WorldWideScience

Sample records for excitation

  1. Excited states

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Edward C

    1974-01-01

    Excited States, Volume I reviews radiationless transitions, phosphorescence microwave double resonance through optical spectra in molecular solids, dipole moments in excited states, luminescence of polar molecules, and the problem of interstate interaction in aromatic carbonyl compounds. The book discusses the molecular electronic radiationless transitions; the double resonance techniques and the relaxation mechanisms involving the lowest triplet state of aromatic compounds; as well as the optical spectra and relaxation in molecular solids. The text also describes dipole moments and polarizab

  2. Excited Delirium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeuchi, Asia

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Excited (or agitated delirium is characterized by agitation, aggression, acute distress and sudden death, often in the pre-hospital care setting. It is typically associated with the use of drugs that alter dopamine processing, hyperthermia, and, most notably, sometimes with death of the affected person in the custody of law enforcement. Subjects typically die from cardiopulmonary arrest, although the cause is debated. Unfortunately an adequate treatment plan has yet to be established, in part due to the fact that most patients die before hospital arrival. While there is still much to be discovered about the pathophysiology and treatment, it is hoped that this extensive review will provide both police and medical personnel with the information necessary to recognize and respond appropriately to excited delirium. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(1:77-83.

  3. Isovector monopole excitation energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, J.D.; Lipparini, E.; Stringary, S.

    1987-11-05

    Using a hydrodynamical model whose parameters have been adjusted to fit the polarizability and excitation energy of the giant dipole nuclear resonance we predict excitation energies of the isovector monopole resonance. The predicted values are in good agreement with experimental data. The mass dependence of the excitation energy is strongly influenced by nuclear geometry.

  4. Multi-frequency excitation

    KAUST Repository

    Younis, Mohammad I.

    2016-03-10

    Embodiments of multi-frequency excitation are described. In various embodiments, a natural frequency of a device may be determined. In turn, a first voltage amplitude and first fixed frequency of a first source of excitation can be selected for the device based on the natural frequency. Additionally, a second voltage amplitude of a second source of excitation can be selected for the device, and the first and second sources of excitation can be applied to the device. After applying the first and second sources of excitation, a frequency of the second source of excitation can be swept. Using the methods of multi- frequency excitation described herein, new operating frequencies, operating frequency ranges, resonance frequencies, resonance frequency ranges, and/or resonance responses can be achieved for devices and systems.

  5. Excited states 2

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Edward C

    2013-01-01

    Excited States, Volume 2 is a collection of papers that deals with molecules in the excited states. The book describes the geometries of molecules in the excited electronic states. One paper describes the geometries of a diatomic molecule and of polyatomic molecules; it also discusses the determination of the many excited state geometries of molecules with two, three, or four atoms by techniques similar to diatomic spectroscopy. Another paper introduces an ordered theory related to excitons in pure and mixed molecular crystals. This paper also presents some experimental data such as those invo

  6. Excited states 4

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Edward C

    2013-01-01

    Excited States, Volume 4 is a collection of papers that deals with the excited states of molecular activity. One paper investigates the resonance Raman spectroscopy as the key to vibrational-electronic coupling. This paper reviews the basic theory of Raman scattering; it also explains the derivation of the Raman spectra, excitation profiles, and depolarization ratios for simple resonance systems. Another paper reviews the magnetic properties of triplet states, including the zero-field resonance techniques, the high-field experiments, and the spin Hamiltonian. This paper focuses on the magnetic

  7. Nuclear expansion with excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De, J.N. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Departament d' Estructura i Constituents de la Materia, Facultat de Fisica, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Samaddar, S.K. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Vinas, X. [Departament d' Estructura i Constituents de la Materia, Facultat de Fisica, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Centelles, M. [Departament d' Estructura i Constituents de la Materia, Facultat de Fisica, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: mario@ecm.ub.es

    2006-07-06

    The expansion of an isolated hot spherical nucleus with excitation energy and its caloric curve are studied in a thermodynamic model with the SkM{sup *} force as the nuclear effective two-body interaction. The calted results are shown to compare well with the recent experimental data from energetic nuclear collisions. The fluctuations in temperature and density are also studied. They are seen to build up very rapidly beyond an excitation energy of {approx}9 MeV/u. Volume-conserving quadrupole deformation in addition to expansion indicates, however, nuclear disassembly above an excitation energy of {approx}4 MeV/u.

  8. Excitations in organic solids

    CERN Document Server

    Agranovich, Vladimir M

    2009-01-01

    During the last decade our expertise in nanotechnology has advanced considerably. The possibility of incorporating in the same nanostructure different organic and inorganic materials has opened up a promising field of research, and has greatly increased the interest in the study of properties of excitations in organic materials. In this book not only the fundamentals of Frenkel exciton and polariton theory are described, but also the electronic excitations and electronic energytransfers in quantum wells, quantum wires and quantum dots, at surfaces, at interfaces, in thin films, in multilayers,

  9. Excitation Methods for Bridge Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrar, C.R.; Duffy, T.A.; Cornwell, P.J.; Doebling, S.W.

    1999-02-08

    This paper summarizes the various methods that have been used to excited bridge structures during dynamic testing. The excitation methods fall into the general categories of ambient excitation methods and measured-input excitation methods. During ambient excitation the input to the bridge is not directly measured. In contrast, as the category label implies, measured-input excitations are usually applied at a single location where the force input to the structure can be monitored. Issues associated with using these various types of measurements are discussed along with a general description of the various excitation methods.

  10. Positron excitation of neon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcell, L. A.; Mceachran, R. P.; Stauffer, A. D.

    1990-01-01

    The differential and total cross section for the excitation of the 3s1P10 and 3p1P1 states of neon by positron impact were calculated using a distorted-wave approximation. The results agree well with experimental conclusions.

  11. Hardness and excitation energy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is shown that the first excitation energy can be given by the Kohn-Sham hardness (i.e. the energy difference of the ground-state lowest unoccupied and highest occupied levels) plus an extra term coming from the partial derivative of the ensemble exchange-correlation energy with respect to the weighting factor in the ...

  12. Excitation of Stellar Pulsations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houdek, G.

    2012-01-01

    In this review I present an overview of our current understanding of the physical mechanisms that are responsible for the excitation of pulsations in stars with surface convection zones. These are typically cooler stars such as the δ Scuti stars, and stars supporting solar-like oscillations....

  13. Exotic nuclear excitations

    CERN Document Server

    Pancholi, S C

    2011-01-01

    By providing the reader with a foundational background in high spin nuclear structure physics and exploring exciting current discoveries in the field, this book presents new phenomena in a clear and compelling way. The quest for achieving the highest spin states has resulted in some remarkable successes which this monograph will address in comprehensive detail. The text covers an array of pertinent subject matter, including the rotational alignment and bandcrossings, magnetic rotation, triaxial strong deformation and wobbling motion and chirality in nuclei. Dr. Pancholi offers his readers a clearly-written and up-to-date treatment of the topics covered. The prerequisites for a proper appreciation are courses in nuclear physics and nuclear models and measurement techniques of observables like gamma-ray energies, intensities, multi-fold coincidences, angular correlations or distributions, linear polarization, internal conversion coefficients, short lifetime (pico-second range) of excited states etc. and instrum...

  14. Excitable scale free networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copelli, M.; Campos, P. R. A.

    2007-04-01

    When a simple excitable system is continuously stimulated by a Poissonian external source, the response function (mean activity versus stimulus rate) generally shows a linear saturating shape. This is experimentally verified in some classes of sensory neurons, which accordingly present a small dynamic range (defined as the interval of stimulus intensity which can be appropriately coded by the mean activity of the excitable element), usually about one or two decades only. The brain, on the other hand, can handle a significantly broader range of stimulus intensity, and a collective phenomenon involving the interaction among excitable neurons has been suggested to account for the enhancement of the dynamic range. Since the role of the pattern of such interactions is still unclear, here we investigate the performance of a scale-free (SF) network topology in this dynamic range problem. Specifically, we study the transfer function of disordered SF networks of excitable Greenberg-Hastings cellular automata. We observe that the dynamic range is maximum when the coupling among the elements is critical, corroborating a general reasoning recently proposed. Although the maximum dynamic range yielded by general SF networks is slightly worse than that of random networks, for special SF networks which lack loops the enhancement of the dynamic range can be dramatic, reaching nearly five decades. In order to understand the role of loops on the transfer function we propose a simple model in which the density of loops in the network can be gradually increased, and show that this is accompanied by a gradual decrease of dynamic range.

  15. CINE: Comet INfrared Excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Val-Borro, Miguel; Cordiner, Martin A.; Milam, Stefanie N.; Charnley, Steven B.

    2017-08-01

    CINE calculates infrared pumping efficiencies that can be applied to the most common molecules found in cometary comae such as water, hydrogen cyanide or methanol. One of the main mechanisms for molecular excitation in comets is the fluorescence by the solar radiation followed by radiative decay to the ground vibrational state. This command-line tool calculates the effective pumping rates for rotational levels in the ground vibrational state scaled by the heliocentric distance of the comet. Fluorescence coefficients are useful for modeling rotational emission lines observed in cometary spectra at sub-millimeter wavelengths. Combined with computational methods to solve the radiative transfer equations based, e.g., on the Monte Carlo algorithm, this model can retrieve production rates and rotational temperatures from the observed emission spectrum.

  16. Subsurface excitations in a metal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ray, M. P.; Lake, R. E.; Sosolik, C. E.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate internal hot carrier excitations in a Au thin film bombarded by hyperthermal and low energy alkali and noble gas ions. Excitations within the thin film of a metal-oxide-semiconductor device are measured revealing that ions whose velocities fall below the classical threshold given...... by the free-electron model of a metal still excite hot carriers. Excellent agreement between these results and a nonadiabatic model that accounts for the time-varying ion-surface interaction indicates that the measured excitations are due to semilocalized electrons near the metal surface....

  17. Axonal Excitability in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis : Axonal Excitability in ALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Susanna B; Kiernan, Matthew C; Vucic, Steve

    2017-01-01

    Axonal excitability testing provides in vivo assessment of axonal ion channel function and membrane potential. Excitability techniques have provided insights into the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the development of neurodegeneration and clinical features of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and related neuromuscular disorders. Specifically, abnormalities of Na+ and K+ conductances contribute to development of membrane hyperexcitability in ALS, thereby leading to symptom generation of muscle cramps and fasciculations, in addition to promoting a neurodegenerative cascade via Ca2+-mediated processes. Modulation of axonal ion channel function in ALS has resulted in significant symptomatic improvement that has been accompanied by stabilization of axonal excitability parameters. Separately, axonal ion channel dysfunction evolves with disease progression and correlates with survival, thereby serving as a potential therapeutic biomarker in ALS. The present review provides an overview of axonal excitability techniques and the physiological mechanisms underlying membrane excitability, with a focus on the role of axonal ion channel dysfunction in motor neuron disease and related neuromuscular diseases.

  18. Topological excitations in magnetic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazeia, D., E-mail: bazeia@fisica.ufpb.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, 58051-970 João Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Doria, M.M. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Camerino, I-62032 Camerino (Italy); Rodrigues, E.I.B. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, 58051-970 João Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2016-05-20

    In this work we propose a new route to describe topological excitations in magnetic systems through a single real scalar field. We show here that spherically symmetric structures in two spatial dimensions, which map helical excitations in magnetic materials, admit this formulation and can be used to model skyrmion-like structures in magnetic materials.

  19. Excited cooper pairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Arrietea, M. G.; Solis, M. A.; De Llano, M. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F (Mexico)

    2001-02-01

    Excited cooper pairs formed in a many-fermion system are those with nonzero total center-of mass momentum (CMM). They are normally neglected in the standard Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) theory of superconductivity for being too few compared with zero CMM pairs. However, a Bose-Einstein condensation picture requires both zero and nonzero CMM pairs. Assuming a BCS model interaction between fermions we determine the populations for all CMM values of Cooper pairs by actually calculating the number of nonzero-CMM pairs relative to that of zero-CMM ones in both 2D and 3D. Although this ratio decreases rapidly with CMM, the number of Cooper pairs for any specific CMM less than the maximum (or breakup of the pair) momentum turns out to be typically larger than about 95% of those with zero-CMM at zero temperature T. Even at T {approx}100 K this fraction en 2D is still as large as about 70% for typical quasi-2D cuprate superconductor parameters. [Spanish] Los pares de cooper excitados formados en un sistema de muchos electrones, son aquellos con momentos de centro de masa (CMM) diferente de cero. Normalmente estos no son tomados en cuenta en la teoria estandar de la superconductividad de Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) al suponer que su numero es muy pequeno comparados con los pares de centro de masa igual a cero. Sin embargo, un esquema de condensacion Bose-Einstein requiere de ambos pares, con CMM cero y diferente de cero. Asumiendo una interaccion modelo BCS entre los fermiones, determinamos la poblacion de pares cooper con cada uno de todos los posibles valores del CMM calculando el numero de pares con momentos de centro de masa diferente de cero relativo a los pares de CMM igual a cero, en 2D y 3D. Aunque esta razon decrece rapidamente con el CMM, el numero de pares de cooper para cualquier CMM especifico menor que el momento maximo (o rompimiento de par) es tipicamente mas grande que el 95% de aquellos con CMM cero. Aun a T {approx}100 K esta fraccion en 2D es

  20. Uniform excitations in magnetic nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steen Mørup

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a short review of the magnetic excitations in nanoparticles below the superparamagnetic blocking temperature. In this temperature regime, the magnetic dynamics in nanoparticles is dominated by uniform excitations, and this leads to a linear temperature dependence of the magnetization and the magnetic hyperfine field, in contrast to the Bloch T3/2 law in bulk materials. The temperature dependence of the average magnetization is conveniently studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy. The energy of the uniform excitations of magnetic nanoparticles can be studied by inelastic neutron scattering.

  1. Uniform excitations in magnetic nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Steen; Frandsen, Cathrine; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt

    2010-01-01

    We present a short review of the magnetic excitations in nanoparticles below the superparamagnetic blocking temperature. In this temperature regime, the magnetic dynamics in nanoparticles is dominated by uniform excitations, and this leads to a linear temperature dependence of the magnetization...... and the magnetic hyperfine field, in contrast to the Bloch T3/2 law in bulk materials. The temperature dependence of the average magnetization is conveniently studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy. The energy of the uniform excitations of magnetic nanoparticles can be studied by inelastic neutron scattering....

  2. Indirect excitation of ultrafast demagnetization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vodungbo, B; Tudu, B; Perron, J; Delaunay, R; Müller, L; Berntsen, M.H; Grübel, G; Malinowski, G; Weier, C; Gautier, J; Lambert, G; Zeitoun, P; Gutt, C; Jal, E; Reid, A.H; Granitzka, P.W; Jaouen, N; Dakovski, G.L; Moeller, S; Minitti, M.P; Mitra, A; Carron, S; Pfau, B; von Korff Schmising, C; Schneider, M; Eisebitt, S; Lüning, J

    2016-01-01

    .... Upon excitation with an intense femtosecond-short IR laser pulse, the film exhibits the classical ultrafast demagnetization phenomenon although only a negligible number of IR photons penetrate the aluminum layer...

  3. Transport waves as crystal excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepellotti, Andrea; Marzari, Nicola

    2017-09-01

    We introduce the concept of transport waves by showing that the linearized Boltzmann transport equation admits excitations in the form of waves that have well-defined dispersion relations and decay times. Crucially, these waves do not represent single-particle excitations, but are collective excitations of the equilibrium distribution functions. We study in detail the case of thermal transport, where relaxons are found in the long-wavelength limit, and second sound is reinterpreted as the excitation of one or several temperature waves at finite frequencies. Graphene is studied numerically, finding decay times of the order of microseconds. The derivation, obtained by a spectral representation of the Boltzmann equation, holds in principle for any crystal or semiclassical transport theory and is particularly relevant when transport takes place in the hydrodynamic regime.

  4. Indirect excitation of ultrafast demagnetization

    OpenAIRE

    Boris Vodungbo; Bahrati Tudu; Jonathan Perron; Renaud Delaunay; Leonard Müller; Berntsen, Magnus H.; Gerhard Grübel; Grégory Malinowski; Christian Weier; Julien Gautier; Guillaume Lambert; Philippe Zeitoun; Christian Gutt; Emmanuelle Jal; Reid, Alexander H.

    2016-01-01

    Does the excitation of ultrafast magnetization require direct interaction between the photons of the optical pump pulse and the magnetic layer? Here, we demonstrate unambiguously that this is not the case. For this we have studied the magnetization dynamics of a ferromagnetic cobalt/palladium multilayer capped by an IR-opaque aluminum layer. Upon excitation with an intense femtosecond-short IR laser pulse, the film exhibits the classical ultrafast demagnetization phenomenon although only a ne...

  5. Stochastic Hierarchical Systems: Excitable Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Leonhardt, Helmar; Zaks, Michael A.; Falcke, Martin; Schimansky-Geier, Lutz

    2008-01-01

    We present a discrete model of stochastic excitability by a low-dimensional set of delayed integral equations governing the probability in the rest state, the excited state, and the refractory state. The process is a random walk with discrete states and nonexponential waiting time distributions, which lead to the incorporation of memory kernels in the integral equations. We extend the equations of a single unit to the system of equations for an ensemble of globally coupled oscillators, derive...

  6. Autowaves in moving excitable media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A.Davydov

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of kinematic theory of autowaves we suggest a method for analytic description of stationary autowave structures appearing at the boundary between the moving and fixed excitable media. The front breakdown phenomenon is predicted for such structures. Autowave refraction and, particulary, one-side "total reflection" at the boundary is considered. The obtained analytical results are confirmed by computer simulations. Prospects of the proposed method for further studies of autowave dynamics in the moving excitable media are discussed.

  7. Have Gluonic Excitations Been Found?

    OpenAIRE

    Page, Philip R.

    1996-01-01

    New experimental information on the non-exotic J^PC = 0^-+ isovector seen at 1.8 GeV by VES yields convincing evidence of its excited gluonic (hybrid) nature when a critical study of alternative quarkonium assignments is made in the context of ^3 P_0 decay by flux-tube breaking. Production of this gluonic excitation via meson exchange is promising, although its two photon production vanishes.

  8. Electron-excited molecule interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christophorou, L.G. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA) Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (USA). Dept. of Physics)

    1991-01-01

    In this paper the limited but significant knowledge to date on electron scattering from vibrationally/rotationally excited molecules and electron scattering from and electron impact ionization of electronically excited molecules is briefly summarized and discussed. The profound effects of the internal energy content of a molecule on its electron attachment properties are highlighted focusing in particular on electron attachment to vibrationally/rotationally and to electronically excited molecules. The limited knowledge to date on electron-excited molecule interactions clearly shows that the cross sections for certain electron-molecule collision processes can be very different from those involving ground state molecules. For example, optically enhanced electron attachment studies have shown that electron attachment to electronically excited molecules can occur with cross sections 10{sup 6} to 10{sup 7} times larger compared to ground state molecules. The study of electron-excited molecule interactions offers many experimental and theoretical challenges and opportunities and is both of fundamental and technological significance. 54 refs., 15 figs.

  9. Sadomasochism, sexual excitement, and perversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernberg, O F

    1991-01-01

    Sadomasochism, an ingredient of infantile sexuality, is an essential part of normal sexual functioning and love relations, and of the very nature of sexual excitement. Sadomasochistic elements are also present in all sexual perversions. Sadomasochism starts out as the potential for erotic masochism in both sexes, and represents a very early capacity to link aggression with the libidinal elements of sexual excitement. Sexual excitement may be considered a basic affect that overcomes primitive splitting of love and hatred. Erotic desire is a more mature form of sexual excitement. Psychoanalytic exploration makes it possible to uncover the unconscious components of sexual excitement: wishes for symbiotic fusion and for aggressive penetration and intermingling; bisexual identifications; the desire to transgress oedipal prohibitions and the secretiveness of the primal scene, and to violate the boundaries of a teasing and withholding object. The relation between these wishes and the development of erotic idealization processes in both sexes is explored in the context of a critical review of the pertinent psychoanalytic literature.

  10. Coulomb excitation of (31)Mg

    CERN Document Server

    Seidlitz, M; Reiter, P; Bildstein, V; Blazhev, A; Bree, N; Bruyneel, B; Cederkall, J; Clement, E; Davinson, T; van Duppen, P; Ekstrom, A; Finke, F; Fraile, L M; Geibel, K; Gernhauser, R; Hess, H; Holler, A; Huyse, M; Ivanov, O; Jolie, J; Kalkuhler, M; Kotthaus, T; Krucken, R; Lutter, R; Piselli, E; Scheit, H; Stefanescu, I; van de Walle, J; Voulot, D; Warr, N; Wenander, F; Wiens, A

    2011-01-01

    The ground state properties of ^3^1Mg indicate a change of nuclear shape at N=19 with a deformed J^@p=1/2^+ intruder state as a ground state, implying that ^3^1Mg is part of the ''island of inversion''. The collective properties of excited states were the subject of a Coulomb excitation experiment at REX-ISOLDE, CERN, employing a radioactive ^3^1Mg beam. De-excitation @c-rays were detected by the MINIBALL @c-spectrometer in coincidence with scattered particles in a segmented Si-detector. The level scheme of ^3^1Mg was extended. Spin and parity assignment of the 945 keV state yielded 5/2^+ and its de-excitation is dominated by a strong collective M1 transition. Comparison of the transition probabilities of ^3^0^,^3^1^,^3^2Mg establishes that for th e N=19 magnesium isotope not only the ground state but also excited states are largely dominated by a deformed pf intruder configuration.

  11. Indirect excitation of ultrafast demagnetization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodungbo, Boris; Tudu, Bahrati; Perron, Jonathan; Delaunay, Renaud; Müller, Leonard; Berntsen, Magnus H.; Grübel, Gerhard; Malinowski, Grégory; Weier, Christian; Gautier, Julien; Lambert, Guillaume; Zeitoun, Philippe; Gutt, Christian; Jal, Emmanuelle; Reid, Alexander H.; Granitzka, Patrick W.; Jaouen, Nicolas; Dakovski, Georgi L.; Moeller, Stefan; Minitti, Michael P.; Mitra, Ankush; Carron, Sebastian; Pfau, Bastian; von Korff Schmising, Clemens; Schneider, Michael; Eisebitt, Stefan; Lüning, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Does the excitation of ultrafast magnetization require direct interaction between the photons of the optical pump pulse and the magnetic layer? Here, we demonstrate unambiguously that this is not the case. For this we have studied the magnetization dynamics of a ferromagnetic cobalt/palladium multilayer capped by an IR-opaque aluminum layer. Upon excitation with an intense femtosecond-short IR laser pulse, the film exhibits the classical ultrafast demagnetization phenomenon although only a negligible number of IR photons penetrate the aluminum layer. In comparison with an uncapped cobalt/palladium reference film, the initial demagnetization of the capped film occurs with a delayed onset and at a slower rate. Both observations are qualitatively in line with energy transport from the aluminum layer into the underlying magnetic film by the excited, hot electrons of the aluminum film. Our data thus confirm recent theoretical predictions.

  12. Magnetic excitations in deformed nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nojarov, R. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    1995-08-01

    Cross sections for inelastic electron scattering and energy distributions of M1 and E2 strengths of K{sup {pi}} - 1{sup +} excitations in titanium, rare-earth, and actinide nuclei are studied microscopically within QRPA. The spin M1 strength has two peaks, isoscalar and isovector, residing between the low-and high-energy orbital M1 strength. The latter is strongly fragmented and lies in the region of the IVGQR, where the (e,e`) cross sections are almost one order of magnitude larger for E2 than for M1 excitations. Comparison with the quantized isovector rotor allows the interpretation of all the orbital M1 excitations at both low and high energies as manifestation of the collective scissors mode. (author).

  13. Excitation optimization for damage detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bement, Matthew T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bewley, Thomas R [UCSD

    2009-01-01

    A technique is developed to answer the important question: 'Given limited system response measurements and ever-present physical limits on the level of excitation, what excitation should be provided to a system to make damage most detectable?' Specifically, a method is presented for optimizing excitations that maximize the sensitivity of output measurements to perturbations in damage-related parameters estimated with an extended Kalman filter. This optimization is carried out in a computationally efficient manner using adjoint-based optimization and causes the innovations term in the extended Kalman filter to be larger in the presence of estimation errors, which leads to a better estimate of the damage-related parameters in question. The technique is demonstrated numerically on a nonlinear 2 DOF system, where a significant improvement in the damage-related parameter estimation is observed.

  14. Indirect excitation of ultrafast demagnetization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodungbo, Boris; Tudu, Bharati; Tudu, Bahrati; Perron, Jonathan; Delaunay, Renaud; Müller, Leonard; Berntsen, Magnus H; Grübel, Gerhard; Malinowski, Grégory; Weier, Christian; Gautier, Julien; Lambert, Guillaume; Zeitoun, Philippe; Gutt, Christian; Jal, Emmanuelle; Reid, Alexander H; Granitzka, Patrick W; Jaouen, Nicolas; Dakovski, Georgi L; Moeller, Stefan; Minitti, Michael P; Mitra, Ankush; Carron, Sebastian; Pfau, Bastian; von Korff Schmising, Clemens; Schneider, Michael; Eisebitt, Stefan; Lüning, Jan

    2016-01-06

    Does the excitation of ultrafast magnetization require direct interaction between the photons of the optical pump pulse and the magnetic layer? Here, we demonstrate unambiguously that this is not the case. For this we have studied the magnetization dynamics of a ferromagnetic cobalt/palladium multilayer capped by an IR-opaque aluminum layer. Upon excitation with an intense femtosecond-short IR laser pulse, the film exhibits the classical ultrafast demagnetization phenomenon although only a negligible number of IR photons penetrate the aluminum layer. In comparison with an uncapped cobalt/palladium reference film, the initial demagnetization of the capped film occurs with a delayed onset and at a slower rate. Both observations are qualitatively in line with energy transport from the aluminum layer into the underlying magnetic film by the excited, hot electrons of the aluminum film. Our data thus confirm recent theoretical predictions.

  15. Autoresonant Excitation of Antiproton Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Andresen, Gorm B; Baquero-Ruiz, Marcelo; Bertsche, William; Bowe, Paul D; Butler, Eoin; Carpenter, P T; Cesar, Claudio L; Chapman, Steven; Charlton, Michael; Fajans, Joel; Friesen, Tim; Fujiwara, Makoto C; Gill, David R; Hangst, Jeffrey S; Hardy, Walter N; Hayden, Michael E; Humphries, Andrew J; Hurt, J L; Hydomako, Richard; Jonsell, Svante; Madsen, Niels; Menary, Scott; Nolan, Paul; Olchanski, Konstantin; Olin, Art; Povilus, Alexander; Pusa, Petteri; Robicheaux, Francis; Sarid, Eli; Silveira, Daniel M; So, Chukman; Storey, James W; Thompson, Robert I; van der Werf, Dirk P; Wurtele, Jonathan S; Yamazaki, Yasunori

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate controllable excitation of the center-of-mass longitudinal motion of a thermal antiproton plasma using a swept-frequency autoresonant drive. When the plasma is cold, dense, and highly collective in nature, we observe that the entire system behaves as a single-particle nonlinear oscillator, as predicted by a recent theory. In contrast, only a fraction of the antiprotons in a warm plasma can be similarly excited. Antihydrogen was produced and trapped by using this technique to drive antiprotons into a positron plasma, thereby initiating atomic recombination.

  16. Excitation of a biconical line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goshin, G. G.

    1985-01-01

    The Kontorovich-Lebedev integral transformation is used to obtain in an analytic form a rigorous solution to the quasi-three-dimensional problem involving the excitation of a biconical surface with ideally conducting boundaries by slotted ring sources that are phased according to the traveling-wave law. The results can be used in the design of elliptical-polarization biconical antennas.

  17. Performance of thermally excited resonators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt; van Ouwerkerk, R.H.; Bouwstra, S.; Bouwstra, S.; Fluitman, J.H.J.

    A study of electrothermal excitation of micro-machined silicon beams is reported. The temperature distribution is calculated as a function of the position of the transducer, resulting in stress in the structure which reduces the resonance frequency. Test samples are realized and measurements or

  18. Indirect excitation of ultrafast demagnetization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vodungbo, B.; Tudu, B.; Perron, J.; Delaunay, R.; Müller, L.; Berntsen, M.H.; Grübel, G.; Malinowski, G.; Weier, C.; Gautier, J.; Lambert, G.; Zeitoun, P.; Gutt, C.; Jal, E.; Reid, A.H.; Granitzka, P.W.; Jaouen, N,; Dakovski, G.L.; Moeller, S.; Minitti, M.P.; Mitra, A.; Carron, S.; Pfau, B.; von Korff Schmising, C.; Schneider, M.; Eisebitt, S.; Lüning, J.

    2016-01-01

    Does the excitation of ultrafast magnetization require direct interaction between the photons of the optical pump pulse and the magnetic layer? Here, we demonstrate unambiguously that this is not the case. For this we have studied the magnetization dynamics of a ferromagnetic cobalt/palladium

  19. Predictions for Excited Strange Baryons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernando, Ishara P.; Goity, Jose L. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    An assessment is made of predictions for excited hyperon masses which follow from flavor symmetry and consistency with a 1/N c expansion of QCD. Such predictions are based on presently established baryonic resonances. Low lying hyperon resonances which do not seem to fit into the proposed scheme are discussed.

  20. Excitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorner, B. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1996-12-31

    A short introduction to instrumental resolution is followed by a discussion of visibilities of phonon modes due to their eigenvectors. High precision phonon dispersion curves in GaAs are presented together with `ab initio` calculations. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is taken as an example of selected visibility due to group theory. By careful determination of phonon intensities eigenvectors can be determined, such as in Silicon and Diamond. The investigation of magnon modes is shown for the garnet Fe{sub 2}Ca{sub 3}(GeO{sub 4}){sub 3}, where also a quantum gap due to zero point spin fluctuations was observed. The study of the splitting of excitons in CsFeCl{sub 3} in an applied magnetic field demonstrates the possibilities of neutron polarisation analysis, which made it possible to observe a mode crossing. An outlook to inelastic X-ray scattering with very high energy resolution of synchrotron radiation is given with the examples of phonons in Beryllium and in water. (author) 19 figs., 36 refs.

  1. Mean excitation energies for molecular ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Phillip W. K.; Sauer, Stephan P. A.; Oddershede, Jens

    2017-01-01

    The essential material constant that determines the bulk of the stopping power of high energy projectiles, the mean excitation energy, is calculated for a range of smaller molecular ions using the RPA method. It is demonstrated that the mean excitation energy of both molecules and atoms increase...... with ionic charge. However, while the mean excitation energies of atoms also increase with atomic number, the opposite is the case for mean excitation energies for molecules and molecular ions. The origin of these effects is explained by considering the spectral representation of the excited state...... contributing to the mean excitation energy....

  2. Mean excitation energies for molecular ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Phillip W.K.; Sauer, Stephan P.A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Oddershede, Jens [Department of Physics, Chemistry, and Pharmacy, University of Southern Denmark, Odense (Denmark); Quantum Theory Project, Departments of Physics and Chemistry, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Sabin, John R., E-mail: sabin@qtp.ufl.edu [Department of Physics, Chemistry, and Pharmacy, University of Southern Denmark, Odense (Denmark); Quantum Theory Project, Departments of Physics and Chemistry, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The essential material constant that determines the bulk of the stopping power of high energy projectiles, the mean excitation energy, is calculated for a range of smaller molecular ions using the RPA method. It is demonstrated that the mean excitation energy of both molecules and atoms increase with ionic charge. However, while the mean excitation energies of atoms also increase with atomic number, the opposite is the case for mean excitation energies for molecules and molecular ions. The origin of these effects is explained by considering the spectral representation of the excited state contributing to the mean excitation energy.

  3. Excited B states at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Kluit, Peter M

    2005-01-01

    The first orbitally excited B states were discovered at LEP in 1995. In subsequent years evidence was put forward for the existence of several excited B hadron states. Now, ten years later it is time to review the situation. New analyses have been performed in DELPHI using the full LEP data set with improved and high performance analysis tools. Measurements for the production rate and masses of narrow and broad B/sub u, d//sup **/ mesons will be presented as well as results for the search for B/sub s//sup **/ mesons and Sigma /sub b//sup (*)/ baryons. The results will be compared to earlier measurements, predictions from HQET and measurements in the charm sector.

  4. International Meeting: Excited QCD 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Giacosa, Francesco; Malek, Magdalena; Marinkovic, Marina; Parganlija, Denis

    2014-01-01

    Excited QCD 2014 will take place on the beautiful Bjelasnica mountain located in the vicinity of the Bosnian capital Sarajevo. Bjelasnica was a venue of the XIV Winter Olympic Games and it is situated only 30 kilometers from Sarajevo International Airport. The workshop program will start on February 2 and finish on February 8, 2014, with scientific lectures taking place from February 3 to 7. Workshop participants will be accomodated in Hotel Marsal, only couple of minutes by foot from the Olympic ski slopes. ABOUT THE WORKSHOP This edition is the sixth in a series of workshops that were previously organised in Poland, Slovakia, France and Portugal. Following the succesful meeting in 2013, the Workshop is returning to Sarajevo Olympic mountains in 2014, exactly thirty years after the Games. The workshop covers diverse aspects of QCD: (i) QCD at low energies: excited hadrons, glueballs, multiquarks. (ii) QCD at high temperatures and large densities: heavy-ion collisions, jets, diffraction, hadronisation, quark-...

  5. Stochastic hierarchical systems: excitable dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Helmar; Zaks, Michael A; Falcke, Martin; Schimansky-Geier, Lutz

    2008-10-01

    We present a discrete model of stochastic excitability by a low-dimensional set of delayed integral equations governing the probability in the rest state, the excited state, and the refractory state. The process is a random walk with discrete states and nonexponential waiting time distributions, which lead to the incorporation of memory kernels in the integral equations. We extend the equations of a single unit to the system of equations for an ensemble of globally coupled oscillators, derive the mean field equations, and investigate bifurcations of steady states. Conditions of destabilization are found, which imply oscillations of the mean fields in the stochastic ensemble. The relation between the mean field equations and the paradigmatic Kuramoto model is shown.

  6. Uniform magnetic excitations in nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Steen; Hansen, Britt Rosendahl

    2005-01-01

    We have used a spin-wave model to calculate the temperature dependence of the (sublattice) magnetization of magnetic nanoparticles. The uniform precession mode, corresponding to a spin wave with wave vector q=0, is predominant in nanoparticles and gives rise to an approximately linear temperature...... dependence of the (sublattice) magnetization well below the superparamagnetic blocking temperature for both ferro-, ferri-, and antiferromagnetic particles. This is in accordance with the results of a classical model for collective magnetic excitations in nanoparticles. In nanoparticles of antiferromagnetic...... materials, quantum effects give rise to a small deviation from the linear temperature dependence of the (sublattice) magnetization at very low temperatures. The complex nature of the excited precession states of nanoparticles of antiferromagnetic materials, with deviations from antiparallel orientation...

  7. Channelopathies of skeletal muscle excitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Stephen C.

    2016-01-01

    Familial disorders of skeletal muscle excitability were initially described early in the last century and are now known to be caused by mutations of voltage-gated ion channels. The clinical manifestations are often striking, with an inability to relax after voluntary contraction (myotonia) or transient attacks of severe weakness (periodic paralysis). An essential feature of these disorders is fluctuation of symptoms that are strongly impacted by environmental triggers such as exercise, temperature, or serum K+ levels. These phenomena have intrigued physiologists for decades, and in the past 25 years the molecular lesions underlying these disorders have been identified and mechanistic studies are providing insights for therapeutic strategies of disease modification. These familial disorders of muscle fiber excitability are “channelopathies” caused by mutations of a chloride channel (ClC-1), sodium channel (NaV1.4), calcium channel (CaV1.1) and several potassium channels (Kir2.1, Kir2.6, Kir3.4). This review provides a synthesis of the mechanistic connections between functional defects of mutant ion channels, their impact on muscle excitability, how these changes cause clinical phenotypes, and approaches toward therapeutics. PMID:25880512

  8. Excitation system testing in HPP 'Uvac'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milojčić Nemanja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The excitation system of hydro unit in HPP 'Uvac' and results of testings of excitation system performed for achieving of unit's mathematical model are presented in this paper. Description of excitation system equipment, parameters of regulators and results obtained after testings are presented. The presented results showed that the regulators are properly adjusted and that the excitation system is completely functional and reliable.

  9. Femtosecond laser excitation of dielectric materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wædegaard, Kristian Juncher; Balling, Peter; Frislev, Martin Thomas

    2012-01-01

    We report an approach to modeling the interaction between ultrashort laser pulses and dielectric materials. The model includes the excitation of carriers by the laser through strongfield excitation, collisional excitation, and absorption in the plasma consisting of conduction-band electrons formed...

  10. Turbulent swirling jets with excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghavi, Rahmat; Farokhi, Saeed

    1988-01-01

    An existing cold-jet facility at NASA Lewis Research Center was modified to produce swirling flows with controllable initial tangential velocity distribution. Two extreme swirl profiles, i.e., one with solid-body rotation and the other predominated by a free-vortex distribution, were produced at identical swirl number of 0.48. Mean centerline velocity decay characteristics of the solid-body rotation jet flow exhibited classical decay features of a swirling jet with S - 0.48 reported in the literature. However, the predominantly free-vortex distribution case was on the verge of vortex breakdown, a phenomenon associated with the rotating flows of significantly higher swirl numbers, i.e., S sub crit greater than or equal to 0.06. This remarkable result leads to the conclusion that the integrated swirl effect, reflected in the swirl number, is inadequate in describing the mean swirling jet behavior in the near field. The relative size (i.e., diameter) of the vortex core emerging from the nozzle and the corresponding tangential velocity distribution are also controlling factors. Excitability of swirling jets is also investigated by exciting a flow with a swirl number of 0.35 by plane acoustic waves at a constant sound pressure level and at various frequencies. It is observed that the cold swirling jet is excitable by plane waves, and that the instability waves grow about 50 percent less in peak r.m.s. amplitude and saturate further upstream compared to corresponding waves in a jet without swirl having the same axial mass flux. The preferred Strouhal number based on the mass-averaged axial velocity and nozzle exit diameter for both swirling and nonswirling flows is 0.4.

  11. Excited state Intramolecular Proton Transfer in Anthralin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Andersen, Kristine B.; Spanget-Larsen, Jens

    1998-01-01

    Quantum chemical calculations performed on anthralin (1,8-dihydroxy-9(10H)-anthracenone) predict the possibility of an excited-state intramolecular proton transfer process. Fluorescence excitation and emission spectra of the compound dissolved in n-hexane at ambient temperature results in an unus......Quantum chemical calculations performed on anthralin (1,8-dihydroxy-9(10H)-anthracenone) predict the possibility of an excited-state intramolecular proton transfer process. Fluorescence excitation and emission spectra of the compound dissolved in n-hexane at ambient temperature results......, associated with an excited-state intramolecular proton transfer process....

  12. Excitation of surface electromagnetic waves on water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A K; Goben, C A; Davarpanah, M; Boone, J L

    1978-11-01

    Excitation of surface electromagnetic waves (SEW) on water was studied using optical coupling techniques at microwave frequencies. Excitation of SEW was also achieved using direct horn antenna coupling. The transmitted SEW power was increased by adding acid and salt to water. The horn antenna gave the maximum excitation efficiency 70%. It was increased to 75% by collimating the electromagnetic beam in the vertical direction. Excitation efficiency for the prism (0 degrees pitch angle) and grating couplers were 15.2% and 10.5% respectively. By changing the prism coupler pitch angle to +36 degrees , its excitation efficiency was increased to 82%.

  13. Coulomb excitation of 73Ga

    CERN Document Server

    Diriken, J; Balabanski, D; Blasi, N; Blazhev, A; Bree, N; Cederkäll, J; Cocolios, T E; Davinson, T; Eberth, J; Ekström, A; Fedorov, D V; Fedosseev, V N; Fraille, L M; Franchoo, S; Georgiev, G; Gladnishki, K; Huyse, M; Ivanov, O V; Ivanov, V S; Iwanicki, V; Jolie, J; Konstantinopoulos, T; Kröll, Th; Krücken, R; Köster, U; Lagoyannis, A; Bianco, G Lo; Maierbeck, P; March, B A; Napiarkowski, P; Patronis, N; Pauwels, D; Reiter, P; Seliverstov, M; Sletten, G; Van de Walle, J; Van Duppen, P; Voulot, D; Walters, W B; Warr, N; Wenander, F; Wrzosek, K

    2010-01-01

    The B(E2; Ii ! If ) values for transitions in 71Ga and 73Ga were deduced from a Coulomb excitation experiment at the safe energy of 2.95 MeV/nucleon using post-accelerated beams of 71,73Ga at the REX-ISOLDE on-line isotope mass separator facility. The emitted gamma rays were detected by the MINIBALL-detector array and B(E2; Ii->If ) values were obtained from the yields normalized to the known strength of the 2+ -> 0+ transition in the 120Sn target. The comparison of these new results with the data of less neutron-rich gallium isotopes shows a shift of the E2 collectivity towards lower excitation energy when adding neutrons beyond N = 40. This supports conclusions from previous studies of the gallium isotopes which indicated a structural change in this isotopical chain between N = 40 and N = 42. Combined with recent measurements from collinear laser spectroscopy showing a 1/2- spin and parity for the ground state, the extracted results revealed evidence for a 1/2-; 3/2- doublet near the ground state in 73 31Ga...

  14. Synaptic control of motoneuronal excitability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rekling, J C; Funk, G D; Bayliss, D A

    2000-01-01

    Movement, the fundamental component of behavior and the principal extrinsic action of the brain, is produced when skeletal muscles contract and relax in response to patterns of action potentials generated by motoneurons. The processes that determine the firing behavior of motoneurons are therefore...... important in understanding the transformation of neural activity to motor behavior. Here, we review recent studies on the control of motoneuronal excitability, focusing on synaptic and cellular properties. We first present a background description of motoneurons: their development, anatomical organization...... current, hyperpolarization-activated inward current, Ca(2+) channels, or presynaptic release processes. Together, these numerous inputs mediate and modify incoming motor commands, ultimately generating the coordinated firing patterns that underlie muscle contractions during motor behavior....

  15. Statistical dynamo theory: Mode excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyng, P

    2009-04-01

    We compute statistical properties of the lowest-order multipole coefficients of the magnetic field generated by a dynamo of arbitrary shape. To this end we expand the field in a complete biorthogonal set of base functions, viz. B= summation operator_{k}a;{k}(t)b;{k}(r) . The properties of these biorthogonal function sets are treated in detail. We consider a linear problem and the statistical properties of the fluid flow are supposed to be given. The turbulent convection may have an arbitrary distribution of spatial scales. The time evolution of the expansion coefficients a;{k} is governed by a stochastic differential equation from which we infer their averages a;{k} , autocorrelation functions a;{k}(t)a;{k *}(t+tau) , and an equation for the cross correlations a;{k}a;{l *} . The eigenfunctions of the dynamo equation (with eigenvalues lambda_{k} ) turn out to be a preferred set in terms of which our results assume their simplest form. The magnetic field of the dynamo is shown to consist of transiently excited eigenmodes whose frequency and coherence time is given by Ilambda_{k} and -1/Rlambda_{k} , respectively. The relative rms excitation level of the eigenmodes, and hence the distribution of magnetic energy over spatial scales, is determined by linear theory. An expression is derived for |a;{k}|;{2}/|a;{0}|;{2} in case the fundamental mode b;{0} has a dominant amplitude, and we outline how this expression may be evaluated. It is estimated that |a;{k}|;{2}/|a;{0}|;{2} approximately 1/N , where N is the number of convective cells in the dynamo. We show that the old problem of a short correlation time (or first-order smoothing approximation) has been partially eliminated. Finally we prove that for a simple statistically steady dynamo with finite resistivity all eigenvalues obey Rlambda_{k}<0 .

  16. A large electrically excited synchronous generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    This invention relates to a large electrically excited synchronous generator (100), comprising a stator (101), and a rotor or rotor coreback (102) comprising an excitation coil (103) generating a magnetic field during use, wherein the rotor or rotor coreback (102) further comprises a plurality...... adjacent neighbouring poles. In this way, a large electrically excited synchronous generator (EESG) is provided that readily enables a relatively large number of poles, compared to a traditional EESG, since the excitation coil in this design provides MMF for all the poles, whereas in a traditional EESG...

  17. The mechanisms of Excited states in enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Frederic Nicolas Rønne; Bohr, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Enzyme catalysis is studied on the basis of excited state processes, which are of electronic, vibrational and thermal nature. The ways of achieving the excited state, such as photo-absorption and ligand binding, are discussed and exemplified by various cases of enzymes.......Enzyme catalysis is studied on the basis of excited state processes, which are of electronic, vibrational and thermal nature. The ways of achieving the excited state, such as photo-absorption and ligand binding, are discussed and exemplified by various cases of enzymes....

  18. Elementary excitations of ferromagnetic metal nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cehovin, A.; Canali, C.; MacDonald, A.

    2003-07-01

    We present a theory of the elementary spin excitations in transition-metal ferromagnet nanoparticles which achieves a unified and consistent quantum description of both collective and quasiparticle physics. The theory starts by recognizing the essential role played by spin-orbit interactions in determining the energies of ferromagnetic resonances in the collective excitation spectrum and the strength of their coupling to low-energy particle-hole excitations. We argue that a crossover between Landau-damped ferromagnetic resonance and pure-state collective magnetic excitations occurs as the number of atoms in typical transition-metal ferromagnet nanoparticles drops below approximately 104, about where the single-particle level spacing, δ, becomes larger than (α)Eres, where Eres is the ferromagnetic resonance frequency and α is the Gilbert damping parameter. We illustrate our ideas by studying the properties of semirealistic model Hamiltonians, which we solve numerically for nanoparticles containing several hundred atoms. For small nanoparticles, we find one isolated ferromagnetic resonance collective mode below the lowest particle-hole excitation energy, at Eres≈0.1 meV. The spectral weight of this pure excitation nearly exhausts the transverse dynamical susceptibility spectral weight. As δ approaches (α)Eres, the ferromagnetic collective excitation is more likely to couple strongly with discrete particle-hole excitations. In this regime the distinction between the two types of excitations blurs. We discuss the significance of this picture for the interpretation of recent single-electron tunneling experiments.

  19. LS1: exciting times ahead

    CERN Multimedia

    Caroline Duc

    2013-01-01

    As the first and last proton-lead run of 2013 draws to a close, the extensive upgrade and maintenance programme of the LHC's first long shutdown (LS1) is about to get under way.   The LHC has provided physicists with a huge quantity of data to analyse since the first physics run in 2009. Now it's time for the machine, along with CERN's other accelerators, to get a facelift. LS1 will start on 13 February 2013, but this doesn’t mean that life at the Laboratory will be any less rich and exciting. Although there will be no collisions for a period of almost two years, the whole CERN site will be a hive of activity, with large-scale work under way to modernise the infrastructure and prepare the LHC for operation at higher energy. "A whole series of renovation work will be carried out around the LHC during LS1,” explains Simon Baird, deputy head of the EN Department. "The key driver is of course the consolidation of the 10,170 high-curren...

  20. Excited-state Wigner crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Fergus J. M.; Loos, Pierre-François

    2017-01-01

    Wigner crystals (WCs) are electronic phases peculiar to low-density systems, particularly in the uniform electron gas. Since its introduction in the early twentieth century, this model has remained essential to many aspects of electronic structure theory and condensed-matter physics. Although the (lowest-energy) ground-state WC (GSWC) has been thoroughly studied, the properties of excited-state WCs (ESWCs) are basically unknown. To bridge this gap, we present a well-defined procedure to obtain an entire family of ESWCs in a one-dimensional electron gas using a symmetry-broken mean-field approach. While the GSWC is a commensurate crystal (i.e., the number of density maxima equals the number of electrons), these ESWCs are incommensurate crystals exhibiting more or less maxima. Interestingly, they are lower in energy than the (uniform) Fermi fluid state. For some of these ESWCs, we have found asymmetrical band gaps, which would lead to anisotropic conductivity. These properties are associated with unusual characteristics in their electronic structure.

  1. Resonant coherent excitation of channeled ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datz, S.; Moak, C.D.; Crawford, O.H.; Krause, H.F.; Dittner, P.F.; Gomez del Campo, J.; Biggerstaff, J.A.; Miller, P.D.; Hvelplund, P.; Knudsen, H.

    1978-03-27

    We have observed resonant excitation of swift channeled hydrogenlike ions (Z = 5 to Z = 9) and heliumlike F/sup 7 +/ which arises from a coherent periodic perturbation by the atoms in the bounding crystal rows. The resonance excitation was seen through the reduction in the transmission of fixed-charge-state ions through channels in thin crystals of Au and Ag.

  2. Evolution of Excited Convective Cells in Plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécseli, Hans; Juul Rasmussen, Jens; Sugai, H.

    1984-01-01

    Convective cells are excited externally in a fully ionized magnetized plasma and their space-time evolution is investigated by two-dimensional potential measurements. A positive cell is excited externally by control of the end losses in the 'scrape off' layer of a plasma column produced by surface...

  3. Electromagnetic excitation of ultrasound in electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tankovsky, N. S.

    1996-11-01

    An electromagnetic explanation is given in earlier experimental evidence for the possibility of exciting acoustic signals by a transient electric field in an electrolyte. The theory is in agreement with experimental observations of acoustic signals excited by some elementary electric signals. The described mechanism can be applied to the construction of ultrasonic transducers operating in liquids or in living tissues.

  4. Excitations in Topological Superfluids and Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao

    In this thesis I present the theoretical work on Fermionic surface states, and %the bulk Bosonic collective excitations in topological superfluids and superconductors. Broken symmetries %Bulk-edge correspondence in topological condensed matter systems have implications for the spectrum of Fermionic excitations confined on surfaces or topological defects. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  5. Excitations of Neodymium Ions in Praseodymium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff, M.; Jensen, J.; Mackintosh, A.R.

    1983-01-01

    The excitations of Nd ions dissolved in Pr have been studied by inelastic neutron scattering. A crystal-field level at about 1.2 meV interferes strongly with the host excitations. In the antiferromagnetic phase, another level is observed about 0.5 meV above the ground-state, which is split by the...

  6. New mode of magnetic excitation in praseodymium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, K.N.; McEwen, K.A.; Jensen, J.

    1994-01-01

    A novel propagating mode of magnetic excitation has been observed in Pr. It takes the form of low-energy satellites to the crystal-field excitations on both the hexagonal and cubic sites which are very broad at long wavelengths, rise in energy and rapidly narrow with increasing q, and disappear b...

  7. Excited cosmic strings with superconducting currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Betti; Michel, Florent; Peter, Patrick

    2017-12-01

    We present a detailed analysis of excited cosmic string solutions that possess superconducting currents. These currents can be excited inside the string core, and—if the condensate is large enough—can lead to the excitations of the Higgs field. Next to the case with global unbroken symmetry, we discuss also the effects of the gauging of this symmetry and show that excited condensates persist when coupled to an electromagnetic field. The space-time of such strings is also constructed by solving the Einstein equations numerically and we show how the local scalar curvature is modified by the excitation. We consider the relevance of our results on the cosmic string network evolution as well as observations of primordial gravitational waves and cosmic rays.

  8. Loss of excitation of synchronous generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krištof, Vladimír; Mešter, Marián

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents results of study of loss-of-excitation phenomena simulations. Loss of excitation is a very common fault in synchronous machine operating and can be caused by short circuit of the field winding, unexpected field breaker open or loss-of-excitation relay mal-operation. According to the statistic [1], the generator failure due to loss-of-excitation accounts for 69% of all generator failures. There has been concern over possible incorrect operation of the relay when operating the generator in the under-excited region, during stable transient swings and during major system disturbances. This article can serve as inputs for system operators in preparation of operation area or protection relaying area.

  9. Symmetry characterization of electrons and lattice excitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schober H.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Symmetry concerns all aspects of a physical system from the electronic orbitals to structural and magnetic excitations. In this article we will try to elaborate the fundamental connection between symmetry and excitations. As excitations are manyfold in physical systems it is impossible to treat them exhaustively. We thus concentrate on the two topics of Bloch electrons and phonons. These two examples are complementary in the sense that Bloch electrons describe single particles in an external periodic potential while phonons exemplify a decoupled system of interacting particles. The way we develop the argument gives as by-product a short account of molecular orbitals and molecular vibrations.

  10. Studies of HeH: Dissociative Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertan E.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We have used structure and scattering calculations to determine the potential energy curves, non-adiabatic couplings and autoionization widths for the HeH system. These will be used to study a variety of processes ranging from dissociative recombination to mutual neutralization. As an example, we present our results on the direct dissociative excitation of HeH+ by electron impact via excitation to the two lowest excited states of the ion. The results are found to be in good agreement with experiment.

  11. Relativistic dynamical spin excitations of magnetic adatoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos Dias, M.; Schweflinghaus, B.; Blügel, S.; Lounis, S.

    2015-02-01

    We present a first-principles theory of dynamical spin excitations in the presence of spin-orbit coupling. The broken global spin rotational invariance leads to a new sum rule. We explore the competition between the magnetic anisotropy energy and the external magnetic field, as well as the role of electron-hole excitations, through calculations for 3 d -metal adatoms on the Cu(111) surface. The spin excitation resonance energy and lifetime display nontrivial behavior, establishing the strong impact of relativistic effects. We legitimate the use of the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation down to the atomic limit, but with parameters that differ from a stationary theory.

  12. Nerve excitability in the rat forelimb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnold, Ria; Moldovan, Mihai; Rosberg, Mette Romer

    2017-01-01

    a novel setup to explore the ulnar nerve excitability in rodents. We provide normative ulnar data in 11 adult female Long Evans rats under anaesthesia by comparison with tibial and caudal nerves. Additionally, these measures were repeated weekly on 3 occasions to determine the repeatability of these tests....... Results Nerve excitability assessment of ulnar nerve proved to be a longitudinally repeatable measure of axonal function mature in rats, as were measures in tibial and caudal nerves. Comparison with existing method: Ulnar nerve motor excitability measures were different from the caudal and tibial...

  13. Wideband MEMS Resonator Using Multifrequency Excitation

    KAUST Repository

    Jaber, Nizar

    2016-03-09

    We demonstrate the excitation of combination resonances of additive and subtractive types and their exploitations to realize a large bandwidth micro-machined resonator of large amplitude even at higher harmonic modes of vibrations. The investigation is conducted on a Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) clamped-clamped microbeam fabricated using polyimide as a structural layer coated with nickel from top and chromium and gold layers from bottom. The microbeam is excited by a two-source harmonic excitation, where the first frequency source is swept around the targeted resonance (first or third mode of vibration) while the second source frequency is kept fixed. We report for the first time a large bandwidth and large amplitude response near the higher order modes of vibration. Also, we show that by properly tuning the frequency and amplitude of the excitation force, the frequency bandwidth of the resonator is controlled.

