Sample records for excitation phase coexistence

  1. Phase coexistence in nuclei (United States)

    Gulminelli, F.


    In this work the general theory of first order phase transitions in finite systems is discussed, with a special emphasis to the conceptual problems linked to a thermodynamic description for small, short-lived systems de-exciting in the vacuum as nuclear samples coming from heavy ion collisions. After a short review of the general theory of phase transitions in the framework of information theory, we will present the different possible extensions to the field of finite systems. The concept of negative heat capacity, developed in the early seventies in the context of self-gravitating systems, will be reinterpreted in the general framework of convexity anomalies of thermostatistical potentials. The connection with the distribution of the order parameter will lead us to a definition of first order phase transitions in finite systems based on topology anomalies of the event distribution in the space of observations. A careful study of the thermodynamic limit will provide a bridge with the standard theory of phase transitions and show that in a wide class of physical situations the different statistical ensembles are irreducibly inequivalent. In the second part of the paper we will apply the theoretical ideas developed in the first part to the possible observation of a liquid-to-gas-like phase transition in heavy ion collisions. The applicability of equilibrium concepts in a dynamical collisional process without boundary conditions will first be critically discussed. The observation of abnormally large partial energy fluctuations in carefully selected samples of collisions detected with the MULTICS-Miniball and INDRA array will then be reported as a strong evidence of a first order phase transition with negative heat capacity in the nuclear equation of state. Coexistence de phase dans les noyaux Ce papier présente une revue de la théorie générale des transitions de phase du premier ordre dans les petits systèmes, avec une attention particulière aux probl

  2. Phase coexistence in nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulminelli, F


    In this work the general theory of first order phase transitions in finite systems is discussed, with a special emphasis to the conceptual problems linked to a thermodynamic description for small, short-lived systems de-exciting in the vacuum as nuclear samples coming from heavy ion collisions. After a short review of the general theory of phase transitions in the framework of information theory; we will present the different possible extensions to the field of finite systems. The concept of negative heat capacity, developed in the early seventies in the context of self-gravitating systems, will be reinterpreted in the general framework of convexity anomalies of thermo-statistical potentials. The connection with the distribution of the order parameter will lead us to a definition of first order phase transitions in finite systems based on topology anomalies of the event distribution in the space of observations. A careful study of the thermodynamic limit will provide a bridge with the standard theory of phase transitions and show that in a wide class of physical situations the different statistical ensembles are irreducibly inequivalent. In the second part of the paper we will apply the theoretical ideas developed in the first part to the possible observation of a liquid-to-gas-like phase transition in heavy ion collisions. The applicability of equilibrium concepts in a dynamical collisional process without boundary conditions will first be critically discussed. The observation of abnormally large partial energy fluctuations in carefully selected samples of collisions detected with the MULTICS-Miniball array will then be reported as a strong evidence of a first order phase transition with negative heat capacity in the nuclear equation of state. (author)

  3. Phase Coexistence in Insect Swarms (United States)

    Sinhuber, Michael; Ouellette, Nicholas T.


    Animal aggregations are visually striking, and as such are popular examples of collective behavior in the natural world. Quantitatively demonstrating the collective nature of such groups, however, remains surprisingly difficult. Inspired by thermodynamics, we applied topological data analysis to laboratory insect swarms and found evidence for emergent, material-like states. We show that the swarms consist of a core "condensed" phase surrounded by a dilute "vapor" phase. These two phases coexist in equilibrium, and maintain their distinct macroscopic properties even though individual insects pass freely between them. We further define a pressure and chemical potential to describe these phases, extending theories of active matter to aggregations of macroscopic animals and laying the groundwork for a thermodynamic description of collective animal groups.

  4. Tunable two-phase coexistence in half-doped manganites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We discuss our very interesting experimental observation that the low- temperature two-phase coexistence in half-doped manganites is multi-valued (at any field) in that we can tune the coexisting antiferromagnetic-insulating (AF-I) and the ferromagnetic-metallic (FM-M) phase fractions by following different paths in ...

  5. Tunable two-phase coexistence in half-doped manganites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    temperature two-phase coexistence in half-doped manganites is multi-valued (at any field) in that we can tune the coexisting antiferromagnetic-insulating (AF-I) and the ferromagnetic-metallic (FM-M) phase fractions by following different paths in (; ...

  6. On the coexistence of the magnetic phases in chromium alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebech, Bente; Mikke, K.


    Detailed neutron diffraction investigations have been performed on Cr-Re alloys in order to explain the several observations in Cr alloys of the coexistence of a commensurable and an oscillatory magnetic phase. It is concluded that the individual magnetic phases probably occur in separate domains....

  7. Geometric constraints on phase coexistence in vanadium dioxide single crystals. (United States)

    McGahan, Christina; Gamage, Sampath; Liang, Jiran; Cross, Brendan; Marvel, Robert E; Haglund, Richard F; Abate, Yohannes


    The appearance of stripe phases is a characteristic signature of strongly correlated quantum materials, and its origin in phase-changing materials has only recently been recognized as the result of the delicate balance between atomic and mesoscopic materials properties. A vanadium dioxide (VO2) single crystal is one such strongly correlated material with stripe phases. Infrared nano-imaging on low-aspect-ratio, single-crystal VO2 microbeams decorated with resonant plasmonic nanoantennas reveals a novel herringbone pattern of coexisting metallic and insulating domains intercepted and altered by ferroelastic domains, unlike previous reports on high-aspect-ratio VO2 crystals where the coexisting metal/insulator domains appear as alternating stripe phases perpendicular to the growth axis. The metallic domains nucleate below the crystal surface and grow towards the surface with increasing temperature as suggested by the near-field plasmonic response of the gold nanorod antennas.

  8. Phase coexistence in ferroelectric solid solutions: Formation of monoclinic phase with enhanced piezoelectricity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Lu


    Full Text Available Phase morphology and corresponding piezoelectricity in ferroelectric solid solutions were studied by using a phenomenological theory with the consideration of phase coexistence. Results have shown that phases with similar energy potentials can coexist, thus induce interfacial stresses which lead to the formation of adaptive monoclinic phases. A new tetragonal-like monoclinic to rhombohedral-like monoclinic phase transition was predicted in a shear stress state. Enhanced piezoelectricity can be achieved by manipulating the stress state close to a critical stress field. Phase coexistence is universal in ferroelectric solid solutions and may provide a way to optimize ultra-fine structures and proper stress states to achieve ultrahigh piezoelectricity.

  9. Coexistent physics of massive black holes in the phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Ming


    The coexistent physics of de Rham-Gabada-dze-Tolley (dRGT) massive black holes and holographic massive black holes is investigated in the extended phase space where the cosmological constant is viewed as pressure. Van der Waals like phase transitions are found for both of them. Coexistent curves of reduced pressure and reduced temperature are found to be different from that of RN-AdS black holes. Coexistent curves of reduced Gibbs free energy and reduced pressure show that Gibbs free energy in the canonical ensemble decreases monotonically with the increasing pressure. The concept number density is introduced to study the coexistent physics. It is uncovered that with the increasing pressure, the number densities of small black holes (SBHs) and large black holes (LBHs) change monotonically in the contrary directions till finally reaching the same value at the critical points of the phase transitions. In other words, with the increasing pressure the number density differences between SBHs and LBHs decrease mono...

  10. Quantum Phase Transition of Polaritonic Excitations in a Multi-Excitation Coupled Array (United States)

    Shen, Lituo; Chen, Rongxin; Wu, Huaizhi; Yang, Zhenbiao; Irish, E. K.; Zheng, Shibiao


    We analyze the quantum phase transition-like behavior in the lowest energy state of a two-site coupled atom-cavity system, where each cavity contains one atom but the total excitation number is not limited to two. Under the large-detuning condition, we identify an interesting coexisting phase involving characteristics of both photonic superfluid and atomic insulator, which has not been previously revealed. For small hopping, we find that the signature of the photonic superfluid state becomes more pronounced with the increase in total excitation number, and that the boundaries of the various phases shift with respect to the case of two excitations. In the limit of small atom-field interaction, the polaritonic superfluid region becomes broader as the total excitation number increases. We use alternative order parameters to characterize the nonclassical property in the lowest-energy state, and find that the entanglement of photons in the photonic superfluid state has an approximately quadratic-like dependence on the total excitation number within the large-detuning limits. The second-order cross-correlation function is demonstrated to become inversely proportional to the total excitation number in the large detuning limits.

  11. Dynamical Scaling and Phase Coexistence in Topologically Constrained DNA Melting (United States)

    Fosado, Y. A. G.; Michieletto, D.; Marenduzzo, D.


    There is a long-standing experimental observation that the melting of topologically constrained DNA, such as circular closed plasmids, is less abrupt than that of linear molecules. This finding points to an important role of topology in the physics of DNA denaturation, which is, however, poorly understood. Here, we shed light on this issue by combining large-scale Brownian dynamics simulations with an analytically solvable phenomenological Landau mean field theory. We find that the competition between melting and supercoiling leads to phase coexistence of denatured and intact phases at the single-molecule level. This coexistence occurs in a wide temperature range, thereby accounting for the broadening of the transition. Finally, our simulations show an intriguing topology-dependent scaling law governing the growth of denaturation bubbles in supercoiled plasmids, which can be understood within the proposed mean field theory.

  12. Coexisting liquid phases underlie nucleolar sub-compartments (United States)

    Feric, Marina; Vaidya, Nilesh; Harmon, Tyler S.; Mitrea, Diana M.; Zhu, Lian; Richardson, Tiffany M.; Kriwacki, Richard W.; Pappu, Rohit V.; Brangwynne, Clifford P.


    Summary The nucleolus and other ribonucleoprotein (RNP) bodies are membrane-less organelles that appear to assemble through phase separation of their molecular components. However, many such RNP bodies contain internal sub-compartments, and the mechanism of their formation remains unclear. Here, we combine in vivo and in vitro studies, together with computational modeling, to show that sub-compartments within the nucleolus represent distinct, coexisting liquid phases. Consistent with their in vivo immiscibility, purified nucleolar proteins phase separate into droplets containing distinct non-coalescing phases that are remarkably similar to nucleoli in vivo. This layered droplet organization is caused by differences in the biophysical properties of the phases – particularly droplet surface tension – which arises from sequence-encoded features of their macromolecular components. These results suggest that phase separation can give rise to multilayered liquids that may facilitate sequential RNA processing reactions in a variety of RNP bodies. PMID:27212236

  13. Phase coexistence in polydisperse athermal polymer-colloidal mixture. (United States)

    Hlushak, S P; Kalyuzhnyi, Yu V; Cummings, P T


    A theoretical scheme developed earlier [Y. V. Kalyuzhnyi et al., Chem. Phys. Lett. 443, 243 (2007)] is used to calculate the full phase diagram of polydisperse athermal polymer-colloidal mixture with polydispersity in both colloidal and polymeric components. In the limiting case of bidisperse polymer-colloidal mixture, theoretical results are compared against computer simulation results. We present the cloud and shadow curves, critical binodals, and distribution functions of the coexisting phases and discuss the effects of polydispersity on their behavior. According to our analysis polydispersity extends the region of the phase instability, shifting the critical point to the lower values of the pressure and density. For the high values of the pressure polydispersity causes strong fractionation effects, with the large size colloidal particles preferring the low-density shadow phase and long chain length polymeric particles preferring the high-density shadow phase.

  14. Phase coexistence in manganites: doping and structural dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alejandro, G; Granada, M; Laura-Ccahuana, D; Tovar, M; Winkler, E; Causa, M T [Centro Atomico Bariloche, 8400 San Carlos de Bariloche, RIo Negro (Argentina); Otero-Leal, M, E-mail: [Departamentos de Quimica-Fisica y Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 15782-Santiago de Compostela (Spain)


    We present a study on the phase coexistence (PC) of paramagnetic insulating (PM-I) and ferromagnetic metallic (FM-M) phases in the La{sub 1-y}(Ca{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}){sub y}MnO{sub 3} system with 0.23 {<=} y {<=} 0.45. The study was performed by means of magnetization and electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements. At high temperatures the ESR spectrum consists of a single symmetric PM line. At T{sub C}, a FM asymmetric line is observed shifted to low fields. In a {Delta}T temperature range both lines are visible, defining a range of PC. For x = 0, we obtained {Delta}T as a function of the carrier concentration y, finding that the largest {Delta}T corresponds to y = 0.25. For this y value, the extreme compounds are orthorhombic and rhombohedral for x = 0 and 1, respectively. The rhombohedral to orthorhombic temperature transition (T{sub RO}) was determined as a function of x. We found that {Delta}T{ne}0 only if T{sub C} < T{sub RO}. The PM-I/FM-M phase coexistence was only observed in the orthorhombic phase while seems to be incompatible with the more symmetric rhombohedral phase.

  15. Shape coexistence in the neutron-deficient mercury isotopes studied through Coulomb excitation

    CERN Document Server

    Bree, Nick

    This thesis describes the analysis and results of a series of Coulomb-excitation experiments on even-even neutron-deficient mercury isotopes aimed at obtaining a more detailed description of shape coexistence. Two experimental campaigns have been undertaken in the Summer of 2007 and 2008. Pure beams of 182,184,186,188Hg were produced and accelerated at the REX-ISOLDE radioactive-beam facility, located at CERN (Geneva, Switzerland). The beams were guided to collide with a stable target to induce Coulomb excitation. The scattered particles were registered by a double-sided silicon strip detector, and the emitted gamma rays by the MINIBALL gamma-ray spectrometer. The motivation to study these mercury isotopes, focused around shape coexistence in atomic nuclei, is addressed in chapter 1, as well as an overview of the knowledge in this region of the nuclear chart. A theoretical description of Coulomb excitation is presented in the second chapter, while the third chapter describes the setup employed for the experim...

  16. Measurements of shape co-existence in $^{182,184}$Hg using Coulomb excitation

    CERN Multimedia

    Voulot, D; Paul, E S; Siem, S; Czosnyka, T; Napiorkowski, P J; Iwanicki, J S


    We propose to exploit the unique capability of ISOLDE to provide post-accelerated $^{182,184}$Hg ions from the REX facility to enable the lowest states of these nuclei to be Coulomb excited. By measuring the $\\gamma$-ray yields using the MINIBALL array we can measure the transition and diagonal E2 matrix elements for these states. This will give quantitative information about the nature of the shape coexistence in these nuclei and allow the sign of the quadrupole deformation be determined for the first time. We require 24 shifts to fulfill the aims of the experiment.

  17. Coulomb excitation of $^{182-184}$ Hg: Shape coexistence in the neutron-deficient lead region

    CERN Multimedia

    We put forward a study of the interplay between individual nucleon behavior and collective degrees of freedom in the nucleus, as manifested in shape coexistence in the neutron-deficient lead region. As a first step of this experimental campaign, we propose to perform Coulomb excitation on light mercury isotopes to probe their excited states and determine transitional and diagonal E2 matrix elements, especially reducing the current uncertainties. The results from previous Coulomb excitation measurements in this mass region performed with 2.85 MeV/u beams from REX-ISOLDE have shown the feasibility of these experiments. Based on our past experience and the results obtained, we propose a detailed study of the $^{182-184}$Hg nuclei, that exhibit a pronounced mixing between 2 low-lying excited states of apparently different deformation character, using the higher energy beams from HIE-ISOLDE which are crucial to reach our goal. The higher beam energy should result in an increased sensitivity with respect to the qua...

  18. Liquid-gas Coexistence Phase in Nuclear Matter (United States)

    Salcedo, Alan; Lopez, Jorge; Terrazas, Sergio; Gaytan, Adrian


    Nuclear matter at low temperatures (T CMD). In this study, we present data obtained from CMD simulations and a method to determine a 3-dimensional phase diagram using these results, interpolation techniques, and Maxwell constructions. We performed more than 300 simulations of nuclear matter for settings of 2000 nucleons with isospin content X (Z/A) = 0.3, 0.35, 0.4, 0.45, 0.5 at temperatures of T = 1-5 MeV and T = 10-15 MeV, with densities between 0.02 fm-3 and 0.18 fm-3. Our results of pressure per nucleon for each system were stored and analyzed to construct a phase diagram. From this study, we aim to extract the boundaries and shape of the liquid-gas coexistence region for neutron-rich nuclear matter, thus determining its intrinsic physical conditions.

  19. Shape coexistence in neutron-rich Sr isotopes : Coulomb excitation of $^{96}$Sr

    CERN Multimedia

    Clement, E; Siem, S; Czosnyka, T


    The nuclei in the mass region A $\\cong$ 100 around Sr and Zr show a dramatic change of the nuclear ground-state shape from near spherical for N $\\leq$ 58 to strongly deformed for N $\\geq$ 60. Theoretical calculations predict the coexistence of slightly oblate and strongly prolate deformed configurations in the transitional region. However, excited rotational structures based on the highly deformed configuration, which becomes the ground state at N = 60, are not firmly established in the lighter isotopes, and the earlier interpretation of a very abrupt change of shape has been challenged by recent experimental results in favor of a rather gradual change. We propose to study the electromagnetic properties of the neutron-rich nucleus $_{38}^{96}$Sr$_{58}$ by low-energy Coulomb excitation using the REX-ISOLDE facility and the MINIBALL detector array. Both transitional and diagonal matrix elements will be extracted, resulting in a complete description of the transition strengths and quadrupole moments of the low-l...

  20. Excitation power quantities in phase resonance testing of nonlinear systems with phase-locked-loop excitation (United States)

    Peter, Simon; Leine, Remco I.


    Phase resonance testing is one method for the experimental extraction of nonlinear normal modes. This paper proposes a novel method for nonlinear phase resonance testing. Firstly, the issue of appropriate excitation is approached on the basis of excitation power considerations. Therefore, power quantities known from nonlinear systems theory in electrical engineering are transferred to nonlinear structural dynamics applications. A new power-based nonlinear mode indicator function is derived, which is generally applicable, reliable and easy to implement in experiments. Secondly, the tuning of the excitation phase is automated by the use of a Phase-Locked-Loop controller. This method provides a very user-friendly and fast way for obtaining the backbone curve. Furthermore, the method allows to exploit specific advantages of phase control such as the robustness for lightly damped systems and the stabilization of unstable branches of the frequency response. The reduced tuning time for the excitation makes the commonly used free-decay measurements for the extraction of backbone curves unnecessary. Instead, steady-state measurements for every point of the curve are obtained. In conjunction with the new mode indicator function, the correlation of every measured point with the associated nonlinear normal mode of the underlying conservative system can be evaluated. Moreover, it is shown that the analysis of the excitation power helps to locate sources of inaccuracies in the force appropriation process. The method is illustrated by a numerical example and its functionality in experiments is demonstrated on a benchmark beam structure.

  1. A novel phase portrait for neuronal excitability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Drion

    Full Text Available Fifty years ago, FitzHugh introduced a phase portrait that became famous for a twofold reason: it captured in a physiological way the qualitative behavior of Hodgkin-Huxley model and it revealed the power of simple dynamical models to unfold complex firing patterns. To date, in spite of the enormous progresses in qualitative and quantitative neural modeling, this phase portrait has remained a core picture of neuronal excitability. Yet, a major difference between the neurophysiology of 1961 and of 2011 is the recognition of the prominent role of calcium channels in firing mechanisms. We show that including this extra current in Hodgkin-Huxley dynamics leads to a revision of FitzHugh-Nagumo phase portrait that affects in a fundamental way the reduced modeling of neural excitability. The revisited model considerably enlarges the modeling power of the original one. In particular, it captures essential electrophysiological signatures that otherwise require non-physiological alteration or considerable complexification of the classical model. As a basic illustration, the new model is shown to highlight a core dynamical mechanism by which calcium channels control the two distinct firing modes of thalamocortical neurons.

  2. Prediction of the phase equilibria of methane hydrates using the direct phase coexistence methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalis, Vasileios K.; Costandy, Joseph; Economou, Ioannis G., E-mail: [Chemical Engineering Program, Texas A and M University at Qatar, P.O. Box 23847, Doha (Qatar); Tsimpanogiannis, Ioannis N.; Stubos, Athanassios K. [Environmental Research Laboratory, National Center for Scientific Research NCSR “Demokritos,” Aghia Paraskevi, Attiki GR-15310 (Greece)


    The direct phase coexistence method is used for the determination of the three-phase coexistence line of sI methane hydrates. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are carried out in the isothermal–isobaric ensemble in order to determine the coexistence temperature (T{sub 3}) at four different pressures, namely, 40, 100, 400, and 600 bar. Methane bubble formation that results in supersaturation of water with methane is generally avoided. The observed stochasticity of the hydrate growth and dissociation processes, which can be misleading in the determination of T{sub 3}, is treated with long simulations in the range of 1000–4000 ns and a relatively large number of independent runs. Statistical averaging of 25 runs per pressure results in T{sub 3} predictions that are found to deviate systematically by approximately 3.5 K from the experimental values. This is in good agreement with the deviation of 3.15 K between the prediction of TIP4P/Ice water force field used and the experimental melting temperature of ice Ih. The current results offer the most consistent and accurate predictions from MD simulation for the determination of T{sub 3} of methane hydrates. Methane solubility values are also calculated at the predicted equilibrium conditions and are found in good agreement with continuum-scale models.

  3. Two Coexisting Liquid Phases in Switchable Ionic Liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Juan; Lao, David; Sui, Xiao; Zhou, Yufan; Nune, Satish K.; Ma, Xiang; Troy, Tyler; Ahmed, Musahid; Zhu, Zihua; Heldebrant, David J.; Yu, Xiao-Ying


    In situ time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) coupled with a vacuum compatible microfluidic reactor, System for Analysis at Liquid Vacuum Interface (SALVI), has enabled the first spatial mapping of the switchable ionic liquids (SWILs) derived from 1,8-diazabicycloundec-7-ene (DBU) and 1-hexanol. As predicted by molecular dynamic simulations, our molecular imaging results confirmed a dynamic heterogeneous molecular structure with ionic regions (high CO2 concentration) coexisting with non-ionic regions (no CO2) where stoichiometry would indicate otherwise. Chemical speciation was also found to be more complex than initially thought, with spectral principal component analysis identifying dimers that ultimately highlight a highly complex molecular structure unique to SWILs. The spatial chemical mapping enabled by ToF-SIMS and SALVI advances the understanding of how the heterogeneous molecular structure impacts the dynamic physical and thermodynamic properties or SWILs.

  4. Determining the three-phase coexistence line in methane hydrates using computer simulations (United States)

    Conde, M. M.; Vega, C.


    Molecular dynamics simulations have been performed to estimate the three-phase (solid hydrate-liquid water-gaseous methane) coexistence line for the water-methane binary mixture. The temperature at which the three phases are in equilibrium was determined for three different pressures, namely, 40, 100, and 400 bar by using direct coexistence simulations. In the simulations water was described by using either TIP4P, TIP4P/2005, or TIP4P/Ice models and methane was described as simple Lennard-Jones interaction site. Lorentz-Berthelot combining rules were used to obtain the parameters of the cross interactions. For the TIP4P/2005 model positive deviations from the energetic Lorentz-Berthelot rule were also considered to indirectly account for the polarization of methane when introduced in liquid water. To locate the three-phase coexistence point, two different global compositions were used, which yielded (to within statistical uncertainty) the same predictions for the three-phase coexistence temperatures, although with a somewhat different time evolution. The three-phase coexistence temperatures obtained at different pressures when using the TIP4P/Ice model of water were in agreement with the experimental results. The main reason for this is that the TIP4P/Ice model reproduces the melting point of ice Ih.

  5. Shape coexistence in krypton and selenium light isotopes studied through Coulomb excitation of radioactive ions beams; Etude de la coexistence de formes dans les isotopes legers du krypton et du selenium par excitation Coulombienne de faisceaux radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clement, E


    The light krypton isotopes show two minima in their potential energy corresponding to elongated (prolate) and compressed (oblate) quadrupole deformation. Both configuration are almost equally bound and occur within an energy range of less than 1 MeV. Such phenomenon is called shape coexistence. An inversion of the ground state deformation from prolate in Kr{sup 78} to oblate in Kr{sup 72} with strong mixing of the configurations in Kr{sup 74} and Kr{sup 76} was proposed based on the systematic of isotopic chain. Coulomb excitation experiments are sensitive to the quadrupole moment. Coulomb excitation experiments of radioactive Kr{sup 74} and Kr{sup 76} beam were performed at GANIL using the SPIRAL facility and the EXOGAM spectrometer. The analysis of these experiments resulted in a complete description of the transition strength and quadrupole moments of the low-lying states. They establish the prolate character of the ground state and an oblate excited state. A complementary lifetime measurement using a 'plunger' device was also performed. Transition strength in neighboring nuclei were measured using the technique of intermediate energy Coulomb excitation at GANIL. The results on the Se{sup 68} nucleus show a sharp change in structure with respects to heavier neighboring nuclei. (author)

  6. Probing shape coexistence in neutron-deficient $^{72}$Se via low-energy Coulomb excitation

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to study the evolution of nuclear structure in neutron-­deficient $^{72}$Se by performing a low-­energy Coulomb excitation measurement. Matrix elements will be determined for low-­lying excited states allowing for a full comparison with theoretical predictions. Furthermore, the intrinsic shape of the ground state, and the second 0$^{+}$ state, will be investigated using the quadrupole sum rules method.

  7. Generic two-phase coexistence in the quadratic contact process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Xiaofang [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    This thesis focuses on the demonstration of the existence of and analysis of phenomena related to the discontinuous non-equilibrium phase transition between an active (or reactive) state and a poisoned (or extinguished) state occurring in a stochastic lattice-gas realization of Schloegl’s second model for autocatalysis.

  8. Phase coexistence and electric-field control of toroidal order in oxide superlattices (United States)

    Damodaran, A. R.; Clarkson, J. D.; Hong, Z.; Liu, H.; Yadav, A. K.; Nelson, C. T.; Hsu, S.-L.; McCarter, M. R.; Park, K.-D.; Kravtsov, V.; Farhan, A.; Dong, Y.; Cai, Z.; Zhou, H.; Aguado-Puente, P.; García-Fernández, P.; Íñiguez, J.; Junquera, J.; Scholl, A.; Raschke, M. B.; Chen, L.-Q.; Fong, D. D.; Ramesh, R.; Martin, L. W.


    Systems that exhibit phase competition, order parameter coexistence, and emergent order parameter topologies constitute a major part of modern condensed-matter physics. Here, by applying a range of characterization techniques, and simulations, we observe that in PbTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattices all of these effects can be found. By exploring superlattice period-, temperature- and field-dependent evolution of these structures, we observe several new features. First, it is possible to engineer phase coexistence mediated by a first-order phase transition between an emergent, low-temperature vortex phase with electric toroidal order and a high-temperature ferroelectric a1/a2 phase. At room temperature, the coexisting vortex and ferroelectric phases form a mesoscale, fibre-textured hierarchical superstructure. The vortex phase possesses an axial polarization, set by the net polarization of the surrounding ferroelectric domains, such that it possesses a multi-order-parameter state and belongs to a class of gyrotropic electrotoroidal compounds. Finally, application of electric fields to this mixed-phase system permits interconversion between the vortex and the ferroelectric phases concomitant with order-of-magnitude changes in piezoelectric and nonlinear optical responses. Our findings suggest new cross-coupled functionalities.

  9. Phase coexistence and electric-field control of toroidal order in oxide superlattices. (United States)

    Damodaran, A R; Clarkson, J D; Hong, Z; Liu, H; Yadav, A K; Nelson, C T; Hsu, S-L; McCarter, M R; Park, K-D; Kravtsov, V; Farhan, A; Dong, Y; Cai, Z; Zhou, H; Aguado-Puente, P; García-Fernández, P; Íñiguez, J; Junquera, J; Scholl, A; Raschke, M B; Chen, L-Q; Fong, D D; Ramesh, R; Martin, L W


    Systems that exhibit phase competition, order parameter coexistence, and emergent order parameter topologies constitute a major part of modern condensed-matter physics. Here, by applying a range of characterization techniques, and simulations, we observe that in PbTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattices all of these effects can be found. By exploring superlattice period-, temperature- and field-dependent evolution of these structures, we observe several new features. First, it is possible to engineer phase coexistence mediated by a first-order phase transition between an emergent, low-temperature vortex phase with electric toroidal order and a high-temperature ferroelectric a1/a2 phase. At room temperature, the coexisting vortex and ferroelectric phases form a mesoscale, fibre-textured hierarchical superstructure. The vortex phase possesses an axial polarization, set by the net polarization of the surrounding ferroelectric domains, such that it possesses a multi-order-parameter state and belongs to a class of gyrotropic electrotoroidal compounds. Finally, application of electric fields to this mixed-phase system permits interconversion between the vortex and the ferroelectric phases concomitant with order-of-magnitude changes in piezoelectric and nonlinear optical responses. Our findings suggest new cross-coupled functionalities.

  10. Pulverization of the flux line lattice, the phase coexistence and the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The order-disorder transition in this specimen proceeds in a multi-step manner. The phase coexistence regime between the onset temperature of the PE and the spinodal temperature (where metastability effects cease) seems to comprise two parts, where ordered and disordered regions dominate the bulk behavior, ...

  11. Thermodynamical modeling of nuclear glasses: coexistence of amorphous phases; Modelisation thermodynamique des verres nucleaires: coexistence entre phases amorphes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adjanor, G


    Investigating the stability of borosilicate glasses used in the nuclear industry with respect to phase separation requires to estimate the Gibbs free energies of the various phases appearing in the material. In simulation, using current computational resources, a direct state-sampling of a glassy system with respect to its ensemble statistics is not ergodic and the estimated ensemble averages are not reliable. Our approach consists in generating, at a given cooling rate, a series of quenches, or paths connecting states of the liquid to states of the glass, and then in taking into account the probability to generate the paths leading to the different glassy states in ensembles averages. In this way, we introduce a path ensemble formalism and calculate a Landau free energy associated to a glassy meta-basin. This method was validated by accurately mapping the free energy landscape of a 38-atom glassy cluster. We then applied this approach to the calculation of the Gibbs free energies of binary amorphous Lennard-Jones alloys, and checked the correlation between the observed tendencies to order or to phase separate and the computed Gibbs free energies. We finally computed the driving force to phase separation in a simplified three-oxide nuclear glass modeled by a Born-Mayer-Huggins potential that includes a three-body term, and we compared the estimated quantities to the available experimental data. (author)

  12. Cryogenic optical nano-imaging of phase coexistence in correlated oxides (United States)

    McLeod, A. S.; van Heumen, E.; Zhang, J.; Ramirez, J. G.; Huang, Z.; Wang, S.; Saerbeck, T.; Guenon, S.; Goldflam, M.; Anderegg, L.; Kelly, P.; Mueller, A.; Liu, M. K.; Wu, W. B.; Avert, R. D.; Schuller, I. K.; Basov, D. N.

    Correlated transition metal oxides exhibit a bevy of textbook electronic phases characterized by richly interacting lattice, spin, and orbital degrees of freedom. A broad array of accessible thermodynamic phases, ranging from Mott insulator to superconductor, enables abrupt transitions in physical and electronic properties under modest external stimuli, accompanied by spontaneous phase coexistence at the nano-scale. We present a novel near-field optical scanning probe capable of resolving the electronic character of such ``switched'' phases in the coexistent regime, even insulators, at 10 nm resolution and down to liquid helium temperatures. We demonstrate variable-temperature optical, structural, and magnetic imaging functionalities through studies of the insulator-metal transition in two prototypic correlated oxides under epitaxial strain. Structural and electronic attributes of the Mott transition are distinguished in a V2O3 thin film, whereas metastable electronic and magnetic phase coexistence is revealed across a 200K range in the strained manganite La0.67Ca0.33MnO3

  13. Phase-coexisting patterns, horizontal segregation, and controlled convection in vertically vibrated binary granular mixtures (United States)

    Ansari, Istafaul Haque; Rivas, Nicolas; Alam, Meheboob


    We report patterns consisting of coexistence of synchronous and asynchronous states [for example, a granular gas co-existing with (i) bouncing bed, (ii) undulatory subharmonic waves, and (iii) Leidenfrost-like states] in experiments on vertically vibrated binary granular mixtures in a Hele-Shaw cell. Most experiments have been carried out with equimolar binary mixtures of glass and steel balls of same diameter by varying the total layer height (F ) for a range of shaking acceleration (Γ ). All patterns as well as the related phase diagram in the (Γ ,F ) plane have been reproduced via molecular dynamics simulations of the same system. The segregation of heavier and lighter particles along the horizontal direction is shown to be the progenitor of such phase-coexisting patterns as confirmed in both experiment and simulation. At strong shaking we uncover a partial convection state in which a pair of convection rolls is found to coexist with a Leidenfrost-like state. The crucial role of the relative number density of two species on controlling the buoyancy-driven granular convection is demonstrated. The onset of horizontal segregation can be explained in terms of an anisotropic diffusion tensor.

  14. Shape coexistence at the proton drip-line: First identification of excited states in 180Pb

    CERN Document Server

    Rahkila, P; Pakarinen, J; Gray-Jones, C; Greenlees, P T; Jakobsson, U; Jones, P; Julin, R; Juutinen, S; Ketelhut, S; Koivisto, H; Leino, M; Nieminen, P; Nyman, M; Papadakis, P; Paschalis, S; Petri, M; Peura, P; Roberts, O J; Ropponen, T; Ruotsalainen, P; Saren, J; Scholey, C; Sorri, J; Tuff, A G; Uusitalo, J; Wadsworth, R; Bender, M; Heenen, P -H


    Excited states in the extremely neutron-deficient nucleus, 180Pb, have been identified for the first time using the JUROGAM II array in conjunction with the RITU recoil separator at the Accelerator Laboratory of the University of Jyvaskyla. This study lies at the limit of what is presently achievable with in-beam spectroscopy, with an estimated cross-section of only 10 nb for the 92Mo(90Zr,2n)180Pb reaction. A continuation of the trend observed in 182Pb and 184Pb is seen, where the prolate minimum continues to rise beyond the N=104 mid-shell with respect to the spherical ground state. Beyond mean-field calculations are in reasonable correspondence with the trends deduced from experiment.

  15. Phase Coexistence in Two-Dimensional Passive and Active Dumbbell Systems (United States)

    Cugliandolo, Leticia F.; Digregorio, Pasquale; Gonnella, Giuseppe; Suma, Antonio


    We demonstrate that there is a macroscopic coexistence between regions with hexatic order and regions in the liquid or gas phase over a finite interval of packing fractions in active dumbbell systems with repulsive power-law interactions in two dimensions. In the passive limit, this interval remains finite, similar to what has been found in two-dimensional systems of hard and soft disks. We did not find discontinuous behavior upon increasing activity from the passive limit.

  16. Application of the Double-Tangent Construction of Coexisting Phases to Any Type of Phase Equilibrium for Binary Systems Modeled with the Gamma-Phi Approach (United States)

    Jaubert, Jean-Noël; Privat, Romain


    The double-tangent construction of coexisting phases is an elegant approach to visualize all the multiphase binary systems that satisfy the equality of chemical potentials and to select the stable state. In this paper, we show how to perform the double-tangent construction of coexisting phases for binary systems modeled with the gamma-phi…

  17. Discontinuous non-equilibrium phase transition in a threshold Schloegl model for autocatalysis: Generic two-phase coexistence and metastability. (United States)

    Wang, Chi-Jen; Liu, Da-Jiang; Evans, James W


    Threshold versions of Schloegl's model on a lattice, which involve autocatalytic creation and spontaneous annihilation of particles, can provide a simple prototype for discontinuous non-equilibrium phase transitions. These models are equivalent to so-called threshold contact processes. A discontinuous transition between populated and vacuum states can occur selecting a threshold of N ≥ 2 for the minimum number, N, of neighboring particles enabling autocatalytic creation at an empty site. Fundamental open questions remain given the lack of a thermodynamic framework for analysis. For a square lattice with N = 2, we show that phase coexistence occurs not at a unique value but for a finite range of particle annihilation rate (the natural control parameter). This generic two-phase coexistence also persists when perturbing the model to allow spontaneous particle creation. Such behavior contrasts both the Gibbs phase rule for thermodynamic systems and also previous analysis for this model. We find metastability near the transition corresponding to a non-zero effective line tension, also contrasting previously suggested critical behavior. Mean-field type analysis, extended to treat spatially heterogeneous states, further elucidates model behavior.

  18. Discontinuous non-equilibrium phase transition in a threshold Schloegl model for autocatalysis: Generic two-phase coexistence and metastability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chi-Jen [Ames Laboratory–USDOE, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Department of Mathematics, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Liu, Da-Jiang [Ames Laboratory–USDOE, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Evans, James W. [Ames Laboratory–USDOE, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Department of Mathematics, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States)


    Threshold versions of Schloegl’s model on a lattice, which involve autocatalytic creation and spontaneous annihilation of particles, can provide a simple prototype for discontinuous non-equilibrium phase transitions. These models are equivalent to so-called threshold contact processes. A discontinuous transition between populated and vacuum states can occur selecting a threshold of N ≥ 2 for the minimum number, N, of neighboring particles enabling autocatalytic creation at an empty site. Fundamental open questions remain given the lack of a thermodynamic framework for analysis. For a square lattice with N = 2, we show that phase coexistence occurs not at a unique value but for a finite range of particle annihilation rate (the natural control parameter). This generic two-phase coexistence also persists when perturbing the model to allow spontaneous particle creation. Such behavior contrasts both the Gibbs phase rule for thermodynamic systems and also previous analysis for this model. We find metastability near the transition corresponding to a non-zero effective line tension, also contrasting previously suggested critical behavior. Mean-field type analysis, extended to treat spatially heterogeneous states, further elucidates model behavior.

  19. Theory and computer simulation of hard-core Yukawa mixtures: thermodynamical, structural and phase coexistence properties (United States)

    Mkanya, Anele; Pellicane, Giuseppe; Pini, Davide; Caccamo, Carlo


    We report extensive calculations, based on the modified hypernetted chain (MHNC) theory, on the hierarchical reference theory (HRT), and on Monte Carlo simulations, of thermodynamical, structural and phase coexistence properties of symmetric binary hard-core Yukawa mixtures (HCYM) with attractive interactions at equal species concentration. The obtained results are throughout compared with those available in the literature for the same systems. It turns out that the MHNC predictions for thermodynamic and structural quantities are quite accurate in comparison with the MC data. The HRT is equally accurate for thermodynamics, and slightly less accurate for structure. Liquid-vapor (LV) and liquid-liquid (LL) consolute coexistence conditions as emerging from simulations, are also highly satisfactorily reproduced by both the MHNC and HRT for relatively long ranged potentials. When the potential range reduces, the MHNC faces problems in determining the LV binodal line; however, the LL consolute line and the critical end point (CEP) temperature and density turn out to be still satisfactorily predicted within this theory. The HRT also predicts with good accuracy the CEP position. The possibility of employing liquid state theories HCYM for the purpose of reliably determining phase equilibria in multicomponent colloidal fluids of current technological interest, is discussed.

  20. Theory and computer simulation of hard-core Yukawa mixtures: thermodynamical, structural and phase coexistence properties. (United States)

    Mkanya, Anele; Pellicane, Giuseppe; Pini, Davide; Caccamo, Carlo


    We report extensive calculations, based on the modified hypernetted chain (MHNC) theory, on the hierarchical reference theory (HRT), and on Monte Carlo simulations, of thermodynamical, structural and phase coexistence properties of symmetric binary hard-core Yukawa mixtures (HCYM) with attractive interactions at equal species concentration. The obtained results are throughout compared with those available in the literature for the same systems. It turns out that the MHNC predictions for thermodynamic and structural quantities are quite accurate in comparison with the MC data. The HRT is equally accurate for thermodynamics, and slightly less accurate for structure. Liquid-vapor (LV) and liquid-liquid (LL) consolute coexistence conditions as emerging from simulations, are also highly satisfactorily reproduced by both the MHNC and HRT for relatively long ranged potentials. When the potential range reduces, the MHNC faces problems in determining the LV binodal line; however, the LL consolute line and the critical end point (CEP) temperature and density turn out to be still satisfactorily predicted within this theory. The HRT also predicts with good accuracy the CEP position. The possibility of employing liquid state theories HCYM for the purpose of reliably determining phase equilibria in multicomponent colloidal fluids of current technological interest, is discussed.

  1. Nonequilibrium phase coexistence and criticality near the second explosion limit of hydrogen combustion (United States)

    Newcomb, Lucas B.; Alaghemandi, Mohammad; Green, Jason R.


    While hydrogen is a promising source of clean energy, the safety and optimization of hydrogen technologies rely on controlling ignition through explosion limits: pressure-temperature boundaries separating explosive behavior from comparatively slow burning. Here, we show that the emergent nonequilibrium chemistry of combustible mixtures can exhibit the quantitative features of a phase transition. With stochastic simulations of the chemical kinetics for a model mechanism of hydrogen combustion, we show that the boundaries marking explosive domains of kinetic behavior are nonequilibrium critical points. Near the pressure of the second explosion limit, these critical points terminate the transient coexistence of dynamical phases—one that autoignites and another that progresses slowly. Below the critical point temperature, the chemistry of these phases is indistinguishable. In the large system limit, the pseudo-critical temperature converges to the temperature of the second explosion limit derived from mass-action kinetics.

  2. Structural instability and phase co-existence driven non-Gaussian resistance fluctuations in metal nanowires at low temperatures (United States)

    Bid, Aveek; Raychaudhuri, A. K.


    We report a detailed experimental study of the resistance fluctuations measured at low temperatures in high quality metal nanowires ranging in diameter from 15-200 nm. The wires exhibit co-existing face-centered-cubic and 4H hcp phases of varying degrees as determined from the x-ray diffraction data. We observe the appearance of a large non-Gaussian noise for nanowires of diameter smaller than 50 nm over a certain temperature range around ≈30 K. The diameter range ˜30 nm, where the noise has maxima coincides with the maximum volume fraction of the co-existing 4H hcp phase thus establishing a strong link between the fluctuation and the phase co-existence. The resistance fluctuation in the same temperature range also shows a deviation of 1/f behavior at low frequency with appearance of single frequency Lorentzian type contribution in the spectral power density. The fluctuations are thermally activated with an activation energy {E}{{a}}˜ 35 meV, which is of same order as the activation energy of creation of stacking fault in FCC metals that leads to the co-existing crystallographic phases. Combining the results of crystallographic studies of the nanowires and analysis of the resistance fluctuations we could establish the correlation between the appearance of the large resistance noise and the onset of phase co-existence in these nanowires.

  3. The liquid to vapor phase transition in excited nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, J.B.; Moretto, L.G.; Phair, L.; Wozniak, G.J.; Beaulieu, L.; Breuer, H.; Korteling, R.G.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Lefort, T.; Pienkowski, L.; Ruangma, A.; Viola, V.E.; Yennello, S.J.


    For many years it has been speculated that excited nuclei would undergo a liquid to vapor phase transition. For even longer, it has been known that clusterization in a vapor carries direct information on the liquid-vapor equilibrium according to Fisher's droplet model. Now the thermal component of the 8 GeV/c pion + 197 Au multifragmentation data of the ISiS Collaboration is shown to follow the scaling predicted by Fisher's model, thus providing the strongest evidence yet of the liquid to vapor phase transition.

  4. Monte Carlo molecular simulation of phase-coexistence for oil production and processing

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jun


    The Gibbs-NVT ensemble Monte Carlo method is used to simulate the liquid-vapor coexistence diagram and the simulation results of methane agree well with the experimental data in a wide range of temperatures. For systems with two components, the Gibbs-NPT ensemble Monte Carlo method is employed in the simulation while the mole fraction of each component in each phase is modeled as a Leonard-Jones fluid. As the results of Monte Carlo simulations usually contain huge statistical error, the blocking method is used to estimate the variance of the simulation results. Additionally, in order to improve the simulation efficiency, the step sizes of different trial moves is adjusted automatically so that their acceptance probabilities can approach to the preset values.

  5. Coexistence of type-II Dirac point and weak topological phase in Pt3Sn (United States)

    Kim, Minsung; Wang, Cai-Zhuang; Ho, Kai-Ming


    Intriguing topological phases may appear in both insulating and semimetallic states. Topological insulators exhibit topologically nontrivial band inversion, while topological Dirac/Weyl semimetals show "relativistic" linear band crossings. Here, we report an unusual topological state of Pt3Sn , where the two topological features appear simultaneously. Based on first-principles calculations, we show that Pt3Sn is a three-dimensional weak topological semimetal with topologically nontrivial band inversion between the valence and conduction bands, where the band structure also possesses type-II Dirac points at the boundary of two electron pockets. The formation of the Dirac points can be understood in terms of the representations of relevant symmetry groups and the compatibility relations. The topological surface states appear in accordance with the nontrivial bulk band topology. The unique coexistence of the two distinct topological features in Pt3Sn enlarges the material scope in topological physics, and is potentially useful for spintronics.

  6. Graphite-diamond phase coexistence study employing a neural-network mapping of the ab initio potential energy surface (United States)

    Khaliullin, Rustam Z.; Eshet, Hagai; Kühne, Thomas D.; Behler, Jörg; Parrinello, Michele


    An interatomic potential for the diamond and graphite phases of carbon has been created using a neural-network (NN) representation of the ab initio potential energy surface. The NN potential combines the accuracy of a first-principles description of both phases with the efficiency of empirical force fields and allows one to perform a molecular-dynamics study, of ab initio quality, of the thermodynamics of graphite-diamond coexistence. Good agreement between the experimental and calculated coexistence curves is achieved if nuclear quantum effects are included in the simulation.

  7. Isotropic to smectic A phase transitions in a porous matrix a case of multiporous phase coexistence

    CERN Document Server

    Bellini, T; Link, D R


    The one-dimensional smectic ordering of the liquid crystal 10CB incorporated in the pores of a silica aerogel has been investigated via x-ray scattering. Although the smectic order is made short-ranged by the aerogel host and the amplitude of the associated Bragg-like peak grows continuously with decreasing temperature, part of the first-order character of the 10CB's direct isotropic-smectic phase transition is retained in the discontinuous temperature dependence of the smectic correlation length. This behaviour contrasts with that of materials where the smectic phase develops from a locally orientationally ordered nematic and can be interpreted as a nucleation-type process.

  8. Coexistence of domain relaxation with ferroelectric phase transitions in BaTiO3 (United States)

    Yadav, Poonam; Sharma, Shivani; Lalla, N. P.


    Low-frequency dielectric relaxation in BaTiO3 (BTO) ceramics has been studied under the applied and dc-field cooled conditions in the frequency domain spanning from 5 mHz to 20 kHz in the temperature range of 85 K to 430 K. We observe the coexistence of broad as well as sharp maxima in the dielectric loss (tanδ) across each of the three phase transitions. The broad tanδ maxima were found to shift to higher temperatures at higher frequencies following Arrhenius behaviour with activation energies ranging from 0.18 eV to 0.23 eV. Each of the tan δ maxima slowly merged and finally vanished above the corresponding phase transitions. Both the permittivity and the tanδ loss were found to suppress and shift towards lower frequencies as a function of applied dc-field and dc-field cooled conditions. This has been attributed to the relaxation of the mesoscopic ferroelectric sub-domains/domain boundaries forming and rearranging differently across each phase transition in BTO. We also observe low-frequency relaxation above the Curie temperature. Arrhenius analysis owes its origin to the space-charge relaxation across the barrier layer formed between the electrode and the sample. The broad relaxation maxima in the tetragonal regime appear to be due to sub-domain polar-regions, which might appear due to the atomic-level mismatch of the accommodation strain appearing during tet-cubic martensitic phase transition. These regions further reform across the successive tet-ortho and ortho-rhombo phase transitions giving rise to corresponding relaxation maxima.

  9. On the phase-correlation and phase-fluctuation dynamics of a strongly excited Bose gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakhel, Roger R., E-mail: [Department of Basic Sciences, Faculty of Information Technology, Isra University, Amman 11622 (Jordan); The Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics, Strada Costiera 11, Trieste 34151 (Italy); Sakhel, Asaad R. [Department of Applied Sciences, Faculty of Engineering Technology, Balqa Applied University, Amman 11134 (Jordan); The Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics, Strada Costiera 11, Trieste 34151 (Italy); Ghassib, Humam B. [Department of Physics, The University of Jordan, Amman 11942 (Jordan)


    The dynamics of a Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) is explored in the wake of a violent excitation caused by a strong time-dependent deformation of a trapping potential under the action of an intense stirring laser. The system is a two-dimensional BEC confined to a power-law trap with hard-wall boundaries. The stirring agent is a moving red-detuned laser potential. The time-dependent Gross–Pitaevskii equation is solved numerically by the split-step Crank–Nicolson method in real time. The phase correlations and phase fluctuations are examined as functions of time to demonstrate the evolving properties of a strongly-excited BEC. Of special significance is the occurrence of spatial fluctuations while the condensate is being excited. These oscillations arise from stirrer-induced density fluctuations. While the stirrer is inside the trap, a reduction in phase coherence occurs, which is attributed to phase fluctuations.

  10. Noise-Enhanced Phase Synchronization in Excitable Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neiman, Alexander [Center for Neurodynamics, University of Missouri at St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri 63121 (United States); Schimansky-Geier, Lutz [Institute of Physics, Humboldt University at Berlin, Invalidenstrasse 110, D-10115, Berlin, (Germany); Cornell-Bell, Ann [Viatech Laboratories/Cognetix, Inc., Ivoryton, Connecticut 06442 (United States); Moss, Frank [Center for Neurodynamics, University of Missouri at St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri 63121 (United States)


    We study the response of one- and two-dimensional excitable media to external spatiotemporal noise in terms of synchronization. The media are modeled by a finite-size lattice of locally coupled nonidentical units of the FitzHugh-Nagumo type driven by additive noise. We show that at nonzero noise level the behavior of the system becomes extremely ordered which is manifested by entrainment of the mean frequencies and by stochastic phase locking of distant oscillators in the lattice. (c) 1999 The American Physical Society.

  11. Study of coexisting phases in Bi doped La0.67Sr0.33MnO3

    KAUST Repository

    Kambhala, Nagaiah


    We report the remarkable phase separation behaviour in La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 doped with Bi3+ ion at La site. The temperature dependent resistivity and magnetization of La0.67−xBixSr0.33MnO3 (x>0) show the presence of phase separation of ferromagnetic metallic and charge ordered antiferromagnetic insulating phases. Markedly, the field dependant magnetization studies of La0.67−xBixSr0.33MnO3 (x=0.3) show the metamagnetic nature of ferromagnetic metallic state implying the competition of coexisting ferromagnetic metallic and charge ordered antiferromagnetic phases. The electron spin resonance and exchange bias studies of La0.67−xBixSr0.33MnO3 (x=0.4 and 0.5) substantiate the coexistence of ferromagnetic clusters in antiferromagnetic matrix.

  12. Refined phase coexistence line between graphite and diamond from density-functional theory and van der Waals correction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Chol-Jun, E-mail: [Chair of Computational Materials Design (CMD), Faculty of Materials Science, Kim Il Sung University, Ryongnam-Dong, Taesong-District, Pyongyang, Democratic People' s Republic of Korea (Korea, Republic of); Ri, Gum-Chol; Jong, Un-Gi; Choe, Yong-Guk [Chair of Computational Materials Design (CMD), Faculty of Materials Science, Kim Il Sung University, Ryongnam-Dong, Taesong-District, Pyongyang, Democratic People' s Republic of Korea (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Sang-Jun [Chair of Superhigh Pressure Physics, Faculty of Physics, Kim Il Sung University, Ryongnam-Dong, Taesong-District, Pyongyang, Democratic People' s Republic of Korea (Korea, Republic of)


    In the present paper, we provide the refined pressure–temperature phase coexistence line between graphite and diamond with van der Waals (vdW) energy corrected density-functional theory and quasiharmonic approximation. A systematic comparison of the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) results for the lattice-related properties, phonon dispersion curves, and thermodynamic properties of graphite and diamond with and without vdW correction is presented. It is shown that adding the vdW interactions over the GGA exchange-correlation energy is positively necessary to obtain the reliable phase coexistence line between graphite and diamond, as compared with the experimental data. The 0 K phase transition pressure calculated with the GGA+vdW formalism is 1.6 GPa, which is sufficiently close to the value of 1.4 GPa extrapolated from the experimental values. We find the flattening of the coexistence line at low temperatures below ∼300K with GGA+vdW as well as GGA. The slope of the coexistence line calculated by the GGA+vdW approach is 2.5×10{sup −3} GPa K{sup −1} placed within the experimental value range.

  13. Coexistence of a metastable double hcp phase in bcc–fcc structure transition of Te under high pressure (United States)

    Akahama, Yuichi; Okawa, Naoki; Sugimoto, Toshiyuki; Fujihisa, Hiroshi; Hirao, Naoshisa; Ohishi, Yasuo


    The structural phase transitions of tellurium (Te) are investigated at pressures of up to 330 GPa at 298 K using an X-ray powder diffraction technique. In the experiments, it was found that the high-pressure bcc phase (Te-V) transitioned to the fcc phase (Te-VI) at 99 GPa, although a double hcp phase (dhcp) coexisted with the fcc phase. As the pressure was increased and decreased, the dhcp phase vanished at 255 and 100 GPa, respectively. These results suggest that the dhcp phase is metastable at 298 K and the structure of the highest-pressure phase of Te is fcc. The present results provide important information regarding the high-pressure behavior of group-16 elements.

  14. Direct phase coexistence molecular dynamics study of the phase equilibria of the ternary methane-carbon dioxide-water hydrate system. (United States)

    Michalis, Vasileios K; Tsimpanogiannis, Ioannis N; Stubos, Athanassios K; Economou, Ioannis G


    Molecular dynamics simulation is used to predict the phase equilibrium conditions of a ternary hydrate system. In particular, the direct phase coexistence methodology is implemented for the determination of the three-phase coexistence temperature of the methane-carbon dioxide-water hydrate system at elevated pressures. The TIP4P/ice, TraPPE-UA and OPLS-UA forcefields for water, carbon dioxide and methane respectively are used, in line with our previous studies of the phase equilibria of the corresponding binary hydrate systems. The solubility in the aqueous phase of the guest molecules of the respective binary and ternary systems is examined under hydrate-forming conditions, providing insight into the predictive capability of the methodology as well as the combination of these forcefields to accurately describe the phase behavior of the ternary system. The three-phase coexistence temperature is calculated at 400, 1000 and 2000 bar for two compositions of the methane-carbon dioxide mixture. The predicted values are compared with available calculations with satisfactory agreement. An estimation is also provided for the fraction of the guest molecules in the mixed hydrate phase under the conditions examined.

  15. Observation of coexistence of ferroelectric and antiferroelectric phases in Sc substituted BiFeO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durga Rao, T.; Asthana, Saket, E-mail:; Niranjan, Manish K.


    Highlights: • Coexisting ferro- and antiferroelectric phases in Sc substituted compounds. • Structural studies (XRD and Raman) supports the incorporation of Sc at B-site. • Presence of non-centrosymmetric monoclinic phase correlates with AFE ordering. • Grain resistance and activation energies increase with the Sc-content. • Electrical relaxations are originated due to oxygen vacancy movements. - Abstract: Polycrystalline BiFe{sub 1−x}Sc{sub x}O{sub 3} (x = 0, 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15) compounds were prepared using solid state reaction route. The X-ray diffraction patterns showed that Sc substitution stabilized the crystal structure in rhombohedral structure with R3c space group along with nominal percentage of monoclinic structure with Cm space group. Raman and FTIR measurements revealed that the substituent replaced Fe-ions and caused structural distortions. Co-existence of ferroelectric and antiferroelectric phases were observed in Sc substituted BiFeO{sub 3} and antiferroelectric phase is found to be evolved at the expense of ferroelectric phase with the Sc content. The electric field driven effects indicated that antiferroelectric phase was suppressed and ferroelectric phase was enriched. Frequency dependence of dielectric constant (ε{sub r}) and dielectric loss tangent (tan δ) at different temperatures were investigated. Further, grain resistances and grain boundary resistances were increased with the Sc content. Activation energies estimated from dielectric, impedance and modulus data indicated that these relaxations originated presumably due to the oxygen vacancy movements.



    Schindewolf, U.; Reheis, Th.


    A weak shift of the isotope concentration ratio Li6/Li7 was measured in the coexisting phases of the miscibility gap of lithium-ammonia solutions. Li6 is slightly enriched in the concentrated metallic phase (enrichment factor α = 1.009 ± 0.002). This effect can be enhanced in a counter-current column to yield any desired enrichment of the two isotopes. The counter current system and its operation were tested successfully with a sodium-potassium-ammonia solution.

  17. N3 and O2 Protonated Conformers of the Cytosine Mononucleotides Coexist in the Gas Phase (United States)

    Wu, R. R.; Hamlow, L. A.; He, C. C.; Nei, Y.-w.; Berden, G.; Oomens, J.; Rodgers, M. T.


    The gas-phase conformations of the protonated forms of the DNA and RNA cytosine mononucleotides, [pdCyd+H]+ and [pCyd+H]+, are examined by infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) action spectroscopy over the IR fingerprint and hydrogen-stretching regions complemented by electronic structure calculations. The low-energy conformations of [pdCyd+H]+ and [pCyd+H]+ and their relative stabilities are computed at the B3LYP/6-311+G(2d,2p)//B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) and MP2(full)/6-311+G(2d,2p)//B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) levels of theory. Comparisons of the measured IRMPD action spectra and B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) linear IR spectra computed for the low-energy conformers allow the conformers present in the experiments to be determined. Similar to that found in previous IRMPD action spectroscopy studies of the protonated forms of the cytosine nucleosides, [dCyd+H]+ and [Cyd+H]+, both N3 and O2 protonated cytosine mononucleotides exhibiting an anti orientation of cytosine are found to coexist in the experimental population. The 2'-hydroxyl substituent does not significantly influence the most stable conformations of [pCyd+H]+ versus those of [pdCyd+H]+, as the IRMPD spectral profiles of [pdCyd+H]+ and [pCyd+H]+ are similar. However, the presence of the 2'-hydroxyl substituent does influence the relative intensities of the measured IRMPD bands. Comparisons to IRMPD spectroscopy studies of the deprotonated forms of the cytosine mononucleotides, [pdCyd-H]- and [pCyd-H]-, provide insight into the effects of protonation versus deprotonation on the conformational features of the nucleobase and sugar moieties. Likewise, comparisons to results of IRMPD spectroscopy studies of the protonated cytosine nucleosides provide insight into the influence of the phosphate moiety on structure. Comparison with previous ion mobility results shows the superiority of IRMPD spectroscopy for distinguishing various protonation sites.

