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Sample records for excitatorios em cortex

  1. ACOPLAMIENTO EXCITATORIO E INHIBITORIO DE NEURONAS PULSANTES ACOPLADAS

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    Francis Armando Segovia Chaves

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available La información es representada como patrones de actividad neuronal o pulsos, lo que crea una diferencia significante entre las redes neuronales pulsantes y las redes neuronales clásicas. Una característica diferente de las redes neuronales pulsantes es que la información es codificada en patrones de actividad neuronal y estas se comunican usando trenes de pulsos en lugar de valores individuales. Además, este tipo de redes neuronales pulsantes trabajan con una gran cantidad de neuronas donde se requiere grandes recursos computacionales para ser simuladas. En el presente trabajo se realiza un análisis teórico de las redes neuronales pulsantes,  para el caso de dos neuronas acopladas. Se logra obtener teóricamente las condiciones para acoplamiento excitatorio e inhibitorio en las neuronas.

  2. The involvement of the orbitofrontal cortex in psychiatric disorders: an update of neuroimaging findings O envolvimento do cortex orbitofrontal em transtornos psiquiátricos: uma atualização dos achados de neuroimagens

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    Andrea Parolin Jackowski

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To report structural and functional neuroimaging studies exploring the potential role of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC in the pathophysiology of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders (PD. METHOD: A non-systematic literature review was conducted by means of MEDLINE using the following terms as parameters: "orbitofrontal cortex", "schizophrenia", "bipolar disorder", "major depression", "anxiety disorders", "personality disorders" and "drug addiction". The electronic search was done up to July 2011. DISCUSSION: Structural and functional OFC abnormalities have been reported in many PD, namely schizophrenia, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, personality disorders and drug addiction. Structural magnetic resonance imaging studies have reported reduced OFC volume in patients with schizophrenia, mood disorders, PTSD, panic disorder, cluster B personality disorders and drug addiction. Furthermore, functional magnetic resonance imaging studies using cognitive paradigms have shown impaired OFC activity in all PD listed above. CONCLUSION: Neuroimaging studies have observed an important OFC involvement in a number of PD. However, future studies are clearly needed to characterize the specific role of OFC on each PD as well as understanding its role in both normal and pathological behavior, mood regulation and cognitive functioning.OBJETIVO: Relatar estudos de neuroimagens estruturais e funcionais explorando o papel potencial do córtex orbitofrontal (COF na fisiopatologia dos transtornos psiquiátricos (TP mais prevalentes. MÉTODO: Foi realizada uma revisão não sistemática da literatura no MEDLINE, usando como parâmetros os seguintes termos: "córtex orbitofrontal", "esquizofrenia", "transtorno bipolar", "depressão maior", "transtornos ansiosos", "transtornos de personalidade" e "dependência a drogas". A pesquisa eletrônica foi feita até julho de 2011. DISCUSSÃO: Foram relatadas anormalidades estruturais e funcionais do COF em muitos

  3. Presence of D4 dopamine receptors in human prefrontal cortex: a postmortem study Presença de receptores dopaminérgicos D4 em córtex cerebral humano: um estudo post-mortem

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    Donatella Marazziti

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to explore the presence and the distribution of D4 dopamine receptors in postmortem human prefrontal cortex, by means of the binding of [³H]YM-09151-2, an antagonist that has equal affinity for D2, D3 and D4 receptors. It was therefore necessary to devise a unique assay method in order to distinguish and detect the D4 component. METHOD: Frontal cortex samples were harvested postmortem, during autopsy sessions, from 5 subjects. In the first assay, tissue homogenates were incubated with increasing concentrations of [³H]YM-09151-2, whereas L-745870, which has a high affinity for D4 and a low affinity for D2/D3 receptors, was used as the displacer. In the second assay, raclopride, which has a high affinity for D2/D3 receptors and a low affinity for D4 receptors, was used to block D2/D3. The L-745870 (500 nM was added to both assays in order to determine the nonspecific binding. RESULTS: Our experiments revealed the presence of specific and saturable binding of [³H]YM-09151-2. The blockade of D2 and D3 receptors with raclopride ensured that the D4 receptors were labeled. The mean maximum binding capacity was 88 ± 25 fmol/mg protein, and the dissociation constant was 0.8 ± 0.4 nM. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Our findings, although not conclusive, suggest that the density of D4 receptors is low in the human prefrontal cortex.OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi quantificar a presença e a distribuição de receptores dopaminérgicos do tipo 4 (D4 no córtex cerebral humano em amostras post-mortem através do bloqueio com ³H-YM-09151-2 - um antagonista com afinidade equivalente pelos receptores D2, D3 e D4 - e do desenvolvimento de um método para a detecção específica do componente D4. MÉTODO: Foram obtidas amostras de córtex cerebral de cinco cadáveres. Em um primeiro ensaio, os homogeneizados de tecido cerebral foram incubados em concentrações crescentes de ³H-YM-09151-2, enquanto que o L-745

  4. Frontopolar and anterior temporal cortex activation in a moral judgment task: preliminary functional MRI results in normal subjects Ativação do córtex frontopolar e temporal anterior em uma tarefa de julgamento moral: resultados preliminares de ressonância magnética funcional em indivíduos normais

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    Jorge Moll

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the brain areas which are activated when normal subjects make moral judgments. METHOD: Ten normal adults underwent BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI during the auditory presentation of sentences that they were instructed to silently judge as either "right" or "wrong". Half of the sentences had an explicit moral content ("We break the law when necessary", the other half comprised factual statements devoid of moral connotation ("Stones are made of water". After scanning, each subject rated the moral content, emotional valence, and judgment difficulty of each sentence on Likert-like scales. To exclude the effect of emotion on the activation results, individual responses were hemodynamically modeled for event-related fMRI analysis. The general linear model was used to evaluate the brain areas activated by moral judgment. RESULTS: Regions activated during moral judgment included the frontopolar cortex (FPC, medial frontal gyrus, right anterior temporal cortex, lenticular nucleus, and cerebellum. Activation of FPC and medial frontal gyrus (BA 10/46 and 9 were largely independent of emotional experience and represented the largest areas of activation. CONCLUSIONS: These results concur with clinical observations assigning a critical role for the frontal poles and right anterior temporal cortex in the mediation of complex judgment processes according to moral constraints. The FPC may work in concert with the orbitofrontal and dorsolateral cortex in the regulation of human social conduct.OBJETIVO: Estudar, com ressonância magnética funcional (RMf, as áreas cerebrais normalmente ativadas por julgamentos morais em tarefa de verificação de sentenças. MÉTODO: Dez adultos normais foram estudados com RMf-BOLD durante a apresentação auditiva de sentenças cujo conteúdo foram instruídos a julgar como "certo" ou "errado". Metade das sentenças possuía um conteúdo moral explícito ("Transgredimos a lei se necess

  5. Does intrinsic motivation enhance motor cortex excitability?

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    Radel, Rémi; Pjevac, Dusan; Davranche, Karen; d'Arripe-Longueville, Fabienne; Colson, Serge S; Lapole, Thomas; Gruet, Mathieu

    2016-11-01

    Intrinsic motivation (IM) is often viewed as a spontaneous tendency for action. Recent behavioral and neuroimaging evidence indicate that IM, in comparison to extrinsic motivation (EM), solicits the motor system. Accordingly, we tested whether IM leads to greater excitability of the motor cortex than EM. To test this hypothesis, we used two different tasks to induce the motivational orientation using either words representing each motivational orientation or pictures previously linked to each motivational orientation through associative learning. Single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation over the motor cortex was applied when viewing the stimuli. Electromyographic activity was recorded on the contracted first dorsal interosseous muscle. Two indexes of corticospinal excitability (the amplitude of motor-evoked potential and the length of cortical silent period) were obtained through unbiased automatic detection and analyzed using a mixed model that provided both statistical power and a high level of control over all important individual, task, and stimuli characteristics. Across the two tasks and the two indices of corticospinal excitability, the exposure to IM-related stimuli did not lead to a greater corticospinal excitability than EM-related stimuli or than stimuli with no motivational valence (ps > .20). While these results tend to dismiss the advantage of IM at activating the motor cortex, we suggest alternative hypotheses to explain this lack of effect, which deserves further research. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  6. Regulating prefrontal cortex activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aznar, Susana; Klein, Anders Bue

    2013-01-01

    is highly expressed in the prefrontal cortex areas, playing an important role in modulating cortical activity and neural oscillations (brain waves). This makes it an interesting potential pharmacological target for the treatment of neuropsychiatric modes characterized by lack of inhibitory control...

  7. The anterior cingulate cortex

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    Pavlović D.M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC has a role in attention, analysis of sensory information, error recognition, problem solving, detection of novelty, behavior, emotions, social relations, cognitive control, and regulation of visceral functions. This area is active whenever the individual feels some emotions, solves a problem, or analyzes the pros and cons of an action (if it is a right decision. Analogous areas are also found in higher mammals, especially whales, and they contain spindle neurons that enable complex social interactions. Disturbance of ACC activity is found in dementias, schizophrenia, depression, the obsessive-compulsive syndrome, and other neuropsychiatric diseases.

  8. Damage to the prefrontal cortex increases utilitarian moral judgements

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    Koenigs, Michael; Young, Liane; Adolphs, Ralph; Tranel, Daniel; Cushman, Fiery; Hauser, Marc; Damasio, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    The psychological and neurobiological processes underlying moral judgement have been the focus of many recent empirical studies1–11. Of central interest is whether emotions play a causal role in moral judgement, and, in parallel, how emotion-related areas of the brain contribute to moral judgement. Here we show that six patients with focal bilateral damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPC), a brain region necessary for the normal generation of emotions and, in particular, social em...

  9. Chemosensory Learning in the Cortex

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    Edmund eRolls

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Taste is a primary reinforcer. Olfactory-taste and visual-taste association learning takes place in the primate including human orbitofrontal cortex to build representations of flavour. Rapid reversal of this learning can occur using a rule-based learning system that can be reset when an expected taste or flavour reward is not obtained, that is by negative reward prediction error, to which a population of neurons in the orbitofrontal cortex responds. The representation in the orbitofrontal cortex but not the primary taste or olfactory cortex is of the reward value of the visual / olfactory / taste / input as shown by devaluation experiments in which food is fed to satiety, and by correlations with the activations with subjective pleasantness ratings in humans. Sensory-specific satiety for taste, olfactory, visual, and oral somatosensory inputs produced by feeding a particular food to satiety are implemented it is proposed by medium-term synaptic adaptation in the orbitofrontal cortex. Cognitive factors, including word-level descriptions, modulate the representation of the reward value of food in the orbitofrontal cortex, and this effect is learned it is proposed by associative modification of top-down synapses onto neurons activated by bottom-up taste and olfactory inputs when both are active in the orbitofrontal cortex. A similar associative synaptic learning process is proposed to be part of the mechanism for the top-down attentional control to the reward value vs the sensory properties such as intensity of taste and olfactory inputs in the orbitofrontal cortex, as part of a biased activation theory of selective attention.

  10. MRI volumetry of prefrontal cortex

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    Sheline, Yvette I.; Black, Kevin J.; Lin, Daniel Y.; Pimmel, Joseph; Wang, Po; Haller, John W.; Csernansky, John G.; Gado, Mokhtar; Walkup, Ronald K.; Brunsden, Barry S.; Vannier, Michael W.

    1995-05-01

    Prefrontal cortex volumetry by brain magnetic resonance (MR) is required to estimate changes postulated to occur in certain psychiatric and neurologic disorders. A semiautomated method with quantitative characterization of its performance is sought to reliably distinguish small prefrontal cortex volume changes within individuals and between groups. Stereological methods were tested by a blinded comparison of measurements applied to 3D MR scans obtained using an MPRAGE protocol. Fixed grid stereologic methods were used to estimate prefrontal cortex volumes on a graphic workstation, after the images are scaled from 16 to 8 bits using a histogram method. In addition images were resliced into coronal sections perpendicular to the bicommissural plane. Prefrontal cortex volumes were defined as all sections of the frontal lobe anterior to the anterior commissure. Ventricular volumes were excluded. Stereological measurement yielded high repeatability and precision, and was time efficient for the raters. The coefficient of error was patients with brain disorders such as depression and schizophrenia can be efficiently assessed using this method.

  11. Maudsley Bipolar Disorder Project: insights sobre o papel do córtex pré-frontal em pacientes com transtorno de humor bipolar tipo I Proyecto Maudsley para Trastorno Bipolar: insights sobre el rol del córtex prefrontal en casos de disturbio bipolar I The Maudsley Bipolar Disorder Project: insights into the role of the prefrontal cortex in bipolar disorder I

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    Morgan Haldane

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O projeto Maudsley Bipolar Disorder foi criado para investigar características cognitivas e estruturais/funcionais do cérebro em pacientes com Transtorno de Humor Bipolar Tipo I (THB-I. MÉTODOS: Quarenta e três pacientes com THB-I foram selecionados em uma unidade de atendimento secundário, em um momento de remissão da doença, para participarem do estudo. Os pacientes foram pareados a controles sadios de acordo com idade, sexo, raça e nível de escolaridade. Cada participante foi submetido a uma extensa revisão clínica, com avaliação cognitiva e exame de ressonância magnética (RM para a obtenção de dados estruturais e funcionais do cérebro. RESULTADOS: Quando comparados aos controles, os pacientes demonstraram um sutil e difuso comprometimento com redução mais marcante no nível das funções executivas. Os pacientes também apresentaram decrementos volumétricos no córtex pré-frontal ventral (CPFV bilateralmente e córtex pré-frontal dorsal (CPFD esquerdo. O volume da amígdala estava bilateralmente aumentado. A ressonância magnética funcional (RMf mostrou anormalidades sutis no CPFD, com marcados decrementos de atividade tanto no CPFD como no CPFV durante tarefas que dependiam da interação funcional dessas regiões. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados sugerem que ocorrem traços de déficits em funções executivas em pacientes com THB-I, assim como alteração de estrutura e funcionamento do córtex pré-frontal.OBJETIVO: El proyecto Maudsley para Trastorno Bipolar fue creado para investigar características cognitivas y estructurales/funcionales del cerebro en pacientes con Trastorno Bipolar I (TBI. MÉTODOS: Cuarenta y tres pacientes con TBI han sido elegidos en una unidad de atención secundaria para participar del estudio, en un momento de remisión de la enfermedad. Los pacientes han sido pareados a controles sanos conforme a edad, sexo, raza y nivel de escolaridad. Cada participante ha sido sometido a una

  12. Alcohol and the prefrontal cortex.

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    Abernathy, Kenneth; Chandler, L Judson; Woodward, John J

    2010-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex occupies the anterior portion of the frontal lobes and is thought to be one of the most complex anatomical and functional structures of the mammalian brain. Its major role is to integrate and interpret inputs from cortical and sub-cortical structures and use this information to develop purposeful responses that reflect both present and future circumstances. This includes both action-oriented sequences involved in obtaining rewards and inhibition of behaviors that pose undue risk or harm to the individual. Given the central role in initiating and regulating these often complex cognitive and behavioral responses, it is no surprise that alcohol has profound effects on the function of the prefrontal cortex. In this chapter, we review the basic anatomy and physiology of the prefrontal cortex and discuss what is known about the actions of alcohol on the function of this brain region. This includes a review of both the human and animal literature including information on the electrophysiological and behavioral effects that follow acute and chronic exposure to alcohol. The chapter concludes with a discussion of unanswered questions and areas needing further investigation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Finding prefrontal cortex in the rat.

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    Leonard, Christiana M

    2016-08-15

    The prefrontal cortex of the rat. I. Cortical projection of the mediodorsal nucleus. II. Efferent connections The cortical projection field of the mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus (MD) was identified in the rat using the Fink-Heimer silver technique for tracing degenerating fibers. Small stereotaxic lesions confined to MD were followed by terminal degeneration in the dorsal bank of the rhinal sulcus (sulcal cortex) and the medial wall of the hemisphere anterior and dorsal to the genu of the corpus callosum (medial cortex). No degenerating fibers were traced to the convexity of the hemisphere. The cortical formation receiving a projection from MD is of a relatively undifferentiated type which had been previously classified as juxtallocortex. A study of the efferent fiber connections of the rat׳s MD-projection cortex demonstrated some similarities to those of monkey prefrontal cortex. A substantial projection to the pretectal area and deep layers of the superior colliculus originates in medial cortex, a connection previously reported for caudal prefrontal (area 8) cortex in the monkey. Sulcal cortex projects to basal olfactory structures and lateral hypothalamus, as does orbital frontal cortex in the monkey. The rat׳s MD-projection cortex differs from that in the monkey in that it lacks a granular layer and appears to have no prominent direct associations with temporal and juxtahippocampal areas. Furthermore, retrograde degeneration does not appear in the rat thalamus after damage to MD-projection areas, suggesting that the striatum or thalamus receives a proportionally larger share of the MD-projection in this animal than it does in the monkey. Comparative behavioral investigations are in progress to investigate functional differences between granular prefrontal cortex in the primate and the relatively primitive MD-projection cortex in the rat. © 1969. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI:50th Anniversary Issue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B

  14. Top-Down Control of Motor Cortex Ensembles by Dorsomedial Prefrontal Cortex

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    Narayanan, Nandakumar S.; Laubach, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Dorsomedial prefrontal cortex is critical for the temporal control of behavior. Dorsomedial prefrontal cortex might alter neuronal activity in areas such as motor cortex to inhibit temporally inappropriate responses. We tested this hypothesis by recording from neuronal ensembles in rodent dorsomedial prefrontal cortex during a delayed-response task. One-third of dorsomedial prefrontal neurons were significantly modulated during the delay period. The activity of many of these neurons was predi...

  15. Mapping Prefrontal Cortex Functions in Human Infancy

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    Grossmann, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    It has long been thought that the prefrontal cortex, as the seat of most higher brain functions, is functionally silent during most of infancy. This review highlights recent work concerned with the precise mapping (localization) of brain activation in human infants, providing evidence that prefrontal cortex exhibits functional activation much…

  16. Learning in the Rodent Motor Cortex.

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    Peters, Andrew J; Liu, Haixin; Komiyama, Takaki

    2017-07-25

    The motor cortex is far from a stable conduit for motor commands and instead undergoes significant changes during learning. An understanding of motor cortex plasticity has been advanced greatly using rodents as experimental animals. Two major focuses of this research have been on the connectivity and activity of the motor cortex. The motor cortex exhibits structural changes in response to learning, and substantial evidence has implicated the local formation and maintenance of new synapses as crucial substrates of motor learning. This synaptic reorganization translates into changes in spiking activity, which appear to result in a modification and refinement of the relationship between motor cortical activity and movement. This review presents the progress that has been made using rodents to establish the motor cortex as an adaptive structure that supports motor learning.

  17. Visual Categorization and the Parietal Cortex

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    Jamie K Fitzgerald

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The primate brain is adept at rapidly grouping items and events into functional classes, or categories, in order to recognize the significance of stimuli and guide behavior. Higher cognitive functions have traditionally been considered the domain of frontal areas. However, increasing evidence suggests that parietal cortex is also involved in categorical and associative processes. Previous work showed that the parietal cortex is highly involved in spatial processing, attention and saccadic eye movement planning, and more recent studies have found decision-making signals in LIP. We recently found that a subdivision of parietal cortex, the lateral intraparietal area (LIP, reflects learned categories for multiple types of visual stimuli. Additionally, a comparison of categorization signals in parietal and frontal areas found stronger and earlier categorization signals in parietal cortex, arguing that parietal abstract association or category signals are unlikely to arise via feedback from prefrontal cortex (PFC.

  18. Preparatory attention in visual cortex.

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    Battistoni, Elisa; Stein, Timo; Peelen, Marius V

    2017-05-01

    Top-down attention is the mechanism that allows us to selectively process goal-relevant aspects of a scene while ignoring irrelevant aspects. A large body of research has characterized the effects of attention on neural activity evoked by a visual stimulus. However, attention also includes a preparatory phase before stimulus onset in which the attended dimension is internally represented. Here, we review neurophysiological, functional magnetic resonance imaging, magnetoencephalography, electroencephalography, and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies investigating the neural basis of preparatory attention, both when attention is directed to a location in space and when it is directed to nonspatial stimulus attributes (content-based attention) ranging from low-level features to object categories. Results show that both spatial and content-based attention lead to increased baseline activity in neural populations that selectively code for the attended attribute. TMS studies provide evidence that this preparatory activity is causally related to subsequent attentional selection and behavioral performance. Attention thus acts by preactivating selective neurons in the visual cortex before stimulus onset. This appears to be a general mechanism that can operate on multiple levels of representation. We discuss the functional relevance of this mechanism, its limitations, and its relation to working memory, imagery, and expectation. We conclude by outlining open questions and future directions. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  19. Frontal Cortex Mediates Unconsciously Triggered Inhibitory Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    van Gaal, Simon; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard; Fahrenfort, Johannes J; Scholte, H. Steven; Lamme, Victor A. F

    2008-01-01

    ... with the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Behaviorally, unconscious No-Go signals sometimes triggered response inhibition to the level of complete response termination and yielded a slow down in the speed of responses that were not...

  20. Actin cortex architecture regulates cell surface tension.

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    Chugh, Priyamvada; Clark, Andrew G; Smith, Matthew B; Cassani, Davide A D; Dierkes, Kai; Ragab, Anan; Roux, Philippe P; Charras, Guillaume; Salbreux, Guillaume; Paluch, Ewa K

    2017-06-01

    Animal cell shape is largely determined by the cortex, a thin actin network underlying the plasma membrane in which myosin-driven stresses generate contractile tension. Tension gradients result in local contractions and drive cell deformations. Previous cortical tension regulation studies have focused on myosin motors. Here, we show that cortical actin network architecture is equally important. First, we observe that actin cortex thickness and tension are inversely correlated during cell-cycle progression. We then show that the actin filament length regulators CFL1, CAPZB and DIAPH1 regulate mitotic cortex thickness and find that both increasing and decreasing thickness decreases tension in mitosis. This suggests that the mitotic cortex is poised close to a tension maximum. Finally, using a computational model, we identify a physical mechanism by which maximum tension is achieved at intermediate actin filament lengths. Our results indicate that actin network architecture, alongside myosin activity, is key to cell surface tension regulation.

  1. Contributions of anterior cingulate cortex to behaviour.

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    Devinsky, O; Morrell, M J; Vogt, B A

    1995-02-01

    Assessments of anterior cingulate cortex in experimental animals and humans have led to unifying theories of its structural organization and contributions to mammalian behaviour. The anterior cingulate cortex forms a large region around the rostrum of the corpus callosum that is termed the anterior executive region. This region has numerous projections into motor systems, however, since these projections originate from different parts of anterior cingulate cortex and because functional studies have shown that it does not have a uniform contribution to brain functions, the anterior executive region is further subdivided into 'affect' and 'cognition' components. The affect division includes areas 25, 33 and rostral area 24, and has extensive connections with the amygdala and periaqueductal grey, and parts of it project to autonomic brainstem motor nuclei. In addition to regulating autonomic and endocrine functions, it is involved in conditioned emotional learning, vocalizations associated with expressing internal states, assessments of motivational content and assigning emotional valence to internal and external stimuli, and maternal-infant interactions. The cognition division includes caudal areas 24' and 32', the cingulate motor areas in the cingulate sulcus and nociceptive cortex. The cingulate motor areas project to the spinal cord and red nucleus and have premotor functions, while the nociceptive area is engaged in both response selection and cognitively demanding information processing. The cingulate epilepsy syndrome provides important support of experimental animal and human functional imaging studies for the role of anterior cingulate cortex in movement, affect and social behaviours. Excessive cingulate activity in cases with seizures confirmed in anterior cingulate cortex with subdural electrode recordings, can impair consciousness, alter affective state and expression, and influence skeletomotor and autonomic activity. Interictally, patients with anterior

  2. Food related processes in the insular cortex

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    Sabine eFrank

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The insular cortex is a multimodal brain region with regional cytoarchitectonic differences indicating various functional specializations. As a multisensory neural node, the insular cortex integrates perception, emotion, interoceptive awareness, cognition, and gustation. Regarding the latter, predominantly the anterior part of the insular cortex is regarded as the primary taste cortex.In this review, we will specifically focus on the involvement of the insula in food processing and on multimodal integration of food-related items. Influencing factors of insular activation elicited by various foods range from calorie-content to the internal physiologic state, body mass index or eating behavior. Sensory perception of food-related stimuli including seeing, smelling, and tasting elicits increased activation in the anterior and mid-dorsal part of the insular cortex. Apart from the pure sensory gustatory processing, there is also a strong association with the rewarding/hedonic aspects of food items, which is reflected in higher insular activity and stronger connections to other reward-related areas. Interestingly, the processing of food items has been found to elicit different insular activation in lean compared to obese subjects and in patients suffering from an eating disorder (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa. The knowledge of functional differences in the insular cortex opens up the opportunity for possible noninvasive treatment approaches for obesity and eating disorders. To target brain functions directly, real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging neurofeedback offers a state-of-the-art tool to learn to control the anterior insular cortex activity voluntarily. First evidence indicates that obese adults have an enhanced ability to regulate the anterior insular cortex.

  3. The adrenal cortex and life.

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    Vinson, Gavin P

    2009-03-05

    The template for our understanding of the physiological role of the adrenal cortex was set by Hans Selye, who demonstrated its key involvement in the response to stress, of whatever origin, and who also introduced the terms glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid. Despite this, from the late 1940s on there was certainly general awareness of the multiple actions of glucocorticoids, including effects on the thymus and immune system, cardiovascular system, water balance, and the CNS. For these reasons, and perhaps because in the early studies of the actions of individual steroids there was less clear-cut difference between them, there was some initial resistance to the use of these terms. Today they are universal and unchallenged. It can be argued that, with respect to the glucocorticoids, this term colours our perception of their physiological importance, and may be misleading. By taking evidence from disease states, emphasis is placed on extreme conditions that do not necessarily reveal normal physiology. In particular, evidence for the role of glucocorticoid regulation of gluconeogenesis and blood glucose in the normal subject or animal is inconclusive. Similarly, while highly plausible theories explaining glucocorticoid actions on inflammation or the immune system as part of normal physiology have been presented, direct evidence to support them is hard to find. Under extreme conditions of chronic stress, the cumulative actions of glucocorticoids on insulin resistance or immunocompromise may indeed seem to be actually damaging. Two well-documented and long recognized situations create huge variation in glucocorticoid secretion. These are the circadian rhythm, and the acute response to mild stress, such as handling, in the rat. Neither of these can be adequately explained by the need for glucocorticoid action, as we currently understand it, particularly on carbohydrate metabolism or on the immune system. Perhaps we should re-examine other targets at the physiological

  4. The Role of Human Parietal Cortex in Attention Networks

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    Han, Shihui; Jiang, Yi; Gu, Hua; Rao, Hengyi; Mao, Lihua; Cui, Yong; Zhai, Renyou

    2004-01-01

    The parietal cortex has been proposed as part of the neural network for guiding spatial attention. However, it is unclear to what degree the parietal cortex contributes to the attentional modulations of activities of the visual cortex and the engagement of the frontal cortex in the attention network. We recorded behavioural performance and…

  5. Auditory Connections and Functions of Prefrontal Cortex

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    Bethany ePlakke

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The functional auditory system extends from the ears to the frontal lobes with successively more complex functions occurring as one ascends the hierarchy of the nervous system. Several areas of the frontal lobe receive afferents from both early and late auditory processing regions within the temporal lobe. Afferents from the early part of the cortical auditory system, the auditory belt cortex, which are presumed to carry information regarding auditory features of sounds, project to only a few prefrontal regions and are most dense in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC. In contrast, projections from the parabelt and the rostral superior temporal gyrus (STG most likely convey more complex information and target a larger, widespread region of the prefrontal cortex. Neuronal responses reflect these anatomical projections as some prefrontal neurons exhibit responses to features in acoustic stimuli, while other neurons display task-related responses. For example, recording studies in non-human primates indicate that VLPFC is responsive to complex sounds including vocalizations and that VLPFC neurons in area 12/47 respond to sounds with similar acoustic morphology. In contrast, neuronal responses during auditory working memory involve a wider region of the prefrontal cortex. In humans, the frontal lobe is involved in auditory detection, discrimination, and working memory. Past research suggests that dorsal and ventral subregions of the prefrontal cortex process different types of information with dorsal cortex processing spatial/visual information and ventral cortex processing non-spatial/auditory information. While this is apparent in the non-human primate and in some neuroimaging studies, most research in humans indicates that specific task conditions, stimuli or previous experience may bias the recruitment of specific prefrontal regions, suggesting a more flexible role for the frontal lobe during auditory cognition.

  6. Auditory connections and functions of prefrontal cortex

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    Plakke, Bethany; Romanski, Lizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    The functional auditory system extends from the ears to the frontal lobes with successively more complex functions occurring as one ascends the hierarchy of the nervous system. Several areas of the frontal lobe receive afferents from both early and late auditory processing regions within the temporal lobe. Afferents from the early part of the cortical auditory system, the auditory belt cortex, which are presumed to carry information regarding auditory features of sounds, project to only a few prefrontal regions and are most dense in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC). In contrast, projections from the parabelt and the rostral superior temporal gyrus (STG) most likely convey more complex information and target a larger, widespread region of the prefrontal cortex. Neuronal responses reflect these anatomical projections as some prefrontal neurons exhibit responses to features in acoustic stimuli, while other neurons display task-related responses. For example, recording studies in non-human primates indicate that VLPFC is responsive to complex sounds including vocalizations and that VLPFC neurons in area 12/47 respond to sounds with similar acoustic morphology. In contrast, neuronal responses during auditory working memory involve a wider region of the prefrontal cortex. In humans, the frontal lobe is involved in auditory detection, discrimination, and working memory. Past research suggests that dorsal and ventral subregions of the prefrontal cortex process different types of information with dorsal cortex processing spatial/visual information and ventral cortex processing non-spatial/auditory information. While this is apparent in the non-human primate and in some neuroimaging studies, most research in humans indicates that specific task conditions, stimuli or previous experience may bias the recruitment of specific prefrontal regions, suggesting a more flexible role for the frontal lobe during auditory cognition. PMID:25100931

  7. Perirhinal cortex and temporal lobe epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe eBiagini

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The perirhinal cortex – which is interconnected with several limbic structures and is intimately involved in learning and memory - plays major roles in pathological processes such as the kindling phenomenon of epileptogenesis and the spread of limbic seizures. Both features may be relevant to the pathophysiology of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy that represents the most refractory adult form of epilepsy with up to 30% of patients not achieving adequate seizure control. Compared to other limbic structures such as the hippocampus or the entorhinal cortex, the perirhinal area remains understudied and, in particular, detailed information on its dysfunctional characteristics remains scarce; this lack of information may be due to the fact that the perirhinal cortex is not grossly damaged in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy and in models mimicking this epileptic disorder. However, we have recently identified in pilocarpine-treated epileptic rats the presence of selective losses of interneuron subtypes along with increased synaptic excitability. In this review we: (i highlight the fundamental electrophysiological properties of perirhinal cortex neurons; (ii briefly stress the mechanisms underlying epileptiform synchronization in perirhinal cortex networks following epileptogenic pharmacological manipulations; and (iii focus on the changes in neuronal excitability and cytoarchitecture of the perirhinal cortex occurring in the pilocarpine model of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Overall, these data indicate that perirhinal cortex networks are hyperexcitable in an animal model of temporal lobe epilepsy, and that this condition is associated with a selective cellular damage that is characterized by an age-dependent sensitivity of interneurons to precipitating injuries, such as status epilepticus.

  8. Binding crossmodal object features in perirhinal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Kirsten I; Moss, Helen E; Stamatakis, Emmanuel A; Tyler, Lorraine K

    2006-05-23

    Knowledge of objects in the world is stored in our brains as rich, multimodal representations. Because the neural pathways that process this diverse sensory information are largely anatomically distinct, a fundamental challenge to cognitive neuroscience is to explain how the brain binds the different sensory features that comprise an object to form meaningful, multimodal object representations. Studies with nonhuman primates suggest that a structure at the culmination of the object recognition system (the perirhinal cortex) performs this critical function. In contrast, human neuroimaging studies implicate the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS). The results of the functional MRI study reported here resolve this apparent discrepancy by demonstrating that both pSTS and the perirhinal cortex contribute to crossmodal binding in humans, but in different ways. Significantly, only perirhinal cortex activity is modulated by meaning variables (e.g., semantic congruency and semantic category), suggesting that these two regions play complementary functional roles, with pSTS acting as a presemantic, heteromodal region for crossmodal perceptual features, and perirhinal cortex integrating these features into higher-level conceptual representations. This interpretation is supported by the results of our behavioral study: Patients with lesions, including the perirhinal cortex, but not patients with damage restricted to frontal cortex, were impaired on the same crossmodal integration task, and their performance was significantly influenced by the same semantic factors, mirroring the functional MRI findings. These results integrate nonhuman and human primate research by providing converging evidence that human perirhinal cortex is also critically involved in processing meaningful aspects of multimodal object representations.

  9. The 'double cortex' syndrome on MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, R; Seki, T; Takuma, Y; Suzuki, N

    1993-01-01

    We report a 6-year-old girl with diffuse subcortical heterotopia (band heterotopia), an unusual type of ectopic gray matter on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Her cerebral parenchyma had four layers consisting of cortex, thin outer white matter, diffuse subcortical heterotopia, and inner white matter around the lateral ventricles, giving the appearance of a 'double cortex'. The overlying cortex had midly broad gyri, especially in the frontal lobes. MRI showed the appearance of laminar heterotopia, a classical pathological entity. The double cortex syndrome is presumably a radiological delineation of laminar heterotopia. Her development was slightly delayed and she was clumsy and easily upset, with poor impulse control. However, her daily life was largely unaffected in spite of the severe abnormalities on MRI. She had abnormal movements during sleep, and sleeping EEG showed high voltage spindles in the bilateral frontal areas but no epileptic discharges. It could not be determined whether or not these movements were epileptic. The double cortex syndrome, an anomaly of the central nervous system associated with mental retardation, epilepsy, behavioral problems, and exclusive occurrence in girls, will be established as a clinico-radiological entity.

  10. Motor cortex neuroplasticity following brachial plexus transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimou, Stefan; Biggs, Michael; Tonkin, Michael; Hickie, Ian B; Lagopoulos, Jim

    2013-01-01

    In the past decade, research has demonstrated that cortical plasticity, once thought only to exist in the early stages of life, does indeed continue on into adulthood. Brain plasticity is now acknowledged as a core principle of brain function and describes the ability of the central nervous system to adapt and modify its structural organization and function as an adaptive response to functional demand. In this clinical case study we describe how we used neuroimaging techniques to observe the functional topographical expansion of a patch of cortex along the sensorimotor cortex of a 27-year-old woman following brachial plexus transfer surgery to re-innervate her left arm. We found bilateral activations present in the thalamus, caudate, insula as well as across the sensorimotor cortex during an elbow flex motor task. In contrast we found less activity in the sensorimotor cortex for a finger tap motor task in addition to activations lateralized to the left inferior frontal gyrus and thalamus and bilaterally for the insula. From a pain perspective the patient who had experienced extensive phantom limb pain (PLP) before surgery found these sensations were markedly reduced following transfer of the right brachial plexus to the intact left arm. Within the context of this clinical case the results suggest that functional improvements in limb mobility are associated with increased activation in the sensorimotor cortex as well as reduced PLP.

  11. Motor cortex neuroplasticity following brachial plexus transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan eDimou

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, research has demonstrated that cortical plasticity, once thought only to exist in the early stages of life, does indeed continue on into adulthood. Brain plasticity is now acknowledged as a core principle of brain function and describes the ability of the central nervous system to adapt and modify its structural organization and function as an adaptive response to functional demand. In this clinical case study we describe how we used neuroimaging techniques to observe the functional topographical expansion of a patch of cortex along the sensorimotor cortex of a 27 year-old woman following brachial plexus transfer surgery to re-innervate her left arm. We found bilateral activations present in the thalamus, caudate, insula as well as across the sensorimotor cortex during an elbow flex motor task. In contrast we found less activity in the sensorimotor cortex for a finger tap motor task in addition to activations lateralised to the left inferior frontal gyrus and thalamus and bilaterally for the insula. From a pain perspective the patient who had experienced extensive phantom limb pain before surgery found these sensations were markedly reduced following transfer of the right brachial plexus to the intact left arm. Within the context of this clinical case the results suggest that functional improvements in limb mobility are associated with increased activation in the sensorimotor cortex as well as reduced phantom limb pain.

  12. Isolated frontopolar cortex lesion: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Michael; Bar-On, Reuven

    2012-03-01

    The frontopolar cortex has been proposed to mediate prospective memory functioning, multitasking, relational integration, processing of internal states, and self-referential evaluation. These theories are based primarily on functional activation studies. The few lesion models reported have not been restricted to the frontopolar cortex. We used neuropsychological tests and neuroimaging to study an otherwise healthy woman with an isolated hemorrhagic infarct in the frontopolar cortex. In addition to a standard stroke work-up, the patient had cognitive psychometric tests reflecting the theoretical frontal functions of initiation, monitoring, inhibition, and working memory, as well as a test for emotional intelligence. The midline frontopolar intracerebral hemorrhage was isolated, free of other pathology, and almost solely within Brodmann area 10. The only psychometric abnormalities concerned awareness of, understanding, and expressing emotions. This report may be the first of an isolated bilateral lesion of the frontopolar cortex, Brodmann area 10, with uniformly normal frontal lobe tests except for 2 abnormal findings of emotional intelligence. This lesion study supports the proposal that the medial frontopolar cortex is necessary for emotional processing of internal states.

  13. [Prefrontal cortex in memory and attention processes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegri, R F; Harris, P

    The role of the prefrontal cortex still remains poorly understood. Only after 1970, the functions of the frontal lobes have been conceptualized from different points of view (behaviorism, cognitivism). Recently,different parallel circuits connecting discrete cortical and subcortical regions of the frontal lobes have been described. Three of these circuits are the most relevant to understanding of behavior: the dorsolateral prefrontal circuit, that mediates executive behavior; the orbitofrontal prefrontal circuit, mediating social behavior, and the medial frontal circuit, involved in motivation. Damage to the frontal cortex impairs planning, problem solving, reasoning, concept formation, temporal ordering of stimuli, estimation, attention, memory search, maintaining information in working memory, associative learning,certain forms of skilled motor activities, image generation and manipulation of the spatial properties of a stimulus, metacognitive thinking, and social cognition. Several theories have been proposed to explain the functions of the prefrontal cortex. Currently,the most influential cognitive models are: the Norman and Shallice supervisory attentional system, involved in non-routine selection; the Baddeley working memory model with the central executive as a supervisory controlling system, in which impairment leads to a 'dysexecutive syndrome'; and the Grafman's model of managerial knowledge units, stored as macrostructured information in the frontal cortex. The prefrontal cortex is essential for attentional control, manipulation of stored knowledge and modulation of complex actions, cognition, emotion and behavior.

  14. The Age of Human Cerebral Cortex Neurons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhardwaj, R D; Curtis, M A; Spalding, K L; Buchholz, B A; Fink, D; Bjork-Eriksson, T; Nordborg, C; Gage, F H; Druid, H; Eriksson, P S; Frisen, J

    2006-04-06

    The traditional static view of the adult mammalian brain has been challenged by the realization of continuous generation of neurons from stem cells. Based mainly on studies in experimental animals, adult neurogenesis may contribute to recovery after brain insults and decreased neurogenesis has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurological and psychiatric diseases in man. The extent of neurogenesis in the adult human brain has, however, been difficult to establish. We have taken advantage of the integration of {sup 14}C, generated by nuclear bomb tests during the Cold War, in DNA to establish the age of neurons in the major areas of the human cerebral cortex. Together with the analysis of the cortex from patients who received BrdU, which integrates in the DNA of dividing cells, our results demonstrate that whereas non-neuronal cells turn over, neurons in the human cerebral cortex are not generated postnatally at detectable levels, but are as old as the individual.

  15. The Cingulate Cortex and Human Memory Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria M.Pyasik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents data from a magnetic-resonance morphometric (MRMM analysisof the main regions of the cingulate cortex (in both hemispheres and theirrole in memory processes in a group of healthy, females of older age. The resultsdemonstrate a statistically reliable correlation between overall performance andthe type of errors in different neuropsychological memory tests and the relativesize of these regions. The discovered pattern of correlations can be explained byhypothesizing the reciprocal functional influence of the two major areas of thecingulate cortex – its anterior and posterior dorsal parts – on performance in neuropsychologicalmemory tests.

  16. Retention and relearning of spatial delayed alternation in rats after combined or sequential lesions of the prefrontal and parietal cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wörtwein, Gitta; Mogensen, Jesper; Divac, Ivan

    1993-01-01

    Neurobiologi, præfrontal cortex, delayed alternation, rotte, parietal cortex, funktionel genopretning......Neurobiologi, præfrontal cortex, delayed alternation, rotte, parietal cortex, funktionel genopretning...

  17. Primary Auditory Cortex Regulates Threat Memory Specificity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigestrand, Mattis B.; Schiff, Hillary C.; Fyhn, Marianne; LeDoux, Joseph E.; Sears, Robert M.

    2017-01-01

    Distinguishing threatening from nonthreatening stimuli is essential for survival and stimulus generalization is a hallmark of anxiety disorders. While auditory threat learning produces long-lasting plasticity in primary auditory cortex (Au1), it is not clear whether such Au1 plasticity regulates memory specificity or generalization. We used…

  18. Medial Prefrontal Cortex Updates Its Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cikara, Mina; Gershman, Samuel J

    2016-12-07

    How does the brain infer social status? A new study by Kumaran et al. (2016) identifies a region of the medial prefrontal cortex that, in concert with the amygdala and hippocampus, subserves updating of probabilistic beliefs about the status of individuals in a social hierarchy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Motor Cortex Reorganization across the Lifespan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plowman, Emily K.; Kleim, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    The brain is a highly dynamic structure with the capacity for profound structural and functional change. Such neural plasticity has been well characterized within motor cortex and is believed to represent one of the neural mechanisms for acquiring and modifying motor behaviors. A number of behavioral and neural signals have been identified that…

  20. The Harmonic Organization of Auditory Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqin eWang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental structure of sounds encountered in the natural environment is the harmonicity. Harmonicity is an essential component of music found in all cultures. It is also a unique feature of vocal communication sounds such as human speech and animal vocalizations. Harmonics in sounds are produced by a variety of acoustic generators and reflectors in the natural environment, including vocal apparatuses of humans and animal species as well as music instruments of many types. We live in an acoustic world full of harmonicity. Given the widespread existence of the harmonicity in many aspects of the hearing environment, it is natural to expect that it be reflected in the evolution and development of the auditory systems of both humans and animals, in particular the auditory cortex. Recent neuroimaging and neurophysiology experiments have identified regions of non-primary auditory cortex in humans and non-human primates that have selective responses to harmonic pitches. Accumulating evidence has also shown that neurons in many regions of the auditory cortex exhibit characteristic responses to harmonically related frequencies beyond the range of pitch. Together, these findings suggest that a fundamental organizational principle of auditory cortex is based on the harmonicity. Such an organization likely plays an important role in music processing by the brain. It may also form the basis of the preference for particular classes of music and voice sounds.

  1. Microglia in the Cerebral Cortex in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetreault, Nicole A.; Hakeem, Atiya Y.; Jiang, Sue; Williams, Brian A.; Allman, Elizabeth; Wold, Barbara J.; Allman, John M.

    2012-01-01

    We immunocytochemically identified microglia in fronto-insular (FI) and visual cortex (VC) in autopsy brains of well-phenotyped subjects with autism and matched controls, and stereologically quantified the microglial densities. Densities were determined blind to phenotype using an optical fractionator probe. In FI, individuals with autism had…

  2. Motion direction biases in retinotopic cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raemaekers, M.; Lankheet, M.J.M.; Wezel, R.J.A. van

    2008-01-01

    Several functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have shown that perceiving different motion directions results in changes in the blood oxygenation level dependent signal (BOLD) response in retinotopic cortex. However, no fMRI study has yet systematically investigated the nature of these

  3. The harmonic organization of auditory cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoqin

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental structure of sounds encountered in the natural environment is the harmonicity. Harmonicity is an essential component of music found in all cultures. It is also a unique feature of vocal communication sounds such as human speech and animal vocalizations. Harmonics in sounds are produced by a variety of acoustic generators and reflectors in the natural environment, including vocal apparatuses of humans and animal species as well as music instruments of many types. We live in an acoustic world full of harmonicity. Given the widespread existence of the harmonicity in many aspects of the hearing environment, it is natural to expect that it be reflected in the evolution and development of the auditory systems of both humans and animals, in particular the auditory cortex. Recent neuroimaging and neurophysiology experiments have identified regions of non-primary auditory cortex in humans and non-human primates that have selective responses to harmonic pitches. Accumulating evidence has also shown that neurons in many regions of the auditory cortex exhibit characteristic responses to harmonically related frequencies beyond the range of pitch. Together, these findings suggest that a fundamental organizational principle of auditory cortex is based on the harmonicity. Such an organization likely plays an important role in music processing by the brain. It may also form the basis of the preference for particular classes of music and voice sounds. PMID:24381544

  4. Postictal inhibition of the somatosensory cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beniczky, Sándor; Jovanovic, Marina; Atkins, Mary Doreen

    2011-01-01

    Transient suppression of the motor cortex and of the speech areas cause well-described postictal phenomena following seizures involving the respective cortical areas. Pain is a rare symptom in epileptic seizures. We present a patient with painful tonic seizures in the left leg. The amplitude...

  5. Developmental Outcomes after Early Prefrontal Cortex Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslinger, Paul J.; Flaherty-Craig, Claire V.; Benton, Arthur L.

    2004-01-01

    The neuropsychological bases of cognitive, social, and moral development are minimally understood, with a seemingly wide chasm between developmental theories and brain maturation models. As one approach to bridging ideas in these areas, we review 10 cases of early prefrontal cortex damage from the clinical literature, highlighting overall clinical…

  6. Sensorimotor organization in double cortex syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirsch, Jeffrey D; Bernasconi, Neda; Villani, Flavio; Vitali, Paolo; Avanzini, Giuliano; Bernasconi, Andrea

    2006-06-01

    Subcortical band heterotopia is a diffuse malformation of cortical development related to pharmacologically intractable epilepsy. On magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), patients with "double cortex" syndrome (DCS) present with a band of heterotopic gray matter separated from the overlying cortex by a layer of white matter. The function and connectivity of the subcortical heterotopic band in humans is only partially understood. We studied six DCS patients with bilateral subcortical band heterotopias and six healthy controls using functional MRI (fMRI). In controls, simple motor task elicited contralateral activation of the primary motor cortex (M1) and ipsilateral activation of the cerebellum and left supplementary motor area (SMA). All DCS patients showed task-related contralateral activation of both M1 and the underlying heterotopic band. Ipsilateral motor activation was seen in 4/6 DCS patients. Furthermore, there were additional activations of nonprimary normotopic cortical areas. The sensory stimulus resulted in activation of the contralateral primary sensory cortex (SI) and the thalamus in all healthy subjects. The left sensory task also induced a contralateral activation of the insular cortex. Sensory activation of the contralateral SI was seen in all DCS patients and secondary somatosensory areas in 5/6. The heterotopic band beneath SI became activated in 3/6 DCS patients. Activations were also seen in subcortical structures for both paradigms. In DCS, motor and sensory tasks induce an activation of the subcortical heterotopic band. The recruitment of bilateral primary areas and higher-order association normotopic cortices indicates the need for a widespread network to perform simple tasks. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Medial frontal cortex and response conflict: Evidence from human intracranial EEG and medial frontal cortex lesion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, M.X.; Ridderinkhof, K.R.; Haupt, S.; Elger, C.E.; Fell, J.

    2008-01-01

    The medial frontal cortex (MFC) has been implicated in the monitoring and selection of actions in the face of competing alternatives, but much remains unknown about its functional properties, including electrophysiological oscillations, during response conflict tasks. Here, we recorded intracranial

  8. Phytochemical and Biological Studies of <em>Agave em>attenuata>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo de Feo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to examine various biological activities of a methanol extract of <em>Agave attenuataem> leaves. GC-MS analysis of the <em>n>-hexane fraction from the extract revealed the presence of 31 compounds, with mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (11.37%, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid (6.33%, <em>n>-docosane (6.30% and eicosane (6.02% as the major components. The leaves contained appreciable levels of total phenolic contents (10.541–39.35 GAE, mg/100 g and total flavonoid contents (43.35–304.8 CE, mg/100 g. The extract and some of its fractions showed moderate antimicrobial effects. Leaves extract and fractions also exhibited a good antioxidant potential when measured by DPPH radical scavenging activity and inhibition of lipid peroxidation assays. The hemolytic effect of the plant was found to be in a range of 1.01%–2.64%. From the present study it is concluded that this plant could be used as a source of natural antioxidants and functional food nutraceutical applications.

  9. Olfactory consciousness and gamma oscillation couplings across the olfactory bulb, olfactory cortex, and orbitofrontal cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Kensaku; Manabe, Hiroyuki; Narikiyo, Kimiya; Onisawa, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    The orbitofrontal cortex receives multi-modality sensory inputs, including olfactory input, and is thought to be involved in conscious perception of the olfactory image of objects. Generation of olfactory consciousness may require neuronal circuit mechanisms for the “binding” of distributed neuronal activities, with each constituent neuron representing a specific component of an olfactory percept. The shortest neuronal pathway for odor signals to reach the orbitofrontal cortex is olfactory sensory neuron—olfactory bulb—olfactory cortex—orbitofrontal cortex, but other pathways exist, including transthalamic pathways. Here, we review studies on the structural organization and functional properties of the shortest pathway, and propose a model of neuronal circuit mechanisms underlying the temporal bindings of distributed neuronal activities in the olfactory cortex. We describe a hypothesis that suggests functional roles of gamma oscillations in the bindings. This hypothesis proposes that two types of projection neurons in the olfactory bulb, tufted cells and mitral cells, play distinct functional roles in bindings at neuronal circuits in the olfactory cortex: tufted cells provide specificity-projecting circuits which send odor information with early-onset fast gamma synchronization, while mitral cells give rise to dispersedly-projecting feed-forward binding circuits which transmit the response synchronization timing with later-onset slow gamma synchronization. This hypothesis also suggests a sequence of bindings in the olfactory cortex: a small-scale binding by the early-phase fast gamma synchrony of tufted cell inputs followed by a larger-scale binding due to the later-onset slow gamma synchrony of mitral cell inputs. We discuss that behavioral state, including wakefulness and sleep, regulates gamma oscillation couplings across the olfactory bulb, olfactory cortex, and orbitofrontal cortex. PMID:24137148

  10. Premotor cortex modulates somatosensory cortex during voluntary movements without proprioceptive feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mark Schram; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Geertsen, Svend Sparre

    2007-01-01

    Movement perception relies on sensory feedback, but the involvement of efference copies remains unclear. We investigated movements without proprioceptive feedback using ischemic nerve block during fMRI in healthy humans, and found preserved activation of the primary somatosensory cortex. This act......Movement perception relies on sensory feedback, but the involvement of efference copies remains unclear. We investigated movements without proprioceptive feedback using ischemic nerve block during fMRI in healthy humans, and found preserved activation of the primary somatosensory cortex...

  11. Isolation and Expression of Glucosinolate Synthesis Genes <em>CYP83A1em> and <em>CYP83B1em> in Pak Choi (<em>Brassica em>rapa> L. ssp. <em>chinensis> var. <em>communis> (N. Tsen & S.H. Lee Hanelt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huasen Wang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available <em>CYP83A1em> and <em>CYP83B1em> are two key synthesis genes in the glucosinolate biosynthesis pathway. <em>CYP83A1em> mainly metabolizes the aliphatic oximes to form aliphatic glucosinolate and <em>CYP83B1em> mostly catalyzes aromatic oximes to synthesis corresponding substrates for aromatic and indolic glucosinolates. In this study, two <em>CYP83A1em> genes named <em>BcCYP83A1-1em> (JQ289997, <em>BcCYP83A1-2em> (JQ289996 respectively and one <em>CYP83B1em> (<em>BcCYP83B1em>, HM347235 gene were cloned from the leaves of pak choi (<em>Brassica rapaem> L. ssp. <em>chinensis em>var. <em>communis em>(N. Tsen & S.H. Lee Hanelt “Hangzhou You Dong Er” cultivar. Their ORFs were 1506, 1509 and 1500 bp in length, encoding 501, 502 and 499 amino acids, respectively. The predicted amino acid sequences of <em>CYP83A1-1em>, <em>CYP83A1-2 em>and <em>CYP83B1em> shared high sequence identity of 87.65, 86.48 and 95.59% to the corresponding ones in <em>Arabidopsis>, and 98.80, 98.61 and 98.80% to the corresponding ones in <em>Brassica pekinensis em>(Chinese cabbage, respectively. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that both <em>CYP83A1em> and <em>CYP83B1em> expressed in roots, leaves and petioles of pak choi, while the transcript abundances of <em>CYP83A1 em>were higher in leaves than in petioles and roots, whereas <em>CYP83B1 em>showed higher abundances in roots. The expression levels of glucosinolate biosynthetic genes were consistent with the glucosinolate profile accumulation in shoots of seven cultivars and three organs. The isolation and characterization of the glucosinolate synthesis genes in pak choi would promote the way for further development of agronomic traits via genetic engineering.