  14. "Safe" Coulomb Excitation of $^{30}$Mg

    CERN Document Server

    Niedermaier, O; Bildstein, V; Boie, H; Fitting, J; Von Hahn, R; Köck, F; Lauer, M; Pal, U K; Podlech, H; Repnow, R; Schwalm, D; Alvarez, C; Ames, F; Bollen, G; Emhofer, S; Habs, D; Kester, O; Lutter, R; Rudolph, K; Pasini, M; Thirolf, P G; Wolf, B H; Eberth, J; Gersch, G; Hess, H; Reiter, P; Thelen, O; Warr, N; Weisshaar, D; Aksouh, F; Van den Bergh, P; Van Duppen, P; Huyse, M; Ivanov, O; Mayet, P; Van de Walle, J; Äystö, J; Butler, P A; Cederkäll, J; Delahaye, P; Fynbo, H O U; Fraile-Prieto, L M; Forstner, O; Franchoo, S; Köster, U; Nilsson, T; Oinonen, M; Sieber, T; Wenander, F; Pantea, M; Richter, A; Schrieder, G; Simon, H; Behrens, T; Gernhäuser, R; Kröll, T; Krücken, R; Münch, M M; Davinson, T; Gerl, J; Huber, G; Hurst, A; Iwanicki, J; Jonson, B; Lieb, P; Liljeby, L; Schempp, A; Scherillo, A; Schmidt, P; Walter, G

    2005-01-01

    We report on the first radioactive beam experiment performed at the recently commissioned REX-ISOLDE facility at CERN in conjunction with the highly efficient $\\gamma$ -spectrometer MINIBALL. Using $^{30}$Mg ions accelerated to an energy of 2.25MeV/u together with a thin $^{nat}$Ni target, Coulomb excitation of the first excited 2+ states of the projectile and target nuclei well below the Coulomb barrier was observed. From the measured relative de-excitation $\\gamma$ -ray yields the B(E2; 0$^{+}_{gs} \\rightarrow 2^{+}_{1}$) value of $^{30}$Mg was determined to be 241(31)$e^{2}$fm$^{4}$. Our result is lower than values obtained at projectile fragmenttion facilities using the intermediate-energy Coulomb excitation method and confirms that the theoretical conjecture that the neutron-rich magnesium isotope $^{30}$Mg lies still outside the "island of inversion".

  15. Parametric excitation of a linear oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butikov, Eugene I.

    2004-07-01

    The phenomenon of parametric resonance is explained and investigated both analytically and with the help of a computer simulation. Parametric excitation is studied for the example of the rotary oscillations of a simple linear system—mechanical torsion spring pendulum excited by periodic variations of its moment of inertia. Conditions and characteristics of parametric resonance and regeneration are found and discussed in detail. Ranges of frequencies within which parametric excitation is possible are determined. Stationary oscillations at the boundaries of these ranges are investigated. The simulation experiments aid greatly an understanding of basic principles and peculiarities of parametric excitation and complement the analytical study of the subject in a manner that is mutually reinforcing.

  16. Parametric excitation of a linear oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butikov, Eugene I [St Petersburg State University, St Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-16

    The phenomenon of parametric resonance is explained and investigated both analytically and with the help of a computer simulation. Parametric excitation is studied for the example of the rotary oscillations of a simple linear system-mechanical torsion spring pendulum excited by periodic variations of its moment of inertia. Conditions and characteristics of parametric resonance and regeneration are found and discussed in detail. Ranges of frequencies within which parametric excitation is possible are determined. Stationary oscillations at the boundaries of these ranges are investigated. The simulation experiments aid greatly an understanding of basic principles and peculiarities of parametric excitation and complement the analytical study of the subject in a manner that is mutually reinforcing.

  17. Faraday waves under time-reversed excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietschmann, Dirk; Stannarius, Ralf; Wagner, Christian; John, Thomas

    2013-03-01

    Do parametrically driven systems distinguish periodic excitations that are time mirrors of each other? Faraday waves in a Newtonian fluid are studied under excitation with superimposed harmonic wave forms. We demonstrate that the threshold parameters for the stability of the ground state are insensitive to a time inversion of the driving function. This is a peculiarity of some dynamic systems. The Faraday system shares this property with standard electroconvection in nematic liquid crystals [J. Heuer et al., Phys. Rev. E 78, 036218 (2008)]. In general, time inversion of the excitation affects the asymptotic stability of a parametrically driven system, even when it is described by linear ordinary differential equations. Obviously, the observed symmetry has to be attributed to the particular structure of the underlying differential equation system. The pattern selection of the Faraday waves above threshold, on the other hand, discriminates between time-mirrored excitation functions.

  18. Students Excited by Stellar Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    In the constellation of Ophiuchus, above the disk of our Milky Way Galaxy, there lurks a stellar corpse spinning 30 times per second -- an exotic star known as a radio pulsar. This object was unknown until it was discovered last week by three high school students. These students are part of the Pulsar Search Collaboratory (PSC) project, run by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Green Bank, WV, and West Virginia University (WVU). The pulsar, which may be a rare kind of neutron star called a recycled pulsar, was discovered independently by Virginia students Alexander Snider and Casey Thompson, on January 20, and a day later by Kentucky student Hannah Mabry. "Every day, I told myself, 'I have to find a pulsar. I better find a pulsar before this class ends,'" said Mabry. When she actually made the discovery, she could barely contain her excitement. "I started screaming and jumping up and down." Thompson was similarly expressive. "After three years of searching, I hadn't found a single thing," he said, "but when I did, I threw my hands up in the air and said, 'Yes!'." Snider said, "It actually feels really neat to be the first person to ever see something like that. It's an uplifting feeling." As part of the PSC, the students analyze real data from NRAO's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) to find pulsars. The students' teachers -- Debra Edwards of Sherando High School, Leah Lorton of James River High School, and Jennifer Carter of Rowan County Senior High School -- all introduced the PSC in their classes, and interested students formed teams to continue the work. Even before the discovery, Mabry simply enjoyed the search. "It just feels like you're actually doing something," she said. "It's a good feeling." Once the pulsar candidate was reported to NRAO, Project Director Rachel Rosen took a look and agreed with the young scientists. A followup observing session was scheduled on the GBT. Snider and Mabry traveled to West Virginia to assist in the

  19. Search for Excited Leptons at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Achard, P.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Alcaraz, J.; Alemanni, G.; Allaby, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alviggi, M.G.; Anderhub, H.; Andreev, Valery P.; Anselmo, F.; Arefev, A.; Azemoon, T.; Aziz, T.; Bagnaia, P.; Bajo, A.; Baksay, G.; Baksay, L.; Baldew, S.V.; Banerjee, S.; Banerjee, Sw.; Barczyk, A.; Barillere, R.; Bartalini, P.; Basile, M.; Batalova, N.; Battiston, R.; Bay, A.; Becattini, F.; Becker, U.; Behner, F.; Bellucci, L.; Berbeco, R.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Betev, B.L.; Biasini, M.; Biglietti, M.; Biland, A.; Blaising, J.J.; Blyth, S.C.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bohm, A.; Boldizsar, L.; Borgia, B.; Bottai, S.; Bourilkov, D.; Bourquin, M.; Braccini, S.; Branson, J.G.; Brochu, F.; Burger, J.D.; Burger, W.J.; Cai, X.D.; Capell, M.; Cara Romeo, G.; Carlino, G.; Cartacci, A.; Casaus, J.; Cavallari, F.; Cavallo, N.; Cecchi, C.; Cerrada, M.; Chamizo, M.; Chang, Y.H.; Chemarin, M.; Chen, A.; Chen, G.; Chen, G.M.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, H.S.; Chiefari, G.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Clare, I.; Clare, R.; Coignet, G.; Colino, N.; Costantini, S.; de la Cruz, B.; Cucciarelli, S.; van Dalen, J.A.; de Asmundis, R.; Deglon, P.; Debreczeni, J.; Degre, A.; Dehmelt, K.; Deiters, K.; della Volpe, D.; Delmeire, E.; Denes, P.; DeNotaristefani, F.; De Salvo, A.; Diemoz, M.; Dierckxsens, M.; Dionisi, C.; Dittmar, M.; Doria, A.; Dova, M.T.; Duchesneau, D.; Duda, M.; Echenard, B.; Eline, A.; El Hage, A.; El Mamouni, H.; Engler, A.; Eppling, F.J.; Extermann, P.; Falagan, M.A.; Falciano, S.; Favara, A.; Fay, J.; Fedin, O.; Felcini, M.; Ferguson, T.; Fesefeldt, H.; Fiandrini, E.; Field, J.H.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, P.H.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, I.; Forconi, G.; Freudenreich, K.; Furetta, C.; Galaktionov, Iouri; Ganguli, S.N.; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gataullin, M.; Gentile, S.; Giagu, S.; Gong, Z.F.; Grenier, Gerald Jean; Grimm, O.; Gruenewald, M.W.; Guida, M.; van Gulik, R.; Gupta, V.K.; Gurtu, A.; Gutay, L.J.; Haas, D.; Hakobyan, R.S.; Hansen, J.M.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hebbeker, T.; Herve, Alain; Hirschfelder, J.; Hofer, H.; Hohlmann, M.; Holzner, G.; Hou, S.R.; Hu, Y.; Jin, B.N.; Jones, Lawrence W.; de Jong, P.; Josa-Mutuberria, I.; Kafer, D.; Kaur, M.; Kienzle-Focacci, M.N.; Kim, J.K.; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, W.; Klimentov, A.; Konig, A.C.; Kopal, M.; Koutsenko, V.; Kraber, M.; Kraemer, R.W.; Kruger, A.; Kunin, A.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Laktineh, I.; Landi, G.; Lebeau, M.; Lebedev, A.; Lebrun, P.; Lecomte, P.; Lecoq, P.; Le Coultre, P.; Le Goff, J.M.; Leiste, R.; Levtchenko, M.; Levtchenko, P.; Li, C.; Likhoded, S.; Lin, C.H.; Lin, W.T.; Linde, F.L.; Lista, L.; Liu, Z.A.; Lohmann, W.; Longo, E.; Lu, Y.S.; Luci, C.; Luminari, L.; Lustermann, W.; Ma, W.G.; Malgeri, L.; Malinin, A.; Mana, C.; Mans, J.; Martin, J.P.; Marzano, F.; Mazumdar, K.; McNeil, R.R.; Mele, S.; Merola, L.; Meschini, M.; Metzger, W.J.; Mihul, A.; Milcent, H.; Mirabelli, G.; Mnich, J.; Mohanty, G.B.; Muanza, G.S.; Muijs, A.J.M.; Musicar, B.; Musy, M.; Nagy, S.; Natale, S.; Napolitano, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Newman, H.; Nisati, A.; Kluge, Hannelies; Ofierzynski, R.; Organtini, G.; Pal, I.; Palomares, C.; Paolucci, P.; Paramatti, R.; Passaleva, G.; Patricelli, S.; Paul, Thomas Cantzon; Pauluzzi, M.; Paus, C.; Pauss, F.; Pedace, M.; Pensotti, S.; Perret-Gallix, D.; Petersen, B.; Piccolo, D.; Pierella, F.; Pioppi, M.; Piroue, P.A.; Pistolesi, E.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Pojidaev, V.; Pothier, J.; Prokofev, D.; Quartieri, J.; Rahal-Callot, G.; Rahaman, Mohammad Azizur; Raics, P.; Raja, N.; Ramelli, R.; Rancoita, P.G.; Ranieri, R.; Raspereza, A.; Razis, P.; Ren, D.; Rescigno, M.; Reucroft, S.; Riemann, S.; Riles, Keith; Roe, B.P.; Romero, L.; Rosca, A.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Roth, Stefan; Rosenbleck, C.; Rubio, J.A.; Ruggiero, G.; Rykaczewski, H.; Sakharov, A.; Saremi, S.; Sarkar, S.; Salicio, J.; Sanchez, E.; Schafer, C.; Schegelsky, V.; Schopper, H.; Schotanus, D.J.; Sciacca, C.; Servoli, L.; Shevchenko, S.; Shivarov, N.; Shoutko, V.; Shumilov, E.; Shvorob, A.; Son, D.; Souga, C.; Spillantini, P.; Steuer, M.; Stickland, D.P.; Stoyanov, B.; Straessner, A.; Sudhakar, K.; Sultanov, G.; Sun, L.Z.; Sushkov, S.; Suter, H.; Swain, J.D.; Szillasi, Z.; Tang, X.W.; Tarjan, P.; Tauscher, L.; Taylor, L.; Tellili, B.; Teyssier, D.; Timmermans, Charles; Ting, Samuel C.C.; Ting, S.M.; Tonwar, S.C.; Toth, J.; Tully, C.; Tung, K.L.; Ulbricht, J.; Valente, E.; Van de Walle, R.T.; Vasquez, R.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vetlitsky, I.; Vicinanza, D.; Viertel, G.; Villa, S.; Vivargent, M.; Vlachos, S.; Vodopianov, I.; Vogel, H.; Vogt, H.; Vorobev, I.; Vorobyov, A.A.; Wadhwa, M.; Wang, Q.; Wang, X.L.; Wang, Z.M.; Weber, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wilkens, H.; Wynhoff, S.; Xia, L.; Xu, Z.Z.; Yamamoto, J.; Yang, B.Z.; Yang, C.G.; Yang, H.J.; Yang, M.; Yeh, S.C.; Zalite, A.; Zalite, Yu.; Zhang, Z.P.; Zhao, J.; Zhu, G.Y.; Zhu, R.Y.; Zhuang, H.L.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, B.; Zoller, M.

    2003-01-01

    A search for charged and neutral excited leptons is performed in 217 pb-1 of data collected with the L3 detector at LEP at centre-of-mass energies up to 209 GeV. The pair- and single-production mechanisms are investigated and no signals are detected. Combining with L3 results from searches at lower centre-of-mass energies, gives improved limits on the masses and couplings of excited leptons.

  20. Propagation and excitation of graphene plasmon polaritons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Xiaolong; Yan, Wei; Jeppesen, Claus

    2013-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the propagation of graphene plasmon polaritons in graphene nanoribbon waveguides and experimentally observe the excitation of the graphene plasmon polaritons in a continuous graphene monolayer. We show that graphene nanoribbon bends do not induce any additional loss...... and nanofocusing occurs in a tapered graphene nanoriboon, and we experimentally demonstrate the excitation of graphene plasmon polaritonss in a continuous graphene monolayer assisted by a two-dimensional subwavelength silicon grating....

  1. Two-photon excited hemoglobin fluorescence

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Wei; Li, Dong; Zeng, Yan; Luo, Yi; Qu, Jianan Y.

    2010-01-01

    We discovered that hemoglobin emits high energy Soret fluorescence when two-photon excited by the visible femtosecond light sources. The unique spectral and temporal characteristics of hemoglobin fluorescence were measured by using a time-resolved spectroscopic detection system. The high energy Soret fluorescence of hemoglobin shows the spectral peak at 438 nm with extremely short lifetime. This discovery enables two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy to become a potentially powerful t...

  2. Rearrangements in ground and excited states

    CERN Document Server

    de Mayo, Paul

    1980-01-01

    Rearrangements in Ground and Excited States, Volume 3 presents essays on the chemical generation of excited states; the cis-trans isomerization of olefins; and the photochemical rearrangements in trienes. The book also includes essays on the zimmerman rearrangements; the photochemical rearrangements of enones; the photochemical rearrangements of conjugated cyclic dienones; and the rearrangements of the benzene ring. Essays on the photo rearrangements via biradicals of simple carbonyl compounds; the photochemical rearrangements involving three-membered rings or five-membered ring heterocycles;

  3. Excited quark production at hadron colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baur, U.; Hinchliffe, I.; Zeppenfeld, D.

    1987-06-01

    Composite models generally predict the existence of excited quark and lepton states. We consider the production and experimental signatures of excited quarks Q* of spin and isospin 1/2 at hadron colliders and estimate the background for those channels which are most promising for Q* identification. Multi-TeV pp-colliders will give access to such particles with masses up to several TeV.

  4. Connectivity, excitability and activity patterns in neuronal networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    le Feber, Jakob; Stoyanova, Irina; Chiappalone, Michela

    2014-01-01

    Extremely synchronized firing patterns such as those observed in brain diseases like epilepsy may result from excessive network excitability. Although network excitability is closely related to (excitatory) connectivity, a direct measure for network excitability remains unavailable. Several methods

  5. Magnetic excitations in rare earth systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jens

    1982-10-01

    The observation of magnetic excitations, by means of inelastic neutron scattering, provides valuable information on the magnetic forces acting in rare-earth systems. The RPA (random-phase approximation) theory, developed into its final form in the early seventies, is now a widely used tool for analyzing the excitation spectra in systems with well-defined local moments. These excitations reflect both the dynamics of the single moments and the interactions of these moments with their surroundings. A discussion of the information which has been obtained from studies of the magnetic excitations in the rare-earth metal is presented. The emphasis is laid on Pr-metal which has attracted much interest in recent years. Recent progress in the investigation of rare-earth intermetallic compounds, like the Laves-phase and the CsCl-type-compounds and the rare-earth pnictides, is also condidered. Some aspects of the magnetic properties of the actinides can be understood in terms of a model of localized moments, and we include a discussion of USb, where the spin-wave spectrum contains direct evidence that the spins are ordered in a triple- q structure. The magnetic excitations may be coupled to the phonons and in the metallic systems they interact with the electron- hole excitations of the conduction electrons. Therefore the sound velocities and the effective mass of the conduction electrons can be strongly affected by the spin system. Recent developments within these areas are also reviewed.

  6. Stick-Slip Analysis of a Drill String Subjected to Deterministic Excitation and Stochastic Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyuan Qiu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a finite element model, this paper investigates the torsional vibration of a drill string under combined deterministic excitation and random excitation. The random excitation is caused by the random friction coefficients between the drill bit and the bottom of the hole and assumed as white noise. Simulation shows that the responses under random excitation become random too, and the probabilistic distribution of the responses at each discretized time instant is obtained. The two points, entering and leaving the stick stage, are examined with special attention. The results indicate that the two points become random under random excitation, and the distributions are not normal even when the excitation is assumed as Gaussian white noise.

  7. Electron Excitation of High Dipole Moment Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Paul; Kauffmann, Jens

    2018-01-01

    Emission from high-dipole moment molecules such as HCN allows determination of the density in molecular clouds, and is often considered to trace the “dense” gas available for star formation. We assess the importance of electron excitation in various environments. The ratio of the rate coefficients for electrons and H2 molecules, ~10^5 for HCN, yields the requirements for electron excitation to be of practical importance if n(H2) 10^{-5}, where the numerical factors reflect critical values n_c(H2) and X^*(e-). This indicates that in regions where a large fraction of carbon is ionized, X(e-) will be large enough to make electron excitation significant. The situation is in general similar for other “high density tracers”, including HCO+, CN, and CS. But there are significant differences in the critical electron fractional abundance, X^*(e-), defined by the value required for equal effect from collisions with H2 and e-. Electron excitation is, for example, unimportant for CO and C+. Electron excitation may be responsible for the surprisingly large spatial extent of the emission from dense gas tracers in some molecular clouds (Pety et al. 2017, Kauffmann, Goldsmith et al. 2017, A&A, submitted). The enhanced estimates for HCN abundances and HCN/CO and HCN/HCO+ ratios observed in the nuclear regions of luminous galaxies may be in part a result of electron excitation of high dipole moment tracers. The importance of electron excitation will depend on detailed models of the chemistry, which may well be non-steady state and non--static.

  8. Theory of elementary excitations in quasiperiodic structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albuquerque, E.L.; Cottam, M.G

    2003-03-01

    The aim of this work is to present a comprehensive and up-to-date review of the main physical properties (such as energy profiles, localization, scale laws, multifractal analysis, transmission spectra, transmission fingerprints, electronic structures, magnetization curves and thermodynamic properties) of the elementary excitations that can propagate in multilayered structures with constituents arranged in a quasiperiodic fashion. These excitations include plasmon-polaritons, spin waves, light waves and electrons, among others. A complex fractal or multifractal profile of the energy spectra is the common feature among these excitations. The quasiperiodic property is formed by the incommensurate arrangement of periodic unit cells and can be of the type referred to as deterministic (or controlled) disorder. The resulting excitations are characterized by the nature of their Fourier spectrum, which can be dense pure point (as for the Fibonacci sequence) or singular continuous (as for the Thue-Morse and double-period sequences). These sequences are described in terms of a series of generations that obey particular recursion relations, and they can be considered as intermediate systems between a periodic crystal and the random amorphous solids, thus defining a novel description of disorder. A discussion is also included of some spectroscopic techniques used to probe the excitations, emphasizing Raman and Brillouin light scattering.

  9. Formation of non-excited and excited hydrogen in proton–lithium inelastic scattering

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elkilany, S.A; Al-Dhawi, A.A

    The collisions of a proton with a lithium atom are treated for the first time as a three-channel problem under the assumption that the elastic and hydrogen formation in non-excited, H(1s), and excited, H(2s), channels are open...

  10. Dark excitations in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deilmann, Thorsten; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2017-01-01

    Monolayers of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) possess unique optoelectronic properties, including strongly bound excitons and trions. To date, most studies have focused on optically active excitations, but recent experiments have highlighted the existence of dark states, which are equally...... important in many respects. Here, we use ab initio many-body calculations to unravel the nature of the dark excitations in monolayer MoSe2, MoS2, WSe2, andWS(2). Our results show that all these monolayer TMDCs host dark states as their lowest neutral and charged excitations. We further show that dark...... excitons possess larger binding energies than their bright counterparts while the opposite holds for trions....

  11. Springing response due to bidirectional wave excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidic-Perunovic, Jelena

    2005-01-01

    Springing is a two-node high frequency resonant vibration of the hull induced by unsteady wave pressure field on the hull. The excitation force may be rather complex - any wave activity (or their combination) in the Ocean matching the two-node natural hull vibration frequency. With some ship...... designs the hull natural frequency may get low enough that the corresponding level of excitation energy becomes large. Springing vibration negatively influences the fatigue life of the ship but, paradoxically, it still doesn't get much attention of the technical society. Usually, non-linear hydroelastic...... theories deal with the unidirectional wave excitation. This is quite standard. The problem is how to include more than one directional wave systems described by a wave spectrum with arbitrary heading. The main objective of the present work has been to account for the additional second-order springing...

  12. Nanoscale control of phonon excitations in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyo Won; Ko, Wonhee; Ku, Jiyeon; Ryu, Seunghwa; Hwang, Sung Woo

    Phonons, which are collective excitations in a lattice of atoms or molecules, play a major role in determining various physical properties of condensed matter, such as thermal and electrical conductivities. In particular, phonons in graphene interact strongly with electrons; however, unlike in usual metals, these interactions between phonons and massless Dirac fermions appear to mirror the rather complicated physics of those between light and relativistic electrons. Therefore, a fundamental understanding of the underlying physics through systematic studies of phonon interactions and excitations in graphene is crucial for realizing graphene-based devices. In this study, we demonstrate that the local phonon properties of graphene can be controlled at the nanoscale by tuning the interaction strength between graphene and an underlying Pt substrate. Using scanning probe methods, we determine that the reduced interaction due to embedded Ar atoms facilitates electron-phonon excitations, further influencing phonon-assisted inelastic electron tunneling.

  13. Exciting dynamic anapoles with electromagnetic doughnut pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raybould, Tim; Fedotov, Vassili A.; Papasimakis, Nikitas; Youngs, Ian; Zheludev, Nikolay I.

    2017-08-01

    As was predicted in 1995 by Afanasiev and Stepanovsky, a superposition of electric and toroidal dipoles can lead to a non-trivial non-radiating charge current-configuration, the dynamic anapole. The dynamic anapoles were recently observed first in microwave metamaterials and then in dielectric nanodisks. However, spectroscopic studies of toroidal dipole and anapole excitations are challenging owing to their diminishing coupling to transverse electromagnetic waves. Here, we show that anapoles can be excited by electromagnetic Flying Doughnut (FD) pulses. First described by Helwarth and Nouchi in 1996, FD pulses (also known as "Flying Toroids") are space-time inseparable exact solutions to Maxwell's equations that have toroidal topology and propagate in free-space at the speed of light. We argue that FD pulses can be used as a diagnostic and spectroscopic tool for the dynamic anapole excitations in matter.

  14. Charge-displacement analysis for excited states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronca, Enrico, E-mail: enrico@thch.unipg.it; Tarantelli, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.tarantelli@unipg.it [Istituto CNR di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari, via Elce di Sotto 8, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Dipartimento di Chimica, Biologia e Biotecnologie, Università degli Studi di Perugia, via Elce di Sotto 8, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Pastore, Mariachiara, E-mail: chiara@thch.unipg.it; Belpassi, Leonardo; De Angelis, Filippo [Istituto CNR di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari, via Elce di Sotto 8, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Angeli, Celestino; Cimiraglia, Renzo [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Farmaceutiche, Università degli Studi di Ferrara, via Borsari 46, I-44100 Ferrara (Italy)

    2014-02-07

    We extend the Charge-Displacement (CD) analysis, already successfully employed to describe the nature of intermolecular interactions [L. Belpassi et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132, 13046 (2010)] and various types of controversial chemical bonds [L. Belpassi et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 1048 (2008); N. Salvi et al., Chem. Eur. J. 16, 7231 (2010)], to study the charge fluxes accompanying electron excitations, and in particular the all-important charge-transfer (CT) phenomena. We demonstrate the usefulness of the new approach through applications to exemplary excitations in a series of molecules, encompassing various typical situations from valence, to Rydberg, to CT excitations. The CD functions defined along various spatial directions provide a detailed and insightful quantitative picture of the electron displacements taking place.

  15. Encryption in Chaotic Systems with Sinusoidal Excitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Obregón-Pulido

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution an encryption method using a chaotic oscillator, excited by “n” sinusoidal signals, is presented. The chaotic oscillator is excited by a sum of “n” sinusoidal signals and a message. The objective is to encrypt such a message using the chaotic behavior and transmit it, and, as the chaotic system is perturbed by the sinusoidal signal, the transmission security could be increased due to the effect of such a perturbation. The procedure is based on the regulation theory and consider that the receiver knows the frequencies of the perturbing signal, with this considerations the algorithm estimates the excitation in such a way that the receiver can cancel out the perturbation and all the undesirable dynamics in order to produce only the message. In this way we consider that the security level is increased.

  16. Sigma-1 Receptor and Neuronal Excitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourrich, Saïd

    2017-01-01

    The sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R), via interaction with various proteins, including voltage-gated and ligand-gated ion channels (VGICs and LGICs), is involved in a plethora of neuronal functions. This capability to regulate a variety of ion channel targets endows the Sig-1R with a powerful capability to fine tune neuronal excitability, and thereby the transmission of information within brain circuits. This versatility may also explain why the Sig-1R is associated to numerous diseases at both peripheral and central levels. To date, how the Sig-1R chooses its targets and how the combinations of target modulations alter overall neuronal excitability is one of the challenges in the field of Sig-1R-dependent regulation of neuronal activity. Here, we will describe and discuss the latest findings on Sig-1R-dependent modulation of VGICs and LGICs, and provide hypotheses that may explain the diverse excitability outcomes that have been reported so far.

  17. Testing the excitability of human motoneurones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris J Mcneil

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The responsiveness of the human central nervous system can change profoundly with exercise, injury, disuse or disease. Changes occur at both cortical and spinal levels but in most cases excitability of the motoneurone pool must be assessed to localize accurately the site of adaptation. Hence, it is critical to understand, and employ correctly, the methods to test motoneurone excitability in humans. Several techniques exist and each has its advantages and disadvantages. This review examines the most common techniques that use evoked compound muscle action potentials to test the excitability of the motoneurone pool and describes the merits and limitations of each. The techniques discussed are the H-reflex, F-wave, tendon jerk, V-wave, cervicomedullary motor evoked potential, and motor evoked potential. A number of limitations with these techniques are presented.

  18. Search for excited states in 25O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M. D.; Fossez, K.; Baumann, T.; DeYoung, P. A.; Finck, J. E.; Frank, N.; Kuchera, A. N.; Michel, N.; Nazarewicz, W.; Rotureau, J.; Smith, J. K.; Stephenson, S. L.; Stiefel, K.; Thoennessen, M.; Zegers, R. G. T.

    2017-11-01

    Background: Theoretical calculations suggest the presence of low-lying excited states in 25O. Previous experimental searches by means of proton knockout on 26F produced no evidence for such excitations. Purpose: We search for excited states in 25O using the 24O(d ,p ) 25O reaction. The theoretical analysis of excited states in unbound O,2725 is based on the configuration interaction approach that accounts for couplings to the scattering continuum. Method: We use invariant-mass spectroscopy to measure neutron-unbound states in 25O. For the theoretical approach, we use the complex-energy Gamow Shell Model and Density Matrix Renormalization Group method with a finite-range two-body interaction optimized to the bound states and resonances of O-2623, assuming a core of 22O. We predict energies, decay widths, and asymptotic normalization coefficients. Results: Our calculations in a large s p d f space predict several low-lying excited states in 25O of positive and negative parity, and we obtain an experimental limit on the relative cross section of a possible Jπ=1/2 + state with respect to the ground state of 25O at σ1 /2 +/σg .s .=0 .25-0.25+1.0 . We also discuss how the observation of negative parity states in 25O could guide the search for the low-lying negative parity states in 27O. Conclusion: Previous experiments based on the proton knockout of 26F suffered from the low cross sections for the population of excited states in 25O because of low spectroscopic factors. In this respect, neutron transfer reactions carry more promise.

  19. Two-photon excitation STED microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moneron, Gael; Hell, Stefan W

    2009-08-17

    We report sub-diffraction resolution in two-photon excitation (TPE) fluorescence microscopy achieved by merging this technique with stimulated-emission depletion (STED). We demonstrate an easy-to-implement and promising laser combination based on a short-pulse laser source for two-photon excitation and a continuous-wave (CW) laser source for resolution enhancement. Images of fluorescent nanoparticles and the immunostained transcription regulator NF kappaB in mammalian cell nuclei exhibit resolutions of barrier. (c) 2009 Optical Society of America

  20. Gauge Fields as Composite Boundary Excitations

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, Sergio; Ferrara, Sergio; Fronsdal, Christian

    1998-01-01

    We investigate representations of the conformal group that describe "massless" particles in the interior and at the boundary of anti-de Sitter space. It turns out that massless gauge excitations in anti-de Sitter are gauge "current" operators at the boundary. Conversely, massless excitations at the boundary are topological singletons in the interior. These representations lie at the threshold of two "unitary bounds" that apply to any conformally invariant field theory. Gravity and Yang-Mills gauge symmetry in anti-De Sitter is translated to global translational symmetry and continuous R-symmetry of the boundary superconformal field theory.

  1. Exciting Baryons: now and in the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Pennington

    2012-04-01

    This is the final talk of NSTAR2011 conference. It is not a summary talk, but rather a looking forward to what still needs to be done in excited baryon physics. In particular, we need to hone our tools connecting experimental inputs with QCD. At present we rely on models that often have doubtful connections with the underlying theory, and this needs to be dramatically improved, if we are to reach definitive conclusions about the relevant degrees of freedom of excited baryons. Conclusions that we want to have by NSTAR2021.

  2. Laser Excited Fluorescence For Forensic Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Robert E.

    1986-07-01

    The application of laser excited fluorescence to the detection and identification of latent fingerprints was first accomplished ten years ago. The development of the technology has progressed rapidly with the introduction of commercial equipment by several manufacturers. Systems based on Argon-ion, Copper-vapor, and frequency-doubled Nd:YAG lasers are compared. The theoretical basis of detection by fluorescence is discussed along with the more useful techniques of dye staining. Other applications of the laser excited fluorescence in forensic investigation include gunshot residue analysis, serology, collection of trace evidence, and document examination.

  3. Charmonium excited state spectrum in lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jozef Dudek; Robert Edwards; Nilmani Mathur; David Richards

    2008-02-01

    Working with a large basis of covariant derivative-based meson interpolating fields we demonstrate the feasibility of reliably extracting multiple excited states using a variational method. The study is performed on quenched anisotropic lattices with clover quarks at the charm mass. We demonstrate how a knowledge of the continuum limit of a lattice interpolating field can give additional spin-assignment information, even at a single lattice spacing, via the overlap factors of interpolating field and state. Excited state masses are systematically high with respect to quark potential model predictions and, where they exist, experimental states. We conclude that this is most likely a result of the quenched approximation.

  4. The resonance Raman excitation profile of lutein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskins, L. C.

    The resonance Raman excitation profiles for the ν 1, ν 2 and ν 3 vibrations of lutein in acetone, toluene and carbon disulfide solvents have been measured. The results are interpreted in terms of a three-mode vibrational theory which includes both homogeneous and inhomogeneous broadening effects. Excellent agreement between calculated and observed excitation profiles and visible spectra was found in acetone and toluene, but the results in carbon disulfide indicate a possible breakdown in the three-mode model. The major broadening mechanism is homogeneous, with about a 25% contribution from inhomogeneous broadening.

  5. Search for Excited Neutrinos at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Adloff, C.; Andrieu, B.; Anthonis, T.; Arkadov, V.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Babaev, A.; Bahr, J.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Bate, P.; Becker, J.; Beglarian, A.; Behnke, O.; Beier, C.; Belousov, A.; Benisch, T.; Berger, C.; Berndt, T.; Bizot, J.C.; Boehme, J.; Boudry, V.; Braunschweig, W.; Brisson, V.; Broker, H.B.; Brown, D.P.; Bruckner, W.; Bruncko, D.; Burger, J.; Busser, F.W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Burrage, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Cao, Jun; Caron, S.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Clarke, D.; Clerbaux, B.; Collard, C.; Contreras, J.G.; Coppens, Y.R.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cousinou, M.C.; Cox, B.E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Dau, W.D.; Daum, K.; Davidsson, M.; Delcourt, B.; Delerue, N.; Demirchyan, R.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dingfelder, J.; Dixon, P.; Dodonov, V.; Dowell, J.D.; Droutskoi, A.; Dubak, A.; Duprel, C.; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, D.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ellerbrock, M.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, M.; Erdmann, W.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Ferencei, J.; Ferron, S.; Fleischer, M.; Fleming, Y.H.; Flugge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Foresti, I.; Formanek, J.; Franke, G.; Gabathuler, E.; Gabathuler, K.; Garvey, J.; Gassner, J.; Gayler, Joerg; Gerhards, R.; Gerlich, C.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Goldberg, M.; Grab, C.; Grassler, H.; Greenshaw, T.; Grindhammer, Guenter; Hadig, T.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Haller, J.; Haynes, W.J.; Heinemann, B.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Hengstmann, S.; Henschel, H.; Heremans, R.; Herrera, G.; Herynek, I.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hilgers, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hladky, J.; Hoting, P.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hurling, S.; Ibbotson, M.; Issever, C.; Jacquet, M.; Jaffre, M.; Janauschek, L.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Johnson, C.; Johnson, D.P.; Jones, M.A.S.; Jung, H.; Kant, D.; Kapichine, M.; Karlsson, M.; Karschnick, O.; Keil, F.; Keller, N.; Kennedy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kermiche, S.; Kiesling, Christian M.; Kjellberg, P.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, T.; Knies, G.; Koblitz, B.; Kolya, S.D.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kotelnikov, S.K.; Koutouev, R.; Koutov, A.; Krehbiel, H.; Kroseberg, J.; Kruger, K.; Kupper, A.; Kuhr, T.; Kurca, T.; Lahmann, R.; Lamb, D.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka, T.; Laycock, P.; Lebailly, E.; Lebedev, A.; Leissner, B.; Lemrani, R.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lindstroem, M.; List, B.; Lobodzinska, E.; Lobodzinski, B.; Loginov, A.; Loktionova, N.; Lubimov, V.; Luders, S.; Luke, D.; Lytkin, L.; Mahlke-Kruger, H.; Malden, N.; Malinovski, E.; Malinovski, I.; Maracek, R.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martyn, H.U.; Martyniak, J.; Maxfield, S.J.; Meer, D.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Meyer, P.O.; Mikocki, S.; Milstead, D.; Mkrtchyan, T.; Mohr, R.; Mohrdieck, S.; Mondragon, M.N.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Nagovizin, V.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, J.; Naumann, T.; Nellen, G.; Newman, Paul R.; Nicholls, T.C.; Niebergall, F.; Niebuhr, C.; Nix, O.; Nowak, G.; Olsson, J.E.; Ozerov, D.; Panassik, V.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Peez, M.; Perez, E.; Phillips, J.P.; Pitzl, D.; Poschl, R.; Potachnikova, I.; Povh, B.; Rabbertz, K.; Radel, G.; Rauschenberger, J.; Reimer, P.; Reisert, B.; Reyna, D.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Scheins, J.; Schilling, F.P.; Schleper, P.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schneider, M.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schorner, T.; Schroder, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Schwanenberger, C.; Sedlak, K.; Sefkow, F.; Chekelian, V.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Sirois, Y.; Sloan, T.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Spitzer, H.; Stamen, R.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Straumann, U.; Swart, M.; Tasevsky, M.; Chernyshov, V.; Chetchelnitski, S.; Thompson, Graham; Thompson, P.D.; Tobien, N.; Traynor, D.; Truoel, Peter; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Turney, J.E.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Udluft, S.; Urban, Marcel; Usik, A.; Valkar, S.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vassiliev, S.; Vazdik, Y.; Vichnevski, A.; Wacker, K.; Wallny, R.; Waugh, B.; Weber, G.; Weber, M.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Werner, M.; Werner, N.; White, G.; Wiesand, S.; Wilksen, T.; Winde, M.; Winter, G.G.; Wissing, C.; Wobisch, M.; Woehrling, E.E.; Wunsch, E.; Wyatt, A.C.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zomer, F.; Zsembery, J.; zur Nedden, M.

    2002-01-01

    We present a search for excited neutrinos using e^-p data taken by the H1 experiment at HERA at a center-of-mass energy of 318 GeV with an integrated luminosity of 15 pb-1. No evidence for excited neutrino production is found. Mass dependent exclusion limits are determined for the ratio of the coupling to the compositeness scale, f/Lambda, independently of the relative couplings to the SU(2) and U(1) gauge bosons. These limits extend the excluded region to higher masses than has been possible in previous searches at other colliders.

  6. A Search for Excited Fermions at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Adloff, C.; Andrieu, B.; Arkadov, V.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Ayyaz, I.; Babaev, A.; Bahr, J.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Bassler, U.; Bate, P.; Beglarian, A.; Behnke, O.; Beier, C.; Belousov, A.; Benisch, T.; Berger, Christoph; Bernardi, G.; Berndt, T.; Bizot, J.C.; Borras, K.; Boudry, V.; Braunschweig, W.; Brisson, V.; Broker, H.B.; Brown, D.P.; Bruckner, W.; Bruel, P.; Bruncko, D.; Burger, J.; Busser, F.W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Burkhardt, H.; Burrage, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Campbell, A.J.; Cao, Jun; Carli, T.; Caron, S.; Chabert, E.; Clarke, D.; Clerbaux, B.; Collard, C.; Contreras, J.G.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cousinou, M.C.; Cox, B.E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Dau, W.D.; Daum, K.; Davidsson, M.; Delcourt, B.; Delerue, N.; Demirchyan, R.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dixon, P.; Dodonov, V.; Dowell, J.D.; Droutskoi, A.; Duprel, C.; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, D.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ellerbrock, M.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, M.; Erdmann, W.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Ferencei, J.; Ferron, S.; Fleischer, M.; Flugge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Foresti, I.; Formanek, J.; Foster, J.M.; Franke, G.; Gabathuler, E.; Gabathuler, K.; Garvey, J.; Gassner, J.; Gayler, Joerg; Gerhards, R.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Goldberg, M.; Goodwin, C.; Grab, C.; Grassler, H.; Greenshaw, T.; Grindhammer, Guenter; Hadig, T.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Haynes, W.J.; Heinemann, B.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Hengstmann, S.; Henschel, H.; Heremans, R.; Herrera, G.; Herynek, I.; Hilgers, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hladky, J.; Hoting, P.; Hoffmann, D.; Hoprich, W.; Horisberger, R.; Hurling, S.; Ibbotson, M.; Issever, C .; Jacquet, M.; Jaffre, M.; Janauschek, L.; Jansen, D.M.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Johnson, D.P.; Jones, M.A.S.; Jung, H.; Kastli, H.K.; Kant, D.; Kapichine, M.; Karlsson, M.; Karschnick, O.; Kaufmann, O.; Kausch, M.; Keil, F.; Keller, N.; Kennedy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kermiche, S.; Kiesling, Christian M.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Knies, G.; Koblitz, B.; Kolya, S.D.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kotelnikov, S.K.; Krasny, M.W.; Krehbiel, H.; Kroseberg, J.; Kruger, K.; Kupper, A.; Kuhr, T.; Kurca, T.; Kutuev, R.; Lachnit, W.; Lahmann, R.; Lamb, D.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka, T.; Lebailly, E.; Lebedev, A.; Leissner, B.; Lemrani, R.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lindstroem, M.; Lobodzinska, E.; Lobodzinski, B.; Loktionova, N.; Lubimov, V.; Luders, S.; Luke, D.; Lytkin, L.; Magnussen, N.; Mahlke-Kruger, H.; Malden, N.; Malinovski, E.; Malinovski, I.; Maracek, R.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martyn, H.U.; Martyniak, J.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Merkel, P.; Metlica, F.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Meyer, P.O.; Mikocki, S.; Milstead, D.; Mkrtchyan, T.; Mohr, R.; Mohrdieck, S.; Mondragon, M.N.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Nagovizin, V.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, J.; Naumann, Th.; Negri, I.; Nellen, G.; Newman, Paul R.; Nicholls, T.C.; Niebergall, F.; Niebuhr, C.; Nix, O.; Nowak, G.; Nunnemann, T.; Olsson, J.E.; Ozerov, D.; Panassik, V.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Perez, E.; Phillips, J.P.; Pitzl, D.; Poschl, R.; Potachnikova, I.; Povh, B.; Rabbertz, K.; Radel, G.; Rauschenberger, J.; Reimer, P.; Reisert, B.; Reyna, D.; Riess, S.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Royon, C.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Scheins, J.; Schilling, F.P.; Schleper, P.; Schmidt, D.; Schmitt, S.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schorner, T.; Schroder, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Sedlak, K.; Sefkow, F.; Chekelian, V.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Siegmon, G.; Sievers, P.; Sirois, Y.; Sloan, T.; Smirnov, P.; Solochenko, V.; Solovev, Y.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Spitzer, H.; Stamen, R.; Steinhart, J.; Stella, B.; Stellberger, A.; Stiewe, J.; Straumann, U.; Struczinski, W.; Swart, M.; Tasevsky, M.; Tchernyshov, V.; Tchetchelnitski, S.; Thompson, Graham; Thompson, P.D.; Tobien, N.; Traynor, D.; Truoel, Peter; Tsipolitis, G.; Turnau, J.; Turney, J.E.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Udluft, S.; Usik, A.; Valkar, S.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vazdik, Y.; von Dombrowski, S.; Wacker, K.; Wallny, R.; Walter, T.; Waugh, B.; Weber, G.; Weber, M.; Wegener, D.; Wegner, A.; Wengler, T.; Werner, M.; White, G.; Wiesand, S.; Wilksen, T.; Winde, M.; Winter, G.G.; Wissing, C.; Wobisch, M.; Wollatz, H.; Wunsch, E.; Wyatt, A.C.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zomer, F.; Zsembery, J.; zur Nedden, M.

    2000-01-01

    A search for excited fermions f^* of the first generation in e^+p scattering at the collider HERA is presented using H1 data with an integrated luminosity of 37 pb^(-1). All electroweak decays of excited fermions, f^* -> f gamma, f W, f Z are considered and all possible final states resulting from the Z or W hadronic decays or decays into leptons of the first two generations are taken into account. No evidence for f^* production is found. Mass dependent exclusion limits on cross-sections and on the ratio of coupling constants to the compositeness scale are derived.

  7. Narrow-Band Excitation of Hysteretic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.Q. Zhu

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The stationary response of smooth and bilinear hysteretic systems to narrow-band random excitations is investigated by using the quasistatic method and digital simulation. It is shown that the response is qualitatively different in different ranges of values of the ratio of the excitation central frequency to the natural frequency of the system. In the resonant zone, the response is essentially non-Gaussian. For bilinear hysteretic systems with strong yielding, stochastic jumps may occur for a range of values of the ratio between nonresonant and resonant zones.

  8. Computing correct truncated excited state wavefunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacalis, N. C.; Xiong, Z.; Zang, J.; Karaoulanis, D.

    2016-12-01

    We demonstrate that, if a wave function's truncated expansion is small, then the standard excited states computational method, of optimizing one "root" of a secular equation, may lead to an incorrect wave function - despite the correct energy according to the theorem of Hylleraas, Undheim and McDonald - whereas our proposed method [J. Comput. Meth. Sci. Eng. 8, 277 (2008)] (independent of orthogonality to lower lying approximants) leads to correct reliable small truncated wave functions. The demonstration is done in He excited states, using truncated series expansions in Hylleraas coordinates, as well as standard configuration-interaction truncated expansions.

  9. Magnetic equivalent circuit model for unipolar hybrid excitation synchronous machine

    OpenAIRE

    Kupiec Emil; Przyborowski Włodzimierz

    2015-01-01

    Lately, there has been increased interest in hybrid excitation electrical machines. Hybrid excitation is a construction that combines permanent magnet excitation with wound field excitation. Within the general classification, these machines can be classified as modified synchronous machines or inductor machines. These machines may be applied as motors and generators. The complexity of electromagnetic phenomena which occur as a result of coupling of magnetic fluxes of separate excitation syste...

  10. Relaxation channels of multi-photon excited xenon clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serdobintsev, P Yu; Rakcheeva, L P; Murashov, S V; Melnikov, A S; Lyubchik, S; Timofeev, N A; Pastor, A A; Khodorkovskii, M A

    2015-09-21

    The relaxation processes of the xenon clusters subjected to multi-photon excitation by laser radiation with quantum energies significantly lower than the thresholds of excitation of atoms and ionization of clusters were studied. Results obtained by means of the photoelectron spectroscopy method showed that desorption processes of excited atoms play a significant role in the decay of two-photon excited xenon clusters. A number of excited states of xenon atoms formed during this process were discovered and identified.

  11. PARAMETRIC EXCITATION IN A SELF-EXCITED THREE-DEGREES OF FREEDOM PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SITI FATIMAH

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The efect of parametric excitation in self-excited has been investigated in two-degrees of freedom problems. The possibility of suppressing self-excited vibrationsby using parametric excitation and the dynamic behavior of those kind systems were discussed. In the this paper, we consider a system in three-degrees of freedom problem which by using a linear transformation the system becomes an Autoparametric. The system consists of a central mass and two external masses where those masses are conectedby springs with the same constant stiffness. The flow-generated self-excited force is actingon the external masses, it is represented by Rayleigh force. The variable stiffness isperiodically varying in time, represents a parametric excitation. It turns out that forcertain parameter ranges full vibration cancellation is possible. The analysis of linearcase of system shows that there are two conditions in order to obtain an interval ofthe parametric excitation. Using the averaging method the fully non-linear system is investigated producing as non-trivial solutions unstable periodic solutions. The behaviorof this unstable solution is studied in the full system.

  12. The excitement of colours and scents

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lawrence

    a Creativity Group formed by the ever-enthusiastic Jehangir Mistry, a teacher in the Physics Department. Our small group of sixteen students, drawn from diverse disciplines and interests, bonded immediately, and collaborated on science projects that culminated in an exhibition. The atmosphere of freedom, excitement and ...

  13. Collective excitations in deformed alkali metal clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipparini, E.; Stringari, S. (Trento Univ. (Italy). Dipartimento di Fisica Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Povo (Italy). Gruppo Collegato di Trento)

    1991-02-01

    A theoretical study of collective excitations in deformed metal clusters is presented. Sum rules are used to study the splittings of the dipole surface plasma resonance originating from the cluster deformation. The vibrating potential model is developed and used to predict the occurrence of a low lying collective mode of orbital magnetic nature. (orig.).

  14. Collective excitations in deformed alkali metal clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipparini, Enrico; Stringari, Sandro

    1991-06-01

    A theoretical study of collective excitations in deformed metal clusters is presented. Sum rules are used to study the splittings of the dipole surface plasma resonance originating from the cluster deformation. The vibrating potential model is developed and used to predict the occurrence of a low lying collective mode of orbital magnetic nature.

  15. Global chaos synchronization of coupled parametrically excited ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    coupled double-well Duffing oscillators (DDOs) and showed that synchronization was characterized by boundary crisis of the chaotic attractors. In our previous work [23,25], only numerical results were presented. In this paper, we extend our results to parametrically excited systems and in particular obtain sufficient crite-.

  16. Does intrinsic motivation enhance motor cortex excitability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radel, Rémi; Pjevac, Dusan; Davranche, Karen; d'Arripe-Longueville, Fabienne; Colson, Serge S; Lapole, Thomas; Gruet, Mathieu

    2016-11-01

    Intrinsic motivation (IM) is often viewed as a spontaneous tendency for action. Recent behavioral and neuroimaging evidence indicate that IM, in comparison to extrinsic motivation (EM), solicits the motor system. Accordingly, we tested whether IM leads to greater excitability of the motor cortex than EM. To test this hypothesis, we used two different tasks to induce the motivational orientation using either words representing each motivational orientation or pictures previously linked to each motivational orientation through associative learning. Single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation over the motor cortex was applied when viewing the stimuli. Electromyographic activity was recorded on the contracted first dorsal interosseous muscle. Two indexes of corticospinal excitability (the amplitude of motor-evoked potential and the length of cortical silent period) were obtained through unbiased automatic detection and analyzed using a mixed model that provided both statistical power and a high level of control over all important individual, task, and stimuli characteristics. Across the two tasks and the two indices of corticospinal excitability, the exposure to IM-related stimuli did not lead to a greater corticospinal excitability than EM-related stimuli or than stimuli with no motivational valence (ps > .20). While these results tend to dismiss the advantage of IM at activating the motor cortex, we suggest alternative hypotheses to explain this lack of effect, which deserves further research. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  17. Triple mode filters with coaxial excitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerini, G.; Bustamante, F.D.; Guglielmi, M.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we describe triple mode filters in a square waveguide with integrated coaxial input/output excitation. An important feature of the structure proposed is that it is easily amenable to an accurate full wave analysis. In addition to theory, a practical six pole filter with two

  18. Laser excitation of Antihydrogen in ALPHA

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Animation of how a trapped antihydrogen atom is excited by two photons from the 1S to the 2S state in antihydrogen, and further photo-ionised by a third foton. The first part of the movie shows how antihydrogen is made and captured in a magnetic minimum trap.

  19. Dynamics of excitable nodes on random graphs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ogy and dynamics of excitable nodes on Erd˝os–Rényi (ER) [16] random graphs. Our focus is on rhythmic dynamics, namely periodic solutions, in this representative model. Since the network topology plays an important role, the question of how different growth rules. DOI: 10.1007/s12043-011-0180-6; ePublication: 31 ...

  20. Lithium. Effects on excitable cell membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeger, Egbert Johan

    1974-01-01

    LITHIUM: Effects on excitable cell membranes. Lithium salts have been used in the treatment of manic-depressive psychosis for many years but their mechanism of action is not well understood. Many workers assume that the action of lithium on catecholamine metabolism and/or on electrolyte distribution

  1. Global chaos synchronization of coupled parametrically excited ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we study the synchronization behaviour of two linearly coupled parametrically excited chaotic pendula. The stability of the synchronized state is examined using Lyapunov stability theory and linear matrix inequality (LMI); and some sufficient criteria for global asymptotic synchronization are derived from which ...

  2. Excitation of XUV radiation in solar flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emslie, A. Gordon

    1992-01-01

    The goal of the proposed research was to understand the means by which XUV radiation in solar flares is excited, and to use this radiation as diagnostics of the energy release and transport processes occurring in the flare. Significant progress in both of these areas, as described, was made.

  3. Extracting excited mesons from the finite volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doring, Michael [George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    As quark masses come closer to their physical values in lattice simulations, finite volume effects dominate the level spectrum. Methods to extract excited mesons from the finite volume are discussed, like moving frames in the presence of coupled channels. Effective field theory can be used to stabilize the determination of the resonance spectrum.

  4. Collective excitations of harmonically trapped ideal gases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Schaeybroeck, B.; Lazarides, A.

    2009-01-01

    We theoretically study the collective excitations of an ideal gas confined in an isotropic harmonic trap. We give an exact solution to the Boltzmann-Vlasov equation; as expected for a single-component system, the associated mode frequencies are integer multiples of the trapping frequency. We show

  5. Collective excitations of sup 3 He clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serra, Ll.; Garcias, F. (Universidad de las Islas Baleares, Palma de Mallorca (Spain). Dept. de Fisica); Barranco, M. (Barcelona Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Estructura y Constituyentes de la Materia); Navarro, J. (Valencia Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Valencia (Spain). Inst. de Fisica Corpuscular); Giai, V. (Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Div. de Physique Theorique)

    1991-01-01

    Collective excitations of {sup 3}He clusters are studied by treating the cluster as a quantum liquid drop. We have used the Random-Phase Approximation sum rules technique within a Density Functional Formalism. Results for L=2 to 10 surface modes and the L=0 volume mode are presented. (orig.).

  6. Persistent Histamine Excitation of Glutamatergic Preoptic Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabarean, Iustin V.

