packed representation....... Let m⩽n be the lengths P and Q, respectively, and let σ denote the size of the alphabet. On a standard unit-cost word-RAM with logarithmic word size we present an algorithm using timeO(nlogσn+m+occ). Here occ is the number of occurrences of P in Q. For m=o(n) this improves the O(n) bound of the Knuth...
Dynamics of strings between walls
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eto, Minoru; Fujimori, Toshiaki; Nagashima, Takayuki; Nitta, Muneto; Ohashi, Keisuke; Sakai, Norisuke
2009-01-01
Configurations of vortex strings stretched between or ending on domain walls were previously found to be 1/4 Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) states in N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories in 3+1 dimensions. Among zero modes of string positions, the center of mass of strings in each region between two adjacent domain walls is shown to be non-normalizable whereas the rests are normalizable. We study dynamics of vortex strings stretched between separated domain walls by using two methods, the moduli space (geodesic) approximation of full 1/4 BPS states and the charged particle approximation for string end points in the wall effective action. In the first method we explicitly obtain the effective Lagrangian in the strong coupling limit, which is written in terms of hypergeometric functions, and find the 90 deg. scattering for head-on collision. In the second method the domain wall effective action is assumed to be U(1) N gauge theory, and we find a good agreement between two methods for well-separated strings.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Le Meur, H.; Daninos, F.; Bachas, C.
2007-01-01
Since its beginning, in the sixties, the string theory has succeeded in overcoming a lot of theoretical difficulties but now the complete absence of experimental validation entertains doubts about its ability to represent the real world and questions its hegemony in today's theoretical physics. Other space-time theories like the twistors, or the non-commutative geometry, or the loop quantum gravity, or the causal dynamics triangulation might begin receiving more attention. Despite all that, the string theory can be given credit for 4 achievements. First, the string theory has provided a consistent quantum description of gravity. Secondly, the string theory has built a theoretical frame that has allowed the unification of the 4 basic interactions. Thirdly, the string theory applied to astrophysics issues has demonstrated that the evaporation of a black hole does not necessarily lead to a loss of information which comforts the universality of the conservation of the quantity of information in any system and as a consequence put a fatal blow to the so-called paradox observed in black holes. Fourthly, the string theory has given a new and original meaning on the true nature of space-time. (A.C.)
On the universality class of certain string theory hadrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bertoldi, G.; Bigazzi, F.; Cotrone, A.L.; Nunez, C.; Pando Zayas, L.A.
2003-12-01
Exploiting the gauge/gravity correspondence we d the spectrum of hadronic-like bound states of adjoint particles with a large global charge in several confining theories. In particular, we consider an embedding of four-dimensional N = 1 supersymmetric Yang-Mills into IIA string theory, two classes of three-dimensional gauge theories and the softly broken version of one of them. In all cases we describe the low energy excitations of a heavy hadron with mass proportional to its global charge. These excitations include: the hadron's nonrelativistic motion, its stringy excitations and excitations corresponding to the addition of massive constituents. Our analysis provides ample evidence for the universality of such hadronic states in con ing theories admitting supergravity duals. Besides, we d numerically a new smooth solution that can be thought of as a non-supersymmetric deformation of G 2 holonomy manifolds. (author)
Chern-Simons couplings for dielectric F-strings in matrix string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brecher, Dominic; Janssen, Bert; Lozano, Yolanda
2002-01-01
We compute the non-abelian couplings in the Chern-Simons action for a set of coinciding fundamental strings in both the type IIA and type IIB Matrix string theories. Starting from Matrix theory in a weakly curved background, we construct the linear couplings of closed string fields to type IIA Matrix strings. Further dualities give a type IIB Matrix string theory and a type IIA theory of Matrix strings with winding. (Abstract Copyright[2002], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)
New expressions for string loop amplitudes leading to an ultra-simple conception of string dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chan Hongmo; Tsou Sheungtsun; Bordes, J.; Nellen, L.