  18. Shape coexistence measurements in even-even neutron-deficient polonium isotopes by Coulomb excitation, using REX-ISOLDE and the Ge MINIBALL array

    CERN Multimedia

    Butler, P; Bastin, B; Kruecken, R; Voulot, D; Rahkila, P J; Orr, N A; Srebrny, J; Grahn, T; Clement, E; Paul, E S; Gernhaeuser, R A; Dorsival, A; Diriken, J V J; Huyse, M L; Iwanicki, J S

    The neutron-deficient polonium isotopes with two protons outside the closed Z=82 shell represent a set of nuclei with a rich spectrum of nucleus structure phenomena. While the onset of the deformation in the light Po isotopes is well established experimentally, questions remain concerning the sign of deformation and the magnitude of the mixing between different configurations. Furthermore, controversy is present with respect to the transition from the vibrational-like character of the heavier Po isotopes to the shape coexistence mode observed in the lighter Po isotopes. We propose to study this transition in the even-mass neutron-deficient $^{198,200,202}$Po isotopes by using post-accelerated beams from REX-ISOLDE and "safe"-energy Coulomb excitation. $\\gamma$- rays will be detected by the MINIBALL array. The measurements of the Coulomb excitation differential cross section will allow us to deduce both the transition and diagonal matrix elements for these nuclei and, combined with lifetime measurements, the s...

  19. Dynamic phase coexistence and non-Gaussian resistance fluctuations in VO2 near the metal-insulator transition (United States)

    Samanta, Sudeshna; Raychaudhuri, A. K.; Zhong, Xing; Gupta, A.


    We have carried out an extensive investigation on the resistance fluctuations (noise) in an epitaxial thin film of VO2 encompassing the metal-insulator transition (MIT) region to investigate the dynamic phase coexistence of metal and insulating phases. Both flicker noise as well as the Nyquist noise (thermal noise) were measured. The experiments showed that flicker noise, which has a 1 /f spectral power dependence, evolves with temperature in the transition region following the evolution of the phase fractions and is governed by activated kinetics. Importantly, closer to the insulating end of the transition, when the metallic phase fraction is low, the magnitude of the noise shows an anomaly and a strong non-Gaussian component of noise develops. In this region, the local electron temperature (as measured through the Nyquist noise thermometry) shows a deviation from the equilibrium bath temperature. It is proposed that this behavior arises due to current crowding where a substantial amount of the current is carried through well separated small metallic islands leading to a dynamic correlated current path redistribution and an enhanced effective local current density. This leads to a non-Gaussian component to the resistance fluctuation and an associated local deviation of the electron temperature from the bath. Our experiment establishes that phase coexistence leads to a strong inhomogeneity in the region of MIT that makes the current transport strongly inhomogeneous and correlated.

  20. Shock wave induced phase transitions from the trigonal phase to the coexisting amorphous and orthorhombic phases in α-FePO4 (United States)

    Joshi, K. D.; Suresh, N.; Jyoti, G.; Kulshreshtha, S. K.; Gupta, Satish C.; Sikka, S. K.


    The shock induced response of berlinite form of α-FePO4, which has been studied recently under static pressure, has been investigated in order to examine the effect of shear and high temperature on the process of amorphization in this material. The samples were shock loaded up to 8.5 GPa in a gas gun and after recovery were analyzed using x-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. The sample retrieved from 5.2 GPa revealed an irreversible phase transformation of some of the material to an amorphous and a crystalline orthorhombic structure (space group Cmcm), which are co-existing. The XRD pattern of the 8.5 GPa sample on the other hand displayed the presence of only the orthorhombic phase along with the ambient structure. The absence of the the amorphous phase is attributed to the reverse transformation due to the high residual temperature in the 8.5 GPa sample. Since the Cmcm phase is equilibrium high pressure phase of such materials, the results could be interpreted on the three level free energy diagram. The comparison of these results with those reported under static pressure is presented.

  1. Molecular Simulation of the Phase Diagram of Methane Hydrate: Free Energy Calculations, Direct Coexistence Method, and Hyperparallel Tempering. (United States)

    Jin, Dongliang; Coasne, Benoit


    Different molecular simulation strategies are used to assess the stability of methane hydrate under various temperature and pressure conditions. First, using two water molecular models, free energy calculations consisting of the Einstein molecule approach in combination with semigrand Monte Carlo simulations are used to determine the pressure-temperature phase diagram of methane hydrate. With these calculations, we also estimate the chemical potentials of water and methane and methane occupancy at coexistence. Second, we also consider two other advanced molecular simulation techniques that allow probing the phase diagram of methane hydrate: the direct coexistence method in the Grand Canonical ensemble and the hyperparallel tempering Monte Carlo method. These two direct techniques are found to provide stability conditions that are consistent with the pressure-temperature phase diagram obtained using rigorous free energy calculations. The phase diagram obtained in this work, which is found to be consistent with previous simulation studies, is close to its experimental counterpart provided the TIP4P/Ice model is used to describe the water molecule.

  2. Identification of excited states in sup 1 sup 6 sup 7 Os and sup 1 sup 6 sup 8 Os: shape coexistence at extreme neutron deficiency

    CERN Document Server

    Joss, D T; Page, R D; Simpson, J; Keenan, A; Amzal, N; Baeck, T; Bentley, M A; Cederwall, Bo; Cocks, J F C; Cullen, D M; Greenlees, P T; Helariutta, K; Jones, P M; Julin, R; Juutinen, S; Kankaanpaeae, H; Kettunen, H; Kuusiniemi, P; Leino, M; Muikku, M; Savelius, A; Uusitalo, J; Williams, S J


    Excited states in the very neutron-deficient isotopes sup 1 sup 6 sup 7 Os and sup 1 sup 6 sup 8 Os have been observed using the reaction sup 1 sup 1 sup 2 Sn( sup 5 sup 8 Ni, 2pxn). The JUROSPHERE gamma-ray spectrometer array was used in conjunction with the RITU gas-filled recoil separator to collect prompt gamma radiation in coincidence with recoils implanted in a silicon strip detector located at the focal plane of RITU. Using a selective recoil decay tagging technique it has been possible to unambiguously assign gamma-ray transitions to sup 1 sup 6 sup 7 Os and sup 1 sup 6 sup 8 Os through the characteristic alpha radioactivity of these nuclides. The high-spin structure of the bands is discussed in terms of quasiparticle configurations within the framework of the cranked shell model. The role of shape coexistence in sup 1 sup 6 sup 8 Os is examined with phenomenological three-band mixing calculations.

  3. Segregated phases in pulmonary surfactant membranes do not show coexistence of lipid populations with differentiated dynamic properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernardino de la Serna, Jorge; Orädd, Greger; Bagatolli, Luis


    from the two types of surfactant hydrophobic extract. These latter results suggest that lipid dynamics are similar in the coexisting fluid phases observed by fluorescence microscopy. Additionally, it is found that surfactant proteins significantly reduce the average intramolecular lipid mobility......The composition of pulmonary surfactant membranes and films has evolved to support a complex lateral structure, including segregation of ordered/disordered phases maintained up to physiological temperatures. In this study, we have analyzed the temperature-dependent dynamic properties of native...... endothermic transition ending close to 37°C. However, both types of membrane exhibit uniform lipid mobility when analyzed by electron paramagnetic resonance with different spin-labeled phospholipids. A similar feature is observed with pulse-field gradient NMR experiments on oriented membranes reconstituted...

  4. Anomalous partitioning of water in coexisting liquid phases of lipid multilayers near 100% relative humidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Yicong; Ghosh, Sajal K.; Bera, Sambhunath; Jiang, Zhang; Schlepütz, Christian M.; Karapetrova, Evguenia; Lurio, Laurence B.; Sinha, Sunil K.


    X-ray diffraction is used to determine the hydration dependence of a ternary mixture lipid multilayer structure which has phase separated into liquid-ordered (Lo) and liquid-disordered (Ld) phases. An anomaly is observed in the swelling behavior of the Ld phase at a relative humidity (RH) close to 100%, which is different from the anomalous swelling happens close to the main lipid gel-fluid transition. The lamellar repeat distance of the Ld phase swells by an extra 4 Å, well beyond the equilibrium spacing predicted by the inter-bilayer forces. This anomalous swelling is caused by the hydrophobic mismatch energy at the domain boundaries, which produces surprisingly long range effect.

  5. Phase coexistence and pinning of charge density waves by interfaces in chromium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, A.; Patel, S. K. K.; Uhlíř, V.; Kukreja, R.; Ulvestad, A.; Dufresne, E. M.; Sandy, A. R.; Fullerton, E. E.; Shpyrko, O. G.


    We study the temperature dependence of the charge density wave (CDW) in a chromium thin film using x-ray diffraction. We exploit the interference between the CDW satellite peaks and Laue oscillations to determine the amplitude, the phase, and the period of the CDW. We find discrete half-integer periods of CDW in the film and switching of the number of periods by one upon cooling/heating with a thermal hysteresis of 20 K. The transition between different CDWperiods occurs over a temperature range of 30 K, slightly larger than the width of the thermal hysteresis. A comparison with simulations shows that the phase transition occurs as a variation of the volume fraction of two distinct phases with well-defined periodicities. The phase of the CDW is constant for all temperatures, and we attribute it to strong pinning of the CDW by the mismatch-induced strain at the film-substrate interface.

  6. Neutron scattering study of a membrane phase miscibility gap: Coexistence of L{sub 3} 'sponge' and L{sub {alpha}} Lamellar phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, W A; Porcar, L, E-mail:


    We report on a small angle neutron scattering (SANS) study of a temperature driven first order phase transition in a 25wt% solution of the surfactant AOT (Sodium Di-2-ethylhexyl Sulfosuccinate) in 1.5wt% heavy brine between an isotropic L{sub 3} 'sponge' state at 27 deg. C and a stacked lamellar L{sub {alpha}} monophase 55 deg. C. The prominent scattering features of these phases are correlation peaks due to the mean passage size of the L{sub 3} sponge and the L{sub {alpha}} stacking separation. This ratio of the monophase peak positions Q{sub {alpha}}/Q{sub 3}{approx}1.3, is consistent with previous observations in this and similar systems. In the present study we tracked this system through the intermediate L{sub 3} +L{sub {alpha}} biphasic miscibility gap. There the initial appearance of the L{sub {alpha}} peak at 33.25 deg. C was at a scattering vector some 23% higher than the final high temperature monophase value. During coexistence both L{sub 3} and L{sub {alpha}} phase peak positions decreased linearly with increasing temperature maintaining a roughly constant ratio Q{sub {alpha}}/Q{sub 3} {approx}1.6-1.7. Two phase fits to the scattering data and application of scaling law predictions allow us to obtain local L{sub 3} phase volume fractions in the biphasic region and make preliminary determinations of the structural accomodations necessitated by phase coexistence in this system's miscibility gap.

  7. Phase coexistence and Mott metal-insulator transition in the doped Hubbard-Holstein model (United States)

    Moradi Kurdestany, Jamshid; Satpathy, Sashi


    Motivated by recent progress in the understanding of the Mott insulators away from half filling [?], often observed in the oxide materials, we study the role of the electron-lattice interaction vis-à-vis the electron correlations by studying the one-band Hubbard-Holstein model using the Gutzwiller variational method. Our theory predicts phase separation for sufficiently strong electron-lattice interaction, which however is frustrated in the solid due to the long-range Coulomb interaction of the dopant atoms, resulting in puddles of metallic phases embedded in the insulating matrix. Metallic state occurs when the volume fraction of the metallic phase exceeds the percolation threshold, as the dopant concentration is increased. Connection is made with the experimentally observed metal-insulator transition in the complex oxides.

  8. Direct measurement of phase coexistence in DPPC/Cholesterol vesicles using Raman spectroscopy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Lange, M.J.L.; Bonn, M.; Müller, M.


    The phase behavior of bilayers of binary mixtures of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) and cholesterol has been studied using Raman spectroscopy. It is observed that the shape of the cholesterol vibrational spectrum in lipid-cholesterol binary mixtures does not vary significantly

  9. Wavelet cross-correlation and phase analysis of a free cantilever subjected to band excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Banfi


    Full Text Available This work introduces the concept of time–frequency map of the phase difference between the cantilever response signal and the driving signal, calculated with a wavelet cross-correlation technique. The wavelet cross-correlation quantifies the common power and the relative phase between the response of the cantilever and the exciting driver, yielding “instantaneous” information on the driver-response phase delay as a function of frequency. These concepts are introduced through the calculation of the response of a free cantilever subjected to continuous and impulsive excitation over a frequency band.

  10. Phase-coexistence simulations of fluid mixtures by the Markov Chain Monte Carlo method using single-particle models

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jun


    We present a single-particle Lennard-Jones (L-J) model for CO2 and N2. Simplified L-J models for other small polyatomic molecules can be obtained following the methodology described herein. The phase-coexistence diagrams of single-component systems computed using the proposed single-particle models for CO2 and N2 agree well with experimental data over a wide range of temperatures. These diagrams are computed using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo method based on the Gibbs-NVT ensemble. This good agreement validates the proposed simplified models. That is, with properly selected parameters, the single-particle models have similar accuracy in predicting gas-phase properties as more complex, state-of-the-art molecular models. To further test these single-particle models, three binary mixtures of CH4, CO2 and N2 are studied using a Gibbs-NPT ensemble. These results are compared against experimental data over a wide range of pressures. The single-particle model has similar accuracy in the gas phase as traditional models although its deviation in the liquid phase is greater. Since the single-particle model reduces the particle number and avoids the time-consuming Ewald summation used to evaluate Coulomb interactions, the proposed model improves the computational efficiency significantly, particularly in the case of high liquid density where the acceptance rate of the particle-swap trial move increases. We compare, at constant temperature and pressure, the Gibbs-NPT and Gibbs-NVT ensembles to analyze their performance differences and results consistency. As theoretically predicted, the agreement between the simulations implies that Gibbs-NVT can be used to validate Gibbs-NPT predictions when experimental data is not available. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  11. Thermodynamic model for calorimetric and phase coexistence properties of coal derived fluids. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabadi, V.N.


    The work on this project was initiated on September 1, 1989. The project consisted of three different tasks. 1. A thermodynamic model to predict VLE and calorimetric properties of coal liquids. 2. VLE measurements at high temperature and high pressure for coal model compounds and 3. Chromatographic characterization of coal liquids for distribution of heteroatoms. The thermodynamic model developed is an extension of the previous model developed for VLE of coal derived fluids (DOE Grant no. FG22-86PC90541). The model uses the modified UNIFAC correlation for the liquid phase. Some unavailable UNIFAC interactions parameters have been regressed from experimental VLE and excess enthalpy data. The model is successful in predicting binary VLE and excess enthalpy data. Further refinements of the model are suggested. An apparatus for the high pressure high temperature VLE data measurements has been built and tested. Tetralin-Quinoline is the first binary system selected for data measurements. The equipment was tested by measuring 325{degree}C isotherm for this system and comparing it with literature data. Additional isotherms at 350{degree}C and 370{degree}C have been measured. The framework for a characterization procedure for coal derived liquids has been developed. A coal liquid is defined by a true molecular weight distribution and distribution of heteroatoms as a function of molecular weights. Size exclusions liquid chromatography, elemental analysis and FTIR spectroscopy methods are used to obtain the molecular weight and hetroatom distributions. Further work in this area should include refinements of the characterization procedure, high temperature high pressure VLE data measurements for selective model compound binary systems, and improvement of the thermodynamic model using the new measured data and consistent with the developments in the characterization procedure.

  12. Exclusive study of Ni+Ni and Ni+Au central collisions: phase coexistence and spinodal decomposition; Etude exclusive des collisions centrales Ni+Ni et Ni+Au: coexistence de phase et decomposition spinodale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guiot, B


    The INDRA multidetector allowed us to study the Ni+Ni collisions at 32A MeV and the Ni+Au collisions at 52,4 MeV. Central collisions leading to 'quasi-fused' systems were isolated using multidimensional analysis techniques: the Discriminant Analysis and the Principal Component Analysis. Comparison with a statistical model shows that the selected events are compatible with thermodynamical equilibrium. The average thermal excitation energy is 5A MeV for both systems. Calculations of heat capacities show that the deexcitation of the hot sources are akin to a liquid-gas phase transition of nuclear matter. Indeed heat capacities exhibit a negative branch as expected for a phase transition of a finite system. The dynamics of this phase transition has been investigated by applying the charge correlation method. An enhanced production of events with equal-sized fragments has been evidenced for Ni+Au at 52A MeV. No signal was found for Ni+Ni at 32A MeV. Finally this method was improved by taking into account the total charge conservation. The signal is seen more clearly for Ni+Au at 52A MeV, but is ambiguous for Ni+Ni at 32A MeV. The path followed in the state diagram, or the involved time scales, seem to be different for these systems. (authors)

  13. Multiphase electrode microbial fuel cell system that simultaneously converts organics coexisting in water and sediment phases into electricity. (United States)

    An, Junyeong; Moon, Hyunsoo; Chang, In Seop


    Our challenge in this study was to harvest electricity from organics coexisting in two different phases (water and sediment) in an organics-contaminated benthic environment and to obtain increased current using a multiphase electrode microbial fuel cell (multiphase MFC). The multiphase MFC consisted of a floating electrode (FE), a midelectrode (ME), and a sediment electrode (SE) with no other components. The SE was embedded in sediment; the FE and ME were then overlaid in the water surface layer and in the middle of the water column of an aquarium, respectively. During continuous supply of organics at a COD loading rate of 94 mg of COD L(-1) day(-1) and after the cessation of organics being supplied at COD loading rates of 330 and 188 mg of COD L(-1) day(-1), the multiphase MFC showed the highest current production, as compared to the control MFCs [a floating-type MFC (FT-MFC) and two types of sediment MFCs (SMFC-A and SMFC-B)]. The total charges (in coulombs) of the multiphase MFC integrated from the currents, obtained under the three operating conditions mentioned above, were comparable to the sums of charges for the FT-MFC and SMFC. As a result, this study found that the multiphase MFC can (1) utilize organics in the sediment similarly to SMFCs, (2) use organics in the water phase similarly to FT-MFCs, and (3) obtain increased current analogous to the sum of an SMFC and a FT-MFC. Thus, it is thought that the multiphase MFC developed in this work could be suitable for use in water bodies being continuously or frequently contaminated with organic waste.

  14. Phase Coexistence and the Structure of the Morphotropic Phase Boundary Region in (1-x)Bi(Mg1/2Zr1/2)O3-xPbTiO3 Piezoceramics


    Pandey, Rishikesh; Tiwari, Ashish; Upadhyay, Ashutosh; Singh, Akhilesh Kumar


    Structure of the morphotropic phase and the phase coexistence region has been investigated in (1-x)Bi(Mg1/2Zr1/2)O3-xPbTiO3 ceramics. The structure is cubic with space group Pm3m for the compositions with x0.59. For the compositions with 0.56

  15. Coherent phase control of excitation of atoms by bichromatic laser radiation in an electric field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Astapenko, VA

    A new method for coherent phase control of excitation of atoms in a discrete spectrum under the action of bichromatic laser radiation with the frequency ratio 1 : 2 is analysed. An important feature of this control method is the presence of a electrostatic field, which removes the parity selection

  16. Computer Simulation of a Three-phase Brushless Self-Excited Synchronous Generator


    Cingoski, Vlatko; Mikami, Mitsuru; Yamashita, Hideo


    Computer simulation of the operating characteristics of a three-phase brushless synchronous generator with self-excited is presented. A voltage driven nonlinear time-periodic FEA is utilized to compute accurately the magnetic field distribution and the induced voltage and currents simultaneously.

  17. modeling and performance of a self-excited two-phase reluctance

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES Obe

    Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria. Abstract. A self-excited two-phase reluctance generator ... engines employing alternators. Not only are these expensive and beyond the reach of the .... (19) where F represents any variable such as voltage, current, flux linkages, or electric charge.

  18. Laser-induced photochemical gas-phase reactions of vibrationally excited triplet molecules (United States)

    Zalesskaya, G. A.; Yakovlev, D. L.; Sambor, E. G.


    Mechanisms and rates of laser-induced gas-phase reactions of vibrationally excited triplet ketones were studied after adding electron and hydrogen donors using time-resolved delayed fluorescence. The influence of various bimolecular competing processes on DF quenching was analyzed.

  19. Adiabatic quenches and characterization of amplitude excitations in a continuous quantum phase transition. (United States)

    Hoang, Thai M; Bharath, Hebbe M; Boguslawski, Matthew J; Anquez, Martin; Robbins, Bryce A; Chapman, Michael S


    Spontaneous symmetry breaking occurs in a physical system whenever the ground state does not share the symmetry of the underlying theory, e.g., the Hamiltonian. This mechanism gives rise to massless Nambu-Goldstone modes and massive Anderson-Higgs modes. These modes provide a fundamental understanding of matter in the Universe and appear as collective phase or amplitude excitations of an order parameter in a many-body system. The amplitude excitation plays a crucial role in determining the critical exponents governing universal nonequilibrium dynamics in the Kibble-Zurek mechanism (KZM). Here, we characterize the amplitude excitations in a spin-1 condensate and measure the energy gap for different phases of the quantum phase transition. At the quantum critical point of the transition, finite-size effects lead to a nonzero gap. Our measurements are consistent with this prediction, and furthermore, we demonstrate an adiabatic quench through the phase transition, which is forbidden at the mean field level. This work paves the way toward generating entanglement through an adiabatic phase transition.

  20. Phase space interrogation of the empirical response modes for seismically excited structures (United States)

    Paul, Bibhas; George, Riya C.; Mishra, Sudib K.


    Conventional Phase Space Interrogation (PSI) for structural damage assessment relies on exciting the structure with low dimensional chaotic waveform, thereby, significantly limiting their applicability to large structures. The PSI technique is presently extended for structure subjected to seismic excitations. The high dimensionality of the phase space for seismic response(s) are overcome by the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD), decomposing the responses to a number of intrinsic low dimensional oscillatory modes, referred as Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs). Along with their low dimensionality, a few IMFs, retain sufficient information of the system dynamics to reflect the damage induced changes. The mutually conflicting nature of low-dimensionality and the sufficiency of dynamic information are taken care by the optimal choice of the IMF(s), which is shown to be the third/fourth IMFs. The optimal IMF(s) are employed for the reconstruction of the Phase space attractor following Taken's embedding theorem. The widely referred Changes in Phase Space Topology (CPST) feature is then employed on these Phase portrait(s) to derive the damage sensitive feature, referred as the CPST of the IMFs (CPST-IMF). The legitimacy of the CPST-IMF is established as a damage sensitive feature by assessing its variation with a number of damage scenarios benchmarked in the IASC-ASCE building. The damage localization capability, remarkable tolerance to noise contamination and the robustness under different seismic excitations of the feature are demonstrated.

  1. Vibrational resonance induced by transition of phase-locking modes in excitable systems. (United States)

    Yang, Lijian; Liu, Wangheng; Yi, Ming; Wang, Canjun; Zhu, Qiaomu; Zhan, Xuan; Jia, Ya


    We study the occurrence of vibrational resonance as well as the underlying mechanism in excitable systems. The single vibration resonance and vibration bi-resonance are observed when tuning the amplitude and frequency of high-frequency force simultaneously. Furthermore, by virtue of the phase diagram of low-frequency-signal-free FitzHugh-Nagumo model, it is found that each maxima of response measure is located exactly at the transition boundary of phase patterns. Therefore, it is the transition between different phase-locking modes that induces vibrational resonance in the excitable systems. Finally, this mechanism is verified in the Hodgkin-Huxley neural model. Our results provide insights into the transmission of weak signals in nonlinear systems, which are valuable in engineering for potential applications.

  2. Stabilized wave segments in an excitable medium with a phase wave at the wave back (United States)

    Zykov, V. S.; Bodenschatz, E.


    The propagation velocity and the shape of a stationary propagating wave segment are determined analytically for excitable media supporting excitation waves with trigger fronts and phase backs. The general relationships between the medium's excitability and the wave segment parameters are obtained in the framework of the free boundary approach under quite usual assumptions. Two universal limits restricting the region of existence of stabilized wave segments are found. The comparison of the analytical results with numerical simulations of the well-known Kessler-Levine model demonstrates their good quantitative agreement. The findings should be applicable to a wide class of systems, such as the propagation of electrical waves in the cardiac muscle or wave propagation in autocatalytic chemical reactions, due to the generality of the free-boundary approach used.

  3. Ultrafast Control of the electronic phase of a manganite viamode-selective vibrational excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rini, Matteo; Tobey, Ra' anan I.; Dean, Nicky; Tokura, Yoshinori; Schoenlein, Robert W.; Cavalleri, Andrea


    Controlling a phase of matter by coherently manipulatingspecific vibrational modes has long been an attractive (yet elusive) goalfor ultrafast science. Solids with strongly correlated electrons, inwhich even subtle crystallographic distortions can result in colossalchanges of the electronic and magnetic properties, could be directedbetween competing phases by such selective vibrational excitation. Inthis way, the dynamics of the electronic ground state of the systembecome accessible, and new insight into the underlying physics might begained. Here we report the ultrafast switching of the electronic phase ofa magnetoresistive manganite via direct excitation of a phonon mode at 71meV (17 THz). A prompt, five-order-of-magnitude drop in resistivity isobserved, associated with a non-equilibrium transition from the stableinsulating phase to a metastable metallic phase. In contrast withlight-induced, and current-driven phase transitions, the vibrationallydriven bandgap collapse observed here is not related to hot-carrierinjection and is uniquely attributed to a large-amplitude Mn-Odistortion. This corresponds to a perturbation of theperovskite-structure tolerance factor, which in turn controls theelectronic bandwidth via inter-site orbital overlap. Phase control bycoherent manipulation of selected metal--oxygen phonons should findextensive application in other complex solids--notably in copper oxidesuperconductors, in which the role of Cu-O vibrations on the electronicproperties is currently controversial.

  4. Study of coexisting phases in Bi doped La{sub 0.67}Sr{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kambhala, Nagaiah [Centre for Nano and Soft Matter Sciences, Jalahalli, Bangalore 560013 (India); Chen, Miaoxiang [Advanced Nanofabrication, Imaging and Characterization Core Lab, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal 239955 (Saudi Arabia); Li, Peng; Zhang, Xi-xiang [Materials Science and Engineering, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal 239955 (Saudi Arabia); Rajesh, Desapogu [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046 (India); Bhagyashree, K.S.; Goveas, Lora Rita; Bhat, S.V. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Kumar, P. Anil; Mathieu, Roland [Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Angappane, S., E-mail: [Centre for Nano and Soft Matter Sciences, Jalahalli, Bangalore 560013 (India)


    We report the remarkable phase separation behavior in La{sub 0.67}Sr{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3} doped with Bi{sup 3+} ion at La site. The temperature dependent resistivity and magnetization of La{sub 0.67−x}Bi{sub x}Sr{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3} (x>0) show the presence of phase separation of ferromagnetic metallic and charge ordered antiferromagnetic insulating phases. Markedly, the field dependant magnetization studies of La{sub 0.67−x}Bi{sub x}Sr{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3} (x=0.3) show the metamagnetic nature of ferromagnetic metallic state implying the competition of coexisting ferromagnetic metallic and charge ordered antiferromagnetic phases. The electron spin resonance and exchange bias studies of La{sub 0.67−x}Bi{sub x}Sr{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3} (x=0.4 and 0.5) substantiate the coexistence of ferromagnetic clusters in antiferromagnetic matrix. - Highlights: • La{sub 0.67−x}Bi{sub x}Sr{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3} show the transition from rhombohedral to orthorhombic structure. • Resistivity and magnetization for x>0 show phase separation of FMM and AFI phases. • La{sub 0.37}Bi{sub 0.3}Sr{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3} exhibits a competition of FMM and AFI phases. • Magnetization and ESR illustrate coexisting FM clusters in AFM matrix for x=0.4, 0.5.

  5. Structural Monitoring of the Onset of Excited-State Aromaticity in a Liquid Crystal Phase. (United States)

    Hada, Masaki; Saito, Shohei; Tanaka, Sei'ichi; Sato, Ryuma; Yoshimura, Masahiko; Mouri, Kazuhiro; Matsuo, Kyohei; Yamaguchi, Shigehiro; Hara, Mitsuo; Hayashi, Yasuhiko; Röhricht, Fynn; Herges, Rainer; Shigeta, Yasuteru; Onda, Ken; Miller, R J Dwayne


    Aromaticity of photoexcited molecules is an important concept in organic chemistry. Its theory, Baird's rule for triplet aromaticity since 1972 gives the rationale of photoinduced conformational changes and photochemical reactivities of cyclic π-conjugated systems. However, it is still challenging to monitor the dynamic structural change induced by the excited-state aromaticity, particularly in condensed materials. Here we report direct structural observation of a molecular motion and a subsequent packing deformation accompanied by the excited-state aromaticity. Photoactive liquid crystal (LC) molecules featuring a π-expanded cyclooctatetraene core unit are orientationally ordered but loosely packed in a columnar LC phase, and therefore a photoinduced conformational planarization by the excited-state aromaticity has been successfully observed by time-resolved electron diffractometry and vibrational spectroscopy. The structural change took place in the vicinity of excited molecules, producing a twisted stacking structure. A nanoscale torque driven by the excited-state aromaticity can be used as the working mechanism of new photoresponsive materials.

  6. Restricted second random phase approximations and Tamm-Dancoff approximations for electronic excitation energy calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Degao; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Peng [Department of Chemistry, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Yang, Weitao, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry and Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)


    In this article, we develop systematically second random phase approximations (RPA) and Tamm-Dancoff approximations (TDA) of particle-hole and particle-particle channels for calculating molecular excitation energies. The second particle-hole RPA/TDA can capture double excitations missed by the particle-hole RPA/TDA and time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT), while the second particle-particle RPA/TDA recovers non-highest-occupied-molecular-orbital excitations missed by the particle-particle RPA/TDA. With proper orbital restrictions, these restricted second RPAs and TDAs have a formal scaling of only O(N{sup 4}). The restricted versions of second RPAs and TDAs are tested with various small molecules to show some positive results. Data suggest that the restricted second particle-hole TDA (r2ph-TDA) has the best overall performance with a correlation coefficient similar to TDDFT, but with a larger negative bias. The negative bias of the r2ph-TDA may be induced by the unaccounted ground state correlation energy to be investigated further. Overall, the r2ph-TDA is recommended to study systems with both single and some low-lying double excitations with a moderate accuracy. Some expressions on excited state property evaluations, such as 〈S{sup ^2}〉 are also developed and tested.

  7. Restricted second random phase approximations and Tamm-Dancoff approximations for electronic excitation energy calculations (United States)

    Peng, Degao; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Peng; Yang, Weitao


    In this article, we develop systematically second random phase approximations (RPA) and Tamm-Dancoff approximations (TDA) of particle-hole and particle-particle channels for calculating molecular excitation energies. The second particle-hole RPA/TDA can capture double excitations missed by the particle-hole RPA/TDA and time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT), while the second particle-particle RPA/TDA recovers non-highest-occupied-molecular-orbital excitations missed by the particle-particle RPA/TDA. With proper orbital restrictions, these restricted second RPAs and TDAs have a formal scaling of only O(N4). The restricted versions of second RPAs and TDAs are tested with various small molecules to show some positive results. Data suggest that the restricted second particle-hole TDA (r2ph-TDA) has the best overall performance with a correlation coefficient similar to TDDFT, but with a larger negative bias. The negative bias of the r2ph-TDA may be induced by the unaccounted ground state correlation energy to be investigated further. Overall, the r2ph-TDA is recommended to study systems with both single and some low-lying double excitations with a moderate accuracy. Some expressions on excited state property evaluations, such as < hat{S}2rangle are also developed and tested.

  8. Coexistence of several sillenite-like phases in pseudo-binary and pseudo-ternary systems based on Bi2O3 (United States)

    Dapčević, Aleksandra; Poleti, Dejan; Karanović, Ljiljana; Rogan, Jelena; Dražič, Goran


    A series of polycrystalline samples containing sillenite-like (doped γ-Bi2O3) phases were prepared by high-temperature reactions from α-Bi2O3 powder and different oxides in six pseudo-binary Bi2O3-MxOy (M = Mn, Ti, V) and six pseudo-ternary Bi2O3-M1xOy-M2xOy (M1 = Pb, Zn, Ti and M2 = Zn, Ti, Si) systems. The products were characterized by XRD, SEM/EDX, HRTEM, SAED and DTA techniques. It is shown that for pseudo-binary systems, the phase composition of specimens depends on dopant content, while, for pseudo-ternary systems, depends on dopants radii, as well. In pseudo-binary systems, single-phase sillenites are obtained if the dopant content is in accordance with formula Bi12M4+O20, for M = Mn and Ti, and Bi(M0.85+)O, for M = V. However, two coexisting sillenite-like phases, doped compound and nominally undoped solid solution, are found if a half of that dopant quantity is applied. In pseudo-ternary systems, the phase-pure double-doped sillenite specimens are identified if ionic radii of dopants differ less than 40%. Otherwise, two coexisting sillenites were obtained. The possibility to prepare the undoped γ-Bi2O3 phase was also discussed.

  9. Heat capacity for systems with excited-state quantum phase transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cejnar, Pavel; Stránský, Pavel, E-mail:


    Heat capacities of model systems with finite numbers of effective degrees of freedom are evaluated using canonical and microcanonical thermodynamics. Discrepancies between both approaches, which are observed even in the infinite-size limit, are particularly large in systems that exhibit an excited-state quantum phase transition. The corresponding irregularity of the spectrum generates a singularity in the microcanonical heat capacity and affects smoothly the canonical heat capacity. - Highlights: • Thermodynamics of systems with excited-state quantum phase transitions • ESQPT-generated singularities of the microcanonical heat capacity • Non-monotonous dependences of the canonical heat capacity • Discord between canonical and microcanonical pictures in the infinite-size limit.

  10. Obtaining Empirical Validation of Shape-Coexistence in the Mass 70 Region: Coulomb Excitation of a Radioactive Beam of $^{70}$Se

    CERN Multimedia

    Andreoiu, C; Paul, E S; Czosnyka, T; Hammond, N


    We propose to study the Coulomb excitation of a radioactive beam of $^{70}$Se at 2.2 MeV/u obtained from the REX-ISOLDE facility in order to determine the sign of the quadrupole moment and, hence, the sign of the quadrupole deformation. Calculations suggest a 33~\\% sensitivity in Coulomb excitation yield for a nickel target depending on whether the nuclear shape is oblate or prolate. Such a determination would provide compelling evidence for the presence of oblate shapes in the vicinity of N=Z=34.

  11. Effects of antiferro-ferromagnetic phase coexistence and spin fluctuations on the magnetic and related properties of NdCuSi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Gupta


    Full Text Available Polycrystalline NdCuSi is found to show co-existence of antiferromagnetic (AFM and ferromagnetic (FM phases at low temperatures, as revealed by neutron diffraction data. The coexistence is attributed to the competing exchange interactions and crystal field effect. The compound shows a large, low-field magnetoresistance (MR of ∼ − 32% at 20 kOe below TN (3.1 K, which becomes ∼ − 36% at 50 kOe. The MR value at 50 kOe is found to be the highest among the RTX compounds. Magnetocaloric effect (MCE is also found to show a large value of ∼11 J/kg K close to TN. Resistivity data show the presence of spin fluctuations, which get suppressed by the applied field. Large MR and MCE in this compound arise due to the coexistence of the two phases. The field dependencies of MR and MCE show quadratic behavior, confirming the presence of spin fluctuations.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolei Lu


    Full Text Available The effect of ferrite on the formation and coexistence of 3CaO.3Al₂O₃.CaSO₄ (C₄A₃$ and 3CaO.SiO₂ (C3S was investigated in this paper. The results indicate that 20 % content of ferrite phase with the composition of C₂A0.5F0.5 can facilitate the coexistence of C₄A₃$ and C₃S solid solutions at 1350 ° C. There are other trace elements that incorporate into clinker minerals and form solid solutions. In addition, the dark and polygonal C₄A₃$ solid solution is not dissolved in liquid phase at 1350 ° C. It can promote the burnability of the raw mixes and provide a favorable condition for the formation of C₃S. However, it has an adverse effect on the coexistence of two clinker minerals with the changing of ferrite compositions. This will provide the important basis for the preparation of the calcium sulphoaluminate cement clinker containing C₃S.

  13. Absence of phase-dependent noise in time-domain reflectivity studies of impulsively excited phonons

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, A.


    There have been several reports of phase-dependent noise in time-domain reflectivity studies of optical phonons excited by femtosecond laser pulses in semiconductors, semimetals, and superconductors. It was suggested that such behavior is associated with the creation of squeezed phonon states although there is no theoretical model that directly supports such a proposal. We have experimentally re-examined the studies of phonons in bismuth and gallium arsenide, and find no evidence of any phase-dependent noise signature associated with the phonons. We place an upper limit on any such noise at least 40–50 dB lower than previously reported.

  14. Double, Rydberg and charge transfer excitations from pairing matrix fluctuation and particle-particle random phase approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yang [Department of Chemistry, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Aggelen, Helen van [Department of Chemistry, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Ghent University, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Yang, Weitao, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry and Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)


    Double, Rydberg, and charge transfer (CT) excitations have been great challenges for time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). Starting from an (N ± 2)-electron single-determinant reference, we investigate excitations for the N-electron system through the pairing matrix fluctuation, which contains information on two-electron addition/removal processes. We adopt the particle-particle random phase approximation (pp-RPA) and the particle-particle Tamm-Dancoff approximation (pp-TDA) to approximate the pairing matrix fluctuation and then determine excitation energies by the differences of two-electron addition/removal energies. This approach captures all types of interesting excitations: single and double excitations are described accurately, Rydberg excitations are in good agreement with experimental data and CT excitations display correct 1/R dependence. Furthermore, the pp-RPA and the pp-TDA have a computational cost similar to TDDFT and consequently are promising for practical calculations.

  15. Analytic model for low energy excitation states and phase transitions in spin-ice systems (United States)

    López-Bara, F. I.; López-Aguilar, F.


    Low energy excitation states in magnetic structures of the so-called spin-ices are produced via spin flips among contiguous tetrahedra of their crystal structure. These spin flips generate entities which mimic magnetic dipoles in every two tetrahedra according to the dumbbell model. When the temperature increases, the spin-flip processes are transmitted in the lattice, generating so-called Dirac strings, which constitute structural entities that can present mimetic behavior similar to that of magnetic monopoles. In recent studies of both specific heat and ac magnetic susceptibility, two (even possibly three) phases have been shown to vary the temperature. The first of these phases presents a sharp peak in the specific heat and another phase transition occurs for increasing temperature whose peak is broader than that of the former phase. The sharp peak occurs when there are no free individual magnetic charges and temperature of the second phase transition coincides with the maximum proliferation of free deconfined magnetic charges. In the present paper, we propose a model for analyzing the low energy excitation many-body states of these spin-ice systems. We give analytical formulas for the internal energy, specific heat, entropy and their temperature evolution. We study the description of the possible global states via the nature and structure of their one-body components by means of the thermodynamic functions. Below 0.37 K, the Coulomb-like magnetic charge interaction can generate a phase transition to a condensation of pole-antipole pairs, possibly having Bose-Einstein structure which is responsible for the sharp peak of the first phase transition. When there are sufficient free positive and negative charges, the system tends to behave as a magnetic plasma, which implies the broader peak in the specific heat appearing at higher temperature than the sharper experimental peak.

  16. Analytic model for low energy excitation states and phase transitions in spin-ice systems. (United States)

    López-Bara, F I; López-Aguilar, F


    Low energy excitation states in magnetic structures of the so-called spin-ices are produced via spin flips among contiguous tetrahedra of their crystal structure. These spin flips generate entities which mimic magnetic dipoles in every two tetrahedra according to the dumbbell model. When the temperature increases, the spin-flip processes are transmitted in the lattice, generating so-called Dirac strings, which constitute structural entities that can present mimetic behavior similar to that of magnetic monopoles. In recent studies of both specific heat and ac magnetic susceptibility, two (even possibly three) phases have been shown to vary the temperature. The first of these phases presents a sharp peak in the specific heat and another phase transition occurs for increasing temperature whose peak is broader than that of the former phase. The sharp peak occurs when there are no free individual magnetic charges and temperature of the second phase transition coincides with the maximum proliferation of free deconfined magnetic charges. In the present paper, we propose a model for analyzing the low energy excitation many-body states of these spin-ice systems. We give analytical formulas for the internal energy, specific heat, entropy and their temperature evolution. We study the description of the possible global states via the nature and structure of their one-body components by means of the thermodynamic functions. Below 0.37 K, the Coulomb-like magnetic charge interaction can generate a phase transition to a condensation of pole-antipole pairs, possibly having Bose-Einstein structure which is responsible for the sharp peak of the first phase transition. When there are sufficient free positive and negative charges, the system tends to behave as a magnetic plasma, which implies the broader peak in the specific heat appearing at higher temperature than the sharper experimental peak.

  17. Incoherent population mixing contributions to phase-modulation two-dimensional coherent excitation spectra (United States)

    Grégoire, Pascal; Srimath Kandada, Ajay Ram; Vella, Eleonora; Tao, Chen; Leonelli, Richard; Silva, Carlos


    We present theoretical and experimental results showing the effects of incoherent population mixing on two-dimensional (2D) coherent excitation spectra that are measured via a time-integrated population and phase-sensitive detection. The technique uses four collinear ultrashort pulses and phase modulation to acquire two-dimensional spectra by isolating specific nonlinear contributions to the photoluminescence or photocurrent excitation signal. We demonstrate that an incoherent contribution to the measured line shape, arising from nonlinear population dynamics over the entire photoexcitation lifetime, generates a similar line shape to the expected 2D coherent spectra in condensed-phase systems. In those systems, photoexcitations are mobile such that inter-particle interactions are important on any time scale, including those long compared with the 2D coherent experiment. Measurements on a semicrystalline polymeric semiconductor film at low temperatures show that, in some conditions in which multi-exciton interactions are suppressed, the technique predominantly detects coherent signals and can be used, in our example, to extract homogeneous line widths. The same method used on a lead-halide perovskite photovoltaic cell shows that incoherent population mixing of mobile photocarriers can dominate the measured signal since carrier-carrier bimolecular scattering is active even at low excitation densities, which hides the coherent contribution to the spectral line shape. In this example, the intensity dependence of the signal matches the theoretical predictions over more than two orders of magnitude, confirming the incoherent nature of the signal. While these effects are typically not significant in dilute solution environments, we demonstrate the necessity to characterize, in condensed-phase materials systems, the extent of nonlinear population dynamics of photoexcitations (excitons, charge carriers, etc.) in the execution of this powerful population-detected coherent

  18. High-multipole excitations of atoms by twisted photons near phase singularity (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Afanasev, Andrei; Carlson, Carl E.; Mukherjee, Asmita


    We calculate transition amplitudes and cross sections for excitation of hydrogen-like atoms by the twisted photon states, or photon states with more than one unit of angular momentum projection along the direction of propagation. If the target atom is located at distances of the order of atomic size near the vortex center, the transitions rates into l_f>1 states become comparable with the rates for standard electric dipole transitions. It is shown that when the transition rates are normalized to the local photon flux, the resulting cross sections for l_f>1 are singular near the optical vortex center, i.e., high-multipole excitations take place in the region of zero field intensity near phase singularity. Relation to the "quantum core" concept introduced by Berry and Dennis is discussed.

  19. Thermal phase transition in artificial spin ice systems induces the formation and migration of monopole-like magnetic excitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    León, Alejandro


    Artificial spin ice systems exhibit monopole-like magnetic excitations. We develop here a theoretical study of the thermal phase transition of an artificial spin ice system, and we elucidate the role of the monopole excitations in the transition temperature. The dynamics of the spin ice is described by an efficient model based on cellular automata, which considers both thermal effects and dipolar interactions. We have established the critical temperature of the phase transition as function of the magnetic moment and the energy barrier of reversion. In addition, we predict that thermal gradients in the system induce the motion of elementary excitations, which could permit to manipulate monopole-like states.

  20. Gas-phase fluorescence excitation and emission spectroscopy of mass-selected trapped molecular ions. (United States)

    Bian, Qunzhou; Forbes, Matthew W; Talbot, Francis O; Jockusch, Rebecca A


    A flexible interface to perform optical spectroscopic measurements on gaseous ions stored in a modified commercial quadrupole ion trap (QIT) mass spectrometer is described. The modifications made to the mass spectrometer did not adversely affect its operating characteristics. Gas-phase ions are produced using electrospray ionization, mass isolated and stored in the trapping mass spectrometer. The ions are subsequently irradiated with visible light from a tunable laser and dispersed fluorescence spectra are recorded simultaneously. Mass spectra are recorded after the irradiation period. This set-up allows us to track a range of possible outcomes upon photoexcitation of selected ions including fluorescence, photofragmentation and photodetachment of electrons. The experimental set-up is characterized using rhodamine 590, which is a methyl ester variant of rhodamine 6G. Fluorescence excitation and emission spectra of gaseous rhodamine 590 are measured and compared with solution-phase spectra. Excitation and emission maxima for the gaseous ions are found to lie at higher energy than for the solvated rhodamine 590. In addition, the gas-phase Stokes shift is significantly smaller than the solution-phase Stokes shift. The effects of several experimental parameters on the observed fluorescence signal are investigated, including laser power, relative number of ions, q(z) trapping parameter and buffer gas pressure. In addition to its use for the photophysical characterization of the intrinsic properties of ionic chromophores, this set-up may be used to investigate the properties of mass-selected, dye-labeled biomolecules, both alone and in well-defined complexes and clusters.

  1. Ferromagnetic Excitations In LaCa Manganites In The Mixed-Phase Region (United States)

    Rhyne, J. J.; Stumpe, L.; Kaiser, H.; Mitchell, J. F.


    The magnetic excitations and ferromagnetic order parameter have been studied by neutron scattering in a series of manganese-based CMR perovskites [La_1-xCa_xMnO_3] near the x = 0.50 metallic ferromagnetic to insulating antiferromagnetic phase boundary. Materials with x > 0.46 have been reported to exhibit mixed FM and AFM character at low T, with the initial ordering into a FM state. This behavior has been confirmed in our diffraction measurements. Low angle inelastic scattering data that measure spin waves only from the FM state have been taken on x = 0.46, 0.48, and 0.50. In the x = 0.46 and x = 0.48 systems, well defined spin waves were observed with a T = 0 K extrapolated spin stiffness parameter of approximately 140 meV-Åa value consistent with lower x compositions. No hysteresis effects in the spin wave energies were observed with increasing or decreasing temperatures. In contrast, for the x = 0.48 specimen (Tc = 232 K), the spin wave amplitudes below T ≈ 190K were markedly lower for data taken with increasing temperature than those taken with temperature decreasing. The 190K temperature is close to that found for the onset of the mixed-phase antiferromagnetic spin ordering. The hysteresis in spin wave intensity thus reflects different FM and AFM domain populations on cooling and warming, but the non-hysteretic spin wave energies indicate that the FM exchange is not perturbed by the AFM ordering. No ferromagnetic excitations could be detected in the x = 0.50 sample implying that this composition is fully AFM with no mixed phase character.

  2. Surface plasmon polariton excitation by electrostatic modulation and phase grating in indium-tin-oxide coated lithium niobate slabs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hao; Zhang, Jingwen; Zhao, Hua, E-mail: [Institute of Modern Optics, Department of Physics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Key Laboratory of Micro-Optics and Photonics Technology of Heilongjiang Province, Harbin 150001 (China)


    Excitation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) in a non-metal system in visible regime is discussed. With the assistance of phase grating resulted from photorefractive effect and electrostatic modulation of ITO induced by strong photovoltaic effect in iron-doped LiNbO{sub 3}, phase matching condition could be satisfied for SPP excitation in this semiconductor/dielectric system. Both the phase grating instead of metal grating and electrostatic modulation of semiconductor could be used for the design of tunable plasmonic devices based on nonlinear photorefractive crystals.

  3. Excitation photon energy dependence of photo-induced phase transition in (EDO-TTF)2PF6 (United States)

    Ogihara, S.; Onda, K.; Shimizu, M.; Ishikawa, T.; Okimoto, Y.; Shao, X. F.; Nakano, Y.; Yamochi, H.; Saito, G.; Koshihara, S.


    The conducting charge transfer complex (EDO-TTF)2PF6 has two types of charge transfer bands in the low temperature insulator phase: CT1 at 0.56 eV and CT2 at 1.38 eV. We excited these bands independently with a tunable ultrashort pulse laser and studied the difference of the photo-induced phases by measuring change in reflectivity spectrum over a wide photon energy range. As a result, we found that both the photo-induced phases by CT1 and CT2 excitation are the same except for their photo-conversion efficiencies

  4. Geometric phase effects in ultracold collisions of H/D with rotationally excited HD (United States)

    Kendrick, Brian K.; Croft, James F. E.; Hazra, Jisha; Balakrishnan, N.


    Quantum reactive scattering calculations for the H/D + HD(v = 4 , j = 1 , 2) -> H/D + HD(v', j') and H + H2(v = 4 , j = 1 , 2) -> H + H2(v', j') exchange reactions are presented for the ground electronic state of H3. A numerically exact three-dimensional time-independent scattering method based on hyperspherical coordinates is used to compute rotationally resolved reaction cross sections and non-thermal rate coefficients for collision energies between 1 μK and 100 K . The geometric (Berry) phase associated with the D3h conical intersection in H3 is included using a U(1) vector (gauge) potential approach. It is shown that the geometric phase leads to a significant (up to three orders of magnitude) enhancement or suppression of the ultracold reaction rate coefficients depending upon whether the interference between the reaction pathways encircling the conical intersection is constructive or destructive. The nature of the interference is governed by a newly discovered mechanism which leads to an effective quantization of the ultracold scattering phase shifts. Interesting behavior due to rotational excitation of the HD and H2 is observed which might be exploited by experimentalists to control the reaction outcome. This work was supported in part by NSF Grant PHY-1505557 (N.B.) and ARO MURI Grant No. W911NF-12-1-0476 (N.B.), and DOE LDRD Grant No. 20170221ER (B.K.).

  5. High-multipole excitations of hydrogen-like atoms by twisted photons near a phase singularity (United States)

    Afanasev, Andrei; Carlson, Carl E.; Mukherjee, Asmita


    We calculate transition amplitudes and cross sections for excitation of hydrogen-like atoms by the twisted photon states, or photon states with angular momentum projection on the direction of propagation exceeding ℏ. If the target atom is located at distances of the order of atomic size near the phase singularity in the vortex center, the transition rates into the states with orbital angular momentum {l}f\\gt 1 become comparable with the rates for electric dipole transitions. It is shown that when the transition rates are normalized to the local photon flux, the resulting cross sections for {l}f\\gt 1 are singular near the optical vortex center. The relation to the ‘quantum core’ concept introduced by Berry and Dennis is discussed.

  6. Probing the excited-state quantum phase transition through statistics of Loschmidt echo and quantum work (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Quan, H. T.


    By analyzing the probability distributions of the Loschmidt echo (LE) and quantum work, we examine the nonequilibrium effects of a quantum many-body system, which exhibits an excited-state quantum phase transition (ESQPT). We find that depending on the value of the controlling parameter the distribution of the LE displays different patterns. At the critical point of the ESQPT, both the averaged LE and the averaged work show a cusplike shape. Furthermore, by employing the finite-size scaling analysis of the averaged work, we obtain the critical exponent of the ESQPT. Finally, we show that at the critical point of ESQPT the eigenstate is a highly localized state, further highlighting the influence of the ESQPT on the properties of the many-body system.

  7. Electronic excitation and structural relaxation of the adenine dinucleotide in gas phase and solution. (United States)

    Plasser, Felix; Lischka, Hans


    The excited states and potential surfaces of the adenine dinucleotide are analyzed in gas phase and in solution using a correlated ab initio methodology in a QM/MM framework. In agreement with previous studies, a rather flat S1 surface with a number of minima of different character is found. Specifically, our results suggest that exciplexes with remarkably short intermolecular separation down to ~2.0 Å are formed. A detailed analysis shows that due to strong orbital interactions their character differs significantly from any states present in the Franck-Condon region. The lowest S1 energy minimum is a ππ* exciplex with only a small amount of charge transfer. It possesses appreciable oscillator strength with a polarization almost perpendicular to the planes of the two adenine molecules.

  8. Phase relationships and P-T conditions of coexisting eclogite-blueschists and their transformation to greenschist-facies rocks in the Nerkau Complex (Northern Urals) (United States)

    Gómez-Pugnaire, M. T.; Karsten, L.; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, V. López


    Eclogites and blueschists coexist in the same lithologic sequence in the Nerkau Complex, one of the metamorphic complexes, in the northern Urals, Russia. Two types of eclogites can be distinguished in this complex. (1) Glaucophane-free eclogites, consisting of garnet + omphacite + barroisite + calcic amphibole + albite + epidote + rutile + titanite + quartz. In these rocks, phase compatibilities indicate that barroisite was stable at eclogite conditions, together with garnet and omphacite. This assemblage was overprinted by another consisting of barroisite/Mg-hornblende + albite + epidote, which developed under albite-bearing greenschist conditions. (2) Paragonite-glaucophane-bearing eclogites consist of omphacite + garnet + glaucophane + barroisite + actinolite + paragonite + albite + epidote + titanite ± rutile + quartz. Textural and chemographic analyses indicate that two main metamorphic episodes took place as well, represented by the assemblages omphacite + garnet + glaucophane and barroisite + albite + chlorite, respectively. The blueschists surrounding the eclogites consist of garnet + glaucophane ± barroisite + phengite ± paragonite + chlorite + albite + quartz + titanite ± rutile ± ilmenite. Phase relationships indicate that no reaction relates eclogites with blueschists, and that both mineral assemblages can be stable at the same metamorphic conditions. The occurrence of these assemblages side by side could thus be controlled by the bulk-rock composition. Metamorphic conditions have been calculated for each lithology with different, but complementary methods. The two types of eclogites were stable between 450° and 490°C or 500 and 537°C, depending on the thermometer used, and minimum pressures of 10 to 11 kbar. These values compare favourably with 530 ± 20°C and 14.5 ± 1 kbar obtained with a P-T diagram calculation and a forward-modelling approach. In the case of blueschists, coexisting glaucophane and garnet are stable at similar metamorphic

  9. Comparison of photothermal and piezoacoustic excitation methods for frequency and phase modulation atomic force microscopy in liquid environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Labuda


    Full Text Available In attempting to perform frequency modulation atomic force microscopy (FM-AFM in liquids, a non-flat phase transfer function in the self-excitation system prevents proper tracking of the cantilever natural frequency. This results in frequency-and-phase modulation atomic force microscopy (FPM-AFM which lies in between phase modulation atomic force microscopy (PM-AFM and FM-AFM. We derive the theory necessary to recover the conservative force and damping in such a situation, where standard FM-AFM theory no longer applies. Although our recovery procedure applies to all cantilever excitation methods in principle, its practical implementation may be difficult, or even impossible, if the cantilever is driven piezoacoustically. Specifically, we contrast the piezoacoustic excitation method to the photothermal method in the context of force spectroscopy of hydration structures at the mica-water interface. The results clearly demonstrate that photothermal excitation is superior to piezoacoustic excitation, as it allows for accurate quantitative interpretation of the acquired data.

  10. Rapid phase-modulated water-excitation steady-state free precession for fat-suppressed cine cardiovascular MR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman Subha V


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this article is to describe a steady-state free precession (SSFP sequence for fat-suppressed cine cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR. A rapid phase-modulated binomial water-excitation (WE pulse is utilized to minimize repetition time and acquisition time. Methods Three different water-excitation pulses were combined with cine-SSFP for evaluation. The frequency response of each sequence was simulated and examined in phantom imaging studies. The ratio of fat to water signal amplitude was measured in phantoms to evaluate the fat-suppression capabilities of each method. Six volunteers underwent CMR of the heart at 1.5T to compare retrospectively-gated cine-SSFP with and without water-excitation. The ratio of fat to myocardium signal amplitude was measured for conventional cine-SSFP and phase-modulated WE-SSFP. The proposed WE-SSFP method was tested in one patient referred for CMR to characterize a cardiac mass. Results and discussion The measured frequency response in a phantom corresponded to the numerical Bloch equation simulation demonstrating the widened stop-band around the fat resonant frequency for all water-excitation pulses tested. In vivo measurements demonstrated that a rapid, phase-modulated water-excitation pulse significantly reduced the signal amplitude ratio of fat to myocardium from 6.92 ± 2.9 to 0.8 ± 0.13 (mean ± SD without inducing any perceptible artifacts in SSFP cine CMR. Conclusion fat-suppression can be achieved in SSFP cine CMR while maintaining steady-state equilibrium using rapid, phase modulated, binomial water-excitation pulses.

  11. Influence of salts on the coexistence curve and protein partitioning in nonionic aqueous two-phase micellar systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Lopes


    Full Text Available Aqueous two-phase micellar systems (ATPMS can be exploited in separation science for the extraction/purification of desired biomolecules. Prior to phase separation the surfactant solution reaches a cloud point temperature, which is influenced by the presence of electrolytes. In this work, we provide an investigation on the cloud point behavior of the nonionic surfactant C10E4 in the presence of NaCl, Li2SO4 and KI. We also investigated the salts' influence on a model protein partitioning. NaCl and Li2SO4 promoted a depression of the cloud point. The order of salts and the concentration that decreased the cloud point was: Li2SO4 0.5 M > NaCl 0.5 M ≈ Li2SO4 0.2 M. On the other hand, 0.5 M KI dislocated the curve to higher cloud point values. For our model protein, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD, partitioning experiments with 0.5 M NaCl or 0.2 M Li2SO4 at 13.85 ºC showed similar results, with K G6PD ~ 0.46. The lowest partition coefficient was obtained in the presence of 0.5 M KI (K G6PD = 0.12, with major recovery of the enzyme in the micelle-dilute phase (%Recovery = 90%. Our results show that choosing the correct salt to add to ATPMS may be useful to attain the desired partitioning conditions at more extreme temperatures. Furthermore, this system can be effective to separate a target biomolecule from fermented broth contaminants.