  12. The lizard cerebral cortex as a model to study neuronal regeneration

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    CARLOS LOPEZ-GARCIA

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The medial cerebral cortex of lizards, an area homologous to the hippocampal fascia dentata, shows delayed postnatal neurogenesis, i.e., cells in the medial cortex ependyma proliferate and give rise to immature neurons, which migrate to the cell layer. There, recruited neurons differentiate and give rise to zinc containing axons directed to the rest of cortical areas, thus resulting in a continuous growth of the medial cortex and its zinc-enriched axonal projection. This happens along the lizard life span, even in adult lizards, thus allowing one of their most important characteristics: neuronal regeneration. Experiments in our laboratory have shown that chemical lesion of the medial cortex (affecting up to 95% of its neurons results in a cascade of events: first, massive neuronal death and axonal-dendritic retraction and, secondly, triggered ependymal-neuroblast proliferation and subsequent neo-histogenesis and regeneration of an almost new medial cortex, indistinguishable from a normal undamaged one. This is the only case to our knowledge of the regeneration of an amniote central nervous centre by new neuron production and neo-histogenesis. Thus the lizard cerebral cortex is a good model to study neuronal regeneration and the complex factors that regulate its neurogenetic, migratory and neo-synaptogenetic events.O córtex cerebral de lagartos, uma área homóloga à fascia dentata hipocampal, exibe neurogênese pós-natal prolongada, isto é, o epêndima do córtex medial prolifera e dá origem a neurônios imaturos, que migram para a camada celular. Nesta camada, neurônios recrutados se diferenciam e dão origem a axônios, ricos em zinco, que se projetam para as demais áreas corticais, do que resulta um crescimento contínuo do córtex medial e sua projeção axonal. Isto acontece por toda a vida do lagarto, mesmo em animais adultos, o que permite uma de suas características mais importantes: a regeneração neuronal. Experimentos em

  13. Cell Counts in Cerebral Cortex of an Autistic Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Paul D.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Numbers of neurons and glia were counted in the cerebral cortex of one case of autism and two age- and sex-matched controls. Cell counts were made in primary auditory cortex, Broca's speech area, and auditory association cortex. No consistent differences in cell density were found between brains of autistic and control patients. (Author/CL)

  14. Sensitive Dependence of Mental Function on Prefrontal Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Alen J Salerian

    2015-01-01

    This study offers evidence to suggest that both normalcy and psychiatric illness are sensitively dependent upon prefrontal cortex function. In general, the emergence of psychiatric symptoms coincide with diminished influence of prefrontal cortex function. The mediating influence of prefrontal cortex may be independent of molecular and regional brain dysfunctions contributory to psychiatric illness.

  15. The prefrontal cortex and variants of sequential behaviour: indications of functional differentiation between subdivisions of the rat's prefrontal cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Jesper; Holm, Søren

    1994-01-01

    Neurobiologi, præfrontal cortex, sekventiel adfærd, rotte, adfærdsprogrammering, informationsbearbejdning......Neurobiologi, præfrontal cortex, sekventiel adfærd, rotte, adfærdsprogrammering, informationsbearbejdning...

  16. Reference Gene Selection in the Desert Plant <em>Eremosparton songoricuem>m>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dao-Yuan Zhang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available <em>Eremosparton songoricum em>(Litv. Vass. (<em>E. songoricumem> is a rare and extremely drought-tolerant desert plant that holds promise as a model organism for the identification of genes associated with water deficit stress. Here, we cloned and evaluated the expression of eight candidate reference genes using quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reactions. The expression of these candidate reference genes was analyzed in a diverse set of 20 samples including various <em>E. songoricumem> plant tissues exposed to multiple environmental stresses. GeNorm analysis indicated that expression stability varied between the reference genes in the different experimental conditions, but the two most stable reference genes were sufficient for normalization in most conditions.<em> EsEFem> and <em>Esα-TUB> were sufficient for various stress conditions, <em>EsEF> and <em>EsACT> were suitable for samples of differing germination stages, and <em>EsGAPDH>and <em>Es>UBQ em>were most stable across multiple adult tissue samples. The <em>Es18Sem> gene was unsuitable as a reference gene in our analysis. In addition, the expression level of the drought-stress related transcription factor <em>EsDREB2em>> em>verified the utility of<em> E. songoricumem> reference genes and indicated that no single gene was adequate for normalization on its own. This is the first systematic report on the selection of reference genes in <em>E. songoricumem>, and these data will facilitate future work on gene expression in this species.

  17. Monocular Visual Deprivation Suppresses Excitability in Adult Human Visual Cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lou, Astrid Rosenstand; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard; Paulson, Olaf Bjarne

    2011-01-01

    The adult visual cortex maintains a substantial potential for plasticity in response to a change in visual input. For instance, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies have shown that binocular deprivation (BD) increases the cortical excitability for inducing phosphenes with TMS. Here, we...... employed TMS to trace plastic changes in adult visual cortex before, during, and after 48 h of monocular deprivation (MD) of the right dominant eye. In healthy adult volunteers, MD-induced changes in visual cortex excitability were probed with paired-pulse TMS applied to the left and right occipital cortex...... of visual deprivation has a substantial impact on experience-dependent plasticity of the human visual cortex....

  18. Reconstructing speech from human auditory cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian N Pasley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available How the human auditory system extracts perceptually relevant acoustic features of speech is unknown. To address this question, we used intracranial recordings from nonprimary auditory cortex in the human superior temporal gyrus to determine what acoustic information in speech sounds can be reconstructed from population neural activity. We found that slow and intermediate temporal fluctuations, such as those corresponding to syllable rate, were accurately reconstructed using a linear model based on the auditory spectrogram. However, reconstruction of fast temporal fluctuations, such as syllable onsets and offsets, required a nonlinear sound representation based on temporal modulation energy. Reconstruction accuracy was highest within the range of spectro-temporal fluctuations that have been found to be critical for speech intelligibility. The decoded speech representations allowed readout and identification of individual words directly from brain activity during single trial sound presentations. These findings reveal neural encoding mechanisms of speech acoustic parameters in higher order human auditory cortex.

  19. Looming biases in monkey auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Joost X; Ghazanfar, Asif A

    2007-04-11

    Looming signals (signals that indicate the rapid approach of objects) are behaviorally relevant signals for all animals. Accordingly, studies in primates (including humans) reveal attentional biases for detecting and responding to looming versus receding signals in both the auditory and visual domains. We investigated the neural representation of these dynamic signals in the lateral belt auditory cortex of rhesus monkeys. By recording local field potential and multiunit spiking activity while the subjects were presented with auditory looming and receding signals, we show here that auditory cortical activity was biased in magnitude toward looming versus receding stimuli. This directional preference was not attributable to the absolute intensity of the sounds nor can it be attributed to simple adaptation, because white noise stimuli with identical amplitude envelopes did not elicit the same pattern of responses. This asymmetrical representation of looming versus receding sounds in the lateral belt auditory cortex suggests that it is an important node in the neural network correlate of looming perception.

  20. The role of prefrontal cortex in psychopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenigs, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Psychopathy is a personality disorder characterized by remorseless and impulsive antisocial behavior. Given the significant societal costs of the recidivistic criminal activity associated with the disorder, there is a pressing need for more effective treatment strategies, and hence, a better understanding of the psychobiological mechanisms underlying the disorder. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is likely to play an important role in psychopathy. In particular, the ventromedial and anterior cingulate sectors of PFC are theorized to mediate a number of social and affective decision-making functions that appear to be disrupted in psychopathy. This article provides a critical summary of human neuroimaging data implicating prefrontal dysfunction in psychopathy. A growing body of evidence associates psychopathy with structural and functional abnormalities in ventromedial PFC and anterior cingulate cortex. Although this burgeoning field still faces a number of methodological challenges and outstanding questions that will need to be resolved by future studies, the research to date has established a link between psychopathy and PFC. PMID:22752782

  1. Social Distance Evaluation in Human Parietal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakawa, Yoshinori; Kanai, Ryota; Matsumura, Michikazu; Naito, Eiichi

    2009-01-01

    Across cultures, social relationships are often thought of, described, and acted out in terms of physical space (e.g. “close friends” “high lord”). Does this cognitive mapping of social concepts arise from shared brain resources for processing social and physical relationships? Using fMRI, we found that the tasks of evaluating social compatibility and of evaluating physical distances engage a common brain substrate in the parietal cortex. The present study shows the possibility of an analytic brain mechanism to process and represent complex networks of social relationships. Given parietal cortex's known role in constructing egocentric maps of physical space, our present findings may help to explain the linguistic, psychological and behavioural links between social and physical space. PMID:19204791

  2. Effects of aging on motor cortex excitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliviero, A; Profice, P; Tonali, P A; Pilato, F; Saturno, E; Dileone, M; Ranieri, F; Di Lazzaro, V

    2006-05-01

    To determine whether aging is associated with changes in excitability of the cerebral cortex, we evaluated the excitability of the motor cortex with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). We compared TMS related measures obtained in a group of young people with those of a group of old people. Motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitude was significantly smaller in older than in younger controls (1.3+/-0.8 mV versus 2.7+/-1.1 mV; p<0.0071). Mean cortical silent period (CSP) duration was shorter in older than in younger controls (87+/-29 ms versus 147+/-39 ms; p<0.0071). SP duration/MEP amplitude ratios were similar in both groups. Our results are consistent with an impaired efficiency of some intracortical circuits in old age.

  3. Cortex phellodendri Extract Relaxes Airway Smooth Muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu-Ju Jiang; Weiwei Chen; Hong Dan; Li Tan; He Zhu; Guangzhong Yang; Jinhua Shen; Yong-Bo Peng; Ping Zhao; Lu Xue; Meng-Fei Yu; Liqun Ma; Xiao-Tang Si; Zhuo Wang; Jiapei Dai

    2016-01-01

    Cortex phellodendri is used to reduce fever and remove dampness and toxin. Berberine is an active ingredient of C. phellodendri. Berberine from Argemone ochroleuca can relax airway smooth muscle (ASM); however, whether the nonberberine component of C. phellodendri has similar relaxant action was unclear. An n-butyl alcohol extract of C. phellodendri (NBAECP, nonberberine component) was prepared, which completely inhibits high K+- and acetylcholine- (ACH-) induced precontraction of airway smoo...

  4. Working Memory in the Prefrontal Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shintaro Funahashi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The prefrontal cortex participates in a variety of higher cognitive functions. The concept of working memory is now widely used to understand prefrontal functions. Neurophysiological studies have revealed that stimulus-selective delay-period activity is a neural correlate of the mechanism for temporarily maintaining information in working memory processes. The central executive, which is the master component of Baddeley’s working memory model and is thought to be a function of the prefrontal cortex, controls the performance of other components by allocating a limited capacity of memory resource to each component based on its demand. Recent neurophysiological studies have attempted to reveal how prefrontal neurons achieve the functions of the central executive. For example, the neural mechanisms of memory control have been examined using the interference effect in a dual-task paradigm. It has been shown that this interference effect is caused by the competitive and overloaded recruitment of overlapping neural populations in the prefrontal cortex by two concurrent tasks and that the information-processing capacity of a single neuron is limited to a fixed level, can be flexibly allocated or reallocated between two concurrent tasks based on their needs, and enhances behavioral performance when its allocation to one task is increased. Further, a metamemory task requiring spatial information has been used to understand the neural mechanism for monitoring its own operations, and it has been shown that monitoring the quality of spatial information represented by prefrontal activity is an important factor in the subject's choice and that the strength of spatially selective delay-period activity reflects confidence in decision-making. Although further studies are needed to elucidate how the prefrontal cortex controls memory resource and supervises other systems, some important mechanisms related to the central executive have been identified.

  5. Working Memory in the Prefrontal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funahashi, Shintaro

    2017-04-27

    The prefrontal cortex participates in a variety of higher cognitive functions. The concept of working memory is now widely used to understand prefrontal functions. Neurophysiological studies have revealed that stimulus-selective delay-period activity is a neural correlate of the mechanism for temporarily maintaining information in working memory processes. The central executive, which is the master component of Baddeley's working memory model and is thought to be a function of the prefrontal cortex, controls the performance of other components by allocating a limited capacity of memory resource to each component based on its demand. Recent neurophysiological studies have attempted to reveal how prefrontal neurons achieve the functions of the central executive. For example, the neural mechanisms of memory control have been examined using the interference effect in a dual-task paradigm. It has been shown that this interference effect is caused by the competitive and overloaded recruitment of overlapping neural populations in the prefrontal cortex by two concurrent tasks and that the information-processing capacity of a single neuron is limited to a fixed level, can be flexibly allocated or reallocated between two concurrent tasks based on their needs, and enhances behavioral performance when its allocation to one task is increased. Further, a metamemory task requiring spatial information has been used to understand the neural mechanism for monitoring its own operations, and it has been shown that monitoring the quality of spatial information represented by prefrontal activity is an important factor in the subject's choice and that the strength of spatially selective delay-period activity reflects confidence in decision-making. Although further studies are needed to elucidate how the prefrontal cortex controls memory resource and supervises other systems, some important mechanisms related to the central executive have been identified.

  6. Specialized elements of orbitofrontal cortex in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbas, Helen

    2007-12-01

    The orbitofrontal cortex is associated with encoding the significance of stimuli within an emotional context, and its connections can be understood in this light. This large cortical region is architectonically heterogeneous, but its connections and functions can be summarized by a broad grouping of areas by cortical type into posterior and anterior sectors. The posterior (limbic) orbitofrontal region is composed of agranular and dysgranular-type cortices and has unique connections with primary olfactory areas and rich connections with high-order sensory association cortices. Posterior orbitofrontal areas are further distinguished by dense and distinct patterns of connections with the amygdala and memory-related anterior temporal lobe structures that may convey signals about emotional import and their memory. The special sets of connections suggest that the posterior orbitofrontal cortex is the primary region for the perception of emotions. In contrast to orbitofrontal areas, posterior medial prefrontal areas in the anterior cingulate are not multi-modal, but have strong connections with auditory association cortices, brain stem vocalization, and autonomic structures, in pathways that may mediate emotional communication and autonomic activation in emotional arousal. Posterior orbitofrontal areas communicate with anterior orbitofrontal areas and, through feedback projections, with lateral prefrontal and other cortices, suggesting a sequence of information processing for emotions. Pathology in orbitofrontal cortex may remove feedback input to sensory cortices, dissociating emotional context from sensory content and impairing the ability to interpret events.

  7. Visual cortex entrains to sign language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookshire, Geoffrey; Lu, Jenny; Nusbaum, Howard C; Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Casasanto, Daniel

    2017-06-13

    Despite immense variability across languages, people can learn to understand any human language, spoken or signed. What neural mechanisms allow people to comprehend language across sensory modalities? When people listen to speech, electrophysiological oscillations in auditory cortex entrain to slow ([Formula: see text]8 Hz) fluctuations in the acoustic envelope. Entrainment to the speech envelope may reflect mechanisms specialized for auditory perception. Alternatively, flexible entrainment may be a general-purpose cortical mechanism that optimizes sensitivity to rhythmic information regardless of modality. Here, we test these proposals by examining cortical coherence to visual information in sign language. First, we develop a metric to quantify visual change over time. We find quasiperiodic fluctuations in sign language, characterized by lower frequencies than fluctuations in speech. Next, we test for entrainment of neural oscillations to visual change in sign language, using electroencephalography (EEG) in fluent speakers of American Sign Language (ASL) as they watch videos in ASL. We find significant cortical entrainment to visual oscillations in sign language sign is strongest over occipital and parietal cortex, in contrast to speech, where coherence is strongest over the auditory cortex. Nonsigners also show coherence to sign language, but entrainment at frontal sites is reduced relative to fluent signers. These results demonstrate that flexible cortical entrainment to language does not depend on neural processes that are specific to auditory speech perception. Low-frequency oscillatory entrainment may reflect a general cortical mechanism that maximizes sensitivity to informational peaks in time-varying signals.

  8. Occipital cortex of blind individuals is functionally coupled with executive control areas of frontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deen, Ben; Saxe, Rebecca; Bedny, Marina

    2015-08-01

    In congenital blindness, the occipital cortex responds to a range of nonvisual inputs, including tactile, auditory, and linguistic stimuli. Are these changes in functional responses to stimuli accompanied by altered interactions with nonvisual functional networks? To answer this question, we introduce a data-driven method that searches across cortex for functional connectivity differences across groups. Replicating prior work, we find increased fronto-occipital functional connectivity in congenitally blind relative to blindfolded sighted participants. We demonstrate that this heightened connectivity extends over most of occipital cortex but is specific to a subset of regions in the inferior, dorsal, and medial frontal lobe. To assess the functional profile of these frontal areas, we used an n-back working memory task and a sentence comprehension task. We find that, among prefrontal areas with overconnectivity to occipital cortex, one left inferior frontal region responds to language over music. By contrast, the majority of these regions responded to working memory load but not language. These results suggest that in blindness occipital cortex interacts more with working memory systems and raise new questions about the function and mechanism of occipital plasticity.

  9. The eloquence of silent cortex: analysis of afferent input to deafferented cortex in arm amputees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackert, Bruno-Marcel; Sappok, Tanja; Grüsser, Sabine; Flor, Herta; Curio, Gabriel

    2003-03-03

    Cortical reorganisation after limb amputation includes topographic displacements of body representation areas and changes of areal extent. Remarkably, truncated nerves, which had innervated amputated limb parts and remained in the residual limbs, can retain access to the deafferented somatosensory cortex. Using somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) we characterized afferences from electrically stimulated truncated nerves to the brachial plexus and cortex in 12 arm amputees. While peripheral responses were highly variable, thalamocortical input to S-1, as reflected by the primary cortical SEP component, was present in 11 of 12 patients. Despite long-term deafferentation, macroscopic phenomena of inhibition/refractoriness, as assessed by stimulus rate variations, appeared to be changed only marginally. Thus, deafferented cortex remains responsive when given artificial phantom input and could provide a neuronal substrate for spontaneous phantom limb sensations, including phantom pain.

  10. Intoxicação por veneno de cobra: necrose symetrica da cortex renal: uremia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Penna de Azevedo

    1938-01-01

    Full Text Available Em um caso fatal de ophidismo, em individuo de 15 annos de edade, picado por uma cobra jararaca (Bothrops jararaca na face externa da perna direita e que veio a fallecer 26 dias apoz o accidente, os A.A, descrevem as lesões anatomo-pathologicas encontradas e as modificações do metabolismo, evidenciadas pelos exames chimicos do sangue. As principaes alterações existentes, acham-se localisadas nos rins os quaes apresentam lesões de glomerulonephrite diffusa e o aspecto typico da necrose cortical symmetrica. Como alterações de maior significação observam-se ainda lesões vasculares de grande intensidade e constituidas essencialmente por processo de endoarterite productiva. A necrose symmetrica da cortex renal, a vista das intensas alterações vasculares (endoarterite productiva que acarretaram a obliteração das arterías, é considerada como a consequencia immediata de taes lesões vasculares. Os vasos renaes, séde do processo inflammatorio, são as arterias interlobar, arciforme e interlobular, mas principalmente as arteriolares da camada cortical. O processo de endoarterite assume sempre o carater progressivo, de modo que a luz vascular vae sendo aos poucos, totalmente obstruida. Ao contrario do que se tem observado nos casos de necrose cortical symmetrica, citados na literatura, em que as alterações parenchymatosas são consequentes a thrombose dos vasos reanes, no caso presente esse aspecto não foi verificado mas tão sómente a existencia da endoarterite productiva obliterante. Consideram os A.A. as lesões renaes no caso que estudaram, como a resultante da actuação lenta e prolongada do veneno de cobra sobre as estructuras renaes, baseados nos seguintes factos já conhecidos e admittidos: eliminação do veneno de cobra pelos rins; capacidade do mesmo veneno, determinar a glomerulo-nephrite diffusa e acção do veneno de cobra sobre o endothelio vascular, facilitada essencialmente pela funcção especifica do orgão. As

  11. Molecular Cloning and Functional Analysis of Three <em>FLOWERING LOCUS T (FTem> Homologous Genes from Chinese <em>Cymbidium>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The <em>FLOWERING LOCUS Tem> (<em>FT> gene plays crucial roles in regulating the transition from the vegetative to reproductive phase. To understand the molecular mechanism of reproduction, three homologous <em>FT> genes were isolated and characterized from <em>Cymbidium sinenseem> “Qi Jian Bai Mo”, <em>Cymbidium goeringiiem> and <em>Cymbidium ensifoliumem> “Jin Si Ma Wei”. The three genes<em> em>contained 618-bp nucleotides with a 531-bp open reading frame (ORF of encoding 176 amino acids (AAs. Alignment of the AA sequences revealed that CsFT, CgFT and CeFT contain a conserved domain, which is characteristic of the<em> em>PEBP-RKIP superfamily, and which share high identity with FT of other plants in GenBank: 94% with OnFT<em> em>from <em>Oncidium em>Gower Ramsey, 79% with Hd3a from <em>Oryza sativaem>, and 74% with FT from <em>Arabidopsis thalianaem>. qRT-PCR analysis showed a diurnal expression pattern of <em>CsFT>, <em>CgFT> and <em>CeFT> following both long day (LD, 16-h light/8-h dark and short day (SD, 8-h light/16-h dark treatment. While the transcripts of both <em>CsFT em>and <em>CeFT em>under LD were significantly higher than under SD, those of <em>CgFT em>were> em>higher under SD. Ectopic expression of <em>CgFT> in transgenic <em>Arabidopsis> plants resulted in early flowering compared to wild-type plants and significant up-regulation of <em>APETALA1em> (<em>AP1em> expression. Our data indicates that CgFT is a putative phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein gene in <em>Cymbidium> that may regulate the vegetative to reproductive transition in flowers, similar to its <em>Arabidopsis> ortholog.

  12. Numerosity processing in early visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornaciai, Michele; Brannon, Elizabeth M; Woldorff, Marty G; Park, Joonkoo

    2017-08-15

    While parietal cortex is thought to be critical for representing numerical magnitudes, we recently reported an event-related potential (ERP) study demonstrating selective neural sensitivity to numerosity over midline occipital sites very early in the time course, suggesting the involvement of early visual cortex in numerosity processing. However, which specific brain area underlies such early activation is not known. Here, we tested whether numerosity-sensitive neural signatures arise specifically from the initial stages of visual cortex, aiming to localize the generator of these signals by taking advantage of the distinctive folding pattern of early occipital cortices around the calcarine sulcus, which predicts an inversion of polarity of ERPs arising from these areas when stimuli are presented in the upper versus lower visual field. Dot arrays, including 8-32dots constructed systematically across various numerical and non-numerical visual attributes, were presented randomly in either the upper or lower visual hemifields. Our results show that neural responses at about 90ms post-stimulus were robustly sensitive to numerosity. Moreover, the peculiar pattern of polarity inversion of numerosity-sensitive activity at this stage suggested its generation primarily in V2 and V3. In contrast, numerosity-sensitive ERP activity at occipito-parietal channels later in the time course (210-230ms) did not show polarity inversion, indicating a subsequent processing stage in the dorsal stream. Overall, these results demonstrate that numerosity processing begins in one of the earliest stages of the cortical visual stream. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. An integrator circuit in cerebellar cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maex, Reinoud; Steuber, Volker

    2013-09-01

    The brain builds dynamic models of the body and the outside world to predict the consequences of actions and stimuli. A well-known example is the oculomotor integrator, which anticipates the position-dependent elasticity forces acting on the eye ball by mathematically integrating over time oculomotor velocity commands. Many models of neural integration have been proposed, based on feedback excitation, lateral inhibition or intrinsic neuronal nonlinearities. We report here that a computational model of the cerebellar cortex, a structure thought to implement dynamic models, reveals a hitherto unrecognized integrator circuit. In this model, comprising Purkinje cells, molecular layer interneurons and parallel fibres, Purkinje cells were able to generate responses lasting more than 10 s, to which both neuronal and network mechanisms contributed. Activation of the somatic fast sodium current by subthreshold voltage fluctuations was able to maintain pulse-evoked graded persistent activity, whereas lateral inhibition among Purkinje cells via recurrent axon collaterals further prolonged the responses to step and sine wave stimulation. The responses of Purkinje cells decayed with a time-constant whose value depended on their baseline spike rate, with integration vanishing at low ( 30 per s). The model predicts that the apparently fast circuit of the cerebellar cortex may control the timing of slow processes without having to rely on sensory feedback. Thus, the cerebellar cortex may contain an adaptive temporal integrator, with the sensitivity of integration to the baseline spike rate offering a potential mechanism of plasticity of the response time-constant. © 2013 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. <em>α>-Glucosidase Inhibitory Constituents from <em>Acanthopanax senticosusem> Harm Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Xue Kuang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A new triterpene glycoside, 3-<em>O-[(α>-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1→2]-[<em>β>-D-glucuronopyranosyl-6-<em>O>-methyl ester]-olean-12-ene-28-olic acid (1 and a new indole alkaloid, 5-methoxy-2-oxoindolin-3-acetic acid methyl ester (5 were isolated from the leaves of <em>Acanthopanax senticosusem> Harms along with six known compounds. The structures of the new compounds were determined by means of 2D-NMR experiments and chemical methods. All the isolated compounds were evaluated for their glycosidase inhibition activities and compound 6 showed significant <em>α>-glucosidase inhibition activity.

  15. The Body Model Theory of Somatosensory Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecht, Michael

    2017-06-07

    I outline a microcircuit theory of somatosensory cortex as a body model serving both for body representation and "body simulation." A modular model of innervated and non-innervated body parts resides in somatosensory cortical layer 4. This body model is continuously updated and compares to an avatar (an animatable puppet) rather than a mere sensory map. Superficial layers provide context and store sensory memories, whereas layer 5 provides motor output and stores motor memories. I predict that layer-6-to-layer-4 inputs initiate body simulations allowing rehearsal and risk assessment of difficult actions, such as jumps. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Ictus emeticus and the insular cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiol, M E; Leppik, I E; Mireles, R; Maxwell, R

    1988-01-01

    A 30-year-old man had a long history of seizures that began with feelings of tightness in his throat and fear, followed by projectile vomiting and head and eye deviation to the left. These episodes were not completely controlled by antiepileptic medications. Video EEG monitoring confirmed his clinical description. Corticography was performed before and after temporal lobectomy and revealed residual spikes in the unresectable tissue of the insula. Three years postoperatively he has had no seizures with vomiting but has occasional 'auras' of throat tightening and fear. The case suggests that the insula may be a trigger area for emesis but requires anterior-mesial temporal cortex for completion.

  17. Laminar fate specification in the cerebral cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspard, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    The cerebral cortex is composed of hundreds of different types of neurons, which underlie its ability to perform highly complex neural processes. How this astonishing cell diversity is generated during development constitutes a major challenge in developmental neurosciences, with important implications for neurological diseases. Here we review some recent and exciting advances in this field, from the description of the cellular processes at the origin of cortical neuron diversity, to the dissection of the molecular logic underlying fate selection in cortical neurons. PMID:21655334

  18. A Review on Phytochemistry and Pharmacology of Cortex Periplocae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cortex Periplocae, as a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, has been widely used for autoimmune diseases, especially rheumatoid arthritis. Due to its potential pharmaceutical values, more studies about the biological activities of Cortex Periplocae have been conducted recently. Meanwhile, the adverse reaction of Cortex Periplocae is not a negligible problem in clinic. In this article, we reviewed a series of articles and summarized the recent studies of Cortex Periplocae in the areas of phytochemistry and pharmacology. More than 100 constituents have been isolated and identified from Cortex Periplocae, including steroids, cardiac glycosides, terpenoids, and fatty acid compounds. The crude extracts of Cortex Periplocae and its active compounds exhibit various biological activities, such as cardiotonic effect, anticancer action, and anti-inflammatory effect. This paper aims to provide an overall review on the bioactive ingredients, pharmacological effect, and toxicity of this plant. Furthermore, this review suggests investigating and developing new clinical usages according to the above pharmacological effects.

  19. Connectivity Changes Underlying Neurofeedback Training of Visual Cortex Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharnowski, Frank; Rosa, Maria Joao; Golestani, Narly; Hutton, Chloe; Josephs, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Neurofeedback based on real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a new approach that allows training of voluntary control over regionally specific brain activity. However, the neural basis of successful neurofeedback learning remains poorly understood. Here, we assessed changes in effective brain connectivity associated with neurofeedback training of visual cortex activity. Using dynamic causal modeling (DCM), we found that training participants to increase visual cortex activity was associated with increased effective connectivity between the visual cortex and the superior parietal lobe. Specifically, participants who learned to control activity in their visual cortex showed increased top-down control of the superior parietal lobe over the visual cortex, and at the same time reduced bottom-up processing. These results are consistent with efficient employment of top-down visual attention and imagery, which were the cognitive strategies used by participants to increase their visual cortex activity. PMID:24609065

  20. Connectivity changes underlying neurofeedback training of visual cortex activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Scharnowski

    Full Text Available Neurofeedback based on real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI is a new approach that allows training of voluntary control over regionally specific brain activity. However, the neural basis of successful neurofeedback learning remains poorly understood. Here, we assessed changes in effective brain connectivity associated with neurofeedback training of visual cortex activity. Using dynamic causal modeling (DCM, we found that training participants to increase visual cortex activity was associated with increased effective connectivity between the visual cortex and the superior parietal lobe. Specifically, participants who learned to control activity in their visual cortex showed increased top-down control of the superior parietal lobe over the visual cortex, and at the same time reduced bottom-up processing. These results are consistent with efficient employment of top-down visual attention and imagery, which were the cognitive strategies used by participants to increase their visual cortex activity.

  1. A Review on Phytochemistry and Pharmacology of Cortex Periplocae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Li, Jin; Zhou, Kun; He, Jun; Cao, Jun; An, Mingrui; Chang, Yan-Xu

    2016-12-10

    Cortex Periplocae , as a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, has been widely used for autoimmune diseases, especially rheumatoid arthritis. Due to its potential pharmaceutical values, more studies about the biological activities of Cortex Periplocae have been conducted recently. Meanwhile, the adverse reaction of Cortex Periplocae is not a negligible problem in clinic. In this article, we reviewed a series of articles and summarized the recent studies of Cortex Periplocae in the areas of phytochemistry and pharmacology. More than 100 constituents have been isolated and identified from Cortex Periplocae , including steroids, cardiac glycosides, terpenoids, and fatty acid compounds. The crude extracts of Cortex Periplocae and its active compounds exhibit various biological activities, such as cardiotonic effect, anticancer action, and anti-inflammatory effect. This paper aims to provide an overall review on the bioactive ingredients, pharmacological effect, and toxicity of this plant. Furthermore, this review suggests investigating and developing new clinical usages according to the above pharmacological effects.

  2. Interconnected Cortical Networks Between Primary Somatosensory Cortex Septal Columns and Posterior Parietal Cortex in Rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Taehee; Alloway, Kevin D.; Kim, Uhnoh

    2011-01-01

    Visual and somesthetic cues are used for spatial processing in the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) of the mammalian brain. In rats, somatic information collected by the mystacial whiskers is critically involved in constructing a neural representation of the external space. Here, we delineated the

  3. Aberrant functional connectivity differentiates retrosplenial cortex from posterior cingulate cortex in prodromal Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillen, Kim N H; Jacobs, Heidi I L; Kukolja, Juraj; von Reutern, Boris; Richter, Nils; Onur, Özgür A; Dronse, Julian; Langen, Karl-Josef; Fink, Gereon R

    2016-08-01

    The posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) is a key hub of the default mode network, a resting-state network involved in episodic memory, showing functional connectivity (FC) changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, PCC is a cytoarchitectonically heterogeneous region. Specifically, the retrosplenial cortex (RSC), often subsumed under the PCC, is an area functionally and microanatomically distinct from PCC. To investigate FC patterns of RSC and PCC separately, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging in healthy aging participants, patients with subjective cognitive impairment, and prodromal AD. Compared to the other 2 groups, we found higher FC from RSC to frontal cortex in subjective cognitive impairment but higher FC to occipital cortex in prodromal AD. Conversely, FC from PCC to the lingual gyrus was higher in prodromal AD. Furthermore, data indicate that RSC and PCC are characterized by differential FC patterns represented by hub-specific interactions with memory and attentions scores in prodromal AD compared to cognitively normal individuals, possibly reflecting compensatory mechanisms for RSC and neurodegenerative processes for PCC. Data thus confirm and extend previous studies suggesting that the RSC is functionally distinct from PCC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Frequency specific modulation of human somatosensory cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo eFeurra

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Oscillatory neuronal activities are commonly observed in response to sensory stimulation. However, their functional roles are still the subject of debate. One way to probe the roles of oscillatory neural activities is to deliver alternating current to the cortex at biologically relevant frequencies and examine whether such stimulation influences perception and cognition. In this study, we tested whether transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS over the primary somatosensory cortex (SI could elicit tactile sensations in humans in a frequency dependent manner. We tested the effectiveness of tACS over SI at frequency bands ranging from 2 to 70 Hz. Our results show that stimulation in alpha (10-14 Hz and high gamma (52-70 Hz frequency range produces a tactile sensation in the contralateral hand. A weaker effect was also observed for beta (16-20 Hz stimulation. These findings highlight the frequency-dependency of effective tACS over SI with the effective frequencies corresponding to those observed in previous EEG/MEG studies of tactile perception. Our present study suggests that tACS could be used as a powerful online stimulation technique to reveal the causal roles of oscillatory brain activities.

  5. Conceptual size representation in ventral visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabay, Shai; Kalanthroff, Eyal; Henik, Avishai; Gronau, Nurit

    2016-01-29

    Recent findings suggest that visual objects may be mapped along the ventral occipitotemporal cortex according to their real-world size (Konkle and Oliva, 2012). It has been argued that such mapping does not reflect an abstract, conceptual size representation, but rather the visual or functional properties associated with small versus big real-world objects. To determine whether a more abstract conceptual size representation may affect visual cortical activation we used meaningless geometrical shapes, devoid of semantic or functional associations, which were associated with specific size representations by virtue of extensive training. Following training, participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning while performing a conceptual size comparison task on the geometrical shapes. In addition, a size comparison task was conducted for numeral digits denoting small and big numbers. A region-of-interest analysis revealed larger blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) responses for conceptually 'big' than for conceptually 'small' shapes, as well as for big versus small numbers, within medial (parahippocampal place area, PPA) and lateral (occipital place area, OPA) place-selective regions. Processing of the 'big' visual shapes further elicited enhanced activation in early visual cortex, possibly reflecting top-down projections from PPA. By using arbitrary shapes and numbers we minimized visual, categorical, or functional influences on fMRI measurement, providing evidence for a possible neural mechanism underlying the representation of abstract conceptual size within the ventral visual stream. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cognitive Control Signals in Posterior Cingulate Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin eHayden

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Efficiently shifting between tasks is a central function of cognitive control. The role of the default network—a constellation of areas with high baseline activity that declines during task performance—in cognitive control remains poorly understood. We hypothesized that task switching demands cognitive control to shift the balance of processing towards the external world, and therefore predicted that switching between the two tasks would require suppression of activity of neurons within the CGp. To test this idea, we recorded the activity of single neurons in posterior cingulate cortex (CGp, a central node in the default network, in monkeys performing two interleaved tasks. As predicted, we found that basal levels of neuronal activity were reduced following a switch from one task to another and gradually returned to pre-switch baseline on subsequent trials. We failed to observe these effects in lateral intraparietal cortex (LIP, part of the dorsal fronto-parietal cortical attention network directly connected to CGp. These findings indicate that suppression of neuronal activity in CGp facilitates cognitive control, and suggest that activity in the default network reflects processes that directly compete with control processes elsewhere in the brain..

  7. Motor Cortex Stimulation in Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa De Rose

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Motor Cortex Stimulation (MCS is less efficacious than Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS in Parkinson's disease. However, it might be proposed to patients excluded from DBS or unresponsive to DBS. Ten patients with advanced PD underwent unilateral MCS contralaterally to the worst clinical side. A plate electrode was positioned over the motor cortex in the epidural space through single burr hole after identification of the area with neuronavigation and neurophysiological tests. Clinical assessment was performed by total UPDRS, UPDRS III total, UPDRS III-items 27–31, UPDRS IV, and UPDRS II before implantation in off-medication and on-medication states and after surgery at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 36 months in on-medication/on-stimulation and off-medication/on-stimulation states. We assessed changes of quality of life, throughout the Parkinson's disease quality of life scale (PDQoL-39, and the dose of anti-Parkinson's disease medications, throughout the Ldopa equivalent daily dose (LEDD. During off-medication state, we observed moderate and transitory reduction of total UPDRS and UPDRS total scores and significant and long-lasting improvement in UPDRS III items 27–31 score for axial symptoms. There was marked reduction of UPDRS IV score and LEDD. PDQL-39 improvement was also significant. No important complications and adverse events occurred.

  8. Low-Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Targeted to Premotor Cortex Followed by Primary Motor Cortex Modulates Excitability Differently Than Premotor Cortex or Primary Motor Cortex Stimulation Alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mo; Deng, Huiqiong; Schmidt, Rebekah L; Kimberley, Teresa J

    2015-12-01

    The excitability of primary motor cortex (M1) can be modulated by applying low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over M1 or premotor cortex (PMC). A comparison of inhibitory effect between the two locations has been reported with inconsistent results. This study compared the response secondary to rTMS applied over M1, PMC, and a combined PMC + M1 stimulation approach which first targets stimulation over PMC then M1. Ten healthy participants were recruited for a randomized, cross-over design with a one-week washout between visits. Each visit consisted of a pretest, an rTMS intervention, and a post-test. Outcome measures included short interval intracortical inhibition (SICI), intracortical facilitation (ICF), and cortical silent period (CSP). Participants received one of the three interventions in random order at each visit including: 1-Hz rTMS at 90% of resting motor threshold to: M1 (1200 pulses), PMC (1200 pulses), and PMC + M1 (600 pulses each, 1200 total). PMC + M1 stimulation resulted in significantly greater inhibition than the other locations for ICF (P = 0.005) and CSP (P stimulation may modulate brain excitability differently from PMC or M1 alone. CSP was the assessment measure most sensitive to changes in inhibition and was able to distinguish between different inhibitory protocols. This work presents a novel procedure that may have positive implications for therapeutic interventions. © 2015 International Neuromodulation Society.

  9. Insular cortex and neuropsychiatric disorders: A review of recent literature

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nagai, M; Kishi, K; Kato, S

    2007-01-01

    .... The insular cortex is involved in the processing of visceral sensory, visceral motor, vestibular, attention, pain, emotion, verbal, motor information, inputs related to music and eating, in addition...

  10. Mentalizing ability in patients with prefrontal cortex damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Zai-Ting; Lo, Chiao-Yu; Tsai, Ming-Dar; Tsai, Ming-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Mentalizing ability is the issue in the social cognition of patients with brain injury that has received the most attention. The present study investigated mentalization ability in patients with prefrontal cortex damage. The aims of this study were to investigate: (a) whether patients with prefrontal cortex damage are impaired in mentalizing ability, including theory of mind (ToM) and empathy; (b) whether patients with ventromedial prefrontal cortex damage are impaired in different aspects of ToM; (c) whether patients with ventromedial prefrontal cortex damage are impaired in different aspects of empathy; and (d) whether impairment of mentalizing ability in patients with prefrontal cortex damage can be explained by executive dysfunction. Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Matrix Reasoning subtest, working memory, executive function, theory of mind, and empathy assessments were conducted on eight patients with ventromedial prefrontal cortex damage, 15 patients with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex damage, and 19 normal comparisons matched for level of education and intelligence. The results showed that performance on affective and nonverbal theory of mind was significantly lower in patients with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex damage than in the comparison group. Performance on personal distress items of empathy was significantly lower in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex damage group than in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex damage group. In addition, further multiple regression analysis showed that affective theory of mind could be explained by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test-Modified (WCST-M), with an explained variance of up to 44%. The present study suggests that the impairment of mentalizing ability in patients with prefrontal cortex damage is partially the result of executive dysfunction.

  11. Fiber tractography assessment in double cortex syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannetti, Paola; Nicita, Francesco; Spalice, Alberto; Parisi, Pasquale; Papetti, Laura; Verrotti, Alberto

    2011-08-01

    Subcortical band heterotopia (SBH) or double cortex syndrome is a malformation of cortical development that may be related to intractable epilepsy and severe mental retardation or to mild epilepsy and slight mental delay or normal cognitive functions. Several studies have been performed using neuroradiological or neurophysiological techniques, like SPECT, PET, MRS, fMRI, and MEG, in attempt to better characterize this neuronal migration disorder. Recently, also diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and fiber tracking (FT) have been used to investigate on white matter anomalies in SBH, adding more information about such gray matter anomaly. We report on three cases of SBH, evaluated with MRI, DTI, and FT. The data gathered from DTI and TF allow us to hypothesize a new functional role for heterotopic gray matter.

  12. Deep Hierarchies in the Primate Visual Cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Norbert; Jannsen, Per; Kalkan, S.

    2013-01-01

    Computational modeling of the primate visual system yields insights of potential relevance to some of the challenges that computer vision is facing, such as object recognition and categorization, motion detection and activity recognition or vision-based navigation and manipulation. This article...... reviews some functional principles and structures that are generally thought to underlie the primate visual cortex, and attempts to extract biological principles that could further advance computer vision research. Organized for a computer vision audience, we present functional principles...... of the processing hierarchies present in the primate visual system considering recent discoveries in neurophysiology. The hierarchal processing in the primate visual system is characterized by a sequence of different levels of processing (in the order of ten) that constitute a deep hierarchy in contrast to the flat...

  13. Histological changes of the adult albino rats entorhinal cortex under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ibrahim K. Ragab

    2016-06-03

    Jun 3, 2016 ... entorhinal cortex of the adult male albino rats. Materials and methods: The study was carried out on 40 adult male rats. The rats were divided equally into two groups: control group, ..... cerebral cortex consequently leads to development of oxida- tive stress.37. In this study, light microscopic examination of ...

  14. Effects of acetylcholine on neuronal properties in entorhinal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James G Heys

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The entorhinal cortex receives prominent cholinergic innervation from the medial septum and the vertical limb of the diagonal band of Broca (MSDB. To understand how cholinergic neurotransmission can modulate behavior, research has been directed towards identification of the specific cellular mechanisms in entorhinal cortex that can be modulated through cholinergic activity. This review focuses on intrinsic cellular properties of neurons in entorhinal cortex that may underlie functions such as working memory, spatial processing and episodic memory. In particular, the study of stellate cells in medial entorhinal has resulted in discovery of correlations between physiological properties of these neurons and properties of the unique spatial representation that is demonstrated through unit recordings of neurons in medial entorhinal cortex from awake-behaving animals. A separate line of investigation has demonstrated persistent firing behavior among neurons in entorhinal cortex that is enhanced by cholinergic activity and could underlie working memory. There is also evidence that acetylcholine plays a role in modulation of synaptic transmission that could also enhance mnemonic function in entorhinal cortex. Finally, the local circuits of entorhinal cortex demonstrate a variety of interneuron physiology, which is also subject to cholinergic modulation. Together these effects alter the dynamics of entorhinal cortex to underlie the functional role of acetylcholine in memory.

  15. Olfactocentric Paralimbic Cortex Morphology in Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Kalmar, Jessica H.; Womer, Fay Y.; Edmiston, Erin E.; Chepenik, Lara G.; Chen, Rachel; Spencer, Linda; Blumberg, Hilary P.

    2011-01-01

    The olfactocentric paralimbic cortex plays a critical role in the regulation of emotional and neurovegetative functions that are disrupted in core features of bipolar disorder. Adolescence is thought to be a critical period in both the maturation of the olfactocentric paralimbic cortex and in the emergence of bipolar disorder pathology. Together,…

  16. Discourse Production Following Injury to the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Carl; Le, Karen; Mozeiko, Jennifer; Krueger, Frank; Grafman, Jordan

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with damage to the prefrontal cortex, and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in particular, often demonstrate difficulties with the formulation of complex language not attributable to aphasia. The present study employed a discourse analysis procedure to characterize the language of individuals with left (L) or right (R) DLPFC…

  17. Metaphorically Feeling: Comprehending Textural Metaphors Activates Somatosensory Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Simon; Stilla, Randall; Sathian, K.

    2012-01-01

    Conceptual metaphor theory suggests that knowledge is structured around metaphorical mappings derived from physical experience. Segregated processing of object properties in sensory cortex allows testing of the hypothesis that metaphor processing recruits activity in domain-specific sensory cortex. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging…

  18. Population Dynamics of Early Visual Cortex during Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmati, Masih; Saber, Golbarg T; Curtis, Clayton E

    2018-02-01

    Although the content of working memory (WM) can be decoded from the spatial patterns of brain activity in early visual cortex, how populations encode WM representations remains unclear. Here, we address this limitation by using a model-based approach that reconstructs the feature encoded by population activity measured with fMRI. Using this approach, we could successfully reconstruct the locations of memory-guided saccade goals based on the pattern of activity in visual cortex during a memory delay. We could reconstruct the saccade goal even when we dissociated the visual stimulus from the saccade goal using a memory-guided antisaccade procedure. By comparing the spatiotemporal population dynamics, we find that the representations in visual cortex are stable but can also evolve from a representation of a remembered visual stimulus to a prospective goal. Moreover, because the representation of the antisaccade goal cannot be the result of bottom-up visual stimulation, it must be evoked by top-down signals presumably originating from frontal and/or parietal cortex. Indeed, we find that trial-by-trial fluctuations in delay period activity in frontal and parietal cortex correlate with the precision with which our model reconstructed the maintained saccade goal based on the pattern of activity in visual cortex. Therefore, the population dynamics in visual cortex encode WM representations, and these representations can be sculpted by top-down signals from frontal and parietal cortex.

  19. Genetic influences on thinning of the cerebral cortex during development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Soelen, I.L.C.; Brouwer, R.M.; van Baal, G.C.M.; Schnack, H.G.; Peper, J.S.; Collins, D.L.; Evans, A.C.; Kahn, R.S.; Boomsma, D.I.; Hulshoff Pol, H.E.

    2012-01-01

    During development from childhood to adulthood the human brain undergoes considerable thinning of the cerebral cortex. Whether developmental cortical thinning is influenced by genes and if independent genetic factors influence different parts of the cortex is not known. Magnetic resonance brain

  20. Prefrontal Cortex: A Mystery of Belated Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenbaum, Howard

    2017-06-05

    A recent study suggests that the prefrontal cortex gradually becomes critical as a storage site for remotely acquired memories. How do we interpret this observation in light of the well-known functional role of the prefrontal cortex in cognition and memory? Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Neonatal Phosphate Nutrition Alters <em>in em>Vivo> and <em>in em>Vitro> Satellite Cell Activity in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad H. Stahl

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Satellite cell activity is necessary for postnatal skeletal muscle growth. Severe phosphate (PO4 deficiency can alter satellite cell activity, however the role of neonatal PO4 nutrition on satellite cell biology remains obscure. Twenty-one piglets (1 day of age, 1.8 ± 0.2 kg BW were pair-fed liquid diets that were either PO4 adequate (0.9% total P, supra-adequate (1.2% total P in PO4 requirement or deficient (0.7% total P in PO4 content for 12 days. Body weight was recorded daily and blood samples collected every 6 days. At day 12, pigs were orally dosed with BrdU and 12 h later, satellite cells were isolated. Satellite cells were also cultured <em>in vitroem> for 7 days to determine if PO4 nutrition alters their ability to proceed through their myogenic lineage. Dietary PO4 deficiency resulted in reduced (<em>P> < 0.05 sera PO4 and parathyroid hormone (PTH concentrations, while supra-adequate dietary PO4 improved (<em>P> < 0.05 feed conversion efficiency as compared to the PO4 adequate group. <em>In vivoem> satellite cell proliferation was reduced (<em>P> < 0.05 among the PO4 deficient pigs, and these cells had altered <em>in vitroem> expression of markers of myogenic progression. Further work to better understand early nutritional programming of satellite cells and the potential benefits of emphasizing early PO4 nutrition for future lean growth potential is warranted.

  2. Language processing in the occipital cortex of congenitally blind adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedny, Marina; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Dodell-Feder, David; Fedorenko, Evelina; Saxe, Rebecca

    2011-03-15

    Humans are thought to have evolved brain regions in the left frontal and temporal cortex that are uniquely capable of language processing. However, congenitally blind individuals also activate the visual cortex in some verbal tasks. We provide evidence that this visual cortex activity in fact reflects language processing. We find that in congenitally blind individuals, the left visual cortex behaves similarly to classic language regions: (i) BOLD signal is higher during sentence comprehension than during linguistically degraded control conditions that are more difficult; (ii) BOLD signal is modulated by phonological information, lexical semantic information, and sentence-level combinatorial structure; and (iii) functional connectivity with language regions in the left prefrontal cortex and thalamus are increased relative to sighted individuals. We conclude that brain regions that are thought to have evolved for vision can take on language processing as a result of early experience. Innate microcircuit properties are not necessary for a brain region to become involved in language processing.

  3. Normotopic cortex is the major contributor to epilepsy in experimental double cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Ludovic Franck; Jalabert, Marion; Buhler, Emmanuelle; Malvache, Arnaud; Peret, Angélique; Chauvin, Yoann; Watrin, Françoise; Represa, Alfonso; Manent, Jean-Bernard

    2014-09-01

    Subcortical band heterotopia (SBH) is a cortical malformation formed when neocortical neurons prematurely stop their migration in the white matter, forming a heterotopic band below the normotopic cortex, and is generally associated with intractable epilepsy. Although it is clear that the band heterotopia and the overlying cortex both contribute to creating an abnormal circuit prone to generate epileptic discharges, it is less understood which part of this circuitry is the most critical. Here, we sought to identify the origin of epileptiform activity in a targeted genetic model of SBH in rats. Rats with SBH (Dcx-KD rats) were generated by knocking down the Dcx gene using shRNA vectors transfected into neocortical progenitors of rat embryos. Origin, spatial extent, and laminar profile of bicuculline-induced interictal-like activity on neocortical slices were analyzed by using extracellular recordings from 60-channel microelectrode arrays. Susceptibility to pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures was assessed by electrocorticography in head-restrained nonanesthetized rats. We show that the band heterotopia does not constitute a primary origin for interictal-like epileptiform activity in vitro and is dispensable for generating induced seizures in vivo. Furthermore, we report that most interictal-like discharges originating in the overlying cortex secondarily propagate to the band heterotopia. Importantly, we found that in vivo suppression of neuronal excitability in SBH does not alter the higher propensity of Dcx-KD rats to display seizures. These results suggest a major role of the normotopic cortex over the band heterotopia in generating interictal epileptiform activity and seizures in brains with SBH. © 2014 American Neurological Association.

  4. Circuit changes in motor cortex during motor skill learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papale, Andrew E; Hooks, Bryan M

    2018-01-01

    Motor cortex is important for motor skill learning, particularly the dexterous skills necessary for our favorite sports and careers. We are especially interested in understanding how plasticity in motor cortex contributes to skill learning. Although human studies have been helpful in understanding the importance of motor cortex in learning skilled tasks, animal models are necessary for achieving a detailed understanding of the circuitry underlying these behaviors and the changes that occur during training. We review data from these models to try to identify sites of plasticity in motor cortex, focusing on rodents asa model system. Rodent neocortex contains well-differentiated motor and sensory regions, as well as neurons expressing similar genetic markers to many of the same circuit components in human cortex. Furthermore, rodents have circuit mapping tools for labeling, targeting, and manipulating these cell types as circuit nodes. Crucially, the projection from rodent primary somatosensory cortex to primary motor cortex is a well-studied corticocortical projection and a model of sensorimotor integration. We first summarize some of the descending pathways involved in making dexterous movements, including reaching. We then describe local and long-range circuitry in mouse motor cortex, summarizing structural and functional changes associated with motor skill acquisition. We then address which specific connections might be responsible for plasticity. For insight into the range of plasticity mechanisms employed by cortex, we review plasticity in sensory systems. The similarities and differences between motor cortex plasticity and critical periods of plasticity in sensory systems are discussed. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Constituents from <em>Vigna em>vexillata> and Their Anti-Inflammatory Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Feng Chen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The seeds of <em>Vigna em>genus are important food resources and there have already been many reports regarding their bioactivities. In our preliminary bioassay, the chloroform layer of methanol extracts of<em> V. vexillata em>demonstrated significant anti-inflammatory bioactivity. Therefore, the present research is aimed to purify and identify the anti-inflammatory principles of <em>V. vexillataem>. One new sterol (1 and two new isoflavones (2,3 were reported from the natural sources for the first time and their chemical structures were determined by the spectroscopic and mass spectrometric analyses. In addition, 37 known compounds were identified by comparison of their physical and spectroscopic data with those reported in the literature. Among the isolates, daidzein (23, abscisic acid (25, and quercetin (40 displayed the most significant inhibition of superoxide anion generation and elastase release.

  6. File list: Pol.Neu.05.AllAg.Prefrontal_Cortex [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Neu.05.AllAg.Prefrontal_Cortex hg19 RNA polymerase Neural Prefrontal Cortex htt...p://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Neu.05.AllAg.Prefrontal_Cortex.bed ...

  7. File list: Pol.Neu.20.AllAg.Prefrontal_Cortex [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Neu.20.AllAg.Prefrontal_Cortex hg19 RNA polymerase Neural Prefrontal Cortex htt...p://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Neu.20.AllAg.Prefrontal_Cortex.bed ...

  8. File list: Pol.Neu.50.AllAg.Prefrontal_Cortex [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Neu.50.AllAg.Prefrontal_Cortex hg19 RNA polymerase Neural Prefrontal Cortex htt...p://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Neu.50.AllAg.Prefrontal_Cortex.bed ...