1990-11-01
New expressions are derived for string loop amplitudes as overlap integrals of string wave functionals. They are shown to take the form of exchange terms coming from the Bose-Einstein symmetrisation between string segments. One is thus led to the ultra-simple conception that string theory is basically free, and that 'string interactions' are due merely to the fact that strings are composite objects with Bose-Einstein segments as constituents. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deser, S.
1987-01-01
We obtain the Einstein action plus quadratic curvature corrections generated by closed bosonic, heterotic and supersymmetric strings by matching the four-graviton amplitude (to first order in the slope parameter and fourth power of momenta) with an effective local gravitational action. The resulting corrections are first shown to be of the Gauss-Bonnet form. It is then noted that, by the very nature of the slope expansion, the field-redefinition theorem applies. Consequently, only the curvature-squared term is determined, while squares of its contractions are explicitly seen not to contribute. This latter property has a generalization to all orders which implies that the effective gravitational action is unavoidably ghost-free. The properties of solutions to these corrected theories are then examined. First neglecting dilatons, we find the explicit 'Schwarzschild' metrics. Both asymptotically flat and de Sitter solutions are present. The latter are however shown to be unstable. The former have horizons and singularities which are respectively smaller and less violent than in Einstein gravity; the correct sign of the slope parameter also ensures absence of naked singularities. When dilatons are included, the cosmological vacua are gratifyingly excluded. (orig.)
Non-linear excitation of gravitational radiation antennae
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blair, D.G.
1982-01-01
A mechanism of non-linear excitation is proposed to explain observed excess noise in gravitational radiation antennae, driven by low frequency vibration. The mechanism is analogous to the excitation of a violin string by low frequency bowing. Numerical estimates for Weber bars suspended by cables are in good agreement with observations. (Auth.)
Simple Excitation of Standing Waves in Rubber Bands and Membranes
Cortel, Adolf
2004-04-01
Many methods to excite standing waves in strings, plates, membranes, rods, tubes, and soap bubbles have been described. Usually a loudspeaker or a vibrating reed is driven by the amplified output of an audio oscillator. A novel and simple method consists of using a tuning fork or a singing rod to excite transversal standing waves in stretched rubber membranes sprinkled with fine sand.
Bray, James William [Niskayuna, NY; Garces, Luis Jose [Niskayuna, NY
2012-03-13
The disclosed technology is a cryogenic static exciter. The cryogenic static exciter is connected to a synchronous electric machine that has a field winding. The synchronous electric machine is cooled via a refrigerator or cryogen like liquid nitrogen. The static exciter is in communication with the field winding and is operating at ambient temperature. The static exciter receives cooling from a refrigerator or cryogen source, which may also service the synchronous machine, to selected areas of the static exciter and the cooling selectively reduces the operating temperature of the selected areas of the static exciter.
Wilson-Polyakov loops for critical strings and superstrings at finite temperature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Green, M.B.
1992-01-01
An open string with end-points fixed at spatial separation L is a string theory analogue of the static quark-antiquark system in quenched QCD. Folowing a review of the quantum mechanics of this system in critical bosonic string theory the partition function at finite β (the inverse temperature) for fixed end-point open strings is discussed. This is related by a conformal transformation ('world-sheet duality') to the correlation function of two closed strings fixed at distinct spatial points (a string theory analogue of two Wilson-Polyakov loops). Temperature duality (β → β' = 4π 2 /β) relates this correlation function, in turn, to the finite-temperature Green function for a closed strong propagating between initial and final states that are at distinct (euclidean) space-time points. In addition, spatial duality relates the fixed end-point open string to the familiar open string with free end-points. A generalization to fixed end-points superstrings is suggested, in which the superalgebra may be viewed as the spatial dual of the usual open-string superalgebra. At zero temperature world-sheet duality relates the partition function of supersymmetric fixed end-point open strings to the correlation function of point-like closed-string states. These couple to combinations of the scalar and pseudoscalar states of a type-2b superstring superfield. At finite temperature supersymmetry is broken and this correlation function involves the propagation of non-supersymmetric states with non-zero winding numbers (which formally include a tachyon at temperatures above the Hagedorn transition). Temperature duality again relates the partition function to the finite-temperature Green function describing the propagator for point-like closed-string states of the dual theory, in which supersymmetry is broken. The singularity that arises in the critical bosonic theory as L is reduced below L = 2 π√α' is absent in the superstring and the static potential is well defined for all
First advanced research workshop: Gravity, astrophysics and strings at the Black Sea. Proceedings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fiziev, P.; Todorov, M.