  12. Constrained dynamics of localized excitations causes a non-equilibrium phase transition in an atomistic model of glass formers. (United States)

    Speck, Thomas; Chandler, David


    Recent progress has demonstrated that trajectory space for both kinetically constrained lattice models and atomistic models can be partitioned into a liquid-like and an inactive basin with a non-equilibrium phase transition separating these behaviors. Recent work has also established that excitations in atomistic models have statistics and dynamics like those in a specific class of kinetically constrained models. But it has not been known whether the non-equilibrium phase transitions occurring in the two classes of models have similar origins. Here, we show that the origin is indeed similar. In particular, we show that the number of excitations identified in an atomistic model serves as the order parameter for the inactive-active phase transition for that model. In this way, we show that the mechanism by which excitations are correlated in an atomistic model - by dynamical facilitation - is the mechanism from which the active-inactive phase transition emerges. We study properties of the inactive phase and show that it is amorphous lacking long-range order. We also discuss the choice of dynamical order parameters.

  13. Comparison of photothermal and piezoacoustic excitation methods for frequency and phase modulation atomic force microscopy in liquid environments


    Labuda, A.; Kobayashi, K; D. Kiracofe; Suzuki, K; P. H. Grütter; Yamada, H


    In attempting to perform frequency modulation atomic force microscopy (FM-AFM) in liquids, a non-flat phase transfer function in the self-excitation system prevents proper tracking of the cantilever natural frequency. This results in frequency-and-phase modulation atomic force microscopy (FPM-AFM) which lies in between phase modulation atomic force microscopy (PM-AFM) and FM-AFM. We derive the theory necessary to recover the conservative force and damping in such a situation, where standard F...

  14. Contrasting the excited state reaction pathways of phenol and para-methylthiophenol in the gas and liquid phases. (United States)

    Zhang, Yuyuan; Oliver, Thomas A A; Ashfold, Michael N R; Bradforth, Stephen E


    To explore how the solvent influences primary aspects of bond breaking, the gas and solution phase photochemistries of phenol and ofpara-methylthiophenol are directly compared using, respectively, H (Rydberg) atom photofragment translation spectroscopy and femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. Approaches are demonstrated that allow explicit comparisons of the nascent product energy disposals and dissociation mechanisms in the two phases. It is found, at least for the case of the weakly perturbing cyclohexane environment, that most aspects of the primary reaction dynamics of the isolated molecule are reproduced in solution. Specifically, in the gas phase, both molecules can undergo fast X-H (X = O, S) bond dissociation upon excitation with short wavelengths (193 sigma*)) state. Product electronic branching, vibrational and translational energy disposals are determined. Photolysis of phenol and para-methylthiophenol in solution at 200 nm results in formation of vibrationally excited radicals on a timescale shorter than 200 fs. Excitation of para-methylthiophenol at 267 nm reaches close to the S1 (1 1(pipi*))/S2 (11(pi sigma*)) conical intersection (CI): ultrafast dissociation is observed in both the isolated and solution systems-again indicating direct dissociation on the S2 potential energy surface. Comparing results for this precursor at different excitation energies, the extent of geminate recombination and the derived H-atom ejection lengths in the condensed phase photolyses are in qualitative agreement with the translational energy release measured in the gas phase studies. Conversely, excitation of phenol at 267 nm prepares the system in its S1 state at an energy well below its S1/S2 CI; the slow O-H bond fission inferred in the gas phase experiments is observed directly in the time-resolved studies in cyclohexane solution via the appearance of phenoxyl radical absorption after -1 ns, with only S1 excited state absorption discernible at earlier delay

  15. Growth models of coexisting p(2 × 1) and c(6 × 2) phases on an oxygen-terminated Cu(110) surface studied by noncontact atomic force microscopy at 78 K. (United States)

    Li, Yan Jun; Lee, Seung Hwan; Kinoshita, Yukinori; Ma, Zong Min; Wen, Huanfei; Nomura, Hikaru; Naitoh, Yoshitaka; Sugawara, Yasuhiro


    We present an experimental study of coexisting p(2 × 1) and c(6 × 2) phases on an oxygen-terminated Cu(110) surface by noncontact atomic force microscopy (NC-AFM) at 78 K. Ball models of the growth processes of coexisting p(2 × 1)/c(6 × 2) phases on a terrace and near a step are proposed. We found that the p(2 × 1) and c(6 × 2) phases are grown from the super Cu atoms on both sides of O-Cu-O rows of an atomic spacing. In this paper, we summarize our investigations of an oxygen-terminated Cu(110) surface by NC-AFM employing O- and Cu-terminated tips. Also, we state several problems and issues for future investigation.

  16. Gapless Spin Excitations in the Field-Induced Quantum Spin Liquid Phase of α -RuCl3 (United States)

    Zheng, Jiacheng; Ran, Kejing; Li, Tianrun; Wang, Jinghui; Wang, Pengshuai; Liu, Bin; Liu, Zheng-Xin; Normand, B.; Wen, Jinsheng; Yu, Weiqiang


    α -RuCl3 is a leading candidate material for the observation of physics related to the Kitaev quantum spin liquid (QSL). By combined susceptibility, specific-heat, and nuclear-magnetic-resonance measurements, we demonstrate that α -RuCl3 undergoes a quantum phase transition to a QSL in a magnetic field of 7.5 T applied in the a b plane. We show further that this high-field QSL phase has gapless spin excitations over a field range up to 16 T. This highly unconventional result, unknown in either Heisenberg or Kitaev magnets, offers insight essential to establishing the physics of α -RuCl3 .

  17. phase-coexistence and metastability

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gd5(Ge, Si)4 alloys showing giant magnetocaloric effects and magnetic shape memory alloys. The key features of this magneto-structural ... ties in the form of metal–insulator transition and varieties of magnetic, charge and orbital .... sharply at a lower temperature, TN, which is indicative of an FM–AFM transition. There is no ...

  18. Calibration of accelerometers: determination of amplitude and phase response upon shock excitation (United States)

    Link, A.; Täubner, A.; Wabinski, W.; Bruns, T.; Elster, C.


    A novel approach is proposed for the analysis of shock calibration measurements of accelerometers. The input/output behaviour of an accelerometer is represented by a physical model in terms of a second-order differential equation. The unknown model parameters, i.e. the coefficients of the differential equation, are estimated by a frequency domain least-squares approach. The derived model is then used to determine the frequency response of the accelerometer. The method was applied to calibration measurements upon shock excitations of two back-to-back accelerometers (ENDEVCO type 2270 and Brüel & Kjær type 8305). The determined frequency response was then compared to additional calibration measurements upon sinusoidal excitation. The sinusoidal excitation measurements were analysed by means of the established sine approximation method. Consistent results were obtained by the two methods which confirm the validity of the proposed modelling approach.

  19. Design comparison of single phase outer and inner-rotor hybrid excitation flux switching motor for hybrid electric vehicles (United States)

    Mazlan, Mohamed Mubin Aizat; Sulaiman, Erwan; Husin, Zhafir Aizat; Othman, Syed Muhammad Naufal Syed; Khan, Faisal


    In hybrid excitation machines (HEMs), there are two main flux sources which are permanent magnet (PM) and field excitation coil (FEC). These HEMs have better features when compared with the interior permanent magnet synchronous machines (IPMSM) used in conventional hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Since all flux sources including PM, FEC and armature coils are located on the stator core, the rotor becomes a single piece structure similar with switch reluctance machine (SRM). The combined flux generated by PM and FEC established more excitation fluxes that are required to produce much higher torque of the motor. In addition, variable DC FEC can control the flux capabilities of the motor, thus the machine can be applied for high-speed motor drive system. In this paper, the comparisons of single-phase 8S-4P outer and inner rotor hybrid excitation flux switching machine (HEFSM) are presented. Initially, design procedures of the HEFSM including parts drawing, materials and conditions setting, and properties setting are explained. Flux comparisons analysis is performed to investigate the flux capabilities at various current densities. Then the flux linkages of PM with DC FEC of various DC FEC current densities are examined. Finally torque performances are analyzed at various armature and FEC current densities for both designs. As a result, the outer-rotor HEFSM has higher flux linkage of PM with DC FEC and higher average torque of approximately 10% when compared with inner-rotor HEFSM.

  20. Large Energy Storage Density and High Thermal Stability in a Highly Textured (111)-Oriented Pb0.8Ba0.2ZrO3 Relaxor Thin Film with the Coexistence of Antiferroelectric and Ferroelectric Phases. (United States)

    Peng, Biaolin; Zhang, Qi; Li, Xing; Sun, Tieyu; Fan, Huiqing; Ke, Shanming; Ye, Mao; Wang, Yu; Lu, Wei; Niu, Hanben; Zeng, Xierong; Huang, Haitao


    A highly textured (111)-oriented Pb0.8Ba0.2ZrO3 (PBZ) relaxor thin film with the coexistence of antiferroelectric (AFE) and ferroelectric (FE) phases was prepared on a Pt/TiOx/SiO2/Si(100) substrate by using a sol-gel method. A large recoverable energy storage density of 40.18 J/cm(3) along with an efficiency of 64.1% was achieved at room temperature. Over a wide temperature range of 250 K (from room temperature to 523 K), the variation of the energy density is within 5%, indicating a high thermal stability. The high energy storage performance was endowed by a large dielectric breakdown strength, great relaxor dispersion, highly textured orientation, and the coexistence of FE and AFE phases. The PBZ thin film is believed to be an attractive material for applications in energy storage systems over a wide temperature range.

  1. Vibrational excitations in the paired phases of a two-dimensional electron crystal in a perpendicular magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asgari, R.; Polini, M.; Carnevale, V.; Tosi, M.P


    We evaluate the elementary excitations of both spin-singlet and spin-triplet paired crystalline phases of a two-dimensional system of electrons in a perpendicular magnetic field. We use the harmonic Hamiltonian derived from a truncation of the intercell interactions at dipolar terms and treat it within a circular-cell approximation. At this level the excitations are of two types, i.e. a discrete spectrum of localized vibrorotational modes and a continuum of dispersive magneto-oscillations. The eigenfunctions and eigenfrequencies of the intracell dynamics depend on a single parameter, which contains the electron density and the magnetic length, and are exhibited as functions of this parameter for various sets of values of the radial and angular-momentum quantum numbers. The propagating excitations describe collective oscillations of the centre of mass of the electron pairs and derive, as in the usual unpaired crystal phase, from the magnetic-field-induced shifts of plasmons and transverse phonons of the crystal in zero field. Several illustrations of their dispersion curves are given. Possible extensions of the theory to include anharmonicity and higher intercell couplings are briefly discussed.

  2. Phase-sensitive electric modulation of photoluminescence upon bichromatic excitation of atoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Astapenko, VA


    A new type of modulation of the photoluminescence intensity of atoms excited by a bichromatic laser radiation with the frequency ratio 1 : 2 is proposed and analysed. The modulation is produced by alternating electric field acting on atoms and occurs due to the quantum interference of the amplitudes

  3. Amplitude and phase of surface plasmon polaritons excited at a step edge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klick, Alwin; de la Cruz, Sergio; Lemke, Christoph


    A combined experimental and theoretical study on the laser-induced excitation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPP) at well-defined step edges of a gold–vacuum interface is presented. As a relevant parameter determining the coupling efficiency between laser field and SPP, we identify the ratio...

  4. Spin {ital M}1 excitations in deformed nuclei from self-consistent Hartree-Fock plus random-phase approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarriguren, P.; Moya de Guerra, E.; Nojarov, R. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Serrano 119, E-28006 Madrid (Spain)


    We present a method to study spin magnetic dipole excitations in deformed nuclei within the quasiparticle random phase approximation based on self-consistent Hartree-Fock mean fields and residual interactions derived from the same effective two-body force. We perform a comprehensive study covering different Skyrme forces and various mass regions, and discussing the role of the mean field and of the residual interaction. An overall agreement with experimental data is obtained with the SG2 force. We study the systematics and the deformation dependence of the spin {ital M}1 strength distributions of {ital K}{sup {pi}}=1{sup +} excitations. It is found for the first time that the summed spin {ital M}1 strength obeys a quadratic dependence on deformation in the two isotope chains studied, {sup 142,146,148,150}Nd and {sup 144,148,150,152,154}Sm. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  5. Using a heterodyne vibrometer in combination with pulse excitation for primary calibration of ultrasonic hydrophones in amplitude and phase (United States)

    Weber, Martin; Wilkens, Volker


    A high-frequency vibrometer was used with ultrasonic pulse excitation in order to perform a primary hydrophone calibration. This approach enables the simultaneous characterization of the amplitude and phase transfer characteristic of ultrasonic hydrophones. The method allows a high frequency resolution in a considerably short time for the measurement. Furthermore, the uncertainty contributions of this approach were investigated and quantified. A membrane hydrophone was calibrated and the uncertainty budget for this measurement was determined. The calibration results are presented up to 70~\\text{MHz} . The measurement results show good agreement with the results obtained by sinusoidal burst excitation through the use of the vibrometer and by a homodyne laser interferometer, with RMS deviation of approximately 3% -4% in the frequency range from 1 to 60~\\text{MHz} . Further hydrophones were characterized up to 100~\\text{MHz} with this procedure to demonstrate the suitability for very high frequency calibration.

  6. Focus: Phase-resolved nonlinear terahertz spectroscopy—From charge dynamics in solids to molecular excitations in liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsaesser, Thomas, E-mail:; Reimann, Klaus; Woerner, Michael, E-mail: [Max-Born-Institut für Nichtlineare Optik und Kurzzeitspektroskopie, 12489 Berlin (Germany)


    Intense terahertz (THz) electric field transients with amplitudes up to several megavolts/centimeter and novel multidimensional techniques are the key ingredients of nonlinear THz spectroscopy, a new area of basic research. Both nonlinear light-matter interactions including the non-perturbative regime and THz driven charge transport give new insight into the character and dynamics of low-energy excitations of condensed matter and into quantum kinetic phenomena. This article provides an overview of recent progress in this field, combining an account of technological developments with selected prototype results for liquids and solids. The potential of nonlinear THz methods for future studies of low-frequency excitations of condensed-phase molecular systems is discussed as well.

  7. Polarized-neutron-scattering study of the spin-wave excitations in the 3-k ordered phase of uranium antimonide. (United States)

    Magnani, N; Caciuffo, R; Lander, G H; Hiess, A; Regnault, L-P


    The anisotropy of magnetic fluctuations propagating along the [1 1 0] direction in the ordered phase of uranium antimonide has been studied using polarized inelastic neutron scattering. The observed polarization behavior of the spin waves is a natural consequence of the longitudinal 3-k magnetic structure; together with recent results on the 3-k-transverse uranium dioxide, these findings establish this technique as an important tool to study complex magnetic arrangements. Selected details of the magnon excitation spectra of USb have also been reinvestigated, indicating the need to revise the currently accepted theoretical picture for this material.

  8. Temperature and magnetic field dependence of the coexistent phases in La sub 1 sub - sub x Ca sub x MnO sub 3 sub + subdelta (x=0.47, 0.49)

    CERN Document Server

    Watanabe, Y; Awaji, S; Watanabe, K; Fujishiro, H; Ikebe, M


    X-ray diffraction measurements under high and low temperature, and magnetic field have been performed for the doped La sub 1 sub - sub x Ca sub x MnO sub 3 sub + subdelta polycrystals to clarify the coexistent phases and their structures around the composition of x - 0.5. By measurements at high temperature, the transition from a Pnma to an Imma space group symmetry phase has been firstly observed in this system at the temperature between 500degC and 600degC. At low temperature, the importance of the measurement of (131) reflection is noticed and the phase fraction of two similar Pnma phases with ferromagnetic and anti-ferromagnetic states is determined. It is found that the application of the magnetic field by 5 T and the slight change of the composition x by 0.02 remarkably affect this phase fraction. (author)

  9. Local response to light excitation in the charge-ordered phase of (EDO-TTF ) 2Sb F6 (United States)

    Servol, Marina; Moisan, Nicolas; Collet, Eric; Cailleau, Hervé; Kaszub, Wawrzyniec; Toupet, Loïc; Boschetto, Davide; Ishikawa, Tadahiko; Moréac, Alain; Koshihara, Shinya; Maesato, Mitsuhiko; Uruichi, Mikio; Shao, Xiangfeng; Nakano, Yoshiaki; Yamochi, Hideki; Saito, Gunzi; Lorenc, Maciej


    The family of materials (EDO-TTF ) 2X F6 represents quasi-one-dimensional quarter filled systems exhibiting insulator-to-metal (I-M) phase transition at thermal equilibrium. (EDO-TTF ) 2P F6 is known to undergo a photoinduced I-M conversion with cooperative response to light excitation. Here we use femtosecond pump-probe experiments to study the photoresponse of (EDO-TTF ) 2Sb F6 made of a larger counteranion Sb F6 compared to the well studied (EDO-TTF ) 2P F6 . In the early stage of the photoinduced process, we reveal a multicomponent coherent oscillating feature. The evolution of this feature with excitation density and temperature points to the local nature of the photoswitching in (EDO-TTF ) 2Sb F6 . At longer time scale, we did not detect the features associated with the transformation to the M phase, albeit observed in the P F6 derivative. We propose a scenario whereby the bigger size of the counteranion in (EDO-TTF ) 2Sb F6 hinders the establishment of this transformation at macroscopic scale.

  10. Phase Fluctuations and the Absence of Topological Defects in Photo-excited Charge Ordered Nickelate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, W.S.; Chuang, Y.D.; Moore, R.G.; Zhu, Y.; Patthey, L.; Trigo, M.; Lu, D.H.; Kirchmann, P.S.; Krupin, O.; Yi, M.; Langner, M.; Huse, N.; Robinson, J.S.; Chen, Y.; Zhou, S.Y.; Coslovich, G.; Huber, B.; Reis, D.A.; Kaindl, R.A.; Schoenlein, R.W.; Doering, D.


    The dynamics of an order parameter's amplitude and phase determines the collective behaviour of novel states emerging in complex materials. Time- and momentum-resolved pump-probe spectroscopy, by virtue of measuring material properties at atomic and electronic time scales out of equilibrium, can decouple entangled degrees of freedom by visualizing their corresponding dynamics in the time domain. Here we combine time-resolved femotosecond optical and resonant X-ray diffraction measurements on charge ordered La{sub 1.75}Sr{sub 0.25}NiO{sub 4} to reveal unforeseen photoinduced phase fluctuations of the charge order parameter. Such fluctuations preserve long-range order without creating topological defects, distinct from thermal phase fluctuations near the critical temperature in equilibrium. Importantly, relaxation of the phase fluctuations is found to be an order of magnitude slower than that of the order parameter's amplitude fluctuations, and thus limits charge order recovery. This new aspect of phase fluctuations provides a more holistic view of the phase's importance in ordering phenomena of quantum matter.

  11. Source characterization of selected North Caspian events from the relative excitation of regional phases. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niazi, M.


    Seismograms of seven recent events (presumed underground nuclear explosions) which occurred during 1976-1979 in the North Caspian Sea region of the western Soviet Kazakh are compared at regional distances for their relative source excitation characteristics. The body wave magnitude estimates of these events range from 5.1 to 6.0. The data consist of analog and digital records collected at stations ranging in instrumental sophistication from temporary sites with single component smoke drum capability to those of SRO, ASRO and array (ILPA) configurations with digitally recorded down-hole observations. The amplitude and frequency measurements of the analog seismograms for the first arrival and the peak amplitude of P coda as well as for the clear S wave signals recorded for different events at the same station are compared.

  12. Prototropic studies in vitreous and in solid phases: Pyranine and 2-naphthol excited state proton transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Fátima Aparecida das Chagas [Departamento de Química Fundamental, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade de São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Rezende, Eduardo Triboni [Universidade Nove de Julho, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Filho, Décio Briotto [Departamento de Bioquímica Instituto de Química, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade de São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Brito Rezende, Daisy de [Departamento de Química Fundamental, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade de São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Cuccovia, Iolanda Midea [Departamento de Bioquímica Instituto de Química, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade de São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Gome, Ligia Ferreira [Departamento de Análises Clínicas, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade de São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Silva, Mauro Francisco Pinheiro da [Departamento de Química Fundamental, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade de São Paulo, SP (Brazil); and others


    Excited state proton transfer processes in vitreous glasses and in solid mixtures are investigated by steady state fluorimetry and laser flash photolysis kinetic studies with the photoacids pyranine and 2-naphthol. Glasses were derived from TEOS by the sol–gel condensation process and hydrated solid mixtures from NaCl or KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}/K{sub 2}HPO{sub 4} crystals. The extent of the water content necessary for the reaction is determined. Shrinkage of TEOS derived monoliths from water loss leads to an increase in proton transfer extent due to the increase in local concentrations of accepting and donor buffer species, but the concomitant increase in the ionic strength actuates in an opposite direction. Furthermore, water losses by aging of air-exposed gel goes to a critical 20% weight fraction, beyond it proton transfer reactions are hindered. Similar studies with solid NaCl or solid phosphate buffer mixtures demonstrated the same critical water level indicating that free water molecules are crucial for the proton to escape from the original cage where the geminate ion pair [–||RO{sup −⁎}H{sup +}||–] is formed and can undergo coupled proton transfer reactions. -- Highlights: • Pyranine and 2-naphthol excited state proton transfer in SiO{sub 2} gel, solid phosphate buffer and NaCl. • Sol–gel formation leads to contraction and concentration of donor and accepting species. • 20% weight fraction water is required for the ESPT to go forward.

  13. Tuning excitation laser wavelength for secondary resonance in low-intensity phase-selective laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for in-situ analytical measurement of nanoaerosols (United States)

    Xiong, Gang; Li, Shuiqing; Tse, Stephen D.


    In recent years, a novel low-intensity phase-selective laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (PS-LIBS) technique has been developed for unique elemental-composition identification of aerosolized nanoparticles, where only the solid-phase nanoparticles break down, forming nanoplasmas, without any surrounding gas-phase breakdown. Additional work has demonstrated that PS-LIBS emissions can be greatly enhanced with secondary resonant excitation by matching the excitation laser wavelength with an atomic transition line in the formed nanoplasma, thereby achieving low limits of detection. In this work, a tunable dye laser is employed to investigate the effects of excitation wavelength and irradiance on in-situ PS-LIBS measurements of TiO2 nanoaerosols. The enhancement factor by resonant excitation can be 220 times greater than that for non-resonant cases under similar conditions. Moreover, the emitted spectra are unique for the selected resonant transition lines for a given element, suggesting the potential to make precise phase-selective and analyte-selective measurements of nanoparticles in a multicomponent multiphase system. The enhancement factor by resonant excitation is highly sensitive to excitation laser wavelength, with narrow excitation spectral windows, i.e., 0.012 to 0.023 nm (FWHM, full width at half maximum) for Ti (I) neutral atomic lines, and 0.051 to 0.139 nm (FWHM) for Ti (II) single-ionized atomic lines. Boltzmann analysis of the emission intensities, temporal response of emissions, and emission dependence on excitation irradiance are investigated to understand aspects of the generated nanoplasmas such as temperature, local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE), and excitation mechanism.

  14. Templating quantum dot to phase-transformed electrospun TiO₂ nanofibers for enhanced photo-excited electron injection. (United States)

    Aykut, Yakup; Saquing, Carl D; Pourdeyhimi, Behnam; Parsons, Gregory N; Khan, Saad A


    We report on the microstructural crystal phase transformation of electrospun TiO(2) nanofibers generated via sol-gel electrospinning technique, and the incorporation of as-synthesized CdSe quantum dots (QDs) to different phases of TiO(2) nanofibers (NFs) via bifunctional surface modification. The effect of different phases of TiO(2) on photo-excited electron injection from CdSe QDs to TiO(2) NFs, as measured by photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL) is also discussed. Nanofiber diameter and crystal structures are dramatically affected by different calcination temperatures due to removal of polymer carrier, conversion of ceramic precursor into ceramic nanofibers, and formation of different TiO(2) phases in the fibers. At a low calcination temperature of 400 (o)C only anatase TiO(2) nanofiber are obtained; with increasing calcination temperature (up to 500 (o)C) these anatase crystals became larger. Crystal transformation from the anatase to the rutile phase is observed above 500(o)C, with most of the crystals transforming into the rutile phase at 800(o)C. Bi-functional surface modification of calcined TiO(2) nanofibers with 3-mercaptopropionic acid (3-MPA) is used to incorporate as-synthesized CdSe QD nanoparticles on to TiO(2) nanofibers. Evidence of formation of CdSe/TiO(2) composite nanofibers is obtained from elemental analysis using Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and TEM microscopy that reveal templated quantum dots on TiO(2) nanofibers. Photoluminescence emission intensities increase considerably with the addition of QDs to all TiO(2) nanofiber samples, with fibers containing small amount of rutile crystals with anatase crystals showing the most enhanced effect.

  15. Coexistence in even-mass nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, J.L. (Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Physics); Heyde, K. (Inst. for Theoretical Physics and Inst. for Nuclear Physics, Ghent (Belgium)); Nazarewicz, W. (Joint Inst. for Heavy-Ion Research, Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Holifield Heavy-Ion Research Facility Warsaw Univ. (Poland). Inst. of Theoretical Physics); Huyse, M.; Duppen, P. van (Katholieke Univ., Leuven (Belgium). Inst. voor Kern- en Stralingsfysika)


    Shape coexistence in doubly even nuclei is reviewed. Two main theoretical approaches are presented. The first is essentially the shell model with the excitation of pairs of protons and/or neutrons across closed shells or subshells together with a residual proton-neutron interaction. The second is the deformed mean-field approach. The first is broadly defined so that it includes various truncation schemes to the shell model including generalized seniority and the interacting boson model. The presentation of the theory has two main aims: to provide a framework into which the majority of theoretical studies of shape coexistence can be placed and to provide a framework within which a unified view can be discussed. Selected experimental data are shown from {sup 16}O to {sup 238}U. Our criteria for selection emphasize detailed spectroscopic evidence ('fingerprints') for coexisting shapes. (orig.).

  16. Ordering, thermal excitations and phase transitions in dipolar coupled mono-domain magnet arrays (United States)

    Kapaklis, Vassilios


    Magnetism has provided a fertile test bed for physical models, such as the Heisenberg and Ising models. Most of these investigations have focused on solid materials and relate to their atomic properties such as the atomic magnetic moments and their interactions. Recently, advances in nanotechnology have enabled the controlled patterning of nano-sized magnetic particles, which can be arranged in extended lattices. Tailoring the geometry and the magnetic material of these lattices, the magnetic interactions and magnetization reversal energy barriers can be tuned. This enables interesting interaction schemes to be examined on adjustable length and energy scales. As a result such nano-magnetic systems represent an ideal playground for the study of physical model systems, being facilitated by direct magnetic imaging techniques. One particularly interesting case is that of systems exhibiting frustration, where competing interactions cannot be simultaneously satisfied. This results in a degeneracy of the ground state and intricate thermodynamic properties. An archetypical frustrated physical system is water ice. Similar physics can be mirrored in nano-magnetic arrays, by tuning the arrangement of neighboring magnetic islands, referred to as artificial spin ice. Thermal excitations in such systems resemble magnetic monopoles. In this presentation key concepts related to nano-magnetism and artificial spin ice will be introduced and discussed, along with recent experimental and theoretical developments.

  17. Anisotropic lattice response induced by a linearly-polarized femtosecond optical pulse excitation in interfacial phase change memory material. (United States)

    Makino, Kotaro; Saito, Yuta; Fons, Paul; Kolobov, Alexander V; Nakano, Takashi; Tominaga, Junji; Hase, Muneaki


    Optical excitation of matter with linearly-polarized femtosecond pulses creates a transient non-equilibrium lattice displacement along a certain direction. Here, the pump and probe pulse polarization dependence of the photo-induced ultrafast lattice dynamics in (GeTe)2/(Sb2Te3)4 interfacial phase change memory material is investigated under obliquely incident conditions. Drastic pump polarization dependence of the coherent phonon amplitude is observed when the probe polarization angle is parallel to the c-axis of the sample, while the pump polarization dependence is negligible when the probe polarization angle is perpendicular to the c-axis. The enhancement of phonon oscillation amplitude due to pump polarization rotation for a specific probe polarization angle is only found in the early time stage (≤2 ps). These results indicate that the origin of the pump and probe polarization dependence is dominantly attributable to the anisotropically-formed photo-excited carriers which cause the directional lattice dynamics.

  18. High-field magnetic phase transitions and spin excitations in magnetoelectric LiNiPO4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft-Petersen, Rasmus; Jensen, Jens; Jensen, Thomas Bagger Stibius


    The magnetically ordered phases and spin dynamics of magnetoelectric LiNiPO4 have been studied in fields up to 17.3 T along the c axis. Using neutron diffraction, we show that a previously proposed linearly polarized incommensurate (IC) structure exists only for temperatures just below the Neel...... temperature T-N. The ordered IC structure at the lowest temperatures is shown instead to be an elliptically polarized canted spiral for fields larger than 12 T. The transition between the two IC phases is of second order and takes place about 2 K below T-N. For mu H-0 > 16 T and temperatures below 10 K......, the spiral structure is found to lock in to a period of five crystallographic unit cells along the b axis. Based on the neutron-diffraction data, combined with detailed magnetization measurements along all three crystallographic axes, we establish the magnetic phase diagrams for fields up to 17.3 T along c...

  19. Wigner's quantum phase-space current in weakly-anharmonic weakly-excited two-state systems (United States)

    Kakofengitis, Dimitris; Steuernagel, Ole


    There are no phase-space trajectories for anharmonic quantum systems, but Wigner's phase-space representation of quantum mechanics features Wigner current J . This current reveals fine details of quantum dynamics —finer than is ordinarily thought accessible according to quantum folklore invoking Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. Here, we focus on the simplest, most intuitive, and analytically accessible aspects of J. We investigate features of J for bound states of time-reversible, weakly-anharmonic one-dimensional quantum-mechanical systems which are weakly-excited. We establish that weakly-anharmonic potentials can be grouped into three distinct classes: hard, soft, and odd potentials. We stress connections between each other and the harmonic case. We show that their Wigner current fieldline patterns can be characterised by J's discrete stagnation points, how these arise and how a quantum system's dynamics is constrained by the stagnation points' topological charge conservation. We additionally show that quantum dynamics in phase space, in the case of vanishing Planck constant ℏ or vanishing anharmonicity, does not pointwise converge to classical dynamics.

  20. A Possible Output Area of Torque and Suspension Force in a Switched Reluctance Type Bearingless Motor with One Phase Excitation (United States)

    Takemoto, Masatsugu; Chiba, Akira; Akagi, Hirofumi; Fukao, Tadashi

    Switched reluctance type bearingless motors are characterized by integration of switched reluctance motors and magnetic bearings. Therefore, these motors can control radial rotor positions with magnetic force actively. Production of suspension force for rotor shaft magnetic suspension is explained with differential stator windings. In the previous paper, accurate theoretical formulae of instantaneous torque and suspension force generated by one phase excitation were derived from an assumption of simple permeance distribution. From the derived theoretical formulae, it is found that there exist cross coupling between the instantaneous torque and the suspension force. This paper derives a possible output area of the instantaneous torque and the suspension force considering the cross coupling in order to realize a stable operation. It is shown with experimental results that the possible output area of the proposed motors is very accurate in terms of practical application.

  1. Excitation and ionic fragmentation of gas-phase biomolecules using electrons and synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, G G B de [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 21949-900 (Brazil); Coutinho, L H [Centro Universitario Estadual da Zona Oeste, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 23070-200 (Brazil); Nunez, C [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia, INPA, Manaus, AM, 69083-000 (Brazil); Bernini, R [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 21949-900 (Brazil); Castilho, R B [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 21949-900 (Brazil); Lago, A F [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz SIncrotron (LNLS), Box 6192, Campinas, SP, 13084-971 (Brazil)


    An experimental study of the electronic excitation and ionic dissociation of two important classes of biomolecules-natural products (biogenic volatile organic compounds, VOCs, and volatile components of essential oils) and DNA and RNA constituents (aminoacids and bases) is here exemplified with recent results on the fragmentation of thymine and isoprene as induced by synchrotron radiation and fast electrons. Fragmentation of the thymine molecule was seen to dramatically increase as the photon energy increased from 21 to 300 eV and 450 eV. At the highest photon energy, simply and doubly charged N and O atoms were observed. The parent ion (m/z = 126) could be observed at all photon energies. The fragmentation pattern observed in the 1.0 keV electron impact mass spectrum of thymine resembled more closely the fragmentation observed with 21 eV photons. In isoprene, the dominant fragments observed at 21 eV and 310 eV photon energy as well as in the 1.0 keV electron impact mass spectrum were C{sub 5}H{sub 7}{sup +}(m/z = 67), C{sub 4}H{sub 5}{sup +}(m/z = 53), C{sub 3}H{sub 3}{sup +}(m/z = 39) and C{sub 2}H{sub 3}{sup +}(m/z = 27). Previously unreported fragments, namely H{sup +}, C{sup +}, CH{sup +}, CH{sub 2}{sup +}, and CH{sub 3}{sup +} were observed at the high photon energies and at the electron impact mass spectrum.

  2. Controlling the near-field excitation of nano-antennas with phase-change materials. (United States)

    Kao, Tsung Sheng; Chen, Yi Guo; Hong, Ming Hui


    By utilizing the strongly induced plasmon coupling between discrete nano-antennas and quantitatively controlling the crystalline proportions of an underlying Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) phase-change thin layer, we show that nanoscale light localizations in the immediate proximity of plasmonic nano-antennas can be spatially positioned. Isolated energy hot-spots at a subwavelength scale can be created and adjusted across the landscape of the plasmonic system at a step resolution of λ/20. These findings introduce a new approach for nano-circuitry, bio-assay addressing and imaging applications.

  3. The superconducting phase and electronic excitations of (Rb,Cs) Fe 2 As 2 (United States)

    Kanter, J.; Shermadini, Z.; Khasanov, R.; Amato, A.; Bukowski, Z.; Batlogg, B.


    We present specific heat, transport and Muon-Spin Rotation (μ SR) results on (Rb,Cs) Fe 2 As 2 . RbFe 2 As 2 was only recently found to be superconducting below 2.6 K by Bukowski et al. Compared to the related BaFe 2 As 2 the electron density is lower and no magnetic order is observed. For the superconducting phase the superfluid density was calculated from μ SR data. The temperature dependence of the superfluid density and the magnetic penetration depth is well described by a multi-gap scenario. In addition the electronic contribution the specific heat was studied for different compositions and magnetic fields and reveals a high value for the Sommerfeld coefficient γ .

  4. Phase model analysis of the long-range excitation in the hippocampal CA1 model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang-Gui [Nonlinear and Complex Systems Lab., Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Dong-Uk; Han, Seung-Kee [Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Kook, Hyung-Tae [Kyungwon University, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of)


    The synchronization of rhythms in various frequency ranges over participating cortical areas is one of the important issues in neuroscience. Experimental and modeling studies suggest that rhythms of the beta frequency range have a dynamical structure distinct from that of the gamma rhythms. To elucidate the mechanism of synchronization, the role of the long-range excitatory connection which is incorporated with finite conduction delay time needs to be analyzed. This work attempts such analysis, utilizing the reduced phase oscillator model. It is shown that the long-range gamma rhythm remains unstable, regardless of the presence of the excitatory connection. However, the beta rhythm is stable over a broad range of conduction time delay, which cannot apparently be tolerated by the long-range gamma rhythm. These synchronization features are consistent with experimental observations which imply that gamma rhythms are used for local computations, whereas beta rhythms are used for higher level interactions involving more distant structures.

  5. Signature of a continuous quantum phase transition in non-equilibrium energy absorption: Footprints of criticality on higher excited states. (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Sirshendu; Dasgupta, Subinay; Das, Arnab


    Understanding phase transitions in quantum matters constitutes a significant part of present day condensed matter physics. Quantum phase transitions concern ground state properties of many-body systems, and hence their signatures are expected to be pronounced in low-energy states. Here we report signature of a quantum critical point manifested in strongly out-of-equilibrium states with finite energy density with respect to the ground state and extensive (subsystem) entanglement entropy, generated by an external pulse. These non-equilibrium states are evidently completely disordered (e.g., paramagnetic in case of a magnetic ordering transition). The pulse is applied by switching a coupling of the Hamiltonian from an initial value (λI) to a final value (λF) for sufficiently long time and back again. The signature appears as non-analyticities (kinks) in the energy absorbed by the system from the pulse as a function of λF at critical-points (i.e., at values of λF corresponding to static critical-points of the system). As one excites higher and higher eigenstates of the final Hamiltonian H(λF) by increasing the pulse height (|λF - λI|), the non-analyticity grows stronger monotonically with it. This implies adding contributions from higher eigenstates help magnifying the non-analyticity, indicating strong imprint of the critical-point on them. Our findings are grounded on exact analytical results derived for Ising and XY chains in transverse field.

  6. When do we need to account for the geometric phase in excited state dynamics? (United States)

    Ryabinkin, Ilya G; Joubert-Doriol, Loïc; Izmaylov, Artur F


    We investigate the role of the geometric phase (GP) in an internal conversion process when the system changes its electronic state by passing through a conical intersection (CI). Local analysis of a two-dimensional linear vibronic coupling (LVC) model Hamiltonian near the CI shows that the role of the GP is twofold. First, it compensates for a repulsion created by the so-called diagonal Born-Oppenheimer correction. Second, the GP enhances the non-adiabatic transition probability for a wave-packet part that experiences a central collision with the CI. To assess the significance of both GP contributions we propose two indicators that can be computed from parameters of electronic surfaces and initial conditions. To generalize our analysis to N-dimensional systems we introduce a reduction of a general N-dimensional LVC model to an effective 2D LVC model using a mode transformation that preserves short-time dynamics of the original N-dimensional model. Using examples of the bis(methylene) adamantyl and butatriene cations, and the pyrazine molecule we have demonstrated that their effective 2D models reproduce the short-time dynamics of the corresponding full dimensional models, and the introduced indicators are very reliable in assessing GP effects.

  7. A Novel Encoded Excitation Scheme in a Phased Array for The Improving Data Acquisition Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Gutiérrez-Fernández


    Full Text Available One of the challenges of phased array (PA ultrasonic imaging systems is their limited capability to deal with real-time applications, such as echocardiography and obstetrics. In its most basic outline, these systems require emitting and receiving with the entire array for each image line to be acquired; therefore, with many image lines, a higher acquisition time and a lower frame rate. This constraint requires one to find alternatives to reduce the total number of emissions needed to obtain the whole image. In this work, we propose a new PA scheme based on the Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA technique, where a different code is assigned to each steering direction, allowing the array to emit in several directions simultaneously. However, the use of encoding techniques produces a reduction of the image contrast because of the interferences between codes. To solve this, a new scheme based on merging several images is proposed, allowing the system to get close to the theoretical maximum frame rate, as well as to limit the loss of contrast, intrinsic to the technique.

  8. China and Coexistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Liselotte

    “Peaceful coexistence,” long a key phrase in China’s strategic thinking, is a constructive doctrine that offers China a path for influencing the international system. So argues Liselotte Odgaard in this timely analysis of China's national security strategy in the context of its foreign policy...... practice. China’s program of peaceful coexistence emphasizes absolute sovereignty and non-interference in the internal affairs of other states. Odgaard suggests that China’s policy of working within the international community and with non-state actors such as the UN aims to win for China greater power...... and influence without requiring widespread exercise of military or economic pressure. Odgaard examines the origins of peaceful coexistence in early Soviet doctrine, its midcentury development by China and India, and its ongoing appeal to developing countries. She reveals what this foreign policy offers China...

  9. Memory, Conviviality and Coexistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duru, Deniz Neriman


    that postulates cohesion and conflict as rooted in ethnic and religious differences. It suggests ‘conviviality’ as the production of space, by arguing that hard times, tensions as well as sensorial pleasures produce a sense of belonging in a place, through shared ways of living. While memories of ‘coexistence...

  10. Coexistence between neighbours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shenge, K.C.; Mabagala, R.B.; Mortensen, C A Nieves Paulino


    Experiments were conducted under laboratory and screenhouse conditions to study the coexistence between Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato and Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria, incitants of bacterial speck and bacterial spot diseases of tomato. Results of in vitro studies showed that when mixe...

  11. Search for 2νββ excited state transitions and HPGe characterization for surface events in GERDA phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehnert, Bjoern


    The search for the neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay is one of the most active fields in modern particle physics. This process is not allowed within the Standard Model and its observation would imply lepton number violation and would lead to the Majorana nature of neutrinos. The experimentally observed quantity is the half-life of the decay, which can be connected to the effective Majorana neutrino mass via nuclear matrix elements. The latter can only be determined theoretically and are currently affected by large uncertainties. To reduce these uncertainties one can investigate the well established two-neutrino double beta (2νββ) decay into the ground and excited states of the daughter isotope. These similar processes are allowed within the Standard Model. In this dissertation, the search for 2νββ decays into excited states is performed in {sup 110}Pd, {sup 102}Pd and {sup 76}Ge. Three gamma spectroscopy setups at the Felsenkeller (Germany), HADES (Belgium) and LNGS (Italy) underground laboratories are used to search for the transitions in {sup 110}Pd and {sup 102}Pd. No signal is observed leading to lower half-live bounds (90% C.I.) of 2.9 . 10{sup 20} yr, 3.9 . 10{sup 20} yr and 2.9 . 10{sup 20} yr for the 0/2νββ 2{sup +}{sub 1}, 0{sup +}{sub 1} and 2{sup +}{sub 2} transitions in {sup 110}Pd and 7.9 . 10{sup 18} yr, 9.2 . 10{sup 18} yr and 1.5 . 10{sup 19} yr for the 0/2νββ 2{sup +}{sub 1}, 0{sup +}{sub 1} and 2{sup +}{sub 2} transitions in {sup 102}Pd, respectively. This is a factor of 1.3 to 3 improvement compared to previous limits. The data of Phase I (Nov 2011 - May 2013) of the 0νββ decay experiment GERDA at LNGS is used to search for excited state transitions in {sup 76}Ge. The analysis is based on coincidences between two detectors and finds no signal. Lower half-life limits (90 % C.L.) of 1.6.10{sup 23} yr, 3.7.10{sup 23} yr and 2.3.10{sup 23} yr are obtained for the 2νββ 2{sup +}{sub 1}, 0{sup +}{sub 1} and 2{sup +}{sub 2

  12. Phase transitions and their co-existence in TlGaSe2–TlCrS2 (Se2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Investigation of dielectric properties of layered compound, TlGaSe2, showed that it is a ferroelectric (c = 105.5 K) with an intermediate incommensurate phase (i = 114.5 K). Our magnetic studies of layered compounds, TlCrS2 and TlCrSe2, for the first time revealed that the magnetic phase transition in these compounds ...

  13. Study of low-energy magnetic excitations in single-crystalline CeIn sub 3 by inelastic neutron scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Knafo, W; Fak, B; Lapertot, G; Canfield, P C; Flouquet, J


    Inelastic neutron scattering experiments were performed on single crystals of the heavy-fermion compound CeIn sub 3 for temperatures below and above the Neel temperature, T sub N. In the antiferromagnetically ordered phase, well-defined spin-wave excitations with a bandwidth of 2 meV are observed. The spin waves coexist with quasielastic (QE) Kondo-type spin fluctuations and broadened crystal-field (CF) excitations below T sub N. Above T sub N , only the QE and CF excitations persist, with a weak temperature dependence.

  14. Ultrafast and large reflectivity change by ultraviolet excitation of the metallic phase in the organic conductor (EDO-TTF)2PF6 (United States)

    Onda, K.; Shimizu, M.; Sakaguchi, F.; Ogihara, S.; Ishikawa, T.; Okimoto, Y.; Koshihara, S.; Shao, X. F.; Nakano, Y.; Yamochi, H.; Saito, G.


    We examined the ultrafast response of the metallic high-temperature phase in the conducting charge transfer complex (EDO-TTF)2PF6. A large reflectivity change of approximately 10% was observed when the intra-molecular band was excited by a weak 3.1 eV ultraviolet light pulse. The lifetimes of the photo-induced states were 0.2 and 0.7 ps in the Drude-like band and the intra-molecular band, respectively. Measurement of the photo-induced spectrum just after photo-excitation and simulation using the Drude model revealed that the electronically excited EDO-TTF molecules shortened the relaxation time of conduction electrons and reduced the reflectivity of the Drude-like band.

  15. Glycol-Water Interactions and co-existing phases and Temperature Dependent Solubility. An Example Of Carbon-Hydrogen Chemistry In Water

    CERN Document Server

    Michael, Fredrick


    Recently there has been great interest in Glycol-Water chemistry and solubility and temperature dependent phase dynamics. The Glycol-Water biochemistry of interactions is present in plant biology and chemistry, is of great interest to chemical engineers and biochemists as it is a paradigm of Carbon-Hydrogen Water organic chemistry. There is an interest moreover in formulating a simpler theory and computation model for the Glycol-Water interaction and phase dynamics, that is not fully quantum mechanical yet has the high accuracy available from a fully quantum mechanical theory of phase transitions of fluids and Fermi systems. Along these lines of research interest we have derived a Lennard-Jones -like theory of interacting molecules-Water in a dissolved adducts of Glycol-Water system interacting by Hydrogen bonds whose validity is supported at the scale of interactions by other independent molecular dynamics investigations that utilize force fields dependent on their experimental fittings to the Lennard-Jones ...

  16. Shape coexistence near the Z-82 closed shell: a study of the excited states of /sup 187/Au and /sup 187/Pt in the. beta. /sup +/ decay of /sup 187/Hg and /sup 187/Au

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimm, M.A. Jr.


    The decays of mass-separated (2.4, 2.2 min)/sup 187m,g/Hg and (8.4 min)/sup 187/Au were studied. Both high- and low-spin states in /sup 187/Au are fed in the (..beta../sup +/, EC) decay of /sup 187m,g/Hg isomers. The h/sub 11/2/, h/sub 9/2/, s/sub 1/2/, d/sub 3/2/, and d/sub 5/2/ collective bands, which are systematically observed throughout the odd-mass gold isotopes, are now extended to /sup 187/Au. In /sup 187/Au, the h/sub 9/2/ bandhead is below the h/sub 11/2/ bandhead, and the transition between the two is found to proceed via a hindered M1 transition due to the change in nuclear shape involved in the transition. One of the most important results of the present study is the discovery of the coupling of the odd proton in an h/sub 9/2/ particle state to the excited O/sup +/ state of the /sup 186/Pt core. Only the low spin states in /sup 187/Pt appear to be populated in the beta decay of /sup 187/Au. The nature of these low-spin states is not understood at present. One aspect of the levels of /sup 187/Pt not previously reported is a delayed transition of 251 keV energy observed in the present study. 111 references.

  17. Role of sympathetic excitation in generating arrhythmias in early and late phases of ectopic responses after coronary arterial occlusion in dog heart. (United States)

    Harris, A S; Bocage, A J; Otero, H


    The three phases of arrhythmias that develop within specific durations of occlusion of a coronary artery of the dog have been reviewed and characterized. The intravenous administration of practolol as described has virtually prevented the occurrence of arrhythmic activity during the first 7-8 hr after occlusion and kept the frequency at a much reduced level as compared with controls through 10 or 11 hr, but not appreciably longer. This means that first and second phase arrhythmias were almost abolished, and development of third phase ventricular tachycardia was significantly retarded, but not prevented. It is concluded that sympathetic stimulation is an important component in the effective excitation of ectopic activity during the first and second phases, but contributed no more than a minor component to the fully developed third phase activity.

  18. [Hypothyroidism coexisting with pregnancy]. (United States)

    Milczek, T; Michalska, J; Olszewski, J; Starnawski, M; Klasa-Mazurkiewicz, D


    The aim of the study was to describe pregnancies, deliveries, and puerperal times, and to compare them with the reached scientific communications. Four pregnancies in women with the hypothyroidism were described. All cases were taken from the group of twenty pregnancies (18 women) who were treated because of thyroid gland diseases in our clinic. We found that every infant was born in good condition, deliveries and childbeds were uncomplicated. Our notices are similar to new scientific communications, that hypothyroidism coexists with pregnancy much often then everybody, till now, suspected and infants have not so often congenital defects.

  19. M1 (e, e') excitations in {sup 30}Si and {sup 31}S from the quasiparticle random-phase approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Udias, J.M.; Faessler, Amand [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Tuebingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 14, D-72076, Tuebingen (Germany); Nojarov, R. [Institute of Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, BG-1784, Sofia (Bulgaria)


    We apply the QRPA formalism developed in previous works to study the excitation of the M1 mode through (e, e') scattering on {sup 30}Si and {sup 32}S. The agreement with experiment is comparable with that of the shell model for sd-shell nuclei. Having in view previous works for heavy and medium nuclei, one could conclude that the quasiparticle random-phase approximation (QRPA) is applicable to nuclei from a wide range of masses. (author)

  20. Possible coexistence of superconductivity and magnetic order in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Coexistence of superconductivity and magnetic order has been one of the exciting as- pects of the quaternary borocarbide superconductors. So far, RNi2B2C (R= Tm, Er, Ho and Dy) are the only known magnetic superconductors in this family. Here, we present our resistivity, mag- netization and heat capacity ...

  1. Combining Catalytic Microparticles with Droplets Formed by Phase Coexistence: Adsorption and Activity of Natural Clays at the Aqueous/Aqueous Interface. (United States)

    Pir Cakmak, Fatma; Keating, Christine D


    Natural clay particles have been hypothesized as catalysts on the early Earth, potentially facilitating the formation of early organic (bio) molecules. Association of clay particles with droplets formed by liquid-liquid phase separation could provide a physical mechanism for compartmentalization of inorganic catalysts in primitive protocells. Here we explore the distribution of natural clay mineral particles in poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)/dextran (Dx) aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS). We compared the three main types of natural clay: kaolinite, montmorillonite and illite, all of which are aluminosilicates of similar composition and surface charge. The three clay types differ in particle size, crystal structure, and their accumulation at the ATPS interface and ability to stabilize droplets against coalescence. Illite and kaolinite accumulated at the aqueous/aqueous interface, stabilizing droplets against coalescence but not preventing their eventual sedimentation due to the mass of adsorbed particles. The ability of each clay-containing ATPS to catalyze reaction of o-phenylenediamine with peroxide to form 2,3-diaminophenazone was evaluated. We observed modest rate increases for this reaction in the presence of clay-containing ATPS over clay in buffer alone, with illite outperforming the other clays. These findings are encouraging because they support the potential of combining catalytic mineral particles with aqueous microcompartments to form primitive microreactors.

  2. Neutron scattering studies of order parameters and excitations in antiferro-quadrupolar phase of PrFe{sub 4}P{sub 12}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, L. [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Aramaki-aza-aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Iwasa, K. [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Aramaki-aza-aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan)]. E-mail:; Kuwahara, K. [Department of Physics, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Kohgi, M. [Department of Physics, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Sugawara, H. [Department of Mathematical and Natural Sciences, Tokushima University Tokushima 770-8502 (Japan); Aoki, Y. [Department of Physics, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Sato, H. [Department of Physics, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Matsuda, T.D. [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai 319-119 (Japan); Mignot, J.-M. [Laboratoire Leon Brillouin, CEA-CRNS, CEA/Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Gukasov, A. [Laboratoire Leon Brillouin, CEA-CRNS, CEA/Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Nishi, M. [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8581 (Japan)


    The order parameters in the antiferro-quadrupolar (AFQ) ordered phase of PrFe{sub 4}P{sub 12} have been investigated by polarized neutron diffraction measurement. By observing the interference effect of scattering amplitudes from the Fe-ion displacement and the antiferromagnetic component induced by the magnetic field applied along the [0,0,1] axis, we conclude that the dominant ordered quadrupole is O{sub 2}{sup 0} in the low-temperature phase. By inelastic neutron scattering experiment for a single-crystal sample, we observed sharp magnetic excitations in the AFQ-ordered phase, whose maximum intensity appears at the Brillouin zone center and minimum at the zone boundary. This fact indicates the existence of ferromagnetic correlation between Pr ions in the AFQ-ordered phase.

  3. Localized and itinerant magnetic excitations in CaFe2As2 (United States)

    Ke, Liqin; van Schilfgaarde, Mark; Antropov, Vladimir; Kotani, Takao


    Elementary magnetic excitations in the striped phase of CaFe2As2 are studied with linear-response density-functional theory. Itinerant, Stoner-like elementary excitations are found to coexist with the usual antiferromagnetic spin waves observed in neutron experiments. When the Fe moment M exceed 1.1μB, spin waves are dominant; while as M decreases below 1μB there is a rather sharp transition to itinerant behavior, with spin waves being damped by Stoner excitations of several types. An unusual low energy excitation was found, whose origin can be traced to excitations within a narrow Fe d band of xy and yz symmetry. This band lies above the Fermi level when M is 1.1μB, and passes through it as M decreases. The more conventional spin waves are associated with transitions from a different band of d states, at lower energy. This establishes that independent localized and itinerant elementary excitations coexist in CaFe2As2, and are present even below the N'eel temperature.

  4. Optical Bragg, atomic Bragg and cavity QED detections of quantum phases and excitation spectra of ultracold atoms in bipartite and frustrated optical lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Jinwu, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Terahertz Optoelectronics, Ministry of Education, Department of Physics, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048 (China); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762 (United States); Zhang, K.Y.; Li, Yan [Department of Physics, East China Normal university, Shanghai, 200062 (China); Chen, Yan [Department of Physics, State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics and Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200433 (China); Zhang, W.P. [Department of Physics, East China Normal university, Shanghai, 200062 (China)


    Ultracold atoms loaded on optical lattices can provide unprecedented experimental systems for the quantum simulations and manipulations of many quantum phases and quantum phase transitions between these phases. However, so far, how to detect these quantum phases and phase transitions effectively remains an outstanding challenge. In this paper, we will develop a systematic and unified theory of using the optical Bragg scattering, atomic Bragg scattering or cavity QED to detect the ground state and the excitation spectrum of many quantum phases of interacting bosons loaded in bipartite and frustrated optical lattices. The physically measurable quantities of the three experiments are the light scattering cross sections, the atom scattered clouds and the cavity leaking photons respectively. We show that the two photon Raman transition processes in the three detection methods not only couple to the density order parameter, but also the valence bond order parameter due to the hopping of the bosons on the lattice. This valence bond order coupling is very sensitive to any superfluid order or any valence bond (VB) order in the quantum phases to be probed. These quantum phases include not only the well-known superfluid and Mott insulating phases, but also other important phases such as various kinds of charge density waves (CDW), valence bond solids (VBS), and CDW-VBS phases with both CDW and VBS orders unique to frustrated lattices, and also various kinds of supersolids. We analyze respectively the experimental conditions of the three detection methods to probe these various quantum phases and their corresponding excitation spectra. We also address the effects of a finite temperature and a harmonic trap. We contrast the three scattering methods with recent in situ measurements inside a harmonic trap and argue that the two kinds of measurements are complementary to each other. The combination of both kinds of detection methods could be used to match the combination of

  5. Analysis and Investigation of Skew Effect on Behavior and Performance of a Small Scale Three-Phase Self-Excited Induction Generator (United States)

    Sawetsakulanond, Budhapon; Kinnares, Vijit

    This paper presents analysis and investigation of the skew effect on behavior and performance of a three-phase, 220/380V, 8.7/5.0A, Δ/Y connected, 4 poles, 2.2kW self-excited induction generator (SEIG) with different angles rotor skewing. A 2D finite element analysis (2D-FEA) is used to consider core loss, flux density and circuit parameters. Analysis of excitation capacitor values for the SEIG based on a steady-state equivalent circuit model including rotor skew effect is given. Skewed rotor slots with angle of 0° (non-skew), 5° and 10° for the SEIGs are employed. Testing and performance comparisons under steady-state operation with a pure resistive load have been conducted. Obtained results can be guidelines and recommendations for development of effective wind induction generators.

  6. Coexistence of tonic firing and bursting in cortical neurons (United States)

    Fröhlich, Flavio; Bazhenov, Maxim


    Sustained neuronal activity can be broadly classified as either tonic firing or bursting. These two major patterns of neuronal oscillations are state dependent and may coexist. The dynamics and intracellular mechanisms of transitions between tonic firing and bursting in cortical networks remain poorly understood. Here we describe a detailed two-compartment conductance-based cortical neuron model which exhibits bistability with hysteresis between tonic firing and bursting for elevated extracellular potassium concentration. The study explains the ionic and dynamical mechanisms of burst generation and reveals the conditions underlying coexistence of two different oscillatory modes as a function of neuronal excitability.

  7. Excited state transitions in 2νββ decays of {sup 76}Ge from phase I of the GERDA experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wester, Thomas [IKTP, TU Dresden (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration


    The Germanium Detector Array GERDA is an experiment searching for the neutrinoless double beta decay in {sup 76}Ge. The observation of such a decay would prove the Majorana character of the neutrino and could provide a hint about the neutrino mass and possibly identify the mass hierarchy scheme. The half life of the neutrino accompanied double beta decay (2νββ) of {sup 76}Ge has been measured by GERDA Phase I with unprecedented precision. The observed spectrum comes mostly from the transition from the 0{sup +} ground state of {sup 76}Ge to the 0{sup +} ground state of {sup 76}Se. However, phase space suppressed 2νββ transitions to excited states of {sup 76}Se exist as well. At current state, the predicted half lives for such decays vary by several orders of magnitude, due to the large uncertainties in the nuclear matrix elements and the available nuclear models. An observation would therefore help to constrain model parameters and decrease those uncertainties. This study investigates the 2νββ decay of {sup 76}Ge into various excited states of {sup 76}Se using the data from GERDA Phase I. An event counting method is performed based on coincident events between two germanium detectors. Several analysis parameters are optimized with the help of Monte Carlo simulations to maximize the sensitivity. The presentation discusses the procedure and results of this analysis.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.M. Vasyliv


    Full Text Available By means of a mathematical experiment, electromagnetic and electromechanical processes in an independent electric power supply system based on an asynchronized generator with a three-phase modulated exciter are investigated. The processes are analyzed to specify the working capacity of the power supply system during its operation to an induction motors site. Regularities of the electromagnetic and electromechanical processes behavior versus load intensity and the switch control system parameters are identified.