  9. Behavioural changes after ablation of subdivisions of the rat prefrontal cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Jesper; Divac, Ivan

    1993-01-01

    Neurobiologi, præfrontal cortex, exploration, betinget smagsaversion, spontan alternation, operant udslukning......Neurobiologi, præfrontal cortex, exploration, betinget smagsaversion, spontan alternation, operant udslukning...

  10. Compressive Temporal Summation in Human Visual Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jingyang; Benson, Noah C; Kay, Kendrick N; Winawer, Jonathan

    2018-01-17

    Combining sensory inputs over space and time is fundamental to vision. Population receptive field models have been successful in characterizing spatial encoding throughout the human visual pathways. A parallel question, how visual areas in the human brain process information distributed over time, has received less attention. One challenge is that the most widely used neuroimaging method, fMRI, has coarse temporal resolution compared with the time-scale of neural dynamics. Here, via carefully controlled temporally modulated stimuli, we show that information about temporal processing can be readily derived from fMRI signal amplitudes in male and female subjects. We find that all visual areas exhibit subadditive summation, whereby responses to longer stimuli are less than the linear prediction from briefer stimuli. We also find fMRI evidence that the neural response to two stimuli is reduced for brief interstimulus intervals (indicating adaptation). These effects are more pronounced in visual areas anterior to V1-V3. Finally, we develop a general model that shows how these effects can be captured with two simple operations: temporal summation followed by a compressive nonlinearity. This model operates for arbitrary temporal stimulation patterns and provides a simple and interpretable set of computations that can be used to characterize neural response properties across the visual hierarchy. Importantly, compressive temporal summation directly parallels earlier findings of compressive spatial summation in visual cortex describing responses to stimuli distributed across space. This indicates that, for space and time, cortex uses a similar processing strategy to achieve higher-level and increasingly invariant representations of the visual world. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Combining sensory inputs over time is fundamental to seeing. Two important temporal phenomena are summation, the accumulation of sensory inputs over time, and adaptation, a response reduction for repeated

  11. The Functioning of a Cortex without Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Guy

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A major hallmark of cortical organization is the existence of a variable number of layers, i.e., sheets of neurons stacked on top of each other, in which neurons have certain commonalities. However, even for the neocortex, variable numbers of layers have been described and it is just a convention to distinguish six layers from each other. Whether cortical layers are a structural epiphenomenon caused by developmental dynamics or represent a functionally important modularization of cortical computation is still unknown. Here we present our insights from the reeler mutant mouse, a model for a developmental, “molecular lesion”-induced loss of cortical layering that could serve as ground truth of what an intact layering adds to the cortex in terms of functionality. We could demonstrate that the reeler neocortex shows no inversion of cortical layers but rather a severe disorganization that in the primary somatosensory cortex leads to the complete loss of layers. Nevertheless, the somatosensory system is well organized. When exploring an enriched environment with specific sets of whiskers, activity-dependent gene expression takes place in the corresponding modules. Precise whisker stimuli lead to the functional activation of somatotopically organized barrel columns as visualized by intrinsic signal optical imaging. Similar results were obtained in the reeler visual system. When analyzing pathways that could be responsible for preservation of tactile perception, lemniscal thalamic projections were found to be largely intact, despite the smearing of target neurons across the cortical mantle. However, with optogenetic experiments we found evidence for a mild dispersion of thalamic synapse targeting on layer IV-spiny stellate cells, together with a general weakening in thalamocortical input strength. This weakening of thalamic inputs was compensated by intracortical mechanisms involving increased recurrent excitation and/or reduced feedforward

  12. The spatiotopic 'visual' cortex of the blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likova, Lora

    2012-03-01

    Visual cortex activity in the blind has been shown in sensory tasks. Can it be activated in memory tasks? If so, are inherent features of its organization meaningfully employed? Our recent results in short-term blindfolded subjects imply that human primary visual cortex (V1) may operate as a modality-independent 'sketchpad' for working memory (Likova, 2010a). Interestingly, the spread of the V1 activation approximately corresponded to the spatial extent of the images in terms of their angle of projection to the subject. We now raise the questions of whether under long-term visual deprivation V1 is also employed in non-visual memory task, in particular in congenitally blind individuals, who have never had visual stimulation to guide the development of the visual area organization, and whether such spatial organization is still valid for the same paradigm that was used in blindfolded individuals. The outcome has implications for an emerging reconceptualization of the principles of brain architecture and its reorganization under sensory deprivation. Methods: We used a novel fMRI drawing paradigm in congenitally and late-onset blind, compared with sighted and blindfolded subjects in three conditions of 20s duration, separated by 20s rest-intervals, (i) Tactile Exploration: raised-line images explored and memorized; (ii) Tactile Memory Drawing: drawing the explored image from memory; (iii) Scribble: mindless drawing movements with no memory component. Results and Conclusions: V1 was strongly activated for Tactile Memory Drawing and Tactile Exploration in these totally blind subjects. Remarkably, after training, even in the memory task, the mapping of V1 activation largely corresponded to the angular projection of the tactile stimuli relative to the ego-center (i.e., the effective visual angle at the head); beyond this projective boundary, peripheral V1 signals were dramatically reduced or even suppressed. The matching extent of the activation in the congenitally blind

  13. Auditory cortex involvement in emotional learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, A; Cambiaghi, M; Concina, G; Sacco, T; Sacchetti, B

    2015-07-23

    Emotional memories represent the core of human and animal life and drive future choices and behaviors. Early research involving brain lesion studies in animals lead to the idea that the auditory cortex participates in emotional learning by processing the sensory features of auditory stimuli paired with emotional consequences and by transmitting this information to the amygdala. Nevertheless, electrophysiological and imaging studies revealed that, following emotional experiences, the auditory cortex undergoes learning-induced changes that are highly specific, associative and long lasting. These studies suggested that the role played by the auditory cortex goes beyond stimulus elaboration and transmission. Here, we discuss three major perspectives created by these data. In particular, we analyze the possible roles of the auditory cortex in emotional learning, we examine the recruitment of the auditory cortex during early and late memory trace encoding, and finally we consider the functional interplay between the auditory cortex and subcortical nuclei, such as the amygdala, that process affective information. We conclude that, starting from the early phase of memory encoding, the auditory cortex has a more prominent role in emotional learning, through its connections with subcortical nuclei, than is typically acknowledged. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Is the prefrontal cortex necessary for establishing cognitive sets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rowe, James B; Sakai, Katsuyuki; Lund, Torben E

    2007-01-01

    There is evidence from neuroimaging that the prefrontal cortex may be involved in establishing task set activity in advance of presentation of the task itself. To find out whether it plays an essential role, we examined patients with unilateral lesions of the rostral prefrontal cortex. They were...... regions, as evidenced by reduced correlations between them during instruction delays. The results suggest that the left rostral prefrontal cortex is indeed required for establishing a cognitive set but that the essential function is to support the functional connectivity among the task-related regions....

  15. Activation of the insular cortex during dynamic exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williamson, James; Nobrega, A C; McColl, R

    1997-01-01

    1. The insular cortex has been implicated as a region of cortical cardiovascular control, yet its role during exercise remains undefined. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine whether the insular cortex was activated during volitional dynamic exercise and to evaluate further its...... alone. 5. These findings provide the first evidence of insular activation during dynamic exercise in humans, suggesting that the left insular cortex may serve as a site for cortical regulation of cardiac autonomic (parasympathetic) activity. Additionally, findings during passive cycling with electrical...

  16. Parietal cortex and representation of the mental Self

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lou, Hans C; Luber, Bruce; Crupain, Michael

    2004-01-01

    of Oneself, Best Friend, and the Danish Queen, activation increased in the left lateral temporal cortex and decreased in the right inferior parietal region with decreasing self-reference. Functionally, the former region was preferentially connected to medial prefrontal cortex, the latter to medial parietal....... The medial parietal region may, then, be conceived of as a nodal structure in self-representation, functionally connected to both the right parietal and the medial prefrontal cortices. To determine whether medial parietal cortex in this network is essential for episodic memory retrieval with self...

  17. Motor cortex changes in spinal cord injury: a TMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saturno, Eleonora; Bonato, Claudio; Miniussi, Carlo; Lazzaro, Vincenzodi; Callea, Leonardo

    2008-12-01

    Using paired pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) paradigms, we studied cortical excitability in a patient with spinal cord lesion. During posterior tibial nerve stimulation, the contextual flexion of hand fingers contralateral to the stimulated lower limb had suggested a change in motor cortex excitability. Results showed a decrease in the activity of motor cortex inhibitory circuits. This could suggest that in spinal cord injury, just as in stroke and peripheral deafferentation, a disinhibition of latent synapses within the motor cortex and the rewriting of a new motor map can occur.

  18. Optogenetic dissection of medial prefrontal cortex circuitry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danai eRiga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC is critically involved in numerous cognitive functions, including attention, inhibitory control, habit formation, working memory and long-term memory. Moreover, through its dense interconnectivity with subcortical regions (e.g. thalamus, striatum, amygdala and hippocampus, the mPFC is thought to exert top-down executive control over the processing of aversive and appetitive stimuli. Because the mPFC has been implicated in the processing of a wide range of cognitive and emotional stimuli, it is thought to function as a central hub in the brain circuitry mediating symptoms of psychiatric disorders. New optogenetics technology enables anatomical and functional dissection of mPFC circuitry with unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution. This provides important novel insights in the contribution of specific neuronal subpopulations and their connectivity to mPFC function in health and disease states. In this review, we present the current knowledge obtained with optogenetic methods concerning mPFC function and dysfunction and integrate this with findings from traditional intervention approaches used to investigate the mPFC circuitry in animal models of cognitive processing and psychiatric disorders.

  19. Characterising reward outcome signals in sensory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzGerald, Thomas H B; Friston, Karl J; Dolan, Raymond J

    2013-12-01

    Reward outcome signalling in the sensory cortex is held as important for linking stimuli to their consequences and for modulating perceptual learning in response to incentives. Evidence for reward outcome signalling has been found in sensory regions including the visual, auditory and somatosensory cortices across a range of different paradigms, but it is unknown whether the population of neurons signalling rewarding outcomes are the same as those processing predictive stimuli. We addressed this question using a multivariate analysis of high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), in a task where subjects were engaged in instrumental learning with visual predictive cues and auditory signalled reward feedback. We found evidence that outcome signals in sensory regions localise to the same areas involved in stimulus processing. These outcome signals are non-specific and we show that the neuronal populations involved in stimulus representation are not their exclusive target, in keeping with theoretical models of value learning. Thus, our results reveal one likely mechanism through which rewarding outcomes are linked to predictive sensory stimuli, a link that may be key for both reward and perceptual learning. © 2013.

  20. Cortex phellodendri Extract Relaxes Airway Smooth Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu-Ju Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cortex phellodendri is used to reduce fever and remove dampness and toxin. Berberine is an active ingredient of C. phellodendri. Berberine from Argemone ochroleuca can relax airway smooth muscle (ASM; however, whether the nonberberine component of C. phellodendri has similar relaxant action was unclear. An n-butyl alcohol extract of C. phellodendri (NBAECP, nonberberine component was prepared, which completely inhibits high K+- and acetylcholine- (ACH- induced precontraction of airway smooth muscle in tracheal rings and lung slices from control and asthmatic mice, respectively. The contraction induced by high K+ was also blocked by nifedipine, a selective blocker of L-type Ca2+ channels. The ACH-induced contraction was partially inhibited by nifedipine and pyrazole 3, an inhibitor of TRPC3 and STIM/Orai channels. Taken together, our data demonstrate that NBAECP can relax ASM by inhibiting L-type Ca2+ channels and TRPC3 and/or STIM/Orai channels, suggesting that NBAECP could be developed to a new drug for relieving bronchospasm.

  1. Decision salience signals in posterior cingulate cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah eHeilbronner

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite its phylogenetic antiquity and clinical importance, the posterior cingulate cortex (CGp remains an enigmatic nexus of attention, memory, motivation, and decision making. Here we show that CGp neurons track decision salience—the degree to which an option differs from a standard—but not the subjective value of a decision. To do this, we recorded the spiking activity of CGp neurons in monkeys choosing between options varying in reward-related risk, delay to reward, and social outcomes, each of which varied in level of decision salience. Firing rates were higher when monkeys chose the risky option, consistent with their risk-seeking preferences, but were also higher when monkeys chose the delayed and social options, contradicting their preferences. Thus, across decision contexts, neuronal activity was uncorrelated with how much monkeys valued a given option, as inferred from choice. Instead, neuronal activity signaled the deviation of the chosen option from the standard, independently of how it differed. The observed decision salience signals suggest a role for CGp in the flexible allocation of neural resources to motivationally significant information, akin to the role of attention in selective processing of sensory inputs.

  2. Cortex phellodendri Extract Relaxes Airway Smooth Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qiu-Ju; Chen, Weiwei; Dan, Hong; Tan, Li; Zhu, He; Yang, Guangzhong; Shen, Jinhua; Peng, Yong-Bo; Zhao, Ping; Xue, Lu; Yu, Meng-Fei; Ma, Liqun; Si, Xiao-Tang; Wang, Zhuo; Dai, Jiapei; Qin, Gangjian; Zou, Chunbin; Liu, Qing-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Cortex phellodendri is used to reduce fever and remove dampness and toxin. Berberine is an active ingredient of C. phellodendri. Berberine from Argemone ochroleuca can relax airway smooth muscle (ASM); however, whether the nonberberine component of C. phellodendri has similar relaxant action was unclear. An n-butyl alcohol extract of C. phellodendri (NBAECP, nonberberine component) was prepared, which completely inhibits high K+- and acetylcholine- (ACH-) induced precontraction of airway smooth muscle in tracheal rings and lung slices from control and asthmatic mice, respectively. The contraction induced by high K+ was also blocked by nifedipine, a selective blocker of L-type Ca2+ channels. The ACH-induced contraction was partially inhibited by nifedipine and pyrazole 3, an inhibitor of TRPC3 and STIM/Orai channels. Taken together, our data demonstrate that NBAECP can relax ASM by inhibiting L-type Ca2+ channels and TRPC3 and/or STIM/Orai channels, suggesting that NBAECP could be developed to a new drug for relieving bronchospasm. PMID:27239213

  3. Lateralization of auditory-cortex functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tervaniemi, Mari; Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2003-12-01

    In the present review, we summarize the most recent findings and current views about the structural and functional basis of human brain lateralization in the auditory modality. Main emphasis is given to hemodynamic and electromagnetic data of healthy adult participants with regard to music- vs. speech-sound encoding. Moreover, a selective set of behavioral dichotic-listening (DL) results and clinical findings (e.g., schizophrenia, dyslexia) are included. It is shown that human brain has a strong predisposition to process speech sounds in the left and music sounds in the right auditory cortex in the temporal lobe. Up to great extent, an auditory area located at the posterior end of the temporal lobe (called planum temporale [PT]) underlies this functional asymmetry. However, the predisposition is not bound to informational sound content but to rapid temporal information more common in speech than in music sounds. Finally, we obtain evidence for the vulnerability of the functional specialization of sound processing. These altered forms of lateralization may be caused by top-down and bottom-up effects inter- and intraindividually In other words, relatively small changes in acoustic sound features or in their familiarity may modify the degree in which the left vs. right auditory areas contribute to sound encoding.

  4. Retinal oscillations carry visual information to cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kilian Koepsell

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Thalamic relay cells fire action potentials that transmit information from retina to cortex. The amount of information that spike trains encode is usually estimated from the precision of spike timing with respect to the stimulus. Sensory input, however, is only one factor that influences neural activity. For example, intrinsic dynamics, such as oscillations of networks of neurons, also modulate firing pattern. Here, we asked if retinal oscillations might help to convey information to neurons downstream. Specifically, we made whole-cell recordings from relay cells to reveal retinal inputs (EPSPs and thalamic outputs (spikes and then analyzed these events with information theory. Our results show that thalamic spike trains operate as two multiplexed channels. One channel, which occupies a low frequency band (<30 Hz, is encoded by average firing rate with respect to the stimulus and carries information about local changes in the visual field over time. The other operates in the gamma frequency band (40-80 Hz and is encoded by spike timing relative to retinal oscillations. At times, the second channel conveyed even more information than the first. Because retinal oscillations involve extensive networks of ganglion cells, it is likely that the second channel transmits information about global features of the visual scene.

  5. Inhibition in the Human Auditory Cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Inui

    Full Text Available Despite their indispensable roles in sensory processing, little is known about inhibitory interneurons in humans. Inhibitory postsynaptic potentials cannot be recorded non-invasively, at least in a pure form, in humans. We herein sought to clarify whether prepulse inhibition (PPI in the auditory cortex reflected inhibition via interneurons using magnetoencephalography. An abrupt increase in sound pressure by 10 dB in a continuous sound was used to evoke the test response, and PPI was observed by inserting a weak (5 dB increase for 1 ms prepulse. The time course of the inhibition evaluated by prepulses presented at 10-800 ms before the test stimulus showed at least two temporally distinct inhibitions peaking at approximately 20-60 and 600 ms that presumably reflected IPSPs by fast spiking, parvalbumin-positive cells and somatostatin-positive, Martinotti cells, respectively. In another experiment, we confirmed that the degree of the inhibition depended on the strength of the prepulse, but not on the amplitude of the prepulse-evoked cortical response, indicating that the prepulse-evoked excitatory response and prepulse-evoked inhibition reflected activation in two different pathways. Although many diseases such as schizophrenia may involve deficits in the inhibitory system, we do not have appropriate methods to evaluate them; therefore, the easy and non-invasive method described herein may be clinically useful.

  6. Development of rat female genital cortex and control of female puberty by sexual touch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanze Lenschow

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Rat somatosensory cortex contains a large sexually monomorphic genital representation. Genital cortex undergoes an unusual 2-fold expansion during puberty. Here, we investigate genital cortex development and female rat sexual maturation. Ovariectomies and estradiol injections suggested sex hormones cause the pubertal genital cortex expansion but not its maintenance at adult size. Genital cortex expanded by thalamic afferents invading surrounding dysgranular cortex. Genital touch was a dominant factor driving female sexual maturation. Raising female rats in contact with adult males promoted genital cortex expansion, whereas contact to adult females or nontactile (audio-visual-olfactory male cues did not. Genital touch imposed by human experimenters powerfully advanced female genital cortex development and sexual maturation. Long-term blocking of genital cortex by tetrodotoxin in pubescent females housed with males prevented genital cortex expansion and decelerated vaginal opening. Sex hormones, sexual experience, and neural activity shape genital cortex, which contributes to the puberty promoting effects of sexual touch.

  7. Development of rat female genital cortex and control of female puberty by sexual touch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenschow, Constanze; Sigl-Glöckner, Johanna

    2017-01-01

    Rat somatosensory cortex contains a large sexually monomorphic genital representation. Genital cortex undergoes an unusual 2-fold expansion during puberty. Here, we investigate genital cortex development and female rat sexual maturation. Ovariectomies and estradiol injections suggested sex hormones cause the pubertal genital cortex expansion but not its maintenance at adult size. Genital cortex expanded by thalamic afferents invading surrounding dysgranular cortex. Genital touch was a dominant factor driving female sexual maturation. Raising female rats in contact with adult males promoted genital cortex expansion, whereas contact to adult females or nontactile (audio-visual-olfactory) male cues did not. Genital touch imposed by human experimenters powerfully advanced female genital cortex development and sexual maturation. Long-term blocking of genital cortex by tetrodotoxin in pubescent females housed with males prevented genital cortex expansion and decelerated vaginal opening. Sex hormones, sexual experience, and neural activity shape genital cortex, which contributes to the puberty promoting effects of sexual touch. PMID:28934203

  8. Development of rat female genital cortex and control of female puberty by sexual touch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenschow, Constanze; Sigl-Glöckner, Johanna; Brecht, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Rat somatosensory cortex contains a large sexually monomorphic genital representation. Genital cortex undergoes an unusual 2-fold expansion during puberty. Here, we investigate genital cortex development and female rat sexual maturation. Ovariectomies and estradiol injections suggested sex hormones cause the pubertal genital cortex expansion but not its maintenance at adult size. Genital cortex expanded by thalamic afferents invading surrounding dysgranular cortex. Genital touch was a dominant factor driving female sexual maturation. Raising female rats in contact with adult males promoted genital cortex expansion, whereas contact to adult females or nontactile (audio-visual-olfactory) male cues did not. Genital touch imposed by human experimenters powerfully advanced female genital cortex development and sexual maturation. Long-term blocking of genital cortex by tetrodotoxin in pubescent females housed with males prevented genital cortex expansion and decelerated vaginal opening. Sex hormones, sexual experience, and neural activity shape genital cortex, which contributes to the puberty promoting effects of sexual touch.

  9. Differential activation of the lateral premotor cortex during action observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stark Rudolf

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Action observation leads to neural activation of the human premotor cortex. This study examined how the level of motor expertise (expert vs. novice in ballroom dancing and the visual viewpoint (internal vs. external viewpoint influence this activation within different parts of this area of the brain. Results Sixteen dance experts and 16 novices observed ballroom dance videos from internal or external viewpoints while lying in a functional magnetic resonance imaging scanner. A conjunction analysis of all observation conditions showed that action observation activated distinct networks of premotor, parietal, and cerebellar structures. Experts revealed increased activation in the ventral premotor cortex compared to novices. An internal viewpoint led to higher activation of the dorsal premotor cortex. Conclusions The present results suggest that the ventral and dorsal premotor cortex adopt differential roles during action observation depending on the level of motor expertise and the viewpoint.

  10. Reorganization of the Human Somatosensory Cortex in Hand Dystonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Jose Catalan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Abnormalities of finger representations in the somatosensory cortex have been identified in patients with focal hand dystonia. Measuring blood flow with positron emission tomography (PET can be use to demonstrate functional localization of receptive fields. Methods: A vibratory stimulus was applied to the right thumb and little finger of six healthy volunteers and six patients with focal hand dystonia to map their receptive fields using H215O PET. Results: The cortical finger representations in the primary somatosensory cortex were closer to each other in patients than in normal subjects. No abnormalities were found in secondary somatosensory cortex, but the somatotopy there is less well distinguished. Conclusions: These data confirm prior electrophysiological and functional neuroimaging observations showing abnormalities of finger representations in somatosensory cortex of patients with focal hand dystonia.

  11. Preprocessing of emotional visual information in the human piriform cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Patrick; Bestgen, Anne-Kathrin; Lech, Robert K; Kuchinke, Lars; Suchan, Boris

    2017-08-23

    This study examines the processing of visual information by the olfactory system in humans. Recent data point to the processing of visual stimuli by the piriform cortex, a region mainly known as part of the primary olfactory cortex. Moreover, the piriform cortex generates predictive templates of olfactory stimuli to facilitate olfactory processing. This study fills the gap relating to the question whether this region is also capable of preprocessing emotional visual information. To gain insight into the preprocessing and transfer of emotional visual information into olfactory processing, we recorded hemodynamic responses during affective priming using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Odors of different valence (pleasant, neutral and unpleasant) were primed by images of emotional facial expressions (happy, neutral and disgust). Our findings are the first to demonstrate that the piriform cortex preprocesses emotional visual information prior to any olfactory stimulation and that the emotional connotation of this preprocessing is subsequently transferred and integrated into an extended olfactory network for olfactory processing.

  12. I find you more attractive … after (prefrontal cortex) stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrari, C.; Lega, C.; Tamietto, M.; Nadal, M.; Cattaneo, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Facial attractiveness seems to be perceived immediately. Neuroimaging evidence suggests that the appraisal of facial attractiveness is mediated by a network of cortical and subcortical regions, mainly encompassing the reward circuit, but also including prefrontal cortices. The prefrontal cortex is

  13. Sensory integration in mouse insular cortex reflects GABA circuit maturation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gogolla, Nadine; Takesian, Anne E; Feng, Guoping; Fagiolini, Michela; Hensch, Takao K

    2014-01-01

    Insular cortex (IC) contributes to a variety of complex brain functions, such as communication, social behavior, and self-awareness through the integration of sensory, emotional, and cognitive content...

  14. Double Cortex Syndrome (Subcortical Band Heterotopia): A Case Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Momen, Ali Akbar; Momen, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    .... Many congenital or acquired brain anomalies are revealed with MRIs. Although the majority of these abnormalities are sporadic but patients with subcortical band heterotopia or double cortex syndrome have sex-linked inheritance...

  15. Category selectivity in human visual cortex: Beyond visual object recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peelen, M.V.; Downing, P.E.

    2017-01-01

    Human ventral temporal cortex shows a categorical organization, with regions responding selectively to faces, bodies, tools, scenes, words, and other categories. Why is this? Traditional accounts explain category selectivity as arising within a hierarchical system dedicated to visual object

  16. Dual γ rhythm generators control interlaminar synchrony in auditory cortex

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ainsworth, Matthew; Lee, Shane; Cunningham, Mark O; Roopun, Anita K; Traub, Roger D; Kopell, Nancy J; Whittington, Miles A

    2011-01-01

    .... Here we show that, for inhibition-based gamma rhythms in vitro in rat neocortical slices, mechanistically distinct local circuit generators exist in different laminae of rat primary auditory cortex...

  17. em arquitetura e urbanismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Sala Minucci Martins

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Está sendo desenvolvido projeto de pesquisa denominado Geometria Fractal e suas Aplicações em Arquitetura e Urbanismo, com o fito de estudar e desenvolver ferramentas analíticas e propositivas para serem aplicadas em arquitetura e urbanismo, com base em conceitos provenientes da geometria fractal.

  18. Orbitofrontal cortex volume and brain reward response in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shott, M E; Cornier, M-A; Mittal, V A; Pryor, T L; Orr, J M; Brown, M S; Frank, G K W

    2015-02-01

    What drives overconsumption of food is poorly understood. Alterations in brain structure and function could contribute to increased food seeking. Recently, brain orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) volume has been implicated in dysregulated eating but little is known how brain structure relates to function. We examined obese (n=18, age=28.7±8.3 years) and healthy control women (n=24, age=27.4±6.3 years) using a multimodal brain imaging approach. We applied magnetic resonance and diffusion tensor imaging to study brain gray and white matter volume as well as white matter (WM) integrity, and tested whether orbitofrontal cortex volume predicts brain reward circuitry activation in a taste reinforcement-learning paradigm that has been associated with dopamine function. Obese individuals displayed lower gray and associated white matter volumes (Pobese individuals in fiber tracts including the external capsule, corona radiata, sagittal stratum, and the uncinate, inferior fronto-occipital, and inferior longitudinal fasciculi. Gray matter volume of the gyrus rectus at the medial edge of the orbitofrontal cortex predicted functional taste reward-learning response in frontal cortex, insula, basal ganglia, amygdala, hypothalamus and anterior cingulate cortex in control but not obese individuals. This study indicates a strong association between medial orbitofrontal cortex volume and taste reinforcement-learning activation in the brain in control but not in obese women. Lower brain volumes in the orbitofrontal cortex and other brain regions associated with taste reward function as well as lower integrity of connecting pathways in obesity (OB) may support a more widespread disruption of reward pathways. The medial orbitofrontal cortex is an important structure in the termination of food intake and disturbances in this and related structures could contribute to overconsumption of food in obesity.

  19. The Hyper-Cortex of Human Collective-Intelligence Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez, Marko A.

    2005-01-01

    Individual-intelligence research, from a neurological perspective, discusses the hierarchical layers of the cortex as a structure that performs conceptual abstraction and specification. This theory has been used to explain how motor-cortex regions responsible for different behavioral modalities such as writing and speaking can be utilized to express the same general concept represented higher in the cortical hierarchy. For example, the concept of a dog, represented across a region of high-lev...

  20. Dopaminergic Activity in the Medial Prefrontal Cortex Modulates Fear Conditioning

    OpenAIRE

    Parvin Babaei; Bahram Soltani Tehrani; Arsalan Alizadeh; Morteza Nakhostin

    2011-01-01

    "nThe purpose of the present study was to determine the role of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) dopaminergic system in fear conditioning response considering individual differences. Animals were initially counterbalanced and classified based on open field test, and then were given a single infusion of the dopamine agonist, amphetamine (AMPH) and antagonist, clozapine (CLZ) into the medial prefrontal cortex. Rats received tone-shock pairing in a classical fear conditioning test and then e...

  1. Occurrence of new neurons in the piriform cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ti-Fei eYuan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult neurogenesis has been well studied in hippocampus and subventricular zone; while this is much less appreciated in other brain regions, including amygdala, hypothalamus and piriform cortex. The present review aims at summarizing recent advances on the occurrence of new neurons in the piriform cortex, their potential origin and migration route from the subventricular zone. We further discuss the relevant implications in olfactory dysfunction accompanying the neuro-degenerative diseases.

  2. High membrane protein oxidation in the human cerebral cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Granold, Matthias; Moosmann, Bernd; Staib-Lasarzik, Irina; Arendt, Thomas; del Rey, Adriana; Engelhard, Kristin; Behl, Christian; Hajieva, Parvana

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress is thought to be one of the main mediators of neuronal damage in human neurodegenerative disease. Still, the dissection of causal relationships has turned out to be remarkably difficult. Here, we have analyzed global protein oxidation in terms of carbonylation of membrane proteins and cytoplasmic proteins in three different mammalian species: aged human cortex and cerebellum from patients with or without Alzheimer's disease, mouse cortex and cerebellum from young and old anim...

  3. Adult deafness induces somatosensory conversion of ferret auditory cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Allman, Brian L.; Keniston, Leslie P.; Meredith, M. Alex

    2009-01-01

    In response to early or developmental lesions, responsiveness of sensory cortex can be converted from the deprived modality to that of the remaining sensory systems. However, little is known about capacity of the adult cortex for cross-modal reorganization. The present study examined the auditory cortices of animals deafened as adults, and observed an extensive somatosensory conversion within as little as 16 days after deafening. These results demonstrate that cortical cross-modal reorganizat...

  4. Signaling interactions in the adrenal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András eSpät

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The major physiological stimuli of aldosterone secretion are angiotensin II (AII and extracellular K+ whereas cortisol production is primarily regulated by corticotrophin (ACTH in fasciculata cells. AII triggers Ca2+ release from internal stores that is followed by store-operated and voltage-dependent Ca2+ entry whereas K+-evoked depolarisation activates voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels. ACTH acts primarily through the formation of cAMP and subsequent protein phosphorylation by protein kinase A. Both Ca2+ and cAMP facilitate the transfer of cholesterol to mitochondrial inner membrane. The cytosolic Ca2+ signal is transferred into the mitochondrial matrix and enhances pyridine nucleotide reduction. Increased formation of NADH results in increased ATP production whereas that of NADPH supports steroid production. In reality, the control of adrenocortical function is a lot more sophisticated with second messengers crosstalking and mutually modifying each other’s pathways. Cytosolic Ca2+ and cGMP are both capable of modifying cAMP metabolism whilst cAMP may enhance Ca2+ release and voltage-activated Ca2+ channel activity. Besides, mitochondrial Ca2+ signal brings about cAMP formation within the organelle and this further enhances aldosterone production. Maintained aldosterone and cortisol secretion are optimized by the concurrent actions of Ca2+ and cAMP, as exemplified by the apparent synergism of Ca2+ influx (inducing cAMP formation and Ca2+ release during response to AII. Thus, cross-actions of parallel signal transducing pathways are not mere intracellular curiosities but rather substantial phenomena which fine-tune the biological response. Our review focuses on these functionally relevant interactions between the Ca2+ and the cyclic nucleotide signal transducing pathways hitherto described in the adrenal cortex.

  5. Neurodynamics of the prefrontal cortex during conditional visuomotor associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Marco; Pasupathy, Anitha; Miller, Earl K; Deco, Gustavo

    2008-03-01

    The prefrontal cortex is believed to be important for cognitive control, working memory, and learning. It is known to play an important role in the learning and execution of conditional visuomotor associations, a cognitive task in which stimuli have to be associated with actions by trial-and-error learning. In our modeling study, we sought to integrate several hypotheses on the function of the prefrontal cortex using a computational model, and compare the results to experimental data. We constructed a module of prefrontal cortex neurons exposed to two different inputs, which we envision to originate from the inferotemporal cortex and the basal ganglia. We found that working memory properties do not describe the dominant dynamics in the prefrontal cortex, but the activation seems to be transient, probably progressing along a pathway from sensory to motor areas. During the presentation of the cue, the dynamics of the prefrontal cortex is bistable, yielding a distinct activation for correct and error trails. We find that a linear change in network parameters relates to the changes in neural activity in consecutive correct trials during learning, which is important evidence for the underlying learning mechanisms.

  6. The Role of Cingulate Cortex in Vicarious Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther H. Yesudas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vicarious pain is defined as the observation of individuals in pain. There is growing neuroimaging evidence suggesting that the cingulate cortex plays a significant role in self-experienced pain processing. Yet, very few studies have directly tested the distinct functions of the cingulate cortex for vicarious pain. In this review, one EEG and eighteen neuroimaging studies reporting cingulate cortex activity during pain observation were discussed. The data indicate that there is overlapping neural activity in the cingulate cortex during self- and vicarious pain. Such activity may contribute to shared neural pain representations that permit inference of the affective state of individuals in pain, facilitating empathy. However, the exact location of neuronal populations in which activity overlaps or differs for self- and observed pain processing requires further confirmation. This review also discusses evidence suggesting differential functions of the cingulate cortex in cognitive, affective, and motor processing during empathy induction. While affective processing in the cingulate cortex during pain observation has been explored relatively more often, its attention and motor roles remain underresearched. Shedding light on the neural correlates of vicarious pain and corresponding empathy in healthy populations can provide neurobiological markers and intervention targets for empathic deficits found in various clinical disorders.

  7. High membrane protein oxidation in the human cerebral cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granold, Matthias; Moosmann, Bernd; Staib-Lasarzik, Irina; Arendt, Thomas; Del Rey, Adriana; Engelhard, Kristin; Behl, Christian; Hajieva, Parvana

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is thought to be one of the main mediators of neuronal damage in human neurodegenerative disease. Still, the dissection of causal relationships has turned out to be remarkably difficult. Here, we have analyzed global protein oxidation in terms of carbonylation of membrane proteins and cytoplasmic proteins in three different mammalian species: aged human cortex and cerebellum from patients with or without Alzheimer's disease, mouse cortex and cerebellum from young and old animals, and adult rat hippocampus and cortex subjected or not subjected to cerebral ischemia. Most tissues showed relatively similar levels of protein oxidation. However, human cortex was affected by severe membrane protein oxidation, while exhibiting lower than average cytoplasmic protein oxidation. In contrast, ex vivo autooxidation of murine cortical tissue primarily induced aqueous protein oxidation, while in vivo biological aging or cerebral ischemia had no major effect on brain protein oxidation. The unusually high levels of membrane protein oxidation in the human cortex were also not predicted by lipid peroxidation, as the levels of isoprostane immunoreactivity in human samples were considerably lower than in rodent tissues. Our results indicate that the aged human cortex is under steady pressure from specific and potentially detrimental membrane protein oxidation. The pronounced difference between humans, mice and rats regarding the primary site of cortical oxidation might have contributed to the unresolved difficulties in translating into therapies the wealth of data describing successful antioxidant neuroprotection in rodents. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. High membrane protein oxidation in the human cerebral cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Granold

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is thought to be one of the main mediators of neuronal damage in human neurodegenerative disease. Still, the dissection of causal relationships has turned out to be remarkably difficult. Here, we have analyzed global protein oxidation in terms of carbonylation of membrane proteins and cytoplasmic proteins in three different mammalian species: aged human cortex and cerebellum from patients with or without Alzheimer's disease, mouse cortex and cerebellum from young and old animals, and adult rat hippocampus and cortex subjected or not subjected to cerebral ischemia. Most tissues showed relatively similar levels of protein oxidation. However, human cortex was affected by severe membrane protein oxidation, while exhibiting lower than average cytoplasmic protein oxidation. In contrast, ex vivo autooxidation of murine cortical tissue primarily induced aqueous protein oxidation, while in vivo biological aging or cerebral ischemia had no major effect on brain protein oxidation. The unusually high levels of membrane protein oxidation in the human cortex were also not predicted by lipid peroxidation, as the levels of isoprostane immunoreactivity in human samples were considerably lower than in rodent tissues. Our results indicate that the aged human cortex is under steady pressure from specific and potentially detrimental membrane protein oxidation. The pronounced difference between humans, mice and rats regarding the primary site of cortical oxidation might have contributed to the unresolved difficulties in translating into therapies the wealth of data describing successful antioxidant neuroprotection in rodents.

  9. Where does TMS Stimulate the Motor Cortex? Combining Electrophysiological Measurements and Realistic Field Estimates to Reveal the Affected Cortex Position

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bungert, Andreas; Antunes, André; Espenhahn, Svenja

    2016-01-01

    of functionally and histologically distinct subareas, this also renders the hypotheses on the physiological TMS effects uncertain. We use the finite element method (FEM) and magnetic resonance image-based individual head models to get realistic estimates of the electric field induced by TMS. The field changes...... in different subparts of the motor cortex are compared with electrophysiological threshold changes of 2 hand muscles when systematically varying the coil orientation in measurements. We demonstrate that TMS stimulates the region around the gyral crown and that the maximal electric field strength in this region......Much of our knowledge on the physiological mechanisms of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) stems from studies which targeted the human motor cortex. However, it is still unclear which part of the motor cortex is predominantly affected by TMS. Considering that the motor cortex consists...

  10. Evidence of residual disease in cryopreserved ovarian cortex from female patients with leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mikkel; Andersen, Morten Tolstrup; Ralfkiær, Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    To systematically search for leukemic cells in cryopreserved ovarian cortex from Danish female patients with leukemia, who had ovarian cortex cryopreserved for fertility preservation before potentially sterilizing treatment.......To systematically search for leukemic cells in cryopreserved ovarian cortex from Danish female patients with leukemia, who had ovarian cortex cryopreserved for fertility preservation before potentially sterilizing treatment....

  11. International EMS Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhelle, Audun; Lossius, Hans Morten; Silfvast, Tom

    2004-01-01

    is the only country that has emergency medicine (EM) as a recognised speciality but there is a need for more fully trained specialists in EM; (4) Norway: the ordinary ground ambulance is pointed out as the weakest link in the EM chain and a health reform demands extensive co-operation between the new health...... enterprises to re-establish a nation-wide air ambulance service; (5) Sweden: to create evidence based medicine standards for treatment in emergency medicine, a better integration of all part of the chain of survival, a formalised education in EM and a nation wide physician staffed helicopter EMS (HEMS) cover....

  12. EM International. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    It is the intent of EM International to describe the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management`s (EM`s) various roles and responsibilities within the international community. Cooperative agreements and programs, descriptions of projects and technologies, and synopses of visits to international sites are all highlighted in this semiannual journal. Focus on EM programs in this issue is on international collaboration in vitrification projects. Technology highlights covers: in situ sealing for contaminated sites; and remote sensors for toxic pollutants. Section on profiles of countries includes: Arctic contamination by the former Soviet Union, and EM activities with Germany--cooperative arrangements.

  13. MEG reveals a fast pathway from somatosensory cortex to occipital areas via posterior parietal cortex in a blind subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas A Ioannides

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cross-modal activity in visual cortex of blind subjects has been reported during performance of variety of non-visual tasks. A key unanswered question is through which pathways non-visual inputs are funneled to the visual cortex. Here we used tomographic analysis of single trial magnetoencephalography (MEG data recorded from one congenitally blind and two sighted subjects after stimulation of the left and right median nerves at three intensities: below sensory threshold, above sensory threshold and above motor threshold; the last sufficient to produce thumb twitching. We identified reproducible brain responses in the primary somatosensory (S1 and motor (M1 cortices at around 20 ms post-stimulus, which were very similar in sighted and blind subjects. Time-frequency analysis revealed strong 45 to 70 Hz activity at latencies of 20 to 50 ms in S1 and M1, and posterior parietal cortex Brodmann areas (BA 7 and 40, which compared to lower frequencies, were substantially more pronounced in the blind than the sighted subjects. Critically, at frequencies from α-band up to 100 Hz we found clear, strong and widespread responses in the visual cortex of the blind subject, which increased with the intensity of the somatosensory stimuli. Time-delayed mutual information (MI revealed that in blind subject the stimulus information is funneled from the early somatosensory to visual cortex through posterior parietal BA 7 and 40, projecting first to visual areas V5 and V3, and eventually V1. The flow of information through this pathway occured in stages characterized by convergence of activations into specific cortical regions. In sighted subjects, no linked activity was found that led from the somatosensory to the visual cortex through any of the studied brain regions. These results provide the first evidence from MEG that in blind subjects, tactile information is routed from primary somatosensory to occipital cortex via the posterior parietal cortex.

  14. MEG reveals a fast pathway from somatosensory cortex to occipital areas via posterior parietal cortex in a blind subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannides, Andreas A; Liu, Lichan; Poghosyan, Vahe; Saridis, George A; Gjedde, Albert; Ptito, Maurice; Kupers, Ron

    2013-01-01

    Cross-modal activity in visual cortex of blind subjects has been reported during performance of variety of non-visual tasks. A key unanswered question is through which pathways non-visual inputs are funneled to the visual cortex. Here we used tomographic analysis of single trial magnetoencephalography (MEG) data recorded from one congenitally blind and two sighted subjects after stimulation of the left and right median nerves at three intensities: below sensory threshold, above sensory threshold and above motor threshold; the last sufficient to produce thumb twitching. We identified reproducible brain responses in the primary somatosensory (S1) and motor (M1) cortices at around 20 ms post-stimulus, which were very similar in sighted and blind subjects. Time-frequency analysis revealed strong 45-70 Hz activity at latencies of 20-50 ms in S1 and M1, and posterior parietal cortex Brodmann areas (BA) 7 and 40, which compared to lower frequencies, were substantially more pronounced in the blind than the sighted subjects. Critically, at frequencies from α-band up to 100 Hz we found clear, strong, and widespread responses in the visual cortex of the blind subject, which increased with the intensity of the somatosensory stimuli. Time-delayed mutual information (MI) revealed that in blind subject the stimulus information is funneled from the early somatosensory to visual cortex through posterior parietal BA 7 and 40, projecting first to visual areas V5 and V3, and eventually V1. The flow of information through this pathway occurred in stages characterized by convergence of activations into specific cortical regions. In sighted subjects, no linked activity was found that led from the somatosensory to the visual cortex through any of the studied brain regions. These results provide the first evidence from MEG that in blind subjects, tactile information is routed from primary somatosensory to occipital cortex via the posterior parietal cortex.

  15. Neural discriminability in rat lateral extrastriate cortex and deep but not superficial primary visual cortex linearly correlates with shape discriminability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben eVermaercke

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have revealed a surprising degree of functional specialization in rodent visual cortex. It is unknown to what degree this functional organization is related to the well-known hierarchical organization of the visual system in primates. We designed a study in rats that targets one of the hallmarks of the hierarchical object vision pathway in primates: selectivity for behaviorally relevant dimensions. We compared behavioral performance in a visual water maze with neural discriminability in five visual cortical areas. We tested behavioral discrimination in two independent batches of six rats using six pairs of shapes used previously to probe shape selectivity in monkey cortex (Lehky and Sereno, 2007. The relative difficulty (error rate of shape pairs was strongly correlated between the two batches, indicating that some shape pairs were more difficult to discriminate than others. Then, we recorded in naive rats from five visual areas from primary visual cortex (V1 over areas LM, LI, LL, up to lateral occipito-temporal cortex (TO. Shape selectivity in the upper layers of V1, where the information enters cortex, correlated mostly with physical stimulus dissimilarity and not with behavioral performance. In contrast, neural discriminability in lower layers of all areas was strongly correlated with behavioral performance. These findings, in combination with the results from Vermaercke et al 2014, suggest that the functional specialization in rodent lateral visual cortex reflects a processing hierarchy resulting in the emergence of complex selectivity for behaviorally relevant stimulus differences.

  16. Microstimulation of visual cortex to restore vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehovnik, Edward J; Slocum, Warren M; Smirnakis, Stelios M; Tolias, Andreas S

    2009-01-01

    This review argues that one reason why a functional visuo-cortical prosthetic device has not been developed to restore even minimal vision to blind individuals is because there is no animal model to guide the design and development of such a device. Over the past 8 years we have been conducting electrical microstimulation experiments on alert behaving monkeys with the aim of better understanding how electrical stimulation of the striate cortex (area V1) affects oculo- and skeleto-motor behaviors. Based on this work and upon review of the literature, we arrive at several conclusions: (1) As with the development of the cochlear implant, the development of a visuo-cortical prosthesis can be accelerated by using animals to test the perceptual effects of microstimulating V1 in intact and blind monkeys. (2) Although a saccade-based paradigm is very convenient for studying the effectiveness of delivering stimulation to V1 to elicit saccadic eye movements, it is less ideal for probing the volitional state of monkeys, as they perceive electrically induced phosphenes. (3) Electrical stimulation of V1 can delay visually guided saccades generated to a punctate target positioned in the receptive field of the stimulated neurons. We call the region of visual space affected by the stimulation a delay field. The study of delay fields has proven to be an efficient way to study the size and shape of phosphenes generated by stimulation of macaque V1. (4) An alternative approach to ascertain what monkeys see during electrical stimulation of V1 is to have them signal the detection of current with a lever press. Monkeys can readily detect currents of 1-2 microA delivered to V1. In order to evoke featured phosphenes currents of under 5 microA will be necessary. (5) Partially lesioning the retinae of monkeys is superior to completely lesioning the retinae when determining how blindness affects phosphene induction. We finish by proposing a future experimental paradigm designed to determine

  17. Temporal coherence sensitivity in auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, Dennis L; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2002-11-01

    Natural sounds often contain energy over a broad spectral range and consequently overlap in frequency when they occur simultaneously; however, such sounds under normal circumstances can be distinguished perceptually (e.g., the cocktail party effect). Sound components arising from different sources have distinct (i.e., incoherent) modulations, and incoherence appears to be one important cue used by the auditory system to segregate sounds into separately perceived acoustic objects. Here we show that, in the primary auditory cortex of awake marmoset monkeys, many neurons responsive to amplitude- or frequency-modulated tones at a particular carrier frequency [the characteristic frequency (CF)] also demonstrate sensitivity to the relative modulation phase between two otherwise identically modulated tones: one at CF and one at a different carrier frequency. Changes in relative modulation phase reflect alterations in temporal coherence between the two tones, and the most common neuronal response was found to be a maximum of suppression for the coherent condition. Coherence sensitivity was generally found in a narrow frequency range in the inhibitory portions of the frequency response areas (FRA), indicating that only some off-CF neuronal inputs into these cortical neurons interact with on-CF inputs on the same time scales. Over the population of neurons studied, carrier frequencies showing coherence sensitivity were found to coincide with the carrier frequencies of inhibition, implying that inhibitory inputs create the effect. The lack of strong coherence-induced facilitation also supports this interpretation. Coherence sensitivity was found to be greatest for modulation frequencies of 16-128 Hz, which is higher than the phase-locking capability of most cortical neurons, implying that subcortical neurons could play a role in the phenomenon. Collectively, these results reveal that auditory cortical neurons receive some off-CF inputs temporally matched and some temporally

  18. Pbx Regulates Patterning of the Cerebral Cortex in Progenitors and Postmitotic Neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golonzhka, Olga; Nord, Alex; Tang, Paul L F

    2015-01-01

    molecular phenotypes of cortical regional and laminar organization: hypoplasia of the frontal cortex, ventral expansion of the dorsomedial cortex, and ventral expansion of Reelin expression in the cortical plate of the frontal cortex, concomitant with an inversion of cortical layering in the rostral cortex....... Molecular analyses, including PBX ChIP-seq, provide evidence that PBX promotes frontal cortex identity by repressing genes that promote dorsocaudal fate....

  19. Decoding sound and imagery content in early visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Petra; Smith, Fraser W; Muckli, Lars

    2014-06-02

    Human early visual cortex was traditionally thought to process simple visual features such as orientation, contrast, and spatial frequency via feedforward input from the lateral geniculate nucleus (e.g., [1]). However, the role of nonretinal influence on early visual cortex is so far insufficiently investigated despite much evidence that feedback connections greatly outnumber feedforward connections [2-5]. Here, we explored in five fMRI experiments how information originating from audition and imagery affects the brain activity patterns in early visual cortex in the absence of any feedforward visual stimulation. We show that category-specific information from both complex natural sounds and imagery can be read out from early visual cortex activity in blindfolded participants. The coding of nonretinal information in the activity patterns of early visual cortex is common across actual auditory perception and imagery and may be mediated by higher-level multisensory areas. Furthermore, this coding is robust to mild manipulations of attention and working memory but affected by orthogonal, cognitively demanding visuospatial processing. Crucially, the information fed down to early visual cortex is category specific and generalizes to sound exemplars of the same category, providing evidence for abstract information feedback rather than precise pictorial feedback. Our results suggest that early visual cortex receives nonretinal input from other brain areas when it is generated by auditory perception and/or imagery, and this input carries common abstract information. Our findings are compatible with feedback of predictive information to the earliest visual input level (e.g., [6]), in line with predictive coding models [7-10]. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Functional imaging reveals numerous fields in the monkey auditory cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher I Petkov

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical studies propose that the primate auditory cortex contains more fields than have actually been functionally confirmed or described. Spatially resolved functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI with carefully designed acoustical stimulation could be ideally suited to extend our understanding of the processing within these fields. However, after numerous experiments in humans, many auditory fields remain poorly characterized. Imaging the macaque monkey is of particular interest as these species have a richer set of anatomical and neurophysiological data to clarify the source of the imaged activity. We functionally mapped the auditory cortex of behaving and of anesthetized macaque monkeys with high resolution fMRI. By optimizing our imaging and stimulation procedures, we obtained robust activity throughout auditory cortex using tonal and band-passed noise sounds. Then, by varying the frequency content of the sounds, spatially specific activity patterns were observed over this region. As a result, the activity patterns could be assigned to many auditory cortical fields, including those whose functional properties were previously undescribed. The results provide an extensive functional tessellation of the macaque auditory cortex and suggest that 11 fields contain neurons tuned for the frequency of sounds. This study provides functional support for a model where three fields in primary auditory cortex are surrounded by eight neighboring "belt" fields in non-primary auditory cortex. The findings can now guide neurophysiological recordings in the monkey to expand our understanding of the processing within these fields. Additionally, this work will improve fMRI investigations of the human auditory cortex.

  1. Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles through Reduction with <em>Solanum> <em>xanthocarpum> L. Berry Extract: Characterization, Antimicrobial and Urease Inhibitory Activities against <em>Helicobacter> <em>pylori>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Awais Iqbal

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A green synthesis route for the production of silver nanoparticles using methanol extract from <em>Solanum> <em>xanthocarpum> berry (SXE is reported in the present investigation. Silver nanoparticles (AgNps, having a surface plasmon resonance (SPR band centered at 406 nm, were synthesized by reacting SXE (as capping as well as reducing agent with AgNO3 during a 25 min process at 45 °C. The synthesized AgNps were characterized using UV–Visible spectrophotometry, powdered X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The results showed that the time of reaction, temperature and volume ratio of SXE to AgNO3 could accelerate the reduction rate of Ag+ and affect the AgNps size and shape. The nanoparticles were found to be about 10 nm in size, mono-dispersed in nature, and spherical in shape. <em>In> <em>vitro> anti-<em>Helicobacter> <em>pylori> activity of synthesized AgNps was tested against 34 clinical isolates and two reference strains of <em>Helicobacter> <em>pylori> by the agar dilution method and compared with AgNO3 and four standard drugs, namely amoxicillin (AMX, clarithromycin (CLA, metronidazole (MNZ and tetracycline (TET, being used in anti-<em>H.> <em>pylori> therapy. Typical AgNps sample (S1 effectively inhibited the growth of <em>H.> <em>pylori>, indicating a stronger anti-<em>H.> <em>pylori> activity than that of AgNO3 or MNZ, being almost equally potent to TET and less potent than AMX and CLA. AgNps under study were found to be equally efficient against the antibiotic-resistant and antibiotic-susceptible strains of <em>H.> <em>pylori>. Besides, in the <em>H.> <em>pylori> urease inhibitory assay, S1 also exhibited a significant inhibition. Lineweaver-Burk plots revealed that the mechanism of inhibition was noncompetitive.