2002-01-01
The aim of the First Advanced Workshop ‘Gravity, Astrophysics, and Strings’ was: 1)Bringing together scientists from various branches of gravitational physics, astrophysics and string theory gave an opportunity for interdisciplinary exchange of views and enhanced possible collaborations; 2)Provided a unique opportunity to scientists from various countries to communicate with colleagues on the hottest topics of gravitational physics, astrophysics, and string theory; 3) Opened new venue to young talented scientists to communicate and work with major research groups on the topics of the conference. The workshop covered wide aspects of gravity, astrophysics, and string theory concerning the topics: Astrophysics; Mathematical Modeling and Numerical Simulations in Relativity; Astrophysics, and Strings; Relativistic Gravity; (Super)Strings. About 40 participants from Europe, America and Asia gave 30 invited talks and contributed presentations. The full text of 17 of them are included in this book
String Theory for Pedestrians (1/3)
CERN. Geneva
2009-01-01
This is a non-technical rapid course on string theory. Lecture 1 is an introduction to the basics of the subject: classical and quantum strings, D(irichlet) branes and string-string dualities. In lecture 2 I will discuss string unification of the fundamental forces, covering both its successes and failures. Finally in lecture 3 I will review string models of black hole microstates, the holographic gauge/gravity duality and, if time permits, potential applications to the physics of the strong interactions.
String Theory for Pedestrians (2/3)
CERN. Geneva
2009-01-01
This is a non-technical rapid course on string theory. Lecture 1 is an introduction to the basics of the subject: classical and quantum strings, D(irichlet) branes and string-string dualities. In lecture 2 I will discuss string unification of the fundamental forces, covering both its successes and failures. Finally in lecture 3 I will review string models of black hole microstates, the holographic gauge/gravity duality and, if time permits, potential applications to the physics of the strong interactions.
String Theory for Pedestrians (3/3)
CERN. Geneva
2009-01-01
This is a non-technical rapid course on string theory. Lecture 1 is an introduction to the basics of the subject: classical and quantum strings, D(irichlet) branes and string-string dualities. In lecture 2 I will discuss string unification of the fundamental forces, covering both its successes and failures. Finally in lecture 3 I will review string models of black hole microstates, the holographic gauge/gravity duality and, if time permits, potential applications to the physics of the strong interactions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Skenderis, Kostas
2007-01-01
The book 'String Theory in a Nutshell' by Elias Kiritsis provides a comprehensive introduction to modern string theory. String theory is the leading candidate for a theory that successfully unifies all fundamental forces of nature, including gravity. The subject has been continuously developing since the early 1970s, with classic textbooks on the subject being those of Green, Schwarz and Witten (1987) and Polchinski (1998). Since the latter was published there have been substantial developments, in particular in understanding black holes and gravity/gauge theory dualities. A textbook treatment of this important material is clearly needed, both by students and researchers in string theory and by mathematicians and physicists working in related fields. This book has a good selection of material, starting from basics and moving into classic and modern topics. In particular, Kiritsis' presentation of the basic material is complementary to that of the earlier textbooks and he includes a number of topics which are not easily found or covered adequately elsewhere, for example, loop corrections to string effective couplings. Overall the book nicely covers the major advances of the last ten years, including (non-perturbative) string dualities, black hole physics, AdS/CFT and matrix models. It provides a concise but fairly complete introduction to these subjects which can be used both by students and by researchers. Moreover the emphasis is on results that are reasonably established, as is appropriate for a textbook; concise summaries are given for subjects which are still in flux, with references to relevant reviews and papers. A positive feature of the book is that the bibliography sections at the end of each chapter provide a comprehensive guide to the literature. The bibliographies point to reviews and pedagogical papers on subjects covered in this book as well as those that were omitted. It is rare for a textbook to contain such a self-contained and detailed guide to
On the Lorentz invariance of bit-string geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Noyes, H.P.