  9. Electrical transport and temperature coefficient of resistance in polycrystalline La{sub 0.7−x}Ag{sub x}Ca{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} pellets: Analysis in terms of a phase coexistence transport model and phase separation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phong, P.T., E-mail: [Department of Advanced Materials Chemistry, Dongguk University, 707 Suckjang-dong, Gyeongju-Si, Gyeonbuk 780-714 (Korea, Republic of); Nha Trang Pedagogic College, 01 Nguyen Chanh Street, Nha Trang, Khanh Hoa (Viet Nam); Nguyen, L.H. [Nha Trang Pedagogic College, 01 Nguyen Chanh Street, Nha Trang, Khanh Hoa (Viet Nam); Institute of Materials Science, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet Road, Cau Giay, Ha Noi (Viet Nam); Manh, D.H.; Phuc, N.X. [Institute of Materials Science, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet Road, Cau Giay, Ha Noi (Viet Nam); Lee, I.-J. [Department of Advanced Materials Chemistry, Dongguk University, 707 Suckjang-dong, Gyeongju-Si, Gyeonbuk 780-714 (Korea, Republic of)


    The temperature dependent resistivity and temperature coefficient of resistance of Ag doped La{sub 0.7−x}Ag{sub x}Ca{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} polycrystalline pellets (x=0, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, and 0.20) are investigated. Ag substitution enhances the conductivity of this system. The Curie temperature also increases from 260 to 283 K with increasing Ag content. Using phase-coexistence transport model and phase separation model, we calculated the resistivity as a function of temperature and the temperature coefficient of resistivity (TCR) behavior. Comparing the calculated maximum TCR, we found that it is related to activation energy, transition temperature, and disorder in doped manganites. The relationship between the proposed TCR behavior and the transport parameters can suggest conditions improving TCR{sub max} of doped manganites for the use of the bolometric infrared detectors.

  10. Coexistence of neuropeptides in hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J


    Using a technique for simultaneous visualisation of two antigens in one section, oxytocin-like immunoreactivity has been found to coexist with bombesin-like immunoreactivity in neurons of the basal disk, gastric region and tentacles of hydra. Neurons with oxytocin-like immunoreactivity in peduncle...... and hypostome, on the other hand, have little or no bombesin-like material. Oxytocin-like immunoreactivity never coexists with FMRFamide-immunoreactivity. The neurons with oxytocin- and FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity, however, are often found to be closely intermingled. The results show that coexistence...

  11. Quantum Phases and Collective Excitations of a Spin-Orbit-Coupled Bose-Einstein Condensate in a One-Dimensional Optical Lattice (United States)

    Martone, G. I.


    The ground state of a spin-orbit-coupled Bose gas in a one-dimensional optical lattice is known to exhibit a mixed regime, where the condensate wave function is given by a superposition of multiple Bloch-wave components, and an unmixed one, in which the atoms occupy a single Bloch state. The unmixed regime features two unpolarized Bloch-wave phases, having quasimomentum at the center or at the edge of the first Brillouin zone, and a polarized Bloch-wave phase at intermediate quasimomenta. By calculating the critical values of the Raman coupling and of the lattice strength at the transitions among the various phases, we show the existence of a tricritical point where the mixed, the polarized and the edge-quasimomentum phases meet, and whose appearance is a consequence of the spin-dependent interaction. Furthermore, we evaluate the excitation spectrum in the unmixed regime and we characterize the behavior of the phonon and the roton modes, pointing out the instabilities occurring when a phase transition is approached.

  12. Experience in Developing a Single-Phase Two Winding 5 kW Self-excited Induction Generator for Off-Grid Renewable Energy Based Power Generation (United States)

    Murthy, S. S.; Singh, Bhim; Sandeep, Vuddanti


    This paper deals with the design and development of a novel single-phase two winding self-excited squirrel cage induction generator (SEIG) for off-grid renewable energy based power generation. The principles underlying the design process and experience with SPEED design tool are described to design a 5 kW, 50 Hz, 230 V, 4 pole single phase AC generator. All possible configurations to reduce harmonic components of induced e.m.f. are attempted for desired performance and to get an optimum design keeping in view the manufacturing constraints. The development of a prototype based on this design has been completed with the help of an industry. Typical test results on the prototype are presented to demonstrate its performance. Computed results are obtained with a design based computational procedure for performance analysis and a critical comparison is made with test results.

  13. Phased laser diode array permits selective excitation of ultrasonic guided waves in coated bone-mimicking tubes (United States)

    Moilanen, Petro; Salmi, Ari; Kilappa, Vantte; Zhao, Zuomin; Timonen, Jussi; Hæggström, Edward


    This paper validates simulation predictions, which state that specific modes could be enhanced in quantitative ultrasonic bone testing. Tunable selection of ultrasonic guided wave excitation is useful in non-destructive testing since it permits the mediation of energy into diagnostically useful modes while reducing the energy mediated into disturbing contributions. For instance, it is often challenging to distinguish and extract the useful modes from ultrasound signals measured in bone covered by a soft tissue. We show that a laser diode array can selectively excite ultrasound in bone mimicking phantoms. A fiber-coupled diode array (4 elements) illuminated two solid tubes (2-3 mm wall thickness) embraced by an opaque soft-tissue mimicking elastomer coating (5 mm thick). A predetermined time delay matching the selected mode and frequency was employed between the outputs of the elements. The generated ultrasound was detected by a 215 kHz piezo receiver. Our results suggest that this array reduces the disturbances caused by the elastomer cover and so pave way to permit non-contacting in vivo guided wave ultrasound assessment of human bones. The implementation is small, inexpensive, and robust in comparison with the conventional pulsed lasers.

  14. High-resolution excitation and absorption spectroscopy of gas-phase p-coumaric acid: unveiling an elusive chromophore. (United States)

    Smolarek, Szymon; Vdovin, Alexander; Perrier, Dayinta L; Smit, Jorrit P; Drabbels, Marcel; Buma, Wybren J


    We report on the first successful high-resolution spectroscopic studies on isolated para-coumaric acid, the chromophore of the photoactive yellow protein which has become a model system for studying biological light-induced signal transduction. Employing various double-resonance multiphoton ionization techniques in combination with mass-resolved ion detection and the results of quantum chemical calculations, we identify three conformations the molecule can adopt under our experimental conditions. The vibrational activity in the excitation spectra allows us to conclude that in the Franck-Condon region accessed from the ground state S(1) is the V'(pipi*) state. Interestingly, we find considerable out-of-plane vibrational activity, indicating that the molecule adopts a nonplanar geometry in S(1). The ionization requirements show that after excitation rapid internal conversion takes place to a lower-lying npi* state. Such a state has been postulated by ab initio calculations on para-coumaric acid and derivatives, but until the present study no direct evidence had been found for its presence.

  15. Phase fluctuations and the absence of topological defects in a photo-excited charge-ordered nickelate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, W. S.; Chuang, Y. D.; Moore, R. G.; Zhu, Y.; Patthey, L.; Trigo, M.; Lu, D. H.; Kirchmann, P. S.; Krupin, O.; Yi, M.; Langner, M.; Huse, N.; Robinson, J. S.; Chen, Y.; Zhou, S. Y.; Coslovich, G.; Huber, B.; Reis, D. A.; Kaindl, R. A.; Schoenlein, R. W.; Doering, D.; Denes, P.; Schlotter, W. F.; Turner, J. J.; Johnson, S. L.; Först, M.; Sasagawa, T.; Kung, Y. F.; Sorini, A. P.; Kemper, A. F.; Moritz, B.; Devereaux, T. P.; Lee, D. -H.; Shen, Z. X.; Hussain, Z.


    The dynamics of an order parameter's amplitude and phase determines the collective behaviour of novel states emerging in complex materials. Time- and momentum-resolved pump-probe spectroscopy, by virtue of measuring material properties at atomic and electronic time scales out of equilibrium, can decouple entangled degrees of freedom by visualizing their corresponding dynamics in the time domain. Here we combine time-resolved femotosecond optical and resonant X-ray diffraction measurements on charge ordered La1.75Sr0.25NiO4 to reveal unforeseen photoinduced phase fluctuations of the charge order parameter. Such fluctuations preserve long-range order without creating topological defects, distinct from thermal phase fluctuations near the critical temperature in equilibrium. Importantly, relaxation of the phase fluctuations is found to be an order of magnitude slower than that of the order parameter's amplitude fluctuations, and thus limits charge order recovery. This new aspect of phase fluctuations provides a more holistic view of the phase's importance in ordering phenomena of quantum matter.

  16. Effects of the Selective α5-GABAAR Antagonist S44819 on Excitability in the Human Brain: A TMS-EMG and TMS-EEG Phase I Study. (United States)

    Darmani, Ghazaleh; Zipser, Carl M; Böhmer, Gabriele M; Deschet, Karine; Müller-Dahlhaus, Florian; Belardinelli, Paolo; Schwab, Matthias; Ziemann, Ulf


    Alpha-5 gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (α5-GABAARs) are located extrasynaptically, regulate neuronal excitability through tonic inhibition, and are fundamentally important for processes such as plasticity and learning. For example, pharmacological blockade of α5-GABAAR in mice with ischemic stroke improved recovery of function by normalizing exaggerated perilesional α5-GABAAR-dependent tonic inhibition. S44819 is a novel competitive selective antagonist of the α5-GABAAR at the GABA-binding site. Pharmacological modulation of α5-GABAAR-mediated tonic inhibition has never been investigated in the human brain. Here, we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to test the effects of a single oral dose of 50 and 100 mg of S44819 on electromyographic (EMG) and electroencephalographic (EEG) measures of cortical excitability in 18 healthy young adults in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover phase I study. A dose of 100 mg, but not 50 mg, of S44819 decreased active motor threshold, the intensity needed to produce a motor evoked potential of 0.5 mV, and the amplitude of the N45, a GABAAergic component of the TMS-evoked EEG response. The peak serum concentration of 100 mg S44819 correlated directly with the decrease in N45 amplitude. Short-interval intracortical inhibition, a TMS-EMG measure of synaptic GABAAergic inhibition, and other components of the TMS-evoked EEG response remained unaffected. These findings provide first time evidence that the specific α5-GABAAR antagonist S44819 reached human cortex to impose an increase in cortical excitability. These data warrant further development of S44819 in a human clinical trial to test its efficacy in enhancing recovery of function after ischemic stroke. The extrasynaptic α-5 gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (α5-GABAAR) regulates neuronal excitability through tonic inhibition in the mammalian brain. Tonic inhibition is important for many fundamental processes such as

  17. Quench in the 1D Bose-Hubbard model: topological defects and excitations from the Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition dynamics. (United States)

    Dziarmaga, Jacek; Zurek, Wojciech H


    Kibble-Zurek mechanism (KZM) uses critical scaling to predict density of topological defects and other excitations created in second order phase transitions. We point out that simply inserting asymptotic critical exponents deduced from the immediate vicinity of the critical point to obtain predictions can lead to results that are inconsistent with a more careful KZM analysis based on causality - on the comparison of the relaxation time of the order parameter with the "time distance" from the critical point. As a result, scaling of quench-generated excitations with quench rates can exhibit behavior that is locally (i.e., in the neighborhood of any given quench rate) well approximated by the power law, but with exponents that depend on that rate, and that are quite different from the naive prediction based on the critical exponents relevant for asymptotically long quench times. Kosterlitz-Thouless scaling (that governs e.g. Mott insulator to superfluid transition in the Bose-Hubbard model in one dimension) is investigated as an example of this phenomenon.

  18. FPGA-based photon-counting phase-modulation fluorometer and a brief comparison with that operated in a pulsed-excitation mode (United States)

    Iwata, Tetsuo; Taga, Takanori; Mizuno, Takahiko


    We have constructed a high-efficiency, photon-counting phase-modulation fluorometer (PC-PMF) using a field-programmable gate array, which is a modified version of the photon-counting fluorometer (PCF) that works in a pulsed-excitation mode (Iwata and Mizuno in Meas Sci Technol 28:075501, 2017). The common working principle for both is the simultaneous detection of the photoelectron pulse train, which covers 64 ns with a 1.0-ns resolution time (1.0 ns/channel). The signal-gathering efficiency was improved more than 100 times over that of conventional time-correlated single-photon-counting at the expense of resolution time depending on the number of channels. The system dead time for building a histogram was eliminated, markedly shortening the measurement time for fluorescent samples with moderately high quantum yields. We describe the PC-PMF and make a brief comparison with the pulsed-excitation PCF in precision, demonstrating the potential advantage of PC-PMF.

  19. Quranic Doctrine in Peaceful Coexistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safoora Khosravi


    Full Text Available There are many important teachings in Islam. The human beings can have peaceful coexistence and abundant understanding if the Islamic precepts would be done in all aspects of daily life relationships. One of the sacred precepts is about Quranic doctrine in peaceful coexistence. This study depicts this critical issue based on various verses in Holy Qur'an. Definitely, each of the Quranic teaching has significant impact on the human living in Islamic country. This research implements descriptive methodology to reveal this truth. The results suggest that social interaction, mutual respect, harmony, friendship, understanding and daily life engagement have an important role on the peaceful coexistence, especially altruism provides immense tolerance.

  20. Excited states

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Edward C


    Excited States, Volume I reviews radiationless transitions, phosphorescence microwave double resonance through optical spectra in molecular solids, dipole moments in excited states, luminescence of polar molecules, and the problem of interstate interaction in aromatic carbonyl compounds. The book discusses the molecular electronic radiationless transitions; the double resonance techniques and the relaxation mechanisms involving the lowest triplet state of aromatic compounds; as well as the optical spectra and relaxation in molecular solids. The text also describes dipole moments and polarizab

  1. Recent advances in experimental techniques to probe fast excited-state dynamics in biological molecules in the gas phase: dynamics in nucleotides, amino acids and beyond (United States)

    Staniforth, Michael; Stavros, Vasilios G.


    In many chemical reactions, an activation barrier must be overcome before a chemical transformation can occur. As such, understanding the behaviour of molecules in energetically excited states is critical to understanding the chemical changes that these molecules undergo. Among the most prominent reactions for mankind to understand are chemical changes that occur in our own biological molecules. A notable example is the focus towards understanding the interaction of DNA with ultraviolet radiation and the subsequent chemical changes. However, the interaction of radiation with large biological structures is highly complex, and thus the photochemistry of these systems as a whole is poorly understood. Studying the gas-phase spectroscopy and ultrafast dynamics of the building blocks of these more complex biomolecules offers the tantalizing prospect of providing a scientifically intuitive bottom-up approach, beginning with the study of the subunits of large polymeric biomolecules and monitoring the evolution in photochemistry as the complexity of the molecules is increased. While highly attractive, one of the main challenges of this approach is in transferring large, and in many cases, thermally labile molecules into vacuum. This review discusses the recent advances in cutting-edge experimental methodologies, emerging as excellent candidates for progressing this bottom-up approach. PMID:24204191

  2. Effectiveness of the mechanical excitation applied to the olive paste: possible improving of the oil yield, in malaxation phase, by vibration systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tullia Gallina Toschi


    Full Text Available The mechanical vibrations characterized by a frequency lower than 200 Hz could promote the cells breakage and improve the oil extraction process by avoiding, at the same time, the negative effects on the commercial qualitative parameters due to the use of the heating during malaxation. Vibration tests were conducted by means of an electrodynamic shaker in order to find the optimal frequency levels of excitation, able to put in a resonant condition the olive paste. Sinusoidal accelerations at constant acceleration (120 m/s2, in a range between 5 and 200 Hz were explored. The 50 Hz and 80 Hz frequencies were able to put in resonant condition the olive paste. In the vibrated samples at 50 Hz (15 min of treatment, the maximum increment of the extraction efficiency (about 53% in comparison with the control, was observed. Further studies could be conducted in order to assess the synergic effect of the mechanical vibrations and the malaxation on the oil extraction efficiency, with the aim of reducing the time of the whole phase and avoiding changes in the oil quality traits.

  3. Brushless three-phase synchronous motor using an armature winding both as load and DC exciting windings. Denkishi makisen ga chokuryu reiji makisen wo kaneta brushless sanso doki dendoki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, F.; Fukami, T. (Kanazawa Institute of Technology, Ishikawa (Japan))


    In this paper, configuration of a brushless three-phase synchronous motor with no exciter is proposed. The applied technique is effective to simplify the conventional brushless synchronous motor configuration. A stator of the motor is equipped with a double-star connected armature winding with two neutral points for DC exciting. A cylindrical stator is equipped with a two-phase field winding, which is connected with shaft-mounted rectifiers. During the operation of the motor at synchronous speed, DC voltage is applied to the two neutral points of the armature winding for excitation of the rotor. At that time, the armature winding acts as a stator DC exciting winding and a load winding. This paper describes the principle and the characteristic analysis of the new motor as well as the experimental results of the 2kW test-motor. The experimental results almost agree with the analytical results, so that the favorable performance characteristics of the proposed motor were confirmed. For instance, the power factor of this motor can be controlled in a wide range by adjusting the stator DC exciting current. 9 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Shape coexistence from lifetime and branching-ratio measurements in 68,70Ni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.P. Crider


    Full Text Available Shape coexistence near closed-shell nuclei, whereby states associated with deformed shapes appear at relatively low excitation energy alongside spherical ones, is indicative of the rapid change in structure that can occur with the addition or removal of a few protons or neutrons. Near 68Ni (Z=28, N=40, the identification of shape coexistence hinges on hitherto undetermined transition rates to and from low-energy 0+ states. In 68,70Ni, new lifetimes and branching ratios have been measured. These data enable quantitative descriptions of the 0+ states through the deduced transition rates and serve as sensitive probes for characterizing their nuclear wave functions. The results are compared to, and consistent with, large-scale shell-model calculations which predict shape coexistence. With the firm identification of this phenomenon near 68Ni, shape coexistence is now observed in all currently accessible regions of the nuclear chart with closed proton shells and mid-shell neutrons.

  5. Coexistence in preferential attachment networks

    CERN Document Server

    Antunović, Tonći; Racz, Miklos Z


    Competition in markets is ubiquitous: cell-phone providers, computer manufacturers, and sport gear brands all vie for customers. Though several coexisting competitors are often observed in empirical data, many current theoretical models of competition on small-world networks predict a single winner taking over the majority of the network. We introduce a new model of product adoption that focuses on word-of-mouth recommendations to provide an explanation for this coexistence of competitors. The key property of our model is that customer choices evolve simultaneously with the network of customers. When a new node joins the network, it chooses neighbors according to preferential attachment, and then chooses its type based on the number of initial neighbors of each type. This can model a new cell-phone user choosing a cell-phone provider, a new student choosing a laptop, or a new athletic team member choosing a gear provider. We provide a detailed analysis of the new model; in particular, we determine the possibl...

  6. Excited Delirium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeuchi, Asia


    Full Text Available Excited (or agitated delirium is characterized by agitation, aggression, acute distress and sudden death, often in the pre-hospital care setting. It is typically associated with the use of drugs that alter dopamine processing, hyperthermia, and, most notably, sometimes with death of the affected person in the custody of law enforcement. Subjects typically die from cardiopulmonary arrest, although the cause is debated. Unfortunately an adequate treatment plan has yet to be established, in part due to the fact that most patients die before hospital arrival. While there is still much to be discovered about the pathophysiology and treatment, it is hoped that this extensive review will provide both police and medical personnel with the information necessary to recognize and respond appropriately to excited delirium. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(1:77-83.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.M. Vasyliv


    Full Text Available By means of mathematical experiment, the author investigates electromagnetic and electromechanical processes in an independent electric power supply system based on an asynchronized generator with a three-phase modulated exciter. The processes are analyzed to specify the working capacity of the power supply system during its operation under active-inductive loading. Regularities of the electromagnetic and electromechanical processes behavior versus load intensity and the modulator scheme are identified.

  8. Coexistent intracerebral metastatic melanoma and meningioma. (United States)

    Shinde, Sweety V; Shenoy, Asha S; Savant, Hemant V; Balasubramaniam, Srikant B


    Coexistence of multifocal neural crest tumors, namely meningioma, melanoma, and nerve sheath tumors, is termed as neurocristopathy. Neurofibromatosis is the commonest form of neurocristopathy. We report a rare case of frontal lobe metastatic melanoma coexistent with a parietal lobe meningioma, in the absence of any stigmata of neurofibromatosis.

  9. A Comparison of Photocatalytic Activities of Gold Nanoparticles Following Plasmonic and Interband Excitation and a Strategy for Harnessing Interband Hot Carriers for Solution Phase Photocatalysis. (United States)

    Zhao, Jie; Nguyen, Son C; Ye, Rong; Ye, Baihua; Weller, Horst; Somorjai, Gábor A; Alivisatos, A Paul; Toste, F Dean


    Light driven excitation of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) has emerged as a potential strategy to generate hot carriers for photocatalysis through excitation of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). In contrast, carrier generation through excitation of interband transitions remains a less explored and underestimated pathway for photocatalytic activity. Photoinduced oxidative etching of GNPs with FeCl3 was investigated as a model reaction in order to elucidate the effects of both types of transitions. The quantitative results show that interband transitions more efficiently generate hot carriers and that those carriers exhibit higher reactivity as compared to those generated solely by LSPR. Further, leveraging the strong π-acidic character of the resulting photogenerated Au+ hole, an interband transition induced cyclization reaction of alkynylphenols was developed. Notably, alkyne coordination to the Au+ hole intercepts the classic oxidation event and leads to the formation of the catalytically active gold clusters on subnanometer scale.

  10. Investigating excitation-dependent and fringe-field effects of electromagnet and permanent-magnet phase shifters for a crossed undulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Ting-Yi, E-mail: [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu Science Park, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China); Yang, Chih-Sheng; Chu, Yun-Liang; Lin, Fu-Yuan; Jan, Jyh-Chyuan [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu Science Park, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China); Hwang, Ching-Shiang [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu Science Park, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China); Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30050, Taiwan (China)


    To enhance the flux density or to control polarization, a phase shifter was designed and used to modulate the phase matching between segmented undulators. A larger hysteresis loop causes, however, a repeatability issue in the phase matching; the fringe field of the phase shifter creates an extra magnetic-field error. The design of the phase shifter must therefore minimize the hysteresis loop and fringe field to maintain the phases exact and to ignore the crosstalk effect. Two critical issues are the hysteresis-loop problem and the fringe-field effect, which determine the radiation performance and the stability of the ring. To investigate these issues, a phase shifter was constructed to operate in accordance with electromagnetic- and permanent-type magnets; the results from the field measurements and shims are discussed here. The shimming algorithm and a compact permanent-magnet phase shifter that eliminates the issues are also presented.

  11. Vibration Analysis of Blade Under Multiple Composite Unsteady Excitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licheng FANG


    Full Text Available In order to understand the effects of the unsteady aerodynamic excitations in complex flow field on blades, on the basis of the data obtained from the single-stage axial flow compressor, three kinds of exciting forms in the compressor had been studied, including the correlation between excitations and responses in the upstream blade row wake, inlet distortion and rotating stall. Results showed that the response characteristics of the unsteady aerodynamic excitation could be extracted by adopting cross-relation method to distinguish effects of different exciting forms on blades. When many kinds of unsteady aerodynamic excitations co-existed, various exciting factors could be extracted from the mixed excitations through the cross-correlation analysis of excitation and response signals and by comparing with the characteristics of single aerodynamic excitation. Simulation data showed that the trail excitation energy on blades focused mainly on high frequency domains, the dynamic excitation of rotating stall centered on low frequency domains the excitation of the inlet distortion on blades existed in both high and low frequencies and amplitude at low frequency was larger than that at high frequency.

  12. Hashimotos Thyroiditis with Coexistent Papillary Carcinoma and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PTL) arise in the setting of HT. A case of 32.year.old female who presented with thyroid enlargement, post.thyroidectomy showed hashimotofs thyroiditis (HT) with coexistent papillary carcinoma and non.hodgkin lymphoma (NHL).

  13. Coexistence of Superconductivity and Ferromagnetism in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Coexistence of Superconductivity and Ferromagnetism in Superconducting. Tsadik Kidanemariam. 1 and Gebregziabher Kahsay. 2*. 1. Department of Physics, Adigrat University, Adigrat, Ethiopia. 2. Department of Physics, College of Science, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia. (*

  14. Synchrotron x-ray spectroscopy of EuHN O3 aqueous solutions at high temperatures and pressures and Nb-bearing silicate melt phases coexisting with hydrothermal fluids using a modified hydrothermal diamond anvil cell and rail assembly (United States)

    Mayanovic, Robert A.; Anderson, Alan J.; Bassett, William A.; Chou, I.-Ming


    A modified hydrothermal diamond anvil cell (HDAC) rail assembly has been constructed for making synchrotron x-ray absorption spectroscopy, x-ray fluorescence, and x-ray mapping measurements on fluids or solid phases in contact with hydrothermal fluids up to ???900??C and 700 MPa. The diamond anvils of the HDAC are modified by laser milling grooves or holes, for the reduction of attenuation of incident and fluorescent x rays and sample cavities. The modified HDAC rail assembly has flexibility in design for measurement of light elements at low concentrations or heavy elements at trace levels in the sample and the capability to probe minute individual phases of a multiphase fluid-based system using focused x-ray microbeam. The supporting rail allows for uniform translation of the HDAC, rotation and tilt stages, and a focusing mirror, which is used to illuminate the sample for visual observation using a microscope, relative to the direction of the incident x-ray beam. A structure study of Eu(III) aqua ion behavior in high-temperature aqueous solutions and a study of Nb partitioning and coordination in a silicate melt in contact with a hydrothermal fluid are described as applications utilizing the modified HDAC rail assembly. ?? 2007 American Institute of Physics.

  15. Entanglement growth during Van der Waals like phase transition (United States)

    Xu, Hao


    We address the problem of describing the coexistence state of two different black holes and Van der Waals like phase transition in Reissner-Nordström-AdS space-time. We start by a small charged black hole, then introduce a collapsing neutral thin-shell described by Vaidya metric to form a large one. The formation of the large black hole does not change the temperature and free energy of the initial state. We discuss the entanglement growing during the phase transition. The transition is always continuous and the saturation time is determined by the final state. It opens a possibility for studying the holography from excited states to excited states.

  16. Study of oblate nuclear shapes and shape coexistence in neutron-deficient rare earth isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    Guttormsen, M S; Reiter, P; Larsen, A; Korten, W; Clement, E; Siem, S; Renstrom, T; Buerger, A; Jenkins, D G

    We propose to investigate nuclear shapes and shape coexistence in neutron-deficient rare earth nuclei below the N=82 shell closure at the ISOLDE facility by employing Coulomb excitation of Nd, Sm, Gd, and Dy beams from the REX accelerator and the Miniball experiment. Nuclear shapes are expected to change rapidly in this region of the nuclear chart. The measurement of electric quadrupole moments of excited states and the transition rates between them serves as a stringent test of theoretical models and effective nucleon-nucleon interactions.

  17. Shape transition and coexistence in neutron-deficient rare earth isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to study spectroscopic quadrupole moments of excited states and electromagnetic transition rates between them in the neutron-deficient rare earth nuclei $^{140}$Sm and $^{142}$Gd using projectile Coulomb excitation at energies of 4.7 MeV per nucleon. The rare earth nuclei below the N=82 shell closure form one of the few regions of the nuclear chart where oblate shapes are expected to occur near the ground state. Nuclear shapes are expected to change rapidly in this region, with coexistence of oblate and prolate shapes in some nuclei. The measurement of electromagnetic matrix elements represents therefore a particularly sensitive test of theoretical nuclear structure models.

  18. Multiple Coexisting Attractors and Hysteresis in the Generalized Ueda Oscillator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kehui Sun


    Full Text Available A periodically forced nonlinear oscillator called the generalized Ueda oscillator is proposed. The restoring force term of this equation consists of a nonlinear function sgn(x and an absolute function with a variant power. Dynamics is investigated by detailed numerical analysis as well as dynamic simulation, including the largest Lyapunov exponent, phase diagrams, and bifurcation diagrams. Multiple coexisting attractors and complex hysteresis phenomenon are observed. The results show that this system has rich dynamical behaviors, and it has a promising application in the fields of science and engineering.

  19. Excitation of a biconical line (United States)

    Goshin, G. G.


    The Kontorovich-Lebedev integral transformation is used to obtain in an analytic form a rigorous solution to the quasi-three-dimensional problem involving the excitation of a biconical surface with ideally conducting boundaries by slotted ring sources that are phased according to the traveling-wave law. The results can be used in the design of elliptical-polarization biconical antennas.

  20. Excitations of Neodymium Ions in Praseodymium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff, M.; Jensen, J.; Mackintosh, A.R.


    The excitations of Nd ions dissolved in Pr have been studied by inelastic neutron scattering. A crystal-field level at about 1.2 meV interferes strongly with the host excitations. In the antiferromagnetic phase, another level is observed about 0.5 meV above the ground-state, which is split by the...

  1. Coexistence of competing stage-structured populations.

    KAUST Repository

    Fujiwara, Masami


    This paper analyzes the stability of a coexistence equilibrium point of a model for competition between two stage-structured populations. In this model, for each population, competition for resources may affect any one of the following population parameters: reproduction, juvenile survival, maturation rate, or adult survival. The results show that the competitive strength of a population is affected by (1) the ratio of the population parameter influenced by competition under no resource limitation (maximum compensatory capacity) over the same parameter under a resource limitation due to competition (equilibrium rate) and (2) the ratio of interspecific competition over intraspecific competition; this ratio was previously shown to depend on resource-use overlap. The former ratio, which we define as fitness, can be equalized by adjusting organisms\\' life history strategies, thereby promoting coexistence. We conclude that in addition to niche differentiation among populations, the life history strategies of organisms play an important role in coexistence.

  2. Coexistence of Controlling and Other Management Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Bieńkowska


    Full Text Available The effects of the coexistence of Controlling and other management methods (benchmarking, BPM, BPR, BSC, Competency-based Management, CRM, ERP, KM, LM, Outsourcing, Six Sigma, TQM have been analysed. The complexity and dynamics of modern management systems in fact require simultaneous and/or sequential application of many concepts and methods of management. Controlling is a comprehensive method with an interdisciplinary character, which acts as an integrating plane for many methods and techniques. The coexistence of controlling with other management methods depends on the type of relationship between controlling and these methods. In the main, however, coexistence should be beneficial for an organization. Theoretical concepts on the relations between controlling and other methods are thus empirically tested by analysing the effect of using selected management methods, both in conjunction with controlling, as well as separately (business, efficiency, management, social and environmental effects. One-Way ANOVA was used based on a sample of 167 Polish organizations. (original abstract

  3. Ultrafast time-resolved electron diffraction on adsorbate systems on silicon surfaces. Vibrational excitation in monllayers and dynamics of phase transitions; Ultraschnelle zeitaufgeloeste Elektronenbeugung an Adsorbatsystemen auf Siliziumoberflaechen. Vibrationsanregung in Monolagen und Dynamik von Phasenuebergaengen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moellenbeck, Simone


    In the present work ultra fast time resolved electron diffraction (TR-RHEED) at various adsorbate systems on silicon (Si) substrates was performed. Using the Debye-Waller-effect, the vibrational amplitude of the excited adsorbate atoms can be directly observed in the experiments as a function of time. For a coverage of 4/3 monolayers Lead (Pb) on Si(1 1 1) forms a ({radical}(3) x {radical}(3))-reconstruction. The transient intensity evolution of the diffraction spots is recorded in a TR-RHEED-experiment. After excitation with a fs-laser pulse the intensity decreases due to the Debye-Waller-effect. The temporal behavior of the de-excitation process can be described with two exponential functions: a short time constant of 100 ps and a long one of 2800 ps. The two time constants can be assigned to two different phonon modes of the Pb-adsorbate. The huge difference between the two time constants and thus difference in the coupling to the substrate is explained by the bonding geometry in the structural model. To confirm this possible explanation, further TR-RHEED-experiments for the ({radical}(7) x {radical}(3))-reconstruction of Pb on Si(1 1 1) were performed. The ({radical}(7) x {radical}(3))-reconstruction with a coverage of 1.2 monolayers shows comparable structural elements. The transient intensity evolution can be described with the identical two time constants. In addition, first experiments on the {beta} ({radical}(3) x {radical}(3))-phase of Pb/Si(1 1 1) are presented. This {beta} ({radical}(3) x {radical}(3))-reconstruction, with a coverage of 1/3 monolayers of Pb, shows a phase transition to a (3 x 3)-reconstruction, which was observed in the experiments. Further investigated adsorbate systems are: ({radical}(3) x {radical}(3))Ag/Si(1 1 1), ({radical}(3) x {radical}(3))In/Si(1 1 1), ({radical}(31) x {radical}(31))In/Si(1 1 1), and ({radical}(3) x {radical}(3))Bi/Si(1 1 1). In the second part of the present work the structural dynamics of strongly driven

  4. Print vs digital the future of coexistence

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Sul H


    Libraries are currently confronted by the challenges of managing increasing amounts of electronic information. Print vs. Digital: The Future of Coexistence presents the expert perspectives of eight of America's leading library administrators on ways to effectively manage digital flow and offers strategies to provide a level of coexistence between digital and print information. This excellent overview explores how to best balance print and electronic resources, and explores important issues such as the selection of electronic resources, improving access to digital information for a larger user

  5. Coexistence of Strategic Vertical Separation and Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Jos


    This paper gives conditions under which vertical separation is chosen by some upstream firms, while vertical integration is chosen by others in the equilibrium of a symmetric model. A vertically separating firm trades off fixed contracting costs against the strategic benefit of writing a (two......-part tariff, exclusive dealing) contract with its retailer. Coexistence emerges when more than two vertical Cournot oligopolists supply close substitutes. When vertical integration and separation coexist, welfare could be improved by reducing the number of vertically separating firms. The scope...

  6. Complex dynamics of a harmonically excited structure coupled with a nonlinear energy sink (United States)

    Zang, Jian; Chen, Li-Qun


    Nonlinear behaviors are investigated for a structure coupled with a nonlinear energy sink. The structure is linear and subject to a harmonic excitation, modeled as a forced single-degree-of-freedom oscillator. The nonlinear energy sink is modeled as an oscillator consisting of a mass, a nonlinear spring, and a linear damper. Based on the numerical solutions, global bifurcation diagrams are presented to reveal the coexistence of periodic and chaotic motions for varying nonlinear energy sink mass and stiffness. Chaos is numerically identified via phase trajectories, power spectra, and Poincaré maps. Amplitude-frequency response curves are predicted by the method of harmonic balance for periodic steady-state responses. Their stabilities are analyzed. The Hopf bifurcation and the saddle-node bifurcation are determined. The investigation demonstrates that a nonlinear energy sink may create dynamic complexity.

  7. Explosive synchronization coexists with classical synchronization in the Kuramoto model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danziger, Michael M., E-mail:; Havlin, Shlomo [Department of Physics, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan (Israel); Moskalenko, Olga I.; Kurkin, Semen A. [Faculty of Nonlinear Processes, Saratov State University, Astrakhanskaya, 83, Saratov 410012 (Russian Federation); Saratov State Technical University, Politehnicheskaya, 77, Saratov 410054 (Russian Federation); Zhang, Xiyun [Department of Physics, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Boccaletti, Stefano [CNR-Institute of Complex Systems, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy); The Italian Embassy in Israel, 25 Hamered Street, 68125 Tel Aviv (Israel)


    Explosive synchronization has recently been reported in a system of adaptively coupled Kuramoto oscillators, without any conditions on the frequency or degree of the nodes. Here, we find that, in fact, the explosive phase coexists with the standard phase of the Kuramoto oscillators. We determine this by extending the mean-field theory of adaptively coupled oscillators with full coupling to the case with partial coupling of a fraction f. This analysis shows that a metastable region exists for all finite values of f > 0, and therefore explosive synchronization is expected for any perturbation of adaptively coupling added to the standard Kuramoto model. We verify this theory with GPU-accelerated simulations on very large networks (N ∼ 10{sup 6}) and find that, in fact, an explosive transition with hysteresis is observed for all finite couplings. By demonstrating that explosive transitions coexist with standard transitions in the limit of f → 0, we show that this behavior is far more likely to occur naturally than was previously believed.

  8. Ultra-short strong excitation of two-level systems (United States)

    Jha, Pankaj K.; Eleuch, Hichem; Grazioso, Fabio


    We present a model describing the use of ultra-short strong pulses to control the population of the excited level of a two-level quantum system. In particular, we study an off-resonance excitation with a few cycles pulse which presents a smooth phase jump i.e. a change of the pulse's phase which is not step-like, but happens over a finite time interval. A numerical solution is given for the time-dependent probability amplitude of the excited level. The control of the excited level's population is obtained acting on the shape of the phase transient, and other parameters of the excitation pulse.

  9. Shear-viscosity-to-entropy-density ratio and phase transition in multifragmentation of quasiprojectile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Fan; Li, Cheng; Wen, Pei-Wei [Beijing Normal University, The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology of Ministry of Education, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing (China); Liu, Hang [Texas Advanced Computing Center University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX (United States); Zhang, Feng-Shou [Beijing Normal University, The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology of Ministry of Education, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing (China); National Laboratory of Heavy Ion Accelerator of Lanzhou, Center of Theoretical Nuclear Physics, Lanzhou (China)


    Heavy-ion collisions at relativistic energy are studied by the isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics model in the company of the GEMINI model. The present study mainly focuses on the liquid-gas phase transition in nuclear matter. We calculate the shear-viscosity-to-entropy-density ratio η/s, γ{sub 2} and the multiplicity of intermediate-mass fragment (M{sub IMF}) in finite-size nuclear sources. At excitation energy 8 MeV a minimum of η/s is found in the coexistence phase of intermediate-mass fragments and light particles. At similar excitation energy a maximum of the M{sub IMF} is also observed at the same density condition which is an indication of the liquid-gas phase transition. (orig.)

  10. Lowest excited 2+ and 3- states in even-A N =82 and N =126 isotones from relativistic quasiparticle random-phase approximation (United States)

    Ansari, A.


    Excitation energy, reduced transition rates, and g factors of the lowest 2+ and 3- states of even-even N =82 and N =126 isotones are studied in relativistic QRPA formalism. These values are compared to available experimental data and some of the recent theoretical results. In the following the obtained results are presented first for N =82 isotones with Z =36 -72 , that is very neutron-rich to neutron-deficient nuclei with N /Z varying from 2.28 to 1.14 and then for N =126 isotones with Z =76 -92 . These calculations are performed employing NL3, as well as its recently revised version NL 3* set of the RMF Lagrangian parameters. It is found that both the interaction sets produce almost similar results. The agreement with available data is rather satisfactory in view of such a wide range of nuclei considered here, though there are serious disagreements like in the case of 140Ce and properties of 3- states of N =126 isotones.

  11. Trait-based tests of coexistence mechanisms. (United States)

    Adler, Peter B; Fajardo, Alex; Kleinhesselink, Andrew R; Kraft, Nathan J B


    Recent functional trait studies have shown that trait differences may favour certain species (environmental filtering) while simultaneously preventing competitive exclusion (niche partitioning). However, phenomenological trait-dispersion analyses do not identify the mechanisms that generate niche partitioning, preventing trait-based prediction of future changes in biodiversity. We argue that such predictions require linking functional traits with recognised coexistence mechanisms involving spatial or temporal environmental heterogeneity, resource partitioning and natural enemies. We first demonstrate the limitations of phenomenological approaches using simulations, and then (1) propose trait-based tests of coexistence, (2) generate hypotheses about which plant functional traits are likely to interact with particular mechanisms and (3) review the literature for evidence for these hypotheses. Theory and data suggest that all four classes of coexistence mechanisms could act on functional trait variation, but some mechanisms will be stronger and more widespread than others. The highest priority for future research is studies of interactions between environmental heterogeneity and trait variation that measure environmental variables at within-community scales and quantify species' responses to the environment in the absence of competition. Evidence that similar trait-based coexistence mechanisms operate in many ecosystems would simplify biodiversity forecasting and represent a rare victory for generality over contingency in community ecology. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  12. Introduction to the Issue of Coexistence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalaitzandonakes, N.; Philips, P.C.; Smyth, S.; Wesseler, J.H.H.


    In many ways, the debate about coexistence is about the future of the global food system and its capacity to meet the rapidly growing demand for food and nutrition. Since their commercial introduction in 1995 and 1996, genetically modified (GM) crops have been adopted by farmers around the world at

  13. Fluid–fluid coexistence in colloidal systems with short-ranged strongly directional attraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kern, N.; Frenkel, D.


    We present a systematic numerical study of the phase behavior of square-well fluids with a "patchy" short-ranged attraction. In particular, we study the effect of the size and number of attractive patches on the fluid–fluid coexistence. The model that we use is a generalization of the hard sphere

  14. Computer simulation of solid-liquid coexistence in binary hard sphere mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranendonk, W.G.T.; Frenkel, D.


    We present the results of a computer simulation study of the solid-liquid coexistence of a binary hard sphere mixture for diameter ratios in the range 0·85 ⩽ ğa ⩽ 1>·00. For the solid phase we only consider substitutionally disordered FCC and HCP crystals. For 0·9425 < α < 1·00 we find a

  15. Fluid-crystal coexistence for proteins and inorganic nanocolloids : Dependence on ionic strength

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prinsen, P.; Odijk, T.


    We investigate theoretically the fluid-crystal coexistence of solutions of globular charged nanoparticles such as proteins and inorganic colloids. The thermodynamic properties of the fluid phase are computed via the optimized Baxter model P. Prinsen and T. Odijk [J. Chem. Phys. 121, 6525 (2004)].

  16. Gas-liquid phase coexistence in colloidal suspensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gruenberg, H.H.; Roij, R. van; Klein, G.


    We describe a charge-stabilized colloidal suspension within a Poisson-Boltzmann cell model and calculate the free energy as well as the compressibility as a function of colloidal density. The same quantities are also calculated from the linearized Poisson-Boltzmann equation. Comparing nonlinear

  17. Shape coexistence and shell-model intruder states in the lead region studied by $\\alpha$ -decay

    CERN Multimedia


    % IS336 \\\\ \\\\ Low-lying 0$^+$ states in even-even nuclei near closed shells can be a manifestation of the coexistence of different shapes in the same nucleus. Deformed bandstructures built upon these 0$^+$ states, coexisting at low energy with the ground state band, have been observed in several regions of the nuclear chart, including the Z=82 region. Such structures have been found in the neutron-deficient even Pb nuclei and the mixing between intruder and normal states has been studied by the $\\alpha$- decay of $^{194, 196, 198}$Po towards the 0$^+$ excited and ground states in $^{190, 192, 194}$Pb using $\\alpha$-e-t coincidence events. It is expected that shape coexistence will occur in the light Po isotopes as well. Evidence for a deformed band at low excitation energy in $^{196, 198}$Po has been found in in-beam studies and the $\\alpha$-decay of $^{202}$Rn studied at ISOLDE revealed feeding to a 0$^+$~state at 816~keV in $^{198}$Po. \\\\ \\\\It is our intention to investigate the $^{194, 196}$Po nuclei with ...

  18. Hidden hyperchaos and electronic circuit application in a 5D self-exciting homopolar disc dynamo. (United States)

    Wei, Zhouchao; Moroz, Irene; Sprott, J C; Akgul, Akif; Zhang, Wei


    We report on the finding of hidden hyperchaos in a 5D extension to a known 3D self-exciting homopolar disc dynamo. The hidden hyperchaos is identified through three positive Lyapunov exponents under the condition that the proposed model has just two stable equilibrium states in certain regions of parameter space. The new 5D hyperchaotic self-exciting homopolar disc dynamo has multiple attractors including point attractors, limit cycles, quasi-periodic dynamics, hidden chaos or hyperchaos, as well as coexisting attractors. We use numerical integrations to create the phase plane trajectories, produce bifurcation diagram, and compute Lyapunov exponents to verify the hidden attractors. Because no unstable equilibria exist in two parameter regions, the system has a multistability and six kinds of complex dynamic behaviors. To the best of our knowledge, this feature has not been previously reported in any other high-dimensional system. Moreover, the 5D hyperchaotic system has been simulated using a specially designed electronic circuit and viewed on an oscilloscope, thereby confirming the results of the numerical integrations. Both Matlab and the oscilloscope outputs produce similar phase portraits. Such implementations in real time represent a new type of hidden attractor with important consequences for engineering applications.

  19. Coexistence of ferromagnetism and superconductivity in iron based pnictides: a time resolved magnetooptical study. (United States)

    Pogrebna, A; Mertelj, T; Vujičić, N; Cao, G; Xu, Z A; Mihailovic, D


    Ferromagnetism and superconductivity are antagonistic phenomena. Their coexistence implies either a modulated ferromagnetic order parameter on a lengthscale shorter than the superconducting coherence length or a weak exchange coupling between the itinerant superconducting electrons and the localized ordered spins. In some iron based pnictide superconductors the coexistence of ferromagnetism and superconductivity has been clearly demonstrated. The nature of the coexistence, however, remains elusive since no clear understanding of the spin structure in the superconducting state has been reached and the reports on the coupling strength are controversial. We show, by a direct optical pump-probe experiment, that the coupling is weak, since the transfer of the excess energy from the itinerant electrons to ordered localized spins is much slower than the electron-phonon relaxation, implying the coexistence without the short-lengthscale ferromagnetic order parameter modulation. Remarkably, the polarization analysis of the coherently excited spin wave response points towards a simple ferromagnetic ordering of spins with two distinct types of ferromagnetic domains.

  20. Geometric phase effects in excited state dynamics through a conical intersection in large molecules: N-dimensional linear vibronic coupling model study. (United States)

    Li, Jiaru; Joubert-Doriol, Loïc; Izmaylov, Artur F


    We investigate geometric phase (GP) effects in nonadiabatic transitions through a conical intersection (CI) in an N-dimensional linear vibronic coupling (ND-LVC) model. This model allows for the coordinate transformation encompassing all nonadiabatic effects within a two-dimensional (2D) subsystem, while the other N - 2 dimensions form a system of uncoupled harmonic oscillators identical for both electronic states and coupled bi-linearly with the subsystem coordinates. The 2D subsystem governs ultra-fast nonadiabatic dynamics through the CI and provides a convenient model for studying GP effects. Parameters of the original ND-LVC model define the Hamiltonian of the transformed 2D subsystem and thus influence GP effects directly. Our analysis reveals what values of ND-LVC parameters can introduce symmetry breaking in the 2D subsystem that diminishes GP effects.

  1. Nonequilibrium coexistence in a competition model with nutrient storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Revilla Rimbach, T.A.; Weissing, F.J.

    Resource competition theory predicts that, in equilibrium, the number of coexisting species cannot exceed the number of limiting resources. In some competition models, however, competitive interactions may result in nonequilibrium dynamics, allowing the coexistence of many species on few resources.

  2. Isovector monopole excitation energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, J.D.; Lipparini, E.; Stringary, S.


    Using a hydrodynamical model whose parameters have been adjusted to fit the polarizability and excitation energy of the giant dipole nuclear resonance we predict excitation energies of the isovector monopole resonance. The predicted values are in good agreement with experimental data. The mass dependence of the excitation energy is strongly influenced by nuclear geometry.

  3. Coexistence and sport: the Israeli case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yair Galily


    Full Text Available Utilizing sports and other recreational activities to foster peaceful relations and coexistence is an idea that has gained popularity in recent years, particularly in Israel. The aim of the current research is to fill a gap in the research literature on the subject of coexistence programming. The Mifalot organization conducts a program called “Get to Know Your Neighbor” in which Palestinian, Jordanian, and Israeli youth play soccer together. The program, based mainly on the participants’ love for football, is a series of activities and lessons designed to prepare children to meet and interact with youth from neighboring communities. The study examines the effects of participation in this program on the attitudes of the Palestinians, Jordanians, and Israelis toward each other.

  4. Co-existence in multispecies biofilm communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røder, Henriette Lyng

    environment to evaluate their biofilm formation capability. It was found that multispecies consortia could lead to increased biofilm formation compared to mono species growth. This shows how co-localized isolates are able to influence biofilm production in a community with high relevance for food safety...... and production. The analysis was further extended in manuscript 3, in which the effect of social interac-tions on biofilm formation in multispecies co-cultures isolated from a diverse range of environments was examined. The question raised was whether the interspecific interactions of co-existing bacteria...... generally lead to enhanced biofilm formation in complex communities. We showed that bacteria, expected to have co-existed for a long time, generated more biofilm biomass in co-culture. This was further tested against random co-cultures of bacteria, which supported the conclusion. Discovering that some...

  5. Co-existence of agricultural production systems. (United States)

    Jank, Bernhard; Rath, Johannes; Gaugitsch, Helmut


    Strategies and best practices for the co-existence of GM and non-GM crops need to be developed and implemented with the participation of farmers and other stakeholders. According to the principle of 'subsidiarity', decisions should be made by the lowest authority possible. When applying this concept to the case of GM crops, the affected society should determine their use and management in a regional decision-making process. Public participation is better accomplished at a lower level, and democratic deficits in decision-making on GMOs are better resolved, enabling farmers to manage or avoid GM crops. Ultimately, voluntary GMO-free zones might be a tool for sustainable co-existence and GM-free production and GMO-free zones might create a specific image for marketing regional products and services, such as tourism.

  6. Coexisting principles and logics of elder care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Hanne Marlene; Eskelinen, Leena; Boll Hansen, Eigil


    -oriented service that stresses the wishes and priorities of older people. We have studied how these two principles are applied by care workers in Denmark. Is one principle or logic replacing the other, or do they coexist? Do they create tensions between professional knowledge and the autonomy of older people......? Using neo-institutional theory and feminist care theory, we analysed the articulation of the two policy principles in interviews and their logics in observations in four local authorities. We conclude that help to self-help is the dominant principle, that it is deeply entrenched in the identity...... of the professional care worker and that it coexists with consumer-oriented service and without major tensions in the logics identified in their practices....

  7. Gastric schwannoma coexists with peptic ulcer perforation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkan İnce


    Full Text Available Gastric schwannoma is a benign neoplasm that originates from sheet of nerve cell in stomach. Differential diagnosis of gastrointestinal stromal tumors, (GISTs which have malign potential, than these tumors, which definite diagnosis is determined by histopathological and immunohistochemical methods have clinical significance due to gastric schwannomas have excellent progress after surgical resection. We presented a case of gastric schwannoma coexists with peptic ulcer perforation with guide of literature in this study.

  8. Species coexistence in a changing world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando eValladares


    Full Text Available The consequences of global change for the maintenance of species diversity will depend on the sum of each species responses to the environment and on the interactions among them. A wide ecological literature supports that these species-specific responses can arise from factors related to life strategies, evolutionary history and intraspecific variation, and also from environmental variation in space and time. In the light of recent advances from coexistence theory combined with mechanistic explanations of diversity maintenance, we discuss how global change drivers can influence species coexistence. We revise the importance of both competition and facilitation for understanding coexistence in different ecosystems, address the influence of phylogenetic relatedness, functional traits, phenotypic plasticity and intraspecific variability, and discuss lessons learnt from invasion ecology. While most previous studies have focused their efforts on disentangling the mechanisms that maintain the biological diversity in species-rich ecosystems such as tropical forests, grasslands and coral reefs, we argue that much can be learnt from pauci-specific communities where functional variability within each species, together with demographic and stochastic processes becomes key to understand species interactions and eventually community responses to global change.

  9. Tuberous sclerosis complex coexistent with hippocampal sclerosis. (United States)

    Lang, Min; Prayson, Richard A


    Tuberous sclerosis and hippocampal sclerosis are both well-defined entities associated with medically intractable epilepsy. To our knowledge, there has been only one prior case of these two pathologies being co-existent. We report a 7-month-old boy who presented with intractable seizures at 2 months of age. MRI studies showed diffuse volume loss in the brain with bilateral, multiple cortical tubers and subcortical migration abnormalities. Subependymal nodules were noted without subependymal giant cell astrocytoma. Genetic testing revealed TSC2 and PRD gene deletions. Histopathology of the hippocampus showed CA1 sclerosis marked by loss of neurons in the CA1 region. Sections from the temporal, parietal and occipital lobes showed multiple cortical tubers characterized by cortical architectural disorganization, gliosis, calcifications and increased number of large balloon cells. Focal white matter balloon cells and spongiform changes were also present. The patient underwent resection of the right fronto-parietal lobe and a subsequent resection of the right temporal, parietal and occipital lobes. The patient is free of seizures on anti-epileptic medication 69 months after surgery. Although hippocampal sclerosis is well documented to be associated with coexistent focal cortical dysplasia, the specific co-existence of cortical tubers and hippocampal sclerosis appears to be rare. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Multi-frequency excitation

    KAUST Repository

    Younis, Mohammad I.


    Embodiments of multi-frequency excitation are described. In various embodiments, a natural frequency of a device may be determined. In turn, a first voltage amplitude and first fixed frequency of a first source of excitation can be selected for the device based on the natural frequency. Additionally, a second voltage amplitude of a second source of excitation can be selected for the device, and the first and second sources of excitation can be applied to the device. After applying the first and second sources of excitation, a frequency of the second source of excitation can be swept. Using the methods of multi- frequency excitation described herein, new operating frequencies, operating frequency ranges, resonance frequencies, resonance frequency ranges, and/or resonance responses can be achieved for devices and systems.

  11. Maintaining distances with the engineer: patterns of coexistence in plant communities beyond the patch-bare dichotomy. (United States)

    Pescador, David S; Chacón-Labella, Julia; de la Cruz, Marcelino; Escudero, Adrian


    Two-phase plant communities with an engineer conforming conspicuous patches and affecting the performance and patterns of coexisting species are the norm under stressful conditions. To unveil the mechanisms governing coexistence in these communities at multiple spatial scales, we have developed a new point-raster approach of spatial pattern analysis, which was applied to a Mediterranean high mountain grassland to show how Festuca curvifolia patches affect the local distribution of coexisting species. We recorded 22 111 individuals of 17 plant perennial species. Most coexisting species were negatively associated with F. curvifolia clumps. Nevertheless, bivariate nearest-neighbor analyses revealed that the majority of coexisting species were confined at relatively short distances from F. curvifolia borders (between 0-2 cm and up to 8 cm in some cases). Our study suggests the existence of a fine-scale effect of F. curvifolia for most species promoting coexistence through a mechanism we call 'facilitation in the halo'. Most coexisting species are displaced to an interphase area between patches, where two opposite forces reach equilibrium: attenuated severe conditions by proximity to the F. curvifolia canopy (nutrient-rich islands) and competitive exclusion mitigated by avoiding direct contact with F. curvifolia. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. Vapor-like liquid coexistence densities affect the extension of the critical point's influence zone

    CERN Document Server

    Rivera, Jose Luis; Guerra-Gonzalez, Roberto


    The critical point affects the coexistence behavior of the vapor-liquid equilibrium densities. The length of the critical influence zone is under debate because for some properties, like shear viscosity, the extension is only a few degrees, while for others, such as the density order parameter, the critical influence zone range covers up to hundreds of degrees below the critical temperature. Here we show that for a simple molecular potential of ethane, the critical influence zone covers a wide zone of tens of degrees (below the critical temperature) down to a transition temperature, at which the apparent critical influence zone vanishes and the transition temperature can be predicted through a pressure analysis of the coexisting bulk liquid phase. The liquid phases within the apparent critical influence zone show low densities, making them behave internally like their corresponding vapor phases. Therefore, the experimentally observed wide extension of the critical influence zone is due to a vapor-like effect ...

  13. Physical Improvements in Exciter/Igniter Units Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed Phase 2 project consists of the physical integration of our Phase 1 small, compact exciter with a "flight like" igniter or spark plug capable of...

  14. The challenges of managing coexistent disorders with phenylketonuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacDonald, A; Ahring, K; Almeida, M F


    -centre, retrospective cohort study. METHODS: Diagnostic age of PKU and co-existent condition, treatment regimen, and impact of co-existent condition on blood phenylalanine (Phe) control and PKU management were reported. RESULTS: 30 patients (11 males and 19 females), with PKU and a co-existent condition, current median...... patients required conflicting diet therapy (n=5), nutritional support (n=7) and 5 children had feeding problems. There was delayed diagnosis of co-existent conditions (n=3); delayed treatment of PKU (n=1) and amenorrhea associated with Grave's disease that masked a PKU pregnancy for 12weeks. Co......-existent conditions adversely affected blood Phe control in 47% (n=14) of patients. Some co-existent conditions increased the complexity of disease management and increased management burden for patients and caregivers. CONCLUSIONS: Occurrence of co-existent disease is not uncommon in patients with PKU and so...

  15. Renormalization of Optical Excitations in Molecules near a Metal Surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García Lastra, Juan Maria; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer


    The lowest electronic excitations of benzene and a set of donor-acceptor molecular complexes are calculated for the gas phase and on the Al(111) surface using the many-body Bethe-Salpeter equation. The energy of the charge-transfer excitations obtained for the gas phase complexes are found to be ...

  16. Survey of low-frequency electromagnetic waves stimulated by two coexisting newborn ion species (United States)

    Brinca, Armando L.; Tsurutani, Bruce T.


    Parallel electromagnetic instabilities generated by coexisting newborn hydrogen and oxygen ions are studied for different orientations of the interplanetary magnetic field with respect to the solar wind velocity. The wave growth dependence on the densities and temperatures of the newborn species is investigated. The results indicate that in most domains of the Brillouin plane each ion beam can excite resonant instabilities without undue influence from the other newborn ion species. Although comparable resonant instabilities are more efficiently generated by the lighter newborn ions in ion-rich environments, the growth stimulated by the heavier species can withstand large beam density decreases.

  17. Coexisting typical migraine in familial hemiplegic migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Møller; Thomsen, Lise Lykke; Olesen, Jes


    In contrast to patients with migraine with aura (MA) and migraine without aura (MO), most patients with familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) do not report migraine-like attacks after pharmacologic provocation with glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), a donor of nitric oxide. In the present study, we examined...... patients with FHM without known gene mutations and hypothesized that 1) GTN would cause more migraine-like attacks in patients with FHM compared to controls, and 2) GTN would cause more migraine attacks in patients with FHM with coexisting MA or MO compared to the pure FHM phenotype....

  18. Coexistence of Sarcoidosis and Gouty Arthritis. (United States)

    Semiz, Hüseyin; Kobak, Senol


    Sarcoidosis is an inflammatory disease with unknown cause characterized by non-caseating granuloma formations. It may present with bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy, skin lesions, the involvement of eye and symptoms on the locomotor system. Gouty arthritis is an autoinflammatory disease characterized by hyperuricemia, recurrent arthritis attacks and the deposition of monosodium urate crystals in the joints and the surrounding tissues. We reported the coexistence of sarcoidosis and gouty arthritis in this paper. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  19. Excited states 2

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Edward C


    Excited States, Volume 2 is a collection of papers that deals with molecules in the excited states. The book describes the geometries of molecules in the excited electronic states. One paper describes the geometries of a diatomic molecule and of polyatomic molecules; it also discusses the determination of the many excited state geometries of molecules with two, three, or four atoms by techniques similar to diatomic spectroscopy. Another paper introduces an ordered theory related to excitons in pure and mixed molecular crystals. This paper also presents some experimental data such as those invo

  20. Propagation impairments due to Raman effect on the coexistence of GPON, XG-PON, RF-video and TWDM-PON


    Curri, Vittorio; Gaudino, Roberto


    We analyze propagation effects in the coexistence of GPON, XG-PON, RF-Video and TWDM-PON. We show that high power TWDM-PON channels excite Stimulated Raman Scattering inducing extra-loss on GPON due to power depletion. We address the problem through simulations and propose and validate a simple analytical model for the effect

  1. Investigation of the electromagnon excitations in the multiferroic TbMn2O5 (United States)

    Petit, S.; Balédent, V.; Doubrovsky, C.; Lepetit, M. B.; Greenblatt, M.; Wanklyn, B.; Foury-Leylekian, P.