    2012-01-01

    Thermoregulatory neurons of the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) represent a target at which histamine modulates body temperature. The mechanism by which histamine excites a population of MnPO neurons is not known. In this study it was found that histamine activated a cationic inward current and increased the intracellular Ca2+ concentration, actions that had a transient component as well as a sustained one that lasted for tens of minutes after removal of the agonist. The sustained component was blocked by TRPC channel blockers. Single-cell reverse transcription-PCR analysis revealed expression of TRPC1, TRPC5 and TRPC7 subunits in neurons excited by histamine. These studies also established the presence of transcripts for the glutamatergic marker Vglut2 and for the H1 histamine receptor in neurons excited by histamine. Intracellular application of antibodies directed against cytoplasmic sites of the TRPC1 or TRPC5 channel subunits decreased the histamine-induced inward current. The persistent inward current and elevation in intracellular Ca2+ concentration could be reversed by activating the PKA pathway. This data reveal a novel mechanism by which histamine induces persistent excitation and sustained intracellular Ca2+ elevation in glutamatergic MnPO neurons. PMID:23082195

  7. Creation of skyrmion through resonance excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhi-xiong; Chen, Yi-fu; Zhou, Zhen-wei; Nie, Yao-zhuang; Xia, Qing-lin; Wang, Dao-wei; Guo, Guang-hua, E-mail: guogh@mail.csu.edu.cn

    2017-07-01

    Highlights: • Intrinsic oscillation modes of skyrmion are studied by using micromagnetic simulation. • Creation of skyrmion through resonant excitation is proposed. • The number of generated skyrmions can be effectively controlled by manipulating the driving field. • Skyrmion lattice in extended film is generated via resonant excitation. - Abstract: Controllable creation of magnetic skyrmions in nanostructures is a prerequisite for the application of skyrmions in spintronics. Here, we propose a new method for the creation of skyrmions. We show by using micromagnetic simulations that the skyrmions can be nucleated by resonantly exciting one of the skyrmion intrinsic oscillation modes. We first studied the dynamics of skyrmion in a ferromagnetic nanodisk with perpendicular anisotropy. One breathing mode and two non-degenerate gyrotropic modes are identified. Then we applied a circular-polarized microwave field to excite the uniformly magnetized nanodisk. When the frequency of the driving field is equal to the eigenfrequency of the skyrmion gyrotropic mode, stable skyrmions can be created from the initial uniform state. The number of skyrmions can be effectively controlled by appropriately choosing the duration of the driving field or tuning the field amplitude.

  8. Motor axon excitability during Wallerian degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moldovan, Mihai; Alvarez, Susana; Krarup, Christian

    2008-01-01

    , action potential propagation and structural integrity of the distal segment are maintained. The aim of this study was to investigate in vivo the changes in membrane function of motor axons during the 'latent' phase of Wallerian degeneration. Multiple indices of axonal excitability of the tibial nerve...

  9. Excited states of muonium in atomic hydrogen

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Muonium formation in excited states in muon-hydrogen charge-exchange collision is investigated using a method developed in a previous paper. Differential cross-section results are found to resemble positronium formation cross-section results of positron-hydrogen charge-exchange problem. Forward differential and ...

  10. Stabilization of nonlinear excitations by disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peter Leth; Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Johansson, M.

    1998-01-01

    Using analytical and numerical techniques we analyze the static and dynamical properties of solitonlike excitations in the presence of parametric disorder in the one-dimensional nonlinear Schrodinger equation with a homogeneous power nonlinearity. Both the continuum and the discrete problem are i...

  11. Clinical Comparison of Pulse and Chirp Excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Høgholm; Misaridis, T.; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2002-01-01

    Coded excitation (CE) using frequency modulated signals (chirps) combined with modified matched filtering has earlier been presented showing promising results in simulations and in-vitro. In this study an experimental ultrasound system is evaluated in a clinical setting, where image sequences are...

  12. White noise excitation of road vehicle structures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Heave and pitch motions of road vehicle structures affect the comfort and the safety of passengers. Excitation of these vertical vibrations is due to road surface roughness. Road vehicle structures are modelled as mechanical systems characterized by their inertia, damping and stiffness, and represented as state equations.

  13. Surface plasmon excitation by a quantum oscillator

    OpenAIRE

    Lidsky, V. V.

    2009-01-01

    Surface waves in a thin uniform metal film are described in terms of quantum electrodynamics.The interaction of surface waves with a quantum oscillator is discussed in the dipole approximation. The increase in the spontaneous emission rate of the excited quantum oscillator, the so called Purcell factor, is evaluated to be as high as by 10 to the five times.

  14. Magnetic Excitations and Magnetic Ordering in Praseodymium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houmann, Jens Christian Gylden; Chapellier, M.; Mackintosh, A. R.

    1975-01-01

    The dispersion relations for magnetic excitons propagating on the hexagonal sites of double-hcp Pr provide clear evidence for a pronounced anisotropy in the exchange. The energy of the excitations decreases rapidly as the temperature is lowered, but becomes almost constant below about 7 K, in agr...

  15. Inner-shell excitation spectroscopy of peroxides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harding, K. L.; Kalirai, S.; Hayes, R.; Ju, V.; Cooper, G.; Hitchcock, A. P.; Thompson, M. R.

    2015-01-01

    O 1s inner-shell excitation spectra of a number of vapor phase molecules containing peroxide bonds - hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), di-t-butylperoxide ((BuOBu)-Bu-t-Bu-t), benzoyl peroxide, ((C6H5(CO)O)(2)), luperox-F [1,3(4)-bis(tertbutylperoxyisopropyl)benzene], and analogous, non-peroxide compounds -

  16. The mean excitation energy of atomic ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauer, Stephan P. A.; Oddershede, Jens; Sabin, John R.

    2015-01-01

    A method for calculation of the mean excitation energies of atomic ions is presented, making the calculation of the energy deposition of fast ions to plasmas, warm, dense matter, and complex biological systems possible. Results are reported to all ions of helium, lithium, carbon, neon, aluminum, ...

  17. New Logic Circuit with DC Parametric Excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugahara, Masanori; Kaneda, Hisayoshi

    1982-12-01

    It is shown that dc parametric excitation is possible in a circuit named JUDO, which is composed of two resistively-connected Josephson junctions. Simulation study proves that the circuit has large gain and properties suitable for the construction of small, high-speed logic circuits.

  18. Selective serotonergic excitation of callosal projection neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eAvesar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Serotonin (5-HT acting as a neurotransmitter in the cerebral cortex is critical for cognitive function, yet how 5-HT regulates information processing in cortical circuits is not well understood. We tested the serotonergic responsiveness of layer 5 pyramidal neurons (L5PNs of the mouse medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC, and found 3 distinct response types: long-lasting 5-HT1A (1A receptor-dependent inhibitory responses (84% of L5PNs, 5-HT2A (2A receptor-dependent excitatory responses (9%, and biphasic responses in which 2A-dependent excitation followed brief inhibition (5%. Relative to 5-HT-inhibited neurons, those excited by 5-HT had physiological properties characteristic of callosal/commissural (COM neurons that project to the contralateral cortex. We tested whether serotonergic responses in cortical pyramidal neurons are correlated with their axonal projection pattern using retrograde fluorescent labeling of COM and corticopontine-projecting (CPn neurons. 5-HT generated excitatory or biphasic responses in all 5-HT-responsive layer 5 COM neurons. Conversely, CPn neurons were universally inhibited by 5-HT. Serotonergic excitation of COM neurons was blocked by the 2A antagonist MDL 11939, while serotonergic inhibition of CPn neurons was blocked by the 1A antagonist WAY 100635, confirming a role for these two receptor subtypes in regulating pyramidal neuron activity. Selective serotonergic excitation of COM neurons was not layer-specific, as COM neurons in layer 2/3 were also selectively excited by 5-HT relative to their non-labeled pyramidal neuron neighbors. Because neocortical 2A receptors are implicated in the etiology and pathophysiology of schizophrenia, we propose that COM neurons may represent a novel cellular target for intervention in psychiatric disease.

  19. Saturated excitation of Fluorescence to quantify excitation enhancement in aperture antennas

    KAUST Repository

    Aouani, Heykel

    2012-07-23

    Fluorescence spectroscopy is widely used to probe the electromagnetic intensity amplification on optical antennas, yet measuring the excitation intensity amplification is a challenge, as the detected fluorescence signal is an intricate combination of excitation and emission. Here, we describe a novel approach to quantify the electromagnetic amplification in aperture antennas by taking advantage of the intrinsic non linear properties of the fluorescence process. Experimental measurements of the fundamental f and second harmonic 2f amplitudes of the fluorescence signal upon excitation modulation are used to quantify the electromagnetic intensity amplification with plasmonic aperture antennas. © 2012 Optical Society of America.

  20. Quantum Phase Transition of Polaritonic Excitations in a Multi-Excitation Coupled Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lituo; Chen, Rongxin; Wu, Huaizhi; Yang, Zhenbiao; Irish, E. K.; Zheng, Shibiao

    2017-11-01

    We analyze the quantum phase transition-like behavior in the lowest energy state of a two-site coupled atom-cavity system, where each cavity contains one atom but the total excitation number is not limited to two. Under the large-detuning condition, we identify an interesting coexisting phase involving characteristics of both photonic superfluid and atomic insulator, which has not been previously revealed. For small hopping, we find that the signature of the photonic superfluid state becomes more pronounced with the increase in total excitation number, and that the boundaries of the various phases shift with respect to the case of two excitations. In the limit of small atom-field interaction, the polaritonic superfluid region becomes broader as the total excitation number increases. We use alternative order parameters to characterize the nonclassical property in the lowest-energy state, and find that the entanglement of photons in the photonic superfluid state has an approximately quadratic-like dependence on the total excitation number within the large-detuning limits. The second-order cross-correlation function is demonstrated to become inversely proportional to the total excitation number in the large detuning limits.

  1. Two-Photon Excitation of Conjugated Molecules in Solution: Spectroscopy and Excited-State Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elles, Christopher G.; Houk, Amanda L.; de Wergifosse, Marc; Krylov, Anna

    2017-06-01

    We examine the two-photon absorption (2PA) spectroscopy and ultrafast excited-state dynamics of several conjugated molecules in solution. By controlling the relative wavelength and polarization of the two photons, the 2PA measurements provide a more sensitive means of probing the electronic structure of a molecule compared with traditional linear absorption spectra. We compare experimental spectra of trans-stilbene, cis-stilbene, and phenanthrene in solution with the calculated spectra of the isolated molecules using EOM-EE-CCSD. The calculated spectra show good agreement with the low-energy region of the experimental spectra (below 6 eV) after suppressing transitions with strong Rydberg character and accounting for solvent and method-dependent shifts of the valence transitions. We also monitor the excited state dynamics following two-photon excitation to high-lying valence states of trans-stilbene up to 6.5 eV. The initially excited states rapidly relax to the lowest singlet excited state and then follow the same reaction path as observed following direct one-photon excitation to the lowest absorption band at 4.0 eV.

  2. Spin-orbit excitations of quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosetti, A.; Escartín, J. M.; Lipparini, E.; Pederiva, F.

    2011-04-01

    Spin-orbit effects on the photoabsorption of a quantum well are discussed by means of a sum rules approach. We show that while the strength of the excitation is zero when the spin-orbit coupling is neglected, the inclusion of the spin-orbit interaction gives rise to a nonzero strength and mean excitation energy in the far-infrared region. A simple expression for these quantities up to the second order in the Rashba interaction is derived. Modifications of the results due to the Dresselhaus spin-orbit term are discussed. The effect of two-body Coulomb interaction is then studied by means of a Quantum Monte Carlo calculation, showing that electron-electron correlations induce only a small deviation from the independent particle model result.

  3. Decay modes of the excited pseudoscalar glueball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshraim, Walaa I.; Schramm, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    We study three different chiral Lagrangians that describe the two- and three-body decays of an excited pseudoscalar glueball, JP C=0*-+ , into light mesons and charmonium states as well as into a scalar and pseudoscalar glueball. We compute the decay channels for an excited pseudoscalar glueball with a mass of 3.7 GeV and consider a ground-state pseudoscalar glueball of mass 2.6 GeV, following predictions from lattice QCD simulations. These states and channels are in reach of the ongoing BESIII experiment and the PANDA experiments at the upcoming FAIR facility experiment. We present the resulting decay branching ratios with a parameter-free prediction.

  4. Condensate of excitations in moving superfluids

    CERN Document Server

    Kolomeitsev, E E

    2016-01-01

    A possibility of the condensation of excitations with a non-zero momentum in rectilinearly moving and rotating superfluid bosonic and fermionic (with Cooper pairing) media is considered in terms of a phenomenological order-parameter functional at zero and non-zero temperature. The results might be applicable to the description of bosonic systems like superfluid $^4$He, ultracold atomic Bose gases, charged pion and kaon condensates in rotating neutron stars, and various superconducting fermionic systems with pairing, like proton and color-superconducting components in compact stars, metallic superconductors, and neutral fermionic systems with pairing, like the neutron component in compact stars and ultracold atomic Fermi gases. Order parameters of the "mother" condensate in the superfluid and the new condensate of excitations, corresponding energy gains, critical temperatures and critical velocities are found.

  5. Nuclear Excitations by Antiprotons and Antiprotonic Atoms

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The proposal aims at the investigation of nuclear excitations following the absorption and annihilation of stopped antiprotons in heavier nuclei and at the same time at the study of the properties of antiprotonic atoms. The experimental arrangement will consist of a scintillation counter telescope for the low momentum antiproton beam from LEAR, a beam degrader, a pion multiplicity counter, a monoisotopic target and Ge detectors for radiation and charged particles. The data are stored by an on-line computer.\\\\ \\\\ The Ge detectors register antiprotonic x-rays and nuclear @g-rays which are used to identify the residual nucleus and its excitation and spin state. Coincidences between the two detectors will indicate from which quantum state the antiprotons are absorbed and to which nuclear states the various reactions are leading. The measured pion multiplicity characterizes the annihilation process. Ge&hyphn. and Si-telescopes identify charged particles and determine their energies.\\\\ \\\\ The experiment will gi...

  6. Search for Excited Electrons at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Adloff, C.; Andrieu, B.; Anthonis, T.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Babaev, A.; Bahr, J.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Baumgartner, S.; Becker, J.; Beckingham, M.; Beglarian, A.; Behnke, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, C.; Berndt, T.; Bizot, J.C.; Bohme, J.; Boudry, V.; Braunschweig, W.; Brisson, V.; Broker, H.B.; Brown, D.P.; Bruncko, D.; Busser, F.W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Burrage, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Caron, S.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Clarke, D.; Collard, C.; Contreras, J.G.; Coppens, Y.R.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cousinou, M.C.; Cox, B.E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Dau, W.D.; Daum, K.; Davidsson, M.; Delcourt, B.; Delerue, N.; Demirchyan, R.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dingfelder, J.; Dixon, P.; Dodonov, V.; Dowell, J.D.; Droutskoi, A.; Dubak, A.; Duprel, C.; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, D.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ellerbrock, M.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, M.; Erdmann, W.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Ferencei, J.; Ferron, S.; Fleischer, M.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleming, Y.H.; Flugge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Foresti, I.; Formanek, J.; Franke, G.; Frising, G.; Gabathuler, E.; Gabathuler, K.; Garvey, J.; Gassner, J.; Gayler, Joerg; Gerhards, R.; Gerlich, C.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Grab, C.; Grabski, V.; Grassler, H.; Greenshaw, T.; Grindhammer, Guenter; Hadig, T.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Haller, J.; Heinemann, B.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Hengstmann, S.; Henschel, H.; Heremans, R.; Herrera, G.; Herynek, I.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hilgers, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hladky, J.; Hoting, P.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Hurling, S.; Ibbotson, M.; Issever, C.; Jacquet, M.; Jaffre, M.; Janauschek, L.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Johnson, C.; Johnson, D.P.; Jones, M.A.S.; Jung, H.; Kant, D.; Kapichine, M.; Karlsson, M.; Karschnick, O.; Katzy, J.; Keil, F.; Keller, N.; Kennedy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kiesling, Christian M.; Kjellberg, P.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, T.; Knies, G.; Koblitz, B.; Kolya, S.D.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kotelnikov, S.K.; Koutouev, R.; Koutov, A.; Kroseberg, J.; Kruger, K.; Kuhr, T.; Lamb, D.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka, T.; Laycock, P.; Lebailly, E.; Lebedev, A.; Leissner, B.; Lemrani, R.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; List, B.; Lobodzinska, E.; Lobodzinski, B.; Loginov, A.; Loktionova, N.; Lubimov, V.; Luders, S.; Luke, D.; Lytkin, L.; Malden, N.; Malinovski, E.; Mangano, S.; Maracek, R.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martyn, H.U.; Martyniak, J.; Maxfield, S.J.; Meer, D.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michine, S.; Mikocki, S.; Milstead, D.; Mohrdieck, S.; Mondragon, M.N.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Nagovizin, V.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, J.; Naumann, T.; Newman, Paul R.; Niebergall, F.; Niebuhr, C.; Nix, O.; Nowak, G.; Nozicka, M.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J.E.; Ozerov, D.; Panassik, V.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Peez, M.; Perez, E.; Petrukhin, A.; Phillips, J.P.; Pitzl, D.; Poschl, R.; Potachnikova, I.; Povh, B.; Rauschenberger, J.; Reimer, P.; Reisert, B.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Schatzel, S.; Scheins, J.; Schilling, F.P.; Schleper, P.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schneider, M.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schorner, T.; Schroder, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Schwanenberger, C.; Sedlak, K.; Sefkow, F.; Chekelian, V.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Sirois, Y.; Sloan, T.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Spitzer, H.; Stamen, R.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Strauch, I.; Straumann, U.; Tchetchelnitski, S.; Thompson, Graham; Thompson, P.D.; Tomasz, F.; Traynor, D.; Truoel, Peter; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Turney, J.E.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Uraev, A.; Urban, Marcel; Usik, A.; Valkar, S.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vassiliev, S.; Vazdik, Y.; Veelken, C.; Vest, A.; Vichnevski, A.; Wacker, K.; Wagner, J.; Wallny, R.; Waugh, B.; Weber, G.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Werner, N.; Wessels, M.; White, G.; Wiesand, S.; Wilksen, T.; Winde, M.; Winter, G.G.; Wissing, C.; Wobisch, M.; Woehrling, E.E.; Wunsch, E.; Wyatt, A.C.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zomer, F.; zur Nedden, M.

    2002-01-01

    A search for excited electron e* production is described in which the electroweak decays e*->e gamma, e*->e Z and e*->nu W are considered. The data used correspond to an integrated luminosity of 120 pb^(-1) taken in e^(+-)p collisions from 1994 to 2000 with the H1 detector at HERA at centre-of-mass energies of 300 and 318 GeV. No evidence for a signal is found. Mass dependent exclusion limits are derived for the ratio of the couplings to the compositeness scale, f/Lambda. These limits extend the excluded region to higher masses than has been possible in previous direct searches for excited electrons.

  7. The Tongue as an Excitable Medium

    CERN Document Server

    Seiden, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    Geographic tongue (GT) is a benign condition affecting approximately 2% of the population, whereby the papillae covering the upper part of the tongue are lost due to a slowly expanding inflammation. The resultant dynamical appearance of the tongue has striking similarities with well known phenomena observed in excitable media, such as forest fires, cardiac dynamics and chemically-driven reaction-diffusion systems. Here we explore the dynamics associated with GT from a dynamical systems perspective, utilizing cellular automata simulations. We emphasize similarities with other excitable systems as well as unique features observed in GT. Our results shed light on the evolution of the inflammation and contribute to the classification of the severity of the condition, based on the characteristic patterns observed in GT patients.

  8. Excited States in Solution through Polarizable Embedding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jógvan Magnus; Aidas, Kestutis; Kongsted, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    We present theory and implementation of an advanced quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) approach using a fully self-consistent polarizable embedding (PE) scheme. It is a polarizable layered model designed for effective yet accurate inclusion of an anisotropic medium in a quantum...... mechanical calculation. The polarizable embedding potential is described by an atomistic representation including terms up to localized octupoles and anisotropic polarizabilities. It is generally applicable to any quantum chemical description but is here implemented for the case of Kohn−Sham density...... functional theory which we denote the PE-DFT method. It has been implemented in combination with time-dependent quantum mechanical linear and nonlinear response techniques, thus allowing for assessment of electronic excitation processes and dynamic ground- and excited-state molecular properties using...

  9. Excited states of {sup 4}He droplets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guardiola, R.; Navarro, J.; Portesi, M.

    2001-06-01

    We study low-lying excited states of {sup 4}He clusters up to a cluster size of 40 atoms in a variational framework. The ansatz wave function combines two- and three-body correlations, coming from a translationally invariant configuration interaction description, and Jastrow-type short-range correlation. We have previously used this scheme to determine the ground-state energies of {sup 4}He and {sup 3}He clusters. Here we present an extension of this ansatz wave function having a good quantum angular momentum L. The variational procedure is applied independently to the cases with L=0,2,4, and upper bounds for the corresponding energies are thus obtained. Moreover, centroid energies for L excitations are calculated through the use of sum rules. A comparison with previous calculations is also made.

  10. From membrane excitability to metazoan psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Norman D; Carvalho, Gil B; Damasio, Antonio

    2014-12-01

    Unlike the nonexcitable cell membranes that are ubiquitous in all domains of life, excitable membranes are found almost exclusively in animal organisms (Protozoa and Metazoa). Their transient permeability to ion flow makes possible the rapid detection of, and response to, external stimuli, and results in the phenomena that most clearly distinguish fauna from flora: perception, cognition, and motor activity. Interestingly, all known forms of membrane excitability are a consequence of one unique mechanism: the influx of positively charged ions into the normally alkaline cytoplasm. Here, we suggest that the sudden reversal of the membrane potential during the sensory potential and the action potential is an electrostatic disturbance of homeostasis that is the necessary first step in the processes of 'sentience' and 'irritability'. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Electron excitation of a Jovian Aurora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaps, M. G.; Bass, J. N.; Green, A. E. S.

    1973-01-01

    Because Jupiter possesses a magnetic field, auroral activity is very likely. The auroral emissions due to electron precipitation are estimated for a model atmosphere with and without helium. The incident primary electrons, which are characterized by representative spectra, are degraded in energy by applying the continuous slow down approximation. All secondaries, tertiaries, and higher generation electrons are assumed to be absorbed locally. A compilation of excitation, dissociation, and ionization cross section data for H, H2, and He are used to model all aspects of the energy deposition process. Volume emission rates are calculated from the total direct excitation rates, and appropriate corrections for cascading are applied. Helium emissions are relatively small because the majority of electrons are absorbed above the region of maximum He concentration.

  12. Effects of aging on motor cortex excitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliviero, A; Profice, P; Tonali, P A; Pilato, F; Saturno, E; Dileone, M; Ranieri, F; Di Lazzaro, V

    2006-05-01

    To determine whether aging is associated with changes in excitability of the cerebral cortex, we evaluated the excitability of the motor cortex with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). We compared TMS related measures obtained in a group of young people with those of a group of old people. Motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitude was significantly smaller in older than in younger controls (1.3+/-0.8 mV versus 2.7+/-1.1 mV; p<0.0071). Mean cortical silent period (CSP) duration was shorter in older than in younger controls (87+/-29 ms versus 147+/-39 ms; p<0.0071). SP duration/MEP amplitude ratios were similar in both groups. Our results are consistent with an impaired efficiency of some intracortical circuits in old age.

  13. Excitation of vortex meandering in shear flow

    OpenAIRE

    Schröttle, Josef; Dörnbrack, Andreas; Schumann, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the evolution of a streamwise aligned columnar vortex with vorticity ω in an axial background shear of magnitude Ω by means of linear stability analysis and numerical simulations. A long wave mode of vorticity normal to the plane spanned by the background shear vector Ω and the vorticity of the vortex are excited by an instability. The stationary wave modes of the vertical and lateral vorticity are amplified. In order to form a helical vortex, the lat...

  14. Dynamical analysis of highly excited molecular spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellman, M.E. [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The goal of this program is new methods for analysis of spectra and dynamics of highly excited vibrational states of molecules. In these systems, strong mode coupling and anharmonicity give rise to complicated classical dynamics, and make the simple normal modes analysis unsatisfactory. New methods of spectral analysis, pattern recognition, and assignment are sought using techniques of nonlinear dynamics including bifurcation theory, phase space classification, and quantization of phase space structures. The emphasis is chaotic systems and systems with many degrees of freedom.

  15. Rearrangements in ground and excited states

    CERN Document Server

    de Mayo, Paul

    1980-01-01

    Rearrangements in Ground and Excited States, Volume 2 covers essays on the theoretical approach of rearrangements; the rearrangements involving boron; and the molecular rearrangements of organosilicon compounds. The book also includes essays on the polytopal rearrangement at phosphorus; the rearrangement in coordination complexes; and the reversible thermal intramolecular rearrangements of metal carbonyls. Chemists and people involved in the study of rearrangements will find the book invaluable.

  16. Radiative widths of neutral kaon excitations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    we limit the radiative widths Γr(K*(1410)) and Γr(K*. 2(1430)) to 52.9 and 5.4 keV, respectively, at 90% CL. While there is no prediction for Γr(K*(1410)), Babcock and Rosner [9] used SU(3) invariance to predict that excitations with JPC = 1++ or 2++ would have vanishing radiative widths. In the limit of SU(3), K*. 2(1430) has.

  17. Sonoluminescence as a Physical Vacuum Excitation

    OpenAIRE

    Stepanovsky, Yu. P.; Sergeeva, G. G.

    2000-01-01

    We are discussing Schwinger'idea that physical mechanism of sonoluminescence is a physical vacuum excitation. This theory was based on the assumption that the sudden change of the rate of bubble collapse leads to the jump of dielectric constant of the gas trapped inside the bubble. We show that the dependence of the dielectric constant on the gas density really leads to the jump of the dielectric constant at shock-wave propagation in a collapsing gas bubble.

  18. Controlling nonlinear waves in excitable media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puebla, Hector [Departamento de Energia, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Av. San Pablo No. 180, Reynosa-Tamaulipas, Azcapotzalco 02200, DF, Mexico (Mexico)], E-mail: hpuebla@correo.azc.uam.mx; Martin, Roland [Laboratoire de Modelisation et d' Imagerie en Geosciences, CNRS UMR and INRIA Futurs Magique-3D, Universite de Pau (France); Alvarez-Ramirez, Jose [Division de Ciencias Basicas e Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa (Mexico); Aguilar-Lopez, Ricardo [Departamento de Biotecnologia y Bioingenieria, CINVESTAV-IPN (Mexico)

    2009-01-30

    A new feedback control method is proposed to control the spatio-temporal dynamics in excitable media. Applying suitable external forcing to the system's slow variable, successful suppression and control of propagating pulses as well as spiral waves can be obtained. The proposed controller is composed by an observer to infer uncertain terms such as diffusive transport and kinetic rates, and an inverse-dynamics feedback function. Numerical simulations shown the effectiveness of the proposed feedback control approach.

  19. Love waves excited by a moving source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaslavskii, Yu. M.

    2016-01-01

    The study analyzes the characteristics of surface Love waves excited by the moment of an oscillating torsional force with a point of action that moves uniformly and rectilinearly along the free flat boundary of a medium having the structure of a "layer on a half-space." The azimuthal-angular distribution of the amplitude and Doppler shift in frequency of the wave modes is studied as a function of the motion velocity of a vibrating source and the parameters of the medium.

  20. Charges and Electromagnetic Radiation as Topological Excitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfried Faber

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss a model with stable topological solitons in Minkowski space with only three degrees of freedom, the rotational angles of a spatial Dreibein. This model has four types of solitons differing in two topological quantum numbers which we identify with electric charge and spin. The vacuum has a two-dimensional degeneracy leading to two types of massless excitations, characterised by a topological quantum number which could have a physical equivalent in the photon number.

  1. Chirp Excitation of Ultrasonic Guided Waves (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    more significant for full wavefield capture using, for example, laser vibrometers or air-coupled transducers because of the unavoidably large...Lamb wave excitation and detection with piezoelectric wafer active sensors for structural health monitoring,” Journal of Intelligent Material Systems...G. Hentges and W. Mueller, “Improvement of ultrasonic testing of concrete by combining signal conditioning methods, scanning laser vibrometer and

  2. Stimulation of unidirectional pulses in excitable systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, M.; Ovsyshcher, I. E.; Fleidervish, I.; Crystal, E.; Rabinovitch, A.

    2004-10-01

    Using a judicious spatial shape of input current pulses (and electrodes), responses of an excitable system (FitzHugh-Nagumo) appear as unidirectional pulses (UDP’s) instead of bidirectional ones (in one dimension) or circular ones (in two dimensions). The importance of the UDP’s for a possible mechanism for pinpointing the reentry cycle position and for a possible use in tachycardia suppression is discussed.

  3. Self-excitation of space charge waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyuksyutov, Sergei; Buchhave, Preben; Vasnetsov, Mikhail

    1997-01-01

    We report a direct observation of space charge waves in photorefractive crystals with point group 23 (sillenites) based on their penetration into an area with uniform light illumination. It is shown experimentally that the quality factor of the waves increases substantially with respect to what...... current theory predicts [B. Sturman el al., Appl. Phys. A 55, 235 (1992)]. This results in the appearance of strong spontaneous beams caused by space charge wave self-excitation....

  4. Vibration Analysis of Blade Under Multiple Composite Unsteady Excitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licheng FANG

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand the effects of the unsteady aerodynamic excitations in complex flow field on blades, on the basis of the data obtained from the single-stage axial flow compressor, three kinds of exciting forms in the compressor had been studied, including the correlation between excitations and responses in the upstream blade row wake, inlet distortion and rotating stall. Results showed that the response characteristics of the unsteady aerodynamic excitation could be extracted by adopting cross-relation method to distinguish effects of different exciting forms on blades. When many kinds of unsteady aerodynamic excitations co-existed, various exciting factors could be extracted from the mixed excitations through the cross-correlation analysis of excitation and response signals and by comparing with the characteristics of single aerodynamic excitation. Simulation data showed that the trail excitation energy on blades focused mainly on high frequency domains, the dynamic excitation of rotating stall centered on low frequency domains the excitation of the inlet distortion on blades existed in both high and low frequencies and amplitude at low frequency was larger than that at high frequency.

  5. Excitation Mechanisms for Jovian Seismic Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Stephen; Stevenson, David J.

    2017-10-01

    Recent (2011) results from the Nice Observatory indicate the existence of global seismic modes on Jupiter in the frequency range between 0.7 and 1.5mHz with amplitudes of tens of cm/s. Currently, the driving force behind these modes is a mystery; the measured amplitudes were much larger than anticipated based on theory analogous to helioseismology (that is, turbulent convection as a source of stochastic excitation). One of the most promising hypotheses is that these modes are driven by Jovian storms. This work constructs a framework to analytically model the expected equilibrium normal mode amplitudes arising from convective columns in storms. We also place rough constraints of Jupiter's seismic modal quality factor. Using this model, neither meteor strikes, turbulent convection, nor water storms can feasibly excite the order of magnitude of observed amplitudes. Next we speculate about the potential role of rock storms deeper in Jupiter's atmosphere, because the rock storms' expected energy scales make them promising candidates to be the chief source of excitation for Jovian seismic modes, based on simple scaling arguments. Finally we suggest a predicted power spectrum for frequencies which have not yet been observed based on our findings, and supply some commentary on potential applications to Juno, Saturn, and future missions to Uranus and Neptune.

  6. Thermal Excitation System for Shearography (TESS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansing, Matthew D.; Bullock, Michael W.

    1996-01-01

    One of the most convenient and effective methods of stressing a part or structure for shearographic evaluation is thermal excitation. This technique involves heating the part, often convectively with a heat gun, and then monitoring with a shearography device the deformation during cooling. For a composite specimen, unbonds, delaminations, inclusions, or matrix cracking will deform during cooling differently than other more structurally sound regions and thus will appear as anomalies in the deformation field. However, one of the difficulties that cause this inspection to be dependent on the operator experience is the conventional heating process. Fanning the part with a heat gun by hand introduces a wide range of variability from person to person and from one inspection to the next. The goal of this research effort was to conduct research in the methods of thermal excitation for shearography inspection. A computerized heating system was developed for inspection of 0.61 m (24 in.) square panels. The Thermal Excitation System for Shearography (TESS) provides radiant heating with continuous digital measurement of the surface temperature profile to ensure repeatability. The TESS device functions as an accessory to any electronic shearography device.

  7. Excimer Lasers With Capacitively Excited Tubular Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichler, Hans J.; Herweg, Helmut; de la Rosa, Jose

    1989-04-01

    The excitation of excimer lasers in tubular discharges results in simple and compact devices needing no preionization. Optical output energies are in the millijoule range. We investigated XeF, KrF and ArF lasers for various operating conditions. The lasers consist of capillary glass tubes with two internal electrodes at the ends and an aluminium-foil wrapped around the tube as capacitive electrode. A maximum output energy of 0.3 mJ has been achieved for the XeF laser. The good quality of the discharge is indicated by the observation of spontaneous mode locking. The detailed study of the discharge for different polarities of the electrodes has shown that efficient operation with a high gas lifetime can be obtained by a purely capacitively excited discharge. A gas lifetime of about 10,000 pulses for 3 litres gas mixture has been observed. Using a two stage Marx generator to generate 100 kV excitation voltage a maximum output energy of 0.7 mJ was obtained for a gas mixture of Kr, F2 and He with an efficiency of 0.17%. The KrF laser operates also without the buffer gas. Laser action in ArF has been achieved with 15 μJ pulse energy and 10 ns duration.

  8. Very narrow excited Ωc baryons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karliner, Marek; Rosner, Jonathan L.

    2017-06-01

    Recently, LHCb reported the discovery of five extremely narrow excited Ωc baryons decaying into Ξc+K-. We interpret these baryons as bound states of a c quark and a P -wave s s diquark. For such a system, there are exactly five possible combinations of spin and orbital angular momentum. The narrowness of the states could be a signal that it is hard to pull apart the two s quarks in a diquark. We predict two of spin 1 /2 , two of spin 3 /2 , and one of spin 5 /2 , all with negative parity. Of the five states, two can decay in S -wave, and three can decay in D -wave. Some of the D -wave states might be narrower than the S -wave states. We discuss the relations among the five masses expected in the quark model and the likely spin assignments, and we compare them with the data. A similar pattern is expected for negative-parity excited Ωb states. An alternative interpretation is noted in which the heaviest two states are 2 S excitations with JP=1 /2+ and 3 /2+, while the lightest three are those with JP=3 /2- , 3 /2- , 5 /2- , expected to decay via D -waves. In this case, we expect JP=1 /2- Ωc states around 2904 and 2978 MeV.

  9. Non-radiative excitation fluorescence microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riachy, Lina; Vézy, Cyrille; Jaffiol, Rodolphe

    2016-03-01

    Non-radiative Excitation Fluorescence Microscopy (NEFM) constitutes a new way to observe biological samples beyond the diffraction limit. Non-radiative excitation of the samples is achieved by coating the substrate with donor species, such as quantum dots (QDs). Thus the dyes are not excited directly by the laser source, as in common fluorescence microscopy, but through a non-radiative energy transfer. To prevent dewetting of the donor film, we have recently implemented a silanization process to covalently bond the QDs on the substrate. An homogeneous monolayer of QDs was then deposited on only one side of the coverslips. Atomic force microscopy was then used to characterize the QD layer. We highlight the potential of our method through the study of Giant Unilamellar Vesicles (GUVs) labeled with DiD as acceptor, in interaction with surface functionalized with poly-L-lysine. In the presence of GUVs, we observed a quenching of QDs emission, together with an emission of DiD located in the membrane, which clearly indicated that non-radiative energy transfer from QDs to DiD occurs.

  10. New spin excitation modes in nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castel, B.; Zamick, L.

    1987-04-01

    Recent pion inelastic scattering experiments at LAMPF have revealed the existence of strong spin-flip E1 resonances in the vicinity of the GDR in several light nuclei. We present here a general review of shell model and RPA calculations of S = 0 and S = 1 E1 and E2 strength distributions which offer a broad theoretical context for the discussion of electric spin excitations. We discuss in particular the sensitivity of the spin-flip states to the non-central part of the nuclear interaction. Sum rules techniques are also employed to demonstrate the lack of overlap between S = 0 and S = 1 states. This review suggests that spin excited states respond differently to hadronic, electromagnetic and pionic probes and that the region of up to 10 MeV above the GDR is the most promising for future experimental investigations. Chapter 2 of this review is then devoted to the study of the recently discovered M1 collective (the “scissor” mode) in light nuclei. In particular the study concentrates on model predictions in the f{7}/{2} shell and the subsequent observation of strong M1 excitations in 46Ti performed by Richter's group with the electron accelerator at Darmstadt, as well as inelastic proton scattering performed by an Orsay-Michigan State Collaboration. Rotational model and configuration mixing predictions of the spin and orbital components are also discussed in the context of a comparison between (p,p‧) and (e,e‧) M1 spectra.

  11. The excitation of tsunamis by deep earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okal, Emile A.

    2017-04-01

    Motivated by the detection of a millimetric tsunami following the deep earthquake of 2013 May 24 in the Sea of Okhotsk (depth 603 km; record moment M0 = 3.95 × 1028 dyn cm), we present a number of theoretical studies of the influence of source depth, zs, on the excitation of tsunamis by dislocation sources. In the framework of the static deformation of an elastic half-space, we show that the energy available for tsunami excitation by a seismic source whose depth is significantly greater than source dimensions is expected to vary as M_0^2/z_{s}^2, in contrast to the classical scaling as M_0^{4/3} for shallow sources. This is verified by numerical simulations based on the MOST algorithm, which also confirm the interpretation of the millimetric signals observed on DART sensors during the 2013 event. The normal-mode formalism, which considers tsunamis as a special branch of the spheroidal oscillations of the Earth in the presence of a water layer at its surface, also predicts an M_0^2/z_{s}^2 scaling for point source double-couples, and confirms millimetric amplitudes in the geometry of the DART buoys having recorded the 2013 Okhotsk tsunami. A general investigation of potential tsunami excitation as a function of depth for realistic intermediate and deep sources suggests the admittedly remote possibility of damaging events if deep earthquakes even greater than the 2013 event could occur at the bottom of Wadati-Benioff zones.

  12. Introducing thermal excitations for color potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Yaouanc, A.; Oliver, L.; Pène, O.; Raynal, J.-C.; Jarfi, M.; Lazrak, O.

    1989-02-01

    A difficulty appears when introducing the temperature for a chiral-invariant color potential V(r) between quarks. The naive gap equation at finite temperature, obtained from a minimum principle and a Bogoliubov approximation applied to the free energy, has the following problems: (1) in the limit T-->0, it is inconsistent with the gap equation formulated directly at T=0; (2) it is not invariant under the transformation V(r)-->V(r)+const, as one would expect if the Hilbert space is restricted to color singlets, as required by confinement. These difficulties are solved if one requires the thermal excitations to be global color singlets, or, equivalently, if one restricts to the color singlets the trace in the calculation of the free energy. We obtain the corresponding gap equation in the infinite-volume thermodynamic limit. This equation has now a T-->0 limit that possesses the same ground-state solution as the zero-temperature gap equation. Moreover, in the case of a confining potential the same ground-state solution remains when we switch on the temperature, so that chiral invariance is not restored at any value of the temperature. Because translational invariance is assumed, particle-hole thermal excitations are constructed as color-singlet pairs of plane waves that, due to the confining interaction, possess infinite energy. The particle-hole pairs cannot be excited with a finite cost of energy, preventing chiral-symmetry restoration at any temperature.

  13. Excitation equilibria in plasmas; a classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullen, J.A.M. van der (Eindhoven Univ. of Tech. (Netherlands). Physics Dept.)

    1990-07-01

    This review gives a classification of the excitation kinetics ruled by electrons in plasmas. It is a study on the atomic state distribution function (ASDF) and its relation with underlying processes, which, for the case of an electron excitation kinetics (EEK) plasma, is merely a competition between free and bound electrons, the same particles in different circumstances. In a quasi steady state the population density of an atomic state results from production-destruction balances in equilibrium. If all balances are proper, i.e., consist of each other's inverse processes, then the ASDF is described by the Boltzmann-Saha relation. In other cases the balance will be denoted as improper, the ASDF will deviate from the equilibrium shape, but reflecting the underlying improper balances, it may give information about the plasma. Four improper balances and their impact on the ASDF are dealt with. An important feature is that improper balances are associated with particle transport. Special attention is paid to the distribution function of the excitation saturation balance in which the overpopulated bound electrons are subjected to frequent interactions with free electrons and the energy distribution of the free electrons is taken over. This distribution, denoted as the bound Maxwell distribution, is experimentally found in several ionizing plasmas. Its recombining counterpart, the deexcitation saturation balance, creates under certain conditions inversion in the ASDF, the basis for the recombination laser. (orig.).

  14. Excitation energy transfer in the photosystem I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webber, Andrew N

    2012-09-25

    Photosystem I is a multimeric pigment protein complex in plants, green alage and cyanobacteria that functions in series with Photosystem II to use light energy to oxidize water and reduce carbon dioxide. The Photosystem I core complex contains 96 chlorophyll a molecules and 22 carotenoids that are involved in light harvesting and electron transfer. In eucaryotes, PSI also has a peripheral light harvesting complex I (LHCI). The role of specific chlorophylls in excitation and electron transfer are still unresolved. In particular, the role of so-called bridging chlorophylls, located between the bulk antenna and the core electron transfer chain, in the transfer of excitation energy to the reaction center are unknown. During the past funding period, site directed mutagenesis has been used to create mutants that effect the physical properties of these key chlorophylls, and to explore how this alters the function of the photosystem. Studying these mutants using ultrafast absorption spectroscopy has led to a better understanding of the process by which excitation energy is transferred from the antenna chlorophylls to the electron transfer chain chlorophylls, and what the role of connecting chlorophylls and A_0 chlorophylls is in this process. We have also used these mutants to investigate whch of the central group of six chlorophylls are involved in the primary steps of charge separation and electron transfer.

  15. Exciting H2 Molecules for Graphene Functionalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyhl, Line; Bisson, Regis; Balog, Richard

    2018-01-01

    Hydrogen functionalization of graphene by exposure to vibrationally excited H2 molecules is investigated by combined scanning tunneling microscopy, high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy, x-ray photoemission spectroscopy measurements and density functional theory calculations. The meas......Hydrogen functionalization of graphene by exposure to vibrationally excited H2 molecules is investigated by combined scanning tunneling microscopy, high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy, x-ray photoemission spectroscopy measurements and density functional theory calculations....... The measurements reveal that vibrationally excited H2 molecules dissociatively adsorb on graphene on Ir(111) resulting in nano-patterned hydrogen functionalization structures. Calculations demonstrate that the presence of the Ir surface below the graphene lowers the H2 dissociative adsorption barrier and allows...... for the adsorption reaction at energies well below the dissociation threshold of the H-H bond. The first reacting H2 molecule must contain considerable vibrational energy to overcome the dissociative adsorption barrier. However, this initial adsorption further activates the surface resulting in reduced barriers...

  16. Composite lateral electric field excited piezoelectric resonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitsev, B D; Shikhabudinov, A M; Borodina, I A; Teplykh, A A; Kuznetsova, I E

    2017-01-01

    The novel method of suppression of parasitic oscillations in lateral electric field excited piezoelectric resonator is suggested. Traditionally such resonator represents the piezoelectric plate with two electrodes on one side of the plate. The crystallographic orientation of the plate is selected so that the tangential components of electric field excite bulk acoustic wave with given polarization travelling along the normal to the plate sides. However at that the normal components of field excite the parasitic Lamb waves and bulk waves of other polarization which deteriorate the resonant properties of the resonator. In this work we suggest to separate the source of the HF electric field and resounded piezoelectric plate by air gap. In this case the tangential components of the field in piezoelectric plate do not practically weaken but normal components significantly decrease. This method is realized on the composite resonator having the structure "glass plate with rectangular electrodes - air gap - plate of 128 Y-X lithium niobate." It has been shown that there exist the optimal value of the width gap which ensure the good quality of series and parallel resonances in frequency range 3-4MHz with record values of Q-factor of ∼15,000 in both cases. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Probabilistic solutions of nonlinear oscillators excited by combined colored and white noise excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu-Siu, Guo; Qingxuan, Shi

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) systems combined to Gaussian white noise and Gaussian/non-Gaussian colored noise excitations are investigated. By expressing colored noise excitation as a second-order filtered white noise process and introducing colored noise as an additional state variable, the equation of motion for SDOF system under colored noise is then transferred artificially to multi-degree-of-freedom (MDOF) system under white noise excitations with four-coupled first-order differential equations. As a consequence, corresponding Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov (FPK) equation governing the joint probabilistic density function (PDF) of state variables increases to 4-dimension (4-D). Solution procedure and computer programme become much more sophisticated. The exponential-polynomial closure (EPC) method, widely applied for cases of SDOF systems under white noise excitations, is developed and improved for cases of systems under colored noise excitations and for solving the complex 4-D FPK equation. On the other hand, Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) method is performed to test the approximate EPC solutions. Two examples associated with Gaussian and non-Gaussian colored noise excitations are considered. Corresponding band-limited power spectral densities (PSDs) for colored noise excitations are separately given. Numerical studies show that the developed EPC method provides relatively accurate estimates of the stationary probabilistic solutions, especially the ones in the tail regions of the PDFs. Moreover, statistical parameter of mean-up crossing rate (MCR) is taken into account, which is important for reliability and failure analysis. Hopefully, our present work could provide insights into the investigation of structures under random loadings.

  18. Analyses of zonal atmospheric excitation functions and their correlation with polar motion excitation functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Nastula

    Full Text Available The atmospheric influence on the Earth's, rotation can be described by the effective atmospheric angular momentum (EAAM functions. In this study we focus on the analysis of short period variations of the equatorial components of the zonal EAAM excitation functions χ1 and χ2 and their influence on similar variations of polar motion. The global objective analysis data of the Japanese Meteorological Agency for the period 1986–1992 were used to compute the EAAM excitation functions in different latitude belts. Time- and latitude-variable amplitude spectra of variations of these functions with periods shorter than 150 days, containing pressure, pressure with the inverted barometric correction, and wind terms were computed. The spectra show distinct latitude and time variations of the prograde and retrograde oscillations which reach their maxima mainly in mid-latitudes. Prograde and retrograde oscillations with periods of about 40–60 days and about 110–120 days are seen in the spectra of pressure terms of the equatorial components of the zonal EAAM excitation functions. Additionally, correlation coefficients and cross-spectra between variations of the geodetic polar motion and equatorial components of the zonal EAAM excitation functions were computed to identify the latitude belts of the globe over which atmospheric circulation changes are correlated mostly with short period variations of the polar motion excitation functions. The correlation coefficients vary in time and latitude and reach maximum values in the northern latitudes from 50°N to 60°N. In the cross-spectra between the polar motion excitation functions and pressure terms of the zonal EAAM excitation functions there are peaks of common prograde oscillations with the periods around 20, 30, 40–50, 60 and 80–150 days and of common retrograde oscillations around 20, 30, 40 and 50–70 days.

  19. Analyses of zonal atmospheric excitation functions and their correlation with polar motion excitation functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Nastula

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available The atmospheric influence on the Earth's, rotation can be described by the effective atmospheric angular momentum (EAAM functions. In this study we focus on the analysis of short period variations of the equatorial components of the zonal EAAM excitation functions χ1 and χ2 and their influence on similar variations of polar motion. The global objective analysis data of the Japanese Meteorological Agency for the period 1986–1992 were used to compute the EAAM excitation functions in different latitude belts. Time- and latitude-variable amplitude spectra of variations of these functions with periods shorter than 150 days, containing pressure, pressure with the inverted barometric correction, and wind terms were computed. The spectra show distinct latitude and time variations of the prograde and retrograde oscillations which reach their maxima mainly in mid-latitudes. Prograde and retrograde oscillations with periods of about 40–60 days and about 110–120 days are seen in the spectra of pressure terms of the equatorial components of the zonal EAAM excitation functions. Additionally, correlation coefficients and cross-spectra between variations of the geodetic polar motion and equatorial components of the zonal EAAM excitation functions were computed to identify the latitude belts of the globe over which atmospheric circulation changes are correlated mostly with short period variations of the polar motion excitation functions. The correlation coefficients vary in time and latitude and reach maximum values in the northern latitudes from 50°N to 60°N. In the cross-spectra between the polar motion excitation functions and pressure terms of the zonal EAAM excitation functions there are peaks of common prograde oscillations with the periods around 20, 30, 40–50, 60 and 80–150 days and of common retrograde oscillations around 20, 30, 40 and 50–70 days.

  20. Non-adiabatic rotational excitation of dipolar molecule under the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    adiabatically by half cycle pulse. (HCP) is controlled using the second ultrashort HCP. ... excited to create a rotational quantum wave packet, a .... Non-adiabatic rotational excitation of dipolar molecule under the influence of delayed pulses. 1215.

  1. Coherent wave packet dynamics in photo-excited Nal

    OpenAIRE

    Leitner, Torsten; Buchner, Franziska; Rouzee, Arnaud; Rading, Linea; Johnsson, Per; Odelius, Michael; Karlsson, Hans O; Vrakking, Marc; Wernet, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Time and energy resolved photoelectron distributions of photo-excited Nal are presented. A splitting in the photo-excited state suggested by calculations of the intramolecular potential energy surfaces could be confirmed experimentally for the first time.

  2. Quantum Yield Characterization and Excitation Scheme Optimization of Upconverting Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Haichun; Xu, Can T.; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin

    2014-01-01

    Upconverting nanoparticles suffer from low quantum yield in diffuse optical imaging, especially at low excitation intensities. Here, the power density dependent quantum yield is characterized, and the excitation scheme is optimized based on such characterization......Upconverting nanoparticles suffer from low quantum yield in diffuse optical imaging, especially at low excitation intensities. Here, the power density dependent quantum yield is characterized, and the excitation scheme is optimized based on such characterization...

  3. Simultaneous two-photon excitation of photodynamic therapy agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wachter, E.A.; Fisher, W.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)]|[Photogen, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States); Partridge, W.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Dees, H.C. [Photogen, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States); Petersen, M.G. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). College of Veterinary Medicine

    1998-01-01

    The spectroscopic and photochemical properties of several photosensitive compounds are compared using conventional single-photon excitation (SPE) and simultaneous two-photon excitation (TPE). TPE is achieved using a mode-locked titanium:sapphire laser, the near infrared output of which allows direct promotion of non-resonant TPE. Excitation spectra and excited state properties of both type 1 and type 2 photodynamic therapy (PDT) agents are examined.

  4. Solving the Bloch equation with periodic excitation using harmonic balancing: application to Rabi modulated excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahayori, Bahman; Johnston, Leigh A; Layton, Kelvin J; Farrell, Peter M; Mareels, Iven M Y

    2015-10-01

    In waveform design for magnetic resonance applications, periodic continuous-wave excitation offers potential advantages that remain largely unexplored because of a lack of understanding of the Bloch equation with periodic continuous-wave excitations. Using harmonic balancing techniques the steady state solutions of the Bloch equation with periodic excitation can be effectively solved. Moreover, the convergence speed of the proposed series approximation is such that a few terms in the series expansion suffice to obtain a very accurate description of the steady state solution. The accuracy of the proposed analytic approximate series solution is verified using both a simulation study as well as experimental data derived from a spherical phantom with doped water under continuous-wave excitation. Typically a five term series suffices to achieve a relative error of less than one percent, allowing for a very effective and efficient analytical design process. The opportunities for Rabi frequency modulated continuous-wave form excitation are then explored, based on a comparison with steady state free precession pulse sequences.

  5. Excitation power quantities in phase resonance testing of nonlinear systems with phase-locked-loop excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Simon; Leine, Remco I.

    2017-11-01

    Phase resonance testing is one method for the experimental extraction of nonlinear normal modes. This paper proposes a novel method for nonlinear phase resonance testing. Firstly, the issue of appropriate excitation is approached on the basis of excitation power considerations. Therefore, power quantities known from nonlinear systems theory in electrical engineering are transferred to nonlinear structural dynamics applications. A new power-based nonlinear mode indicator function is derived, which is generally applicable, reliable and easy to implement in experiments. Secondly, the tuning of the excitation phase is automated by the use of a Phase-Locked-Loop controller. This method provides a very user-friendly and fast way for obtaining the backbone curve. Furthermore, the method allows to exploit specific advantages of phase control such as the robustness for lightly damped systems and the stabilization of unstable branches of the frequency response. The reduced tuning time for the excitation makes the commonly used free-decay measurements for the extraction of backbone curves unnecessary. Instead, steady-state measurements for every point of the curve are obtained. In conjunction with the new mode indicator function, the correlation of every measured point with the associated nonlinear normal mode of the underlying conservative system can be evaluated. Moreover, it is shown that the analysis of the excitation power helps to locate sources of inaccuracies in the force appropriation process. The method is illustrated by a numerical example and its functionality in experiments is demonstrated on a benchmark beam structure.

  6. Modeling short-pulse laser excitation of dielectric materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wædegaard, Kristian Juncher; Sandkamm, Ditte Både; Haahr-Lillevang, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    A theoretical description of ultrashort-pulse laser excitation of dielectric materials based on strong-field excitation in the Keldysh picture combined with a multiple-rateequation model for the electronic excitation including collisional processes is presented. The model includes light attenuation...

  7. Excited state kinetics of anthracene-bridge-aniline intramolecular exciplexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyrhaug, Erling; Hammershøj, Peter; Kjær, Kasper Skov

    2014-01-01

    excited anthracene state (LE) and an excited state complex (exciplex, EP) in non-polar solvents. The kinetics of the excited state processes were established in decalin from the time-resolved emission, and was shown to be strongly influenced by an electron-transfer state (ET). For quantitative studies...

  8. Effects of road transportation on excitability scores of pigs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-02-08

    Feb 8, 2010 ... excitability scores of pigs administered ascorbic acid (AA) during the hot-dry season in Northern ... pigs (40.0 to 10%). Road transportation decreased the excitability scores and percent excitability in control pigs with high scores. In conclusion ..... temperature in large white Caribbean Creole growing pigs.

  9. Vibratory synchronization transmission of a cylindrical roller in a vibrating mechanical system excited by two exciters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xueliang; Wen, Bangchun; Zhao, Chunyu

    2017-11-01

    In present work vibratory synchronization transmission (VST) of a cylindrical roller with dry friction in a vibrating mechanical system excited by two exciters, is studied. Using the average method, the criterion of implementing synchronization of two exciters and that of ensuring VST of a roller, are achieved. The criterion of stability of the synchronous states satisfies the Routh-Hurwitz principle. The influences of the structural parameters of the system to synchronization and stability, are discussed numerically, which can be served as the theoretical foundation for engineering designs. An experiment is carried out, which approximately verify the validity of the theoretical and numerical results, as well as the feasibility of the method used. Utilizing the VST theory of a roller, some types of vibrating crushing or grinding equipments, etc., can be designed.

  10. First 3- excited state of Fe56

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotiades, N.; Nelson, R. O.; Devlin, M.