1995-09-01
We construct the class of integer-sided triangles and tetrahedra that respectively correspond to two or three discriminately independent bit-strings. In order to specify integer coordinates in this space, we take one vertex of a regular tetrahedron whose common edge length is an even integer as the origin of a line of integer length to the open-quotes pointclose quotes and three integer distances to this open-quotes pointclose quotes from the three remaining vertices of the reference tetrahedron. This - usually chiral - integer coordinate description of bit-string geometry is possible because three discriminately independent bit-strings generate four more; the Hamming measures of these seven strings always allow this geometrical interpretation. On another occasion we intend to prove the rotational invariance of this coordinate description. By identifying the corners of these figures with the positions of recording counters whose clocks are synchronized using the Einstein convention, we define velocities in this space. This suggests that it may be possible to define boosts and discrete Lorentz transformations in a space of integer coordinates. We relate this description to our previous work on measurement accuracy and the discrete ordered calculus of Etter and Kauffman (DOC)
Differential geometry in string models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alvarez, O.
1986-01-01
In this article the author reviews the differential geometric approach to the quantization of strings. A seminal paper demonstrates the connection between the trace anomaly and the critical dimension. The role played by the Faddeev-Popov ghosts has been instrumental in much of the subsequent work on the quantization of strings. This paper discusses the differential geometry of two dimensional surfaces and its importance in the quantization of strings. The path integral quantization approach to strings will be carefully analyzed to determine the correct effective measure for string theories. The choice of measure for the path integral is determined by differential geometric considerations. Once the measure is determined, the manifest diffeomorphism invariance of the theory will have to be broken by using the Faddeev-Popov ansatz. The gauge fixed theory is studied in detail with emphasis on the role of conformal and gravitational anomalies. In the analysis, the path integral formulation of the gauge fixed theory requires summing over all the distinct complex structures on the manifold
String theory or field theory?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marshakov, Andrei V
2002-01-01
The status of string theory is reviewed, and major recent developments - especially those in going beyond perturbation theory in the string theory and quantum field theory frameworks - are analyzed. This analysis helps better understand the role and place of string theory in the modern picture of the physical world. Even though quantum field theory describes a wide range of experimental phenomena, it is emphasized that there are some insurmountable problems inherent in it - notably the impossibility to formulate the quantum theory of gravity on its basis - which prevent it from being a fundamental physical theory of the world of microscopic distances. It is this task, the creation of such a theory, which string theory, currently far from completion, is expected to solve. In spite of its somewhat vague current form, string theory has already led to a number of serious results and greatly contributed to progress in the understanding of quantum field theory. It is these developments which are our concern in this review. (reviews of topical problems)
Topological strings from quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grassi, Alba; Marino, Marcos; Hatsuda, Yasuyuki
2014-12-01
We propose a general correspondence which associates a non-perturbative quantum-mechanical operator to a toric Calabi-Yau manifold, and we conjecture an explicit formula for its spectral determinant in terms of an M-theoretic version of the topological string free energy. As a consequence, we derive an exact quantization condition for the operator spectrum, in terms of the vanishing of a generalized θ function. The perturbative part of this quantization condition is given by the Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit of the refined topological string, but there are non-perturbative corrections determined by the conventional topological string. We analyze in detail the cases of local P 2 , local P 1 x P 1 and local F 1 . In all these cases, the predictions for the spectrum agree with the existing numerical results. We also show explicitly that our conjectured spectral determinant leads to the correct spectral traces of the corresponding operators, which are closely related to topological string theory at orbifold points. Physically, our results provide a Fermi gas picture of topological strings on toric Calabi-Yau manifolds, which is fully non-perturbative and background independent. They also suggest the existence of an underlying theory of M2 branes behind this formulation. Mathematically, our results lead to precise, surprising conjectures relating the spectral theory of functional difference operators to enumerative geometry.