    Multiferroic materials in which magnetism and ferroelectricity coexist are a time-honored subject of study, opening the route for the next generation of electronic devices. Understanding the pronounced interplay between these properties is a current challenge, especially for the realization of multiferroic devices. One of the largest reversible magnetoelectric couplings has been evidenced in TbMn2O5, the reference compound of the so-called RMn2O5 multiferroics. The origin of this strong coupling has been intensively studied from the static properties. Here we report an inelastic neutron scattering investigation of the dynamic properties in this famous compound. Our work sheds light on the electromagnon, a hybrid mode theoretically predicted in multiferroics, which couples magnetic excitations with polar lattice degrees of freedom. We were able to determine in TbMn2O5 the exchange constants of a model Heisenberg Hamiltonian and to identify the spin excitation that transforms in the electromagnon on passing from the ferroelectric and magnetically collinear phase to the low temperature incommensurate and weakly ferroelectric one. Our results point to the unusual feature of the dynamic magnetoelectric coupling in this series of multiferroics.

  2. Can Public Education Coexist with Participatory Culture? (United States)

    Losh, Elizabeth; Jenkins, Henry


    Participatory culture has many mechanisms to support peer-to-peer learning as young people enter interest-driven and friendship-driven networks. In this article, the authors argue that school librarians can help bridge the gap between the excitement of having students experiment with new forms of social learning and new digital-media practices,…

  3. Coexistence of Reverse Capgras Syndrome, Subjective Double and Cotard Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Mashayekhi


    Full Text Available Misidentification syndrome is a condition in which the person thinks that familiar persons have been replaced with other one. Coexistence of some types of this syndrome has been reported with other psychiatric syndromes. In this report, we present a 47-year-old married man with coexistence of reverse Capgras and subjective double syndromes with Cotard syndrome. There is no previous report of coexistence of these three forms of delusions in a single case.

  4. The costs of coexistence on farms in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Punt, Maarten J.; Venus, Thomas J.; Wesseler, Justus H H


    In the European Union, freedom of choice between genetically modified (GM) and conventional or organic crops, for both producers and consumers, should be provided through coexistence measures. Coexistence measures at the farm level differ in costs and effectiveness and should not tip the balance...... that there are important differences in farm characteristics and overall landscape configuration that influence the costs or burden of coexistence measures....

  5. Magnetic excitations in rare earth systems (United States)

    Jensen, Jens


    The observation of magnetic excitations, by means of inelastic neutron scattering, provides valuable information on the magnetic forces acting in rare-earth systems. The RPA (random-phase approximation) theory, developed into its final form in the early seventies, is now a widely used tool for analyzing the excitation spectra in systems with well-defined local moments. These excitations reflect both the dynamics of the single moments and the interactions of these moments with their surroundings. A discussion of the information which has been obtained from studies of the magnetic excitations in the rare-earth metal is presented. The emphasis is laid on Pr-metal which has attracted much interest in recent years. Recent progress in the investigation of rare-earth intermetallic compounds, like the Laves-phase and the CsCl-type-compounds and the rare-earth pnictides, is also condidered. Some aspects of the magnetic properties of the actinides can be understood in terms of a model of localized moments, and we include a discussion of USb, where the spin-wave spectrum contains direct evidence that the spins are ordered in a triple- q structure. The magnetic excitations may be coupled to the phonons and in the metallic systems they interact with the electron- hole excitations of the conduction electrons. Therefore the sound velocities and the effective mass of the conduction electrons can be strongly affected by the spin system. Recent developments within these areas are also reviewed.

  6. Different dispersal abilities allow reef fish to coexist. (United States)

    Bode, Michael; Bode, Lance; Armsworth, Paul R


    The coexistence of multiple species on a smaller number of limiting resources is an enduring ecological paradox. The mechanisms that maintain such biodiversity are of great interest to ecology and of central importance to conservation. We describe and prove a unique and robust mechanism for coexistence: Species that differ only in their dispersal abilities can coexist, if habitat patches are distributed at irregular distances. This mechanism is straightforward and ecologically intuitive, but can nevertheless create complex coexistence patterns that are robust to substantial environmental stochasticity. The Great Barrier Reef (GBR) is noted for its diversity of reef fish species and its complex arrangement of reef habitat. We demonstrate that this mechanism can allow fish species with different pelagic larval durations to stably coexist in the GBR. Further, coexisting species on the GBR often dominate different subregions, defined primarily by cross-shelf position. Interspecific differences in dispersal ability generate similar coexistence patterns when dispersal is influenced by larval behavior and variable oceanographic conditions. Many marine and terrestrial ecosystems are characterized by patchy habitat distributions and contain coexisting species that have different dispersal abilities. This coexistence mechanism is therefore likely to have ecological relevance beyond reef fish.

  7. Extinction dynamics from metastable coexistences in an evolutionary game (United States)

    Park, Hye Jin; Traulsen, Arne


    Deterministic evolutionary game dynamics can lead to stable coexistences of different types. Stochasticity, however, drives the loss of such coexistences. This extinction is usually accompanied by population size fluctuations. We investigate the most probable extinction trajectory under such fluctuations by mapping a stochastic evolutionary model to a problem of classical mechanics using the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) approximation. Our results show that more abundant types in a coexistence may be more likely to go extinct first, in good agreement with previous results. The distance between the coexistence and extinction points is not a good predictor of extinction either. Instead, the WKB method correctly predicts the type going extinct first.

  8. Coexistence of rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tacjana Anna Barczyńska


    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA and ankylosing spondylitis (AS are chronic progressive inflammatory diseases, leading to joint damage and reducing the physical fitness of patients. They are among the most common rheumatic diseases. However, their etiology and symptomatology are different. Formerly, AS was often wrongly diagnosed as RA. Today there are no major diagnostic difficulties in differentiation between these diseases, thanks to modern laboratory tests and imaging. However, a problem may arise when the patient has symptoms typical for both diseases simultaneously. Cases of coexistence of RA with AS – according to our best knowledge – are rare. This study aims to compare our experience in diagnosis and treatment of concomitant RA and AS with the experience of other researchers. Implementation of the proper diagnostic algorithm, allowing for correct diagnosis of both diseases in one patient, may be useful for differential diagnosis of similar cases in the future.

  9. Coexistence of rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis. (United States)

    Barczyńska, Tacjana Anna; Węgierska, Małgorzata; Żuchowski, Paweł; Dura, Marta; Zalewska, Joanna; Waszczak, Marzena; Jeka, Sławomir


    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS) are chronic progressive inflammatory diseases, leading to joint damage and reducing the physical fitness of patients. They are among the most common rheumatic diseases. However, their etiology and symptomatology are different. Formerly, AS was often wrongly diagnosed as RA. Today there are no major diagnostic difficulties in differentiation between these diseases, thanks to modern laboratory tests and imaging. However, a problem may arise when the patient has symptoms typical for both diseases simultaneously. Cases of coexistence of RA with AS - according to our best knowledge - are rare. This study aims to compare our experience in diagnosis and treatment of concomitant RA and AS with the experience of other researchers. Implementation of the proper diagnostic algorithm, allowing for correct diagnosis of both diseases in one patient, may be useful for differential diagnosis of similar cases in the future.

  10. Effect of migration in a diffusion model for template coexistence in protocells. (United States)

    Fontanari, José F; Serva, Maurizio


    The compartmentalization of distinct templates in protocells and the exchange of templates between them (migration) are key elements of a modern scenario for prebiotic evolution. Here we use the diffusion approximation of population genetics to study analytically the steady-state properties of such a prebiotic scenario. The coexistence of distinct template types inside a protocell is achieved by a selective pressure at the protocell level (group selection) favoring protocells with a mixed template composition. In the degenerate case, where the templates have the same replication rate, we find that a vanishingly small migration rate suffices to eliminate the segregation effect of random drift and so to promote coexistence. In the nondegenerate case, a small migration rate greatly boosts coexistence as compared with the situation where there is no migration. However, increase of the migration rate beyond a critical value leads to the complete dominance of the more efficient template type (homogeneous regime). In this case, we find a continuous phase transition separating the homogeneous and the coexistence regimes, with the order parameter vanishing linearly with the distance to the transition point.

  11. Coexistence of pheochromocytoma with uncommon vascular lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Kota


    Full Text Available Background: Pheochromocytoma/paragangliomas have been described to be associated with rare vascular abnormalities like renal artery stenosis. Coexistence of physiologically significant renal artery lesions is a compounding factor that alters management and prognosis of pheochromocytoma patients. Apart from individual case reports, data on such association in Indian population is not available. The aim of this study is to find the nature and prevalence of associated vascular abnormalities. Materials and Methods: From 1990 to 2010, a total of 50 patients were diagnosed with pheochromocytoma/paragangliomas. Hospital charts of these patients were reviewed retrospectively to identify those with unusual vascular abnormalities. Available literature was also reviewed. Results: Of the 50 patients with pheochromocytoma, 7 (14% had coexisting vascular lesions including renal artery stenosis in 4, aortoarteritis in 1, aortic aneurysm in 1 and inferior vena cava thrombosis in 1. Pheochromocytoma was adrenal in 42 and extra adrenal in 8. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy was done in the patients. One patient with renal artery stenosis due to intimal fibrosis was subjected to percutaneous balloon angioplasty; the other three improved after adrenalectomy and lysis of fibrous adhesive bands. The patient with aortoarteritos was treated with oral steroids. Inferior vena cava thrombosis was reversed with anticoagulants. The patient with abdominal aortic aneurysm was advised for annual follow-up on account of its size of 4.5 cm and asymptomatic presentation. Conclusion: There are multiple mechanisms that can lead to renal artery stenosis and other vascular abnormalities in a case of pheochromocytoma. A high index of suspicion is necessary to enable both entities to be diagnosed preoperatively and allow proper planning of surgical therapy. Incomplete diagnosis may lead to persistent hypertension postoperatively in a case of associated renal artery stenosis.

  12. Deformation and mixing of co-existing shapes in the neutron-deficient polonium isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2078559; Huyse, Mark

    The neutron-deficient polonium isotopes, with only 2 protons outside the Z = 82 shell closure, are situated in an interesting region of the nuclear chart. In the neighboring lead (Z = 82) and mercury (Z = 80) isotopes, experimental and theoretical efforts identified evidence of shape coexistence. Shape coexistence is the remarkable phenomenon in which two or more distinct types of deformation occur in states of the same angular momentum and similar excitation energy in a nucleus. The neutron-deficient polonium isotopes have also been studied intensively, experimentally as well as theoretically. The closed neutron-shell nucleus 210Po (N = 126) manifests itself as a two-particle nucleus where most of the excited states can be explained by considering the degrees of freedom of the two valence protons outside of 208Pb. The near-constant behavior of the yrast 2+1 and 4+1 states in the isotopes with mass 200 ≤ A ≤ 208 can be explained by coupling the two valence protons to a vibrating lead core. 200Po seems to ...

  13. Excited states 4

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Edward C


    Excited States, Volume 4 is a collection of papers that deals with the excited states of molecular activity. One paper investigates the resonance Raman spectroscopy as the key to vibrational-electronic coupling. This paper reviews the basic theory of Raman scattering; it also explains the derivation of the Raman spectra, excitation profiles, and depolarization ratios for simple resonance systems. Another paper reviews the magnetic properties of triplet states, including the zero-field resonance techniques, the high-field experiments, and the spin Hamiltonian. This paper focuses on the magnetic

  14. Nuclear expansion with excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De, J.N. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Departament d' Estructura i Constituents de la Materia, Facultat de Fisica, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Samaddar, S.K. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Vinas, X. [Departament d' Estructura i Constituents de la Materia, Facultat de Fisica, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Centelles, M. [Departament d' Estructura i Constituents de la Materia, Facultat de Fisica, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail:


    The expansion of an isolated hot spherical nucleus with excitation energy and its caloric curve are studied in a thermodynamic model with the SkM{sup *} force as the nuclear effective two-body interaction. The calted results are shown to compare well with the recent experimental data from energetic nuclear collisions. The fluctuations in temperature and density are also studied. They are seen to build up very rapidly beyond an excitation energy of {approx}9 MeV/u. Volume-conserving quadrupole deformation in addition to expansion indicates, however, nuclear disassembly above an excitation energy of {approx}4 MeV/u.

  15. Dynamical analysis of highly excited molecular spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellman, M.E. [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene (United States)


    The goal of this program is new methods for analysis of spectra and dynamics of highly excited vibrational states of molecules. In these systems, strong mode coupling and anharmonicity give rise to complicated classical dynamics, and make the simple normal modes analysis unsatisfactory. New methods of spectral analysis, pattern recognition, and assignment are sought using techniques of nonlinear dynamics including bifurcation theory, phase space classification, and quantization of phase space structures. The emphasis is chaotic systems and systems with many degrees of freedom.

  16. Complete Hydatidiform Mole Coexisting with a Live Fetus | Ezem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydatidiform mole co-existing with a normal fetus is very rare. We report a case of a 36 year old woman Para 4+0 who presented with amenorrhoea of twenty four weeks duration, vaginal bleeding , abdominal pain and pre-eclampsia. Ultrasound examination revealed a hydatidiform mole coexisting with a normal living fetus.

  17. Trophic position of coexisting krill species: a stable isotope approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agersted, Mette Dalgaard; Bode, Antonio; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel


    Four krill species with overlapping functional biology coexist in Greenland waters. Here, we used stable isotopes to investigate and discuss their trophic role and mode of coexistence. Bulk carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) stable isotope analyses of Thysanoessa longicaudata, T. inermis, T. raschii...

  18. 78 FR 79660 - Enhancing Agricultural Coexistence; Extension of Comment Period (United States)


    .... APHIS-2013-0047] Enhancing Agricultural Coexistence; Extension of Comment Period ACTION: Notice; extension of comment period. SUMMARY: We are extending the comment period for a request for information... agricultural production systems in order to further agricultural coexistence. This action will allow interested...

  19. Coexisting Disorders and Academic Achievement among Children with ADHD (United States)

    Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Sulak, Tracey N.; Fearon, Danielle D.


    Objective: ADHD is a commonly diagnosed neuropsychological disorder among school-aged children with reported high rates of coexisting or comorbid disorders. As ADHD has been associated with academic underachievement, the current study examines this association in view of the presence of coexisting disorders. The purpose of the current study is to…

  20. Collective excitations of sup 3 He clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serra, Ll.; Garcias, F. (Universidad de las Islas Baleares, Palma de Mallorca (Spain). Dept. de Fisica); Barranco, M. (Barcelona Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Estructura y Constituyentes de la Materia); Navarro, J. (Valencia Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Valencia (Spain). Inst. de Fisica Corpuscular); Giai, V. (Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Div. de Physique Theorique)


    Collective excitations of {sup 3}He clusters are studied by treating the cluster as a quantum liquid drop. We have used the Random-Phase Approximation sum rules technique within a Density Functional Formalism. Results for L=2 to 10 surface modes and the L=0 volume mode are presented. (orig.).

  1. Motor axon excitability during Wallerian degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moldovan, Mihai; Alvarez, Susana; Krarup, Christian


    , action potential propagation and structural integrity of the distal segment are maintained. The aim of this study was to investigate in vivo the changes in membrane function of motor axons during the 'latent' phase of Wallerian degeneration. Multiple indices of axonal excitability of the tibial nerve...

  2. Inner-shell excitation spectroscopy of peroxides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harding, K. L.; Kalirai, S.; Hayes, R.; Ju, V.; Cooper, G.; Hitchcock, A. P.; Thompson, M. R.


    O 1s inner-shell excitation spectra of a number of vapor phase molecules containing peroxide bonds - hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), di-t-butylperoxide ((BuOBu)-Bu-t-Bu-t), benzoyl peroxide, ((C6H5(CO)O)(2)), luperox-F [1,3(4)-bis(tertbutylperoxyisopropyl)benzene], and analogous, non-peroxide compounds -

  3. Coexistence of orbital and CE-AFM orders in colossal magnetoresistance manganites: A symmetry perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, J.L., E-mail:


    The complex interplay between order parameters of different nature that dominates the physics of colossal magnetoresistance manganites is analysed from a symmetry based perspective. Phenomenological energies are given for the different competing phases. It is shown that the general trends observed in different systems, such as the mutual exclusion of orbital order and A-AFM order and the related stabilization of the CE-AFM order, stem to large extend from the symmetry of the parameters involved. The possible stabilization of complex phases where charge and orbital order coexist with magnetic and ferroelectric states is also anticipated.

  4. Coexistence of systemic sclerosis and sarcoidosis. (United States)

    Godziszewska, Sabina; Widuchowska, Małgorzata; Kopeć-Mędrek, Magdalena; Kucharz, Eugeniusz Józef

    Coexistence of systemic sclerosis (SSc) and sarcoidosis (SA) is rarely reported; 21 cases only were reported in the English medical literature before 2011. It is suggested that low incidence of overlap syndrome of SSc with SA is resulted from different immune mechanisms involved in pathogenesis of the diseases. In SSc patients, a role of Th2 lymphocytes is suggested while in patients with SA such role is attributed to Th1 lymphocytes. The paper presents a 47-year-old woman suffering from SSc for over 6 years. CT scan of the lungs revealed the nodulus of the right lung and enlarged mediastinal lymphatic nodes. Pathologic evaluation of the nodulus provided basis for diagnosis of sarcoidosis. Diagnosis of SSc was based on clinical and capilaroscopic evaluation as well as detection of anti-topoisomerase I antibodies. In the course of the disease, fibrosis of the lung, pulmonary hypertension and cardiac abnormalities with rhythm disturbances were developed. Treatment included cyclophosphamide, mycophenolate mofetil, sildenafil, losartan. Stabilization of the general state of the patient was achieved.

  5. Syringomyelia coexisting with guillain-barre syndrome. (United States)

    Kim, Hee-Sang; Yun, Dong Hwan; Chon, Jinmann; Lee, Jong Eon; Park, Min Ho; Han, Yoo Jin


    Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) and syringomyelia are diseases of different entities. GBS is an acute post-infectious autoimmune disease which is mediated by autoantibodies against the myelin of peripheral nerves. Syringomyelia is a chronic disease characterized by a cavity extending longitudinally inside the spinal cord. A 67-year-old man is being hospitalized due to severe numbness and ascending weakness in all limbs. On neurological examination, the motor power of all limbs are decreased and show absence of deep tendon reflexes (DTRs). The patient is being diagnosed with GBS on the basis of the acute clinical course, nerve conduction studies of segmental demyelinating polyneuropathy, and a finding of albuminocytologic dissociation in the cerebrospinal fluid. The patient is presented with a new set of symptoms thereafter, which composes of sensory changes in the upper extremities, the urinary dysfunction including frequency and residual urine, spastic bilateral lower extremities, and increased reflexes of the knee and the biceps at follow-up examinations. The spinal magnetic resonance imaging in the sagittal section revealed a syrinx cavity between the fifth cervical and the first thoracic vertebral segment in the cord. The somatosensory evoked potential show sensory pathway defects between both the brachial plexus and the brain stem. Thus, this patient is being diagnosed with both GBS and syringomyelia. We report a case of symptomatic syringomyelia coexisting with GBS. Since the GBS is presented with a progressive muscle weakness and reduced DTRs, the muscle weakness and stiffness in the extremities suggests a concurrent syringomyelia might be easily overlooked.

  6. Aggression and coexistence in female caribou (United States)

    Weckerly, Floyd W.; Ricca, Mark A.


    Female caribou (Rangifer tarandus) are highly gregarious, yet there has been little study of the behavioral mechanisms that foster coexistence. Quantifying patterns of aggression between male and female, particularly in the only cervid taxa where both sexes grow antlers, should provide insight into these mechanisms. We asked if patterns of aggression by male and female caribou followed the pattern typically noted in other polygynous cervids, in which males display higher frequencies and intensity of aggression. From June to August in 2011 and 2012, we measured the frequency and intensity of aggression across a range of group sizes through focal animal sampling of 170 caribou (64 males and 106 females) on Adak Island in the Aleutian Archipelago, Alaska. Males in same-sex and mixed-sex groups and females in mixed-sex groups had higher frequencies of aggression than females in same-sex groups. Group size did not influence frequency of aggression. Males displayed more intense aggression than females. Frequent aggression in mixed-sex groups probably reflects lower tolerance of males for animals in close proximity. Female caribou were less aggressive and more gregarious than males, as in other polygynous cervid species.

  7. Environmental stress, facilitation, competition, and coexistence. (United States)

    Hart, Simon P; Marshall, Dustin J


    The major theories regarding the combined influence of the environment and species interactions on population and community dynamics appear to conflict. Stress/ disturbance gradient models of community organization, such as the stress gradient hypothesis, emphasize a diminished role for competition in harsh environments whereas modern coexistence theory does not. Confusion about the role of species interactions in harsh environments is perpetuated by a disconnect between population dynamics theory and data. We linked theory and data using response surface experiments done in the field to parameterize mathematical, population-dynamic competition models. We replicated our experiment across two environments that spanned a common and important environmental stress gradient for determining community structure in benthic marine systems. We generated quantitative estimates of the effects of environmental stress on population growth rates and the direction and strength of intra- and interspecific interactions within each environment. Our approach directly addressed a perpetual blind spot in this field by showing how the effects of competition can be intensified in stressful environments even though the apparent strength of competition remains unchanged. Furthermore, we showed how simultaneous, reciprocal competitive and facilitative effects can stabilize population dynamics in multispecies communities in stressful environments.

  8. Three-dimensional MRI with independent slab excitation and encoding. (United States)

    Eissa, Amir; Wilman, Alan H


    Three-dimensional MRI is typically performed with the same orientation for radiofrequency slab excitation and slab select phase encoding. We introduce independent slab excitation and encoding to create a new degree of freedom in three-dimensional MRI, which is the angular relationship between the prescribed excitation volume and the voxel encoding grid. By separating the directions of slab excitation and slab phase encoding, the independent slab excitation and encoding method allows choice of optimal voxel orientation, while maintaining volume excitation based on anatomic landmarks. The method requires simple pulse sequence modifications and uses standard image reconstruction followed by removal of aliasing and image reformatting. The independent slab excitation and encoding method enables arbitrary oblique angle imaging using fixed voxel encoding gradients to maintain similar eddy current, concomitant field, or magnetic dipole effects independent of the oblique angle of excitation. We apply independent slab excitation and encoding to phase and susceptibility-weighted imaging using fixed voxel encoding aligned with the main magnetic field to demonstrate its value in both standardizing and improving image contrast, when using arbitrary oblique imaging volumes. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Dementia and serious coexisting medical conditions: a double whammy. (United States)

    Maslow, Katie


    Research-based information about the prevalence of other serious medical conditions in people with dementia has become available only recently, and the true prevalence is not known, primarily because many people with dementia do not have a diagnosis. The existing information is sufficient, however, to show that these other conditions are common in people with dementia. It is also clear that coexisting medical conditions increase the use and cost of health care services for people with dementia, and conversely, dementia increases the use and cost of health care services for people with other serious medical conditions. Nurses and other healthcare professionals should expect to see these relationships in their elderly patients. They should know how to recognize possible dementia and assess, or obtain an assessment of, the patient's cognitive status. They should expect the worsening of cognitive and related symptoms in acutely ill people with dementia and try to eliminate factors that cause this worsening, to the extent possible, while assuring the family that the symptoms are likely to improve once the acute phase of illness or treatment is over. Families, nurses, and other health care professionals are challenged by the complex issues involved in caring for a person with both dementia and other serious medical conditions. Greater attention to these issues by informed and thoughtful clinicians will improve outcomes for the people and their family and professional caregivers.

  10. Hydration dynamics promote bacterial coexistence on rough surfaces (United States)

    Wang, Gang; Or, Dani


    Identification of mechanisms that promote and maintain the immense microbial diversity found in soil is a central challenge for contemporary microbial ecology. Quantitative tools for systematic integration of complex biophysical and trophic processes at spatial scales, relevant for individual cell interactions, are essential for making progress. We report a modeling study of competing bacterial populations cohabiting soil surfaces subjected to highly dynamic hydration conditions. The model explicitly tracks growth, motion and life histories of individual bacterial cells on surfaces spanning dynamic aqueous networks that shape heterogeneous nutrient fields. The range of hydration conditions that confer physical advantages for rapidly growing species and support competitive exclusion is surprisingly narrow. The rapid fragmentation of soil aqueous phase under most natural conditions suppresses bacterial growth and cell dispersion, thereby balancing conditions experienced by competing populations with diverse physiological traits. In addition, hydration fluctuations intensify localized interactions that promote coexistence through disproportional effects within densely populated regions during dry periods. Consequently, bacterial population dynamics is affected well beyond responses predicted from equivalent and uniform hydration conditions. New insights on hydration dynamics could be considered in future designs of soil bioremediation activities, affect longevity of dry food products, and advance basic understanding of bacterial diversity dynamics and its role in global biogeochemical cycles. PMID:23051694

  11. Roles of the Excitation in Harvesting Energy from Vibrations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhang

    Full Text Available The study investigated the role of excitation in energy harvesting applications. While the energy ultimately comes from the excitation, it was shown that the excitation may not always behave as a source. When the device characteristics do not perfectly match the excitation, the excitation alternately behaves as a source and a sink. The extent to which the excitation behaves as a sink determines the energy harvesting efficiency. Such contradictory roles were shown to be dictated by a generalized phase defined as the instantaneous phase angle between the velocity of the device and the excitation. An inductive prototype device with a diamagnetically levitated seismic mass was proposed to take advantage of the well established phase changing mechanism of vibro-impact to achieve a broader device bandwidth. Results suggest that the vibro-impact can generate an instantaneous, significant phase shift in response velocity that switches the role of the excitation. If introduced properly outside the resonance zone it could dramatically increase the energy harvesting efficiency.

  12. Multifragmentation of heavy systems: partitions and phase transition signals; Multifragmentation de systemes lourds: partitions et signaux de transition de phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnet, E


    This work studies mononuclear systems produced in heavy ion collisions with large (peripheral: Au+Au) and small (central: Xe+Sn et Gd+U) impact parameters. These two classes of collisions need specific selections in order to isolate sources in thermal equilibrium (quasi-projectiles and quasi-fusion sources). We perform analyses on the statistical ensembles of events obtained after those selections to evidence phase transition signatures. First, a bimodal behaviour of the biggest fragment (Z{sub 1}) distribution, in peripheral collisions, is related to an order parameter using a renormalisation with an equiprobable excitation energy (E{sup *}) distribution constraint. A comparison with a canonical ensemble gives us information on the coexistence region location. Then, we compare static and dynamical properties of fragments produced by these sources in peripheral and central collisions. Differences on fragment multiplicities and charge asymmetry of partitions are observed. They find their origins in the presence or not of a velocity field mostly related to collective radial expansion during fragment formation. Analyses of the signal related to abnormal fluctuations of configurational energies and of the fossil signal related to spinodal decomposition for Au quasi-projectiles are performed to establish a link with the same signals already observed for central collisions. Finally, the location of events of the two types of sources in the E{sup *} - Z{sub 1} plane, are compared with a phase diagram, particularly the boundaries of the coexistence region deduced from the previous signals. (author)

  13. Long-term coexistence of rotifer cryptic species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Montero-Pau

    Full Text Available Despite their high morphological similarity, cryptic species often coexist in aquatic habitats presenting a challenge in the framework of niche differentiation theory and coexistence mechanisms. Here we use a rotifer species complex inhabiting highly unpredictable and fluctuating salt lakes to gain insights into the mechanisms involved in stable coexistence in cryptic species. We combined molecular barcoding surveys of planktonic populations and paleogenetic analysis of diapausing eggs to reconstruct the current and historical coexistence dynamics of two highly morphologically similar rotifer species, B. plicatilis and B. manjavacas. In addition, we carried out laboratory experiments using clones isolated from eight lakes where both species coexist to explore their clonal growth responses to salinity, a challenging, highly variable and unpredictable condition in Mediterranean salt lakes. We show that both species have co-occurred in a stable way in one lake, with population fluctuations in which no species was permanently excluded. The seasonal occurrence patterns of the plankton in two lakes agree with laboratory experiments showing that both species differ in their optimal salinity. These results suggest that stable species coexistence is mediated by differential responses to salinity and its fluctuating regime. We discuss the role of fluctuating salinity and a persistent diapausing egg banks as a mechanism for species coexistence in accordance with the 'storage effect'.

  14. Excitations in organic solids

    CERN Document Server

    Agranovich, Vladimir M


    During the last decade our expertise in nanotechnology has advanced considerably. The possibility of incorporating in the same nanostructure different organic and inorganic materials has opened up a promising field of research, and has greatly increased the interest in the study of properties of excitations in organic materials. In this book not only the fundamentals of Frenkel exciton and polariton theory are described, but also the electronic excitations and electronic energytransfers in quantum wells, quantum wires and quantum dots, at surfaces, at interfaces, in thin films, in multilayers,

  15. Excitation Methods for Bridge Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrar, C.R.; Duffy, T.A.; Cornwell, P.J.; Doebling, S.W.


    This paper summarizes the various methods that have been used to excited bridge structures during dynamic testing. The excitation methods fall into the general categories of ambient excitation methods and measured-input excitation methods. During ambient excitation the input to the bridge is not directly measured. In contrast, as the category label implies, measured-input excitations are usually applied at a single location where the force input to the structure can be monitored. Issues associated with using these various types of measurements are discussed along with a general description of the various excitation methods.

  16. Coexistence of competitors mediated by nonlinear noise (United States)

    Siekmann, Ivo; Bengfort, Michael; Malchow, Horst


    Stochastic reaction-diffusion equations are a popular modelling approach for studying interacting populations in a heterogeneous environment under the influence of environmental fluctuations. Although the theoretical basis of alternative models such as Fokker-Planck diffusion is not less convincing, movement of populations is most commonly modelled using the diffusion law due to Fick. An interesting feature of Fokker-Planck diffusion is the fact that for spatially varying diffusion coefficients the stationary solution is not a homogeneous distribution - in contrast to Fick's law of diffusion. Instead, concentration accumulates in regions of low diffusivity and tends to lower levels for areas of high diffusivity. Thus, we may interpret the stationary distribution of the Fokker-Planck diffusion as a reflection of different levels of habitat quality. Moreover, the most common model for environmental fluctuations, linear multiplicative noise, is based on the assumption that individuals respond independently to stochastic environmental fluctuations. For large population densities the assumption of independence is debatable and the model further implies that noise intensities can increase to arbitrarily high levels. Therefore, instead of the commonly used linear multiplicative noise model, we implement environmental variability by an alternative nonlinear noise term which never exceeds a certain maximum noise intensity. With Fokker-Planck diffusion and the nonlinear noise model replacing the classical approaches we investigate a simple invasive system based on the Lotka-Volterra competition model. We observe that the heterogeneous stationary distribution generated by Fokker-Planck diffusion generally facilitates the formation of segregated habitats of resident and invader. However, this segregation can be broken by nonlinear noise leading to coexistence of resident and invader across the whole spatial domain, an effect that would not be possible in the non

  17. Principles and Bases of Peaceful Coexistence in Light of Quran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tal’at Kiani


    Full Text Available The contemporary world witnesses many accusations regarding the compatibility of Islam and peaceful coexistence. Many people base their arguments by relying on secondary sources or exceptional cases through history for this accusation. Media, especially Western one, highlights and dramatizes some negative behaviors of Muslim people even though they do not represent whole Islamic world and Islamic theology. This investigation addresses principles and bases of peaceful coexistence according to Quran. It highlights the Islamic viewpoint according to Quran. For this purpose, related verses are classified and indexed. The study suggests that Quran encourages Muslims for peaceful coexistence with non-Muslim people.

  18. Positron excitation of neon (United States)

    Parcell, L. A.; Mceachran, R. P.; Stauffer, A. D.


    The differential and total cross section for the excitation of the 3s1P10 and 3p1P1 states of neon by positron impact were calculated using a distorted-wave approximation. The results agree well with experimental conclusions.

  19. Hardness and excitation energy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is shown that the first excitation energy can be given by the Kohn-Sham hardness (i.e. the energy difference of the ground-state lowest unoccupied and highest occupied levels) plus an extra term coming from the partial derivative of the ensemble exchange-correlation energy with respect to the weighting factor in the ...

  20. Excitation of Stellar Pulsations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houdek, G.


    In this review I present an overview of our current understanding of the physical mechanisms that are responsible for the excitation of pulsations in stars with surface convection zones. These are typically cooler stars such as the δ Scuti stars, and stars supporting solar-like oscillations....

  1. Pilot Study to Evaluate the Appropriate Management of Patients With Coexistent Bacterial Vaginosis and Cervicitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane R. Schwebke


    Full Text Available A pilot study was performed to obtain preliminary data regarding the need for targeted therapy of bacterial vaginosis (BV when it accompanies clinically defined cervicitis. Specifically, women attending a sexually transmitted disease (STD clinic with clinically defined BV and cervicitis were treated in the first phase of the study with doxycycline alone. In phase II, the patients received doxycycline and concomitant intravaginal metronidazole gel. All patients were reexamined 3–4 weeks after therapy. Persistence of BV occurred in 18/19 (95% of women in phase I vs. 1/7 (14% of women in phase II (P < 0.001. We concluded that, in women with coexistent clinically defined cervicitis and BV, the treatment of cervicitis does not result in a normalization of the vaginal flora.

  2. [Coexistence of multiple sclerosis and craniopharyngioma--case report]. (United States)

    Grzelec, H; Nowacki, P; Potemkowski, A


    The authors present a case of coexistence of multiple sclerosis and craniopharyngioma. Such, a case has not been described up to now. The neoplasm was clinically not recognized because its signs were completely covered by multiple sclerosis symptoms.

  3. Coexistence of surface and cave amphipods in an ecotone environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luštrik, R.; Turjak, M.; Kralj-Fišer, S.; Fišer, C.


    Interspecific interactions between surface and subterranean species may be a key determinant for species distributions. Until now, the existence of competition (including predation) between these groups has not been tested. To assess the coexistence and potential role of interspecific interactions

  4. Coexistence of GMO production, labeling policies, and strategic firm interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venus, Thomas Johann


    This dissertation analyzes the market effects of the coexistence of genetically modified organism (GMO) and conventional production, labeling policies, and strategic firm interactions through vertical product differentiation. Although we focus on GMOs, the applied frameworks can be adopted and

  5. Eco-morphological attributes and feeding habits in coexisting characins. (United States)

    Portella, T; Lobón-Cerviá, J; Manna, L R; Bergallo, H G; Mazzoni, R


    The head morphology and feeding habits of pairs of characin species (family Characidae) that coexist in four different coastal rainforest streams were analysed. Coexisting species differed in size, but were very similar in eco-morphological attributes. Gut analyses revealed differences in feeding preferences for each coexisting species, indicating resource partitioning. A pattern of organization in species pairs that was repeated in the four studied streams was noticed. The pattern consisted of one slightly larger species with a feeding preference for items of allochthonous origin and another smaller species with a preference for autochthonous items. The hypothesis that small morphological differences enable the current coexistence of those species pairs was proposed. Furthermore, the results show ecological equivalence among different species in the studied streams. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  6. Public Spaces – Coexistence and Participation (United States)

    Stasiak, Anna; Wojtowicz-Jankowska, Dorota


    question: who nowadays is a citizen and how to assist in the creation of civil society with a system of public spaces with thoughtful application program. Currently the city, through its scale, deepens the alienation of residents, therefore appears a need for treatments favouring social interaction. The aforementioned spatial actions motivate people to go out and find themselves in the public space. Coexistence is the first necessary step to produce community. This relationship and the specifics of this co-presence may encourage citizens to return to the public space.

  7. Persistent coexistence of cyclically competing species in spatially extended ecosystems. (United States)

    Park, Junpyo; Do, Younghae; Huang, Zi-Gang; Lai, Ying-Cheng


    A fundamental result in the evolutionary-game paradigm of cyclic competition in spatially extended ecological systems, as represented by the classic Reichenbach-Mobilia-Frey (RMF) model, is that high mobility tends to hamper or even exclude species coexistence. This result was obtained under the hypothesis that individuals move randomly without taking into account the suitability of their local environment. We incorporate local habitat suitability into the RMF model and investigate its effect on coexistence. In particular, we hypothesize the use of "basic instinct" of an individual to determine its movement at any time step. That is, an individual is more likely to move when the local habitat becomes hostile and is no longer favorable for survival and growth. We show that, when such local habitat suitability is taken into account, robust coexistence can emerge even in the high-mobility regime where extinction is certain in the RMF model. A surprising finding is that coexistence is accompanied by the occurrence of substantial empty space in the system. Reexamination of the RMF model confirms the necessity and the important role of empty space in coexistence. Our study implies that adaptation/movements according to local habitat suitability are a fundamental factor to promote species coexistence and, consequently, biodiversity.

  8. Intraspecific genetic variation and species coexistence in plant communities. (United States)

    Ehlers, Bodil K; Damgaard, Christian F; Laroche, Fabien


    Many studies report that intraspecific genetic variation in plants can affect community composition and coexistence. However, less is known about which traits are responsible and the mechanisms by which variation in these traits affect the associated community. Focusing on plant-plant interactions, we review empirical studies exemplifying how intraspecific genetic variation in functional traits impacts plant coexistence. Intraspecific variation in chemical and architectural traits promotes species coexistence, by both increasing habitat heterogeneity and altering competitive hierarchies. Decomposing species interactions into interactions between genotypes shows that genotype × genotype interactions are often intransitive. The outcome of plant-plant interactions varies with local adaptation to the environment and with dominant neighbour genotypes, and some plants can recognize the genetic identity of neighbour plants if they have a common history of coexistence. Taken together, this reveals a very dynamic nature of coexistence. We outline how more traits mediating plant-plant interactions may be identified, and how future studies could use population genetic surveys of genotype distribution in nature and methods from trait-based ecology to better quantify the impact of intraspecific genetic variation on plant coexistence. © 2016 The Author(s).

  9. Hypercrater Bifurcations, Attractor Coexistence, and Unfolding in a 5D Model of Economic Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toichiro Asada


    Full Text Available Complex dynamical features are explored in a discrete interregional macrodynamic model proposed by Asada et al., using numerical methods. The model is five-dimensional with four parameters. The results demonstrate patterns of dynamical behaviour, such as bifurcation processes and coexistence of attractors, generated by high-dimensional discrete systems. In three cases of two-dimensional parameter subspaces the stability of equilibrium region is determined and its boundaries, the flip and Neimark-Hopf bifurcation curves, are identified by means of necessary coefficient criteria. In the first case closed invariant curves (CICs are found to occur through 5D-crater-type bifurcations, and for certain ranges of parameter values a stable equilibrium coexists with an unstable CIC associated with the subcritical bifurcation, as well as with an outer stable CIC. A remarkable feature of the second case is the coexistence of two attracting CICs outside the stability region. In both these cases the related hysteresis effects are illustrated by numerical simulations. In the third case a remarkable feature is the apparent unfolding of an attracting CIC before it evolves to a chaotic attractor. Examples of CICs and chaotic attractors are given in subspaces of phase space.

  10. On the Coexistence of Superconductivity and Magnetic Ordering in Unconventional Superconductors (United States)

    Rodrigues de Campos, Fillipi Klos; Zanella, Fernando; Dartora, C. A.


    It is demonstrated that the coexistence of superconductivity and magnetic ordering, occurring, for instance, in iron-based pnictides and uranium compounds, is not forbidden by classical Maxwell's equations and London-type equations. It predicts simply that internal magnetization is allowed but localized magnetic moments are screened at distances of the order of the London penetration depth. A microscopic theory is considered for the case of ferromagnetic ordering, described in simple terms by electron-magnon coupling. For the sake of simplicity, we assume that itinerant electrons are not responsible for the magnetic ordering, but interact with phonon and magnon excitations, leading to an alternative Cooper pair channel. The temperature dependence and the isotope effect of the superconducting gap is also analysed.

  11. Shape coexistence and the role of axial asymmetry in 72Ge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.D. Ayangeakaa


    Full Text Available The quadrupole collectivity of low-lying states and the anomalous behavior of the 02+ and 23+ levels in 72Ge are investigated via projectile multi-step Coulomb excitation with GRETINA and CHICO-2. A total of forty six E2 and M1 matrix elements connecting fourteen low-lying levels were determined using the least-squares search code, gosia. Evidence for triaxiality and shape coexistence, based on the model-independent shape invariants deduced from the Kumar–Cline sum rule, is presented. These are interpreted using a simple two-state mixing model as well as multi-state mixing calculations carried out within the framework of the triaxial rotor model. The results represent a significant milestone towards the understanding of the unusual structure of this nucleus.

  12. Exotic nuclear excitations

    CERN Document Server

    Pancholi, S C


    By providing the reader with a foundational background in high spin nuclear structure physics and exploring exciting current discoveries in the field, this book presents new phenomena in a clear and compelling way. The quest for achieving the highest spin states has resulted in some remarkable successes which this monograph will address in comprehensive detail. The text covers an array of pertinent subject matter, including the rotational alignment and bandcrossings, magnetic rotation, triaxial strong deformation and wobbling motion and chirality in nuclei. Dr. Pancholi offers his readers a clearly-written and up-to-date treatment of the topics covered. The prerequisites for a proper appreciation are courses in nuclear physics and nuclear models and measurement techniques of observables like gamma-ray energies, intensities, multi-fold coincidences, angular correlations or distributions, linear polarization, internal conversion coefficients, short lifetime (pico-second range) of excited states etc. and instrum...

  13. Excitable scale free networks (United States)

    Copelli, M.; Campos, P. R. A.


    When a simple excitable system is continuously stimulated by a Poissonian external source, the response function (mean activity versus stimulus rate) generally shows a linear saturating shape. This is experimentally verified in some classes of sensory neurons, which accordingly present a small dynamic range (defined as the interval of stimulus intensity which can be appropriately coded by the mean activity of the excitable element), usually about one or two decades only. The brain, on the other hand, can handle a significantly broader range of stimulus intensity, and a collective phenomenon involving the interaction among excitable neurons has been suggested to account for the enhancement of the dynamic range. Since the role of the pattern of such interactions is still unclear, here we investigate the performance of a scale-free (SF) network topology in this dynamic range problem. Specifically, we study the transfer function of disordered SF networks of excitable Greenberg-Hastings cellular automata. We observe that the dynamic range is maximum when the coupling among the elements is critical, corroborating a general reasoning recently proposed. Although the maximum dynamic range yielded by general SF networks is slightly worse than that of random networks, for special SF networks which lack loops the enhancement of the dynamic range can be dramatic, reaching nearly five decades. In order to understand the role of loops on the transfer function we propose a simple model in which the density of loops in the network can be gradually increased, and show that this is accompanied by a gradual decrease of dynamic range.

  14. Study of the onset of deformation and shape coexistence in $^{46}$Ar via the inverse kinematics ($t,p$) reaction

    CERN Multimedia

    Reiter, P; Blazhev, A A; Nardelli, S; Stora, T; Tengborn, E A; Kruecken, R; Voulot, D; Korten, W; Srebrny, J; Clement, E; Lo bianco, G; Sorlin, O H; Habs, D; Fraile prieto, L M; Chapman, R; Nilsson, T; Diriken, J V J; Jenkins, D G; Wady, P T; Kroell, T; Patronis, N; Angus, L J; Iwanicki, J S

    We plan to study states in $^{46}$ Ar via the (t,p) two-neutron transfer reaction in inverse kinematics in order to identify and characterize excited states and to gain insights into the onset of deformation and the possible occurrence of shape-coexistence in this region where the N = 28 shell closure may be weakening. The experiment will be performed using accelerated beams from REX-ISOLDE and the T-REX particle detector set-up inside MINIBALL. We request a total of 30 shifts + 3 shifts for beam commissioning.

  15. Successful ablation of coexistent Mahaim tachycardia and right posterior accessory pathway in a patient with Ebstein's anomaly. (United States)

    Gül, Enes Elvin; Akdeniz, Celal; Tuzcu, Volkan


    The atriofascicular accessory pathway (AP), known as the Mahaim pathway, is a rare form of pre-excitation, comprising less than 3% of all APs. Mahaim AP is characterized by decremental, anterograde-only conduction, and antidromic tachycardia with left bundle branch morphology. Prevalence of Mahaim AP in Ebstein's anomaly is significantly high. In addition, combination of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome and Mahaim AP in patients with Ebstein's anomaly has been reported. Presently described is the coexistence of Mahaim AP and manifest WPW syndrome in a patient with Ebstein's anomaly, who was successfully ablated without fluoroscopy.

  16. Phased arrays '85 (United States)

    Stiglitz, M. R.


    The conference Phased Arrays '85 was held in Bedford, MA, on October 15-18, 1985. It is pointed out that the 15 years between the 1970 and 1985 conferences dedicated to phased array antennas have seen many technological advances. Attention is given to the principle of operation, monolithic phased arrays, active arrays of monopole elements, scan compensated active element patterns, microstrip arrays, time delay technologies for phased array systems, ferrite materials for mm-wave phase shifters, phase-only optimization of phased array excitation by B-quadratic programming, a nearly frequency-independent sidelobe suppression technique for phased arrays, and active impedance effects in low sidelobe and ultrawideband phased arrays.

  17. Acoustic excitation of diffusion flames with coherent structure in a plane shear layer. ; Application of active combustion control to two-dimensional phase-locked arranging measurements. Soshiki kozo wo tomonau heimen sendai kakusan kaen no onkyo reiki. ; Nijigen iso heikin bunpu sokutei eno active nensho seigyo no oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishino, Y.; Kojima, T.; Oiwa, N.; Yamaguchi, S. (Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan))


    The acoustic excitation of a plane diffusion flame enhances the periodicity of organized eddy controlled combustion. In this study, to clarify an effectiveness of application of active combustion control, phase characteristics of the excited eddy flames with high periodicity have been examined. A computer-aided phase-locked averaging method was employed to obtain graphical two-dimensional contour maps of the instantaneous profiles of temperature and CH emission. Both maps consisting of eight consecutive phases indicated clearly not only the periodic behavior of the organized eddy flame, but also the gas dynamic properties peculiar to those flames with coherent structure. In addition, the profiles of local contribution of the sound field to the combustion process were examined by calculating the two-dimensional distribution of the local Rayleigh index. Calculation results of the two-dimensional distribution of the local Rayleigh index indicated that the organized eddy flames have high sensitivity to sound, and play an important role in an interaction of sound and flame. 6 refs., 9 figs.

  18. Discovery of the shape coexisting 0{sup +} state in {sup 32}Mg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wimmer, Kathrin


    +} states. The analysis of excitation energies and angular distributions led to the first observation of the excited shape coexisting 0{sup +} state in {sup 32}Mg. From the cross section the spectroscopic amplitudes can be deduced and compared with shell model calculations. This allows to draw conclusions on the configuration of the populated state. (orig.)

  19. Contribution to the design and the control of synchronous double excitation machines: hybrid vehicle application; Contribution a la conception et a la commande des machines synchrones a double excitation: application au vehicule hybride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amara, Y.


    Double excitation machines are synchronous machines where two excitation circuits coexist: one with permanent magnets and the other with windings. This study shows that double excitation allows to combine the advantages of synchronous machines with winded inductor with those of permanent magnet machines. This concept allows a better dimensioning of the converter-machine set and a better energy management. In order to allow the operation of permanent magnet machines over a wide range of speeds, it is necessary to have a magnetic reaction of the induced circuit of the same order than the excitation flux. On the other hand, the power factor is weaker and the power supply converter is over-dimensioned. The double excitation allows the permanent magnet machines to work over a large speed range with a better power factor, even when the magnetic reaction of the induced circuit is relatively weak with respect to the excitation flux. (J.S.)

  20. Coexistence of ferromagnetism and superconductivity in CeO_{0.3}F_{0.7}BiS_{2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jooseop [ORNL; Demura, S [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Japan; Stone, Matthew B [ORNL; Iida, Kazuki [ORNL; Ehlers, Georg [ORNL; Dela Cruz, Clarina R [ORNL; Matsuda, Masaaki [ORNL; Deguchi, K [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Japan; Mizuguchi, Y [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Japan; Miura, O [Tokyo Metropolican University; Louca, Despina [University of Virginia; Lee, Seung-Hun [ORNL


    Bulk magnetization, transport and neutron scattering measurements were performed to investigate the electronic and magnetic properties of a polycrystalline sample of the newly discovered ferromagnetic superconductor, CeO0:3F0:7BiS2. Ferromagnetism develops below TFM = 6.54(8) K and superconductivity is found to coexist with the ferromagnetic state below TSC 4.5 K. Inelastic neutron scattering measurements reveal a very weakly dispersive magnetic excitation at 1.8 meV that can be explained by an Ising-like spin Hamiltonian. Under application of an external magnetic eld, the direction of the magnetic moment changes from the c-axis to the ab-plane and the 1.8 meV excitation splits into two modes. A possible mechanism for the unusual magnetism and its relation to superconductivity is discussed.

  1. Shape determination in Coulomb excitation of $^{72}$Kr

    CERN Multimedia

    Reiter, P; Kruecken, R; Paul, E S; Wadsworth, R; Heenen, P

    Nuclei with oblate shapes at low spins are very special in nature because of their rarity. Both theoretical and experimental shape co-existence studies in the mass 70 region for near proton drip-line nuclei suggest $^{72}$Kr to be the unique case with oblate low-lying and prolate high-lying levels. However, there is no direct experimental evidence in the literature to date for the oblate nature predicted for the first 2$^+$ state in $^{72}$Kr. We propose to determine the sign of the spectroscopic quadrupole moment of this state via the re-orientation effect in a low-energy Coulomb excitation measurement. In the inelastic excitation of the 2$^+$ state in $^{72}$Kr beam of 3.1 MeV/u with an intensity of 800 pps at REX-ISOLDE impinging on $^{104}$Pd target, the re-orientation effect plays a significant role. The cross section measurement for the 2$^+$ state should thus allow the model-independent determination of the sign of the quadrupole moment unambiguously and will shed light on the co-existing prolate and o...

  2. Experimental Constraints on the Partitioning and Valence of V and Cr in Garnet and Coexisting Glass (United States)

    Righter, K.; Sutton, S.; Berthet, S.; Newville, M.


    A series of experiments with garnet and coexisting melt have been carried out across a range of oxygen fugacities (near hematite-magnetite (HM) to below the iron-wustite (IW) buffers) at 1.7 GPa to study the partitioning and valence of Cr and V in both phases. Experiments were carried out in a non end loaded piston cylinder apparatus, and the run products were analyzed with electron microprobe and xray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analysis at beamline 13-ID at the Advanced Photon Source of Argonne National Lab. The valence of vanadium and chromium were determined using the position and intensity of the Ka pre-edge peaks, calibrated on a series of Cr and Vbearing standard glasses. This technique has been applied to V and Cr in glasses and V in spinels previously, and in these isotropic phases there are no orientational effects on the XANES spectra (Righter et al., 2006, Amer. Mineral. 91, 1643-1656). We also now demonstrate this to be true for V and Cr in garnet. Also, previous work has shown that V has a higher valence in the glass (or melt) than in the coexisting spinel. This is also true for V in garnet-glass pairs in this study. Vanadium valence in garnets varies from 2.7 below the IW buffer to 3.7 near HM, and for coexisting glass it varies from 3.2 to 4.3. Vanadium valence measured in some natural garnets from mantle localities indicates V in the more reduced range at 2.5. Comparisons will be made between fO2 estimated from V valence and other methods for garnet-bearing mantle samples. In contrast, Cr valence measured in garnet and coexisting glass for all experimental and natural samples is 2.9- 3.0, suggesting that the valence of Cr does not vary within either phase across a large fO2 range. These results demonstrate that while V varies from 2+ to 3+ to 4+ in garnet-melt systems, Cr does not, and this will ultimately affect the partitioning behavior of these two elements in natural systems. Garnet/melt D(Cr) are between 12 and 17 across this range

  3. Holonomic Quantum Control by Coherent Optical Excitation in Diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Brian B.; Jerger, Paul C.; Shkolnikov, V. O.; Heremans, F. Joseph; Burkard, Guido; Awschalom, David D.


    Although geometric phases in quantum evolution are historically overlooked, their active control now stimulates strategies for constructing robust quantum technologies. Here, we demonstrate arbitrary singlequbit holonomic gates from a single cycle of nonadiabatic evolution, eliminating the need to concatenate two separate cycles. Our method varies the amplitude, phase, and detuning of a two-tone optical field to control the non-Abelian geometric phase acquired by a nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond over a coherent excitation cycle. We demonstrate the enhanced robustness of detuned gates to excited-state decoherence and provide insights for optimizing fast holonomic control in dissipative quantum systems.

  4. Holonomic Quantum Control by Coherent Optical Excitation in Diamond (United States)

    Zhou, Brian B.; Jerger, Paul C.; Shkolnikov, V. O.; Heremans, F. Joseph; Burkard, Guido; Awschalom, David D.


    Although geometric phases in quantum evolution are historically overlooked, their active control now stimulates strategies for constructing robust quantum technologies. Here, we demonstrate arbitrary single-qubit holonomic gates from a single cycle of nonadiabatic evolution, eliminating the need to concatenate two separate cycles. Our method varies the amplitude, phase, and detuning of a two-tone optical field to control the non-Abelian geometric phase acquired by a nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond over a coherent excitation cycle. We demonstrate the enhanced robustness of detuned gates to excited-state decoherence and provide insights for optimizing fast holonomic control in dissipative quantum systems.

  5. Coexistence of Wireless Sensor Networks in Factory Automation Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo FERRARI


    Full Text Available The factory automation world can take advantage from innovative wireless sensors network applications, but installation of several wireless systems in the same industrial plant will raise coexistence problems. However, in general, industrial Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs operate cyclically and coexistence can be obtained exploiting this characteristic. The paper proposes a methodology based on a central arbiter that assigns medium resources according to requests coming from WSN coordinators. An infrastructure (e.g. a wired Real-Time Ethernet (RTE network assures synchronization and distribute resource allocation results. A simulation framework has been designed to evaluate allocation scheme and WSNs coexistence before physical implementation. The real feasibility of the proposed approach has been demonstrated by means of prototype WSNs (based on IEEE802.15.4 synchronized by means of PROFINET IO RT_Class 3 network. Experimental results show a synchronization accuracy below 4 ms that allows reading of two WSNs (32 nodes in 128 ms without collisions.

  6. The Coexistence of Rathke Cleft Cyst and Pituitary Adenoma. (United States)

    Gao, Mingtong; An, Yanyan; Huang, Zhihong; Niu, Jianyi; Yuan, Xunhui; Bai, Yun'an; Guo, Liemei


    Both of Pituitary adenoma (PA) and Rathke cleft cyst (RCC) are the most common and benign sellar lesions. Generally, the origin of RCC is considered to be derived from remnants of Rathke punch, while PA is formed by proliferation of the anterior wall of Rathke pouch. Although they have a possibility to share a common embryological origin, the coexistence of PA and RCC is extremely rare. Here, the authors report a 50-year-old male patient who was found to have a large cystic sellar lesion, and surgical resection revealed components of a RCC coexisting with a PA. This collision reminded us of the possibility of RCC coexisting with PA. Furthermore, a clinicopathologic relation of them were reviewed and investigated.

  7. Coexistence facilitates interspecific biofilm formation in complex microbial communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jonas Stenløkke; Røder, Henriette Lyng; Russel, Jakob


    , the underlying role of fundamental ecological factors, specifically coexistence and phylogenetic history, in biofilm formation remains unclear. This study examines how social interactions affect biofilm formation in multi-species co-cultures from five diverse environments. We found prevalence of increased...... biofilm formation among co-cultured bacteria that have coexisted in their original environment. Conversely, when randomly co-culturing bacteria across these five consortia, we found less biofilm induction and a prevalence of biofilm reduction. Reduction in biofilm formation was even more predominant when...... correlated with an increase in planktonic cell numbers, thus implying a behavioral response rather than mere growth competition. Our findings suggest that an increase in biofilm formation is a common adaptive response to long-term coexistence....

  8. Beyond peaceful coexistence the emergence of space, time and quantum

    CERN Document Server


    Beyond Peaceful Coexistence: The Emergence of Space, Time and Quantum brings together leading academics in mathematics and physics to address going beyond the 'peaceful coexistence' of space-time descriptions (local and continuous ones) and quantum events (discrete and non-commutative ones). Formidable challenges waiting beyond the Standard Model require a new semantic consistency within the theories in order to build new ways of understanding, working and relating to them. The original A. Shimony meaning of the peaceful coexistence (the collapse postulate and non-locality) appear to be just the tip of the iceberg in relation to more serious fundamental issues across physics as a whole.Chapters in this book present perspectives on emergent, discrete, geometrodynamic and topological approaches, as well as a new interpretative spectrum of quantum theories after Copenhagen, discrete time theories, time-less approaches and 'super-fluid' pictures of space-time.As well as stimulating further research among establis...

  9. Coexistence Analysis of Civil Unmanned Aircraft Systems at Low Altitudes (United States)

    Zhou, Yuzhe


    The requirement of unmanned aircraft systems in civil areas is growing. However, provisioning of flight efficiency and safety of unmanned aircraft has critical requirements on wireless communication spectrum resources. Current researches mainly focus on spectrum availability. In this paper, the unmanned aircraft system communication models, including the coverage model and data rate model, and two coexistence analysis procedures, i. e. the interference and noise ratio criterion and frequency-distance-direction criterion, are proposed to analyze spectrum requirements and interference results of the civil unmanned aircraft systems at low altitudes. In addition, explicit explanations are provided. The proposed coexistence analysis criteria are applied to assess unmanned aircraft systems' uplink and downlink interference performances and to support corresponding spectrum planning. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed assessments and analysis procedures satisfy requirements of flexible spectrum accessing and safe coexistence among multiple unmanned aircraft systems.