  2. From motor cortex to visual cortex: the application of noninvasive brain stimulation to amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Benjamin; Mansouri, Behzad; Koski, Lisa; Hess, Robert F

    2012-04-01

    Noninvasive brain stimulation is a technique for inducing changes in the excitability of discrete neural populations in the human brain. A current model of the underlying pathological processes contributing to the loss of motor function after stroke has motivated a number of research groups to investigate the potential therapeutic application of brain stimulation to stroke rehabilitation. The loss of motor function is modeled as resulting from a combination of reduced excitability in the lesioned motor cortex and an increased inhibitory drive from the nonlesioned hemisphere over the lesioned hemisphere. This combination of impaired neural function and pathological suppression resonates with current views on the cause of the visual impairment in amblyopia. Here, we discuss how the rationale for using noninvasive brain stimulation in stroke rehabilitation can be applied to amblyopia, review a proof-of-principle study demonstrating that brain stimulation can temporarily improve amblyopic eye function, and propose future research avenues. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Cellular properties of principal neurons in the rat entorhinal cortex. II. The medial entorhinal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canto, Cathrin B; Witter, Menno P

    2012-06-01

    Principal neurons in different medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) layers show variations in spatial modulation that stabilize between 15 and 30 days postnatally. These in vivo variations are likely due to differences in intrinsic membrane properties and integrative capacities of neurons. The latter depends on inputs and thus potentially on the morphology of principal neurons. In this comprehensive study, we systematically compared the morphological and physiological characteristics of principal neurons in all MEC layers of newborn rats before and after weaning. We recorded simultaneously from up to four post-hoc morphologically identified MEC principal neurons in vitro. Neurons in L(ayer) I-LIII have dendritic and axonal arbors mainly in superficial layers, and LVI neurons mainly in deep layers. The dendritic and axonal trees of part of LV neurons diverge throughout all layers. Physiological properties of principal neurons differ between layers. In LII, most neurons have a prominent sag potential, resonance and membrane oscillations. Neurons in LIII and LVI fire relatively regular, and lack sag potentials and membrane oscillations. LV neurons show the most prominent spike-frequency adaptation and highest input resistance. The data indicate that adult-like principal neuron types can be differentiated early on during postnatal development. The results of the accompanying paper, in which principal neurons in the lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC) were described (Canto and Witter,2011), revealed that significant differences between LEC and MEC exist mainly in LII neurons. We therefore systematically analyzed changes in LII biophysical properties along the mediolateral axis of MEC and LEC. There is a gradient in properties typical for MEC LII neurons. These properties are most pronounced in medially located neurons and become less apparent in more laterally positioned ones. This gradient continues into LEC, such that in LEC medially positioned neurons share some properties

  4. rTMS of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex modulates dopamine release in the ipsilateral anterior cingulate cortex and orbitofrontal cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Soo Cho

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Brain dopamine is implicated in the regulation of movement, attention, reward and learning and plays an important role in Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia and drug addiction. Animal experiments have demonstrated that brain stimulation is able to induce significant dopaminergic changes in extrastriatal areas. Given the up-growing interest of non-invasive brain stimulation as potential tool for treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders, it would be critical to investigate dopaminergic functional interactions in the prefrontal cortex and more in particular the effect of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC (areas 9/46 stimulation on prefrontal dopamine (DA. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Healthy volunteers were studied with a high-affinity DA D2-receptor radioligand, [(11C]FLB 457-PET following 10 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS of the left and right DLPFC. rTMS on the left DLPFC induced a significant reduction in [(11C]FLB 457 binding potential (BP in the ipsilateral subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (ACC (BA 25/12, pregenual ACC (BA 32 and medial orbitofrontal cortex (BA 11. There were no significant changes in [(11C]FLB 457 BP following right DLPFC rTMS. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: To our knowledge, this is the first study to provide evidence of extrastriatal DA modulation following acute rTMS of DLPFC with its effect limited to the specific areas of medial prefrontal cortex. [(11C]FLB 457-PET combined with rTMS may allow to explore the neurochemical functions of specific cortical neural networks and help to identify the neurobiological effects of TMS for the treatment of different neurological and psychiatric diseases.

  5. Evidence for inhibitory deficits in the prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhu, Natasha; Garcia Dominguez, Luis; Farzan, Faranak; Richter, Margaret A; Semeralul, Mawahib O; Chen, Robert; Fitzgerald, Paul B; Daskalakis, Zafiris J

    2015-02-01

    Abnormal gamma-aminobutyric acid inhibitory neurotransmission is a key pathophysiological mechanism underlying schizophrenia. Transcranial magnetic stimulation can be combined with electroencephalography to index long-interval cortical inhibition, a measure of GABAergic receptor-mediated inhibitory neurotransmission from the frontal and motor cortex. In previous studies we have reported that schizophrenia is associated with inhibitory deficits in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex compared to healthy subjects and patients with bipolar disorder. The main objective of the current study was to replicate and extend these initial findings by evaluating long-interval cortical inhibition from the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in patients with schizophrenia compared to patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. A total of 111 participants were assessed: 38 patients with schizophrenia (average age: 35.71 years, 25 males, 13 females), 27 patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (average age: 36.15 years, 11 males, 16 females) and 46 healthy subjects (average age: 33.63 years, 23 females, 23 males). Long-interval cortical inhibition was measured from the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and motor cortex through combined transcranial magnetic stimulation and electroencephalography. In the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, long-interval cortical inhibition was significantly reduced in patients with schizophrenia compared to healthy subjects (P = 0.004) and not significantly different between patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and healthy subjects (P = 0.5445). Long-interval cortical inhibition deficits in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex were also significantly greater in patients with schizophrenia compared to patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (P = 0.0465). There were no significant differences in long-interval cortical inhibition across all three groups in the motor cortex. These results demonstrate that long-interval cortical inhibition deficits in the

  6. Cortical stimulation mapping of phantom limb rolandic cortex. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojemann, J G; Silbergeld, D L

    1995-04-01

    Findings of intraoperative rolandic cortex mapping during awake craniotomy for a tumor in a patient with a contralateral upper-extremity amputation are presented. This patient sustained a traumatic amputation at the mid-humerus 24 years previously. Initially he had experienced rare painless phantom limb sensations but none in the past 10 years. Functional mapping during an awake craniotomy was performed to maximize safe tumor resection. Typical temporal and frontal speech areas were identified; motor representation of face and jaw extended more superiorly than sensory representation. Shoulder movements were evoked more laterally than usual at the superior aspect of the craniotomy. A small region of precentral gyrus, between the jaw and shoulder representations, elicited no detectable effect when stimulated. Somatosensory mapping showed a similar topographical distribution of face and mouth cortex; however, posterior and inferior to the shoulder motor cortex, right arm and hand (phantom) sensations were evoked. Evidence suggests that significant motor reorganization occurs following an amputation, with expansion of neighboring homuncular representations without loss of somatosensory representation, despite a long period of time without any sensation referable to the amputated limb. Contrary to models of sensory cortex plasticity, the plasticity of the adult cortex may be system specific, with reorganization present in motor, but not in sensory, cortical systems.

  7. The insular cortex and the neuroanatomy of major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprengelmeyer, Reiner; Steele, J Douglas; Mwangi, Benson; Kumar, Poornima; Christmas, David; Milders, Maarten; Matthews, Keith

    2011-09-01

    The neuroanatomical substrate underlying Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is incompletely understood. Recent reports have implicated the insular cortex. Two cohorts of participants with MDD were tested. In the first MDD cohort, we used standardised facial expression recognition tasks. In the second cohort, we focused on facial disgust recognition, a function associated with the insular cortex. T1 weighted MR imaging was used in the second cohort to test the hypothesis of abnormal insular volume being associated with impaired disgust recognition. Disgust recognition was particularly impaired in both cohorts. In the second cohort, the magnitude of the disgust recognition deficit correlated with reduced insula grey matter volume. Exploring the idea of insula involvement in MDD further, we identified the insular cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex as key neural correlates of core symptoms, in that scores of 3 clinical scales (the Beck Depression Inventory, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and the Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale) correlated with grey matter volume in these structures. MDD participants were clinically representative of specialist and academic psychiatric practice in the UK and presented with robust primary diagnoses; we did not exclude common co-morbidities such as anxiety and personality disorders. We propose that cognitive and emotional functions assumed to be associated with the insula are adversely affected in patients with MDD and that this may, therefore, represent the substrate for some core clinical features of MDD. Further exploration of the involvement of the insular cortex in MDD is warranted. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Magnetoencephalographic signatures of right prefrontal cortex involvement in response inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hege, Maike A; Preissl, Hubert; Stingl, Krunoslav T

    2014-10-01

    The prefrontal cortex has a pivotal role in top-down control of cognitive and sensory functions. In complex go-nogo tasks, the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is considered to be important for guiding the response inhibition. However, little is known about the temporal dynamics and neurophysiological nature of this activity. To address this issue, we recorded magnetoencephalographic brain activity in 20 women during a visual go-nogo task. The right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex showed an increase for the amplitude of the event-related fields and an increase in induced alpha frequency band activity for nogo in comparison to go trials. The peak of this prefrontal activity preceded the mean reaction time of around 360 ms for go trials, and thus supports the proposed role of right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in gating the response inhibition and further suggests that right prefrontal alpha band activity might be involved in this gating. However, the results in right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex were similar for both successful and unsuccessful response inhibition. In these conditions, we instead observed pre- and poststimulus differences in alpha band activity in occipital and central areas. Thus, successful response inhibition seemed to additionally depend on prestimulus anticipatory alpha desynchronization in sensory areas as it was reduced prior to unsuccessful response inhibition. In conclusion, we suggest a role for functional inhibition by alpha synchronization not only in sensory, but also in prefrontal areas. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Ventromedial prefrontal cortex mediates visual attention during facial emotion recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Richard C; Philippi, Carissa L; Motzkin, Julian C; Baskaya, Mustafa K; Koenigs, Michael

    2014-06-01

    The ventromedial prefrontal cortex is known to play a crucial role in regulating human social and emotional behaviour, yet the precise mechanisms by which it subserves this broad function remain unclear. Whereas previous neuropsychological studies have largely focused on the role of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex in higher-order deliberative processes related to valuation and decision-making, here we test whether ventromedial prefrontal cortex may also be critical for more basic aspects of orienting attention to socially and emotionally meaningful stimuli. Using eye tracking during a test of facial emotion recognition in a sample of lesion patients, we show that bilateral ventromedial prefrontal cortex damage impairs visual attention to the eye regions of faces, particularly for fearful faces. This finding demonstrates a heretofore unrecognized function of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex-the basic attentional process of controlling eye movements to faces expressing emotion. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Orosensory and Homeostatic Functions of the Insular Taste Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo, Ivan E.; Geha, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The gustatory aspect of the insular cortex is part of the brain circuit that controls ingestive behaviors based on chemosensory inputs. However, the sensory properties of foods are not restricted to taste and should also include salient features such as odor, texture, temperature, and appearance. Therefore, it is reasonable to hypothesize that specialized circuits within the central taste pathways must be involved in representing several other oral sensory modalities in addition to taste. In this review, we evaluate current evidence indicating that the insular gustatory cortex functions as an integrative circuit, with taste-responsive regions also showing heightened sensitivity to olfactory, somatosensory, and even visual stimulation. We also review evidence for modulation of taste-responsive insular areas by changes in physiological state, with taste-elicited neuronal responses varying according to the nutritional state of the organism. We then examine experimental support for a functional map within the insular cortex that might reflect the various sensory and homeostatic roles associated with this region. Finally, we evaluate the potential role of the taste insular cortex in weight-gain susceptibility. Taken together, the current experimental evidence favors the view that the insular gustatory cortex functions as an orosensory integrative system that not only enables the formation of complex flavor representations but also mediates their modulation by the internal state of the body, playing therefore a central role in food intake regulation. PMID:25485032

  11. Glutamatergic alterations in the cortex of genetic absence epilepsy rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier-Bazes Marianne

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In absence epilepsy, the neuronal hyper-excitation and hyper-synchronization, which induce spike and wave discharges in a cortico-thalamic loop are suspected to be due to an imbalance between GABA and glutamate (GLU neurotransmission. In order to elucidate the role played by GLU in disease outcome, we measured cortical and thalamic extracellular levels of GLU and GABA. We used an in vivo quantitative microdialysis approach (no-net-flux method in an animal model of absence epilepsy (GAERS. In addition, by infusing labelled glutamate through the microdialysis probe, we studied in vivo glutamate uptake in the cortex and thalamus in GAERS and non-epileptic control (NEC rats. Expression of the vesicular glutamate transporters VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 and a synaptic component, synaptophysin, was also measured. Results Although extracellular concentrations of GABA and GLU in the cortex and thalamus were not significantly different between GAERS and NEC rats, cortical GLU uptake was significantly decreased in unrestrained awake GAERS. Expression of VGLUT2 and synaptophysin was increased in the cortex of GAERS compared to NEC rats, but no changes were observed in the thalamus. Conclusion The specific decrease in GLU uptake in the cortex of GAERS linked to synaptic changes suggests impairment of the glutamatergic terminal network. These data support the idea that a change in glutamatergic neurotransmission in the cortex could contribute to hyperexcitability in absence epilepsy.

  12. Modulation of sensory and motor cortex activity during speech preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, Jeffrey R; Foundas, Anne L; Golob, Edward J

    2011-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that speaking affects auditory and motor cortex responsiveness, which may reflect the influence of motor efference copy. If motor efference copy is involved, it would also likely influence auditory and motor cortical activity when preparing to speak. We tested this hypothesis by using auditory event-related potentials and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the motor cortex. In the speech condition subjects were visually cued to prepare a vocal response to a subsequent target, which was compared to a control condition without speech preparation. Auditory and motor cortex responsiveness at variable times between the cue and target were probed with an acoustic stimulus (Experiment 1, tone or consonant-vowels) or motor cortical TMS (Experiment 2). Acoustic probes delivered shortly before targets elicited a fronto-central negative potential in the speech condition. Current density analysis showed that auditory cortical activity was attenuated at the beginning of the slow potential in the speech condition. Sensory potentials in response to probes had shorter latencies (N100) and larger amplitudes (P200) when consonant-vowels matched the sound of cue words. Motor cortex excitability was greater in the speech than in the control condition at all time points before picture onset. The results suggest that speech preparation induces top-down regulation of sensory and motor cortex responsiveness, with different time courses for auditory and motor systems. © 2011 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2011 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. The motor cortex and its role in phantom limb phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Karen T; Sirigu, Angela

    2008-04-01

    Limb amputation results in plasticity of connections between the brain and muscles; the cortical motor representation of the missing limb seemingly disappears. The disappearance of the hand's motor representation is, however, difficult to reconcile with evidence that a perceptual representation of the missing limb persists in the form of a phantom limb endowed with sensory and motor qualities. Here, we argue that despite considerable reorganization within the motor cortex of upper-limb amputees, the representation of the amputated hand does not disappear. We hypothesize that two levels of hand-movement representation coexist within the primary motor cortex; at one level, limb movements are specified in terms of arm and hand motor commands, and at another level, limb movements are specified as muscles synergies. We propose that primary motor cortex reorganization after amputation concerns primarily the upper limb's muscular map but not its motor command map and that the integrity of the motor command map underlies the existence of the phantom limb.

  14. Characterization of auditory synaptic inputs to gerbil perirhinal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibhakar C Kotak

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The representation of acoustic cues involves regions downstream from the auditory cortex (ACx. One such area, the perirhinal cortex (PRh, processes sensory signals containing mnemonic information. Therefore, our goal was to assess whether PRh receives auditory inputs from the auditory thalamus (MG and ACx in an auditory thalamocortical brain slice preparation and characterize these afferent-driven synaptic properties. When the MG or ACx was electrically stimulated, synaptic responses were recorded from the PRh neurons. Blockade of GABA-A receptors dramatically increased the amplitude of evoked excitatory potentials. Stimulation of the MG or ACx also evoked calcium transients in most PRh neurons. Separately, when fluoro ruby was injected in ACx in vivo, anterogradely labeled axons and terminals were observed in the PRh. Collectively, these data show that the PRh integrates auditory information from the MG and ACx and that auditory driven inhibition dominates the postsynaptic responses in a non-sensory cortical region downstream from the auditory cortex.

  15. Neural substrate of dynamic Bayesian inference in the cerebral cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funamizu, Akihiro; Kuhn, Bernd; Doya, Kenji

    2016-12-01

    Dynamic Bayesian inference allows a system to infer the environmental state under conditions of limited sensory observation. Using a goal-reaching task, we found that posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and adjacent posteromedial cortex (PM) implemented the two fundamental features of dynamic Bayesian inference: prediction of hidden states using an internal state transition model and updating the prediction with new sensory evidence. We optically imaged the activity of neurons in mouse PPC and PM layers 2, 3 and 5 in an acoustic virtual-reality system. As mice approached a reward site, anticipatory licking increased even when sound cues were intermittently presented; this was disturbed by PPC silencing. Probabilistic population decoding revealed that neurons in PPC and PM represented goal distances during sound omission (prediction), particularly in PPC layers 3 and 5, and prediction improved with the observation of cue sounds (updating). Our results illustrate how cerebral cortex realizes mental simulation using an action-dependent dynamic model.

  16. Interplay of hippocampus and prefrontal cortex in memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Alison R.; Eichenbaum, Howard

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies on the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex have considerably advanced our understanding of the distinct roles of these brain areas in the encoding and retrieval of memories, and of how they interact in the prolonged process by which new memories are consolidated into our permanent storehouse of knowledge. These studies have led to a new model of how the hippocampus forms and replays memories and how the prefrontal cortex engages representations of the meaningful contexts in which related memories occur, as well as how these areas interact during memory retrieval. Furthermore, they have provided new insights into how interactions between the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex support the assimilation of new memories into pre-existing networks of knowledge, called schemas, and how schemas are modified in this process as the foundation of memory consolidation. PMID:24028960

  17. Monoaminergic modulation of emotional impact in the inferomedial prefrontal cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geday, Jacob; Gjedde, Albert

    2009-01-01

    of the standard Empathy Picture System on a scale from +3 to -3. We then used regression analysis to identify sites in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex at which the two separately acquired measures, blood flow change and emotional impact of images, correlated significantly. The regression analysis identified...... a locus in Brodmann's area 11 of the inferomedial prefrontal cortex (IMPC) at which these two separate measures had significant inverse correlation. Thus, under the specific circumstance of positron emission tomography (PET) of a pharmacological challenge, a key region of the inferomedial prefrontal...... cortex underwent deactivation in proportion to a separately rated emotional impact of a stimulus. We propose a specific pharmacodynamic mechanism that explains the correlation between the emotional impact and the effect of a serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor on cerebral blood flow....

  18. Specialization in the left prefrontal cortex for sentence comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Ryuichiro; Sakai, Kuniyoshi L

    2002-08-01

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we examined cortical activation under syntactic decision tasks and a short-term memory task for sentences, focusing on essential properties of syntactic processing. By comparing activation in these tasks with a short-term memory task for word lists, we found that two regions in the left prefrontal cortex showed selective activation for syntactic processing: the dorsal prefrontal cortex (DPFC) and the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). Moreover, the left DPFC showed more prominent activation under the short-term memory task for sentences than that for word lists, which cannot be explained by general cognitive factors such as task difficulty and verbal short-term memory. These results support the proposal of specialized systems for sentence comprehension in the left prefrontal cortex.

  19. Adaptation to sensory input tunes visual cortex to criticality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shew, Woodrow L.; Clawson, Wesley P.; Pobst, Jeff; Karimipanah, Yahya; Wright, Nathaniel C.; Wessel, Ralf

    2015-08-01

    A long-standing hypothesis at the interface of physics and neuroscience is that neural networks self-organize to the critical point of a phase transition, thereby optimizing aspects of sensory information processing. This idea is partially supported by strong evidence for critical dynamics observed in the cerebral cortex, but the impact of sensory input on these dynamics is largely unknown. Thus, the foundations of this hypothesis--the self-organization process and how it manifests during strong sensory input--remain unstudied experimentally. Here we show in visual cortex and in a computational model that strong sensory input initially elicits cortical network dynamics that are not critical, but adaptive changes in the network rapidly tune the system to criticality. This conclusion is based on observations of multifaceted scaling laws predicted to occur at criticality. Our findings establish sensory adaptation as a self-organizing mechanism that maintains criticality in visual cortex during sensory information processing.

  20. Hypoperfusion of cerebral cortex in renal hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, K M; Gross, P M

    1991-05-01

    Morphometric and physiological measurements in the parietal cortex of rats with 2-kidney-1-clip renal hypertension and their normotensive controls indicated a 23% increase in capillary bed volume accompanied by a 32% reduction in the rate of cortical blood flow in the renal hypertensive animals. From these measures, we estimated an 83% increase in the duration of blood transit through the cortical capillary network of renal hypertensive rats, a new expression of altered microvascular function in the brain of this hypertensive model. The rate of glucose utilization in the cerebral cortex of renal hypertensive animals was not different from that observed for normotensive animals. Thus, for capillary networks in cerebral cortex of renal hypertensive rats, we demonstrated markedly reduced rates of perfusion independent of tissue metabolic factors, despite expansion of capillary bed volume.

  1. "Visual" Cortex Responds to Spoken Language in Blind Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedny, Marina; Richardson, Hilary; Saxe, Rebecca

    2015-08-19

    Plasticity in the visual cortex of blind individuals provides a rare window into the mechanisms of cortical specialization. In the absence of visual input, occipital ("visual") brain regions respond to sound and spoken language. Here, we examined the time course and developmental mechanism of this plasticity in blind children. Nineteen blind and 40 sighted children and adolescents (4-17 years old) listened to stories and two auditory control conditions (unfamiliar foreign speech, and music). We find that "visual" cortices of young blind (but not sighted) children respond to sound. Responses to nonlanguage sounds increased between the ages of 4 and 17. By contrast, occipital responses to spoken language were maximal by age 4 and were not related to Braille learning. These findings suggest that occipital plasticity for spoken language is independent of plasticity for Braille and for sound. We conclude that in the absence of visual input, spoken language colonizes the visual system during brain development. Our findings suggest that early in life, human cortex has a remarkably broad computational capacity. The same cortical tissue can take on visual perception and language functions. Studies of plasticity provide key insights into how experience shapes the human brain. The "visual" cortex of adults who are blind from birth responds to touch, sound, and spoken language. To date, all existing studies have been conducted with adults, so little is known about the developmental trajectory of plasticity. We used fMRI to study the emergence of "visual" cortex responses to sound and spoken language in blind children and adolescents. We find that "visual" cortex responses to sound increase between 4 and 17 years of age. By contrast, responses to spoken language are present by 4 years of age and are not related to Braille-learning. These findings suggest that, early in development, human cortex can take on a strikingly wide range of functions. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/3511674-08$15.00/0.

  2. Similarities between GCS and human motor cortex: complex movement coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Jose A.; Macias, Rosa; Molgo, Jordi; Guerra, Dailos

    2014-07-01

    The "Gran Telescopio de Canarias" (GTC1) is an optical-infrared 10-meter segmented mirror telescope at the ORM observatory in Canary Islands (Spain). The GTC control system (GCS), the brain of the telescope, is is a distributed object & component oriented system based on RT-CORBA and it is responsible for the management and operation of the telescope, including its instrumentation. On the other hand, the Human motor cortex (HMC) is a region of the cerebrum responsible for the coordination of planning, control, and executing voluntary movements. If we analyze both systems, as far as the movement control of their mechanisms and body parts is concerned, we can find extraordinary similarities in their architectures. Both are structured in layers, and their functionalities are comparable from the movement conception until the movement action itself: In the GCS we can enumerate the Sequencer high level components, the Coordination libraries, the Control Kit library and the Device Driver library as the subsystems involved in the telescope movement control. If we look at the motor cortex, we can also enumerate the primary motor cortex, the secondary motor cortices, which include the posterior parietal cortex, the premotor cortex, and the supplementary motor area (SMA), the motor units, the sensory organs and the basal ganglia. From all these components/areas we will analyze in depth the several subcortical regions, of the the motor cortex, that are involved in organizing motor programs for complex movements and the GCS coordination framework, which is composed by a set of classes that allow to the high level components to transparently control a group of mechanisms simultaneously.

  3. Assembly language programming ARM Cortex-M3

    CERN Document Server

    Mahout, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    ARM designs the cores of microcontrollers which equip most "embedded systems" based on 32-bit processors. Cortex M3 is one of these designs, recently developed by ARM with microcontroller applications in mind. To conceive a particularly optimized piece of software (as is often the case in the world of embedded systems) it is often necessary to know how to program in an assembly language.This book explains the basics of programming in an assembly language, while being based on the architecture of Cortex M3 in detail and developing many examples.It is written for people who have never pr

  4. Long-term motor cortex stimulation for phantom limb pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Erlick A C; Moore, Tom; Moir, Liz; Aziz, Tipu Z

    2015-04-01

    We present the long-term course of motor cortex stimulation to relieve a case of severe burning phantom arm pain after brachial plexus injury and amputation. During 16-year follow-up the device continued to provide efficacious analgesia. However, several adjustments of stimulation parameters were required, as were multiple pulse generator changes, antibiotics for infection and one electrode revision due to lead migration. Steady increases in stimulation parameters over time were required. One of the longest follow-ups of motor cortex stimulation is described; the case illustrates challenges and pitfalls in neuromodulation for chronic pain, demonstrating strategies for maintaining analgesia and overcoming tolerance.

  5. Plasticity in the prefrontal cortex of adult rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Bryan; Gibb, Robbin

    2015-01-01

    We review the plastic changes of the prefrontal cortex of the rat in response to a wide range of experiences including sensory and motor experience, gonadal hormones, psychoactive drugs, learning tasks, stress, social experience, metaplastic experiences, and brain injury. Our focus is on synaptic changes (dendritic morphology and spine density) in pyramidal neurons and the relationship to behavioral changes. The most general conclusion we can reach is that the prefrontal cortex is extremely plastic and that the medial and orbital prefrontal regions frequently respond very differently to the same experience in the same brain and the rules that govern prefrontal plasticity appear to differ for those of other cortical regions. PMID:25691857

  6. Adult deafness induces somatosensory conversion of ferret auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allman, Brian L; Keniston, Leslie P; Meredith, M Alex

    2009-04-07

    In response to early or developmental lesions, responsiveness of sensory cortex can be converted from the deprived modality to that of the remaining sensory systems. However, little is known about capacity of the adult cortex for cross-modal reorganization. The present study examined the auditory cortices of animals deafened as adults, and observed an extensive somatosensory conversion within as little as 16 days after deafening. These results demonstrate that cortical cross-modal reorganization can occur after the period of sensory system maturation.

  7. Three-dimensional microtomographic imaging of human brain cortex

    CERN Document Server

    Mizutania, Ryuta; Uesugi, Kentaro; Ohyama, Masami; Takekoshi, Susumu; Osamura, R Yoshiyuki; Suzuki, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes an x-ray microtomographic technique for imaging the three-dimensional structure of the human cerebral cortex. Neurons in the brain constitute a neural circuit as a three-dimensional network. The brain tissue is composed of light elements that give little contrast in a hard x-ray transmission image. The contrast was enhanced by staining neural cells with metal compounds. The obtained structure revealed the microarchitecture of the gray and white matter regions of the frontal cortex, which is responsible for the higher brain functions.

  8. Plasticity in the Prefrontal Cortex of Adult Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan eKolb

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We review the plastic changes of the prefrontal cortex of the rat in response to a wide range of experiences including sensory and motor experience, gonadal hormones, psychoactive drugs, learning tasks, stress, social experience, metaplastic experiences, and brain injury. Our focus is on synaptic changes (dendritic morphology and spine density in pyramidal neurons and the relationship to behavioral changes. The most general conclusion we can reach is that the prefrontal cortex is extremely plastic and that the medial and orbital prefrontal regions frequently respond very differently to the same experience in the same brain and the rules that govern prefrontal plasticity appear to differ for those of other cortical regions.

  9. The prefrontal cortex shows context-specific changes in effective connectivity to motor or visual cortex during the selection of action or colour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rowe, James B.; Stephan, Klaas E.; Friston, Karl

    2005-01-01

    The role of the prefrontal cortex remains controversial. Neuroimaging studies support modality-specific and process-specific functions related to working memory and attention. Its role may also be defined by changes in its influence over other brain regions including sensory and motor cortex. We...... used functional magnetic imaging (fMRI) to study the free selection of actions and colours. Control conditions used externally specified actions and colours. The prefrontal cortex was activated during free selection, regardless of modality, in contrast to modality-specific activations outside...... prefrontal cortex. Structural equation modelling (SEM) of fMRI data was used to test the hypothesis that although the same regions of prefrontal cortex may be active in tasks within different domains, there is task-dependent effective connectivity between prefrontal cortex and non-prefrontal cortex. The SEM...

  10. Emergency Medical Service (EMS) Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — EMS Locations in Kansas The EMS stations dataset consists of any location where emergency medical services (EMS) personnel are stationed or based out of, or where...

  11. Primary Motor Cortex Excitability in Karate Athletes: A Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monda, Vincenzo; Valenzano, Anna; Moscatelli, Fiorenzo; Salerno, Monica; Sessa, Francesco; Triggiani, Antonio I; Viggiano, Andrea; Capranica, Laura; Marsala, Gabriella; De Luca, Vincenzo; Cipolloni, Luigi; Ruberto, Maria; Precenzano, Francesco; Carotenuto, Marco; Zammit, Christian; Gelzo, Monica; Monda, Marcellino; Cibelli, Giuseppe; Messina, Giovanni; Messina, Antonietta

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The mechanisms involved in the coordination of muscle activity are not completely known: to investigate adaptive changes in human motor cortex Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was often used. The sport models are frequently used to study how the training may affect the corticospinal system excitability: Karate represents a valuable sport model for this kind of investigations for its high levels of coordination required to athletes. This study was aimed at examining possible changes in the resting motor threshold (rMT) and in the corticospinal response in karate athletes, and at determining whether athletes are characterized by a specific value of rMT. Methods: We recruited 25 right-handed young karate athletes and 25 matched non-athletes. TMS was applied to primary motor cortex (M1). Motor evoked potential (MEP) were recorded by two electrodes placed above the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle. We considered MEP latencies and amplitudes at rMT, 110% of rMT, and 120% of rMT. Results: The two groups were similar for age (p > 0.05), height (p > 0.05) and body mass (p > 0.05). The TMS had a 70-mm figure-of-eight coil and a maximum output of 2.2 T, placed over the left motor cortex. During the stimulation, a mechanical arm kept the coil tangential to the scalp, with the handle at 45° respect to the midline. The SofTaxic navigator system (E.M.S. Italy, www.emsmedical.net) was used in order to correctly identifying and repeating the stimulation for every subject. Compared to non-athletes, athletes showed a lower resting motor threshold (p < 0.001). Furthermore, athletes had a lower MEP latency (p < 0.001) and a higher MEP amplitude (p < 0.001) compared to non-athletes. Moreover, a ROC curve for rMT was found significant (area: 0.907; sensitivity 84%, specificity 76%). Conclusions: As the main finding, the present study showed significant differences in cortical excitability between athletes and non-athletes. The training can improve cortical

  12. <em>Angiostrongylus vasorumem> in red foxes (<em>Vulpes vulpesem> and badgers (<em>Meles melesem> from Central and Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Magi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During 2004-2005 and 2007-2008, 189 foxes (<em>Vulpes vulpesem> and 6 badgers (<em>Meles melesem> were collected in different areas of Central Northern Italy (Piedmont, Liguria and Tuscany and examined for <em>Angiostrongylus vasorumem> infection. The prevalence of the infection was significantly different in the areas considered, with the highest values in the district of Imperia (80%, Liguria and in Montezemolo (70%, southern Piedmont; the prevalence in Tuscany was 7%. One badger collected in the area of Imperia turned out to be infected, representing the first report of the parasite in this species in Italy. Further studies are needed to evaluate the role played by fox populations as reservoirs of infection and the probability of its spreading to domestic dogs.
    Riassunto <em>Angiostrongylus vasorumem> nella volpe (<em>Vulpes vulpesem> e nel tasso (<em>Meles melesem> in Italia centro-settentrionale. Nel 2004-2005 e 2007-2008, 189 volpi (<em>Vulpes vulpesem> e 6 tassi (<em>Meles melesem> provenienti da differenti aree dell'Italia settentrionale e centrale (Piemonte, Liguria Toscana, sono stati esaminati per la ricerca di <em>Angiostrongylus vasorumem>. La prevalenza del nematode è risultata significativamente diversa nelle varie zone, con valori elevati nelle zone di Imperia (80% e di Montezemolo (70%, provincia di Cuneo; la prevalenza in Toscana è risultata del 7%. Un tasso proveniente dall'area di Imperia è risultato positivo per A. vasorum; questa è la prima segnalazione del parassita in tale specie in Italia. Ulteriori studi sono necessari per valutare il potenziale della volpe come serbatoio e la possibilità di diffusione della parassitosi ai cani domestici.

    doi:10.4404/hystrix-20.2-4442

  13. Is EM dead?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, Graham; Genoud, Christel

    2013-10-15

    Since electron microscopy (EM) first appeared in the 1930s, it has held centre stage as the primary tool for the exploration of biological structure. Yet, with the recent developments of light microscopy techniques that overcome the limitations imposed by the diffraction boundary, the question arises as to whether the importance of EM in on the wane. This Commentary describes some of the pioneering studies that have shaped our understanding of cell structure. These include the development of cryo-EM techniques that have given researchers the ability to capture images of native structures and at the molecular level. It also describes how a number of recent developments significantly increase the ability of EM to visualise biological systems across a range of length scales, and in 3D, ensuring that EM will remain at the forefront of biology research for the foreseeable future.

  14. Histological changes of the adult albino rats entorhinal cortex under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For light microscopy, the brains of 10 animals in each group were processed for paraffin sections and stained by Gallocyanine stain. For electron microscopy, the entorhinal cortex was dissected in 10 brains of each group and processed. Semithin sections were prepared and stained with toluidine blue. Morphometric and ...

  15. Building an artificial actin cortex on microscopic pillar arrays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayadi, R; Roos, W H

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells obtain their morphology and mechanical strength from the cytoskeleton and in particular from the cross-linked actin network that branches throughout the whole cell. This actin cortex lies like a quasi-two-dimensional (2D) biopolymer network just below the cell membrane, to which it

  16. Functional sex differences in human primary auditory cortex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruytjens, Liesbet [University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Groningen (Netherlands); University Medical Center Utrecht, Department Otorhinolaryngology, P.O. Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Georgiadis, Janniko R. [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Anatomy and Embryology, Groningen (Netherlands); Holstege, Gert [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Center for Uroneurology, Groningen (Netherlands); Wit, Hero P. [University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Groningen (Netherlands); Albers, Frans W.J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department Otorhinolaryngology, P.O. Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Willemsen, Antoon T.M. [University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2007-12-15

    We used PET to study cortical activation during auditory stimulation and found sex differences in the human primary auditory cortex (PAC). Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in 10 male and 10 female volunteers while listening to sounds (music or white noise) and during a baseline (no auditory stimulation). We found a sex difference in activation of the left and right PAC when comparing music to noise. The PAC was more activated by music than by noise in both men and women. But this difference between the two stimuli was significantly higher in men than in women. To investigate whether this difference could be attributed to either music or noise, we compared both stimuli with the baseline and revealed that noise gave a significantly higher activation in the female PAC than in the male PAC. Moreover, the male group showed a deactivation in the right prefrontal cortex when comparing noise to the baseline, which was not present in the female group. Interestingly, the auditory and prefrontal regions are anatomically and functionally linked and the prefrontal cortex is known to be engaged in auditory tasks that involve sustained or selective auditory attention. Thus we hypothesize that differences in attention result in a different deactivation of the right prefrontal cortex, which in turn modulates the activation of the PAC and thus explains the sex differences found in the activation of the PAC. Our results suggest that sex is an important factor in auditory brain studies. (orig.)

  17. Anterior Cingulate Cortex in Schema Assimilation and Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Szu-Han; Tse, Dorothy; Morris, Richard G. M.

    2012-01-01

    In humans and in animals, mental schemas can store information within an associative framework that enables rapid and efficient assimilation of new information. Using a hippocampal-dependent paired-associate task, we now report that the anterior cingulate cortex is part of a neocortical network of schema storage with NMDA receptor-mediated…

  18. A Mediating Role of the Premotor Cortex in Phoneme Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Marc; Tremblay, Pascale; Gracco, Vincent L.

    2009-01-01

    Consistent with a functional role of the motor system in speech perception, disturbing the activity of the left ventral premotor cortex by means of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been shown to impair auditory identification of syllables that were masked with white noise. However, whether this region is crucial for speech…

  19. Dorsomedial prefontal cortex supports spontaneous thinking per se.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raij, T T; Riekki, T J J

    2017-06-01

    Spontaneous thinking, an action to produce, consider, integrate, and reason through mental representations, is central to our daily experience and has been suggested to serve crucial adaptive purposes. Such thinking occurs among other experiences during mind wandering that is associated with activation of the default mode network among other brain circuitries. Whether and how such brain activation is linked to the experience of spontaneous thinking per se remains poorly known. We studied 51 healthy subjects using a comprehensive experience-sampling paradigm during 3T functional magnetic resonance imaging. In comparison with fixation, the experiences of spontaneous thinking and spontaneous perception were related to activation of wide-spread brain circuitries, including the cortical midline structures, the anterior cingulate cortex and the visual cortex. In direct comparison of the spontaneous thinking versus spontaneous perception, activation was observed in the anterior dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. Modality congruence of spontaneous-experience-related brain activation was suggested by several findings, including association of the lingual gyrus with visual in comparison with non-verbal-non-visual thinking. In the context of current literature, these findings suggest that the cortical midline structures are involved in the integrative core substrate of spontaneous thinking that is coupled with other brain systems depending on the characteristics of thinking. Furthermore, involvement of the anterior dorsomedial prefrontal cortex suggests the control of high-order abstract functions to characterize spontaneous thinking per se. Hum Brain Mapp 38:3277-3288, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Attentional Modulation in Visual Cortex Is Modified during Perceptual Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolucci, Marco; Smith, Andrew T.

    2011-01-01

    Practicing a visual task commonly results in improved performance. Often the improvement does not transfer well to a new retinal location, suggesting that it is mediated by changes occurring in early visual cortex, and indeed neuroimaging and neurophysiological studies both demonstrate that perceptual learning is associated with altered activity…

  1. The role of the orbitofrontal cortex in cognition and behavior.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, F.A.; Jonker, C.; Scheltens, P.; Scherder, E.J.A.

    2015-01-01

    The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) plays a crucial role in behavior and is a common site for damage due to different types of injuries, e.g., closed head injuries, cerebrovascular accidents, tumors, neurosurgical interventions. Despite the (severe) behavioral changes following OFC lesions, persons with

  2. Histological evaluation of the prefrontal cortex of infantile Wistar rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exposure to nicotine in utero is neuroteratogenic, predisposing the developing brain to cell injury and many forms of neurological and neurobehavioural problems that persist after birth. The current study examined some of the histological effects of prenatal nicotine exposure on the prefrontal cortex of infantile rats.

  3. Functional sex differences in human primary auditory cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruytjens, Liesbet; Georgiadis, Janniko R.; Holstege, Gert; Wit, Hero P.; Albers, Frans W. J.; Willemsen, Antoon T. M.

    2007-01-01

    Background We used PET to study cortical activation during auditory stimulation and found sex differences in the human primary auditory cortex (PAC). Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in 10 male and 10 female volunteers while listening to sounds (music or white noise) and during a

  4. Functional sex differences in human primary auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruytjens, Liesbet; Georgiadis, Janniko R; Holstege, Gert; Wit, Hero P; Albers, Frans W J; Willemsen, Antoon T M

    2007-12-01

    We used PET to study cortical activation during auditory stimulation and found sex differences in the human primary auditory cortex (PAC). Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in 10 male and 10 female volunteers while listening to sounds (music or white noise) and during a baseline (no auditory stimulation). We found a sex difference in activation of the left and right PAC when comparing music to noise. The PAC was more activated by music than by noise in both men and women. But this difference between the two stimuli was significantly higher in men than in women. To investigate whether this difference could be attributed to either music or noise, we compared both stimuli with the baseline and revealed that noise gave a significantly higher activation in the female PAC than in the male PAC. Moreover, the male group showed a deactivation in the right prefrontal cortex when comparing noise to the baseline, which was not present in the female group. Interestingly, the auditory and prefrontal regions are anatomically and functionally linked and the prefrontal cortex is known to be engaged in auditory tasks that involve sustained or selective auditory attention. Thus we hypothesize that differences in attention result in a different deactivation of the right prefrontal cortex, which in turn modulates the activation of the PAC and thus explains the sex differences found in the activation of the PAC. Our results suggest that sex is an important factor in auditory brain studies.

  5. Parietal cortex mediates perceptual Gestalt grouping independent of stimulus size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Pablo R; Zaretskaya, Natalia; Bartels, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    The integration of local moving elements into a unified gestalt percept has previously been linked to the posterior parietal cortex. There are two possible interpretations for the lack of involvement of other occipital regions. The first is that parietal cortex is indeed uniquely functionally specialized to perform grouping. Another possibility is that other visual regions can perform grouping as well, but that the large spatial separation of the local elements used previously exceeded their neurons' receptive field (RF) sizes, preventing their involvement. In this study we distinguished between these two alternatives. We measured whole-brain activity using fMRI in response to a bistable motion illusion that induced mutually exclusive percepts of either an illusory global Gestalt or of local elements. The stimulus was presented in two sizes, a large version known to activate IPS only, and a version sufficiently small to fit into the RFs of mid-level dorsal regions such as V5/MT. We found that none of the separately localized motion regions apart from parietal cortex showed a preference for global Gestalt perception, even for the smaller version of the stimulus. This outcome suggests that grouping-by-motion is mediated by a specialized size-invariant mechanism with parietal cortex as its anatomical substrate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Spatial Working Memory Effects in Early Visual Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munneke, Jaap; Heslenfeld, Dirk J.; Theeuwes, Jan

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated how spatial working memory recruits early visual cortex. Participants were required to maintain a location in working memory while changes in blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signals were measured during the retention interval in which no visual stimulation was present. We show working memory effects during the…

  7. Locomotion in intact and in brain cortex-ablated cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Ruiz, José Roberto; Castillo Hernández, Luis; De la Torre Valdovinos, Braniff; Franco Rodríguez, Nancy Elizabeth; Dueñas Jiménez, Judith Marcela; Dueñas Jiménez, Alejandro; Rivas-Carrillo, Jorge David; Dueñas Jiménez, Sergio Horacio

    2017-09-01

    The current decerebration procedures discard the role of the thalamus in the motor control and decortication only rules out the brain cortex part, leaving a gap between the brain cortex and the subthalamic motor regions. In here we define a new preparation denominated Brain Cortex-Ablated Cat (BCAC), in which the frontal and parietal brain cortices as well as the central white matter beneath them were removed, this decerebration process may be considered as suprathalamic, since the thalamus remained intact. To characterize this preparation cat hindlimb electromyograms (EMG), kinematics and cutaneous reflexes (CR) produced by electrical stimulation of sural (SU) or saphenous (SAPH) nerves were analyzed during locomotion in intact and in BCAC. In cortex-ablated cats compared to intact cats, the hindlimb EMG amplitude was increased in the flexors, whereas in most extensors the amplitude was decreased. Bifunctional muscle EMGs presented complex and speed-dependent amplitude changes. In intact cats CR produced an inhibition of extensors, as well as excitation and inhibition of flexors, and a complex pattern of withdrawal responses in bifunctional muscles. The same stimuli applied to BCAC produced no detectable responses, but in some cats cutaneous reflexes produced by electrical stimulation of saphenous nerve reappeared when the locomotion speed increased. In BCAC, EMG and kinematic changes, as well as the absence of CR, imply that for this cat preparation there is a partial compensation due to the subcortical locomotor apparatus generating close to normal locomotion. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Social cognition in patients following surgery to the prefrontal cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jenkins, L.M.; Andrewes, D.G.; Nicholas, C.L.; Drummond, K.J.; Moffat, B.A.; Phal, P.; Desmond, P.; Kessels, R.P.C.

    2014-01-01

    Impaired social cognition, including emotion recognition, may explain dysfunctional emotional and social behaviour in patients with lesions to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC). However, the VMPFC is a large, poorly defined area that can be sub-divided into orbital and medial sectors. We

  9. Perception and Action Selection Dissociate Human Ventral and Dorsal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikkai, Akiko; Jerde, Trenton A.; Curtis, Clayton E.

    2011-01-01

    We test theories about the functional organization of the human cortex by correlating brain activity with demands on perception versus action selection. Subjects covertly searched for a target among an array of 4, 8, or 12 items (perceptual manipulation) and then, depending on the color of the array, made a saccade toward, away from, or at a right…

  10. Modulatory effect of Periostracum cicadae and Betulae cortex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Our results suggest that PC and BC extracts have therapeutic potential to improve skin barrier abnormalities in atopic dermatitis via modulation of ORAI1 ... 1,2-Bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic acid; BC, Betulae Cortex; LTC4, leukotriene C4; NFAT, nuclear factor of activated T cells; ORAI-1, ...

  11. Prefrontal Cortex Contributions to Episodic Retrieval Monitoring and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruse, Damian; Wilding, Edward L.

    2009-01-01

    Although the prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays roles in episodic memory judgments, the specific processes it supports are not understood fully. Event-related potential (ERP) studies of episodic retrieval have revealed an electrophysiological modulation--the right-frontal ERP old/new effect--which is thought to reflect activity in PFC. The functional…

  12. Role of Frontal Cortex in Attentional Capture by Singleton Distractors

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fockert, Jan W.; Theeuwes, Jan

    2012-01-01

    The role of frontal cortex in selective attention to visual distractors was examined in an attentional capture task in which participants searched for a unique shape in the presence or absence of an additional colour singleton distractor. The presence of the additional singleton was associated with slower behavioural responses to the shape target,…

  13. Quality evaluation of cortex berberidis from different geographical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop an effective method for evaluating the quality of Cortex berberidis from different geographical origins. Methods: A simple, precise and accurate high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was first developed for simultaneous quantification of four active alkaloids (magnoflorine, jatrorrhizine ...

  14. Development of Rostral Prefrontal Cortex and Cognitive and Behavioural Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumontheil, Iroise; Burgess, Paul W.; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2008-01-01

    Information on the development and functions of rostral prefrontal cortex (PFC), or Brodmann area 10, has been gathered from different fields, from anatomical development to functional neuroimaging in adults, and put forward in relation to three particular cognitive and behavioural disorders. Rostral PFC is larger and has a lower cell density in…

  15. Spatial working memory effects in early visual cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munneke, J.; Heslenfeld, D.J.; Theeuwes, J.

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated how spatial working memory recruits early visual cortex. Participants were required to maintain a location in working memory while changes in blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signals were measured during the retention interval in which no visual stimulation was

  16. Functional involvement of cerebral cortex in human narcolepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliviero, A; Della Marca, G; Tonali, P A; Pilato, F; Saturno, E; Dileone, M; Versace, V; Mennuni, G; Di Lazzaro, V

    2005-01-01

    The pathophysiology of human narcolepsy is still poorly understood. The hypoactivity of some neurotransmitter systems has been hypothesised on the basis of the canine model. To determine whether narcolepsy is associated with changes in excitability of the cerebral cortex, we assessed the excitability of the motor cortex with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in 13 patients with narcolepsy and in 12 control subjects. We used several TMS paradigms that can provide information on the excitability of the motor cortex. Resting and active motor thresholds were higher in narcoleptic patients than in controls and intracortical inhibition was more pronounced in narcoleptic patients. No changes in the other evaluated measures were detected. These results are consistent with an impaired balance between excitatory and inhibitory intracortical circuits in narcolepsy that leads to cortical hypoexcitability. We hypothesise that the deficiency of the excitatory hypocretin/orexin-neurotransmitter-system in narcolepsy is reflected in changes of cortical excitability since circuits originating in the lateral hypothalamus and in the basal forebrain project widely to the neocortex, including motor cortex. This abnormal excitability of cortical networks could be the physiological correlate of excessive daytime sleepiness and it could be the substrate for allowing dissociated states of wakefulness and sleep to emerge suddenly while patients are awake, which constitute the symptoms of narcolepsy.

  17. Phineas gauged: decision-making and the human prefrontal cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanfey, A.G.; Hastie, R.; Colvin, M.K.; Grafman, J.

    2003-01-01

    Poor social judgment and decision-making abilities have often been attributed to people who have suffered injury to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC). However, few laboratory tests of decision-making have been conducted on these patients. The exception to this is the Iowa Gambling Task

  18. A direct demonstration of functional specialization in human visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeki, S; Watson, J D; Lueck, C J; Friston, K J; Kennard, C; Frackowiak, R S

    1991-03-01

    We have used positron emission tomography (PET), which measures regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), to demonstrate directly the specialization of function in the normal human visual cortex. A novel technique, statistical parametric mapping, was used to detect foci of significant change in cerebral blood flow within the prestriate cortex, in order to localize those parts involved in the perception of color and visual motion. For color, we stimulated the subjects with a multicolored abstract display containing no recognizable objects (Land color Mondrian) and contrasted the resulting blood flow maps with those obtained when subjects viewed an identical display consisting of equiluminous shades of gray. The comparison identified a unique area (area V4) located in the lingual and fusiform gyri of the prestriate cortex. For motion, blood flow maps when subjects viewed moving or stationary black and white random-square patterns were contrasted. The comparison identified a unique area located in the region of the temporo-parieto-occipital junction (area V5). We thus provide direct evidence to show that, just as in the macaque monkey, different areas of the human prestriate visual cortex are specialized for different attributes of vision. The striate cortex (V1) and the contiguous visual area (V2), which in the monkey brain feed both the homologous areas, were active in all 4 conditions. This pattern of activity allowed us to use an extension of the approach to assess the functional relationship between the 3 areas during color and motion stimulation. This is based on an hypothesis-led analysis of the covariance structure of the blood flow maps and promises to be a powerful tool for inferring anatomical pathways in the normal human brain.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Role of the lateral prefrontal cortex in speech monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie K. Riès

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The role of lateral prefrontal cortex in speech monitoring has not been delineated. Recent work suggests that medial frontal cortex (MFC is involved in overt speech monitoring initiated before auditory feedback. This mechanism is reflected in an event-related potential (ERP, the error negativity (Ne, peaking within 100 ms after vocal-onset. Critically, in healthy individuals the Ne is sensitive to the accuracy of the response; it is larger for error than correct trials. By contrast, patients with lateral prefrontal cortex (lPFC damage are impaired in nonverbal monitoring tasks showing no amplitude difference between the Ne measured in correct vs. error trials. Interactions between the lPFC and the MFC are assumed to play a necessary role for normal action monitoring. We investigated whether the lPFC was involved in speech monitoring to the same extent as in non-linguistic actions by comparing performance and EEG activity in patients with lPFC damage and in aged-matched controls performing linguistic (Picture Naming and non-linguistic (Simon tasks. Controls did not produce enough errors to allow the comparison of the Ne or other ERP in error vs. correct trials. PFC patients had worse performance than controls in both tasks, but their Ne was larger for error than correct trials only in Naming. This task-dependent pattern can be explained by lPFC-dependent working-memory requirements present in non-linguistic tasks used to study action monitoring but absent in picture naming. This suggests that lPFC may not be necessary for speech monitoring as assessed by simple picture naming. In addition, bilateral temporal cortex activity starting before and peaking around vocal-onset was observed in lPFC and control groups in both tasks but was larger for error than correct trials only in Naming, suggesting the temporal cortex is associated with on-line monitoring of speech specifically when access to lexical representations is necessary.

  20. Cortex Parcellation Associated Whole White Matter Parcellation in Individual Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Schiffler

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of specific white matter areas is a growing field in neurological research and is typically achieved through the use of atlases. However, the definition of anatomically based regions remains challenging for the white matter and thus hinders region-specific analysis in individual subjects. In this article, we focus on creating a whole white matter parcellation method for individual subjects where these areas can be associated to cortex regions. This is done by combining cortex parcellation and fiber tracking data. By tracking fibers out of each cortex region and labeling the fibers according to their origin, we populate a candidate image. We then derive the white matter parcellation by classifying each white matter voxel according to the distribution of labels in the corresponding voxel from the candidate image. The parcellation of the white matter with the presented method is highly reliable and is not as dependent on registration as with white matter atlases. This method allows for the parcellation of the whole white matter into individual cortex region associated areas and, therefore, associates white matter alterations to cortex regions. In addition, we compare the results from the presented method to existing atlases. The areas generated by the presented method are not as sharply defined as the areas in most existing atlases; however, they are computed directly in the DWI space of the subject and, therefore, do not suffer from distortion caused by registration. The presented approach might be a promising tool for clinical and basic research to investigate modalities or system specific micro structural alterations of white matter areas in a quantitative manner.

  1. Neural Dynamics and Information Representation in Microcircuits of Motor Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro eTsubo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The brain has to analyze and respond to external events that can change rapidly from time to time, suggesting that information processing by the brain may be essentially dynamic rather than static. The dynamical features of neural computation are of significant importance in motor cortex that governs the process of movement generation and learning. In this paper, we discuss these features based primarily on our recent findings on neural dynamics and information coding in the microcircuit of rat motor cortex. In fact, cortical neurons show a variety of dynamical behavior from rhythmic activity in various frequency bands to highly irregular spike firing. Of particular interest are the similarity and dissimilarity of the neuronal response properties in different layers of motor cortex. By conducting electrophysiological recordings in slice preparation, we report the phase response curves of neurons in different cortical layers to demonstrate their layer-dependent synchronization properties. We then study how motor cortex recruits task-related neurons in different layers for voluntary arm movements by simultaneous juxtacellular and multiunit recordings from behaving rats. The results suggest an interesting difference in the spectrum of functional activity between the superficial and deep layers. Furthermore, the task-related activities recorded from various layers exhibited power law distributions of inter-spike intervals (ISIs, in contrast to a general belief that ISIs obey Poisson or Gamma distributions in cortical neurons. We present a theoretical argument that this power law of in vivo neurons may represent the maximization of the entropy of firing rate with limited energy consumption of spike generation. Though further studies are required to fully clarify the functional implications of this coding principle, it may shed new light on information representations by neurons and circuits in motor cortex.