    2010-03-01

    There is no reliable evidence for the existence of the 3.076 MeV (3-) level adopted in the ENSDF evaluation for Fe56 although it has been reported in a few experiments. Previous reports of the observation of this level appear to be based on an incorrect assignment in early (e,e') work. Recent neutron inelastic scattering measurements by Demidov [Phys. At. Nucl. 67, 1884, (2004)] show that the assigned γ-ray decay of this state does not occur at a level consistent with known properties of inelastic scattering. In the present work the Fe56(n,n'γ) reaction was used to populate excited states in Fe56. Neutrons in the energy range from 1 to 250 MeV were provided by the pulsed neutron source of the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center’s WNR facility. Deexciting γ rays were detected with the GEANIE spectrometer, a Compton suppressed array of 26 Ge detectors. The γ-γ data obtained with GEANIE were used to establish coincidence relations between transitions. All previously reported levels up to Ex=3.6 MeV excitation energy were observed except for the 3.076 MeV (3-) level. The 991- and 2229-keV transitions, previously reported to deexcite this level, were not observed in the γ-γ coincidence data obtained in the present experiment. The present work supports the assignment of the 4509.6 keV level as the first 3- excited state in Fe56 by observation of two previously known transitions deexciting this state.

  11. Elementary excitations and flow in the liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egami, Takeshi

    2013-03-01

    A new mode of excitation is introduced to elucidate the dynamics in simple liquids at the atomic scale. Some properties of liquid defy easy explanations. For instance, in liquids phonons are overdamped with a very short lifetime. Nevertheless the Dulong-Petit law (CV ~ 3kB) is widely observed at high temperatures. As temperature is reduced the specific heat markedly increases in the supercooled state, only to drop down sharply at the glass transition. Viscosity shows an Arrhenian behavior at high temperatures, but increases rapidly toward the glass transition in the supercooled state. We suggest that these perplexing observations can be naturally explained in terms of the local configurational excitations (LCE's) which locally change the atomic connectivity by an atom losing or gaining one nearest neighbor. We show that the lifetime of LCE, τLC, is equal to the Maxwell relaxation time, τM, at temperatures above the crossover temperature, TA. Above TA the phonon mean-free path, ξ =cTτLC , where cT is the transverse sound velocity, becomes shorter than the interatomic distance, resulting in phonon localization. Therefore LCE's are the elementary excitations in the liquid. They are independent of each other above TA, but below TA LCE's interact through phonon exchange, resulting in the rapid increase in τM , culminatingintheglasstransition . LCE' sarealsothemechanism of flow at low temperature under strong shear stress. In this case, however, losing and gaining of the neighbors are strongly coupled, so that τM = LC / 2 [ 1 ] . Wealsodiscussdynamicheterogeneityin terms of LCE interactions. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Science and Engineering Division.

  12. Coherent acoustic excitation of cavity polaritons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poel, Mike van der; de Lima, M. M.; Hey, R.

    . In the strong-coupling regime the cavityand quantum-well excitonic resonance display new cavity-polariton eigenstates that arejoint electronic and photonic excitations of the system2. These new eigenstates havestrongly modified in-plane dispersion and due to their composite light-matter nature theyhave a fast......, modulates the refractive index and displaces the material causing a harmonicmodulation of the PBG structure1. This periodic modulation of the cavity-exciton systemleads to in-plane mini-Brillouin zone (MBZ) formation. The very high vacuum-Rabisplitting of our sample enables us to clearly resolve...

  13. Inelastic excitation of {sup 187}Re

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shizuma, T.; Toh, Y.; Oshima, M.; Matsuda, M.; Hayakawa, T.; Koizumi, M.; Osa, A. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Sugawara, M. [Chiba Institute of Technology, Narashino, Chiba 275-8588 (Japan); Zhang, Y.H.; Liu, Z. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2003-06-01

    Excited states in {sup 187}Re populated by inelastic scattering of a 500 MeV {sup 82}Se beam have been studied by means of in-beam {gamma}-ray spectroscopy. Levels built on the 5/2{sup +}[402] and 9/2{sup -}[514] one-quasiparticle states were measured up to I{sup {pi}} = (21/2{sup +}) and (21/2{sup -}), respectively. In addition, several new levels including an isomer at 1682 keV with a half-life of 114(23) ns have been found. Quasiparticle configurations of the levels and the transition rates are discussed. (orig.)

  14. Excited state dynamics of DNA bases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kleinermanns, K.; Nachtigallová, Dana; de Vries, M. S.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 2 (2013), s. 308-342 ISSN 0144-235X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP208/12/1318 Grant - others:National Science Foundation(US) CHE-0911564; NASA(US) NNX12AG77G; Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft(DE) SFB 663; Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft(DE) KI 531-29 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : DNA bases * nucleobases * excited state * dynamics * computations * gas phase * conical intersections Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.920, year: 2013

  15. The exciting star of HH 57

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, M.; Dopita, M. A.; Schwartz, R.

    1986-01-01

    The first spectral classification for the exciting star of HH 57 is provided. The star is an F8 III and suffers about 5 mag of visual extinction, far greater than that toward the HH 57A knot, only a few arcseconds away. This difference supports the previous identification of a flattened geometry for the circumstellar dust around this star. Using IRAS photometry, a distance of 940 pc to HH 57 is determined by bolometrically matching the observed luminosity of the star to those of FU Ori and V1057 Cyg.

  16. Plasmonic toroidal excitation with engineering metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pin Chieh; Hsiao, Hui-Hsin; Liao, Chun Yen; Chung, Tsung Lin; Wu, Pei Ru; Savinov, Vassili; Zheludev, Nikolay I.; Tsai, Din Ping

    2017-08-01

    Natural toroidal molecules, such as biomolecules and proteins, possess toroidal dipole moments that are hard to be detected, which leads to extensive studies of artificial toroidal materials. Recently, toroidal metamaterials have been widely investigated to enhance toroidal dipole moments while the other multipoles are eliminated due to the spacial symmetry. In this talk, we will show several cases on the plasmonic toroidal excitation by engineering the near-field coupling between metamaterials, including their promising applications. In addition, a novel design for a toroidal metamaterial with engineering anapole mode will also be discussed.

  17. Statistics of Fractionalized Excitations through Threshold Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morampudi, Siddhardh C.; Turner, Ari M.; Pollmann, Frank; Wilczek, Frank

    2017-06-01

    We show that neutral anyonic excitations have a signature in spectroscopic measurements of materials: The low-energy onset of spectral functions near the threshold follows universal power laws with an exponent that depends only on the statistics of the anyons. This provides a route, using experimental techniques such as neutron scattering and tunneling spectroscopy, for detecting anyonic statistics in topologically ordered states such as gapped quantum spin liquids and hypothesized fractional Chern insulators. Our calculations also explain some recent theoretical results in spin systems.

  18. The photodissociation and reaction dynamics of vibrationally excited molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crim, F.F. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This research determines the nature of highly vibrationally excited molecules, their unimolecular reactions, and their photodissociation dynamics. The goal is to characterize vibrationally excited molecules and to exploit that understanding to discover and control their chemical pathways. Most recently the author has used a combination of vibrational overtone excitation and laser induced fluorescence both to characterize vibrationally excited molecules and to study their photodissociation dynamics. The author has also begun laser induced grating spectroscopy experiments designed to obtain the electronic absorption spectra of highly vibrationally excited molecules.

  19. Ultra-short strong excitation of two-level systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Pankaj K.; Eleuch, Hichem; Grazioso, Fabio

    2014-11-01

    We present a model describing the use of ultra-short strong pulses to control the population of the excited level of a two-level quantum system. In particular, we study an off-resonance excitation with a few cycles pulse which presents a smooth phase jump i.e. a change of the pulse's phase which is not step-like, but happens over a finite time interval. A numerical solution is given for the time-dependent probability amplitude of the excited level. The control of the excited level's population is obtained acting on the shape of the phase transient, and other parameters of the excitation pulse.

  20. Photo- excitation of Cd atom by optogalvanic technique monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Mahdieh

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available   Optogalavanic technique has been used widely in laser spectroscopy. In this paper we have presented the results of an experimental three- step photo- excitation of Gd atom, using optogalvanic technique. Three tunable dye laser pulses were applied to excite the Gd atom in a three-step photo – excitation process. The optogalvanic signal was used to monitor the laser wavelength and efficiency of the excitation process. The results show that the optogalvanic signal is very sensitive to the first photo- excitation step in comparison with those of the second and the third step.

  1. Luminescence and excitation spectra of YAG:Nd{sup 3+} excited by synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ning Lixin [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Tanner, Peter A. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)], E-mail: bhtan@cityu.edu.hk; Harutunyan, Vachagan V.; Aleksanyan, Eduard [Yerevan Physics Institute, 2 Alikhanian Brothers Str., 375036 Yerevan (Armenia); Makhov, Vladimir N. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Leninskii Prospect 53, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Riia 142, 51014 Tartu (Estonia); Kirm, Marco [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Riia 142, 51014 Tartu (Estonia)

    2007-12-15

    The low-temperature 4f{sup 2}5d{yields}4f{sup 3} fast emission of Nd{sup 3+} from YAG:Nd{sup 3+} has been studied under excitation by synchrotron radiation. Additionally, 4f{sup 3}{yields}4f{sup 3} luminescence of Nd{sup 3+} has been observed and assigned to transitions from the {sup 2}F(2){sub 5/2} and {sup 4}F{sub 3/2} multiplet terms. The observed experimental spectra of Nd{sup 3+} d-f emission and f-d excitation are well simulated by crystal-field calculations.

  2. On Emulation of Flueric Devices in Excitable Chemical Medium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Adamatzky

    Full Text Available Flueric devices are fluidic devices without moving parts. Fluidic devices use fluid as a medium for information transfer and computation. A Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ medium is a thin-layer spatially extended excitable chemical medium which exhibits travelling excitation wave-fronts. The excitation wave-fronts transfer information. Flueric devices compute via jets interaction. BZ devices compute via excitation wave-fronts interaction. In numerical model of BZ medium we show that functions of key flueric devices are implemented in the excitable chemical system: signal generator, and, xor, not and nor Boolean gates, delay elements, diodes and sensors. Flueric devices have been widely used in industry since late 1960s and are still employed in automotive and aircraft technologies. Implementation of analog of the flueric devices in the excitable chemical systems opens doors to further applications of excitation wave-based unconventional computing in soft robotics, embedded organic electronics and living technologies.

  3. Excited state electron affinity calculations for aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Adnan Yousif

    2017-08-01

    Excited states of negative aluminum ion are reviewed, and calculations of electron affinities of the states (3s^23p^2)^1D and (3s3p^3){^5}{S}° relative to the (3s^23p)^2P° and (3s3p^2)^4P respectively of the neutral aluminum atom are reported in the framework of nonrelativistic configuration interaction (CI) method. A priori selected CI (SCI) with truncation energy error (Bunge in J Chem Phys 125:014107, 2006) and CI by parts (Bunge and Carbó-Dorca in J Chem Phys 125:014108, 2006) are used to approximate the valence nonrelativistic energy. Systematic studies of convergence of electron affinity with respect to the CI excitation level are reported. The calculated value of the electron affinity for ^1D state is 78.675(3) meV. Detailed Calculations on the ^5S°c state reveals that is 1216.8166(3) meV below the ^4P state.

  4. Semiclassical quantization of highly excited scar states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergini, Eduardo G.

    2017-04-01

    The semiclassical quantization of Hamiltonian systems with classically chaotic dynamics is restricted to low excited states, close to the ground state, because the number of required periodic orbits grows exponentially with energy. Nevertheless, here we demonstrate that it is possible to find eigenenergies of highly excited states scarred by a short periodic orbit. Specifically, by using 18146 homoclinic orbits (HO)s of the shortest periodic orbit of the hyperbola billiard, we find eigenenergies of the strongest scars over a range which includes 630 even eigenfunctions. The analysis of data reveals that the used semiclassical formula presents two regimes. First, when all HOs with excursion time smaller than the Heisenberg time t H are included, the error is around 3.3% of the mean level spacing. Second, in the energy region defined by \\tilde{t}/ tH > 0.13 , where \\tilde{t} is the maximum excursion time included in the calculation, the error is around 15% of the mean level spacing.

  5. Relativistic Coulomb excitation of {sup 88}Kr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moschner, Kevin; Blazhev, Andrey; Jolie, Jan; Warr, Nigel; Wendt, Andreas [IKP, Universitaet zu Koeln, 50937 Koeln (Germany); Collaboration: PreSPEC-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    Within the scope of the PreSPEC campaign we performed a Coulomb-excitation experiment to determine absolute E2 transition strengths to 2{sup +} states in the radioactive nucleus {sup 88}Kr. The aim of our studies was to identify the one quadruple-phonon mixed-symmetry 2{sub MS}{sup +} state in order to extend our knowledge on these states to lighter N = 52 isotones and to track their evolution over different proton shells. The investigated ions were provided through projectile fission of a 650 MeV {sup 238}U beam on a primary target consisting of 0.6 g/cm{sup 2} {sup 9}Be and subsequent separation and identification of the reaction products via the FRS at GSI. The secondary target consisted of 0.4 g/cm{sup 2} {sup 197}Au. De-exciting γ radiation was detected by the PreSPEC array, consisting of 15 EUROBALL Cluster detectors. The Lund-York-Cologne-CAlorimeter LYCCA was used for particle identification after the secondary target. Absolute transition strengths of the transitions depopulating the 2{sup +}{sub 3} state in {sup 88}Kr which suggest the mixed symmetric character of this state are presented and discussed within the systematics of the N = 52 isotones.

  6. MEMS Logic Using Mixed-Frequency Excitation

    KAUST Repository

    Ilyas, Saad

    2017-06-22

    We present multi-function microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) logic device that can perform the fundamental logic gate AND, OR, universal logic gates NAND, NOR, and a tristate logic gate using mixed-frequency excitation. The concept is based on exciting combination resonances due to the mixing of two or more input signals. The device vibrates at two steady states: a high state when the combination resonance is activated and a low state when no resonance is activated. These vibration states are assigned to logical value 1 or 0 to realize the logic gates. Using ac signals to drive the resonator and to execute the logic inputs unifies the input and output wave forms of the logic device, thereby opening the possibility for cascading among logic devices. We found that the energy consumption per cycle of the proposed logic resonator is higher than those of existing technologies. Hence, integration of such logic devices to build complex computational system needs to take into consideration lowering the total energy consumption. [2017-0041

  7. Evanescent excitation and emission in fluorescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrod, Daniel

    2013-04-02

    Evanescent light-light that does not propagate but instead decays in intensity over a subwavelength distance-appears in both excitation (as in total internal reflection) and emission (as in near-field imaging) forms in fluorescence microscopy. This review describes the physical connection between these two forms as a consequence of geometrical squeezing of wavefronts, and describes newly established or speculative applications and combinations of the two. In particular, each can be used in analogous ways to produce surface-selective images, to examine the thickness and refractive index of films (such as lipid multilayers or protein layers) on solid supports, and to measure the absolute distance of a fluorophore to a surface. In combination, the two forms can further increase selectivity and reduce background scattering in surface images. The polarization properties of each lead to more sensitive and accurate measures of fluorophore orientation and membrane micromorphology. The phase properties of the evanescent excitation lead to a method of creating a submicroscopic area of total internal reflection illumination or enhanced-resolution structured illumination. Analogously, the phase properties of evanescent emission lead to a method of producing a smaller point spread function, in a technique called virtual supercritical angle fluorescence. Copyright © 2013 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Orbital-only models: ordering and excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brink, Jeroen

    2004-12-01

    We consider orbital-only models in Mott insulators, where the orbital orbital interactions are either due to Jahn Teller distortions or due to the Kugel Khomskii superexchange. This leads to highly anisotropic and frustrated orbital Hamiltonians. For two-fold degenerate eg systems, both types of orbital interactions lead to the same form of the Hamiltonian—the 120° model. In both cases, the predicted symmetry of the orbital ordering is the same, although different from the one observed experimentally. The orbital operators that appear in the two kinds of orbital-only Hamiltonians are different. In the case of superexchange, the orbital degrees of freedom are represented by quantum pseudo-spin 1/2 operators. But when the interactions are Jahn Teller mediated and the coupling with the lattice is strong, the orbital operators are essentially classical pseudospins. Thus as a function of the relative coupling strengths, a quantum-to-classical crossover is expected. For three-fold degenerate t2g orbitals, the Jahn Teller coupling gives rise to a particular type of orbital compass models. We point out that fluctuations—whether due to quantum effects or finite temperature—are of prime importance for ordering in the 120° and orbital compass models. The fluctuations generally generate a gap in the orbital excitation spectrum. These orbital excitations—orbitons—are hybrid excitations that carry both a lattice Jahn Teller and a magnetic Kugel Khomskii character.

  9. Force Sensor Characterization Under Sinusoidal Excitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieves Medina

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim in the current work is the development of a method to characterize force sensors under sinusoidal excitations using a primary standard as the source of traceability. During this work the influence factors have been studied and a method to minimise their contributions, as well as the corrections to be performed under dynamic conditions have been established. These results will allow the realization of an adequate characterization of force sensors under sinusoidal excitations, which will be essential for its further proper use under dynamic conditions. The traceability of the sensor characterization is based in the direct definition of force as mass multiplied by acceleration. To do so, the sensor is loaded with different calibrated loads and is maintained under different sinusoidal accelerations by means of a vibration shaker system that is able to generate accelerations up to 100 m/s2 with frequencies from 5 Hz up to 2400 Hz. The acceleration is measured by means of a laser vibrometer with traceability to the units of time and length. A multiple channel data acquisition system is also required to simultaneously acquire the electrical output signals of the involved instrument in real time.

  10. Electromagnetic excitation of the Delta(1232) resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V. Pascalutsa; M. Vanderhaeghen; Shin Nan Yang

    2006-09-05

    We review the description of the lowest-energy nucleon excitation--the Delta(1232)-resonance. Much of the recent effort has been focused on the precision measurements of the nucleon to Delta transition by means of electromagnetic probes. We review the results of those measurements and confront them with the state-of-the-art calculations based on chiral effective-field theories (EFT), lattice QCD, and QCD-inspired models. Some of the theoretical approaches are reviewed in detail. In particular, we describe the chiral EFT of QCD in the energy domain of the Delta-resonance, and its applications to the electromagnetic nucleon-to-Delta transition (gamma N Delta). We also describe the recent dynamical and unitary-isobar models of pion electroproduction which are extensively used in the extraction of the gamma* N Delta form factors from experiment. Furthermore, we discuss the link of the gamma* N Delta form factors to generalized parton distributions (GPDs), as well as the predictions of perturbative QCD for these transition form factors. The present status of understanding the Delta-resonance properties and the nature of its excitation is summarized.

  11. Electromagnons: Electrically active spin excitations in multiferroics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamba, Stanislav; Goian, Veronica; Kadlec, Filip; Kadlec, Christelle; Vanek, Premysl; Kempa, Martin; Gich, Marti; Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic Team; Institut de Ciència de Materials de Barcelona Team

    2014-03-01

    In some multiferroics spin wave can be excited by electric component of elmg. radiation and such excitations activated by dynamic magnetoelectric coupling are called electromagnons. We will discuss mechanism of electromagnon activation in the THz spectra of three different compounds: In the multiferroic TbMnO3, the ferroelectricity is induced by inverse Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, but two electromagnons are activated by the magnetostriction. Second example is CaMn7O12, whose polarization is the highest among all spin-induced ferroelectrics. In this material we observed three electromagnons, whose frequencies correspond to maxima of magnon density of states, so they should correspond to magnons from Brillouin zone boundary. Finally we will demonstrate that electromagnons are not limited to spin-induced ferroelectrics. We have observed an electromagnon in nanograin ceramics of epsilon-Fe2O3. This material is below 490 K a pyroelectric ferrimagnet and the electromagnon activates in the THz spectra only below 110 K, when the magnetic structure becomes incommensurately modulated. We will show how by combining infrared, THz and inelastic neutron scattering experiments, the electromagnons can be discerned from magnons or phonons. Performed all measurements.

  12. A novel phase portrait for neuronal excitability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Drion

    Full Text Available Fifty years ago, FitzHugh introduced a phase portrait that became famous for a twofold reason: it captured in a physiological way the qualitative behavior of Hodgkin-Huxley model and it revealed the power of simple dynamical models to unfold complex firing patterns. To date, in spite of the enormous progresses in qualitative and quantitative neural modeling, this phase portrait has remained a core picture of neuronal excitability. Yet, a major difference between the neurophysiology of 1961 and of 2011 is the recognition of the prominent role of calcium channels in firing mechanisms. We show that including this extra current in Hodgkin-Huxley dynamics leads to a revision of FitzHugh-Nagumo phase portrait that affects in a fundamental way the reduced modeling of neural excitability. The revisited model considerably enlarges the modeling power of the original one. In particular, it captures essential electrophysiological signatures that otherwise require non-physiological alteration or considerable complexification of the classical model. As a basic illustration, the new model is shown to highlight a core dynamical mechanism by which calcium channels control the two distinct firing modes of thalamocortical neurons.

  13. Analysis of orbitally excited B-mesons

    CERN Document Server

    Albrecht, Zoltan; Quast, Gunter

    2003-01-01

    This thesis reports on the study of orbitally excited B** mesons in DELPHI b-events taken in the years 1994 to 2000 with the DELPHI detector at the LEP collider. The analyses presented represent the result of applying much improved and extended techniques of spectroscopy since the first DELPHI publication in 1995. A major improvement has occurred in the area of particle identification, where a neural network approach has been implemented in the DELPHI software package. Developments in the area of neural networks have led to much improved enrichment of the excited B states. The Bˆ{**} neural networks identify, on a track-by-track basis, the decay pion/kaon originating from the Bˆ{**} decay, suppressing background and keeping signal events in an efficient way. To improve detector resolution, a further application of neural networks has been applied to reconstruct the underlying Q-value. The corresponding network gives a correction on existing measurements of the Q-value in the form of a probability density fu...

  14. Improved Underwater Excitation-Emission Matrix Fluorometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Casey; daCunha, John; Rhoades, Bruce; Twardowski, Michael

    2007-01-01

    A compact, high-resolution, two-dimensional excitation-emission matrix fluorometer (EEMF) has been designed and built specifically for use in identifying and measuring the concentrations of organic compounds, including polluting hydrocarbons, in natural underwater settings. Heretofore, most EEMFs have been designed and built for installation in laboratories, where they are used to analyze the contents of samples collected in the field and brought to the laboratories. Because the present EEMF can be operated in the field, it is better suited to measurement of spatially and temporally varying concentrations of substances of interest. In excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorometry, fluorescence is excited by irradiating a sample at one or more wavelengths, and the fluorescent emission from the sample is measured at multiple wavelengths. When excitation is provided at only one wavelength, the technique is termed one-dimensional (1D) EEM fluorometry because the resulting matrix of fluorescence emission data (the EEM) contains only one row or column. When excitation is provided at multiple wavelengths, the technique is termed two-dimensional (2D) EEM fluorometry because the resulting EEM contains multiple rows and columns. EEM fluorometry - especially the 2D variety - is well established as a means of simultaneously detecting numerous dissolved and particulate compounds in water. Each compound or pool of compounds has a unique spectral fluorescence signature, and each EEM is rich in information content, in that it can contain multiple fluorescence signatures. By use of deconvolution and/or other mixture-analyses techniques, it is often possible to isolate the spectral signature of compounds of interest, even when their fluorescence spectra overlap. What distinguishes the present 2D EEMF over prior laboratory-type 2D EEMFs are several improvements in packaging (including a sealed housing) and other aspects of design that render it suitable for use in natural underwater

  15. Three-photon Gaussian–Gaussian–Laguerre–Gaussian excitation of a localized atom to a highly excited Rydberg state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashhadi, L.

    2017-12-01

    Optical vortices are currently one of the most intensively studied topics in light–matter interaction. In this work, a three-step axial Doppler- and recoil-free Gaussian–Gaussian-Laguerre–Gaussian (GGLG) excitation of a localized atom to the highly excited Rydberg state is presented. By assuming a large detuning for intermediate states, an effective quadrupole excitation related to the Laguerre–Gaussian (LG) excitation to the highly excited Rydberg state is obtained. This special excitation system radially confines the single highly excited Rydberg atom independently of the trapping system into a sharp potential landscape into the so-called ‘far-off-resonance optical dipole-quadrupole trap’ (FORDQT). The key parameters of the Rydberg excitation to the highly excited state, namely the effective Rabi frequency and the effective detuning including a position-dependent AC Stark shift, are calculated in terms of the basic parameters of the LG beam and of the polarization of the excitation lasers. It is shown that the obtained parameters can be tuned to have a precise excitation of a single atom to the desired Rydberg state as well. The features of transferring the optical orbital and spin angular momentum of the polarized LG beam to the atom via quadrupole Rydberg excitation offer a long-lived and controllable qudit quantum memory. In addition, in contrast to the Gaussian laser beam, the doughnut-shaped LG beam makes it possible to use a high intensity laser beam to increase the signal-to-noise ratio in quadrupole excitation with minimized perturbations coming from stray light broadening in the last Rydberg excitation process.

  16. Observation of excited $\\Lambda^0_b$ baryons

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00258707; Abellan Beteta, C; Adametz, A; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves Jr, A A; Amato, S; Amhis, Y; Anderson, J; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bates, A; Bauer, C; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Beddow, J; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Benayoun, M; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Bernet, R; Bettler, M -O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blanks, C; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bobrov, A; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Büchler-Germann, A; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chen, P; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Degaudenzi, H; Del Buono, L; Deplano, C; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Dickens, J; Dijkstra, H; Diniz Batista, P; Domingo Bonal, F; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisele, F; Eisenhardt, S; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Elsby, D; Esperante Pereira, D; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Fave, V; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garnier, J-C; Garofoli, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gascon, D; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gauvin, N; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Harrison, P F; Hartmann, T; He, J; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicks, E; Hoballah, M; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Huston, R S; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Ilten, P; Imong, J; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jahjah Hussein, M; Jans, E; Jansen, F; Jaton, P; Jean-Marie, B; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Keaveney, J; Kenyon, I R; Kerzel, U; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kim, Y M; Knecht, M; Kochebina, O; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kruzelecki, K; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J -P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Li, L; Li, Y; Li Gioi, L; Lieng, M; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; von Loeben, J; Lopes, J H; Lopez Asamar, E; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Luisier, J; Mac Raighne, A; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Magnin, J; Malde, S; Mamunur, R M D; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Mangiafave, N; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martin, L; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Massafferri, A; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Matveev, M; Maurice, E; Maynard, B; Mazurov, A; McCarthy, J; McGregor, G; McNulty, R; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Merkel, J; Milanes, D A; Minard, M -N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Mylroie-Smith, J; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Pal, B K; Palacios, J; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perego, D L; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pessina, G; Petrolini, A; Phan, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pie Valls, B; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Plackett, R; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, E; Rodrigues, F; Rodriguez Perez, P; Rogers, G J; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Rosello, M; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruiz, H; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salzmann, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Sannino, M; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santinelli, R; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schleich, S; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M -H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, M; Sobczak, K; Soler, F J P; Solomin, A; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Swientek, S; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Videau, I; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Visniakov, J; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; Waldi, R; Wallace, R; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wishahi, J; Witek, M; Witzeling, W; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, F; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    2012-01-01

    Using $pp$ collision data corresponding to 1.0~fb^{-1} integrated luminosity collected by the LHCb detector, two narrow states are observed in the $\\Lambda_b^0\\pi^+\\pi^-$ spectrum with masses $5911.95\\pm 0.12(\\mbox{stat})\\pm 0.03(\\mbox{syst})\\pm 0.66(\\Lambda_b^0\\mbox{ mass})$ MeV/$c^2$ and $5919.76\\pm 0.07(\\mbox{stat})\\pm 0.02(\\mbox{syst})\\pm 0.66(\\Lambda_b^0\\mbox{ mass})$ MeV/$c^2$. The significances of the observations are 4.9 and 10.1 standard deviations, respectively. These states are interpreted as the orbitally-excited $\\Lambda_b^0$ baryons, $\\Lambda_b^{*0}(5912)$ and $\\Lambda_b^{*0}(5920)$.

  17. Quantum marginals from pure doubly excited states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciążek, Tomasz; Tsanov, Valdemar

    2017-11-01

    The possible spectra of one-particle reduced density matrices that are compatible with a pure multipartite quantum system of finite dimension form a convex polytope. We introduce a new construction of inner- and outer-bounding polytopes that constrain the polytope for the entire quantum system. The outer bound is sharp. The inner polytope stems only from doubly excited states. We find all quantum systems, where the bounds coincide giving the entire polytope. We show, that those systems are: (i) any system of two particles (ii) L qubits, (iii) three fermions on N≤slant 7 levels, (iv) any number of bosons on any number of levels and (v) fermionic Fock space on N≤slant 5 levels. The methods we use come from symplectic geometry and representation theory of compact Lie groups. In particular, we study the images of proper momentum maps, where our method describes momentum images for all representations that are spherical.

  18. Relativistic Coulomb excitation of 88Kr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschner, K.; Blazhev, A.; Jolie, J.; Warr, N.; Boutachkov, P.; Bednarczyk, P.; Sieja, K.; Algora, A.; Ameil, F.; Bentley, M. A.; Brambilla, S.; Braun, N.; Camera, F.; Cederkäll, J.; Corsi, A.; Danchev, M.; DiJulio, D.; Fahlander, C.; Gerl, J.; Giaz, A.; Golubev, P.; Górska, M.; Grebosz, J.; Habermann, T.; Hackstein, M.; Hoischen, R.; Kojouharov, I.; Kurz, N.; Mǎrginean, N.; Merchán, E.; Möller, T.; Naqvi, F.; Nara Singh, B. S.; Nociforo, C.; Pietralla, N.; Pietri, S.; Podolyák, Zs.; Prochazka, A.; Reese, M.; Reiter, P.; Rudigier, M.; Rudolph, D.; Sava, T.; Schaffner, H.; Scruton, L.; Taprogge, J.; Thomas, T.; Weick, H.; Wendt, A.; Wieland, O.; Wollersheim, H.-J.

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the systematics of mixed-symmetry states in N =52 isotones, a relativistic Coulomb excitation experiment was performed during the PreSPEC campaign at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung to determine E 2 transition strengths to 2+ states of the radioactive nucleus 88Kr. Absolute transition rates could be measured towards the first and third 2+ states. For the latter a mixed-symmetry character is suggested on the basis of the indication for a strong M 1 transition to the fully symmetric 21+ state, extending the knowledge of the N =52 isotones below Z =40 . A comparison with the proton-neutron interacting boson model and shell-model predictions is made and supports the assignment.

  19. Radiative and Excited State Charmonium Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jozef Dudek

    2007-07-30

    Renewed interest in the spectroscopy of charmonium has arisen from recent unexpected observations at $e^+e^-$ colliders. Here we report on a series of works from the previous two years examining the radiative physics of charmonium states as well as the mass spectrum of states of higher spin and internal excitation. Using new techniques applied to Domain-Wall and Clover quark actions on quenched isotropic and anisotropic lattices, radiative transitions and two-photon decays are considered for the first time. Comparisons are made with experimental results and with model approaches. Forthcoming application to the light-quark sector of relevance to experiments like Jefferson Lab's GlueX is discussed.

  20. Holographic construction of excited CFT states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christodoulou, Ariana; Skenderis, Kostas [STAG Research Centre and Mathematical Sciences, University of Southampton,High-field, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2016-04-15

    We present a systematic construction of bulk solutions that are dual to CFT excited states. The bulk solution is constructed perturbatively in bulk fields. The linearised solution is universal and depends only on the conformal dimension of the primary operator that is associated with the state via the operator-state correspondence, while higher order terms depend on detailed properties of the operator, such as its OPE with itself and generally involve many bulk fields. We illustrate the discussion with the holographic construction of the universal part of the solution for states of two dimensional CFTs, either on R×S{sup 1} or on R{sup 1,1}. We compute the 1-point function both in the CFT and in the bulk, finding exact agreement. We comment on the relation with other reconstruction approaches.

  1. Identification of excited states in conjugated polymers

    CERN Document Server

    Hartwell, L J

    2003-01-01

    This thesis reports quasi steady state photoinduced absorption measurements from three conjugated polymers: polypyridine (PPy), polyfluorene (PFO) and the emeraldine base (EB) form of polyaniline. The aim of these experiments was to determine the nature of the photoexcited states existing in these materials in the millisecond time domain, as this has important consequences for the operation of real devices manufactured using these materials. The results from the photoinduced absorption experiments are closely compared with published results from pulse radiolysis experiments. In all cases there is very good correspondence between the two data sets, which has enabled the photoexcited states to be assigned with a high degree of confidence. Quasi steady-state photoinduced absorption involves the measurement of the change in absorption of a material in response to optical excitation with a laser beam. The changes in absorption are small, so a instrument was developed and optimised for each different sample. Lock-i...

  2. Motor Skill Learning and Corticospinal Excitability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lasse

    stimulation protocol did not predict those associated with one session of motor skill learning. The latter showed no significant relation to changes in performance. Conclusions and perspectives The findings from study 1 and 2 emphasize the importance of individually adjusting the task difficulty to maximize......Background Motor skill learning (MSL) is the persistent increase in performance of a skill obtained through practice. This process is associated with changes throughout the central nervous system. One of these is a change in corticospinal excitability (CSE) assessable with Transcranial Magnetic...... Stimulation. Prior work has demonstrated such a change to very different extents with and without causally linking it to the improvements in motor performance. Objectives The aim of this PhD project has been to explore the relation between changes in CSE and motor performance over the time course of learning...

  3. Excited states in {sup 155}Yb and

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, K. Y.; Cizewski, J. A.; Seweryniak, D.; Amro, H.; Carpenter, M. P.; Davids, C. N.; Fotiades, N.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Lauritsen, T.; Lister, C. J. (and others)

    2001-09-01

    The 270-MeV {sup 58}Ni+{sup 102}Pd reaction was used for the first recoil-decay tagging measurement with Gammasphere coupled to the Fragment Mass Analyzer at Argonne National Laboratory. Level structures of {sup 155}Yb, {sup 156}Lu, and {sup 157}Lu, as well as the excited states associated with the 25/2{sup -} isomer in {sup 155}Lu, are identified for the first time. The systematical behavior of the energy levels is compared with that of neighboring isotones and isotopes. The attractive interaction between h{sub 11/2} protons and h{sub 9/2} neutrons plays an important role in the structure of {sup 155}Yb and {sup 155,156}Lu.

  4. A treatment of excited states in nucleosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sanjib Shankar

    2002-10-01

    Many isotopes of importance to nucleosynthesis have metastable states whose decay to the ground state is strongly inhibited by a high angular momentum difference. Traditionally, excited states of a nucleus have been treated by assuming attainment of thermal equilibrium; a Hauser-Feshbach calculation is then performed on the whole nucleus to determine nuclear reaction rates. A description of the nucleus when it is not in equilibrium, and a method for computing reaction rates that does not presume thermalization are presented in this work. In nucleosynthesis calculations, we may characterize the internal electromagnetic transitions of a nucleus as a Markov process. This allows us to decompose the interaction of radiation with nucleons into effective interactions between ensembles. Rather than consider a single isotope, we construct the canonical ensembles which are the true nuclear species of interest. We are then in a position to specify nonequilibrium occupations of the ensembles by discretizing the Nuclear Level Density function. The generality of the stochastic process identified at the outset now permits the description of nucleosynthesis as Markov flows in networks of suitably populated ensembles. This allows us to use as many excited states as we wish in nucleosyn thesis while tracking their nonequilibrium evolution as substochastic processes. A website utilizing these principles is discussed in some detail. It accesses the theoretical NLD database from the Brussels Intitute of Astrophysics to supplement adopted experimental data from the ENSDF database (maintained by Brookhaven National Laboratories). The composite is processed by a CGI (Common Gateway Interface) application to dynamically obtain plots and tables of rates on a specified temperature grid. Beta-decay rates are discussed for an isotope important to nuclear astrophysics ( 180TA) as a test-bed for the techniques implemented.

  5. Search for excited charged leptons in electron positron collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Vachon, Brigitte Marie Christine; Sobie, Randall

    2002-01-01

    A search for evidence that fundamental particles are made of smaller subconstituents is performed. The existence of excited states of fundamental particles would be an unambiguous indication of their composite nature. Experimental signatures compatible with the production of excited states of charged leptons in electron-positron collisions are studied. The data analysed were collected by the OPAL detector at the LEP collider. No evidence for the existence of excited states of charged leptons was found. Upper limits on the product of the cross-section and the electromagnetic branching fraction are inferred. Using results from the search for singly produced excited leptons, upper limits on the ratio of the excited lepton coupling constant to the compositeness scale are calculated. From pair production searches, 95% confidence level lower limits on the masses of excited electrons, muons and taus are determined to be 103.2 GeV.

  6. Effects of abnormal excitation on the dynamics of spiral waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min-Yi, Deng; Xue-Liang, Zhang; Jing-Yu, Dai

    2016-01-01

    The effect of physiological and pathological abnormal excitation of a myocyte on the spiral waves is investigated based on the cellular automaton model. When the excitability of the medium is high enough, the physiological abnormal excitation causes the spiral wave to meander irregularly and slowly. When the excitability of the medium is low enough, the physiological abnormal excitation leads to a new stable spiral wave. On the other hand, the pathological abnormal excitation destroys the spiral wave and results in the spatiotemporal chaos, which agrees with the clinical conclusion that the early after depolarization is the pro-arrhythmic mechanism of some anti-arrhythmic drugs. The mechanisms underlying these phenomena are analyzed. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11365003 and 11165004).

  7. Excitation Dynamics and Relaxation in a Molecular Heterodimer

    CERN Document Server

    Balevicius, V; Abramavicius, D; Mancal, T; Valkunas, L

    2011-01-01

    The exciton dynamics in a molecular heterodimer is studied as a function of differences in excitation and reorganization energies, asymmetry in transition dipole moments and excited state lifetimes. The heterodimer is composed of two molecules modeled as two-level systems coupled by the resonance interaction. The system-bath coupling is taken into account as a modulating factor of the energy gap of the molecular excitation, while the relaxation to the ground state is treated phenomenologically. Comparison of the description of the excitation dynamics modeled using either the Redfield equations (secular and full forms) or the Hierarchical quantum master equation (HQME) is demonstrated and discussed. Possible role of the dimer as an excitation quenching center in photosynthesis self-regulation is discussed. It is concluded that the system-bath interaction rather than the excitonic effect determines the excitation quenching ability of such a dimer.

  8. Analysis and results of the 104Sn Coulomb excitation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guastalla, G.; DiJulio, D. D.; Górska, M.; Cederkäll, J.; Boutachkov, P.; Golubev, P.; Pietri, S.; Grawe, H.; Nowacki, F.; Algora, A.; Ameil, F.; Arici, T.; Atac, A.; Bentley, M. A.; Blazhev, A.; Bloor, D.; Brambilla, S.; Braun, N.; Camera, F.; Domingo Pardo, C.; Estrade, A.; Farinon, F.; Gerl, J.; Goel, N.; Grȩbosz, J.; Habermann, T.; Hoischen, R.; Jansson, K.; Jolie, J.; Jungclaus, A.; Kojouharov, I.; Knoebel, R.; Kumar, R.; Kurcewicz, J.; Kurz, N.; Lalović, N.; Merchan, E.; Moschner, K.; Naqvi, F.; Nara Singh, B. S.; Nyberg, J.; Nociforo, C.; Obertelli, A.; Pfützner, M.; Pietralla, N.; Podolyák, Z.; Prochazka, A.; Ralet, D.; Reiter, P.; Rudolph, D.; Schaffner, H.; Schirru, F.; Scruton, L.; Swaleh, T.; Taprogge, J.; Wadsworth, R.; Warr, N.; Weick, H.; Wendt, A.; Wieland, O.; Winfield, J. S.; Wollersheim, H. J.

    2014-09-01

    The analysis of the Coulomb excitation experiment conducted on 104Sn required a strict selection of the data in order to reduce the large background present in the γ-ray energy spectra and identify the γ-ray peak corresponding to the Coulomb excitation events. As a result the B(E2; 0+ → 2+) value could be extracted, which established the downward trend towards 100Sn and therefore the robustness of the N=Z=50 core against quadrupole excitations.

  9. Excited State Spectra and Dynamics of Phenyl-Substituted Butadienes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallace-Williams, Stacie E.; Schwartz, Benjamin J.; Møller, Søren

    1994-01-01

    A combination of steady-state and dynamic spectral measurements are used to provide new insights into the nature of the excited-state processes of all-trans-1,4-diphenyl-1,3-butadiene and several analogs: 1,4-diphenyl- 1,3-cyclopentadiene, 1,1,4,4-tetraphenylbutadiene, 1,2,3,4-tetraphenyl-1,3-cyc...... indicate that phenyl torsional motion is not important to the excited-state dynamics and reveal alternative excited-state reaction pathways. The results demonstrate how molecular systems that are structually similar can exhibit different electronic properties and excited-state dynamics....

  10. Search for Excited Quarks in ep Collisions at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Aaron, F D; Alimujiang, K; Andreev, V; Antunovic, B; Asmone, A; Backovic, S; Baghdasaryan, A; Barrelet, E; Bartel, W; Begzsuren, K; Belousov, A; Bizot, J C; Boudry, V; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I; Bracinik, J; Brandt, G; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Bruncko, D; Bunyatyan, A; Buschhorn, G; Bystritskaya, L; Campbell, A J; Cantun Avila, K B; Cassol-Brunner, F; Cerny, K; Cerny, V; Chekelian, V; Cholewa, A; Contreras, J G; Coughlan, J A; Cozzika, G; Cvach, J; Dainton, J B; Daum, K; Deak, M; de Boer, Y; Delcourt, B; Del Degan, M; Delvax, J; De Roeck, A; De Wolf, E A; Diaconu, C; Dodonov, V; Dossanov, A; Dubak, A; Eckerlin, G; Efremenko, V; Egli, S; Eliseev, A; Elsen, E; Falkiewicz, A; Faulkner, P J W; Favart, L; Fedotov, A; Felst, R; Feltesse, J; Ferencei, J; Fischer, D J; Fleischer, M; Fomenko, A; Gabathuler, E; Gayler, J; Ghazaryan, S; Glazov, A; Glushkov, I; Goerlich, L; Gogitidze, N; Gouzevitch, M; Grab, C; Greenshaw, T; Grell, B R; Grindhammer, G; Habib, S; Haidt, D; Helebrant, C; Henderson, R C W; Hennekemper, E; Henschel, H; Herbst, M; Herrera, G; Hildebrandt, M; Hiller, K H; Hoffmann, D; Horisberger, R; Hreus, T; Jacquet, M; Janssen, M E; Janssen, X; Jemanov, V; Jonsson, L; Jung, Andreas Werner; Jung, H; Kapichine, M; Katzy, J; Kenyon, I R; Kiesling, C; Klein, M; Kleinwort, C; Kluge, T; Knutsson, A; Kogler, R; Korbel, V; Kostka, P; Kraemer, M; Krastev, K; Kretzschmar, J; Kropivnitskaya, A; Kruger, K; Kutak, K; Landon, M P J; Lange, W; Lastovicka-Medin, G; Laycock, P; Lebedev, A; Leibenguth, G; Lendermann, V; Levonian, S; Li, G; Lipka, K; Liptaj, A; List, B; List, J; Loktionova, N; Lopez-Fernandez, R; Lubimov, V; Lytkin, L; Makankine, A; Malinovski, E; Marage, P; Marti, Ll; Martyn, H U; Maxfield, S J; Mehta, A; Meyer, A B; Meyer, H; Meyer, H; Meyer, J; Michels, V; Mikocki, S; Milcewicz-Mika, I; Moreau, F; Morozov, A; Morris, J V; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Mudrinic, M; Muller, K; Murin, P; Naroska, B; Naumann, Th; Newman, P R; Niebuhr, C; Nikiforov, A; Nowak, G; Nowak, K; Nozicka, M; Olivier, B; Olsson, J E; Osman, S; Ozerov, D; Palichik, V; Panagoulias, I; Pandurovic, M; Papadopoulou, Th; Pascaud, C; Patel, G D; Pejchal, O; Perez, E; Petrukhin, A; Picuric, I; Piec, S; Pitzl, D; Placakyte, R; Pokorny, B; Polifka, R; Povh, B; Preda, T; Radescu, V; Rahmat, A J; Raicevic, N; Raspiareza, A; Ravdandorj, T; Reimer, P; Rizvi, E; Robmann, P; Roland, B; Roosen, R; Rostovtsev, A; Rotaru, M; Ruiz Tabasco, J E; Rurikova, Z; Rusakov, S; Salek, D; Sankey, D P C; Sauter, M; Sauvan, E; Schmitt, S; Schmitz, C; Schoeffel, L; Schoning, A; Schultz-Coulon, H C; Sefkow, F; Shaw-West, R N; Sheviakov, I; Shtarkov, L N; Shushkevich, S; Sloan, T; Smiljanic, Ivan; Soloviev, Y; Sopicki, P; South, D; Spaskov, V; Specka, Arnd E; Staykova, Z; Steder, M; Stella, B; Stoicea, G; Straumann, U; Sunar, D; Sykora, T; Tchoulakov, V; Thompson, G; Thompson, P D; Toll, T; Tomasz, F; Tran, T H; Traynor, D; Trinh, T N; Truol, P; Tsakov, I; Tseepeldorj, B; Turnau, J; Urban, K; Valkarova, A; Vallee, C; Van Mechelen, P; Vargas Trevino, A; Vazdik, Y; Vinokurova, S; Volchinski, V; von den Driesch, M; Wegener, D; Wissing, Ch; Wunsch, E; Zacek, J; Zalesak, J; Zhang, Z; Zhokin, A; Zimmermann, T; Zohrabyan, H; Zomer, F; Zus, R

    2009-01-01

    A search for excited quarks is performed using the full ep data sample collected by the H1 experiment at HERA, corresponding to a total integrated luminosity of 475 pb^-1. The electroweak decays of excited quarks q* -> q gamma, q* -> q Z and q* -> q W with subsequent hadronic or leptonic decays of the W and Z bosons are considered. No evidence for first generation excited quark production is found. Mass dependent exclusion limits on q* production cross sections and on the ratio f/Lambda of the coupling to the compositeness scale are derived within gauge mediated models. These limits extend the excluded region compared to previous excited quark searches.

  11. Excited-State Effective Masses in Lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Fleming, Saul Cohen, Huey-Wen Lin

    2009-10-01

    We apply black-box methods, i.e. where the performance of the method does not depend upon initial guesses, to extract excited-state energies from Euclidean-time hadron correlation functions. In particular, we extend the widely used effective-mass method to incorporate multiple correlation functions and produce effective mass estimates for multiple excited states. In general, these excited-state effective masses will be determined by finding the roots of some polynomial. We demonstrate the method using sample lattice data to determine excited-state energies of the nucleon and compare the results to other energy-level finding techniques.

  12. Three-dimensional MRI with independent slab excitation and encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissa, Amir; Wilman, Alan H

    2012-02-01

    Three-dimensional MRI is typically performed with the same orientation for radiofrequency slab excitation and slab select phase encoding. We introduce independent slab excitation and encoding to create a new degree of freedom in three-dimensional MRI, which is the angular relationship between the prescribed excitation volume and the voxel encoding grid. By separating the directions of slab excitation and slab phase encoding, the independent slab excitation and encoding method allows choice of optimal voxel orientation, while maintaining volume excitation based on anatomic landmarks. The method requires simple pulse sequence modifications and uses standard image reconstruction followed by removal of aliasing and image reformatting. The independent slab excitation and encoding method enables arbitrary oblique angle imaging using fixed voxel encoding gradients to maintain similar eddy current, concomitant field, or magnetic dipole effects independent of the oblique angle of excitation. We apply independent slab excitation and encoding to phase and susceptibility-weighted imaging using fixed voxel encoding aligned with the main magnetic field to demonstrate its value in both standardizing and improving image contrast, when using arbitrary oblique imaging volumes. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Coherent two-photon excitation of quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostermann, L.; Huber, T.; Prilmüller, M.; Solomon, G. S.; Ritsch, H.; Weihs, G.; Predojević, A.

    2016-04-01

    Single semiconductor quantum dots, due to their discrete energy structure, form single photon and twin photon sources that are characterized by a well-defined frequency of the emitted photons and inherently sub-Poissonian statistics. The single photons are generated through a recombination of an electron-hole pair formed by an electron from the conduction band and a hole from the valence band. When excited to the biexciton state quantum dots can provide pairs of photons emitted in a cascade. It has been shown that this biexciton-exciton cascade can deliver entangled pairs of photons. To achieve a deterministic generation of photon pairs from a quantum dot system one requires exciting it using a two-photon resonant excitation of the biexciton. Particularly, an efficient and coherent excitation of the biexciton requires the elimination of the single exciton probability amplitude in the excitation pulse and reaching the lowest possible degree of dephasing caused by the laser excitation. These two conditions impose contradictory demands on the excitation pulse-length and its intensity. We addressed this problem from a point of view that does not include interaction of the quantum dot with the semiconductor environment. We found an optimized operation regime for the system under consideration and provide guidelines on how to extend this study to other similar systems. In particular, our study shows that an optimal excitation process requires a trade-off between the biexciton binding energy and the excitation laser pulse length.

  14. Nonlinear Dynamical Analysis for the Cable Excited with Parametric and Forced Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Z. Qian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the deck vibration effect on the cable in cable-stayed bridge, using nonlinear structure dynamics theory, the nonlinear dynamical equation for the stayed cable excited with deck vibration is proposed. Research shows that the vertical vibration of the deck has a combined parametric and forced excitation effect on the cable when the angle of the cable is taken into consideration. Using multiscale method, the 1/2 principle parametric resonance is studied and the bifurcation equation is obtained. Despite the parameters analysis, the bifurcation characters of the dynamical system are studied. At last, by means of numerical method and software MATHMATIC, the effect rules of system parameters to the dynamical behavior of the system are studied, and some useful conclusions are obtained.

  15. Excited State Properties of Hybrid Perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, Michele; Quochi, Francesco; Mura, Andrea; Bongiovanni, Giovanni

    2016-01-19

    Metal halide perovskites have come to the attention of the scientific community for the progress achieved in solar light conversion. Energy sustainability is one of the priorities of our society, and materials advancements resulting in low-cost but efficient solar cells and large-area lighting devices represent a major goal for applied research. From a basic point of view, perovskites are an exotic class of hybrid materials combining some merits of organic and inorganic semiconductors: large optical absorption, large mobilities, and tunable band gap together with the possibility to be processed in solution. When a novel class of promising semiconductors comes into the limelight, lively discussions ensue on the photophysics of band-edge excitations, because just the states close to the band edge are entailed in energy/charge transport and light emission. This was the case several decades ago for III-V semiconductors, it has been up to 10 years ago for organics, and it is currently the case for perovskites. Our aim in this Account is to rationalize the body of experimental evidence on perovskite photophysics in a coherent theoretical framework, borrowing from the knowledge acquired over the years in materials optoelectronics. A crucial question is whether photon absorption leads to a population of unbound, conductive free charges or instead excitons, neutral and insulating bound states created by Coulomb interaction just below the energy of the band gap. We first focus on the experimental estimates of the exciton binding energy (Eb): at room temperature, Eb is comparable to the thermal energy kBT in MAPbI3 and increases up to values 2-3kBT in wide band gap MAPbBr3 and MAPbCl3. Statistical considerations predict that these values, even though comparable to or larger than thermal energy, let free carriers prevail over bound excitons for all levels of excitation densities relevant for devices. The analysis of photophysics evidence confirms that all hybrid halide

  16. Intrinsic excitability measures track antiepileptic drug action and uncover increasing/decreasing excitability over the wake/sleep cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisel, Christian; Schulze-Bonhage, Andreas; Freestone, Dean; Cook, Mark James; Achermann, Peter; Plenz, Dietmar

    2015-11-24

    Pathological changes in excitability of cortical tissue commonly underlie the initiation and spread of seizure activity in patients suffering from epilepsy. Accordingly, monitoring excitability and controlling its degree using antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) is of prime importance for clinical care and treatment. To date, adequate measures of excitability and action of AEDs have been difficult to identify. Recent insights into ongoing cortical activity have identified global levels of phase synchronization as measures that characterize normal levels of excitability and quantify any deviation therefrom. Here, we explore the usefulness of these intrinsic measures to quantify cortical excitability in humans. First, we observe a correlation of such markers with stimulation-evoked responses suggesting them to be viable excitability measures based on ongoing activity. Second, we report a significant covariation with the level of AED load and a wake-dependent modulation. Our results indicate that excitability in epileptic networks is effectively reduced by AEDs and suggest the proposed markers as useful candidates to quantify excitability in routine clinical conditions overcoming the limitations of electrical or magnetic stimulation. The wake-dependent time course of these metrics suggests a homeostatic role of sleep, to rebalance cortical excitability.

  17. Sub-50 fs excited state dynamics of 6-chloroguanine upon deep ultraviolet excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Sayan; Puranik, Mrinalini

    2016-05-18

    The photophysical properties of natural nucleobases and their respective nucleotides are ascribed to the sub-picosecond lifetime of their first singlet states in the UV-B region (260-350 nm). Electronic transitions of the ππ* type, which are stronger than those in the UV-B region, lie at the red edge of the UV-C range (100-260 nm) in all isolated nucleobases. The lowest energetic excited states in the UV-B region of nucleobases have been investigated using a plethora of experimental and theoretical methods in gas and solution phases. The sub-picosecond lifetime of these molecules is not a general attribute of all nucleobases but specific to the five primary nucleobases and a few xanthine and methylated derivatives. To determine the overall UV photostability, we aim to understand the effect of more energetic photons lying in the UV-C region on nucleobases. To determine the UV-C initiated photophysics of a nucleobase system, we chose a halogen substituted purine, 6-chloroguanine (6-ClG), that we had investigated previously using resonance Raman spectroscopy. We have performed quantitative measurements of the resonance Raman cross-section across the Bb absorption band (210-230 nm) and constructed the Raman excitation profiles. We modeled the excitation profiles using Lee and Heller's time-dependent theory of resonance Raman intensities to extract the initial excited state dynamics of 6-ClG within 30-50 fs after photoexcitation. We found that imidazole and pyrimidine rings of 6-ClG undergo expansion and contraction, respectively, following photoexcitation to the Bb state. The amount of distortions of the excited state structure from that of the ground state structure is reflected by the total internal reorganization energy that is determined at 112 cm(-1). The contribution of the inertial component of the solvent response towards the total reorganization energy was obtained at 1220 cm(-1). In addition, our simulation also yields an instantaneous response of the first

  18. Polar motion excitation from several models of land hydrosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastula, Jolanta

    2017-04-01

    The impact of land hydrosphere mass variations on polar motion excitation is still not sufficiently estimated and not known as well as the role of the atmosphere and ocean. A comparison of the hydrological excitation function (Hydrological Angular Momentum - HAM) with observed geodetic excitation functions (GAM) is a common method of assessing of the influence of land hydrology on polar motion excitation function. HAM can be estimated either from global models of the land hydrosphere or from the Earth's gravity field variations. Our previous attempt to assess the role of land hydrology in the excitation balance using the hydrological angular momentum (HAM) estimates from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data and hydrological models was not conclusive (Brzeziński et al., 2009, Nastula et al., 2011, Wińska et al., 2016). We found for example that gravimetric-hydrological excitation functions, based on the Gravity and Climate Recovery Experiment (GRACE) gravity fiels determined from the several processing centers differed significantly. Additionally hydrological excitation computed from different hydrological models differed significantly in amplitudes and phases. In this work we re - estimate hydrological polar motion excitation functions from several hydrological models and climate models and from GRACE gravity fields. Our investigations are focused on the influence of land hydrosphere on polar motion excitation functions at seasonal and non-seasonal time scales and comprises two steps: • first determinations hydrological excitation functions (HAM) from regional distribution of Terrestrial Water Storage (TWS). • the second comparison of the global HAM with hydrological signal in the observed geodetic excitation function of polar motion.