  10. Endometrial Adenocarcinoma and Mucocele of the Appendix: An Unusual Coexistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Kalogiannidis


    Full Text Available Appendiceal mucocele is a rare clinical entity, which is however quite often associated with mucinous ovarian tumor. The coexistence of mucinous cystadenoma of the appendix and endometrial adenocarcinoma has not been reported before. A 49-year-old woman presented to our clinic with postmenopausal bleeding and no other symptom. Endometrial biopsy revealed endometrial adenocarcinoma of endometrioid type (grade I. Preoperative CT scanning revealed an appendiceal mucocele, and a colonoscopy confirmed the diagnosis. The patient underwent total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and appendectomy. The final histopathological examination showed a mucinous cystadenoma of the appendix and confirmed the diagnosis of endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinoma. The coexistence of appendiceal mucocele and female genital tract pathology is rare. However, gynecologists should keep a high level of suspicion for such possible coexistence. Both the diagnostic approach and the therapeutic management should be multidisciplinary, most importantly with the involvement of general surgeons.

  11. Sexual selection enables long-term coexistence despite ecological equivalence. (United States)

    M'Gonigle, Leithen K; Mazzucco, Rupert; Otto, Sarah P; Dieckmann, Ulf


    Empirical data indicate that sexual preferences are critical for maintaining species boundaries, yet theoretical work has suggested that, on their own, they can have only a minimal role in maintaining biodiversity. This is because long-term coexistence within overlapping ranges is thought to be unlikely in the absence of ecological differentiation. Here we challenge this widely held view by generalizing a standard model of sexual selection to include two ubiquitous features of populations with sexual selection: spatial variation in local carrying capacity, and mate-search costs in females. We show that, when these two features are combined, sexual preferences can single-handedly maintain coexistence, even when spatial variation in local carrying capacity is so slight that it might go unnoticed empirically. This theoretical study demonstrates that sexual selection alone can promote the long-term coexistence of ecologically equivalent species with overlapping ranges, and it thus provides a novel explanation for the maintenance of species diversity.

  12. Performance Analysis on the Coexistence of Multiple Cognitive Radio Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Qian


    Full Text Available The demand for wireless services is growing on a daily basis while spectral resources to support this growth are static. Therefore, there is need for the adoption of a new spectrum sharing paradigm. Cognitive Radio (CR is a revolutionary technology aiming to increase spectrum utilization through dynamic spectrum access, as well as mitigating interference among multiple coexisting wireless networks. In many practical scenarios, multiple CR networks may coexist in the same geographical area, and they may interfere with each other and also have to yield to the primary user (PU. In this study, we investigate how much throughput a node in a CR network can achieve in the presence of another CR network and a PU. The results of this study illustrate how the transmission probability and sensing performance affect the achievable throughput of a node in coexisting CR networks. In addition, these results may serve as guidance for the deployment of multiple CR networks.

  13. Coulomb excitation of neutron-deficient polonium isotopes studied at ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    Neven, Michiel

    The polonium isotopes represent an interesting region of the nuclear chart having only two protons outside the Z = 82 closed shell. These isotopes have already been extensively studied theoretically and experimentally. The heavier isotopes (A > 200) seem to follow a "regular seniority-type regime" while for the lighter isotopes (A < 200) a more collective behavior is observed. Many questions remain regarding the transition between these two regimes and the configuration mixing between quantum states. Experiments in the lighter polonium isotopes point to the presence of shape coexistence, however the phenomenon is not fully understood. A Coulomb excitation study of the polonium isotopes whereby the dynamic properties are investigated can provide helpful insights in understanding the shape coexistence phenomena. In this thesis $^{202}$Po was studied via Coulomb excitation. The $^{202}$Po isotope was part of an experimental campaign in which the $^{196,198,200,206}$Po isotopes were studied as well via Coulomb...

  14. On the Coexistence Magnetism/Superconductivity in the Heavy-Fermion Superconductor CePt$_3$Si


    Amato, A.; Bauer, E.; Baines, C.


    The interplay between magnetism and superconductivity in the newly discovered heavy-fermion superconductor CePt$_3$Si has been investigated using the zero-field $\\mu$SR technique. The $\\mu$SR data indicate that the whole muon ensemble senses spontaneous internal fields in the magnetic phase, demonstrating that magnetism occurs in the whole sample volume. This points to a microscopic coexistence between magnetism and heavy-fermion superconductivity.

  15. Intrinsic excitability measures track antiepileptic drug action and uncover increasing/decreasing excitability over the wake/sleep cycle. (United States)

    Meisel, Christian; Schulze-Bonhage, Andreas; Freestone, Dean; Cook, Mark James; Achermann, Peter; Plenz, Dietmar


    Pathological changes in excitability of cortical tissue commonly underlie the initiation and spread of seizure activity in patients suffering from epilepsy. Accordingly, monitoring excitability and controlling its degree using antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) is of prime importance for clinical care and treatment. To date, adequate measures of excitability and action of AEDs have been difficult to identify. Recent insights into ongoing cortical activity have identified global levels of phase synchronization as measures that characterize normal levels of excitability and quantify any deviation therefrom. Here, we explore the usefulness of these intrinsic measures to quantify cortical excitability in humans. First, we observe a correlation of such markers with stimulation-evoked responses suggesting them to be viable excitability measures based on ongoing activity. Second, we report a significant covariation with the level of AED load and a wake-dependent modulation. Our results indicate that excitability in epileptic networks is effectively reduced by AEDs and suggest the proposed markers as useful candidates to quantify excitability in routine clinical conditions overcoming the limitations of electrical or magnetic stimulation. The wake-dependent time course of these metrics suggests a homeostatic role of sleep, to rebalance cortical excitability.

  16. Management of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps and coexisting asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rix, Iben; Håkansson, Kåre; Larsen, Christian Grønhøj


    of this systematic review was to evaluate the management of CRSwNP and coexisting asthma. METHODS: We systematically searched electronic databases and included clinical trials in which the clinical outcomes after medical or surgical treatment of patients with CRSwNP and asthma were assessed. The strength......BACKGROUND: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) and asthma are strongly associated, and patients suffering from both diseases are often difficult to treat. However, no guidelines about the management of patients with CRS and coexisting asthma exist. OBJECTIVE: The purpose...

  17. Training in Values to Strengthen Social and Civic Coexistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajaira del Valle Cadenas Terán


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to present significantly values training to strengthen social and citizen considering that the coexistence of human beings has not been entirely easy, but so far they have managed to relate many of their problems with how to relate and interact with the environment, especially with the social environment. This study was conducted with a literature review which is the basis for targeted strengthening coexistence and citizenship therefore falls from a descriptive research training documentary. In conclusion, the importance of the subject since doors for values, dialogues, reflections, quality of life, among others that reflect the actions of teachers based on principles axiological open.

  18. Analysis and Tools for Improved Management of Connectionless and Connection-Oriented BLE Devices Coexistence. (United States)

    Del Campo, Antonio; Cintioni, Lorenzo; Spinsante, Susanna; Gambi, Ennio


    With the introduction of low-power wireless technologies, like Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE), new applications are approaching the home automation, healthcare, fitness, automotive and consumer electronics markets. BLE devices are designed to maximize the battery life, i.e., to run for long time on a single coin-cell battery. In typical application scenarios of home automation and Ambient Assisted Living (AAL), the sensors that monitor relatively unpredictable and rare events should coexist with other sensors that continuously communicate health or environmental parameter measurements. The former usually work in connectionless mode, acting as advertisers, while the latter need a persistent connection, acting as slave nodes. The coexistence of connectionless and connection-oriented networks, that share the same central node, can be required to reduce the number of handling devices, thus keeping the network complexity low and limiting the packet's traffic congestion. In this paper, the medium access management, operated by the central node, has been modeled, focusing on the scheduling procedure in both connectionless and connection-oriented communication. The models have been merged to provide a tool supporting the configuration design of BLE devices, during the network design phase that precedes the real implementation. The results highlight the suitability of the proposed tool: the ability to set the device parameters to allow us to keep a practical discovery latency for event-driven sensors and avoid undesired overlaps between scheduled scanning and connection phases due to bad management performed by the central node.

  19. Computer simulation of liquid-vapor coexistence of confined quantum fluids. (United States)

    Trejos, Víctor M; Gil-Villegas, Alejandro; Martinez, Alejandro


    The liquid-vapor coexistence (LV) of bulk and confined quantum fluids has been studied by Monte Carlo computer simulation for particles interacting via a semiclassical effective pair potential Veff(r) = VLJ + VQ, where VLJ is the Lennard-Jones 12-6 potential (LJ) and VQ is the first-order Wigner-Kirkwood (WK-1) quantum potential, that depends on β = 1∕kT and de Boer's quantumness parameter Λ=h/σ√mε, where k and h are the Boltzmann's and Planck's constants, respectively, m is the particle's mass, T is the temperature of the system, and σ and ε are the LJ potential parameters. The non-conformal properties of the system of particles interacting via the effective pair potential Veff(r) are due to Λ, since the LV phase diagram is modified by varying Λ. We found that the WK-1 system gives an accurate description of the LV coexistence for bulk phases of several quantum fluids, obtained by the Gibbs Ensemble Monte Carlo method (GEMC). Confinement effects were introduced using the Canonical Ensemble (NVT) to simulate quantum fluids contained within parallel hard walls separated by a distance Lp, within the range 2σ ≤ Lp ≤ 6σ. The critical temperature of the system is reduced by decreasing Lp and increasing Λ, and the liquid-vapor transition is not longer observed for Lp∕σ < 2, in contrast to what has been observed for the classical system.

  20. How can periodic orbits puzzle out the coexistence of terrestrial planets with giant eccentric ones? (United States)

    Antoniadou, K. I.; Libert, A.-S.


    Hitherto unprecedented detections of exoplanets have been triggered by missions and ground based telescopes. The quest of ``exo-Earths'' has become intriguing and the long-term stability of planetary orbits is a crucial factor for the biosphere to evolve. Planets in mean-motion resonances (MMRs) prompt the investigation of the dynamics in the framework of the three-body problem, where the families of stable periodic orbits constitute the backbone of stability domains in phase space. In this talk, we address the question of the possible coexistence of terrestrial planets with a giant companion on circular or eccentric orbit and explore the extent of the stability regions, when both the eccentricity of the outer giant planet and the semi-major axis of the inner terrestrial one vary, i.e. we investigate both non-resonant and resonant configurations. The families of periodic orbits in the restricted three-body problem are computed for the 3/2, 2/1, 5/2, 3/1, 4/1 and 5/1 MMRs. We then construct maps of dynamical stability (DS-maps) to identify the boundaries of the stability domains where such a coexistence is allowed. Guided by the periodic orbits, we delve into regular motion in phase space and propose the essential values of the orbital elements, in order for such configurations to survive long time spans and hence, for observations to be complemented or revised.

  1. Measurements of competing structures in neutron-deficient Pb isotopes by employing Coulomb excitation

    CERN Multimedia

    Bastin, B; Kruecken, R; Larsen, A; Rahkila, P J; Srebrny, J; Clement, E; Wadsworth, R; Syed naeemul, H; Peura, P J; Siem, S; Hadynska-klek, K; Habs, D; Napiorkowski, P J; Diriken, J V J; Iwanicki, J S

    Coulomb excitation measurements to study the shape coexistence and quadrupole collectivity of the low-lying levels in neutron-deficient Pb nuclei are proposed. Even-mass $^{188−192}$Pb nuclei will be post-accelerated at REX-ISOLDE in order to measure transition probabilities and quadrupole moments for the first excited states. In combination with results obtained in lifetime measurements, this will allow the sign of the quadrupole deformation parameter to be extracted for the first time for 2$^{+}$ states in the even-mass $^{188−192}$Pb nuclei.

  2. Nonlocal analysis of the excitation of the geodesic acoustic mode by drift waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guzdar, P.N.; Kleva, R.G.; Chakrabarti, N.


    The geodesic acoustic modes (GAMs) are typically observed in the edge region of toroidal plasmas. Drift waves have been identified as a possible cause of excitation of GAMs by a resonant three wave parametric process. A nonlocal theory of excitation of these modes in inhomogeneous plasmas typical...... of the edge region of tokamaks is presented in this paper. The continuum GAM modes with coupling to the drift waves can create discrete "global" unstable eigenmodes localized in the edge "pedestal" region of the plasma. Multiple resonantly driven unstable radial eigenmodes can coexist on the edge pedestal....

  3. Gas phase Boudouard reactions involving singlet-singlet and singlet-triplet CO vibrationally excited states: implications for the non-equilibrium vibrational kinetics of CO/CO2 plasmas (United States)

    Barreto, Patricia R. P.; Euclides, Henrique de O.; Albernaz, Alessandra F.; Aquilanti, Vincenzo; Capitelli, Mario; Grossi, Gaia; Lombardi, Andrea; Macheret, Sergey; Palazzetti, Federico


    Rate constants for the Boudouard reactions: CO + CO → CO2 + C and CO + CO → C2O + O, involving ground and vibrationally excited states for both singlet-singlet and singlet-triplet reactant CO molecules, have been obtained by using the transition-state theory on an ab initio generated potential energy surface. The dependence of the activation energies for the different processes on the vibrational energy of reactants has been estimated through a parametrization that accounts for the utilization of vibrational energy and is calculated by the forward and backward ab initio activation energies of the relevant processes at zero vibrational energy. The results and their comparison with available experimental reaction rates demonstrate the importance of vibrational excitation not only for the singlet-singlet reactions, but also for the singlet-triplet ones, which are here investigated for the first time. Finally, the implications of the present results on the kinetics of CO/CO2 cold plasmas are discussed: for their modeling the temperature dependence of the obtained rates for singlet-singlet and singlet-triplet reactants in the ground vibrational states have been represented by both Arrhenius and deformed Arrhenius equations.

  4. CINE: Comet INfrared Excitation (United States)

    de Val-Borro, Miguel; Cordiner, Martin A.; Milam, Stefanie N.; Charnley, Steven B.


    CINE calculates infrared pumping efficiencies that can be applied to the most common molecules found in cometary comae such as water, hydrogen cyanide or methanol. One of the main mechanisms for molecular excitation in comets is the fluorescence by the solar radiation followed by radiative decay to the ground vibrational state. This command-line tool calculates the effective pumping rates for rotational levels in the ground vibrational state scaled by the heliocentric distance of the comet. Fluorescence coefficients are useful for modeling rotational emission lines observed in cometary spectra at sub-millimeter wavelengths. Combined with computational methods to solve the radiative transfer equations based, e.g., on the Monte Carlo algorithm, this model can retrieve production rates and rotational temperatures from the observed emission spectrum.

  5. Excited-state Wigner crystals (United States)

    Rogers, Fergus J. M.; Loos, Pierre-François


    Wigner crystals (WCs) are electronic phases peculiar to low-density systems, particularly in the uniform electron gas. Since its introduction in the early twentieth century, this model has remained essential to many aspects of electronic structure theory and condensed-matter physics. Although the (lowest-energy) ground-state WC (GSWC) has been thoroughly studied, the properties of excited-state WCs (ESWCs) are basically unknown. To bridge this gap, we present a well-defined procedure to obtain an entire family of ESWCs in a one-dimensional electron gas using a symmetry-broken mean-field approach. While the GSWC is a commensurate crystal (i.e., the number of density maxima equals the number of electrons), these ESWCs are incommensurate crystals exhibiting more or less maxima. Interestingly, they are lower in energy than the (uniform) Fermi fluid state. For some of these ESWCs, we have found asymmetrical band gaps, which would lead to anisotropic conductivity. These properties are associated with unusual characteristics in their electronic structure.

  6. Heat capacities and asymmetric criticality of coexistence curves for benzonitrile + alkanes and dimethyl carbonate + alkanes. (United States)

    Huang, Meijun; Lei, Yuntao; Yin, Tianxiang; Chen, Zhiyun; An, Xueqin; Shen, Weiguo


    The critical behavior of isobaric heat capacities per unit volume for a series of critical binary solutions {benzonitrile + octane, or dodecane, or hexadecane} and {dimethyl carbonate + nonane, or decane, or dodecane} were studied. The corresponding exponent was obtained to be in consistent with the 3D-Ising value. The amplitudes in one-phase and two-phase regions were deduced, which were used to test some critical amplitude ratios. Analysis of the dependence of the effective critical exponent of the heat capacity on the temperature indicated a critical crossover from the 3D-Ising to the mean-field for all the studied systems. It was found that the heat capacity does play an important role for describing the asymmetric criticality of coexistence curves by the complete scaling theory. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  7. Topological Dirac line nodes and superconductivity coexist in SnSe at high pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xuliang; Lu, Pengchao; Wang, Xuefei; Zhou, Yonghui; An, Chao; Zhou, Ying; Xian, Cong; Gao, Hao; Guo, Zhaopeng; Park, Changyong; Hou, Binyang; Peng, Kunling; Zhou, Xiaoyuan; Sun, Jian; Xiong, Yimin; Yang, Zhaorong; Xing, Dingyu; Zhang, Yuheng


    We report on the discovery of a pressure-induced topological and superconducting phase of SnSe, a material which attracts much attention recently due to its superior thermoelectric properties. In situ high-pressure electrical transport and synchrotron x-ray diffraction measurements show that the superconductivity emerges along with the formation of a CsCl-type structural phase of SnSe above around 27 GPa, with a maximum critical temperature of 3.2 K at 39 GPa. Based on ab initio calculations, this CsCl-type SnSe is predicted to be a Dirac line-node (DLN) semimetal in the absence of spin-orbit coupling, whose DLN states are protected by the coexistence of time-reversal and inversion symmetries. These results make CsCl-type SnSe an interesting model platform with simple crystal symmetry to study the interplay of topological physics and superconductivity.

  8. BEGA-a biaxial excitation Generator for automobiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scridon, S.; Boldea, Ion; Tutelea, L.


    This paper presents the design and test results for a biaxial excitation generator/motor for automobiles (BEGA), which has a three-phase stator and a salient-pole excited heteropolar rotor with multiple flux barriers filled with low-cost permanent magnets (PMs). For this new generator, the low-voltage...... regulation is obtained by the flux-barrier PM combination with field (excitation) low-power control and a full-power diode rectifier in the stator. Good power/volume and superior efficiency (up to 80%) are obtained at costs comparable to those of an existing Lundell generator. The generator configuration...

  9. Vison excitations in near-critical quantum dimer models (United States)

    Strübi, G.; Ivanov, D. A.


    We study vison excitations in a quantum dimer model interpolating between the Rokhsar-Kivelson models on the square and triangular lattices. In the square-lattice case, the model is known to be critical and characterized by U(1) topological quantum numbers. Introducing diagonal dimers brings the model to a Z2 resonating-valence-bond phase. We study variationally the emergence of vison excitations at low concentration of diagonal dimers, close to the critical point. We find that, in this regime, vison excitations are large in size and their structure resembles vortices in type-II superconductors.

  10. Coexistence of three different Drosophila species by rescheduling ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    [Yadav J. P. and Singh B. N. 2005 Coexistence of three different Drosophila species by rescheduling their life history traits in a natural population. J. Genet. .... to reschedule their life cycles through different life his- tory traits to avoid competition, ... and Thompson 1995) because metabolic waste products of the first species ...

  11. Coexistence of three different Drosophila species by rescheduling ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present evidence for coexistence of three different Drosophila species by rescheduling their life history traits in a natural population using the same resource, at the same time and same place. D. ananassae has faster larval development time (DT) and faster DT(egg-fly) than other two species thus utilizing the resources ...

  12. Practices that support coexistence: A survey of Alfalfa growers (United States)

    The alfalfa industry has worked hard to foster the coexistence of genetically-engineered (GE) and conventional alfalfa production by developing a set of best management practices that aim to limit adventitious-presence (AP) of GE traits in conventional seed. The general goal is to minimize transgene...

  13. Tracking neighbours promotes the coexistence of large carnivores. (United States)

    López-Bao, José Vicente; Mattisson, Jenny; Persson, Jens; Aronsson, Malin; Andrén, Henrik


    The study of competition and coexistence among similar interacting species has long been considered a cornerstone in evolutionary and community ecology. However, understanding coexistence remains a challenge. Using two similar and sympatric competing large carnivores, Eurasian lynx and wolverines, we tested the hypotheses that tracking among heterospecifics and reactive responses to potential risk decreases the probability of an agonistic encounter when predators access shared food resources, thus facilitating coexistence. Lynx and wolverines actively avoided each other, with the degree of avoidance being greater for simultaneous than time-delayed predator locations. Wolverines reacted to the presence of lynx at relatively short distances (mean: 383 m). In general, lynx stayed longer, and were more stationary, around reindeer carcasses than wolverines. However, when both predators were present at the same time around a carcass, lynx shortened their visits, while wolverine behavior did not change. Our results support the idea that risk avoidance is a reactive, rather than a predictive, process. Since wolverines have adapted to coexist with lynx, exploiting lynx-killed reindeer carcasses while avoiding potential encounters, the combined presence of both predators may reduce wolverine kill rate and thus the total impact of these predators on semi-domestic reindeer in Scandinavia. Consequently, population management directed at lynx may affect wolverine populations and human-wolverine conflicts.

  14. Sonographic assessment of pregnancy co-existing with uterine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Objectives: To assess sonographically the frequency of occurrence and effect of uterine myomas co-existing with pregnancy. Methods: A longitudinal study was conducted during a period of 23 ... but the fibroids are usually innocent bystanders.4 They cause only 2% to 3% of cases of infertility. Fibroids that block one or both ...

  15. 78 FR 65960 - Enhancing Agricultural Coexistence; Request for Public Input (United States)


    ... Office of the Secretary Enhancing Agricultural Coexistence; Request for Public Input ACTION: Request for... (5) seed quality. In the area of education and outreach, we are seeking public input regarding the.... Following the comment period, USDA intends to hold a public forum to discuss input provided by commenters...

  16. Duodenal Diverticulum Co-Existing with a Bleeding Duodenal Ulcer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Duodenal diverticula are characterized by the presence of sac-like mucosal herniations through weak points in the duodenal wall. Duodenal diverticula co-existing with a bleeding duodenal ulcer is rare. Objective: The objective of this case report is to illustrate an uncommon case of two duodenal diverticula ...

  17. Coexistence of hard palate carcinoma with tuberculosis: A rarity. (United States)

    Verma, S K; Srivastava, Anand; Nagaraju, Karthik; Mishra, Ashwini Kumar; Goel, M M


    Coexistence of tuberculosis (TB) and palatal malignancy is a rare phenomenon and it has never been reported. Here, we present a case of hard palate carcinoma with TB in a 60-year-old male patient who was successfully managed by three pronged approaches by combining antitubercular therapy with chemotherapy and radiotherapy.

  18. Ecophysiological adaptations of coexisting \\kur{Sphagnum} mosses


    HÁJEK, Tomáš


    I studied ecological and physiological adaptations of peat misses (Sphagnum species) coexisting along the environmental gradients in mires. Production, decomposition, water relations, desiccation tolerance and nutrient economy of Sphagnum species were evaluates along the hummock-hollow gradient of water table, while the light adaptations were assessed in an open and forested mire

  19. Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and coexisting hantavirus pulmonary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Min Hong


    Full Text Available Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS is an acute viral disease with fever, hemorrhage and renal failure caused by hantavirus infection. Hantavirus induces HFRS or hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS. HPS progression to a life-threatening pulmonary disease is found primarily in the USA and very rarely in South Korea. Here, we report a case of HFRS and coexisting HPS.

  20. Coexistence of a General Elliptic System in Population Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael


    This paper is concerned with a strongly-coupled elliptic system representing a competitive interaction between two species. We give a sufficient condition for the existence of positive solutions. An example is also given to show that there is a coexistence of a steady state if the cross-diffusion...

  1. Climate change threatens coexistence within communities of Mediterranean forested wetlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna Di Paola

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean region is one of the hot spots of climate change. This study aims at understanding what are the conditions sustaining tree diversity in Mediterranean wet forests under future scenarios of altered hydrological regimes. The core of the work is a quantitative, dynamic model describing the coexistence of different Mediterranean tree species, typical of arid or semi-arid wetlands. Two kind of species, i.e. Hygrophilous (drought sensitive, flood resistant and Non-hygrophilous (drought resistant, flood sensitive, are broadly defined according to the distinct adaptive strategies of trees against water stress of summer drought and winter flooding. We argue that at intermediate levels of water supply the dual role of water (resource and stress results in the coexistence of the two kind of species. A bifurcation analysis allows us to assess the effects of climate change on the coexistence of the two species in order to highlight the impacts of predicted climate scenarios on tree diversity. Specifically, the model has been applied to Mediterranean coastal swamp forests of Central Italy located at Castelporziano Estate and Circeo National Park. Our results show that there are distinct rainfall thresholds beyond which stable coexistence becomes impossible. Regional climatic projections show that the lower rainfall threshold may be approached or crossed during the XXI century, calling for an urgent adaptation and mitigation response to prevent biodiversity losses.

  2. Environmental policy evaluation under co-existing evaluation imaginaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunseler, E.M.; Vasileiadou, E.


    This article examines what the co-existence of different evaluation imaginaries – understandings of what environmental policy evaluation ‘is’ and ‘should do’ – means for everyday evaluation practice. We present a case study in which we show how these different understandings influence the evaluation

  3. Beyond Coexistence: Toward a More Reflective Religious Pluralism (United States)

    Rosenblith, Suzanne


    If a pluralistic democratic state such as the United States wishes to move beyond coexistence and toward a more reflective religious pluralism, then public schools must take epistemic issues seriously. Taking a cue from multicultural education, many have called for including the study of religion from a cultural perspective. I argue instead that,…

  4. Hinges of Correlation: Spatial Devices of Social Coexistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde Nielsen, Espen


    This project investigates the coexistence of and the correlation between the inhabitants within my apartment building, using artistic practices and my own lived experience. These everyday spaces form the primary interface between the individual and the larger social entity of the city. Consciously...

  5. [School coexistence and learning in adolescence from a gender perspective]. (United States)

    Díaz-Aguado Jalón, María José; Martín Seoane, Gema


    This article reviews recent research about academic learning and school coexistence in adolescence from a gender perspective. It focuses on the research developed by the Preventive Psychology research group (UCM), specially the results from the Spanish National Study of School Coexistence using a sample of 22,247 secondary school students. Research shows that girls are overrepresented in positive indicators whereas boys are in negative indicators, not only in academic adjustment but also in school coexistence. Girls' better academic achievement can be explained by their higher tendency to overcome sexism: they identify with traditional masculinity values (such as success orientation) without giving up traditional femininity values (such as empathy). Based on this, the following conclusions are reached: 1) to extend the advantages of equality also to men; 2) to emphasize that sharing academic contexts and activities is necessary but sufficient to construct equality; and lastly, 3) to improve school coexistence, it is necessary to adopt a integrative gender approach to prevent any kind of violence, including violence against women.

  6. The dilemma of over and under nutrition coexistence among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... particularly the school age children. Of the many developmental issues investigated, nutrition concerns were top priority. The analysis of the nutritional component of the survey confirmed coexistence of stunting and over-weight among the surveyed children. However, the impact was more pronounced in boys whereby ...

  7. Magnetic nesting and coexistence of ferromagnetism and superconductivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elesin, VF; Kapaev, VV; Kopaev, YV


    If the condition epsilon(sigma)(p) = epsilon(-sigma)(-p + nI/v(F)) for magnetic nesting is fulfilled for the electron dispersion law with spin sigma along a certain preferential direction n, ferromagnetism and the inhomogeneous superconducting state can coexist up to a very high magnetization I.

  8. Coexistent duodenal ulcer among patients with gastric carcinoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To examine the prevalence of coexistent duodenal ulcers among patients with gastric carcinoma in an otherwise intact stomach, we surveyed 604 endoscopically and pathologically diagnosed gastric carcinoma patients and thoroughly inspected their duodenums. Twenty-two (3,6%) of them had either active ulcers or scars ...

  9. Isolated Dextrocardia coexisting with Skeletal Anomalies and Mild ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alasia Datonye

    cardiac anomalies. Conclusion: This case is reported as isolated dextrocardia coexisting with skeletal anomalies and mild cardiac anomalies. Extensive skeletal and cardiac evaluation is advised ... His mother was a thirty year old P teacher. Mother had antenatal ... with 30ml of packed red blood cells. The Orthopaedic and.

  10. Coexistence of electron and hole transport in graphene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiedmann, S.; van Elferen, H. J.; Kurganova, E. V.; Katsnelson, M. I.; Giesbers, A. J. M.; Veligura, A.; van Wees, B. J.; Gorbachev, R. V.; Novoselov, K. S.; Maan, J. C.; Zeitler, U.


    When sweeping the carrier concentration in monolayer graphene through the charge neutrality point, the experimentally measured Hall resistivity shows a smooth zero crossing. Using a two-component model of coexisting electrons and holes around the charge neutrality point, we unambiguously show that

  11. Interference Mitigation for Coexistence of Heterogeneous Ultra-Wideband Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Haitao


    Full Text Available Two ultra-wideband (UWB specifications, that is, direct-sequence (DS UWB and multiband-orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MB-OFDM UWB, have been proposed as the candidates of the IEEE 802.15.3a, competing for the standard of high-speed wireless personal area networks (WPAN. Due to the withdrawal of the standardization process, the two heterogeneous UWB technologies will coexist in the future commercial market. In this paper, we investigate the mutual interference of such coexistence scenarios by physical layer Monte Carlo simulations. The results reveal that the coexistence severely degrades the performance of both UWB systems. Moreover, such interference is asymmetric due to the heterogeneity of the two systems. Therefore, we propose the goodput-oriented utility-based transmit power control (GUTPC algorithm for interference mitigation. The feasible condition and the convergence property of GUTPC are investigated, and the choice of the coefficients is discussed for fairness and efficiency. Numerical results demonstrate that GUTPC improves the goodput of the coexisting systems effectively and fairly with saved power.

  12. Mechanisms of coexistence of factor VII hyperactivity with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The review investigated the mechanisms of coexistence of FVII hyperactivity with dyslipidaemia, diabetes mellitus, obesity and its role in the development of MI. Original articles were targeted. Various words combination was used to search for articles of relevance. Science Direct, Google Scholar, PubMed, NIH Public ...

  13. Coexistent Intracerebral and Subdural Hemorrhage : A case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khati C


    Full Text Available Subdural and Intracerebral Hemorrhage, occuring simultaneously in a patient is a very rare condition. The few case reports found in literature occurred in situations of trauma, coagulopathy, CNS malignancy and in dialysis dependant patients. We report one such case where both conditions coexisted, in the background of poorly controlled hypertension. The possible pathogenesis in this case is discussed.

  14. Advanced Cancer Of The Cervix Coexisting With Multiple Fibroids In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case of a 47 year old nulliparous woman with advanced cervical cancer coexisting with uterine fibroid is presented. The nulliparity and the presence of Fibroids presented diagnostic challenges especially because epidemiologically the factors present are not commonly associated. Diagnosis was assisted by a thorough ...

  15. Management of Adult Choledochal Cyst Coexisting with Gallbladder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Type IV choledochal cyst and a distended gallbladder with thickened walls containing a heterogeneous .... Figure 8: Photomicrography showing tumor infiltration of the entire wall of the gallbladder. [Downloaded free from ... The aim of treating adult patients with choledochal cyst coexisting with gallbladder cancer is to ...

  16. Rare Coexistence Of Benign Renal Oncocytoma And Renal Cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The coexistence of two tumors in a single person is not common. Finding two tumors in a single organ is rare. We are reporting a 65 years old male who presented with a long history of left loin pain. Clinical examination was unremarkable apart from hypertension. The histopathology of intraabdominal mass seen on ...

  17. Polar motion excitation from several models of land hydrosphere (United States)

    Nastula, Jolanta


    The impact of land hydrosphere mass variations on polar motion excitation is still not sufficiently estimated and not known as well as the role of the atmosphere and ocean. A comparison of the hydrological excitation function (Hydrological Angular Momentum - HAM) with observed geodetic excitation functions (GAM) is a common method of assessing of the influence of land hydrology on polar motion excitation function. HAM can be estimated either from global models of the land hydrosphere or from the Earth's gravity field variations. Our previous attempt to assess the role of land hydrology in the excitation balance using the hydrological angular momentum (HAM) estimates from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data and hydrological models was not conclusive (Brzeziński et al., 2009, Nastula et al., 2011, Wińska et al., 2016). We found for example that gravimetric-hydrological excitation functions, based on the Gravity and Climate Recovery Experiment (GRACE) gravity fiels determined from the several processing centers differed significantly. Additionally hydrological excitation computed from different hydrological models differed significantly in amplitudes and phases. In this work we re - estimate hydrological polar motion excitation functions from several hydrological models and climate models and from GRACE gravity fields. Our investigations are focused on the influence of land hydrosphere on polar motion excitation functions at seasonal and non-seasonal time scales and comprises two steps: • first determinations hydrological excitation functions (HAM) from regional distribution of Terrestrial Water Storage (TWS). • the second comparison of the global HAM with hydrological signal in the observed geodetic excitation function of polar motion.

  18. Subsurface excitations in a metal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ray, M. P.; Lake, R. E.; Sosolik, C. E.


    We investigate internal hot carrier excitations in a Au thin film bombarded by hyperthermal and low energy alkali and noble gas ions. Excitations within the thin film of a metal-oxide-semiconductor device are measured revealing that ions whose velocities fall below the classical threshold given...... by the free-electron model of a metal still excite hot carriers. Excellent agreement between these results and a nonadiabatic model that accounts for the time-varying ion-surface interaction indicates that the measured excitations are due to semilocalized electrons near the metal surface....

  19. Emergence of Asynchronous Local Clocks in Excitable Media. (United States)

    Gerum, Richard Carl; Fabry, Ben; Metzner, Claus


    Excitable media such as the myocardium or the brain consist of arrays of coupled excitable elements, in which the local excitation of a single element can propagate to its neighbors in the form of a non-linear autowave. Since each element has to pass through a refractory period immediately after excitation, the frequency of autowaves is self-limiting. In this work, we consider the case where each element is spontaneously excited at a fixed average rate and thereby initiates a new autowave. Although these spontaneous self-excitation events are modelled as independent Poisson point processes with exponentially distributed waiting times, the travelling autowaves lead collectively to a non-exponential, unimodal waiting time distribution for the individual elements. With increasing system size, a global 'clock' period T emerges as the most probable waiting time for each element, which fluctuates around T with an increasingly small but non-zero variance. This apparent synchronization between asynchronous, temporally uncorrelated point processes differs from synchronization effects between perfect oscillators interacting in a phase-aligning manner. Finally, we demonstrate that asynchronous local clocks also emerge in non-homogeneous systems in which the rates of self-excitation are different for all individuals, suggesting that this novel mechanism can occur in a wide range of excitable media.

  20. Similarity law for Widom lines and coexistence lines (United States)

    Banuti, D. T.; Raju, M.; Ihme, M.


    The coexistence line of a fluid separates liquid and gaseous states at subcritical pressures, ending at the critical point. Only recently, it became clear that the supercritical state space can likewise be divided into regions with liquidlike and gaslike properties, separated by an extension to the coexistence line. This crossover line is commonly referred to as the Widom line, and is characterized by large changes in density or enthalpy, manifesting as maxima in the thermodynamic response functions. Thus, a reliable representation of the coexistence line and the Widom line is important for sub- and supercritical applications that depend on an accurate prediction of fluid properties. While it is known for subcritical pressures that nondimensionalization with the respective species critical pressures pcr and temperatures Tcr only collapses coexistence line data for simple fluids, this approach is used for Widom lines of all fluids. However, we show here that the Widom line does not adhere to the corresponding states principle, but instead to the extended corresponding states principle. We resolve this problem in two steps. First, we propose a Widom line functional based on the Clapeyron equation and derive an analytical, species specific expression for the only parameter from the Soave-Redlich-Kwong equation of state. This parameter is a function of the acentric factor ω and compares well with experimental data. Second, we introduce the scaled reduced pressure pr* to replace the previously used reduced pressure pr=p /pcr . We show that pr* is a function of the acentric factor only and can thus be readily determined from fluid property tables. It collapses both subcritical coexistence line and supercritical Widom line data over a wide range of species with acentric factors ranging from -0.38 (helium) to 0.34 (water), including alkanes up to n-hexane. By using pr*, the extended corresponding states principle can be applied within corresponding states principle

  1. Coexistent pulmonary granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener granulomatosis) and Crohn disease. (United States)

    Vaszar, Laszlo T; Orzechowski, Nicole M; Specks, Ulrich; Ytterberg, Steven R; Loftus, Edward V; Mark, Eugene J; Tazelaar, Henry D


    Crohn disease (CD) may be associated with various extraintestinal manifestations, including, rarely, respiratory tract involvement. When necrobiotic pulmonary nodules are present, the differential diagnosis includes granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener granulomatosis) (GPA). The respiratory tract manifestations of CD and GPA may mimic each other, complicating the diagnosis and suggesting the possible coexistence of these 2 conditions. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical, radiographic, and pathologic features of patients in whom CD and GPA coexist. We reviewed the teaching files of the authors and searched the Mayo Clinic medical records for coexistent inflammatory bowel diseases and antineutrophilic cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA)-associated vasculitides. We reviewed in detail 97 patient charts and excluded cases of ulcerative colitis and those in whom only one of the diagnoses was present. Pulmonary and gastrointestinal biopsies were reviewed when available. We also searched the medical literature for previously published cases. We found 6 cases of coexistent CD and pulmonary GPA and 4 cases with extrapulmonary GPA; 3 cases (all with extrapulmonary GPA) have been published previously. The diagnosis of CD preceded that of GPA in 11 cases. Proteinase 3-ANCA was positive in 6 cases, negative in 2, and not reported in 5 cases. Myeloperoxidase-ANCA was negative in 6 cases and unavailable in the remainder of patients. Pathology revealed features diagnostic of GPA in all cases with necrotizing granulomatous inflammation and segmental vasculitis. Pulmonary findings in patients with CD or the presence of granulomatous colitis in patients with GPA should prompt the inclusion in the differential diagnosis of a possible coexistence of CD and GPA.

  2. The coexistence of species La coexistencia de especies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This paper is a critical literature review on the topic of the coexistence of similar species within ecological communities. A conceptual framework is provided for dividing coexistence studies and concepts into three distinct time scales. The first six sections deal primarily with ecological-scale, or mesoscale coexistence, defined as coexistence in the classic sense of the competitive exclusion principle and Lotka-Volterra models, wherein interacting populations have had enough time to reach equilibrium. The first four sections briefly review resource partitioning studies and competitive coexistence models, and discuss the relative contributions of, and interaction between empirical and theoretical approaches to the problem of ecological-scale coexistence. The next two sections discuss the importance of biological trade-offs and the role of competition in structuring ecological communities. Based on compelling empirical evidence on both sides of the competition debate, a view of competition's role in structuring communities is proposed wherein the effects of competition are important but incomplete. The next section briefly reviews coexistence as it has been incorporated into habitat selection models, which represents coexistence at a finer time scale generated by the behavioral decisions of individual organisms. Linkages between this type of coexistence and mesoscale coexistence are discussed. Finally, a larger scale of coexistence is explored in which the assumptions of fixed niches, habitats, and species pools in communities are relaxed. This section links global and evolutionary species diversity literature to mesoscale ecological coexistence, focusing on the effects of ecosystem productivity and province size. Factors that govern diversity at large scales may be used to calibrate expectations and make predictions about mesoscale coexistence within particular communities. The study of diversity dynamics at geologic time scales suggests some

  3. Quantum phase transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachdev, S. [Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States)


    Phase transitions are normally associated with changes of temperature but a new type of transition - caused by quantum fluctuations near absolute zero - is possible, and can tell us more about the properties of a wide range of systems in condensed-matter physics. Nature abounds with phase transitions. The boiling and freezing of water are everyday examples of phase transitions, as are more exotic processes such as superconductivity and superfluidity. The universe itself is thought to have passed through several phase transitions as the high-temperature plasma formed by the big bang cooled to form the world as we know it today. Phase transitions are traditionally classified as first or second order. In first-order transitions the two phases co-exist at the transition temperature - e.g. ice and water at 0 deg., or water and steam at 100 deg. In second-order transitions the two phases do not co-exist. In the last decade, attention has focused on phase transitions that are qualitatively different from the examples noted above: these are quantum phase transitions and they occur only at the absolute zero of temperature. The transition takes place atthe ''quantum critical'' value of some other parameter such as pressure, composition or magnetic field strength. A quantum phase transition takes place when co-operative ordering of the system disappears, but this loss of order is driven solely by the quantum fluctuations demanded by Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. The physical properties of these quantum fluctuations are quite distinct from those of the thermal fluctuations responsible for traditional, finite-temperature phase transitions. In particular, the quantum system is described by a complex-valued wavefunction, and the dynamics of its phase near the quantum critical point requires novel theories that have no analogue in the traditional framework of phase transitions. In this article the author describes the history of quantum phase

  4. Axonal Excitability in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis : Axonal Excitability in ALS. (United States)

    Park, Susanna B; Kiernan, Matthew C; Vucic, Steve


    Axonal excitability testing provides in vivo assessment of axonal ion channel function and membrane potential. Excitability techniques have provided insights into the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the development of neurodegeneration and clinical features of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and related neuromuscular disorders. Specifically, abnormalities of Na+ and K+ conductances contribute to development of membrane hyperexcitability in ALS, thereby leading to symptom generation of muscle cramps and fasciculations, in addition to promoting a neurodegenerative cascade via Ca2+-mediated processes. Modulation of axonal ion channel function in ALS has resulted in significant symptomatic improvement that has been accompanied by stabilization of axonal excitability parameters. Separately, axonal ion channel dysfunction evolves with disease progression and correlates with survival, thereby serving as a potential therapeutic biomarker in ALS. The present review provides an overview of axonal excitability techniques and the physiological mechanisms underlying membrane excitability, with a focus on the role of axonal ion channel dysfunction in motor neuron disease and related neuromuscular diseases.

  5. Topological excitations in magnetic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazeia, D., E-mail: [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, 58051-970 João Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Doria, M.M. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Camerino, I-62032 Camerino (Italy); Rodrigues, E.I.B. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, 58051-970 João Pessoa, PB (Brazil)


    In this work we propose a new route to describe topological excitations in magnetic systems through a single real scalar field. We show here that spherically symmetric structures in two spatial dimensions, which map helical excitations in magnetic materials, admit this formulation and can be used to model skyrmion-like structures in magnetic materials.

  6. Coexistence of trisomy 12 and del(13(q14.3 in two patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denčić-Fekete Marija


    Full Text Available We describe two patients with diagnosis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL in whom interphase fluo­rescence in situ hybridization (FISH analysis revealed trisomy 12 and del(13(q14.3 occurring in the same clone. These abnormalities are rarely seen together and the prognostic relevance of their coexistence is still unclear. According to some data, a probable adverse prognosis for this group of patients is suggested. Our patients have been in a stable phase of the disease for more than one year since the given abnormalities were documented in their karyotypes. Further study is necessary to determine the prognostic significance of coexistence of these abnormalities in CLL patients.

  7. Coexisting synchronous and asynchronous states in locally coupled array of oscillators by partial self-feedback control (United States)

    Bera, Bidesh K.; Ghosh, Dibakar; Parmananda, Punit; Osipov, G. V.; Dana, Syamal K.


    We report the emergence of coexisting synchronous and asynchronous subpopulations of oscillators in one dimensional arrays of identical oscillators by applying a self-feedback control. When a self-feedback is applied to a subpopulation of the array, similar to chimera states, it splits into two/more sub-subpopulations coexisting in coherent and incoherent states for a range of self-feedback strength. By tuning the coupling between the nearest neighbors and the amount of self-feedback in the perturbed subpopulation, the size of the coherent and the incoherent sub-subpopulations in the array can be controlled, although the exact size of them is unpredictable. We present numerical evidence using the Landau-Stuart system and the Kuramoto-Sakaguchi phase model.

  8. Impacts of seedling herbivory on plant competition and implications for species coexistence (United States)

    Hanley, M. E.; Sykes, R. J.


    Background and Aims Although the causes and consequences of seedling herbivory for plant community composition are well understood, the mechanisms by which herbivores influence plant species recruitment to the established phase remain less clear. The aim was to examine how variation in the intensity of seedling herbivory interacts with growth-defence trade-offs and herbivore feeding preferences to affect plant community development. Methods Using 14-d-old seedlings of Trifolium pratense and T. repens, relative growth and susceptibility to herbivory by the snail Helix aspersa was quantified to elucidate putative growth-defence trade-offs for these species. Then mixed assemblages of 14-d-old Trifolium seedlings were exposed to herbivory by zero, two, five or ten snails and determined how variation in the intensity of herbivory affected competitive interactions into the mature phase (as measured by total plant biomass at 120 d old). Key Results In the absence of herbivory, communities were dominated by T. pratense; a result expected on the basis that it yielded larger and presumably more competitive seedlings. However, when seedlings were exposed to herbivory, the balance of competition shifted. At low levels of herbivory (two snails), both Trifolium species contributed equally to total plant biomass. More intense herbivory (five snails) resulted in almost total mortality of T. pratense and dominance of the mature community by T. repens. The most intense herbivory (ten snails) effectively removed all seedlings from the experimental community. Conclusions The study illustrates a mechanism whereby spatio-temporal fluctuations in seedling herbivory, when coupled with species-specific variation in competitive ability and sensitivity to herbivore attack, can differentially influence plant recruitment into the mature phase. This mechanism may be a key element in our attempts to understand plant species coexistence, since fluctuations in plant recruitment are fundamental to

  9. Precursor preparation for Ca-Al layered double hydroxide to remove hexavalent chromium coexisting with calcium and magnesium chlorides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Lihua; He, Xiaoman; Qu, Jun; Li, Xuewei; Lei, Zhiwu; Zhang, Qiwu [School of Resources and Environment Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Liu, Xinzhong [College of Ecological Environment and Urban Construction, Fujian University of Technology, Fuzhou 350118 (China)


    Al(OH){sub 3} and Ca(OH){sub 2} powders are co-ground to prepare a precursor which hydrates into a layered double hydroxide (LDH) phase by agitation in aqueous solution with target hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) at room temperature, to achieve an obvious improvement in removal efficiency of Cr(VI) through an easy incorporation into the structure. Although the prepared precursor transforms into LDH phases also when agitated in the solutions of calcium and magnesium chlorides, it incorporates Cr(VI) preferentially to the chloride salts when they coexist. The adsorption isotherm and kinetic studies show that the phenomena occurring on the Al-Ca precursor fit a pseudo-second-order kinetics with a Langmuir adsorption capacity of 59.45 mg/g. Besides, characterizations of the prepared precursor and the samples after adsorption are also performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), Transmission electron microscope (TEM) to understand the reason of the preferential incorporation of Cr(VI) to the coexisting chloride salts during the LDH phase formation. - Graphical abstract: Activated Ca-Al hydroxides (C{sub 3}A) transformed into Ca-Al-OH compound when agitated in water. Ca-Al precursor (C{sub 3}A) was agitated in a hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) solution to form Al-Ca-CrO{sub 4} LDH product. Ca-Al-CrO{sub 4} LDH phase occurred preferentially to Ca-Al-MCl{sub 2} LDH phases in the solutions of calcium and magnesium chlorides, it incorporates Cr(VI) preferentially to the chloride salts when they coexist. - Highlights: • Activated Ca-Al hydroxides transformed into LDH when agitated in water with some inorganic substances. • Hexavalent Cr was incorporated in the LDH structure at high adsorption capacity. • Ca-Al-Cr LDH phase occurred preferentially to Ca-Al-MCl{sub 2} LDH phases with coexistence. • The prepared Ca-Al hydroxides had high performance as adsorbent even with high salinity of the solution.

  10. Excited state dynamics of DNA bases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kleinermanns, K.; Nachtigallová, Dana; de Vries, M. S.


    Roč. 32, č. 2 (2013), s. 308-342 ISSN 0144-235X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP208/12/1318 Grant - others:National Science Foundation(US) CHE-0911564; NASA(US) NNX12AG77G; Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft(DE) SFB 663; Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft(DE) KI 531-29 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : DNA bases * nucleobases * excited state * dynamics * computations * gas phase * conical intersections Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.920, year: 2013

  11. Molecular density functional theory for water with liquid-gas coexistence and correct pressure. (United States)

    Jeanmairet, Guillaume; Levesque, Maximilien; Sergiievskyi, Volodymyr; Borgis, Daniel


    The solvation of hydrophobic solutes in water is special because liquid and gas are almost at coexistence. In the common hypernetted chain approximation to integral equations, or equivalently in the homogenous reference fluid of molecular density functional theory, coexistence is not taken into account. Hydration structures and energies of nanometer-scale hydrophobic solutes are thus incorrect. In this article, we propose a bridge functional that corrects this thermodynamic inconsistency by introducing a metastable gas phase for the homogeneous solvent. We show how this can be done by a third order expansion of the functional around the bulk liquid density that imposes the right pressure and the correct second order derivatives. Although this theory is not limited to water, we apply it to study hydrophobic solvation in water at room temperature and pressure and compare the results to all-atom simulations. The solvation free energy of small molecular solutes like n-alkanes and hard sphere solutes whose radii range from angstroms to nanometers is now in quantitative agreement with reference all atom simulations. The macroscopic liquid-gas surface tension predicted by the theory is comparable to experiments. This theory gives an alternative to the empirical hard sphere bridge correction used so far by several authors.

  12. Coexistence of Multiple Attractors, Metastable Chaos and Bursting Oscillations in a Multiscroll Memristive Chaotic Circuit (United States)

    Alombah, N. Henry; Fotsin, Hilaire; Romanic, Kengne

    In this paper, some complex nonlinear behaviors in a four-dimensional multiscroll autonomous memristor based chaotic system are investigated. This system is derived from the three-dimensional autonomous charge-controlled Muthuswamy-Chua simplest chaotic circuit. The system can generate four different coexisting attractors for a fixed set of parameters and different initial conditions. This phenomenon is relatively rare given that we have four different attractors namely: an equilibrium point, a stable limit cycle, a 16-peak limit cycle and a strange attractor that coexist in the system within a wide range of parameters. The nonlinear phenomenon of transient chaos is studied and revealed numerically in Matlab and Pspice environments. The complex transient dynamics of this memristive system under different initial states shows that the transient time depends strongly on the initial conditions. Moreover, this model displays spiking and bursting oscillations. The bursting behavior is classified according to the dynamics of separated slow and fast subsystems. It is shown to be of the fold-Hopf type. These complex dynamical behaviors of this system are investigated by means of numerical simulations and via Pspice circuit simulations. The use of bifurcation diagrams, Lyapunov exponents diagrams, power spectrums, phase portraits, time series, isospike diagram, basin of attraction, clearly shows these complex phenomena.

  13. Analysis of Coexisting GPON and NG-PON1 (10G-PON) Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    M. D. Mraković; P. S. Matavulj


    In this paper, the simulation model of coexisting GPON and NG-PON1 (10G-PON) systems is presented, which has been developed for the analysis of feasibility and implementation issues of this coexistence...

  14. How successful is the BRICS in promoting coexistence as an alternative framework for global governance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas; Odgaard, Liselotte; de Coning, Cedric


    threat against sovereignty in the post-Soviet sphere, that left Moscow with little choice but to take action. In The BRICS and Coexistence: an Alternative Vision of World Order we have argued that the BRICS articulate an alternative framework for global governance which we called coexistence. We...... explained coexistence as type of global order that is inherently pluralist in the sense that it allows for countries and regions with different world views, religions, political systems and approaches to national development to coexist, without one system dominating the others. We said that the coexistence...... the credibility of their collective position on coexistence as an alternative ordering framework for global governance. This article examines to what extent the BRICS grouping continues to apply a coexistence-style world order in their individual foreign policies. We first discuss the concept of coexistence...

  15. Electromagnons and Multiple Phase Transitions in BiFeO3 Multiferroic System (United States)

    Ramirez, Mariola; Kumar, A.; Denev, S.; Ihlefeld, J.; Schlom, D.; Gopalan, Venkatraman; Rai, R.; Xiu, X.; Musfeldt, J.; Lee, S.; Cheong, S.; Ramesh, R.; Seidel, J.; Chiu, E.; Orestein, J.


    Magnetoelectrics (ME) multiferroics has recently become an exciting research area due to its potential technological applications. Of special relevance is the case of Bismuth ferrite, BiFeO3 (BFO) where multiferroicity coexist at room temperature. In this work, the Fe-Fe exchange interaction effects on the optical properties of BiFeO3 are analyzed by using both, linear and non linear spectroscopy as a function of temperature. Two and three magnons Raman scattering as well as detectable electromagnons in the second harmonic generation (SHG) signal are reported. Temperature studies up to 750 K reveals a cascade of phase transitions associated to different dynamic reorientations in the magnetic subsystem. These transitions were detectable by several optical methods including linear absorption, Raman spectroscopy and SHG due to the strong electric dipole coupling found between electromagnetic radiation and spin waves in BFO.

  16. Quantum Phase Transitions in CoCl2 salts, and the Nature of the Co-existance of Magnetism and Superconductivity in Y9Co7 and La2-xSrxCuO4+y

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jacob

    superconductor Y9Co7 and in high temperature superconductors with chemical formula La2-xSrxCuO4+y. In the first part of this thesis Neutron scattering is used to study the quasi-Ising antiferromagnet CoCl2· 2D2O. As a consequence of crystal field and spin-orbit effects in the monoclinic crystal structure of Co...... for optimal experimental conditions within a certain class of materials using density functional theory. The second part of this thesis is subdivided into three separate studies, all focusing on phase separation in superconductors. In the first part I present a muon spin rotation study of the magnetic...... separation on this length scale or larger is also observed in the superoxygenated Lanthanum based hightemperature superconductor La2-xSrxCuO4+y which separates into an incommensurate magnetic phase similar to the so-called ’1/8’ stripe phase observed in other Lanthanumbased cuprate compounds such as La1.88Ba...

  17. Education for a Culture of Peace and Co-Existence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Guetta


    Full Text Available Education is a key and fundamental tool required to achieve social change, especially regarding social cohesion and co-existence. Education affects the most critical issues facing humanity, including the proliferation of various forms of violence, environmental degradation, and annihilation of cultures. I argue that the impact of education is equal to that of economics, politics, and technological advances. Therefore, if we wish to see change, educational reform has to be designed to operate in a global-human context, empowering and allowing people to achieve their potential. It should instil in individuals and groups respect for others with whom they interact, in a global as well as local sense. The article draws on the theories of Edgar Morin, Reuven Feuerstein, and Jerome Bruner, and their contributions to the development of educational approaches that encourage a culture of responsible, participatory, and creative coexistence. .


    Nurko, S; Scott, SM


    The coexistence of constipation and fecal incontinence has long been recognized in pediatric and geriatric populations, but is grossly underappreciated in the rest of the adult population. In children, functional fecal incontinence is usually associated with constipation, stool retention and incomplete evacuation, and is frequently allied to urinary incontinence. Pathophysiology of the incontinence is incompletely understood, although both in children and adults, it is thought to be secondary to overflow, while in adults it may also be related to pelvic floor dysfunction and denervation. Incontinence has an important impact on quality of life and daily functioning, and in children may be associated with behavior problems. The treatment of underlying constipation usually results in improvement in incontinence. This review broadly addresses the epidemiology and pathophysiology of coexistent constipation and incontinence in both children and adults, and also reviews clinical presentation and treatment response in pediatrics. PMID:21382577

  19. Ecology 2.0: Coexistence and Domination of Interacting Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Kleineberg, Kaj-Kolja


    The overwhelming success of the web 2.0, with online social networks as key actors, has induced a paradigm shift in the nature of human interactions. The user-driven character of these services for the first time has allowed researchers to quantify large-scale social patterns. However, the mechanisms that determine the fate of networks at a system level are still poorly understood. For instance, the simultaneous existence of numerous digital services naturally raises the question under which conditions these services can coexist. In analogy to population dynamics, the digital world is forming a complex ecosystem of interacting networks whose fitnesses depend on their ability to attract and maintain users' attention, which constitutes a limited resource. In this paper, we introduce an ecological theory of the digital world which exhibits a stable coexistence of several networks as well as the domination of a single one, in contrast to the principle of competitive exclusion. Interestingly, our model also predic...

  20. Community assembly and coexistence in communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. (United States)

    Vályi, Kriszta; Mardhiah, Ulfah; Rillig, Matthias C; Hempel, Stefan


    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are asexual, obligately symbiotic fungi with unique morphology and genomic structure, which occupy a dual niche, that is, the soil and the host root. Consequently, the direct adoption of models for community assembly developed for other organism groups is not evident. In this paper we adapted modern coexistence and assembly theory to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. We review research on the elements of community assembly and coexistence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, highlighting recent studies using molecular methods. By addressing several points from the individual to the community level where the application of modern community ecology terms runs into problems when arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are concerned, we aim to account for these special circumstances from a mycocentric point of view. We suggest that hierarchical spatial structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities should be explicitly taken into account in future studies. The conceptual framework we develop here for arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi is also adaptable for other host-associated microbial communities.

  1. Multiple myeloma presenting with coexisting severe marrow hypoplasia. (United States)

    Medhi, K; Kalita, Dipti; Chopra, Anita; Anand, Mona; Raina, Vinod; Kumar, Rajive


    A 68-year-old man was referred to us with clinical and bone marrow (BM) features compatible with aplastic anemia. The correct diagnosis, hypoplasia of the BM coexisting with multiple myeloma, became apparent after noting rouleaux in the peripheral blood (PB) and approximately 50% plasma cells in the touch imprint of one of the two BM biopsies done. As standard therapy was precluded, the patient was put on dexamethasone but died within 4 days. This first case of the coexistence of untreated myeloma with aplastic BM shows that even apparently straightforward hypoplasia seen on the BM biopsy should be interpreted in conjunction with the PB smear and the BM touch imprint findings. Among other things, the BM biopsy and imprint should be repeated if the PB has findings such as rouleaux that do not fit with straightforward aplastic anemia. The combination of myeloma and BM aplasia precludes standard therapy and is rapidly fatal.

  2. Coexistence of tunneling magnetoresistance and Josephson effects in SFIFS junctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Vávra


    Full Text Available We demonstrate an integration of tunneling magnetoresistance and the Josephson effects within one tunneling junction. Several sets of Nb-Fe-Al-Al2O3-Fe-Nb wafers with varying Al and Fe layers thickness were prepared to systematically explore the competition of TMR and Josephson effects. A coexistence of the critical current IC(dFe and the tunneling magnetoresistance ratio T M R(dFe is observed for iron layer dFe thickness range 1.9 and 2.9 nm. Further optimization such as thinner Al2O3 layer leads to an enhancement of the critical current and thus to an extension of the coexistence regime up to dFe≃3.9 nm Fe.