  2. Multi-Regional Adaptation in Human Auditory Association Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Malinowska

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In auditory cortex, neural responses decrease with stimulus repetition, known as adaptation. Adaptation is thought to facilitate detection of novel sounds and improve perception in noisy environments. Although it is well established that adaptation occurs in primary auditory cortex, it is not known whether adaptation also occurs in higher auditory areas involved in processing complex sounds, such as speech. Resolving this issue is important for understanding the neural bases of adaptation and to avoid potential post-operative deficits after temporal lobe surgery for treatment of focal epilepsy. Intracranial electrocorticographic recordings were acquired simultaneously from electrodes implanted in primary and association auditory areas of the right (non-dominant temporal lobe in a patient with complex partial seizures originating from the inferior parietal lobe. Simple and complex sounds were presented in a passive oddball paradigm. We measured changes in single-trial high-gamma power (70–150 Hz and in regional and inter-regional network-level activity indexed by cross-frequency coupling. Repetitive tones elicited the greatest adaptation and corresponding increases in cross-frequency coupling in primary auditory cortex. Conversely, auditory association cortex showed stronger adaptation for complex sounds, including speech. This first report of multi-regional adaptation in human auditory cortex highlights the role of the non-dominant temporal lobe in suppressing neural responses to repetitive background sounds (noise. These results underscore the clinical utility of functional mapping to avoid potential post-operative deficits including increased listening difficulties in noisy, real-world environments.

  3. Rapid and reversible recruitment of early visual cortex for touch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotfi B Merabet

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The loss of vision has been associated with enhanced performance in non-visual tasks such as tactile discrimination and sound localization. Current evidence suggests that these functional gains are linked to the recruitment of the occipital visual cortex for non-visual processing, but the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying these crossmodal changes remain uncertain. One possible explanation is that visual deprivation is associated with an unmasking of non-visual input into visual cortex.We investigated the effect of sudden, complete and prolonged visual deprivation (five days in normally sighted adult individuals while they were immersed in an intensive tactile training program. Following the five-day period, blindfolded subjects performed better on a Braille character discrimination task. In the blindfold group, serial fMRI scans revealed an increase in BOLD signal within the occipital cortex in response to tactile stimulation after five days of complete visual deprivation. This increase in signal was no longer present 24 hours after blindfold removal. Finally, reversible disruption of occipital cortex function on the fifth day (by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation; rTMS impaired Braille character recognition ability in the blindfold group but not in non-blindfolded controls. This disruptive effect was no longer evident once the blindfold had been removed for 24 hours.Overall, our findings suggest that sudden and complete visual deprivation in normally sighted individuals can lead to profound, but rapidly reversible, neuroplastic changes by which the occipital cortex becomes engaged in processing of non-visual information. The speed and dynamic nature of the observed changes suggests that normally inhibited or masked functions in the sighted are revealed by visual loss. The unmasking of pre-existing connections and shifts in connectivity represent rapid, early plastic changes, which presumably can lead, if sustained and

  4. Motor cortex hyperexcitability to transcranial magnetic stimulation in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lazzaro, V; Oliviero, A; Pilato, F; Saturno, E; Dileone, M; Marra, C; Daniele, A; Ghirlanda, S; Gainotti, G; Tonali, P A

    2004-04-01

    Recent transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies demonstrate that motor cortex excitability is increased in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and that intracortical inhibitory phenomena are impaired. The aim of the present study was to determine whether hyperexcitability is due to the impairment of intracortical inhibitory circuits or to an independent abnormality of excitatory circuits. We assessed the excitability of the motor cortex with TMS in 28 patients with AD using several TMS paradigms and compared the data of cortical excitability (evaluated by measuring resting motor threshold) with the amount of motor cortex disinhibition as evaluated using the test for motor cortex cholinergic inhibition (short latency afferent inhibition) and GABAergic inhibition (short latency intracortical inhibition). The data in AD patients were also compared with that from 12 age matched healthy individuals. The mean resting motor threshold was significantly lower in AD patients than in controls. The amount of short latency afferent inhibition was significantly smaller in AD patients than in normal controls. There was also a tendency for AD patients to have less pronounced short latency intracortical inhibition than controls, but this difference was not significant. There was no correlation between resting motor threshold and measures of either short latency afferent or intracortical inhibition (r = -0.19 and 0.18 respectively, NS). In 14 AD patients the electrophysiological study was repeated after a single oral dose of the cholinesterase inhibitor rivastigmine. Resting motor threshold was not significantly modified by the administration of rivastigmine. In contrast, short latency afferent inhibition from the median nerve was significantly increased by the administration of rivastigmine. The change in threshold did not seem to correlate with dysfunction of inhibitory intracortical cholinergic and GABAergic circuits, nor with the central cholinergic activity. We propose that the

  5. Delay Activity in Rodent Frontal Cortex During a Simple Reaction Time Task

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nandakumar S. Narayanan; Mark Laubach

    2009-01-01

    ...—dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) and motor cortex—during a simple reaction time task. Principal component analysis was used to identify major patterns of delay-related activity in frontal cortex...

  6. Rostral Agranular Insular Cortex Lesion with Motor Cortex Stimulation Enhances Pain Modulation Effect on Neuropathic Pain Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Ho Jung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the insular cortex is involved in the processing of painful input. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pain modulation role of the insular cortex during motor cortex stimulation (MCS. After inducing neuropathic pain (NP rat models by the spared nerve injury method, we made a lesion on the rostral agranular insular cortex (RAIC unilaterally and compared behaviorally determined pain threshold and latency in 2 groups: Group A (NP + MCS; n=7 and Group B (NP + RAIC lesion + MCS; n=7. Also, we simultaneously recorded neuronal activity (NP; n=9 in the thalamus of the ventral posterolateral nucleus and RAIC to evaluate electrophysiological changes from MCS. The pain threshold and tolerance latency increased in Group A with “MCS on” and in Group B with or without “MCS on.” Moreover, its increase in Group B with “MCS on” was more than that of Group B without MCS or of Group A, suggesting that MCS and RAIC lesioning are involved in pain modulation. Compared with the “MCS off” condition, the “MCS on” induced significant threshold changes in an electrophysiological study. Our data suggest that the RAIC has its own pain modulation effect, which is influenced by MCS.

  7. Anterior Cingulate Cortex and Cognitive Control: Neuropsychological and Electrophysiological Findings in Two Patients with Lesions to Dorsomedial Prefrontal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovstad, M.; Funderud, I.; Meling, T.; Kramer, U. M.; Voytek, B.; Due-Tonnessen, P.; Endestad, T.; Lindgren, M.; Knight, R. T.; Solbakk, A. K.

    2012-01-01

    Whereas neuroimaging studies of healthy subjects have demonstrated an association between the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and cognitive control functions, including response monitoring and error detection, lesion studies are sparse and have produced mixed results. Due to largely normal behavioral test results in two patients with medial…

  8. A Computational Model for Spatial Navigation Based on Reference Frames in the Hippocampus, Retrosplenial Cortex, and Posterior Parietal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oess, Timo; Krichmar, Jeffrey L; Röhrbein, Florian

    2017-01-01

    Behavioral studies for humans, monkeys, and rats have shown that, while traversing an environment, these mammals tend to use different frames of reference and frequently switch between them. These frames represent allocentric, egocentric, or route-centric views of the environment. However, combinations of either of them are often deployed. Neurophysiological studies on rats have indicated that the hippocampus, the retrosplenial cortex, and the posterior parietal cortex contribute to the formation of these frames and mediate the transformation between those. In this paper, we construct a computational model of the posterior parietal cortex and the retrosplenial cortex for spatial navigation. We demonstrate how the transformation of reference frames could be realized in the brain and suggest how different brain areas might use these reference frames to form navigational strategies and predict under what conditions an animal might use a specific type of reference frame. Our simulated navigation experiments demonstrate that the model's results closely resemble behavioral findings in humans and rats. These results suggest that navigation strategies may depend on the animal's reliance in a particular reference frame and shows how low confidence in a reference frame can lead to fluid adaptation and deployment of alternative navigation strategies. Because of its flexibility, our biologically inspired navigation system may be applied to autonomous robots.

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  19. File list: ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Frontal_cortex [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  1. File list: His.Neu.20.AllAg.Frontal_cortex [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  4. File list: DNS.Neu.20.AllAg.Prefrontal_Cortex [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  5. File list: Oth.Neu.05.AllAg.Prefrontal_Cortex [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  7. File list: DNS.Neu.10.AllAg.Prefrontal_Cortex [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  8. File list: ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Prefrontal_Cortex [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  9. File list: NoD.Neu.05.AllAg.Prefrontal_Cortex [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  10. File list: NoD.Neu.10.AllAg.Prefrontal_Cortex [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  11. File list: InP.Neu.10.AllAg.Prefrontal_Cortex [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  12. File list: InP.Neu.50.AllAg.Prefrontal_Cortex [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  14. File list: His.Neu.05.AllAg.Prefrontal_Cortex [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  19. File list: His.Neu.20.AllAg.Prefrontal_Cortex [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  1. File list: Unc.Neu.20.AllAg.Prefrontal_Cortex [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  2. File list: NoD.Neu.20.AllAg.Prefrontal_Cortex [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  3. File list: Unc.Neu.10.AllAg.Prefrontal_Cortex [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  4. File list: Unc.Neu.05.AllAg.Prefrontal_Cortex [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  5. File list: Unc.Neu.50.AllAg.Prefrontal_Cortex [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  6. File list: ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Prefrontal_Cortex [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  7. File list: ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Prefrontal_Cortex [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  8. File list: DNS.Neu.50.AllAg.Prefrontal_Cortex [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  9. Increased stress vulnerability after a prefrontal cortex lesion in female rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, M; Westenbroek, C; Fokkema, DS; Jongsma, ME; Den Boer, JA; Ter Horst, GJ

    2003-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies in patients suffering from affective disorders have shown decreased volume and reduced regional cerebral blood flow in multiple areas of the prefrontal cortex, including the medial prefrontal cortex and the orbitofrontal cortex. This aberrant brain activity is among other things

  10. File list: His.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_Cortex [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  11. File list: NoD.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellar_Cortex [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  12. File list: Unc.Neu.10.AllAg.Cerebellar_Cortex [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  13. File list: NoD.Neu.05.AllAg.Cerebellar_Cortex [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  14. File list: Oth.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellar_Cortex [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  16. File list: ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Cerebellar_Cortex [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  17. File list: Oth.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_Cortex [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  18. File list: Oth.Neu.05.AllAg.Cerebellar_Cortex [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  19. File list: Pol.Neu.10.AllAg.Cerebellar_Cortex [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  20. File list: ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_Cortex [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  1. File list: Oth.Neu.10.AllAg.Cerebellar_Cortex [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  2. File list: Unc.Neu.05.AllAg.Cerebellar_Cortex [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  3. File list: ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Cerebellar_Cortex [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  4. File list: Pol.Neu.05.AllAg.Cerebellar_Cortex [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  5. File list: ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellar_Cortex [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  6. File list: InP.Neu.05.AllAg.Cerebellar_Cortex [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  7. File list: His.Neu.10.AllAg.Cerebellar_Cortex [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  8. File list: His.Neu.05.AllAg.Cerebellar_Cortex [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  9. File list: InP.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_Cortex [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  10. File list: Pol.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellar_Cortex [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  15. File list: His.Bld.05.AllAg.Kidney_Cortex [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  11. Multisynaptic projections from the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex to the dorsal premotor cortex in macaques - anatomical substrate for conditional visuomotor behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahara, Daisuke; Inoue, Ken-Ichi; Hirata, Yoshihiro; Miyachi, Shigehiro; Nambu, Atsushi; Takada, Masahiko; Hoshi, Eiji

    2012-11-01

    Lines of evidence indicate that both the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC) (areas 45/12) and dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) (rostral F2 in area 6) are crucially involved in conditional visuomotor behavior, in which it is required to determine an action based on an associated visual object. However, virtually no direct projections appear to exist between the vlPFC and PMd. In the present study, to elucidate possible multisynaptic networks linking the vlPFC to the PMd, we performed a series of neuroanatomical tract-tracing experiments in macaque monkeys. First, we identified cortical areas that send projection fibers directly to the PMd by injecting Fast Blue into the PMd. Considerable retrograde labeling occurred in the dorsal prefrontal cortex (dPFC) (areas 46d/9/8B/8Ad), dorsomedial motor cortex (dmMC) (F7 and presupplementary motor area), rostral cingulate motor area, and ventral premotor cortex (F5 and area 44), whereas the vlPFC was virtually devoid of neuronal labeling. Second, we injected the rabies virus, a retrograde transneuronal tracer, into the PMd. At 3 days after the rabies injections, second-order neurons were labeled in the vlPFC (mainly area 45), indicating that the vlPFC disynaptically projects to the PMd. Finally, to determine areas that connect the vlPFC to the PMd indirectly, we carried out an anterograde/retrograde dual-labeling experiment in single monkeys. By examining the distribution of axon terminals labeled from the vlPFC and cell bodies labeled from the PMd, we found overlapping labels in the dPFC and dmMC. These results indicate that the vlPFC outflow is directed toward the PMd in a multisynaptic fashion through the dPFC and/or dmMC. © 2012 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2012 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Evaluación de aislamientos de <em>Trichoderma spp.em> contra <em>Rhizoctonia solani em>y <em>Sclerotium rolfsiiem> bajo condiciones<em> in vitro em>y de invernadero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoyos-Carvajal Liliana

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Se evaluó la eficacia biológica de ocho aislamientos de <em>Trichoderma spp. em> provenientes de suelos de Colombia para el control de los agentes causales de volcamiento, <em> Sclerotium rolfsiiem> y <em> Rhizoctonia solaniem>, bajo condiciones <em> in vitroem> y de invernadero. Los análisis <em> in vitroem> mostraron la capacidad antagónica de todos los aislamientos evaluados. En condiciones de invernadero, cuatro aislamientos fueron altamente eficaces contra <em> S. rolfsiiem> en plantas de fríjol en semillero (>90% de reducción de la enfermedad y dos aislamientos fueron eficaces contra <em> R. solaniem> en plantas de algodón en semillero (58 y 61% de reducción de la enfermedad. El análisis UP-PCR y DS-PCR permitió determinar tres grupos de aislamientos; dentro de estas asociaciones formadas no se encontró ninguna relación evidente entre la posición en el dendrograma y la actividad antagónica, pero sí permitió separar las especies de <em> Trichodermaem> por grupos, e incluso encontrar diferencias dentro de aislamientos de una misma especie. Los resultados muestran que el comportamiento micoparasítico de los aislamientos de <em> Trichoderma spp. em> varía según el hongo fitopatógeno, evidenciando una amplia especificidad del antagonista por su sustrato, es decir por el hongo atacado; por lo tanto es necesario realizar cuidadosas selecciones del aislamiento de <em> Trichodermaem> que se utilice en programas de control de fitopatógenos.

  13. Expression of Selected <em>Ginkgo em>>biloba em>Heat Shock Protein Genes After Cold Treatment Could Be Induced by Other Abiotic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Xu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Heat shock proteins (HSPs play various stress-protective roles in plants. In this study, three <em>HSP> genes were isolated from a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH cDNA library of <em>Ginkgo bilobaem> leaves treated with cold stress. Based on the molecular weight, the three genes were designated <em>GbHSP16.8em>, <em>GbHSP17em> and <em>GbHSP70em>. The full length of the three genes were predicted to encode three polypeptide chains containing 149 amino acids (Aa, 152 Aa, and 657 Aa, and their corresponding molecular weights were predicted as follows: 16.67 kDa, 17.39 kDa, and 71.81 kDa respectively. The three genes exhibited distinctive expression patterns in different organs or development stages. <em>GbHSP16.8em> and <em>GbHSP70em> showed high expression levels in leaves and a low level in gynoecia, <em>GbHSP17em> showed a higher transcription in stamens and lower level in fruit. This result indicates that <em>GbHSP16.8em> and <em>GbHSP70 em>may play important roles in <em>Ginkgo> leaf development and photosynthesis, and <em>GbHSP17em> may play a positive role in pollen maturation. All three <em>GbHSPs> were up-regulated under cold stress, whereas extreme heat stress only caused up-regulation of <em>GbHSP70em>, UV-B treatment resulted in up-regulation of <em>GbHSP16.8em> and <em>GbHSP17em>, wounding treatment resulted in up-regulation of <em>GbHSP16.8em> and <em>GbHSP70em>, and abscisic acid (ABA treatment caused up-regulation of <em>GbHSP70em> primarily.

  14. Peripheral nerve injury induces glial activation in primary motor cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Troncoso

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary evidence suggests that peripheral facial nerve injuries are associated with sensorimotor cortex reorganization. We have characterized facial nerve lesion-induced structural changes in primary motor cortex layer 5 pyramidal neurons and their relationship with glial cell density using a rodent facial paralysis model. First, we used adult transgenic mice expressing green fluorescent protein in microglia and yellow fluorescent protein in pyramidal neurons which were subjected to either unilateral lesion of the facial nerve or sham surgery. Two-photon excitation microscopy was then used for evaluating both layer 5 pyramidal neurons and microglia in vibrissal primary motor cortex (vM1. It was found that facial nerve lesion induced long-lasting changes in dendritic morphology of vM1 layer 5 pyramidal neurons and in their surrounding microglia. Pyramidal cells’ dendritic arborization underwent overall shrinkage and transient spine pruning. Moreover, microglial cell density surrounding vM1 layer 5 pyramidal neurons was significantly increased with morphological bias towards the activated phenotype. Additionally, we induced facial nerve lesion in Wistar rats to evaluate the degree and extension of facial nerve lesion-induced reorganization processes in central nervous system using neuronal and glial markers. Immunoreactivity to NeuN (neuronal nuclei antigen, GAP-43 (growth-associated protein 43, GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein, and Iba 1 (Ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 were evaluated 1, 3, 7, 14, 28 and 35 days after either unilateral facial nerve lesion or sham surgery. Patches of decreased NeuN immunoreactivity were found bilaterally in vM1 as well as in primary somatosensory cortex (CxS1. Significantly increased GAP-43 immunoreactivity was found bilaterally after the lesion in hippocampus, striatum, and sensorimotor cortex. One day after lesion GFAP immunoreactivity increased bilaterally in hippocampus, subcortical white

  15. Scene-selectivity and retinotopy in medial parietal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Harry Silson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Functional imaging studies in human reliably identify a trio of scene-selective regions, one on each of the lateral (occipital place area, OPA, ventral (parahippocampal place area, PPA, and medial (retrosplenial complex, RSC cortical surfaces. Recently, we demonstrated differential retinotopic biases for the contralateral lower and upper visual fields within OPA and PPA, respectively. Here, using fMRI, we combine detailed mapping of both population receptive fields (pRF and category-selectivity, with independently acquired resting-state functional connectivity analyses, to examine scene and retinotopic processing within medial parietal cortex. We identified a medial scene-selective region, which was contained largely within the posterior and ventral bank of the parieto-occipital sulcus (POS. While this region is typically referred to as RSC, the spatial extent of our scene-selective region typically did not extend into retrosplenial cortex, and thus we adopt the term medial place area (MPA to refer to this visually defined scene-selective region. Intriguingly MPA co-localized with a region identified solely on the basis of retinotopic sensitivity using pRF analyses. We found that MPA demonstrates a significant contralateral visual field bias, coupled with large pRF sizes. Unlike OPA and PPA, MPA did not show a consistent bias to a single visual quadrant. MPA also co-localized with a region identified by strong differential functional connectivity with PPA and FFA, commensurate with its functional selectivity. Functional connectivity with OPA was much weaker than with PPA, and similar to that with face-selective OFA, suggesting a closer link with ventral then lateral cortex. Consistent with prior research, we also observed differential functional connectivity in medial parietal cortex for anterior over posterior PPA, as well as a region on the lateral surface, the caudal inferior parietal lobule (cIPL. However, the differential connectivity in

  16. Characterizing local EMS systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Emergency medical services (EMS) systems are configured differently depending on several factors, including the size, demographics, geography, and politics of the local communities they serve. Although some information exists about the organization, ...

  17. International EMS Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhelle, Audun; Lossius, Hans Morten; Silfvast, Tom

    2004-01-01

    Emergency medicine service (EMS) systems in the five Nordic countries have more similarities than differences. One similarity is the involvement of anaesthesiologists as pre-hospital physicians and their strong participation for all critically ill and injured patients in-hospital. Discrepancies do...... exist, however, especially within the ground and air ambulance service, and the EMS systems face several challenges. Main problems and challenges emphasized by the authors are: (1) Denmark: the dispatch centres are presently not under medical control and are without a national criteria based system....... Access to on-line medical advice of a physician is not available; (2) Finland: the autonomy of the individual municipalities and their responsibility to cover for primary and specialised health care, as well as the EMS, and the lack of supporting or demanding legislation regarding the EMS; (3) Iceland...

  18. Landau-Kleffner syndrome: epileptic activity in the auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paetau, R; Kajola, M; Korkman, M; Hämäläinen, M; Granström, M L; Hari, R

    1991-04-01

    The Landau-Kleffner syndrome (LKS) is characterized by electroencephalographic spike discharges and verbal auditory agnosia in previously healthy children. We recorded magnetoencephalographic (MEG) spikes in a patient with LKS, and compared their sources with anatomical information from magnetic resonance imaging. All spikes originated close to the left auditory cortex. The evoked responses were contaminated by spikes in the left auditory area and suppressed in the right--the latter responses recovered when the spikes disappeared. We suggest that unilateral discharges at or near the auditory cortex disrupt auditory discrimination in the affected hemisphere, and lead to suppression of auditory information from the opposite hemisphere, thereby accounting for the two main criteria of LKS.

  19. Dimensionality of object representations in monkey inferotemporal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehky, Sidney R; Kiani, Roozbeh; Esteky, Hossein; Tanaka, Keiji

    2014-10-01

    We have calculated the intrinsic dimensionality of visual object representations in anterior inferotemporal (AIT) cortex, based on responses of a large sample of cells stimulated with photographs of diverse objects. Because dimensionality was dependent on data set size, we determined asymptotic dimensionality as both the number of neurons and number of stimulus image approached infinity. Our final dimensionality estimate was 93 (SD: ± 11), indicating that there is basis set of approximately 100 independent features that characterize the dimensions of neural object space. We believe this is the first estimate of the dimensionality of neural visual representations based on single-cell neurophysiological data. The dimensionality of AIT object representations was much lower than the dimensionality of the stimuli. We suggest that there may be a gradual reduction in the dimensionality of object representations in neural populations going from retina to inferotemporal cortex as receptive fields become increasingly complex.

  20. Plasticity of the visual cortex and treatment of amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengpiel, Frank

    2014-09-22

    Over the last 50 years, research into the developmental plasticity of the visual cortex has led to a growing understanding of first the causes and then of the underlying cellular mechanisms of amblyopia or 'lazy eye', the commonest childhood disorder of vision. While it is widely believed that amblyopia cannot be treated successfully after the age of about 7, recent animal studies have demonstrated that visual cortex plasticity can be restored or enhanced later in life, paving the way for new strategies for the treatment of amblyopia that attempt to remove molecular brakes on plasticity. In addition, both animal and human work has established that amblyopia is not simply a monocular deficit, and therefore the most promising new non-invasive approaches force the two eyes to cooperate as opposed to conventional procedures that severely penalise the good eye. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Development of the Ventral Prefrontal Cortex and Social Flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Eric E.; Guyer, Amanda E.

    2011-01-01

    Over the last several years a number of studies in both humans and animals have suggested that the orbitofrontal and ventrolateral prefrontal cortices play an important role in generating flexible behavior. We suggest that input from these brain regions contribute to three functions involved in generating flexible behavior within social contexts: valuation, inhibition, and rule use. Recent studies have also demonstrated that the prefrontal cortex undergoes a prolonged course of maturation that extends well after puberty. Here, we review evidence that the prolonged development of these prefrontal regions parallels a slowly emerging ability for flexible social behavior. We also speculate on the possibility that sensitive periods for organizing social behavior may be embedded within this developmental time-fame. Finally, we discuss the role of prefrontal cortex in adolescent mood and anxiety disorders, particularly as orbitofrontal and ventrolateral prefrontal cortices are engaged in a social context. PMID:21804907

  2. Dopaminergic Activity in the Medial Prefrontal Cortex Modulates Fear Conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Babaei

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available "nThe purpose of the present study was to determine the role of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC dopaminergic system in fear conditioning response considering individual differences. Animals were initially counterbalanced and classified based on open field test, and then were given a single infusion of the dopamine agonist, amphetamine (AMPH and antagonist, clozapine (CLZ into the medial prefrontal cortex. Rats received tone-shock pairing in a classical fear conditioning test and then exposed to the tone alone. Freezing responses were measured as conditioned fear index. The results showed that both AMPH and CLZ infusion in mPFC reduced the expression of conditioned fear. This finding indicates that elevation or reduction in the dopaminergic activity is associated with the decrease of fear responses, despite preexisting individual-typological differences.

  3. A specialized odor memory buffer in primary olfactory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelano, Christina; Montag, Jessica; Khan, Rehan; Sobel, Noam

    2009-01-01

    The neural substrates of olfactory working memory are unknown. We addressed the questions of whether olfactory working memory involves a verbal representation of the odor, or a sensory image of the odor, or both, and the location of the neural substrates of these processes. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure activity in the brains of subjects who were remembering either nameable or unnameable odorants. We found a double dissociation whereby remembering nameable odorants was reflected in sustained activity in prefrontal language areas, and remembering unnameable odorants was reflected in sustained activity in primary olfactory cortex. These findings suggest a novel dedicated mechanism in primary olfactory cortex, where odor information is maintained in temporary storage to subserve ongoing tasks.

  4. Discourse production following injury to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Carl; Lê, Karen; Mozeiko, Jennifer; Krueger, Frank; Grafman, Jordan

    2012-12-01

    Individuals with damage to the prefrontal cortex, and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in particular, often demonstrate difficulties with the formulation of complex language not attributable to aphasia. The present study employed a discourse analysis procedure to characterize the language of individuals with left (L) or right (R) DLPFC lesions. All participants were 30-35 years post-onset of injury and presented with persistent discourse impairments. The discourse performance of the R DLPFC group was not significantly different from either the L DLPFC group or the non-injured comparison group. Individuals from the L DLPFC group demonstrated specific difficulties with narrative coherence and inclusion of critical story components. Both measures were significantly different from the comparison group. The discourse ability of the DLPFC groups was significantly correlated with measures of working memory. Findings support the use of discourse analysis for examining language impairments in individuals with PFC lesions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of Electrical and Ultrasound Neurostimulation in Rat Motor Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulick, Daniel W; Li, Tao; Kleim, Jeffrey A; Towe, Bruce C

    2017-12-01

    Ultrasound (US) is known to non-invasively stimulate and modulate brain function; however, the mechanism of action is poorly understood. This study tested US stimulation of rat motor cortex (100 W/cm2, 200 kHz) in combination with epidural cortical stimulation. US directly evoked hindlimb movement. This response occurred even with short US bursts (3 ms) and had short latency (10 ms) and long refractory (3 s) periods. Unexpectedly, the epidural cortical stimulation hindlimb response was not altered during the 3-s refractory period of the US hindlimb response. This finding suggests that the US refractory period is not a general suppression of motor cortex, but rather the recovery time of a US-specific mechanism. Copyright © 2017 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Downregulation of the posterior medial frontal cortex prevents social conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klucharev, Vasily; Munneke, Moniek A M; Smidts, Ale; Fernández, Guillén

    2011-08-17

    We often change our behavior to conform to real or imagined group pressure. Social influence on our behavior has been extensively studied in social psychology, but its neural mechanisms have remained largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that the transient downregulation of the posterior medial frontal cortex by theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation reduces conformity, as indicated by reduced conformal adjustments in line with group opinion. Both the extent and probability of conformal behavioral adjustments decreased significantly relative to a sham and a control stimulation over another brain area. The posterior part of the medial frontal cortex has previously been implicated in behavioral and attitudinal adjustments. Here, we provide the first interventional evidence of its critical role in social influence on human behavior.

  7. Subplate in the developing cortex of mouse and human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wei Zhi; Hoerder-Suabedissen, Anna; Oeschger, Franziska M

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The subplate is a largely transient zone containing precocious neurons involved in several key steps of cortical development. The majority of subplate neurons form a compact layer in mouse, but are dispersed throughout a much larger zone in the human. In rodent, subplate neurons are among...... the earliest born neocortical cells, whereas in primate, neurons are added to the subplate throughout cortical neurogenesis. Magnetic resonance imaging and histochemical studies show that the human subplate grows in size until the end of the second trimester. Previous microarray experiments in mice have shown...... several genes that are specifically expressed in the subplate layer of the rodent dorsal cortex. Here we examined the human subplate for some of these markers. In the human dorsal cortex, connective tissue growth factor-positive neurons can be seen in the ventricular zone at 15-22 postconceptional weeks...

  8. Prefrontal Cortex in Learning to Overcome Generalized Fear

    OpenAIRE

    Edward Korzus

    2015-01-01

    Normal brain functioning relies critically on the ability to control appropriate behavioral responses to fearful stimuli. Overgeneralized fear is the major symptom of anxiety disorders including posttraumatic stress disorder. This review describes recent data demonstrating that the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) plays a critical role in the refining of cues that drive the acquisition of fear response. Recent studies on molecular mechanisms that underlie the role of mPFC in fear discriminatio...

  9. "Visual" Cortex Responds to Spoken Language in Blind Children

    OpenAIRE

    Bedny, Marina; Richardson, Hilary; Saxe, Rebecca R.

    2015-01-01

    Plasticity in the visual cortex of blind individuals provides a rare window into the mechanisms of cortical specialization. In the absence of visual input, occipital (“visual”) brain regions respond to sound and spoken language. Here, we examined the time course and developmental mechanism of this plasticity in blind children. Nineteen blind and 40 sighted children and adolescents (4–17 years old) listened to stories and two auditory control conditions (unfamiliar foreign speech, and music). ...

  10. Higher-order conditioning and the retrosplenial cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Todd, Travis P.; Huszár, Roman; DeAngeli, Nicole E.; Bucci, David J.

    2016-01-01

    The retrosplenial cortex (RSC) is known to contribute to contextual and spatial learning and memory. This is consistent with its well-established connectivity; the RSC is located at the interface of visuo-spatial association areas, and the parahippocampal – hippocampal memory system. However, the RSC also contributes to learning and memory for discrete cues. For example, both permanent lesions and temporary inactivation of the RSC have been shown to impair sensory preconditioning, a form of h...

  11. Gamma oscillatory amplitude encodes stimulus intensity in primary somatosensory cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Holly Elizabeth Rossiter; Worthen, Sian F.; Caroline eWitton; Hall, Stephen D.; Furlong, Paul L

    2013-01-01

    Gamma oscillations have previously been linked to pain perception and it has been hypothesised that they may have a potential role in encoding pain intensity. Stimulus response experiments have reported an increase in activity in the primary somatosensory cortex (SI) with increasing stimulus intensity, but the specific role of oscillatory dynamics in this change in activation remains unclear. In this study, Magnetoencephalography (MEG) was used to investigate the changes in cortical oscillati...

  12. Lucky Rhythms in Orbitofrontal Cortex Bias Gambling Decisions in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Sacr?, Pierre; Kerr, Matthew S. D.; Kahn, Kevin; Gonzalez-Martinez, Jorge; Bulacio, Juan; Park, Hyun-Joo; Johnson, Matthew A.; Thompson, Susan; Jones, Jaes; Chib, Vikram S.; Gale, John T.; Sarma, Sridevi V.

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that emotions influence our decisions, yet the neural basis of this biasing effect is not well understood. Here we directly recorded local field potentials from the OrbitoFrontal Cortex (OFC) in five human subjects performing a financial decision-making task. We observed a striking increase in gamma-band (36?50?Hz) oscillatory activity that reflected subjects? decisions to make riskier choices. Additionally, these gamma rhythms were linked back to mismatched expectation...

  13. The tracking of speech envelope in the human cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kubanek

    Full Text Available Humans are highly adept at processing speech. Recently, it has been shown that slow temporal information in speech (i.e., the envelope of speech is critical for speech comprehension. Furthermore, it has been found that evoked electric potentials in human cortex are correlated with the speech envelope. However, it has been unclear whether this essential linguistic feature is encoded differentially in specific regions, or whether it is represented throughout the auditory system. To answer this question, we recorded neural data with high temporal resolution directly from the cortex while human subjects listened to a spoken story. We found that the gamma activity in human auditory cortex robustly tracks the speech envelope. The effect is so marked that it is observed during a single presentation of the spoken story to each subject. The effect is stronger in regions situated relatively early in the auditory pathway (belt areas compared to other regions involved in speech processing, including the superior temporal gyrus (STG and the posterior inferior frontal gyrus (Broca's region. To further distinguish whether speech envelope is encoded in the auditory system as a phonological (speech-related, or instead as a more general acoustic feature, we also probed the auditory system with a melodic stimulus. We found that belt areas track melody envelope weakly, and as the only region considered. Together, our data provide the first direct electrophysiological evidence that the envelope of speech is robustly tracked in non-primary auditory cortex (belt areas in particular, and suggest that the considered higher-order regions (STG and Broca's region partake in a more abstract linguistic analysis.

  14. Sparse representation of sounds in the unanesthetized auditory cortex.

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    Tomás Hromádka

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available How do neuronal populations in the auditory cortex represent acoustic stimuli? Although sound-evoked neural responses in the anesthetized auditory cortex are mainly transient, recent experiments in the unanesthetized preparation have emphasized subpopulations with other response properties. To quantify the relative contributions of these different subpopulations in the awake preparation, we have estimated the representation of sounds across the neuronal population using a representative ensemble of stimuli. We used cell-attached recording with a glass electrode, a method for which single-unit isolation does not depend on neuronal activity, to quantify the fraction of neurons engaged by acoustic stimuli (tones, frequency modulated sweeps, white-noise bursts, and natural stimuli in the primary auditory cortex of awake head-fixed rats. We find that the population response is sparse, with stimuli typically eliciting high firing rates (>20 spikes/second in less than 5% of neurons at any instant. Some neurons had very low spontaneous firing rates (<0.01 spikes/second. At the other extreme, some neurons had driven rates in excess of 50 spikes/second. Interestingly, the overall population response was well described by a lognormal distribution, rather than the exponential distribution that is often reported. Our results represent, to our knowledge, the first quantitative evidence for sparse representations of sounds in the unanesthetized auditory cortex. Our results are compatible with a model in which most neurons are silent much of the time, and in which representations are composed of small dynamic subsets of highly active neurons.

  15. Robustness of traveling waves in ongoing activity of visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauhaus, Ian; Busse, Laura; Ringach, Dario L; Carandini, Matteo

    2012-02-29

    Numerous studies have revealed traveling waves of activity in sensory cortex, both following sensory stimulation and during ongoing activity. We contributed to this body of work by measuring the spike-triggered average of the local field potential (stLFP) at multiple concurrent locations (Nauhaus et al., 2009) in the visual cortex of anesthetized cats and macaques. We found the stLFP to be progressively delayed at increasing distances from the site of the triggering spikes, and interpreted this as a traveling wave of depolarization originating from that site. Our results were criticized, however, on two grounds. First, a study using the same recording techniques in the visual cortex of awake macaques reported an apparent lack of traveling waves, and proposed that traveling waves could arise artifactually from excessive filtering of the field potentials (Ray and Maunsell, 2011). Second, the interpretability of the stLFP was questioned (Kenneth Miller, personal communication), as the stLFP must reflect not only interactions between spike trains and field potentials, but also correlations within and across the spike trains. Here, we show that our data and interpretation are not imperiled by these criticisms. We reanalyzed our field potentials to remove any possible artifact due to filtering and to discount the effects of correlations within and across the triggering spike trains. In both cases, we found that the traveling waves were still present. In fact, closer inspection of Ray and Maunsell's (2011) data from awake cortex shows that they do agree with ours, as they contain clear evidence for traveling waves.

  16. Decoding bipedal locomotion from the rat sensorimotor cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigosa, J.; Panarese, A.; Dominici, N.; Friedli, L.; van den Brand, R.; Carpaneto, J.; DiGiovanna, J.; Courtine, G.; Micera, S.

    2015-10-01

    Objective. Decoding forelimb movements from the firing activity of cortical neurons has been interfaced with robotic and prosthetic systems to replace lost upper limb functions in humans. Despite the potential of this approach to improve locomotion and facilitate gait rehabilitation, decoding lower limb movement from the motor cortex has received comparatively little attention. Here, we performed experiments to identify the type and amount of information that can be decoded from neuronal ensemble activity in the hindlimb area of the rat motor cortex during bipedal locomotor tasks. Approach. Rats were trained to stand, step on a treadmill, walk overground and climb staircases in a bipedal posture. To impose this gait, the rats were secured in a robotic interface that provided support against the direction of gravity and in the mediolateral direction, but behaved transparently in the forward direction. After completion of training, rats were chronically implanted with a micro-wire array spanning the left hindlimb motor cortex to record single and multi-unit activity, and bipolar electrodes into 10 muscles of the right hindlimb to monitor electromyographic signals. Whole-body kinematics, muscle activity, and neural signals were simultaneously recorded during execution of the trained tasks over multiple days of testing. Hindlimb kinematics, muscle activity, gait phases, and locomotor tasks were decoded using offline classification algorithms. Main results. We found that the stance and swing phases of gait and the locomotor tasks were detected with accuracies as robust as 90% in all rats. Decoded hindlimb kinematics and muscle activity exhibited a larger variability across rats and tasks. Significance. Our study shows that the rodent motor cortex contains useful information for lower limb neuroprosthetic development. However, brain-machine interfaces estimating gait phases or locomotor behaviors, instead of continuous variables such as limb joint positions or speeds

  17. Functional MRI in double cortex: functionality of heterotopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinard, J; Feydy, A; Carlier, R; Perez, N; Pierot, L; Burnod, Y

    2000-04-11

    A 12-year-old boy with epilepsy and subcortical laminar heterotopia (band heterotopia) underwent a functional MRI protocol to study voluntary motor activity in the hand. Finger tapping produced an activation of a contralateral limited and focused frontal cortical area both in the subcortical band heterotopia and the overlying cortex. Despite its epileptogenic activity, subcortical laminar heterotopia seems to be responsible for part of the functional activity of the brain. This has to be pointed out for epilepsy surgery resecting cortical dysplasia.

  18. Double Cortex Syndrome (Subcortical Band Heterotopia): A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Momen, Ali Akbar; Momen, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    AbstractObjectiveApproximately 5–10% of preschool age children are considered developmentally disabled. Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) plays a key role in the diagnostic evaluation in these children. Many congenital or acquired brain anomalies are revealed with MRIs. Although the majority of these abnormalities are sporadic but patients with subcortical band heterotopia or double cortex syndrome have sex-linked inheritance. We are going to present the first case in Iran from Ahvaz cit...

  19. Exercise increases mitochondrial glutamate oxidation in the mouse cerebral cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Eric A F; Holloway, Graham P

    2016-07-01

    The present study investigated the impact of acute exercise on stimulating mitochondrial respiratory function in mouse cerebral cortex. Where pyruvate-stimulated respiration was not affected by acute exercise, glutamate respiration was enhanced following the exercise bout. Additional assessment revealed that this affect was dependent on the presence of malate and did not occur when substituting glutamine for glutamate. As such, our results suggest that glutamate oxidation is enhanced with acute exercise through activation of the malate-aspartate shuttle.

  20. Ipsilateral Directional Encoding of Joystick Movements in Human Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Mohit; Gaona, Charles; Roland, Jarod; Anderson, Nick; Freudenberg, Zachary; Leuthardt, Eric C.

    2009-01-01

    The majority of Brain Computer Interfaces have relied on signals related to primary motor cortex and the operation of the contralateral limb. Recently, the physiology associated with same-sided (ipsilateral) motor movements has been found to have a unique cortical physiology. This study sets out to assess whether more complex motor movements can be discerned utilizing ipsilateral cortical signals. In this study, three invasively monitored human subjects were recorded while performing a center...

  1. The lateralization of motor cortex activation to action words

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    Olaf eHauk

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available What determines the laterality of activation in motor cortex for words whose meaning is related to bodily actions? It has been suggested that the neuronal representation of the meaning of action-words is shaped by individual experience. However, core language functions are left-lateralized in the majority of both right- and left-handers. It is still an open question to what degree connections between left-hemispheric core language areas and right-hemispheric motor areas can play a role in semantics. We investigated laterality of brain activation using fMRI in right- and left-handed participants in response to visually presented hand-related action-words, namely uni- and bi-manual actions (such as "throw" and "clap". These stimulus groups were matched with respect to general (hand-action-relatedness, but differed with respect to whether they are usually performed with the dominant hand or both hands. We may expect generally more left-hemispheric motor-cortex activation for hand-related words in both handedness groups, with possibly more bilateral activation for bimanual words as well as left-handers. In our study, both participant groups activated motor cortex bilaterally for bi-manual words. Interestingly, both groups also showed a left-lateralized activation pattern to uni-manual words. We argue that this reflects the effect of left-hemispheric language dominance on the formation of semantic brain circuits on the basis of Hebbian correlation learning.

  2. Transformation of Cortex-wide Emergent Properties during Motor Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Hiroshi; Ren, Chi; Liu, Haixin; Kim, An Na; Kondapaneni, Neehar; Liu, Xin; Kuzum, Duygu; Komiyama, Takaki

    2017-05-17

    Learning involves a transformation of brain-wide operation dynamics. However, our understanding of learning-related changes in macroscopic dynamics is limited. Here, we monitored cortex-wide activity of the mouse brain using wide-field calcium imaging while the mouse learned a motor task over weeks. Over learning, the sequential activity across cortical modules became temporally more compressed, and its trial-by-trial variability decreased. Moreover, a new flow of activity emerged during learning, originating from premotor cortex (M2), and M2 became predictive of the activity of many other modules. Inactivation experiments showed that M2 is critical for the post-learning dynamics in the cortex-wide activity. Furthermore, two-photon calcium imaging revealed that M2 ensemble activity also showed earlier activity onset and reduced variability with learning, which was accompanied by changes in the activity-movement relationship. These results reveal newly emergent properties of macroscopic cortical dynamics during motor learning and highlight the importance of M2 in controlling learned movements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Ventrolateral and dorsomedial frontal cortex lesions impair mnemonic context retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapados, Catherine; Petrides, Michael

    2015-02-22

    The prefrontal cortex appears to contribute to the mnemonic retrieval of the context within which stimuli are experienced, but only under certain conditions that remain to be clarified. Patients with lesions to the frontal cortex, the temporal lobe and neurologically intact individuals were tested for context memory retrieval when verbal stimuli (words) had been experienced across multiple (unstable context condition) or unique (stable context condition) contexts; basic recognition memory of these words-in-contexts was also tested. Patients with lesions to the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) were impaired on context retrieval only when the words had been seen in multiple contexts, demonstrating that this prefrontal region is critical for active retrieval processing necessary to disambiguate memory items embedded across multiple contexts. Patients with lesions to the left dorsomedial prefrontal region were impaired on both context retrieval conditions, regardless of the stability of the stimulus-to-context associations. Conversely, prefrontal lesions sparing the ventrolateral and dorsomedial regions did not impair context retrieval. Only patients with temporal lobe excisions were impaired on basic recognition memory. The results demonstrate a basic contribution of the left dorsomedial frontal region to mnemonic context retrieval, with the VLPFC engaged, selectively, when contextual relations are unstable and require disambiguation. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  4. [Transport of lithium in rat renal cortex slices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, C; Kersten, L; Bräunlich, H

    1983-01-01

    Slices of the renal cortex take up lithium from the incubation medium; this uptake does not follow a saturation kinetics and is demonstrable under aerobic and anaerobic conditions alike. The lithium uptake is associated with a variation of the sodium and potassium content in the slices. These changes are distinguishable from the electrolyte movements caused by the introduction of the slices into the incubation medium. The present findings characterize the lithium uptake into the renal tissue as a passive process. With the in vivo experiments, accumulation of lithium in the renal tissue against the serum should presuppose glomerular filtration and enrichment of lithium in the lumen of the tubuli through processes of urine concentration. In slices of the renal cortex, like in the intact animal the uptake of lithium can be influenced by inhibitors of the renal electrolyte movement. The present findings have provided evidence that lithium enters the tubular cells passively, and that slices of the renal cortex are suited for testing substances acting on the renal handling of lithium.

  5. Specialized Cortex Glial Cells Accumulate Lipid Droplets in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Kis

    Full Text Available Lipid droplets (LDs are common organelles of the majority of eukaryotic cell types. Their biological significance has been extensively studied in mammalian liver cells and white adipose tissue. Although the central nervous system contains the highest relative amount and the largest number of different lipid species, neither the spatial nor the temporal distribution of LDs has been described. In this study, we used the brain of the fruitfly, Drosophila melanogaster, to investigate the neuroanatomy of LDs. We demonstrated that LDs are exclusively localised in glial cells but not in neurons in the larval nervous system. We showed that the brain's LD pool, rather than being constant, changes dynamically during development and reaches its highest value at the beginning of metamorphosis. LDs are particularly enriched in cortex glial cells located close to the brain surface. These specialized superficial cortex glial cells contain the highest amount of LDs among glial cell types and encapsulate neuroblasts and their daughter cells. Superficial cortex glial cells, combined with subperineurial glial cells, express the Drosophila fatty acid binding protein (Dfabp, as we have demonstrated through light- and electron microscopic immunocytochemistry. To the best of our best knowledge this is the first study that describes LD neuroanatomy in the Drosophila larval brain.

  6. CREB regulates memory allocation in the insular cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Yoshitake; Shobe, Justin L; Zhou, Miou; Huang, Shan; Shuman, Tristan; Cai, Denise J; Golshani, Peyman; Kamata, Masakazu; Silva, Alcino J

    2014-12-01

    The molecular and cellular mechanisms of memory storage have attracted a great deal of attention. By comparison, little is known about memory allocation, the process that determines which specific neurons in a neural network will store a given memory. Previous studies demonstrated that memory allocation is not random in the amygdala; these studies showed that amygdala neurons with higher levels of the cyclic-AMP-response-element-binding protein (CREB) are more likely to be recruited into encoding and storing fear memory. To determine whether specific mechanisms also regulate memory allocation in other brain regions and whether CREB also has a role in this process, we studied insular cortical memory representations for conditioned taste aversion (CTA). In this task, an animal learns to associate a taste (conditioned stimulus [CS]) with the experience of malaise (such as that induced by LiCl; unconditioned stimulus [US]). The insular cortex is required for CTA memory formation and retrieval. CTA learning activates a subpopulation of neurons in this structure, and the insular cortex and the basolateral amygdala (BLA) interact during CTA formation. Here, we used a combination of approaches, including viral vector transfections of insular cortex, arc fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADD) system, to show that CREB levels determine which insular cortical neurons go on to encode a given conditioned taste memory. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Functional involvement of cerebral cortex in adult sleepwalking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliviero, A; Della Marca, G; Tonali, P A; Pilato, F; Saturno, E; Dileone, M; Rubino, M; Di Lazzaro, V

    2007-08-01

    The pathophysiology of adult sleepwalking is still poorly understood. However, it is widely accepted that sleepwalking is a disorder of arousal. Arousal circuits widely project to the cortex, including motor cortex. We hypothesized that functional abnormality of these circuits could lead to changes in cortical excitability in sleepwalkers, even during wakefulness. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to examine the excitability of the human motor cortex during wakefulness in a group of adult sleepwalkers. When compared with the healthy control group, short interval intracortical inhibition (SICI), cortical silent period (CSP) duration, and short latency afferent inhibition (SAI) were reduced in adult sleepwalkers during wakefulness. Mean CSP duration was shorter in patients than in controls (80.9 +/- 41 ms vs. 139.4 +/- 37 ms; p = 0.0040). Mean SICI was significantly reduced in patients than in controls (73.5 +/- 38.4% vs. 36.7 +/- 13.1%; p = 0.0061). Mean SAI was also significantly reduced in patients than in controls (65.8 +/- 14.2% vs. 42.8 +/- 16.9%; p = 0.0053). This neurophysiological study suggests that there are alterations in sleepwalkers consistent with an impaired efficiency of inhibitory circuits during wakefulness. This inhibitory impairment could represent the neurophysiological correlate of brain "abnormalities" of sleepwalkers like "immaturity" of some neural circuits, synapses, or receptors.

  8. The cutaneous rabbit illusion affects human primary sensory cortex somatotopically.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Blankenburg

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to study neural correlates of a robust somatosensory illusion that can dissociate tactile perception from physical stimulation. Repeated rapid stimulation at the wrist, then near the elbow, can create the illusion of touches at intervening locations along the arm, as if a rabbit hopped along it. We examined brain activity in humans using fMRI, with improved spatial resolution, during this version of the classic cutaneous rabbit illusion. As compared with control stimulation at the same skin sites (but in a different order that did not induce the illusion, illusory sequences activated contralateral primary somatosensory cortex, at a somatotopic location corresponding to the filled-in illusory perception on the forearm. Moreover, the amplitude of this somatosensory activation was comparable to that for veridical stimulation including the intervening position on the arm. The illusion additionally activated areas of premotor and prefrontal cortex. These results provide direct evidence that illusory somatosensory percepts can affect primary somatosensory cortex in a manner that corresponds somatotopically to the illusory percept.

  9. The Role of the Prefrontal Cortex in Action Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raos, Vassilis; Savaki, Helen E

    2017-10-01

    In an attempt to shed light on the role of the prefrontal cortex in action perception, we used the quantitative 14C-deoxyglucose method to reveal the effects elicited by reaching-to-grasp in the light or in the dark and by observation of the same action executed by an external agent. We analyzed the cortical areas in the principal sulcus, the superior and inferior lateral prefrontal convexities and the orbitofrontal cortex of monkeys. We found that execution in the light and observation activated in common most of the lateral prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortical areas, with the exception of 9/46-dorsal activated exclusively for observation and 9/46-ventral, 11 and 13 activated only for execution. Execution in the dark implicated only the ventral bank of the principal sulcus and its adjacent inferior convexity along with areas 47/12-dorsal and 13, whereas execution in the light activated both banks of the principal sulcus and both superior and inferior convexities along with areas 10 and 11. Our results demonstrate that the prefrontal cortex integrates information in the service of both action generation and action perception, and are discussed in relation to its contribution in movement suppression during action observation and in attribution of action to the correct agent. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Comparison of the adolescent and adult mouse prefrontal cortex proteome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Amanda T.; Spanos, Marina; Burrus, Brainard M.

    2017-01-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period characterized by unique behavioral phenotypes (increased novelty seeking, risk taking, sociability and impulsivity) and increased risk for destructive behaviors, impaired decision making and psychiatric illness. Adaptive and maladaptive adolescent traits have been associated with development of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), a brain region that mediates regulatory control of behavior. However, the molecular changes that underlie brain development and behavioral vulnerability have not been fully characterized. Using high-throughput 2D DIGE spot profiling with identification by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, we identified 62 spots in the PFC that exhibited age-dependent differences in expression. Identified proteins were associated with diverse cellular functions, including intracellular signaling, synaptic plasticity, cellular organization and metabolism. Separate Western blot analyses confirmed age-related changes in DPYSL2, DNM1, STXBP1 and CFL1 in the mPFC and expanded these findings to the dorsal striatum, nucleus accumbens, motor cortex, amygdala and ventral tegmental area. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) identified functional interaction networks enriched with proteins identified in the proteomics screen, linking age-related alterations in protein expression to cellular assembly and development, cell signaling and behavior, and psychiatric illness. These results provide insight into potential molecular components of adolescent cortical development, implicating structural processes that begin during embryonic development as well as plastic adaptations in signaling that may work in concert to bring the cortex, and other brain regions, into maturity. PMID:28570644

  11. Ketogenic diet alters dopaminergic activity in the mouse cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, William H; Adams, Ryan E; Wyss, Livia S

    2014-06-13

    The present study was conducted to determine if the ketogenic diet altered basal levels of monoamine neurotransmitters in mice. The catecholamines dopamine (DA) and norephinephrine (NE) and the indolamine serotonin (5HT) were quantified postmortem in six different brain regions of adult mice fed a ketogenic diet for 3 weeks. The dopamine metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA) and the serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5HIAA) were also measured. Tissue punches were collected bilaterally from the motor cortex, somatosensory cortex, nucleus accumbens, anterior caudate-putamen, posterior caudate-putamen and the midbrain. Dopaminergic activity, as measured by the dopamine metabolites to dopamine content ratio - ([DOPAC]+[HVA])/[DA] - was significantly increased in the motor and somatosensory cortex regions of mice fed the ketogenic diet when compared to those same areas in brains of mice fed a normal diet. These results indicate that the ketogenic diet alters the activity of the meso-cortical dopaminergic system, which may contribute to the diet's therapeutic effect in reducing epileptic seizure activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The role of the midcingulate cortex in monitoring others’ decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew A J Apps

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A plethora of research has implicated the cingulate cortex in the processing of social information (i.e. processing elicited by, about, and directed towards others and reward-related information that guides decision-making. However, it is often overlooked that there is variability in the cytoarchitectonic properties and anatomical connections across the cingulate cortex, which is indicative of functional variability. Here we review evidence from lesion, single-unit recording and functional imaging studies. Taken together, these support the claim that the processing of information that has the greatest influence on social behaviour can be localised to the gyral surface of the midcingulate cortex (MCCg. We propose that the MCCg is engaged when predicting and monitoring the outcomes of decisions during social interactions. In particular, the MCCg processes statistical information that tracks the extent to which the outcomes of decisions meet goals when interacting with others. We provide a novel framework for the computational mechanisms that underpin such social information processing in the MCCg. This framework provides testable hypotheses for the social deficits displayed in autism spectrum disorders and psychopathy.