  19. Corticospinal Excitability in Children with Congenital Hemiparesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Ying Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS can be used as an assessment or intervention to evaluate or influence brain activity in children with hemiparetic cerebral palsy (CP commonly caused by perinatal stroke. This communication report analyzed data from two clinical trials using TMS to assess corticospinal excitability in children and young adults with hemiparetic CP. The results of this communication revealed a higher probability of finding a motor evoked potential (MEP on the non-lesioned hemisphere compared to the lesioned hemisphere (p = 0.005. The resting motor threshold (RMT was lower on the non-lesioned hemisphere than the lesioned hemisphere (p = 0.013. There was a significantly negative correlation between age and RMT (rs = −0.65, p = 0.003. This communication provides information regarding MEP responses, motor thresholds (MTs and the association with age during TMS assessment in children with hemiparetic CP. Such findings contribute to the development of future pediatric studies in neuroplasticity and neuromodulation to influence motor function and recovery after perinatal stroke.

  20. Resonant coherent excitation of channeled ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moak, C.D.; Datz, S.; Crawford, O.H.; Krause, H.F.; Dittner, P.F.; Campo, J.G.d.; Biggerstaff, J.A.; Miller, P.D.; Hvelplund, P.; Knudsen, H.

    1979-03-01

    The hydrogenlike ions B/sup 4 +/, C/sup 5 +/, N/sup 6 +/, O/sup 7 +/, and F/sup 8 +/, and the heliumlike ion F/sup 7 +/ have been shown to exhibit resonant coherent excitation from the atomic level n = 1 to n = 2, caused by the periodic potential oscillations which occur as the ion moves in axial and nearly axial planar channels in thin crystals of Au and Ag. Various harmonics of the lattice-string periodicity are effective, at certain critical ion velocities, in reducing the number of one-electron ions which survive passage through the crystal without electron loss. Resonances, appearing as minima in the one-electron charge-state fraction versus velocity, have been found for several axial channels and for several different harmonics of the string frequencies. In some cases the resonances can be split by small crystal tilts which produce sidebands upon the string frequency. Certain harmonics have been shown to produce tilt-insensitive double minima which measure Stark splittings of the n = 2 levels.

  1. Neutral excitations in the Gaffnian state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Byungmin; Moore, Joel E.

    2017-06-01

    We study a model fractional quantum Hall (FQH) wave function called the Gaffnian state, which is believed to represent a gapless, strongly correlated state that is very different from conventional metals. To understand this exotic gapless state better, we provide a representation based on work of Halperin in which the pairing structure of the Gaffnian state becomes more explicit. We employ the single-mode approximation introduced by Girvin, MacDonald, and Platzman, here extended to three-body interactions, in order to treat a neutral collective excitation mode in order to clarify the physical origin of the gaplessness of the Gaffnian state. We discuss approaches to extract systematically the relevant physics in the long-distance, large-electron-number limit of FQH states using numerical calculations with relatively few electrons. In Appendices, we provide second-quantized expressions for many-body Haldane pseudopotentials in various geometries including the plane, sphere, cylinder, and torus based on the proper definition of the relative angular momentum.

  2. Electron impact excitation of helium atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiao-Ying; Zeng, De-Ling; Gao, Xiang; Li, Jia-Ming

    2015-08-01

    A method to deal with the electron impact excitation cross sections of an atom from low to high incident energies are presented. This method combines the partial wave method and the first Born approximation (FBA), i.e., replacing the several lowest partial wave cross sections of the total cross sections within FBA by the corresponding exact partial wave cross sections. A new set of codes are developed to calculate the FBA partial wave cross sections. Using this method, the convergent e-He collision cross sections of optical-forbidden and optical-allowed transitions at low to high incident energies are obtained. The calculation results demonstrate the validity and efficiency of the method. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2011CB921501 and 2013CB922200), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11274035, 11275029, 11328401, 11371218, 11474031, 11474032, and 11474034), and the Foundation of Development of Science and Technology of Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics (Grant Nos. 2013A0102005 and 2014A0102005).

  3. Hydrodynamic excitations in hot QCD plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Navid; Allahbakhshi, Davood; Davody, Ali; Taghavi, Seyed Farid

    2017-12-01

    We study the long wavelength excitations in rotating QCD fluid in the presence of an external magnetic field at finite vector and axial charge densities. We consider the fluctuations of vector and axial charge currents coupled to energy and momentum fluctuations and compute the S O (3 ) covariant dispersion relations of the six corresponding hydrodynamic modes. Among them, there are always two scalar chiral-magnetic-vortical-heat (CMVH) waves; in the absence of a magnetic field (vorticity) these waves reduce to chiral-vortical-heat (CVH) [chiral-magnetic-heat (CMH)] waves. While CMVH waves are a mixture of CMH and CVH waves, they have generally different velocities compared to the sum of velocities of the latter waves. The other four modes, which are made out of scalar-vector fluctuations, are mixed sound-Alfvén waves. We show that when the magnetic field is parallel with the vorticity, these four modes are the two ordinary sound modes together with two chiral Alfvén waves propagating along the common direction of the magnetic field and vorticity.

  4. Corticospinal excitability modulation during action observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, Luisa; Betti, Sonia; Castiello, Umberto

    2013-12-31

    This study used the transcranial magnetic stimulation/motor evoked potential (TMS/MEP) technique to pinpoint when the automatic tendency to mirror someone else's action becomes anticipatory simulation of a complementary act. TMS was delivered to the left primary motor cortex corresponding to the hand to induce the highest level of MEP activity from the abductor digiti minimi (ADM; the muscle serving little finger abduction) as well as the first dorsal interosseus (FDI; the muscle serving index finger flexion/extension) muscles. A neuronavigation system was used to maintain the position of the TMS coil, and electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded from the right ADM and FDI muscles. Producing original data with regard to motor resonance, the combined TMS/MEP technique has taken research on the perception-action coupling mechanism a step further. Specifically, it has answered the questions of how and when observing another person's actions produces motor facilitation in an onlooker's corresponding muscles and in what way corticospinal excitability is modulated in social contexts.

  5. Search for excited $B_c^{+}$ states

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; LHCb Collaboration; Adinolfi, Marco; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Alfonso Albero, Alejandro; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Andreassi, Guido; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Archilli, Flavio; d'Argent, Philippe; Arnau Romeu, Joan; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Atzeni, Michele; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Babuschkin, Igor; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baker, Sophie; Balagura, Vladislav; Baldini, Wander; Baranov, Alexander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Baryshnikov, Fedor; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Beiter, Andrew; Bel, Lennaert; Beliy, Nikita; Bellee, Violaine; Belloli, Nicoletta; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Beranek, Sarah; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Berninghoff, Daniel; Bertholet, Emilie; Bertolin, Alessandro; Betancourt, Christopher; Betti, Federico; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bezshyiko, Iaroslava; Bifani, Simone; Billoir, Pierre; Birnkraut, Alex; Bizzeti, Andrea; Bjørn, Mikkel; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frederic; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Boettcher, Thomas; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bordyuzhin, Igor; Borghi, Silvia; Borisyak, Maxim; Borsato, Martino; Bossu, Francesco; Boubdir, Meriem; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Braun, Svende; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brundu, Davide; Buchanan, Emma; Burr, Christopher; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Byczynski, Wiktor; Cadeddu, Sandro; Cai, Hao; Calabrese, Roberto; Calladine, Ryan; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Camboni, Alessandro; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel Hugo; Capriotti, Lorenzo; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carniti, Paolo; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Cattaneo, Marco; Cavallero, Giovanni; Cenci, Riccardo; Chamont, David; Chapman, Matthew George; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chatzikonstantinidis, Georgios; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu Faye; Chitic, Stefan-Gabriel; Chobanova, Veronika; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Chubykin, Alexsei; Ciambrone, Paolo; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collins, Paula; Colombo, Tommaso; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Coombs, George; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Costa Sobral, Cayo Mar; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Da Silva, Cesar Luiz; Dall'Occo, Elena; Dalseno, Jeremy; Davis, Adam; De Aguiar Francisco, Oscar; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Serio, Marilisa; De Simone, Patrizia; Dean, Cameron Thomas; Decamp, Daniel; Del Buono, Luigi; Dembinski, Hans Peter; Demmer, Moritz; Dendek, Adam; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Dey, Biplab; Di Canto, Angelo; Di Nezza, Pasquale; Dijkstra, Hans; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Douglas, Lauren; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dufour, Laurent; Dujany, Giulio; Durante, Paolo; Durham, John Matthew; Dutta, Deepanwita; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziewiecki, Michal; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Ebert, Marcus; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fazzini, Davide; Federici, Luca; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez, Gerard; Fernandez Declara, Placido; Fernandez Prieto, Antonio; Ferrari, Fabio; Ferreira Lopes, Lino; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fini, Rosa Anna; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fleuret, Frederic; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Franco Lima, Vinicius; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Fu, Jinlin; Funk, Wolfgang; Furfaro, Emiliano; Färber, Christian; Gabriel, Emmy; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; Garcia Martin, Luis Miguel; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Garsed, Philip John; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gavardi, Laura; Gazzoni, Giulio; Gerick, David; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Girard, Olivier Göran; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gizdov, Konstantin; Gligorov, Vladimir; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gorelov, Igor Vladimirovich; Gotti, Claudio; Govorkova, Ekaterina; Grabowski, Jascha Peter; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graverini, Elena; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greim, Roman; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Gruber, Lukas; Gruberg Cazon, Barak Raimond; Grünberg, Oliver; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Göbel, Carla; Hadavizadeh, Thomas; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hamilton, Brian; Han, Xiaoxue; Hancock, Thomas Henry; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Hasse, Christoph; Hatch, Mark; He, Jibo; Hecker, Malte; Heinicke, Kevin; Heister, Arno; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hopchev, Plamen Hristov; Hu, Wenhua; Huang, Wenqian; Huard, Zachary; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Humair, Thibaud; Hushchyn, Mikhail; Hutchcroft, David; Ibis, Philipp; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jiang, Feng; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Karacson, Matthias; Kariuki, James Mwangi; Karodia, Sarah; Kazeev, Nikita; Kecke, Matthieu; Keizer, Floris; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenzie, Matthew; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khairullin, Egor; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Kirn, Thomas; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Klimkovich, Tatsiana; Koliiev, Serhii; Kolpin, Michael; Kopecna, Renata; Koppenburg, Patrick; Kosmyntseva, Alena; Kotriakhova, Sofia; Kozeiha, Mohamad; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreps, Michal; Kress, Felix Johannes; Krokovny, Pavel; Krzemien, Wojciech; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kuonen, Axel Kevin; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Lefèvre, Regis; Lemaitre, Florian; Lemos Cid, Edgar; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Pei-Rong; Li, Tenglin; Li, Yiming; Li, Zhuoming; Liang, Xixin; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Lindner, Rolf; Lionetto, Federica; Lisovskyi, Vitalii; Liu, Xuesong; Loh, David; Loi, Angelo; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lucchesi, Donatella; Lucio Martinez, Miriam; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Lusiani, Alberto; Lyu, Xiao-Rui; Machefert, Frederic; Maciuc, Florin; Macko, Vladimir; Mackowiak, Patrick; Maddrell-Mander, Samuel; Maev, Oleg; Maguire, Kevin; Maisuzenko, Dmitrii; Majewski, Maciej Witold; Malde, Sneha; Malecki, Bartosz; Malinin, Alexander; Maltsev, Timofei; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Marangotto, Daniele; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marinangeli, Matthieu; Marino, Pietro; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martin, Morgan; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathad, Abhijit; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mauri, Andrea; Maurice, Emilie; Maurin, Brice; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; Mead, James Vincent; Meadows, Brian; Meaux, Cedric; Meier, Frank; Meinert, Nis; Melnychuk, Dmytro; Merk, Marcel; Merli, Andrea; Michielin, Emanuele; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Millard, Edward James; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Minzoni, Luca; Mitzel, Dominik Stefan; Mogini, Andrea; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Mombächer, Titus; Monroy, Igancio Alberto; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Morgunova, Olga; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Mulder, Mick; Müller, Dominik; Müller, Janine; Müller, Katharina; Müller, Vanessa; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nandi, Anita; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Thi Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Nieswand, Simon; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Nogay, Alla; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Ogilvy, Stephen; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Ossowska, Anna; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Aranzazu; Pais, Preema Rennee; Palano, Antimo; Palutan, Matteo; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Parker, William; Parkes, Christopher; Passaleva, Giovanni; Pastore, Alessandra; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Penso, Gianni; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Pereima, Dmitrii; Perret, Pascal; Pescatore, Luca; Petridis, Konstantinos; Petrolini, Alessandro; Petrov, Aleksandr; Petruzzo, Marco; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pietrzyk, Guillaume; Pikies, Malgorzata; Pinci, Davide; Pisani, Flavio; Pistone, Alessandro; Piucci, Alessio; Placinta, Vlad-Mihai; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Polci, Francesco; Poli Lener, Marco; Poluektov, Anton; Polyakov, Ivan; Polycarpo, Erica; Pomery, Gabriela Johanna; Ponce, Sebastien; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Poslavskii, Stanislav; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Pullen, Hannah Louise; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Qin, Jia-Jia; Quagliani, Renato; Quintana, Boris; Rachwal, Bartlomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rama, Matteo; Ramos Pernas, Miguel; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Ratnikov, Fedor; Raven, Gerhard; Ravonel Salzgeber, Melody; Reboud, Meril; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; dos Reis, Alberto; Remon Alepuz, Clara; Renaudin, Victor; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Robbe, Patrick; Robert, Arnaud; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Lopez, Jairo Alexis; Rogozhnikov, Alexey; Roiser, Stefan; Rollings, Alexandra Paige; Romanovskiy, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Rotondo, Marcello; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Ruiz Vidal, Joan; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sadykhov, Elnur; Sagidova, Naylya; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santimaria, Marco; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarpis, Gediminas; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schael, Stefan; Schellenberg, Margarete; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schmelling, Michael; Schmelzer, Timon; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schreiner, HF; Schubiger, Maxime; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Sepulveda, Eduardo Enrique; Sergi, Antonino; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Siddi, Benedetto Gianluca; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Silva de Oliveira, Luiz Gustavo; Simi, Gabriele; Simone, Saverio; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Iwan Thomas; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Soares Lavra, Lais; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Stefko, Pavol; Stefkova, Slavomira; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stemmle, Simon; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stepanova, Margarita; Stevens, Holger; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Sun, Jiayin; Sun, Liang; Swientek, Krzysztof; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szumlak, Tomasz; Szymanski, Maciej Pawel; T'Jampens, Stephane; Tayduganov, Andrey; Tekampe, Tobias; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tilley, Matthew James; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Tourinho Jadallah Aoude, Rafael; Tournefier, Edwige; Traill, Murdo; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Trisovic, Ana; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tully, Alison; Tuning, Niels; Ukleja, Artur; Usachov, Andrii; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagner, Alexander; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valassi, Andrea; Valat, Sebastien; Valenti, Giovanni; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vecchi, Stefania; van Veghel, Maarten; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Venkateswaran, Aravindhan; Verlage, Tobias Anton; Vernet, Maxime; Vesterinen, Mika; Viana Barbosa, Joao Vitor; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Viemann, Harald; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vitti, Marcela; Volkov, Vladimir; Vollhardt, Achim; Voneki, Balazs; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Waldi, Roland; Walsh, John; Wang, Jianchun; Wang, Yilong; Ward, David; Wark, Heather Mckenzie; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Weiden, Andreas; Weisser, Constantin; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wilkinson, Guy; Wilkinson, Michael; Williams, Mark Richard James; Williams, Mike; Williams, Timothy; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Winn, Michael Andreas; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xu, Menglin; Xu, Qingnian; Xu, Zehua; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yang, Zishuo; Yao, Yuezhe; Yin, Hang; Yu, Jiesheng; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zarebski, Kristian Alexander; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zheng, Yangheng; Zhu, Xianglei; Zhukov, Valery; Zonneveld, Jennifer Brigitta; Zucchelli, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    A search is performed in the invariant mass spectrum of the $B_c^{+}\\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}$ system for the excited $B_c^{+}$ states $B_c(2^{1}S_{0})^+$ and $B_c(2^{3}S_{1})^+$ using a data sample of $pp$ collisions collected by the LHCb experiment at the centre-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s} = 8 \\,{\\mathrm{TeV}}$, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $2 \\,{\\mathrm{fb^{-1}}}$. No evidence is seen for either state. Upper limits on the ratios of the production cross-sections of the $B_c(2^{1}S_{0})^+$ and $B_c(2^{3}S_{1})^+$ states times the branching fractions of ${B_c(2^{1}S_{0})^+} \\to {B_c^{+}\\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}}$ and ${B_c(2^{3}S_{1})^+} \\to {B_c^{*+}\\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}}$ over the production cross-section of the $B_c^{+}$ state are given as a function of their masses. They are found to be between 0.02 and 0.14 at $95\\%$ confidence level for $B_c(2^{1}S_{0})^+$ and $B_c(2^{3}S_{1})^+$ in the mass ranges $[6830, 6890] \\,{\\mathrm{MeV}}/c^{2}$ and $[6795,6890] \\,{\\mathrm{MeV}}/c^{2}$, respectively.

  6. Highly excited strings I: Generating function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitri P. Skliros

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This is the first of a series of detailed papers on string amplitudes with highly excited strings (HES. In the present paper we construct a generating function for string amplitudes with generic HES vertex operators using a fixed-loop momentum formalism. We generalise the proof of the chiral splitting theorem of D'Hoker and Phong to string amplitudes with arbitrary HES vertex operators (with generic KK and winding charges, polarisation tensors and oscillators in general toroidal compactifications E=RD−1,1×TDcr−D (with generic constant Kähler and complex structure target space moduli, background Kaluza–Klein (KK gauge fields and torsion. We adopt a novel approach that does not rely on a “reverse engineering” method to make explicit the loop momenta, thus avoiding a certain ambiguity pointed out in a recent paper by Sen, while also keeping the genus of the worldsheet generic. This approach will also be useful in discussions of quantum gravity and in particular in relation to black holes in string theory, non-locality and breakdown of local effective field theory, as well as in discussions of cosmic superstrings and their phenomenological relevance. We also discuss the manifestation of wave/particle (or rather wave/string duality in string theory.

  7. Coulomb excitation of {sup 48}K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siebeck, Burkhard; Blazhev, Andrey; Geibel, Kerstin; Hess, Herbert; Reiter, Peter; Seidlitz, Michael; Schneiders, David; Steinbach, Tim; Warr, Nigel [IKP, Universitaet zu Koeln (Germany); Bauer, Christopher [IKP, TU Darmstadt (Germany); Witte, Hilde de [KU Leuven (Belgium); Klintefjord, Malin [University of Oslo (Norway); Pakarinen, Janne [University of Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Rapisarda, Elisa [KU Leuven (Belgium); CERN, Genf (Switzerland); Scheck, Marcus [University of the West of Scotland, Paisley (United Kingdom); Voulot, Didier; Wenander, Frederik [CERN, Genf (Switzerland)

    2016-07-01

    Potassium isotopes in the direct vicinity of doubly-magic nuclei are of great interest and subject of recent shell model calculations. These show that the ground states of most K isotopes are dominated by a π0p0h configuration, while {sup 47}K and {sup 49}K have a major π2p2h contribution. However, the situation is not clear for the odd-odd isotope {sup 48}K, which shows a mixture between 0p0h and 2p2h. In order to study the coupling between the νp{sub 3/2}-shell and the πs{sub 1/2}-, πd{sub 3/2}-shells, transition matrix elements are deduced from a Coulomb excitation experiment performed with MINIBALL at REX-ISOLDE. A {sup 104}Pd target was irradiated by a radioactive {sup 48}K beam. γ rays of both target and projectile deexcitation have been observed. Those yields, together with available spectroscopic data, allow the detemination of transition matrix elements with GOSIA2. The new findings are compared to shell model calculations.

  8. Optimal stimulus shapes for neuronal excitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel B Forger

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available An important problem in neuronal computation is to discern how features of stimuli control the timing of action potentials. One aspect of this problem is to determine how an action potential, or spike, can be elicited with the least energy cost, e.g., a minimal amount of applied current. Here we show in the Hodgkin & Huxley model of the action potential and in experiments on squid giant axons that: 1 spike generation in a neuron can be highly discriminatory for stimulus shape and 2 the optimal stimulus shape is dependent upon inputs to the neuron. We show how polarity and time course of post-synaptic currents determine which of these optimal stimulus shapes best excites the neuron. These results are obtained mathematically using the calculus of variations and experimentally using a stochastic search methodology. Our findings reveal a surprising complexity of computation at the single cell level that may be relevant for understanding optimization of signaling in neurons and neuronal networks.

  9. Application of inertia-induced excitation theory for nonlinear acoustic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Application of inertia-induced acoustic excitation theory offers a new resonant excitation source channel of acoustic turbulence in the transonic domain of plasma flow. In bi-ion plasmas like colloidal plasma, two well-defined transonic points exist corresponding to the parent ion and the dust grain-associated acoustic modes.

  10. Vibrationally excited state stectroscopy of radicals in a supersonic plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Bazalgette Courreges-Lacoste, J. Bulthuis, S. Stolte, T. Motylewski; Linnartz, H.V.J.

    2001-01-01

    A plasma source based on a multilayer discharge geometry in combination with a time-of-flight REMPI experiment is used to study rotationally cold spectra of highly excited vibrational states of mass selected radicals. The rovibrational state distributions upon discharge excitation are characterised

  11. Roles of the Excitation in Harvesting Energy from Vibrations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhang

    Full Text Available The study investigated the role of excitation in energy harvesting applications. While the energy ultimately comes from the excitation, it was shown that the excitation may not always behave as a source. When the device characteristics do not perfectly match the excitation, the excitation alternately behaves as a source and a sink. The extent to which the excitation behaves as a sink determines the energy harvesting efficiency. Such contradictory roles were shown to be dictated by a generalized phase defined as the instantaneous phase angle between the velocity of the device and the excitation. An inductive prototype device with a diamagnetically levitated seismic mass was proposed to take advantage of the well established phase changing mechanism of vibro-impact to achieve a broader device bandwidth. Results suggest that the vibro-impact can generate an instantaneous, significant phase shift in response velocity that switches the role of the excitation. If introduced properly outside the resonance zone it could dramatically increase the energy harvesting efficiency.

  12. Modernization, reconstruction and development of excitation systems for synchronous generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnautović Dušan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the previous results of work and development of excitation systems with digital automatic voltage regulators regarding their design, development, manufacturing and commissioning. A special attention was paid to the characteristics of excitation system voltage regulator.

  13. Study on Excitation-triggered Damage Mechanism in Perilous Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongkai; Wang, Shengjuan

    2017-12-01

    Chain collapse is easy to happen for perilous rock aggregate locating on steep high slope, and one of the key scientific problems is the damage mechanism of perilous rock under excitation action at perilous rock rupture. This paper studies excitation-triggered damage mechanism in perilous rock by wave mechanics, which gives three conclusions. Firstly, when only the normal incidence attenuation spread of excitation wave is considered, while the energy loss is ignored for excitation wave to spread in perilous rock aggregate, the paper establishes one method to calculate peak velocity when excitation wave passes through boundary between any two perilous rock blocks in perilous rock aggregate. Secondly, following by Sweden and Canmet criteria, the paper provides one wave velocity criterion for excitation-triggered damage in the aggregate. Thirdly, assuming double parameters of volume strain of cracks or fissures in rock meet the Weibull distribution, one method to estimate micro-fissure in excitation-triggered damage zone in perilous rock aggregate is established. The studies solve the mechanical description problem for excitation-triggered damage in perilous rock, which is valuable in studies on profoundly rupture mechanism.

  14. Seismic response of cable stayed bridges under multi support excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Reza ُُShiravand

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this Study, the seismic response of cable stayed bridges have been evaluated under multi-support excitations. There are three sources that cause the earthquake wave characteristics change during its propagation path. Local site effect, loss of coherency and wave passage effect are three sources of spatial variation of seismic ground motions. In long span structures, such as cable supported bridges, this phenomenon is more evident and traditional analyzing (uniform excitation may not be valid and be conservative. Thus, it is necessary to investigate the response of cable stayed bridges under non-uniform excitations. For this purpose, the non-uniform time histories were artificially generated using Kriging method based on a set of known time history in the west support of bridge. Nonlinear time history analysis was performed and cables axial force, deck moment, pylons moment and finally drift ratio of bridge have been examined in order to investigate how non-uniform excitation change the seismic response of bridge compared with uniform excitations. Results show non-uniform excitation in some bridge components increase responses and decreases in the others. In non-uniform excitation, although total time history energy is lesser than uniform excitation, it can significantly change the distribution of the forces and makes differential displacement between cables supports and increase the possibility of failure.

  15. Switchable directional excitation surface plasmon polaritons with dielectric nanoantennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinev, I.; Komissarenko, F.; Bogdanov, A.

    We demonstrate directional launching of surface plasmon polaritons on thin goldfilm with a single silicon nanosphere. The directivity pattern of the excited surface waves exhibits rapid switching from forward to backward excitation, which is driven by the mutual interference of magnetic...

  16. Analysis of a Lorentz force based vibration exciter using permanent ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This work presents performance analysis of a Lorentz force based noncontact vibration exciter by mounting a couple of permanent magnets on a piezoelectric stack. A conductor is attached to the structure to be excited and is placed midway between unlike poles of a couple of permanent magnets. The permanent magnets ...

  17. Evolution of Externally Excited Convective Cells in Plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sugai, H.; Juul Rasmussen, Jens; Thomsen, Kenneth

    1983-01-01

    Convective cells are excited externally in a fully ionized magnetized plasma, and their space-time evolution is investigated by two-dimensional potential measurements. A positive cell is excited externally in the `scrape-off' layer of a plasma column produced by surface ionization. Its interaction...

  18. Semiclassical treatment of laser excitation of the hydrogen atom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Billing, Gert D.; Henriksen, Niels Engholm; Leforestier, C.

    1992-01-01

    We present an alternative method for studying excitation of atoms in intense laser fields. In the present paper we focus upon the optical harmonic generation by hydrogen atoms.......We present an alternative method for studying excitation of atoms in intense laser fields. In the present paper we focus upon the optical harmonic generation by hydrogen atoms....

  19. Differential effect of visual motion adaption upon visual cortical excitability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubeck, Astrid J.A.; Van Ombergen, Angelique; Ahmad, Hena; Bos, Jelte E.; Wuyts, Floris L.; Bronstein, Adolfo M.; Arshad, Qadeer

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of this study were 1) to probe the effects of visual motion adaptation on early visual and V5/MT cortical excitability and 2) to investigate whether changes in cortical excitability following visual motion adaptation are related to the degree of visual dependency, i.e., an

  20. Differential effect of visual motion adaptation upon visual cortical excitability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubeck, A.J.A.; Ombergen, A. van; Ahmad, H.; Bos, J.E.; Wuyts, F.L.; Bronstein, A.; Arshad, Q.

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of this study were 1) to probe the effects of visual motion adaptation on early visual and V5/MT cortical excitability and 2) to investigate whether changes in cortical excitability following visual motion adaptation are related to the degree of visual dependency, i.e., an

  1. Optimal excitation design for identifying inertia parameters of spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Kun; Wang, Tianshu; Meng, Dongbo

    2017-11-01

    Excitation design is one of the important contents in the identification of inertia parameters and the form of excitation has a great influence on the identification result. This paper presents a new method to design and calculate the optimal excitation. Firstly for a spacecraft equipped with momentum wheels, the identification problem is established based on conversation of angular momentum and an inverse operating. A performance index which is similar to but not the condition number is first defined as the benchmark for designing the optimal excitation. Because the performance index only depends on performances of the actuator, such as the angular momentum of the wheel, a simple direct-search method is applied to calculate the optimal excitation for the case without terminal angular velocity constraints and a two-step direct-search method for the case with terminal angular velocity constraints. While the initial angular momentum of spacecraft system is considered, the optimal excitation is obtained based on the difference of two successive measurements. Finally, the optimal excitation for a spacecraft using thrusters is designed according to the same design process. Simulation results show that the calculated optimal excitation has the good performance index and can produce accurate identification results even when some perturbations are considered.

  2. Coherent excitation of a single atom to a Rydberg state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miroshnychenko, Yevhen; Gaëtan, Alpha; Evellin, Charles

    2010-01-01

    We present the coherent excitation of a single Rubidium atom to the Rydberg state 58d3/2 using a two-photon transition. The experimental setup is described in detail, as are experimental techniques and procedures. The coherence of the excitation is revealed by observing Rabi oscillations between...

  3. Ion-Beam-Excited, Electrostatic, Ion Cyclotron Instability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Poul; Pécseli, Hans; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1977-01-01

    The stability limits of the ion‐beam‐excited, electrostatic, ion cyclotron instability were investigated in a Q‐machine plasma where the electrons could be heated by microwaves. In agreement with theory, the beam energy necessary for excitation decreased with increasing electron temperature....

  4. Ion-Beam-Excited Electrostatic Ion Cyclotron Instability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Poul; Pécseli, Hans; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1977-01-01

    The stability limits of the ion‐beam‐excited, electrostatic, ion cyclotron instability were investigated in a Q‐machine plasma where the electrons could be heated by microwaves. In agreement with theory, the beam energy necessary for excitation decreased with increasing electron temperature....

  5. Excited delirium: Consideration of selected medical and psychiatric issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Samuel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Edith Samuel1, Robert B Williams1, Richard B Ferrell21Department of Psychology, Atlantic Baptist University, Moncton, New Brunswick Canada; 2Department of Psychiatry, Dartmouth Medical School, Lebanon, New Hampshire, USAAbstract: Excited delirium, sometimes referred to as agitated or excited delirium, is the label assigned to the state of acute behavioral disinhibition manifested in a cluster of behaviors that may include bizarreness, aggressiveness, agitation, ranting, hyperactivity, paranoia, panic, violence, public disturbance, surprising physical strength, profuse sweating due to hyperthermia, respiratory arrest, and death. Excited delirium is reported to result from substance intoxication, psychiatric illness, alcohol withdrawal, head trauma, or a combination of these. This communication reviews the history of the origins of excited delirium, selected research related to its causes, symptoms, management, and the links noted between it and selected medical and psychiatric conditions. Excited delirium involves behavioral and physical symptoms that are also observed in medical and psychiatric conditions such as rhabdomyolysis, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, and catatonia. A useful contribution of this communication is that it links the state of excited delirium to conditions for which there are known and effective medical and psychiatric interventions.Keywords: excited delirium, excited states, cocaine misuse, restraint or in custody deaths

  6. Laser techniques for spectroscopy of core-excited atomic levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, S. E.; Young, J. F.; Falcone, R. W.; Rothenberg, J. E.; Willison, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    We discuss three techniques which allow the use of tunable lasers for high resolution and picosecond time scale spectroscopy of core-excited atomic levels. These are: anti-Stokes absorption spectroscopy, laser induced emission from metastable levels, and laser designation of selected core-excited levels.

  7. Self-Compensating Excitation of Fluxgate Sensors for Space Magnetometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerman, Alec; Merayo, José M.G.; Brauer, Peter

    2008-01-01

    of the most crucial points, continuous by design of the self-compensating excitation unit and concludes with unit complex testing and application to the magnetometer. The application of the self-compensation of the excitation decreases temperature drift of the magnetometer offset caused by the temperature...... drift of the sensor (dominant source of the offset drift) by factor of 7....

  8. Electronically excited states of tryptamine and its microhydrated complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitt, M.; Brause, R.; Marian, C.M.; Salzmann, S.; Meerts, W.L.

    2006-01-01

    The lowest electronically excited singlet states of tryptamine and the tryptamine (H2O)(1) cluster have been studied, using time dependent density functional theory for determination of the geometries and multireference configuration interaction for the vertical and adiabatic excitation energies,

  9. Femtosecond-scale switching based on excited free-carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sivan, Y.; Ctistis, Georgios; Yuce, E.; Mosk, Allard

    2015-01-01

    We describe novel optical switching schemes operating at femtosecond time scales by employing free carrier (FC) excitation. Such unprecedented switching times are made possible by spatially patterning the density of the excited FCs. In the first realization, we rely on diffusion, i.e., on the

  10. Catalytic synthesis of ammonia using vibrationally excited nitrogen molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming Yssing; Henriksen, Niels Engholm; Billing, Gert D.

    1992-01-01

    are vibrationally excited to states with quantum numbers 3-10. The rate and equilibrium constants for the process using vibrationally excited nitrogen molecules are calculated and expressions for the reaction rates are derived. A comparison with the ordinary process, where the nitrogen molecules...

  11. load loss performance of an autonomous self-excited induction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES Obe

    AUTONOMOUS SELF-EXCITED INDUCTION. GENERATOR. E.S. Obe, G.D. Umoh, L.U Anih. Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria. Abstract. This paper presents a dynamic analysis of an autonomous Self-Excited Induction. Generator (SEIG) showing dynamic loss of load performance.

  12. Coriolis mass flow meter using contactless excitation and detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehendale, A.; Lotters, Joost Conrad; Lötters, Joost Conrad; Zwikker, Jan Marinus

    2006-01-01

    A mass flowmeter of the Coriolis type with a tube through which a medium flows during operation and with excitation means for causing the entire tube or part thereof to perform a rotational vibration about a primary axis of rotation during operation. The excitation means are electromagnetic and

  13. Vibronic coupling in the excited-states of carotenoids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miki, Takeshi [Physikalisch-Chemisches Institut; Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg; D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany; Buckup, Tiago [Physikalisch-Chemisches Institut; Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg; D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany; Krause, Marie S. [Physikalisch-Chemisches Institut; Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg; D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany; Southall, June [College of Medical; Veterinary, and Life Science; University of Glasgow; G12 8QQ Glasgow, UK; Cogdell, Richard J. [College of Medical; Veterinary, and Life Science; University of Glasgow; G12 8QQ Glasgow, UK; Motzkus, Marcus [Physikalisch-Chemisches Institut; Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg; D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany

    2016-01-01

    The ultrafast femtochemistry of carotenoids is governed by the interaction between electronic excited states, which has been explained by the relaxation dynamics within a few hundred femtoseconds from the lowest optically allowed excited state S2to the optically dark state S1.

  14. Excitable solitons in a semiconductor laser with a saturable absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turconi, Margherita; Prati, Franco; Barland, Stéphane; Tissoni, Giovanna

    2015-11-01

    Self-pulsing cavity solitons may exist in a semiconductor laser with an intracavity saturable absorber. They show locally the passive Q -switching behavior that is typical of lasers with saturable absorbers in the plane-wave approximation. Here we show that excitable cavity solitons are also possible in a suitable parameter range and characterize their excitable dynamics and properties.

  15. Parametric excitation of plasma oscillations in Josephson Junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm; Særmark, Knud

    1973-01-01

    A theory is presented for parametric excitation of plasma oscillations in a Josephson junction biased in the zero voltage mode. A threshold curve for the onset of the parametric excitation is deduced via the stability properties of a Mathieu differential equation obtained by a self-consistent lin...... junctions, but perhaps less likely in point contacts. ©1973 American Institute of Physics...

  16. Resonant inelastic x-ray scattering studies of elementary excitations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ament, Lucas Johannes Peter (Luuk)

    2010-01-01

    Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS) is an X-ray in, X-ray out technique that enables one to study the dispersion of excitations in solids. In this thesis, we investigated how various elementary excitations of transition metal oxides show up in RIXS spectra.

  17. Emergence of Asynchronous Local Clocks in Excitable Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerum, Richard Carl; Fabry, Ben; Metzner, Claus

    2015-01-01

    Excitable media such as the myocardium or the brain consist of arrays of coupled excitable elements, in which the local excitation of a single element can propagate to its neighbors in the form of a non-linear autowave. Since each element has to pass through a refractory period immediately after excitation, the frequency of autowaves is self-limiting. In this work, we consider the case where each element is spontaneously excited at a fixed average rate and thereby initiates a new autowave. Although these spontaneous self-excitation events are modelled as independent Poisson point processes with exponentially distributed waiting times, the travelling autowaves lead collectively to a non-exponential, unimodal waiting time distribution for the individual elements. With increasing system size, a global 'clock' period T emerges as the most probable waiting time for each element, which fluctuates around T with an increasingly small but non-zero variance. This apparent synchronization between asynchronous, temporally uncorrelated point processes differs from synchronization effects between perfect oscillators interacting in a phase-aligning manner. Finally, we demonstrate that asynchronous local clocks also emerge in non-homogeneous systems in which the rates of self-excitation are different for all individuals, suggesting that this novel mechanism can occur in a wide range of excitable media.

  18. Excitation energy transfer from dye molecules to doped graphene

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Recently, we have reported theoretical studies on the rate of energy transfer from an electronically excited molecule to graphene. It was found that graphene is a very efficient quencher of the electronically excited states and that the rate -4. The process was found to be effective up to 30 which is well beyond the ...

  19. Renormalization of Optical Excitations in Molecules near a Metal Surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García Lastra, Juan Maria; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2011-01-01

    The lowest electronic excitations of benzene and a set of donor-acceptor molecular complexes are calculated for the gas phase and on the Al(111) surface using the many-body Bethe-Salpeter equation. The energy of the charge-transfer excitations obtained for the gas phase complexes are found to be ...

  20. A novel excitation assistance switched reluctance wind power generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiao; Park, Kiwoo; Chen, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    The high inductance of a general switched reluctance generator (SRG) may prevent the excitation of the magnetic field from being quickly established enough, which may further limit the output power of the SRG. A novel excitation assistance SRG (EASRG) for wind power generation is proposed...

  1. Coupling between the Magnetic Excitations and the Phonons in Praseodymium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J.

    1976-01-01

    The dispersion relation of the magnetic excitations of the hexagonal ions in DHCP Pr and the selection rules for the linear coupling to the phonons are determined by general symmetry considerations. The magnetic excitations propagating in the symmetry directions are considered in the cases of an ...

  2. Spectroscopy and reactions of vibrationally excited transient molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, H.L. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Spectroscopy, energy transfer and reactions of vibrationally excited transient molecules are studied through a combination of laser-based excitation techniques and efficient detection of emission from the energized molecules with frequency and time resolution. Specifically, a Time-resolved Fourier Transform Emission Spectroscopy technique has been developed for detecting dispersed laser-induced fluorescence in the IR, visible and UV regions. The structure and spectroscopy of the excited vibrational levels in the electronic ground state, as well as energy relaxation and reactions induced by specific vibronic excitations of a transient molecule can be characterized from time-resolved dispersed fluorescence in the visible and UV region. IR emissions from highly vibrational excited levels, on the other hand, reveal the pathways and rates of collision induced vibrational energy transfer.

  3. Room temperature excitation spectroscopy of single quantum dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Blum

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available We report a single molecule detection scheme to investigate excitation spectra of single emitters at room temperature. We demonstrate the potential of single emitter photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy by recording excitation spectra of single CdSe nanocrystals over a wide spectral range of 100 nm. The spectra exhibit emission intermittency, characteristic of single emitters. We observe large variations in the spectra close to the band edge, which represent the individual heterogeneity of the observed quantum dots. We also find specific excitation wavelengths for which the single quantum dots analyzed show an increased propensity for a transition to a long-lived dark state. We expect that the additional capability of recording excitation spectra at room temperature from single emitters will enable insights into the photophysics of emitters that so far have remained inaccessible.

  4. Plasmon excitations in two-dimensional atomic cluster systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Yan-Qin; Yu, Ya-Bin, E-mail: apybyu@hnu.edu.cn; Xue, Hong-Jie; Wang, Ya-Xin; Chen, Jie

    2016-09-01

    Properties of plasmon excitations in two-dimensional (2D) atomic cluster systems are theoretically studied within an extended Hubbard model. The collective oscillation equations of charge, plasmon eigen-equations and the energy-absorption spectrum formula are presented. The calculated results show that different symmetries of plasmons exist in the cluster systems, and the symmetry of charge distribution in the plasmon resonance originate from the intrinsic symmetry of the corresponding eigen-plasmon modes, but not from the symmetry of applied external fields; however, the plasmon excitation with a certain polarization direction should be excited by the field in this direction, the dipole mode of plasmons can be excited by both uniform and non-uniform fields, but multipole ones cannot be excited by an uniform field. In addition, we show that for a given electron density, plasmon spectra are red-shifted with increasing size of the systems.

  5. Excitability of motor cortices as a function of emotional sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komeilipoor, Naeem; Pizzolato, Fabio; Daffertshofer, Andreas; Cesari, Paola

    2013-01-01

    We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to clarify how non-verbal emotionally-characterized sounds modulate the excitability of the corticospinal motor tract (CST). While subjects were listening to sounds (monaurally and binaurally), single TMS pulses were delivered to either left or right primary motor cortex (M1), and electromyographic activities were recorded from the contralateral abductor pollicis brevis muscle. We found a significant increase in CST excitability in response to unpleasant as compared to neutral sounds. The increased excitability was lateralized as a function of stimulus valence: Unpleasant stimuli resulted in a significantly higher facilitation of motor potentials evoked in the left hemisphere, while pleasant stimuli yielded a greater CST excitability in the right one. Furthermore, TMS induced higher motor evoked potentials when listening to unpleasant sounds with the left than with the right ear. Taken together, our findings provide compelling evidence for an asymmetric modulation of CST excitability as a function of emotional sounds along with ear laterality.

  6. Excitation of seismic waves by a tornado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valovcin, A.; Tanimoto, T.; Twardzik, C.

    2016-12-01

    Tornadoes are among the most common natural disasters to occur in the United States. Various methods are currently used in tornado forecasting, including surface weather stations, weather balloons and satellite and Doppler radar. These methods work for detecting possible locations of tornadoes and funnel clouds, but knowing when a tornado has touched down still strongly relies on reports from spotters. Studying tornadoes seismically offers an opportunity to know when a tornado has touched down without requiring an eyewitness report. With the installation of Earthscope's Transportable Array (TA), there have been an increased number of tornadoes that have come within close range of seismometers. We have identified seismic signals corresponding to three tornadoes that occurred in 2011 in the central US. These signals were recorded by the TA station closest to each of the tornado tracks. For each tornado, the amplitudes of the seismic signals increase when the storm is in contact with the ground, and continue until the tornado lifts off some time later. This occurs at both high and low frequencies. In this study we will model the seismic signal generated by a tornado at low frequencies (below 0.1 Hz). We will begin by modeling the signal from the Joplin tornado, an EF5 rated tornado which occurred in Missouri on May 22, 2011. By approximating the tornado as a vertical force, we model the generated signal as the tornado moves along its track and changes in strength. By modeling the seismic waveform generated by a tornado, we can better understand the seismic-excitation process. It could also provide a way to quantitatively compare tornadoes. Additional tornadoes to model include the Calumet-El Reno-Piedmont-Guthrie (CEPG) and Chickasa-Blanchard-Newcastle (CBN) tornadoes, both of which occurred on May 24, 2011 in Oklahoma.

  7. Electron Impact Excitation-Ionization of Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Esam Abobakr A.

    In the last few decades, the study of atomic collisions by electron-impact has made significant advances. The most difficult case to study is electron impact ionization of molecules for which many approximations have to be made and the validity of these approximations can only be checked by comparing with experiment. In this thesis, I have examined the Molecular three-body distorted wave (M3DW) or Molecular four-body distorted wave (M4DW) approximations for electron-impact ionization. These models use a fully quantum mechanical approach where all particles are treated quantum mechanically and the post collision interaction (PCI) is treated to all orders of perturbation. These electron impact ionization collisions play central roles in the physics and chemistry of upper atmosphere, biofuel, the operation of discharges and lasers, radiation induced damage in biological material like damage to DNA by secondary electrons, and plasma etching processes. For the M3DW model, I will present results for electron impact single ionization of small molecules such as Water, Ethane, and Carbon Dioxide and the much larger molecules Tetrahydrofuran, phenol, furfural, 1-4 Benzoquinone. I will also present results for the four-body problem in which there are two target electrons involved in the collision. M4DW results will be presented for dissociative excitation-ionization of orientated D2. I will show that M4DW calculations using a variational wave function for the ground state that included s- and p- orbital states give better agreement to the experimental measurements than a ground state approximated as a product of two 1s-type Dyson orbitals.

  8. Electron affinity and excited states of methylglyoxal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauletyarov, Yerbolat; Dixon, Andrew R.; Wallace, Adam A.; Sanov, Andrei

    2017-07-01

    Using photoelectron imaging spectroscopy, we characterized the anion of methylglyoxal (X2A″ electronic state) and three lowest electronic states of the neutral methylglyoxal molecule: the closed-shell singlet ground state (X1A'), the lowest triplet state (a3A″), and the open-shell singlet state (A1A″). The adiabatic electron affinity (EA) of the ground state, EA(X1A') = 0.87(1) eV, spectroscopically determined for the first time, compares to 1.10(2) eV for unsubstituted glyoxal. The EAs (adiabatic attachment energies) of two excited states of methylglyoxal were also determined: EA(a3A″) = 3.27(2) eV and EA(A1A″) = 3.614(9) eV. The photodetachment of the anion to each of these two states produces the neutral species near the respective structural equilibria; hence, the a3A″ ← X2A″ and A1A″ ← X2A″ photodetachment transitions are dominated by intense peaks at their respective origins. The lowest-energy photodetachment transition, on the other hand, involves significant geometry relaxation in the X1A' state, which corresponds to a 60° internal rotation of the methyl group, compared to the anion structure. Accordingly, the X1A' ← X2A″ transition is characterized as a broad, congested band, whose vertical detachment energy, VDE = 1.20(4) eV, significantly exceeds the adiabatic EA. The experimental results are in excellent agreement with the ab initio predictions using several equation-of-motion methodologies, combined with coupled-cluster theory.

  9. Remote Oxygen Sensing by Ionospheric Excitation (ROSIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Kalogerakis

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The principal optical observable emission resulting from ionospheric modification (IM experiments is the atomic oxygen red line at 630 nm, originating from the O(1D–3P transition. Because the O(1D atom has a long radiative lifetime, it is sensitive to collisional relaxation and an observed decay faster than the radiative rate can be attributed to collisions with atmospheric species. In contrast to the common practice of ignoring O-atoms in interpreting such observations in the past, recent experimental studies on the relaxation of O(1D by O(3P have revealed the dominant role of oxygen atoms in controlling the lifetime of O(1D at altitudes relevant to IM experiments. Using the most up-to-date rate coefficients for collisional relaxation of O(1D by O, N2, and O2, it is now possible to analyze the red line decays observed in IM experiments and thus probe the local ionospheric composition. In this manner, we can demonstrate an approach to remotely detect O-atoms at the altitudes relevant to IM experiments, which we call remote oxygen sensing by ionospheric excitation (ROSIE. The results can be compared with atmospheric models and used to study the temporal, seasonal, altitude and spatial variation of ionospheric O-atom density in the vicinity of heating facilities. We discuss the relevance to atmospheric observations and ionospheric heating experiments and report an analysis of representative IM data.

  10. Coherence, energy and charge transfers in de-excitation pathways of electronic excited state of biomolecules in photosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Henrik; Malik, F. Bary

    2013-01-01

    The observed multiple de-excitation pathways of photo-absorbed electronic excited state in the peridinin–chlorophyll complex, involving both energy and charge transfers among its constituents, are analyzed using the bio-Auger (B-A) theory. It is also shown that the usually used F¨orster–Dexter th...

  11. Magnetic equivalent circuit model for unipolar hybrid excitation synchronous machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kupiec Emil

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Lately, there has been increased interest in hybrid excitation electrical machines. Hybrid excitation is a construction that combines permanent magnet excitation with wound field excitation. Within the general classification, these machines can be classified as modified synchronous machines or inductor machines. These machines may be applied as motors and generators. The complexity of electromagnetic phenomena which occur as a result of coupling of magnetic fluxes of separate excitation systems with perpendicular magnetic axis is a motivation to formulate various mathematical models of these machines. The presented paper discusses the construction of a unipolar hybrid excitation synchronous machine. The magnetic equivalent circuit model including nonlinear magnetization curves is presented. Based on this model, it is possible to determine the multi-parameter relationships between the induced voltage and magnetomotive force in the excitation winding. Particular attention has been paid to the analysis of the impact of additional stator and rotor yokes on above relationship. Induced voltage determines the remaining operating parameters of the machine, both in the motor and generator mode of operation. The analysis of chosen correlations results in an identification of the effective control range of electromotive force of the machine.

  12. Band excitation method applicable to scanning probe microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesse, Stephen [Knoxville, TN; Kalinin, Sergei V [Knoxville, TN

    2010-08-17

    Methods and apparatus are described for scanning probe microscopy. A method includes generating a band excitation (BE) signal having finite and predefined amplitude and phase spectrum in at least a first predefined frequency band; exciting a probe using the band excitation signal; obtaining data by measuring a response of the probe in at least a second predefined frequency band; and extracting at least one relevant dynamic parameter of the response of the probe in a predefined range including analyzing the obtained data. The BE signal can be synthesized prior to imaging (static band excitation), or adjusted at each pixel or spectroscopy step to accommodate changes in sample properties (adaptive band excitation). An apparatus includes a band excitation signal generator; a probe coupled to the band excitation signal generator; a detector coupled to the probe; and a relevant dynamic parameter extractor component coupled to the detector, the relevant dynamic parameter extractor including a processor that performs a mathematical transform selected from the group consisting of an integral transform and a discrete transform.

  13. Excitation of plasmonic waveguide modes using principles of holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatov, Anton I.; Merzlikin, Alexander M.

    2017-08-01

    A method for development of gratings for effective excitation of surface plasmonic waves using holography principles has been proposed and theoretically analyzed. The case of excitation of a plasmonic wave in a dielectric layer on metal using volume holograms in the dielectric layer has been considered. For comparison, simple periodic gratings with refractive index of the dielectric layer modulated in the plane of the layer and invariable in the direction perpendicular to the layer plane have been considered. The efficiencies of the proposed holograms and gratings optimized for various incidence angles of exciting waves incident on the gratings/holograms from air have been analyzed. Based on this analysis, general enough conditions when holograms can be more efficient than simple gratings have been found out. In particular, a hologram is expected to be more efficient than the grating when the refractive index distribution in the hologram is considerably inhomogeneous (contrary to the gratings) in the direction perpendicular to the layer plane. For example, this may be the case if the exciting wave is incident on a hologram obliquely at a rather large angle or if phase fronts of either exciting wave or a wave being excited are curved. The proposed holographic method is quite universal. As expected, this can be extended for efficient excitation of different types of optical surface waves and modes of optical waveguides.

  14. Excited state conformational dynamics in carotenoids: dark intermediates and excitation energy transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Warren F; Bishop, Michael M; Roscioli, Jerome D; Ghosh, Soumen; Frank, Harry A

    2015-04-15

    A consideration of the excited state potential energy surfaces of carotenoids develops a new hypothesis for the nature of the conformational motions that follow optical preparation of the S2 (1(1)Bu(+)) state. After an initial displacement from the Franck-Condon geometry along bond length alternation coordinates, it is suggested that carotenoids pass over a transition-state barrier leading to twisted conformations. This hypothesis leads to assignments for several dark intermediate states encountered in femtosecond spectroscopic studies. The Sx state is assigned to the structure reached upon the onset of torsional motions near the transition state barrier that divides planar and twisted structures on the S2 state potential energy surface. The X state, detected recently in two-dimensional electronic spectra, corresponds to a twisted structure well past the barrier and approaching the S2 state torsional minimum. Lastly, the S(∗) state is assigned to a low lying S1 state structure with intramolecular charge transfer character (ICT) and a pyramidal conformation. It follows that the bent and twisted structures of carotenoids that are found in photosynthetic light-harvesting proteins yield excited-state structures that favor the development of an ICT character and optimized energy transfer yields to (bacterio)chlorophyll acceptors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Development and Implementation of Biological Circuits Using Excitable and Non-Excitable Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casasnovas-Orus, V.; Gomez-Cid, L.; Hernandez-Romero, I.; Fuentes, L.; Guillem, M.S.; Atienza, F.; Fernandez-Aviles, F.; Climent, A.M.

    2016-07-01

    Compared to conventional computation systems, living beings require reduced power and raw materials consumption, inviting to explore the concept of biological circuits. In this project, a proof-of-concept of logical biocircuits using cell patterns has been developed. These were based upon differential ionic communication between cells, being the cells types used excitable and non-excitable, modeled by cardiomyocytes and fibroblasts correspondingly. To begin, patterns for the basic logic computation blocks were designed, including the OR gate, AND gate and logic memory. The designs were evaluated with mathematical models and in vitro experiments. Results of mathematical modeling indicated that theoretical approval of the biocircuit function. Regarding in vitro biocircuit implementation, three different selective cell localization techniques proved useful for the pattern creation. Evaluation with optical mapping confirmed the operation of the OR gate and logic memory. More resolution in the cell placement strategy will be needed to observe the proper AND gate operation. Thus, fine-tuning of the implementation process will enable the construction of more complex biocircuits that will take on clinical applications relating to electric stimulation of tissues and programmed drug delivery. (Author)

  16. Multi-Exciter Vibroacoustic Simulation of Hypersonic Flight Vibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GREGORY,DANNY LYNN; CAP,JEROME S.; TOGAMI,THOMAS C.; NUSSER,MICHAEL A.; HOLLINGSHEAD,JAMES RONALD

    1999-11-11

    Many aerospace structures must survive severe high frequency, hypersonic, random vibration during their flights. The random vibrations are generated by the turbulent boundary layer developed along the exterior of the structures during flight. These environments have not been simulated very well in the past using a fixed-based, single exciter input with an upper frequency range of 2 kHz. This study investigates the possibility of using acoustic ardor independently controlled multiple exciters to more accurately simulate hypersonic flight vibration. The test configuration, equipment, and methodology are described. Comparisons with actual flight measurements and previous single exciter simulations are also presented.

  17. Excitation spectra of liquid iron up to superhigh temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomin, Yu D.; Ryzhov, V. N.; Tsiok, E. N.; Brazhkin, V. V.