  3. Pattern formation and coexistence domains for a nonlocal population dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    da Cunha, J A R; Oliveira, F A


    In this communication we propose a most general equation to study pattern formation for one-species population and their limit domains in systems of length L. To accomplish this we include non-locality in the growth and competition terms where the integral kernels are now depend on characteristic length parameters alpha and beta. Therefore, we derived a parameter space (alpha,beta) where it is possible to analyze a coexistence curve alpha*=alpha*(\\beta) which delimits domains for the existence (or not) of pattern formation in population dynamics systems. We show that this curve has an analogy with coexistence curve in classical thermodynamics and critical phenomena physics. We have successfully compared this model with experimental data for diffusion of Escherichia coli populations.

  4. Coexistence of noise-like pulse and high repetition rate harmonic mode-locking in a dual-wavelength mode-locked Tm-doped fiber laser. (United States)

    Wang, Yazhou; Li, Jianfeng; Zhang, Entao; Mo, Kundong; Wang, Yanyan; Liu, Fei; Zhou, Xiaojun; Liu, Yong


    Coexistence of harmonic mode-locking (HML) and noise-like pulse (NLP) were experimentally observed in a dual-wavelength mode-locked Tm-doped fiber laser for the first time. The coexistence patterns were self-started and maintained within a wide pump range by appropriately setting the intra-cavity polarization state. The HML was obtained at 1955.3 nm with a varied repetition rate range from 324 MHz to 1.138 GHz which benefits from the dispersion compensation, while the NLP observing at 1983.2 nm can operate at either fundamental repetition rate of 4.765 MHz or second harmonic state. Experimental investigations show that the coexistence patterns are caused by the wavelength-dependent phase delay of the mode-locked fiber cavity. Moreover, dual-wavelength NLP was also observed for the first time at 2 μm spectral region by changing the intra-cavity polarization state.

  5. Coexistence of myeloproliferative neoplasm and plasma-cell dyscrasia. (United States)

    Malhotra, Jyoti; Kremyanskaya, Marina; Schorr, Emily; Hoffman, Ronald; Mascarenhas, John


    Philadelphia chromosome-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) include polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET), and primary myelofibrosis (PMF), and are characterized by clonal proliferation of hematopoietic cells in the bone marrow. There are numerous case reports and reviews reporting patients with coexisting MPN and plasma-cell disease such as multiple myeloma (MM) and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). We report 15 patients treated at our institution over a 5-year period (January 2008 to December 2012) with a diagnosis of both an MPN and MGUS or MM. We also reviewed and summarized published case reports and studies describing the coexistence of these two disease entities. Most patients (12/15) had an MPN diagnosis made before or at the same time as the MGUS/MM diagnosis. Eventually, 2 patients developed a lymphoid leukemia, 1 patient developed lymphoma, and 1 patient developed acute myeloid leukemia, raising the question of whether patients with coexistence of myeloid- and lymphoid-derived neoplasms are more prone to leukemic or lymphomatous transformation. We did not find any treatment-related effect that could have contributed to the development of coexisting MGUS or MM and MPN. Of the 7 patients with an abnormal karyotype, 3 patients had trisomy 8. At present, management strategies are aimed at treating the MPN and regularly monitoring the MGUS for transformation to an overt plasma-cell malignancy. However, for patients who develop overt MM, management is focused more on treating the myeloma and monitoring the MPN. It has not yet been definitively shown that these 2 entities arise from a common-ancestor hematopoietic stem cell. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Orbital tuberculosis with coexisting fungal (Aspergillus flavus) infection


    Sunkara Srikanth Reddy; Devi Chendira Penmmaiah; Alugolu Rajesh; Madhusudan Patil


    Background: A coexisting invasive fungal and tubercular involvement of the skull base is a rare event. Co-infection has been reported with involvement of paranasal sinuses and middle ear cleft. Case Description: We herein report a case of an elderly male diabetic patient who presented with gradually progressive visual loss, which on imaging showed an orbital lesion. Surgical decompression and microbiological evaluation showed growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Aspergillus flavus. ...

  7. Issues On Religious Coexistence Tolerance In Albania 1912-1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Kalaja


    Full Text Available The religious tolerance is one of the rarest values of the tradition of the Albanian people. It is widely accepted that Albanian people are well known about these values about an excellent coexistence among the believers of different religious communities that are in Albania mainly Muslims and Christians. In this study we bring the essentials of this phenomenon promotional roots of these values while viewed from a previously untreated point of view and in an attempt to answer the questions Where does it stem from the religious coexistence in Albania What are the main promoters of this phenomenon What has been the attitude of the religious clergy in Albania Have they been and are the imams and priests the promotion of tolerance and religious coexistence in Albania These are some of the questions answered in this modest study focusing on how nice and with how much delicacy the lectures of the Clergy have addressed this issue to the faithful or to the world in general. Since they enjoyed undisputable reputation and influence in the majority of the population in the most critical moments of national history the leaders of Muslims believers not only have promoted tolerance and religious coexistence but they have considered the believers of other faiths as brothers preaching this conviction in front of their Muslim believers. These preachings were firstly begun by VehbiDibra who was the first Chairman of the Muslims and all clerics without exception to this day. Also unforgettable are the sermons of priests like Fr. GjergjFishta Fr. ShtjefnGjeovi or Metropolitan VisarionXhuvani to conclude with pearls of Orthodox priest Fan S. Noli who amazed the world with his three speeches in front of world leaders the League of Nations being representative of all Albanians although Orthodox believers were only 20 of the population.

  8. Parental harsh discipline in mainland China: prevalence, frequency, and coexistence. (United States)

    Wang, Meifang; Liu, Li


    The study examined the prevalence, frequency, and coexistence of psychological aggression (PA), corporal punishment (CP), and severe physical abuse (SPA) in mainland China. Using a sample of 2,518 father-mother dyads of 3-15-year-old children, the findings revealed that parental harsh discipline was prevalent in mainland China. The rates of harsh discipline in the current study fell in the middle of the ranges of rates found in other studies. Harsh discipline was most likely directed at boys or children aged 7 years and committed by mothers, young fathers, or high and low socioeconomic status (SES) parents. The prevalence of maternal and paternal PA and CP declined with the children's age. Maternal and paternal SPA first increased and then decreased with child age. The frequency of the three types of maternal and paternal harsh discipline fluctuated depending on the age of the children. In addition, approximately 50% of the mothers and fathers who reported using severe forms of disciplinary practices also engaged in less severe forms of harsh disciplinary practices against their children. SPA generally coexisted with CP and PA, and CP was usually accompanied by PA; however, PA was more likely to occur independently compared with CP and SPA. Moreover, maternal harsh discipline coexisted with paternal harsh discipline to some extent. The coexistence decreased with increasing severity of parental harsh discipline and differed according to child gender. These findings highlight the importance of studying these three types of parental harsh discipline simultaneously and intervening in harsh discipline by mothers and fathers within the same family. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Coexistence between wildlife and humans at fine spatial scales (United States)

    Carter, Neil H.; Shrestha, Binoj K.; Karki, Jhamak B.; Pradhan, Narendra Man Babu; Liu, Jianguo


    Many wildlife species face imminent extinction because of human impacts, and therefore, a prevailing belief is that some wildlife species, particularly large carnivores and ungulates, cannot coexist with people at fine spatial scales (i.e., cannot regularly use the exact same point locations). This belief provides rationale for various conservation programs, such as resettling human communities outside protected areas. However, quantitative information on the capacity and mechanisms for wildlife to coexist with humans at fine spatial scales is scarce. Such information is vital, because the world is becoming increasingly crowded. Here, we provide empirical information about the capacity and mechanisms for tigers (a globally endangered species) to coexist with humans at fine spatial scales inside and outside Nepal’s Chitwan National Park, a flagship protected area for imperiled wildlife. Information obtained from field cameras in 2010 and 2011 indicated that human presence (i.e., people on foot and vehicles) was ubiquitous and abundant throughout the study site; however, tiger density was also high. Surprisingly, even at a fine spatial scale (i.e., camera locations), tigers spatially overlapped with people on foot and vehicles in both years. However, in both years, tigers offset their temporal activity patterns to be much less active during the day when human activity peaked. In addition to temporal displacement, tiger–human coexistence was likely enhanced by abundant tiger prey and low levels of tiger poaching. Incorporating fine-scale spatial and temporal activity patterns into conservation plans can help address a major global challenge—meeting human needs while sustaining wildlife. PMID:22949642

  10. Auditory-olfactory synesthesia coexisting with auditory-visual synesthesia. (United States)

    Jackson, Thomas E; Sandramouli, Soupramanien


    Synesthesia is an unusual condition in which stimulation of one sensory modality causes an experience in another sensory modality or when a sensation in one sensory modality causes another sensation within the same modality. We describe a previously unreported association of auditory-olfactory synesthesia coexisting with auditory-visual synesthesia. Given that many types of synesthesias involve vision, it is important that the clinician provide these patients with the necessary information and support that is available.

  11. Significance of coexistent granulomatous inflammation and lung cancer. (United States)

    Dagaonkar, Rucha S; Choong, Caroline V; Asmat, Atasha Binti; Ahmed, Dokeu Basheer A; Chopra, Akhil; Lim, Albert Y H; Tai, Dessmon Y H; Kor, Ai Ching; Goh, Soon Keng; Abisheganaden, John; Verma, Akash


    Coexistence of lung cancer and granulomatous inflammation in the same patient confuses clinicians. We aimed to document the prevalence, clinicopathological features, treatment outcomes and prognosis in patients with coexisting granulomatous inflammation undergoing curative lung resection for lung cancer, in a tuberculosis (TB)-endemic country. An observational cohort study of patients with lung cancer undergoing curative resection between 2012 and 2015 in a tertiary centre in Singapore. One hundred and twenty-seven patients underwent lung resection for cancer, out of which 19 (14.9%) had coexistent granulomatous inflammation in the resected specimen. Median age was 68 years and 58.2% were males. Overall median (range) survival was 451 (22-2452) days. Eighteen (14%) patients died at median duration of 271 days after surgery. The postsurgery median survival for those alive was 494 (29-2452) days in the whole group. Subgroup analysis did not reveal any differences in age, gender, location of cancer, radiological features, type of cancer, chemotherapy, history of TB or survival in patients with or without coexistent granulomatous inflammation. Incidental detection of granulomatous inflammation in patients undergoing lung resection for cancer, even in a TB-endemic country, may not require any intervention. Such findings may be due to either mycobacterial infection in the past or 'sarcoid reaction' to cancer. Although all patients should have their resected specimen sent for acid-fast bacilli culture and followed up until the culture results are reported, the initiation of the management of such patients as per existing lung cancer management guidelines does not affect their outcome adversely. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  12. Gifted students with a coexisting disability: The twice exceptional


    Pfeiffer, Steven I.


    The twice exceptional are students who have both high ability and a disability or disorder. The ability can be in any culturally-valued domain, including high intelligence, academics, the visual or performing arts, and athletics. The co-existing disability can be physical, medical, or psychological. There is a growing literature of scholarly opinion about twice exceptionality; however, there are few well-designed empirical investigations of gifted students with anxiety, depression, bipolar di...

  13. Moyamoya Disease with Coexistent Hypertriglyceridemia in Pediatric Patient


    Jacqueline Chan; Fabiola D’Ambrosio Rodriguez; Deepank Sahni; Claudia Boucher-Berry


    Moyamoya disease is a rare chronic and progressive cerebrovascular disease of the arteries of the circle of Willis that can affect children and adults. It has been associated with multiple diseases, including immunologic, like Graves’ disease, diabetes mellitus, and SLE. Hyperlipidemia has been recognized in patients with Moyamoya disease with an incidence of 27–37%. However, no case in pediatric patients has been reported of the coexistence of Moyamoya disease and hyperlipidemia. Here we pre...

  14. Digital Ecology: Coexistence and Domination among Interacting Networks (United States)

    Kleineberg, Kaj-Kolja; Boguñá, Marián


    The overwhelming success of Web 2.0, within which online social networks are key actors, has induced a paradigm shift in the nature of human interactions. The user-driven character of Web 2.0 services has allowed researchers to quantify large-scale social patterns for the first time. However, the mechanisms that determine the fate of networks at the system level are still poorly understood. For instance, the simultaneous existence of multiple digital services naturally raises questions concerning which conditions these services can coexist under. Analogously to the case of population dynamics, the digital world forms a complex ecosystem of interacting networks. The fitness of each network depends on its capacity to attract and maintain users’ attention, which constitutes a limited resource. In this paper, we introduce an ecological theory of the digital world which exhibits stable coexistence of several networks as well as the dominance of an individual one, in contrast to the competitive exclusion principle. Interestingly, our theory also predicts that the most probable outcome is the coexistence of a moderate number of services, in agreement with empirical observations.

  15. Education of Coexistence as Technē Tou Biou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Kačerauskas


    Full Text Available The article deals with education of coexistence as training of life art (technē tou biou. The major thesis is the following: our existence has been educated in the life environment together with other agents of life world (Lebenswelt, while the latter are educated in the background of our existential project to be realized during our life. This major thesis presupposes the minor ones developed in the article: existential education means the change of the roles between the agents of life enwironment; existential education covers an ironic relationship between the teacher and a disciple; the teacher educates an unique combination of the disciple’s charachteristics to be nourished in his (her existential perspective instead of forcing the equal way for everybody; every community has been educated while an individual changes life environment by realization of his (her existential utopia; education is a kind of existential tradition’s transfer through the new communicative channels; philosophy of education based on existential phenomenology stresses the aspects of responsible coexistence in the life-world to be created; education is the training of our life’s art as responsible creation inseparable from becoming of life-world as the environment of our coexistence; education deals with a miracle of breaking educational circle while a disciple excels the teacher and changes the educational environment. By analysing the problems of existential education the author uses the approaches of both existential phenomenology and cultural regionalistics. 

  16. Band excitation method applicable to scanning probe microscopy (United States)

    Jesse, Stephen [Knoxville, TN; Kalinin, Sergei V [Knoxville, TN


    Methods and apparatus are described for scanning probe microscopy. A method includes generating a band excitation (BE) signal having finite and predefined amplitude and phase spectrum in at least a first predefined frequency band; exciting a probe using the band excitation signal; obtaining data by measuring a response of the probe in at least a second predefined frequency band; and extracting at least one relevant dynamic parameter of the response of the probe in a predefined range including analyzing the obtained data. The BE signal can be synthesized prior to imaging (static band excitation), or adjusted at each pixel or spectroscopy step to accommodate changes in sample properties (adaptive band excitation). An apparatus includes a band excitation signal generator; a probe coupled to the band excitation signal generator; a detector coupled to the probe; and a relevant dynamic parameter extractor component coupled to the detector, the relevant dynamic parameter extractor including a processor that performs a mathematical transform selected from the group consisting of an integral transform and a discrete transform.

  17. Excitation of plasmonic waveguide modes using principles of holography (United States)

    Ignatov, Anton I.; Merzlikin, Alexander M.


    A method for development of gratings for effective excitation of surface plasmonic waves using holography principles has been proposed and theoretically analyzed. The case of excitation of a plasmonic wave in a dielectric layer on metal using volume holograms in the dielectric layer has been considered. For comparison, simple periodic gratings with refractive index of the dielectric layer modulated in the plane of the layer and invariable in the direction perpendicular to the layer plane have been considered. The efficiencies of the proposed holograms and gratings optimized for various incidence angles of exciting waves incident on the gratings/holograms from air have been analyzed. Based on this analysis, general enough conditions when holograms can be more efficient than simple gratings have been found out. In particular, a hologram is expected to be more efficient than the grating when the refractive index distribution in the hologram is considerably inhomogeneous (contrary to the gratings) in the direction perpendicular to the layer plane. For example, this may be the case if the exciting wave is incident on a hologram obliquely at a rather large angle or if phase fronts of either exciting wave or a wave being excited are curved. The proposed holographic method is quite universal. As expected, this can be extended for efficient excitation of different types of optical surface waves and modes of optical waveguides.

  18. Excited cooper pairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Arrietea, M. G.; Solis, M. A.; De Llano, M. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F (Mexico)


    Excited cooper pairs formed in a many-fermion system are those with nonzero total center-of mass momentum (CMM). They are normally neglected in the standard Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) theory of superconductivity for being too few compared with zero CMM pairs. However, a Bose-Einstein condensation picture requires both zero and nonzero CMM pairs. Assuming a BCS model interaction between fermions we determine the populations for all CMM values of Cooper pairs by actually calculating the number of nonzero-CMM pairs relative to that of zero-CMM ones in both 2D and 3D. Although this ratio decreases rapidly with CMM, the number of Cooper pairs for any specific CMM less than the maximum (or breakup of the pair) momentum turns out to be typically larger than about 95% of those with zero-CMM at zero temperature T. Even at T {approx}100 K this fraction en 2D is still as large as about 70% for typical quasi-2D cuprate superconductor parameters. [Spanish] Los pares de cooper excitados formados en un sistema de muchos electrones, son aquellos con momentos de centro de masa (CMM) diferente de cero. Normalmente estos no son tomados en cuenta en la teoria estandar de la superconductividad de Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) al suponer que su numero es muy pequeno comparados con los pares de centro de masa igual a cero. Sin embargo, un esquema de condensacion Bose-Einstein requiere de ambos pares, con CMM cero y diferente de cero. Asumiendo una interaccion modelo BCS entre los fermiones, determinamos la poblacion de pares cooper con cada uno de todos los posibles valores del CMM calculando el numero de pares con momentos de centro de masa diferente de cero relativo a los pares de CMM igual a cero, en 2D y 3D. Aunque esta razon decrece rapidamente con el CMM, el numero de pares de cooper para cualquier CMM especifico menor que el momento maximo (o rompimiento de par) es tipicamente mas grande que el 95% de aquellos con CMM cero. Aun a T {approx}100 K esta fraccion en 2D es

  19. Determination of high-molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in high performance liquid chromatography fractions of coal tar standard reference material 1597a via solid-phase nanoextraction and laser-excited time-resolved Shpol'skii spectroscopy. (United States)

    Wilson, Walter B; Alfarhani, Bassam; Moore, Anthony F T; Bisson, Cristina; Wise, Stephen A; Campiglia, Andres D


    This article presents an alternative approach for the analysis of high molecular weight - polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HMW-PAHs) with molecular mass 302 Da in complex environmental samples. This is not a trivial task due to the large number of molecular mass 302 Da isomers with very similar chromatographic elution times and similar, possibly even virtually identical, mass fragmentation patterns. The method presented here is based on 4.2K laser-excited time-resolved Shpol'skii spectroscopy, a high resolution spectroscopic technique with the appropriate selectivity for the unambiguous determination of PAHs with the same molecular mass. The potential of this approach is demonstrated here with the analysis of a coal tar standard reference material (SRM) 1597a. Liquid chromatography fractions were submitted to the spectroscopic analysis of five targeted isomers, namely dibenzo[a,l]pyrene, dibenzo[a,e]pyrene, dibenzo[a,i]pyrene, naphtho[2,3-a]pyrene and dibenzo[a,h]pyrene. Prior to analyte determination, the liquid chromatographic fractions were pre-concentrated with gold nanoparticles. Complete analysis was possible with microliters of chromatographic fractions and organic solvents. The limits of detection varied from 0.05 (dibenzo[a,l]pyrene) to 0.24 µg L(-1) (dibenzo[a,e]pyrene). The excellent analytical figures of merit associated to its non-destructive nature, which provides ample opportunity for further analysis with other instrumental methods, makes this approach an attractive alternative for the determination of PAH isomers in complex environmental samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Percolation of optical excitation mediated by near-field interactions (United States)

    Naruse, Makoto; Kim, Song-Ju; Takahashi, Taiki; Aono, Masashi; Akahane, Kouichi; D'Acunto, Mario; Hori, Hirokazu; Thylén, Lars; Katori, Makoto; Ohtsu, Motoichi


    Optical excitation transfer in nanostructured matter has been intensively studied in various material systems for versatile applications. Herein, we theoretically and numerically discuss the percolation of optical excitations in randomly organized nanostructures caused by optical near-field interactions governed by Yukawa potential in a two-dimensional stochastic model. The model results demonstrate the appearance of two phases of percolation of optical excitation as a function of the localization degree of near-field interaction. Moreover, it indicates sublinear scaling with percolation distances when the light localization is strong. Furthermore, such a character is maximized at a particular size of environments. The results provide fundamental insights into optical excitation transfer and will facilitate the design and analysis of nanoscale signal-transfer characteristics.

  1. Uniform excitations in magnetic nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steen Mørup


    Full Text Available We present a short review of the magnetic excitations in nanoparticles below the superparamagnetic blocking temperature. In this temperature regime, the magnetic dynamics in nanoparticles is dominated by uniform excitations, and this leads to a linear temperature dependence of the magnetization and the magnetic hyperfine field, in contrast to the Bloch T3/2 law in bulk materials. The temperature dependence of the average magnetization is conveniently studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy. The energy of the uniform excitations of magnetic nanoparticles can be studied by inelastic neutron scattering.

  2. Uniform excitations in magnetic nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Steen; Frandsen, Cathrine; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt


    We present a short review of the magnetic excitations in nanoparticles below the superparamagnetic blocking temperature. In this temperature regime, the magnetic dynamics in nanoparticles is dominated by uniform excitations, and this leads to a linear temperature dependence of the magnetization...... and the magnetic hyperfine field, in contrast to the Bloch T3/2 law in bulk materials. The temperature dependence of the average magnetization is conveniently studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy. The energy of the uniform excitations of magnetic nanoparticles can be studied by inelastic neutron scattering....

  3. The Environmental Education, as an Option to Promote the Ecological Coexistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty Marleny Castillo Ávila


    Full Text Available The purpose of this research aims to develop an action plan in environmental education, as an ecologic option for the students of the Francisco Tamayo Technical School located in Barinitas parish, Bolívar municipality state Barinas. In this institution the students lack of an orientation and motivation about an action plan to promote the ecological coexistence. The nature of this study belongs to the qualitative approach of a participatory action research. On the other hand, this research was made in three phases: Phase I. Diagnosis, Phase II Programming, Phase III Conclusions and Proposals. The key people will be: (03 students, (03 teachers and (03 representatives. The technique of gathering information will be the deep interview and documents and actions view which show theoretical structures from the practice itself since so, it represents a better adaptation. The analysis techniques of information were categorization, triangulation and interpretation. Among the expected results are that the students become more sensitive and acquire knowledge related to ecological and environmental cohabitation from an interdisciplinary approach taking responsibility for attitude changes that the community needs to grow socially and economically.

  4. Ancient coexistence of norepinephrine, tyramine, and octopamine signaling in bilaterians. (United States)

    Bauknecht, Philipp; Jékely, Gáspár


    Norepinephrine/noradrenaline is a neurotransmitter implicated in arousal and other aspects of vertebrate behavior and physiology. In invertebrates, adrenergic signaling is considered absent and analogous functions are performed by the biogenic amines octopamine and its precursor tyramine. These chemically similar transmitters signal by related families of G-protein-coupled receptors in vertebrates and invertebrates, suggesting that octopamine/tyramine are the invertebrate equivalents of vertebrate norepinephrine. However, the evolutionary relationships and origin of these transmitter systems remain unclear. Using phylogenetic analysis and receptor pharmacology, here we have established that norepinephrine, octopamine, and tyramine receptors coexist in some marine invertebrates. In the protostomes Platynereis dumerilii (an annelid) and Priapulus caudatus (a priapulid), we have identified and pharmacologically characterized adrenergic α1 and α2 receptors that coexist with octopamine α, octopamine β, tyramine type 1, and tyramine type 2 receptors. These receptors represent the first examples of adrenergic receptors in protostomes. In the deuterostome Saccoglossus kowalevskii (a hemichordate), we have identified and characterized octopamine α, octopamine β, tyramine type 1, and tyramine type 2 receptors, representing the first examples of these receptors in deuterostomes. S. kowalevskii also has adrenergic α1 and α2 receptors, indicating that all three signaling systems coexist in this animal. In phylogenetic analysis, we have also identified adrenergic and tyramine receptor orthologs in xenacoelomorphs. Our results clarify the history of monoamine signaling in bilaterians. Given that all six receptor families (two each for octopamine, tyramine, and norepinephrine) can be found in representatives of the two major clades of Bilateria, the protostomes and the deuterostomes, all six receptors must have coexisted in the last common ancestor of the protostomes and

  5. Probing intruder configurations in $^{186, 188}$Pb using Coulomb excitation

    CERN Document Server

    Columb excitation measurements to study the shape coexistence, mixing and quadrupole collectivity of the low-lying levels in neutron-deficient $^{188}$Pb nuclei are proposed with a view to extending similar studies to the $^{186}$Pb midshell nucleus. The HIE-ISOLDE beam of $^{186,188}$Pb nuclei will be delivered to MINIBALL+SPEDE set-up for simultaneous in-beam $\\gamma$-ray and conversion electron spectroscopy. The proposed experiment will allow the sign of the quadrupole deformation parameter to be extracted for the two lowest 2$^{+}$ states in $^{188}$Pb. Moreover, the advent of SPEDE will allow probing of the bandhead 0$^{+}$ states via direct measurements of E0 transitions. Beam development is requested to provide pure and instense $^{186}$Pb beam.

  6. Indirect excitation of ultrafast demagnetization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vodungbo, B; Tudu, B; Perron, J; Delaunay, R; Müller, L; Berntsen, M.H; Grübel, G; Malinowski, G; Weier, C; Gautier, J; Lambert, G; Zeitoun, P; Gutt, C; Jal, E; Reid, A.H; Granitzka, P.W; Jaouen, N; Dakovski, G.L; Moeller, S; Minitti, M.P; Mitra, A; Carron, S; Pfau, B; von Korff Schmising, C; Schneider, M; Eisebitt, S; Lüning, J


    .... Upon excitation with an intense femtosecond-short IR laser pulse, the film exhibits the classical ultrafast demagnetization phenomenon although only a negligible number of IR photons penetrate the aluminum layer...

  7. Transport waves as crystal excitations (United States)

    Cepellotti, Andrea; Marzari, Nicola


    We introduce the concept of transport waves by showing that the linearized Boltzmann transport equation admits excitations in the form of waves that have well-defined dispersion relations and decay times. Crucially, these waves do not represent single-particle excitations, but are collective excitations of the equilibrium distribution functions. We study in detail the case of thermal transport, where relaxons are found in the long-wavelength limit, and second sound is reinterpreted as the excitation of one or several temperature waves at finite frequencies. Graphene is studied numerically, finding decay times of the order of microseconds. The derivation, obtained by a spectral representation of the Boltzmann equation, holds in principle for any crystal or semiclassical transport theory and is particularly relevant when transport takes place in the hydrodynamic regime.

  8. Evanescent excitation and emission in fluorescence microscopy. (United States)

    Axelrod, Daniel


    Evanescent light-light that does not propagate but instead decays in intensity over a subwavelength distance-appears in both excitation (as in total internal reflection) and emission (as in near-field imaging) forms in fluorescence microscopy. This review describes the physical connection between these two forms as a consequence of geometrical squeezing of wavefronts, and describes newly established or speculative applications and combinations of the two. In particular, each can be used in analogous ways to produce surface-selective images, to examine the thickness and refractive index of films (such as lipid multilayers or protein layers) on solid supports, and to measure the absolute distance of a fluorophore to a surface. In combination, the two forms can further increase selectivity and reduce background scattering in surface images. The polarization properties of each lead to more sensitive and accurate measures of fluorophore orientation and membrane micromorphology. The phase properties of the evanescent excitation lead to a method of creating a submicroscopic area of total internal reflection illumination or enhanced-resolution structured illumination. Analogously, the phase properties of evanescent emission lead to a method of producing a smaller point spread function, in a technique called virtual supercritical angle fluorescence. Copyright © 2013 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Indirect excitation of ultrafast demagnetization


    Boris Vodungbo; Bahrati Tudu; Jonathan Perron; Renaud Delaunay; Leonard Müller; Berntsen, Magnus H.; Gerhard Grübel; Grégory Malinowski; Christian Weier; Julien Gautier; Guillaume Lambert; Philippe Zeitoun; Christian Gutt; Emmanuelle Jal; Reid, Alexander H.


    Does the excitation of ultrafast magnetization require direct interaction between the photons of the optical pump pulse and the magnetic layer? Here, we demonstrate unambiguously that this is not the case. For this we have studied the magnetization dynamics of a ferromagnetic cobalt/palladium multilayer capped by an IR-opaque aluminum layer. Upon excitation with an intense femtosecond-short IR laser pulse, the film exhibits the classical ultrafast demagnetization phenomenon although only a ne...

  10. Stochastic Hierarchical Systems: Excitable Dynamics


    Leonhardt, Helmar; Zaks, Michael A.; Falcke, Martin; Schimansky-Geier, Lutz


    We present a discrete model of stochastic excitability by a low-dimensional set of delayed integral equations governing the probability in the rest state, the excited state, and the refractory state. The process is a random walk with discrete states and nonexponential waiting time distributions, which lead to the incorporation of memory kernels in the integral equations. We extend the equations of a single unit to the system of equations for an ensemble of globally coupled oscillators, derive...

  11. Autowaves in moving excitable media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Within the framework of kinematic theory of autowaves we suggest a method for analytic description of stationary autowave structures appearing at the boundary between the moving and fixed excitable media. The front breakdown phenomenon is predicted for such structures. Autowave refraction and, particulary, one-side "total reflection" at the boundary is considered. The obtained analytical results are confirmed by computer simulations. Prospects of the proposed method for further studies of autowave dynamics in the moving excitable media are discussed.

  12. Have Gluonic Excitations Been Found?


    Page, Philip R.


    New experimental information on the non-exotic J^PC = 0^-+ isovector seen at 1.8 GeV by VES yields convincing evidence of its excited gluonic (hybrid) nature when a critical study of alternative quarkonium assignments is made in the context of ^3 P_0 decay by flux-tube breaking. Production of this gluonic excitation via meson exchange is promising, although its two photon production vanishes.

  13. Nonlinear Ultrafast Spin Scattering in the Skyrmion Phase of Cu2OSeO3 (United States)

    Langner, M. C.; Roy, S.; Huang, S. W.; Koralek, J. D.; Chuang, Y.-D.; Dakovski, G. L.; Turner, J. J.; Robinson, J. S.; Coffee, R. N.; Minitti, M. P.; Seki, S.; Tokura, Y.; Schoenlein, R. W.


    Ultrafast x-ray scattering studies of the topological Skyrmion phase in Cu2 OSeO3 show the dynamics to be strongly dependent on the excitation energy and fluence. At high photon energies, where the electron-spin scattering cross section is relatively high, the excitation of the topological Skyrmion phase shows a nonlinear dependence on the excitation fluence, in contrast to the excitation of the conical phase which is linearly dependent on the excitation fluence. The excitation of the Skyrmion order parameter is nonlinear in the magnetic excitation resulting from scattering during electron-hole recombination, indicating different dominant scattering processes in the conical and Skyrmion phases.

  14. Nonlinear Ultrafast Spin Scattering in the Skyrmion Phase of Cu_{2}OSeO_{3}. (United States)

    Langner, M C; Roy, S; Huang, S W; Koralek, J D; Chuang, Y-D; Dakovski, G L; Turner, J J; Robinson, J S; Coffee, R N; Minitti, M P; Seki, S; Tokura, Y; Schoenlein, R W


    Ultrafast x-ray scattering studies of the topological Skyrmion phase in Cu_{2}OSeO_{3} show the dynamics to be strongly dependent on the excitation energy and fluence. At high photon energies, where the electron-spin scattering cross section is relatively high, the excitation of the topological Skyrmion phase shows a nonlinear dependence on the excitation fluence, in contrast to the excitation of the conical phase which is linearly dependent on the excitation fluence. The excitation of the Skyrmion order parameter is nonlinear in the magnetic excitation resulting from scattering during electron-hole recombination, indicating different dominant scattering processes in the conical and Skyrmion phases.

  15. Electron-excited molecule interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christophorou, L.G. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA) Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (USA). Dept. of Physics)


    In this paper the limited but significant knowledge to date on electron scattering from vibrationally/rotationally excited molecules and electron scattering from and electron impact ionization of electronically excited molecules is briefly summarized and discussed. The profound effects of the internal energy content of a molecule on its electron attachment properties are highlighted focusing in particular on electron attachment to vibrationally/rotationally and to electronically excited molecules. The limited knowledge to date on electron-excited molecule interactions clearly shows that the cross sections for certain electron-molecule collision processes can be very different from those involving ground state molecules. For example, optically enhanced electron attachment studies have shown that electron attachment to electronically excited molecules can occur with cross sections 10{sup 6} to 10{sup 7} times larger compared to ground state molecules. The study of electron-excited molecule interactions offers many experimental and theoretical challenges and opportunities and is both of fundamental and technological significance. 54 refs., 15 figs.

  16. New results on the superdeformed {sup 196}Pb nucleus: The decay of the excited bands to the yrast band

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouneau, S.; Azaiez, F.; Duprat, J. [IPN, Orsay (France)] [and others


    The study of the superdeformed (SD) {sup 196}Pb nucleus has been revisited using the EUROGAM phase 2 spectrometer. In addition to the known yrast and two lowest excited SD bands, a third excited SD band has been seen. All of the three excited bands were found to decay to the yrast SD band through, presumably, E1 transitions, allowing relative spin and excitation energy assignments. Comparisons with calculations using the random-phase approximation suggest that all three excited bands can be interpreted as octupole vibrational structures.

  17. Triaxiality and shape coexistence in 72,76Ge: A model independent analysis (United States)

    Ayangeakaa, Akaa Daniel; Janssens, Robert V. F.; ANL Collaboration; LLNL Collaboration; LBNL Collaboration; U of Maryland Collaboration; Rochester Collaboration


    An exploration of the structure of Ge isotopes is important for understanding the microscopic origin of collectivity, the nature of deformation and modifications of shell structure in nuclei of the N 40 mass region. The present study focuses on the electromagnetic properties of low-lying states in 72,76Ge obtained via sub-barrier multiple Coulomb excitation with GRETINA and CHICO2. In the case of 72Ge, the extracted matrix elements agree with a shape coexistence interpretation between the 01+ and 02+ states, but require significant mixing between the 0+ wavefunctions as well as triaxiality in order to reproduce the data. Similarly, the invariant sum-rule analysis of the 76Ge data indicates that both the ground state and gamma bands are characterized by the same deformation parameters, with triaxiality (γ 30°) being important for a complete description. A summary of these results and data highlighting the nature of gamma deformation in 76Ge - whether rigid or soft - will be presented. This work is supported by the DOE, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics under Contract Number DE-AC02-06CH11357, and Grant No. DE-FG02-94ER40834 and DE-FG02-08ER41556.

  18. Coexistence of triaxial and prolate shapes in sup 1 sup 7 sup 1 Ir

    CERN Document Server

    Bark, R A; Baeck, T; Cederwall, Bo; Oedegaard, S W; Cocks, J F C; Helariutta, K; Jones, P; Julin, R; Juutinen, S; Kankaanpaeae, H; Kettunen, H; Kuusiniemi, P; Leino, M; Muikku, M; Rahkila, P; Savelius, A; Bergström, M H; Ingebretsen, F; Maj, A; Mattiuzzi, M; Müller, W; Riedinger, L L; Saitoh, T R; Tjøm, P O


    Excited states in sup 1 sup 7 sup 1 Ir have been observed for the first time. Gamma-rays were assigned to the nucleus by the recoil-decay tagging method. The ground-state band has a structure consistent with an h sub ( sub 1 sub 1 sub ( sub 2 sub ) sub ) proton coupled to a core of large triaxial deformation. At high spins, a bandcrossing occurs which is interpreted as a change in shape to a prolate deformation. Band-mixing calculations are performed for sup 1 sup 7 sup 1 sup - sup 1 sup 7 sup 5 Ir. These show that shape-coexistence between triaxial and prolate states in these nuclei follows the same systematics found in their Pt and Os neighbours. The systematics are also compared with deformations calculated for sup 1 sup 7 sup 1 sup - sup 1 sup 7 sup 9 Ir using the code 'Ultimate Cranker'. Dipole bands were also observed, but tilted axis cranking calculations suggest that they are associated with a collective rotation.

  19. Control between coexistent attractors for optimal performance of a bistable piezoelectric vibration energy harvester (United States)

    Geiyer, Daniel; Kauffman, Jeffrey L.


    Research in broadband nonlinear piezoelectric energy harvesting has gained traction in recent years as resonant, linear harvesters do not operate optimally in dynamic environments. By placing a linear harvester in a symmetric magnetic field, a nonlinear restoring force allows the system to realize motion across two potential wells. Different levels of excitation enable the system to oscillate solely in one potential well, periodically across both potential wells, or aperiodically across both potential wells. Periodic interwell motion is considered desirable for nonlinear energy harvesting systems, however, coexistent attractors inhibit uniqueness of such a solution. The authors have previously shown that chaotic, aperiodic motion between potential wells can be optimized for improved energy harvesting. The technique applied a chaotic controller to stabilize a large amplitude periodic orbit within the chaotic attractor. This work considers the basins of attraction of the two concurrent attractors and applies an intermittent control law in which the system is perturbed from a chaotic, aperiodic interwell response into the desirable large amplitude, periodic, interwell response.

  20. Excitation of surface plasma waves over corrugated slow-wave ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A microwave propagating along vacuum–dielectric–plasma interface excites surface plasma wave (SPW). A periodic slow-wave structure placed over dielectric slows down the SPW. The phase velocity of slow SPW is sensitive to height, periodicity, number of periods, thickness and the separation between dielectric and ...

  1. Excitation of surface plasma waves over corrugated slow-wave ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A microwave propagating along vacuum–dielectric–plasma interface excites surface plasma wave (SPW). A periodic slow-wave structure placed over dielectric slows down the SPW. The phase velocity of slow SPW is sensitive to height, periodicity, number of periods, thickness and the separation between ...

  2. Periodic behavior for the parametrically excited Boussinesq equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maccari, Attilio E-mail:


    The asymptotic perturbation (AP) method is applied to the study of the parametrically excited and weakly damped Boussinesq equation in an infinite wall. Amplitude and phase modulation equations as well as external force-response and frequency-response curves are obtained. The presence of jump phenomena and bifurcations is demonstrated.

  3. Altered gait biomechanics and increased knee-specific impairments in patients with coexisting tibiofemoral and patellofemoral osteoarthritis. (United States)

    Farrokhi, Shawn; O'Connell, Megan; Fitzgerald, G Kelley


    Coexisting patellofemoral osteoarthritis (PFOA) is a common finding in patients with tibiofemoral osteoarthritis (TFOA). The purpose of this study was to elucidate whether severity of coexisting PFOA in patients with TFOA is correlated with altered sagittal-plane gait biomechanics and greater knee-specific impairments. One hundred and six patients with radiographic TFOA were stratified into three groups of no PFOA, mild PFOA, and severe PFOA. All patients completed instrumented gait analysis, quantitative quadriceps strength testing and knee range of motion assessment. Compared to patients with no PFOA, those with severe PFOA exhibited reduced loading-response knee flexion excursions (p = 0.002) and increased peak single-leg stance external knee flexion moments (p knee extension range of motion were independently associated with altered sagittal-plane knee biomechanics during gait (p knee flexion excursion during gait may be an attempt to decrease patellofemoral joint loading by patients with severe PFOA but it may increase impact loading of their arthritic tibiofemoral joint. Additionally, the greater external knee flexion moments observed during the single-leg stance phase of gait can lead to an overall increase in patellofemoral joint loading and symptoms in patients with more severe PFOA. Given the association between knee-specific impairments and altered gait biomechanics in our study, addressing quadriceps muscle weakness and limited knee extension range of motion may be indicated in patients with TFOA and severe coexisting PFOA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Regulating coexistence of GM and non-GM crops without jeopardizing economic incentives. (United States)

    Demont, Matty; Devos, Yann


    The ongoing debate about the coexistence of genetically modified (GM) and non-GM crops in the European Union (EU) mainly focuses on preventive measures needed to keep the adventitious presence of GM material in non-GM products below established tolerance thresholds, as well as on issues covering questions of liability and the duty to redress the incurred economic harm once adventitious mixing in non-GM products has occurred. By contrast, the interplay between the economic incentives and costs of coexistence has attracted little attention. The current overemphasis on the technical aspects and cost of coexistence over its economic incentives might lead EU policy-makers to adopt too stringent and rigid regulations on coexistence. Therefore, we argue for flexible coexistence regulations that explicitly take into account the economic incentives for coexistence. Our arguments provide a timely and important framework for EU policy-makers, who are currently struggling to implement coherent coexistence regulations in all member states.

  5. Electronic structure of the cuprate superconducting and pseudogap phases from spectroscopic imaging STM (United States)

    Schmidt, A. R.; Fujita, K.; Kim, E.-A.; Lawler, M. J.; Eisaki, H.; Uchida, S.; Lee, D.-H.; Davis, J. C.


    We survey the use of spectroscopic imaging scanning tunneling microscopy (SI-STM) to probe the electronic structure of underdoped cuprates. Two distinct classes of electronic states are observed in both the d-wave superconducting (dSC) and the pseudogap (PG) phases. The first class consists of the dispersive Bogoliubov quasiparticle excitations of a homogeneous d-wave superconductor, existing below a lower energy scale E=Δ0. We find that the Bogoliubov quasiparticle interference (QPI) signatures of delocalized Cooper pairing are restricted to a k-space arc, which terminates near the lines connecting k=±(π/a0,0) to k=±(0,π/a0). This arc shrinks continuously with decreasing hole density such that Luttinger's theorem could be satisfied if it represents the front side of a hole-pocket that is bounded behind by the lines between k=±(π/a0,0) and k=±(0,π/a0). In both phases, the only broken symmetries detected for the |E|translational symmetries, coexist with this intra-unit-cell electronic symmetry breaking at E=Δ1. Their characteristic wavevector Q is determined by the k-space points where Bogoliubov QPI terminates and therefore changes continuously with doping. The distinct broken electronic symmetry states (intra-unit-cell and finite Q) coexisting at E~Δ1 are found to be indistinguishable in the dSC and PG phases. The next challenge for SI-STM studies is to determine the relationship of the E~Δ1 broken symmetry electronic states with the PG phase, and with the E<Δ0 states associated with Cooper pairing.

  6. Phase transitions in operational risk. (United States)

    Anand, Kartik; Kühn, Reimer


    In this paper we explore the functional correlation approach to operational risk. We consider networks with heterogeneous a priori conditional and unconditional failure probability. In the limit of sparse connectivity, self-consistent expressions for the dynamical evolution of order parameters are obtained. Under equilibrium conditions, expressions for the stationary states are also obtained. Consequences of the analytical theory developed are analyzed using phase diagrams. We find coexistence of operational and nonoperational phases, much as in liquid-gas systems. Such systems are susceptible to discontinuous phase transitions from the operational to nonoperational phase via catastrophic breakdown. We find this feature to be robust against variation of the microscopic modeling assumptions.

  7. Collective excitations in nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chomaz, Ph. [Grand Accelerateur National d`Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France); Collaboration: La Direction des Sciences de la Matiere du CEA (FR); Le Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique de Belgique (BE)


    The properties of the nucleus cannot be reduced to the properties of its constituents: it is a complex system. The fact that many properties of the nucleus are consequences of the existence of mean-field potential is a manifestation of this complexity. In particular, the nucleons can thus self-organize in collective motions such as giant resonances. Therefore the study of this collective motions is a very good tool to understand the properties of the nucleus itself. The purpose of this article is to stress some aspects of these collective vibrations. We have studied how an ensemble of fermions as the nucleus can self-organize in collective vibrations which are behaving like a gas of bosons in weak interaction. Understanding of these phenomena remains one of the important subjects of actuality in the context of quantal systems in strong interaction. In particular, the study of the states with one or two vibration quanta provides a direct information on the structure of nuclei close to their ground states. Moreover, some collective states appear to be very robust against the onset of chaos. This is the case of the hot giant dipole built on top of a hot nucleus which seems to survive up to rather high temperatures. Their sudden disappearance is still a subject of controversy. It may be that the mean-field and the associated collective states are playing a crucial role also in catastrophic processes such as the phase-transitions. Indeed, when the system is diluted the collective vibrations may become unstable and it seems that these unstable modes provide a natural explanation to the self organization of the system in drops. Finally, considering the diversity of the different structures of exotic nuclei one may expect new vibration types. All these studies are showing the diversity of the collective motions of strongly correlated quantum systems such as the nucleus but many open questions remain to be solved. (authors) 304 refs., 53 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Coexistence of superconductivity and density waves in quasi-two-dimensional metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismer, Jan-Peter


    This dissertation deals with the high-temperature superconductivity in the hole- and electron-doped copper superconductors. In the first part, superconducting phases are investigated on a background of different types of density waves. Singlet superconductivity is studied with s- and d-wave symmetry on a background of spin, charge or D-density waves with respect to stability as well as phase structure and impulse dependence of the gap function. In the second part, the dynamic spin susceptibility for different phases is calculated and compared with experimental data extracted from results of inelastic neutron scattering experiments. The observed phases are d-wave superconductivity, D-density wave, and coexistence of the two. For d-wave superconductivity, the influence of a magnetic field parallel to the copper oxide layer and the temperature development of the susceptibility when for T >> T{sub c} a spin density wave phase is present are investigated. [German] Diese Dissertation beschaeftigt sich mit der Hochtemperatursupraleitung in den loch- und elektron-dotierten Kuprat-Supraleitern. Im ersten Teil der Arbeit werden supraleitende Phasen auf einem Hintergrund verschiedener Typen von Dichtewellen untersucht. Es wird Singlett-Supraleitung mit s- und d-Wellen-Symmetrie auf einem Hintergrund von Spin-, Ladungs- oder D-Dichtewelle hinsichtlich Stabilitaet sowie Phasenstruktur und Impulsabhaengigkeit der Gapfunktion untersucht. Im zweiten Teil wird die dynamische Spinsuszeptibilitaet fuer verschiedene Phasen berechnet und mit experimentellen Daten verglichen, die aus Ergebnissen von Inelastischen Neutronenstreuungsexperimenten extrahiert wurden. Die betrachteten Phasen sind d-Wellen-Supraleitung, D-Dichtewelle und Koexistenz der beiden. Fuer d-Wellen-Supraleitung werden der Einfluss eines Magnetfelds parallel zur Kupferoxidschicht und die Temperaturentwicklung der Suszeptibilitaet, wenn fuer T >> T{sub c} eine Spin-Dichtewelle-Phase vorliegt, untersucht.

  9. Coexistence of tachyarrhythmias in patients with tetralogy of Fallot. (United States)

    Mouws, Elisabeth M J P; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W; Bogers, Ad J J C; de Groot, Natasja M S


    The expanding population of adult patients with tetralogy of Fallot (ToF) requires knowledge of its long-term sequelae. The purpose of this study was to examine the coexistence and order of appearance of atrial fibrillation (AF), other supraventricular tachycardias (SVTs), ventricular tachycardia (VT), and ventricular fibrillation (VF), and their impact on survival during long-term follow-up. Adult, corrected ToF patients [N = 225; 128 male; mean ± SD (minimum-maximum) age 41 ± 12 (19-79) years] were included in the study. Medical correspondence, ECGs, and Holter recordings were reviewed for documented AF, other SVTs, VT, and VF. During follow-up of 35 ± 9 (16-64) years, sustained tachyarrhythmias, including SVT (n=50, 22%), AF (n=29, 13%), VT (n=20, 9%), and VF (n=9, 4%), were observed in 71 patients (32%), of whom 27 (38%) had coexistence of different tachyarrhythmias. In 18 patients with coexisting SVT and AF, SVT most often preceded AF in 13 (72%). Age at SVT onset was similar between those with and those without subsequent AF development (40 ± 17 years vs 35 ± 16 years; P = .283). However, age at SVT and AF onset were positively correlated (rho 0.585; P = .011). Prevalence of SVT/AF was associated with VT/VF prevalence (odds ratio [OR] 4.59; P SVT/AF subsequently develop VT/VF, onset of SVT/AF could not predict future VT/VF development (OR 1.81; P = .233). Adult ToF patients are initially at risk for SVT development, followed by AF, VT, and VF at 46 (43-50), 56 (53-59), 57 (54-61), and 62 (61-63) years after ToF correction (P SVT, AF, and VT was positively correlated with age at death (SVT: rho 0.734; P = .004; AF: rho 0.783; P = .007, VT: rho 0.755; P = .050). Coexistence of different (supra)ventricular tachyarrhythmias is frequently observed in adult ToF patients. In these patients, a specific order of these tachyarrhythmias was observed. Tachyarrhythmias are associated with decreased survival time, and, more importantly, age at tachyarrhythmia

  10. Molar Pregnancy with a Co-Existing Viable Fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruya Deveer


    Full Text Available     The aim of this study was to report the clinical features, management, and outcome of a case of molar pregnancy with a coexisting viable fetus and to review the literature. In this article, we report a case of pregnancy with diffuse placental molar change and a normal fetus which presented with hyperemesis gravidarum and hyperthyroidism. Genetic amniocentesis showed normal fetal karyotype. A healthy full-term live male infant was delivered by cesarean section. In molar pregnancies with a normal karyotype fetus, with intensive maternal follow-up, continuation of pregnancy can be suggested.

  11. Orbital tuberculosis with coexisting fungal (Aspergillus flavus) infection. (United States)

    Reddy, Sunkara Srikanth; Penmmaiah, Devi Chendira; Rajesh, Alugolu; Patil, Madhusudan


    A coexisting invasive fungal and tubercular involvement of the skull base is a rare event. Co-infection has been reported with involvement of paranasal sinuses and middle ear cleft. We herein report a case of an elderly male diabetic patient who presented with gradually progressive visual loss, which on imaging showed an orbital lesion. Surgical decompression and microbiological evaluation showed growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Aspergillus flavus. Rare combinations of such infections do exist and should be treated aggressively to achieve good outcomes in a losing battle with fastidious organisms in the backdrop of compromised immunity.

  12. Coexisting pulses in a model for binary-mixture convection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riecke, H.; Rappel, W. [Department of Engineering Sciences and Applied Mathematics, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)]|[Department of Physics, Northeastern University, 111 Dana Research Center, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States)


    We address the striking coexistence of localized waves (``pulses``) of different lengths, which was observed in recent experiments and full numerical simulations of binary-mixture convection. Using a set of extended Ginzburg-Landau equations, we show that this multiplicity finds a natural explanation in terms of the competition of two distinct, physical localization mechanisms; one arises from dispersion and the other from a concentration mode. This competition is absent in the standard Ginzburg-Landau equation. It may also be relevant in other waves coupled to a large-scale field. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital The} {ital American} {ital Physical} {ital Society}.

  13. Coexistence of collapse and stable spatiotemporal solitons in multimode fibers (United States)

    Shtyrina, Olga V.; Fedoruk, Mikhail P.; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Turitsyn, Sergei K.


    We analyze spatiotemporal solitons in multimode optical fibers and demonstrate the existence of stable solitons, in a sharp contrast to earlier predictions of collapse of multidimensional solitons in three-dimensional media. We discuss the coexistence of blow-up solutions and collapse stabilization by a low-dimensional external potential in graded-index media, and also predict the existence of stable higher-order nonlinear waves such as dipole-mode spatiotemporal solitons. To support the main conclusions of our numerical studies we employ a variational approach and derive analytically the stability criterion for input powers for the collapse stabilization.

  14. Coexistence on reflecting hyperplane in generalized probability theories (United States)

    Kobayshi, Masatomo


    The coexistence of effects in a certain class of generalized probability theories is investigated. The effect space corresponding to an even-sided regular polygon state space has a central hyperplane that contains all the nontrivial extremal effects. The existence of such a hyperplane, called a reflecting hyperplane, is closely related to the point symmetry of the corresponding state space. The effects on such a hyperplane can be regarded as the (generalized) unbiased effects. A necessary and sufficient condition for a pair of unbiased effects in the even-sided regular polygon theories is presented. This result reproduces a low-dimensional analogue of known results of qubit effects in a certain limit.

  15. Pragmatic Universalism – A Basis of Coexistence of Multiple Diversities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola de Cuzzani


    Full Text Available The authors examine the paradigms hitherto employed to understand and regulate relations between minorities and majority: universalism, multiculturalism/differentialism and interculturalism. These theories are referring to an idea of original purity rooted in a classificatory logic that ultimately inhibits positive coexistence. The complexities of belonging and practices of translation underscore the inadequacy of these theories. The authors propose a new road to universalism based on the transindividual perspective, which sees individuals as continuous processes of individualisation, modifying holistic perspectives on society. This allows for a dialectic approach to universalism and diversity. Universalism loses its abstract-dogmatic aspect and becomes a historico-pragmatic concept.

  16. Unexpected Coexisting Myocardial Infarction Detected by Delayed Enhancement MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edouard Gerbaud


    Full Text Available We report a case of an unexpected coexisting anterior myocardial infarction detected by delayed enhancement MRI in a 41-year-old man following a presentation with a first episode of chest pain during inferior acute myocardial infarction. This second necrotic area was not initially suspected because there were no ECG changes in the anterior leads and the left descending coronary artery did not present any significant stenoses on emergency coronary angiography. Unrecognised myocardial infarction may carry important prognostic implications. CMR is currently the best imaging technique to detect unexpected infarcts.

  17. Eccrine syringofibroadenoma with co-existent squamous cell carcinoma. (United States)

    Schadt, Courtney R; Boyd, Alan S


    Eccrine syringofibroadenoma (ESFA) is a rare, benign adnexal tumor arising most often on the extremities of elderly individuals. It is typically a slow-growing, flesh- to reddish-colored nodule or plaque. Histologically, the tumor consists of anastomosing cords of cuboidal epithelial cells surrounded by a fibrovascular stroma containing plasma cells. The cords contain scattered ductal structures lined with cuboidal cells resembling eccrine ducts. The co-existence of ESFA with squamous cell carcinoma has been described, eliciting the term eccrine syringofibroadenoma. The differential diagnosis includes poroma, porocarcinoma, fibroepithelioma of Pinkus and clear cell acanthoma. ESFA stain positively with epithelial membrane antigen and carcinoembryonic antigen. Cytokeratin studies have been inconsistent.

  18. Sadomasochism, sexual excitement, and perversion. (United States)

    Kernberg, O F


    Sadomasochism, an ingredient of infantile sexuality, is an essential part of normal sexual functioning and love relations, and of the very nature of sexual excitement. Sadomasochistic elements are also present in all sexual perversions. Sadomasochism starts out as the potential for erotic masochism in both sexes, and represents a very early capacity to link aggression with the libidinal elements of sexual excitement. Sexual excitement may be considered a basic affect that overcomes primitive splitting of love and hatred. Erotic desire is a more mature form of sexual excitement. Psychoanalytic exploration makes it possible to uncover the unconscious components of sexual excitement: wishes for symbiotic fusion and for aggressive penetration and intermingling; bisexual identifications; the desire to transgress oedipal prohibitions and the secretiveness of the primal scene, and to violate the boundaries of a teasing and withholding object. The relation between these wishes and the development of erotic idealization processes in both sexes is explored in the context of a critical review of the pertinent psychoanalytic literature.

  19. Coulomb excitation of (31)Mg

    CERN Document Server

    Seidlitz, M; Reiter, P; Bildstein, V; Blazhev, A; Bree, N; Bruyneel, B; Cederkall, J; Clement, E; Davinson, T; van Duppen, P; Ekstrom, A; Finke, F; Fraile, L M; Geibel, K; Gernhauser, R; Hess, H; Holler, A; Huyse, M; Ivanov, O; Jolie, J; Kalkuhler, M; Kotthaus, T; Krucken, R; Lutter, R; Piselli, E; Scheit, H; Stefanescu, I; van de Walle, J; Voulot, D; Warr, N; Wenander, F; Wiens, A


    The ground state properties of ^3^1Mg indicate a change of nuclear shape at N=19 with a deformed J^@p=1/2^+ intruder state as a ground state, implying that ^3^1Mg is part of the ''island of inversion''. The collective properties of excited states were the subject of a Coulomb excitation experiment at REX-ISOLDE, CERN, employing a radioactive ^3^1Mg beam. De-excitation @c-rays were detected by the MINIBALL @c-spectrometer in coincidence with scattered particles in a segmented Si-detector. The level scheme of ^3^1Mg was extended. Spin and parity assignment of the 945 keV state yielded 5/2^+ and its de-excitation is dominated by a strong collective M1 transition. Comparison of the transition probabilities of ^3^0^,^3^1^,^3^2Mg establishes that for th e N=19 magnesium isotope not only the ground state but also excited states are largely dominated by a deformed pf intruder configuration.

  20. Shell evolution of stable N = 50-56 Zr and Mo nuclei with respect to low-lying octupole excitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregor, E.T.; Scheck, M.; Chapman, R.; Gaffney, L.P.; Keatings, J.; Mashtakov, K.R.; O' Donnell, D.; Smith, J.F.; Spagnoletti, P.; Wiseman, C. [University of the West of Scotland, School of Engineering and Computing, Paisley (United Kingdom); SUPA, Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Thuerauf, M.; Werner, V. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Darmstadt (Germany)


    For the N = 50-56 zirconium (Z = 40) and molybdenum (Z = 42) isotopes, the evolution of subshells is evaluated by extracting the effective single-particle energies from available particle-transfer data. The extracted systematic evolution of neutron subshells and the systematics of the excitation energy of the octupole phonons provide evidence for type-II shape coexistence in the Zr isotopes. Employing a simplistic approach, the relative effective single-particle energies are used to estimate whether the formation of low-lying octupole-isovector excitations is possible at the proposed energies. The results raise doubts about this assignment. (orig.)

  1. Precursor preparation for Ca-Al layered double hydroxide to remove hexavalent chromium coexisting with calcium and magnesium chlorides (United States)

    Zhong, Lihua; He, Xiaoman; Qu, Jun; Li, Xuewei; Lei, Zhiwu; Zhang, Qiwu; Liu, Xinzhong


    Al(OH)3 and Ca(OH)2 powders are co-ground to prepare a precursor which hydrates into a layered double hydroxide (LDH) phase by agitation in aqueous solution with target hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) at room temperature, to achieve an obvious improvement in removal efficiency of Cr(VI) through an easy incorporation into the structure. Although the prepared precursor transforms into LDH phases also when agitated in the solutions of calcium and magnesium chlorides, it incorporates Cr(VI) preferentially to the chloride salts when they coexist. The adsorption isotherm and kinetic studies show that the phenomena occurring on the Al-Ca precursor fit a pseudo-second-order kinetics with a Langmuir adsorption capacity of 59.45 mg/g. Besides, characterizations of the prepared precursor and the samples after adsorption are also performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), Transmission electron microscope (TEM) to understand the reason of the preferential incorporation of Cr(VI) to the coexisting chloride salts during the LDH phase formation.