  13. Prestimulus oscillatory activity over motor cortex reflects perceptual expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, Floris P; Rahnev, Dobromir A; Donner, Tobias H; Lau, Hakwan

    2013-01-23

    When perceptual decisions are coupled to a specific effector, preparatory motor cortical activity may provide a window into the dynamics of the perceptual choice. Specifically, previous studies have observed a buildup of choice-selective activity in motor regions over time reflecting the integrated sensory evidence provided by visual cortex. Here we ask how this choice-selective motor activity is modified by prior expectation during a visual motion discrimination task. Computational models of decision making formalize decisions as the accumulation of evidence from a starting point to a decision bound. Within this framework, expectation could change the starting point, rate of accumulation, or the decision bound. Using magneto-encephalography in human observers, we specifically tested for changes in the starting point in choice-selective oscillatory activity over motor cortex. Inducing prior expectation about motion direction biased subjects' perceptual judgments as well as the choice-selective motor activity in the 8-30 Hz frequency range before stimulus onset; the individual strength of these behavioral and neural biases were correlated across subjects. In the absence of explicit expectation cues, spontaneous biases in choice-selective activity were evident over motor cortex. These also predicted eventual perceptual choice and were, at least in part, induced by the choice on the previous trial. We conclude that both endogenous and explicitly induced perceptual expectations bias the starting point of decision-related activity, before the accumulation of sensory evidence.

  14. On the origin of the functional architecture of the cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario L Ringach

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The basic structure of receptive fields and functional maps in primary visual cortex is established without exposure to normal sensory experience and before the onset of the critical period. How the brain wires these circuits in the early stages of development remains unknown. Possible explanations include activity-dependent mechanisms driven by spontaneous activity in the retina and thalamus, and molecular guidance orchestrating thalamo-cortical connections on a fine spatial scale. Here I propose an alternative hypothesis: the blueprint for receptive fields, feature maps, and their inter-relationships may reside in the layout of the retinal ganglion cell mosaics along with a simple statistical connectivity scheme dictating the wiring between thalamus and cortex. The model is shown to account for a number of experimental findings, including the relationship between retinotopy, orientation maps, spatial frequency maps and cytochrome oxidase patches. The theory's simplicity, explanatory and predictive power makes it a serious candidate for the origin of the functional architecture of primary visual cortex.

  15. Remodeling of inhibitory synaptic connections in developing ferret visual cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalva Matthew B

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the visual cortex, as in many other regions of the developing brain, excitatory synaptic connections undergo substantial remodeling during development. While evidence suggests that local inhibitory synapses may behave similarly, the extent and mechanisms that mediate remodeling of inhibitory connections are not well understood. Results Using scanning laser photostimulation in slices of developing ferret visual cortex, we assessed the overall patterns of developing inhibitory and excitatory synaptic connections converging onto individual neurons. Inhibitory synaptic inputs onto pyramidal neurons in cortical layers 2 and 3 were already present as early as postnatal day 20, well before eye opening, and originated from regions close to the recorded neurons. During the ensuing 2 weeks, the numbers of synaptic inputs increased, with the numbers of inhibitory (and excitatory synaptic inputs peaking near the time of eye opening. The pattern of inhibitory inputs refined rapidly prior to the refinement of excitatory inputs. By uncaging the neurotransmtter GABA in brain slices from animals of different ages, we find that this rapid refinement correlated with a loss of excitatory activity by GABA. Conclusion Inhibitory synapses, like excitatory synapses, undergo significant postnatal remodeling. The time course of the remodeling of inhibitory connections correlates with the emergence of orientation tuning in the visual cortex, implicating these rearrangements in the genesis of adult cortical response properties.

  16. Lateralization of gene expression in human language cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlebach, Guy; Francks, Clyde

    2015-06-01

    Lateralization is an important aspect of the functional brain architecture for language and other cognitive faculties. The molecular genetic basis of human brain lateralization is unknown, and recent studies have suggested that gene expression in the cerebral cortex is bilaterally symmetrical. Here we have re-analyzed two transcriptomic datasets derived from post mortem human cerebral cortex, with a specific focus on superior temporal and auditory language cortex in adults. We applied an empirical Bayes approach to model differential left-right expression, together with gene ontology (GO) analysis and meta-analysis. There was robust and reproducible lateralization of individual genes and GO groups that are likely to fine-tune the electrophysiological and neurotransmission properties of cortical circuits, most notably synaptic transmission, nervous system development and glutamate receptor activity. Our findings anchor the cerebral biology of language to the molecular genetic level. Future research in model systems may determine how these molecular signatures of neurophysiological lateralization effect fine-tuning of cerebral cortical function, differently in the two hemispheres. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Diazepam reduces excitability of amygdala and further influences auditory cortex following sodium salicylate treatment in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yu; Liu, Junxiu; Ma, Furong; Mao, Lanqun

    2016-12-01

    Diazepam can reduce the excitability of lateral amygdala and eventually suppress the excitability of the auditory cortex in rats following salicylate treatment, indicating the regulating effect of lateral amygdala to the auditory cortex in the tinnitus procedure. To study the spontaneous firing rates (SFR) of the auditory cortex and lateral amygdala regulated by diazepam in the tinnitus rat model induced by sodium salicylate. This study first created a tinnitus rat modal induced by sodium salicylate, and recorded SFR of both auditory cortex and lateral amygdala. Then diazepam was intraperitoneally injected and the SFR changes of lateral amygdala recorded. Finally, diazepam was microinjected on lateral amygdala and the SFR changes of the auditory cortex recorded. Both SFRs of the auditory cortex and lateral amygdala increased after salicylate treatment. SFR of lateral amygdala decreased after intraperitoneal injection of diazepam. Microinjecting diazepam to lateral amygdala decreased SFR of the auditory cortex ipsilaterally and contralaterally.

  18. Functional organization and visual representations in human ventral lateral prefrontal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Wai Yiu Chan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent neuroimaging studies in both human and non-human primates have identified face selective activation in the ventral lateral prefrontal cortex even in the absence of working memory demands. Further, research has suggested that this face-selective response is largely driven by the presence of the eyes. However, the nature and origin of visual category responses in the ventral lateral prefrontal cortex remain unclear. Further, in a broader sense, how do these findings relate to our current understandings of lateral prefrontal cortex? What do these findings tell us about the underlying function and organization principles of the ventral lateral prefrontal cortex? What is the future direction for investigating visual representations in this cortex? This review focuses on the function, topography, and circuitry of the ventral lateral prefrontal cortex to enhance our understanding of the evolution and development of this cortex.

  19. Methyl 2-Benzamido-2-(1<em>H>-benzimidazol-1-ylmethoxyacetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alami Anouar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The heterocyclic carboxylic α-aminoester methyl 2-benzamido-2-(1<em>H>-benzimidazol-1-ylmethoxyacetate is obtained by <em>O>-alkylation of methyl α-azido glycinate <em>N>-benzoylated with 1<em>H>-benzimidazol-1-ylmethanol.

  20. Timing-dependent modulation of the posterior parietal cortex-primary motor cortex pathway by sensorimotor training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karabanov, Anke; Jin, Seung-Hyun; Joutsen, Atte

    2012-01-01

    Interplay between posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and ipsilateral primary motor cortex (M1) is crucial during execution of movements. The purpose of the study was to determine whether functional PPC-M1 connectivity in humans can be modulated by sensorimotor training. Seventeen participants...... performed a sensorimotor training task that involved tapping the index finger in synchrony to a rhythmic sequence. To explore differences in training modality, one group (n = 8) learned by visual and the other (n = 9) by auditory stimuli. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to assess PPC-M1...... are activated during early sensorimotor training when sensory information has to be integrated into a coherent movement plan. Once the sequence is encoded and movements become automatized, PPC-M1 connectivity returns to baseline....

  1. Timing-dependent modulation of the posterior parietal cortex-primary motor cortex pathway by sensorimotor training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karabanov, Anke Ninija; Jin, Seung-Hyun; Joutsen, Atte

    2012-01-01

    Interplay between posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and ipsilateral primary motor cortex (M1) is crucial during execution of movements. The purpose of the study was to determine whether functional PPC-M1 connectivity in humans can be modulated by sensorimotor training. Seventeen participants...... performed a sensorimotor training task that involved tapping the index finger in synchrony to a rhythmic sequence. To explore differences in training modality, one group (n = 8) learned by visual and the other (n = 9) by auditory stimuli. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to assess PPC-M1...... are activated during early sensorimotor training when sensory information has to be integrated into a coherent movement plan. Once the sequence is encoded and movements become automatized, PPC-M1 connectivity returns to baseline...

  2. MEG reveals a fast pathway from somatosensory cortex to occipital areas via posterior parietal cortex in a blind subject

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ioannides, Andreas A; Liu, Lichan; Poghosyan, Vahe

    2013-01-01

    magnetoencephalography (MEG) data recorded from one congenitally blind and two sighted subjects after stimulation of the left and right median nerves at three intensities: below sensory threshold, above sensory threshold and above motor threshold; the last sufficient to produce thumb twitching. We identified...... reproducible brain responses in the primary somatosensory (S1) and motor (M1) cortices at around 20 ms post-stimulus, which were very similar in sighted and blind subjects. Time-frequency analysis revealed strong 45-70 Hz activity at latencies of 20-50 ms in S1 and M1, and posterior parietal cortex Brodmann...... of information through this pathway occurred in stages characterized by convergence of activations into specific cortical regions. In sighted subjects, no linked activity was found that led from the somatosensory to the visual cortex through any of the studied brain regions. These results provide the first...

  3. Glycosylation of Vanillin and 8-Nordihydrocapsaicin by Cultured <em>Eucalyptus perrinianaem> Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoji Kubota

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Glycosylation of vanilloids such as vanillin and 8-nordihydrocapsaicin by cultured plant cells of <em>Eucalyptus perrinianaem> was studied. Vanillin was converted into vanillin 4-<em>O>-b-D-glucopyranoside, vanillyl alcohol, and 4-<em>O>-b-D-glucopyranosylvanillyl alcohol by <em>E. perriniana em>cells. Incubation of cultured <em>E. perrinianaem> cells with 8-nor- dihydrocapsaicin gave 8-nordihydrocapsaicin 4-<em>O>-b-D-glucopyranoside and 8-nordihydro- capsaicin 4-<em>O>-b-D-gentiobioside.

  4. A specimen of <em>Sorex> cfr. <em>samniticus> in Barn Owl's pellets from Murge plateau (Apulia, Italy / Su di un <em>Sorex> cfr. <em>samniticus> (Insectivora, Soricidae rinvenuto in borre di <em>Tyto albaem> delle Murge (Puglia, Italia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Ferrara

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In a lot of Barn Owl's pellets from the Murge plateau a specimen of <em>Sorex> sp. was detected. Thank to some morphological and morphometrical features, the cranial bones can be tentatively attributed to <em>Sorex samniticusem> Altobello, 1926. The genus <em>Sorex> was not yet included in the Apulia's fauna southwards of the Gargano district; the origin and significance of the above record is briefly discussed, the actual presence of a natural population of <em>Sorex> in the Murge being not yet proved. Riassunto Viene segnalato il rinvenimento di un esemplare di <em>Sorex> cfr. <em>samniticus> da borre di <em>Tyto albaem> delle Murge. Poiché il genere non era stato ancora segnalato nella Puglia a sud del Gargano, viene discusso il significato faunistico del reperto.

  5. Representational Similarity of Body Parts in Human Occipitotemporal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracci, Stefania; Caramazza, Alfonso; Peelen, Marius V

    2015-09-23

    Regions in human lateral and ventral occipitotemporal cortices (OTC) respond selectively to pictures of the human body and its parts. What are the organizational principles underlying body part responses in these regions? Here we used representational similarity analysis (RSA) of fMRI data to test multiple possible organizational principles: shape similarity, physical proximity, cortical homunculus proximity, and semantic similarity. Participants viewed pictures of whole persons, chairs, and eight body parts (hands, arms, legs, feet, chests, waists, upper faces, and lower faces). The similarity of multivoxel activity patterns for all body part pairs was established in whole person-selective OTC regions. The resulting neural similarity matrices were then compared with similarity matrices capturing the hypothesized organizational principles. Results showed that the semantic similarity model best captured the neural similarity of body parts in lateral and ventral OTC, which followed an organization in three clusters: (1) body parts used as action effectors (hands, feet, arms, and legs), (2) noneffector body parts (chests and waists), and (3) face parts (upper and lower faces). Whole-brain RSA revealed, in addition to OTC, regions in parietal and frontal cortex in which neural similarity was related to semantic similarity. In contrast, neural similarity in occipital cortex was best predicted by shape similarity models. We suggest that the semantic organization of body parts in high-level visual cortex relates to the different functions associated with the three body part clusters, reflecting the unique processing and connectivity demands associated with the different types of information (e.g., action, social) different body parts (e.g., limbs, faces) convey. Significance statement: While the organization of body part representations in motor and somatosensory cortices has been well characterized, the principles underlying body part representations in visual cortex

  6. Parietal transcranial direct current stimulation modulates primary motor cortex excitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Urbina, Guadalupe Nathzidy; Batsikadze, Giorgi; Molero-Chamizo, Andrés; Paulus, Walter; Kuo, Min-Fang; Nitsche, Michael A

    2015-03-01

    The posterior parietal cortex is part of the cortical network involved in motor learning and is structurally and functionally connected with the primary motor cortex (M1). Neuroplastic alterations of neuronal connectivity might be an important basis for learning processes. These have however not been explored for parieto-motor connections in humans by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Exploring tDCS effects on parieto-motor cortical connectivity might be functionally relevant, because tDCS has been shown to improve motor learning. We aimed to explore plastic alterations of parieto-motor cortical connections by tDCS in healthy humans. We measured neuroplastic changes of corticospinal excitability via motor evoked potentials (MEP) elicited by single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) before and after tDCS over the left posterior parietal cortex (P3), and 3 cm posterior or lateral to P3, to explore the spatial specificity of the effects. Furthermore, short-interval intracortical inhibition/intracortical facilitation (SICI/ICF) over M1, and parieto-motor cortical connectivity were obtained before and after P3 tDCS. The results show polarity-dependent M1 excitability alterations primarily after P3 tDCS. Single-pulse TMS-elicited MEPs, M1 SICI/ICF at 5 and 7 ms and 10 and 15 ms interstimulus intervals (ISIs), and parieto-motor connectivity at 10 and 15 ms ISIs were all enhanced by anodal stimulation. Single pulse-TMS-elicited MEPs, and parieto-motor connectivity at 10 and 15 ms ISIs were reduced by cathodal tDCS. The respective corticospinal excitability alterations lasted for at least 120 min after stimulation. These results show an effect of remote stimulation of parietal areas on M1 excitability. The spatial specificity of the effects and the impact on parietal cortex-motor cortex connections suggest a relevant connectivity-driven effect. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Properties and fate of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells in the corpus callosum, motor cortex, and piriform cortex of the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Laura E; Young, Kaylene M; Hamilton, Nicola B; Li, Huiliang; Richardson, William D; Attwell, David

    2012-06-13

    Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) in the postnatal mouse corpus callosum (CC) and motor cortex (Ctx) reportedly generate only oligodendrocytes (OLs), whereas those in the piriform cortex may also generate neurons. OPCs have also been subdivided based on their expression of voltage-gated ion channels, ability to respond to neuronal activity, and proliferative state. To determine whether OPCs in the piriform cortex have inherently different physiological properties from those in the CC and Ctx, we studied acute brain slices from postnatal transgenic mice in which GFP expression identifies OL lineage cells. We whole-cell patch clamped GFP-expressing (GFP(+)) cells within the CC, Ctx, and anterior piriform cortex (aPC) and used prelabeling with 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) to assess cell proliferation. After recording, slices were immunolabeled and OPCs were defined by strong expression of NG2. NG2(+) OPCs in the white and gray matter proliferated and coexpressed PDGFRα and voltage-gated Na(+) channels (I(Na)). Approximately 70% of OPCs were capable of generating regenerative depolarizations. In addition to OLIG2(+) NG2(+) I(Na)(+) OPCs and OLIG2(+) NG2(neg) I(Na)(neg) OLs, we identified cells with low levels of NG2 limited to the soma or the base of some processes. These cells had a significantly reduced I(Na) and a reduced ability to incorporate EdU when compared with OPCs and probably correspond to early differentiating OLs. By combining EdU labeling and lineage tracing using Pdgfrα-CreER(T2) : R26R-YFP transgenic mice, we double labeled OPCs and traced their fate in the postnatal brain. These OPCs generated OLs but did not generate neurons in the aPC or elsewhere at any time that we examined.

  8. Visual cortex and auditory cortex activation in early binocularly blind macaques: A BOLD-fMRI study using auditory stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rong; Wu, Lingjie; Tang, Zuohua; Sun, Xinghuai; Feng, Xiaoyuan; Tang, Weijun; Qian, Wen; Wang, Jie; Jin, Lixin; Zhong, Yufeng; Xiao, Zebin

    2017-04-15

    Cross-modal plasticity within the visual and auditory cortices of early binocularly blind macaques is not well studied. In this study, four healthy neonatal macaques were assigned to group A (control group) or group B (binocularly blind group). Sixteen months later, blood oxygenation level-dependent functional imaging (BOLD-fMRI) was conducted to examine the activation in the visual and auditory cortices of each macaque while being tested using pure tones as auditory stimuli. The changes in the BOLD response in the visual and auditory cortices of all macaques were compared with immunofluorescence staining findings. Compared with group A, greater BOLD activity was observed in the bilateral visual cortices of group B, and this effect was particularly obvious in the right visual cortex. In addition, more activated volumes were found in the bilateral auditory cortices of group B than of group A, especially in the right auditory cortex. These findings were consistent with the fact that there were more c-Fos-positive cells in the bilateral visual and auditory cortices of group B compared with group A (p visual cortices of binocularly blind macaques can be reorganized to process auditory stimuli after visual deprivation, and this effect is more obvious in the right than the left visual cortex. These results indicate the establishment of cross-modal plasticity within the visual and auditory cortices. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Why is there a special issue on perirhinal cortex in a journal called Hippocampus?: The perirhinal cortex in historical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Elisabeth A.; Wise, Steven P.

    2014-01-01

    Despite its small size, the perirhinal cortex (PRh) plays a central role in understanding the cerebral cortex, vision and memory; it figures in discussions of cognitive capacities as diverse as object perception, semantic knowledge, feelings of familiarity and conscious recollection. Two conceptual constructs have encompassed PRh. The current orthodoxy incorporates PRh within the medial temporal lobe (MTL) as a memory area; an alternative considers PRh to be a sensory area with a role in both perception and memory. A historical perspective provides insight into both of these ideas. PRh came to be included in the MTL because of two accidents of history. In evolutionary history, the hippocampus migrated from its ancestral situation, as medial cortex, into the temporal lobe; in the history of neuropsychology, a “memory system” that originally consisted of the amygdala and hippocampus came to include PRh. These two histories explain why a part of the sensory neocortex, PRh, entered into the conceptual construct called the MTL. They also explain why some experimental results seem to exclude a perceptual function for this sensory area, while others embrace perception. The exclusion of perceptual functions results from a history of categorizing tasks as perceptual or mnemonic, often on inadequate grounds. By instead exploring the role of PRh in encoding, representing and retrieving stimulus information, it can be understood as a part of the sensory neocortex, one that has much the same relationship with the hippocampus as do other parts of the neocortex that evolved at about the same time. PMID:22987673

  10. Study of the <em>in Vitroem> Antiplasmodial, Antileishmanial and Antitrypanosomal Activities of Medicinal Plants from Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawal M. Al-Musayeib

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the <em>in vitroem> antiprotozoal activity of sixteen selected medicinal plants. Plant materials were extracted with methanol and screened <em>in vitroem> against erythrocytic schizonts of <em>Plasmodium falciparumem>, intracellular amastigotes of <em>Leishmania infantum em>and <em>Trypanosoma cruzi em>and free trypomastigotes of<em> T. bruceiem>. Cytotoxic activity was determined against MRC-5 cells to assess selectivity<em>. em>The criterion for activity was an IC50 < 10 µg/mL (4. Antiplasmodial activity was found in the<em> em>extracts of<em> em>>Prosopis julifloraem> and <em>Punica granatumem>. Antileishmanial activity<em> em>against <em>L. infantumem> was demonstrated in <em>Caralluma sinaicaem> and <em>Periploca aphylla.em> Amastigotes of<em> T. cruzi em>were affected by the methanol extract of<em> em>>Albizia lebbeckem>> em>pericarp, <em>Caralluma sinaicaem>,> Periploca aphylla em>and <em>Prosopius julifloraem>. Activity against<em> T. brucei em>was obtained in<em> em>>Prosopis julifloraem>. Cytotoxicity (MRC-5 IC50 < 10 µg/mL and hence non-specific activities were observed for<em> em>>Conocarpus lancifoliusem>.>

  11. The flexible use of multiple cue relationships in spatial navigation : A comparison of water maze performance following hippocampal, medial septal, prefrontal cortex, or posterior parietal cortex lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Compton, DM; Griffith, HR; McDaniel, WF; Foster, RA; Davis, BK

    Rats prepared with lesions of the prefrontal cortex, posterior parietal cortex, hippocampus, or medial septal area were tested for acquisition of a number of variations of the open-field water maze using a version of place learning assessment described by Eichenbaum, Stewart, and Morris (1991).

  12. <em>In Vivoem> Histamine Optical Nanosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather A. Clark

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this communication we discuss the development of ionophore based nanosensors for the detection and monitoring of histamine levels <em>in vivoem>. This approach is based on the use of an amine-reactive, broad spectrum ionophore which is capable of recognizing and binding to histamine. We pair this ionophore with our already established nanosensor platform, and demonstrate <em>in vitroem> and <em>in vivoem> monitoring of histamine levels. This approach enables capturing rapid kinetics of histamine after injection, which are more difficult to measure with standard approaches such as blood sampling, especially on small research models. The coupling together of <em>in vivoem> nanosensors with ionophores such as nonactin provide a way to generate nanosensors for novel targets without the difficult process of designing and synthesizing novel ionophores.

  13. Oxidative and glicolytic metabolism of the frontal cortex (latero-frontal) and of the posterior cortex (latero-occipital) in relation with the sexual activity of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez-Patterson, A; Florez-Lozano, J A; Marin, B

    1976-01-01

    The authors of this paper have ascertained the glycolytic metabolism and the oxidative metabolism (intake of QO2), of the frontal and posterior cortex in female rats at different stages of the sexual cycle, as also in ovariectomized animals, by the intake of glucose and the production of lactates. The results indicate a statistically significant increase of the oxidative metabolism of the posterior cortex (latero-occipital) in the estrual and proestrual phases, in comparisons with the diestral phase. The frontal cortex (latero-frontal) did not show any significant difference; moreover, the glycolitic metabolism did not alter in any of the tissues under observation. These findings, seem to suggest possible participation of the posterior cortex (latero-occipital) on the regulation of sexual cycle of the rat. The activation of this cortex occurs through the preponderant imbricantion of the tri-carboxylic acid cycle.

  14. Chemical Composition<em> em>of Hexane Extract of <em>Citrus aurantifoliaem> and<em> em>Anti->Mycobacterium tuberculosisem> Activity of Some of Its Constituents

    OpenAIRE

    Sandoval-Montemayor, Nallely E.; Abraham García; Elizabeth Elizondo-Treviño; Elvira Garza-González; Laura Alvarez; María del Rayo Camacho-Corona

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to isolate and characterize the active compounds from the hexane extract of the fruit peels of <em>Citrus aurantiifoliaem>, which showed activity against one sensitive and three monoresistant (isoniazid, streptomycin or ethambutol) strains of <em>Mycobacterium tuberculosis em>H37Rv. The active extract was fractionated by column chromatography, yielding the following major compounds: 5-geranyloxypsoralen (

  15. Is the prefrontal cortex especially enlarged in the human brain allometric relations and remapping factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passingham, Richard E; Smaers, Jeroen B

    2014-01-01

    There has been no agreement as to whether the prefrontal cortex is especially enlarged in the human brain. To answer this question, we analyzed the only two datasets that provide information on total prefrontal cortex volume based on cytoarchitectonic criteria. One delineated the prefrontal cortex proper on the basis of cytoarchitectonic criteria; the other used a proxy of the prefrontal cortex based on a cytoarchitectonic delineation of the frontal lobe. To investigate whether all cortical association areas, including the prefrontal cortex, are enlarged in the human brain, we scaled the different areas to a common reference, the primary visual cortex. To investigate whether the prefrontal cortex is more enlarged than other association areas, we scaled it relative to its inputs from and outputs to other nonprimary areas. We carried out separate regression analyses using different data samples as a predictive baseline group: data for monkeys alone informs us on whether great apes are different from monkeys; data for all non-human anthropoids, including great apes, informs us on whether humans are different from all other primates. The analyses show that the value for the human prefrontal cortex is greater than expected, and that this is true even when data for the great apes are included in the analysis. They also show that the chimpanzee prefrontal cortex is greater than expected for a monkey with a similar sized cortex. We discuss possible functional consequences.

  16. Natural Products from Antarctic Colonial Ascidians of the Genera <em>Aplidium> and <em>Synoicum>: Variability and Defensive Role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conxita Avila

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Ascidians have developed multiple defensive strategies mostly related to physical, nutritional or chemical properties of the tunic. One of such is chemical defense based on secondary metabolites. We analyzed a series of colonial Antarctic ascidians from deep-water collections belonging to the genera <em>Aplidium> and <em>Synoicum> to evaluate the incidence of organic deterrents and their variability. The ether fractions from 15 samples including specimens of the species <em>A.> <em>falklandicum>, <em>A.> <em>fuegiense>, <em>A.> <em>meridianum>, <em>A.> <em>millari> and <em>S.> <em>adareanum> were subjected to feeding assays towards two relevant sympatric predators: the starfish <em>Odontaster> <em>validus>, and the amphipod <em>Cheirimedon> <em>femoratus>. All samples revealed repellency. Nonetheless, some colonies concentrated defensive chemicals in internal body-regions rather than in the tunic. Four ascidian-derived meroterpenoids, rossinones B and the three derivatives 2,3-epoxy-rossinone B, 3-epi-rossinone B, 5,6-epoxy-rossinone B, and the indole alkaloids meridianins A–G, along with other minoritary meridianin compounds were isolated from several samples. Some purified metabolites were tested in feeding assays exhibiting potent unpalatabilities, thus revealing their role in predation avoidance. Ascidian extracts and purified compound-fractions were further assessed in antibacterial tests against a marine Antarctic bacterium. Only the meridianins showed inhibition activity, demonstrating a multifunctional defensive role. According to their occurrence in nature and within our colonial specimens, the possible origin of both types of metabolites is discussed.

  17. Identification and Determination of <em>Aconitum> Alkaloids in <em>Aconitum> Herbs and <em>Xiaohuoluo Pillem> Using UPLC-ESI-MS

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    Li Yang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A rapid, specific, and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS method to examine the chemical differences between <em>Aconitum> herbs and processed products has been developed and validated. Combined with chemometrics analysis of principal component analysis (PCA and orthogonal projection to latent structural discriminate analysis, diester-diterpenoid and monoester-type alkaloids, especially the five alkaloids which contributed to the chemical distinction between <em>Aconitum> herbs and processed products, namely mesaconitine (MA, aconitine (AC, hypaconitine (HA, benzoylmesaconitine (BMA, and benzoylhypaconitine (BHA, were picked out. Further, the five alkaloids and benzoylaconitine (BAC have been simultaneously determined in the <em>Xiaohuoluo pillem>. Chromatographic separations were achieved on a C18 column and peaks were detected by mass spectrometry in positive ion mode and selected ion recording (SIR mode. In quantitative analysis, the six alkaloids showed good regression, (<em>r> > 0.9984, within the test ranges. The lower limit quantifications (LLOQs for MA, AC, HA, BMA, BAC, and BHA were 1.41, 1.20, 1.92, 4.28, 1.99 and 2.02 ng·mL−1, respectively. Recoveries ranged from 99.7% to 101.7%. The validated method was applied successfully in the analysis of the six alkaloids from different samples, in which significant variations were revealed. Results indicated that the developed assay can be used as an appropriate quality control assay for <em>Xiaohuoluo pillem> and other herbal preparations containing <em>Aconitum> roots.

  18. Cyberbullying em adolescentes brasileiros

    OpenAIRE

    Wendt, Guilherme Welter

    2012-01-01

    O cyberbullying é entendido como uma forma de comportamento agressivo que ocorre através dos meios eletrônicos de interação (computadores, celulares, sites de relacionamento virtual), sendo realizado de maneira intencional por uma pessoa ou grupo contra alguém em situação desigual de poder e, ainda, com dificuldade em se defender. Os estudos disponíveis até o presente momento destacam que o cyberbullying é um fator de risco para o desenvolvimento de sintomas de ansiedade, depressão, ideação s...

  19. Ulisses em Kafka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Mosès

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available ResumoEm sua introdução para Exegese de uma lenda, Stéphane Mosès afirma que a obra de Kafka não necessita de novas interpretações, mas sim de uma “análise rigorosa de sua lógica subjacente”. Assim, em “Ulisses em Kafka”, investigandoa dialética formal de “O silêncio das sereias”, Mosès procura expor a estrutura narrativa que comandaria esse breve texto em que o escritor tcheco acrescenta à astucia de Ulisses a ingenuidade como elemento de salvação.Palavras-chave: Kafka; dialética; salvação.AbstractIn his introduction to Exegèse d’une légende, Stéphane Mosès affirms that Kafka’s works are not in need of new interpretations, but rather, of a “rigorous analysis of their underlying logic”. Thus, in “Ulisses chez Kafka”, by investigating the formal dialectic of “Das Schweigen der Sirenen”, Mosès seeks to exhibit the narrative structure that would supposedly guide this short text in which the Czech author adds naïveté to Ulisses’s cunning intelligence as an element of salvation.Keywords: Kafka; dialectic; salvation.Stéphane Mosès foi professor emérito da Universidade Hebraica de Jerusalém, onde ensinou Literatura Alemã e Comparada, entre os seus principais interesses estavam o pensamento de Franz Rosenzweig e de Walter Benjamin e as literaturas de Franz Kafka e de Paul Célan. Autor de diversos livros, entre eles: L'ange de l'histoire. Rosenzweig, Benjamin, Scholem, Exégèse d'une légende, lectures de Kafka, e Rêves de Freud. Six lectures.Rodrigo Ielpo é doutor em literatura francesa pela UFRJ e em História e Semiologia do texto e da imagem pela Université Paris VII, com pós-doutorado em Teoria Literária pela UNICAMP. Professor Adjunto do Departamento de Letras Neolatinas da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, possui publicações e traduções nos seguintes temas: teoria e literatura francesa contemporâneas, escrita e processos de subjetivação.rodrigoielpo@gmail.com 

  20. Acidose ruminal em caprinos

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha, José Diogo de Oliveira e silva Ribeiro da

    2012-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado Integrado em Medicina Veterinária Com este trabalho pretendeu-se fazer uma revisão acerca da acidose ruminal em caprinos, visto haver pouca bibliografia sobre o tema. Este trabalho foi baseado na revisão bibliográfica de artigos científicos e completado através da observação de casos clínicos ocorridos durante o estágio curricular. O objectivo deste estudo foi realizar uma breve revisão da anatomia e fisiologia do tracto gastrointestinal dos caprinos assim com...

  1. Espondiloptose em atleta

    OpenAIRE

    Assad, Ana Paula Luppino; Abreu,Andressa Silva; Seguro, Luciana Parente Costa; Guedes, Lissiane Karine Noronha; Lima, Fernanda Rodrigues; Pinto, Ana Lucia de Sá

    2014-01-01

    Os atletas adolescentes estão sob maior risco de lombalgia e lesões estruturais da coluna. A espondilólise é responsável pela maioria das lombalgias em jovens esportistas e raramente ocorre em adultos. Relatamos o caso de uma paciente de 13 anos, atleta de judô, que chegou a nosso serviço com quadro de cinco meses de lombalgia progressiva durante os treinos, sendo inicialmente atribuída a causas mecânicas, sem que houvesse uma investigação mais detalhada por métodos de imagem. Na admissão já ...

  2. Large-scale Contextual Effects in Early Human Visual Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Jun Joo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A commonly held view about neurons in early visual cortex is that they serve as localized feature detectors. Here, however, we demonstrate that the responses of neurons in early visual cortex are sensitive to global visual patterns. Using multiple methodologies–psychophysics, fMRI, and EEG–we measured neural responses to an oriented Gabor (“target” embedded in various orientation patterns. Specifically, we varied whether a central target deviated from its context by changing distant orientations while leaving the immediately neighboring flankers unchanged. The results of psychophysical contrast adaptation and fMRI experiments show that a target that deviates from its context results in more neural activity compared to a target that is grouped into an alternating pattern. For example, the neural response to a vertically oriented target was greater when it deviated from the orientation of flankers (HHVHH compared to when it was grouped into an alternating pattern (VHVHV. We then found that this pattern-sensitive response manifests in the earliest sensory component of the event-related potential to the target. Finally, in a forced-choice classification task of “noise” stimuli, perceptions are biased to “see” an orientation that deviates from its context. Our results show that neurons in early visual cortex are sensitive to large-scale global patterns in images in a way that is more sophisticated than localized feature detection. Our results showing a reduced neural response to statistical redundancies in images is not only optimal from an information theory perspective but also takes into account known energy constraints in neural processing.

  3. Representation of individual forelimb muscles in primary motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Heather M; Park, Michael C; Belhaj-Saïf, Abderraouf; Cheney, Paul D

    2017-07-01

    Stimulus-triggered averaging (StTA) of forelimb muscle electromyographic (EMG) activity was used to investigate individual forelimb muscle representation within the primary motor cortex (M1) of rhesus macaques with the objective of determining the extent of intra-areal somatotopic organization. Two monkeys were trained to perform a reach-to-grasp task requiring multijoint coordination of the forelimb. EMG activity was simultaneously recorded from 24 forelimb muscles including 5 shoulder, 7 elbow, 5 wrist, 5 digit, and 2 intrinsic hand muscles. Microstimulation (15 µA at 15 Hz) was delivered throughout the movement task and individual stimuli were used as triggers for generating StTAs of EMG activity. StTAs were used to map the cortical representations of individual forelimb muscles. As reported previously (Park et al. 2001), cortical maps revealed a central core of distal muscle (wrist, digit, and intrinsic hand) representation surrounded by a horseshoe-shaped proximal (shoulder and elbow) muscle representation. In the present study, we found that shoulder and elbow flexor muscles were predominantly represented in the lateral branch of the horseshoe whereas extensors were predominantly represented in the medial branch. Distal muscles were represented within the core distal forelimb representation and showed extensive overlap. For the first time, we also show maps of inhibitory output from motor cortex, which follow many of the same organizational features as the maps of excitatory output. NEW & NOTEWORTHY While the orderly representation of major body parts along the precentral gyrus has been known for decades, questions have been raised about the possible existence of additional more detailed aspects of somatotopy. In this study, we have investigated this question with respect to muscles of the arm and show consistent features of within-arm (intra-areal) somatotopic organization. For the first time we also show maps of how inhibitory output from motor cortex is

  4. Volumetric mandibular change after angle ostectomy and outer cortex grinding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jingyi; Song, Guodong; Zong, Xianlei; Yang, Xiaonan; Du, Le; Guo, Xiaoshuang; Lai, Chenzhi; Qi, Zuoliang; Jin, Xiaolei

    2017-12-29

    Mandibular angle ostectomy is one of the most common surgical procedures for facial contouring in Asian women. However, some patients complain about mandibular angle hypertrophy recurrence after surgery. The present study evaluated volumetric change of the mandible after angle ostectomy and outer cortex grinding. Twenty-four patients who underwent bilateral mandibular angle ostectomy and outer cortex grinding from 2013 to 2016 were enrolled. Three-dimensional computed tomography data were used to evaluate the preoperative, immediate postoperative, and long-term follow-up (≥12 months) volume of the mandible. The volumetric change between different groups was analyzed. The results of software measurements showed that the preoperative mandible volume was significantly larger than immediate and long-term postoperative volumes (P = 0.000), and there was no significant difference between immediate and long-term postoperative mandibular volume (P > 0.05). Mean bone regeneration at long-term follow-up was 1.42% ± 3.84% for those who underwent mandibular angle ostectomy with outer cortex grinding alone and 1.69% ± 2.45% on the left and 2.59% ± 3.61% on the right sides of patients who underwent this procedure along with advancement genioplasty. Mandibular angle ostectomy can effectively change the facial contour to achieve a more oval-shaped face favored by most Asians. Postoperative bone remodeling is mostly regenerated, although bone absorption did occur. However, the mean bone volume did not reach preoperative levels, and the difference between preoperative and long-term postoperative bone volume at follow-up (≥12 months) was significant. Copyright © 2017 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Gene expression in cortex and hippocampus during acute pneumococcal meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wittwer Matthias

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pneumococcal meningitis is associated with high mortality (~30% and morbidity. Up to 50% of survivors are affected by neurological sequelae due to a wide spectrum of brain injury mainly affecting the cortex and hippocampus. Despite this significant disease burden, the genetic program that regulates the host response leading to brain damage as a consequence of bacterial meningitis is largely unknown. We used an infant rat model of pneumococcal meningitis to assess gene expression profiles in cortex and hippocampus at 22 and 44 hours after infection and in controls at 22 h after mock-infection with saline. To analyze the biological significance of the data generated by Affymetrix DNA microarrays, a bioinformatics pipeline was used combining (i a literature-profiling algorithm to cluster genes based on the vocabulary of abstracts indexed in MEDLINE (NCBI and (ii the self-organizing map (SOM, a clustering technique based on covariance in gene expression kinetics. Results Among 598 genes differentially regulated (change factor ≥ 1.5; p ≤ 0.05, 77% were automatically assigned to one of 11 functional groups with 94% accuracy. SOM disclosed six patterns of expression kinetics. Genes associated with growth control/neuroplasticity, signal transduction, cell death/survival, cytoskeleton, and immunity were generally upregulated. In contrast, genes related to neurotransmission and lipid metabolism were transiently downregulated on the whole. The majority of the genes associated with ionic homeostasis, neurotransmission, signal transduction and lipid metabolism were differentially regulated specifically in the hippocampus. Of the cell death/survival genes found to be continuously upregulated only in hippocampus, the majority are pro-apoptotic, while those continuously upregulated only in cortex are anti-apoptotic. Conclusion Temporal and spatial analysis of gene expression in experimental pneumococcal meningitis identified potential

  6. Segregation of the human medial prefrontal cortex in social cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo eBzdok

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available While the human medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC is widely believed to be a key node of neural networks relevant for socio-emotional processing, its functional subspecialization is still poorly understood. We thus revisited the often assumed differentiation of the mPFC in social cognition along its ventral-dorsal axis. Our neuroinformatic analysis was based on a neuroimaging meta-analysis of perspective-taking that yielded two separate clusters in the ventral and dorsal mPFC, respectively. We determined each seed region’s brain-wide interaction pattern by two complementary measures of functional connectivity: co-activation across a wide range of neuroimaging studies archived in the BrainMap database and correlated signal fluctuations during unconstrained (resting cognition. Furthermore, we characterized the functions associated with these two regions using the BrainMap database. Across methods, the ventral mPFC was more strongly connected with the nucleus accumbens, hippocampus, posterior cingulate cortex, and retrosplenial cortex, while the dorsal mPFC was more strongly connected with the inferior frontal gyrus, temporo-parietal junction, and middle temporal gyrus. Further, the ventral mPFC was selectively associated with action execution, olfaction, and reward related tasks, while the dorsal mPFC was selectively associated with perspective-taking and episodic memory retrieval. The ventral mPFC is therefore predominantly involved in sensory-driven, approach/avoidance-modulating, and evaluation-related processing, whereas the dorsal mPFC is predominantly involved in internally driven, memory-informed, and metacognition-related processing in social cognition.

  7. Functional Changes in the Human Auditory Cortex in Ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Profant, Oliver; Tintěra, Jaroslav; Balogová, Zuzana; Ibrahim, Ibrahim; Jilek, Milan; Syka, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Hearing loss, presbycusis, is one of the most common sensory declines in the ageing population. Presbycusis is characterised by a deterioration in the processing of temporal sound features as well as a decline in speech perception, thus indicating a possible central component. With the aim to explore the central component of presbycusis, we studied the function of the auditory cortex by functional MRI in two groups of elderly subjects (>65 years) and compared the results with young subjects (presbycusis (EP) differed from the elderly group with mild presbycusis (MP) in hearing thresholds measured by pure tone audiometry, presence and amplitudes of transient otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE) and distortion-product oto-acoustic emissions (DPOAE), as well as in speech-understanding under noisy conditions. Acoustically evoked activity (pink noise centered around 350 Hz, 700 Hz, 1.5 kHz, 3 kHz, 8 kHz), recorded by BOLD fMRI from an area centered on Heschl’s gyrus, was used to determine age-related changes at the level of the auditory cortex. The fMRI showed only minimal activation in response to the 8 kHz stimulation, despite the fact that all subjects heard the stimulus. Both elderly groups showed greater activation in response to acoustical stimuli in the temporal lobes in comparison with young subjects. In addition, activation in the right temporal lobe was more expressed than in the left temporal lobe in both elderly groups, whereas in the young control subjects (YC) leftward lateralization was present. No statistically significant differences in activation of the auditory cortex were found between the MP and EP groups. The greater extent of cortical activation in elderly subjects in comparison with young subjects, with an asymmetry towards the right side, may serve as a compensatory mechanism for the impaired processing of auditory information appearing as a consequence of ageing. PMID:25734519

  8. Functional changes in the human auditory cortex in ageing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Profant

    Full Text Available Hearing loss, presbycusis, is one of the most common sensory declines in the ageing population. Presbycusis is characterised by a deterioration in the processing of temporal sound features as well as a decline in speech perception, thus indicating a possible central component. With the aim to explore the central component of presbycusis, we studied the function of the auditory cortex by functional MRI in two groups of elderly subjects (>65 years and compared the results with young subjects (cortex. The fMRI showed only minimal activation in response to the 8 kHz stimulation, despite the fact that all subjects heard the stimulus. Both elderly groups showed greater activation in response to acoustical stimuli in the temporal lobes in comparison with young subjects. In addition, activation in the right temporal lobe was more expressed than in the left temporal lobe in both elderly groups, whereas in the young control subjects (YC leftward lateralization was present. No statistically significant differences in activation of the auditory cortex were found between the MP and EP groups. The greater extent of cortical activation in elderly subjects in comparison with young subjects, with an asymmetry towards the right side, may serve as a compensatory mechanism for the impaired processing of auditory information appearing as a consequence of ageing.

  9. Seeing fearful body language rapidly freezes the observer's motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgomaneri, Sara; Vitale, Francesca; Gazzola, Valeria; Avenanti, Alessio

    2015-04-01

    Fearful body language is a salient signal alerting the observer to the presence of a potential threat in the surrounding environment. Although detecting potential threats may trigger an immediate reduction of motor output in animals (i.e., freezing behavior), it is unclear at what point in time similar reductions occur in the human motor cortex and whether they originate from excitatory or inhibitory processes. Using single-pulse and paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), here we tested the hypothesis that the observer's motor cortex implements extremely fast suppression of motor readiness when seeing emotional bodies - and fearful body expressions in particular. Participants observed pictures of body postures and categorized them as happy, fearful or neutral while receiving TMS over the right or left motor cortex at 100-125 msec after picture onset. In three different sessions, we assessed corticospinal excitability, short intracortical inhibition (SICI) and intracortical facilitation (ICF). Independently of the stimulated hemisphere and the time of the stimulation, watching fearful bodies suppressed ICF relative to happy and neutral body expressions. Moreover, happy expressions reduced ICF relative to neutral actions. No changes in corticospinal excitability or SICI were found during the task. These findings show extremely rapid bilateral modulation of the motor cortices when seeing emotional bodies, with stronger suppression of motor readiness when seeing fearful bodies. Our results provide neurophysiological support for the evolutionary notions that emotion perception is inherently linked to action systems and that fear-related cues induce an urgent mobilization of motor reactions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Quantification of the adrenal cortex hormones with radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badillo A, V.; Carrera D, A. A.; Ibarra M, C. M., E-mail: vbadillocren@hotmail.co [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Calle Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2010-10-15

    The pathologies of the adrenal cortex -adrenal insufficiency and Cushing syndrome- have their origin on the deficit or hypersecretion of some of the hormones that are secreted by the adrenal cortex, which is divided in three zones anatomically defined: the external zone, also called the zona glomerulosa, which is the main production site of aldosterone and mineralocorticoids; the internal zone, or zona reticularis, that produces androgens; and the external zone, or zone 1 orticotrop, which is responsible for producing glucocorticoids. In this work, a quantitative analysis of those hormones and their pathologic trigger was made; the quantification was made in the laboratory by means of highly sensitive and specific techniques, in this case, the radioimmunoassay, in which a radioisotope I-125 is used. This technique is based on the biochemical bond-type reaction, because it requires of a substance called the linker, which bonds to another called ligand. This reaction is also known as antigen-antibody (Ag-Ab), where the results of the reaction will depend on the quantity of antigen in the sample and on its affinity for the antibody. In this work, a 56 patients (of which 13 were men and 43 women) study was made. The cortisol, the ACTH, the androsterone and the DHEA values were very elevated in the majority of the cases corresponding to women, predominating cortisol; while in men, a notorious elevation of the 17 {alpha}-OH-PRG and of the DHEA-SO{sub 4} was observed. Based on that, we can conclude that 51 of them did not have mayor complications, because they just went to the laboratory once, while the remaining 5 had a medical monitoring, and they visited the laboratory more than one occasion, tell about a difficulty on their improvement. According to the results, an approximate relation of 8:2 women:men, respectively, becomes clear to the hormonal pathologies of the adrenal cortex. (Author)

  11. Coding of Border Ownership in Monkey Visual Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Hong; Friedman, Howard S.; von der Heydt, Rüdiger

    2000-01-01

    Areas V1 and V2 of the visual cortex have traditionally been conceived as stages of local feature representations. We investigated whether neural responses carry information about how local features belong to objects. Single-cell activity was recorded in areas V1, V2, and V4 of awake behaving monkeys. Displays were used in which the same local feature (contrast edge or line) could be presented as part of different figures. For example, the same light–dark edge could be the left side of a dark...

  12. Migraine with visual aura associated with thicker visual cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaist, David; Hougaard, Anders; Garde, Ellen

    2018-01-01

    Until recent years it was believed that migraine with aura was a disorder causing intermittent neurological symptoms, with no impact on brain structure. However, recent MRI studies have reported increased cortical thickness of visual and somatosensory areas in patients with migraine with aura...... the regions of interest and active migraine, or number of lifetime aura attacks. Migraine with aura discordant twin pairs (n = 30) only differed in mean thickness of V2 (0.039 mm, 95% CI 0.005 to 0.074). In conclusion, females with migraine with aura have a thicker cortex corresponding to visual areas and our...

  13. Migraine with visual aura associated with thicker visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaist, David; Hougaard, Anders; Garde, Ellen; Reislev, Nina Linde; Wiwie, Rikke; Iversen, Pernille; Madsen, Camilla Gøbel; Blaabjerg, Morten; Nielsen, Helle Hvilsted; Krøigård, Thomas; Østergaard, Kamilla; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Hjelmborg, Jacob; Madsen, Kristoffer; Siebner, Hartwig Roman; Ashina, Messoud

    2018-01-18

    Until recent years it was believed that migraine with aura was a disorder causing intermittent neurological symptoms, with no impact on brain structure. However, recent MRI studies have reported increased cortical thickness of visual and somatosensory areas in patients with migraine with aura, suggesting that such structural alterations were either due to increased neuronal density in the areas involved, or a result of multiple episodes of cortical spreading depression as part of aura attacks. Subsequent studies have yielded conflicting results, possibly due to methodological reasons, e.g. small number of subjects. In this cross-sectional study, we recruited females aged 30-60 years from the nationwide Danish Twin Registry. Brain MRI of females with migraine with aura (patients), their co-twins, and unrelated migraine-free twins (controls) were performed at a single centre and assessed for cortical thickness in predefined cortical areas (V1, V2, V3A, MT, somatosensory cortex), blinded to headache diagnoses. The difference in cortical thickness between patients and controls adjusted for age, and other potential confounders was assessed. Comparisons of twin pairs discordant for migraine with aura were also performed. Comparisons were based on 166 patients, 30 co-twins, and 137 controls. Compared with controls, patients had a thicker cortex in areas V2 [adjusted mean difference 0.032 mm (95% confidence interval 0.003 to 0.061), V3A [adjusted mean difference 0.037 mm (95% confidence interval 0.008 to 0.067)], while differences in the remaining areas examined were not statistically significant [adjusted mean difference (95% confidence interval): V1 0.022 (-0.007 to 0.052); MT: 0.018 (-0.011 to 0.047); somatosensory cortex: 0.020 (-0.009 to 0.049)]. We found no association between the regions of interest and active migraine, or number of lifetime aura attacks. Migraine with aura discordant twin pairs (n = 30) only differed in mean thickness of V2 (0.039 mm, 95% CI 0

  14. Dopamine Modulates the Functional Organization of the Orbitofrontal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahnt, Thorsten; Tobler, Philippe N

    2017-02-08

    Neuromodulators such as dopamine can alter the intrinsic firing properties of neurons and may thereby change the configuration of larger functional circuits. The primate orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) receives dopaminergic input from midbrain nuclei, but the role of dopamine in the OFC is still unclear. Here we tested the idea that dopaminergic activity changes the pattern of connectivity between the OFC and the rest of the brain and thereby reconfigures functional networks in the OFC. To this end, we combined double-blind, placebo-controlled pharmacology [D2 receptor (D2R) antagonist amisulpride] in humans with resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and clustering methods. In the placebo group, we replicated previously observed parcellations of the OFC into two and six subregions based on connectivity patterns with the rest of the brain. Most importantly, while the twofold clustering did not differ significantly between groups, blocking D2Rs significantly changed the composition of the sixfold parcellation, suggesting a dopamine-dependent reconfiguration of functional OFC subregions. Moreover, multivariate decoding analyses revealed that amisulpride changed the whole-brain connectivity patterns of individual OFC subregions. In particular, D2R blockade shifted the balance of OFC connectivity from associative areas in the temporal and parietal lobe toward functional connectivity with the frontal cortex. In summary, our results suggest that dopamine alters the composition of functional OFC circuits, possibly indicating a broader role for neuromodulators in the dynamic reconfiguration of functional brain networks.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT A key role of any neuromodulator may be the reconfiguration of functional brain circuits. Here we test this idea with regard to dopamine and the organization of functional networks in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). We show that blockade of dopamine D2 receptors has profound effects on the functional connectivity patterns of

  15. Modeling and Simulation. II. Specificity Models for Visual Cortex Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-12-12

    interactions contributing to the (ci’lar d(,nwin:33(’e of i4)noctil:rly dominated (-ells in the normal cat striate cortex, Brain ’es. 41, 1-10; 1980. 82. Sjllii...responses. The dashed line shows the response to the left eye stimulus alone, which was fixed for this curve. The right eye stimulus was advanced or delayed...A more complex diagram from Silito (1985) which uses the scheme in A (upper left ). In the upper right , three of these channels interact to produce a

  16. Is one motor cortex enough for two hands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiori, Simona; Staudt, Martin; Pannek, Kerstin; Borghetti, Davide; Biagi, Laura; Scelfo, Danilo; Rose, Stephen E; Tosetti, Michela; Cioni, Giovanni; Guzzetta, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    We report on a patient with mirror movements sustained by a mono-hemispheric fast control of bilateral hand muscles and normal hand function. Transcranial magnetic stimulation of the right motor cortex evoked contractions of muscles in both hands while no responses were observed from the left hemisphere. Somatosensory-evoked potentials, functional magnetic resonance, and diffusion tractography showed evidence of sensorimotor dissociation and asymmetry of corticospinal projections, suggestive of reorganization after early unilateral left brain lesion. This is the first evidence that, in certain rare conditions, good hand function is possible with ipsilateral corticospinal reorganization, supporting the role of unexplored mechanisms of motor recovery. © 2015 Mac Keith Press.

  17. The dorsal anterior cingulate cortex modulates dialectical self-thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Fei eWang; Kaiping ePeng; Yang eBai; Rui eLi; Ying eZhu; Pei eSun; Hua eGuo; Chun eYuan; Pia eRotshtein; Jie eSui

    2016-01-01

    Dialectical self-thinking involves holding the view that one can possess contradictory traits such as extraverted and introverted. Prior work has demonstrated that the dorsal part of anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) plays a crucial role in conflict monitoring as well as self-related processing. Here, we tested the function of dACC in dialectical self-thinking using a modified classical self-referential paradigm (self- vs. other-referential thinking), in which participants had to make a judgme...