    2017-08-01

    Investigation of excitation spectra of liquids is one of the hot test topics nowadays. In particular, recent experimental works showed that liquid metals can demonstrate transverse excitations and positive sound dispersion. However, the theoretical description of these experimental observations is still missing. Here we report a molecular dynamics study of excitation spectra of liquid iron. We compare the results with available experimental data to justify the method. After that we perform calculations for high temperatures to find the location of the Frenkel line introduced in our previous works.

  18. Continuum excitations in neutron-rich Oxygen isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aumann, T.; Boretzky, K.; Cortina, D.; Cub, J.; Emling, H.; Geissel, H.; Hellstroem, M.; Holzmann, R.; Ilievski, S.; Iwasa, N.; Kaspar, M.; Kleinboehl, A.; Leifels, Y.; Muenzenberg, G.; Rejmund, M.; Scheidenberger, C.; Schlegel, C.; Suemmerer, K.; Wan, S. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Planckstr. 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Aumann, T.; Boretzky, K.; Dostal, W.; Eberlein, B.; Kratz, J.V. [Institut fuer Kernchemie, Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Leistenschneider, A.; Elze, T.W.; Gruenschloss, A.; Stroth, J. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universitaet, D-60486 Frankfurt (Germany); Cub, J.; Simon, H. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Holeczek, J. [Instytut Fizyki, Uniwersytet Slaski, PL-40-007 Katowice (Poland); Kulessa, R.; Lubkiewicz, E.; Wajda, E.; Walus, W. [Instytut Fizyki, Uniwersytet Jagellonski, PL-30-059 Krakow (Poland); Reiter, P. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    1998-12-01

    Electromagnetic and nuclear excitations of the neutron-rich Oxygen isotopes ranging from A=17 to A=22 are studied experimentally in reactions at energies around 600 MeV/u. By measuring the four-momenta of all decay products the excitation energy is determined. From the differential cross sections for electromagnetic excitation, the E1-strength distributions can be deduced. For {sup 18,20,22}O, low-lying dipole strength is observed, exhausting about 5{percent} of the energy weighted TRK sumrule for energies up to 5 MeV above the continuum threshold. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  19. Efficient channel-plasmon excitation by nano-mirrors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radko, Ilya P.; Stær, Tobias Holmgaard; Han, Zhanghua

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate a configuration for efficient channel-plasmon mode excitation using tapered terminations of V-shaped groove waveguides. The plasmon excitation is achieved by directly illuminating tapers of gold V-grooves with a focused laser beam, incident normally onto the sample surface. For near......-infrared wavelengths, we find experimentally as well as numerically, by conducting three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain calculations, that the efficiency of channel-plasmon mode excitation exceeds 10% in the optimum configuration, which is the highest experimentally observed efficiency of coupling from free-propagation...

  20. HH 5, HH 6, and their exciting stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Martin; Jones, Burton F.; Hereld, Mark

    1991-01-01

    Long-slit optical spectroscopy, astrometry, and H-alpha forbidden S II and broad-band 2 micron images of HH 5 and of the HH 6 complex have been obtained. The excitations and radial velocities of the individual HH knots are described. The morphology of the optical and the 2 micron images (the latter dominated by H2 emission and/or the continuum of any embedded exciting stars) is compared; and the new astrometry is discussed. Finally, the likely sources of excitation of these HH nebulae are commented on.

  1. Spectroscopic and Raman excitation profile studies of 3-benzoylpyridine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sett, Pinaky; Datta, Shirsendu; Chowdhury, Joydeep; Ghosh, Manash; Mallick, Prabal Kumar

    2017-07-01

    In the present work IR, UV absorption and Raman spectra including Raman excitation profiles and structure of 3-benzoyl pyridine have been investigated. Detailed studies on the vibrational and electronic properties of the molecule have been carried out. All these studies are aided with valuable quantum chemical calculations. The structural changes encountered on excitation to the low lying excited states have been investigated. Theoretical profiles determined by the sum-over-states method based on pertinent Franck-Condon and Herzberg-Teller terms have satisfactorily simulated the experimentally measured relative Raman intensities and these are also in compliance with the structural changes and potential energy distributions.

  2. Reaction dynamics of electronically excited alkali atoms with simple molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, P.S.; Mestdagh, J.; Schmidt, H.; Vernon, M.F. Covinsky, M.H.; Balko, B.A.; Lee, Y.T.

    1985-09-01

    The reactions of electronically excited sodium atoms with simple molecules have been studied in crossed molecular beams experiments. Electronically excited Na(3/sup 2/P/sub 3/2/,4/sup 2/D/sub 5/2/, and 5/sup 2/S/sub 1/2) were produced by optical pumping using single frequency dye lasers. The effects of the symmetry, and the orientation and alignment of the excited orbital on the chemical reactivity, and detailed information on the reaction dynamics were derived from measurements of the product angular and velocity distributions.

  3. Reaction dynamics of electronically excited alkali atoms with simpler molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, P. S.; Mestdagh, J. M.; Schmidt, H.; Vernon, M. F.; Covinsky, M. H.; Balko, B. A.; Lee, Y. T.

    1985-05-01

    The reactions of electronically excited sodium atoms with simple molecules have been studied in crossed molecular beams experiments. Electronically excited Na(3(2)P(sub 3/2), 4(2)D(sub 5/2), and 5(2)S(sub 1/2) were produced by optical pumping using single frequency dye lasers. The effects of the symmetry, and the orientation and alignment of the excited orbital on the chemical reactivity, and detailed information on the reaction dynamics were derived from measurements of the product angular and velocity distributions.

  4. Vibrational motions in rotating nuclei studied by Coulomb excitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Yoshifumi R. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Dept. of Physics

    1998-03-01

    As is well-known Coulomb excitation is an excellent tool to study the nuclear collective motions. Especially the vibrational excitations in rotating nuclei, which are rather difficult to access by usual heavy-ion fusion reactions, can be investigated in detail. Combined with the famous 8{pi}-Spectrometer, which was one of the best {gamma}-ray detector and had discovered some of superdeformed bands, such Coulomb excitation experiments had been carried out at Chalk River laboratory just before it`s shutdown of physics division. In this meeting some of the experimental data are presented and compared with the results of theoretical investigations. (author)

  5. BEGA-a biaxial excitation Generator for automobiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scridon, S.; Boldea, Ion; Tutelea, L.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the design and test results for a biaxial excitation generator/motor for automobiles (BEGA), which has a three-phase stator and a salient-pole excited heteropolar rotor with multiple flux barriers filled with low-cost permanent magnets (PMs). For this new generator, the low-voltage...... regulation is obtained by the flux-barrier PM combination with field (excitation) low-power control and a full-power diode rectifier in the stator. Good power/volume and superior efficiency (up to 80%) are obtained at costs comparable to those of an existing Lundell generator. The generator configuration...

  6. Brushless exciters using a high temperature superconducting field winding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garces, Luis Jose [Schenectady, NY; Delmerico, Robert William [Clifton Park, NY; Jansen, Patrick Lee [Scotia, NY; Parslow, John Harold [Scotia, NY; Sanderson, Harold Copeland [Tribes Hill, NY; Sinha, Gautam [Chesterfield, MO

    2008-03-18

    A brushless exciter for a synchronous generator or motor generally includes a stator and a rotor rotatably disposed within the stator. The rotor has a field winding and a voltage rectifying bridge circuit connected in parallel to the field winding. A plurality of firing circuits are connected the voltage rectifying bridge circuit. The firing circuit is configured to fire a signal at an angle of less than 90.degree. or at an angle greater than 90.degree.. The voltage rectifying bridge circuit rectifies the AC voltage to excite or de-excite the field winding.

  7. Excited state of {sup 7}He and its unique structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korsheninnikov, A.A.; Golovkov, M.S.; Ozawa, A.; Yoshida, K.; Tanihata, I.; Fulop, Z.; Kusaka, K.; Morimoto, K.; Otsu, H.; Petrascu, H.; Tokanai, F. [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Wako, Saitama (Japan); Kuzmin, E.A.; Nikolskii, E.Yu.; Novatskii, B.G.; Ogloblin, A.A. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2000-07-01

    The transfer reaction p({sup 8}He,d){sup 7}He with the exotic {sup 8}He-beam has been studied by correlational measurements, and an excited state of {sup 7}He was observed. Most likely, it has a structure with a neutron in an excited state coupled to the {sup 6}He-core which itself is in the excited 2{sup +}-state. The transfer reaction p({sup 8}He,{sup 2}He){sup 7}H was also studied, and manifestation on the possible existence of the resonance {sup 7}H was obtained. (orig.)

  8. Extremely confined gap surface-plasmon modes excited by electrons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raza, Søren; Stenger, Nicolas; Pors, Anders Lambertus

    2014-01-01

    High-spatial and energy resolution electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) can be used for detailed characterization of localized and propagating surface-plasmon excitations in metal nanostructures, giving insight into fundamental physical phenomena and various plasmonic effects. Here, applying...... EELS to ultra-sharp convex grooves in gold, we directly probe extremely confined gap surface-plasmon (GSP) modes excited by swift electrons in nanometre-wide gaps. We reveal the resonance behaviour associated with the excitation of the antisymmetric GSP mode for extremely small gap widths, down to ~5...

  9. Vison excitations in near-critical quantum dimer models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strübi, G.; Ivanov, D. A.

    2011-06-01

    We study vison excitations in a quantum dimer model interpolating between the Rokhsar-Kivelson models on the square and triangular lattices. In the square-lattice case, the model is known to be critical and characterized by U(1) topological quantum numbers. Introducing diagonal dimers brings the model to a Z2 resonating-valence-bond phase. We study variationally the emergence of vison excitations at low concentration of diagonal dimers, close to the critical point. We find that, in this regime, vison excitations are large in size and their structure resembles vortices in type-II superconductors.

  10. Ultrashort-pulse laser excitation and damage of dielectric materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr-Lillevang, Lasse; Balling, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Ultrashort-pulse laser excitation of dielectrics is an intricate problem due to the strong coupling between the rapidly changing material properties and the light. In the present paper, details of a model based on a multiple-rate-equation description of the conduction band are provided. The model...... is verified by comparison with recent experimental measurements of the transient optical properties in combination with ablation-depth determinations. The excitation process from the first creation of conduction-band electrons at low intensities to the formation of a highly-excited plasma and associated...

  11. Observation of interference effects via four photon excitation of highly excited Rydberg states in thermal cesium vapor

    CERN Document Server

    Kondo, Jorge M; Guttridge, Alex; Wade, Christopher G; De Melo, Natalia R; Adams, Charles S; Weatherill, Kevin J

    2015-01-01

    We report on the observation of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency (EIT) and Absorption (EIA) of highly-excited Rydberg states in thermal Cs vapor using a 4-step excitation scheme. The advantage of this 4-step scheme is that the final transition to the Rydberg state has a large dipole moment and one can achieve similar Rabi frequencies to 2 or 3 step excitation schemes using two orders of magnitude less laser power. Consequently each step is driven by a relatively low power infra-red diode laser opening up the prospect for new applications. The observed lineshapes are in good agreement with simulations based on multilevel optical Bloch equations.

  12. Excited-state Raman spectroscopy with and without actinic excitation: S{sub 1} Raman spectra of trans-azobenzene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobryakov, A. L.; Quick, M.; Ioffe, I. N.; Granovsky, A. A.; Ernsting, N. P.; Kovalenko, S. A. [Department of Chemistry, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Brook-Taylor-Str. 2, D-12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-05-14

    We show that femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy can record excited-state spectra in the absence of actinic excitation, if the Raman pump is in resonance with an electronic transition. The approach is illustrated by recording S{sub 1} and S{sub 0} spectra of trans-azobenzene in n-hexane. The S{sub 1} spectra were also measured conventionally, upon nπ* (S{sub 0} → S{sub 1}) actinic excitation. The results are discussed and compared to earlier reports.

  13. A benchmark study of electronic excitation energies, transition moments, and excited-state energy gradients on the nicotine molecule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egidi, Franco, E-mail: franco.egidi@sns.it; Segado, Mireia; Barone, Vincenzo, E-mail: vincenzo.barone@sns.it [Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri, 7 I-56126 Pisa (Italy); Koch, Henrik [Department of Chemistry, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim (Norway); Cappelli, Chiara [Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, Università di Pisa, via G. Moruzzi, 3 I-56124 Pisa (Italy)

    2014-12-14

    In this work, we report a comparative study of computed excitation energies, oscillator strengths, and excited-state energy gradients of (S)-nicotine, chosen as a test case, using multireference methods, coupled cluster singles and doubles, and methods based on time-dependent density functional theory. This system was chosen because its apparent simplicity hides a complex electronic structure, as several different types of valence excitations are possible, including n-π{sup *}, π-π{sup *}, and charge-transfer states, and in order to simulate its spectrum it is necessary to describe all of them consistently well by the chosen method.

  14. Multipair excitations in the two-dimensional electron gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pederiva, F.; Emperador, A.; Lipparini, E.

    2002-10-01

    We present a sum-rule study of spin multipair excitations in the two-dimensional electron gas. The cubic-energy-weighted sum rule m3=∫S(q,ω)ω3dω is microscopically calculated taking into account the effect of dynamical correlations. The comparison among exact sum rules and the ones derived within Landau theory allows us to give a proper estimate of the average spin multipair excitation energy and a rigorous lower bound for the multipair contribution to the static form factor in the low-q limit. The relative importance of spin multipair excitations in two- and three-dimensional electron gases is discussed. Finally, numerical results of the contribution of multipair excitations to the m3 sum rule in the density channel are given.

  15. Efficiency of local surface plasmon polariton excitation on ridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radko, Ilya; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Boltasseva, Alexandra

    2008-01-01

    We investigate experimentally and numerically the efficiency of surface plasmon polariton excitation by a focused laser beam using gold ridges. The dependence of the efficiency on geometrical parameters of ridges and wavelength dependence are examined. The experimental measurements accomplished...

  16. Spin-isospin excitations in the A=58 mass region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bes, D.R.; Civitarese, O. [Lab. Tandar, C, 4C. Bs.As. Argentina, Deparment of Physics, University of La Plata, c.c. 67 1900, La Plata (Argentina)

    2007-12-15

    The experimental information on spin-isospin excitations around the nucleus {sup 56}Ni is analyzed by using isoscalar and isovector pairing vibrations, Gamow-Teller modes, and their couplings. (Author)

  17. Two-photon excitation of rubidium atoms inside porous glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amy, L.; Lenci, L.; Villalba, S.; Failache, H.; Lezama, A.

    2017-10-01

    We study the two-photon laser excitation to the 5 D5 /2 energy level of 85Rb atoms contained in the interstices of a porous material made from sintered ground glass with typical pore dimensions in the 10-100 μ m range. The excitation spectra show unusual flat-top line shapes, which are shown to be the consequence of wave-vector randomization of the laser light in the porous material. For large atomic densities, the spectra are affected by radiation trapping around the D2 transitions. The effect of the transient atomic response limited by the time of flight between pores walls appears to have a minor influence in the excitation spectra. It is however revealed by the shortening of the temporal evolution of the emitted blue light following a sudden switch-off of the laser excitation.

  18. Search for excited electrons in ep collisions at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron, F.D. [National Inst. for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (Romania)]|[Bucharest Univ. (Romania). Faculty of Physics; Alexa, C. [National Inst. for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (Romania); Andreev, V. [Lebedev Physical Inst., Moscow (RU)] (and others)

    2008-05-15

    A search for excited electrons is performed using the full e{sup {+-}}p data sample collected by the H1 experiment at HERA, corresponding to a total luminosity of 475 pb{sup -1}. The electroweak decays of excited electrons e{sup *} {yields}e{gamma}, e{sup *} {yields}eZ and e{sup *} {yields}{nu}W with subsequent hadronic or leptonic decays of the W and Z bosons are considered. No evidence for excited electron production is found. Mass dependent exclusion limits on e{sup *} production cross sections and on the ratio f/{lambda} of the coupling to the compositeness scale are derived within gauge mediated models. These limits extend the excluded region compared to previous excited electron searches. The e{sup *} production via contact interactions is also addressed for the first time in ep collisions. (orig.)

  19. Search for excited quarks in ep collisions at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron, F.D. [National Inst. for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (Romania); Bucharest Univ. (Romania). Faculty of Physics; Alexa, C. [National Inst. for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (Romania); Alimujiang, K. [DESY, Hamburg (DE)] (and others)

    2009-03-15

    A search for excited quarks is performed using the full e{sup {+-}}p data sample collected by the H1 experiment at HERA, corresponding to a total integrated luminosity of 475 pb{sup -1}. The electroweak decays of excited quarks q{sup *}{yields}q{gamma}, q{sup *}{yields}qZ and q{sup *}{yields}qW with subsequent hadronic or leptonic decays of the W and Z bosons are considered. No evidence for first generation excited quark production is found. Mass dependent exclusion limits on q{sup *} production cross sections and on the ratio f/{lambda} of the coupling to the compositeness scale are derived within gauge mediated models. These limits extend the excluded region compared to previous excited quark searches. (orig.)

  20. Photothermally excited force modulation microscopy for broadband nanomechanical property measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Ryan, E-mail: ryan.wagner@nist.gov; Killgore, Jason P. [Material Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States)

    2015-11-16

    We demonstrate photothermally excited force modulation microscopy (PTE FMM) for mechanical property characterization across a broad frequency range with an atomic force microscope (AFM). Photothermal excitation allows for an AFM cantilever driving force that varies smoothly as a function of drive frequency, thus avoiding the problem of spurious resonant vibrations that hinder piezoelectric excitation schemes. A complication of PTE FMM is that the sub-resonance cantilever vibration shape is fundamentally different compared to piezoelectric excitation. By directly measuring the vibrational shape of the cantilever, we show that PTE FMM is an accurate nanomechanical characterization method. PTE FMM is a pathway towards the characterization of frequency sensitive specimens such as polymers and biomaterials with frequency range limited only by the resonance frequency of the cantilever and the low frequency limit of the AFM.

  1. Physical Improvements in Exciter/Igniter Units Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed project consists of developing a prototype exciter/igniter unit that can operate to a subset of expected flight performance requirements. The main focus...

  2. Abnormal Changes of Synaptic Excitability in Migraine with Aura

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siniatchkin, Michael; Sendacki, Mascha; Moeller, Friederike

    2012-01-01

    Migraine patients are characterized by altered cortical excitability and information processing between attacks. The relationship between these abnormalities is still poorly understood. In this study, visual evoked potentials (VEP) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy were recorded simultan...

  3. Controlled excitation of a cold turbulent swirling free jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghavi, R.; Rice, E. J.; Farokhi, S.

    1988-01-01

    Experimental results from acoustic excitation of a cold free turbulent jet with and without swirl are presented. A flow with a swirl number of 0.35 (i.e., moderate swirl) is excited internally by plane acoustic waves at a constant sound pressure level and at various frequencies. It is observed that the cold swirling jet is excitable by plane waves, and that the instability waves grow about 50 percent less in peak rms amplitude, and saturate further upstream compared to corresponding waves in a jet without swirl having the same axial mass flux. The preferred Strouhal number based on the mass-averaged axial velocity and nozzle exit diameter for both swirling and nonswirling flows is 0.4. So far no change in the mean velocity components of the swirling jet is observed as a result of excitation.

  4. Electromagnetic toroidal excitations in matter and free space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papasimakis, N.; Fedotov, V. A.; Savinov, V.; Raybould, T. A.; Zheludev, N. I.

    2016-03-01

    The toroidal dipole is a localized electromagnetic excitation, distinct from the magnetic and electric dipoles. While the electric dipole can be understood as a pair of opposite charges and the magnetic dipole as a current loop, the toroidal dipole corresponds to currents flowing on the surface of a torus. Toroidal dipoles provide physically significant contributions to the basic characteristics of matter including absorption, dispersion and optical activity. Toroidal excitations also exist in free space as spatially and temporally localized electromagnetic pulses propagating at the speed of light and interacting with matter. We review recent experimental observations of resonant toroidal dipole excitations in metamaterials and the discovery of anapoles, non-radiating charge-current configurations involving toroidal dipoles. While certain fundamental and practical aspects of toroidal electrodynamics remain open for the moment, we envision that exploitation of toroidal excitations can have important implications for the fields of photonics, sensing, energy and information.

  5. Physical Improvements in Exciter/Igniter Units Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed Phase 2 project consists of the physical integration of our Phase 1 small, compact exciter with a "flight like" igniter or spark plug capable of...

  6. Benefits and Challenges of Over-Actuated Excitation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Fitz-Coy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a comprehensive discussion on the benefits and technical challenges of controlling over-determined and over-actuated excitation systems ranging from 1-DOF to 6-DOF. The primary challenges of over-actuated systems result from the physical constraints imposed when the number of exciters exceeds the number of mechanical degree-of-freedom. This issue is less critical for electro-dynamic exciters which tend to be more compliant than servo-hydraulic exciters. To facilitate the technical challenges discussion, generalized methods for determining the drive output commands and the actuator input transform is presented. To further provide insights into the problem, over-actuated 1-DOF and 6-DOF examples are provided. Results are presented to support the discussions.

  7. Producing coherent excitations in pumped Mott antiferromagnetic insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yao; Claassen, Martin; Moritz, B.; Devereaux, T. P.

    2017-12-01

    Nonequilibrium dynamics in correlated materials has attracted attention due to the possibility of characterizing, tuning, and creating complex ordered states. To understand the photoinduced microscopic dynamics, especially the linkage under realistic pump conditions between transient states and remnant elementary excitations, we performed nonperturbative simulations of various time-resolved spectroscopies. We used the Mott antiferromagnetic insulator as a model platform. The transient dynamics of multiparticle excitations can be attributed to the interplay between Floquet virtual states and a modification of the density of states, in which interactions induce a spectral weight transfer. Using an autocorrelation of the time-dependent spectral function, we show that resonance of the virtual states with the upper Hubbard band in the Mott insulator provides the route towards manipulating the electronic distribution and modifying charge and spin excitations. Our results link transient dynamics to the nature of many-body excitations and provide an opportunity to design nonequilibrium states of matter via tuned laser pulses.

  8. On the determination of the mean excitation energy of water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabin, John R.; Oddershede, Jens; Sauer, Stephan P. A.

    2013-01-01

    Water is a ubiquitous substance in nature, and thus the mean excitation energy of water is an important quantity for understanding and prediction of the details of many fast ion/molecule collision processes such as those involved in external beam radiotherapy of tumors. There are several methods ...... for determining numerical values for a mean excitation energy for water, both theoretical and experimental. Here the factors affecting the determination of the value of the mean excitation energy of water, especially from experiment, are discussed.......Water is a ubiquitous substance in nature, and thus the mean excitation energy of water is an important quantity for understanding and prediction of the details of many fast ion/molecule collision processes such as those involved in external beam radiotherapy of tumors. There are several methods...

  9. Dynamics of Microbeams under Multi-Frequency Excitations

    KAUST Repository

    Ibrahim, Alwathiqbellah

    2017-01-24

    This paper presents an investigation of the dynamics of microbeams under multiple harmonic electrostatic excitation frequencies. First, the response of a cantilever microbeam to two alternating current (AC) source excitation is examined. We show by simulations the response of the microbeam at primary resonance (near the fundamental natural frequency) and at secondary resonances (near half, superharmonic, and twice, subharmonic, the fundamental natural frequency). A multimode Galerkin method combined with the Euler-Bernoulli beam equation, accounting for the nonlinear electrostatic force, has been used to develop a reduced order model. The response of the cantilever microbeam to three AC source excitation is also investigated and shown as a promising technique to enhance the bandwidth of resonators. Finally, an experimental study of a clamped-clamped microbeam is conducted, demonstrating the multi-frequency excitation resonances using two, three, and four AC sources.

  10. Gross properties of nuclei and nuclear excitations XXI. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldmeier, H. [ed.

    1993-12-31

    These proceedings contain the articles and contributed papers presented at the named workshop. They are concerned with highly excited nuclear matter and relativistic heavy ion reactions together with some related topics. See hints under the relevant topics. (HSI)

  11. Melanin fluorescence spectra by step-wise three photon excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Zhenhua; Kerimo, Josef; DiMarzio, Charles A.

    2012-03-01

    Melanin is the characteristic chromophore of human skin with various potential biological functions. Kerimo discovered enhanced melanin fluorescence by stepwise three-photon excitation in 2011. In this article, step-wise three-photon excited fluorescence (STPEF) spectrum between 450 nm -700 nm of melanin is reported. The melanin STPEF spectrum exhibited an exponential increase with wavelength. However, there was a probability of about 33% that another kind of step-wise multi-photon excited fluorescence (SMPEF) that peaks at 525 nm, shown by previous research, could also be generated using the same process. Using an excitation source at 920 nm as opposed to 830 nm increased the potential for generating SMPEF peaks at 525 nm. The SMPEF spectrum peaks at 525 nm photo-bleached faster than STPEF spectrum.

  12. Direct conversion of graphite into diamond through electronic excited states

    CERN Document Server

    Nakayama, H

    2003-01-01

    An ab initio total energy calculation has been performed for electronic excited states in diamond and rhombohedral graphite by the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method within the framework of the local density approximation (LDA). First, calculations for the core-excited state in diamond have been performed to show that the ab initio calculations based on the LDA describe the wavefunctions in the electronic excited states as well as in the ground state quite well. Fairly good coincidence with both experimental data and theoretical prediction has been obtained for the lattice relaxation of the core exciton state. The results of the core exciton state are compared with nitrogen-doped diamond. Next, the structural stability of rhombohedral graphite has been investigated to examine the possibility of the transition into the diamond structure through electronic excited states. While maintaining the rhombohedral symmetry, rhombohedral graphite can be spontaneously transformed to cubic diamond. Tota...

  13. Self-Exciting Point Process Modeling of Conversation Event Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Naoki; Takaguchi, Taro; Sato, Nobuo; Yano, Kazuo

    Self-exciting processes of Hawkes type have been used to model various phenomena including earthquakes, neural activities, and views of online videos. Studies of temporal networks have revealed that sequences of social interevent times for individuals are highly bursty. We examine some basic properties of event sequences generated by the Hawkes self-exciting process to show that it generates bursty interevent times for a wide parameter range. Then, we fit the model to the data of conversation sequences recorded in company offices in Japan. In this way, we can estimate relative magnitudes of the self excitement, its temporal decay, and the base event rate independent of the self excitation. These variables highly depend on individuals. We also point out that the Hawkes model has an important limitation that the correlation in the interevent times and the burstiness cannot be independently modulated.

  14. Percolation of optical excitation mediated by near-field interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naruse, Makoto; Kim, Song-Ju; Takahashi, Taiki; Aono, Masashi; Akahane, Kouichi; D'Acunto, Mario; Hori, Hirokazu; Thylén, Lars; Katori, Makoto; Ohtsu, Motoichi

    2017-04-01

    Optical excitation transfer in nanostructured matter has been intensively studied in various material systems for versatile applications. Herein, we theoretically and numerically discuss the percolation of optical excitations in randomly organized nanostructures caused by optical near-field interactions governed by Yukawa potential in a two-dimensional stochastic model. The model results demonstrate the appearance of two phases of percolation of optical excitation as a function of the localization degree of near-field interaction. Moreover, it indicates sublinear scaling with percolation distances when the light localization is strong. Furthermore, such a character is maximized at a particular size of environments. The results provide fundamental insights into optical excitation transfer and will facilitate the design and analysis of nanoscale signal-transfer characteristics.

  15. Theoretical Assessment of 178m2Hf De-Excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartouni, E P; Chen, M; Descalle, M A; Escher, J E; Loshak, A; Navratil, P; Ormand, W E; Pruet, J; Thompson, I J; Wang, T F

    2008-10-06

    This document contains a comprehensive literature review in support of the theoretical assessment of the {sup 178m2}Hf de-excitation, as well as a rigorous description of controlled energy release from an isomeric nuclear state.

  16. Excited State Dynamics of DNA and RNA bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudock, Hanneli; Levine, Benjamin; Martinez, Todd

    2007-03-01

    Recent ultrafast spectroscopic experiments have reported excited state lifetimes for DNA and RNA bases and assigned these lifetimes to various electronic states. We have used theoretical and simulation methods to describe the excited state dynamics of these bases in an effort to provide a mechanistic explanation for the observed lifetimes. Our simulations are based on ab initio molecular dynamics, where the electronic and nuclear Schrodinger equations are solved simultaneously. The results are further verified by comparison to high-level ab initio electronic structure methods, including dynamic electron correlation effects through multireference perturbation theory, at important points along the dynamical pathways. Our results provide an explanation of the photochemical mechanism leading to nonradiative decay of the electronic excited states and some suggestions as to the origin of the different lifetimes. Comparisons between pyrimidines illustrate how chemical differences impact excited state dynamics and may play a role in explaining the propensity for dimer formation in thymine.

  17. Excited state dynamics of liquid water near the surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schultz Thomas

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Time resolved photoelectron spectroscopy explores the excited state dynamics of liquid water in presence of cations close to the surface. A transient hydrated electroncation complex is observed.

  18. Resonant coherent excitation of fast heavy ions in crystals. Pt. 7. Projectile excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moak, C.D.; Biggerstaff, J.A.; Crawford, O.H.; Dittner, P.F.; Datz, S.; Gomez del Campo, J.; Hvelplund, P.; Knudsen, H.; Krause, H.F.; Miller, P.D. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1982-03-15

    Hydrogen-like ions of B, C, N, O and F and helium-like ions of N, O and F have been shown to exhibit resonant coherent excitation from their n = 1 to their n = 2 states, caused by periodic electric potential oscillations which occur as the ion moves through axial or planar channels of a thin crystal of Au. The resonance velocities of the ions exhibit shifts and splittings which are the result of the crystal fields acting upon the one-, or two-electron ions. Comparisons with theory show fairly good agreement except for certain weak resonance components which do not appear or appear at unexpected values of the resonance velocity.

  19. Efficiency of local surface plasmon polariton excitation on ridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radko, I.P.; Bozhevolnyi, S.I.; Brucoli, G.

    2008-01-01

    The issue of efficient local coupling of light into surface plasmon polariton (SPP) modes is an important concern in miniaturization of plasmonic components. Here we present experimental and numerical investigations of efficiency of local SPP excitation on gold ridges of rectangular profile...... experimentally. Numerical simulations based on Green’s tensor approach are in good agreement with the experiment and allow suggesting an optimization of parameters for improving the efficiency of SPP excitation....

  20. Non-Tikhonov Asymptotic Properties of Cardiac Excitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biktashev, V. N.; Suckley, R.

    2004-10-01

    Models of electric excitability of cardiac cells can be studied by singular perturbation techniques. To do this one should take into account parameters appearing in equations in nonstandard ways. The physical reason for this is near-perfect switch behavior of ionic current gates. This leads to a definition of excitability different from the currently accepted one. The asymptotic structure revealed by our analysis can be used to devise simplified caricature models, to obtain approximate analytical solutions, and to facilitate numerical simulations.

  1. Quantum dissipation and decoherence of collective excitations in metallic nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Weick, Guillaume

    2006-01-01

    The excitation of a nanoparticle by a laser pulse creates a collective mode of the electrons, the so-called surface plasmon. It decays because of surface effects and electron-electron interactions, creating particle-hole excitations (Landau damping). The thermal equilibrium of the electronic system is reached after about hundred femtoseconds, and only on a much larger time scale, the electron-phonon interactions permit the relaxation of the electronic energy to the ionic lattice. Throughout t...

  2. HTGR core model response to simultaneous horizontal and vertical excitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezler, P.; Curreri, J.R.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental program was undertaken to investigate the effects of simultaneous horizontal and vertical excitation on the response of the HTGR core. The tests were conducted with block array models of the core excited with both fixed frequency and sweeping frequency harmonic forcing functions. The effects on both free standing block arrays and on block arrays preloaded in the vertical direction were investigated. The results of the tests as well as their importance as regards to the full core response, are presented.

  3. Non-Linear Excitation of Ion Acoustic Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Poul; Hirsfield, J. L.

    1974-01-01

    The excitation of ion acoustic waves by nonlinear coupling of two transverse magnetic waves generated in a microwave cavity was investigated. Measurements of the wave amplitude showed good agreement with calculations based on the Vlasov equation.......The excitation of ion acoustic waves by nonlinear coupling of two transverse magnetic waves generated in a microwave cavity was investigated. Measurements of the wave amplitude showed good agreement with calculations based on the Vlasov equation....

  4. Ion-Beam-Excited Electrostatic Ion Cyclotron Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Poul; Pécseli, Hans; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1976-01-01

    Self-excited electrostatic ion cyclotron waves were observed in an ion-beam-plasma system produced in a DP-operated Q-machine. The frequency of the waves showed the theoretically predicted variation with the magnetic field.......Self-excited electrostatic ion cyclotron waves were observed in an ion-beam-plasma system produced in a DP-operated Q-machine. The frequency of the waves showed the theoretically predicted variation with the magnetic field....

  5. Investigation of bulk acoustic microwaves excited by an interdigital transducer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reshotka O. G.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Excitation of bulk and surface acoustic waves with the interdigital transducer (IDT, which is deposited on the surface of piezoelectric crystal, is widely used in the development of devices in acoustoelectronics and in the design of the microwave acousto-optic deflectors. Excitation of bulk acoustic waves by IDT in the devices on surface acoustic waves leads to the appearance of spurious signals. At the same time excitation of bulk acoustic waves with IDT from the surface of lithium niobate crystals allows creating high frequency acousto-optic deflectors, which makes possible to significantly simplify the technology of their production. Therefore, significant attention is paid to the task of excitation and distribution of bulk acoustic waves with IDT including recent times by the method of simulation of their excitation and distribution. The obtained theoretical results require experimental verification. This paper documents the visualization of acoustic beams excited with IDT from the XY-surface of lithium niobate crystals. The Bragg cells with LiNbO3 crystals coated with IDT with a different period of electrodes were manufactured for the experimental research of excitation and distribution of bulk acoustic waves. Visualization results have shown that the acoustic waves excited with IDT distribute in both the Fresnel zone and the Fraunhofer zone. The length of these zones is caused by individual elementary emitters of which consists the IDT (by their size. At the same time the far zone for IDT is located at distances much greater than the actual size of the LiNbO3 crystals. This peculiarity is not always taken into account when calculating diffraction. The achieved results can be used to design high-frequency acousto-optic devices, as well as in the development of devices based on surface acoustic waves.

  6. Erythrocyte Osmotic Fragility and Excitability Score in Rabbit fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    of excitability score shows that rabbit on diet 1 and 2 had a lower value which was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than rabbits on ... heat stress in poultry (Minka et al. .... An excitability score of 4 was recorded in 70.00 ± 5.50 % in rabbit. Table 1: Composition of Experimental Diets. Ingredients. Dietary Treatment. T1. T2. T3. T4.

  7. Priming Neural Circuits to Modulate Spinal Reflex Excitability

    OpenAIRE

    Estes, Stephen P.; Iddings, Jennifer A.; Field-Fote, Edelle C.

    2017-01-01

    While priming is most often thought of as a strategy for modulating neural excitability to facilitate voluntary motor control, priming stimulation can also be utilized to target spinal reflex excitability. In this application, priming can be used to modulate the involuntary motor output that often follows central nervous system injury. Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) often experience spasticity, for which antispasmodic medications are the most common treatment. Physical therapeutic/...

  8. Properties, Propagation, and Excitation of EMIC Waves Properties, Propagation, and Excitation of EMIC Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jichun; Coffey, Victoria N.; Chandler, Michael O.; Boardsen, Scott A.; Saikin, Anthony A.; Mello, Emily M.; Russell, Christopher T.; Torbert, Roy B.; Fuselier, Stephen A.; Giles, Barbara L.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves (0.1-5 Hz) play an important role in particle dynamics in the Earth's magnetosphere. EMIC waves are preferentially excited in regions where hot anisotropic ions and cold dense plasma populations spatially overlap. While the generation region of EMIC waves is usually on or near the magnetic equatorial plane in the inner magnetosphere, EMIC waves have both equatorial and off-equator source regions on the dayside in the compressed outer magnetosphere. Using field and plasma measurements from the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission, we perform a case study of EMIC waves and associated local plasma conditions observed on 19 October 2015. From 0315 to 0810 UT, before crossing the magnetopause into the magnetosheath, all four MMS spacecraft detected long-lasting He(exp +)-band EMIC wave emissions around local noon (MLT = 12.7 - 14.0) at high L-shells (L = 8.8 - 15.2) and low magnetic latitudes (MLAT = -21.8deg - -30.3deg). Energetic (greater than 1 keV) and anisotropic ions were present throughout this event that was in the recovery phase of a weak geomagnetic storm (min. Dst = -48 nT at 1000 UT on 18 October 2015). The testing of linear theory suggests that the EMIC waves were excited locally. Although the wave event is dominated by small normal angles, its polarization is mixed with right- and left-handedness and its propagation is bi-directional with regard to the background magnetic field. The short inter-spacecraft distances (as low as 15 km) of the MMS mission make it possible to accurately determine the k vector of the waves using the phase difference technique. Preliminary analysis finds that the k vector magnitude, phase speed, and wavelength of the 0.3-Hz wave packet at 0453:55 UT are 0.005 km(exp -1), 372.9 km/s, and 1242.9 km, respectively.

  9. Excited-State Deactivation of Branched Phthalocyanine Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Huaning; Li, Yang; Chen, Jun; Zhou, Meng; Niu, Yingli; Zhang, Xinxing; Guo, Qianjin; Wang, Shuangqing; Yang, Guoqiang; Xia, Andong

    2015-12-21

    The excited-state relaxation dynamics and chromophore interactions in two phthalocyanine compounds (bis- and trisphthalocyanines) are studied by using steady-state and femtosecond transient absorption spectral measurements, where the excited-state energy-transfer mechanism is explored. By exciting phthalocyanine compounds to their second electronically excited states and probing the subsequent relaxation dynamics, a multitude of deactivation pathways are identified. The transient absorption spectra show the relaxation pathway from the exciton state to excimer state and then back to the ground state in bisphthalocyanine (bis-Pc). In trisphthalocyanine (tris-Pc), the monomeric and dimeric subunits are excited and the excitation energy transfers from the monomeric vibrationally hot S1 state to the exciton state of a pre-associated dimer, with subsequent relaxation to the ground state through the excimer state. The theoretical calculations and steady-state spectra also show a face-to-face conformation in bis-Pc, whereas in tris-Pc, two of the three phthalocyanine branches form a pre-associated face-to-face dimeric conformation with the third one acting as a monomeric unit; this is consistent with the results of the transient absorption experiments from the perspective of molecular structure. The detailed structure-property relationships in phthalocyanine compounds is useful for exploring the function of molecular aggregates in energy migration of natural photosynthesis systems. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Cyclopropyl Group: An Excited-State Aromaticity Indicator?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayub, Rabia; Papadakis, Raffaello; Jorner, Kjell; Zietz, Burkhard; Ottosson, Henrik

    2017-10-04

    The cyclopropyl (cPr) group, which is a well-known probe for detecting radical character at atoms to which it is connected, is tested as an indicator for aromaticity in the first ππ* triplet and singlet excited states (T 1 and S 1 ). Baird's rule says that the π-electron counts for aromaticity and antiaromaticity in the T 1 and S 1 states are opposite to Hückel's rule in the ground state (S 0 ). Our hypothesis is that the cPr group, as a result of Baird's rule, will remain closed when attached to an excited-state aromatic ring, enabling it to be used as an indicator to distinguish excited-state aromatic rings from excited-state antiaromatic and nonaromatic rings. Quantum chemical calculations and photoreactivity experiments support our hypothesis; calculated aromaticity indices reveal that openings of cPr substituents on [4n]annulenes ruin the excited-state aromaticity in energetically unfavorable processes. Yet, polycyclic compounds influenced by excited-state aromaticity (e.g., biphenylene), as well as 4nπ-electron heterocycles with two or more heteroatoms represent limitations. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Excitations in the quantum liquid 4He: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyde, H. R.

    2018-01-01

    Progress made in measuring and interpreting the elementary excitations of superfluid and normal liquid {\\hspace{0pt}}^4He in the past 25 years is reviewed. The goal is to bring up to date the data, calculations and our understanding of the excitations since the books and reviews of the early 1990s. Only bulk liquid {\\hspace{0pt}}^4He is considered. Reference to liquid {\\hspace{0pt}}^3He , mixtures, reduced dimensions (films and confined helium) is made where useful to enhance interpretation. The focus is on the excitations as measured by inelastic neutron scattering methods. The review covers the dynamical response of liquid {\\hspace{0pt}}^4He from the collective excitations at low energy and long wavelength (i.e. phonon-roton modes) to the single particle excitations at high energy from which the atomic momentum distribution and Bose-Einstein condensate fraction are determined. A goal is to show the interplay of these excitations with other spectacular properties such as superfluidity and the test of fundamental calculations of quantum liquids that is possible. The role of Bose-Einstein condensation in determining the nature of the \

  12. An Improved Multidimensional MPA Procedure for Bidirectional Earthquake Excitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Presently, the modal pushover analysis procedure is extended to multidimensional analysis of structures subjected to multidimensional earthquake excitations. an improved multidimensional modal pushover analysis (IMMPA method is presented in the paper in order to estimate the response demands of structures subjected to bidirectional earthquake excitations, in which the unidirectional earthquake excitation applied on equivalent SDOF system is replaced by the direct superposition of two components earthquake excitations, and independent analysis in each direction is not required and the application of simplified superposition formulas is avoided. The strength reduction factor spectra based on superposition of earthquake excitations are discussed and compared with the traditional strength reduction factor spectra. The step-by-step procedure is proposed to estimate seismic demands of structures. Two examples are implemented to verify the accuracy of the method, and the results of the examples show that (1 the IMMPA method can be used to estimate the responses of structure subjected to bidirectional earthquake excitations. (2 Along with increase of peak of earthquake acceleration, structural response deviation estimated with the IMMPA method may also increase. (3 Along with increase of the number of total floors of structures, structural response deviation estimated with the IMMPA method may also increase.

  13. An Improved Multidimensional MPA Procedure for Bidirectional Earthquake Excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Sun, Jian-Gang; Zhang, Ning

    2014-01-01

    Presently, the modal pushover analysis procedure is extended to multidimensional analysis of structures subjected to multidimensional earthquake excitations. an improved multidimensional modal pushover analysis (IMMPA) method is presented in the paper in order to estimate the response demands of structures subjected to bidirectional earthquake excitations, in which the unidirectional earthquake excitation applied on equivalent SDOF system is replaced by the direct superposition of two components earthquake excitations, and independent analysis in each direction is not required and the application of simplified superposition formulas is avoided. The strength reduction factor spectra based on superposition of earthquake excitations are discussed and compared with the traditional strength reduction factor spectra. The step-by-step procedure is proposed to estimate seismic demands of structures. Two examples are implemented to verify the accuracy of the method, and the results of the examples show that (1) the IMMPA method can be used to estimate the responses of structure subjected to bidirectional earthquake excitations. (2) Along with increase of peak of earthquake acceleration, structural response deviation estimated with the IMMPA method may also increase. (3) Along with increase of the number of total floors of structures, structural response deviation estimated with the IMMPA method may also increase. PMID:25140333

  14. Broad-Band Analysis of Polar Motion Excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.

    2016-12-01

    Earth rotational changes, i.e. polar motion and length-of-day (LOD), are driven by two types of geophysical excitations: 1) mass redistribution within the Earth system, and 2) angular momentum exchange between the solid Earth (more precisely the crust) and other components of the Earth system. Accurate quantification of Earth rotational excitations has been difficult, due to the lack of global-scale observations of mass redistribution and angular momentum exchange. The over 14-years time-variable gravity measurements from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) have provided a unique means for quantifying Earth rotational excitations from mass redistribution in different components of the climate system. Comparisons between observed Earth rotational changes and geophysical excitations estimated from GRACE, satellite laser ranging (SLR) and climate models show that GRACE-derived excitations agree remarkably well with polar motion observations over a broad-band of frequencies. GRACE estimates also suggest that accelerated polar region ice melting in recent years and corresponding sea level rise have played an important role in driving long-term polar motion as well. With several estimates of polar motion excitations, it is possible to estimate broad-band noise variance and noise power spectra in each, given reasonable assumptions about noise independence. Results based on GRACE CSR RL05 solutions clearly outperform other estimates with the lowest noise levels over a broad band of frequencies.

  15. Approximate analytical solutions for excitation and propagation in cardiac tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, D'Artagnan; Shiferaw, Yohannes

    2015-04-01

    It is well known that a variety of cardiac arrhythmias are initiated by a focal excitation in heart tissue. At the single cell level these currents are typically induced by intracellular processes such as spontaneous calcium release (SCR). However, it is not understood how the size and morphology of these focal excitations are related to the electrophysiological properties of cardiac cells. In this paper a detailed physiologically based ionic model is analyzed by projecting the excitation dynamics to a reduced one-dimensional parameter space. Based on this analysis we show that the inward current required for an excitation to occur is largely dictated by the voltage dependence of the inward rectifier potassium current (IK 1) , and is insensitive to the detailed properties of the sodium current. We derive an analytical expression relating the size of a stimulus and the critical current required to induce a propagating action potential (AP), and argue that this relationship determines the necessary number of cells that must undergo SCR in order to induce ectopic activity in cardiac tissue. Finally, we show that, once a focal excitation begins to propagate, its propagation characteristics, such as the conduction velocity and the critical radius for propagation, are largely determined by the sodium and gap junction currents with a substantially lesser effect due to repolarizing potassium currents. These results reveal the relationship between ion channel properties and important tissue scale processes such as excitation and propagation.

  16. Exciting hot carrier to a high energy state by impact excitation in low density nanocrystalline Si films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Wei, E-mail: yuwei_hbu@126.com [College of Physics Science and Technology, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China); Wang, Xinzhan; Dai, Wanlei; Liu, Yumei; Xu, Yanmei; Lu, Wanbing; Fu, Guangsheng [College of Physics Science and Technology, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China)

    2013-02-15

    The carrier recombination processes in low density nanocrystalline (nc-) Si films have been studied by steady and time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectra, and the hot carriers have been excited to a high energy state by impact excitation. A yellow-green PL band locating at 580 nm appears when the studied film is excited by two optical beams. The yellow-green PL band results from band-to-band transition in Si nanocrystals with double-bonded oxygen atoms, which is caused by impact excitation among the carriers in the nc-Si film. The decay time of the yellow-green PL band is 230 ns, which is much longer than the hot carrier cooling. The results indicate that the lost energy in the solar cell may be collected from the new recombination center in the further structural design.

  17. Determination of optimal excitation and emission wavebands for detection of defect cherry tomato by using fluorescence emission and excitation matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, In-Suck; Cho, Byoung-Kwan; Kim, Moon S.; Kim, Young-Sik

    2013-05-01

    Fluorescence imaging technique has been widely used for quality and safety measurements of agro-food materials. Fluorescence emission intensities of target materials are influenced by wavelengths of excitation sources. Hence, selection of a proper excitation wavelength is an important factor in differentiating target materials effectively. In this study, optimal fluorescence excitation wavelength was determined on the basis of fluorescence emission intensity of defect and sound areas of cherry tomatoes. The result showed that fluorescence responses of defect and sound surfaces of cherry tomatoes were most significantly separated with the excitation light wavelength range between 400 and 410 nm. Fluorescence images of defect cherry tomatoes were acquired with the LEDs with the central wavelength of 410 nm as the excitation source to verify the detection efficiency of cherry tomato defects. The resultant fluorescence images showed that the defects were discriminated from sound areas on cherry tomatoes with above 98% accuracy. This study shows that high power LEDs as the excitation source for fluorescence imaging are suitable for defect detection of cherry tomatoes.

  18. Near-ultraviolet laser diodes for brilliant ultraviolet fluorophore excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telford, William G

    2015-12-01

    Although multiple lasers are now standard equipment on most modern flow cytometers, ultraviolet (UV) lasers (325-365 nm) remain an uncommon excitation source for cytometry. Nd:YVO4 frequency-tripled diode pumped solid-state lasers emitting at 355 nm are now the primary means of providing UV excitation on multilaser flow cytometers. Although a number of UV excited fluorochromes are available for flow cytometry, the cost of solid-state UV lasers remains prohibitively high, limiting their use to all but the most sophisticated multilaser instruments. The recent introduction of the brilliant ultraviolet (BUV) series of fluorochromes for cell surface marker detection and their importance in increasing the number of simultaneous parameters for high-dimensional analysis has increased the urgency of including UV sources in cytometer designs; however, these lasers remain expensive. Near-UV laser diodes (NUVLDs), a direct diode laser source emitting in the 370-380 nm range, have been previously validated for flow cytometric analysis of most UV-excited probes, including quantum nanocrystals, the Hoechst dyes, and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole. However, they remain a little-used laser source for cytometry, despite their significantly lower cost. In this study, the ability of NUVLDs to excite the BUV dyes was assessed, along with their compatibility with simultaneous brilliant violet (BV) labeling. A NUVLD emitting at 375 nm was found to excite most of the available BUV dyes at least as well as a UV 355 nm source. This slightly longer wavelength did produce some unwanted excitation of BV dyes, but at sufficiently low levels to require minimal additional compensation. NUVLDs are compact, relatively inexpensive lasers that have higher power levels than the newest generation of small 355 nm lasers. They can, therefore, make a useful, cost-effective substitute for traditional UV lasers in multicolor analysis involving the BUV and BV dyes. Published 2015 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on

  19. An excitation-pattern model for the starling (Sturnus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buus, S; Klump, G M; Gleich, O; Langemann, U

    1995-07-01

    This paper develops and tests an excitation-pattern model for the starling. Like excitation-pattern models for humans [e.g., Zwicker, Acustica 6, 365-381 (1956); Florentine and Buus, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 70, 1646-1654 (1981)], the model for starlings provides a unified account of a large body of data. The foundation of the model is a critical-band scale, which is derived as an equal-distance scale according to a cochlear-map function. The cochlear-map function is determined as a best-fitting function to physiological data relating characteristic frequency (CF) of auditory-nerve fibers to their place of innervation on the basilar papilla. Excitation patterns are derived from auditory-nerve measurements of levels at CF necessary to produce firing rates equal to those evoked by a test tone. The shape of these excitation patterns is independent of level and frequency when plotted on a cochlear-distance scale. The resulting model indicates that 10-dB bandwidths of auditory-nerve tuning curves and frequency DLs can be approximated as equal distances along the basilar papilla. Predictions of level discrimination are in good agreement with the data, except below 20 dB SL. Overall, the present work indicates that excitation-pattern models account for a wide range of auditory phenomena in both humans and starlings, when the models take into account differences in critical-band scales, absolute thresholds, excitation-pattern slopes, and growth of excitation, which is linear in starlings, but nonlinear in humans.

  20. Coulomb excitation of radioactive {sup 20,21}Na

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumaker, M.A.; Svensson, C.E.; Bandyopadhyay, D.; Demand, G.A.; Finlay, P.; Green, K.L.; Grinyer, G.F.; Leach, K.G.; Phillips, A.A.; Wong, J. [Univ. of Guelph, Dept. of Physics, Guelph, Ontario (Canada); Cline, D.; Hayes, A.B.; Whitbeck, A. [Univ. of Rochester, Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Rochester, NY (United States); Hackman, G.; Pearson, C.; Andreyev, A.; Ball, G.C.; Buchmann, L.; Churchman, R.; Cifarelli, F.; Lee, G.; Maharaj, R.; Morton, A.C.; Padilla-Rodal, E.; Ruiz, C.; Williams, S.J. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Wu, C.Y.; Becker, J.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States); Austin, R.A.E.; Gallant, A.T. [Saint Mary' s Univ., Dept. of Astronomy and Physics, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Boston, A.J.; Boston, H.C.; Cooper, R.J.; Dimmock, M.R.; Grint, A.N.; Harkness, L.J.; Nelson, L.; Nolan, P.J.; Scraggs, D.P. [Univ. of Liverpool, Dept. of Physics, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Cross, D.S.; Ressler, J.J.; Wan, J.M. [Simon Fraser Univ., Dept. of Chemistry, Burnaby, British Columbia (Canada); Dashdorj, D. [North Carolina State Univ., Dept. of Physics, Raleigh, NC (United States); Drake, T.E. [Univ. of Toronto, Dept. of Physics, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Garrett, P.E. [Univ. of Guelph, Dept. of Physics, Guelph, Ontario (Canada); TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Kanungo, R. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Saint Mary' s Univ., Dept. of Astronomy and Physics, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Lisetskiy, A.F. [Univ. of Arizona, Dept. of Physics, Tucson, AZ (United States); Martin, J.P. [Universite de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Moisan, F.; Roy, R. [Universite de Laval, Laval, Quebec (Canada); Mythili, S. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Univ. of British Columbia, Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, British Columbia (Canada); Newman, O. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Univ. of Surrey, Guildford (United Kingdom)] [and others

    2009-12-15

    The low-energy structures of the radioactive nuclei {sup 20,21}Na have been examined using Coulomb excitation at the TRIUMF-ISAC radioactive ion beam facility. Beams of {proportional_to}5 x 10{sup 6} ions/s were accelerated to 1.7 MeV/A and Coulomb excited in a 0.5 mg/cm {sup 2} {sup nat}Ti target. Two TIGRESS HPGe clover detectors perpendicular to the beam axis were used for {gamma} -ray detection, while scattered nuclei were observed by the Si detector BAMBINO. For {sup 21}Na, Coulomb excitation from the 3/2{sup +} ground state to the first excited 5/2{sup +} state was observed, while for {sup 20}Na, Coulomb excitation was observed from the 2{sup +} ground state to the first excited 3{sup +} and 4{sup +} states. For both beams, B ({lambda} L) values were determined using the 2{sup +} {yields} 0{sup +} de-excitation in {sup 48}Ti as a reference. The resulting B(E2) arrow up and down value for {sup 21}Na is 137{+-}9 e{sup 2}fm{sup 4}, while the resulting B({lambda} L) arrow up and down values for {sup 20}Na are 55{+-}6 e{sup 2}fm{sup 4} for the 3{sup +} {yields} 2{sup +}, 35.7{+-}5.7 e{sup 2} fm{sup 4} for the 4{sup +} {yields} 2{sup +}, and 0.154{+-}0.030 {mu}{sub N}{sup 2} for the 4{sup +}{yields}3{sup +} transitions. This analysis significantly improves the measurement of the {sup 21}Na B(E2) value, and provides the first experimental determination of B({lambda} L) values for the proton dripline nucleus {sup 20}Na. (orig.)