  2. Excitation of coherent oscillations in underdoped cuprate superconductors by intense THz pulses (United States)

    Hoffmann, Matthias C.; Lee, Wei-Sheng; Dakovski, Georgi L.; Turner, Joshua J.; Gerber, Simon M.; Bonn, Doug; Hardy, Walter; Liang, Ruixing; Salluzzo, Marco


    We use intense broadband THz pulses to excite the cuprate superconductors YBCO and NBCO in their underdoped phase, where superconducting and charge density wave ground states compete. We observe pronounced coherent oscillations at attributed to renormalized low-energy phonon modes. These oscillation features are much more prominent than those observed in all-optical pump-probe measurements, suggesting a different excitation mechanism.

  3. Indirect excitation of ultrafast demagnetization (United States)

    Vodungbo, Boris; Tudu, Bahrati; Perron, Jonathan; Delaunay, Renaud; Müller, Leonard; Berntsen, Magnus H.; Grübel, Gerhard; Malinowski, Grégory; Weier, Christian; Gautier, Julien; Lambert, Guillaume; Zeitoun, Philippe; Gutt, Christian; Jal, Emmanuelle; Reid, Alexander H.; Granitzka, Patrick W.; Jaouen, Nicolas; Dakovski, Georgi L.; Moeller, Stefan; Minitti, Michael P.; Mitra, Ankush; Carron, Sebastian; Pfau, Bastian; von Korff Schmising, Clemens; Schneider, Michael; Eisebitt, Stefan; Lüning, Jan


    Does the excitation of ultrafast magnetization require direct interaction between the photons of the optical pump pulse and the magnetic layer? Here, we demonstrate unambiguously that this is not the case. For this we have studied the magnetization dynamics of a ferromagnetic cobalt/palladium multilayer capped by an IR-opaque aluminum layer. Upon excitation with an intense femtosecond-short IR laser pulse, the film exhibits the classical ultrafast demagnetization phenomenon although only a negligible number of IR photons penetrate the aluminum layer. In comparison with an uncapped cobalt/palladium reference film, the initial demagnetization of the capped film occurs with a delayed onset and at a slower rate. Both observations are qualitatively in line with energy transport from the aluminum layer into the underlying magnetic film by the excited, hot electrons of the aluminum film. Our data thus confirm recent theoretical predictions.

  4. Magnetic excitations in deformed nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nojarov, R. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik


    Cross sections for inelastic electron scattering and energy distributions of M1 and E2 strengths of K{sup {pi}} - 1{sup +} excitations in titanium, rare-earth, and actinide nuclei are studied microscopically within QRPA. The spin M1 strength has two peaks, isoscalar and isovector, residing between the low-and high-energy orbital M1 strength. The latter is strongly fragmented and lies in the region of the IVGQR, where the (e,e`) cross sections are almost one order of magnitude larger for E2 than for M1 excitations. Comparison with the quantized isovector rotor allows the interpretation of all the orbital M1 excitations at both low and high energies as manifestation of the collective scissors mode. (author).

  5. Excitation optimization for damage detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bement, Matthew T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bewley, Thomas R [UCSD


    A technique is developed to answer the important question: 'Given limited system response measurements and ever-present physical limits on the level of excitation, what excitation should be provided to a system to make damage most detectable?' Specifically, a method is presented for optimizing excitations that maximize the sensitivity of output measurements to perturbations in damage-related parameters estimated with an extended Kalman filter. This optimization is carried out in a computationally efficient manner using adjoint-based optimization and causes the innovations term in the extended Kalman filter to be larger in the presence of estimation errors, which leads to a better estimate of the damage-related parameters in question. The technique is demonstrated numerically on a nonlinear 2 DOF system, where a significant improvement in the damage-related parameter estimation is observed.

  6. Indirect excitation of ultrafast demagnetization. (United States)

    Vodungbo, Boris; Tudu, Bharati; Tudu, Bahrati; Perron, Jonathan; Delaunay, Renaud; Müller, Leonard; Berntsen, Magnus H; Grübel, Gerhard; Malinowski, Grégory; Weier, Christian; Gautier, Julien; Lambert, Guillaume; Zeitoun, Philippe; Gutt, Christian; Jal, Emmanuelle; Reid, Alexander H; Granitzka, Patrick W; Jaouen, Nicolas; Dakovski, Georgi L; Moeller, Stefan; Minitti, Michael P; Mitra, Ankush; Carron, Sebastian; Pfau, Bastian; von Korff Schmising, Clemens; Schneider, Michael; Eisebitt, Stefan; Lüning, Jan


    Does the excitation of ultrafast magnetization require direct interaction between the photons of the optical pump pulse and the magnetic layer? Here, we demonstrate unambiguously that this is not the case. For this we have studied the magnetization dynamics of a ferromagnetic cobalt/palladium multilayer capped by an IR-opaque aluminum layer. Upon excitation with an intense femtosecond-short IR laser pulse, the film exhibits the classical ultrafast demagnetization phenomenon although only a negligible number of IR photons penetrate the aluminum layer. In comparison with an uncapped cobalt/palladium reference film, the initial demagnetization of the capped film occurs with a delayed onset and at a slower rate. Both observations are qualitatively in line with energy transport from the aluminum layer into the underlying magnetic film by the excited, hot electrons of the aluminum film. Our data thus confirm recent theoretical predictions.

  7. On the dispersion of two coexisting nongyrotropic ion species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Brinca


    Full Text Available Space observations in the solar wind and simulations of high Mach number bow-shocks have detected particle populations with two coexisting nongyrotropic ion species. We investigate the influence of these two sources of free energy on the stability of parallel (with respect to the ambient magnetic field and perpendicular propagation. For parallel modes, we derive their dispersion equation in a magnetoplasma with protons and alpha particles that may exhibit stationary nongyrotropy (SNG and discuss the characteristics of its solutions. Kinetic simulations study the behaviour of perpendicular electrostatic (Bernstein-like waves in a plasma whose ion populations (positrons and fictitious singly-charged particles with twice the electron mass, for the sake of simulation feasability can be time-varying nongyrotropic (TNG. The results show that the coexistence of two gyrophase bunched species does not significantly enhance the parallel SNG instability already found for media with only one nongyrotropic species, whereas it strongly intensifies the growth of Bernstein-like modes in TNG plasmas. Key words. Magnetospheric physics (plasma waves and instabilities · Space plasma physics (numerical simulation studies; waves and instabilities

  8. On the dispersion of two coexisting nongyrotropic ion species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Brinca

    Full Text Available Space observations in the solar wind and simulations of high Mach number bow-shocks have detected particle populations with two coexisting nongyrotropic ion species. We investigate the influence of these two sources of free energy on the stability of parallel (with respect to the ambient magnetic field and perpendicular propagation. For parallel modes, we derive their dispersion equation in a magnetoplasma with protons and alpha particles that may exhibit stationary nongyrotropy (SNG and discuss the characteristics of its solutions. Kinetic simulations study the behaviour of perpendicular electrostatic (Bernstein-like waves in a plasma whose ion populations (positrons and fictitious singly-charged particles with twice the electron mass, for the sake of simulation feasability can be time-varying nongyrotropic (TNG. The results show that the coexistence of two gyrophase bunched species does not significantly enhance the parallel SNG instability already found for media with only one nongyrotropic species, whereas it strongly intensifies the growth of Bernstein-like modes in TNG plasmas.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (plasma waves and instabilities · Space plasma physics (numerical simulation studies; waves and instabilities

  9. Wi-Fi Coexistence with Duty Cycled LTE-U

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yimin Pang


    Full Text Available Coexistence of Wi-Fi and LTE-Unlicensed (LTE-U technologies has drawn significant concern in industry. In this paper, we investigate the Wi-Fi performance in the presence of duty cycle based LTE-U transmission on the same channel. More specifically, one LTE-U cell and one Wi-Fi basic service set (BSS coexist by allowing LTE-U devices to transmit their signals only in predetermined duty cycles. Wi-Fi stations, on the other hand, simply contend the shared channel using the distributed coordination function (DCF protocol without cooperation with the LTE-U system or prior knowledge about the duty cycle period or duty cycle of LTE-U transmission. We define the fairness of the above scheme as the difference between Wi-Fi performance loss ratio (considering a defined reference performance and the LTE-U duty cycle (or function of LTE-U duty cycle. Depending on the interference to noise ratio (INR being above or below −62 dbm, we classify the LTE-U interference as strong or weak and establish mathematical models accordingly. The average throughput and average service time of Wi-Fi are both formulated as functions of Wi-Fi and LTE-U system parameters using probability theory. Lastly, we use the Monte Carlo analysis to demonstrate the fairness of Wi-Fi and LTE-U air time sharing.

  10. Coexisting Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms in Patients with Heart Failure (United States)

    Dekker, Rebecca L.; Lennie, Terry A.; Doering, Lynn V.; Chung, Misook L.; Wu, Jia-Rong; Moser, Debra K.


    Background Among patients with heart failure (HF), anxiety symptoms may co-exist with depressive symptoms. However, the extent of overlap and risk factors for anxiety symptoms have not been thoroughly described. Purpose To describe the coexistence of anxiety and depressive symptoms, and to determine the predictors of anxiety symptoms in patients with HF. Methods The sample consisted of 556 outpatients with HF (34% female, 62±12 years, 54% NYHA class III/IV) enrolled in a multicenter HF quality of life registry. Anxiety symptoms were assessed with the Brief Symptom Inventory-anxiety subscale. Depressive symptoms were measured with the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI). We used a cut-point of 0.35 to categorize patients as having anxiety symptoms or no anxiety symptoms. Logistic regression was used to determine whether age, gender, minority status, educational level, functional status, comorbidities, depressive symptoms, and antidepressant use were predictors of anxiety symptoms. Results One-third of patients had both depressive and anxiety symptoms. There was a dose-response relationship between depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms; higher levels of depressive symptoms were associated with a higher level of anxiety symptoms. Younger age (OR= 0.97, p = .004, 95% CI 0.95–0.99) and depressive symptoms (OR = 1.25, p depressive symptoms are at high risk for experiencing anxiety symptoms. Clinicians should assess these patients for comorbid anxiety symptoms. Research is needed to test interventions for both depressive and anxiety symptoms. PMID:24408885

  11. Treatment of advanced ovarian carcinoma coexistent with peritoneal tuberculosis (United States)



    Primary ovarian carcinoma is often chemosensitive. Therefore, aggressive treatment is recommended for patients with ovarian carcinoma. Peritoneal tuberculosis is rare and may present with symptoms similar to those of advanced ovarian carcinoma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a case of primary advanced ovarian carcinoma coexistent with peritoneal tuberculosis. The patient had undergone three courses of neoadjuvant chemotherapy with tri-weekly paclitaxel and carboplatin (TC), followed by total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, omentectomy and pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy. The postoperative pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of ovarian serous papillary adenocarcinoma coexistent with peritoneal tuberculosis. The patient was started on antituberculous chemotherapy, followed 2 weeks later by four courses of antitumor chemotherapy with weekly TC. The plasma concentration of paclitaxel was measured after the first administration of TC. We considered that rifampicin may enhance the metabolism of paclitaxel, causing the plasma concentration of paclitaxel to decrease. Therefore, rifampicin administration was discontinued on days 1, 8 and 15. The patient completed the antitumor and antituberculous chemotherapy and has remained alive and recurrence-free for 5-years. Although rifampicin may enhance the metabolism of paclitaxel, we suggest that it may be possible to administer concurrent antituberculous and antitumor chemotherapy under close observation. PMID:24649297

  12. Coexistence of Ovarian Cancer and Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-How Huang


    Full Text Available Coexistence of ovarian cancer and renal cell carcinoma (RCC is extremely rare. Only one case was diagnosed in a total of 584 patients with RCC from 1982 to 2002 at our hospital. A 58-year-old woman presented with an enlarged girdle length for 3 months. Computed tomography scan showed a right cystic adnexal mass measuring 10 × 10 cm, and another tumor measuring 3 × 2 cm at the right kidney. She underwent debulking surgery and radical nephrectomy. Pathologic examination revealed right ovarian clear-cell carcinoma with peritoneal, omental, and fallopian tube metastasis, and conventional clear-cell renal carcinoma. RCC was strongly positive in epithelial membrane antigen (EMA staining and negative in estrogen receptors (ER, progesterone receptors (PR, 34bE12 (high molecular weight cytokeratin, and vimentin staining. Ovarian clear-cell carcinoma showed weakly positive results in EMA staining and negative results in ER, PR, 34bE12, and vimentin staining. Although chemotherapy was given, the patient died of disseminated ovarian cancer metastasis 20 months after operation. In conclusion, coexistence of RCC and ovarian cancer is rare and the pathogenesis remains to be clarified. [J Formos Med Assoc 2007;106(3 Suppl:S15-S19

  13. Coexistence of ferromagnetism and superconductivity in YBCO nanoparticles. (United States)

    Zhu, Zhonghua; Gao, Daqiang; Dong, Chunhui; Yang, Guijin; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Jinlin; Shi, Zhenhua; Gao, Hua; Luo, Honggang; Xue, Desheng


    Nanoparticles of superconducting YBa(2)Cu(3)O(7-δ) were synthesized via a citrate pyrolysis technique. Room temperature ferromagnetism was revealed in the samples by a vibrating sample magnetometer. Electron spin resonance spectra at selected temperatures indicated that there is a transition from the normal to the superconducting state at temperatures below 100 K. The M-T curves with various applied magnetic fields showed that the superconducting transition temperatures are 92 K and 55 K for the air-annealed and the post-annealed samples, respectively. Compared to the air-annealed sample, the saturation magnetization of the sample by reheating the air-annealed one in argon atmosphere is enhanced but its superconductivity is weakened, which implies that the ferromagnetism maybe originates from the surface oxygen defects. By superconducting quantum interference device measurements, we further confirmed the ferromagnetic behavior at high temperatures and interesting upturns in field cooling magnetization curves within the superconducting region are found. We attributed the upturn phenomena to the coexistence of ferromagnetism and superconductivity at low temperatures. Room temperature ferromagnetism of superconducting YBa(2)Cu(3)O(7-δ) nanoparticles has been observed in some previous related studies, but the issue of the coexistence of ferromagnetism and superconductivity within the superconducting region is still unclear. In the present work, it will be addressed in detail. The cooperation phenomena found in the spin-singlet superconductors will help us to understand the nature of superconductivity and ferromagnetism in more depth.

  14. Gynaecological cancers coexisting with pregnancy – a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Skrzypczyk-Ostaszewicz


    Full Text Available The coexistence of malignant tumour and pregnancy is a state of simultaneous occurrence of two completely contradictory philosophical and biological phenomena – the development of a new life and a life-threatening terminal illness. Finally, a physician – in fact the whole team of doctors – is facing the fight for two lives: of the mother and her unborn child. The incidence of malignant disease in pregnancy is 0.05 to 0.1%. This condition is a major challenge for physicians because there are no randomised studies that could be the basis to choose the therapeutic methods – the medical knowledge merely comes from case reports, registries, and observational studies. The following cancers most often coexist with pregnancy: gynaecological neoplasm (especially cervical and ovarian cancer, breast cancer, lymphatic system neoplasm, and melanoma. Formerly, the diagnosis was clearly the necessity of abortion. Today – although unskilled doctors still propose the only therapeutic option – termination of pregnancy is not the only solution. The past few years have seen the updating of reports and guidelines for the management of pregnant women with cancer. This paper is a review and summary of the information from these publications.

  15. Autoresonant Excitation of Antiproton Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Andresen, Gorm B; Baquero-Ruiz, Marcelo; Bertsche, William; Bowe, Paul D; Butler, Eoin; Carpenter, P T; Cesar, Claudio L; Chapman, Steven; Charlton, Michael; Fajans, Joel; Friesen, Tim; Fujiwara, Makoto C; Gill, David R; Hangst, Jeffrey S; Hardy, Walter N; Hayden, Michael E; Humphries, Andrew J; Hurt, J L; Hydomako, Richard; Jonsell, Svante; Madsen, Niels; Menary, Scott; Nolan, Paul; Olchanski, Konstantin; Olin, Art; Povilus, Alexander; Pusa, Petteri; Robicheaux, Francis; Sarid, Eli; Silveira, Daniel M; So, Chukman; Storey, James W; Thompson, Robert I; van der Werf, Dirk P; Wurtele, Jonathan S; Yamazaki, Yasunori


    We demonstrate controllable excitation of the center-of-mass longitudinal motion of a thermal antiproton plasma using a swept-frequency autoresonant drive. When the plasma is cold, dense, and highly collective in nature, we observe that the entire system behaves as a single-particle nonlinear oscillator, as predicted by a recent theory. In contrast, only a fraction of the antiprotons in a warm plasma can be similarly excited. Antihydrogen was produced and trapped by using this technique to drive antiprotons into a positron plasma, thereby initiating atomic recombination.

  16. Multiphoton interband excitations of quantum gases in driven optical lattices (United States)

    Weinberg, M.; Ölschläger, C.; Sträter, C.; Prelle, S.; Eckardt, A.; Sengstock, K.; Simonet, J.


    We report on the observation of multiphoton interband absorption processes for quantum gases in shaken light crystals. Periodic inertial forcing, induced by a spatial motion of the lattice potential, drives multiphoton interband excitations of up to the ninth order. The occurrence of such excitation features is systematically investigated with respect to the potential depth and the driving amplitude. Ab initio calculations of resonance positions as well as numerical evaluation of their strengths exhibit good agreement with experimental data. In addition our findings could make it possible to reach novel phases of quantum matter by tailoring appropriate driving schemes.

  17. Liquid-gas coexistence and critical point shifts in size-disperse fluids (United States)

    Wilding, Nigel B.; Fasolo, Moreno; Sollich, Peter


    Specialized Monte Carlo simulations and the moment free energy (MFE) method are employed to study liquid-gas phase equilibria in size-disperse fluids. The investigation is made subject to the constraint of fixed polydispersity, i.e., the form of the "parent" density distribution ρ0(σ) of the particle diameters σ, is prescribed. This is the experimentally realistic scenario for, e.g., colloidal dispersions. The simulations are used to obtain the cloud and shadow curve properties of a Lennard-Jones fluid having diameters distributed according to a Schulz form with a large (δ≈40%) degree of polydispersity. Good qualitative accord is found with the results from a MFE method study of a corresponding van der Waals model that incorporates size dispersity both in the hard core reference and the attractive parts of the free energy. The results show that polydispersity engenders considerable broadening of the coexistence region between the cloud curves. The principal effect of fractionation in this region is a common overall scaling of the particle sizes and typical interparticle distances, and we discuss why this effect is rather specific to systems with Schulz diameter distributions. Next, by studying a family of such systems with distributions of various widths, we estimate the dependence of the critical point parameters on δ. In contrast to a previous theoretical prediction, size dispersity is found to raise the critical temperature above its monodisperse value. Unusually for a polydisperse system, the critical point is found to lie at or very close to the extremum of the coexistence region in all cases. We outline an argument showing that such behavior will occur whenever polydispersity affects only the range, rather than the strength of the interparticle interactions.

  18. Coexistence of superconductivity and ferromagnetism in cluster-assembled Sn–Co nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houben, K., E-mail: [KU Leuven, Laboratory of Solid-State Physics and Magnetism, Celestijnenlaan 200 D, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Menéndez, E. [KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern-en Stralingsfysica, Celestijnenlaan 200 D, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Romero, C.P. [KU Leuven, Laboratory of Solid-State Physics and Magnetism, Celestijnenlaan 200 D, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Trekels, M. [KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern-en Stralingsfysica, Celestijnenlaan 200 D, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Picot, T. [KU Leuven, Laboratory of Solid-State Physics and Magnetism, Celestijnenlaan 200 D, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Vantomme, A.; Temst, K. [KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern-en Stralingsfysica, Celestijnenlaan 200 D, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Van Bael, M.J. [KU Leuven, Laboratory of Solid-State Physics and Magnetism, Celestijnenlaan 200 D, 3001 Leuven (Belgium)


    Highlights: • Superconductivity in Sn–Co nanocomposites is tuned by morphology and composition. • Coexistence of superconductivity and ferromagnetism achieved up to high Co content. • Electronic coupling between grains is reduced by creating low transparency interfaces. • Insight in contribution of different pair breaking mechanisms in hybrid superconductor. - Abstract: The coexistence of superconductivity and ferromagnetism is investigated in granular Sn–Co nanocomposites. The nanocomposites have been prepared by co-deposition of Sn atoms and Co clusters, the morphology and composition of which can be tuned by varying the deposition rate of Co clusters relative to Sn atoms. Flat isolated Sn islands are obtained at zero or low Co cluster flux, while granular nanocomposites are formed with increasing Co cluster flux, reaching Co concentrations up to 44 vol.%. Interfaces with a low electronic transparency between superconductor and ferromagnet are obtained by a combination of the granular nature of the nanocomposites and the formation of Sn–Co alloys at the Sn/Co interfaces. The structure and composition of the nanocomposites have been thoroughly characterized by atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction and conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy. Over the entire Co concentration range, the hybrids show a ferromagnetic response. The superconducting phase boundary and the Meissner response depend on the morphology and composition of the nanocomposites. In particular, the superconducting critical temperature decreases with increasing Co concentration, while the Meissner response varies from a reversible to a strongly hysteretic behaviour depending on the morphology of the samples with different Co content. The persistence of superconductivity at high Co concentrations is attributed to a suppression of the superconducting proximity effect in these nanocomposites, which is ascribed to the low interface transparency between the Sn and Co components

  19. Uncovering phase-coupled oscillatory networks in electrophysiological data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meij, R. van der; Jacobs, J.; Maris, E.G.G.


    Phase consistent neuronal oscillations are ubiquitous in electrophysiological recordings, and they may reflect networks of phase-coupled neuronal populations oscillating at different frequencies. Because neuronal oscillations may reflect rhythmic modulations of neuronal excitability, phase-coupled

  20. Miscibility Phase Diagrams of Giant Vesicles Containing Sphingomyelin (United States)

    Veatch, Sarah L.; Keller, Sarah L.


    Saturated sphingomyelin (SM) lipids are implicated in lipid rafts in cell plasma membranes. Here we use fluorescence microscopy to observe coexisting liquid domains in vesicles containing SM, an unsaturated phosphatidylcholine lipid (either DOPC or POPC), and cholesterol. We note similar phase behavior in a model membrane mixture without SM (DOPC/DPPC/Chol), but find no micron-scale liquid domains in membranes of POPC/PSM/Chol. We delineate the onset of solid phases below the miscibility transition temperature, and detail indirect evidence for a three-phase coexistence of one solid and two liquid phases.

  1. Crystal-liquid-gas phase transitions and thermodynamic similarity

    CERN Document Server

    Skripov, Vladimir P; Schmelzer, Jurn W P


    Professor Skripov obtained worldwide recognition with his monograph ""Metastable liquids"", published in English by Wiley & Sons. Based upon this work and another monograph published only in Russia, this book investigates the behavior of melting line and the properties of the coexisting crystal and liquid phase of simple substances across a wide range of pressures, including metastable states of the coexisting phases. The authors derive new relations for the thermodynamic similarity for liquid-vapour phase transition, as well as describing solid-liquid, liquid-vapor and liquid-liquid phase tra

  2. Cognitive radio networks medium access control for coexistence of wireless systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bian, Kaigui; Gao, Bo


    This book gives a comprehensive overview of the medium access control (MAC) principles in cognitive radio networks, with a specific focus on how such MAC principles enable different wireless systems to coexist in the same spectrum band and carry out spectrum sharing.  From algorithm design to the latest developments in the standards and spectrum policy, readers will benefit from leading-edge knowledge of how cognitive radio systems coexist and share spectrum resources.  Coverage includes cognitive radio rendezvous, spectrum sharing, channel allocation, coexistence in TV white space, and coexistence of heterogeneous wireless systems.   • Provides a comprehensive reference on medium access control (MAC)-related problems in the design of cognitive radio systems and networks; • Includes detailed analysis of various coexistence problems related to medium access control in cognitive radio networks; • Reveals novel techniques for addressing the challenges of coexistence protocol design at a higher level ...

  3. Performance of thermally excited resonators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt; van Ouwerkerk, R.H.; Bouwstra, S.; Bouwstra, S.; Fluitman, J.H.J.

    A study of electrothermal excitation of micro-machined silicon beams is reported. The temperature distribution is calculated as a function of the position of the transducer, resulting in stress in the structure which reduces the resonance frequency. Test samples are realized and measurements or

  4. Indirect excitation of ultrafast demagnetization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vodungbo, B.; Tudu, B.; Perron, J.; Delaunay, R.; Müller, L.; Berntsen, M.H.; Grübel, G.; Malinowski, G.; Weier, C.; Gautier, J.; Lambert, G.; Zeitoun, P.; Gutt, C.; Jal, E.; Reid, A.H.; Granitzka, P.W.; Jaouen, N,; Dakovski, G.L.; Moeller, S.; Minitti, M.P.; Mitra, A.; Carron, S.; Pfau, B.; von Korff Schmising, C.; Schneider, M.; Eisebitt, S.; Lüning, J.


    Does the excitation of ultrafast magnetization require direct interaction between the photons of the optical pump pulse and the magnetic layer? Here, we demonstrate unambiguously that this is not the case. For this we have studied the magnetization dynamics of a ferromagnetic cobalt/palladium

  5. Predictions for Excited Strange Baryons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernando, Ishara P.; Goity, Jose L. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)


    An assessment is made of predictions for excited hyperon masses which follow from flavor symmetry and consistency with a 1/N c expansion of QCD. Such predictions are based on presently established baryonic resonances. Low lying hyperon resonances which do not seem to fit into the proposed scheme are discussed.

  6. Analysis of Synchronization Phenomena in Broadband Signals with Nonlinear Excitable Media (United States)

    Chernihovskyi, Anton; Elger, Christian E.; Lehnertz, Klaus


    We apply the method of frequency-selective excitation waves in excitable media to characterize synchronization phenomena in interacting complex dynamical systems by measuring coincidence rates of induced excitations. We relax the frequency-selectivity of excitable media and demonstrate two applications of the method to signals with broadband spectra. Findings obtained from analyzing time series of coupled chaotic oscillators as well as electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings from an epilepsy patient indicate that this method can provide an alternative and complementary way to estimate the degree of phase synchronization in noisy signals.

  7. Analysis of Synchronization Phenomena in Broadband Signals with Nonlinear Excitable Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Lehnertz


    Full Text Available We apply the method of frequency-selective excitation waves in excitable media to characterize synchronization phenomena in interacting complex dynamical systems by measuring coincidence rates of induced excitations. We relax the frequency-selectivity of excitable media and demonstrate two applications of the method to signals with broadband spectra. Findings obtained from analyzing time series of coupled chaotic oscillators as well as electroencephalographic (EEG recordings from an epilepsy patient indicate that this method can provide an alternative and complementary way to estimate the degree of phase synchronization in noisy signals.

  8. Does DNA have two structures in solution that coexist at equilibrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozansky, E.D.; Sobell, H.M.; Lessen, M.


    The existence of two discrete structures for different regions of DNA at equilibrium in solution is postulated. These structures correspond to B DNA and to an inelastically deformed DNA structure, denoted ..beta.. kinked DNA. ..beta.. kinked DNA corresponds to a second order phase transition in the polymer, different regions of DNA undergoing this transition at different temperatures, and arises from a specific normal mode oscillation in DNA structure that is excited by Brownian motion of solvent molecules. It is possible that these multiply-kinked premelted regions play an important role in RNA polymerase--promoter recognition.

  9. CT analysis of lung cancer and coexistent emphysema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Kyung Hee; Chung, Myung Hee; Sung, Mi Sook; Yoo, Won Jong; Son, Kyung Myung; Son, Jung Min; Park, Seog Hee [College of Medicine, The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)


    To evaluate the relation of the location and cell type of lung cancer to the location and degree in coexistent emphysema on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scans. Ninety-eight of 209 lung cancer patients having HRCT scans were retrospectively analyzed to assess the total lung emphysema and peritumoral regional emphysema. Single and primary lung cancers were included. The clinical data, including sex, age, smoking history and the pathologic cancer subtype, were recorded to correlate with the HRCT findings. The lobar distribution, central-peripheral predominance, surrounding parenchymal abnormality for cancer, cephalocaudal predominance, and subtype for emphysema were analyzed on HRCT. Using a CT scoring method, we scored the whole lung emphysema and peritumoral emphysema, and correlated the grading of emphysema with pulmonary functional values. Sixty-nine of 98 patients with lung cancer (71%) had emphysema. Lung cancer with emphysema was significantly higher in men than in women, and was significantly related to smoking. The mean age of cancer patients without emphysema was significantly lower than that of cancer patients with emphysema (68 yrs vs. 61 yrs, p= 0.0006). Emphysema of grade I (0-25%) was found in 52 cases, grade II (25-50%) in 15, and grade III (50-75%) in 2. Total emphysema score was paralleled to peritumoral emphysema score in 64.3%, while the remaining patients had a higher peritumoral emphysema score (grade II or III) than total emphysema score (grade 0 or I). There was no statistical correlation in the developmental location between the emphysema and the lung cancer (significant correlation was only noted in grade II group of total emphysema score). The incidence of non-small cell carcinoma tended to be higher than that of small cell carcinoma in the two groups. The possibility of lung cancer in patients with pulmonary nodule, coexisting emphysema, and especially in elderly patients having a history of smoking must be clarified on HRCT

  10. Coexistence: Threat to the Performance of Heterogeneous Network (United States)

    Sharma, Neetu; Kaur, Amanpreet


    Wireless technology is gaining broad acceptance as users opt for the freedom that only wireless network can provide. Well-accepted wireless communication technologies generally operate in frequency bands that are shared among several users, often using different RF schemes. This is true in particular for WiFi, Bluetooth, and more recently ZigBee. These all three operate in the unlicensed 2.4 GHz band, also known as ISM band, which has been key to the development of a competitive and innovative market for wireless embedded devices. But, as with any resource held in common, it is crucial that those technologies coexist peacefully to allow each user of the band to fulfill its communication goals. This has led to an increase in wireless devices intended for use in IEEE 802.11 wireless local area networks (WLANs) and wireless personal area networks (WPANs), both of which support operation in the crowded 2.4-GHz industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) band. Despite efforts made by standardization bodies to ensure smooth coexistence it may occur that communication technologies transmitting for instance at very different power levels interfere with each other. In particular, it has been pointed out that ZigBee could potentially experience interference from WiFi traffic given that while both protocols can transmit on the same channel, WiFi transmissions usually occur at much higher power level. In this work, we considered a heterogeneous network and analyzed the impact of coexistence between IEEE 802.15.4 and IEEE 802.11b. To evaluate the performance of this network, measurement and simulation study are conducted and developed in the QualNet Network simulator, version 5.0.Model is analyzed for different placement models or topologies such as Random. Grid & Uniform. Performance is analyzed on the basis of characteristics such as throughput, average jitter and average end to end delay. Here, the impact of varying different antenna gain & shadowing model for this

  11. Low-spin non-yrast states in light tungsten isotopes and the evolution of shape coexistence

    CERN Document Server

    Kibedi, T; Byrne, A P; Davidson, P M


    Excited states in sup 1 sup 7 sup 0 W, sup 1 sup 7 sup 2 W, sup 1 sup 7 sup 4 W, sup 1 sup 7 sup 6 W and sup 1 sup 7 sup 8 W have been populated in the beta-decay of sup 1 sup 7 sup 0 sup - sup 1 sup 7 sup 8 Re isotopes and studied using gamma-ray singles and coincidence techniques, utilising the high efficiency of a Compton-suppressed array, and conversion electron systems. Many new states at low excitation energies have been identified, complementing the level schemes previously established from in-beam studies. A large body of data on decay properties, spins and parities, and relative E2 and E0 matrix elements has been obtained. The properties of the K suppi=0 sup + ('quasi'-beta) and the K suppi=2 sup + ('quasi'-gamma) bands are compared with similar bands observed in light osmium, platinum and mercury isotopes, where shape coexistence has been established at low spin.

  12. Low energy magnetic excitations in superconducting YbSnPd{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giudicelli, P. E-mail:; Roessli, B.; Stunault, A.; Ollivier, J.; Amato, A.; Sugawara, H.; Bernhoeft, N


    The Heusler compound YbSnPd{sub 2} exhibits singular thermodynamic and transport properties, with coexistence of superconductivity and antiferromagnetism at low temperature (T<220 mK). The field and temperature dependencies of the low energy magnetic fluctuations have been studied by inelastic neutron scattering, for temperatures down to 60 mK and magnetic fields up to 2.5 T. We report the observation of a novel excitation characteristic of a magnetic-fluid in addition to the anticipated Zeeman doublet of a {gamma}{sub 7} crystalline electric field ground state.

  13. Coexistence of Colon Cancer and Diverticilutis Complicated with Diverticular Abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dursun Ozgur Karakas


    Full Text Available Coexistence of a diverticular abscess and colorectal cancer is an extremely rare phenomenon. The clinical presentation and the extension of a diverticular abscess could cause mis-staging of colon cancer. We are presenting an overstaged colon cancer due to a diverticular abscess penetrating into the abdominal wall. A 65-year-old male patient with a history of an enlarging mass in the left lower quadrant of the abdomen was admitted to our service. Diagnostic studies revealed a sigmoid tumor communicating with an abdominal wall mass. The patient was clinically staged as T4 N1. Exploration revealed a diverticular abscess penetrating into the abdominal wall and a sigmoid tumor. Histopathological examination reported an intermediately differentiated T3 N0 adenocarcinoma of the sigmoid colon. After an uneventful postoperative recovery, the patient was referred to chemotherapy. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2015; 4(4.000: 231-233

  14. Co-existence of Pulmonary, Tonsillar and Laryngeal Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkan Ceylan


    Full Text Available    A 56-year old man applied to otorhinolaryngology clinic with sore throat, dysphagia. During direct examination, left palatine tonsil and tonsil plicas ulcerovegetative lesions were found. In the indirect laryngoscopy, in some regions of the larynx and epiglottis, ulcerovegetative lesions were observed too. Because of suspicion of laryngeal carcinoma and metastasis, punch biopsy of the left palatine tonsil was performed. Chest x-ray and computerized tomography of the thorax revealed two adjacent cavitations in the apicoposterior segment of the left upper lobe. In the histopathologic examination of biopsies, granulomatous structures that proved tuberculosis were observed. In the fiberoptic bronchoscopic analysis, endobronchial lesion was not detected. Acid-fast bacilli were determined in sputum and bronchial lavage in microscopy and culture. The case of this middle aged male patient with co-existence of tonsillar, laryngeal and pulmonary tuberculosis presents the clinical significance of upper airway tuberculosis in terms of its infectiousness and rare occurrence.

  15. The Coexistence of Coeliac Disease, Psoriasis and Vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevgi Akarsu


    Full Text Available It has been defined that coeliac disease is associated with most of the autoimmune diseases including psoriasis and vitiligo. Here, a 26-year-old woman who was diagnosed palmoplantar pustular psoriasis and already had coeliac disease and vitiligo is reported. According to our opinions, this is the first report describing the development of these three disorders in one patient, even though vitiligo, psoriasis and coeliac disease are common disorders, and the coexistence of the two of them has been previously reported in the literature. This case has been presented to emphasize the importance of considering and inquiring the possible coeliac disease in chronic and autoimmune dermatoses, although psoriasis and vitiligo may have coincidental associations with coeliac disease.

  16. Coexistence between Cyphomyrmex ants and dominant populations of Wasmannia auropunctata. (United States)

    Grangier, Julien; Le Breton, Julien; Dejean, Alain; Orivel, Jérôme


    The little fire ant Wasmannia auropunctata is able to develop highly dominant populations in disturbed areas of its native range, with a resulting negative impact on ant diversity. We report here on the tolerance of such populations towards several fungus-growing ants of the genus Cyphomyrmex (rimosus complex) in French Guiana. This tolerance is surprising given the usually high interspecific aggressiveness of W. auropunctata when dominant. In order to understand the mechanisms behind such proximity, aggressiveness tests were performed between workers of the different species. These behavioural assays revealed a great passivity in Cyphomyrmex workers during confrontations with W. auropunctata workers. We also found that the aggressiveness between W. auropunctata and two Cyphomyrmex species was more intense between distant nests than between adjacent ones. This dear-enemy phenomenon may result from a process of habituation contributing to the ants' ability to coexist over the long term.

  17. Salivary mucins promote the coexistence of competing oral bacterial species. (United States)

    Frenkel, Erica Shapiro; Ribbeck, Katharina


    Mucus forms a major ecological niche for microbiota in various locations throughout the human body such as the gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract and oral cavity. The primary structural components of mucus are mucin glycoproteins, which crosslink to form a complex polymer network that surrounds microbes. Although the mucin matrix could create constraints that impact inhabiting microbes, little is understood about how this key environmental factor affects interspecies interactions. In this study, we develop an experimental model using gel-forming human salivary mucins to understand the influence of mucin on the viability of two competing species of oral bacteria. We use this dual-species model to show that mucins promote the coexistence of the two competing bacteria and that mucins shift cells from the mixed-species biofilm into the planktonic form. Taken together, these findings indicate that the mucus environment could influence bacterial viability by promoting a less competitive mode of growth.

  18. Entanglement Swapping between Photons that have Never Coexisted (United States)

    Megidish, E.; Halevy, A.; Shacham, T.; Dvir, T.; Dovrat, L.; Eisenberg, H. S.


    The role of the timing and order of quantum measurements is not just a fundamental question of quantum mechanics, but also a puzzling one. Any part of a quantum system that has finished evolving can be measured immediately or saved for later, without affecting the final results, regardless of the continued evolution of the rest of the system. In addition, the nonlocality of quantum mechanics, as manifested by entanglement, does not apply only to particles with spacelike separation, but also to particles with timelike separation. In order to demonstrate these principles, we generated and fully characterized an entangled pair of photons that have never coexisted. Using entanglement swapping between two temporally separated photon pairs, we entangle one photon from the first pair with another photon from the second pair. The first photon was detected even before the other was created. The observed two-photon state demonstrates that entanglement can be shared between timelike separated quantum systems.

  19. [Coexistence of autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 3 with diabetes insipidus]. (United States)

    Krysiak, Robert; Okopień, Bogusław


    Autoimmune polyglandular syndromes are conditions characterized by the combination of two or more organ-specific disorders. The underestimation oftheir real frequency probable results from physicians' inadequate knowledge of these clinical entities and sometimes their atypical clinical presentation. Because they comprise a wide spectrum of autoimmune disorders, autoimmune polyglandular syndromes are divided into four types, among which type-3 is the most common one. In this article, we report the case of a young female, initially diagnosed with diabetes mellitus who several years later developed full-blown autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 3 consisting of autoimmune thyroid disorder and latent autoimmune diabetes in adults.The discussed case suggests that in selected patients diabetes insipidus may coexist with autoimmune endocrinopathies and nonendocrine autoimmunopathies, as well as that in some patients idiopathic diabetes insipidus may be secondary to lymphocytic infiltration and destruction of the hypothalamic supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei and/or the supraoptic-hypophyseal tract

  20. Coexistence of two types of metal filaments in oxide memristors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Xu


    Full Text Available One generally considers the conducting filament in ZnO-based valence change memristors (VCMs as an aggregation of oxygen vacancies. Recently, the transmission electron microscopy observation showed the filament is composed of a Zn-dominated ZnOx. In this study, careful analysis of the temperature dependence of the ON state resistance demonstrates that the formation/rupture of a Zn filament is responsible for the resistive switching in ZnO VCMs. Cu/ZnO/Pt memristive devices can be operated in both VCM and ECM (electrochemical metallization memristor modes by forming different metal filaments including Cu, Zn and a coexistence of these two filaments. The device operation can be reversibly switched between ECM and VCM modes. The dual mode operation capability of Cu/ZnO/Pt provides a wide choice of select devices for constructing memristive crossbar architectures.

  1. Moyamoya Disease with Coexistent Hypertriglyceridemia in Pediatric Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Chan


    Full Text Available Moyamoya disease is a rare chronic and progressive cerebrovascular disease of the arteries of the circle of Willis that can affect children and adults. It has been associated with multiple diseases, including immunologic, like Graves’ disease, diabetes mellitus, and SLE. Hyperlipidemia has been recognized in patients with Moyamoya disease with an incidence of 27–37%. However, no case in pediatric patients has been reported of the coexistence of Moyamoya disease and hyperlipidemia. Here we present a case of a 9-year-old female diagnosed with Moyamoya disease after a stroke with incidental finding of familial hypercholesterolemia. This finding will make our patient a very unique case, since there has not been any reporting of Moyamoya disease and hypercholesterolemia association.

  2. Coexistence of carcinoma and tuberculosis in one breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalal Neha


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The coexistence of breast cancer and tuberculosis is very rare. This can create a dilemma in the diagnosis and treatment as there are no pathognomonic symptoms or signs to distinguish both diseases. Case presentation A female patient was seen in the breast clinic for a right breast lump. Clinical examination and investigation confirmed cancer and tuberculosis of the right breast. She underwent right mastectomy and axillary clearance and received chemo and radiotherapy. Unfortunately, she died of wide spread metastases. Conclusion The simultaneous occurrence of these two major illnesses in the breast can lead to many problems regarding diagnosis and treatment. Though rare, surgeons, pathologists and radiologists should be aware of such condition.

  3. Species Coexistence in Nitrifying Chemostats: A Model of Microbial Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime Dumont


    Full Text Available In a previous study, the two nitrifying functions (ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB or nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB of a nitrification reactor—operated continuously over 525 days with varying inputs—were assigned using a mathematical modeling approach together with the monitoring of bacterial phylotypes. Based on these theoretical identifications, we develop here a chemostat model that does not explicitly include only the resources’ dynamics (different forms of soluble nitrogen but also explicitly takes into account microbial inter- and intra-species interactions for the four dominant phylotypes detected in the chemostat. A comparison of the models obtained with and without interactions has shown that such interactions permit the coexistence of two competing ammonium-oxidizing bacteria and two competing nitrite-oxidizing bacteria in competition for ammonium and nitrite, respectively. These interactions are analyzed and discussed.

  4. Good Fences: The Importance of Setting Boundaries for Peaceful Coexistence

    CERN Document Server

    Rutherford, Alex; Werfel, Justin; Bar-Yam, Shlomiya; Gard-Murray, Alexander; Gros, Andreas; Bar-Yam, Yaneer


    We consider the conditions of peace and violence among ethnic groups, testing a theory designed to predict the locations of violence and interventions that can promote peace. Characterizing the model's success in predicting peace requires examples where peace prevails despite diversity. Switzerland is recognized as a country of peace, stability and prosperity. This is surprising because of its linguistic and religious diversity that in other parts of the world lead to conflict and violence. Here we analyze how peaceful stability is maintained. Our analysis shows that peace does not depend on integrated coexistence, but rather on well defined topographical and political boundaries separating groups. Mountains and lakes are an important part of the boundaries between sharply defined linguistic areas. Political canton and circle (sub-canton) boundaries often separate religious groups. Where such boundaries do not appear to be sufficient, we find that specific aspects of the population distribution either guarant...

  5. Coexistence of negative photoconductivity and hysteresis in semiconducting graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang, Shendong; Tang, Nujiang; Chen, Zhuo, E-mail: [School of Physics, National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, and Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, No. 22 Hankou Road, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210093 (China); Chen, Yan; Xia, Yidong [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, and Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, No. 22 Hankou Road, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210093 (China); Xu, Xiaoyong; Hu, Jingguo, E-mail: [School of Physics Science and Technology, Yangzhou University, No. 180 Siwangting Road, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, 225002 (China)


    Solution-processed graphene quantum dots (GQDs) possess a moderate bandgap, which make them a promising candidate for optoelectronics devices. However, negative photoconductivity (NPC) and hysteresis that happen in the photoelectric conversion process could be harmful to performance of the GQDs-based devices. So far, their origins and relations have remained elusive. Here, we investigate experimentally the origins of the NPC and hysteresis in GQDs. By comparing the hysteresis and photoconductance of GQDs under different relative humidity conditions, we are able to demonstrate that NPC and hysteresis coexist in GQDs and both are attributed to the carrier trapping effect of surface adsorbed moisture. We also demonstrate that GQDs could exhibit positive photoconductivity with three-order-of-magnitude reduction of hysteresis after a drying process and a subsequent encapsulation. Considering the pervasive moisture adsorption, our results may pave the way for a commercialization of semiconducting graphene-based and diverse solution-based optoelectronic devices.

  6. Coexistence of the niche and neutral perspectives in community ecology. (United States)

    Leibold, Mathew A; McPeek, Mark A


    The neutral theory for community structure and biodiversity is dependent on the assumption that species are equivalent to each other in all important ecological respects. We explore what this concept of equivalence means in ecological communities, how such species may arise evolutionarily, and how the possibility of ecological equivalents relates to previous ideas about niche differentiation. We also show that the co-occurrence of ecologically similar or equivalent species is not incompatible with niche theory as has been supposed, because niche relations can sometimes favor coexistence of similar species. We argue that both evolutionary and ecological processes operate to promote the introduction and to sustain the persistence of ecologically similar and in many cases nearly equivalent species embedded in highly structured food webs. Future work should focus on synthesizing niche and neutral perspectives rather than dichotomously debating whether neutral or niche models provide better explanations for community structure and biodiversity.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Carranza-Peña


    Full Text Available This article, which stems from ethnographic research, shows the importance of faculty intervention in the classroom setting in encouraging student attendance. Our findings indicate that the habitus the educator establishes can either encourage youth to continue their studies, or lead them to drop out, thus placing them at risk of addictions, illegal activities, unemployment or low-paid jobs. The Pedagogy of Hope therefore provides an option for effecting large-scale changes in personal, school, family, community and socio-economic conditions. The paper’s conclusions include providing training to teaching faculties on coexistence issues; ensuring coordination between school and family, and emphasizing an integral approach to education as means of promoting school attendance.

  8. Coexistence of negative photoconductivity and hysteresis in semiconducting graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shendong Zhuang


    Full Text Available Solution-processed graphene quantum dots (GQDs possess a moderate bandgap, which make them a promising candidate for optoelectronics devices. However, negative photoconductivity (NPC and hysteresis that happen in the photoelectric conversion process could be harmful to performance of the GQDs-based devices. So far, their origins and relations have remained elusive. Here, we investigate experimentally the origins of the NPC and hysteresis in GQDs. By comparing the hysteresis and photoconductance of GQDs under different relative humidity conditions, we are able to demonstrate that NPC and hysteresis coexist in GQDs and both are attributed to the carrier trapping effect of surface adsorbed moisture. We also demonstrate that GQDs could exhibit positive photoconductivity with three-order-of-magnitude reduction of hysteresis after a drying process and a subsequent encapsulation. Considering the pervasive moisture adsorption, our results may pave the way for a commercialization of semiconducting graphene-based and diverse solution-based optoelectronic devices.

  9. Reversible 2D Phase Transition Driven By an Electric Field: Visualization and Control on the Atomic Scale. (United States)

    Wortmann, B; van Vörden, D; Graf, P; Robles, R; Abufager, P; Lorente, N; Bobisch, C A; Möller, R


    We report on a reversible structural phase transition of a two-dimensional system that can be locally induced by an external electric field. Two different structural configurations may coexist within a CO monolayer on Cu(111). The balance between the two phases can be shifted by an external electric field, causing the domain boundaries to move, increasing the area of the favored phase controllable both in location and size. If the field is further enhanced new domains nucleate. The arrangement of the CO molecules on the Cu surface is observed in real time and real space with atomic resolution while the electric field driving the phase transition is easily varied over a broad range. Together with the well-known molecular manipulation of CO adlayers, our findings open exciting prospects for combining spontaneous long-range order with man-made CO structures such as "molecule cascades" or "molecular graphene". Our new manipulation mode permits us to bridge the gap between fundamental concepts and the fabrication of arbitrary atomic patterns in large scale, by providing unprecedented insight into the physics of structural phase transitions on the atomic scale.

  10. A nucleon-pair and boson coexistent description of nuclei (United States)

    Dai, Lianrong; Pan, Feng; Draayer, J. P.


    We study a mixture of s-bosons and like-nucleon pairs with the standard pairing interaction outside an inert core. Competition between the nucleon-pairs and s-bosons is investigated in this scenario. The robustness of the BCS-BEC coexistence and crossover phenomena are examined through an analysis of pf-shell nuclei with realistic single-particle energies, in which two configurations with Pauli blocking of nucleon-pair orbits due to the formation of the s-bosons is taken into account. When the nucleon-pair orbits are considered to be independent of the s-bosons, the BCS-BEC crossover becomes smooth, with the number of the s-bosons noticeably more than that of the nucleon-pairs near the half-shell point, a feature that is demonstrated in the pf-shell for several values of the standard pairing interaction strength. As a further test of the robustness of the BCS-BEC coexistence and crossover phenomena in nuclei, results are given for values of even-even 102-130Sn with 100Sn taken as a core and valence neutron pairs confined within the 1d 5/2, 0g 7/2, 1d 3/2, 2s 1/2, 1h 11/2 orbits in the nucleon-pair orbit and the s-boson independent approximation. The results indicate that the B(E2) values are reproduced well. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11375080, 11675071), the U.S. National Science Foundation (OCI-0904874 and ACI-1516338), U. S. Department of Energy (DE-SC0005248), the Southeastern Universities Research Association, the China-U. S. Theory Institute for Physics with Exotic Nuclei (CUSTIPEN) (DE-SC0009971), and the LSU-LNNU joint research program (9961) is acknowledged

  11. Coexisting cycles in a class of 3-D discrete maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agliari Anna


    Full Text Available In this paper we consider the class of three-dimensional discrete maps M (x, y, z = [φ(y, φ(z, φ(x], where φ : ℝ → ℝ is an endomorphism. We show that all the cycles of the 3-D map M can be obtained by those of φ(x, as well as their local bifurcations. In particular we obtain that any local bifurcation is of co-dimension 3, that is three eigenvalues cross simultaneously the unit circle. As the map M exhibits coexistence of cycles when φ(x has a cycle of period n ≥ 2, making use of the Myrberg map as endomorphism, we describe the structure of the basins of attraction of the attractors of M and we study the effect of the flip bifurcation of a fixed point. Dans ce papier nous considérons la classe des applications trois-dimensionnelles discrètes M (x, y, z = [φ(y, φ(z, φ(x], où φ : ℝ → ℝ est un endomorphisme. Nous montrons que tous les cycles de l’application 3-D M peuvent être obtenus par ceux de φ(x, ainsi que leurs bifurcations locales. En particulier, nous obtenons que toute bifurcation locale est de co-dimension 3, c’est-à-dire que trois valeurs propres franchissent simultanément le cercle unité. Comme l’application M exhibe une coexistence de cycles lorsque φ(x a un cycle de période n ≥ 2, en utilisant l’application de Myrberg comme endomorphisme, nous décrivons la structure des bassins d’attraction des attracteurs de M et nous étudions les effets d’une bifurcation de doublement de période d’un point fixe.

  12. Coexistence of risk behaviors for being overweight among Brazilian adolescents. (United States)

    Ferreira, Nathália Luíza; Claro, Rafael Moreira; Mingoti, Sueli Aparecida; Lopes, Aline Cristine Souza


    This study aimed to evaluate the magnitude of and the factors associated with the coexistence of risk behaviors for being overweight among Brazilian adolescents. This is a cross-sectional study with a representative sample of adolescents (mostly aged 13-15years) enrolled from public and private schools of Brazil in 2012. The co-occurring sedentary behavior and inadequate food consumption (regular intake of sugary and fried foods, and irregular consumption of fruits and vegetables-FV) was estimated using a Venn diagram. Sociodemographic, familial, and behavioral factors associated with the number of risk behaviors for being overweight were identified using an ordinal logistic regression analysis. Sedentary behavior was observed in 62.0% of adolescents. Regular intake of sugary or fried food was observed in 55.3% and 23.5% of adolescents, respectively, with 51.9% having an inadequate intake of FV. At least one risk behavior was reported in >90.0% of adolescents; 6.1% reported all 4. Being female, having a higher maternal education level, attending private school, not having breakfast or meals with parents regularly, eat watching television, and not practicing weekly leisure time physical activity were associated with an increased chance of having multiple risk behaviors. This study observed a high prevalence of coexisting of risk behaviors, which was associated with sociodemographic, familial, and behavioral factors. These findings may contribute to a clearer understanding of the associations between different behaviors among adolescents, and may be used to improve public health surveillance and to develop strategies that address multiple behaviors, in order to prevent overweight among adolescents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Self-Excitation of a Single Phase Induction Pulse-Excited Generator, (United States)


    tt’. direction of which the force isdetermined. For busbars of rectangular cross setoion, the expression for the coeffi-.ient of shape and proximity of...the crors sections has the form: where h is the distance between centers of the cross sections; a - width of tte busbar ; b - height of the busbar . In...on models accord- ing to the method discussed in work (3] were conducted. The modelb were designed so that the distance h between axes of the busbars

  14. Excitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorner, B. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)


    A short introduction to instrumental resolution is followed by a discussion of visibilities of phonon modes due to their eigenvectors. High precision phonon dispersion curves in GaAs are presented together with `ab initio` calculations. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is taken as an example of selected visibility due to group theory. By careful determination of phonon intensities eigenvectors can be determined, such as in Silicon and Diamond. The investigation of magnon modes is shown for the garnet Fe{sub 2}Ca{sub 3}(GeO{sub 4}){sub 3}, where also a quantum gap due to zero point spin fluctuations was observed. The study of the splitting of excitons in CsFeCl{sub 3} in an applied magnetic field demonstrates the possibilities of neutron polarisation analysis, which made it possible to observe a mode crossing. An outlook to inelastic X-ray scattering with very high energy resolution of synchrotron radiation is given with the examples of phonons in Beryllium and in water. (author) 19 figs., 36 refs.

  15. Multipulse phase resetting curves


    Krishnan, Giri P.; Bazhenov, Maxim; Pikovsky, Arkady


    In this paper, we introduce and study systematically, in terms of phase response curves, the effect of dual-pulse excitation on the dynamics of an autonomous oscillator. Specifically, we test the deviations from linear summation of phase advances resulting from two small perturbations. We analytically derive a correction term, which generally appears for oscillators whose intrinsic dimensionality is >1. The nonlinear correction term is found to be proportional to the square of the perturbatio...

  16. Photoinduced phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Nasu, K


    A new class of insulating solids was recently discovered. Whenirradiated by a few visible photons, these solids give rise to amacroscopic excited domain that has new structural and electronicorders quite different from the starting ground state. This occurrenceis called "photoinduced phase transition", and this multi-authoredbook reviews recent theoretical and experimental studies of this newphenomenon.

  17. Getting super-excited with modified dispersion relations (United States)

    Ashoorioon, Amjad; Casadio, Roberto; Geshnizjani, Ghazal; Kim, Hyung J.


    We demonstrate that in some regions of parameter space, modified dispersion relations can lead to highly populated excited states, which we dub as "super-excited" states. In order to prepare such super-excited states, we invoke dispersion relations that have negative slope in an interim sub-horizon phase at high momenta. This behaviour of quantum fluctuations can lead to large corrections relative to the Bunch-Davies power spectrum, which mimics highly excited initial conditions. We identify the Bogolyubov coefficients that can yield these power spectra. In the course of this computation, we also point out the shortcomings of the gluing method for evaluating the power spectrum and the Bogolyubov coefficients. As we discuss, there are other regions of parameter space, where the power spectrum does not get modified. Therefore, modified dispersion relations can also lead to so-called "calm excited states". We conclude by commenting on the possibility of obtaining these modified dispersion relations within the Effective Field Theory of Inflation.

  18. Mean excitation energies for molecular ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Phillip W. K.; Sauer, Stephan P. A.; Oddershede, Jens


    The essential material constant that determines the bulk of the stopping power of high energy projectiles, the mean excitation energy, is calculated for a range of smaller molecular ions using the RPA method. It is demonstrated that the mean excitation energy of both molecules and atoms increase...... with ionic charge. However, while the mean excitation energies of atoms also increase with atomic number, the opposite is the case for mean excitation energies for molecules and molecular ions. The origin of these effects is explained by considering the spectral representation of the excited state...... contributing to the mean excitation energy....

  19. Mean excitation energies for molecular ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Phillip W.K.; Sauer, Stephan P.A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Oddershede, Jens [Department of Physics, Chemistry, and Pharmacy, University of Southern Denmark, Odense (Denmark); Quantum Theory Project, Departments of Physics and Chemistry, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Sabin, John R., E-mail: [Department of Physics, Chemistry, and Pharmacy, University of Southern Denmark, Odense (Denmark); Quantum Theory Project, Departments of Physics and Chemistry, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)


    The essential material constant that determines the bulk of the stopping power of high energy projectiles, the mean excitation energy, is calculated for a range of smaller molecular ions using the RPA method. It is demonstrated that the mean excitation energy of both molecules and atoms increase with ionic charge. However, while the mean excitation energies of atoms also increase with atomic number, the opposite is the case for mean excitation energies for molecules and molecular ions. The origin of these effects is explained by considering the spectral representation of the excited state contributing to the mean excitation energy.

  20. Magneto-acoustic imaging by continuous-wave excitation. (United States)

    Shunqi, Zhang; Zhou, Xiaoqing; Tao, Yin; Zhipeng, Liu


    The electrical characteristics of tissue yield valuable information for early diagnosis of pathological changes. Magneto-acoustic imaging is a functional approach for imaging of electrical conductivity. This study proposes a continuous-wave magneto-acoustic imaging method. A kHz-range continuous signal with an amplitude range of several volts is used to excite the magneto-acoustic signal and improve the signal-to-noise ratio. The magneto-acoustic signal amplitude and phase are measured to locate the acoustic source via lock-in technology. An optimisation algorithm incorporating nonlinear equations is used to reconstruct the magneto-acoustic source distribution based on the measured amplitude and phase at various frequencies. Validation simulations and experiments were performed in pork samples. The experimental and simulation results agreed well. While the excitation current was reduced to 10 mA, the acoustic signal magnitude increased up to 10-7 Pa. Experimental reconstruction of the pork tissue showed that the image resolution reached mm levels when the excitation signal was in the kHz range. The signal-to-noise ratio of the detected magneto-acoustic signal was improved by more than 25 dB at 5 kHz when compared to classical 1 MHz pulse excitation. The results reported here will aid further research into magneto-acoustic generation mechanisms and internal tissue conductivity imaging.