  18. Switch-Independent Task Representations in Frontal and Parietal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loose, Lasse S; Wisniewski, David; Rusconi, Marco; Goschke, Thomas; Haynes, John-Dylan

    2017-08-16

    Alternating between two tasks is effortful and impairs performance. Previous fMRI studies have found increased activity in frontoparietal cortex when task switching is required. One possibility is that the additional control demands for switch trials are met by strengthening task representations in the human brain. Alternatively, on switch trials, the residual representation of the previous task might impede the buildup of a neural task representation. This would predict weaker task representations on switch trials, thus also explaining the performance costs. To test this, male and female participants were cued to perform one of two similar tasks, with the task being repeated or switched between successive trials. Multivoxel pattern analysis was used to test which regions encode the tasks and whether this encoding differs between switch and repeat trials. As expected, we found information about task representations in frontal and parietal cortex, but there was no difference in the decoding accuracy of task-related information between switch and repeat trials. Using cross-classification, we found that the frontoparietal cortex encodes tasks using a generalizable spatial pattern in switch and repeat trials. Therefore, task representations in frontal and parietal cortex are largely switch independent. We found no evidence that neural information about task representations in these regions can explain behavioral costs usually associated with task switching.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Alternating between two tasks is effortful and slows down performance. One possible explanation is that the representations in the human brain need time to build up and are thus weaker on switch trials, explaining performance costs. Alternatively, task representations might even be enhanced to overcome the previous task. Here, we used a combination of fMRI and a brain classifier to test whether the additional control demands under switching conditions lead to an increased or decreased strength

  19. Tangential migration of neurons in the developing cerebral cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, N A; Sullivan, D P; Kaznowski, C E; Jacobs, A A; McConnell, S K

    1995-07-01

    The mammalian cerebral cortex is divided into functionally distinct areas. Although radial patterns of neuronal migration have been thought to be essential for patterning these areas, direct observation of migrating cells in cortical brain slices has revealed that cells follow both radial and nonradial pathways as they travel from their sites of origin in the ventricular zone out to their destinations in the cortical plate (O'Rourke, N.A., Dailey, M.E., Smith, S.J. and McConnell, S.K. (1992) Science 258, 299-302). These findings suggested that neurons may not be confined to radial migratory pathways in vivo. Here, we have examined the patterns of neuronal migration in the intact cortex. Analysis of the orientations of [3H]thymidine-labeled migrating cells suggests that nonradial migration is equally common in brain slices and the intact cortex and that it increases during neurogenesis. Additionally, cells appear to follow nonradial trajectories at all levels of the developing cerebral wall, suggesting that tangential migration may be more prevalent than previously suspected from the imaging studies. Immunostaining with neuron-specific antibodies revealed that many tangentially migrating cells are young neurons. These results suggest that tangential migration in the intact cortex plays a pivotal role in the tangential dispersion of clonally related cells revealed by retroviral lineage studies (Walsh, C. and Cepko, C. L. (1992) Science 255, 434-440). Finally, we examined possible substrata for nonradial migration in dorsal cortical regions where the majority of glia extend radially. Using confocal and electron microscopy, we found that nonradially oriented cells run perpendicular to glial processes and make glancing contacts with them along their leading processes. Thus, if nonradial cells utilize glia as a migratory substratum they must glide across one glial fiber to another. Examination of the relationships between migratory cells and axons revealed axonal

  20. Maturation of inhibitory and excitatory motor cortex pathways in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Michael; Berweck, Steffen; Schessl, Joachim; Linder-Lucht, Michaela; Fietzek, Urban M; Glocker, Franz X; Heinen, Florian; Mall, Volker

    2009-08-01

    To study intracortical inhibition and facilitation with paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation in children, adolescents and adults. Paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (interstimulus intervals (ISI): 1, 3, 5, 10 and 20 ms) was applied over the primary motor cortex (M1) in 30 healthy subjects (range 6-30 years, median age 15 years and 8 months, SD 7,9) divided in three groups: adults (>or=18 years), adolescents (> 10 and childhood and adulthood. Reduced GABAergic inhibition may facilitate neuronal plasticity and motor learning in children.

  1. Behavioral effects of chronically elevated corticosterone in subregions of the medial prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croteau, Joshua D; Schulkin, Jay; Shepard, Jack D

    2017-01-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex is a key mediator of behavioral aspects of the defense response. Since chronic exposure to elevated glucocorticoids alters the dendritic structure of neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex, such exposure may alter behavioral responses to danger as well. We examined the effects of chronically elevated corticosterone in discrete regions of the medial prefrontal cortex on exploration of the elevated plus-maze. Chronically elevated corticosterone in the prelimbic or infralimbic cortices reduced open arm exploration. This effect was specific to the ventral regions of the medial prefrontal cortex as corticosterone had no effect on plus-maze exploration when administered into the anterior cingulate cortex. Taken together, these findings demonstrate clear regional differences for the effects of corticosterone in the medial prefrontal cortex. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. TMS of the occipital cortex induces tactile sensations in the fingers of blind Braille readers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ptito, M; Fumal, A; de Noordhout, A Martens

    2008-01-01

    Various non-visual inputs produce cross-modal responses in the visual cortex of early blind subjects. In order to determine the qualitative experience associated with these occipital activations, we systematically stimulated the entire occipital cortex using single pulse transcranial magnetic...... stimulation (TMS) in early blind subjects and in blindfolded seeing controls. Whereas blindfolded seeing controls reported only phosphenes following occipital cortex stimulation, some of the blind subjects reported tactile sensations in the fingers that were somatotopically organized onto the visual cortex...... cortical pathway between the somatosensory cortex and the visual cortex in early blind subjects. These results also add new evidence that the activity of the occipital lobe in the blind takes its qualitative expression from the character of its new input source, therefore supporting the cortical deference...

  3. Intraoperative Mapping of Expressive Language Cortex Using Passive Real-Time Electrocorticography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-26

    listen to a narrative, 6) gener- ate verbs, and 7) imagine generating verbs. This ECoG paradigm identified electrode contacts 11 and 12 (Fig. 3) as...cortex and prefrontal cortex. ECS (white circles ) caused speech arrest in B electrode contacts of the standard extraoperative subdural grid. Results...from extraoperative Broca’s area, precentral gyrus, supplementary motor/premotor cortex and postcentral gyr diameter of each circle is proportional to

  4. Comparison of auditory deficits associated with neglect and auditory cortex lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutschalk, Alexander; Brandt, Tobias; Bartsch, Andreas; Jansen, Claudia

    2012-04-01

    In contrast to lesions of the visual and somatosensory cortex, lesions of the auditory cortex are not associated with self-evident contralesional deficits. Only when two or more stimuli are presented simultaneously to the left and right, contralesional extinction has been observed after unilateral lesions of the auditory cortex. Because auditory extinction is also considered a sign of neglect, clinical separation of auditory neglect from deficits caused by lesions of the auditory cortex is challenging. Here, we directly compared a number of tests previously used for either auditory-cortex lesions or neglect in 29 controls and 27 patients suffering from unilateral auditory-cortex lesions, neglect, or both. The results showed that a dichotic-speech test revealed similar amounts of extinction for both auditory cortex lesions and neglect. Similar results were obtained for words lateralized by inter-aural time differences. Consistent extinction after auditory cortex lesions was also observed in a dichotic detection task. Neglect patients showed more general problems with target detection but no consistent extinction in the dichotic detection task. In contrast, auditory lateralization perception was biased toward the right in neglect but showed considerably less disruption by auditory cortex lesions. Lateralization of auditory-evoked magnetic fields in auditory cortex was highly correlated with extinction in the dichotic target-detection task. Moreover, activity in the right primary auditory cortex was somewhat reduced in neglect patients. The results confirm that auditory extinction is observed with lesions of the auditory cortex and auditory neglect. A distinction can nevertheless be made with dichotic target-detection tasks, auditory-lateralization perception, and magnetoencephalography. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Direct tactile stimulation of dorsal occipito-temporal cortex in a visual agnosic

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Harriet A.; Humphreys, Glyn W.

    2009-01-01

    The human occipito-temporal cortex is preferentially activated by images of objects as opposed to scrambled images [1]. Touching objects (versus textures) also activates this region [2–10]. We used neuropsychological fMRI to probe whether dorsal regions of the lateral occipital cortex (LO) are activated in tactile recognition without mediation through visual recognition. We tested a patient (HJA) with visual agnosia due to bilateral lesions of the ventral occipito-temporal cortex but spared d...

  6. Visual cortex is rescued from the effects of dark rearing by overexpression of BDNF

    OpenAIRE

    Gianfranceschi, Laura; Siciliano, Rosita; Walls, Jennifer; Morales, Bernardo; Kirkwood, Alfredo; Huang, Z. Josh; Tonegawa, Susumu; Maffei, Lamberto

    2003-01-01

    Visual deprivation such as dark rearing (DR) prolongs the critical period for ocular dominance plasticity and retards the maturation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic inhibition in visual cortex. The molecular signals that mediate the effects of DR on the development of visual cortex are not well defined. To test the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), we examined the effects of DR in transgenic mice in which BDNF expression in visual cortex was uncoupled from visual experience...

  7. Fumigant Antifungal Activity of Myrtaceae Essential Oils and Constituents from <em>Leptospermum petersoniiem> against Three <em>Aspergillus> Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Il-Kwon Park

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Commercial plant essential oils obtained from 11 Myrtaceae plant species were tested for their fumigant antifungal activity against <em>Aspergillus ochraceusem>, <em>A. flavusem>, and <em>A. nigerem>. Essential oils extracted from<em> em>Leptospermum> <em>petersonii> at air concentrations of 56 × 10−3 mg/mL and 28 × 10−3 mg/mL completely inhibited the growth of the three <em>Aspergillus> species. However, at an air concentration of 14 × 10−3 mg/mL, inhibition rates of <em>L. petersoniiem> essential oils were reduced to 20.2% and 18.8% in the case of <em>A. flavusem> and <em>A. nigerem>, respectively. The other Myrtaceae essential oils (56 × 10−3 mg/mL only weakly inhibited the fungi or had no detectable affect. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis identified 16 compounds in <em>L. petersoniiem>> em>essential> em>oil.> em>The antifungal activity of the identified compounds was tested individually by using standard or synthesized compounds. Of these, neral and geranial inhibited growth by 100%, at an air concentration of 56 × 10−3 mg/mL, whereas the activity of citronellol was somewhat lover (80%. The other compounds exhibited only moderate or weak antifungal activity. The antifungal activities of blends of constituents identified in <em>L. petersoniiem> oil indicated that neral and geranial were the major contributors to the fumigant and antifungal activities.

  8. Cerebellum to motor cortex paired associative stimulation induces bidirectional STDP-like plasticity in human motor cortex

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    Ming-Kuei eLu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The cerebellum is crucially important for motor control and motor adaptation. Recent non-invasive brain stimulation studies have indicated the possibility to alter the excitability of the cerebellum and its projections to the contralateral motor cortex, with behavioral consequences on motor control and motor adaptation. Here we sought to induce bidirectional spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP-like modifications of motor cortex (M1 excitability by application of paired associative stimulation (PAS in healthy subjects. Conditioning stimulation over the right lateral cerebellum (CB preceded focal TMS of the left M1 hand area at an interstimulus interval of 2 ms (CB→M1 PAS2ms, 6 ms (CB→M1 PAS6ms or 10 ms (CB→M1 PAS10ms or randomly alternating intervals of 2 and 10 ms (CB→M1 PASControl. Effects of PAS on M1 excitability were assessed by the motor evoked potential (MEP amplitude, short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI, intracortical facilitation (ICF and cerebellar-motor cortex inhibition (CBI in the first dorsal interosseous muscle of the right hand. CB→M1 PAS2ms resulted in MEP potentiation, CB→M1 PAS6ms and CB→M1 PAS10ms in MEP depression, and CB→M1 PASControl in no change. The MEP changes lasted for 30-60 min after PAS. SICI and CBI decreased non-specifically after all PAS protocols, while ICF remained unaltered. The physiological mechanisms underlying these MEP changes are carefully discussed. Findings support the notion of bidirectional STDP-like plasticity in M1 mediated by associative stimulation of the cerebello-dentato-thalamo-cortical pathway and M1. Future studies may investigate the behavioral significance of this plasticity.

  9. Espondiloptose em atleta

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    Ana Paula Luppino Assad

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Os atletas adolescentes estão sob maior risco de lombalgia e lesões estruturais da coluna. A espondilólise é responsável pela maioria das lombalgias em jovens esportistas e raramente ocorre em adultos. Relatamos o caso de uma paciente de 13 anos, atleta de judô, que chegou a nosso serviço com quadro de cinco meses de lombalgia progressiva durante os treinos, sendo inicialmente atribuída a causas mecânicas, sem que houvesse uma investigação mais detalhada por métodos de imagem. Na admissão já apresentava deformidade lombar, postura antálgica e manobra de hiperextensão lombar em unipodálico positiva bilateralmente. Realizou-se investigação, que evidenciou espondiloptose, sendo, então, submetida a tratamento cirúrgico. Com base neste relato de caso, discutimos a abordagem diagnóstica de lombalgia em atletas jovens, uma vez que a queixa de lombalgia crônica pode ser marcador de uma lesão estrutural, a qual pode ser definitiva e trazer perda funcional irreversível.

  10. Spatial diversity of spontaneous activity in the cortex

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    Andrew Yong-Yi Tan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The neocortex is a layered sheet across which a basic organization is thought to widely apply. The variety of spontaneous activity patterns is similar throughout the cortex, consistent with the notion of a basic cortical organization. However, the basic organization is only an outline which needs adjustments and additions to account for the structural and functional diversity across cortical layers and areas. Such diversity suggests that spontaneous activity is spatially diverse in any particular behavioral state. Accordingly, this review summarizes the laminar and areal diversity in cortical activity during fixation and slow oscillations, and the effects of attention, anesthesia and plasticity on the cortical distribution of spontaneous activity. Among questions that remain open, characterizing the spatial diversity in spontaneous membrane potential may help elucidate how differences in circuitry among cortical regions supports their varied functions. More work is also needed to understand whether cortical spontaneous activity not only reflects cortical circuitry, but also contributes to determining the outcome of plasticity, so that it is itself a factor shaping the functional diversity of the cortex.

  11. Walking the talk--speech activates the leg motor cortex.

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    Liuzzi, Gianpiero; Ellger, Tanja; Flöel, Agnes; Breitenstein, Caterina; Jansen, Andreas; Knecht, Stefan

    2008-09-01

    Speech may have evolved from earlier modes of communication based on gestures. Consistent with such a motor theory of speech, cortical orofacial and hand motor areas are activated by both speech production and speech perception. However, the extent of speech-related activation of the motor cortex remains unclear. Therefore, we examined if reading and listening to continuous prose also activates non-brachiofacial motor representations like the leg motor cortex. We found corticospinal excitability of bilateral leg muscle representations to be enhanced by speech production and silent reading. Control experiments showed that speech production yielded stronger facilitation of the leg motor system than non-verbal tongue-mouth mobilization and silent reading more than a visuo-attentional task thus indicating speech-specificity of the effect. In the frame of the motor theory of speech this finding suggests that the system of gestural communication, from which speech may have evolved, is not confined to the hand but includes gestural movements of other body parts as well.

  12. Modulatory compartments in cortex and local regulation of cholinergic tone.

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    Coppola, Jennifer J; Ward, Nicholas J; Jadi, Monika P; Disney, Anita A

    2016-09-01

    Neuromodulatory signaling is generally considered broad in its impact across cortex. However, variations in the characteristics of cortical circuits may introduce regionally-specific responses to diffuse modulatory signals. Features such as patterns of axonal innervation, tissue tortuosity and molecular diffusion, effectiveness of degradation pathways, subcellular receptor localization, and patterns of receptor expression can lead to local modification of modulatory inputs. We propose that modulatory compartments exist in cortex and can be defined by variation in structural features of local circuits. Further, we argue that these compartments are responsible for local regulation of neuromodulatory tone. For the cholinergic system, these modulatory compartments are regions of cortical tissue within which signaling conditions for acetylcholine are relatively uniform, but between which signaling can vary profoundly. In the visual system, evidence for the existence of compartments indicates that cholinergic modulation likely differs across the visual pathway. We argue that the existence of these compartments calls for thinking about cholinergic modulation in terms of finer-grained control of local cortical circuits than is implied by the traditional view of this system as a diffuse modulator. Further, an understanding of modulatory compartments provides an opportunity to better understand and perhaps correct signal modifications that lead to pathological states. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Modulation of the motor cortex during singing-voice perception.

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    Lévêque, Yohana; Schön, Daniele

    2015-04-01

    Several studies on action observation have shown that the biological dimension of movement modulates sensorimotor interactions in perception. In the present fMRI study, we tested the hypothesis that the biological dimension of sound modulates the involvement of the motor system in human auditory perception, using musical tasks. We first localized the vocal motor cortex in each participant. Then we compared the BOLD response to vocal, semi-vocal and non-vocal melody perception, and found greater activity for voice perception in the right sensorimotor cortex. We additionally ran a psychophysiological interaction analysis with the right sensorimotor as a seed, showing that the vocal dimension of the stimuli enhanced the connectivity between the seed region and other important nodes of the auditory dorsal stream. Finally, the participants' vocal ability was negatively correlated to the voice effect in the Inferior Parietal Lobule. These results suggest that the biological dimension of singing-voice impacts the activity within the auditory dorsal stream, probably via a facilitated matching between the perceived sound and the participant motor representations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cochlear injury and adaptive plasticity of the auditory cortex

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    ANNA R. eFETONI

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Growing evidence suggests that cochlear stressors as noise exposure and aging can induce homeostatic/maladaptive changes in the central auditory system from the brainstem to the cortex. Studies centered on such changes have revealed several mechanisms that operate in the context of sensory disruption after insult (noise trauma, drug- or age-related injury. The oxidative stress is central to current theories of induced sensory neural hearing loss and aging, and interventions to attenuate the hearing loss are based on antioxidant agent. The present review addresses the recent literature on the alterations in hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons due to noise-induced oxidative stress in the cochlea, as well on the impact of cochlear damage on the auditory cortex neurons. The emerging image emphasizes that noise-induced deafferentation and upward spread of cochlear damage is associated with the altered dendritic architecture of auditory pyramidal neurons. The cortical modifications may be reversed by treatment with antioxidants counteracting the cochlear redox imbalance. These findings open new therapeutic approaches to treat the functional consequences of the cortical reorganization following cochlear damage.

  15. Medial prefrontal cortex role in recognition memory in rodents.

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    Morici, Juan Facundo; Bekinschtein, Pedro; Weisstaub, Noelia V

    2015-10-01

    The study of the neurobiology of recognition memory, defined by the integration of the different components of experiences that support recollection of past experiences have been a challenge for memory researches for many years. In the last twenty years, with the development of the spontaneous novel object recognition task and all its variants this has started to change. The features of recognition memory include a particular object or person ("what"), the context in which the experience took place, which can be the arena itself or the location within a particular arena ("where") and the particular time at which the event occurred ("when"). This definition instead of the historical anthropocentric one allows the study of this type of episodic memory in animal models. Some forms of recognition memory that require integration of different features recruit the medial prefrontal cortex. Focusing on findings from spontaneous recognition memory tasks performed by rodents, this review concentrates on the description of previous works that have examined the role that the medial prefrontal cortex has on the different steps of recognition memory. We conclude that this structure, independently of the task used, is required at different memory stages when the task cannot be solved by a single item strategy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Feedback that confirms reward expectation triggers auditory cortex activity.

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    Weis, Tina; Brechmann, André; Puschmann, Sebastian; Thiel, Christiane M

    2013-10-01

    Associative learning studies have shown that the anticipation of reward and punishment shapes the representation of sensory stimuli, which is further modulated by dopamine. Less is known about whether and how reward delivery activates sensory cortices and the role of dopamine at that time point of learning. We used an appetitive instrumental learning task in which participants had to learn that a specific class of frequency-modulated tones predicted a monetary reward following fast and correct responses in a succeeding reaction time task. These fMRI data were previously analyzed regarding the effect of reward anticipation, but here we focused on neural activity to the reward outcome relative to the reward expectation and tested whether such activation in the reward reception phase is modulated by L-DOPA. We analyzed neural responses at the time point of reward outcome under three different conditions: 1) when a reward was expected and received, 2) when a reward was expected but not received, and 3) when a reward was not expected and not received. Neural activity in auditory cortex was enhanced during feedback delivery either when an expected reward was received or when the expectation of obtaining no reward was correct. This differential neural activity in auditory cortex was only seen in subjects who learned the reward association and not under dopaminergic modulation. Our data provide evidence that auditory cortices are active at the time point of reward outcome. However, responses are not dependent on the reward itself but on whether the outcome confirmed the subject's expectations.

  17. Pure apraxia of speech due to infarct in premotor cortex.

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    Patira, Riddhi; Ciniglia, Lauren; Calvert, Timothy; Altschuler, Eric L

    Apraxia of speech (AOS) is now recognized as an articulation disorder distinct from dysarthria and aphasia. Various lesions have been associated with AOS in studies that are limited in precise localization due to variability in size and type of pathology. We present a case of pure AOS in setting of an acute stroke to localize more precisely than ever before the brain area responsible for AOS, dorsal premotor cortex (dPMC). The dPMC is in unique position to plan and coordinate speech production by virtue of its connection with nearby motor cortex harboring corticobulbar tract, supplementary motor area, inferior frontal operculum, and temporo-parietal area via the dorsal stream of dual-stream model of speech processing. The role of dPMC is further supported as part of dorsal stream in the dual-stream model of speech processing as well as controller in the hierarchical state feedback control model. Copyright © 2017 Polish Neurological Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  18. Depth-Dependent Temporal Response Properties in Core Auditory Cortex

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    Christianson, G. Björn; Sahani, Maneesh; Linden, Jennifer F.

    2013-01-01

    The computational role of cortical layers within auditory cortex has proven difficult to establish. One hypothesis is that interlaminar cortical processing might be dedicated to analyzing temporal properties of sounds; if so, then there should be systematic depth-dependent changes in cortical sensitivity to the temporal context in which a stimulus occurs. We recorded neural responses simultaneously across cortical depth in primary auditory cortex and anterior auditory field of CBA/Ca mice, and found systematic depth dependencies in responses to second-and-later noise bursts in slow (1–10 bursts/s) trains of noise bursts. At all depths, responses to noise bursts within a train usually decreased with increasing train rate; however, the rolloff with increasing train rate occurred at faster rates in more superficial layers. Moreover, in some recordings from mid-to-superficial layers, responses to noise bursts within a 3–4 bursts/s train were stronger than responses to noise bursts in slower trains. This non-monotonicity with train rate was especially pronounced in more superficial layers of the anterior auditory field, where responses to noise bursts within the context of a slow train were sometimes even stronger than responses to the noise burst at train onset. These findings may reflect depth dependence in suppression and recovery of cortical activity following a stimulus, which we suggest could arise from laminar differences in synaptic depression at feedforward and recurrent synapses. PMID:21900562

  19. Prefrontal Cortex and Social Cognition in Mouse and Man

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    Bicks, Lucy K.; Koike, Hiroyuki; Akbarian, Schahram; Morishita, Hirofumi

    2015-01-01

    Social cognition is a complex process that requires the integration of a wide variety of behaviors, including salience, reward-seeking, motivation, knowledge of self and others, and flexibly adjusting behavior in social groups. Not surprisingly, social cognition represents a sensitive domain commonly disrupted in the pathology of a variety of psychiatric disorders including Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Schizophrenia (SCZ). Here, we discuss convergent research from animal models to human disease that implicates the prefrontal cortex (PFC) as a key regulator in social cognition, suggesting that disruptions in prefrontal microcircuitry play an essential role in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders with shared social deficits. We take a translational perspective of social cognition, and review three key behaviors that are essential to normal social processing in rodents and humans, including social motivation, social recognition, and dominance hierarchy. A shared prefrontal circuitry may underlie these behaviors. Social cognition deficits in animal models of neurodevelopmental disorders like ASD and SCZ have been linked to an altered balance of excitation and inhibition (E/I ratio) within the cortex generally, and PFC specifically. A clear picture of the mechanisms by which altered E/I ratio in the PFC might lead to disruptions of social cognition across a variety of behaviors is not well understood. Future studies should explore how disrupted developmental trajectory of prefrontal microcircuitry could lead to altered E/I balance and subsequent deficits in the social domain. PMID:26635701

  20. Discharges in ventromedial frontal cortex during absence spells.

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    Tucker, Don M; Brown, Micah; Luu, Phan; Holmes, Mark D

    2007-12-01

    Neural mechanisms of conscious attention require thalamic control of widespread cortical networks. Absence spells involve a momentary loss of voluntary control of attention, during which the person is inactive and unresponsive. The spike-wave seizure discharges of these spells rapidly engage both cerebral hemispheres in the classic sign of a "generalized" seizure. Animal evidence suggests that spike-wave seizures are caused by a disruption of thalamic circuitry, with extensive spread to cortex through thalamocortical propagation. We applied advanced methods of electrical source analysis to dense array (256-channel) electroencephalographic recordings of spike-wave discharges of absence spells. Neither the onset nor the spread of these seizures is generalized. Rather, the slow waves of the discharges are restricted to frontotemporal networks, and the spikes represent a highly localized and stereotyped progression of electrophysiological activity in ventromedial frontal networks. Given the current knowledge of the neurophysiology of absence seizures, this specificity of the frontal cortical discharges suggests the hypothesis that absence spells are associated with pathology in a circuit comprising ventromedial frontal cortex, rostral thalamic reticular nucleus, and limbic nuclei of the thalamus. Disrupted in absence, this circuit appears to regulate important aspects of the voluntary control of conscious attention.

  1. The Representation of Prediction Error in Auditory Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Jonathan; Ulanovsky, Nachum; Tishby, Naftali

    2016-01-01

    To survive, organisms must extract information from the past that is relevant for their future. How this process is expressed at the neural level remains unclear. We address this problem by developing a novel approach from first principles. We show here how to generate low-complexity representations of the past that produce optimal predictions of future events. We then illustrate this framework by studying the coding of ‘oddball’ sequences in auditory cortex. We find that for many neurons in primary auditory cortex, trial-by-trial fluctuations of neuronal responses correlate with the theoretical prediction error calculated from the short-term past of the stimulation sequence, under constraints on the complexity of the representation of this past sequence. In some neurons, the effect of prediction error accounted for more than 50% of response variability. Reliable predictions often depended on a representation of the sequence of the last ten or more stimuli, although the representation kept only few details of that sequence. PMID:27490251

  2. Epigenetic dysregulation in the developing Down syndrome cortex.

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    El Hajj, Nady; Dittrich, Marcus; Böck, Julia; Kraus, Theo F J; Nanda, Indrajit; Müller, Tobias; Seidmann, Larissa; Tralau, Tim; Galetzka, Danuta; Schneider, Eberhard; Haaf, Thomas

    2016-08-02

    Using Illumina 450K arrays, 1.85% of all analyzed CpG sites were significantly hypermethylated and 0.31% hypomethylated in fetal Down syndrome (DS) cortex throughout the genome. The methylation changes on chromosome 21 appeared to be balanced between hypo- and hyper-methylation, whereas, consistent with prior reports, all other chromosomes showed 3-11 times more hyper- than hypo-methylated sites. Reduced NRSF/REST expression due to upregulation of DYRK1A (on chromosome 21q22.13) and methylation of REST binding sites during early developmental stages may contribute to this genome-wide excess of hypermethylated sites. Upregulation of DNMT3L (on chromosome 21q22.4) could lead to de novo methylation in neuroprogenitors, which then persists in the fetal DS brain where DNMT3A and DNMT3B become downregulated. The vast majority of differentially methylated promoters and genes was hypermethylated in DS and located outside chromosome 21, including the protocadherin gamma (PCDHG) cluster on chromosome 5q31, which is crucial for neural circuit formation in the developing brain. Bisulfite pyrosequencing and targeted RNA sequencing showed that several genes of PCDHG subfamilies A and B are hypermethylated and transcriptionally downregulated in fetal DS cortex. Decreased PCDHG expression is expected to reduce dendrite arborization and growth in cortical neurons. Since constitutive hypermethylation of PCDHG and other genes affects multiple tissues, including blood, it may provide useful biomarkers for DS brain development and pharmacologic targets for therapeutic interventions.

  3. Classification of somatosensory cortex activities using fNIRS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Keum-Shik; Bhutta, M Raheel; Liu, Xiaolong; Shin, Yong-Il

    2017-08-30

    The ability of the somatosensory cortex in differentiating various tactile sensations is very important for a person to perceive the surrounding environment. In this study, we utilize a lab-made multi-channel functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to discriminate the hemodynamic responses (HRs) of four different tactile stimulations (handshake, ball grasp, poking, and cold temperature) applied to the right hand of eight healthy male subjects. The activated brain areas per stimulation are identified with the t-values between the measured data and the desired hemodynamic response function. Linear discriminant analysis is utilized to classify the acquired data into four classes based on three features (mean, peak value, and skewness) of the associated oxy-hemoglobin (HbO) signals. The HRs evoked by the handshake and poking stimulations showed higher peak values in HbO than the ball grasp and cold temperature stimulations. For comparison purposes, additional two-class classifications of poking vs. temperature and handshake vs. ball grasp were performed. The attained classification accuracies were higher than the corresponding chance levels. Our results indicate that fNIRS can be used as an objective measure discriminating different tactile stimulations from the somatosensory cortex of human brain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Triglycerides in the human kidney cortex: relationship with body size.

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    Ion Alexandru Bobulescu

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with increased risk for kidney disease and uric acid nephrolithiasis, but the pathophysiological mechanisms underpinning these associations are incompletely understood. Animal experiments have suggested that renal lipid accumulation and lipotoxicity may play a role, but whether lipid accumulation occurs in humans with increasing body mass index (BMI is unknown. The association between obesity and abnormal triglyceride accumulation in non-adipose tissues (steatosis has been described in the liver, heart, skeletal muscle and pancreas, but not in the human kidney. We used a quantitative biochemical assay to quantify triglyceride in normal kidney cortex samples from 54 patients undergoing nephrectomy for localized renal cell carcinoma. In subsets of the study population we evaluated the localization of lipid droplets by Oil Red O staining and measured 16 common ceramide species by mass spectrometry. There was a positive correlation between kidney cortex trigyceride content and BMI (Spearman R = 0.27, P = 0.04. Lipid droplets detectable by optical microscopy had a sporadic distribution but were generally more prevalent in individuals with higher BMI, with predominant localization in proximal tubule cells and to a lesser extent in glomeruli. Total ceramide content was inversely correlated with triglycerides. We postulate that obesity is associated with abnormal triglyceride accumulation (steatosis in the human kidney. In turn, steatosis and lipotoxicity may contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity-associated kidney disease and nephrolithiasis.

  5. New perspectives on the auditory cortex: learning and memory.

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    Weinberger, Norman M

    2015-01-01

    Primary ("early") sensory cortices have been viewed as stimulus analyzers devoid of function in learning, memory, and cognition. However, studies combining sensory neurophysiology and learning protocols have revealed that associative learning systematically modifies the encoding of stimulus dimensions in the primary auditory cortex (A1) to accentuate behaviorally important sounds. This "representational plasticity" (RP) is manifest at different levels. The sensitivity and selectivity of signal tones increase near threshold, tuning above threshold shifts toward the frequency of acoustic signals, and their area of representation can increase within the tonotopic map of A1. The magnitude of area gain encodes the level of behavioral stimulus importance and serves as a substrate of memory strength. RP has the same characteristics as behavioral memory: it is associative, specific, develops rapidly, consolidates, and can last indefinitely. Pairing tone with stimulation of the cholinergic nucleus basalis induces RP and implants specific behavioral memory, while directly increasing the representational area of a tone in A1 produces matching behavioral memory. Thus, RP satisfies key criteria for serving as a substrate of auditory memory. The findings suggest a basis for posttraumatic stress disorder in abnormally augmented cortical representations and emphasize the need for a new model of the cerebral cortex. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Task constraints modulate activation in right ventral lateral prefrontal cortex.

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    Vartanian, Oshin; Goel, Vinod

    2005-10-01

    Lesion data suggest that right prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays a critical role in open-ended problem solving. To test this hypothesis, we scanned fifteen normal subjects with fMRI as they completed three types of anagram problems varying in the level of constraints placed on the search space. On unconstrained trials, they rearranged letters to generate solutions (e.g., Can you make a "Word with ZJAZ?"). On semantically constrained trials, they rearranged letters to generate solutions within particular semantic categories (e.g., Can you make a type of "Music with ZJAZ?"). On baseline trials, they rearranged letters to make specific words (e.g., Can you make the word "JAZZ with ZJAZ?"). As predicted, the critical comparison of unconstrained vs. semantically constrained trials revealed significant activation in right ventral lateral PFC, as well as left superior frontal gyrus, frontopolar cortex, right superior parietal lobe, right post central gyrus, and the occipital-parietal sulcus. Furthermore, activation in right ventral lateral PFC (BA 47) increased as the constraints placed on the anagram search space were reduced. We argue that the activation in right ventral lateral PFC is related to hypothesis generation in unconstrained settings, whereas activation in other structures is related to additional processes linked to anagram problems such as semantic retrieval, semantic categorization, and cognitive monitoring. These results extend the lesion data and imaging studies by demonstrating that a relative absence of constraints on the solution space is sufficient to engage right ventral lateral PFC in hypothesis generation tasks.

  7. Disparity selectivity of neurons in monkey inferior temporal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uka, T; Tanaka, H; Yoshiyama, K; Kato, M; Fujita, I

    2000-07-01

    The inferior temporal cortex (IT) of the monkey, a final stage in the ventral visual pathway, has been known to process information on two-dimensional (2-D) shape, color, and texture. On the other hand, the dorsal visual pathway leading to the posterior parietal cortex has been known to process information on location in space. Likewise, neurons selective for binocular disparity, which convey information on depth, have been found mainly in areas along the dorsal visual pathway. Here, we report that many neurons in the IT are also selective for binocular disparity. We recorded extracellular activity from IT neurons and found that more than half of the neurons changed their response depending on the disparity added. The change was not attributed to monocular responses or eye movements. Most neurons selective for disparity were "near" or "far" cells; they preferred either crossed or uncrossed disparity, and only a small population was tuned to zero disparity. Disparity-selective neurons were also selective for shape. Most preferred the same type of disparity irrespective of the shape presented. Disparity preference was also invariant for the fronto-parallel translation of the stimuli in most of the neurons. Finally, nearby neurons exhibited similar disparity selectivity, suggesting the existence of a functional module for processing of binocular disparity in the IT. From the above and our recent findings, we suggest that the IT integrates shape and binocular disparity information, and plays an important role in the reconstruction of three-dimensional (3-D) surfaces.

  8. Semantics of the Visual Environment Encoded in Parahippocampal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, Michael F; Price, Amy Rose; Peelle, Jonathan E; Grossman, Murray

    2016-03-01

    Semantic representations capture the statistics of experience and store this information in memory. A fundamental component of this memory system is knowledge of the visual environment, including knowledge of objects and their associations. Visual semantic information underlies a range of behaviors, from perceptual categorization to cognitive processes such as language and reasoning. Here we examine the neuroanatomic system that encodes visual semantics. Across three experiments, we found converging evidence indicating that knowledge of verbally mediated visual concepts relies on information encoded in a region of the ventral-medial temporal lobe centered on parahippocampal cortex. In an fMRI study, this region was strongly engaged by the processing of concepts relying on visual knowledge but not by concepts relying on other sensory modalities. In a study of patients with the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia (semantic dementia), atrophy that encompassed this region was associated with a specific impairment in verbally mediated visual semantic knowledge. Finally, in a structural study of healthy adults from the fMRI experiment, gray matter density in this region related to individual variability in the processing of visual concepts. The anatomic location of these findings aligns with recent work linking the ventral-medial temporal lobe with high-level visual representation, contextual associations, and reasoning through imagination. Together, this work suggests a critical role for parahippocampal cortex in linking the visual environment with knowledge systems in the human brain.

  9. Primary Auditory Cortex is Required for Anticipatory Motor Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingcheng; Liao, Xiang; Zhang, Jianxiong; Wang, Meng; Yang, Nian; Zhang, Jun; Lv, Guanghui; Li, Haohong; Lu, Jian; Ding, Ran; Li, Xingyi; Guang, Yu; Yang, Zhiqi; Qin, Han; Jin, Wenjun; Zhang, Kuan; He, Chao; Jia, Hongbo; Zeng, Shaoqun; Hu, Zhian; Nelken, Israel; Chen, Xiaowei

    2017-06-01

    The ability of the brain to predict future events based on the pattern of recent sensory experience is critical for guiding animal's behavior. Neocortical circuits for ongoing processing of sensory stimuli are extensively studied, but their contributions to the anticipation of upcoming sensory stimuli remain less understood. We, therefore, used in vivo cellular imaging and fiber photometry to record mouse primary auditory cortex to elucidate its role in processing anticipated stimulation. We found neuronal ensembles in layers 2/3, 4, and 5 which were activated in relationship to anticipated sound events following rhythmic stimulation. These neuronal activities correlated with the occurrence of anticipatory motor responses in an auditory learning task. Optogenetic manipulation experiments revealed an essential role of such neuronal activities in producing the anticipatory behavior. These results strongly suggest that the neural circuits of primary sensory cortex are critical for coding predictive information and transforming it into anticipatory motor behavior. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Retinotopic coding of extraretinal pursuit signals in early visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebranchu, Pierre; Bastin, J; Pelegrini-Issac, M; Lehericy, S; Berthoz, A; Orban, G A

    2010-09-01

    During smooth pursuit, the image of the target is stabilized on the fovea, implying that speed judgments made during pursuit must rely on an extraretinal signal providing precise eye speed information. To characterize the introduction of such extraretinal signal into the human visual system, we performed a factorial, functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment, in which we manipulated the factor eye movement, with "fixation" and "pursuit" as levels, and the factor task, with "speed" and "form" judgments as levels. We hypothesized that the extraretinal speed signal is reflected as an interaction between speed judgments and pursuit. Random effects analysis yielded an interaction only in dorsal early visual cortex. Retinotopic mapping localized this interaction on the horizontal meridian (HM) between dorsal areas visual 2 and 3 (V2/V3) at 1-2 degrees azimuth. This corresponded to the position the pursuit target would have reached, if moving retinotopically, at the time of the subject's speed judgment. Because the 2 V2/V3 HMs are redundant, both may be involved in speed judgments, the ventral one involving judgments based on retinal motion and the dorsal one judgments requiring an internal signal. These results indicate that an extraretinal speed signal is injected into early visual cortex during pursuit.

  11. Diverse coupling of neurons to populations in sensory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okun, Michael; Steinmetz, Nicholas; Cossell, Lee; Iacaruso, M Florencia; Ko, Ho; Barthó, Péter; Moore, Tirin; Hofer, Sonja B; Mrsic-Flogel, Thomas D; Carandini, Matteo; Harris, Kenneth D

    2015-05-28

    A large population of neurons can, in principle, produce an astronomical number of distinct firing patterns. In cortex, however, these patterns lie in a space of lower dimension, as if individual neurons were "obedient members of a huge orchestra". Here we use recordings from the visual cortex of mouse (Mus musculus) and monkey (Macaca mulatta) to investigate the relationship between individual neurons and the population, and to establish the underlying circuit mechanisms. We show that neighbouring neurons can differ in their coupling to the overall firing of the population, ranging from strongly coupled 'choristers' to weakly coupled 'soloists'. Population coupling is largely independent of sensory preferences, and it is a fixed cellular attribute, invariant to stimulus conditions. Neurons with high population coupling are more strongly affected by non-sensory behavioural variables such as motor intention. Population coupling reflects a causal relationship, predicting the response of a neuron to optogenetically driven increases in local activity. Moreover, population coupling indicates synaptic connectivity; the population coupling of a neuron, measured in vivo, predicted subsequent in vitro estimates of the number of synapses received from its neighbours. Finally, population coupling provides a compact summary of population activity; knowledge of the population couplings of n neurons predicts a substantial portion of their n(2) pairwise correlations. Population coupling therefore represents a novel, simple measure that characterizes the relationship of each neuron to a larger population, explaining seemingly complex network firing patterns in terms of basic circuit variables.

  12. Reality monitoring impairment in schizophrenia reflects specific prefrontal cortex dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Jane R; Fernandez-Egea, Emilio; Zaman, Rashid; Agius, Mark; Simons, Jon S

    2017-01-01

    Reality monitoring impairment is often reported in schizophrenia but the neural basis of this deficit is poorly understood. Difficulties with reality monitoring could be attributable to the same pattern of neural dysfunction as other cognitive deficits that characterize schizophrenia, or might instead represent a separable and dissociable impairment. This question was addressed through direct comparison of behavioral performance and neural activity associated with reality monitoring and working memory in patients with schizophrenia and matched healthy controls. Participants performed a word-pair reality monitoring task and a Sternberg working memory task while undergoing fMRI scanning. Distinct behavioral deficits were observed in the patients during performance of each task, which were associated with separable task- and region-specific dysfunction in the medial anterior prefrontal cortex for reality monitoring and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex for working memory. The results suggest that reality monitoring impairment is a distinct neurocognitive deficit in schizophrenia. The findings are consistent with the presence of a range of dissociable cognitive deficits in schizophrenia which may be associated with variable functional and structural dysconnectivity in underlying processing networks.

  13. Visual predictions in the orbitofrontal cortex rely on associative content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaumon, Maximilien; Kveraga, Kestutis; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Bar, Moshe

    2014-11-01

    Predicting upcoming events from incomplete information is an essential brain function. The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) plays a critical role in this process by facilitating recognition of sensory inputs via predictive feedback to sensory cortices. In the visual domain, the OFC is engaged by low spatial frequency (LSF) and magnocellular-biased inputs, but beyond this, we know little about the information content required to activate it. Is the OFC automatically engaged to analyze any LSF information for meaning? Or is it engaged only when LSF information matches preexisting memory associations? We tested these hypotheses and show that only LSF information that could be linked to memory associations engages the OFC. Specifically, LSF stimuli activated the OFC in 2 distinct medial and lateral regions only if they resembled known visual objects. More identifiable objects increased activity in the medial OFC, known for its function in affective responses. Furthermore, these objects also increased the connectivity of the lateral OFC with the ventral visual cortex, a crucial region for object identification. At the interface between sensory, memory, and affective processing, the OFC thus appears to be attuned to the associative content of visual information and to play a central role in visuo-affective prediction. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. An effect of bilingualism on the auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ressel, Volker; Pallier, Christophe; Ventura-Campos, Noelia; Díaz, Begoña; Roessler, Abeba; Ávila, César; Sebastián-Gallés, Núria

    2012-11-21

    Two studies (Golestani et al., 2007; Wong et al., 2008) have reported a positive correlation between the ability to perceive foreign speech sounds and the volume of Heschl's gyrus (HG), the structure that houses the auditory cortex. More precisely, participants with larger left Heschl's gyri learned consonantal or tonal contrasts faster than those with smaller HG. These studies leave open the question of the impact of experience on HG volumes. In the current research, we investigated the effect of early language exposure on Heschl's gyrus by comparing Spanish-Catalan bilinguals who have been exposed to two languages since childhood, to a group of Spanish monolinguals matched in education, socio-economic status, and musical experience. Manual volumetric measurements of HG revealed that bilinguals have, on average, larger Heschl's gyri than monolinguals. This was corroborated, for the left Heschl's gyrus, by a voxel-based morphometry analysis showing larger gray matter volumes in bilinguals than in monolinguals. Since the bilinguals in this study were not a self-selected group, this observation provides a clear demonstration that learning a second language is a causal factor in the increased size of the auditory cortex.

  15. Neural Anatomy of Primary Visual Cortex Limits Visual Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Johanna; Genç, Erhan; Kohler, Axel; Singer, Wolf; Pearson, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Despite the immense processing power of the human brain, working memory storage is severely limited, and the neuroanatomical basis of these limitations has remained elusive. Here, we show that the stable storage limits of visual working memory for over 9 s are bound by the precise gray matter volume of primary visual cortex (V1), defined by fMRI retinotopic mapping. Individuals with a bigger V1 tended to have greater visual working memory storage. This relationship was present independently for both surface size and thickness of V1 but absent in V2, V3 and for non-visual working memory measures. Additional whole-brain analyses confirmed the specificity of the relationship to V1. Our findings indicate that the size of primary visual cortex plays a critical role in limiting what we can hold in mind, acting like a gatekeeper in constraining the richness of working mental function. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Porcine brain natriuretic peptide receptor in bovine adrenal cortex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuchi, K.; Hashiguchi, T.; Ohashi, M.; Takayanagi, R.; Haji, M.; Matsuo, H.; Nawata, H.

    1989-01-01

    The action of porcine brain natriuretic peptide (pBNP) on the steroidogenesis was investigated in cultured bovine adrenocortical cells. Porcine BNP induced a significant dose-dependent inhibition of both ACTH- and A II-stimulated aldosterone secretion. 10/sup /minus/8/M and 10/sup /minus/7/M pBNP also significantly inhibited ACTH-stimulated cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) secretions. Binding studies of (/sup 125/I)-pBNP to bovine adrenocortical membrane fractions showed that adrenal cortex had high-affinity and low-capacity pBNP binding sites, with a dissociation constant (Kd) of 1.70 x 10/sup /minus/10/M and a maximal binding capacity (Bmax) of 19.9 fmol/mg protein. Finally, the 135 Kd radioactive band was specially visualized in the affinity labeling of bovine adrenal cortex with disuccinimidyl suberate (DSS). These results suggest that pBNP may have receptor-mediated suppressive actions on bovine adrenal steroidogenesis, similar to that in atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP).

  17. Morphological heterogeneity of layer VI neurons in mouse barrel cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chia-Chien; Abrams, Svetlana; Pinhas, Alex; Brumberg, Joshua C

    2009-02-20

    Understanding the basic neuronal building blocks of the neocortex is a necessary first step toward comprehending the composition of cortical circuits. Neocortical layer VI is the most morphologically diverse layer and plays a pivotal role in gating information to the cortex via its feedback connection to the thalamus and other ipsilateral and callosal corticocortical connections. The heterogeneity of function within this layer is presumably linked to its varied morphological composition. However, so far, very few studies have attempted to define cell classes in this layer using unbiased quantitative methodologies. Utilizing the Golgi staining technique along with the Neurolucida software, we recontructed 222 cortical neurons from layer VI of mouse barrel cortex. Morphological analyses were performed by quantifying somatic and dendritic parameters, and, by using principal component and cluster analyses, we quantitatively categorized neurons into six distinct morphological groups. Additional systematic replication on a separate population of neurons yielded similar results, demonstrating the consistency and reliability of our categorization methodology. Subsequent post hoc analyses of dendritic parameters supported our neuronal classification scheme. Characterizing neuronal elements with unbiased quantitative techniques provides a framework for better understanding structure-function relationships within neocortical circuits in general.

  18. Reality monitoring impairment in schizophrenia reflects specific prefrontal cortex dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane R. Garrison

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reality monitoring impairment is often reported in schizophrenia but the neural basis of this deficit is poorly understood. Difficulties with reality monitoring could be attributable to the same pattern of neural dysfunction as other cognitive deficits that characterize schizophrenia, or might instead represent a separable and dissociable impairment. This question was addressed through direct comparison of behavioral performance and neural activity associated with reality monitoring and working memory in patients with schizophrenia and matched healthy controls. Participants performed a word-pair reality monitoring task and a Sternberg working memory task while undergoing fMRI scanning. Distinct behavioral deficits were observed in the patients during performance of each task, which were associated with separable task- and region-specific dysfunction in the medial anterior prefrontal cortex for reality monitoring and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex for working memory. The results suggest that reality monitoring impairment is a distinct neurocognitive deficit in schizophrenia. The findings are consistent with the presence of a range of dissociable cognitive deficits in schizophrenia which may be associated with variable functional and structural dysconnectivity in underlying processing networks.

  19. Prenatal Mercuric Chloride Exposure Causes Developmental Deficits in Rat Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayebeh Rastegar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Environmental pollution with heavy metals such as mercury is a major health problem. Growing studies on the field have shown the deleterious effects of mercury on human and nonhuman nervous system, especially in infants, however the effects of prenatal exposure to mercuricchloride on cortical development are not yet well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of prenatal exposure to mercuric chloride on morphological characteristics of brain cortex. Methods: Mercuric chloride (2 mg/kg or normal saline were injected (I.P. to 36 Sprague – dawley rats in the 8th, 9th or 10th day of gestation. The embryos were surgically removed in the 15th day of gestation, and brain cortices were studied by histological techniques. Results: Histological studies showed that embryos of mercuric chloride treated rats hadcortical neuronal disarrangement withdifferent orientations of nuclei, increased diameter of cortex, increased mitosis of cells, increased cell death, decreased cellular density and increased intracellular space. Conclusion: These findings suggest some micro structural abnormalities in cortical regions after prenatal exposure to mercuric chloride. These structural abnormalities may underliesome neurologic disturbances following mercury intoxication.

  20. Dopaminergic Modulation of Medial Prefrontal Cortex Deactivation in Parkinson Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders H. Andersen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD is associated with emotional abnormalities. Dopaminergic medications ameliorate Parkinsonian motor symptoms, but less is known regarding the impact of dopaminergic agents on affective processing, particularly in depressed PD (dPD patients. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of dopaminergic pharmacotherapy on brain activation to emotional stimuli in depressed versus nondepressed Parkinson disease (ndPD patients. Participants included 18 ndPD patients (11 men, 7 women and 10 dPD patients (7 men, 3 women. Patients viewed photographs of emotional faces during functional MRI. Scans were performed while the patient was taking anti-Parkinson medication and the day after medication had been temporarily discontinued. Results indicate that dopaminergic medications have opposite effects in the prefrontal cortex depending upon depression status. DPD patients show greater deactivation in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC on dopaminergic medications than off, while ndPD patients show greater deactivation in this region off drugs. The VMPFC is in the default-mode network (DMN. DMN activity is negatively correlated with activity in brain systems used for external visual attention. Thus dopaminergic medications may promote increased attention to external visual stimuli among dPD patients but impede normal suppression of DMN activity during external stimulation among ndPD patients.

  1. Medial Orbitofrontal Cortex Is Associated with Fatigue Sensation

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    Seiki Tajima

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue is an indispensable bioalarm to avoid exhaustive state caused by overwork or stresses. It is necessary to elucidate the neural mechanism of fatigue sensation for managing fatigue properly. We performed H2O  15 positron emission tomography scans to indicate neural activations while subjects were performing 35-min fatigue-inducing task trials twice. During the positron emission tomography experiment, subjects performed advanced trail-making tests, touching the target circles in sequence located on the display of a touch-panel screen. In order to identify the brain regions associated with fatigue sensation, correlation analysis was performed using statistical parametric mapping method. The brain region exhibiting a positive correlation in activity with subjective sensation of fatigue, measured immediately after each positron emission tomography scan, was located in medial orbitofrontal cortex (Brodmann's area 10/11. Hence, the medial orbitofrontal cortex is a brain region associated with mental fatigue sensation. Our findings provide a new perspective on the neural basis of fatigue.

  2. The Cortex Transform as an image preprocessor for sparse distributed memory: An initial study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olshausen, Bruno; Watson, Andrew

    1990-01-01

    An experiment is described which was designed to evaluate the use of the Cortex Transform as an image processor for Sparse Distributed Memory (SDM). In the experiment, a set of images were injected with Gaussian noise, preprocessed with the Cortex Transform, and then encoded into bit patterns. The various spatial frequency bands of the Cortex Transform were encoded separately so that they could be evaluated based on their ability to properly cluster patterns belonging to the same class. The results of this study indicate that by simply encoding the low pass band of the Cortex Transform, a very suitable input representation for the SDM can be achieved.

  3. Dissociable contributions of the prefrontal cortex to hippocampus- and caudate nucleus-dependent virtual navigation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahmani, Louisa; Bohbot, Véronique D

    2015-01-01

    The hippocampus and the caudate nucleus are critical to spatial- and stimulus-response-based navigation strategies, respectively. The hippocampus and caudate nucleus are also known to be anatomically connected to various areas of the prefrontal cortex. However, little is known about the involvement of the prefrontal cortex in these processes. In the current study, we sought to identify the prefrontal areas involved in spatial and response learning. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and voxel-based morphometry to compare the neural activity and grey matter density of spatial and response strategy users. Twenty-three healthy young adults were scanned in a 1.5 T MRI scanner while they engaged in the Concurrent Spatial Discrimination Learning Task, a virtual navigation task in which either a spatial or response strategy can be used. In addition to increased BOLD activity in the hippocampus, spatial strategy users showed increased BOLD activity and grey matter density in the ventral area of the medial prefrontal cortex, especially in the orbitofrontal cortex. On the other hand, response strategy users exhibited increased BOLD activity and grey matter density in the dorsal area of the medial prefrontal cortex. Given the prefrontal cortex's role in reward-guided decision-making, we discuss the possibility that the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, including the orbitofrontal cortex, supports spatial learning by encoding stimulus-reward associations, while the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex supports response learning by encoding action-reward associations. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Quantitative Anatomical Evidence for a Dorsoventral and Rostrocaudal Segregation within the Nonhuman Primate Frontal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenfeld, Robert S; Bliss, Daniel P; D'Esposito, Mark

    2017-10-24

    The intrinsic white matter connections of the frontal cortex are highly complex, and the organization of these connections is not fully understood. Quantitative graph-theoretical methods, which are not solely reliant on human observation and interpretation, can be powerful tools for describing the organizing network principles of frontal cortex. Here, we examined the network structure of frontal cortical subregions by applying graph-theoretical community detection analyses to a graph of frontal cortex compiled from over 400+ macaque white-matter tracing studies. We find evidence that the lateral frontal cortex can be partitioned into distinct modules roughly organized along the dorsoventral and rostrocaudal axis.

  5. Spontaneously Fluctuating Motor Cortex Excitability in Alternating Hemiplegia of Childhood: A Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stern, William M; Desikan, Mahalekshmi; Hoad, Damon; Jaffer, Fatima; Strigaro, Gionata; Sander, Josemir W; Rothwell, John C; Sisodiya, Sanjay M

    2016-01-01

    .... Nine people with alternating hemiplegia of childhood were recruited; eight were successfully tested using transcranial magnetic stimulation to study motor cortex excitability, using single and paired pulse paradigms...