Cosmic microwave background anomalies in an open universe.
Liddle, Andrew R; Cortês, Marina
2013-09-13
We argue that the observed large-scale cosmic microwave anomalies, discovered by WMAP and confirmed by the Planck satellite, are most naturally explained in the context of a marginally open universe. Particular focus is placed on the dipole power asymmetry, via an open universe implementation of the large-scale gradient mechanism of Erickcek et al. Open inflation models, which are motivated by the string landscape and which can excite "supercurvature" perturbation modes, can explain the presence of a very-large-scale perturbation that leads to a dipole modulation of the power spectrum measured by a typical observer. We provide a specific implementation of the scenario which appears compatible with all existing constraints.
An exact bosonization rule for c = 1 noncritical string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishibashi, Nobuyuki; Yamaguchi, Atsushi
2007-01-01
We construct a string field theory for c = 1 noncritical strings using the loop variables as the string field. We show how one can express the nonrelativistic free fermions which describes the theory, in terms of these string fields
Julius Edgar Lilienfeld Prize Lecture: The Higgs Boson, String Theory, and the Real World
Kane, Gordon
2012-03-01
In this talk I'll describe how string theory is exciting because it can address most, perhaps all, of the questions we hope to understand about our world: why quarks and leptons make up our world, what forces form our world, cosmology, parity violation, and much more. I'll explain why string theory is testable in basically the same ways as the rest of physics, and why much of what is written about that is misleading. String theory is already or soon being tested in several ways, including correctly predicting the recently observed Higgs boson properties and mass, and predictions for dark matter, LHC physics, cosmological history, and more, from work in the increasingly active subfield ``string phenomenology.''
High-Energy String Scattering Amplitudes and Signless Stirling Number Identity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jen-Chi Lee
2012-07-01
Full Text Available We give a complete proof of a set of identities (7 proposed recently from calculation of high-energy string scattering amplitudes. These identities allow one to extract ratios among high-energy string scattering amplitudes in the fixed angle regime from high-energy amplitudes in the Regge regime. The proof is based on a signless Stirling number identity in combinatorial theory. The results are valid for arbitrary real values L rather than only for L=0,1 proved previously. The identities for non-integer real value L were recently shown to be realized in high-energy compactified string scattering amplitudes [He S., Lee J.C., Yang Y., arXiv:1012.3158]. The parameter L is related to the mass level of an excited string state and can take non-integer values for Kaluza-Klein modes.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McGowan, F.K.; Stelson, P.H.
1974-01-01
The theory of Coulomb excitation and a brief review of pertinent treatments of the Coulomb excitation process that are useful for the analysis of experiments are given. Examples demonstrating the scope of nuclear structure information obtainable from gamma spectroscopy are presented. Direct Elambda excitation of 232 Th is discussed in terms of the one phonon octupole vibrational spectrum. B(MI) reduced transition probabilities resulting from Coulomb excitation of odd-A deformed nuclei with heavy ions are presented as a test of the rotational model. The use of gamma ray coincidence and particle-gamma coincidence as tools for investigating Coulomb excitation is discussed. (U.S.)
Cosmic strings and black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aryal, M.; Ford, L.H.; Vilenkin, A.
1986-01-01
The metric for a Schwarzschild black hole with a cosmic string passing through it is discussed. The thermodynamics of such an object is considered, and it is shown that S = (1/4)A, where S is the entropy and A is the horizon area. It is noted that the Schwarzschild mass parameter M, which is the gravitational mass of the system, is no longer identical to its energy. A solution representing a pair of black holes held apart by strings is discussed. It is nearly identical to a static, axially symmetric solution given long ago by Bach and Weyl. It is shown how these solutions, which were formerly a mathematical curiosity, may be given a more physical interpretation in terms of cosmic strings