  1. Efficient primary and parametric resonance excitation of bistable resonators

    KAUST Repository

    Ramini, Abdallah

    2016-09-12

    We experimentally demonstrate an efficient approach to excite primary and parametric (up to the 4th) resonance of Microelectromechanical system MEMS arch resonators with large vibrational amplitudes. A single crystal silicon in-plane arch microbeam is fabricated such that it can be excited axially from one of its ends by a parallel-plate electrode. Its micro/nano scale vibrations are transduced using a high speed camera. Through the parallel-plate electrode, a time varying electrostatic force is applied, which is converted into a time varying axial force that modulates dynamically the stiffness of the arch resonator. Due to the initial curvature of the structure, not only parametric excitation is induced, but also primary resonance. Experimental investigation is conducted comparing the response of the arch near primary resonance using the axial excitation to that of a classical parallel-plate actuation where the arch itself forms an electrode. The results show that the axial excitation can be more efficient and requires less power for primary resonance excitation. Moreover, unlike the classical method where the structure is vulnerable to the dynamic pull-in instability, the axial excitation technique can provide large amplitude motion while protecting the structure from pull-in. In addition to primary resonance, parametrical resonances are demonstrated at twice, one-half, and two-thirds the primary resonance frequency. The ability to actuate primary and/or parametric resonances can serve various applications, such as for resonator based logic and memory devices. (C) 2016 Author(s). All article content, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license

  2. Quantized breather excitations of Fermi-Pasta-Ulam lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riseborough, Peter S

    2012-01-01

    We have calculated the lowest energy quantized breather excitations of both the β and the α Fermi-Pasta-Ulam monoatomic lattices and the diatomic β lattice within the ladder approximation. While the classical breather excitations form continua, the quantized breather excitations form a discrete hierarchy labeled by a quantum number n. Although the number of phonons is not conserved, the breather excitations correspond to multiple bound states of phonons. The n=2 breather spectra are composed of resonances in the two-phonon continuum and of discrete branches of infinitely long-lived excitations. The nonlinear attributes of these excitations become more pronounced at elevated temperatures. The calculated n=2 breather and the resonance of the monoatomic β lattice hybridize and exchange identity at the zone boundary and are in reasonable agreement with the results of previous calculations using the number-conserving approximation. However, by contrast, the breather spectrum of the α monoatomic lattice couples resonantly with the single-phonon spectrum and cannot be calculated within a number-conserving approximation. Furthermore, we show that for sufficiently strong nonlinearity, the α lattice breathers can be observed directly through the single-phonon inelastic neutron-scattering spectrum. As the temperature is increased, the single-phonon dispersion relation for the α lattice becomes progressively softer as the lattice instability is approached. For the diatomic β lattice, it is found that there are three distinct branches of n=2 breather dispersion relations, which are associated with three distinct two-phonon continua. The two-phonon excitations form three distinct continua: One continuum corresponds to the motion of two independent acoustic phonons, another to the motion of two independent optic phonons, and the last continuum is formed by propagation of two phonons that are one of each character. Each breather dispersion relation is split off the top

  3. Time resolved multiphoton excited fluorescence probes in model membranes

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Y

    2000-01-01

    Using the time-correlated single-photon counting technique, this thesis reports on a time-resolved fluorescence study of several fluorescent probes successfully employed in membrane research. Concentration and temperature effects on fluorescence anisotropy parameters are demonstrated by DPH, p-terphenyl, alpha-NPO and PPO in DPPC lipid bilayers. Fluorescence anisotropy has shown that trans-stilbene and Rhd 800 have a two-site location in membranes. Multiphoton induced fluorescence of DPH, p-terphenyl, alpha-NPO and v-biphenyl in liposomes was measured using 800nm excitation with a femtosecond Ti:Sapphire laser. P-terphenyl, alpha-NPO and v-biphenyl are new probes for membranes. Comparison of one and multiphoton excitation results has demonstrated higher initial anisotropy with multiphoton excitation than with one-photon excitation. The rotational times were identical for one and multiphoton excitation, indicating the absence of significant local heating or sample perturbation. Excimer formation of alpha-NPO w...

  4. Interatomic Coulombic decay cascades in multiply excited neon clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaya, K.; Iablonskyi, D.; Golubev, N. V.; Matsunami, K.; Fukuzawa, H.; Motomura, K.; Nishiyama, T.; Sakai, T.; Tachibana, T.; Mondal, S.; Wada, S.; Prince, K. C.; Callegari, C.; Miron, C.; Saito, N.; Yabashi, M.; Demekhin, Ph. V.; Cederbaum, L. S.; Kuleff, A. I.; Yao, M.; Ueda, K.

    2016-01-01

    In high-intensity laser light, matter can be ionized by direct multiphoton absorption even at photon energies below the ionization threshold. However on tuning the laser to the lowest resonant transition, the system becomes multiply excited, and more efficient, indirect ionization pathways become operative. These mechanisms are known as interatomic Coulombic decay (ICD), where one of the species de-excites to its ground state, transferring its energy to ionize another excited species. Here we show that on tuning to a higher resonant transition, a previously unknown type of interatomic Coulombic decay, intra-Rydberg ICD occurs. In it, de-excitation of an atom to a close-lying Rydberg state leads to electron emission from another neighbouring Rydberg atom. Moreover, systems multiply excited to higher Rydberg states will decay by a cascade of such processes, producing even more ions. The intra-Rydberg ICD and cascades are expected to be ubiquitous in weakly-bound systems exposed to high-intensity resonant radiation. PMID:27917867

  5. The excited state antiaromatic benzene ring: a molecular Mr Hyde?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, Raffaello; Ottosson, Henrik

    2015-09-21

    The antiaromatic character of benzene in its first ππ* excited triplet state (T1) was deduced more than four decades ago by Baird using perturbation molecular orbital (PMO) theory [J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1972, 94, 4941], and since then it has been confirmed through a range of high-level quantum chemical calculations. With focus on benzene we now first review theoretical and computational studies that examine and confirm Baird's rule on reversal in the electron count for aromaticity and antiaromaticity of annulenes in their lowest triplet states as compared to Hückel's rule for the ground state (S0). We also note that the rule according to quantum chemical calculations can be extended to the lowest singlet excited state (S1) of benzene. Importantly, Baird, as well as Aihara [Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 1978, 51, 1788], early put forth that the destabilization and excited state antiaromaticity of the benzene ring should be reflected in its photochemical reactivity, yet, today these conclusions are often overlooked. Thus, in the second part of the article we review photochemical reactions of a series of benzene derivatives that to various extents should stem from the excited state antiaromatic character of the benzene ring. We argue that benzene can be viewed as a molecular "Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde" with its largely unknown excited state antiaromaticity representing its "Mr Hyde" character. The recognition of the "Jekyll and Hyde" split personality feature of the benzene ring can likely be useful in a range of different areas.

  6. Getting super-excited with modified dispersion relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashoorioon, Amjad; Casadio, Roberto; Geshnizjani, Ghazal; Kim, Hyung J.

    2017-09-01

    We demonstrate that in some regions of parameter space, modified dispersion relations can lead to highly populated excited states, which we dub as "super-excited" states. In order to prepare such super-excited states, we invoke dispersion relations that have negative slope in an interim sub-horizon phase at high momenta. This behaviour of quantum fluctuations can lead to large corrections relative to the Bunch-Davies power spectrum, which mimics highly excited initial conditions. We identify the Bogolyubov coefficients that can yield these power spectra. In the course of this computation, we also point out the shortcomings of the gluing method for evaluating the power spectrum and the Bogolyubov coefficients. As we discuss, there are other regions of parameter space, where the power spectrum does not get modified. Therefore, modified dispersion relations can also lead to so-called "calm excited states". We conclude by commenting on the possibility of obtaining these modified dispersion relations within the Effective Field Theory of Inflation.

  7. Comparison of Excitation Signals in Active Magnetic Bearing System Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jouni Vuojolainen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Active magnetic bearings (AMBs offer frictionless suspension, vibration insulation, programmable stiffness, and damping, among other advantages, in levitated rotor applications. However, AMBs are inherently unstable and require accurate system models for the high-performance model-based multi-input multi-output control of rotor position. Control electronics with high calculation capacity and accurate sensors of AMBs provide an opportunity to implement various identification schemes. A variety of artificial excitation signal-based identification methods can thus be achieved with no additional hardware. In this paper, a selection of excitation signals, namely the pseudorandom binary sequence (PRBS, chirp signal, multisine, and stepped sine are presented, applied, and compared with the AMB system identification. From the identification experiments, the rotor-bearing system, the inner current control loop, and values of position and current stiffness are identified. Unlike recently published works considering excitation-based identification of AMB rotor systems, it is demonstrated that identification of the rotor system dynamics can be carried out using various well-established excitation signals. Application and feasibility of these excitation signals in AMB rotor systems are analyzed based on experimental results.

  8. Photothermal excitation setup for a modified commercial atomic force microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, Holger; Rode, Sebastian; Schreiber, Martin; Kühnle, Angelika, E-mail: kuehnle@uni-mainz.de [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Duesbergweg 10-14, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Kobayashi, Kei; Yamada, Hirofumi [Department of Electronic Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishikyo, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan)

    2014-02-15

    High-resolution imaging in liquids using frequency modulation atomic force microscopy is known to suffer from additional peaks in the resonance spectrum that are unrelated to the cantilever resonance. These unwanted peaks are caused by acoustic modes of the liquid and the setup arising from the indirect oscillation excitation by a piezoelectric transducer. Photothermal excitation has been identified as a suitable method for exciting the cantilever in a direct manner. Here, we present a simple design for implementing photothermal excitation in a modified Multimode scan head from Bruker. Our approach is based on adding a few components only to keep the modifications as simple as possible and to maintain the low noise level of the original setup with a typical deflection noise density of about 15 fm/√(Hz) measured in aqueous solution. The success of the modification is illustrated by a comparison of the resonance spectra obtained with piezoelectric and photothermal excitation. The performance of the systems is demonstrated by presenting high-resolution images on bare calcite in liquid as well as organic adsorbates (Alizarin Red S) on calcite with simultaneous atomic resolution of the underlying calcite substrate.

  9. Tuneable, non-degenerated, nonlinear, parametrically-excited amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolev, Amit; Bucher, Izhak

    2016-01-01

    The proposed parametric amplifier scheme can be tuned to amplify a wide range of input frequencies by altering the parametric excitation with no need to physically modify the oscillator. Parametric amplifiers had been studied extensively, although most of the work focused on amplifiers that are parametrically excited at a frequency twice the amplifier's natural frequency. These amplifiers are confined to amplifying predetermined frequencies. The proposed parametric amplifier's bandwidth is indeed tuneable to nearly any input frequency, not bound to be an integer multiple of a natural frequency. In order to tune the stiffness and induce a variable frequency parametric excitation, a digitally controlled electromechanical element must be incorporated in the realization. We introduce a novel parametric amplifier with nonlinearity, Duffing type hardening, that bounds the otherwise unlimited amplitude. Moreover, we present a multi degree of freedom system in which a utilization of the proposed method enables the projection of low frequency vector forces on any eigenvector and corresponding natural frequency of the system, and thus to transform external excitations to a frequency band where signal levels are considerably higher. Using the method of multiple scales, analytical expressions for the responses have been retrieved and verified numerically. Parametric studies of the amplifiers' gain, sensitivities and spatial projection of the excitation on the system eigenvectors were carried out analytically. The results demonstrate the advantage of the proposed approach over existing schemes. Practical applications envisaged for the proposed method will be outlined.

  10. Direct observation of photoinduced bent nitrosyl excited-state complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawyer, Karma R.; Steele, Ryan P.; Glascoe, Elizabeth A.; Cahoon, James F.; Schlegel, Jacob P.; Head-Gordon, Martin; Harris, Charles B.

    2008-06-28

    Ground state structures with side-on nitrosyl ({eta}{sup 2}-NO) and isonitrosyl (ON) ligands have been observed in a variety of transition-metal complexes. In contrast, excited state structures with bent-NO ligands have been proposed for years but never directly observed. Here we use picosecond time-resolved infrared spectroscopy and density functional theory (DFT) modeling to study the photochemistry of Co(CO){sub 3}(NO), a model transition-metal-NO compound. Surprisingly, we have observed no evidence for ON and {eta}{sup 2}-NO structural isomers, but have observed two bent-NO complexes. DFT modeling of the ground and excited state potentials indicates that the bent-NO complexes correspond to triplet excited states. Photolysis of Co(CO){sub 3}(NO) with a 400-nm pump pulse leads to population of a manifold of excited states which decay to form an excited state triplet bent-NO complex within 1 ps. This structure relaxes to the ground triplet state in ca. 350 ps to form a second bent-NO structure.

  11. Large amplitude acoustic excitation of swirling turbulent jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghavi, R.; Rice, E. J.; Farokhi, S.

    1989-01-01

    A swirling jet with a swirl number of S = 0.12 is excited by plane acoustic waves at various Strouhal numbers (St = fD/U sub alpha). The maximum forcing amplitude of excitation was at 6.88 percent of the time-mean axial velocity at a Strouhal number of St = 0.39. The maximum time-mean tangential and axial velocities at the nozzle exit were 18 and 84 m/sec respectively. It was observed that the swirling jet was excitable by plane acoustic waves and the preferred Strouhal number based on the nozzle diameter and exit axial velocity of the jet was about 0.39. As a result of excitation at this frequency, the time-mean axial velocity decayed faster along the jet centerline, reaching about 89 percent of its unexcited value at x/D = 9. Also the half velocity radius and momentum thickness, at 7 nozzle diameters downstream, increased by 13.2 and 5.8 percent respectively, indicating more jet spread and enhanced mixing. To our knowledge, this is the first reported experimental data indicating any mixing enhancement of swirling jets by acoustic excitation.

  12. Excitability of motor cortices as a function of emotional sounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naeem Komeilipoor

    Full Text Available We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS to clarify how non-verbal emotionally-characterized sounds modulate the excitability of the corticospinal motor tract (CST. While subjects were listening to sounds (monaurally and binaurally, single TMS pulses were delivered to either left or right primary motor cortex (M1, and electromyographic activities were recorded from the contralateral abductor pollicis brevis muscle. We found a significant increase in CST excitability in response to unpleasant as compared to neutral sounds. The increased excitability was lateralized as a function of stimulus valence: Unpleasant stimuli resulted in a significantly higher facilitation of motor potentials evoked in the left hemisphere, while pleasant stimuli yielded a greater CST excitability in the right one. Furthermore, TMS induced higher motor evoked potentials when listening to unpleasant sounds with the left than with the right ear. Taken together, our findings provide compelling evidence for an asymmetric modulation of CST excitability as a function of emotional sounds along with ear laterality.

  13. Higher Order Parametric Excitation Modes for Spaceborne Quadrupole Mass Spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershman, D. J.; Block, B. P.; Rubin, M.; Benna, M.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Zurbuchen, T. H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a technique to significantly improve upon the mass peak shape and mass resolution of spaceborne quadrupole mass spectrometers (QMSs) through higher order auxiliary excitation of the quadrupole field. Using a novel multiresonant tank circuit, additional frequency components can be used to drive modulating voltages on the quadrupole rods in a practical manner, suitable for both improved commercial applications and spaceflight instruments. Auxiliary excitation at frequencies near twice that of the fundamental quadrupole RF frequency provides the advantages of previously studied parametric excitation techniques, but with the added benefit of increased sensed excitation amplitude dynamic range and the ability to operate voltage scan lines through the center of upper stability islands. Using a field programmable gate array, the amplitudes and frequencies of all QMS signals are digitally generated and managed, providing a robust and stable voltage control system. These techniques are experimentally verified through an interface with a commercial Pfeiffer QMG422 quadrupole rod system.When operating through the center of a stability island formed from higher order auxiliary excitation, approximately 50% and 400% improvements in 1% mass resolution and peak stability were measured, respectively, when compared with traditional QMS operation. Although tested with a circular rod system, the presented techniques have the potential to improve the performance of both circular and hyperbolic rod geometry QMS sensors.

  14. Measurement of excitation energy of neutron-rich precursor fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosby, Michelle Anthea

    Projectile fragmentation forms the basis for beam production at radioactive beam facilities such as the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL), yet uncertainties remain about the specifics of the production mechanism. For example, very little is known about the excitation energy of the precursors of the observed final fragments. In the present work, isotopes of sodium, neon, and fluorine produced in the fragmentation of a 32 Mg beam at 86 MeV/nucleon in a beryllium target, ranging in mass loss from DeltaA = 3--12, were observed and the coincident neutrons were detected using the Modular Neutron Array (MoNA). Neutron hit multiplicity in MoNA was compared to output from the statistical evaporation model PACE which was passed through a GEANT4 simulation to account for detector response with a X2v analysis. The neutron hit multiplicity distributions were used to determine the mass loss and excitation energy of the precursor fragments created in the fast step of the reaction. The mass loss and excitation energy were compared to abrasion/ablation models and an internuclear cascade model, ISABEL. For sodium and neon observed fragments, a single precursor mass was found, with a wide range of high excitation energies, up to 60 MeV. Observed fluorine isotopes were also found to have high excitation energies, ranging from 40--80 MeV, but with some variation in precursor mass.

  15. Emerging ≈800 nm Excited Lanthanide-Doped Upconversion Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiaoji; Li, Zhanjun; Zhang, Yuanwei; Guo, Shaohong; Pendharkar, Aarushi Iris; Lu, Min; Huang, Ling; Huang, Wei; Han, Gang

    2017-02-01

    Lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles can tune near-infrared light to visible or even ultra-violet light in emissions. Due to their unique photophysical and photochemical properties, as well as their promising bioapplications, there has been a great deal of enthusiastic research performed to study the properties of lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles in the past few years. Despite the considerable progress in this area, numerous challenges associated with the nanoparticles, such as a low upconversion efficiency, limited host materials, and a confined excitation wavelength, still remain, thus hindering further development with respect to their applications and in fundamental science. Recently, innovative strategies that utilize alternative sensitizers have been designed in order to engineer the excitation wavelengths of upconversion nanoparticles. Here, focusing on the excitation wavelength at ≈800 nm, recent advances in the design, property tuning, and applications of ≈800 nm excited upconversion nanoparticles are summarized. Benefiting from the unique features of ≈800 nm light, including deep tissue penetration depth and low photothermal effect, the ≈800 nm excited upconversion nanoparticles exhibit superior potential for biosensing, bioimaging, drug delivery, therapy, and three dimensional displays. The critical aspects of such emerging nanoparticles with regards to meeting the ever-changing needs of future development are also discussed. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Exciting Message from a Dying Monster Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-03-01

    SEST Discovers First Extra-galactic SiO Maser With the help of a new and more sensitive receiver, recently installed on the 15-metre Swedish-ESO Submillimetre Telescope (SEST) at the European Southern Observatory on the La Silla mountain in Chile, a team of European astronomers [1] has succeeded in discovering the first extra-galactic silicon-monoxide (SiO) maser . It is located in the atmosphere of the largest known star in the Large Magellanic Cloud, a satellite galaxy to the Milky Way. This observational feat now opens new, exciting possibilities for the study of individual stars in other galaxies in the Local Group. The continued search for extra-galactic SiO masers is a joint project of European and Australian astronomers, to be carried on with even more advanced instruments that will become available in the near future. What is a maser ? The fact that masers exist in the Universe is one of the most unexpected discoveries made by astronomers in this century. They function according to the same principles as the better known lasers . Lasers (Light Amplified Stimulated Emission Radiators) are becoming more and more common in our daily life, for instance to read discs in CD players and to cut steel plates. Inside a laser, molecules act as an enormously powerful amplifier for light of a specific wavelength (`colour') [2]. However, this only happens when we subject the molecules to special conditions, much unlike those they would normally experience in nature. Nevertheless, exotic places do exist in the Universe where conditions are similar to those in lasers. In the 1960s, astronomers discovered that some celestial objects emit abnormally strong radio waves at a particular wavelength. In the beginning, they thought that this emission was coming from an unknown molecule they called `Mysterium'. Later it turned out that it originated in already known, and rather ordinary, OH-molecules of oxygen and hydrogen. In some places in space, these molecules experience the

  17. Vibrational kinetics of electronically excited states in H2 discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonna, Gianpiero; Pietanza, Lucia D.; D'Ammando, Giuliano; Celiberto, Roberto; Capitelli, Mario; Laricchiuta, Annarita

    2017-11-01

    The evolution of atmospheric pressure hydrogen plasma under the action of repetitively ns electrical pulse has been investigated using a 0D state-to-state kinetic model that self-consistently couples the master equation of heavy particles and the Boltzmann equation for free electrons. The kinetic model includes, together with atomic hydrogen states and the vibrational kinetics of H2 ground state, vibrational levels of singlet states, accounting for the collisional quenching, having a relevant role because of the high pressure. The mechanisms of excitations, radiative decay and collisional quenching involving the excited H2 states and the corresponding cross sections, integrated over the non-equilibrium electron energy distribution function (EEDF) to obtain kinetic rates, are discussed in the light of the kinetic simulation results, i.e. the time evolution during the pulse of the plasma composition, of the EEDF and of the vibrational distributions of ground and singlet excited states.

  18. LAD Dissertation Prize Talk: Molecular Collisional Excitation in Astrophysical Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Kyle M.

    2017-06-01

    While molecular excitation calculations are vital in determining particle velocity distributions, internal state distributions, abundances, and ionization balance in gaseous environments, both theoretical calculations and experimental data for these processes are lacking. Reliable molecular collisional data with the most abundant species - H2, H, He, and electrons - are needed to probe material in astrophysical environments such as nebulae, molecular clouds, comets, and planetary atmospheres. However, excitation calculations with the main collider, H2, are computationally expensive and therefore various approximations are used to obtain unknown rate coefficients. The widely-accepted collider-mass scaling approach is flawed, and alternate scaling techniques based on physical and mathematical principles are presented here. The most up-to-date excitation data are used to model the chemical evolution of primordial species in the Recombination Era and produce accurate non-thermal spectra of the molecules H2+, HD, and H2 in a primordial cloud as it collapses into a first generation star.

  19. Lasting depression in corticomotor excitability associated with local scalp cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, François; Remaud, Anthony; Mekonnen, Abeye; Gholami-Boroujeny, Shiva; Racine, Karl-Édouard; Bolic, Miodrag

    2015-07-23

    In this study, we investigated the effect of local scalp cooling on corticomotor excitability with transcranial magnetic simulation (TMS). Participants (healthy male adults, n=12) were first assessed with TMS to derive baseline measure of excitability from motor evoked potentials (MEPs) using the right first dorsal interosseous as the target muscle. Then, local cooling was induced on the right hemi-scalp (upper frontal region ∼ 15 cm(2)) by means of a cold wrap. The cooling was maintained for 10-15 min to get a decrease of at least 10°C from baseline temperature. In the post-cooling period, both scalp temperature and MEPs were reassessed at specific time intervals (i.e., T0, T10, T20 and T30 min). Scalp surface temperatures dropped on average by 12.5°C from baseline at T0 (pscalp temperature with lasting changes in corticomotor excitability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Rotational excitation of interstellar molecular ions by electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faure, A [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique, UMR 5571 CNRS, Universite Joseph-Fourier, B.P. 53, 38041 Grenoble cedex 09 (France); Tennyson, J [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Kokoouline, V [Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States); Greene, Chris H, E-mail: afaure@obs.ujf-grenoble.f [Department of Physics and JILA, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0440 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    Electrons are known to be efficient in rotationally exciting molecular ions in cold ionized media. Rotational effects have also been shown to affect the dissociative recombination (DR) process. Electron collisions are thus expected to play a significant role in the thermalization and dissociation dynamics of molecular ions, both in the laboratory and in space. Using the molecular R-matrix method combined with the Adiabatic-Nuclei-Rotation (ANR) approximation corrected for threshold and closed-channel effects, we have computed new rate coefficients for the rotational excitation of H{sup +}{sub 3} and HCO{sup +} by electrons at temperatures from 10 to 1 000K. At temperatures above rotational thresholds, rotational rates are found to compete or even dominate those of dissociative recombination, suggesting that electron collisions provide a possible source of rotational (de)excitation in DR measurements.

  1. Asymmetric excitation of surface plasmons by dark mode coupling

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, X.

    2016-02-19

    Control over surface plasmons (SPs) is essential in a variety of cutting-edge applications, such as highly integrated photonic signal processing systems, deep-subwavelength lasing, high-resolution imaging, and ultrasensitive biomedical detection. Recently, asymmetric excitation of SPs has attracted enormous interest. In free space, the analog of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in metamaterials has been widely investigated to uniquely manipulate the electromagnetic waves. In the near field, we show that the dark mode coupling mechanism of the classical EIT effect enables an exotic and straightforward excitation of SPs in a metasurface system. This leads to not only resonant excitation of asymmetric SPs but also controllable exotic SP focusing by the use of the Huygens-Fresnel principle. Our experimental findings manifest the potential of developing plasmonic metadevices with unique functionalities.

  2. Entanglement entropy in excited states of the quantum Lifshitz model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Daniel E.; Vasseur, Romain; Moore, Joel E.

    2017-06-01

    We investigate the entanglement properties of an infinite class of excited states in the quantum Lifshitz model (QLM). The presence of a conformal quantum critical point in the QLM makes it unusually tractable for a model above one spatial dimension, enabling the ground state entanglement entropy for an arbitrary domain to be expressed in terms of geometrical and topological quantities. Here we extend this result to excited states and find that the entanglement can be naturally written in terms of quantities which we dub ‘entanglement propagator amplitudes’ (EPAs). EPAs are geometrical probabilities that we explicitly calculate and interpret. A comparison of lattice and continuum results demonstrates that EPAs are universal. This work shows that the QLM is an example of a 2  +  1d field theory where the universal behavior of excited-state entanglement may be computed analytically.

  3. Interplay between magnetic and electric excitations for backward electron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nojarov, R.; Faessler, A.; Dingfelder, M. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    1994-10-01

    It is found that the M1 (e,e`) cross sections of low-lying orbital I{sup {pi}} K = 1{sup +}1 excitations in heavy deformed nuclei contain E2 admixtures from the (predominantly longtitudinal) excitation of the accompanying 2{sup +}1 states. This happens even for backward scattering angles as large as {theta} = 165{sup o}, where the E2 excitation is strongly quenched. For small momentum transfer q the E2 cross section is negligible; however, it provides significant corrections to the theoretical M1 cross section for 0.4 < q < 0.6 fm{sup -1} and substantially improves the agreement with experiment in heavy deformed nuclei. (author).

  4. Thermal Transport in Supported Graphene: Substrate Effects on Collective Excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    France-Lanord, Arthur; Soukiassian, Patrick; Glattli, Christian; Wimmer, Erich

    2017-03-01

    A detailed computational analysis of thermal transport in supported graphene reveals the possibility of tuning its thermal conductivity by targeted chemical modifications of the substrate's surface. Based on classical molecular dynamics with an accurate charge-optimized bond-order force field and a time-domain normal-mode analysis, our approach allows us to distinguish collective from single-phonon excitations. The computations reveal a disproportional reduction of the thermal conductivity, due to the two different excitations, when graphene interacts with a substrate. Deposition of graphene on a bare silica surface leads to a dramatic reduction of the thermal conductivity and a change in the heat transport mechanism. Remarkably, partial hydroxylation of the silica surface almost doubles the thermal conductivity of the collective excitations. Thus, specific surface terminations allow for control of the thermal conductivity of graphene.

  5. Prediction of transparency perception based on cone-excitation ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripamonti, Caterina; Westland, Stephen

    2003-09-01

    Perceptual transparency was measured in two experiments by using simulations of illuminated surfaces presented on a CRT monitor. In a two-alternative forced-choice paradigm, observers viewed two simulated Mondrians in temporal sequence. In one sequence the Mondrian was simulated to be partially covered by a transparent filter; in the other sequence the filter color over each Mondrian patch was modified. Observers were instructed to select the sequence containing a transparent filter. Observers' selections corresponded to sequences in which the cone-excitation ratios for each adjacent pair of Mondrian patches were approximately the same as the cone-excitation ratios for the pair of patches covered by a filter. The results suggest that cone-excitation ratios may be a cue for perceptual transparency.

  6. A Simple Hubbard Model for the Excited States of Dibenzoterrylene

    CERN Document Server

    Sadeq, Z S

    2016-01-01

    We use a simple Hubbard model to characterize the electronic excited states of the dibenzoterrylene (DBT) molecule; we compute the excited state transition energies and oscillator strengths from the ground state to several singlet excited states. We consider the lowest singlet and triplet states of the molecule, examine their wavefunctions, and compute the density correlation functions that describe these states. We find that the DBT ground state is mostly a closed shell singlet with very slight radical character. We predict a relatively small singlet-triplet splitting of 0.75 eV, which is less than the mid-sized -acenes but larger than literature predictions for this state; this is because the Hubbard interaction makes a very small correction to the singlet and triplet states.

  7. Mixed frequency excitation of an electrostatically actuated resonator

    KAUST Repository

    Ramini, Abdallah

    2015-04-24

    We investigate experimentally and theoretically the dynamics of a capacitive resonator under mixed frequency excitation of two AC harmonic signals. The resonator is composed of a proof mass suspended by two cantilever beams. Experimental measurements are conducted using a laser Doppler vibrometer to reveal the interesting dynamics of the system when subjected to two-source excitation. A nonlinear single-degree-of-freedom model is used for the theoretical investigation. The results reveal combination resonances of additive and subtractive type, which are shown to be promising to increase the bandwidth of the resonator near primary resonance frequency. Our results also demonstrate the ability to shift the combination resonances to much lower or much higher frequency ranges. We also demonstrate the dynamic pull-in instability under mixed frequency excitation. © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

  8. Classical Dynamics of Excitations of Bose Condensates in Anisotropic Traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Robert

    This lecture discusses some aspects of the dynamics of the collective and single-particle excitations at zero temperature of Bose-Einstein condensates of alkali-vapors in magnetic traps. We shall discuss those aspects which can be understood by taking the short-wavelength or 'eikonal' limit of the excitations. Trapped Bose-Einstein condensates can be excited experimentally either directly via periodic modulations of the trap potential or by scattering light off the condensate. My discussion here will closely follow some theoretical work published in [1-3] that has recently been done in collaboration with Andras Csordas and Peter Szepfalusy at the Research Institute for solid State Physics and Optics in Budapest, Hungary and with Martin Fliesser at the University of Essen, Germany.

  9. Synchronization of Two Asymmetric Exciters in a Vibrating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaohui Ren

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate synchronization of two asymmetric exciters in a vibrating system. Using the modified average method of small parameters, we deduce the non-dimensional coupling differential equations of the two exciters (NDDETE. By using the condition of existence for the zero solutions of the NDDETE, the condition of implementing synchronization is deduced: the torque of frequency capture is equal to or greater than the difference in the output electromagnetic torque between the two motors. Using the Routh-Hurwitz criterion, we deduce the condition of stability of synchronization that the inertia coupling matrix of the two exciters is positive definite. A numeric result shows that the structural parameters can meet the need of synchronization stability.

  10. Programmable logic controller based synchronous motor excitation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janda Žarko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a 3.5 MW synchronous motor excitation system reconstruction. In the proposed solution programmable logic controller is used to control motor, which drives the turbo compressor. Comparing to some other solutions that are used in similar situations, the proposed solution is superior due to its flexibility and usage of mass-production hardware. Moreover, the implementation of PLC enables easy integration of the excitation system with the other technological processes in the plant as well as in the voltage regulation of 'smart grid' system. Also, implementation of various optimization algorithms can be done comfortably and it does not require additional investment in hardware. Some experimental results that depict excitation current during motor start-up, as well as, measured static characteristics of the motor, were presented.

  11. Multifrequency Excitation of a Clamped-Clamped Microbeam

    KAUST Repository

    Jaber, Nizar R.

    2016-01-20

    We present analytical and experimental investigation of an electrically actuated clamped-clamped microbeam under a twosource harmonic excitation. The first frequency is swept around the first mode of vibration where the second one is fixed. These microbeams are fabricated using polyimide as structural layer coated with nickel form top and chromium and gold layers from bottom. We demonstrate the excitation of additive and subtractive type resonance. We show that by properly tuning the frequency and the amplitude of the excitation force, the frequency bandwidth of the resonator is increased. Theoretically, we solved the eigenvalue problem for different axial forces to find the natural frequencies ratio that match the experimental values. Using Galerkin method, a reduced order model is derived to simulate the static and dynamic response of the device where using three symmetric mode shapes provided a good agreement with experimental data. © Copyright 2015 by ASME.

  12. Dynamic Coherence in Excitonic Molecular Complexes under Various Excitation Conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Chenu, Aurélia; Mancal, Tomáš

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the relevance of dynamic electronic coherence under conditions natural to light-harvesting systems. We formulate the results of a quantum mechanical treatment of a weak light-matter interaction in terms of experimental observable, such as the incident light spectrum and the absorption spectrum of the material, and we derive the description of the incoherent F\\"orster type energy transfer fully from the wave function formalism. We demonstrate that excitation of a coherent superposition of electronic eigenstates of natural light-harvesting complexes by sunlight or by excitation transfer from a neighboring antenna is unlikely and that dynamical coherence therefore cannot play any significant role in natural photosynthesis, regardless of their life time. Dynamical coherence as a transient phenomenon must be strictly distinguished from the effect of excited state delocalization (also termed quantum coherence in the literature) which is established by interaction between the pigments a...

  13. Sound Radiation of Aerodynamically Excited Flat Plates into Cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Osterziel

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Flow-induced vibrations and the sound radiation of flexible plate structures of different thickness mounted in a rigid plate are experimentally investigated. Therefore, flow properties and turbulent boundary layer parameters are determined through measurements with a hot-wire anemometer in an aeroacoustic wind tunnel. Furthermore, the excitation of the vibrating plate is examined by laser scanning vibrometry. To describe the sound radiation and the sound transmission of the flexible aluminium plates into cavities, a cuboid-shaped room with adjustable volume and 34 flush-mounted microphones is installed at the non flow-excited side of the aluminium plates. Results showed that the sound field inside the cavity is on the one hand dependent on the flow parameters and the plate thickness and on the other hand on the cavity volume which indirectly influences the level and the distribution of the sound pressure behind the flexible plate through different excited modes.

  14. Excitation of global Alfven Eigenmodes by RF heating in JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerner, W.; Borba, D.; Gormezano, C.; Huysmans, G.; Porcelli, F.; Start, D. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Fasoli, A. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland). Centre de Recherche en Physique des Plasma (CRPP); Sharapov, S. [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1994-07-01

    The alpha-particle confinement of future D-T experiments at JET can be severely degraded by Global Alfven Eigenmodes (AE). Scenarios for the excitation of Alfven Eigenmodes in usual (e.g. D-D) plasmas are proposed, which provide a MHD diagnostic and allow the study of the transport of super-Alfvenic ions. Active studies with separate control of TAE amplitude and energetic particle destabilization, measuring the plasma response, give more information than passive studies, in particular concerning the damping mechanisms. The TAE excitation can be achieved by means of the saddle coil and the ICRH antenna. The experimental method is introduced together with a theoretical model for RF excitation. (authors). 6 refs., 3 figs.

  15. Fractional excitations in the square-lattice quantum antiferromagnet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piazza, B. Dalla; Mourigal, M.; Christensen, Niels Bech

    2015-01-01

    characterize the magnetic fluctuations in the metal-organic compound Cu(DCOO)(2)center dot 4D(2)O, a known realization of the quantum square-lattice Heisenberg antiferromagnet model. Our experiments reveal an isotropic excitation continuum at the anomaly, which we analyse theoretically using Gutzwiller......Quantum magnets have occupied the fertile ground between many-body theory and low-temperature experiments on real materials since the early days of quantum mechanics. However, our understanding of even deceptively simple systems of interacting spin-1/2 particles is far from complete. The quantum...... square-lattice Heisenberg antiferromagnet, for example, exhibits a striking anomaly of hitherto unknown origin in its magnetic excitation spectrum. This quantum effect manifests itself for excitations propagating with the specific wavevector (pi,0). We use polarized neutron spectroscopy to fully...

  16. Vibration analysis of composite laminate plate excited by piezoelectric actuators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Her, Shiuh-Chuan; Lin, Chi-Sheng

    2013-03-01

    Piezoelectric materials can be used as actuators for the active vibration control of smart structural systems. In this work, piezoelectric patches are surface bonded to a composite laminate plate and used as vibration actuators. A static analysis based on the piezoelectricity and elasticity is conducted to evaluate the loads induced by the piezoelectric actuators to the host structure. The loads are then employed to develop the vibration response of a simply supported laminate rectangular plate excited by piezoelectric patches subjected to time harmonic voltages. An analytical solution of the vibration response of a simply supported laminate rectangular plate under time harmonic electrical loading is obtained and compared with finite element results to validate the present approach. The effects of location and exciting frequency of piezoelectric actuators on the vibration response of the laminate plate are investigated through a parametric study. Numerical results show that modes can be selectively excited, leading to structural vibration control.

  17. Self-excited and subharmonic vibrations in a pilot rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumenko, A. I.; Kostyukov, V. N.; Kuzminykh, N. Yu.; Timin, A. V.

    2017-08-01

    The paper reviews the publications on low-frequency vibration in power plants. It is noted that the regulatory literature poorly defines the issues of rating and diagnosing self-excited and subharmonic vibrations. Analysis of the literature and ISO standards shows that despite the considerable experience gained by specialists in low-frequency vibration control, a number of issues, such as subharmonic resonances and nonlinear properties of complicated multi-seated rotor systems supported by journal bearings, are still understudied and require further calculations and experiments. The paper presents some results obtained in experiments of low-frequency vibrations for a rotor supported by journal bearings and having a residual deflection. The experimental results confirmed the classical hysteresis of self-excited vibrations - the difference in the boundaries of self-excited vibrations during ascent and descent is about 4 Hz. The arears of appearance and disappearance of subharmonic vibrations are shown using the spectral characteristics of vibrations and cascade spectra.

  18. Geodesic acoustic modes excited by finite beta drift waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakrabarti, Nikhil Kumar; Guzdar, P.N.; Kleva, R.G.

    2008-01-01

    Presented in this paper is a mode-coupling analysis for the nonlinear excitation of the geodesic acoustic modes (GAMs) in tokamak plasmas by finite beta drift waves. The finite beta effects give rise to a strong stabilizing influence on the parametric excitation process. The dominant finite beta...... effect is the combination of the Maxwell stress, which has a tendency to cancel the primary drive from the Reynolds stress, and the finite beta modification of the drift waves. The zonal magnetic field is also excited at the GAM frequency. However, it does not contribute to the overall stability...... of the three-wave process for parameters of relevance to the edge region of tokamaks....

  19. Transitions and excitations in a superfluid stream passing small impurities

    KAUST Repository

    Pinsker, Florian

    2014-05-08

    We analyze asymptotically and numerically the motion around a single impurity and a network of impurities inserted in a two-dimensional superfluid. The criticality for the breakdown of superfluidity is shown to occur when it becomes energetically favorable to create a doublet—the limiting case between a vortex pair and a rarefaction pulse on the surface of the impurity. Depending on the characteristics of the potential representing the impurity, different excitation scenarios are shown to exist for a single impurity as well as for a lattice of impurities. Depending on the lattice characteristics it is shown that several regimes are possible: dissipationless flow, excitations emitted by the lattice boundary, excitations created in the bulk, and the formation of large-scale structures.

  20. Efficient two-step Positronium laser excitation to Rydberg levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cialdi, S.; Boscolo, I.; Castelli, F. [Universita degli Studi di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Villa, F., E-mail: fabio.villa@unimi.it [Universita degli Studi di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Ferrari, G. [INO-CNR BEC Center, via Sommarive 14, 38123 Povo, Trento (Italy); LENS-Universita di Firenze, via Carrara 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Gruppo collegato di Trento, via Sommarive 14, 38123 Povo, Trento (Italy); Giammarchi, M.G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2011-07-01

    Antihydrogen production by charge exchange reaction between Positronium atoms and antiprotons requires efficient excitation of Positronium atoms up to high-n levels (Rydberg levels). A two-step optical excitation, the first from ground to n=3 and the second from this level to a Rydberg level, is proposed and a suitable laser system is discussed. The requirements on the energy and bandwidth of the excitation laser suggest the use of optical parametric generation technology for both wavelengths. The laser system is composed by two subsystems: one for the generation of 205 nm radiation and the other for the generation of 1670 nm radiation. We have separately developed and tested the laser sources and results are here presented.

  1. Two-neutron decay of excited states of 11Li

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jenna; MoNA Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    One prominent example of a Borromean nucleus is the two-neutron halo nucleus, 11Li. All excited states of this nucleus are unbound to two-neutron decay. Many theories propose that the two valence neutrons exhibit dineutron behavior in the ground state, but it is unclear what effect such a structure would have on the decay of the excited states. We have recently completed an experiment designed to study the decay of one of these excited states. Unbound 11Li was populated via a two-proton knockout from 13B. The two emitted neutrons were detected with the Modular Neutron Array (MoNA) and the Large-area multi-Institutional Scintillator Array (LISA) in coincidence with the daughter fragment, 9Li. Preliminary results will be discussed.

  2. Active control of tensegrity structures under random excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh Raja, M.; Narayanan, S.

    2007-06-01

    In this paper we consider vibration control of tensegrity structures under stationary and nonstationary random excitations. These excitations may be representative of many physical loading conditions, such as earthquake, wind, aerodynamic and acoustic excitations. The optimal control theory based on H2 and \\mathrm {H}_{\\infty } controller with full state and limited state feedback is used for the control. The response of the tensegrity structure is represented by the zero lag covariance matrix and the same is obtained by solving the matrix Lyapunov equation. The force generated by the electro-mechanical coupling of the piezoelectric actuator is used in the formulation. A tensegrity structure of class-1 comprising of two modules, with 24 pretension cables and six struts with piezoelectric actuators, is considered.

  3. Ultraviolet 320 nm laser excitation for flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telford, William; Stickland, Lynn; Koschorreck, Marco

    2017-04-01

    Although multiple lasers and high-dimensional analysis capability are now standard on advanced flow cytometers, ultraviolet (UV) lasers (usually 325-365 nm) remain an uncommon excitation source for cytometry. This is primarily due to their cost, and the small number of applications that require this wavelength. The development of the Brilliant Ultraviolet (BUV fluorochromes, however, has increased the importance of this formerly niche excitation wavelength. Historically, UV excitation was usually provided by water-cooled argon- and krypton-ion lasers. Modern flow cytometers primary rely on diode pumped solid state lasers emitting at 355 nm. While useful for all UV-excited applications, DPSS UV lasers are still large by modern solid state laser standards, and remain very expensive. Smaller and cheaper near UV laser diodes (NUVLDs) emitting at 375 nm make adequate substitutes for 355 nm sources in many situations, but do not work as well with very short wavelength probes like the fluorescent calcium chelator indo-1. In this study, we evaluate a newly available UV 320 nm laser for flow cytometry. While shorter in wavelength that conventional UV lasers, 320 is close to the 325 nm helium-cadmium wavelength used in the past on early benchtop cytometers. A UV 320 nm laser was found to excite almost all Brilliant Ultraviolet dyes to nearly the same level as 355 nm sources. Both 320 nm and 355 nm sources worked equally well for Hoechst and DyeCycle Violet side population analysis of stem cells in mouse hematopoetic tissue. The shorter wavelength UV source also showed excellent excitation of indo-1, a probe that is not compatible with NUVLD 375 nm sources. In summary, a 320 nm laser module made a suitable substitute for conventional 355 nm sources. This laser technology is available in a smaller form factor than current 355 nm units, making it useful for small cytometers with space constraints. © 2017 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. © 2017 International

  4. Excitation and Control of Plasma Wakefields by Multiple Laser Pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, J.; Thornton, C.; Arran, C.; Shalloo, R. J.; Corner, L.; Cheung, G.; Gregory, C. D.; Mangles, S. P. D.; Matlis, N. H.; Symes, D. R.; Walczak, R.; Hooker, S. M.

    2017-07-01

    We demonstrate experimentally the resonant excitation of plasma waves by trains of laser pulses. We also take an important first step to achieving an energy recovery plasma accelerator by showing that a plasma wave can be damped by an out-of-resonance trailing laser pulse. The measured laser wakefields are found to be in excellent agreement with analytical and numerical models of wakefield excitation in the linear regime. Our results indicate a promising direction for achieving highly controlled, GeV-scale laser-plasma accelerators operating at multikilohertz repetition rates.

  5. Nonlinear excitations in two-dimensional molecular structures with impurities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Rasmussen, Kim; Christiansen, Peter Leth

    1995-01-01

    We study the nonlinear dynamics of electronic excitations interacting with acoustic phonons in two-dimensional molecular structures with impurities. We show that the problem is reduced to the nonlinear Schrodinger equation with a varying coefficient. The latter represents the influence...... excitations. Analytical results are in good agreement with numerical simulations of the nonlinear Schrodinger equation....... of the impurity. Transforming the equation to the noninertial frame of reference coupled with the center of mass we investigate the soliton behavior in the close vicinity of the impurity. With the help of the lens transformation we show that the soliton width is governed by an Ermakov-Pinney equation. We also...

  6. Driving magnetic order in a manganite by ultrafast lattice excitation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forst, M.; Tobey, R. I.; Wall, S.; Bromberger, H.; Khanna, V.; Cavalieri, A. L.; Chuang, Y.-D.; Lee, W. S.; Moore, R.; Schlotter, W. F.; Turner, J. J.; Krupin, O.; Trigo, M.; Zheng, H.; Mitchell, J. F.; Dhesi, S. S.; Hill, J. P.; Cavalleri, A. (Materials Science Division); (Univ. Hamburg); (Brookhaven Nat. Lab.); (Fritz-Haber-Inst. Max Planck Soc.); (Univ. Oxford); (Lawrence Berkeley Lab.); (SLAC Nat. Accel. Lab.); (Stanford Univ.); (European XFEL); (Diamond Light Source)

    2011-01-01

    Femtosecond midinfrared pulses are used to directly excite the lattice of the single-layer manganite La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 1.5}MnO{sub 4}. Magnetic and orbital orders, as measured by femtosecond resonant soft x-ray diffraction with an x-ray free-electron laser, are reduced within a few picoseconds. This effect is interpreted as a displacive exchange quench, a prompt shift in the equilibrium value of the magnetic- and orbital-order parameters after the lattice has been distorted. Control of magnetism through ultrafast lattice excitation may be of use for high-speed optomagnetism.

  7. Driving magnetic order in a manganite by ultrafast lattice excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Först, M.; Tobey, R. I.; Wall, S.; Bromberger, H.; Khanna, V.; Cavalieri, A. L.; Chuang, Y.-D.; Lee, W. S.; Moore, R.; Schlotter, W. F.; Turner, J. J.; Krupin, O.; Trigo, M.; Zheng, H.; Mitchell, J. F.; Dhesi, S. S.; Hill, J. P.; Cavalleri, A.

    2011-12-01

    Femtosecond midinfrared pulses are used to directly excite the lattice of the single-layer manganite La0.5Sr1.5MnO4. Magnetic and orbital orders, as measured by femtosecond resonant soft x-ray diffraction with an x-ray free-electron laser, are reduced within a few picoseconds. This effect is interpreted as a displacive exchange quench, a prompt shift in the equilibrium value of the magnetic- and orbital-order parameters after the lattice has been distorted. Control of magnetism through ultrafast lattice excitation may be of use for high-speed optomagnetism.

  8. Saturation Effect of Projectile Excitation in Ion-Atom Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukoyama, Takeshi; Lin, Chii-Dong

    Calculations of projectile K-shell electron excitation cross sections for He-like ions during ion-atom collisions have been performed in the distortion approximation by the use of Herman-Skillman wave functions. The calculated results are compared with the experimental data for several targets. The excitation cross sections deviate from the first-Born approximation and show the saturation effect as a function of target atomic number. This effect can be explained as the distortion of the projectile electronic states by the target nucleus.

  9. Multiple excitation modes in 163Hf

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yadav, Rachita; Ma, J.C.; Marsh, J.C.

    2014-01-01

    -quasiparticle configurations, two γ−vibrational bands coupled to the i13/2 excitation were also observed. The lowest level of a newly identified, negative-parity band is proposed to be the ground state of the nucleus. A systematic delay of the high-spin proton crossing frequency with increasing quadrupole deformation from Hf......Excited states of Hf163 were populated using the Zr94(Ge74,5n) reaction and the decay γ rays were measured with the Gammasphere spectrometer. Two previously known bands were extended to higher spins, and nine new bands were identified. In addition to bands associated with three- and five...

  10. Probing optical excitations in chevron-like armchair graphene nanoribbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denk, Richard; Lodi-Rizzini, Alberto; Wang, Shudong; Hohage, Michael; Zeppenfeld, Peter; Cai, Jinming; Fasel, Roman; Ruffieux, Pascal; Berger, Reinhard Franz Josef; Chen, Zongping; Narita, Akimitsu; Feng, Xinliang; Müllen, Klaus; Biagi, Roberto; De Renzi, Valentina; Prezzi, Deborah; Ruini, Alice; Ferretti, Andrea

    2017-11-16

    The bottom-up fabrication of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) has opened new opportunities to specifically tune their electronic and optical properties by precisely controlling their atomic structure. Here, we address excitation in GNRs with periodic structural wiggles, the so-called chevron GNRs. Based on reflectance difference and high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopies together with ab initio simulations, we demonstrate that their excited-state properties are of excitonic nature. The spectral fingerprints corresponding to different reaction stages in their bottom-up fabrication are also unequivocally identified, allowing us to follow the exciton build-up from the starting monomer precursor to the final GNR structure.

  11. Multiphoton interband excitations of quantum gases in driven optical lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, M.; Ölschläger, C.; Sträter, C.; Prelle, S.; Eckardt, A.; Sengstock, K.; Simonet, J.

    2015-10-01

    We report on the observation of multiphoton interband absorption processes for quantum gases in shaken light crystals. Periodic inertial forcing, induced by a spatial motion of the lattice potential, drives multiphoton interband excitations of up to the ninth order. The occurrence of such excitation features is systematically investigated with respect to the potential depth and the driving amplitude. Ab initio calculations of resonance positions as well as numerical evaluation of their strengths exhibit good agreement with experimental data. In addition our findings could make it possible to reach novel phases of quantum matter by tailoring appropriate driving schemes.

  12. Propagation of collective pair excitations in disordered Bose superfluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lellouch, Samuel; Lim, Lih-King; Sanchez-Palencia, Laurent

    2015-10-01

    We study the effect of disorder on the propagation of collective excitations in a disordered Bose superfluid. We incorporate local-density depletion induced by strong disorder at the mean-field level and formulate the transport of the excitations in terms of a screened scattering problem. We show that the competition of disorder, screening, and density depletion induces a strongly nonmonotonic energy dependence of the disorder parameter. In three dimensions, it results in a rich localization diagram with four different classes of mobility spectra, characterized by either no or up to three mobility edges. Implications on experiments with disordered ultracold atoms are discussed.

  13. Holonomic Quantum Control by Coherent Optical Excitation in Diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Brian B.; Jerger, Paul C.; Shkolnikov, V. O.; Heremans, F. Joseph; Burkard, Guido; Awschalom, David D.

    2017-10-01

    Although geometric phases in quantum evolution are historically overlooked, their active control now stimulates strategies for constructing robust quantum technologies. Here, we demonstrate arbitrary singlequbit holonomic gates from a single cycle of nonadiabatic evolution, eliminating the need to concatenate two separate cycles. Our method varies the amplitude, phase, and detuning of a two-tone optical field to control the non-Abelian geometric phase acquired by a nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond over a coherent excitation cycle. We demonstrate the enhanced robustness of detuned gates to excited-state decoherence and provide insights for optimizing fast holonomic control in dissipative quantum systems.

  14. Clinical and Experimental Evidence of Supernormal Excitability and Conduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizari, Marcelo V; Schmidberg, Jorge; Atienza, Augusto; Paredes, Diego V; Chiale, Pablo A

    2014-01-01

    True supernormality of excitability and conduction has been demonstrated in normal Purkinje fibers in in vitro studies. In the clinical setting, supernormality of conduction is manifested better than expected. This phenomenon is much more common than previously thought, particularly in the presence of certain clinical conditions. If a careful scanning of the cardiac cycle is performed on all patients with intermittent bundle branch block and second degree or advanced infranodal AV block, accessory pathways and mulfunctioning pacemakers, it is anticipated that a much larger amount of supernormal excitability and conduction will be unmasked. PMID:24827801

  15. Parametric Resonance of Magnetization Excited by Electric Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Jin; Lee, Han Kyu; Verba, Roman; Katine, Jordan A; Barsukov, Igor; Tiberkevich, Vasil; Xiao, John Q; Slavin, Andrei N; Krivorotov, Ilya N

    2017-01-11

    Manipulation of magnetization by electric field is a central goal of spintronics because it enables energy-efficient operation of spin-based devices. Spin wave devices are promising candidates for low-power information processing, but a method for energy-efficient excitation of short-wavelength spin waves has been lacking. Here we show that spin waves in nanoscale magnetic tunnel junctions can be generated via parametric resonance induced by electric field. Parametric excitation of magnetization is a versatile method of short-wavelength spin wave generation, and thus, our results pave the way toward energy-efficient nanomagnonic devices.

  16. DESIGN METHODOLOGY OF SELF-EXCITED ASYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berzan V.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper sets out the methodology of designing an asynchronous generator with capacitive self-excitation. It is known that its design is possible on the basis of serial synchronous motor with squirrel cage rotor. With this approach, the design reworked only the stator winding of electrical machines, making it cost-effectively implement the creation of the generator. Therefore, the methodology for the design, optimization calculations, the development scheme and the stator winding excitation system gain, not only of practical interest, and may also be useful for specialists in the field of electrical machines in the design of asynchronous generators.

  17. Electron scattering by laser-excited barium atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Register, D. F.; Trajmar, S.; Jensen, S. W.; Poe, R. T.

    1978-01-01

    Inelastic and superelastic scattering of 30- and 100-eV electrons by laser-excited 6s 6p 1P and subsequent cascade-populated 6s 6p 3P, 6s 5d 1D, and 6s 5d 3D Ba atoms have been observed. Absolute differential cross sections for the singlet and relative scattering intensities for the triplet species have been determined in the 5 to 20 deg angular region. Under the present conditions excitations dominate over deexcitations.

  18. Theory of reentrant excitation in a ring of cardiac tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hiroyuki; Glass, Leon

    1992-04-01

    A cardiac pathology, reentrant tachycardia, is caused by the sustained circulation of activation along a reentrant path in cardiac tissue. A new theoretical model for wave propagation in discrete excitable media employing coupled maps with continuous time is used to derive analytical stability criteria for the uni-directional circulation of the excitation pulse on the ring of cardiac tissue. Numerical simulations of the model that incorporate experimentally measurable characteristics of the cardiac tissue reproduce the experimental data quantitatively. The complex oscillations in the cycle length of unstable tachycardia observed experimentally are quasiperiodic oscillations that arise via the multiple Hopf bifurcation in high dimensional maps.