  6. Alterations in cortical thickness and neuronal density in the frontal cortex of Albert Einstein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B; Harvey, T

    1996-06-07

    Neuronal density, neuron size, and the number of neurons under 1 mm2 of cerebral cortical surface area were measured in the right pre-frontal cortex of Albert Einstein and five elderly control subjects. Measurement of neuronal density used the optical dissector technique on celloidin-embedded cresyl violet-stained sections. The neurons counted provided a systematic random sample for the measurement of cell body cross-sectional area. Einstein's cortex did not differ from the control subjects in the number of neurons under 1 mm2 of cerebral cortex or in mean neuronal size. Because Einstein's cortex was thinner than the controls he had a greater neuronal density.

  7. Neurochemical changes in the pericalcarine cortex in congenital blindness attributable to bilateral anophthalmia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coullon, Gaelle S L; Emir, Uzay E; Fine, Ione; Watkins, Kate E; Bridge, Holly

    2015-09-01

    Congenital blindness leads to large-scale functional and structural reorganization in the occipital cortex, but relatively little is known about the neurochemical changes underlying this cross-modal plasticity. To investigate the effect of complete and early visual deafferentation on the concentration of metabolites in the pericalcarine cortex, (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy was performed in 14 sighted subjects and 5 subjects with bilateral anophthalmia, a condition in which both eyes fail to develop. In the pericalcarine cortex, where primary visual cortex is normally located, the proportion of gray matter was significantly greater, and levels of choline, glutamate, glutamine, myo-inositol, and total creatine were elevated in anophthalmic relative to sighted subjects. Anophthalmia had no effect on the structure or neurochemistry of a sensorimotor cortex control region. More gray matter, combined with high levels of choline and myo-inositol, resembles the profile of the cortex at birth and suggests that the lack of visual input from the eyes might have delayed or arrested the maturation of this cortical region. High levels of choline and glutamate/glutamine are consistent with enhanced excitatory circuits in the anophthalmic occipital cortex, which could reflect a shift toward enhanced plasticity or sensitivity that could in turn mediate or unmask cross-modal responses. Finally, it is possible that the change in function of the occipital cortex results in biochemical profiles that resemble those of auditory, language, or somatosensory cortex. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Syringin from the Bark of <em>Ilex em>rotunda> Thumb Using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Wang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a rapid extraction method based on ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE of syringin from the bark of <em>Ilex rotunda em>Thumb using response surface methodology (RSM is described. The syringin was analyzed and quantified by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with UV detection (HPLC-UV. The extraction solvent, extraction temperature and extraction time, the three main factors for UAE, were optimized with Box-Behnken design (BBD to obtain the highest extraction efficiency. The optimal conditions were the use of a sonication frequency of 40 kHz, 65% methanol as the solvent, an extraction time of 30 min and an extraction temperature of 40 °C. Using these optimal conditions, the experimental values agreed closely with the predicted values. The analysis of variance (ANOVA indicated a high goodness of model fit and the success of the RSM method for optimizing syringin extraction from the bark of <em>I>. em>rotunda>.

  9. Assessment of Genetic Fidelity in <em>Rauvolfia em>s>erpentina em>Plantlets Grown from Synthetic (Encapsulated Seeds Following <em>in Vitroem> Storage at 4 °C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Anis

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available An efficient method was developed for plant regeneration and establishment from alginate encapsulated synthetic seeds of <em>Rauvolfia serpentinaem>. Synthetic seeds were produced using <em>in vitroem> proliferated microshoots upon complexation of 3% sodium alginate prepared in Llyod and McCown woody plant medium (WPM and 100 mM calcium chloride. Re-growth ability of encapsulated nodal segments was evaluated after storage at 4 °C for 0, 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks and compared with non-encapsulated buds. Effects of different media <em>viz>; Murashige and Skoog medium; Lloyd and McCown woody Plant medium, Gamborg’s B5 medium and Schenk and Hildebrandt medium was also investigated for conversion into plantlets. The maximum frequency of conversion into plantlets from encapsulated nodal segments stored at 4 °C for 4 weeks was achieved on woody plant medium supplement with 5.0 μM BA and 1.0 μM NAA. Rooting in plantlets was achieved in half-strength Murashige and Skoog liquid medium containing 0.5 μM indole-3-acetic acid (IAA on filter paper bridges. Plantlets obtained from stored synseeds were hardened, established successfully <em>ex vitroem> and were morphologically similar to each other as well as their mother plant. The genetic fidelity of <em>Rauvolfia em>clones raised from synthetic seeds following four weeks of storage at 4 °C were assessed by using random amplified polymorphic<em> em>DNA (RAPD and inter-simple sequence repeat<em> em>(ISSR markers. All the RAPD and ISSR profiles from generated plantlets were monomorphic and comparable<em> em>to the mother plant, which confirms the genetic<em> em>stability among the clones. This synseed protocol could be useful for establishing a particular system for conservation, short-term storage and production of genetically identical and stable plants before it is released for commercial purposes.

  10. Efecto de extractos vegetales de <em>Polygonum hydropiperoidesem>, <em>Solanum nigrumem> y <em>Calliandra pittieriem> sobre el gusano cogollero (<em>Spodoptera frugiperdaem>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizarazo H. Karol

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    El gusano cogollero <em>Spodoptera frugiperdaem> es una de las plagas que más afectan los cultivos en la región de Sumapaz (Cundinamarca, Colombia. En la actualidad se controla principalmente aplicando productos de síntesis química, sin embargo la aplicación de extractos vegetales surge como una alternativa de menor impacto sobre el ambiente. Este control se emplea debido a que las plantas contienen metabolitos secundarios que pueden inhibir el desarrollo de los insectos. Por tal motivo, la presente investigación evaluó el efecto insecticida y antialimentario de extractos vegetales de barbasco <em>Polygonum hydropiperoidesem> (Polygonaceae, carbonero <em>Calliandra pittieriem> (Mimosaceae y hierba mora <em>Solanum nigrumem> (Solanaceae sobre larvas de <em>S. frugiperdaem> biotipo maíz. Se estableció una cría masiva del insecto en el laboratorio utilizando una dieta natural con hojas de maíz. Posteriormente se obtuvieron extractos vegetales utilizando solventes de alta polaridad (agua y etanol y media polaridad (diclorometano los cuales se aplicaron sobre las larvas de segundo instar. Los resultados más destacados se presentaron con extractos de <em>P. hydropiperoidesem>, obtenidos con diclorometano en sus diferentes dosis, con los cuales se alcanzó una mortalidad de 100% 12 días después de la aplicación y un efecto antialimentario representado por un consumo de follaje de maíz inferior al 4%, efectos similares a los del testigo comercial (Clorpiriphos.

  11. What might have been? The role of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and lateral orbitofrontal cortex in counterfactual emotions and choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levens, Sara M; Larsen, Jeff T; Bruss, Joel; Tranel, Daniel; Bechara, Antoine; Mellers, Barbara A

    2014-02-01

    Counterfactual feelings of regret occur when people make comparisons between an actual outcome and a better outcome that would have occurred under a different choice. We investigated the choices of individuals with damage to the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) and the lateral orbital frontal cortex (LOFC) to see whether their emotional responses were sensitive to regret. Participants made choices between gambles, each with monetary outcomes. After every choice, subjects learned the consequences of both gambles and rated their emotional response to the outcome. Normal subjects and lesion control subjects tended to make better choices and reported post-decision emotions that were sensitive to regret comparisons. VMPFC patients tended to make worse choices, and, contrary to our predictions, they reported emotions that were sensitive to regret comparisons. In contrast, LOFC patients made better choices, but reported emotional reactions that were insensitive to regret comparisons. We suggest the VMPFC is involved in the association between choices and anticipated emotions that guide future choices, while the LOFC is involved in experienced emotions that follow choices, emotions that may signal the need for behavioral change. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Role of Medial Frontal Cortex in Action Anticipation in Professional Badminton Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huan; Wang, Pin; Ye, Zhuo’er; Di, Xin; Xu, Guiping; Mo, Lei; Lin, Huiyan; Rao, Hengyi; Jin, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Some studies show that the medial frontal cortex is associated with more skilled action anticipation, while similar findings are not observed in some other studies, possibly due to the stimuli employed and the participants used as the control group. In addition, no studies have investigated whether there is any functional connectivity between the medial frontal cortex and other brain regions in more skilled action anticipation. Therefore, the present study aimed to re-investigate how the medial frontal cortex is involved in more skilled action anticipation by circumventing the limitations of previous research and to investigate that the medial frontal cortex functionally connected with other brain regions involved in action processing in more skilled action anticipation. To this end, professional badminton players and novices were asked to anticipate the landing position of the shuttlecock while watching badminton match videos or to judge the gender of the players in the matches. The video clips ended right at the point that the shuttlecock and the racket came into contact to reduce the effect of information about the trajectory of the shuttlecock. Novices who lacked training and watching experience were recruited for the control group to reduce the effect of sport-related experience on the medial frontal cortex. Blood oxygenation level-dependent activation was assessed by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging. Compared to novices, badminton players exhibited stronger activation in the left medial frontal cortex during action anticipation and greater functional connectivity between left medial frontal cortex and some other brain regions (e.g., right posterior cingulate cortex). Therefore, the present study supports the position that the medial frontal cortex plays a role in more skilled action anticipation and that there is a specific brain network for more skilled action anticipation that involves right posterior cingulate cortex, right fusiform gyrus

  13. Engagement of the Rat Hindlimb Motor Cortex across Natural Locomotor Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGiovanna, Jack; Dominici, Nadia; Friedli, Lucia; Rigosa, Jacopo; Duis, Simone; Kreider, Julie; Beauparlant, Janine; van den Brand, Rubia; Schieppati, Marco; Micera, Silvestro; Courtine, Grégoire

    2016-10-05

    Contrary to cats and primates, cortical contribution to hindlimb locomotor movements is not critical in rats. However, the importance of the motor cortex to regain locomotion after neurological disorders in rats suggests that cortical engagement in hindlimb motor control may depend on the behavioral context. To investigate this possibility, we recorded whole-body kinematics, muscle synergies, and hindlimb motor cortex modulation in freely moving rats performing a range of natural locomotor procedures. We found that the activation of hindlimb motor cortex preceded gait initiation. During overground locomotion, the motor cortex exhibited consistent neuronal population responses that were synchronized with the spatiotemporal activation of hindlimb motoneurons. Behaviors requiring enhanced muscle activity or skilled paw placement correlated with substantial adjustment in neuronal population responses. In contrast, all rats exhibited a reduction of cortical activity during more automated behavior, such as stepping on a treadmill. Despite the facultative role of the motor cortex in the production of locomotion in rats, these results show that the encoding of hindlimb features in motor cortex dynamics is comparable in rats and cats. However, the extent of motor cortex modulations appears linked to the degree of volitional engagement and complexity of the task, reemphasizing the importance of goal-directed behaviors for motor control studies, rehabilitation, and neuroprosthetics. We mapped the neuronal population responses in the hindlimb motor cortex to hindlimb kinematics and hindlimb muscle synergies across a spectrum of natural locomotion behaviors. Robust task-specific neuronal population responses revealed that the rat motor cortex displays similar modulation as other mammals during locomotion. However, the reduced motor cortex activity during more automated behaviors suggests a relationship between the degree of engagement and task complexity. This relationship

  14. Effects of Theta Burst Stimulation on Suprahyoid Motor Cortex Excitability in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tuo; Jiang, Lisheng; Dou, Zulin; Wu, Cheng; Liu, Feng; Xu, Guangqing; Lan, Yue

    Continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) and intermittent TBS (iTBS) are powerful patterns of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), with substantial potential for motor function rehabilitation post-stroke. However, TBS of suprahyoid motor cortex excitability has not been investigated. This study investigated TBS effects on suprahyoid motor cortex excitability and its potential mechanisms in healthy subjects. Thirty-five healthy subjects (23 females; mean age = 21.66 ± 1.66 years) completed three TBS protocols on separate days, separated by at least one week. A stereotaxic neuronavigation system facilitated accurate TMS positioning. Left and right suprahyoid motor evoked potentials (SMEP) were recorded using single-pulse TMS from the contralateral suprahyoid motor cortex before stimulation (baseline) and 0, 15, and 30 min after stimulation. The SMEP latency and amplitude were analyzed via repeated measures analysis of variance. cTBS suppressed ipsilateral suprahyoid motor cortex excitability and activated the contralateral suprahyoid motor cortex. iTBS facilitated ipsilateral suprahyoid motor cortex excitability; however, it did not affect the contralateral excitability. iTBS eliminated the inhibitory effect caused by cTBS applied to the contralateral suprahyoid motor cortex. TBS had no significant effect on the latencies of bilateral SMEP. TBS effects on suprahyoid motor cortex excitability lasted a minimum of 30 min. TBS effectively regulates suprahyoid motor cortex excitability. Suppression of excitability in one hemisphere leads to further activation of the corresponding contralateral motor cortex. iTBS reverses the inhibitory effect induced by cTBS of the contralateral suprahyoid motor cortex. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Prima segnalazione di <em>Brachylaima fulvusem> Dujardin, 1843 (Digenea, Brachylaimidae in <em>Sorex> cfr. <em>antinorii> Bonaparte, 1848 (Insectivora, Soricidae in Italia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Casanova

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Un?indagine parassitologica è stata condotta su esemplari di <em>Sorex> cfr. <em>antinorii> Bonaparte, 1840 (Insectivora, Soricidae catturati in Sila Grande (Valle Capra; 16.29.30; 39.21.40. Uno degli esemplari è stato trovato parassitato da Trematodi digenei rinvenuti nell?esofago e nello stomaco. I parassiti isolati sono stati fissati con liquido di Bouin, colorati con carminio acetico di Semichon, fissati in una serie di alcooli, chiarificati in xilolo e montati con Balsamo del Canada. I parassiti sono stati identificati come membri della Famiglia Brachylaimidae Joyeux & Foley (1930 appartenenti al genere <em>Brachylaima> Dujardin (1843. La morfologia generale ed i caratteri metrici hanno permesso di identificarli come <em>B. fulvusem> Dujardin, 1843 (lunghezza corpo: 2.39-2.46; larghezza corpo: 0.72-0.78; diametro trasversale ventosa orale: 212.48- 238.08x240.64-266.24; ventosa ventrale: 250.88-258.56x250.88-266.24; faringe 120.32-168.96; testicoli: 151.04-189.44x168.96-189.44; ovario: 122.88x171.52; uova: 26-30x2-17. Il range dei dati morfometrici coincide con quelli riscontrati da diversi autori negli esemplari di <em>B. fulvusem> in Europa centrale e occidentale (Jourdane, 1971; Lewis, 1969; Zarnowski,1960; Mas-Coma & Gallego, 1975. Dopo la descrizione originale, la sistematica di <em>B. fulvusem> Blanchard, 1847 non è stata mai confutata, sebbene varie specie dei generi <em>Harmostomum> Braun, 1899 e <em>Panopistus Sinitzinem>, 1931 siano state proposte come sinonimi di <em>B. fulvusem> da diversi autori. Zarnowski (1960 considera aperta la questione di identità di <em>H. (H. dujardiniem> Baer, 1928 e propone la sinonimia di <em>B. oesophageiem> Shaldibin, 1953 e <em>B. fulvusem>. Lewis (1969, al contrario, ha riconvalidato <em>B. oesophageiem> come specie, utilizzando criteri che, però, Jourdane (1971 ritiene, non idonei a differenziare le due specie. Mas-Coma & Gallego (1975, considerano <em

  16. Stimulating Multiple-Demand Cortex Enhances Vocabulary Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliwinska, Magdalena W; Violante, Inês R; Wise, Richard J S; Leech, Robert; Devlin, Joseph T; Geranmayeh, Fatemeh; Hampshire, Adam

    2017-08-09

    It is well established that networks within multiple-demand cortex (MDC) become active when diverse skills and behaviors are being learnt. However, their causal role in learning remains to be established. In the present study, we first performed functional magnetic resonance imaging on healthy female and male human participants to confirm that MDC was most active in the initial stages of learning a novel vocabulary, consisting of pronounceable nonwords (pseudowords), each associated with a picture of a real object. We then examined, in healthy female and male human participants, whether repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of a frontal midline node of the cingulo-opercular MDC affected learning rates specifically during the initial stages of learning. We report that stimulation of this node, but not a control brain region, substantially improved both accuracy and response times during the earliest stage of learning pseudoword-object associations. This stimulation had no effect on the processing of established vocabulary, tested by the accuracy and response times when participants decided whether a real word was accurately paired with a picture of an object. These results provide evidence that noninvasive stimulation to MDC nodes can enhance learning rates, thereby demonstrating their causal role in the learning process. We propose that this causal role makes MDC candidate target for experimental therapeutics; for example, in stroke patients with aphasia attempting to reacquire a vocabulary. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Learning a task involves the brain system within which that specific task becomes established. Therefore, successfully learning a new vocabulary establishes the novel words in the language system. However, there is evidence that in the early stages of learning, networks within multiple-demand cortex (MDC), which control higher cognitive functions, such as working memory, attention, and monitoring of performance, become active. This activity

  17. Contextual Learning Induces Dendritic Spine Clustering in Retrosplenial Cortex

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    Adam C Frank

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Molecular and electrophysiological studies find convergent evidence suggesting that plasticity within a dendritic tree is not randomly dispersed, but rather clustered into functional groups. Further, results from in silico neuronal modeling show that clustered plasticity is able to increase storage capacity 45 times compared to dispersed plasticity. Recent in vivo work utilizing chronic 2-photon microscopy tested the clustering hypothesis and showed that repetitive motor learning is able to induce clustered addition of new dendritic spines on apical dendrites of L5 neurons in primary motor cortex; moreover, clustered spines were found to be more stable than non-clustered spines, suggesting a physiological role for spine clustering. To further test this hypothesis we used in vivo 2-photon imaging in Thy1-YFP-H mice to chronically examine dendritic spine dynamics in retrosplenial cortex (RSC during spatial learning. RSC is a key component of an extended spatial learning and memory circuit that includes hippocampus and entorhinal cortex. Importantly, RSC is known from both lesion and immediate early gene studies to be critically involved in spatial learning and more specifically in contextual fear conditioning. We utilized a modified contextual fear conditioning protocol wherein animals received a mild foot shock each day for five days; this protocol induces gradual increases in context freezing over several days before the animals reach a behavioral plateau. We coupled behavioral training with four separate in vivo imaging sessions, two before training begins, one early in training, and a final session after training is complete. This allowed us to image spine dynamics before training as well as early in learning and after animals had reached behavioral asymptote. We find that this contextual learning protocol induces a statistically significant increase in the formation of clusters of new dendritic spines in trained animals when compared to home

  18. The Subgenual Anterior Cingulate Cortex in Mood Disorders

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    Drevets, Wayne C.; Savitz, Jonathan; Trimble, Michael

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION In the latest edition of our series of neuroanatomical areas of importance for neuropsychiatry, Wayne Drevets, MD, and Jonathan Savitz, PhD, have outlined the clinical importance of the ventral anterior cingulate structures for the regulation of mood. This area was an early target for interventional neurosurgery for depression some half a century ago, and today has become one of the key sites of deep brain stimulation for affective disorders. The anterior cingulate cortex was a part of the initial circuit of Papez thought to be related to the regulation of emotion. However, since then, much experimental work has outlined different cingulate regions with differing anatomical connectivity and functions. Drevets and Savitz draw attention to the subgenual area and describe the local and distant anatomical connectivities that emphasize its relevance for several neuropsychiatric disorders. ABSTRACT The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) ventral to the genu of the corpus callosum has been implicated in the modulation of emotional behavior on the basis of neuroimaging studies in humans and lesion analyses in experimental animals. In a combined positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging study of mood disorders, we demonstrated that the mean gray matter volume of this “subgenual” ACC (sgACC) cortex is abnormally reduced in subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder, irrespective of mood state. Neuropathological assessments of sgACC tissue acquired postmortem from subjects with MDD or bipolar disorder confirmed the decrement in gray matter volume, and revealed that this abnormality was associated with a reduction in glia, with no equivalent loss of neurons. In positron emission tomography studies, the metabolic activity was elevated in this region in the depressed relative to the remitted phases of the same MDD subjects, and effective antidepressant treatment was associated with a reduction in sgACC activity. Other

  19. Evidence for persistent organochlorine pollutants in the human adrenal cortex.

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    Fommei, Enza; Turci, Roberta; Ripoli, Andrea; Balzan, Silvana; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Morelli, Luca; Coi, Alessio

    2017-09-01

    Environmental pollutants may act as endocrine disruptors in animals. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) enter the food chain and may accumulate in the fatty animal tissues, including adrenals. To our knowledge, no previous study has investigated their presence in the human normal adrenal (NA) cortex and aldosterone-producing adenomas (APA). Surgical fragments of APA from 11 patients and NA from 8 kidney donors were analyzed for 16 PCBs congeners and 10 OCPs. A Matrix Solid-Phase Dispersion (MSPD) method for simultaneous determination of the target compounds in cortex homogenates was developed. A gas-chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (Triple Quad GC-MS) system was used for the analysis. Data were analyzed using Random Forest and Wilcoxon's rank-sum test. OCPs and PCBs were found in specimens from both types. A subset of pollutants characterized APA more than NA. Higher concentrations (μg g(-1) ) in APA were observed for α-, β-, and γ- Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) (1.48 ± 3.32 vs. 0.17 ± 0.19, P = 0.028; 2.81 ± 2.10 vs. 0.96 ± 0.98, P = 0.011; 2.16 ± 4.85 vs. 0.17 ± 0.26, P = 0.004, respectively), as well as for Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and for PCBs 28, 52 and 101 (3.41 ± 3.11 vs. 0.97 ± 1.06, P = 0.021; 2.34 ± 4.68 vs. 0.25 ± 0.22, P = 0.039; 0.58 ± 1.19 vs. 0.06 ± 0.02, P = 0.002; 0.26 ± 0.43 vs. 0.05 ± 0.00, P = 0.001, respectively). Environmental organochlorine pollutants were shown to be present in the human normal and abnormal adrenal cortex, deserving future investigation on their possible role as adrenal endocrine disruptors in human disease. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. <em>Bacillus anthracisem> Factors for Phagosomal Escape

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    Irene Zornetta

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of phagosome escape by intracellular pathogens is an important step in the infectious cycle. During the establishment of anthrax, <em>Bacillus anthracisem> undergoes a transient intracellular phase in which spores are engulfed by local phagocytes. Spores germinate inside phagosomes and grow to vegetative bacilli, which emerge from their resident intracellular compartments, replicate and eventually exit from the plasma membrane. During germination, <em>B. anthracisem> secretes multiple factors that can help its resistance to the phagocytes. Here the possible role of <em>B. anthracisem> toxins, phospholipases, antioxidant enzymes and capsules in the phagosomal escape and survival, is analyzed and compared with that of factors of other microbial pathogens involved in the same type of process.

  1. Poesia em Revista: Oroboro

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    Helena Alves Gouveia

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1984-784x.2008v8n12p38 A serpente que engole a si mesma é uma figura curiosa do simbolismo de um processo de contínua transformação, de um movimento circular incessante, rumo à infinitude, sem traços de fim ou começo. Oroboro é um nome de origem grega que remete a esta serpente que se morde e penetra em si mesma ao engolir o próprio rabo. Mas também é o nome da revista de cultura editada em Curitiba pelos artistas-editores Ricardo Corona e Eliana Borges.

  2. Hipercolesterolemia em jovens adolescentes

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Rosa Adelaide Tavares

    2011-01-01

    Trabalho apresentado à Universidade Fernando Pessoa como parte dos requisitos para obtenção do grau de Mestre em Ciências Farmacêuticas. O colesterol encontra-se em todas as células do organismo humano. Se, por um lado, é vital, por exemplo, para a construção de novas células, por outro, pode acumular-se no nosso organismo, levando à deposição de gordura na parede das artérias. Encontra-se bem fundamentada a relação entre o aumento drástico de mortes por doença cardiovascular, nos países d...

  3. Primeiras frases em Libras

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    Comissão Editorial

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available "Primeiras Frases em Libras" é um CD-ROM com interface interativa que tem por objetivo a iniciação na Língua Brasileira de Sinais - Libras. A partir de temas do cotidiano, permite à criança relacionar a imagem a uma estrutura frasal da Libras de forma lúdica, contribuindo para aquisição de conceitos e aspectos culturais. Para a utilização desse material é importante que sejam identificadas as diferenças regionais existentes em alguns sinais e que sejam adaptadas para a Libras local, tornando-se mais um exercício enriquecedor para aquisição e prática da Língua de Sinais. Maiores informações sobre o material no site da Editora Arara Azul: www.editora-arara-azul.com. br

  4. Statistical learning of visual transitions in monkey inferotemporal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Travis; Olson, Carl R

    2011-11-29

    One of the most fundamental functions of the brain is to predict upcoming events on the basis of the recent past. A closely related function is to signal when a prediction has been violated. The identity of the brain regions that mediate these functions is not known. We set out to determine whether they are implemented at the level of single neurons in the visual system. We gave monkeys prolonged exposure to pairs of images presented in fixed sequence so that each leading image became a strong predictor for the corresponding trailing image. We then monitored the responses of neurons in the inferotemporal cortex to image sequences that obeyed or violated the transitional rules imposed during training. Inferotemporal neurons exhibited a transitional surprise effect, responding much more strongly to unpredicted transitions than to predicted transitions. Thus, neurons even in the visual system make experience-based predictions and react when they fail.

  5. Human Orbitofrontal Cortex Represents a Cognitive Map of State Space.

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    Schuck, Nicolas W; Cai, Ming Bo; Wilson, Robert C; Niv, Yael

    2016-09-21

    Although the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) has been studied intensely for decades, its precise functions have remained elusive. We recently hypothesized that the OFC contains a "cognitive map" of task space in which the current state of the task is represented, and this representation is especially critical for behavior when states are unobservable from sensory input. To test this idea, we apply pattern-classification techniques to neuroimaging data from humans performing a decision-making task with 16 states. We show that unobservable task states can be decoded from activity in OFC, and decoding accuracy is related to task performance and the occurrence of individual behavioral errors. Moreover, similarity between the neural representations of consecutive states correlates with behavioral accuracy in corresponding state transitions. These results support the idea that OFC represents a cognitive map of task space and establish the feasibility of decoding state representations in humans using non-invasive neuroimaging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Orbitofrontal cortex as a cognitive map of task space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert C; Takahashi, Yuji K; Schoenbaum, G; Niv, Yael

    2014-01-22

    Orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) has long been known to play an important role in decision making. However, the exact nature of that role has remained elusive. Here, we propose a unifying theory of OFC function. We hypothesize that OFC provides an abstraction of currently available information in the form of a labeling of the current task state, which is used for reinforcement learning (RL) elsewhere in the brain. This function is especially critical when task states include unobservable information, for instance, from working memory. We use this framework to explain classic findings in reversal learning, delayed alternation, extinction, and devaluation as well as more recent findings showing the effect of OFC lesions on the firing of dopaminergic neurons in ventral tegmental area (VTA) in rodents performing an RL task. In addition, we generate a number of testable experimental predictions that can distinguish our theory from other accounts of OFC function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Gamma oscillatory amplitude encodes stimulus intensity in primary somatosensory cortex

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    Holly Elizabeth Rossiter

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Gamma oscillations have previously been linked to pain perception and it has been hypothesised that they may have a potential role in encoding pain intensity. Stimulus response experiments have reported an increase in activity in the primary somatosensory cortex (SI with increasing stimulus intensity, but the specific role of oscillatory dynamics in this change in activation remains unclear. In this study, Magnetoencephalography (MEG was used to investigate the changes in cortical oscillations during 4 different intensities of a train of electrical stimuli to the right index finger, ranging from low sensation to strong pain. In those participants showing changes in evoked oscillatory gamma in SI during stimulation, the strength of the gamma power was found to increase with increasing stimulus intensity at both pain and sub-pain thresholds. These results suggest that evoked gamma oscillations in SI are not specific to pain but may have a role in encoding somatosensory stimulus intensity.

  8. Genetic and neuroradiological heterogeneity of double cortex syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, J G; Luo, R F; Grant, P E; Guerrini, R; Huttenlocher, P R; Berg, M J; Ricci, S; Cusmai, R; Wheless, J W; Berkovic, S; Scheffer, I; Dobyns, W B; Walsh, C A

    2000-02-01

    Mutations in the X-linked doublecortin gene appear in many sporadic cases of double cortex (DC; also known as subcortical band heterotopia), a neuronal migration disorder causing epilepsy and mental retardation. The purpose of this study was to examine why a significant percentage of sporadic DC patients had been found not to harbor doublecortin mutations and to determine whether clinical features or magnetic resonance imaging scan appearance could distinguish between patients with and without doublecortin mutations. Magnetic resonance imaging scan analysis differentiated patients into the following four groups: anterior biased/global DC with doublecortin mutation (16 of 30; 53%), anterior biased/global DC without mutation (8 of 30; 27%), posterior biased DC without mutation (3 of 30; 10%), and limited/unilateral DC without mutation (3 of 30; 10%). The presence of these atypical phenotypes suggests that other genetic loci or mosaicism at the doublecortin locus may be responsible for this diversity of DC cases.

  9. Experimental determination of bone cortex holding power of orthopedic screw

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    Bolliger Neto Raul

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Cylindrical specimens of bone measuring 15 mm in diameter were obtained from the lateral cortical layer of 10 pairs of femurs and tibias. A central hole 3.2 mm in diameter was drilled in each specimen. The hole was tapped, and a 4.5 mm cortical bone screw was inserted from the outer surface. The montage was submitted to push-out testing up to a complete strip of the bone threads. The cortical thickness and rupture load were measured, and the shear stress was calculated. The results were grouped according to the bone segment from which the specimen was obtained. The results showed that bone cortex screw holding power is dependent on the bone site. Additionally, the diaphyseal cortical bone tissue is both quantitatively and qualitatively more resistant to screw extraction than the metaphyseal tissue.

  10. Sexual attraction enhances glutamate transmission in mammalian anterior cingulate cortex

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    Wu Long-Jun

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Functional human brain imaging studies have indicated the essential role of cortical regions, such as the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, in romantic love and sex. However, the neurobiological basis of how the ACC neurons are activated and engaged in sexual attraction remains unknown. Using transgenic mice in which the expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP is controlled by the promoter of the activity-dependent gene c-fos, we found that ACC pyramidal neurons are activated by sexual attraction. The presynaptic glutamate release to the activated neurons is increased and pharmacological inhibition of neuronal activities in the ACC reduced the interest of male mice to female mice. Our results present direct evidence of the critical role of the ACC in sexual attraction, and long-term increases in glutamate mediated excitatory transmission may contribute to sexual attraction between male and female mice.

  11. Behavioral effects of congenital ventromedial prefrontal cortex malformation

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    Boes Aaron D

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A detailed behavioral profile associated with focal congenital malformation of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC has not been reported previously. Here we describe a 14 year-old boy, B.W., with neurological and psychiatric sequelae stemming from focal cortical malformation of the left vmPFC. Case Presentation B.W.'s behavior has been characterized through extensive review Patience of clinical and personal records along with behavioral and neuropsychological testing. A central feature of the behavioral profile is severe antisocial behavior. He is aggressive, manipulative, and callous; features consistent with psychopathy. Other problems include: egocentricity, impulsivity, hyperactivity, lack of empathy, lack of respect for authority, impaired moral judgment, an inability to plan ahead, and poor frustration tolerance. Conclusions The vmPFC has a profound contribution to the development of human prosocial behavior. B.W. demonstrates how a congenital lesion to this cortical region severely disrupts this process.

  12. Response of dorsomedial prefrontal cortex predicts altruistic behavior.

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    Waytz, Adam; Zaki, Jamil; Mitchell, Jason P

    2012-05-30

    Human beings have an unusual proclivity for altruistic behavior, and recent commentators have suggested that these prosocial tendencies arise from our unique capacity to understand the minds of others (i.e., to mentalize). The current studies test this hypothesis by examining the relation between altruistic behavior and the reflexive engagement of a neural system reliably associated with mentalizing. Results indicated that activity in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex--a region consistently involved in understanding others' mental states--predicts both monetary donations to others and time spent helping others. These findings address long-standing questions about the proximate source of human altruism by suggesting that prosocial behavior results, in part, from our broader tendency for social-cognitive thought.

  13. Building maps from maps in primary visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauhaus, Ian; Nielsen, Kristina J

    2014-02-01

    Neurons in the visual system respond to more complex and holistic features at each new stage of processing. Often, these features are organized into continuous maps. Could there be a fundamental link between continuous maps and functional hierarchies? Here, we review recent studies regarding V1 maps providing some of the most noteworthy advances in our understanding of how and why maps exist. In particular, we focus on the common theme that some maps are inherited from the input of parallel pathways, which are then intimately linked to the emergence of new functional properties and their corresponding maps. These results on V1 maps may prove to be a unifying framework for hierarchical representations in the visual cortex. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Short-term memory, parsing, and the primate frontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribram, K H; Tubbs, W E

    1967-06-30

    Removal of the frontal cortex of primates resulted earlier in a psychological deficit usually classified in terms of short-term memory. This classification is based on impairment in performance of delayed-response or alternation-type tasks. We report an experiment in which the classical 5-seconddelay right-left-right-left (R-L-R-L) altenation task was modified by placing a 15-seconid interval between each R-L couplet: R-L . . . R-L . . . R-L . . . . This mnodification made it possible for monkeys with frontal lesions, which had failed the classical task, to perform with very few errors. The result suggests that proper division, parsing of the stream of stimuli to which the organism is subjected, is a more important variable in the mechanism of short-term memory than is the maintenance of a neural trace per se.

  15. Posterior parietal cortex encodes autonomously selected motor plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, He; Andersen, Richard A

    2007-11-08

    The posterior parietal cortex (PPC) of rhesus monkeys has been found to encode the behavioral meaning of categories of sensory stimuli. When animals are instructed with sensory cues to make either eye or hand movements to a target, PPC cells also show specificity depending on which effector (eye or hand) is instructed for the movement. To determine whether this selectivity retrospectively reflects the behavioral meaning of the cue or prospectively encodes the movement plan, we trained monkeys to autonomously choose to acquire a target in the absence of direct instructions specifying which effector to use. Activity in PPC showed strong specificity for effector choice, with cells in the lateral intraparietal area selective for saccades and cells in the parietal reach region selective for reaches. Such differential activity associated with effector choice under identical stimulus conditions provides definitive evidence that the PPC is prospectively involved in action selection and movement preparation.

  16. Neurons controlling voluntary vocalization in the macaque ventral premotor cortex.

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    Gino Coudé

    Full Text Available The voluntary control of phonation is a crucial achievement in the evolution of speech. In humans, ventral premotor cortex (PMv and Broca's area are known to be involved in voluntary phonation. In contrast, no neurophysiological data are available about the role of the oro-facial sector of nonhuman primates PMv in this function. In order to address this issue, we recorded PMv neurons from two monkeys trained to emit coo-calls. Results showed that a population of motor neurons specifically fire during vocalization. About two thirds of them discharged before sound onset, while the remaining were time-locked with it. The response of vocalization-selective neurons was present only during conditioned (voluntary but not spontaneous (emotional sound emission. These data suggest that the control of vocal production exerted by PMv neurons constitutes a newly emerging property in the monkey lineage, shedding light on the evolution of phonation-based communication from a nonhuman primate species.

  17. Proactive and reactive control by the medial frontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuphorn, Veit; Emeric, Erik E

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive behavior requires the ability to flexibly control actions. This can occur either proactively to anticipate task requirements, or reactively in response to sudden changes. Recent work in humans has identified a network of cortical and subcortical brain region that might have an important role in proactive and reactive control. However, due to technical limitations, such as the spatial and temporal resolution of the BOLD signal, human imaging experiments are not able to disambiguate the specific function(s) of these brain regions. These limitations can be overcome through single-unit recordings in non-human primates. In this article, we describe the behavioral and physiological evidence for dual mechanisms of control in response inhibition in the medial frontal cortex of monkeys performing the stop signal or countermanding task.

  18. Sleep deprivation alters valuation signals in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex

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    Camilo eLibedinsky

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Even a single night of total sleep-deprivation (SD can have dramatic effects on economic decision making. Here we tested the novel hypothesis that SD influences economic decisions by altering the valuation process. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI we identified value signals related to the anticipation and the experience of monetary and social rewards (attractive female faces. We then derived decision value signals that were predictive of each participant’s willingness to exchange money for brief views of attractive faces in an independent market task. Strikingly, SD altered decision value signals in ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC in proportion to the corresponding change in economic preferences. These changes in preference were independent of the effects of SD on attention and vigilance. Our results provide novel evidence that signals in VMPFC track the current state of the individual, and thus reflect not static but constructed preferences.

  19. Topographic representation of the human body in the occipitotemporal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlov, Tanya; Makin, Tamar R; Zohary, Ehud

    2010-11-04

    Large-scale topographic representations of the body have long been established in the somatosensory and motor cortices. Using functional imaging, we identified a topographically organized body part map within the occipitotemporal cortex (OTC), with distinct clusters of voxels showing clear preference for different visually presented body parts. This representation was consistent both across hemispheres and participants. Using converging methods, the preference for specific body parts was demonstrated to be robust and did not merely reflect shape differences between the categories. Finally, execution of (unseen) movements with different body parts resulted in a limited topographic representation of the limbs and trunk, which partially overlapped with the visual body part map. This motor-driven activation in the OTC could not be explained solely by visual or motor imagery of the body parts. This suggests that visual and motor-related information converge within the OTC in a body part specific manner. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Maternal prefrontal cortex activation by newborn infant odors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishitani, Shota; Kuwamoto, Saori; Takahira, Asuka; Miyamura, Tsunetake; Shinohara, Kazuyuki

    2014-03-01

    Mothers are attracted by infant cues of a variety of different modalities. To clarify the possible neural mechanisms underlying maternal attraction to infant odor cues, we used near-infrared spectroscopy to examine prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity during odor detection tasks in which 19 mothers and 19 nulliparous females (nonmothers) were presented with infant or adult male odors. They were instructed to make a judgment about whether they smelled an odor during each task. We estimated the PFC activity by measuring the relative oxyhemoglobin (oxyHb) concentrations. The results showed that while detecting the infant odors, bilateral PFC activities were increased in mothers but not in nonmothers. In contrast, adult male odors activated the PFC similarly in mothers and nonmothers. These findings suggest that maternal activation of the PFC in response to infant odors explains a part of the neural mechanisms for maternal attraction to infant odors.

  1. Saccadic modulation of stimulus processing in primary visual cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, James M.; Bondy, Adrian G.; Saunders, Richard C.; Cumming, Bruce G.; Butts, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    Saccadic eye movements play a central role in primate vision. Yet, relatively little is known about their effects on the neural processing of visual inputs. Here we examine this question in primary visual cortex (V1) using receptive-field-based models, combined with an experimental design that leaves the retinal stimulus unaffected by saccades. This approach allows us to analyse V1 stimulus processing during saccades with unprecedented detail, revealing robust perisaccadic modulation. In particular, saccades produce biphasic firing rate changes that are composed of divisive gain suppression followed by an additive rate increase. Microsaccades produce similar, though smaller, modulations. We furthermore demonstrate that this modulation is likely inherited from the LGN, and is driven largely by extra-retinal signals. These results establish a foundation for integrating saccades into existing models of visual cortical stimulus processing, and highlight the importance of studying visual neuron function in the context of eye movements. PMID:26370359

  2. Damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex reduces interpersonal disgust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciaramelli, Elisa; Sperotto, Rebecca G; Mattioli, Flavia; di Pellegrino, Giuseppe

    2013-02-01

    Disgust for contaminating objects (core disgust), immoral behaviors (moral disgust) and unsavory others (interpersonal disgust), have been assumed to be closely related. It is not clear, however, whether different forms of disgust are mediated by overlapping or specific neural substrates. We report that 10 patients with damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) avoided behaviors that normally elicit interpersonal disgust (e.g. using the scarf of a busker) less frequently than healthy and brain-damaged controls, whereas they avoided core and moral disgust elicitors at normal rates. These results indicate that different forms of disgust are dissociated neurally. We propose that the vmPFC is causally (and selectively) involved in mediating interpersonal disgust, shaping patterns of social avoidance and approach.

  3. Damage to the prefrontal cortex increases utilitarian moral judgements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenigs, Michael; Young, Liane; Adolphs, Ralph; Tranel, Daniel; Cushman, Fiery; Hauser, Marc; Damasio, Antonio

    2007-04-19

    The psychological and neurobiological processes underlying moral judgement have been the focus of many recent empirical studies. Of central interest is whether emotions play a causal role in moral judgement, and, in parallel, how emotion-related areas of the brain contribute to moral judgement. Here we show that six patients with focal bilateral damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPC), a brain region necessary for the normal generation of emotions and, in particular, social emotions, produce an abnormally 'utilitarian' pattern of judgements on moral dilemmas that pit compelling considerations of aggregate welfare against highly emotionally aversive behaviours (for example, having to sacrifice one person's life to save a number of other lives). In contrast, the VMPC patients' judgements were normal in other classes of moral dilemmas. These findings indicate that, for a selective set of moral dilemmas, the VMPC is critical for normal judgements of right and wrong. The findings support a necessary role for emotion in the generation of those judgements.

  4. Sleep deprivation alters valuation signals in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libedinsky, Camilo; Smith, David V; Teng, Chieh Schen; Namburi, Praneeth; Chen, Vanessa W; Huettel, Scott A; Chee, Michael W L

    2011-01-01

    Even a single night of total sleep deprivation (SD) can have dramatic effects on economic decision making. Here we tested the novel hypothesis that SD influences economic decisions by altering the valuation process. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging we identified value signals related to the anticipation and the experience of monetary and social rewards (attractive female faces). We then derived decision value signals that were predictive of each participant's willingness to exchange money for brief views of attractive faces in an independent market task. Strikingly, SD altered decision value signals in ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) in proportion to the corresponding change in economic preferences. These changes in preference were independent of the effects of SD on attention and vigilance. Our results provide novel evidence that signals in VMPFC track the current state of the individual, and thus reflect not static but constructed preferences.

  5. Reactivation of ocular dominance plasticity in the adult visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzorusso, Tommaso; Medini, Paolo; Berardi, Nicoletta; Chierzi, Sabrina; Fawcett, James W; Maffei, Lamberto

    2002-11-08

    In young animals, monocular deprivation leads to an ocular dominance shift, whereas in adults after the critical period there is no such shift. Chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) inhibitory for axonal sprouting. We tested whether the developmental maturation of the ECM is inhibitory for experience-dependent plasticity in the visual cortex. The organization of CSPGs into perineuronal nets coincided with the end of the critical period and was delayed by dark rearing. After CSPG degradation with chondroitinase-ABC in adult rats, monocular deprivation caused an ocular dominance shift toward the nondeprived eye. The mature ECM is thus inhibitory for experience-dependent plasticity, and degradation of CSPGs reactivates cortical plasticity.

  6. Motivation of extended behaviors by anterior cingulate cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holroyd, Clay B; Yeung, Nick

    2012-02-01

    Intense research interest over the past decade has yielded diverse and often discrepant theories about the function of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). In particular, a dichotomy has emerged between neuropsychological theories suggesting a primary role for ACC in motivating or 'energizing' behavior, and neuroimaging-inspired theories emphasizing its contribution to cognitive control and reinforcement learning. To reconcile these views, we propose that ACC supports the selection and maintenance of 'options' - extended, context-specific sequences of behavior directed toward particular goals - that are learned through a process of hierarchical reinforcement learning. This theory accounts for ACC activity in relation to learning and control while simultaneously explaining the effects of ACC damage as disrupting the motivational context supporting the production of goal-directed action sequences. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Ancylostoma duodenale em estrangeiros radicados em Botucatu, SP, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence F.S. Kerr

    1981-06-01

    Full Text Available Utilizando-se a técnica de Harada & Mori foi efetuada verificação das espécies de Ancylostomidae prevalentes entre imigrantes europeus, asiáticos e brasileiros residentes no município de Botucatu, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Ancylostoma duodenale foi encontrado em 8,5% dos imigrantes asiáticos e Necator americanus em 3,5% dos europeus e em 18% dos brasileiros examinados.

  8. Rapid Development of Microsatellite Markers with 454 Pyrosequencing in a Vulnerable Fish<em>,> the Mottled Skate<em>, Raja em>pulchra>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Ha Kang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The mottled skate, <em>Raja pulchraem>, is an economically valuable fish. However, due to a severe population decline, it is listed as a vulnerable species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. To analyze its genetic structure and diversity, microsatellite markers were developed using 454 pyrosequencing. A total of 17,033 reads containing dinucleotide microsatellite repeat units (mean, 487 base pairs were identified from 453,549 reads. Among 32 loci containing more than nine repeat units, 20 primer sets (62% produced strong PCR products, of which 14 were polymorphic. In an analysis of 60 individuals from two <em>R. pulchra em>populations, the number of alleles per locus ranged from 1–10, and the mean allelic richness was 4.7. No linkage disequilibrium was found between any pair of loci, indicating that the markers were independent. The Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium test showed significant deviation in two of the 28 single-loci after sequential Bonferroni’s correction. Using 11 primer sets, cross-species amplification was demonstrated in nine related species from four families within two classes. Among the 11 loci amplified from three other <em>Rajidae> family species; three loci were polymorphic. A monomorphic locus was amplified in all three <em>Rajidae> family species and the <em>Dasyatidae> family. Two <em>Rajidae> polymorphic loci amplified monomorphic target DNAs in four species belonging to the Carcharhiniformes class, and another was polymorphic in two Carcharhiniformes species.

  9. A radial glia-specific role of RhoA in double cortex formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappello, Silvia; Böhringer, Christian R J; Bergami, Matteo

    2012-01-01

    The positioning of neurons in the cerebral cortex is of crucial importance for its function as highlighted by the severe consequences of migrational disorders in patients. Here we show that genetic deletion of the small GTPase RhoA in the developing cerebral cortex results in two migrational...

  10. Computer modeling of Motor Cortex Stimulation: Effects of Anodal, Cathodal and Bipolar Stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manola, L.; Holsheimer, J.; Buitenweg, Jan R.; Veltink, Petrus H.

    2007-01-01

    Motor cortex stimulation (MCS) is a promising clinical technique for treatment of chronic pain. However, optimization of the therapeutic efficacy is hampered since it is not known how electrically activated neural structures in the motor cortex can induce pain relief. Furthermore, multiple neural

  11. Cerebral Cortex Expression of Gli3 Is Required for Normal Development of the Lateral Olfactory Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaniti, Eleni-Maria; Kelman, Alexandra; Mason, John O.; Theil, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Formation of the lateral olfactory tract (LOT) and innervation of the piriform cortex represent fundamental steps to allow the transmission of olfactory information to the cerebral cortex. Several transcription factors, including the zinc finger transcription factor Gli3, influence LOT formation by controlling the development of mitral cells from which LOT axons emanate and/or by specifying the environment through which these axons navigate. Gli3 null and hypomorphic mutants display severe defects throughout the territory covered by the developing lateral olfactory tract, making it difficult to identify specific roles for Gli3 in its development. Here, we used Emx1Cre;Gli3fl/fl conditional mutants to investigate LOT formation and colonization of the olfactory cortex in embryos in which loss of Gli3 function is restricted to the dorsal telencephalon. These mutants form an olfactory bulb like structure which does not protrude from the telencephalic surface. Nevertheless, mitral cells are formed and their axons enter the piriform cortex though the LOT is shifted medially. Mitral axons also innervate a larger target area consistent with an enlargement of the piriform cortex and form aberrant projections into the deeper layers of the piriform cortex. No obvious differences were found in the expression patterns of key guidance cues. However, we found that an expansion of the piriform cortex temporally coincides with the arrival of LOT axons, suggesting that Gli3 affects LOT positioning and target area innervation through controlling the development of the piriform cortex. PMID:26509897

  12. A Novel Role for the Rat Retrosplenial Cortex in Cognitive Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Andrew J. D.; Hindley, Emma L.; Haddon, Josephine E.; Vann, Seralynne D.; Aggleton, John P.

    2014-01-01

    By virtue of its frontal and hippocampal connections, the retrosplenial cortex is uniquely placed to support cognition. Here, we tested whether the retrosplenial cortex is required for frontal tasks analogous to the Stroop Test, i.e., for the ability to select between conflicting responses and inhibit responding to task-irrelevant cues. Rats first…

  13. Systematic variation of population receptive field properties across cortical depth in human visual cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fracasso, Alessio; Petridou, N; Dumoulin, Serge O

    2016-01-01

    Receptive fields (RFs) in visual cortex are organized in antagonistic, center-surround, configurations. RF properties change systematically across eccentricity and between visual field maps. However, it is unknown how center-surround configurations are organized in human visual cortex across lamina.

  14. Guided Saccades Modulate Face- and Body-Sensitive Activation in the Occipitotemporal Cortex during Social Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, James P.; Green, Steven R.; Marion, Brian; McCarthy, Gregory

    2008-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has identified distinct brain regions in ventral occipitotemporal cortex (VOTC) and lateral occipitotemporal cortex (LOTC) that are differentially activated by pictures of faces and bodies. Recent work from our laboratory has shown that the strong LOTC activation evoked by bodies in which the face is…

  15. Considering healthiness promotes healthier choices but modulates medial prefrontal cortex differently in children compared with adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, van Floor; Laan, van der Laura N.; Viergever, Max A.; Adan, Roger A.H.; Smeets, Paul A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a rising problem worldwide mainly caused by overconsumption, which is driven by food choices. In adults, food choices are based on a value signal encoded in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). This signal is modulated by the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), which is

  16. Williams Syndrome Hypersociability: A Neuropsychological Study of the Amygdala and Prefrontal Cortex Hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitao, Liliana; Sampaio, Adriana; Fernandez, Montse; Sousa, Nuno; Pinheiro, Ana; Goncalves, Oscar F.

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with Williams syndrome display indiscriminate approach towards strangers. Neuroimaging studies conducted so far have linked this social profile to structural and/or functional abnormalities in WS amygdala and prefrontal cortex. In this study, the neuropsychological hypotheses of amygdala and prefrontal cortex involvement in WS…

  17. Structural and functional changes in the somatosensory cortex in euthymic females with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minuzzi, Luciano; Syan, Sabrina K; Smith, Mara; Hall, Alexander; Hall, Geoffrey Bc; Frey, Benicio N

    2017-12-01

    Current evidence from neuroimaging data suggests possible dysfunction of the fronto-striatal-limbic circuits in individuals with bipolar disorder. Somatosensory cortical function has been implicated in emotional recognition, risk-taking and affective responses through sensory modalities. This study investigates anatomy and function of the somatosensory cortex in euthymic bipolar women. In total, 68 right-handed euthymic women (bipolar disorder = 32 and healthy controls = 36) between 16 and 45 years of age underwent high-resolution anatomical and functional magnetic resonance imaging during the mid-follicular menstrual phase. The somatosensory cortex was used as a seed region for resting-state functional connectivity analysis. Voxel-based morphometry was used to evaluate somatosensory cortical gray matter volume between groups. We found increased resting-state functional connectivity between the somatosensory cortex and insular cortex, inferior prefrontal gyrus and frontal orbital cortex in euthymic bipolar disorder subjects compared to healthy controls. Voxel-based morphometry analysis showed decreased gray matter in the left somatosensory cortex in the bipolar disorder group. Whole-brain voxel-based morphometry analysis controlled by age did not reveal any additional significant difference between groups. This study is the first to date to evaluate anatomy and function of the somatosensory cortex in a well-characterized sample of euthymic bipolar disorder females. Anatomical and functional changes in the somatosensory cortex in this population might contribute to the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder.

  18. Inactivation of the Infralimbic but Not the Prelimbic Cortex Impairs Consolidation and Retrieval of Fear Extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Vincent; Westbrook, R. Frederick

    2009-01-01

    Rats were subjected to one or two cycles of context fear conditioning and extinction to study the roles of the prelimbic cortex (PL) and infralimbic cortex (IL) in learning and relearning to inhibit fear responses. Inactivation of the PL depressed fear responses across the first or second extinction but did not impair learning or relearning fear…

  19. High-intensity Erotic Visual Stimuli De-activate the Primary Visual Cortex in Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huynh, Hieu K.; Beers, Caroline; Willemsen, Antoon; Lont, Erna; Laan, Ellen; Dierckx, Rudi; Jansen, Monique; Sand, Michael; Schultz, Willibrord Weijmar; Holstege, Gert

    Introduction. The primary visual cortex, Brodmann's area (BA 17), plays a vital role in basic survival mechanisms in humans. In most neuro-imaging studies in which the volunteers have to watch pictures or movies, the primary visual cortex is similarly activated independent of the content of the

  20. High-intensity Erotic Visual Stimuli De-activate the Primary Visual Cortex in Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huynh, Hieu K.; Beers, Caroline; Willemsen, Antoon; Lont, Erna; Laan, Ellen; Dierckx, Rudi; Jansen, Monique; Sand, Michael; Weijmar Schultz, Willibrord; Holstege, Gert

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. The primary visual cortex, Brodmann's area (BA 17), plays a vital role in basic survival mechanisms in humans. In most neuro-imaging studies in which the volunteers have to watch pictures or movies, the primary visual cortex is similarly activated independent of the content of the