  19. Electron impact excitation of highly charged sodium-like ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaha, M.; Davis, J.

    1978-01-01

    Optical transition probabilities and electron collision strengths for Ca X, Fe XVI, Zn XX, Kr XXVI and Mo XXXII are calculated for transitions between n equal to 3 and n equal to 4 levels. The calculations neglect relativistic effects on the radial functions. A semi-empirical approach provides wave functions of the excited states; a distorted wave function without exchange is employed to obtain the excitation cross sections. The density dependence of the relative intensities of certain emission lines in the sodium isoelectronic sequence is also discussed.

  20. Excitation energy transfer in isolated chlorosomes from Chloroflexus aurantiacus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martiskainen, Jari; Linnanto, Juha; Kananavičius, Robertas; Lehtovuori, Viivi; Korppi-Tommola, Jouko

    2009-07-01

    Chlorosomes from green photosynthetic bacteria Chloroflexus aurantiacus have been studied by time-resolved femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. The fastest kinetics of 200-300 fs resolved, was interpreted to stem for intra-chlorosomal excitation energy transfer. Energy transfer from the antenna to the baseplate appeared as a major 9.2 ps rise component detected at the baseplate probe wavelength. Excitation energy transfer rates were evaluated for a model chlorosome. Calculated rod to rod, and rods to baseplate rate constants of 200-400 fs and 10-20 ps, respectively, are in accord with the experimental results.

  1. A Neutron Scattering Study of Collective Excitations in Superfluid Helium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graf, E. H.; Minkiewicz, V. J.; Bjerrum Møller, Hans

    1974-01-01

    Extensive inelastic-neutron-scattering experiments have been performed on superfluid helium over a wide range of energy and momentum transfers. A high-resolution study has been made of the pressure dependence of the single-excitation scattering at the first maximum of the dispersion curve over...... of the multiexcitation scattering was also studied. It is shown that the multiphonon spectrum of a simple Debye solid with the phonon dispersion and single-excitation cross section of superfluid helium qualitatively reproduces these data....

  2. [Development of X-ray excited fluorescence spectrometer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Chen; Gu, Mu; Di, Wang; Cao, Dun-Hua; Liu, Xiao-Lin; Huang, Shi-Ming

    2009-08-01

    An X-ray excited fluorescence spectrometer was developed with an X-ray tube and a spectrometer. The X-ray tube, spectrometer, autocontrol method and data processing selected were roundly evaluated. The wavelength and detecting efficiency of the apparatus were calibrated with the mercury and tungsten bromine standard lamps, and the X-ray excited emission spectra of BaF2, Cs I (Tl) crystals were measured. The results indicate that the apparatus has advantages of good wavelength resolution, high stability, easy to operation and good radioprotection. It is a wery effective tool for exploration of new scintillation materials.

  3. Exciting Graphene Surface Plasmon Polaritons through Light and Sound Interplay

    KAUST Repository

    Farhat, Mohamed

    2013-12-05

    We propose a concept that allows for efficient excitation of surface plasmon spolaritons (SPPs) on a thin graphene sheet located on a substrate by an incident electromagnetic field. Elastic vibrations of the sheet, which are generated by a flexural wave, act as a grating that enables the electromagnetic field to couple to propagating graphene SPPs. This scheme permits fast on-off switching of the SPPs and dynamic tuning of their excitation frequency by adjusting the vibration frequency (grating period). Potential applications include single molecule detection and enhanced control of SPP trajectories via surface wave patterning of graphene metasurfaces. Analytical calculations and numerical experiments demonstrate the practical applicability of the proposed concept.

  4. Two Step Excitation in Hot Atomic Sodium Vapor

    OpenAIRE

    Docters, Bernd; Wrachtrup, J?rg; Gerhardt, Ilja

    2017-01-01

    A two step excitation scheme in hot atomic sodium vapor is experimentally investigated. The observed effects reflect a coupling between the 32S, 32P and the 32D states. We present the relative dependence on detuning of the two utilized lasers around ??=?589?nm and 819?nm. Unlike expected, we achieve a higher detuning dependence of the probe and the coupling laser by a factor of approximately three. The presented work aimed for a Rydberg excitation and quantum light storage. Such schemes are u...

  5. Minimal Excitations in the Fractional Quantum Hall Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rech, J.; Ferraro, D.; Jonckheere, T.; Vannucci, L.; Sassetti, M.; Martin, T.

    2017-02-01

    We study the minimal excitations of fractional quantum Hall edges, extending the notion of levitons to interacting systems. Using both perturbative and exact calculations, we show that they arise in response to a Lorentzian potential with quantized flux. They carry an integer charge, thus involving several Laughlin quasiparticles, and leave a Poissonian signature in a Hanbury Brown-Twiss partition noise measurement at low transparency. This makes them readily accessible experimentally, ultimately offering the opportunity to study real-time transport of Abelian and non-Abelian excitations.

  6. Monocular Visual Deprivation Suppresses Excitability in Adult Human Visual Cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lou, Astrid Rosenstand; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard; Paulson, Olaf Bjarne

    2011-01-01

    The adult visual cortex maintains a substantial potential for plasticity in response to a change in visual input. For instance, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies have shown that binocular deprivation (BD) increases the cortical excitability for inducing phosphenes with TMS. Here, we...... employed TMS to trace plastic changes in adult visual cortex before, during, and after 48 h of monocular deprivation (MD) of the right dominant eye. In healthy adult volunteers, MD-induced changes in visual cortex excitability were probed with paired-pulse TMS applied to the left and right occipital cortex...... of visual deprivation has a substantial impact on experience-dependent plasticity of the human visual cortex....

  7. Rotational excitation of methanol by helium at interstellar temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Pottage, J

    2002-01-01

    Calculations have been performed to obtain accurate cross-sections and thermally averaged rate coefficients for the rotational excitation of methanol by helium, using the Coupled States quantum-mechanical approach. Transitions within the ground and first torsionally excited states of A and E-type methanol were considered. The 'propensity rules' governing the collisional transitions were examined and compared with the results of microwave double resonance experiments. Predictions are made of line intensity ratios which are sensitive to the density of the He perturber and which lend themselves to the determination of the perturber densities in astrophysically interesting regions of molecular clouds.

  8. Accurate Excited State Geometries within Reduced Subspace TDDFT/TDA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, David

    2014-12-09

    A method for the calculation of TDDFT/TDA excited state geometries within a reduced subspace of Kohn-Sham orbitals has been implemented and tested. Accurate geometries are found for all of the fluorophore-like molecules tested, with at most all valence occupied orbitals and half of the virtual orbitals included but for some molecules even fewer orbitals. Efficiency gains of between 15 and 30% are found for essentially the same level of accuracy as a standard TDDFT/TDA excited state geometry optimization calculation.

  9. Collective Excitations of Composite Fermions Across Multiple λ Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Sudhansu

    2010-03-01

    The collective behavior of electrons in the fractional quantum Hall states results in the creation of so-called composite fermions, quasi-particles formed by electrons attached to an even number of quantized vortices, each having one unit of flux quantum hc/e. This leads to formation of λ levels--effective kinetic energy levels resembling Landau levels for such quasi-particles. The composite fermion (CF) theory predicts collective excitations corresponding to an excitation of CF from λ=0 level to λ=1 level at filling factor ν=1/3, with a roton minimum. A similar mode of collective excitations is also predicted in a theory based on single mode approximation (SMA) in which the excited state is the density wave modulation over the ground state. This collective mode is detected by Raman scattering and other experiments. More recently, however, Hirjibehedin et. al.footnotetextC.F.Hirjibehedin et. al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 066803 (2005). have discovered that this mode is not a single mode, as believed earlier, but splits into two as the wavevector is increased. By definition, the SMA cannot accommodate a doublet. We show that the observed new mode finds a natural explanation within the CF theory. We considerfootnotetextD.Majumder, S.S.Mandal, and J.K.Jain, Nature Physics 5, 403 (2009). excitations of CF from λ=0 level to λ=2 and 3 levels, apart from λ=1 level that had only been considered before for the lowest mode. By extensive numerical calculation for 200 particles, we find that these three modes of excitations tend to come closer at small wavevectors, the highest mode merges first with the middle mode as we decrease wavevector and finally the middle mode merges with the lowest mode at a very small wavevector in the thermodynamic limit. We attribute this merging at longwavelength to 100% overlap between these three excited states. The observed gap between the two modes is comparable with the theoretical estimation. Further, the prediction of new roton minima in

  10. Single production of excited leptons at theLHeC

    CERN Document Server

    SAUVAN, E

    2011-01-01

    Single production of excited electrons (e*) at the future Large Hadron-Electron Collider (LHeC) through both gauge (GM) and contact (CI) interactions is studied. Subsequent decays of excited electrons to ordinary electron and photon via gauge and contact interactions are considered. Expected sensitivity to e* production in electron-proton collisions at the LHeC at high centre of mass energies of TeV scale will be addressed and compared to the recent results obtained using the data accumulated from the three large colliders LEP, HERA and Tevatron, as well as to the expected sensitivities of the LHC and ILC.

  11. Holonomic Quantum Control by Coherent Optical Excitation in Diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Brian B.; Jerger, Paul C.; Shkolnikov, V. O.; Heremans, F. Joseph; Burkard, Guido; Awschalom, David D.

    2017-10-01

    Although geometric phases in quantum evolution are historically overlooked, their active control now stimulates strategies for constructing robust quantum technologies. Here, we demonstrate arbitrary single-qubit holonomic gates from a single cycle of nonadiabatic evolution, eliminating the need to concatenate two separate cycles. Our method varies the amplitude, phase, and detuning of a two-tone optical field to control the non-Abelian geometric phase acquired by a nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond over a coherent excitation cycle. We demonstrate the enhanced robustness of detuned gates to excited-state decoherence and provide insights for optimizing fast holonomic control in dissipative quantum systems.

  12. Spectrochemical analysis of powdered biological samples using transversely excited atmospheric carbon dioxide laser plasma excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivkovic, Sanja; Momcilovic, Milos; Staicu, Angela; Mutic, Jelena; Trtica, Milan; Savovic, Jelena

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a simple laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) method for quantitative elemental analysis of powdered biological materials based on laboratory prepared calibration samples. The analysis was done using ungated single pulse LIBS in ambient air at atmospheric pressure. Transversely-Excited Atmospheric pressure (TEA) CO2 laser was used as an energy source for plasma generation on samples. The material used for the analysis was a blue-green alga Spirulina, widely used in food and pharmaceutical industries and also in a few biotechnological applications. To demonstrate the analytical potential of this particular LIBS system the obtained spectra were compared to the spectra obtained using a commercial LIBS system based on pulsed Nd:YAG laser. A single sample of known concentration was used to estimate detection limits for Ba, Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn, Si and Sr and compare detection power of these two LIBS systems. TEA CO2 laser based LIBS was also applied for quantitative analysis of the elements in powder Spirulina samples. Analytical curves for Ba, Fe, Mg, Mn and Sr were constructed using laboratory produced matrix-matched calibration samples. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) was used as the reference technique for elemental quantification, and reasonably well agreement between ICP and LIBS data was obtained. Results confirm that, in respect to its sensitivity and precision, TEA CO2 laser based LIBS can be successfully applied for quantitative analysis of macro and micro-elements in algal samples. The fact that nearly all classes of materials can be prepared as powders implies that the proposed method could be easily extended to a quantitative analysis of different kinds of materials, organic, biological or inorganic.

  13. [Induction of plastic changes in the excitability of neuronal electrogenic membranes during habituation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivovarov, A S

    1983-01-01

    Habituation of the postsynaptic response of a turtle cortical neurone to an orthodromic stimulus, induces enhanced excitability of the electro-excitable membrane which does not generate action potentials during habituation. Single excitation of the electro-excitable membrane by intracellular stimulation during this period, facilitates transmitter sensitivity of the chemoreceptor membrane. Habituation of the action potential to the intracellular electrical stimulus induces enhanced sensitivity of the chemoreceptor membrane. Single excitation of the chemoreceptor membrane during this period results in enhanced excitability of the electro-excitable membrane. Plastic changes during habituation involve the whole neurone membrane, although the monotonous stimulus activates only its local area.

  14. Relaxation dynamics in the excited states of a ketocyanine dye ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    Pramanik et al proposed the twisted intramolecular charge transfer (TICT) process in the S1 state, which .... trile clearly suggests that a photon of 400 nm light excites the molecule to its S2 state, the higher energy emission .... 400 nm photon as well as the dynamics of the re- laxation processes taking place in the S1 state. At.

  15. Excitations and management of the nonlinear localized gap modes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-09-23

    Sep 23, 2015 ... Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 85; Issue 5. Excitations and management of the nonlinear localized gap modes. Bishwajyoti Dey. Volume ... dispersions. Finally, we discuss about the theory of Feshbach resonance management and dispersion management of the soliton solutions.

  16. Effects of road transportation on excitability scores of pigs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-02-08

    Feb 8, 2010 ... This study was carried out in order to determine the effect of eight-hour road transportation on the excitability scores of pigs administered ascorbic acid (AA) during the hot-dry season in Northern. Nigeria. Thirteen experimental pigs were administered with AA orally at 100 mg/kg, while ten control pigs were ...

  17. Renovating the excitation circuit of a conventional welding converter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper presents two different new excitation current supplies based on power electronics for an existing conventional welding converter. The proposed circuits are simulated using Lab-VIEW 1200 AI and a PC based system. In the expressions for winding currents the dynamic inductances are used to take into account ...

  18. A method for controlling the excitation of a synchronous machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blokhin, V.F.; Rosman, L.V.

    1983-01-01

    The method lies in the fact that in the operational process the transfer functions of the automatic excitation regulation are changed. In order to increase the quality of regulation, the status of the current limiter is identified and the transfer functions are changed based on this.

  19. Low energy electron impact vibrational excitation of acetylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Sigma; Hargreaves, Leigh; Khakoo, Murtadha

    2016-05-01

    Experimental differential cross sections for the vibration excitation of the four fundamental modes of acetylene at low incident electron energies from 1 eV to 20 eV and scattering angles of 10o to 130o will be presented. The results will be compared to results available in the literature. Funded by NSF-AMOP-RUI Grant.

  20. Theory of slow light excitation in 1D photonic crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yudistira, D.; Marpaung, D.A.I.; Handoyo, H.P.; Hoekstra, Hugo; Hammer, Manfred; Tjia, M.O.; Iskandar, A.A.P.; Iskandar, A.A.

    2004-01-01

    Slow light (SL) states corresponding to wavelength regions near the bandgap edge of grated structures are known to show strong eld enhancement. Such states may be excited efciently by well-optimised adiabatic transitions in grating structures, e.g., by slowly turning on the modulation depth. To

  1. Slow light excitation in tapered 1D photonic crystals: theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yudistira, D.; Hoekstra, Hugo; Hammer, Manfred; Marpaung, D.A.I.

    2006-01-01

    Slow light (SL) states corresponding to wavelength regions near the bandgap edge of grated structures are known to show strong field enhancement. Such states may be excited efficiently by well-optimised adiabatic transitions in grated structures, e.g., by slowly turning on the modulation depth. To

  2. Uniform magnetic excitations in NiO nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahl, C.R.H.; Kuhn, L.T.; Lefmann, K.

    2006-01-01

    A sample of isolated disc shaped NiO nanoparticles was studied at the RITA-II triple axis spectrometer at SINQ (PSI) using the newly implemented multi-analyser blade imaging mode. The particles were 13 nm in diameter and had a thickness of about 2.5 nm. A non-dispersive spin excitation was observed...

  3. Local excitation of surface plasmon polaritons in random surface nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozhevolnyi, S.I.; Volkov, V.S.; Boltasseva, Alexandra

    2003-01-01

    We investigate local excitation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) at a 55-nm-thick gold layer covered with randomly located scatterers (density similar to75 mum(-2)) by using an uncoated fiber tip of a near-field optical microscope as a radiation source and detecting the radiation scattered...

  4. How many atoms get excited when they decay?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blocher, Philip Daniel; Mølmer, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    We analyse the time evolution of a two-level system prepared in a superposition of its ground state and radiatively unstable excited state. We show that by choosing appropriate means of detection of the radiated field, we can steer the evolution of the emitter and herald its preparation in the fu...

  5. Death, dynamics and disorder: Terminating reentry in excitable ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    which the heart can be activated as rapidly as 300 beats per minute. There are multiple mechanisms by which ventricular tachycardia (VT) may arise, but the most common one is due to the formation of a reentrant pathway, i.e., a closed path of excitation feedback. Reentry often has an anatomical substrate, with the.

  6. Photoionization of excited states of neon-like Mg III

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . In the present work we have used the close coupling R-matrix method [8,11] to ob- tain accurate photoionization cross-section from the first three excited 1s22s22p53s 3 1P0,. 1s22s22p53p 3Se states of Mg III, allowing for the residual ion to ...

  7. Photoionization of excited states of neon-like Mg III

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The close coupling -matrix method is used to calculate cross-sections for photoionization of Mg III from its first three excited states. Configuration interaction wave functions are used to represent two target states of Mg III retained in the -matrix expansion. The positions and effective quantum numbers for the Rydberg ...

  8. Ultrafast electron diffraction studies of optically excited thin bismuth films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajkovic, Ivan

    2008-10-21

    This thesis contains work on the design and the realization of an experimental setup capable of providing sub-picosecond electron pulses for ultrafast electron diffraction experiments, and performing the study of ultrafast dynamics in bismuth after optical excitation using this setup. (orig.)

  9. Counterfactual thinking affects the excitability of the motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicario, Carmelo M; Rafal, Robert D; Avenanti, Alessio

    2015-04-01

    Evidence suggests that monetary reward and affective experiences induce activity in the cortical motor system. Nevertheless, it is unclear whether counterfactual thinking related to wrong choices that lead to monetary loss and regret affects motor excitability. Using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the motor cortex, we measured corticospinal excitability of 2 groups of healthy humans asked to actively guess the winning key among two possible alternatives (choice group); or passively assist to monetary outcomes randomly selected by the computer program (follow group). Results document a selective increment of the corticospinal excitability when a monetary loss outcome followed the key selection (i.e., in the choice group). On the other hand, no change in corticospinal excitability was found when participants passively assisted to a monetary loss randomly selected by the computer program (i.e., follow group). These findings suggest that counterfactual thinking and the negative emotional experiences arising from choices causing monetary loss--i.e., "I would have won instead of lost money if I'd made a different choice"--are mapped in the motor system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Excitation of surface plasma waves over corrugated slow-wave ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A microwave propagating along vacuum–dielectric–plasma interface excites surface plasma wave (SPW). A periodic slow-wave structure placed over dielectric slows down the SPW. The phase velocity of slow SPW is sensitive to height, periodicity, number of periods, thickness and the separation between dielectric and ...

  11. Excitation-energy influence at the scission configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramos D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Transfer- and fusion-induced fission in inverse kinematics was proven to be a powerful tool to investigate nuclear fission, widening the information of the fission fragments and the access to unstable fissioning systems with respect to other experimental approaches. An experimental campaign for fission investigation has being carried out at GANIL with this technique since 2008. In these experiments, a beam of 238U, accelerated to 6.1 MeV/u, impinges on a 12C target. Fissioning systems from U to Cf are populated through transfer and fusion reactions, with excitation energies that range from few MeV up to 46 MeV. The use of inverse kinematics, the SPIDER telescope, and the VAMOS spectrometer permitted the characterization of the fissioning system in terms of mass, nuclear charge, and excitation energy, and the isotopic identification of the full fragment distribution. The neutron excess, the total neutron multiplicity, and the even-odd staggering in the nuclear charge of fission fragments are presented as a function of the excitation energy of the fissioning system. Structure effects are observed at Z∼50 and Z∼55, where their impact evolves with the excitation energy.

  12. Excitation-energy influence at the scission configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, D.; Rodríguez-Tajes, C.; Caamaño, M.; Farget, F.; Audouin, L.; Benlliure, J.; Casarejos, E.; Clement, E.; Cortina, D.; Delaune, O.; Derkx, X.; Dijon, A.; Doré, D.; Fernández-Domínguez, B.; de France, G.; Heinz, A.; Jacquot, B.; Navin, A.; Paradela, C.; Rejmund, M.; Roger, T.; Salsac, M.-D.; Schmitt, C.

    2017-09-01

    Transfer- and fusion-induced fission in inverse kinematics was proven to be a powerful tool to investigate nuclear fission, widening the information of the fission fragments and the access to unstable fissioning systems with respect to other experimental approaches. An experimental campaign for fission investigation has being carried out at GANIL with this technique since 2008. In these experiments, a beam of 238U, accelerated to 6.1 MeV/u, impinges on a 12C target. Fissioning systems from U to Cf are populated through transfer and fusion reactions, with excitation energies that range from few MeV up to 46 MeV. The use of inverse kinematics, the SPIDER telescope, and the VAMOS spectrometer permitted the characterization of the fissioning system in terms of mass, nuclear charge, and excitation energy, and the isotopic identification of the full fragment distribution. The neutron excess, the total neutron multiplicity, and the even-odd staggering in the nuclear charge of fission fragments are presented as a function of the excitation energy of the fissioning system. Structure effects are observed at Z˜50 and Z˜55, where their impact evolves with the excitation energy.

  13. On the operation of switch-less transversely excited atmosphere ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    On the operation of switch-less transversely excited atmosphere CO2 lasers in the oscillator and amplifier configurations. GAUTAM C PATIL, PALLAVI RAOTE, J PADMA NILAYA and D J BISWAS∗. Laser and Plasma Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre,. Mumbai 400 085, India. *Corresponding author.

  14. Atomic collisions involving C60 and collective excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribedi, L. C.; Kelkar, A. H.

    2011-12-01

    Here we review and discuss some of our recent investigations on collective excitation in a free C60 molecule and its influence on the atomic collisions. In particular, emphasis has been given for collisions with fast highly charged ions. It is demonstrated, from the charge-state-dependence studies of recoil-ion spectra, that the plasmon excitation plays a dominant role in the single and double ionization process. The observed linear charge-state-dependence is in contrast to the expected behavior predicted by ion-atom collisions models. This behavior was observed for different projectiles and at different energies. The time-of-flight recoil-ion mass spectroscopy experiments involve 1-5 MeV/u C, O, F and Si ion beams with different charge states, ranging between 4+ and 14+. In addition, the influence of the collective excitation on the electron capture process was also investigated. The wake-field induced Stark-mixing and splitting of sub-levels of projectile-ions following electron capture from C60 carries signature of the collective plasmon excitation. For the electron capture studies X-ray spectroscopic technique was used for collisions with bare and dressed S and Cl ion beams. The results on the TOF data on fullerene target obtained in last few years will be summarized.

  15. Alternating-laser excitation : single-molecule FRET and beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hohlbein, Johannes; Craggs, Timothy D.; Cordes, Thorben

    2014-01-01

    The alternating-laser excitation (ALEX) scheme continues to expand the possibilities of fluorescence-based assays to study biological entities and interactions. Especially the combination of ALEX and single-molecule Forster Resonance Energy Transfer (smFRET) has been very successful as ALEX enables

  16. Alternating-laser excitation: single-molecule FRET and beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hohlbein, J.C.; Craggs, T.D.; Cordes, T.

    2014-01-01

    The alternating-laser excitation (ALEX) scheme continues to expand the possibilities of fluorescence-based assays to study biological entities and interactions. Especially the combination of ALEX and single-molecule Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (smFRET) has been very successful as ALEX enables

  17. Modulation of motor excitability by metricality of tone sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cameron, David; Stewart, Lauren; Pearce, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    amplitude. These results demonstrate that the pure metrical structure of an auditory rhythm presented as generic parametrically varied tone sequences can influence motor excitability but that the picture may be more complex for real recordings of musical pieces. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all...

  18. Formation of ground and excited hydrogen atoms in proton ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-10-17

    Oct 17, 2016 ... Abstract. The inelastic scattering of proton with a potassium atom is treated for the first time as a three- channel problem within the framework of the improved coupled static approximation by assuming that the ground. (1s state) and the excited (2s state) hydrogen formation channels are open for seven ...

  19. Magneto-acoustic imaging by continuous-wave excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shunqi, Zhang; Zhou, Xiaoqing; Tao, Yin; Zhipeng, Liu

    2017-04-01

    The electrical characteristics of tissue yield valuable information for early diagnosis of pathological changes. Magneto-acoustic imaging is a functional approach for imaging of electrical conductivity. This study proposes a continuous-wave magneto-acoustic imaging method. A kHz-range continuous signal with an amplitude range of several volts is used to excite the magneto-acoustic signal and improve the signal-to-noise ratio. The magneto-acoustic signal amplitude and phase are measured to locate the acoustic source via lock-in technology. An optimisation algorithm incorporating nonlinear equations is used to reconstruct the magneto-acoustic source distribution based on the measured amplitude and phase at various frequencies. Validation simulations and experiments were performed in pork samples. The experimental and simulation results agreed well. While the excitation current was reduced to 10 mA, the acoustic signal magnitude increased up to 10-7 Pa. Experimental reconstruction of the pork tissue showed that the image resolution reached mm levels when the excitation signal was in the kHz range. The signal-to-noise ratio of the detected magneto-acoustic signal was improved by more than 25 dB at 5 kHz when compared to classical 1 MHz pulse excitation. The results reported here will aid further research into magneto-acoustic generation mechanisms and internal tissue conductivity imaging.

  20. Excitation and decay of two-phonon giant dipole resonances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boretzky, K. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik]|[Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernchemie; Aumann, T.; Emling, H.; Holzmann, R.; Ilievski, S.; Leifels, Y. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Cub, J. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany)]|[Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Elze, T.W.; Gruenschloss, A.; Leistenschneider, A.; Stroth, J. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Kulessa, R.; Lubkiewicz, E.; Wajda, E.; Walus, W. [Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Cracow (Poland). Inst. Fizyki; Kratz, J.V. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernchemie

    1998-09-01

    In heavy ion collisions at near relativistic energies, electromagnetic excitation of the double giant dipole resonance occurs with large cross sections. We summarize the presently available experimental data and discuss related theoretical efforts. Emphasis is paid to the question of anharmonicities and to the damping of the two-phonon states. (orig.)

  1. Excitation and Decay of Two-Phonon Giant Dipole Resonances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boretzky, K.; Aumann, T.; Cub, J.; Elze, Th.W.; Emling, H.; Gruenschloss, A.; Holzmann, R.; Ilievski, S.; Kulessa, R.; Kratz, J.V.; Leifels, Y.; Leistenschneider, A.; Lubkiewicz, E.; Stroth, J.; Wajda, E.; Walus, W

    1999-03-29

    In heavy ion collisions at near relativistic energies, electromagnetic excitation of the double giant dipole resonance occurs with large cross sections. We summarize the presently available experimental data and discuss related theoretical efforts. Emphasis is paid to the question of anharmonicities and to the damping of the two-phonon states.

  2. Noise-induced multimode behavior in excitable systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postnov, D E; Sosnovtseva, Olga; Han, S K

    2002-01-01

    Based on experiments with electronic circuits, we show how a system of coupled excitable units can possess several noise-induced oscillatory modes. We characterize the multimode organization in terms of the coherence resonance effect. Multiple gain of regularity is found to be related to different...

  3. Quantum control of vibrational excitations in a heteronuclear ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    Quantum control of vibrational excitations in a heteronuclear diatomic molecule. SITANSH SHARMA, PURSHOTAM SHARMA and HARJINDER SINGH* ... electric field is calculated and used for the subsequent quantum dynamics, within the dipole approxima- tion. ... properties of interference of dynamical paths to regulate ...

  4. Polarization-controlled asymmetric excitation of surface plasmons

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Quan

    2017-08-28

    Free-space light can be coupled into propagating surface waves at a metal–dielectric interface, known as surface plasmons (SPs). This process has traditionally faced challenges in preserving the incident polarization information and controlling the directionality of the excited SPs. The recently reported polarization-controlled asymmetric excitation of SPs in metasurfaces has attracted much attention for its promise in developing innovative plasmonic devices. However, the unit elements in these works were purposely designed in certain orthogonal polarizations, i.e., linear or circular polarizations, resulting in limited two-level polarization controllability. Here, we introduce a coupled-mode theory to overcome this limit. We demonstrated theoretically and experimentally that, by utilizing the coupling effect between a pair of split-ring-shaped slit resonators, exotic asymmetric excitation of SPs can be obtained under the x-, y-, left-handed circular, and right-handed circular polarization incidences, while the polarization information of the incident light can be preserved in the excited SPs. The versatility of the presented design scheme would offer opportunities for polarization sensing and polarization-controlled plasmonic devices.

  5. Cortical Excitability Measures in Patients and Unaffected Siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Researchers at St Vincent's Hospital, Victoria, Australia, measured cortical excitability using transcranial magnetic stimulation in 157 patients with epilepsy (95 generalized and 62 focal and their asymptomatic siblings and results were compared to those of 12 controls and 20 of their siblings.

  6. Dynamic coherence in excitonic molecular complexes under various excitation conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenu, Aurélia; Malý, Pavel; Mančal, Tomáš, E-mail: mancal@karlov.mff.cuni.cz

    2014-08-17

    Highlights: • Dynamic coherence does not improve energy transfer efficiency in natural conditions. • Photo-induced quantum jumps are discussed in classical context. • Natural time scale of a light excitation event is identified. • Coherence in FMO complex averages out under excitation by neighboring antenna. • This result is valid even in absence of dissipation. - Abstract: We investigate the relevance of dynamic quantum coherence in the energy transfer efficiency of molecular aggregates. We derive the time evolution of the density matrix for an open quantum system excited by light or by a neighboring antenna. Unlike in the classical case, the quantum description does not allow for a formal decomposition of the dynamics into sudden jumps in an observable quantity – an expectation value. Rather, there is a natural finite time-scale associated with the excitation process. We propose a simple experiment to test the influence of this time scale on the yield of photosynthesis. We demonstrate, using typical parameters of the Fenna–Matthews–Olson (FMO) complex and a typical energy transfer rate from the chlorosome baseplate, that dynamic coherences are averaged out in the complex even when the FMO model is completely free of all dissipation and dephasing.

  7. Hydrodynamic Excitation Forces on Floating Structures with Finite Displacements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Morten Thøtt; Nielsen, Søren R. K.

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to present an extended version of the classic linear wave excitation force theory. Linear wave theory implies that the wave load is applied in the referential state of the structure. In reality, the load is acting in the dynamically altered state. In the classic notation the wave ...

  8. Solving real time evolution problems by constructing excitation operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Wang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study the time evolution of an observable in the interacting fermion systems driven out of equilibrium. We present a method for solving the Heisenberg equations of motion by constructing excitation operators which are defined as the operators  satisfying [Ĥ,Â]=λÂ. It is demonstrated how an excitation operator and its excitation energy λ can be calculated. By an appropriate supposition of the form of  we turn the problem into the one of diagonalizing a series of matrices whose dimension depends linearly on the size of the system. We perform this method to calculate the evolution of the creation operator in a toy model Hamiltonian which is inspired by the Hubbard model and the nonequilibrium current through the single impurity Anderson model. This method is beyond the traditional perturbation theory in Keldysh-Green's function formalism, because the excitation energy λ is modified by the interaction and it will appear in the exponent in the function of time.

  9. Calculation of vibrational excitation cross-sections in resonant ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 119; Issue 5. Calculation of vibrational excitation cross-sections in resonant electron-molecule scattering using the time-dependent wave packet (TDWP) approach with application to the 2 CO- shape resonance. Raman Kumar Singh Manabendra Sarma Ankit Jain ...

  10. Ionization and Excitation in Non-Polar Organic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipsky, Sanford

    1981-01-01

    Reviews recent advances in radiation chemistry concerning the effect of high-energy radiation on organic liquids. Discusses the general nature of excited and ionized states, pathways for decay, the effect of environmental perturbation, the behavior of an electron in a nonpolar liquid, and comparison of photochemical and radiation chemical effects.…

  11. Excitation of waves in elastic waveguides by piezoelectric patch actuators

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Loveday, PW

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available to be an infinite waveguide. The excitation of waves in waveguides may be analysed in the time domain using conventional finite element methods. This analysis is computationally very demanding as the model must be a number of wavelengths long to avoid the influence...

  12. Image Searching on the Excite Web Search Engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrum, Abby; Spink, Amanda

    2001-01-01

    Examines visual information needs as expressed in users' Web image queries on the Excite search engine. Discusses metadata; content-based image retrieval; user interaction with images; terms per query; term frequency; and implications for the development of models for visual information retrieval and for the design of Web search engines.…

  13. Coherent excitation of vibrational levels using ultra short pulses

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Clercq, LE

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop a model of the coherent excitation of the first few vibrational modes in the electronic ground state of the molecule. The model will be used in combination with an optimization algorithm to optimize a...

  14. Search for Unstable Heavy and Excited Leptons at LEP2

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G.; Akesson, P.F.; Alexander, G.; Allison, John; Anderson, K.J.; Arcelli, S.; Asai, S.; Ashby, S.F.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Bailey, I.; Ball, A.H.; Barberio, E.; Barlow, Roger J.; Batley, J.R.; Baumann, S.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bella, G.; Bellerive, A.; Bentvelsen, S.; Bethke, S.; Betts, S.; Biebel, O.; Biguzzi, A.; Bloodworth, I.J.; Bock, P.; Bohme, J.; Boeriu, O.; Bonacorsi, D.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Bright-Thomas, P.; Brigliadori, L.; Brown, Robert M.; Burckhart, H.J.; Capiluppi, P.; Carnegie, R.K.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, David G.; Chrisman, D.; Ciocca, C.; Clarke, P.E.L.; Clay, E.; Cohen, I.; Conboy, J.E.; Cooke, O.C.; Couchman, J.; Couyoumtzelis, C.; Coxe, R.L.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallavalle, G.Marco; Dallison, S.; Davis, R.; de Roeck, A.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Dixit, M.S.; Donkers, M.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Estabrooks, P.G.; Etzion, E.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fanti, M.; Faust, A.A.; Feld, L.; Ferrari, P.; Fiedler, F.; Fierro, M.; Fleck, I.; Frey, A.; Furtjes, A.; Futyan, D.I.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, J.W.; Gaycken, G.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Gingrich, D.M.; Glenzinski, D.; Goldberg, J.; Gorn, W.; Grandi, C.; Graham, K.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Hajdu, C.; Hanson, G.G.; Hansroul, M.; Hapke, M.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Hargrove, C.K.; Harin-Dirac, M.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hildreth, M.D.; Hill, J.C.; Hobson, P.R.; Hocker, James Andrew; Hoffman, Kara Dion; Homer, R.J.; Honma, A.K.; Horvath, D.; Hossain, K.R.; Howard, R.; Huntemeyer, P.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Imrie, D.C.; Ishii, K.; Jacob, F.R.; Jawahery, A.; Jeremie, H.; Jimack, M.; Jones, C.R.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Kanaya, N.; Kanzaki, J.; Karapetian, G.; Karlen, D.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Kayal, P.I.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Kim, D.H.; Klier, A.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Kokott, T.P.; Kolrep, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kowalewski, Robert V.; Kress, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Kuhl, T.; Kupper, M.; Kyberd, P.; Lafferty, G.D.; Landsman, H.; Lanske, D.; Lauber, J.; Lawson, I.; Layter, J.G.; Lellouch, D.; Letts, J.; Levinson, L.; Liebisch, R.; Lillich, J.; List, B.; Littlewood, C.; Lloyd, A.W.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Long, G.D.; Losty, M.J.; Lu, J.; Ludwig, J.; Macchiolo, A.; Macpherson, A.; Mader, W.; Mannelli, M.; Marcellini, S.; Marchant, T.E.; Martin, A.J.; Martin, J.P.; Martinez, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McDonald, W.John; McKenna, J.; Mckigney, E.A.; McMahon, T.J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Mendez-Lorenzo, P.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Meyer, I.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Mohr, W.; Montanari, A.; Mori, T.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Neal, H.A.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oakham, F.G.; Odorici, F.; Ogren, H.O.; Okpara, A.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Patrick, G.N.; Patt, J.; Perez-Ochoa, R.; Petzold, S.; Pfeifenschneider, P.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Poli, B.; Polok, J.; Przybycien, M.; Quadt, A.; Rembser, C.; Rick, H.; Robins, S.A.; Rodning, N.; Roney, J.M.; Rosati, S.; Roscoe, K.; Rossi, A.M.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Runolfsson, O.; Rust, D.R.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sahr, O.; Sang, W.M.; Sarkisian, E.K.G.; Sbarra, C.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schieck, J.; Schmitt, S.; Schoning, A.; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Schwick, C.; Scott, W.G.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.H.; Sherwood, P.; Siroli, G.P.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Snow, G.A.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Spagnolo, S.; Sproston, M.; Stahl, A.; Stephens, K.; Stoll, K.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Surrow, B.; Tafirout, R.; Talbot, S.D.; Taras, P.; Tarem, S.; Teuscher, R.; Thiergen, M.; Thomas, J.; Thomson, M.A.; Torrence, E.; Towers, S.; Trefzger, T.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Ueda, I.; Van Kooten, Rick J.; Vannerem, P.; Verzocchi, M.; Voss, H.; Wackerle, F.; Waller, D.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wengler, T.; Wermes, N.; Wetterling, D.; White, J.S.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Zacek, V.; Zer-Zion, D.

    2000-01-01

    Searches for unstable neutral and charged heavy leptons, N and L+-, and for excited states of neutral and charged leptons, nu*, e*, mu*, and tau*, have been performed in e+e- collisions using data collected by the OPAL detector at LEP. The data analysed correspond to an integrated luminosity of about 58pb-1 at a centre-of-mass energy of 183GeV, and about 10pb-1 each at 161GeV and 172GeV. No evidence for new particles was found. Lower limits on the masses of unstable heavy and excited leptons are derived. From the analysis of charged-current, neutral-current, and photonic decays of singly produced excited leptons, upper limits are determined for the ratio of the coupling to the compositeness scale, f/Lambda, for masses up to the kinematic limit. For excited leptons, the limits are established independently of the relative values of the coupling constants f and f'.

  15. Electronically Excited C2 from Laser Photodissociated C60

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arepalli, Sivaram; Scott, Carl D.; Nikolaev, Pavel; Smalley, Richard E.

    1999-01-01

    Spectral and transient emission measurements are made of radiation from products of laser excitation of buckminsterfullerene (C60) vapor diluted in argon at 973 K. The principal radiation is from the Swan band system of C2 and, at early times, also from a black body continuum. The C2 radiation is observed only when C60 is excited by green (532 nm) and not with IR (1064 nm) laser radiation at energy densities of about 1.5 J/square cm. Transient measurements indicate that there are two characteristic periods of decay of radiation. The first period, lasting about 2 micro seconds, has a characteristic decay time of about 0.3 micro seconds. The second period, lasting at least 50 micro seconds, has a characteristic decay time of about 5 micro seconds. These characteristic times are thought to be associated with cooling of C60 molecules or nanosized carbon particles during the early period; and with electronically excited C2 that is a decomposition product of laser excited C60, C58, ... molecules during the later period.

  16. Photoelectron imaging following 2 + 1 multiphoton excitation of HBr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanescu, Constantin; Loock, Hans-Peter

    2006-07-07

    The photodissociation and photoionization dynamics of HBr via low-n Rydberg and ion-pair states was studied by using 2 + 1 REMPI spectroscopy and velocity map imaging of photoelectrons. Two-photon excitation at about 9.4-10 eV was used to prepare rotationally selected excited states. Following absorption of the third photon the unperturbed F (1)Delta(2) and i (3)Delta(2) states ionize directly into the ground vibrational state of the molecular ion according to the Franck-Condon principle and upon preservation of the ion core. In case of the V (1)Sigma(+)(0(+)) ion-pair state and the perturbed E (1)Sigma(+)(0(+)), g (3)Sigma(-)(0(+)), and H (1)Sigma(+)(0(+)) Rydberg states the absorption of the third photon additionally results in a long vibrational progression of HBr(+) in the X (2)Pi state as well as formation of electronically excited atomic photofragments. The vibrational excitation of the molecular ion is explained by autoionization of repulsive superexcited states into the ground state of the molecular ion. In contrast to HCl, the perturbed Rydberg states of HBr show strong participation of the direct ionization process, with ionic core preservation.

  17. Coherent Excitations Induced by Pumping a Mott System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yao; Claassen, Martin; Moritz, Brian; Devereaux, Thomas

    Time-domain or non-equilibrium dynamics of correlated materials has attracted attention due to the possibility to characterize, tune and create complex ordered states. To understand how single and multi-particle excitations develop in a strongly-correlated systems during a pulsed pump, we perform a time-resolved exact-diagonalization study on a single-band Hubbard model. Starting from the Mott insulator at half-filling, we observe the suppression of antiferromagnetism and development of low-energy charge excitations through a series of Floquet-like sidebands. By correlating with the numerically evaluated single-particle spectra in non-equilibrium, the transient dynamics of multi-particle excitations can be attributed to the interplay between virtual Floquet sidebands and change of density of states due to the existence of strong correlations. The autocorrelation of this time-dependent spectral function reflects that it is the resonance of floquet states and upper Hubbard band that causes the remnant change of charge and spin excitations. This nonperturbative, nonequilibrium and nonstatic study reveals the underlying physical process while correlated electrons are pumped in experiment and provide the opportunity of designing nonequilibrium state of matter by a short pulsed laser.

  18. Quantum dynamics of vibrational excitations and vibrational charge ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Quantum dynamics of vibrational excitations and vibrational charge transfer processes in H+ + O2 collisions at collision energy 23 eV ... The Fritz Haber Research Centre and The Department of Physical Chemisry, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel 91904; Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of ...

  19. Excitability of Motor Cortices as a Function of Emotional Sounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komeilipoor, N.; Pizzolato, F.; Daffertshofer, A.; Cesari, P.

    2013-01-01

    We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to clarify how non-verbal emotionally-characterized sounds modulate the excitability of the corticospinal motor tract (CST). While subjects were listening to sounds (monaurally and binaurally), single TMS pulses were delivered to either left or right

  20. Investigation of excitation control for wind-turbine generator stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebben, V. D.

    1977-01-01

    High speed horizontal axis wind turbine generators with blades on the downwind side of the support tower require special design considerations to handle disturbances introduced by the flow wake behind the tower. Experiments and analytical analyses were made to determine benefits that might be obtained by using the generator exciter to provide system damping for reducing power fluctuations.

  1. Optimal Excitation Controller Design for Wind Turbine Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Boglou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An optimal excitation controller design based on multirate-output controllers (MROCs having a multirate sampling mechanismwith different sampling period in each measured output of the system is presented. The proposed H∞ -control techniqueis applied to the discrete linear open-loop system model which represents a wind turbine generator supplying an infinite busthrough a transmission line.

  2. Inertia-driven resonant excitation of a magnetic skyrmion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiino, Takayuki; Kim, Kab-Jin; Lee, Ki-Suk; Park, Byong-Guk

    2017-10-25

    Topological spin structures such as magnetic domain walls, vortices, and skyrmions, have been receiving great interest because of their high potential application in various spintronic devices. To utilize them in the future spintronic devices, it is first necessary to understand the dynamics of the topological spin structures. Since inertial effect plays a crucial role in the dynamics of a particle, understanding the inertial effect of topological spin structures is an important task. Here, we report that a strong inertial effect appears steadily when a skyrmion is driven by an oscillating spin-Hall-spin-torque (SHST). We find that the skyrmion exhibits an inertia-driven hypocycloid-type trajectory when it is excited by the oscillating SHST. This motion has not been achieved by an oscillating magnetic field, which only excites the breathing mode without the inertial effect. The distinct inertial effect can be explained in terms of a spin wave excitation in the skyrmion boundary which is induced by the non-uniform SHST. Furthermore, the inertia-driven resonant excitation provides a way of experimentally estimating the inertial mass of the skyrmion. Our results therefore pave the way for the development of skyrmion-based device applications.

  3. Load Loss Performance of an Autonomous Self-Excited Induction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a dynamic analysis of an autonomous Self-Excited Induction Generator (SEIG) showing dynamic loss of load performance. In stand-alone operation of the SEIG, especially when supplying a low power utility, an interesting performance of the SEIG observed for various power factor loads can be ...

  4. load loss performance of an autonomous self-excited induction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES Obe

    for wind energy conversion and also in small hydro plants [1, 2]. This has also increased the level of research in Induction Generators. (IGs) which was thought to have very less or no practical applications [3]. Researchers have found that a Self-Excited Induction Genera- tor (SEIG) could be used with a conventional energy ...

  5. Quantum dimensions from local operator excitations in the Ising model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputa, Paweł; Rams, Marek M.

    2017-02-01

    We compare the time evolution of entanglement measures after local operator excitation in the critical Ising model with predictions from conformal field theory. For the spin operator and its descendants we find that Rényi entropies of a block of spins increase by a constant that matches the logarithm of the quantum dimension of the conformal family. However, for the energy operator we find a small constant contribution that differs from the conformal field theory answer equal to zero. We argue that the mismatch is caused by the subtleties in the identification between the local operators in conformal field theory and their lattice counterpart. Our results indicate that evolution of entanglement measures in locally excited states not only constraints this identification, but also can be used to extract non-trivial data about the conformal field theory that governs the critical point. We generalize our analysis to the Ising model away from the critical point, states with multiple local excitations, as well as the evolution of the relative entropy after local operator excitation and discuss universal features that emerge from numerics.

  6. Spectroscopic probes of vibrationally excited molecules at chemically significant energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzo, T.R. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This project involves the application of multiple-resonance spectroscopic techniques for investigating energy transfer and dissociation dynamics of highly vibrationally excited molecules. Two major goals of this work are: (1) to provide information on potential energy surfaces of combustion related molecules at chemically significant energies, and (2) to test theoretical modes of unimolecular dissociation rates critically via quantum-state resolved measurements.

  7. Parametric excitation of plasma oscillations in a Josephson tunnel junction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Christen Kjeldahl; Kofoed, Bent; Pedersen, Niels Falsig

    1975-01-01

    Experimental evidence for subharmonic parametric excitation of plasma oscillations in Josephson tunnel junctions is presented. The experiments described are performed by measuring the microwave power necessary to switch a Josephson−tunnel junction biased in the zero−voltage state to a finite−volt......−voltage state. Journal of Applied Physics is copyrighted by The American Institute of Physics....

  8. Optical evidence of quantum rotor orbital excitations in orthorhombic manganites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovaleva, N. N., E-mail: nkovaleva@sci.lebedev.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation); Kugel, K. I. [Loughborough University, Department of Physics (United Kingdom); Potůček, Z. [Czech Technical University (Czech Republic); Kusmartseva, O. E. [Loughborough University, Department of Physics (United Kingdom); Goryachev, N. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Problems in Chemical Physics (Russian Federation); Bryknar, Z. [Czech Technical University (Czech Republic); Demikhov, E. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation); Trepakov, V. A.; Dejneka, A. [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Institute of Physics (Czech Republic); Kusmartsev, F. V. [Loughborough University, Department of Physics (United Kingdom); Stoneham, A. M. [University College London, London Centre for Nanotechnology (United Kingdom)

    2016-05-15

    In magnetic compounds with Jahn–Teller (JT) ions (such as Mn{sup 3+} or Cu{sup 2+}), the ordering of the electron or hole orbitals is associated with cooperative lattice distortions. There the role of JT effect, although widely recognized, is still elusive in the ground state properties. Here we discovered that, in these materials, there exist excitations whose energy spectrum is described in terms of the total angular momentum eigenstates and is quantized as in quantum rotors found in JT centers. We observed features originating from these excitations in the optical spectra of a model compound LaMnO{sub 3} using ellipsometry technique. They appear clearly as narrow sidebands accompanying the electron transition between the JT split orbitals at neighboring Mn{sup 3+} ions, displaying anomalous temperature behavior around the Néel temperature T{sub N} ≈ 140 K. We present these results together with new experimental data on photoluminescence found in LaMnO{sub 3}, which lend additional support to the ellipsometry implying the electronic-vibrational origin of the quantum rotor orbital excitations. We note that the discovered orbital excitations of quantum rotors may play an important role in many unusual properties observed in these materials upon doping, such as high-temperature superconductivity and colossal magnetoresistance.

  9. A Novel Single-Excitation Capacitive Angular Position Sensor Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Bo; Zhou, Bin; Song, Mingliang; Lin, Zhihui; Zhang, Rong

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a high-precision capacitive angular position sensor (CAPS). The CAPS is designed to be excited by a single voltage to eliminate the matching errors of multi-excitations, and it is mainly composed of excitation electrodes, coupling electrodes, petal-form sensitive electrodes and a set of collection electrodes. A sinusoidal voltage is applied on the excitation electrodes, then the voltage couples to the coupling electrodes and sensitive electrodes without contact. The sensitive electrodes together with the set of collection electrodes encode the angular position to amplitude-modulated signals, and in order to increase the scale factor, the sensitive electrodes are patterned in the shape of petal-form sinusoidal circles. By utilizing a resolver demodulation method, the amplitude-modulated signals are digitally decoded to get the angular position. A prototype of the CAPS is fabricated and tested. The measurement results show that the accuracy of the sensor is 0.0036°, the resolution is 0.0009° and the nonlinearity over the full range is 0.008° (after compensation), indicating that the CAPS has great potential to be applied in high-precision applications with a low cost. PMID:27483278

  10. Power generation and control of a self excited squirrel cage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Technology ... The wind turbine is to be tied mechanically to the rotor of a squirrel cage induction which is fed with grid powerthat the generator supplies. ... Keywords: Wind Power systems, Self-excited squirrel cage induction generator, squirrel cage induction motor, backto- back converter, simulation ...

  11. Electron collisions and internal excitation in stored molecular ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buhr, H.

    2006-07-26

    In storage ring experiments the role, which the initial internal excitation of a molecular ion can play in electron collisions, and the effect of these collisions on the internal excitation are investigated. Dissociative recombination (DR) and inelastic and super-elastic collisions are studied in the system of He{sup +}{sub 2}. The DR rate coefficient at low energies depends strongly on the initial vibrational excitation in this system. Therefore changes in the DR rate coefficient are a very sensitive probe for changes in the vibrational excitation in He{sup +}{sub 2}, which is used to investigate the effects of collisions with electrons and residual gas species. The low-energy DR of HD{sup +} is rich with resonances from the indirect DR process, when certain initial rotational levels in the molecular ion are coupled to levels in neutral Rydberg states lying below the ion state. Using new procedures for high-resolution electron-ion collision spectroscopy developed here, these resonances in the DR cross section can be measured with high energy sensitivity. This allows a detailed comparison with results of a MQDT calculation in an effort to assign some or all of the resonances to certain intermediate Rydberg levels. (orig.)

  12. Excited electronic state decomposition mechanisms of clusters of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this report, electronically non-adiabatic decomposition pathways of clusters of dimethylnitramine and aluminum (DMNA-Al and DMNA-Al2) are discussed in comparison to isolated dimethylnitramine (DMNA). Electronically excited state processes of DMNA-Al and DMNA-Al2 are explored using the complete active space ...

  13. Two Step Excitation in Hot Atomic Sodium Vapor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docters, Bernd; Wrachtrup, Jörg; Gerhardt, Ilja

    2017-09-18

    A two step excitation scheme in hot atomic sodium vapor is experimentally investigated. The observed effects reflect a coupling between the 32S, 32P and the 32D states. We present the relative dependence on detuning of the two utilized lasers around λ = 589 nm and 819 nm. Unlike expected, we achieve a higher detuning dependence of the probe and the coupling laser by a factor of approximately three. The presented work aimed for a Rydberg excitation and quantum light storage. Such schemes are usually implemented with a red laser on the D-line transition and a coupling laser of shorter (typically blue) wavelength. Due to the fact that higher P-Rydberg states are approximately two times higher in energy than the 32D state, a two photon transition from the atomic excited 32P state to a Rydberg P state is feasible. This might circumvent laser frequency doubling whereby only two lasers might mediate a three photon process. The scheme of adding three k-vectors allows for electromagnetically induced transparency experiments in which the resulting k-vector can be effectively reduced to zero. By measurements utilizing electric fields and an analysis of the emission spectrum of the atomic vapor, we can exclude the excitation of the P-P two photon transition.

  14. Energy relaxation in optically excited Si and Ge nanocrystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saeed, S.

    2014-01-01

    The scientific objective of the research presented in this thesis is to explore energy relaxation processes of optically excited Si and Ge nanocrystals. The identification and deeper understanding of unique energy relaxation paths in these materials will open a new window of opportunity for these

  15. Quantum control of vibrational excitations in a heteronuclear ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Optimal control theory is applied to obtain infrared laser pulses for selective vibrational excitation in a heteronuclear diatomic molecule. The problem of finding the optimized field is phrased as a maximization of a cost functional which depends on the laser field. A time dependent Gaussian factor is introduced in the field ...

  16. Modal Testing of Mechanical Structures Subject to Operational Excitation Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, N.; Brincker, Rune; Herlufsen, H.

    2000-01-01

    Operational Modal Analysis also known as Output Only Modal Analysis has in the recent years been used for extracting modal parameters of civil engineering structures and is now becoming popular for mechanical structures. The advantage of the method is that no artificial excitation need to be appl...

  17. Modal Testing of Mechanical Structures subject to Operational Excitation Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, N.; Brincker, Rune; Herlufsen, H.

    2001-01-01

    Operational Modal Analysis also known as Output Only Modal Analysis has in the recent years been used for extracting modal parameters of civil engineering structures and is now becoming popular for mechanical structures. The advantage of the method is that no artificial excitation need to be appl...

  18. Size dependent deactivation of the excited state of DHICA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gauden, Magdalena; Pezzella, Alessandro; Panzella, Lucia

    2008-01-01

    Melanin is a natural pigment mainly responsible for the protection of skin and eyes from UV damage. 5,6- dihydroxyindole- 2 carboxylic acid (DHICA) is a key melanin building block. We have investigated the excited state dynamics of DHICA as well as its derivatives and oligomeric units using...

  19. Excitation energy transfer processes in condensed matter theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Jai

    1994-01-01

    Applying a unified quantum approach, contributors offer fresh insights into the theoretical developments in the excitation energy transfer processes in condensed matter This comprehensive volume examines Frenkel and Wannier excitonic processes; rates of excitonic processes; theory of laser sputter and polymer ablation; and polarons, excitonic polarons and self-trapping

  20. Excitation energy transfer from dye molecules to doped graphene

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Excitation energy transfer from dye molecules to doped graphene. #. R S SWATHIa and K L SEBASTIANb,∗. aSchool of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Thiruvananthapuram 695 016, India. bDepartment of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, ...